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Sample records for sludge characterization sampling

  1. 241-Z-361 Sludge Characterization Sampling and Analysis Plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    BANNING, D.L.

    1999-08-05

    This sampling and analysis plan (SAP) identifies the type, quantity, and quality of data needed to support characterization of the sludge that remains in Tank 241-2-361. The procedures described in this SAP are based on the results of the 241-2-361 Sludge Characterization Data Quality Objectives (DQO) (BWHC 1999) process for the tank. The primary objectives of this project are to evaluate the contents of Tank 241-2-361 in order to resolve safety and safeguards issues and to assess alternatives for sludge removal and disposal.

  2. 241-Z-361 Sludge Characterization Sampling and Analysis Plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    BANNING, D.L.

    1999-07-29

    This sampling and analysis plan (SAP) identifies the type, quantity, and quality of data needed to support characterization of the sludge that remains in Tank 241-2-361. The procedures described in this SAP are based on the results of the 241-2-361 Sludge Characterization Data Quality Objectives (DQO) (BWHC 1999) process for the tank. The primary objectives of this project are to evaluate the contents of Tank 241-2-361 in order to resolve safety and safeguards issues and to assess alternatives for sludge removal and disposal.

  3. Characterization of Tank 51 Sludge Slurry Samples (HTF-51-17-67, -68, -69, -74, -75, and -76) in Support of Sludge Batch 10 Processing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oji, L. N. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); Reboul, S. H. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL)

    2017-11-09

    The Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) was requested by Savannah River Remediation (SRR) Engineering (SRR-E) to provide sample characterization and analyses of Tank 51 sludge samples in support of Sludge Batch (SB) 10. The six Tank 51 sludge samples were sampled and delivered to SRNL in August of 2017. These six Tank 51 sludge samples, after undergoing physical characterizations which included rheology, weight percent total solid, dissolved solids and density measurements, were combined into one composite Tank 51 sample and analyzed for corrosion controls analytes, select radionuclides, chemical elements, density and weight percent total solids.

  4. Characterization and decant of Tank 42H sludge sample ESP-200

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hay, M.S.

    2000-01-01

    DWPF Engineering requested that the Savannah River Technology Center (SRTC) provide a demonstration of the DWPF flowsheet on sludge from Tank 42H in the Shielded Cell facility. A 5 liter sample of the Tank 42H sludge (ESP-200), obtained with the tank contents fully mixed, arrived at SRTC on January 20, 1998. This report details receipt of the 5 liter sample at SRTC, the decant of the sample, and the characterization of the pre- and post-decant Tank 42H sludge. Evaluation of the measured composition of the supernate indicates Sample ESP-200 became diluted approximately 20 percent by volume prior to receipt. This dilution complicates the relationship of the characterization of Post-Decant ESP-200 to the current contents of Tank 42H. For the purposes of modeling the current tank contents of Tank 42H, this report provides an estimated composition based on analytical data of recent samples from Tank 42H

  5. Characterization and decant of Tank 42H sludge sample ESP-200

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hay, M.S.

    2000-04-25

    DWPF Engineering requested that the Savannah River Technology Center (SRTC) provide a demonstration of the DWPF flowsheet on sludge from Tank 42H in the Shielded Cell facility. A 5 liter sample of the Tank 42H sludge (ESP-200), obtained with the tank contents fully mixed, arrived at SRTC on January 20, 1998. This report details receipt of the 5 liter sample at SRTC, the decant of the sample, and the characterization of the pre- and post-decant Tank 42H sludge. Evaluation of the measured composition of the supernate indicates Sample ESP-200 became diluted approximately 20 percent by volume prior to receipt. This dilution complicates the relationship of the characterization of Post-Decant ESP-200 to the current contents of Tank 42H. For the purposes of modeling the current tank contents of Tank 42H, this report provides an estimated composition based on analytical data of recent samples from Tank 42H.

  6. Characterization of tank 51 sludge samples (HTF-51-17-44/ HTF-51-17-48) in support of sludge batch 10 processing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oji, L. N. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL)

    2017-08-17

    The Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) was requested by Savannah River Remediation (SRR) Engineering (SRR-E) to provide sample characterization and analyses of Tank 51 sludge samples in support of Sludge Batch (SB) 10. The two Tank 51 sludge samples were sampled and delivered to SRNL in May of 2017. These two tank 51 sludge samples were combined into one composite sample and analyzed for corrosion controls analytes, select radionuclides, chemical elements, density and weight percent total solids and aluminum hydroxides (gibbsite and boehmite) by x-ray diffraction.

  7. Characterization Of The As-Received Sludge Batch 9 Qualification Sample (Htf-51-15-81)

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    Pareizs, J. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL)

    2015-09-30

    Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) personnel have been requested to qualify the next sludge batch (Sludge Batch 9 – SB9) for processing at the Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF). To accomplish this task, Savannah River Remediation (SRR) has sent SRNL a 3-L slurried sample of Tank 51H (HTF-51-15-81) to be characterized, washed, and then used in a lab-scale demonstration of the DWPF flowsheet (potentially after combining with Tank 40H sludge). This report documents the first steps of the qualification process – characterization of the as-received Tank 51H qualification sample. These results will be used to support a reprojection of SB9 by SRR from which final Tank 51H washing, frit development, and Chemical Processing Cell (CPC) activities will be based.

  8. Characterization of the tank 51 alternate reductant sludge batch 9 slurry sample (HTF-51-15-130)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reboul, S. H. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL)

    2016-02-01

    Tank 51 slurry sample HTF-51-15-130 was collected following sludge washing at the Tank Farm. The sample was received at SRNL and then characterized in preparation for qualification of the alternate reductant Sludge Batch 9 (SB9) flowsheet. In this characterization, densities, solids distribution, elemental constituents, anionic constituents, carbon content, and select radioisotopes were quantified.

  9. Characterization Data Package for Containerized Sludge Samples Collected from Engineered Container SCS-CON-210

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fountain, Matthew S.; Fiskum, Sandra K.; Baldwin, David L.; Daniel, Richard C.; Bos, Stanley J.; Burns, Carolyn A.; Carlson, Clark D.; Coffey, Deborah S.; Delegard, Calvin H.; Edwards, Matthew K.; Greenwood, Lawrence R.; Neiner, Doinita; Oliver, Brian M.; Pool, Karl N.; Schmidt, Andrew J.; Shimskey, Rick W.; Sinkov, Sergey I.; Snow, Lanee A.; Soderquist, Chuck Z.; Thompson, Christopher J.; Trang-Le, Truc LT; Urie, Michael W.

    2013-09-10

    This data package contains the K Basin sludge characterization results obtained by Pacific Northwest National Laboratory during processing and analysis of four sludge core samples collected from Engineered Container SCS-CON-210 in 2010 as requested by CH2M Hill Plateau Remediation Company. Sample processing requirements, analytes of interest, detection limits, and quality control sample requirements are defined in the KBC-33786, Rev. 2. The core processing scope included reconstitution of a sludge core sample distributed among four to six 4-L polypropylene bottles into a single container. The reconstituted core sample was then mixed and subsampled to support a variety of characterization activities. Additional core sludge subsamples were combined to prepare a container composite. The container composite was fractionated by wet sieving through a 2,000 micron mesh and a 500-micron mesh sieve. Each sieve fraction was sampled to support a suite of analyses. The core composite analysis scope included density determination, radioisotope analysis, and metals analysis, including the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant Hazardous Waste Facility Permit metals (with the exception of mercury). The container composite analysis included most of the core composite analysis scope plus particle size distribution, particle density, rheology, and crystalline phase identification. A summary of the received samples, core sample reconstitution and subsampling activities, container composite preparation and subsampling activities, physical properties, and analytical results are presented. Supporting data and documentation are provided in the appendices. There were no cases of sample or data loss and all of the available samples and data are reported as required by the Quality Assurance Project Plan/Sampling and Analysis Plan.

  10. KEY ELEMENTS OF CHARACTERIZING SAVANNAH RIVER SITE HIGH LEVEL WASTE SLUDGE INSOLUBLES THROUGH SAMPLING AND ANALYSIS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reboul, S; Barbara Hamm, B

    2007-01-01

    Characterization of HLW is a prerequisite for effective planning of HLW disposition and site closure performance assessment activities. Adequate characterization typically requires application of a combination of data sources, including process knowledge, theoretical relationships, and real-waste analytical data. Consistently obtaining high quality real-waste analytical data is a challenge, particularly for HLW sludge insolubles, due to the inherent complexities associated with matrix heterogeneities, sampling access limitations, radiological constraints, analyte loss mechanisms, and analyte measurement interferences. Understanding how each of these complexities affects the analytical results is the first step to developing a sampling and analysis program that provides characterization data that are both meaningful and adequate. A summary of the key elements impacting SRS HLW sludge analytical data uncertainties is presented in this paper, along with guidelines for managing each of the impacts. The particular elements addressed include: (a) sample representativeness; (b) solid/liquid phase quantification effectiveness; (c) solids dissolution effectiveness; (d) analyte cross contamination, loss, and tracking; (e) dilution requirements; (f) interference removal; (g) analyte measurement technique; and (h) analytical detection limit constraints. A primary goal of understanding these elements is to provide a basis for quantifying total propagated data uncertainty

  11. Physical property characterization of 183-H Basin sludge

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Biyani, R.K.; Delegard, C.H.

    1995-01-01

    This document describes the characterization of 183-H Basin sludge physical properties, e.g. bulk density of sludge and absorbent, and determination of free liquids. Calcination of crucible-size samples of sludge was also done and the resulting 'loss-on-ignition' was compared to the theoretical weight loss based on sludge analysis obtained from Weston Labs

  12. ELIMINATION OF THE CHARACTERIZATION OF DWPF POUR STREAM SAMPLE AND THE GLASS FABRICATION AND TESTING OF THE DWPF SLUDGE BATCH QUALIFICATION SAMPLE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Amoroso, J.; Peeler, D.; Edwards, T.

    2012-05-11

    A recommendation to eliminate all characterization of pour stream glass samples and the glass fabrication and Product Consistency Test (PCT) of the sludge batch qualification sample was made by a Six-Sigma team chartered to eliminate non-value-added activities for the Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) sludge batch qualification program and is documented in the report SS-PIP-2006-00030. That recommendation was supported through a technical data review by the Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) and is documented in the memorandums SRNL-PSE-2007-00079 and SRNL-PSE-2007-00080. At the time of writing those memorandums, the DWPF was processing sludge-only waste but, has since transitioned to a coupled operation (sludge and salt). The SRNL was recently tasked to perform a similar data review relevant to coupled operations and re-evaluate the previous recommendations. This report evaluates the validity of eliminating the characterization of pour stream glass samples and the glass fabrication and Product Consistency Test (PCT) of the sludge batch qualification samples based on sludge-only and coupled operations. The pour stream sample has confirmed the DWPF's ability to produce an acceptable waste form from Slurry Mix Evaporator (SME) blending and product composition/durability predictions for the previous sixteen years but, ultimately the pour stream analysis has added minimal value to the DWPF's waste qualification strategy. Similarly, the information gained from the glass fabrication and PCT of the sludge batch qualification sample was determined to add minimal value to the waste qualification strategy since that sample is routinely not representative of the waste composition ultimately processed at the DWPF due to blending and salt processing considerations. Moreover, the qualification process has repeatedly confirmed minimal differences in glass behavior from actual radioactive waste to glasses fabricated from simulants or batch chemicals. In

  13. Elimination Of The Characterization Of DWPF Pour Stream Sample And The Glass Fabrication And Testing Of The DWPF Sludge Batch Qualification Sample

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Amoroso, J.; Peeler, D.; Edwards, T.

    2012-01-01

    A recommendation to eliminate all characterization of pour stream glass samples and the glass fabrication and Product Consistency Test (PCT) of the sludge batch qualification sample was made by a Six-Sigma team chartered to eliminate non-value-added activities for the Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) sludge batch qualification program and is documented in the report SS-PIP-2006-00030. That recommendation was supported through a technical data review by the Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) and is documented in the memorandums SRNL-PSE-2007-00079 and SRNL-PSE-2007-00080. At the time of writing those memorandums, the DWPF was processing sludge-only waste but, has since transitioned to a coupled operation (sludge and salt). The SRNL was recently tasked to perform a similar data review relevant to coupled operations and re-evaluate the previous recommendations. This report evaluates the validity of eliminating the characterization of pour stream glass samples and the glass fabrication and Product Consistency Test (PCT) of the sludge batch qualification samples based on sludge-only and coupled operations. The pour stream sample has confirmed the DWPF's ability to produce an acceptable waste form from Slurry Mix Evaporator (SME) blending and product composition/durability predictions for the previous sixteen years but, ultimately the pour stream analysis has added minimal value to the DWPF's waste qualification strategy. Similarly, the information gained from the glass fabrication and PCT of the sludge batch qualification sample was determined to add minimal value to the waste qualification strategy since that sample is routinely not representative of the waste composition ultimately processed at the DWPF due to blending and salt processing considerations. Moreover, the qualification process has repeatedly confirmed minimal differences in glass behavior from actual radioactive waste to glasses fabricated from simulants or batch chemicals. In contrast, the

  14. Characterization and Leach Testing for REDOX Sludge and S-Saltcake Actual Waste Sample Composites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fiskum, Sandra K.; Buck, Edgar C.; Daniel, Richard C.; Draper, Kathryn E.; Edwards, Matthew K.; Hubler, Timothy L.; Jagoda, Lynette K.; Jenson, Evan D.; Kozelisky, Anne E.; Lumetta, Gregg J.; MacFarlan, Paul J.; McNamara, Bruce K.; Peterson, Reid A.; Sinkov, Sergey I.; Snow, Lanee A.; Swoboda, Robert G.

    2008-01-01

    This report describes processing and analysis results of boehmite waste type (Group 5) and insoluble high Cr waste type (Group 6). The sample selection, compositing, subdivision, physical and chemical characterization are described. Extensive batch leach testing was conducted to define kinetics and leach factors of selected analytes as functions of NaOH concentration and temperature. Testing supports issue M-12 resolution for the Waste Treatment Plant

  15. Characterization and Leach Testing for REDOX Sludge and S-Saltcake Actual Waste Sample Composites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fiskum, Sandra K.; Buck, Edgar C.; Daniel, Richard C.; Draper, Kathryn E.; Edwards, Matthew K.; Hubler, Timothy L.; Jagoda, Lynette K.; Jenson, Evan D.; Kozelisky, Anne E.; Lumetta, Gregg J.; MacFarlan, Paul J.; McNamara, Bruce K.; Peterson, Reid A.; Sinkov, Sergey I.; Snow, Lanee A.; Swoboda, Robert G.

    2008-07-10

    This report describes processing and analysis results of boehmite waste type (Group 5) and insoluble high Cr waste type (Group 6). The sample selection, compositing, subdivision, physical and chemical characterization are described. Extensive batch leach testing was conducted to define kinetics and leach factors of selected analytes as functions of NaOH concentration and temperature. Testing supports issue M-12 resolution for the Waste Treatment Plant.

  16. 40 CFR 61.54 - Sludge sampling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 8 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Sludge sampling. 61.54 Section 61.54... sampling. (a) As an alternative means for demonstrating compliance with § 61.52(b), an owner or operator... days prior to a sludge sampling test, so that he may at his option observe the test. (c) Sludge shall...

  17. ALARA ASSESSMENT OF SETTLER SLUDGE SAMPLING METHODS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nelsen, L.A.

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this assessment is to compare underwater and above water settler sludge sampling methods to determine if the added cost for underwater sampling for the sole purpose of worker dose reductions is justified. Initial planning for sludge sampling included container, settler and knock-out-pot (KOP) sampling. Due to the significantly higher dose consequence of KOP sludge, a decision was made to sample KOP underwater to achieve worker dose reductions. Additionally, initial plans were to utilize the underwater sampling apparatus for settler sludge. Since there are no longer plans to sample KOP sludge, the decision for underwater sampling for settler sludge needs to be revisited. The present sampling plan calls for spending an estimated $2,500,000 to design and construct a new underwater sampling system (per A21 C-PL-001 RevOE). This evaluation will compare and contrast the present method of above water sampling to the underwater method that is planned by the Sludge Treatment Project (STP) and determine if settler samples can be taken using the existing sampling cart (with potentially minor modifications) while maintaining doses to workers As Low As Reasonably Achievable (ALARA) and eliminate the need for costly redesigns, testing and personnel retraining

  18. ALARA ASSESSMENT OF SETTLER SLUDGE SAMPLING METHODS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NELSEN LA

    2009-01-30

    The purpose of this assessment is to compare underwater and above water settler sludge sampling methods to determine if the added cost for underwater sampling for the sole purpose of worker dose reductions is justified. Initial planning for sludge sampling included container, settler and knock-out-pot (KOP) sampling. Due to the significantly higher dose consequence of KOP sludge, a decision was made to sample KOP underwater to achieve worker dose reductions. Additionally, initial plans were to utilize the underwater sampling apparatus for settler sludge. Since there are no longer plans to sample KOP sludge, the decision for underwater sampling for settler sludge needs to be revisited. The present sampling plan calls for spending an estimated $2,500,000 to design and construct a new underwater sampling system (per A21 C-PL-001 RevOE). This evaluation will compare and contrast the present method of above water sampling to the underwater method that is planned by the Sludge Treatment Project (STP) and determine if settler samples can be taken using the existing sampling cart (with potentially minor modifications) while maintaining doses to workers As Low As Reasonably Achievable (ALARA) and eliminate the need for costly redesigns, testing and personnel retraining.

  19. Sludge characterization: the role of physical consistency

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Spinosa, Ludovico; Wichmann, Knut

    2003-07-01

    The physical consistency is an important parameter in sewage sludge characterization as it strongly affects almost all treatment, utilization and disposal operations. In addition, in many european Directives a reference to the physical consistency is reported as a characteristic to be evaluated for fulfilling the regulations requirements. Further, in many analytical methods for sludge different procedures are indicated depending on whether a sample is liquid or not, is solid or not. Three physical behaviours (liquid, paste-like and solid) can be observed with sludges, so the development of analytical procedures to define the boundary limit between liquid and paste-like behaviours (flowability) and that between solid and paste-like ones (solidity) is of growing interest. Several devices can be used for evaluating the flowability and solidity properties, but often they are costly and difficult to be operated in the field. Tests have been carried out to evaluate the possibility to adopt a simple extrusion procedure for flowability measurements, and a Vicat needle for solidity ones. (author)

  20. Characterization of Settler Tank and KW Container Sludge Simulants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Burns, Carolyn A.; Luna, Maria; Schmidt, Andrew J.

    2009-05-12

    The Sludge Treatment Project (STP), managed by CH2M Hill Plateau Remediation Company (CHPRC) has specified base formulations for non-radioactive sludge simulants for use in the development and testing of equipment for sludge sampling, retrieval, transport, and processing. In general, the simulant formulations are based on the average or design-basis physical and chemical properties obtained by characterizing sludge samples. The simulants include surrogates for uranium metal, uranium oxides (agglomerates and fine particulate), and the predominant chemical phases (iron and aluminum hydroxides, sand). Specific surrogate components were selected to match the nominal particle-size distribution and particle-density data obtained from sludge sample analysis. Under contract to CHPRC, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) has performed physical and rheological characterization of simulants, and the results are reported here. Two base simulant types (dry) were prepared by STP staff at the Maintenance and Storage Facility and received by PNNL on February 12, 2009: Settler Tank Simulant and KW Container Sludge Simulant. The objectives of this simulant characterization effort were to provide baseline characterization data on simulants being used by STP for process development and equipment testing and provide a high-level comparison of the simulant characteristics to the targets used to formulate the simulants.

  1. Summary status of K Basins sludge characterization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baker, R.B.

    1995-01-01

    A number of activities are underway as part of the Spent Nuclear Fuels Project (SNFP) related to the processing and disposing of sludge in the 105-K Basins (K Basins). Efforts to rigorously define data requirements for these activities are being made using the Data Quality Objectives (DQO) process. Summaries of current sludge characterization data are required to both help support this DQO process and to allow continued progress with on-going engineering activities (e.g., evaluations of disposal alternatives). This document provides the status of K Basins sludge characterization data currently available to the Nuclear Fuel Evaluations group. This group is tasked by the SNFP to help develop and maintain the characterization baseline for the K Basins. The specific objectives of this document are to: (1) provide a current summary (and set of references) of sludge characterization data for use by SNFP initiatives, to avoid unnecessary duplication of effort and to support on-going initiatives; (2) submit these data to an open forum for review and comment, and identify additional sources of significant data that may be available; (3) provide a summary of current data to use as part of the basis to develop requirements for additional sludge characterization data through the DQO process; (4) provide an overview of the intended activities that will be used to develop and maintain the sludge characterization baseline

  2. Strategies for characterizing compositions of industrial pulp and paper sludge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aslanzadeh, Solmaz; Kemal, Rahmat A.; Pribowo, Amadeus Y.

    2018-01-01

    The large quantities of waste sludge produced by the pulp and paper industry present significant environmental challenges. In order to minimize the amounts of waste, the pulp sludge should be utilized for productive applications. In order to find feasible solutions, the sludge need to be characterized. In this study, the potential of using acid pretreatment and ashing method to determine the chemical compositions of the sludge is investigated. This study shows that acid pretreatment could be used to dissolve and determine the composition of CaCO3 in the pulp sludge. CaCO3 removal also facilitates the measurement of fiber and ash (clay) contents by using the ashing method. The optimum acid concentration used to completely dissolve CaCO3 was determined using a titration method. Using this method, the measurement of the chemical composition of the sludge sample revealed that it consisted primarily of CaCO3 (55% w/w), clay (25%, w/w), and fibers (18%, w/w). Based on these chemical compositions, potential utilization for the sludge could be determined.

  3. Characterization, Leaching, and Filtration Testing for Bismuth Phosphate Sludge (Group 1) and Bismuth Phosphate Saltcake (Group 2) Actual Waste Sample Composites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lumetta, Gregg J.; Buck, Edgar C.; Daniel, Richard C.; Draper, Kathryn; Edwards, Matthew K.; Fiskum, Sandra K.; Hallen, Richard T.; Jagoda, Lynette K.; Jenson, Evan D.; Kozelisky, Anne E.; MacFarlan, Paul J.; Peterson, Reid A.; Shimskey, Rick W.; Sinkov, Sergey I.; Snow, Lanee A.

    2009-01-01

    A testing program evaluating actual tank waste was developed in response to Task 4 from the M-12 External Flowsheet Review Team (EFRT) issue response plan.() The test program was subdivided into logical increments. The bulk water-insoluble solid wastes that are anticipated to be delivered to the Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (WTP) were identified according to type such that the actual waste testing could be targeted to the relevant categories. Eight broad waste groupings were defined. Samples available from the 222S archive were identified and obtained for testing. The actual waste-testing program included homogenizing the samples by group, characterizing the solids and aqueous phases, and performing parametric leaching tests. Two of the eight defined groups - bismuth phosphate sludge (Group 1) and bismuth phosphate saltcake (Group 2) - are the subjects of this report. The Group 1 waste was anticipated to be high in phosphorus and was implicitly assumed to be present as BiPO4 (however, results presented here indicate that the phosphate in Group 1 is actually present as amorphous iron(III) phosphate). The Group 2 waste was also anticipated to be high in phosphorus, but because of the relatively low bismuth content and higher aluminum content, it was anticipated that the Group 2 waste would contain a mixture of gibbsite, sodium phosphate, and aluminum phosphate. Thus, the focus of the Group 1 testing was on determining the behavior of P removal during caustic leaching, and the focus of the Group 2 testing was on the removal of both P and Al. The waste-type definition, archived sample conditions, homogenization activities, characterization (physical, chemical, radioisotope, and crystal habit), and caustic leaching behavior as functions of time, temperature, and hydroxide concentration are discussed in this report. Testing was conducted according to TP-RPP-WTP-467

  4. Chemical and Radiochemical Analysis of Consolidated Sludge Samples from the K East Basin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Elmore, M.R.; Schmidt, A.J.; Silvers, K.L.; Thornton, B.M.

    2000-01-01

    This report describes results from analyses performed to characterize the consolidated sludge samples collected from the Hanford K East Basin in March and April 1999. The consolidated sludge samples were collected to provide additional material needed for the evaluation and design of systems that will be used to manage the K Basin sludge (i.e., disposition the sludge to T Plant for interim storage). The analytical results given in this report add to the knowledge on the composition of the K Basin sludge and provide specific information on this sludge necessary to plan and understand subsequent process testing. The following analyses were performed: weight percent (wt%) solids determination; uranium analysis by kinetic phosphorescence; plutonium isotope analysis by extraction chromatographic separation followed by alpha energy analysis (AEA); gross beta analysis; gamma energy analysis (GEA); and metals analysis by inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectroscopy (ICP-AES)

  5. Sampling and analyses of SRP high-level waste sludges

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stone, J.A.; Kelley, J.A.; McMillan, T.S.

    1976-08-01

    Twelve 3-liter samples of high-heat waste sludges were collected from four Savannah River Plant waste tanks with a hydraulically operated sample collector of unique design. Ten of these samples were processed in Savannah River Laboratory shielded cell facilities, yielding 5.3 kg of washed, dried sludge products for waste solidification studies. After initial drying, each batch was washed by settling and decantation to remove the bulk of soluble salts and then was redried. Additional washes were by filtration, followed by final drying. Conclusions from analyses of samples taken during the processing steps were: (a) the raw sludges contained approximately 80 wt percent soluble salts, most of which were removed by the washes; (b) 90 Sr and 238 , 239 Pu remained in the sludges, but most of the 137 Cs was removed by washing; (c) small amounts of sodium, sulfate, and 137 Cs remained in the sludges after thorough washing; (d) no significant differences were found in sludge samples taken from different risers of one waste tank. Chemical and radiometric compositions of the sludge product from each tank were determined. The sludges had diverse compositions, but iron, manganese, aluminum, and uranium were principal elements in each sludge. 90 Sr was the predominant radionuclide in each sludge product

  6. Sampling and analysis plan for the consolidated sludge samples from the canisters and floor of the 105-K East basin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    BAKER, R.B.

    1999-01-01

    This Sampling and Analysis Plan (SAP) provides direction for sampling of fuel canister and floor Sludge from the K East Basin to complete the inventory of samples needed for Sludge treatment process testing. Sample volumes and sources consider recent reviews made by the Sludge treatment subproject. The representative samples will be characterized to the extent needed for the material to be used effectively for testing. Sampling equipment used allows drawing of large volume sludge samples and consolidation of sample material from a number of basin locations into one container. Once filled, the containers will be placed in a cask and transported to Hanford laboratories for recovery and evaluation. Included in the present SAP are the logic for sample location selection, laboratory analysis procedures required, and reporting needed to meet the Data Quality Objectives (DQOs) for this initiative

  7. TCLP Preparation and Analysis of K East Basin Composite Sludge Samples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Silvers, K.L.; Wagner, J.J.; Steele, R.T.

    2000-01-01

    Sludge samples from the Hanford K East Basin were analyzed by the Toxicity Characterization Leaching Procedure (TCLP) to assist in the appropriate Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCIL4) designation of this material. Sludge samples were collected by Fluor Hanford, Inc. using the consolidated sludge sampling system (system that allows collection of a single sample from multiple sample locations). These samples were shipped to the Postirradiation Testing Laboratory (PTL, 327 Building) and then transferred to the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) Radiochemical Processing Laboratory (RPL, 325 Building) for recovery and testing. Two sludge composites were prepared, using the consolidated sludge samples, to represent K East canister sludge (sample KC Can Comp) and K East floor sludge (sample KC Floor Comp). Each composite was extracted in duplicate and analyzed in duplicate following pre-approved(a) TCLP extraction and analyses procedures. In addition, these samples and duplicates were analyzed for total RCRA metals (via acid digestion preparation). The work was conducted in accordance with the requirements of the Hanford Analytical Quality Assurance Requirements Document (HASQARD). A PNNL Quality Assurance Program compliant with J HASQARD was implemented for this effort. The results from the TCLP analyses showed that all RCRA metal concentrations were less than the TCLP limits for both the canister and floor composite samples and their respective duplicates

  8. Characterization and constructive utilization of sludge produced in clari-flocculation unit of water treatment plant

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmad, Tarique; Ahmad, Kafeel; Alam, Mehtab

    2018-03-01

    All water treatment plants produce waste/residue amid the treatment of raw water. This study selectively investigates the clariflocculator sludge for its physicochemical characteristics and potential reuse options. Sieve analysis, XRF, SEM, XRD, FTIR, and TG-DTA instrumental techniques have been used to characterize the sludge sample. Results show that clariflocculator sludge contains about 78% fine sand having grain size range 150-75 μm. SiO2, Al2O3, Fe2O3 and CaO constitute the maximum percentage of chemical compounds present in the sludge and quartz is the main crystalline phase of the sludge. Recycling and reuse of this sludge, especially, as fine sand in preparing mortar, concrete mix and other civil engineering products would pave the way for constructive utilization with safe and sustainable sludge management strategies.

  9. Odor assessment for sewage sludge samples 300A01002

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cash, D.B.; Molton, P.M.

    1976-12-01

    The use of radiation as a means of detoxifying sewage sludge as an alternate to the more conventional biological digestion treatment method was studied. A combination of gamma irradiation and heat (thermoradiation) treatment is being considered. In support of this effort, Battelle's Pacific Northwest Laboratories (PNL) were requested to assess the odor change of the sewage sludge, if any, that occurs with time after the samples were subjected to the treatment conditions. The test methods and results are presented

  10. Sampling and analysis plan for sludge located on the floor and in the pits of the 105-K basins

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    BAKER, R.B.

    1998-01-01

    This Sampling and Analysis Plan (SAP) provides direction for the sampling of the sludge found on the floor and in the remote pits of the 105-K Basins to provide: (1) basic data for the sludges that have not been characterized to-date and (2) representative Sludge material for process tests to be made by the SNF Project/K Basins sludge treatment process subproject. The sampling equipment developed will remove representative samples of the radioactive sludge from underwater at the K Basins, depositing them in shielded containers for transport to the Hanford Site laboratories. Included in the present document is the basic background logic for selection of the samples to meet the requirements established in the Data Quality Objectives (DQO), HNF-2033, for this sampling activity. The present document also includes the laboratory analyses, methods, procedures, and reporting that will be required to meet the DQO

  11. Characterization of oily sludge from a Tehran oil refinery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heidarzadeh, Nima; Gitipour, Saeid; Abdoli, Mohammad Ali

    2010-10-01

    In this study, oily sludge samples generated from a Tehran oil refinery (Pond I) were evaluated for their contamination levels and to propose an adequate remediation technique for the wastes. A simple, random, sampling method was used to collect the samples. The samples were analyzed to measure Total petroleum hydrocarbon (TPH), polyaromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) and heavy metal concentrations in the sludge. Statistical analysis showed that seven samples were adequate to assess the sludge with respect to TPH analyses. The mean concentration of TPHs in the samples was 265,600 mg kg⁻¹. A composite sample prepared from a mix of the seven samples was used to determine the sludge's additional characteristics. Composite sample analysis showed that there were no detectable amounts of PAHs in the sludge. In addition, mean concentrations of the selected heavy metals Ni, Pb, Cd and Zn were 2700, 850, 100, 6100 mg kg⁻¹, respectively. To assess the sludge contamination level, the results from the analysis above were compared with soil clean-up levels. Due to a lack of national standards for soil clean-up levels in Iran, sludge pollutant concentrations were compared with standards set in developed countries. According to these standards, the sludge was highly polluted with petroleum hydrocarbons. The results indicated that incineration, biological treatment and solidification/stabilization treatments would be the most appropriate methods for treatment of the sludges. In the case of solidification/stabilization, due to the high organic content of the sludge, it is recommended to use organophilic clays prior to treatment of the wastes.

  12. Characterization and distribution of esterase activity in activated sludge

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boczar, BA; Forney, LJ; Begley, WM; Larson, RJ; Federle, TW

    2001-01-01

    The location and activity of esterase enzymes in activated Sludge from three Municipal wastewater treatment plants were characterized using model Substrate, and denaturing and nondenaturing polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (PAGE) Of particulate, freeze thaw (primarily periplasmic enzymes and those

  13. Characterization and leaching study of sludge from Melton Valley Storage Tank W-25

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Collins, J.L.; Egan, B.Z.; Beahm, E.C.; Chase, C.W.; Anderson, K.K.

    1997-08-01

    One of the greatest challenges facing the Department of Energy (DOE) is the remediation of the 100 million gallons of high-level and low-level radioactive waste in the underground storage tanks at its Hanford, Savannah River, Oak Ridge, Idaho, and Fernald sites. Bench-scale batch tests have been conducted with sludge from the Melton Valley Storage Tank (MVST) Facility at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) to evaluate separation processes for use in a comprehensive sludge-processing flow sheet for concentrating the radionuclides and reducing the volumes of storage tanks wastes for final disposal. This report discusses the hot cell apparatus, the characterization of the sludge, and the results obtained from a variety of basic and acidic leaching tests of samples of sludge. Approximately 5 L of sludge/supernate from MVST W-25 was retrieved and transferred to a stainless steel tank for mixing and storage in a hot cell. Samples were centrifuged to separate the sludge liquid and the sludge solids. Air-dried samples of sludge were analyzed to determine the concentrations of radionuclides, other metals, and anions. Based upon the air-dried weight, about 41% of the centrifuged, wet sludge solids was water. The major alpha-, gamma-, and beta-emitting radionuclides in the centrifuged, wet sludge solids were 137 Cs, 60 Co, 154 Eu, 241 Am, 244 Cm, 90 Sr, Pu, U, and Th. The other major metals (in addition to the U and Th) and the anions were Na, Ca, Al, K, Mg, NO 3 - , CO 3 2- , OH - , and O 2- . The organic carbon content was 3.0 ± 1.0%. The pH was 13

  14. Characterization and leaching study of sludge from Melton Valley Storage Tank W-25

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Collins, J.L.; Egan, B.Z.; Beahm, E.C.; Chase, C.W.; Anderson, K.K.

    1997-08-01

    One of the greatest challenges facing the Department of Energy (DOE) is the remediation of the 100 million gallons of high-level and low-level radioactive waste in the underground storage tanks at its Hanford, Savannah River, Oak Ridge, Idaho, and Fernald sites. Bench-scale batch tests have been conducted with sludge from the Melton Valley Storage Tank (MVST) Facility at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) to evaluate separation processes for use in a comprehensive sludge-processing flow sheet for concentrating the radionuclides and reducing the volumes of storage tanks wastes for final disposal. This report discusses the hot cell apparatus, the characterization of the sludge, and the results obtained from a variety of basic and acidic leaching tests of samples of sludge. Approximately 5 L of sludge/supernate from MVST W-25 was retrieved and transferred to a stainless steel tank for mixing and storage in a hot cell. Samples were centrifuged to separate the sludge liquid and the sludge solids. Air-dried samples of sludge were analyzed to determine the concentrations of radionuclides, other metals, and anions. Based upon the air-dried weight, about 41% of the centrifuged, wet sludge solids was water. The major alpha-, gamma-, and beta-emitting radionuclides in the centrifuged, wet sludge solids were {sup 137}Cs, {sup 60}Co, {sup 154}Eu, {sup 241}Am, {sup 244}Cm, {sup 90}Sr, Pu, U, and Th. The other major metals (in addition to the U and Th) and the anions were Na, Ca, Al, K, Mg, NO{sub 3}{sup {minus}}, CO{sub 3}{sup 2{minus}}, OH{sup {minus}}, and O{sub 2{minus}}. The organic carbon content was 3.0 {+-} 1.0%. The pH was 13.

  15. Filtration and Leach Testing for PUREX Cladding Sludge and REDOX Cladding Sludge Actual Waste Sample Composites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shimskey, Rick W.; Billing, Justin M.; Buck, Edgar C.; Casella, Amanda J.; Crum, Jarrod V.; Daniel, Richard C.; Draper, Kathryn E.; Edwards, Matthew K.; Hallen, Richard T.; Kozelisky, Anne E.; MacFarlan, Paul J.; Peterson, Reid A.; Swoboda, Robert G.

    2009-03-02

    A testing program evaluating actual tank waste was developed in response to Task 4 from the M-12 External Flowsheet Review Team (EFRT) issue response plan (Barnes and Voke 2006). The test program was subdivided into logical increments. The bulk water-insoluble solid wastes that are anticipated to be delivered to the Hanford Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (WTP) were identified according to type such that the actual waste testing could be targeted to the relevant categories. Under test plan TP RPP WTP 467 (Fiskum et al. 2007), eight broad waste groupings were defined. Samples available from the 222S archive were identified and obtained for testing. Under this test plan, a waste testing program was implemented that included: • Homogenizing the archive samples by group as defined in the test plan. • Characterizing the homogenized sample groups. • Performing parametric leaching testing on each group for compounds of interest. • Performing bench-top filtration/leaching tests in the hot cell for each group to simulate filtration and leaching activities if they occurred in the UFP2 vessel of the WTP Pretreatment Facility. This report focuses on a filtration/leaching test performed using two of the eight waste composite samples. The sample groups examined in this report were the plutonium-uranium extraction (PUREX) cladding waste sludge (Group 3, or CWP) and reduction-oxidation (REDOX) cladding waste sludge (Group 4, or CWR). Both the Group 3 and 4 waste composites were anticipated to be high in gibbsite, thus requiring caustic leaching. WTP RPT 167 (Snow et al. 2008) describes the homogenization, characterization, and parametric leaching activities before benchtop filtration/leaching testing of these two waste groups. Characterization and initial parametric data in that report were used to plan a single filtration/leaching test using a blend of both wastes. The test focused on filtration testing of the waste and caustic leaching for aluminum, in the form

  16. TANK 12 SLUDGE CHARACTERIZATION AND ALUMINUM DISSOLUTION DEMONSTRATION

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reboul, S.; Hay, Michael; Zeigler, Kristine; Stone, Michael

    2009-01-01

    A 3-L sludge slurry sample from Tank 12 was characterized and then processed through an aluminum dissolution demonstration. The dominant constituent of the sludge was found to be aluminum in the form of boehmite. The iron content was minor, about one-tenth that of the aluminum. The salt content of the supernatant was relatively high, with a sodium concentration of ∼7 M. Due to these characteristics, the yield stress and plastic viscosity of the unprocessed slurry were relatively high (19 Pa and 27 cP), and the settling rate of the sludge was relatively low (∼20% settling over a two and a half week period). Prior to performing aluminum dissolution, plutonium and gadolinium were added to the slurry to simulate receipt of plutonium waste from H-Canyon. Aluminum dissolution was performed over a 26 day period at a temperature of 65 C. Approximately 60% of the insoluble aluminum dissolved during the demonstration, with the rate of dissolution slowing significantly by the end of the demonstration period. In contrast, approximately 20% of the plutonium and less than 1% of the gadolinium partitioned to the liquid phase. However, about a third of the liquid phase plutonium became solubilized prior to the dissolution period, when the H-Canyon plutonium/gadolinium simulant was added to the Tank 12 slurry. Quantification of iron dissolution was less clear, but appeared to be on the order of 1% based on the majority of data (a minor portion of the data suggested iron dissolution could be as high as 10%). The yield stress of the post-dissolution slurry (2.5 Pa) was an order of magnitude lower than the initial slurry, due most likely to the reduced insoluble solids content caused by aluminum dissolution. In contrast, the plastic viscosity remained unchanged (27 cP). The settling rate of the post-dissolution slurry was higher than the initial slurry, but still relatively low compared to settling of typical high iron content/low salt content sludges. Approximately 40% of the

  17. Plan for characterization of K Basin Spent Nuclear Fuel and sludge. Revision 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lawrence, L.A.

    1995-01-01

    This plan outlines a Characterization Program that provides the necessary data to support the Integrated Process Strategy scope and schedules for the Spent Nuclear Fuel (SNF) and sludge stored in the Hanford K Basins. The plan is driven by the schedule to begin fuel transfer by December 1997. The program is structured for 4 years (i.e., FY 1995 through FY 1998) and is limited to in-situ and laboratory examinations of the SNF and sludge in the K East and K West Basins. In order to assure the scope and schedule of the Characterization Program fully supports the Integrated Process Strategy, key project management has approved the plan. The intent of the program is to provide bounding behavior for the fuel, and acceptability for the transfer of the sludge to the Double Shell Tanks. Fuel examinations are based on two shipping compains from the K West Basin and one from the K East Basin with coincident sludge sampling campaings for the associated canister sludge. Sampling of the basin floor and pit sludge will be conducted independent of the fuel and canister sludge shipping activities. Fuel behavior and properties investigated in the laboratory include physical condition, hydride and oxide content, conditioning testing, oxidation kinetics, and dry storage behavior. These laboratory examinations are expected to provide the necessary data to establish or confirm fuel conditioning process limits and support safety analysis. Sludge laboratory examinations include measurement of quantity and content, measurement of properties for equipment design and recovery process limits and support safety analysis. Sludge laboratory examinations include measurement of quantity and content, measurement of properties for equipment design and recovery precesses, tank farm acceptance, simulant development, measurement of corrosion products, and measurements of drying behavior

  18. Hydrazine Determination in Sludge Samples by High Performance Liquid Chromatography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    G. Elias; G. A. Park

    2006-02-01

    A high-performance liquid chromatographic method using ultraviolet (UV) detection was developed to detect and quantify hydrazine in a variety of environmental matrices. The method was developed primarily for sludge samples, but it is also applicable to soil and water samples. The hydrazine in the matrices was derivatized to their hydrazones with benzaldehyde. The derivatized hydrazones were separated using high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) with a reversed-phase C-18 column in an isocratic mode with methanol-water (95:5, v/v), and detected with UV detection at 313 nm. The detection limit (25 ml) for the new analytical method is 0.0067 mg ml-1of hydrazine. Hydrazine showed low recovery in soil samples because components in soil oxidized hydrazine. Sludge samples that contained relatively high soil content also showed lower recovery. The technique is relatively simple and cost-effective, and is applicable for hydrazine analysis in different environmental matrices.

  19. Characterization of sewage sludge generated in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, and perspectives for agricultural recycling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alan Henrique Marques de Abreu

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Sanitary sewage collection and treatment is a serious environmental problem in Brazilian cities, as well as the destination of solid waste resulting from this process, i.e. the sewage sludge, a substance rich in organic matter and nutrients, which is normally discarded in landfills. The aim of this study was to characterize the sewage sludge generated in four treatment stations in Rio de Janeiro State, Brazil and check if they meet the legal criteria of the National Environment Council (CONAMA, Resolution No. 375/2006. It also focused on analyzing the perspectives for its agricultural recycling based on the potential demand for main agricultural crops grown in Rio de Janeiro State. Samples from eight sewage sludge lots from four treatment stations located in the metropolitan area of Rio de Janeiro were analyzed. These stations receive and treat only domestic sewage by activated sludge system. For chemical and biological characterization of these lots, representative samples were collected and analyzed according to parameters of CONAMA Resolution No. 375/2006. In order to analyze the perspectives of agricultural recycling of sewage sludge in Rio de Janeiro State, 10 crops with the largest cultivated area in the state were surveyed and analyzed which of them are apt to receive sewage sludge as fertilizer and/or soil amendment. To determine the potential demand for sewage sludge in agriculture, the area occupied by these crops were multiplied by each fertilizer recommendation considering the sewage sludge as fertilizer. The analyzed sludge presented a high content of nutrients and organic matter and was included in the parameters of heavy metals, pathogenic agents, and bacteriological indicators stipulated by CONAMA Resolution No. 375/2006. The agricultural panorama of Rio de Janeiro State is favorable for agricultural recycling of sewage sludge since there is a great potential demand for this residue and, among the 10 agricultural crops with the

  20. Sampling and analysis plan for sludge located in fuel storage canisters of the 105-K West basin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baker, R.B.

    1997-01-01

    This Sampling and Analysis Plan (SAP) provides direction for the first sampling of sludge from the K West Basin spent fuel canisters. The specially developed sampling equipment removes representative samples of sludge while maintaining the radioactive sample underwater in the basin pool (equipment is described in WHC-SD-SNF-SDD-004). Included are the basic background logic for sample selection, the overall laboratory analyses required and the laboratory reporting required. These are based on requirements put forth in the data quality objectives (WHC-SD-SNF-DQO-012) established for this sampling and characterization activity

  1. Sludge characterization as a support to European regulations developments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Spinos, Ludovico; Lattarulo, Onofrio

    2003-07-01

    Sludge management is one of the critical issues facing modern society due to the fast increase in its production as a result of extended sewerage, new work installations and up-grading of existing facilities. The need for a regular and environmentally safe utilisation and disposal of sludges of different origin is well recognised by the EU countries, whose sludge management policy is addressed to both (i) the development of treatment methods able to reduce the mass production and (ii) the application of reuse options instead of simple disposal ones. However, to properly perform sludge management, and correctly fulfill the legal requirements, the definition of standardized characterization methods and procedures is necessary. For this reason, the European Committee for Standardization (CEN) has established the Technical Committee 308 (TC308) whose scope is the standardisation of methods and procedures employed for sludge characterization, and the production of guidelines for good management practice. A project, named Horizontal, to develop harmonised european standards in the field of sludge, soil and treated biowaste has been also established. (author)

  2. Separation, Characterization and Fouling Potential of Sludge Waters from Different Biological Wastewater Treatment Processes

    KAUST Repository

    Xue, Jinkai

    2011-07-01

    The major limitation, which hinders the wider application of membrane technology and increases the operating costs of membranes involved in wastewater treatment plants, is membrane fouling induced by organic matter. Extracellular polymeric products (EPS) and soluble microbial products (SMP) are the two most mentioned major foulants in publications, for which the debate on precise definitions seems to be endless. Therefore, a concept of sludge water, which conceptually covers both EPS and SMP, has been developed in this research. A standard procedure of sludge water separation, which is centrifugation at 4000g for 15 min followed by 1.2μm glass fiber filter filtration, was established based on separation experiments with membrane tank sludge from the KAUST MBR wastewater treatment plant. Afterwards, sludge waters from the KAUST MBR WWTP anoxic tank, aerobic tank and membrane tank as well as sludge waters from the Jeddah WWTP anoxic tank, aerobic tank and secondary effluent were produced through the previously developed standard procedure. The obtained sludge water samples were thereafter characterized with TOC/COD, LC-­‐OCD and F-­‐EEM, which showed that KAUST anoxic/ aerobic /membrane tank sludge waters had similar characteristics for all investigated parameters, yet the influent naturally had a higher DOC and biopolymer concentration. Moreover, lower TOC/COD, negligible biopolymers and low levels of humics were found in KAUST effluent. Compared with the KAUST MBR WWTP, the Jeddah WWTP’s sludge waters generally had higher DOC and biopolymer concentrations. To investigate sludge water fouling potential, the KAUST membrane tank sludge water as well as the Jeddah secondary effluent were filtrated through a membrane array consisting of an ultrafiltration (UF) Millipore RC10kDa at the first step followed by a nanofiltration (NF) KOCH Acid/Base stable NF200 at the second step. It was found that cake layer and standard blocking occurred simultaneously during both

  3. Characterization of Industrial Wastewater Sludge in Oman from Three Different Regions and Recommendations for Alternate Reuse Applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baawain, Mahad S; Al-Jabri, Mohsin; Choudri, B S

    2015-11-01

    Domestic and industrial wastewaters are mostly treated by biological process such as activated sludge, aerobic pond, and anaerobic treatment. This study focuses on characterizing the quality of sewage sludge in the Sultanate of Oman chosen from three industrial sewage treatment plants (STPs): Rusayl Industrial Estate (RSL.IE); Sohar Industrial Estate (SIE); and Raysut Industrial Estate (RIE). Samples of recycled activated sludge (RAS) and wasted activated sludge (WAS) were collected over a period of 12 months across above mentioned STPs. Parameters analyzed are electrical conductivity (EC), potential of hydrogen (pH), cations, anions and volatile content (VC). The obtained values for pH and EC were low for both RAS and WAS samples, except EC values of RIE that was more than 1000 μS/cm. The range of VC percentages in RAS and WAS samples were 44 to 86% and 41 to 77%, respectively. The measured values for chloride, sulfate, nitrate and phosphate were higher than the other anions. The average values of the cations in RAS and WAS samples were within the Omani Standards, suitable for the re-use of sludge in agriculture except for Cd in RSL.IE. The study recommends that a regular maintenance should be performed at the studied STPs to prevent any accumulation of some harmful substances, which may affect the sludge quality, and the sludge drying beds should be large enough to handle the produced sludge for better management.

  4. Physical and chemical characterization of synthetic calcined sludge

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Slates, R.V.; Mosley, W.C. Jr.; Tiffany, B.; Stone, J.A.

    1982-03-01

    Calcined synthetic sludge was chemically characterized in support of engineering studies to design a processing plant to solidify highly radioactive waste at the Savannah River Plant. An analytical technique is described which provides quantitative data by mass spectrometric analysis of gases evolved during thermogravimetric analysis without measurements of gas flow rates or mass spectrometer sensitivities. Scanning electron microprobe analysis, Mossbauer spectroscopy, and several other common analytical methods were also used. Calcined sludge consists primarily of amorphous particles of hydrous oxides with iron, manganese, nickel, and calcium distributed fairly uniformly throughout the powder. Iron, manganese, nickel, and calcium exist in forms that are highly insoluble in water, but aluminum, sulfate, nitrate, and sodium exhibit relative water solubilities that increase in the given order from 60% to 94%. Evolved gas analysis in a helium atmosphere showed that calcined sludge is completely dehydrated by heating to 400 0 C, carbon dioxide is evolved between 100 to 700 0 C with maximum evolution at 500 0 C, and oxygen is evolved between 400 and 1000 0 C. Evolved gas analyses are also reported for uncalcined sludge. A spinel-type oxide similar to NiFe 2 O 4 was detected by x-ray diffraction analysis at very low-level in calcined sludge

  5. Field sludge characterization obtained from inner of pipelines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nava, N.; Sosa, E.; Alamilla, J.L. [Instituto Mexicano del Petroleo, Programa de Integridad de Ductos, Eje Central Lazaro Cardenas Norte 152, San Bartolo Atepehuacan, C.P. 07730 (Mexico); Knigth, C. [PEMEX Refinacion, Avenida Marina Nacional 329, Edificio B-2, Piso 11, C.P. 11311 (Mexico); Contreras, A. [Instituto Mexicano del Petroleo, Programa de Integridad de Ductos, Eje Central Lazaro Cardenas Norte 152, San Bartolo Atepehuacan, C.P. 07730 (Mexico)], E-mail: acontrer@imp.mx

    2009-11-15

    Physicochemical characterization of sludge obtained from refined hydrocarbons transmission pipeline was carried out through Moessbauer spectroscopy and X-ray diffraction. The Moessbauer and X-ray patterns indicate the presence of corrosion products composed of different iron oxide and sulfide phases. Hematite ({alpha}-Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3}), magnetite (Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4}), maghemite ({gamma}-Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3}), magnetic and superparamagnetic goethite ({alpha}-FeOOH), pyrrhotite (Fe{sub 1-x}S), akaganeite ({beta}-FeOOH), and lepidocrocite ({gamma}-FeOOH) were identified as corrosion products in samples obtained from pipeline transporting Magna and Premium gasoline. For diesel transmission pipeline, hematite, magnetite, and magnetic goethite were identified. Corrosion products follow a simple reaction mechanism of steel dissolution in aerated aqueous media at a near-neutral pH. Chemical composition of the corrosion products depends on H{sub 2}O and sulfur inherent in fluids (traces). These results can be useful for decision-making with regard to pipeline corrosion control.

  6. Safety evaluation for packaging for the transport of K Basin sludge samples in the PAS-1 cask

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    SMITH, R.J.

    1998-01-01

    This safety evaluation for packaging authorizes the shipment of up to two 4-L sludge samples to and from the 325 Lab or 222-S Lab for characterization. The safety of this shipment is based on the current U.S. Department of Energy Certification of Compliance (CoC) for the PAS-1 cask, USA/9184/B(U) (DOE)

  7. Safety evaluation for packaging for the transport of K Basin sludge samples in the PAS-1 cask

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    SMITH, R.J.

    1998-11-17

    This safety evaluation for packaging authorizes the shipment of up to two 4-L sludge samples to and from the 325 Lab or 222-S Lab for characterization. The safety of this shipment is based on the current U.S. Department of Energy Certification of Compliance (CoC) for the PAS-1 cask, USA/9184/B(U) (DOE).

  8. CHARACTERIZATION AND SETTLING TESTS WITH TANK 51H SLURRY SAMPLES HTF-076-081

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    HAY, MICHAEL

    2006-01-01

    Sludge Batch 4 (SB4) is the next sludge batch being prepared for feed to the Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF). SB4 includes sludge from Tanks 5F, 6F, and 11H and heels from Tanks 7F and 51H. In preparation of SB4, sludge was transferred from Tank 11H to Tank 51H. The sludge currently in Tank 51H has been found to settle at slower rates than previous sludge batches. The slow sludge settling in Tank 51H impacts the ability to wash SB4 to the desired final weight percent insoluble solids and sodium endpoint. This could impact the ability to have SB4 ready on time to support DWPF and result in increased recycle back to the Tank Farm, reduced waste loading at DWPF, and lengthened cycle time in the DWPF Chemical Processing Cell (CPC) Sludge Receipt and Adjustment Tank (SRAT). The Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) was requested to characterize and investigate the slower settling rate with six slurry dip samples of Tank 51H sludge. The filtered supernate and the total dried solids of the sludge were analyzed and summaries of the results published in the references listed below. The sludge composition was found to be consistent with H-Area high aluminum sludge. Difficulties were encountered with dissolving all of the material in the dried sludge solids. An analysis of the undissolved material from the digestions found the main constituent was Boehmite (AlO(OH)). This report provides all of the compositional data and an analysis of the data with recommended values to use for the composition of the Tank 51H composite sample. Tables 3-2 through 3-4 provide the composition of the Tank 51H composite sample. Settling tests conducted with the Tank 51H sludge showed a much slower settling rate than with the sludge in Sludge Batch 3 (SB3). A mixture of Tank 51H and sludge from SB3 was prepared to mimic the projected final composition of Sludge Batch 4 (SB4). The mixture showed minimal improvement in the settling rate versus Tank 51H sludge alone. An attempt to

  9. Test plan for K Basin Sludge Canister and Floor Sampling Device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meling, T.A.

    1995-01-01

    This document provides the test plan and procedure forms for conducting the functional and operational acceptance testing of the K Basin Sludge Canister and Floor Sampling Device(s). These samplers samples sludge off the floor of the 100K Basins and out of 100K fuel storage canisters

  10. STP K Basin Sludge Sample Archive at the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory FY2014

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fiskum, Sandra K.; Smoot, Margaret R.; Schmidt, Andrew J.

    2014-06-01

    The Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) currently houses 88 samples (~10.5 kg) of K Basin sludge (81 wet and seven dry samples) on behalf of the Sludge Treatment Project (STP), which is managed for the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) by the CH2M Hill Plateau Remediation Company (CHPRC). Selected samples are intended to serve, in part, as sentinels to enhance understanding of sludge properties after long-term storage, and thus enhance understanding of sludge behavior following transfer to sludge transfer and storage containers (STSCs) and storage at the Hanford 200 Area central plateau. In addition, remaining samples serve in contingency for future testing requirements. At PNNL, the samples are tracked and maintained under a prescriptive and disciplined monthly sample-monitoring program implemented by PNNL staff. This report updates the status of the K Basin archive sludge sample inventory to April 2014. The previous inventory status report, PNNL 22245 (Fiskum et al. 2013, limited distribution report), was issued in February of 2013. This update incorporates changes in the inventory related to repackaging of 17 samples under test instructions 52578 TI052, K Basin Sludge Sample Repackaging for Continued Long Term Storage, and 52578 TI053, K Basin Sludge Sample Repackaging Post-2014 Shear Strength Measurements. Note that shear strength measurement results acquired in 2014 are provided separately. Specifically, this report provides the following: • a description of the K Basin sludge sample archive program and the sample inventory • a summary and images of the samples that were repackaged in April 2014 • up-to-date images and plots of the settled density and water loss from all applicable samples in the inventory • updated sample pedigree charts, which provide a roadmap of the genesis and processing history of each sample in the inventory • occurrence and deficiency reports associated with sample storage and repackaging

  11. Characterization of underground storage tank sludge using fourier transform infrared photoacoustic spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Luo, S.; Bajic, S.J.; Jones, R.W.

    1994-01-01

    Analysis of underground storage tank (UST) contents is critical for the determination of proper disposal protocols and storage procedures of nuclear waste materials. Tank volume reduction processes during the 1940's and 50's have produced a waste form that compositionally varies widely and has a consistency that ranges from paste like sludge to saltcake. The heterogeneity and chemical reactivity of the waste form makes analysis difficult by most conventional methods which require extensive sample preparation. In this paper, a method is presented to characterize nuclear waste from UST's at the Westinghouse Hanford Site in Washington State, using Fourier transform infrared-photoacoustic spectroscopy (FTIR-PAS). FTIR-PAS measurements on milligram amounts of surrogate sludge samples have been used to accurately identify phosphate, sulfate, nitrite, nitrate and ferrocyanide components. A simple sample preparation method was followed to provide a reproducible homogeneous sample for quantitative analysis. The sample preparation method involved freeze drying the sludge sample prior to analysis to prevent the migration of soluble species. Conventional drying (e.g., air or, oven) leads to the formation of crystals near the surface where evaporation occurs. Sample preparation as well as the analytical utility of this method will be discussed

  12. Plan for Characterization of K Basin Spent Nuclear Fuel (SNF) and Sludge (OCRWM)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    TRIMBLE, D.J.

    2000-01-01

    This is an update of the plan for the characterization of spent nuclear fuel (SNF) and sludge stored in the Hanford K West and K East Basins. The purpose of the characterization program is to provide fuel and sludge data in support of the SNF Project in the effort to remove the fuel from the K Basins and place it into dry storage. Characterization of the K Basin fuel and sludge was initiated in 1994 and has been guided by the characterization plans (Abrefah 1994, Lawrence 1995a, Lawrence 1995b) and the characterization program management plan (PMP) (Lawrence 1995c, Lawrence 1998, Trimble 1999). The fuel characterization was completed in 1999. Summaries of these activities were documented by Lawrence (1999) and Suyama (1999). Lawrence (1999) is a summary report providing a road map to the detailed documentation of the fuel characterization. Suyama (1999) provides a basis for the limited characterization sample size as it relates to supporting design limits and the operational safety envelope for the SNF Project. The continuing sludge characterization is guided by a data quality objective (DQO) (Makenas 2000) and a sampling and analysis plan (SAP) (Baker, Welsh and Makenas 2000) The original intent of the characterization program was ''to provide bounding behavior for the fuel'' (Lawrence 1995a). To accomplish this objective, a fuel characterization program was planned that would provide data to augment data from the literature. The program included in-situ examinations of the stored fuel and laboratory testing of individual elements and small samples of fuel (Lawrence 1995a). Some of the planned tests were scaled down or canceled due to the changing needs of the SNF Project. The fundamental technical basis for the process that will be used to place the K Basin fuel into dry storage was established by several key calculations. These calculations characterized nominal and bounding behavior of fuel in Multi-Canister Overpacks (MCOs) during processing and storage

  13. Demonstration of the Defense Waste Processing Facility vitrification process for Tank 42 radioactive sludge -- Glass preparation and characterization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bibler, N.E.; Fellinger, T.L.; Marshall, K.M.; Crawford, C.L.; Cozzi, A.D.; Edwards, T.B.

    1999-01-01

    The Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) at the Savannah River Site (SRS) is currently processing and immobilizing the radioactive high level waste sludge at SRS into a durable borosilicate glass for final geological disposal. The DWPF has recently finished processing the first radioactive sludge batch, and is ready for the second batch of radioactive sludge. The second batch is primarily sludge from Tank 42. Before processing this batch in the DWPF, the DWPF process flowsheet has to be demonstrated with a sample of Tank 42 sludge to ensure that an acceptable melter feed and glass can be made. This demonstration was recently completed in the Shielded Cells Facility at SRS. An earlier paper in these proceedings described the sludge composition and processes necessary for producing an acceptable melter fee. This paper describes the preparation and characterization of the glass from that demonstration. Results substantiate that Tank 42 sludge after mixing with the proper amount of glass forming frit (Frit 200) can be processed to make an acceptable glass

  14. CHARACTERIZATION AND ALUMINUM DISSOLUTION DEMONSTRATION WITH A 3 LITER TANK 51H SAMPLE

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hay, M; John Pareizs, J; Cj Bannochie, C; Michael Stone, M; Damon Click, D; Daniel McCabe, D

    2008-01-01

    A 3-liter sludge slurry sample was sent to SRNL for demonstration of a low temperature aluminum dissolution process. The sludge was characterized before and after the aluminum dissolution. Post aluminum dissolution sludge settling and the stability of the decanted supernate were also observed. The characterization of the as-received 3-liter sample of Tank 51H sludge slurry shows a typical high aluminum HM sludge. The XRD analysis of the dried solids indicates Boehmite is the predominant crystalline form of aluminum in the sludge solids. However, amorphous phases of aluminum present in the sludge would not be identified using this analytical technique. The low temperature (55 C) aluminum dissolution process was effective at dissolving aluminum from the sludge. Over the three week test, ∼42% of the aluminum was dissolved out of the sludge solids. The process appears to be selective for aluminum with no other metals dissolving to any appreciable extent. At the termination of the three week test, the aluminum concentration in the supernate had not leveled off indicating more aluminum could be dissolved from the sludge with longer contact times or higher temperatures. The slow aluminum dissolution rate in the test may indicate the dissolution of the Boehmite form of aluminum however; insufficient kinetic data exists to confirm this hypothesis. The aluminum dissolution process appears to have minimal impact on the settling rate of the post aluminum dissolution sludge. However, limited settling data were generated during the test to quantify the effects. The sludge settling was complete after approximately twelve days. The supernate decanted from the settled sludge after aluminum dissolution appears stable and did not precipitate aluminum over the course of several months. A mixture of the decanted supernate with Tank 11 simulated supernate was also stable with respect to precipitation

  15. CHARACTERIZATION AND ACTUAL WASTE TEST WITH TANK 5F SAMPLES

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fletcher, D.

    2007-01-01

    The initial phase of bulk waste removal operations was recently completed in Tank 5F. Video inspection of the tank indicates several mounds of sludge still remain in the tank. Additionally, a mound of white solids was observed under Riser 5. In support of chemical cleaning and heel removal programs, samples of the sludge and the mound of white solids were obtained from the tank for characterization and testing. A core sample of the sludge and Super Snapper sample of the white solids were characterized. A supernate dip sample from Tank 7F was also characterized. A portion of the sludge was used in two tank cleaning tests using oxalic acid at 50 C and 75 C. The filtered oxalic acid from the tank cleaning tests was subsequently neutralized by addition to a simulated Tank 7F supernate. Solids and liquid samples from the tank cleaning test and neutralization test were characterized. A separate report documents the results of the gas generation from the tank cleaning test using oxalic acid and Tank 5F sludge. The characterization results for the Tank 5F sludge sample (FTF-05-06-55) appear quite good with respect to the tight precision of the sample replicates, good results for the glass standards, and minimal contamination found in the blanks and glass standards. The aqua regia and sodium peroxide fusion data also show good agreement between the two dissolution methods. Iron dominates the sludge composition with other major contributors being uranium, manganese, nickel, sodium, aluminum, and silicon. The low sodium value for the sludge reflects the absence of supernate present in the sample due to the core sampler employed for obtaining the sample. The XRD and CSEM results for the Super Snapper salt sample (i.e., white solids) from Tank 5F (FTF-05-07-1) indicate the material contains hydrated sodium carbonate and bicarbonate salts along with some aluminum hydroxide. These compounds likely precipitated from the supernate in the tank. A solubility test showed the material

  16. Characterization study on secondary sewage sludge for replacement in building materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kadir, Aeslina Abdul; Sarani, Noor Amira; Aziz, Nurul Sazwana A.; Hamdan, Rafidah; Abdullah, Mohd Mustafa Al Bakri

    2017-09-01

    Recently, environmental issues continually increased since expanded in industrial development and grown in population. Regarding to this activity, it will cause lack management of waste such as solid waste from wastewater treatment plant called sewage sludge. This research presents the characteristic study of sewage sludge, regardless of whether it is appropriate or not to be applied as building materials. The sewage sludge samples were collected from secondary treatment at Senggarang and Perwira under Indah Water Konsortium (IWK) treatment plant. Raw materials were tested with X-ray Fluorescence (XRF) and Inductively Coupled Plasma Optical Emission Spectrometry (ICP-OES) in order to determine the composition of sewage sludge and heavy metal concentration contains in sewage sludge. From the study, it was found that sewage sludge contained high amount of Silica Oxide (SiO2) with 13.6%, Sulphur Trioxide (SO3) with 12.64% and Iron Oxide (Fe2O3) with 8.7% which is similar in clay. In addition, sewage sludge also high in Iron (Fe) with 276.2 mg/L followed by Zinc (Zn) with concentration 45.41 mg/L which sewage sludge cannot be directly disposed to landfill. Results from this study demonstrated that sewage sludge has high possibility to be reused as alternative building materials such as bricks and have compatible chemical composition with clay.

  17. CHARACTERIZATION OF TANK 18F WALL AND SCALE SAMPLES

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hay, Michael; Click, Damon; Diprete, C.; Diprete, David

    2010-01-01

    Samples from the wall of Tank 18F were obtained to determine the associated source term using a special wall sampling device. Two wall samples and a scale sample were obtained and characterized at the Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL). All the analyses of the Tank 18F wall and scale samples met the targeted detection limits. The upper wall samples show ∼2X to 6X higher concentrations for U, Pu, and Np on an activity per surface area basis than the lower wall samples. On an activity per mass basis, the upper and lower wall samples show similar compositions for U and Pu. The Np activity is still ∼2.5X higher in the upper wall sample on a per mass basis. The scale sample contains 2-3X higher concentrations of U, Pu, and Sr-90 than the wall samples on an activity per mass basis. The plutonium isotopics differ for all three wall samples (upper, lower, and scale samples). The Pu-238 appears to increase as a proportion of total plutonium as you move up the tank wall from the lowest sample (scale sample) to the upper wall sample. The elemental composition of the scale sample appears similar to other F-Area PUREX sludge compositions. The composition of the scale sample is markedly different than the material on the floor of Tank 18F. However, the scale sample shows elevated Mg and Ca concentrations relative to typical PUREX sludge as do the floor samples.

  18. Norm in soil and sludge samples in Dukhan oil Field, Qatar state

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Al-Kinani, A.T.; Hushari, M.; Al-Sulaiti, Huda; Alsadig, I.A., E-mail: mmhushari@moe.gov.qa [Radiation and Chemical Protection Department, Ministry of Environment, Doha (Qatar)

    2015-07-01

    The main objective of this work is to measure the activity concentrations of Naturally Occurring radioactive Materials (NORM) produced as a buy products in oil production. The analyses of NORM give available information for guidelines concerning radiation protection. Recently NORM subjected to restricted regulation issued by high legal authority at Qatar state. Twenty five samples of soil from Dukhan onshore oil field and 10 sludge samples collected from 2 offshore fields at Qatar state. High resolution low-level gamma-ray spectrometry used to measure gamma emitters of NORM. The activity concentrations of natural radionuclide in 22 samples from Dukhan oil field, were with average worldwide values . Only three soil samples have high activity concentration of Ra-226 which is more than 185 Bq/kg the exempted level for NORM in the Quatrain regulation. The natural radionuclide activity concentrations of 10 sludge samples from offshore oil fields was greater than 1100Bq/kg the exempted values of NORM set by Quatrain regulation so the sludge need special treatments. The average hazards indices (H{sub ex} , D , and Ra{sub eq}), for the 22 samples were below the word permissible values .This means that the human exposure to such material not impose any radiation risk. The average hazards indices (H{sub ex} , D , and Ra{sub eq}), for 3 soil samples and sludge samples are higher than the published maximal permissible. Thus human exposure to such material impose radiation risk. (author)

  19. Norm in soil and sludge samples in Dukhan oil Field, Qatar state

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Al-Kinani, A.T.; Hushari, M.; Al-Sulaiti, Huda; Alsadig, I.A.

    2015-01-01

    The main objective of this work is to measure the activity concentrations of Naturally Occurring radioactive Materials (NORM) produced as a buy products in oil production. The analyses of NORM give available information for guidelines concerning radiation protection. Recently NORM subjected to restricted regulation issued by high legal authority at Qatar state. Twenty five samples of soil from Dukhan onshore oil field and 10 sludge samples collected from 2 offshore fields at Qatar state. High resolution low-level gamma-ray spectrometry used to measure gamma emitters of NORM. The activity concentrations of natural radionuclide in 22 samples from Dukhan oil field, were with average worldwide values . Only three soil samples have high activity concentration of Ra-226 which is more than 185 Bq/kg the exempted level for NORM in the Quatrain regulation. The natural radionuclide activity concentrations of 10 sludge samples from offshore oil fields was greater than 1100Bq/kg the exempted values of NORM set by Quatrain regulation so the sludge need special treatments. The average hazards indices (H ex , D , and Ra eq ), for the 22 samples were below the word permissible values .This means that the human exposure to such material not impose any radiation risk. The average hazards indices (H ex , D , and Ra eq ), for 3 soil samples and sludge samples are higher than the published maximal permissible. Thus human exposure to such material impose radiation risk. (author)

  20. Composting oily sludges: Characterizing microflora using randomly amplified polymorphic DNA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Persson, A.; Quednau, M.; Ahrne, S.

    1995-01-01

    Laboratory-scale composts in which oily sludge was composted under mesophilic conditions with amendments such as peat, bark, and fresh or decomposed horse manure, were studied with respect to basic parameters such as oil degradation, respirometry, and bacterial numbers. Further, an attempt was made to characterize a part of the bacterial flora using randomly amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD). The compost based on decomposed horse manure showed the greatest reduction of oil (85%). Comparison with a killed control indicated that microbial degradation actually had occurred. However, a substantial part of the oil was stabilized rather than totally broken down. Volatiles, on the contrary, accounted for a rather small percentage (5%) of the observed reduction. RAPD indicated that a selection had taken place and that the dominating microbial flora during the active degradation of oil were not the same as the ones dominating the different basic materials. The stabilized compost, on the other hand, had bacterial flora with similarities to the ones found in peat and bark

  1. The Fundamentals of Waste Water Sludge Characterization and Filtration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Scales, Peter J.; Dixon, David R.; Harbour, Peter J.; Stickland, Anthony D.

    2003-07-01

    The move to greater emphasis on the disposal of waste water sludges through routes such as incineration and the added cost of landfill emplacement puts high demands on dewatering technology for these sludges. A dear problem in this area is that waste water sludges are slow and difficult to dewater and traditional methods of laboratory measurement for prediction of filtration performance are inadequate. This is highly problematic for the design and operational optimisation of centrifuges, filters and settling devices in the waste water industry. The behaviour is assessed as being due to non-linear behaviour of these sludges which negates the use of classical approaches. These approaches utilise the linear portion of a t versus V{sup 2} plot (where t is the time to filtration and V is the specific filtrate volume) to extract a simple Darcian permeability. Without this parameter, a predictive capacity for dewatering using current theory is negated. (author)

  2. COMPARISON BETWEEN DIFFERENT MODELS FOR RHEOLOGICAL CHARACTERIZATION OF ACTIVATED SLUDGE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. H. Khalili Garakani

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Activated sludge flow rheology is a very complicated phenomenon. Studies related to activated sludge tend to classify sludge as non-Newtonian fluid. Until now, several theories have been built to describe the complex behavior of activated sludge with varying degrees of success. In this article, seven different models for viscosity of non-Newtonian fluids (i.e., Power law, Bingham plastic, Herschel-Bulkley, Casson, Sisko, Carreau and Cross were considered to evaluate their predictive capability of apparent viscosity of activated sludge. Results showed that although evaluating the constants in the four-parameter models is difficult, they provide the best prediction of viscosity in the whole range of shear rates for activated sludge. For easier prediction of viscosity at different mixed liquor suspended solids (2.74-31g/L, temperature (15-25°C and shear rate (1-1000/s, simple correlations were proposed. Comparing the results with the experimental data revealed that the proposed correlations are in good agreement with real apparent viscosities.

  3. Characterization, Washing, Leaching, and Filtration of C-104 Sludge

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    KP Brooks; PR Bredt; GR Golcar; SA Hartley; LK Jagoda; KG Rappe; MW Urie

    2000-06-09

    continuously adding approximately 5 L of 0.01-M NaOH and then removing it through the filter as permeate. The purpose of this washing step with 0.01-MNaOH was to remove water-soluble components that might inhibit dissolution of salts during caustic leaching, while avoiding peptization of the solids that occurs at a pH below 12. After washing the sludge with dilute caustic, it was combined with 3-M caustic, and the slurry was leached in a stainless steel vessel at 85 C for 8 hours. This leaching was followed by two 0.01-M caustic washes, each conducted in a stainless steel vessel to dilute remaining analytes from the interstitial liquids. Each rinse was performed at 85 C for 8 hours. Permeate from each of these process steps was removed using the crossflow filter system. Samples of the permeate from each slurry-washing activity and all intermediate process steps were taken and analyzed for chemical and radiochemical constituents. The fraction of each component removed was calculated. Key results are presented in Table S.1.

  4. Re-use of drinking water treatment plant (DWTP) sludge: Characterization and technological behaviour of cement mortars with atomized sludge additions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Husillos Rodriguez, N.; Martinez Ramirez, S.; Blanco Varela, M.T.; Guillem, M.; Puig, J.; Larrotcha, E.; Flores, J.

    2010-01-01

    This paper aims to characterize spray-dried DWTP sludge and evaluate its possible use as an addition for the cement industry. It describes the physical, chemical and micro-structural characterization of the sludge as well as the effect of its addition to Portland cements on the hydration, water demand, setting and mechanical strength of standardized mortars. Spray drying DWTP sludge generates a readily handled powdery material whose particle size is similar to those of Portland cement. The atomized sludge contains 12-14% organic matter (mainly fatty acids), while its main mineral constituents are muscovite, quartz, calcite, dolomite and seraphinite (or clinoclor). Its amorphous material content is 35%. The mortars were made with type CEM I Portland cement mixed with 10 to 30% atomized sludge exhibited lower mechanical strength than the control cement and a decline in slump. Setting was also altered in the blended cements with respect to the control.

  5. Tank Vapor Sampling and Analysis Data Package for Tank 241-Z-361 Sampled 09/22/1999 and 09/27/1999, During Sludge Core Removal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    VISWANATH, R.S.

    1999-01-01

    This data package presents sampling data and analytical results from the September 22 and 27, 1999, headspace vapor sampling of Hanford Site Tank 241-2-361 during sludge core removal. The Lockheed Martin Hanford Corporation (LMHC) sampling team collected the samples and Waste Management Laboratory (WML) analyzed the samples in accordance with the requirements specified in the 241-2361 Sludge Characterization Sampling and Analysis Plan, (SAP), HNF-4371/Rev. 1, (Babcock and Wilcox Hanford Corporation, 1999). Six SUMMA(trademark) canister samples were collected on each day (1 ambient field blank and 5 tank vapor samples collected when each core segment was removed). The samples were radiologically released on September 28 and October 4, 1999, and received at the laboratory on September 29 and October 6, 1999. Target analytes were not detected at concentrations greater than their notification limits as specified in the SAP. Analytical results for the target analytes and tentatively identified compounds (TICs) are presented in Section 2.2.2 starting on page 2B-7. Three compounds identified for analysis in the SAP were analyzed as TICs. The discussion of this modification is presented in Section 2.2.1.2

  6. Characterization of Sludge from the Process of Steel Tubes Chemical Treatment for Hot Galvanizing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sofilić, U.

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Inadequate industrial waste management in Croatia is reflected in the non-sanitary waste disposal, low recycling levels, negligible share of waste processing technologies, insufficient control of its flows, etc.Generated industrial wastes are most frequently disposed of at producers’ own, mostly illegal landfills. There are many such landfills on the Croatian territory, and the disposed types of waste often include those that can be hazardous and represent a considerable source of environmental pollution.Past waste management in all industrial branches can be characterized in this way, which at the same time may result in the harmful impact on human health and the environment. It also represents economic loss due to low utilisation of material and energy potential of some industrial wastes. The metallurgical industry collects its production waste separately. Only a part of the generated waste is returned to the production process and some waste is occasionally used by other industries as secondary raw materials, but the largest part of it ends at producers' own landfills on site. Hazardous wastes (dust containing heavy metals, waste oils etc. are mostly disposed of in a controlled and lawful manner. Past handling of metallurgical waste was unacceptable both from the environmental and economic point of view. Therefore a systematic resolving of this important issue was initiated at the beginning of this decade. Sisak Steelworks galvanized steel pipes in the hot-dip galvanizing procedure by immersing in molten zinc. Between 1970 and 2000 Sisak Steelworks produced approximately 900 000 tonnes of galvanized pipes this way and generated around 70 000 m3 of neutralisation sludge, which was subsequently disposed of in the landfill on site. The paper presents the results of examination of physical-chemical properties of neutralisation sludge generated as waste material in the process of neutralisation of waste sulphate acid bath used in Sisak

  7. DEFENSE WASTE PROCESSING FACILITY ANALYTICAL METHOD VERIFICATION FOR THE SLUDGE BATCH 5 QUALIFICATION SAMPLE

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Click, D; Tommy Edwards, T; Henry Ajo, H

    2008-01-01

    For each sludge batch that is processed in the Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF), the Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) performs confirmation of the applicability of the digestion method to be used by the DWPF lab for elemental analysis of Sludge Receipt and Adjustment Tank (SRAT) receipt samples and SRAT product process control samples. DWPF SRAT samples are typically dissolved using a room temperature HF-HNO3 acid dissolution (i.e., DWPF Cold Chem Method, see Procedure SW4-15.201) and then analyzed by inductively coupled plasma - atomic emission spectroscopy (ICP-AES). This report contains the results and comparison of data generated from performing the Aqua Regia (AR), Sodium Peroxide/Hydroxide Fusion (PF) and DWPF Cold Chem (CC) method digestion of Sludge Batch 5 (SB5) SRAT Receipt and SB5 SRAT Product samples. The SB5 SRAT Receipt and SB5 SRAT Product samples were prepared in the SRNL Shielded Cells, and the SRAT Receipt material is representative of the sludge that constitutes the SB5 Batch composition. This is the sludge in Tank 51 that is to be transferred into Tank 40, which will contain the heel of Sludge Batch 4 (SB4), to form the SB5 Blend composition. The results for any one particular element should not be used in any way to identify the form or speciation of a particular element in the sludge or used to estimate ratios of compounds in the sludge. A statistical comparison of the data validates the use of the DWPF CC method for SB5 Batch composition. However, the difficulty that was encountered in using the CC method for SB4 brings into question the adequacy of CC for the SB5 Blend. Also, it should be noted that visible solids remained in the final diluted solutions of all samples digested by this method at SRNL (8 samples total), which is typical for the DWPF CC method but not seen in the other methods. Recommendations to the DWPF for application to SB5 based on studies to date: (1) A dissolution study should be performed on the WAPS

  8. Characterization, Leaching, and Filtrations Testing of Ferrocyanide Tank sludge (Group 8) Actual Waste Composite

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fiskum, Sandra K.; Billing, Justin M.; Crum, J. V.; Daniel, Richard C.; Edwards, Matthew K.; Shimskey, Rick W.; Peterson, Reid A.; MacFarlan, Paul J.; Buck, Edgar C.; Draper, Kathryn E.; Kozelisky, Anne E.

    2009-02-28

    This is the final report in a series of eight reports defining characterization, leach, and filtration testing of a wide variety of Hanford tank waste sludges. The information generated from this series is intended to supplement the Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (WTP) project understanding of actual waste behaviors associated with tank waste sludge processing through the pretreatment portion of the WTP. The work described in this report presents information on a high-iron waste form, specifically the ferrocyanide tank waste sludge. Iron hydroxide has been shown to pose technical challenges during filtration processing; the ferrocyanide tank waste sludge represented a good source of the high-iron matrix to test the filtration processing.

  9. Characterization, Leaching, and Filtrations Testing of Ferrocyanide Tank sludge (Group 8) Actual Waste Composite

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fiskum, Sandra K.; Billing, Justin M.; Crum, J.V.; Daniel, Richard C.; Edwards, Matthew K.; Shimskey, Rick W.; Peterson, Reid A.; MacFarlan, Paul J.; Buck, Edgar C.; Draper, Kathryn E.; Kozelisky, Anne E.

    2009-01-01

    This is the final report in a series of eight reports defining characterization, leach, and filtration testing of a wide variety of Hanford tank waste sludges. The information generated from this series is intended to supplement the Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (WTP) project understanding of actual waste behaviors associated with tank waste sludge processing through the pretreatment portion of the WTP. The work described in this report presents information on a high-iron waste form, specifically the ferrocyanide tank waste sludge. Iron hydroxide has been shown to pose technical challenges during filtration processing; the ferrocyanide tank waste sludge represented a good source of the high-iron matrix to test the filtration processing

  10. Comparison between different models for rheological characterization of sludge from settling tank

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Malczewska Beata

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available The municipal sludge characterized non-Newtonian behaviour, therefore the viscosity of the sewage sludge is not a constant value. The laboratory investigation was made using coaxial cylinder with rotating torque and gravimetric concentration of the investigated sludge ranged from 4.40% to 2.09%. This paper presents the investigation on the effect of concentration of rheological sludge behaviour. The three different rheological models: Bingham (plastic model, Ostwald-de Waele (power-law, Hershel-Bulkley’s were calculated by fitting the experimental data of shear stress as a function of shear rate to these models. In this study, the 3-parameter Herschel- Bulkley’s model fits the experimental data best.

  11. Extracellular polymeric substances (EPS) producing bacterial strains of municipal wastewater sludge: isolation, molecular identification, EPS characterization and performance for sludge settling and dewatering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bala Subramanian, S; Yan, S; Tyagi, R D; Surampalli, R Y

    2010-04-01

    Wastewater treatment plants often face the problems of sludge settling mainly due to sludge bulking. Generally, synthetic organic polymer and/or inorganic coagulants (ferric chloride, alum and quick lime) are used for sludge settling. These chemicals are very expensive and further pollute the environment. Whereas, the bioflocculants are environment friendly and may be used to flocculate the sludge. Extracellular polymeric substances (EPS) produced by sludge microorganisms play a definite role in sludge flocculation. In this study, 25 EPS producing strains were isolated from municipal wastewater treatment plant. Microorganisms were selected based on EPS production properties on solid agar medium. Three types of EPS (slime, capsular and bacterial broth mixture of both slime and capsular) were harvested and their characteristics were studied. EPS concentration (dry weight), viscosity and their charge (using a Zetaphoremeter) were also measured. Bioflocculability of obtained EPS was evaluated by measuring the kaolin clay flocculation activity. Six bacterial strains (BS2, BS8, BS9, BS11, BS15 and BS25) were selected based on the kaolin clay flocculation. The slime EPS was better for bioflocculation than capsular EPS and bacterial broth. Therefore, extracted slime EPS (partially purified) from six bacterial strains was studied in terms of sludge settling [sludge volume index (SVI)] and dewatering [capillary suction time (CST)]. Biopolymers produced by individual strains substantially improved dewaterability. The extracted slime EPS from six different strains were partially characterized. Copyright (c) 2009 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Dosimetric characterization and identification of TL defect centres in sand for its application in sludge irradiators as an in situ dosimeter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Benny, P.G.; Shah, M.R.; Sabharwal, S.; Bhatt, B.C.; Gundu Rao, T.K.

    2003-08-01

    The report presents investigations that have been carried out to establish a method for the routine/ periodic dosimetry for Sludge Hygienisation Research Irradiator (SHRI) facility set up at Baroda (India) for disinfection of liquid sewage sludge in bulk quantity. For this purpose, the possibility of using the sand, one of the components of inorganic matter found in sewage sludge, directly as a TL dosimeter has been explored. The report is presented in two parts. Part 1 presents dosimetric characterization of sand for its application as an in situ dosimeter. A review on various sewage sludge irradiators operating in the world and the different dosimetric techniques used for these facilities are briefly described. In the present studies, in order to investigate the thermoluminescence properties of sand, it was separated from the sewage sludge by an extensive cleaning procedure. Part 1 also describes the procedure for separation of sand from sewage sludge, study on its TL properties, dosimetric characterization of sand and application of cleaned sand collected at the outlet of the SHRI facility for estimating radiation absorbed dose imparted to the sludge during its disinfection as well as for determining distribution of dose for an irradiated sludge batch. A new method by using phototransferred thermoluminescence (PTTL) in quartz separated from sand has been explored for high-level gamma dosimetry. Part 2 of the report presents sensitization properties of TL peaks and study of TL defect centres in quartz. It describes the results on pre-dose sensitization of 220 degC and 110 degC TL peaks in the quartz samples separated from sand. From the TL and ESR studies, a mechanism for TL sensitization has been suggested, which involves the role of competing traps and E I - centres in the sensitization process. The paramagnetic radicals formed in quartz samples after gamma irradiation by using ESR technique have been briefly described. (author)

  13. Anaerobic granular sludge : characterization, and factors affecting its functioning

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Alphenaar, P.A.

    1994-01-01

    Many UASB reactors are designed in such a fashion that the presence of granular sludge is necessary for a proper purification process. For achieving an optimum wastewater purification with such reactors, knowledge of the factors that determine the growth, retention and disintegration of

  14. Sampling of tar from sewage sludge gasification using solid phase adsorption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ortiz González, Isabel; Pérez Pastor, Rosa Ma; Sánchez Hervás, José Ma

    2012-06-01

    Sewage sludge is a residue from wastewater treatment plants which is considered to be harmful to the environment and all living organisms. Gasification technology is a potential source of renewable energy that converts the sewage sludge into gases that can be used to generate energy or as raw material in chemical synthesis processes. But tar produced during gasification is one of the problems for the implementation of the gasification technology. Tar can condense on pipes and filters and may cause blockage and corrosion in the engines and turbines. Consequently, to minimize tar content in syngas, the ability to quantify tar levels in process streams is essential. The aim of this work was to develop an accurate tar sampling and analysis methodology using solid phase adsorption (SPA) in order to apply it to tar sampling from sewage sludge gasification gases. Four types of commercial SPA cartridges have been tested to determine the most suitable one for the sampling of individual tar compounds in such streams. Afterwards, the capacity, breakthrough volume and sample stability of the Supelclean™ ENVI-Carb/NH(2), which is identified as the most suitable, have been determined. Basically, no significant influences from water, H(2)S or NH(3) were detected. The cartridge was used in sampling real samples, and comparable results were obtained with the present and traditional methods.

  15. Native and mass labeled [13C14]-decabromodiphenylethane (DBDPE). Characterization and use in determination of DBDPE in sewage sludge

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McCrindle, R. [Guelph Univ., ON (Canada). Chemistry Dept.; Chittim, B.; Konstantinov, A.; McAlees, A.; Potter, D.; Tashiro, C.; Yeo, B. [Wellington Laboratories, Guelph, ON (Canada); Kolic, T.; MacPherson, K.; Reiner, E. [Ontario Ministry of the Environment, Toronto, ON (Canada)

    2004-09-15

    Decabromodiphenylethane (DBDPE) is a relatively new brominated flame retardant for use in polystyrene and polyolefin-based thermoplastic formulations. DBDPE was introduced in the early 90's, and is marketed as a non-diphenyl oxide based alternative to brominated diphenyl ethers (BDE)i. One study has shown that DBDPE produces no dioxins and only minor quantities of 2,3,7,8-TBDF under pyrolysis conditions. Although currently DBDPE is not as widely used as decabromodiphenyl ether (BDE-209) because of the higher cost, it is predicted that DBDPE will soon become one of the major flame retardants used by the thermoplastics industry. The presence of DBDPE in sediments, sewage sludge and air samples was reported during Dioxin 2003. The levels of DBDPE found in sewage sludge ranged from 33 to approximately 100 ng/g dry weight, and its ratio to BDE-209 levels in quantified samples was 0.01 in the sediment and 0.3 to 0.6 in the sewage sludge samples examined. The lack of a surrogate standard for DBDPE definitely poses difficulties in determining levels accurately. This study has two goals: the characterization of mass-labeled DBDPE and an assessment of its utility in determining DBDPE levels in environmental samples.

  16. Verification Of The Defense Waste Processing Facility's (DWPF) Process Digestion Methods For The Sludge Batch 8 Qualification Sample

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Click, D. R.; Edwards, T. B.; Wiedenman, B. J.; Brown, L. W.

    2013-01-01

    This report contains the results and comparison of data generated from inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectroscopy (ICP-AES) analysis of Aqua Regia (AR), Sodium Peroxide/Sodium Hydroxide Fusion Dissolution (PF) and Cold Chem (CC) method digestions and Cold Vapor Atomic Absorption analysis of Hg digestions from the DWPF Hg digestion method of Sludge Batch 8 (SB8) Sludge Receipt and Adjustment Tank (SRAT) Receipt and SB8 SRAT Product samples. The SB8 SRAT Receipt and SB8 SRAT Product samples were prepared in the SRNL Shielded Cells, and the SRAT Receipt material is representative of the sludge that constitutes the SB8 Batch or qualification composition. This is the sludge in Tank 51 that is to be transferred into Tank 40, which will contain the heel of Sludge Batch 7b (SB7b), to form the SB8 Blend composition

  17. Characterization, Modeling and Application of Aerobic Granular Sludge for Wastewater Treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xian-Wei; Yu, Han-Qing; Ni, Bing-Jie; Sheng, Guo-Ping

    Recently extensive studies have been carried out to cultivate aerobic granular sludge worldwide, including in China. Aerobic granules, compared with conventional activated sludge flocs, are well known for their regular, dense, and strong microbial structure, good settling ability, high biomass retention, and great ability to withstand shock loadings. Studies have shown that the aerobic granules could be applied for the treatment of low- or high-strength wastewaters, simultaneous removal of organic carbon, nitrogen and phosphorus, and decomposition of toxic wastewaters. Thus, this new form of activate sludge, like anaerobic granular sludge, could be employed for the treatment of municipal and industrial wastewaters in near future. This chapter attempts to provide an up-to-date review on the definition, cultivation, characterization, modeling and application of aerobic granular sludge for biological wastewater treatment. This review outlines some important discoveries with regard to the factors affecting the formation of aerobic granular sludge, their physicochemical characteristics, as well as their microbial structure and diversity. It also summarizes the modeling of aerobic granule formation. Finally, this chapter highlights the applications of aerobic granulation technology in the biological wastewater treatment. It is concluded that the knowledge regarding aerobic granular sludge is far from complete. Although previous studies in this field have undoubtedly improved our understanding on aerobic granular sludge, it is clear that much remains to be learned about the process and that many unanswered questions still remain. One of the challenges appears to be the integration of the existing and growing scientific knowledge base with the observations and applications in practice, which this paper hopes to partially achieve.

  18. Investigation of Sludge Batch 3 (Macrobatch 4) Glass Sample Anomalous Behavior

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bannochie, C. J.; Bibler, N. E.; Peeler, D. K.

    2005-01-01

    Two Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) glass samples from Sludge Batch 3 (SB3) (Macrobatch 4) were received by the Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) on February 23, 2005. One sample, S02244, was designated for the Product Consistency Test (PCT) and elemental and radionuclide analyses. The second sample, S02247, was designated for archival storage. The samples were pulled from the melter pour stream during the feeding of Melter Feed Tank (MFT) Batch 308 and therefore roughly correspond to feed from Slurry Mix Evaporator (SME) Batches 306-308. During the course of preparing sample S02244 for PCT and other analyses two observations were made which were characterized as ''unusual'' or anomalous behavior relative to historical observations of glasses prepared for the PCT. These observations ultimately led to a series of scoping tests in order to determine more about the nature of the behavior and possible mechanisms. The first observation was the behavior of the ground glass fraction (-100 +200 mesh) for PCT analysis when contacted with deionized water during the washing phase of the PCT procedure. The behavior was analogous to that of an organic compound in the presence of water: clumping, floating on the water surface, and crawling up the beaker walls. In other words, the glass sample did not ''wet'' normally, displaying a hydrophobic behavior in water. This had never been seen before in 18 years SRNL PCT tests on either radioactive or non-radioactive glasses. Typical glass behavior is largely to settle to the bottom of the water filled beaker, though there may be suspended fines which result in some cloudiness to the wash water. The typical appearance is analogous to wetting sand. The second observation was the presence of faint black rings at the initial and final solution levels in the Teflon vessels used for the mixed acid digestion of S02244 glass conducted for compositional analysis. The digestion is composed of two stages, and at both the

  19. Chemical and ecotoxicological characterization of ashes obtained from sewage sludge combustion in a fluidised-bed reactor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lapa, N; Barbosa, R; Lopes, M H; Mendes, B; Abelha, P; Boavida, D; Gulyurtlu, I; Oliveira, J Santos

    2007-08-17

    In 1999, the DEECA/INETI and the UBiA/FCT/UNL started a researching project on the partition of heavy metals during the combustion of stabilised sewage sludge (Biogran), in a fluidised-bed reactor, and on the quality of the bottom ashes and fly ashes produced. This project was entitled Bimetal and was funded by the Portuguese Foundation for Science and Technology. In this paper only the results on the combustion of Biogran are reported. The combustion process was performed in two different trials, in which different amounts of sewage sludge and time of combustion were applied. Several ash samples were collected from the bed (bottom ashes) and from two cyclones (first cyclone and second cyclone ashes). Sewage sludge, bed material (sand) and ash samples were submitted to the leaching process defined in the European leaching standard EN 12457-2. The eluates were characterized for a set of inorganic chemical species. The ecotoxicological levels of the eluates were determined for two biological indicators (Vibrio fischeri and Daphnia magna). The results were compared with the limit values of the CEMWE French Regulation. The samples were also ranked according to an index based on the chemical characterization of the eluates. It was observed an increase of the concentration of metals along the combustion system. The ashes trapped in the second cyclone, for both combustion trials, showed the highest concentration of metals in the eluates. Chemically, the ashes of the second cyclone were the most different ones. In the ecotoxicological point of view, the ecotoxicity levels of the eluates of the ashes, for both combustion cycles, did not follow the same pattern as observed for the chemical characterization. The ashes of the first cyclone showed the highest ecotoxicity levels for V. fischeri and D. magna. This difference on chemical and ecotoxicological results proves the need for performing both chemical and ecotoxicological characterizations of the sub-products of such type

  20. Chemical and ecotoxicological characterization of ashes obtained from sewage sludge combustion in a fluidised-bed reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lapa, N. [Environmental Biotechnology Researching Unit (UBiA), Faculty of Science and Technology (FCT), New University of Lisbon - UNL, Ed. Departamental, piso 3, gabinete 377, Quinta da Torre, 2829-516 Caparica (Portugal)]. E-mail: ncsn@fct.unl.pt; Barbosa, R. [Environmental Biotechnology Researching Unit (UBiA), Faculty of Science and Technology (FCT), New University of Lisbon - UNL, Ed. Departamental, piso 3, gabinete 377, Quinta da Torre, 2829-516 Caparica (Portugal); Lopes, M.H. [National Institute of Engineering, Technology and Innovation (INETI), Department of Energetic Engineering and Environmental Control (DEECA). Edificio J, Estrada do Paco do Lumiar, 22, 1649-038 Lisbon (Portugal); Mendes, B. [Environmental Biotechnology Researching Unit (UBiA), Faculty of Science and Technology (FCT), New University of Lisbon - UNL, Ed. Departamental, piso 3, gabinete 377, Quinta da Torre, 2829-516 Caparica (Portugal); Abelha, P. [National Institute of Engineering, Technology and Innovation (INETI), Department of Energetic Engineering and Environmental Control (DEECA). Edificio J, Estrada do Paco do Lumiar, 22, 1649-038 Lisbon (Portugal); Gulyurtlu, I. [National Institute of Engineering, Technology and Innovation (INETI), Department of Energetic Engineering and Environmental Control (DEECA). Edificio J, Estrada do Paco do Lumiar, 22, 1649-038 Lisbon (Portugal); Santos Oliveira, J. [Environmental Biotechnology Researching Unit (UBiA), Faculty of Science and Technology (FCT), New University of Lisbon - UNL, Ed. Departamental, piso 3, gabinete 377, Quinta da Torre, 2829-516 Caparica (Portugal)

    2007-08-17

    In 1999, the DEECA/INETI and the UBiA/FCT/UNL started a researching project on the partition of heavy metals during the combustion of stabilised sewage sludge (Biogran[reg]), in a fluidised-bed reactor, and on the quality of the bottom ashes and fly ashes produced. This project was entitled Bimetal and was funded by the Portuguese Foundation for Science and Technology. In this paper only the results on the combustion of Biogran[reg]) are reported. The combustion process was performed in two different trials, in which different amounts of sewage sludge and time of combustion were applied. Several ash samples were collected from the bed (bottom ashes) and from two cyclones (first cyclone and second cyclone ashes). Sewage sludge, bed material (sand) and ash samples were submitted to the leaching process defined in the European leaching standard EN 12457-2. The eluates were characterized for a set of inorganic chemical species. The ecotoxicological levels of the eluates were determined for two biological indicators (Vibrio fischeri and Daphnia magna). The results were compared with the limit values of the CEMWE French Regulation. The samples were also ranked according to an index based on the chemical characterization of the eluates. It was observed an increase of the concentration of metals along the combustion system. The ashes trapped in the second cyclone, for both combustion trials, showed the highest concentration of metals in the eluates. Chemically, the ashes of the second cyclone were the most different ones. In the ecotoxicological point of view, the ecotoxicity levels of the eluates of the ashes, for both combustion cycles, did not follow the same pattern as observed for the chemical characterization. The ashes of the first cyclone showed the highest ecotoxicity levels for V. fischeri and D. magna. This difference on chemical and ecotoxicological results proves the need for performing both chemical and ecotoxicological characterizations of the sub

  1. Chemical and ecotoxicological characterization of ashes obtained from sewage sludge combustion in a fluidised-bed reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lapa, N.; Barbosa, R.; Lopes, M.H.; Mendes, B.; Abelha, P.; Gulyurtlu, I.; Santos Oliveira, J.

    2007-01-01

    In 1999, the DEECA/INETI and the UBiA/FCT/UNL started a researching project on the partition of heavy metals during the combustion of stabilised sewage sludge (Biogran[reg]), in a fluidised-bed reactor, and on the quality of the bottom ashes and fly ashes produced. This project was entitled Bimetal and was funded by the Portuguese Foundation for Science and Technology. In this paper only the results on the combustion of Biogran[reg]) are reported. The combustion process was performed in two different trials, in which different amounts of sewage sludge and time of combustion were applied. Several ash samples were collected from the bed (bottom ashes) and from two cyclones (first cyclone and second cyclone ashes). Sewage sludge, bed material (sand) and ash samples were submitted to the leaching process defined in the European leaching standard EN 12457-2. The eluates were characterized for a set of inorganic chemical species. The ecotoxicological levels of the eluates were determined for two biological indicators (Vibrio fischeri and Daphnia magna). The results were compared with the limit values of the CEMWE French Regulation. The samples were also ranked according to an index based on the chemical characterization of the eluates. It was observed an increase of the concentration of metals along the combustion system. The ashes trapped in the second cyclone, for both combustion trials, showed the highest concentration of metals in the eluates. Chemically, the ashes of the second cyclone were the most different ones. In the ecotoxicological point of view, the ecotoxicity levels of the eluates of the ashes, for both combustion cycles, did not follow the same pattern as observed for the chemical characterization. The ashes of the first cyclone showed the highest ecotoxicity levels for V. fischeri and D. magna. This difference on chemical and ecotoxicological results proves the need for performing both chemical and ecotoxicological characterizations of the sub

  2. SLUDGE BATCH 5 ACCEPTANCE EVALUATION RADIONUCLIDE CONCENTRATIONS IN TANK 51 SB5 QUALIFICATION SAMPLE PREPARED AT SRNL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bannochie, C; Ned Bibler, N; David Diprete, D

    2008-01-01

    Presented in this report are radionuclide concentrations required as part of the program of qualifying Sludge Batch Five (SB5) for processing in the Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF). Part of this SB5 material is currently in Tank 51 being washed and prepared for transfer to Tank 40. The acceptance evaluation needs to be completed prior to the transfer of the material in Tank 51 to Tank 40 to complete the formation of SB5. The sludge slurry in Tank 40 has already been qualified for DWPF and is currently being processed as SB4. The radionuclide concentrations were measured or estimated in the Tank 51 SB5 Qualification Sample prepared at Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL). This sample was prepared from the three liter sample of Tank 51 sludge slurry taken on March 21, 2008. The sample was delivered to SRNL where it was initially characterized in the Shielded Cells. Under direction of the Liquid Waste Organization it was then modified by five washes, six decants, an addition of Pu/Be from Canyon Tank 16.4, and an addition of NaNO2. This final slurry now has a composition expected to be similar to that of the slurry in Tank 51 after final preparations have been made for transfer of that slurry to Ta Determining the radionuclide concentrations in this Tank 51 SB5 Qualification Sample is part of the work requested in Technical Task Request (TTR) No. HLW-DWPF-TTR-2008-0010. The work with this qualification sample is covered by a Task Technical and Quality Assurance Plan and an Analytical Study Plan. The radionuclides included in this report are needed for the DWPF Radiological Program Evaluation, the DWPF Waste Acceptance Criteria (TSR/WAC) Evaluation, and the DWPF Solid Waste Characterization Program (TTR Task 2). Radionuclides required to meet the Waste Acceptance Product Specifications (TTR Task 5) will be measured at a later date after the slurry from Tank 51 has been transferred to Tank 40. Then a sample of the as-processed SB5 will be taken and

  3. The use of Collembola avoidance tests to characterize sewage sludges as soil amendments.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Natal da Luz, T.; Tidona, S.; van Gestel, C.A.M.; Morais, P.V.; Sousa, J.P.

    2009-01-01

    The ecotoxicological characterization of sewage sludge takes into account the additive, antagonistic and synergistic effects that occur as a result of multi-chemical interactions. Such an evaluation therefore is essential to complement the chemical analysis that, although required by law, is clearly

  4. Characterization of Wastewater for Modelling of Activated Sludge Processes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Henze, Mogens

    1992-01-01

    The fractionation of organic matter in the various parts which are used for mathematical modelling is discussed. The fractions include inert soluble, readily biodegradable, rapidly hydrolyzable, slowly hydrolyzable, biomass and inert suspended material. Methods for measuring are also discussed....... Fractionation of biomass in wastewater and in activated sludge is difficult at present, as methods are only partly developed. Nitrogen fractions in wastewater are mainly inorganic. The organic nitrogen fractions are coupled to the organic COD fractions. The fractions of COD, biomass and nitrogen found...

  5. Analysis Of DWPF Sludge Batch 7A (Macrobatch 8) Pour Stream Samples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johnson, F.

    2012-01-01

    The Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) began processing Sludge Batch 7a (SB7a), also referred to as Macrobatch 8 (MB8), in June 2011. SB7a is a blend of the heel of Tank 40 from Sludge Batch 6 (SB6) and the SB7a material that was transferred to Tank 40 from Tank 51. SB7a was processed using Frit 418. During processing of each sludge batch, the DWPF is required to take at least one glass sample to meet the objectives of the Glass Product Control Program (GPCP), which is governed by the DWPF Waste Compliance Plan, and to complete the necessary Production Records so that the final glass product may be disposed of at a Federal Repository. Three pour stream glass samples and two Melter Feed Tank (MFT) slurry samples were collected while processing SB7a. These additional samples were taken during SB7a to understand the impact of antifoam and the melter bubblers on glass redox chemistry. The samples were transferred to the Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) where they were analyzed. The following conclusions were drawn from the analytical results provided in this report: (1) The sum of oxides for the official SB7a pour stream glass is within the Product Composition Control System (PCCS) limits (95-105 wt%). (2) The average calculated Waste Dilution Factor (WDF) for SB7a is 2.3. In general, the measured radionuclide content of the official SB7a pour stream glass is in good agreement with the calculated values from the Tank 40 dried sludge results from the SB7a Waste Acceptance Program Specification (WAPS) sample. (3) As in previous pour stream samples, ruthenium and rhodium inclusions were detected by Scanning Electron Microscopy-Electron Dispersive Spectroscopy (SEM-EDS) in the official SB7a pour stream sample. (4) The Product Consistency Test (PCT) results indicate that the official SB7a pour stream glass meets the waste acceptance criteria for durability with a normalized boron release of 0.64 g/L, which is an order of magnitude less than the Environmental

  6. Production and characterization of granular activated carbon from activated sludge

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Z. Al-Qodah

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available In this study, activated sludge was used as a precursor to prepare activated carbon using sulfuric acid as a chemical activation agent. The effect of preparation conditions on the produced activated carbon characteristics as an adsorbent was investigated. The results indicate that the produced activated carbon has a highly porous structure and a specific surface area of 580 m²/g. The FT-IR analysis depicts the presence of a variety of functional groups which explain its improved adsorption behavior against pesticides. The XRD analysis reveals that the produced activated carbon has low content of inorganic constituents compared with the precursor. The adsorption isotherm data were fitted to three adsorption isotherm models and found to closely fit the BET model with R² equal 0.948 at pH 3, indicating a multilayer of pesticide adsorption. The maximum loading capacity of the produced activated carbon was 110 mg pesticides/g adsorbent and was obtained at this pH value. This maximum loading was found experimentally to steeply decrease as the solution pH increases. The obtained results show that activated sludge is a promising low cost precursor for the production of activated carbon.

  7. Characterization of tannery sludge from the leather industry of Franca industrial district, SP, Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chambi, M.M.; Toffoli, S.M.

    2011-01-01

    The industry of leather manufacture generates large quantities of solid leather waste with characteristics of high-polluting and hazardous conditions. Among these wastes, stands out the wet blue leather (chromed leather scraps), and the tanning sludge and secondary sludge generated in the processes of effluents treatment. These wastes contain Cr(III), which, under oxidizing conditions, can turn into Cr (VI), which is highly toxic. However, these wastes are a potential source of chromium oxide (traditional industrial pigment), which could be used by the glass and ceramic enamel industries. In this study, a preliminary characterization of a chromium sludge from the industrial district of Franca-SP was conducted. X-ray diffraction (XRD), chemical (XRF) and thermal (DTA / TG) analyses were used to determine the physical and chemical characteristics of this solid waste. The potential of using this material as an available and cheap pigment for the manufacture of enamels and glass is discussed. (author)

  8. Exploratory tests of washing radioactive sludge samples from the Melton Valley and evaporator facility storage tanks at ORNL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sears, M.B.; Botts, J.L.; Keller, J.M.

    1991-09-01

    Exploratory tests were initiated to wash radioactive sludge samples from the waste storage tanks at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL). The purpose was to provide preliminary information about (1) the anions in the sludge phase that are soluble in water or dilute acid (e.g., the anions in the interstitial liquid) and (2) the solubilities of sludge constituents in water under process conditions. The experiments were terminated before completion due to changing priorities by the Department of Energy (DOE). This memorandum was prepared primarily for documentation purposes and presents the incomplete data. 3 refs., 13 tabs

  9. Feasibility Study of Neutron Multiplicity Assay for a Heterogeneous Sludge Sample containing Na, Pu and other Impurities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakamura, H.; Nakamichi, H.; Mukai, Y.; Yoshimoto, K.; Beddingfield, D.H.

    2010-01-01

    To reduce radioactivity of liquid waste generated at PCDF, a neutralization precipitation processes of radioactive nuclides by sodium hydroxide is used. We call the precipitate a 'sludge' after calcination. Pu mass in the sludge is normally determined by sampling and DA within the required uncertainty on DIQ. Annual yield of the mass is small but it accumulates and reaches to a few kilograms, so it is declared as retained waste and verified at PIV. A HM-5-based verification is applied for sludge verification. The sludge contains many chemical components. For example, Pu (-10wt%), U, Am, SUS components, halogens, NaNO 3 (main component), residual NaOH, and moisture. They are mixed together as an impure heterogeneous sludge sample. As a result, there is a large uncertainty in the sampling and DA that is currently used at PCDF. In order to improve the material accounting, we performed a feasibility study using neutron multiplicity assay for impure sludge samples. We have measured selected sludge samples using a multiplicity counter which is called FCAS (Fast Carton Assay System) which was designed by JAEA and Canberra. The PCDF sludge materials fall into the category of 'difficult to measure' because of the high levels of impurities, high alpha values and somewhat small Pu mass. For the sludge measurements, it was confirmed that good consistency between Pu mass in a pure sludge standard (PuO 2 -Na 2 U 2 O 7 , alpha=7) and the DA could be obtained. For unknown samples, using 14-hour measurements, we could obtain quite low statistical uncertainty on Doubles (-1%) and Triples (-10%) count rate although the alpha value was extremely high (15-25) and FCAS efficiency was relatively low (40%) for typical multiplicity counters. Despite the detector efficiency challenges and the material challenges (high alpha, low Pu mass, heterogeneous matrix), we have been able to obtain assay results that greatly exceed the accountancy requirements for retained waste materials. We have

  10. Chemical characterization of SRP waste tank sludges and supernates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gray, L.W.; Donnan, M.Y.; Okamoto, B.Y.

    1979-08-01

    Most high-level liquid wastes at the Savannah River Plant (SRP) are byproducts from plutonium and enriched uranium recovery processes. The high-level liquid wastes generated by these separations processes are stored in large, underground, carbon-steel tanks. The liquid wastes consist of: supernate (an aqueous solution containing sodium, nitrate, nitrite, hydroxyl, and aluminate ions), sludge (a gelatinous material containing insoluble components of the waste, such as ferric and aluminum hydroxides, and mercuric and manganese oxides), and salt cake (crystals, such as sodium nitrate, formed by evaporation of water from supernate). Analyses of SRP wastes by laser-Raman spectrometry, atomic absorption spectrometry, spark-source mass spectrometry, neutron activation analysis, colorimetry, ion chromatography, and various other wet-chemical and radiochemical methods are discussed. These analyses are useful in studies of waste tank corrosion and of forms for long-term waste storage

  11. Improved sample treatment for the determination of insoluble soap in sewage sludge samples by liquid chromatography with fluorescence detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cantarero, Samuel; Zafra-Gómez, A; Ballesteros, O; Navalón, A; Vílchez, J L; Crovetto, G; Verge, C; de Ferrer, J A

    2010-09-15

    A new selective and sensitive method for the determination of insoluble fatty acid salts (soap) in sewage sludge samples is proposed. The method involves a clean up of sample with petroleum ether, the conversion of calcium and magnesium insoluble salts into soluble potassium salts, potassium salts extraction with methanol, and a derivatization procedure previous to the liquid chromatography with fluorescence detection (LC-FLD) analysis. Three different extraction techniques (Soxhlet, microwave-assisted extraction and ultrasounds) were compared and microwave-assisted extraction (MAE) was selected as appropriate for our purpose. This allowed to reduce the extraction time and solvent waste (50 mL of methanol in contrast with 250 mL for Soxhlet procedure). The absence of matrix effect was demonstrated with two standards (C(13:0) and C(17:0)) that are not commercials and neither of them has been detected in sewage sludge samples. Therefore, it was possible to evaluate the matrix effect since both standards have similar environmental behaviour (adsorption and precipitation) to commercial soaps (C(10:0)-C(18:0)). The method was successfully applied to samples from different sources and consequently, with different composition. Copyright (c) 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Characterization of superconducting multilayers samples

    CERN Document Server

    Antoine, C Z; Berry, S; Bouat, S; Jacquot, J F; Villegier, J C; Lamura, G; Gurevich, A

    2009-01-01

    Best RF bulk niobium accelerating cavities have nearly reached their ultimate limits at rf equatorial magnetic field H  200 mT close to the thermodynamic critical field Hc. In 2006 Gurevich proposed to use nanoscale layers of superconducting materials with high values of Hc > HcNb for magnetic shielding of bulk niobium to increase the breakdown magnetic field inside SC RF cavities [1]. Depositing good quality layers inside a whole cavity is rather difficult but we have sputtered high quality samples by applying the technique used for the preparation of superconducting electronics circuits and characterized these samples by X-ray reflectivity, dc resistivity (PPMS) and dc magnetization (SQUID). Dc magnetization curves of a 250 nm thick Nb film have been measured, with and without a magnetron sputtered coating of a single or multiple stack of 15 nm MgO and 25 nm NbN layers. The Nb samples with/without the coating clearly exhibit different behaviors. Because SQUID measurements are influenced by edge an...

  13. Defining And Characterizing Sample Representativeness For DWPF Melter Feed Samples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shine, E. P.; Poirier, M. R.

    2013-01-01

    statisticians used carefully thought out designs that systematically and economically provided plans for data collection from the DWPF process. Key shared features of the sampling designs used at DWPF and the Gy sampling methodology were the specification of a standard for sample representativeness, an investigation that produced data from the process to study the sampling function, and a decision framework used to assess whether the specification was met based on the data. Without going into detail with regard to the seven errors identified by Pierre Gy, as excellent summaries are readily available such as Pitard [1989] and Smith [2001], SRS engineers understood, for example, that samplers can be biased (Gy's extraction error), and developed plans to mitigate those biases. Experiments that compared installed samplers with more representative samples obtained directly from the tank may not have resulted in systematically partitioning sampling errors into the now well-known error categories of Gy, but did provide overall information on the suitability of sampling systems. Most of the designs in this report are related to the DWPF vessels, not the large SRS Tank Farm tanks. Samples from the DWPF Slurry Mix Evaporator (SME), which contains the feed to the DWPF melter, are characterized using standardized analytical methods with known uncertainty. The analytical error is combined with the established error from sampling and processing in DWPF to determine the melter feed composition. This composition is used with the known uncertainty of the models in the Product Composition Control System (PCCS) to ensure that the wasteform that is produced is comfortably within the acceptable processing and product performance region. Having the advantage of many years of processing that meets the waste glass product acceptance criteria, the DWPF process has provided a considerable amount of data about itself in addition to the data from many special studies. Demonstrating representative sampling

  14. Defining And Characterizing Sample Representativeness For DWPF Melter Feed Samples

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shine, E. P.; Poirier, M. R.

    2013-10-29

    statisticians used carefully thought out designs that systematically and economically provided plans for data collection from the DWPF process. Key shared features of the sampling designs used at DWPF and the Gy sampling methodology were the specification of a standard for sample representativeness, an investigation that produced data from the process to study the sampling function, and a decision framework used to assess whether the specification was met based on the data. Without going into detail with regard to the seven errors identified by Pierre Gy, as excellent summaries are readily available such as Pitard [1989] and Smith [2001], SRS engineers understood, for example, that samplers can be biased (Gy's extraction error), and developed plans to mitigate those biases. Experiments that compared installed samplers with more representative samples obtained directly from the tank may not have resulted in systematically partitioning sampling errors into the now well-known error categories of Gy, but did provide overall information on the suitability of sampling systems. Most of the designs in this report are related to the DWPF vessels, not the large SRS Tank Farm tanks. Samples from the DWPF Slurry Mix Evaporator (SME), which contains the feed to the DWPF melter, are characterized using standardized analytical methods with known uncertainty. The analytical error is combined with the established error from sampling and processing in DWPF to determine the melter feed composition. This composition is used with the known uncertainty of the models in the Product Composition Control System (PCCS) to ensure that the wasteform that is produced is comfortably within the acceptable processing and product performance region. Having the advantage of many years of processing that meets the waste glass product acceptance criteria, the DWPF process has provided a considerable amount of data about itself in addition to the data from many special studies. Demonstrating representative

  15. Matrix effect study in the determination of linear alkylbenzene sulfonates in sewage sludge samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cantarero, Samuel; Zafra-Gómez, Alberto; Ballesteros, Oscar; Navalón, Alberto; Vílchez, José L; Verge, Coral; De Ferrer, Juan A

    2011-04-01

    We propose a study of the matrix effect in the determination of linear alkylbenzene sulfonates (LAS) in sewage sludge samples. First, a rapid, selective and sensitive method is proposed. The method involves two stages: the extraction of the compound from the samples and analysis by liquid chromatography with fluorescence detection (LC-FLD). Three different techniques of extraction (microwave-assisted extraction, Soxhlet, and ultrasounds) were compared, and microwave-assisted extraction was selected as the best suited for our purpose. Microwave-assisted extraction allows reducing the extraction time (25 min compared with 12 h for conventional Soxhlet extraction) and solvent waste (25 ml of methanol compared with 200 ml for Soxhlet or more than 50 ml for the ultrasonic procedure). Absence of matrix effect was evaluated with two standards (2ØC(8:0) and 2ØC(16:0) ) that are not commercial; therefore, neither of them was detected in sewage sludge samples and they showed similar environmental behavior (adsorption and precipitation) to LAS (C(11:0) -C(13.0) ), which allow us to evaluate the matrix effect. Validation was carried out by a recovery assay, and the method was applied to samples from different sources; therefore, they had different compositions. Copyright © 2011 SETAC.

  16. Environmental monitoring study of linear alkylbenzene sulfonates and insoluble soap in Spanish sewage sludge samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cantarero, Samuel; Zafra-Gómez, Alberto; Ballesteros, Oscar; Navalón, Alberto; Reis, Marco S; Saraiva, Pedro M; Vílchez, José L

    2011-01-01

    In this work we present a monitoring study of linear alkylbenzene sulfonates (LAS) and insoluble soap performed on Spanish sewage sludge samples. This work focuses on finding statistical relations between LAS concentrations and insoluble soap in sewage sludge samples and variables related to wastewater treatment plants such as water hardness, population and treatment type. It is worth to mention that 38 samples, collected from different Spanish regions, were studied. The statistical tool we used was Principal Component Analysis (PC), in order to reduce the number of response variables. The analysis of variance (ANOVA) test and a non-parametric test such as the Kruskal-Wallis test were also studied through the estimation of the p-value (probability of obtaining a test statistic at least as extreme as the one that was actually observed, assuming that the null hypothesis is true) in order to study possible relations between the concentration of both analytes and the rest of variables. We also compared LAS and insoluble soap behaviors. In addition, the results obtained for LAS (mean value) were compared with the limit value proposed by the future Directive entitled "Working Document on Sludge". According to the results, the mean obtained for soap and LAS was 26.49 g kg(-1) and 6.15 g kg(-1) respectively. It is worth noting that LAS mean was significantly higher than the limit value (2.6 g kg(-1)). In addition, LAS and soap concentrations depend largely on water hardness. However, only LAS concentration depends on treatment type.

  17. Occurrence of Giardia cysts and Cryptosporidium oocysts in activated sludge samples in Campinas, SP, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santos, Luciana Urbano; Bonatti, Taís Rondello; Cantusio Neto, Romeu; Franco, Regina Maura Bueno

    2004-01-01

    Giardia and Cryptosporidium have caused several outbreaks of gastroenteritis in humans associated with drinking water. Contaminated sewage effluents are recognized as a potential source of waterborne protozoa. Due to the lack of studies about the occurrence of these parasites in sewage samples in Brazil, we compared the efficiency of two procedures for concentrating cysts and oocysts in activated sludge samples of one sewage treatment plant. For this, the samples were submitted to i) concentration by the ether clarification procedure (ECP) and to ii) purification by sucrose flotation method (SFM) and aliquots of the pellets were examined by immunofluorescence. Giardia cysts were present in all samples (100.0%; n = 8) when using ECP and kit 1 reagents, while kit 2 resulted in six positive samples (85.7%; n = 7). As for SFM, cysts were detected in 75.0% and 100.0% of these samples (for kit 1 and 2, respectively). Regarding Cryptosporidium, two samples (25.0%; kit 1 and 28.5% for kit 2) were detected positive by using ECP, while for SFM, only one sample (examined by kit 1) was positive (12.5%). The results of the control trial revealed Giardia and Cryptosporidium recovery efficiency rates for ECP of 54.5% and 9.6%, while SFM was 10.5% and 3.2%, respectively. Considering the high concentration detected, a previous evaluation of the activated sludge before its application in agriculture is recommended and with some improvement, ECP would be an appropriate simple technique for protozoa detection in sewage samples.

  18. Preparation and Characterization of Uranium Oxides in Support of the K Basin Sludge Treatment Project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sinkov, Sergey I.; Delegard, Calvin H.; Schmidt, Andrew J.

    2008-07-08

    Uraninite (UO2) and metaschoepite (UO3·2H2O) are the uranium phases most frequently observed in K Basin sludge. Uraninite arises from the oxidation of uranium metal by anoxic water and metaschoepite arises from oxidation of uraninite by atmospheric or radiolytic oxygen. Studies of the oxidation of uraninite by oxygen to form metaschoepite were performed at 21°C and 50°C. A uranium oxide oxidation state characterization method based on spectrophotometry of the solution formed by dissolving aqueous slurries in phosphoric acid was developed to follow the extent of reaction. This method may be applied to determine uranium oxide oxidation state distribution in K Basin sludge. The uraninite produced by anoxic corrosion of uranium metal has exceedingly fine particle size (6 nm diameter), forms agglomerates, and has the formula UO2.004±0.007; i.e., is practically stoichiometric UO2. The metaschoepite particles are flatter and wider when prepared at 21°C than the particles prepared at 50°C. These particles are much smaller than the metaschoepite observed in prolonged exposure of actual K Basin sludge to warm moist oxidizing conditions. The uraninite produced by anoxic uranium metal corrosion and the metaschoepite produced by reaction of uraninite aqueous slurries with oxygen may be used in engineering and process development testing. A rapid alternative method to determine uranium metal concentrations in sludge also was identified.

  19. Activated sludge characterization through microscopy: A review on quantitative image analysis and chemometric techniques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mesquita, Daniela P. [IBB-Institute for Biotechnology and Bioengineering, Centre of Biological Engineering, Universidade do Minho, Campus de Gualtar, 4710-057 Braga (Portugal); Amaral, A. Luís [IBB-Institute for Biotechnology and Bioengineering, Centre of Biological Engineering, Universidade do Minho, Campus de Gualtar, 4710-057 Braga (Portugal); Instituto Politécnico de Coimbra, ISEC, DEQB, Rua Pedro Nunes, Quinta da Nora, 3030-199 Coimbra (Portugal); Ferreira, Eugénio C., E-mail: ecferreira@deb.uminho.pt [IBB-Institute for Biotechnology and Bioengineering, Centre of Biological Engineering, Universidade do Minho, Campus de Gualtar, 4710-057 Braga (Portugal)

    2013-11-13

    Graphical abstract: -- Highlights: •Quantitative image analysis shows potential to monitor activated sludge systems. •Staining techniques increase the potential for detection of operational problems. •Chemometrics combined with quantitative image analysis is valuable for process monitoring. -- Abstract: In wastewater treatment processes, and particularly in activated sludge systems, efficiency is quite dependent on the operating conditions, and a number of problems may arise due to sludge structure and proliferation of specific microorganisms. In fact, bacterial communities and protozoa identification by microscopy inspection is already routinely employed in a considerable number of cases. Furthermore, quantitative image analysis techniques have been increasingly used throughout the years for the assessment of aggregates and filamentous bacteria properties. These procedures are able to provide an ever growing amount of data for wastewater treatment processes in which chemometric techniques can be a valuable tool. However, the determination of microbial communities’ properties remains a current challenge in spite of the great diversity of microscopy techniques applied. In this review, activated sludge characterization is discussed highlighting the aggregates structure and filamentous bacteria determination by image analysis on bright-field, phase-contrast, and fluorescence microscopy. An in-depth analysis is performed to summarize the many new findings that have been obtained, and future developments for these biological processes are further discussed.

  20. Preparation and Characterization of Uranium Oxides in Support of the K Basin Sludge Treatment Project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sinkov, Sergey I.; Delegard, Calvin H.; Schmidt, Andrew J.

    2008-01-01

    Uraninite (UO2) and metaschoepite (UO3-2H2O) are the uranium phases most frequently observed in K Basin sludge. Uraninite arises from the oxidation of uranium metal by anoxic water and metaschoepite arises from oxidation of uraninite by atmospheric or radiolytic oxygen. Studies of the oxidation of uraninite by oxygen to form metaschoepite were performed at 21 C and 50 C. A uranium oxide oxidation state characterization method based on spectrophotometry of the solution formed by dissolving aqueous slurries in phosphoric acid was developed to follow the extent of reaction. This method may be applied to determine uranium oxide oxidation state distribution in K Basin sludge. The uraninite produced by anoxic corrosion of uranium metal has exceedingly fine particle size (6 nm diameter), forms agglomerates, and has the formula UO2.004 ± 0.007; i.e., is practically stoichiometric UO2. The metaschoepite particles are flatter and wider when prepared at 21 C than the particles prepared at 50 C. These particles are much smaller than the metaschoepite observed in prolonged exposure of actual K Basin sludge to warm moist oxidizing conditions. The uraninite produced by anoxic uranium metal corrosion and the metaschoepite produced by reaction of uraninite aqueous slurries with oxygen may be used in engineering and process development testing. A rapid alternative method to determine uranium metal concentrations in sludge also was identified.

  1. In situ chemical characterization of waste sludges using FTIR-based fiber optic sensors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rebagay, T.V.; Dodd, D.A.; Jeppson, D.W.; Lockrem, L.L.; Blewett, G.R.

    1994-02-01

    The characterization of unknown mixed wastes is a mandatory step in today's climate of strict environmental regulations. Cleaning up the nuclear and chemical wastes that have accumulated for 50 years at the Hanford Site is the largest single cleanup task in the United States today. The wastes are stored temporarily in carbon steel single- and double-shell tanks that are buried in tank farms at the Site. In the 1950s, a process to scavenge radioactive cesium and other soluble radionuclides in the wastes was developed to create additional tank space for waste storage. This scavenging process involved treatment of the wastes with alkali cyanoferrates and nickel sulfate to precipitate 137 Cs in the presence of nitrate oxidant. Recent safety issues have focused on the stability of cyanoferrate-bearing wastes with large quantities of nitrates and nitrites. Nitrate has been partially converted to nitrite as a result of radiolysis during more than 35 years of storage. The major safety issue is the possibility of the presence of local hot spots enriched in 137 Cs and 90 Sr that under optimum conditions can self-heat causing dry out and a potential runaway reaction of the cyanoferrates with the nitrates/nitrites). For waste tank safety, accurate data of the concentration and distribution of cyanoferrates in the tanks are needed. Because of the extensive sampling required and the highly restricted activities allowed in the tank farms, simulated tank wastes are used to provide an initial basis for identifying and quantifying realistic concerns prior to waste remediation. Fiber optics provide a tool for the remote and in situ characterization of hazardous and toxic materials. This study is focused on near-infrared (NIR) and mid-infrared (MIR) fiber optic sensors for in situ chemical characterization of Hanford Site waste sludges

  2. Filtration Characterization Method as Tool to Assess Membrane Bioreactor Sludge Filterability—The Delft Experience

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Lousada-Ferreira

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Prevention and removal of fouling is often the most energy intensive process in Membrane Bioreactors (MBRs, responsible for 40% to 50% of the total specific energy consumed in submerged MBRs. In the past decade, methods were developed to quantify and qualify fouling, aiming to support optimization in MBR operation. Therefore, there is a need for an evaluation of the lessons learned and how to proceed. In this article, five different methods for measuring MBR activated sludge filterability and critical flux are described, commented and evaluated. Both parameters characterize the fouling potential in full-scale MBRs. The article focuses on the Delft Filtration Characterization method (DFCm as a convenient tool to characterize sludge properties, namely on data processing, accuracy, reproducibility, reliability, and applicability, defining the boundaries of the DFCm. Significant progress was made concerning fouling measurements in particular by using straight forward approaches focusing on the applicability of the obtained results. Nevertheless, a fouling measurement method is still to be defined which is capable of being unequivocal, concerning the fouling parameters definitions; practical and simple, in terms of set-up and operation; broad and useful, in terms of obtained results. A step forward would be the standardization of the aforementioned method to assess the sludge filtration quality.

  3. Easy and fast extraction methods to determine organochlorine pesticides in sewage sludge, soil, and water samples based at low temperature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mesquita, Tayane C R; Santos, Rizia R; Cacique, Ane P; De Sá, Ludimara J; Silvério, Flaviano O; Pinho, Gevany P

    2018-03-04

    Organochlorine pesticides present in sewage sludge can contaminate soil and water when they are used as either fertilizer or agricultural soil conditioner. In this study, the technique solid-liquid extraction with low temperature purification was optimized and validated for determination of ten organochlorine pesticides in sewage sludge and soil samples. Liquid-liquid extraction with low temperature purification was also validated for the same compounds in water. Analyses were performed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry operating in the selective ion monitoring mode. After optimization, the methods showed recoveries between 70% and 115% with relative standard deviation lower than 13% for all target analytes in the three matrices. The linearity was demonstrated in the range of 20 to 70 µg L -1 , 0.5 to 60 µg L -1 , and 3 to 13 µg L -1 , for sludge, soil, and acetonitrile, respectively. The limit of quantification ranged between 2 and 40 µg kg -1 , 1 and 6 µg kg -1 , and 0.5 µg L -1 for sludge, soil, and water, respectively. The methods were used in the study of pesticide lixiviation carried out in a poly vinyl chlorine column filled with soil, which had its surface layer mixed with sludge. The results showed that pesticides are not leached into soil, part of them is adsorbed by the sewage sludge (4-40%), and most pesticides are lost by volatilization.

  4. Data quality objectives for sampling of sludge from the K West and K East Basin floor and from other Basin areas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    MAKENAS, B.J.

    1998-01-01

    This document addresses the characterization strategy for those types of sludge not previously characterized or discussed in previous DQO documents. It seeks to ascertain those characteristics of uncharacterized Sludge which are unique with respect to the properties already determined for canister and K East Basin floor Sludge. Also recent decisions have resulted in the need for treatment of the Sludge prior to its currently identified disposal path to the Hanford waste tanks. This has resulted in a need for process development testing for the treatment system development

  5. Plan for characterization of K Basin spent nuclear fuel and sludge

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lawrence, L.A.; Marschman, S.C.

    1995-06-01

    This plan outlines a characterization program that supports the accelerated Path Forward scope and schedules for the Spent Nuclear Fuel stored in the Hanford K Basins. This plan is driven by the schedule to begin fuel transfer by December 1997. The program is structured for 4 years and is limited to in-situ and laboratory examinations of the spent nuclear fuel and sludge in the K East and K West Basins. The program provides bounding behavior of the fuel, and verification and acceptability for three different sludge disposal pathways. Fuel examinations are based on two shipping campaigns for the K West Basin and one from the K East Basin. Laboratory examinations include physical condition, hydride and oxide content, conditioning testing, and dry storage behavior

  6. Characterization of the heterotrophic biomass and the endogenous residue of activated sludge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramdani, Abdellah; Dold, Peter; Gadbois, Alain; Déléris, Stéphane; Houweling, Dwight; Comeau, Yves

    2012-03-01

    The activated sludge process generates an endogenous residue (X(E)) as a result of heterotrophic biomass decay (X(H)). A literature review yielded limited information on the differences between X(E) and X(H) in terms of chemical composition and content of extracellular polymeric substances (EPS). The objective of this project was to characterize the chemical composition (x, y, z, a, b and c in C(x)H(y)O(z)N(a)P(b)S(c)) of the endogenous and the active fractions and EPS of activated sludge from well designed experiments. To isolate X(H) and X(E) in this study, activated sludge was generated in a 200L pilot-scale aerobic membrane bioreactor (MBR) fed with a soluble and completely biodegradable synthetic influent of sodium acetate as the sole carbon source. This influent, which contained no influent unbiodegradable organic or inorganic particulate matter, allowed the generation of a sludge composed essentially of two fractions: heterotrophic biomass X(H) and an endogenous residue X(E), the nitrifying biomass being negligible. The endogenous decay rate and the active biomass fraction of the MBR sludge were determined in 21-day aerobic digestion batch tests by monitoring the VSS and OUR responses. Fractions of X(H) and X(E) were respectively 68% and 32% in run 1 (MBR at 5.2 day SRT) and 59% and 41% in run 2 (MBR at 10.4 day SRT). The endogenous residue was isolated by subjecting the MBR sludge to prolonged aerobic batch digestion for 3 weeks, and was characterized in terms of (a) elemental analysis for carbon, nitrogen, phosphorus and sulphur; and (b) content of EPS. The MBR sludge was characterized using the same procedures (a and b). Knowing the proportions of X(H) and X(E) in this sludge, it was possible to characterize X(H) by back calculation. Results from this investigation showed that the endogenous residue had a chemical composition different from that of the active biomass with a lower content of inorganic matter (1:4.2), of nitrogen (1:2.9), of phosphorus (1

  7. Characterization of Hanford K basin spent nuclear fuel and sludge

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lawrence, L.A.

    1996-01-01

    A characterization plan was prepared to support the Integrated Process Strategy (IPS) for resolution of the safety and environmental concerns associated with the deteriorating Spent Nuclear Fuel (SNF) stored in the Hanford Site K Basins. This plan provides the structure and logic and identifies the information needs to be supported by the characterization activities. The IPS involves removal of the fuel elements from the storage canister and placing them in a container, i.e., Multiple Canister Overpack (MCO) capable of holding multiple tiers of baskets full of fuel. The MCOs will be vacuum dried to remove free water and shipped to the Container Storage Building (CSB) where they will be staged waiting for hot vacuum conditioning. The MCO will be placed in interim storage in the CSB following conditioning and disposition

  8. Protein corona between nanoparticles and bacterial proteins in activated sludge: Characterization and effect on nanoparticle aggregation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Peng; Xu, Xiao-Yan; Chen, You-Peng; Xiao, Meng-Qian; Feng, Bo; Tian, Kai-Xun; Chen, Yue-Hui; Dai, You-Zhi

    2018-02-01

    In this work, the protein coronas of activated sludge proteins on TiO 2 nanoparticles (TNPs) and ZnO nanoparticles (ZNPs) were characterized. The proteins with high affinity to TNPs and ZNPs were identified by shotgun proteomics, and their effects of on the distributions of TNPs and ZNPs in activated sludge were concluded. In addition, the effects of protein coronas on the aggregations of TNPs and ZNPs were evaluated. Thirty and nine proteins with high affinities to TNPs and ZNPs were identified, respectively. The proteomics and adsorption isotherms demonstrated that activated sludge had a higher affinity to TNPs than to ZNPs. The aggregation percentages of ZNPs at 35, 53, and 106 mg/L of proteins were 13%, 14%, and 18%, respectively, whereas those of TNPs were 21%, 30%, 41%, respectively. The proteins contributed to ZNPs aggregation by dissolved Zn ion-bridging, whereas the increasing protein concentrations enhanced the TNPs aggregation through macromolecule bridging flocculation. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. EDXRF applied to the chemical characterization of domestic and industrial sludges

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Silva, Gleyce Kelly A. da; Dutra, Emmanuel Damiliano; França, Elvis J. de

    2017-01-01

    The Energy Dispersion X-ray Fluorescence – EDXRF is a low-cost, fast, non-destructible analytical technique, useful for analyzing diverse geological samples. The determination of chemical elements by EDXRF in solid urban wastes is economic and operationally feasible, since the concentration of many heavy metals can be easily monitored. Besides, chemical elements as aluminum and some minerals that compose important natural cycles add valuable information for deciding the final destination of these wastes. The objective of this work was the obtaining the analytical curves for quantifying chemical elements by EDXRF in sewage sludge. For this, analytical portions (1 g) of the certified reference materials SRM 2781 Domestic Sludge and SRM 2782 Industrial Sludge produced by the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) were transferred to polyethylene tubes and sealed at the top and bottom with polypropylene film specific for EDXRF analysis. Exactly 500 mg of each of the above SRMs were mixed by means of a ball mill for composing the SRM MIX, also analyzed for obtaining the analytical curves. All samples were analyzed in an atmosphere close to the vacuum (less than 30 Pa), with dead time less than 35%. For Al, As, Cu, Fe, K, Ni, Pb, Si, Ti and Zn, linear regressions have been fitted with respective linear coefficients higher than 0.95. To evaluate the quality of the analytical procedure, an independent test portion of the reference material SRM 2781 Sludge Domestic was used, calculating the Number En obtaining values between -1 and 1, range considered adequate for the quality assurance at the 95% confidence level. (author)

  10. EDXRF applied to the chemical characterization of domestic and industrial sludges

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silva, Gleyce Kelly A. da; Dutra, Emmanuel Damiliano, E-mail: gleyce_kelly990@hotmail.com, E-mail: emmanuel.dutra@ufpe.br [Universidade Federal de Pernambuco (UFPE), Recife, PE (Brazil); França, Elvis J. de, E-mail: ejfranca@cnen.gov.br [Centro Regional de Ciências Nucleares do Nordeste (CRCN-NE/CNEN-PE), Recife, PE (Brazil)

    2017-07-01

    The Energy Dispersion X-ray Fluorescence – EDXRF is a low-cost, fast, non-destructible analytical technique, useful for analyzing diverse geological samples. The determination of chemical elements by EDXRF in solid urban wastes is economic and operationally feasible, since the concentration of many heavy metals can be easily monitored. Besides, chemical elements as aluminum and some minerals that compose important natural cycles add valuable information for deciding the final destination of these wastes. The objective of this work was the obtaining the analytical curves for quantifying chemical elements by EDXRF in sewage sludge. For this, analytical portions (1 g) of the certified reference materials SRM 2781 Domestic Sludge and SRM 2782 Industrial Sludge produced by the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) were transferred to polyethylene tubes and sealed at the top and bottom with polypropylene film specific for EDXRF analysis. Exactly 500 mg of each of the above SRMs were mixed by means of a ball mill for composing the SRM MIX, also analyzed for obtaining the analytical curves. All samples were analyzed in an atmosphere close to the vacuum (less than 30 Pa), with dead time less than 35%. For Al, As, Cu, Fe, K, Ni, Pb, Si, Ti and Zn, linear regressions have been fitted with respective linear coefficients higher than 0.95. To evaluate the quality of the analytical procedure, an independent test portion of the reference material SRM 2781 Sludge Domestic was used, calculating the Number En obtaining values between -1 and 1, range considered adequate for the quality assurance at the 95% confidence level. (author)

  11. Characterization of the March 2017 Tank 15 Waste Removal Slurry Sample (Combination of Slurry Samples HTF-15-17-28 and HTF-15-17-29)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reboul, S. H. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); King, W. D. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); Coleman, C. J. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL)

    2017-05-09

    Two March 2017 Tank 15 slurry samples (HTF-15-17-28 and HTF-15-17-29) were collected during the second bulk waste removal campaign and submitted to SRNL for characterization. At SRNL, the two samples were combined and then characterized by a series of physical, elemental, radiological, and ionic analysis methods. Sludge settling as a function of time was also quantified. The characterization results reported in this document are consistent with expectations based upon waste type, process knowledge, comparisons between alternate analysis techniques, and comparisons with the characterization results obtained for the November 2016 Tank 15 slurry sample (the sample collected during the first bulk waste removal campaign).

  12. 226Ra and 228Ra in scale and sludge samples and their correlation with the chemical composition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Godoy, José Marcus; da Cruz, Rosana Petinatti

    2003-01-01

    In order to contribute to a future waste management policy related to the presence of technologically enhanced natural occurring radioactive material (TENORM) in the Brazilian petroleum industry, the present work presents the chemical composition and the (226)Ra and (228)Ra content of sludge and scales generated during the offshore E and P petroleum activities in the Campos Basin, the primary offshore oil production region in Brazil. The (226)Ra and (228)Ra content on 36 sludge and scales samples were determined by gamma-spectrometry. Based on X-ray diffractometry results, a chemical analysis schema for these samples was developed. The results have shown that scales are 75% barium and strontium sulfates, with a mean (226)Ra and (228)Ra content of 106 kBq kg(-1) and 78 kBq kg(-1), respectively. On the other hand, sludge samples have a much more complex chemical composition than the scales. The (226)Ra and (228)Ra content in sludge also varies much more than the content observed in the scales samples and ranged from 0.36 to 367 kBq kg(-1) and 0.25 to 343 kBq kg(-1), respectively.

  13. Waste tank characterization sampling limits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tusler, L.A.

    1994-01-01

    This document is a result of the Plant Implementation Team Investigation into delayed reporting of the exotherm in Tank 241-T-111 waste samples. The corrective actions identified are to have immediate notification of appropriate Tank Farm Operations Shift Management if analyses with potential safety impact exceed established levels. A procedure, WHC-IP-0842 Section 12.18, ''TWRS Approved Sampling and Data Analysis by Designated Laboratories'' (WHC 1994), has been established to require all tank waste sampling (including core, auger and supernate) and tank vapor samples be performed using this document. This document establishes levels for specified analysis that require notification of the appropriate shift manager. The following categories provide numerical values for analysis that may indicate that a tank is either outside the operating specification or should be evaluated for inclusion on a Watch List. The information given is intended to translate an operating limit such as heat load, expressed in Btu/hour, to an analysis related limit, in this case cesium-137 and strontium-90 concentrations. By using the values provided as safety flags, the analytical laboratory personnel can notify a shift manager that a tank is in potential violation of an operating limit or that a tank should be considered for inclusion on a Watch List. The shift manager can then take appropriate interim measures until a final determination is made by engineering personnel

  14. Spectroscopic characterization of digestates obtained from sludge mixed to increasing amounts of fruit and vegetable wastes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Provenzano, Maria Rosaria; Cavallo, Ornella; Malerba, Anna Daniela; Di Maria, Francesco; Ricci, Anna; Gigliotti, Giovanni

    2015-04-01

    Anaerobic digestion (AD) represents an efficient waste-treatment technology during which microorganisms break down biodegradable material in absence of oxygen yielding a biogas containing methane. The aim of this work was to investigate the transformations occurring in the organic matter during the co-digestion of waste mixed sludge (WMS) with an increasing amount of fruit and vegetable wastes (FVW) in a pilot scale apparatus reproducing a full-scale digester in an existing wastewater treatment plant. Samples comprised: sludge, FVW, sludge mixed with 10-20-30-40% FVW. Ingestates and digestates were analyzed by means of emission fluorescence spectroscopy and FTIR associated to Fourier self deconvolution (FSD) of spectra. With increasing the amount of FVW from 10% to 20% at which percentage biogas production reached the maximum value, FTIR spectra and FSD traces of digestates exhibited a decrease of intensity of peaks assigned to polysaccharides and aliphatics and an increase of peak assigned to aromatics as a result of the biodegradation of rapidly degradable materials and concentration of aromatic recalcitrant compounds. Digestates with 30 and 40% FVW exhibited a relative increase of intensity of peaks assigned to aliphatics likely as a result of the increasing amount of rapidly degradable materials and the consequent reduction of the hydraulic retention time. This may cause inhibition of methanogenesis and accumulation of volatile fatty acids. The highest emission fluorescence intensity was observed for the digestate with 20% FVW confirming the concentration of aromatic recalcitrant compounds in the substrate obtained at the highest biogas production.

  15. Characterization of cutting soda-lime glass sludge for the formulation of red ceramic products

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Filogonio, P.H.C.; Reis, A.S.; Louzada, D.M.; Della, V.P.

    2014-01-01

    Considering previous works that have demonstrated the feasibility of soda-lime glass incorporation into red ceramics, this paper aims to determine the potential for incorporation of cutting soda-lime glass sludge in red ceramic manufacturing. Therefore, the waste was characterized by X-ray fluorescence, X-ray diffraction, particle size distribution and thermal behavior. The results confirm the chemical and mineralogical similarity between waste and soda-lime glass. Because of this similarity, it is concluded that the soda-lime glass waste has the capability to be used in the manufacturing of red ceramics. (author)

  16. Sludge characterization and treatment of produced water(PW using Tympanotonos Fuscatus coagulant (TFC

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthew C. Menkiti

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available This study investigated coag-flocculation (using TFC of PW and characterization of the post treatment settled sludge (PTSS. Effects of dosage, pH and settling time on treatment efficiency were evaluated. TFC and PTSS were subjected to Fourier transform infrared (FTIR, X–ray diffraction (XRD, Thermogravimetric/Differential scanning calorimetric and Scanning electron microscopic (SEM/Elemental analyses. Optimal treatment efficiency of 91.5% was obtained at 1 g/L and pH 2. It could be concluded that TFC was thermally stable and has potential for application as an effective bio-coagulant.

  17. Rheological Characterization of Unusual DWPF Slurry Samples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koopman, D. C.

    2005-01-01

    A study was undertaken to identify and clarify examples of unusual rheological behavior in Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) simulant slurry samples. Identification was accomplished by reviewing sludge, Sludge Receipt and Adjustment Tank (SRAT) product, and Slurry Mix Evaporator (SME) product simulant rheological results from the prior year. Clarification of unusual rheological behavior was achieved by developing and implementing new measurement techniques. Development of these new methods is covered in a separate report, WSRC-TR-2004-00334. This report includes a review of recent literature on unusual rheological behavior, followed by a summary of the rheological measurement results obtained on a set of unusual simulant samples. Shifts in rheological behavior of slurries as the wt. % total solids changed have been observed in numerous systems. The main finding of the experimental work was that the various unusual DWPF simulant slurry samples exhibit some degree of time dependent behavior. When a given shear rate is applied to a sample, the apparent viscosity of the slurry changes with time rather than remaining constant. These unusual simulant samples are more rheologically complex than Newtonian liquids or more simple slurries, neither of which shows significant time dependence. The study concludes that the unusual rheological behavior that has been observed is being caused by time dependent rheological properties in the slurries being measured. Most of the changes are due to the effect of time under shear, but SB3 SME products were also changing properties while stored in sample bottles. The most likely source of this shear-related time dependence for sludge is in the simulant preparation. More than a single source of time dependence was inferred for the simulant SME product slurries based on the range of phenomena observed. Rheological property changes were observed on the time-scale of a single measurement (minutes) as well as on a time scale of hours

  18. Synthesis, characterization, and secondary sludge dewatering performance of a novel combined silicon–aluminum–iron–starch flocculant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lin, Qintie, E-mail: qintlin@163.com; Peng, Huanlong; Zhong, Songxiong; Xiang, Jiangxin

    2015-03-21

    Highlights: • Silicon, aluminum, and iron were grafted onto starch chains to synthesize CSiAFS. • The sludge dewatering performance of CSiAFS was superior to PAC, PAM, and FeCl{sub 3}. • CSiAFS exhibited a good dewatering efficiency over a wide range of pH (3.0–11.0). • CSiAFS had a discontinuous surface with channels which helped to sludge dewatering. - Abstract: Flocculation is one of the most widely used cost-effective pretreatment method for sludge dewatering, and a novel environmentally friendly and efficient flocculant is highly desired in the sludge dewatering field. In this study, a novel combined silicon–aluminum–ferric–starch was synthesized by grafting silicon, aluminum, and iron onto a starch backbone. The synthesized starch flocculant was characterized using Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), scanning electron microscopy, X-ray powder diffraction, and thermogravimetric analysis. The dewatering performance of secondary sludge was evaluated according to the capillary suction time, settling volume percentage, and specific resistance to filtration. The results indicated that the copolymer exhibited: (1) a good dewatering efficiency over a wide pH range of 3.0–11.0, (2) superior sludge dewatering performance compared to those of polyaluminum chloride (PACl), polyacrylamide (PAM), ferric chloride, and (3) a discontinuous surface with many channels or voids that helps to mobilize the impermeable thin layer of secondary sludge during filter pressing. Such a novel copolymer is a promising green flocculant for secondary sludge dewatering applications.

  19. Monitoring of total metal concentration in sludge samples: Case study for the mechanical–biological wastewater treatment plant in Velika Gorica, Croatia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Filipović, Josip; Grčić, Ivana; Bermanec, Vladimir; Kniewald, Goran

    2013-01-01

    In this paper, monitoring of total metal concentration in sludge samples from wastewater treatment process is elaborated. The presented results summarize the analyses of sludge samples in a period from 2008 to 2012. Possible sources of pollutions are given. Primarily, waste solid samples were collected from different pretreatment steps: (A) coarse grid, (B) fine grid and (C) aerated sand grease grid. Samples of A and B followed a repeatable pattern in 2008 and 2010. According to the results from 2008, samples of C contained measurable concentration of the following metals (mg/kg dry matter): Zn (21), Ni (1.05) and Ba (14.9). Several types of sludge samples were analyzed: fresh raw sludge (PS; 6–12 hour old), the sludge from the digester for anaerobic sludge treatment (DS; 48–72 hour old), samples from lagoons where the sludge is temporarily deposited (DOS and DOSold; 30–120 days) and sludge samples from agricultural areas (AA; aged over 180 days). Additionally, samples of dehydrated sludge (DEHS and DEHSold; 90–180 days) were collected upon construction of equipment for sludge dehydration in 2011. An analysis of total metal concentrations for Cu, Zn, Cr, Pb, Ni, Hg, Cd, Ba, As, Se, Sb, Co, Mo, Fe and Mn was performed by flame atomic absorption spectrometry (FAAS) and inductively coupled plasma-optical emission spectrometry (ICP-OES). The most recent results (year 2011) indicated a high concentration of heavy metals in PS samples, exceeding the MCLs (mg/kg dry matter): Cu (2122), Zn (5945), Hg (13.67) and Cd (6.29). In 2012 (until July), only a concentration of Cu exceeded MCL (928.75 and 1230.5 in DS and DEHS, respectively). A composition of sludge was variable through time, offering the limited possibility for future prediction. The sludge is being considered as a hazardous waste and a subject of discussion regarding disposal. - Highlights: ► Summarized 5-year monitoring data for heavy metals in sludge ► Partially determined sources of pollution by

  20. Monitoring of total metal concentration in sludge samples: Case study for the mechanical–biological wastewater treatment plant in Velika Gorica, Croatia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Filipović, Josip [Town Office for Physical Planning and Environmental Protection, Velika Gorica County, Trg kralja Tomislava 34, 10410 Velika Gorica (Croatia); Grčić, Ivana, E-mail: igrcic@fkit.hr [Faculty of Chemical Engineering and Technology, University of Zagreb Marulićev trg 19, 10000 Zagreb (Croatia); Bermanec, Vladimir [Institute of Mineralogy and Petrology, Faculty of Science, University of Zagreb, Horvatovac bb, 10000 Zagreb (Croatia); Kniewald, Goran [Division for Marine and Environmental Research, Ruđer Bošković Institute, Bijenička 54, 10000 Zagreb (Croatia)

    2013-03-01

    In this paper, monitoring of total metal concentration in sludge samples from wastewater treatment process is elaborated. The presented results summarize the analyses of sludge samples in a period from 2008 to 2012. Possible sources of pollutions are given. Primarily, waste solid samples were collected from different pretreatment steps: (A) coarse grid, (B) fine grid and (C) aerated sand grease grid. Samples of A and B followed a repeatable pattern in 2008 and 2010. According to the results from 2008, samples of C contained measurable concentration of the following metals (mg/kg dry matter): Zn (21), Ni (1.05) and Ba (14.9). Several types of sludge samples were analyzed: fresh raw sludge (PS; 6–12 hour old), the sludge from the digester for anaerobic sludge treatment (DS; 48–72 hour old), samples from lagoons where the sludge is temporarily deposited (DOS and DOSold; 30–120 days) and sludge samples from agricultural areas (AA; aged over 180 days). Additionally, samples of dehydrated sludge (DEHS and DEHSold; 90–180 days) were collected upon construction of equipment for sludge dehydration in 2011. An analysis of total metal concentrations for Cu, Zn, Cr, Pb, Ni, Hg, Cd, Ba, As, Se, Sb, Co, Mo, Fe and Mn was performed by flame atomic absorption spectrometry (FAAS) and inductively coupled plasma-optical emission spectrometry (ICP-OES). The most recent results (year 2011) indicated a high concentration of heavy metals in PS samples, exceeding the MCLs (mg/kg dry matter): Cu (2122), Zn (5945), Hg (13.67) and Cd (6.29). In 2012 (until July), only a concentration of Cu exceeded MCL (928.75 and 1230.5 in DS and DEHS, respectively). A composition of sludge was variable through time, offering the limited possibility for future prediction. The sludge is being considered as a hazardous waste and a subject of discussion regarding disposal. - Highlights: ► Summarized 5-year monitoring data for heavy metals in sludge ► Partially determined sources of pollution by

  1. Physical sampling for site and waste characterization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bonnough, T.L.

    1994-01-01

    Physical sampling plays a basic role in site and waste characterization program effort. The term ''physical sampling'' used here means collecting tangible, physical samples of soil, water, air, waste streams, or other materials. The industry defines the term ''physical sampling'' broadly to include measurements of physical conditions such as temperature, wind conditions, and pH which are also often taken in a sample collection effort. Most environmental compliance actions are supported by the results of taking, recording, and analyzing physical samples and the measuring of physical conditions taken in association with sample collecting

  2. Equilibrium sampling reveals increasing thermodynamic potential of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons during sewage sludge digestion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sjøholm, Karina Knudsmark; Nørgaard Schmidt, Stine; Jahnke, Annika

    2018-01-01

    The reuse of digested sludge from wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) as soil fertilizer poses a risk for contamination of soil and water environments. The present study provides a new approach for investigating the exposure of hydrophobic organic chemicals in sewage sludge. The methodology...... (Cfree). The PAHs with logKow > 6 had ARs close to 1.3, whereas PAHs with logKow sediment....

  3. Basic and acidic leaching of Melton Valley Storage Tank sludge at Oak Ridge National Laboratory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Collins, J.L.; Egan, B.Z.; Beahm, E.C.

    1995-01-01

    Basic and acidic leaching tests were conducted with samples of sludge taken from an underground storage tank at the US Department of Energy Melton Valley Storage Tank facility at Oak Ridge National Laboratory. The tests evaluated separation technologies for use in sludge processing to concentrate the radionuclides and reduce the volumes of storage tank waste for final disposal. Study results of sludge characterization, caustic leaching of sludge samples at ambient temperature and at 95 degrees C, and acid leaching of sludge samples at ambient temperature are reported in detail

  4. Characterization of the In Situ Ecophysiology of Novel Phylotypes in Nutrient Removal Activated Sludge Treatment Plants.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simon Jon McIlroy

    Full Text Available An in depth understanding of the ecology of activated sludge nutrient removal wastewater treatment systems requires detailed knowledge of the community composition and metabolic activities of individual members. Recent 16S rRNA gene amplicon surveys of activated sludge wastewater treatment plants with nutrient removal indicate the presence of a core set of bacterial genera. These organisms are likely responsible for the bulk of nutrient transformations underpinning the functions of these plants. While the basic activities of some of these genera in situ are known, there is little to no information for the majority. This study applied microautoradiography coupled with fluorescence in situ hybridization (MAR-FISH for the in situ characterization of selected genus-level-phylotypes for which limited physiological information is available. These included Sulfuritalea and A21b, both within the class Betaproteobacteria, as well as Kaga01, within sub-group 10 of the phylum Acidobacteria. While the Sulfuritalea spp. were observed to be metabolically versatile, the A21b and Kaga01 phylotypes appeared to be highly specialized.

  5. Characterization and evaluation of potential reuse options for wastewater sludge and combined sewer system sediments in Mexico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jimenez, B.; Mendez, J.M.; Barrios, J.A.; Salgado, G.; Sheinbaum, C.

    2003-07-01

    Combined sewer systems generate sediments that have characteristics similar to those of primary sludge. Mexico City has such a system composed of a network of pipes, regulation structures (dams, basins) and open channels. The annual generation of sediments is estimated in 2.8 Mm{sup 3}, which includes 0.41 Mm{sup 3} of sludge. As a result, the total capacity for transporting water is reduced considerably, making necessary to extract yearly an approximate 0.85 Mm{sup 3} of those materials and to send them to a final disposal site with a capacity that is being exhausted. As part of the local Governmental effort, this project evaluates the quality of sediments from 6 dams, 4 regulation basins, 2 open channels, and 3 transfer stations. Also, sludge from 20 wastewater treatment plants was sampled. The results showed an important presence of lead and hydrocarbons in some sediments, and some sludge samples contained arsenic and nickel above the limits. Moreover, microbial levels exceeded the limits in all the sediments and sludge samples. Erosion was linked to the generation of an important amount of sediments based on lead concentration. A classification was established to determine the degree of contamination of the sediments as well as the required treatment to allow their potential reuse. (author)

  6. Characterization of the insoluble sludge from the dissolution of irradiated fast breeder reactor fuel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aihara, Haruka; Arai, Yoichi; Shibata, Atsuhiro; Nomura, K.; Takeuchi, M. [Japan Atomic Energy Agency - JAEA, 4-33 Muramatsu, Tokai-mura, Naka-gun, Ibaraki, 319-1194 (Japan)

    2016-07-01

    Insoluble sludge is generated in the reprocessing of spent fuel. The sludge obtained from the dissolution of irradiated fuel from the Joyo experimental fast reactor was analyzed to evaluate its chemical form. The sludge was collected by the filtration of the dissolved fuel solution, and then washed in nitric acid. The yields of the sludge weight were less than 1% of the total fuel weight. The chemical composition of the sludge was analyzed after decomposition by alkaline fusion. Molybdenum, technetium, ruthenium, rhodium, and palladium were found to be the main constituent elements of the sludge. X-ray diffraction patterns of the sludge were attributable to Mo{sub 4}Ru{sub 4}RhPd, regardless of the experimental conditions. The concentrations of molybdenum and zirconium in the dissolved fast reactor fuel solutions were low, indicating that zirconium molybdate hydrate (ZMH) is produced in negligible amounts in the process. (authors)

  7. XRF and leaching characterization of waste glasses derived from wastewater treatment sludges

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ragsdale, R.G., Jr.

    1994-12-01

    Purpose of this study was to investigate use of XRF (x-ray fluorescence spectrometry) as a near real-time method to determine melter glass compositions. A range of glasses derived from wastewater treatment sludges associated with DOE sites was prepared. They were analyzed by XRF and wet chemistry digestion with atomic absorption/inductively coupled emission spectrometry. Results indicated good correlation between these two methods. A rapid sample preparation and analysis technique was developed and demonstrated by acquiring a sample from a pilot-scale simulated waste glass melter and analyzing it by XRF within one hour. From the results, XRF shows excellent potential as a process control tool for waste glass vitrification. Glasses prepared for this study were further analyzed for durability by toxicity characteristic leaching procedure and product consistency test and results are presented

  8. Caracterização ambiental de lamas de beneficiamento de rochas ornamentais Environmental characterization of processing sludge of ornamental stones

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Florindo dos Santos Braga

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available As lamas de beneficiamento de rochas ornamentais (LBRO são resíduos que apresentam composição química variada em função da composição das rochas, do processo de beneficiamento, dos processos de reaproveitamento de águas e lamas, das propriedades dos insumos, entre outros fatores. A caracterização e classificação das LBRO são de grande importância, principalmente para o Estado do Espírito Santo, por possuir um expressivo número de empresas do setor. Neste trabalho, são apresentados os resultados de caracterização e classificação de lamas de desdobramento e polimento de mármores e granitos, segundo a NBR 10004/2004. Todas as amostras de lamas de tear convencional e de politriz analisadas foram classificadas como Classe IIA. Percebeu-se que a identificação dos resíduos por fonte geradora permite a proposição de tecnologias limpas, como o uso de teares a fio diamantado que utilizam o mínimo de insumos e de pastilhas diamantadas metálicas isentas de elementos tóxicos, contribuindo para a melhoria das características químicas das LBRO.The sludges produced in the cutting and polishing of ornamental stones are residues with diverse chemical composition that depend on the composition of the stones, the cutting and polishing process, the processes involved in the recycling of water and sludges, among others. The characterization and classification of these resulting sludges have great importance, especially for the State of Espírito Santo, Brazil, which is an important producer of ornamental stones. In this work, the results of characterization and classification of developmental and polishing sludges were presented, according to the Brazilian standard NBR 10004/2004. All the sludge samples from the cutting and polishing equipment were classified as Class IIA. We observed that the identification of the residues according to the generation source allows the proposition of clean technologies usage, such as cutting

  9. Isolation and Characterization of Polyacrylamide-Degrading Bacteria from Dewatered Sludge

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Feng Yu

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Polyacrylamide (PAM is a water-soluble polymer that is widely used as a flocculant in sewage treatment. The accumulation of PAM affects the formation of dewatered sludge and potentially produces hazardous monomers. In the present study, the bacterial strain HI47 was isolated from dewatered sludge. This strain could metabolize PAM as its sole nutrient source and was subsequently identified as Pseudomonas putida. The efficiency of PAM degradation was 31.1% in 7 days and exceeded 45% under optimum culture condition (pH 7.2, 39 °C and 100 rpm. The addition of yeast extract and glucose improved the bacterial growth and PAM degradation. The degraded PAM samples were analyzed by gel-filtration chromatography, Fourier transform infrared and high-performance liquid chromatography. The results showed that high-molecular-weight PAM was partly cleaved to small molecular oligomer derivatives and part of the amide groups of PAM had been converted to carboxyl groups. The biodegradation did not accumulate acrylamide monomers. Based on the SDS-PAGE and N-terminal sequencing results, the PAM amide groups were converted into carboxyl groups by a PAM-induced extracellular enzyme from the aliphatic amidase family.

  10. Isolation and molecular characterization of biofouling bacteria and profiling of quorum sensing signal molecules from membrane bioreactor activated sludge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lade, Harshad; Paul, Diby; Kweon, Ji Hyang

    2014-02-04

    The formation of biofilm in a membrane bioreactor depends on the production of various signaling molecules like N-acyl homoserine lactones (AHLs). In the present study, a total of 200 bacterial strains were isolated from membrane bioreactor activated sludge and screened for AHLs production using two biosensor systems, Chromobacterium violaceum CV026 and Agrobacterium tumefaciens A136. A correlation between AHLs production and biofilm formation has been made among screened AHLs producing strains. The 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis revealed the dominance of Aeromonas and Enterobacter sp. in AHLs production; however few a species of Serratia, Leclercia, Pseudomonas, Klebsiella, Raoultella and Citrobacter were also identified. The chromatographic characterization of sludge extract showed the presence of a broad range of quorum sensing signal molecules. Further identification of sludge AHLs by thin layer chromatography bioassay and high performance liquid chromatography confirms the presence of C4-HSL, C6-HSL, C8-HSL, 3-oxo-C8-HSL, C10-HSL, C12-HSL, 3-oxo-C12-HSL and C14-HSL. The occurrence of AHLs in sludge extract and dominance of Aeromonas and Enterobacter sp. in activated sludge suggests the key role of these bacterial strains in AHLs production and thereby membrane fouling.

  11. Isolation and Molecular Characterization of Biofouling Bacteria and Profiling of Quorum Sensing Signal Molecules from Membrane Bioreactor Activated Sludge

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Harshad Lade

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available The formation of biofilm in a membrane bioreactor depends on the production of various signaling molecules like N-acyl homoserine lactones (AHLs. In the present study, a total of 200 bacterial strains were isolated from membrane bioreactor activated sludge and screened for AHLs production using two biosensor systems, Chromobacterium violaceum CV026 and Agrobacterium tumefaciens A136. A correlation between AHLs production and biofilm formation has been made among screened AHLs producing strains. The 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis revealed the dominance of Aeromonas and Enterobacter sp. in AHLs production; however few a species of Serratia, Leclercia, Pseudomonas, Klebsiella, Raoultella and Citrobacter were also identified. The chromatographic characterization of sludge extract showed the presence of a broad range of quorum sensing signal molecules. Further identification of sludge AHLs by thin layer chromatography bioassay and high performance liquid chromatography confirms the presence of C4-HSL, C6-HSL, C8-HSL, 3-oxo-C8-HSL, C10-HSL, C12-HSL, 3-oxo-C12-HSL and C14-HSL. The occurrence of AHLs in sludge extract and dominance of Aeromonas and Enterobacter sp. in activated sludge suggests the key role of these bacterial strains in AHLs production and thereby membrane fouling.

  12. Uncertainty and sampling issues in tank characterization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liebetrau, A.M.; Pulsipher, B.A.; Kashporenko, D.M.

    1997-06-01

    A defensible characterization strategy must recognize that uncertainties are inherent in any measurement or estimate of interest and must employ statistical methods for quantifying and managing those uncertainties. Estimates of risk and therefore key decisions must incorporate knowledge about uncertainty. This report focuses statistical methods that should be employed to ensure confident decision making and appropriate management of uncertainty. Sampling is a major source of uncertainty that deserves special consideration in the tank characterization strategy. The question of whether sampling will ever provide the reliable information needed to resolve safety issues is explored. The issue of sample representativeness must be resolved before sample information is reliable. Representativeness is a relative term but can be defined in terms of bias and precision. Currently, precision can be quantified and managed through an effective sampling and statistical analysis program. Quantifying bias is more difficult and is not being addressed under the current sampling strategies. Bias could be bounded by (1) employing new sampling methods that can obtain samples from other areas in the tanks, (2) putting in new risers on some worst case tanks and comparing the results from existing risers with new risers, or (3) sampling tanks through risers under which no disturbance or activity has previously occurred. With some bound on bias and estimates of precision, various sampling strategies could be determined and shown to be either cost-effective or infeasible

  13. An international survey of decabromodiphenyl ethane (deBDethane) and decabromodiphenyl ether (decaBDE) in sewage sludge samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ricklund, Niklas; Kierkegaard, Amelie; McLachlan, Michael S

    2008-12-01

    Decabromodiphenyl ethane (deBDethane) is an additive flame retardant marketed as a replacement for decabromodiphenyl ether (decaBDE). The structures of the two chemicals are similar, and hence deBDethane may also become an environmental contaminant of concern. Environmental data on deBDethane are scarce. Since sewage sludge is an early indicator of leakage of these chemicals into the environment, an international survey of deBDethane and decaBDE levels in sludge was conducted. Samples were collected from 42 WWTPs in 12 different countries and analyzed with GC/LRMS. DeBDethane was present in sludge from all countries and may therefore be a worldwide concern. The levels of deBDethane in sludge samples from the Ruhr area of Germany were the highest so far reported in the literature (216 ng g(-1)d.wt.). The [deBDethane]/[decaBDE] quotient for the whole data set ranged from 0.0018 to 0.83. High ratios were found in and around Germany where deBDethane imports are known to have been high and substitution of decaBDE with deBDethane is likely to have occurred. Low ratios were found in the USA and the UK, countries that have traditionally been large users of decaBDE. An estimate of the flux of deBDEthane from the technosphere via WWTPs to the environment within the European Union gave 1.7+/-0.34 mg annually per person. The corresponding value for decaBDE was 41+/-22 mg annually per person.

  14. Tank 40 final sludge batch 9 chemical and fissile radionuclide characterization results

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bannochie, C. J. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); Kubilius, W. P. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); Pareizs, J. M. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL)

    2017-06-26

    A sample of Sludge Batch (SB) 9 was pulled from Tank 40 in order to obtain radionuclide inventory analyses necessary for compliance with the Waste Acceptance Product Specifications (WAPS)i. The SB9 WAPS sample was also analyzed for chemical composition, including noble metals, and fissile constituents, and these results are reported here. These analyses along with the WAPS radionuclide analyses will help define the composition of the sludge in Tank 40 that is fed to the Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) as SB9. At the Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL), the 3-L Tank 40 SB9 sample was transferred from the shipping container into a 4-L high density polyethylene bottle and solids were allowed to settle. Supernate was then siphoned off and circulated through the shipping container to complete the transfer of the sample. Following thorough mixing of the 3-L sample, a 547 g sub-sample was removed. This sub-sample was then utilized for all subsequent slurry sample preparations. Eight separate aliquots of the slurry were digested, four with HNO3/HCl (aqua regiaii) in sealed Teflon® vessels and four with NaOH/Na2O2 (alkali or peroxide fusioniii) using Zr crucibles. Three Analytical Reference Glass – 1iv (ARG-1) standards were digested along with a blank for each preparation. Each aqua regia digestion and blank was diluted to 1:100 with deionized water and submitted to Analytical Development (AD) for inductively coupled plasma – atomic emission spectroscopy (ICP-AES) analysis, inductively coupled plasma – mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) analysis, atomic absorption spectroscopy (AA) for As and Se, and cold vapor atomic absorption spectroscopy (CV-AA) for Hg. Equivalent dilutions of the alkali fusion digestions and blank were submitted to AD for ICP-AES analysis. Tank 40 SB9 supernate was collected from a mixed slurry sample in the SRNL Shielded Cells and submitted to AD for ICP-AES, ion chromatography (IC), total base/free OH-/other base, total inorganic

  15. Characterization program in the framework of the national sewage sludge plan in Spain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lopez Lopez, M. J.

    2009-01-01

    Sewage Sludge is the waste originated from the process of treatment of waste water. Due to the physical-chemical processes involved in the treatment, the sludge tends to concentrate heavy metals and poorly biodegradable trace organic compounds as well as potentially pathogenic organisms (viruses, bacteria, etc.). However, sludge is rich in nutrients such as nitrogen and phosphorous and contains valuable organic matter that is useful when soils are depleted or subject to erosion. (Author)

  16. Solid-phase characterization in flammable-gas-tank sludges by electron microscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, J.; Pederson, L.R.; Qang, L.Q.

    1995-09-01

    The crystallinity, morphology, chemical composition, and crystalline phases of several Tank 241-SY-101 (hereinafter referred to as SY-101) and Tank 241-SY-103 (hereinafter referred to as SY-103) solid samples were studied by transmission electron microscopy (TEM), electron energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDS), and electron diffraction. The main focus is on the identification of aluminum hydroxide thought to be present in these tank samples. Aluminum hydroxide was found in SY-103, but not in SY-101. This difference can be explained by the different OH/Al ratios found in the two tank samples: a high OH/Al ratio in SY-101 favors the formation of sodium aluminate, but a low OH/Al ratio in SY-103 favors aluminum hydroxide. These results were confirmed by a magnetic resonance study on SY-101 and SY-103 simulant. The transition from aluminum hydroxide to sodium aluminate occurs at an OH/Al molar ratio of 3.6. It is believed that the study of Al(OH) 3 was not affected by sample preparation because all Al(OH) 3 is in the solid form according to the NMR experiments. There is no Al(OH) 3 in the liquid. It is, therefore, most likely that the observation of Al(OH) 3 is representative of the real sludge sample, and is not affected by drying. Similar conclusions also apply to other insoluble phases such as iron and chromium

  17. Microbiological characterization and specific methanogenic activity of anaerobe sludges used in urban solid waste treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sandoval Lozano, Claudia Johanna; Vergara Mendoza, Marisol; Carreno de Arango, Mariela; Castillo Monroy, Edgar Fernando

    2009-01-01

    This study presents the microbiological characterization of the anaerobic sludge used in a two-stage anaerobic reactor for the treatment of organic fraction of urban solid waste (OFUSW). This treatment is one alternative for reducing solid waste in landfills at the same time producing a biogas (CH 4 and CO 2 ) and an effluent that can be used as biofertilizer. The system was inoculated with sludge from a wastewater treatment plant (WWTP) (Rio Frio Plant in Bucaramanga-Colombia) and a methanogenic anaerobic digester for the treatment of pig manure (Mesa de los Santos in Santander). Bacterial populations were evaluated by counting groups related to oxygen sensitivity, while metabolic groups were determined by most probable number (MPN) technique. Specific methanogenic activity (SMA) for acetate, formate, methanol and ethanol substrates was also determined. In the acidogenic reactor (R1), volatile fatty acids (VFA) reached values of 25,000 mg L -1 and a concentration of CO 2 of 90%. In this reactor, the fermentative population was predominant (10 5 -10 6 MPN mL -1 ). The acetogenic population was (10 5 MPN mL -1 ) and the sulphate-reducing population was (10 4 -10 5 MPN mL -1 ). In the methanogenic reactor (R2), levels of CH 4 (70%) were higher than CO 2 (25%), whereas the VFA values were lower than 4000 mg L -1 . Substrate competition between sulphate-reducing (10 4 -10 5 MPN mL -1 ) and methanogenic bacteria (10 5 MPN mL -1 ) was not detected. From the SMA results obtained, acetoclastic (2.39 g COD-CH 4 g -1 VSS -1 day -1 ) and hydrogenophilic (0.94 g COD-CH 4 g -1 VSS -1 day -1 ) transformations as possible metabolic pathways used by methanogenic bacteria is suggested from the SMA results obtained. Methanotrix sp., Methanosarcina sp., Methanoccocus sp. and Methanobacterium sp. were identified

  18. Determination of insoluble soap in agricultural soil and sewage sludge samples by liquid chromatography with ultraviolet detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cantarero, Samuel; Zafra-Gómez, Alberto; Ballesteros, Oscar; Navalón, Alberto; Vílchez, José L; Crovetto, Guillermo; Verge, Coral; de Ferrer, Juan A

    2010-11-01

    We have developed a new analytical procedure for determining insoluble Ca and Mg fatty acid salts (soaps) in agricultural soil and sewage sludge samples. The number of analytical methodologies that focus in the determination of insoluble soap salts in different environmental compartments is very limited. In this work, we propose a methodology that involves a sample clean-up step with petroleum ether to remove soluble salts and a conversion of Ca and Mg insoluble salts into soluble potassium salts using tripotassium ethylenediaminetetraacetate salt and potassium carbonate, followed by the extraction of analytes from the samples using microwave-assisted extraction with methanol. An improved esterification procedure using 2,4-dibromoacetophenone before the liquid chromatography with ultraviolet detection analysis also has been developed. The absence of matrix effect was demonstrated with two fatty acid Ca salts that are not commercial and are never detected in natural samples (C₁₃:₀ and C₁₇:₀). Therefore, it was possible to evaluate the matrix effect because both standards have similar environmental behavior (adsorption and precipitation) to commercial soaps (C₁₀:₀) to C₁₈:₀). We also studied the effect of the different variables on the clean-up, the conversion of Ca soap, and the extraction and derivatization procedures. The quantification limits found ranged from 0.4 to 0.8 mg/kg. The proposed method was satisfactorily applied for the development of a study on soap behavior in agricultural soil and sewage sludge samples. © 2010 SETAC.

  19. Sampling and characterization of radioactive liquid wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zepeda R, C.; Monroy G, F.; Reyes A, T.; Lizcano, D.; Cruz C, A. C.

    2017-09-01

    To define the management of radioactive liquid wastes stored in 200 L drums, its isotope and physicochemical characterization is essential. An adequate sampling, that is, representative and homogeneous, is fundamental to obtain reliable analytical results, therefore, in this work, the use of a sampling mechanism that allows collecting homogenous aliquots, in a safe way and minimizing the generation of secondary waste is proposed. With this mechanism, 56 drums of radioactive liquid wastes were sampled, which were characterized by gamma spectrometry, liquid scintillation, and determined the following physicochemical properties: ph, conductivity, viscosity, density and chemical composition by gas chromatography. 67.86% of the radioactive liquid wastes contains H-3 and of these, 47.36% can be released unconditionally, since it presents activities lower than 100 Bq/g. 94% of the wastes are acidic and 48% have viscosities <50 MPa s. (Author)

  20. Controlled sample program publication No. 1: characterization of rock samples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ames, L.L.

    1978-10-01

    A description is presented of the methodology used and the geologic parameters measured on several rocks which are being used in round-robin laboratory and nuclide adsorption methodology experiments. Presently investigators from various laboratories are determining nuclide distribution coefficients utilizing numerous experimental techniques. Unfortunately, it appears that often the resultant data are dependent not only on the type of groundwater and rock utilized, but also on the experimentor or method used. The Controlled Sample Program is a WISAP (Waste Isolation Safety Assessment Program) attempt to resolve the apparent method and dependencies and to identify individual experimenter's bias. The rock samples characterized in an interlaboratory Kd methodology comparison program include Westerly granite, Argillaceous shale, Oolitic limestone, Sentinel Gap basalt, Conasauga shale, Climax Stock granite, anhydrite, Magenta dolomite and Culebra dolomite. Techniques used in the characterization include whole rock chemical analysis, X-ray diffraction, optical examination, electron microprobe elemental mapping, and chemical analysis of specific mineral phases. Surface areas were determined by the B.E.T. and ethylene glycol sorption methods. Cation exchange capacities were determined with 85 Sr, but were of questionable value for the high calcium rocks. A quantitative mineralogy was also estimated for each rock. Characteristics which have the potential of strongly affecting radionuclide Kd values such as the presence of sulfides, water-soluble, pH-buffering carbonates, glass, and ferrous iron were listed for each rock sample

  1. Microstructural characterization samples of Cariri stones

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Costa, D.L.; Fernandes, I.M.M.; Farias, R.M.C.; Braga, A.N.S.; Menezes, R.R.; Neves, G.A.

    2014-01-01

    Ornamental rocks are among the most promising areas of business in the mining sector, thus resulting in the need for addition of aesthetic beauty, there were investments in quality, safety and characterization in its various fields of application. Based on this, this paper aims to microstructural characterization of a class of these rocks: the Stones Cariri, also known as limestone, calcareous rocks that are composed primarily of calcium and magnesium carbonate, but may vary due its origin. For this, four samples were studied with two of the Apodi Plateau and two of the Araripe, which were characterized physically and structurally through micro testing, chemical analysis, X-ray diffraction, optical micrograph and porosimetry. The results show that calcitic and dolomitic lime is present porosity ranging from 5 to 15% of pores with a concentration between 100nm and 10mm and many microstructural heterogeneity. (author)

  2. Transuranic waste characterization sampling and analysis plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-01-01

    Los Alamos National Laboratory (the Laboratory) is located approximately 25 miles northwest of Santa Fe, New Mexico, situated on the Pajarito Plateau. Technical Area 54 (TA-54), one of the Laboratory's many technical areas, is a radioactive and hazardous waste management and disposal area located within the Laboratory's boundaries. The purpose of this transuranic waste characterization, sampling, and analysis plan (CSAP) is to provide a methodology for identifying, characterizing, and sampling approximately 25,000 containers of transuranic waste stored at Pads 1, 2, and 4, Dome 48, and the Fiberglass Reinforced Plywood Box Dome at TA-54, Area G, of the Laboratory. Transuranic waste currently stored at Area G was generated primarily from research and development activities, processing and recovery operations, and decontamination and decommissioning projects. This document was created to facilitate compliance with several regulatory requirements and program drivers that are relevant to waste management at the Laboratory, including concerns of the New Mexico Environment Department

  3. Arsenic in an alkaline AMD treatment sludge: Characterization and stability under prolonged anoxic conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beauchemin, Suzanne; Fiset, Jean-Francois; Poirier, Glenn; Ablett, James

    2010-01-01

    Lime treatment of acid mine drainage (AMD) generates large volumes of neutralization sludge that are often stored under water covers. The sludge consists mainly of calcite, gypsum and a widespread ferrihydrite-like Fe phase with several associated species of metal(loid) contaminants. The long-term stability of metal(loid)s in this chemically ill-defined material remains unknown. In this study, the stability and speciation of As in AMD sludge subjected to prolonged anoxic conditions is determined. The total As concentration in the sludge is 300 mg kg -1 . In the laboratory, three distinct water cover treatments were imposed on the sludge to induce different redox conditions (100%N 2 , 100%N 2 + glucose, 95%N 2 :5%H 2 ). These treatments were compared against a control of oxidized, water-saturated sludge. Electron micro-probe (EMP) analysis and spatially resolved synchrotron X-ray fluorescence (SXRF) results indicate that As is dominantly associated with Fe in the sludge. In all treatments and throughout the experiment, measured concentrations of dissolved As were less than 5 μg L -1 . Dissolved Mn concentration in the N 2 + glucose treatment increased significantly compared to other treatments. Manganese and As K-edge X-ray absorption near edge structure spectroscopy (XANES) analyses showed that Mn was the redox-active element in the solid-phase, while As was stable. Arsenic(V) was still the dominant species in all water-covered sludges after 9 months of anoxic treatments. In contrast, Mn(IV) in the original sludge was partially reduced into Mn(II) in all water-covered sludges. The effect was most pronounced in the N 2 + glucose treatment, suggesting microbial reduction. Micro-scale SXRF and XANES analysis of the treated sludge showed that Mn(II) accumulated in areas already enriched in Fe and As. Overall, the study shows that AMD sludges remain stable under prolonged anoxic conditions. External sources of chemical reductants or soluble C were needed to induce

  4. Waste sampling and characterization facility (WSCF)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-10-01

    The Waste Sampling and Characterization Facility (WSCF) complex consists of the main structure (WSCF) and four support structures located in the 600 Area of the Hanford site east of the 200 West area and south of the Hanford Meterology Station. WSCF is to be used for low level sample analysis, less than 2 mRem. The Laboratory features state-of-the-art analytical and low level radiological counting equipment for gaseous, soil, and liquid sample analysis. In particular, this facility is to be used to perform Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) of 1976 and Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA) of 1980 sample analysis in accordance with U.S. Environmental Protection Agency Protocols, room air and stack monitoring sample analysis, waste water treatment process support, and contractor laboratory quality assurance checks. The samples to be analyzed contain very low concentrations of radioisotopes. The main reason that WSCF is considered a Nuclear Facility is due to the storage of samples at the facility. This maintenance Implementation Plan has been developed for maintenace functions associate with the WSCF

  5. Sample preparation of sewage sludge and soil samples for the determination of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons based on one-pot microwave-assisted saponification and extraction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pena, M.T.; Pensado, Luis; Casais, M.C.; Mejuto, M.C.; Cela, Rafael [Universidad de Santiago de Compostela, Dpto. Quimica Analitica, Nutricion y Bromatologia. Instituto de Investigacion y Analisis Alimentario, Santiago de Compostela (Spain)

    2007-04-15

    A microwave-assisted sample preparation (MASP) procedure was developed for the analysis of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in sewage sludge and soil samples. The procedure involved the simultaneous microwave-assisted extraction of PAHs with n-hexane and the hydrolysis of samples with methanolic potassium hydroxide. Because of the complex nature of the samples, the extracts were submitted to further cleaning with silica and Florisil solid-phase extraction cartridges connected in series. Naphthalene, acenaphthene, fluorene, phenanthrene, anthracene, fluoranthene, pyrene, benz[a]anthracene, chrysene, benzo[e]pyrene, benzo[b]fluoranthene, benzo[k]fluoranthene, benzo[a]pyrene, dibenz[a,h]anthracene, benzo[g,h,i]perylene, and indeno[1,2,3-cd]pyrene, were considered in the study. Quantification limits obtained for all of these compounds (between 0.4 and 14.8 {mu}g kg{sup -1} dry mass) were well below of the limits recommended in the USA and EU. Overall recovery values ranged from 60 to 100%, with most losses being due to evaporation in the solvent exchange stages of the procedure, although excellent extraction recoveries were obtained. Validation of the accuracy was carried out with BCR-088 (sewage sludge) and BCR-524 (contaminated industrial soil) reference materials. (orig.)

  6. Sample preparation of sewage sludge and soil samples for the determination of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons based on one-pot microwave-assisted saponification and extraction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pena, M Teresa; Pensado, Luis; Casais, M Carmen; Mejuto, M Carmen; Cela, Rafael

    2007-04-01

    A microwave-assisted sample preparation (MASP) procedure was developed for the analysis of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in sewage sludge and soil samples. The procedure involved the simultaneous microwave-assisted extraction of PAHs with n-hexane and the hydrolysis of samples with methanolic potassium hydroxide. Because of the complex nature of the samples, the extracts were submitted to further cleaning with silica and Florisil solid-phase extraction cartridges connected in series. Naphthalene, acenaphthene, fluorene, phenanthrene, anthracene, fluoranthene, pyrene, benz[a]anthracene, chrysene, benzo[e]pyrene, benzo[b]fluoranthene, benzo[k]fluoranthene, benzo[a]pyrene, dibenz[a,h]anthracene, benzo[g,h,i]perylene, and indeno[1,2,3-cd]pyrene, were considered in the study. Quantification limits obtained for all of these compounds (between 0.4 and 14.8 microg kg(-1) dry mass) were well below of the limits recommended in the USA and EU. Overall recovery values ranged from 60 to 100%, with most losses being due to evaporation in the solvent exchange stages of the procedure, although excellent extraction recoveries were obtained. Validation of the accuracy was carried out with BCR-088 (sewage sludge) and BCR-524 (contaminated industrial soil) reference materials.

  7. Summary review of the chemical characterization of liquid and sludge contained in the Old Hydrofracture tanks, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, Tennessee

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Francis, C.W.; Herbes, S.E.

    1997-02-01

    This report presents analytical data developed from samples collected from the five inactive tanks located at the Old Hydrofracture Facility (OHF) at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) in Oak Ridge, Tennessee. The samples were collected during December 1995 and January 1996. The purpose of the sampling and analysis project was (1) to determine whether the tank contents meet ORNL waste acceptance criteria, as specified in the Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Liquid Waste Treatment Systems, Waste Evaluation Criteria; (2) to determine various physical properties of the tank contents that would affect the design of a sludge mobilization system; and (3) to gather information to support a baseline risk assessment. The report focuses on the analytical results used to evaluate the tank contents with regard to nuclear criticality safety requirements and to regulatory waste characterization

  8. Determination of selected quaternary ammonium compounds by liquid chromatography with mass spectrometry. Part II. Application to sediment and sludge samples in Austria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martinez-Carballo, Elena; Gonzalez-Barreiro, Carmen; Sitka, Andrea; Kreuzinger, Norbert; Scharf, Sigrid; Gans, Oliver

    2007-01-01

    Soxhlet extraction and high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) coupled to tandem mass spectrometry detection (MS/MS) was used for the determination of selected quaternary ammonium compounds (QACs) in solid samples. The method was applied for the determination of alkyl benzyl, dialkyl and trialkyl quaternary ammonium compounds in sediment and sludge samples in Austria. The overall method quantification limits range from 0.6 to 3 μg/kg for sediments and from 2 to 5 μg/kg for sewage sludges. Mean recoveries between 67% and 95% are achieved. In general sediments were especially contaminated by C12 chain benzalkonium chloride (BAC-C12) as well as by the long C-chain dialkyldimethylammonium chloride (DDAC-C18) with a maximum concentration of 3.6 mg/kg and 2.1 mg/kg, respectively. Maxima of 27 mg/kg for DDAC-C10, 25 mg/kg for BAC-C12 and 23 mg/kg for BAC-C14 were determined for sludge samples. The sums of the 12 selected target compounds range from 22 mg/kg to 103 mg/kg in the sludge samples. - The presence of quaternary ammonium surfactants in sediment and sludge samples is reported for the first time in Austria

  9. Comparative characterization of sewage sludge compost and soil: Heavy metal leaching characteristics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fang, Wen; Wei, Yonghong; Liu, Jianguo

    2016-06-05

    The leaching and accumulation of heavy metals are major concerns following the land application of sewage sludge compost (SSC). We comparatively characterized SSC, the reference soil, and the SSC amended soil to investigate their similarities and differences regarding heavy metal leaching behavior and then to evaluate the effect of SSC land application on the leaching behavior of soil. Results showed that organic matter, including both of particulate organic matter (POM) and dissolved organic matter (DOM), were critical factors influencing heavy metal leaching from both of SSC and the soil. When SSC was applied to soil at the application rate of 48t/ha, the increase of DOM content slightly enhanced heavy metal leaching from the amended soil over the applicable pH domain (6leaching behavior of heavy metals. The geochemical speciation modeling revealed that heavy metal speciation in the solid phase were similar between the reference soil and the amended soil. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Bio-char derived from sewage sludge by liquefaction: Characterization and application for dye adsorption

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leng, Lijian [College of Environmental Science and Engineering, Hunan University, Changsha 410082 (China); Key Laboratory of Environment Biology and Pollution Control, Hunan University, Ministry of Education, Changsha 410082 (China); Yuan, Xingzhong, E-mail: yxz@hnu.edu.cn [College of Environmental Science and Engineering, Hunan University, Changsha 410082 (China); Key Laboratory of Environment Biology and Pollution Control, Hunan University, Ministry of Education, Changsha 410082 (China); Huang, Huajun [School of Land Resources and Environment, Jiangxi Agricultural University, Nanchang 330045 (China); Shao, Jianguang; Wang, Hou [College of Environmental Science and Engineering, Hunan University, Changsha 410082 (China); Key Laboratory of Environment Biology and Pollution Control, Hunan University, Ministry of Education, Changsha 410082 (China); Chen, Xiaohong [School of Business, Central South University, Changsha 410083 (China); Zeng, Guangming [College of Environmental Science and Engineering, Hunan University, Changsha 410082 (China); Key Laboratory of Environment Biology and Pollution Control, Hunan University, Ministry of Education, Changsha 410082 (China)

    2015-08-15

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • SS liquefaction bio-chars were effective on MG and MB removal from aqueous. • MG adsorption capacity depended strongly on carboxylic and phenolic groups. • Metal release accounted for nearly 30% of the total MG adsorbed on bio-chars. • Acetone and low temperature favor effective adsorbent production by liquefaction. - Abstract: Bio-chars produced by liquefaction of sewage sludge with methanol, ethanol, or acetone as the solvent at 260–380 °C were characterized in terms of their elemental composition, thermogravimetric characteristics, surface area and pore size distribution, and oxygen-containing functional groups composition. The surface area and total volume of the bio-chars were low, but the contents of oxygen-containing functional groups were high. The bio-chars were effective on Malachite green (MG) and Methylene blue (MB) removal from aqueous solution. The MG adsorption equilibrium data showed excellent fit to the Langmuir model and the kinetic data fitted well to the Pseudo-second-order model. Thermodynamic investigations indicated that MG adsorption on bio-char was spontaneous and endothermic. The MG adsorption mechanism appears to be associated with cation release and functional group participation. Additionally, liquefaction of SS with acetone as the solvent at low temperature (280 °C) would favor the production of bio-char adsorbent in terms of bio-char yield and MG and MB adsorption capacity.

  11. Photoinitiated Polymerization of Cationic Acrylamide in Aqueous Solution: Synthesis, Characterization, and Sludge Dewatering Performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huaili Zheng

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available A copolymer of acrylamide (AM with acryloyloxyethyl trimethyl ammonium chloride (DAC as the cationic monomer was synthesized under the irradiation of high-pressure mercury lamp with 2,2-azobis(2-amidinopropane dihydrochloride (V-50 as the photoinitiator. The compositions of the photoinduced copolymer were characterized by Fourier transform infrared spectra (FTIR, ultraviolet spectra (UV, and scanning electron microscope (SEM. The effects of 6 important factors, that is, photo-initiators concentration, monomers concentration, CO(NH22 (urea concentrations, pH value, mass ratio of AM to DAC, and irradiation time on the molecular weight and dissolving time, were investigated. The optimal reaction conditions were that the photo-initiators concentration was 0.3%, monomers concentration was 30 wt.%, irradiation time was 60 min, urea concentration was 0.4%, pH value was 5.0, and mass ratio of AM to DAC was 6 : 4. Its flocculation properties were evaluated with activated sludge using jar test. The zeta potential of supernatant at different cationic monomer contents was simultaneously measured. The results demonstrated the superiority of the copolymer over the commercial polyacrylamide as a flocculant.

  12. Characterization of microbial consortia in a terephthalate-degrading anaerobic granular sludge system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, J H; Liu, W T; Tseng, I C; Cheng, S S

    2001-02-01

    The microbial composition and spatial distribution in a terephthalate-degrading anaerobic granular sludge system were characterized using molecular techniques. 16S rDNA clone library and sequence analysis revealed that 78.5% of 106 bacterial clones belonged to the delta subclass of the class Proteobacteria; the remaining clones were assigned to the green non-sulfur bacteria (7.5%), Synergistes (0.9%) and unidentified divisions (13.1%). Most of the bacterial clones in the delta-Proteobacteria formed a novel group containing no known bacterial isolates. For the domain Archaea, 81.7% and 18.3% of 72 archaeal clones were affiliated with Methanosaeta and Methanospirillum, respectively. Spatial localization of microbial populations inside granules was determined by transmission electron microscopy and fluorescent in situ hybridization with oligonucleotide probes targeting the novel delta-proteobacterial group, the acetoclastic Methanosaeta, and the hydrogenotrophic Methanospirillum and members of Methanobacteriaceae. The novel group included at least two different populations with identical rod-shape morphology, which made up more than 87% of the total bacterial cells, and were closely associated with methanogenic populations to form a nonlayered granular structure. This novel group was presumed to be the primary bacterial population involved in the terephthalate degradation in the methanogenic granular consortium.

  13. STONES SAWING SLUDGE AS BY-PRODUCT: characterization for a future recovery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zichella, Lorena; Bellopede, Rossana; Marini, Paola

    2017-04-01

    The European Commission, as part of its Thematic Strategy on the prevention and recycling of waste, committed itself to tackle one of the issues around the waste definition, namely the distinction between waste and by-products. This definition has been outlined through the Communication on waste and by-product of the European Court of Justice (Brussels, 21.2.2007 COM(2007) 59 final COMMUNICATION FROM THE COMMISSION TO THE COUNCIL AND THE EUROPEAN PARLIAMENT). By-product is a substance or object, resulting from a production process, the primary aim of which is not the production of that item. By-products can come from a wide range of business sectors, and can have very different environmental impacts. If there is a possibility that the material is in fact not useable, because it does not meet the technical specifications that would be required for its use, then it should continue to be considered as a waste. The status of waste protects the environment from the potential consequences of this uncertainty. If it subsequently happens that a use is found for the waste in question then it will lose its status of waste and it will be considered a by-product. An incorrect classification could be the cause of environmental damage or unnecessary costs for business. For this purpose a characterization of sludge coming from different plants of stone processing was carried out for a better classification of the materials in view of a future recovery. The different stones cutting processes considered for this study are: gangsaw, diamond blade and diamond wire. The cut materials are granites, gneisses, and other stones mainly of silicatic nature. The tests performed on the sawing sludge are the following: particle size analysis, chemical analysis, wet magnetic separation, diffraction and SEM analysis. The study performed is useful for evaluating the possible reuses of the products coming from the magnetic separation: the metal fraction, and the mineral one. In order to avoid a

  14. Filtration and Leach Testing for REDOX Sludge and S-Saltcake Actual Waste Sample Composites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shimskey, Rick W.; Billing, Justin M.; Buck, Edgar C.; Daniel, Richard C.; Draper, Kathryn E.; Edwards, Matthew K.; Geeting, John GH; Hallen, Richard T.; Jenson, Evan D.; Kozelisky, Anne E.; MacFarlan, Paul J.; Peterson, Reid A.; Snow, Lanee A.; Swoboda, Robert G.

    2009-02-20

    A testing program evaluating actual tank waste was developed in response to Task 4 from the M-12 External Flowsheet Review Team (EFRT) issue response plan.( ) The test program was subdivided into logical increments. The bulk water-insoluble solid wastes that are anticipated to be delivered to the Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (WTP) were identified according to type such that the actual waste testing could be targeted to the relevant categories. Under test plan TP-RPP-WTP-467, eight broad waste groupings were defined. Samples available from the 222S archive were identified and obtained for testing. Under this test plan, a waste-testing program was implemented that included: • Homogenizing the archive samples by group as defined in the test plan • Characterizing the homogenized sample groups • Performing parametric leaching testing on each group for compounds of interest • Performing bench-top filtration/leaching tests in the hot cell for each group to simulate filtration and leaching activities if they occurred in the UFP2 vessel of the WTP Pretreatment Facility. This report focuses on filtration/leaching tests performed on two of the eight waste composite samples and follow-on parametric tests to support aluminum leaching results from those tests.

  15. Sludge Washing and Demonstration of the DWPF Nitric/Formic Flowsheet in the SRNL Shielded Cells for Sludge Batch 9 Qualification

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pareizs, J. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); Newell, D. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); Martino, C. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); Crawford, C. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); Johnson, F. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL)

    2016-11-01

    Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) was requested by Savannah River Remediation (SRR) to qualify the next batch of sludgeSludge Batch 9 (SB9). Current practice is to prepare sludge batches in Tank 51 by transferring sludge to Tank 51 from other tanks. The sludge is washed and transferred to Tank 40, the current Defense Waste Process Facility (DWPF) feed tank. Prior to sludge transfer from Tank 51 to Tank 40, the Tank 51 sludge must be qualified. SRNL qualifies the sludge in multiple steps. First, a Tank 51 sample is received, then characterized, washed, and again characterized. SRNL then demonstrates the DWPF Chemical Process Cell (CPC) flowsheet with the sludge. The final step of qualification involves chemical durability measurements of glass fabricated in the DWPF CPC demonstrations. In past sludge batches, SRNL had completed the DWPF demonstration with Tank 51 sludge. For SB9, SRNL has been requested to process a blend of Tank 51 and Tank 40 at a targeted ratio of 44% Tank 51 and 56% Tank 40 on an insoluble solids basis.

  16. Waste sludge resuspension and transfer: development program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weeren, H.O.; Mackey, T.S.

    1980-02-01

    The six Gunite waste tanks at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) contain about 400,000 gal of sludge that has precipitated from solution and settled during the 35 years these tanks have been in service. Eventual decommissioning of the tanks has been proposed. The first part of this program is to resuspend the accumulated sludge, to transfer it to new storage tanks in Melton Valley, and to dispose of it by the shale-fracturing process. On the basis of preliminary information, a tentative operational concept was adopted. The sludge in each tank would be resuspended by hydraulic sluicing and pumped from the tank. This resuspended sludge would be treated as necessary to keep the particles in suspension and would be pumped to the new waste-storage tanks. Subsequently the sludge would be pumped from the tanks, combined with a cement-base mix, and disposed of by the shale-fracturing facility. Verification of the feasibility of this concept required development effort on characterization of the sludge and development of techniques for resuspending the sludge and for keeping it in suspension. These development efforts are described in this report. Sections of the report describe both the known properties of the sludge and the tests of grinding methods investigated, discuss tests of various suspenders, describe tests with cement-base mixes, summarize hot-cell tests on actual sludge samples, and describe tests that were made at a mockup of a Gunite tank installation. On the basis of the tests made, it was concluded that reslurrying and resuspension of the sludge is quite feasible and that the suspensions can be made compatible with cement mixes

  17. Waste Sampling and Characterization Facility (WSCF)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bozich, J.L.

    1993-07-01

    This Maintenance Implementation Plan has been developed for maintenance functions associated with the Waste Sampling and Characterization Facility (WSCF). This plan is developed from the guidelines presented by Department of Energy (DOE) Order 4330.4A, Maintenance Management Program (DOE 1990), Chapter II. The objective of this plan is to provide baseline information for establishing and identifying WHC conformance programs and policies applicable to implementation of DOE order 4330.4A guidelines. In addition, this maintenance plan identifies the actions necessary to develop a cost-effective and efficient maintenance program at WSCF

  18. Thermal decomposition of sewage sludge under N2, CO2 and air: Gas characterization and kinetic analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernández, Ana Belén; Okonta, Felix; Freeman, Ntuli

    2017-07-01

    Thermochemical valorisation processes that allow energy to be recovered from sewage sludge, such as pyrolysis and gasification, have demonstrated great potential as convenient alternatives to conventional sewage sludge disposal technologies. Moreover, these processes may benefit from CO 2 recycling. Today, the scaling up of these technologies requires an advanced knowledge of the reactivity of sewage sludge and the characteristics of the products, specific to the thermochemical process. In this study the behaviour of sewage sludge during thermochemical conversion, under different atmospheres (N 2 , CO 2 and air), was studied, using TGA-FTIR, in order to understand the effects of different atmospheric gases on the kinetics of degradation and on the gaseous products. The different steps observed during the solid degradation were related with the production of different gaseous compounds. A higher oxidative degree of the atmosphere surrounding the sample resulted in higher reaction rates and a shift of the degradation mechanisms to lower temperatures, especially for the mechanisms taking place at temperatures above 400 °C. Finally, a multiple first-order reaction model was proposed to compare the kinetic parameters obtained under different atmospheres. Overall, the highest activation energies were obtained for combustion. This work proves that CO 2 , an intermediate oxidative atmosphere between N 2 and air, results in an intermediate behaviour (intermediate peaks in the derivative thermogravimetric curves and intermediate activation energies) during the thermochemical decomposition of sewage sludge. Overall, it can be concluded that the kinetics of these different processes require a different approach for their scaling up and specific consideration of their characteristic reaction temperatures and rates should be evaluated. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Results of the Characterization and Dissolution Tests of Samples from Tank 16H

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hay, M.S.

    1999-01-01

    Samples from Tank 16H annulus and one sample from the tank interior were characterized to provide a source term for use in fate and transport modeling. Four of the annulus samples appeared to be similar based on visual examination and were combined to form a composite. One of the annulus samples appeared to be different from the other four based on visual examination and was analyzed separately. The analytical results of the tank interior sample indicate the sample is composed predominantly of iron containing compounds. Both of the annulus samples are composed mainly of sodium salts, however, the composite sample contained significantly more sludge/sand material of low solubilitity. The characterization of the tank 16H annulus and tank interior samples was hampered by the high dose rate and the nature of the samples. The difficulties resulted in large uncertainties in the analytical data. The large uncertainties coupled with the number of important species below detection limits indicate the need for reanalysis of the Tank 16H samples as funding becomes available. Recommendations on potential remedies for these difficulties are provided. In general, none of the reagents appeared to be effective in dissolving the composite sample even after two contacts at elevated temperature. In contrast to the composite sample, all of the reagents dissolved a large percentage of the HTF-087 solids after two contacts at ambient temperature

  20. Evaluation of the energetic potential of sewage sludge by characterization of its organic composition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schaum, C; Lensch, D; Cornel, P

    2016-01-01

    The composition of sewage sludge and, thus, its energetic potential is influenced by wastewater and wastewater treatment processes. Higher or lower heating values (HHV or LHV) are decisive factors for the incineration/gasification/pyrolysis of sewage sludge. The HHV is analyzed with a bomb calorimeter and converted to the LHV. It is also possible to calculate the heating value via chemical oxygen demand (COD), total volatile solids (TVS), and elemental composition. Calculating the LHV via the COD provides a suitable method. In contrast, the correlation of the HHV or LHV with the TVS is limited. One prerequisite here is a constant specific energy density; this was given with the types of sewage sludge (primary, surplus/excess, and digested sludge) investigated. If the energy density is not comparable with sewage sludge, for instance with the co-substrate (bio-waste, grease, etc.), the estimation of the heating value using TVS will fail. When calculating the HHV or LHV via the elemental composition, one has to consider the validity of the coefficients of the calculation equation. Depending on the organic composition, it might be necessary to adjust the coefficients, e.g. when adding co-substrates.

  1. F/H seepage basin groundwater influent, effluent, precipitated sludge characterization task technical plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Siler, J.L.

    1993-01-01

    A treatability study to support the development of a remediation system which would reduce the contaminant levels in groundwater removed from the aquifers in the vicinity of the F/H seepage basins and southwest of the Mixed Waste Management Facility (MWMF) at the Savannah River facility was conducted. Proposed changes in the remediation system require an additional study to determine whether precipitated sludge generated from the proposed remediation system will be hazardous as defined by RCRA. Several contaminants, such as lead and mercury, are above the groundwater protection standards. The presence of radionuclides and other contaminants in the sludge does not present a problem provided that the sludge can pass the Toxicity Characteristic Leaching Procedure (TCLP) test. The study has been developed in such a manner as to cover the possible range of treatment options that may be used

  2. Characterization of microbial community and antibiotic resistance genes in activated sludge under tetracycline and sulfamethoxazole selection pressure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Yingying; Geng, Jinju, E-mail: jjgeng@nju.edu.cn; Ma, Haijun; Ren, Hongqiang; Xu, Ke; Ding, Lili

    2016-11-15

    To investigate the microbial community characteristics, antibiotic resistance genes (ARGs), and bioreactor effluent quality change under tetracycline (TC) and sulfamethoxazole (SMX) selection pressure, sequencing batch reactors (SBRs) were used with environmentally relevant concentration and high-level of TC and SMX concentrations (0, 5 ppb, 50 ppb and 10 ppm). Chemical oxygen demand (COD) and ammonia nitrogen (NH{sub 4}{sup +}−N) removals appeared unchanged (p > 0.05) with 5 and 50 ppb, but decreased significantly with 10 ppm (p < 0.05). Extracellular polymeric substances (EPS) concentrations increased significantly with increasing TC or SMX concentrations (p < 0.05). High-throughput 16S rRNA gene sequencing results suggested that Proteobacteria, Actinobacteria and Bacteroidetes were the three most abundant phyla in sludge samples. The Actinobacteria percentages increased with increasing TC or SMX concentration, while Proteobacteria and Bacteroidetes decreased. The microbial diversity achieved its maximum at 5 ppb and decreased with higher concentrations. The total ARGs abundances in sludge increased with addition of TC or SMX, and the higher relative abundances were in the order of sul1 > tetG > sul2 > tetA > intI1 > tetS > tetC. Pearson correlation analysis showed most ARGs (tetA, tetC, tetG, tetK, tetM, sul1) were significantly correlated with intI1 (p < 0.01). - Highlights: • COD and NH{sub 4}{sup +}−N removals significantly decrease under 10 ppm TC or SMX. • Activated sludge EPS concentrations increase with increasing TC or SMX concentrations. • TC and SMX affect the microbial community diversity of activated sludge. • Actinobacteria abundances increase with increase of TC or SMX concentration. • ARGs abundance increases with addition of TC or SMX.

  3. Analysis of soil and sewage sludge by ICP-OES and the German standard DIN 38414 sample preparation technique (P3)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Edlund, M.; Heitland, P.; Visser, H.

    2002-01-01

    Full text: The elemental analyses of soil and sewage sludge has developed to become one of the main applications for ICP optical emission spectrometry (ICP-OES) and is described in many official procedures. These methods include different acid mixtures and digestion techniques. Even though the German standard DIN 38414 part 7 and the Dutch NEN 6465 do not guarantee complete recoveries for all elements, they are widely accepted in Europe. This paper describes sample preparation, line selection and investigates precision, accuracy and Limits of detection. The SPECTRO CIROSCCD EOP with axial plasma observation and the SPECTRO CIROSCCD SOP with radial observation were compared and evaluated for the analyses of soil and sewage sludge. Accuracy was investigated using the certified reference materials CRM-141 R, CRM-143 R and GSD 11. Both instruments show excellent performance in terms of speed, precision, accuracy and detection limits for the determination of trace metals in soil and sewage sludge. (author)

  4. CHARACTERIZATION OF ACTINIDES IN SIMULATED ALKALINE TANK WASTE SLUDGES AND LEACHATES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nash, Kenneth L.

    2008-11-20

    In this project, both the fundamental chemistry of actinides in alkaline solutions (relevant to those present in Hanford-style waste storage tanks), and their dissolution from sludge simulants (and interactions with supernatants) have been investigated under representative sludge leaching procedures. The leaching protocols were designed to go beyond conventional alkaline sludge leaching limits, including the application of acidic leachants, oxidants and complexing agents. The simulant leaching studies confirm in most cases the basic premise that actinides will remain in the sludge during leaching with 2-3 M NaOH caustic leach solutions. However, they also confirm significant chances for increased mobility of actinides under oxidative leaching conditions. Thermodynamic data generated improves the general level of experiemental information available to predict actinide speciation in leach solutions. Additional information indicates that improved Al removal can be achieved with even dilute acid leaching and that acidic Al(NO3)3 solutions can be decontaminated of co-mobilized actinides using conventional separations methods. Both complexing agents and acidic leaching solutions have significant potential to improve the effectiveness of conventional alkaline leaching protocols. The prime objective of this program was to provide adequate insight into actinide behavior under these conditions to enable prudent decision making as tank waste treatment protocols develop.

  5. Characterization Of Actinides In Simulated Alkaline Tank Waste Sludges And Leachates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nash, Kenneth L.

    2008-01-01

    In this project, both the fundamental chemistry of actinides in alkaline solutions (relevant to those present in Hanford-style waste storage tanks), and their dissolution from sludge simulants (and interactions with supernatants) have been investigated under representative sludge leaching procedures. The leaching protocols were designed to go beyond conventional alkaline sludge leaching limits, including the application of acidic leachants, oxidants and complexing agents. The simulant leaching studies confirm in most cases the basic premise that actinides will remain in the sludge during leaching with 2-3 M NaOH caustic leach solutions. However, they also confirm significant chances for increased mobility of actinides under oxidative leaching conditions. Thermodynamic data generated improves the general level of experiemental information available to predict actinide speciation in leach solutions. Additional information indicates that improved Al removal can be achieved with even dilute acid leaching and that acidic Al(NO3)3 solutions can be decontaminated of co-mobilized actinides using conventional separations methods. Both complexing agents and acidic leaching solutions have significant potential to improve the effectiveness of conventional alkaline leaching protocols. The prime objective of this program was to provide adequate insight into actinide behavior under these conditions to enable prudent decision making as tank waste treatment protocols develop.

  6. Characterization of sulfate-reducing granular sludge in the SANI(®) process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hao, Tianwei; Wei, Li; Lu, Hui; Chui, Hokwong; Mackey, Hamish R; van Loosdrecht, Mark C M; Chen, Guanghao

    2013-12-01

    Hong Kong practices seawater toilet flushing covering 80% of the population. A sulfur cycle-based biological nitrogen removal process, the Sulfate reduction, Autotrophic denitrification and Nitrification Integrated (SANI(®)) process, had been developed to close the loop between the hybrid water supply and saline sewage treatment. To enhance this novel process, granulation of a Sulfate-Reducing Up-flow Sludge Bed (SRUSB) reactor has recently been conducted for organic removal and provision of electron donors (sulfide) for subsequent autotrophic denitrification, with a view to minimizing footprint and maximizing operation resilience. This further study was focused on the biological and physicochemical characteristics of the granular sulfate-reducing sludge. A lab-scale SRUSB reactor seeded with anaerobic digester sludge was operated with synthetic saline sewage for 368 days. At 1 h nominal hydraulic retention time (HRT) and 6.4 kg COD/m(3)-d organic loading rate, the SRUSB reactor achieved 90% COD and 75% sulfate removal efficiencies. Granular sludge was observed within 30 days, and became stable after 4 months of operation with diameters of 400-500 μm, SVI5 of 30 ml/g, and extracellular polymeric substances of 23 mg carbohydrate/g VSS. Fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) analysis revealed that the granules were enriched with abundant sulfate-reducing bacteria (SRB) as compared with the seeding sludge. Pyrosequencing analysis of the 16S rRNA gene in the sulfate-reducing granules on day 90 indicated that the microbial community consisted of a diverse SRB genera, namely Desulfobulbus (18.1%), Desulfobacter (13.6%), Desulfomicrobium (5.6%), Desulfosarcina (0.73%) and Desulfovibrio (0.6%), accounting for 38.6% of total operational taxonomic units at genera level, with no methanogens detected. The microbial population and physicochemical properties of the granules well explained the excellent performance of the granular SRUSB reactor. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier

  7. RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN SLUDGE DEWATERABILITY NUMBER ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A representative of a sludge sample collected from the same source was filtered under the same environmental condition and the result analysed with two different concepts. One method of analysis uses Sludge Dewaterability Number, while the second employed the Carman's Specific resistance concept in sludge ...

  8. Baseline Design Compliance Matrix for the Type 4 In Situ Vapor Samplers and Supernate and Sludge and Soft Saltcake Grab Sampling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    BOGER, R.M.

    2000-01-01

    The DOE has identified a need to sample vapor space, exhaust ducts, supernate, sludge, and soft saltcake in waste tanks that store radioactive waste. This document provides the Design Compliance Matrix (DCM) for the Type 4 In-Situ Vapor Sampling (ISVS) system and the Grab Sampling System that are used for completing this type of sampling function. The DCM identifies the design requirements and the source of the requirements for the Type 4 ISVS system and the Grab Sampling system. The DCM is a single-source compilation design requirements for sampling and sampling support equipment and supports the configuration management of these systems

  9. Physical sampling for site and waste characterization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bonnough, T.L.

    1996-01-01

    Physical sampling plays a basic role in high-level radioactive waste management program effort. The term ''physical sampling'' used here means collecting tangible, physical samples of soil, water, air, waste streams, or other materials. The industry defines the term ''physical sampling'' broadly to include measurements of physical conditions such as temperature, wind conditions, and pH, which are also often taken in a sample collection effort. Most environmental compliance actions are supported by the results of taking, recording, and analyzing physical samples and the measurements of physical conditions taken in association with sample collecting. Therefore, the when and how to take samples is needed to be known and planned

  10. Metals accumulations during thermal processing of sewage sludge - characterization of bottom ash and air pollution control (APC) residues

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kasina, Monika; Kowalski, Piotr R.; Michalik, Marek

    2016-04-01

    Due to increasing mass of sewage sludge, problems in its management have appeared. Over years sewage sludge was landfilled, however due to EU directives concerning environmental issues this option is no longer possible. This type of material is considered hazardous due to highly concentrated metals and harmful elements, toxic organic substances and biological components (e.g. parasites, microbes). Currently in Europe, incineration is considered to be the most reasonable method for sewage sludge treatment. As a result of sludge incineration significant amount of energy is recovered due to high calorific value of sewage sludge but bottom ash and APC residues are being produced. In this study we show the preliminary results of chemical and mineral analyses of both bottom ash and APC residues produced in fluidized bed boiler in sewage sludge incineration plant in Poland, with a special emphasis on metals which, as a part of incombustible fraction can accumulate in the residual materials after thermal processing. The bottom ash was a SiO2-P2O5-Fe2O3-CaO-Al2O3 dominated material. Main mineral phases identified in X-ray diffraction patterns were: quartz, feldspar, hematite, and phosphates (apatite and scholzite). The bottom ash was characterized by high content of Zn - 4472 mg kg-1, Cu - 665.5 mg kg-1, Pb - 138 mg kg-1, Ni - 119.5 mg kg-1, and interestingly high content of Au - 0.858 mg kg-1 The APC residues composition was dominated by soluble phases which represent more than 90% of the material. The XRD patterns indicated thenardite, halite, anhydrite, calcite and apatite as main mineral phases. The removal of soluble phases by dissolution in deionised water caused a significant mass reduction (ca. 3% of material remained on the filters). Calcite, apatite and quartz were main identified phases. The content of metals in insoluble material is relatively high: Zn - 6326 mg kg-1, Pb - 514.3 mg kg-1, Cu - 476.6 mg kg-1, Ni - 43.3 mg kg-1. The content of Cd, As, Se and Hg was

  11. Characterization and migration of oil and solids in oily sludge during centrifugation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jun; Han, Xu; Huang, Qunxing; Ma, Zengyi; Chi, Yong; Yan, Jianhua

    2018-05-01

    The migration behaviors of oil, water and solids in sludge during centrifugation were elaborated. Size distribution, surface topography and lypohydrophilic properties were studied in detail. The average size of solids was 61 μm in original sludge, 31 μm in upper layer and 235 μm in bottom layer. The result shows that solvent is essential to separate oil phase into molecular light and weight fractions during centrifugation. With solvent/oil ratio increases from 1:2, 1:1, 2:1 to 5:1, molecular weight in upper layer decreases from 1044, 1043, 1020 to 846 combined with that in bottom layer increases. A model was proposed to calculate the oil residue content in solid phases after sedimentation. The findings of this paper provide information for optimizing the oil recovery and clean treatment.

  12. Effect of earthworms on the biochemical characterization of biofilms in vermifiltration treatment of excess sludge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Jian; Liu, Jing; Xing, Meiyan; Lu, Zhibo; Yan, Qiong

    2013-09-01

    In this study, the biofilms formed in a vermifilter (VF) with earthworms and a conventional biofilter (BF) without earthworms were compared to investigate the effects of earthworms on the characteristics of biofilms during an excess sludge treatment period of 4months. Typical macrographs and micrographs of the biofilms showed that the feeding and casting actions of earthworms remarkably modified the VF morphology. Elemental analysis and fluorescence spectra indicated that earthworms enhanced the stabilization of organic matter by accelerating the mineralization and humification of organic materials during vermiconversion. In addition, bacterial communities inhabiting the VF biofilm showed that earthworms increased both bacterial diversity and metabolic activities in the film, as revealed by automatic testing bacteriology (ATB) expression and sequencing data. These results demonstrate that earthworms influence the structure and biochemical characteristics of biofilms and enhance their bacterial diversity and functions for improved sludge stabilization. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Sludge Batch 7B Qualification Activities With SRS Tank Farm Sludge

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pareizs, J.; Click, D.; Lambert, D.; Reboul, S.

    2011-01-01

    Waste Solidification Engineering (WSE) has requested that characterization and a radioactive demonstration of the next batch of sludge slurry - Sludge Batch 7b (SB7b) - be completed in the Shielded Cells Facility of the Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) via a Technical Task Request (TTR). This characterization and demonstration, or sludge batch qualification process, is required prior to transfer of the sludge from Tank 51 to the Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) feed tank (Tank 40). The current WSE practice is to prepare sludge batches in Tank 51 by transferring sludge from other tanks. Discharges of nuclear materials from H Canyon are often added to Tank 51 during sludge batch preparation. The sludge is washed and transferred to Tank 40, the current DWPF feed tank. Prior to transfer of Tank 51 to Tank 40, SRNL typically simulates the Tank Farm and DWPF processes with a Tank 51 sample (referred to as the qualification sample). With the tight schedule constraints for SB7b and the potential need for caustic addition to allow for an acceptable glass processing window, the qualification for SB7b was approached differently than past batches. For SB7b, SRNL prepared a Tank 51 and a Tank 40 sample for qualification. SRNL did not receive the qualification sample from Tank 51 nor did it simulate all of the Tank Farm washing and decanting operations. Instead, SRNL prepared a Tank 51 SB7b sample from samples of Tank 7 and Tank 51, along with a wash solution to adjust the supernatant composition to the final SB7b Tank 51 Tank Farm projections. SRNL then prepared a sample to represent SB7b in Tank 40 by combining portions of the SRNL-prepared Tank 51 SB7b sample and a Tank 40 Sludge Batch 7a (SB7a) sample. The blended sample was 71% Tank 40 (SB7a) and 29% Tank 7/Tank 51 on an insoluble solids basis. This sample is referred to as the SB7b Qualification Sample. The blend represented the highest projected Tank 40 heel (as of May 25, 2011), and thus, the highest

  14. Characterization of Mechanical Properties of Marble sludge/natural rubber composites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bhatti, K.P.

    2012-01-01

    This study aims to investigate the possible utilization of Marble Sludge (MS) in Natural Rubber (NR) composites, which would reduce both the environmental pollution and product cost. Marble waste in the form of sludge is taken from Mangopir Marble industrial area Karachi. The sludge was dried, grinded and passed through desire sieves (20, 37 and 75 micro m) and incorporated in the formulation of NR composites. The physical characteristics of dry MS were carried out in order to identify all components by instrumental techniques. Different micro sized particles of MS (20, 37 and 75 micro-m) were added with different loading (10, 30, 50, 70 and 90 phr). Mechanical properties of MS filled NR composites were studied. It was found that tensile strength and tear strength increased with increasing the MS till 70 phr. Further addition of MS in the composites decreased both strengths. Elongation at break and rebound resilience decreased with increasing MS loading, while modulus, (100%, 200% and 300% elongation), hardness, compression set and abrasion loss increased with increase loading of MS. All mechanical properties of smaller micro size MS particle (20 micro-m) filled NR composites have higher values then 37 and 75 micro-m size particle. The results of mechanical properties after aging show that the tensile strength, modulus, elongation at break and rebound resilience values decreased while hardness, compression set and abrasion loss values increased. (author)

  15. Characterization of cefalexin degradation capabilities of two Pseudomonas strains isolated from activated sludge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Bokun; Lyu, Jinling; Lyu, Xian-jin; Yu, Han-qing; Hu, Zhong; Lam, James C W; Lam, Paul K S

    2015-01-23

    Pharmaceuticals have recently been regarded as contaminants of emerging concern. To date, there is limited knowledge about antibiotic-degrading microorganisms in conventional activated sludge treatment systems and their characteristics toward antibiotic degradation especially in the presence of a pharmaceutical mixture. As such, antibiotic-degrading microorganisms were investigated and isolated from the activated sludge, and their degradation capabilities were evaluated. Two strains of cefalexin-degrading bacteria CE21 and CE22 were isolated and identified as Pseudomonas sp. in the collected activated sludge. Strain CE22 was able to degrade over 90% of cefalexin, while CE21 was able to remove 46.7% of cefalexin after incubation for 24h. The removal efficiency of cefalexin by CE22, different from that of CE21, was not significantly affected by an increase in cefalexin concentration, even up to 10ppm, however the presence of 1ppm of other pharmaceuticals had a significant effect on the degradation of cefalexin by CE22, but no significant effect on CE21. The degradation product of cefalexin by the two strains was identified to be 2-hydroxy-3-phenyl pyrazine. Our results also indicated that CE21 and CE22 were able to degrade caffeine, salicylic acid and chloramphenicol. Moreover, CE21 was found to be capable of eliminating sulfamethoxazole and naproxen. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Sewage sludge ash (SSA in high performance concrete: characterization and application

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. M. A. Fontes

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Sewage sludge originated from the process of treatment of wastewater has become an environmental issue for three main reasons: contains pathogens, heavy metals and organic compounds that are harmful to the environmental and human health; high volumes are daily generated; and shortage of landfill sites for proper disposal. This research deals with the viability study of sewage sludge utilization, after calcination process, as mineral admixture in the production of concrete. High-performance concretes were produced with replacement content of 5% and 10% by weight of Portland cement with sewage sludge ash (SSA. The influence of this ash was analyzed through physical and mechanical tests. Analysis showed that the mixtures containing SSA have lower values of compressive strength than the reference. The results of absorptivity, porosity and accelerated penetration of chloride ions, presents that mixtures containing ash showed reductions compared to the reference. This indicates that SSA provided refinement of the pore structure, which was confirmed by mercury intrusion porosimetry test.

  17. METABOLITE CHARACTERIZATION IN SERUM SAMPLES FROM ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

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    fasting 10 mL of blood sample from each individual was taken and was allowed to clot in plastic tube for 2 h at room temperature. The serum was collected by centrifugation. The samples were stored under liquid nitrogen for NMR analysis. Before NMR analysis, 600 µL of the samples were taken in a 5 mm high quality NMR ...

  18. Sustainable pyrolytic sludge-char preparation on improvement of closed-loop sewage sludge treatment: Characterization and combined in-situ application.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Zhengyu; Chang, Fengmin; Meng, Fanlin; Wang, Cuiping; Meng, Yao; Liu, Xiaoji; Wu, Jing; Zuo, Jiane; Wang, Kaijun

    2017-10-01

    Aiming at closed-loop sustainable sewage sludge treatment, an optimal and economical pyrolytic temperature was found at 400-450 °C considering its pyrolysis efficiency of 65%, fast cracking of hydrocarbons, proteins and lipids and development of aromatized porous structure. Fourier-transform infrared (FTIR) and X-ray diffraction (XRD) tests demonstrated the development of adsorptive functional groups and crystallographic phases of adsorptive minerals. The optimal sludge-char, with a medium specific surface area of 39.6 m 2  g -1 and an iodine number of 327 mgI 2 g -1 , performed low heavy metals lixiviation. The application of sludge-char in raw sewage could remove 30% of soluble chemical oxygen demand (SCOD), along with an acetic acid adsorption capacity of 18.0 mg g -1 . The developed mesopore and/or macropore structures, containing rich acidic and basic functional groups, led to good biofilm matrices for enhanced microbial activities and improved autotrophic nitrification in anoxic stage of an A/O reactor through adsorbed extra carbon source, and hence achieved the total nitrogen (TN) removal up to 50.3%. It is demonstrated that the closed-loop sewage sludge treatment that incorporates pyrolytic sludge-char into in-situ biological sewage treatment can be a promising sustainable strategy by further optimization. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Analytical characterization of high-level mixed wastes using multiple sample preparation treatments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    King, A.G.; Baldwin, D.L.; Urie, M.W.; McKinley, S.G.

    1994-01-01

    The Analytical Chemistry Laboratory at the Pacific Northwest Laboratory in Richland, Washington, is actively involved in performing analytical characterization of high-level mixed waste from Hanford's single shell and double shell tank characterization programs. A full suite of analyses is typically performed on homogenized tank core samples. These analytical techniques include inductively-coupled plasma-atomic emission spectroscopy, total organic carbon methods and radiochemistry methods, as well as many others, all requiring some type of remote sample-preparation treatment to solubilize the tank sludge material for analysis. Most of these analytical methods typically use a single sample-preparation treatment, inherently providing elemental information only. To better understand and interpret tank chemistry and assist in identifying chemical compounds, selected analytical methods are performed using multiple sample-preparation treatments. The sample preparation treatments used at Pacific Northwest Laboratory for this work with high-level mixed waste include caustic fusion, acid digestion, and water leach. The type of information available by comparing results from different sample-prep treatments includes evidence for the presence of refractory compounds, acid-soluble compounds, or water-soluble compounds. Problems unique to the analysis of Hanford tank wastes are discussed. Selected results from the Hanford single shell ferrocyanide tank, 241-C-109, are presented, and the resulting conclusions are discussed

  20. A critical review of nuclear activation techniques for the determination of trace elements in atmospheric aerosols, particulates and sludge samples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dams, R.

    1992-01-01

    Activation analysis is one of the major techniques for the determination of many minor and trace elements in a large variety of solid environmental and pollution samples, such as atmospheric aerosols, particulate emissions, fly ash, coal, incineration ash and sewage sludge, etc. Neutron activation analysis of total, inhalable or respirable airborne particulate matter collected on a filter or in a cascade impactor on some substrate, is very popular. By Instrumental Neutron Activation Analysis (INAA) up to 45 elements can be determined. The irradiation and counting procedures can be adapted to optimize the sensitivity for particular elements. The precision is largely governed by counting statistics and a high accuracy can be obtained after calibration with multi-elemental standards. Radiochemical Neutron Activation Analysis (RNAA) is applied only when extremely low limits of determination are required. Instrumental Photon Activation Analysis (IPAA) is complementary to INAA, since some elements of environmental interest can be determined which do not produce appropriate radionuclides by neutron irradiation. Charged Particle Activation Analysis (CPAA) is used in particular circumstances such as for certification purposes or coupled to radiochemical separations for extremely low concentrations. (author)

  1. Laboratory stabilization/solidification of surrogate and actual mixed-waste sludge in glass and grout

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spence, R.D.; Gilliam, T.M.; Mattus, C.H.; Mattus, A.J.

    1998-01-01

    Grouting and vitrification are currently the most likely stabilization/solidification technologies for mixed wastes. Grouting has been used to stabilize and solidify hazardous and low-level waste for decades. Vitrification has long been developed as a high-level-waste alternative and has been under development recently as an alternative treatment technology for low-level mixed waste. Laboratory testing has been performed to develop grout and vitrification formulas for mixed-waste sludges currently stored in underground tanks at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) and to compare these waste forms. Envelopes, or operating windows, for both grout and soda-lime-silica glass formulations for a surrogate sludge were developed. One formulation within each envelope was selected for testing the sensitivity of performance to variations (±10 wt%) in the waste form composition and variations in the surrogate sludge composition over the range previously characterized in the sludges. In addition, one sludge sample of an actual mixed-waste tank was obtained, a surrogate was developed for this sludge sample, and grout and glass samples were prepared and tested in the laboratory using both surrogate and the actual sludge. The sensitivity testing of a surrogate tank sludge in selected glass and grout formulations is discussed in this paper, along with the hot-cell testing of an actual tank sludge sample

  2. Characterization and transformation of an industrial by-product (coated paper sludge into a pozzolanic material

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    San José, J. T.

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available The effective re-use of industrial by-products calls for an understanding of their chemical, mineralogical and physical characteristics. The by-product used in this study was coated paper industry sludge from a plant whose sole prime material is recycled paper. Due to its high organic and calcium carbonate content and the presence of several clayey materials such as talc and kaolinite, incineration conditions had a significant effect on the mineralogy of such sludge. The present study examined the impact of such conditions on the pozzolanic properties of coated paper sludge. Several temperature intervals ranging from 600 to 750 ºC were studied to determine the conditions yielding the most promising pozzolanic properties.La necesidad de dar un correcto uso a los subproductos industriales requiere del conocimiento de sus características, tanto desde un punto de vista químico como mineralógico y físico. El subproducto utilizado para esta investigación es un lodo de papel estucado procedente de la industria papelera, la cual usa como materias primas un 100% de material reciclado. Debido al alto contenido de materia orgánica y carbonato cálcico y a la presencia de diferentes materiales arcillosos, como el talco y la caolinita, las condiciones de calcinación presentan un papel principal en la mineralogía de este lodo. En el actual trabajo se considera el papel que juegan estas condiciones, tiempo y permanencia en horno, en las propiedades puzolánicas del lodo de papel estucado como material cementante. Por esta razón, se estudiaron diferentes intervalos de temperatura, entre 600 y 750 ºC y 2 horas de permanencia en horno con el objetivo de obtener las mejores propiedades puzolánicas.

  3. Sludge Washing And Demonstration Of The DWPF Flowsheet In The SRNL Shielded Cells For Sludge Batch 8 Qualification

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pareizs, J. M.; Crawford, C. L.

    2013-04-26

    The current Waste Solidification Engineering (WSE) practice is to prepare sludge batches in Tank 51 by transferring sludge from other tanks to Tank 51. Tank 51 sludge is washed and transferred to Tank 40, the current Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) feed tank. Prior to transfer of Tank 51 to Tank 40, the Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) typically simulates the Tank Farm and DWPF processes using a Tank 51 sample (referred to as the qualification sample). WSE requested the SRNL to perform characterization on a Sludge Batch 8 (SB8) sample and demonstrate the DWPF flowsheet in the SRNL shielded cells for SB8 as the final qualification process required prior to SB8 transfer from Tank 51 to Tank 40. A 3-L sample from Tank 51 (the SB8 qualification sample; Tank Farm sample HTF-51-12-80) was received by SRNL on September 20, 2012. The as-received sample was characterized prior to being washed. The washed material was further characterized and used as the material for the DWPF process simulation including a Sludge Receipt and Adjustment Tank (SRAT) cycle, a Slurry Mix Evaporator (SME) cycle, and glass fabrication and chemical durability measurements.

  4. Microbiological and molecular characterization of an isolated strain of digested sludge from a wastewater treatment plant and processed by gamma rays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tekaya, Amina

    2015-01-01

    In this work, it was so particularly interested in exploring cultivable bacteria isolated from a digested sludge of an anaerobic digester. The characterization of the bacteria is determined by: The classic microbiology and molecular biology, with a study of radio-resistance profile of these bacteria.

  5. Molecular characterization of anaerobic sulfur-oxidizing microbial communities in up-flow anaerobic sludge blanket reactor treating municipal sewage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aida, Azrina A; Hatamoto, Masashi; Yamamoto, Masamitsu; Ono, Shinya; Nakamura, Akinobu; Takahashi, Masanobu; Yamaguchi, Takashi

    2014-11-01

    A novel wastewater treatment system consisting of an up-flow anaerobic sludge blanket (UASB) reactor and a down-flow hanging sponge (DHS) reactor with sulfur-redox reaction was developed for treatment of municipal sewage under low-temperature conditions. In the UASB reactor, a novel phenomenon of anaerobic sulfur oxidation occurred in the absence of oxygen, nitrite and nitrate as electron acceptors. The microorganisms involved in anaerobic sulfur oxidation have not been elucidated. Therefore, in this study, we studied the microbial communities existing in the UASB reactor that probably enhanced anaerobic sulfur oxidation. Sludge samples collected from the UASB reactor before and after sulfur oxidation were used for cloning and terminal restriction fragment length polymorphism (T-RFLP) analysis of the 16S rRNA genes of the bacterial and archaeal domains. The microbial community structures of bacteria and archaea indicated that the genus Smithella and uncultured bacteria within the phylum Caldiserica were the dominant bacteria groups. Methanosaeta spp. was the dominant group of the domain archaea. The T-RFLP analysis, which was consistent with the cloning results, also yielded characteristic fingerprints for bacterial communities, whereas the archaeal community structure yielded stable microbial community. From these results, it can be presumed that these major bacteria groups, genus Smithella and uncultured bacteria within the phylum Caldiserica, probably play an important role in sulfur oxidation in UASB reactors. Copyright © 2014 The Society for Biotechnology, Japan. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Carbon-14 in sludge

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fowler, J.R.; Coleman, C.J.

    1983-01-01

    The level of C-14 in high-level waste is needed to establish the amount of C-14 that will be released to the environment either as off-gas from the Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) or as a component of saltstone. Available experimental data confirmed a low level of C-14 in soluble waste, but no data was available for sludge. Based on the processes used in each area, Purex LAW sludge in F-area and HM HAW sludge in H-area will contain the bulk of any sludge produced by the cladding. Accordingly, samples from Tank 8F containing Purex LAW and Tank 15H containing HM HAW were obtained and analyzed for C-14. These two waste types constitute approximately 70% of the total sludge inventory now stored in the waste tanks. Results from analyses of these two sludge types show: the total C-14 inventory in sludge now stored in the waste tanks is 6.8 Ci; C-14 releases to the atmosphere from the DWPF will average approximately 0.6 Ci annually at the projected sludge processing rate in the DWPF. 4 references, 2 tables

  7. CHARACTERIZATION OF THE SLUDGE OF IBN ZIAD CONSTANTINE SEWAGE TREATMENT PLANT FOR ITS LANDSPREADING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    WASSILA CHEURFI

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to determine the content of metals elements in the sludge of Ibn Ziad sewage treatment plant of Constantine in order to preserve its quality for subsequent use in agriculture. The use of X-ray fluorescence spectroscopy allowed us to identify the following constituents in this mud: Mg, Al, Si, P, S, Cl, K, Ca, Ti, V, Cr, Mn Fe, Ni, Cu, Zn, Ga, As, Se, Br, Rb, Sr, Y, Zr, Ba, Pb. These elements represent 49.82 % of the total mass of the sludge. The elements present with regulated content limit are chromium, copper, nickel, lead and zinc. They occur respectively with the following concentrations: 0.27 mg·g-1, 0.48 mg·g-1, 0.11 mg·g-1, 0.35 mg·g-1 and 2.70 mg·g-1. We have achieved an extraction for evaluating the concentration of the dissolved nitrate ions, the chemical oxygen demand (COD, and pH. The nitrate ions were transformed into sodium paranitrosalicylate to be dosed by ultraviolet-visible (UV-Vis spectroscopy at 420 nm. The concentration measured was 0.12 mg·g-1. The measuring of the COD issued a value of 0.45 mg·g-1. pH was 7.1.

  8. Chemical characterization of vermicompost of sewage sludge with different proportions of diatomaceous material

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabíola M. Braga

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT The pursuit for waste recovery has been the best way to contribute to environmental sustainability. The mix of sewage sludge (SS from Sewage Treatment Plant with diatomaceous material containing oil (DE, used as a filter in biofuel production, can form a substrate rich in minerals and organic matter through vermicomposting. Therefore, this study aimed to produce vermicompost using worms, Eisenia foetida, from a pre-compost (PC of sewage sludge and garden pruning residues mixed with different proportions of DE in relation to PC: 0; 7.53; 15.06; 22.59; and 30.12% v/v. The design was randomized complete blocks with five treatment replicates. The chemical characteristics of the vermicompost were analyzed after a period of four months. The proportion of up to 30.12% v/v of DE met the criteria established for agriculture uses, registration and marketing of the product as organic compost in accordance with the Normative Instructions SDA 27/2006 and 25/2009 from the Ministry of Agriculture.

  9. Analysis of Pharmaceutical and Personal Care Compounds in Wastewater Sludge and Aqueous Samples using GC-MS/MS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhong, Lirong [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Mitroshkov, Alexandre V. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Gilmore, Tyler J. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)

    2016-03-15

    The Bioenergy Program at Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) is evaluating the feasibility of converting wastewater sludge materials to fuels. Wastewater sludge from various municipalities will be used in the evaluation process and as with any municipal waste, there is the potential for residual contaminates to remain in the sludge following wastewater treatment. Many surveys and studies have confirmed the presence of pharmaceuticals in municipal wastewater and effluents (World Health Organization, 2011). Determination of the presence and concentrations of the contaminants is required to define the proper handling of this sludge. A list of targeted compounds was acquired from the literature and an analytical method was developed for the pharmaceutical and personal care compounds. The presence of organics complicated the analytical techniques and, in some cases, the precision of the results. However, residual concentrations of a range of compounds were detected in the wastewater sludge and the presence and concentrations of these compounds will be considered in identifying the appropriate handling of this material in conduct of research.

  10. Sample preparation and characterization of technetium metal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Minato, Kazuo; Serizawa, Hiroyuki; Fukuda, Kousaku; Itoh, Mitsuo

    1997-10-01

    Technetium-99 is a long-lived fission product with a half-life of about 2.1 x 10 5 years, which decays by β-emission. For the transmutation of 99 Tc, research on solid technetium was started. Technetium metal powder purchased was analyzed by X-ray diffraction, γ-ray spectrometry, and inductively coupled plasma-atomic emission spectrometry and -mass spectrometry. The lattice parameters obtained were agreed with the reported values. The metallic impurity was about 15 ppm, where aluminum and iron contributed mainly. No impurity nuclide with γ-emission was found. Using the technetium metal powder, button-, rod-, and disk-shaped samples of technetium metal were prepared by arc-melting technique. Thermal diffusivity of technetium metal was measured on a disk sample from room temperature to 1173 K by laser flash method. The thermal diffusivity decreased with increasing temperature though it was almost constant above 600 K. (author)

  11. A laboratory study of washing of SRS high-level waste radioactive sludge-evidence for insoluble sodium and cesium-137

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hay, M.S.; Bibler, N.E.

    1994-01-01

    Experiments in the Shielded Cells at the Savannah River Technology Center were undertaken to simulate the full-scale sludge washing process and thereby identify potential problems, wash water requirements, sludge settling rates and the fate of various radioactive and non-radioactive species present in the sludge. The laboratory sludge washing experiments were conducted on a radioactive sludge sample taken from one of three processing tanks in Extended Sludge Processing. The sample of Tank 42H sludge was extensively characterized for both soluble and insoluble species (radioactive and non-radioactive) before beginning the washing study. The results of the washing experiments using inhibited water (0.01 M NaOH) indicate there is essentially no dissolution of species from the insoluble phase of the sludge during the washing. The addition of wash water to the sludge merely dilutes the salt dissolved in the interstitial supernate of the sludge. Another result from the experiments is that approximately 30% of the sodium and 86% of the Cs-137 in the original unwashed sludge is present in an insoluble form and does not wash out of the sludge

  12. Fermentation and chemical treatment of pulp and paper mill sludge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Yoon Y; Wang, Wei; Kang, Li

    2014-12-02

    A method of chemically treating partially de-ashed pulp and/or paper mill sludge to obtain products of value comprising taking a sample of primary sludge from a Kraft paper mill process, partially de-ashing the primary sludge by physical means, and further treating the primary sludge to obtain the products of value, including further treating the resulting sludge and using the resulting sludge as a substrate to produce cellulase in an efficient manner using the resulting sludge as the only carbon source and mixtures of inorganic salts as the primary nitrogen source, and including further treating the resulting sludge and using the resulting sludge to produce ethanol.

  13. Physicochemical characterization of sludge obtained in a UASB reactor: influence on the energetic utilization in the pyrolysis process; Caracterizacao fisico-quimica de lodo obtido em um reator UASB: influencia no aproveitamento energetico em processo de pirolise

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carvalho, Murillo Barros de [Universidade Federal do Tocantins (UFT), Palmas, TO (Brazil)], Email: murillopur@yahoo.com.br; Vieira, Glaucia Eliza Gama; Cardoso, Aderlanio da Silva; Silveira, Dyego Amaral; Figueiredo, Radson Lima [Universidade Federal do Tocantins (LEDBIO/UFT), Palmas, TO (Brazil). Lab. de Ensaios e Desenvolvimento de Biomassas e Biocombustiveis

    2010-07-01

    In biological treatment processes of domestic sewer it leaves of the organic matter is converted and another is absorbed being part of the microbial biomass denominated generic of mud biological or secondary composed mainly of biological solids, and that for that reason can also be denominated of sewage sludge. To give a maintainable final destiny for that residue has been one of the great challenges of the sanitation in the last years. Great part of that material is destined unproductive some are incinerated, others are disposed in sanitary embankments. This work had as objective the physiochemical characterization of the digested sludge, virgin and free from oxide of calcium (CaO), produced in the reactor UASB, of ETE Vila Uniao located in the city of Palmas-TO, for the destination as raw material for energy use in pyrolysis process. The collected sample was taken drought and stabilized to be analyzed at the laboratory LEDBIO/UFT where they were studied the particle, tenor of ashes, humidity and volatile density and sequential extraction for soxhlet. Found in the biomass loud tenor of volatile (56,72%), carbon fastens low (5,21%) and a considerable tenor of ashes (32,78%), what suggests that that sludge, in agreement with the comparisons of the literature, can obtain good incomes in pyrolysis process, especially incomes in bio-oil and coal. (author)

  14. Metabolite characterization in serum samples from normal healthy ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Metabolite characterization in serum samples from normal healthy human subjects by 1H and 13C NMR spectroscopy. D Misra, U Bajpai. Abstract. One and two dimensional NMR spectroscopy has been employed to characterize the various metabolites of serum control healthy samples. Two dimensional heteronuclear ...

  15. PIXE analysis applied to characterized water samples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Santos, Maristela S.; Carneiro, Luana Gomes; Medeiros, Geiza; Sampaio, Camilla; Martorell, Ana Beatriz Targino; Gouvea, Stella; Cunha, Kenya Moore Dias da

    2011-01-01

    Araxa, in Brazil, is a naturally high background area located in the State of Minas Gerais with a population of about 93 672 people. Araxa is historical city famous for its mineral water sources and mud from Termas de Araxa spa, which have been used for therapeutic, and recreation purposes. Other important aspect of economy of the city are mining and metallurgic industries. In the Araxa area is located the largest deposit of pyrochlore, a niobium mineral, and also a deposit of apatite, a phosphate mineral both containing Th and U associated to crystal lattice. The minerals are obtained from open pit mines, the minerals are processed in industrial also located in city of Araxa, these plants process the pyrochlore and apatite to obtain the Fe-Nb alloy and the concentrate of phosphate, respectively. Studies were developed in this area to assessment the occupational risk of the workers due to exposure to dust particles during the routine working, however very few studies evaluated the water contamination outside the mines in order to determine the metal (stables elements) concentrations in water and also the concentrations of the radionuclides in water. This paper presents the previous results of a study to identify and determine the concentrations of metals (stables elements) and radionuclides in river around the city. The water from these rivers is used as drinking water and irrigation water. The water samples were collected in different rivers around the Araxa city and the samples were analyzed using PIXE technique. A proton beam of 2 MeV obtained from the van de Graaff electrostatic accelerator was used to induce the characteristic X-rays. S, K, Ca, Cr, Mn, Fe, Ni, Zn, Ba, Pb and U were identified in the mass spectrum of the samples. The elemental mass concentrations were compared using a non-parametric statistical test. The results of the statistical test showed that the elemental mass concentrations did not present the same distribution. These results indicated

  16. Characterization, Leaching, and Filtration Testing for Tributyl Phosphate (TBP, Group 7) Actual Waste Sample Composites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Edwards, Matthew K.; Billing, Justin M.; Blanchard, David L.; Buck, Edgar C.; Casella, Amanda J.; Casella, Andrew M.; Crum, J. V.; Daniel, Richard C.; Draper, Kathryn E.; Fiskum, Sandra K.; Jagoda, Lynette K.; Jenson, Evan D.; Kozelisky, Anne E.; MacFarlan, Paul J.; Peterson, Reid A.; Shimskey, Rick W.; Snow, Lanee A.; Swoboda, Robert G.

    2009-03-09

    .A testing program evaluating actual tank waste was developed in response to Task 4 from the M-12 External Flowsheet Review Team (EFRT) issue response plan. The bulk water-insoluble solid wastes that are anticipated to be delivered to the Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (WTP) were identified according to type such that the actual waste testing could be targeted to the relevant categories. Eight broad waste groupings were defined. Samples available from the 222S archive were identified and obtained for testing. The actual waste-testing program included homogenizing the samples by group, characterizing the solids and aqueous phases, and performing parametric leaching tests. The tributyl phosphate sludge (TBP, Group 7) is the subject of this report. The Group 7 waste was anticipated to be high in phosphorus as well as aluminum in the form of gibbsite. Both are believed to exist in sufficient quantities in the Group 7 waste to address leaching behavior. Thus, the focus of the Group 7 testing was on the removal of both P and Al. The waste-type definition, archived sample conditions, homogenization activities, characterization (physical, chemical, radioisotope, and crystal habit), and caustic leaching behavior as functions of time, temperature, and hydroxide concentration are discussed in this report. Testing was conducted according to TP-RPP-WTP-467.

  17. Enhanced biological phosphorus removal. Carbon sources, nitrate as electron acceptor, and characterization of the sludge community

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Christensson, M

    1997-10-01

    Enhanced biological phosphorus removal (EBPR) was studied in laboratory scale experiments as well as in a full scale EBPR process. The studies were focused on carbon source transformations, the use of nitrate as an electron acceptor and characterisation of the microflora. A continuous anaerobic/aerobic laboratory system was operated on synthetic wastewater with acetate as sole carbon source. An efficient EBPR was obtained and mass balances over the anaerobic reactor showed a production of 1.45 g poly-{beta}-hydroxyalcanoic acids (PHA), measured as chemical oxygen demand (COD), per g of acetic acid (as COD) taken up. Furthermore, phosphate was released in the anaerobic reactor in a ratio of 0.33 g phosphorus (P) per g PHA (COD) formed and 0.64 g of glycogen (COD) was consumed per g of acetic acid (COD) taken up. Microscopic investigations revealed a high amount of polyphosphate accumulating organisms (PAO) in the sludge. Isolation and characterisation of bacteria indicated Acinetobacter spp. to be abundant in the sludge, while sequencing of clones obtained in a 16S rDNA clone library showed a large part of the bacteria to be related to the high mole % G+C Gram-positive bacteria and only a minor fraction to be related to the gamma-subclass of proteobacteria to which Acinetobacter belongs. Operation of a similar anaerobic/aerobic laboratory system with ethanol as sole carbon source showed that a high EBPR can be achieved with this compound as carbon source. However, a prolonged detention time in the anaerobic reactor was required. PHA were produced in the anaerobic reactor in an amount of 1.24 g COD per g of soluble DOC taken up, phosphate was released in an amount of 0.4-0.6 g P per g PHA (COD) produced and 0.46 g glycogen (COD) was consumed per g of soluble COD taken up. Studies of the EBPR in the UCT process at the sewage treatment plant in Helsingborg, Sweden, showed the amount of volatile fatty acids (VFA) available to the PAO in the anaerobic stage to be

  18. Characterization sampling equipment status report - April through June 1996

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blanchard, R.J.

    1996-01-01

    This report is the third status report on Characterization Sampling Equipment. It covers April through June 1996 activities. Subsequent reports are intended to be issued quarterly. The degree of success in sample recovery and in the availability of equipment to take samples is reported on as are the measures being taken to track and improve recovery and availability. Planned activities are also presented

  19. Predicting the degradability of waste activated sludge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Richard; Parker, Wayne; Zhu, Henry; Houweling, Dwight; Murthy, Sudhir

    2009-08-01

    The objective of this study was to identify methods for estimating anaerobic digestibility of waste activated sludge (WAS). The WAS streams were generated in three sequencing batch reactors (SBRs) treating municipal wastewater. The wastewater and WAS properties were initially determined through simulation of SBR operation with BioWin (EnviroSim Associates Ltd., Flamborough, Ontario, Canada). Samples of WAS from the SBRs were subsequently characterized through respirometry and batch anaerobic digestion. Respirometry was an effective tool for characterizing the active fraction of WAS and could be a suitable technique for determining sludge composition for input to anaerobic models. Anaerobic digestion of the WAS revealed decreasing methane production and lower chemical oxygen demand removals as the SRT of the sludge increased. BioWin was capable of accurately describing the digestion of the WAS samples for typical digester SRTs. For extended digestion times (i.e., greater than 30 days), some degradation of the endogenous decay products was assumed to achieve accurate simulations for all sludge SRTs.

  20. Sampling optimization for printer characterization by direct search.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bianco, Simone; Schettini, Raimondo

    2012-12-01

    Printer characterization usually requires many printer inputs and corresponding color measurements of the printed outputs. In this brief, a sampling optimization for printer characterization on the basis of direct search is proposed to maintain high color accuracy with a reduction in the number of characterization samples required. The proposed method is able to match a given level of color accuracy requiring, on average, a characterization set cardinality which is almost one-fourth of that required by the uniform sampling, while the best method in the state of the art needs almost one-third. The number of characterization samples required can be further reduced if the proposed algorithm is coupled with a sequential optimization method that refines the sample values in the device-independent color space. The proposed sampling optimization method is extended to deal with multiple substrates simultaneously, giving statistically better colorimetric accuracy (at the α = 0.05 significance level) than sampling optimization techniques in the state of the art optimized for each individual substrate, thus allowing use of a single set of characterization samples for multiple substrates.

  1. Isolation and Characterization of PHA-Producing Bacteria from Propylene Oxide Saponification Wastewater Residual Sludge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Ruirui; Gu, Pengfei; Fan, Xiangyu; Shen, Junyu; Wu, Yulian; Huang, Lixuan; Li, Qiang

    2018-03-21

    A polyhydroxyalkanoate (PHA)-producing strain was isolated from propylene oxide (PO) saponification wastewater activated sludge and was identified as Brevundimonas vesicularis UJN1 through 16S rDNA sequencing and Biolog microbiological identification. Single-factor and response surface methodology experiments were used to optimize the culture medium and conditions. The optimal C/N ratio was 100/1.04, and the optimal carbon and nitrogen sources were sucrose (10 g/L) and NH 4 Cl (0.104 g/L) respectively. The optimal culture conditions consisted of initial pH of 6.7 and an incubation temperature of 33.4 °C for 48 h, with 15% inoculum and 100 mL medium at an agitation rate of 180 rpm. The PHA concentration reached 34.1% of the cell dry weight and increased three times compared with that before optimization. The only report of PHA-producing bacteria by Brevundimonas vesicularis showed that the conversion rate of PHAs using glucose as the optimal carbon source was 1.67%. In our research, the conversion rate of PHAs with sucrose as the optimal carbon source was 3.05%, and PHA production using sucrose as the carbon source was much cheaper than that using glucose as the carbon source.

  2. SLUDGE WASHING AND DEMONSTRATION OF THE DWPF FLOWSHEET IN THE SRNL SHIELDED CELLS FOR SLUDGE BATCH 7A QUALIFICATION

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pareizs, J.; Billings, A.; Click, D.

    2011-07-08

    Waste Solidification Engineering (WSE) has requested that characterization and a radioactive demonstration of the next batch of sludge slurry (Sludge Batch 7a*) be completed in the Shielded Cells Facility of the Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) via a Technical Task Request (TTR). This characterization and demonstration, or sludge batch qualification process, is required prior to transfer of the sludge from Tank 51 to the Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) feed tank (Tank 40). The current WSE practice is to prepare sludge batches in Tank 51 by transferring sludge from other tanks. Discharges of nuclear materials from H Canyon are often added to Tank 51 during sludge batch preparation. The sludge is washed and transferred to Tank 40, the current DWPF feed tank. Prior to transfer of Tank 51 to Tank 40, SRNL simulates the Tank Farm and DWPF processes with a Tank 51 sample (referred to as the qualification sample). Sludge Batch 7a (SB7a) is composed of portions of Tanks 4, 7, and 12; the Sludge Batch 6 heel in Tank 51; and a plutonium stream from H Canyon. SRNL received the Tank 51 qualification sample (sample ID HTF-51-10-125) following sludge additions to Tank 51. This report documents: (1) The washing (addition of water to dilute the sludge supernate) and concentration (decanting of supernate) of the SB7a - Tank 51 qualification sample to adjust sodium content and weight percent insoluble solids to Tank Farm projections. (2) The performance of a DWPF Chemical Process Cell (CPC) simulation using the washed Tank 51 sample. The simulation included a Sludge Receipt and Adjustment Tank (SRAT) cycle, where acid was added to the sludge to destroy nitrite and reduce mercury, and a Slurry Mix Evaporator (SME) cycle, where glass frit was added to the sludge in preparation for vitrification. The SME cycle also included replication of five canister decontamination additions and concentrations. Processing parameters were based on work with a non

  3. Characterization of Samples from Old Solvent Tanks S1 through S22

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leyba, J.D.

    1999-03-25

    The Old Radioactive Waste Burial Ground (ORWBG, 643-E) contains 22 old solvent tanks (S1 - S22) which were used to receive and store spent PUREX solvent from F- and H-Canyons. The tanks are cylindrical, carbon-steel, single-wall vessels buried at varying depths. A detailed description of the tanks and their history can be found in Reference 1. A Sampling and Analysis Plan for the characterization of the material contained in the old solvent tanks was developed by the Analytical Development Section (ADS) in October of 19972. The Sampling and Analysis Plan identified several potential disposal facilities for the organic and aqueous phases present in the old solvent tanks which included the Solvent Storage Tank Facility (SSTF), the Mixed Waste Storage Facilities (MWSF), Transuranic (TRU) Pad, and/or the Consolidated Incineration Facility (CIF). In addition, the 241-F/H Tank Farms, TRU Pads, and/or the MWSF were identified as potential disposal facilities for the sludge phases present in the tanks. The purpose of this sampling and characterization was to obtain sufficient data on the material present in the old solvent tanks so that a viable path forward could be established for the closure of the tanks. Therefore, the parameters chosen for the characterization of the various materials present in the tanks were based upon the Waste Acceptance Criteria (WAC) of the SSTF3, TRU Pads4, MWSF5, CIF6, and/or 241-F/H Tank Farms7. Several of the WAC's have been revised, canceled, or replaced by new procedures since October of 1997 and hence where required, the results of this characterization program were compared against the latest revision of the appropriate WAC.

  4. Sewage sludges disinfection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alexandre, D.; Gevaudan, P.P.

    1977-01-01

    There is a hygienic risk in using biological sewage sludges for agriculture. Systematic analyses carried out on sludge samples obtained from purification plants in the Eastern and Southern part of France, show the almost uniform presence of pathogenic microorganisms. Some of them survive more than nine months after application to the soil. Conventional processes for disinfection, liming and heat, make the sludge unsuitable for agricultural use. On the other hand, irradiation involves no modification of structure and composition of sludges. Radiation doses required for disinfection vary according to the type of microorganism. Some of them are eliminated at rather low doses (200 krad), but mycobacteria, viruses and eggs of worms resist to more important doses. The security dose is estimated to be approx. 1000 krad

  5. Effect of bioleaching on hydrogen-rich gas production by steam gasification of sewage sludge

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, Hanhui; Chen, Zhihua; Huo, Chan; Hu, Mian; Guo, Dabin; Xiao, Bo

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Bioleaching can modify the physicochemical property of sewage sludge. • The enhancement is mainly hydrogen. • Bioleaching can enhance the gas production in gasification of sewage sludge. • Study provides an insight for future application of bioleached sewage sludge. - Abstract: Effect of bioleaching on hydrogen-rich gas production by steam gasification of sewage sludge was carried out in a lab-scale fixed-bed reactor. The influence of sewage sludge solids concentrations (6–14% (w/v) in 2% increments) during the bioleaching process and reactor temperature (600–900 °C in 100 °C increments) on gasification product yields and gas composition were studied. Characterization of samples showed that bioleaching treatment, especially in 6% (w/v) sludge solids concentration, led to metal removal effectively and modifications in the physicochemical property of sewage sludge which was favored for gasification. The maximum gas yield (49.4%) and hydrogen content (46.4%) were obtained at 6% (w/v) sludge solids concentration and reactor temperature of 900 °C. Sewage sludge after the bioleaching treatment may be a feasible feedstock for hydrogen-rich gas product.

  6. Global Perspectives on Activated Sludge Community Composition analyzed using 16S rRNA amplicon sequencing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nierychlo, Marta; Saunders, Aaron Marc; Albertsen, Mads

    communities, and in this study activated sludge sampled from 32 Wastewater Treatment Plants (WWTPs) around the world was described and compared. The top abundant bacteria in the global activated sludge ecosystem were found and the core population shared by multiple samples was investigated. The results......Activated sludge is the most commonly applied bioprocess throughout the world for wastewater treatment. Microorganisms are key to the process, yet our knowledge of their identity and function is still limited. High-througput16S rRNA amplicon sequencing can reliably characterize microbial...

  7. Noncontact inspection laser system for characterization of piezoelectric samples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jimenez, F.J.; Frutos, J. de

    2004-01-01

    In this work measurements on a piezoelectric sample in dynamic behavior were taken, in particular, around the frequencies of resonance for the sample where the nonlineal effects are accentuated. Dimension changes in the sample need to be studied as that will allow a more reliable characterization of the piezoelectric samples. The goal of this research is to develop an inspection system able to obtain measurements, using a noncontact laser displacement transducer, also able to visualize, in three-dimensional graphic environment, the displacement that takes place in a piezoelectric sample surface. In resonant mode, the vibration mode of the sample is visualized

  8. Solid Phase Characterization of Tank 241-C-105 Grab Samples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ely, T. M.; LaMothe, M. E.; Lachut, J. S.

    2016-01-01

    The solid phase characterization (SPC) of three grab samples from single-shell Tank 241-C-105 (C-105) that were received at the laboratory the week of October 26, 2015, has been completed. The three samples were received and broken down in the 11A hot cells.

  9. Microstructural characterization of the γ-TiAl alloy samples ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    A direct laser fabrication technique (DLF) has been used to fabricate near net shape samples of a -TiAl alloy using gas atomized Ti48A148Mn2Nb2 alloy powder as a feed stock material. The microstructures of these Ti48Al48Mn2Nb2 laser treated samples have been characterized using optical, scanning (SEM) and ...

  10. Radioactive contamination of sewage sludge

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Soeder, C.J.; Zanders, E.; Raphael, T.

    1986-01-01

    Because of the radioactivity released through the explosion of the nuclear reactor near Chernobyl radionuclides have been accumulated to a significant extent in sewage sludge in the Federal Republic of Germany. This is demonstrated for samples from four activated sludge plants according to a recent recommendation of the German Commission for Radiation Protection, there is until now no reason to deviate from the common practices of sludge disposal or incineration. The degree of radioactive contamination of plant materials produced on farm lands on which sewage sludge is being spread cannot be estimated with sufficient certainty yet. Additional information is required. (orig.) [de

  11. DETERMINATION OF THE FRACTION OF GIBBSITE AND BOEHMITE FORMS OF ALUMINUM IN TANK 51H SLUDGE

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hay, M; Kofi Adu-Wusu, K; Daniel McCabe, D

    2008-01-01

    The Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) was tasked with developing a test to determine the fraction of the gibbsite and boehmite forms of aluminum in the sludge solids. Knowledge of the fractions of gibbsite and boehmite in the sludge contained in various waste tanks would facilitate better sludge mass reduction estimates and allow better planning/scheduling for sludge batch preparation. The composite sludge sample prepared for use in the test from several small samples remaining from the original 3-L sample appears to be representative of the original sample based on the characterization data. A Gibbsite/Boehmite Test was developed that uses 8 M NaOH and a temperature of 65 C to dissolve aluminum. The soluble aluminum concentration data collected during the test indicates that, for the three standards containing gibbsite, all of the gibbsite dissolved in approximately 2 hours. Under the test conditions boehmite dissolved at more than an order of magnitude more slowly than gibbsite. An estimate based on the soluble aluminum concentration from the sludge sample at two hours into the test indicates the sludge solids contain a form of aluminum that dissolves at a rate similar to the 100% Boehmite standard. Combined with the XRD data from the original 3-L sample, these results provide substantial evidence that the boehmite form of aluminum predominates in the sludge. A calculation from the results of the Gibbsite/Boehmite test indicates the sludge contains ∼3% gibbsite and ∼97% boehmite. The sludge waste in Tank 51H was recently treated under Low Temperature Aluminum Dissolution (LTAD) conditions and a substantial fraction of aluminum (i.e., sludge mass) was removed, avoiding production of over 100 glass canisters in Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF). Results of the Gibbsite/Boehmite test indicate that the aluminum in this sludge was in the form of the more difficult to dissolve boehmite form of aluminum. Since boehmite may be the dominant form of

  12. Characterization of sampling behavior for multielements in NIST SRM 2703

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huang Donghui; Sun Hongchao; Ni Bangfa; Tian Weizhi; Wang Pingsheng; Liu CunXiong; Zhang Guiying; Xiao Caijin; Zhang Haiqing; Zhao Changjun; Zhang Yuanxun

    2011-01-01

    Sampling behavior of multielements for NIST SRM 2703, a marine sediment, was studied with sample sizes from 1 mg down to ng level by a combination of INAA, PIXE and SRXRF. On 1 mg sample size level, sampling behavior for multielements in NIST SRM 2703 and its parent SRM 2702 were comparatively characterized by using INAA combining with Ingamells model. Results showed that sampling uncertainties for 12 elements of both materials were found to be better than 1%, and those of four other elements in SRM 2703 better than in SRM 2702. At sample sizes not able to be accurately weighed (<1 mg), PIXE and SRXRF were used and the effective sample sizes estimated. Sampling uncertainties for nine elements were found to be better than 1% at sample sizes of tenth mg level, and those for six elements better than 10% on ng levels. (author)

  13. Adaptive sampling program support for expedited site characterization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johnson, R.

    1993-01-01

    Expedited site characterizations offer substantial savings in time and money when assessing hazardous waste sites. Key to some of these savings is the ability to adapt a sampling program to the ''real-time'' data generated by an expedited site characterization. This paper presents a two-prong approach to supporting adaptive sampling programs: a specialized object-oriented database/geographical information system for data fusion, management and display; and combined Bayesian/geostatistical methods for contamination extent estimation and sample location selection

  14. TRU Waste Sampling Program: Volume I. Waste characterization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clements, T.L. Jr.; Kudera, D.E.

    1985-09-01

    Volume I of the TRU Waste Sampling Program report presents the waste characterization information obtained from sampling and characterizing various aged transuranic waste retrieved from storage at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory and the Los Alamos National Laboratory. The data contained in this report include the results of gas sampling and gas generation, radiographic examinations, waste visual examination results, and waste compliance with the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant-Waste Acceptance Criteria (WIPP-WAC). A separate report, Volume II, contains data from the gas generation studies

  15. Radiation hygienization of raw sewage sludge

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shah, M.R.; Lavale, D.S.; Rawat, P.; Benny, P.G.; Sharma, A.K.; Dey, G.R.; Bhave, V.

    2001-01-01

    'Radiation treatment of municipal sewage sludge can achieve resource conservation and recovery objectives. The liquid sludge irradiator of Sludge Hygienization Research Irradiator at Baroda (India) was operated for generating data on treatment of raw sludge containing 3-4 % solids. The plant system was modified for irradiating raw sludge without affecting basic irradiator initially designed to treat digested sludge. Hourly samples were analysed for estimation of disinfection dose requirement. Sand separated from the sludge was used as in-situ dosimeter by making use of its thermoluminescence property. Investigations are being carried out for regrowth of Total Coliforms in the sludge samples from this irradiator. Possibility of inadequate treatment due to geometric configuration of irradiator is being checked. (author)

  16. Isolation, identification and characterization of Bacillus amyloliquefaciens BZ-6, a bacterial isolate for enhancing oil recovery from oily sludge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Wuxing; Wang, Xiaobing; Wu, Longhua; Chen, Mengfang; Tu, Chen; Luo, Yongming; Christie, Peter

    2012-06-01

    Over 100 biosurfactant-producing microorganisms were isolated from oily sludge and petroleum-contaminated soil from Shengli oil field in north China. Sixteen of the bacterial isolates produced biosurfactants and reduced the surface tension of the growth medium from 71 to treat oily sludge and the recovery efficiencies of oil from oily sludge were determined. The oil recovery efficiencies of different isolates ranged from 39% to 88%. Bacterial isolate BZ-6 was found to be the most efficient strain and the three phases (oil, water and sediment) were separated automatically after the sludge was treated with the culture medium of BZ-6. Based on morphological, physiological characteristics and molecular identification, isolate BZ-6 was identified as Bacillus amyloliquefaciens. The biosurfactant produced by isolate BZ-6 was purified and analyzed by high performance liquid chromatography-electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry. There were four ion peaks representing four different fengycin A homologues. Copyright © 2012. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  17. Alumina sludge's Influence on the physicochemical characteristics of CPJ55 cement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dahhou M.

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Partial replacement of the Portland cement CPJ55 ingredients by various quantities of alumina sludge (AS, produced during drinking water plant sludge, was used in the preparation of mortar mold with dimensions 40×40×160 mm. The characterization of materials is carried out by X-ray fluorescence (XRF, Xray diffraction (XRD, free lime dosing, and the mechanical tests. Analysis of the chemical composition by XRF shows that the studied alumina sludge is mainly composed of aluminum oxide, silica, which is correlated with the principal mineral phases identified in the XRD analysis results. It is demonstrated that adding 5% of the alumina sludge in Portland cement does not affect the mineralogy of final product. Nevertheless, the compression and flexural strength tests (in 28 days conducted on mortar sample comprising 5% sludge elucidate that it belongs to cement mortar class of type 32.5 R.

  18. Evaluation of Potentially Harmful Substances in Dried Sludge of Isfahan Wastewater Treatment Plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bijan Bina

    2004-05-01

    Thus, taking into account the potential risks caused by presence of heavy metals in sludge and for the control of processes of sludge treatment and disposal and also protect of environmental health and enhauncement of public health level, specially for farmers and consumers of raw crops, needs sampling and characterization of sludge. In the present research concentration of 11 heavy metals and potentially toxic elements in dried sludge of Isfahan South and North and Shahinshahr wastewater treatment plants were determined using standard methods. Samples have been taken from dried sludge of treatment plants, and been measured after being prepared through atomic absorption apparatus and were compared with EPA enacted standards in regulation 40 CFR part 503. As well, fertilizer value parameters of sludge were measured and were compared with standards and guidelines. The results showed that the average concentration of above elements in all three treatment plants, not exceeded from EPA standards, however, regarding the accumulative property of these elements and lack of necessary protective effects of EPA standards, in using these sludges in the agricultural soils, the necessary caution and care should be taken, in other uses of sludges, however, there is no limitation.

  19. Utilization of AMD sludges from the anthracite region of Pennsylvania for removal of phosphorus from wastewater

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sibrell, P.L.; Cravotta, C.A.; Lehman, W.G.; Reichert, W.

    2010-01-01

    Excess phosphorus (P) inputs from human sewage, animal feeding operations, and nonpoint source discharges to the environment have resulted in the eutrophication of sensitive receiving bodies of water such as the Great Lakes and Chesapeake Bay. Phosphorus loads in wastewater discharged from such sources can be decreased by conventional treatment with iron and aluminum salts but these chemical reagents are expensive or impractical for many applications. Acid mine drainage (AMD) sludges are an inexpensive source of iron and aluminum hydrous oxides that could offer an attractive alternative to chemical reagent dosing for the removal of P from local wastewater. Previous investigations have focused on AMD sludges generated in the bituminous coal region of western Pennsylvania, and confirmed that some of those sludges are good sorbents for P over a wide range of operating conditions. In this study, we sampled sludges produced by AMD treatment at six different sites in the anthracite region of Pennsylvania for potential use as P sequestration sorbents. Sludge samples were dried, characterized, and then tested for P removal from water. In addition, the concentrations of acid-extractable metals and other impurities were investigated. Test results revealed that sludges from four of the sites showed good P sorption and were unlikely to add contaminants to treated water. These results indicate that AMD sludges could be beneficially used to sequester P from the environment, while at the same time decreasing the expense of sludge disposal.

  20. Assessment of alternative management techniques of tank bottom petroleum sludge in Oman

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Al-Futaisi, Ahmed; Jamrah, Ahmad; Yaghi, Basma; Taha, Ramzi

    2007-01-01

    This paper investigated several options for environmentally acceptable management techniques of tank bottom oily sludge. In particular, we tested the applicability of managing the sludge by three options: (1) as a fuel supplement; (2) in solidification; (3) as a road material. Environmental testing included determination of heavy metals concentration; toxic organics concentration and radiological properties. The assessment of tank bottom sludge as a fuel supplement included various properties such as proximate analysis, ultimate analysis and energy content. Solidified sludge mixtures and road application sludge mixtures were subjected to leaching using the toxicity characteristic leaching procedure (TCLP). Tank bottom sludge was characterized as having higher concentrations of lead, zinc, and mercury, but lower concentrations of nickel, copper and chromium in comparison with values reported in the literature. Natural occurring radioactive minerals (NORM) activity values obtained on different sludge samples were very low or negligible compared to a NORM standard value of 100 Bq/g. The fuel assessment results indicate that the heating values, the carbon content and the ash content of the sludge samples are comparable with bituminous coal, sewage sludge, meat and bone meal and petroleum coke/coal mixture, but lower than those in car tyres and petroleum coke. The nitrogen content is lower than those fuels mentioned above, while the sulfur content seems comparable with bituminous coal, petroleum coke and a petroleum coke/coal mixture. The apparent lack of leachability of metals from solidification and road material sludge applications suggests that toxic metals and organics introduced to these applications are not readily attacked by weak acid solutions and would not be expected to migrate or dissolved into the water. Thus, in-terms of trace metals and organics, the suggested sludge applications would not be considered hazardous as defined by the TCLP leaching procedure

  1. WRAP Module 1 sampling strategy and waste characterization alternatives study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bergeson, C.L.

    1994-09-30

    The Waste Receiving and Processing Module 1 Facility is designed to examine, process, certify, and ship drums and boxes of solid wastes that have a surface dose equivalent of less than 200 mrem/h. These wastes will include low-level and transuranic wastes that are retrievably stored in the 200 Area burial grounds and facilities in addition to newly generated wastes. Certification of retrievably stored wastes processing in WRAP 1 is required to meet the waste acceptance criteria for onsite treatment and disposal of low-level waste and mixed low-level waste and the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant Waste Acceptance Criteria for the disposal of TRU waste. In addition, these wastes will need to be certified for packaging in TRUPACT-II shipping containers. Characterization of the retrievably stored waste is needed to support the certification process. Characterization data will be obtained from historical records, process knowledge, nondestructive examination nondestructive assay, visual inspection of the waste, head-gas sampling, and analysis of samples taken from the waste containers. Sample characterization refers to the method or methods that are used to test waste samples for specific analytes. The focus of this study is the sample characterization needed to accurately identify the hazardous and radioactive constituents present in the retrieved wastes that will be processed in WRAP 1. In addition, some sampling and characterization will be required to support NDA calculations and to provide an over-check for the characterization of newly generated wastes. This study results in the baseline definition of WRAP 1 sampling and analysis requirements and identifies alternative methods to meet these requirements in an efficient and economical manner.

  2. WRAP Module 1 sampling strategy and waste characterization alternatives study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bergeson, C.L.

    1994-01-01

    The Waste Receiving and Processing Module 1 Facility is designed to examine, process, certify, and ship drums and boxes of solid wastes that have a surface dose equivalent of less than 200 mrem/h. These wastes will include low-level and transuranic wastes that are retrievably stored in the 200 Area burial grounds and facilities in addition to newly generated wastes. Certification of retrievably stored wastes processing in WRAP 1 is required to meet the waste acceptance criteria for onsite treatment and disposal of low-level waste and mixed low-level waste and the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant Waste Acceptance Criteria for the disposal of TRU waste. In addition, these wastes will need to be certified for packaging in TRUPACT-II shipping containers. Characterization of the retrievably stored waste is needed to support the certification process. Characterization data will be obtained from historical records, process knowledge, nondestructive examination nondestructive assay, visual inspection of the waste, head-gas sampling, and analysis of samples taken from the waste containers. Sample characterization refers to the method or methods that are used to test waste samples for specific analytes. The focus of this study is the sample characterization needed to accurately identify the hazardous and radioactive constituents present in the retrieved wastes that will be processed in WRAP 1. In addition, some sampling and characterization will be required to support NDA calculations and to provide an over-check for the characterization of newly generated wastes. This study results in the baseline definition of WRAP 1 sampling and analysis requirements and identifies alternative methods to meet these requirements in an efficient and economical manner

  3. CHARACTERIZATION OF A PRECIPITATE REACTOR FEED TANK (PRFT) SAMPLE FROM THE DEFENSE WASTE PROCESSING FACILITY (DWPF)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Crawford, C.; Bannochie, C.

    2014-05-12

    A sample of from the Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) Precipitate Reactor Feed Tank (PRFT) was pulled and sent to the Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) in June of 2013. The PRFT in DWPF receives Actinide Removal Process (ARP)/ Monosodium Titanate (MST) material from the 512-S Facility via the 511-S Facility. This 2.2 L sample was to be used in small-scale DWPF chemical process cell testing in the Shielded Cells Facility of SRNL. A 1L sub-sample portion was characterized to determine the physical properties such as weight percent solids, density, particle size distribution and crystalline phase identification. Further chemical analysis of the PRFT filtrate and dissolved slurry included metals and anions as well as carbon and base analysis. This technical report describes the characterization and analysis of the PRFT sample from DWPF. At SRNL, the 2.2 L PRFT sample was composited from eleven separate samples received from DWPF. The visible solids were observed to be relatively quick settling which allowed for the rinsing of the original shipping vials with PRFT supernate on the same day as compositing. Most analyses were performed in triplicate except for particle size distribution (PSD), X-ray diffraction (XRD), Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) and thermogravimetric analysis (TGA). PRFT slurry samples were dissolved using a mixed HNO3/HF acid for subsequent Inductively Coupled Plasma Atomic Emission Spectroscopy (ICPAES) and Inductively Coupled Plasma Mass Spectroscopy (ICP-MS) analyses performed by SRNL Analytical Development (AD). Per the task request for this work, analysis of the PRFT slurry and filtrate for metals, anions, carbon and base were primarily performed to support the planned chemical process cell testing and to provide additional component concentrations in addition to the limited data available from DWPF. Analysis of the insoluble solids portion of the PRFT slurry was aimed at detailed characterization of these solids (TGA, PSD

  4. Guided episodic sampling for capturing and characterizing industrial plumes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ou-Yang, Chang-Feng; Liao, Wei-Cheng; Chang, Chih-Chung; Hsieh, Hsin-Cheng; Wang, Jia-Lin

    2018-02-01

    An integrated sampling technique, dubbed trigger sampling, was developed to capture characteristic industrial emissions or plumes. In the field experiment, a hydrogen sulfide (H2S) analyzer was used as the triggering instrument at the boundary of a refinery plant due to frequent complaints of foul smell from local residents. Ten episodic samples were captured when the H2S level surpassed the prescribed trigger level of 8.5 ppbv over a three-day period. Three non-episodic (blank) samples and 23 road-side samples were also collected for comparison. All the 36 flask samples were analyzed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry/flame ionization detection (GC-MS/FID) for 108 volatile organic compounds (VOCs). The total VOC abundance of the event samples was exceedingly higher than the non-episodic samples by over 80 times in the extreme case. Alkanes were found to be the dominant constituents in the event samples, amounting to over 90% of the total VOC concentrations vs. only 30-40% for the blank and metropolitan samples. In addition, light alkanes in the event samples were highly correlated with the trigger species H2S (R2 = 0.82), implying their common origin. The matrix of chemical composition vs. sample types permitted easy visualization of the dominance of light alkanes for the event samples compared to other types of samples. Principle component analysis (PCA) identified two major contributors to cover 93% of the total variance arising from the 36 samples, further quantifying the distinction of the triggered episodic samples from the contrast samples. The proposed trigger sampling is a coupling of fast-and-slow measurement techniques. In this example, the fast-response H2S analyzer served to "guide" sampling to capture industrial plumes which were then characterized by a relatively slow method of GC-MS/FID for detailed chemical composition representative of the prominent sources.

  5. Lipid profiling in sewage sludge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Fenfen; Wu, Xuemin; Zhao, Luyao; Liu, Xiaohui; Qi, Juanjuan; Wang, Xueying; Wang, Jiawei

    2017-06-01

    High value-added reutilization of sewage sludge from wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) is essential in sustainable development in WWTPs. However, despite the advantage of high value reutilization, this process must be based on a detailed study of organics in sludge. We used the methods employed in life sciences to determine the profile of lipids (cellular lipids, free fatty acids (FFAs), and wax/gum) in five sludge samples obtained from three typical WWTPs in Beijing; these samples include one sludge sample from a primary sedimentation tank, two activated sludge samples from two Anaerobic-Anoxic-Oxic (A2/O) tanks, and two activated sludge samples from two membrane bioreactor tanks. The percentage of total raw lipids varied from 2.90% to 12.3%. Sludge from the primary sedimentation tank showed the highest concentrations of lipid, FFA, and wax/gum and the second highest concentration of cellular lipids. All activated sludge contained an abundance of cellular lipids (>54%). Cells in sludge can from plants, animals, microbes and so on in wastewater. Approximately 14 species of cellular lipids were identified, including considerable high value-potential ceramide (9567-38774 mg/kg), coenzyme (937-3897 mg/kg), and some phosphatidylcholine (75-548 mg/kg). The presence of those lipid constituents would thus require a wider range of recovery methods for sludge. Both cellular lipids and FFAs contain an abundance of C16-C18 lipids at high saturation level, and they serve as good resources for biodiesel production. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Analysis Of The Tank 6F Final Characterization Samples-2012

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oji, L. N.; Diprete, D. P.; Coleman, C. J.; Hay, M. S.; Shine, E. P.

    2012-01-01

    The Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) was requested by Savannah River Remediation (SRR) to provide sample preparation and analysis of the Tank 6F final characterization samples to determine the residual tank inventory prior to grouting. Fourteen residual Tank 6F solid samples from three areas on the floor of the tank were collected and delivered to SRNL between May and August 2011. These Tank 6F samples were homogenized and combined into three composite samples based on a proportion compositing scheme and the resulting composite samples were analyzed for radiological, chemical and elemental components. Additional measurements performed on the Tank 6F composite samples include bulk density and water leaching of the solids to account for water soluble components. The composite Tank 6F samples were analyzed and the data reported in triplicate. Sufficient quality assurance standards and blanks were utilized to demonstrate adequate characterization of the Tank 6F samples. The main evaluation criteria were target detection limits specified in the technical task request document. While many of the target detection limits were met for the species characterized for Tank 6F some were not met. In a few cases, the relatively high levels of radioactive species of the same element or a chemically similar element precluded the ability to measure some isotopes to low levels. The isotopes whose detection limits were not met in all cases included Sn-126, Sb-126, Sb-126m, Eu-152, Cm-243 and Cf-249. SRNL, in conjunction with the customer, reviewed all of these cases and determined that the impacts of not meeting the target detection limits were acceptable. Based on the analyses of variance (ANOVA) for the inorganic constituents of Tank 6F, all the inorganic constituents displayed heterogeneity. The inorganic results demonstrated consistent differences across the composite samples: lowest concentrations for Composite Sample 1, intermediate-valued concentrations for Composite

  7. Analysis of the Tank 6F Final Characterization Samples-2012

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oji, L. N.; Diprete, D. P.; Coleman, C. J.; Hay, M. S.; Shine, E. P.

    2013-01-01

    The Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) was requested by Savannah River Remediation (SRR) to provide sample preparation and analysis of the Tank 6F final characterization samples to determine the residual tank inventory prior to grouting. Fourteen residual Tank 6F solid samples from three areas on the floor of the tank were collected and delivered to SRNL between May and August 2011. These Tank 6F samples were homogenized and combined into three composite samples based on a proportion compositing scheme and the resulting composite samples were analyzed for radiological, chemical and elemental components. Additional measurements performed on the Tank 6F composite samples include bulk density and water leaching of the solids to account for water soluble components. The composite Tank 6F samples were analyzed and the data reported in triplicate. Sufficient quality assurance standards and blanks were utilized to demonstrate adequate characterization of the Tank 6F samples. The main evaluation criteria were target detection limits specified in the technical task request document. While many of the target detection limits were met for the species characterized for Tank 6F some were not met. In a few cases, the relatively high levels of radioactive species of the same element or a chemically similar element precluded the ability to measure some isotopes to low levels. The isotopes whose detection limits were not met in all cases included Sn-126, Sb-126, Sb-126m, Eu-152, Cm- 243 and Cf-249. SRNL, in conjunction with the customer, reviewed all of these cases and determined that the impacts of not meeting the target detection limits were acceptable. Based on the analyses of variance (ANOVA) for the inorganic constituents of Tank 6F, all the inorganic constituents displayed heterogeneity. The inorganic results demonstrated consistent differences across the composite samples: lowest concentrations for Composite Sample 1, intermediate-valued concentrations for Composite

  8. ANALYSIS OF THE TANK 6F FINAL CHARACTERIZATION SAMPLES-2012

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oji, L.; Diprete, D.; Coleman, C.; Hay, M.; Shine, G.

    2012-06-28

    The Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) was requested by Savannah River Remediation (SRR) to provide sample preparation and analysis of the Tank 6F final characterization samples to determine the residual tank inventory prior to grouting. Fourteen residual Tank 6F solid samples from three areas on the floor of the tank were collected and delivered to SRNL between May and August 2011. These Tank 6F samples were homogenized and combined into three composite samples based on a proportion compositing scheme and the resulting composite samples were analyzed for radiological, chemical and elemental components. Additional measurements performed on the Tank 6F composite samples include bulk density and water leaching of the solids to account for water soluble components. The composite Tank 6F samples were analyzed and the data reported in triplicate. Sufficient quality assurance standards and blanks were utilized to demonstrate adequate characterization of the Tank 6F samples. The main evaluation criteria were target detection limits specified in the technical task request document. While many of the target detection limits were met for the species characterized for Tank 6F some were not met. In a few cases, the relatively high levels of radioactive species of the same element or a chemically similar element precluded the ability to measure some isotopes to low levels. The isotopes whose detection limits were not met in all cases included Sn-126, Sb-126, Sb-126m, Eu-152, Cm-243 and Cf-249. SRNL, in conjunction with the customer, reviewed all of these cases and determined that the impacts of not meeting the target detection limits were acceptable. Based on the analyses of variance (ANOVA) for the inorganic constituents of Tank 6F, all the inorganic constituents displayed heterogeneity. The inorganic results demonstrated consistent differences across the composite samples: lowest concentrations for Composite Sample 1, intermediate-valued concentrations for Composite

  9. Analysis of the Tank 6F Final Characterization Samples-2012

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oji, L. N.; Diprete, D. P.; Coleman, C. J.; Hay, M. S.; Shine, E. P.

    2013-01-31

    The Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) was requested by Savannah River Remediation (SRR) to provide sample preparation and analysis of the Tank 6F final characterization samples to determine the residual tank inventory prior to grouting. Fourteen residual Tank 6F solid samples from three areas on the floor of the tank were collected and delivered to SRNL between May and August 2011. These Tank 6F samples were homogenized and combined into three composite samples based on a proportion compositing scheme and the resulting composite samples were analyzed for radiological, chemical and elemental components. Additional measurements performed on the Tank 6F composite samples include bulk density and water leaching of the solids to account for water soluble components. The composite Tank 6F samples were analyzed and the data reported in triplicate. Sufficient quality assurance standards and blanks were utilized to demonstrate adequate characterization of the Tank 6F samples. The main evaluation criteria were target detection limits specified in the technical task request document. While many of the target detection limits were met for the species characterized for Tank 6F some were not met. In a few cases, the relatively high levels of radioactive species of the same element or a chemically similar element precluded the ability to measure some isotopes to low levels. The isotopes whose detection limits were not met in all cases included Sn-126, Sb-126, Sb-126m, Eu-152, Cm- 243 and Cf-249. SRNL, in conjunction with the customer, reviewed all of these cases and determined that the impacts of not meeting the target detection limits were acceptable. Based on the analyses of variance (ANOVA) for the inorganic constituents of Tank 6F, all the inorganic constituents displayed heterogeneity. The inorganic results demonstrated consistent differences across the composite samples: lowest concentrations for Composite Sample 1, intermediate-valued concentrations for Composite

  10. Analysis Of The Tank 6F Final Characterization Samples-2012

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oji, L. N.; Diprete, D. P.; Coleman, C. J.; Hay, M. S.; Shine, E. P.

    2012-09-27

    The Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) was requested by Savannah River Remediation (SRR) to provide sample preparation and analysis of the Tank 6F final characterization samples to determine the residual tank inventory prior to grouting. Fourteen residual Tank 6F solid samples from three areas on the floor of the tank were collected and delivered to SRNL between May and August 2011. These Tank 6F samples were homogenized and combined into three composite samples based on a proportion compositing scheme and the resulting composite samples were analyzed for radiological, chemical and elemental components. Additional measurements performed on the Tank 6F composite samples include bulk density and water leaching of the solids to account for water soluble components. The composite Tank 6F samples were analyzed and the data reported in triplicate. Sufficient quality assurance standards and blanks were utilized to demonstrate adequate characterization of the Tank 6F samples. The main evaluation criteria were target detection limits specified in the technical task request document. While many of the target detection limits were met for the species characterized for Tank 6F some were not met. In a few cases, the relatively high levels of radioactive species of the same element or a chemically similar element precluded the ability to measure some isotopes to low levels. The isotopes whose detection limits were not met in all cases included Sn-126, Sb-126, Sb-126m, Eu-152, Cm-243 and Cf-249. SRNL, in conjunction with the customer, reviewed all of these cases and determined that the impacts of not meeting the target detection limits were acceptable. Based on the analyses of variance (ANOVA) for the inorganic constituents of Tank 6F, all the inorganic constituents displayed heterogeneity. The inorganic results demonstrated consistent differences across the composite samples: lowest concentrations for Composite Sample 1, intermediate-valued concentrations for Composite

  11. Hanford Tanks 241-AY-102 and 241-BX-101: Sludge Composition and Contaminant Release Data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krupka, Kenneth M.; Deutsch, William J.; Lindberg, Michael J.; Cantrell, Kirk J.; Hess, Nancy J.; Schaef, Herbert T.; Arey, Bruce W.

    2004-01-01

    This report describes the results of testing sludge samples from Hanford tanks 241-AY-102 (AY-102) and 241-BX-101 (BX-101). These tests were conducted to characterize the sludge and assess the water leachability of contaminants from the solids. This work is being conducted to support the tank closure risk assessments being performed by CH2M HILL Hanford Group, Inc. for the U.S. Department of Energy. This is the first report of testing of BX-101 sludge and the second report of testing of AY-102. Lindberg and Deutsch (2003) described the first phase of testing on AY-102 material

  12. Characterizing the correlation between dephosphorization and solution pH in a calcined water treatment plant sludge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Zhenming; Liu, Qidi; Li, Shuwen; Li, Fei; Zou, Jing; Liao, Xiaobin; Yuan, Baoling; Sun, Wenjie

    2018-04-26

    This study focused on characterizing the correlation between the dephosphorization process of calcined water treatment plant sludge (C-WTPS) and the solution initial pH in batch experiments. The specific aim was to illustrate the effect of different initial pH on the adsorption and desorption of phosphorous in C-WTPS. In addition, the effects of solution initial pH on the release of ammonia nitrogen and total organic carbon (TOC) from C-WTPS and the change of pH after adsorption were also investigated. The results demonstrated that the initial pH significantly influenced the adsorption of phosphorus on C-WTPS. When initial pH was increased from 3 to 10, the phosphorous absorption capacity reduced by 76.5%. Especially, when the initial pH reached to 11, the phosphorus adsorption capacity became a negative value, indicating that C-WTPS released phosphorus into the solution. The addition of C-WTPS to the solution had little impact on the initial pH of the solution. The absorbed phosphorous on C-WTPS was relatively stable in the pH range of 3 to 10. Nevertheless, when the solution pH was higher than 11, it can be easily released into the solution. Furthermore, by comparison with WTPS, C-WTPS released less ammonia nitrogen and TOC into the solution and adsorbed more phosphorus from the solution in the experimental pH range. Therefore, C-WTPS is more suitable to serve as a cost-effective sorbent for phosphorus removal.

  13. Characterization of Volatiles Loss from Soil Samples at Lunar Environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kleinhenz, Julie; Smith, Jim; Roush, Ted; Colaprete, Anthony; Zacny, Kris; Paulsen, Gale; Wang, Alex; Paz, Aaron

    2017-01-01

    Resource Prospector Integrated Thermal Vacuum Test Program A series of ground based dirty thermal vacuum tests are being conducted to better understand the subsurface sampling operations for RP Volatiles loss during sampling operations Hardware performance Sample removal and transfer Concept of operationsInstrumentation5 test campaigns over 5 years have been conducted with RP hardware with advancing hardware designs and additional RP subsystems Volatiles sampling 4 years Using flight-forward regolith sampling hardware, empirically determine volatile retention at lunar-relevant conditions Use data to improve theoretical predictions Determine driving variables for retention Bound water loss potential to define measurement uncertainties. The main goal of this talk is to introduce you to our approach to characterizing volatiles loss for RP. Introduce the facility and its capabilities Overview of the RP hardware used in integrated testing (most recent iteration) Summarize the test variables used thus farReview a sample of the results.

  14. Sampling and Characterization of 618-2 Anomalous Material

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zacharias, A.E.

    2006-01-01

    This as low as reasonably achievable (ALARA) Level II review documents radiological engineering and administrative controls necessary for the sampling and characterization of anomalous materials discovered during the remediation of the 618-2 solid waste burial ground. The goals of these engineering and administrative controls are to keep personnel exposure ALARA, control contamination levels, and minimize potential for airborne contamination. Excavation of the 618-2 Burial Ground has produced many items of anomalous waste. Prior to temporary packaging and/or storage, these items have been characterized in the field to identify radiological and industrial safety conditions. Further sampling and characterization of these items, as well as those remaining from an excavated combination safe, is the subject of this ALARA Level II review. An ALARA in-progress review will also be performed prior to sampling and characterization of 618-2 anomalous materials offering risks of differing natures. General categories of anomalies requiring further characterization include the following: (1) Containers of unknown liquids and/or solids and powders (excluding transuranics); (2) Drums containing unknown liquids and/or solids; (3) Metal containers with unknown contents; and (4) Known or suspected transuranic material.

  15. Characterization of oily sludge from a refinery and biodegradability assessment using various hydrocarbon degrading strains and reconstituted consortia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jasmine, Jublee; Mukherji, Suparna

    2015-02-01

    Oily sludge obtained from a refinery in India contained 10-11% oil associated with fine particulates. Along with Fe, Ca and Mg various toxic elements were associated with the sludge solids (Pb, Mn, Cu, Zn, As, Bi, Cd, Cr, Co, Ni and V). The oil contained 41-56% asphaltenes and the maltenes comprised of 49 ± 4%, 42 ± 2% and 4 ± 2%, aliphatic, aromatic and polar fractions, respectively. Biodegradation studies with the maltene fraction of oil provided as sole substrate revealed higher degradation by various 3-5 membered reconstituted consortia compared to pure bacterial strains and up to 42 ± 8% degradation could be achieved over 30 days. In contrast, over the same period up to 71.5 ± 2% oil degradation could be achieved using dried oily sludge (15% w/v) as sole substrate. Significant biodegradation observed in the un-inoculated controls indicated the presence of indigenous microorganisms in oily sludge. However, large variability in oil degradation was observed in the un-inoculated controls. Greater biodegradation of the maltene fraction led to significant enrichment of asphaltenes in residual oil associated with the sludge. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. On the rheological characteristics of sewage sludge

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomáš Vítěz

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The work is focused on characterization of rheological behavior of sewage sludges sampled at different stages of waste water treatment. The main attention was focused on dynamic viscosity dependence on temperature, and shear rate. The sludge samples were examined under temperature ranging from 1 °C to 25 °C and under shear rate ranging from 0.34 s−1 to 68 s−1. Rotary digital viscometer (concentric cylinders geometry was used to perform the reological measurements. The solids content of the sludge samples ranged from 0.43 % to 21.45 % (A and C samples, respectively and ash free dry mass from 56.21 % to 67.80 % (A and B samples, respectively. The tested materials were found to be of non–Newtoninan nature and temperature dependent. Measured data were successfully cha­ra­cte­ri­zed by several mathematical models (Arrhenius, Bingham Plastic, Casson Law, Exponential, Gaussian, and IPC Paste in MATLAB® software with satisfying correlations between experimental and computed results. The best match (R2 = 0.999 was received with use of Gaussian model, in both cases, shear rate and temperature dependence. The results are quite useful e.g. for the purpose of technological equipment design.

  17. Optimum sampling scheme for characterization of mine tailings

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Debba, Pravesh

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available The paper describes a novice method for sampling geochemicals to characterize mine tailings. The author’s model the spatial relationships between a multi-element signature and, as covariates, abundance estimates of secondary iron-bearing minerals...

  18. Operation performance and granule characterization of upflow anaerobic sludge blanket (UASB) reactor treating wastewater with starch as the sole carbon source.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Xueqin; Zhen, Guangyin; Estrada, Adriana Ledezma; Chen, Mo; Ni, Jialing; Hojo, Toshimasa; Kubota, Kengo; Li, Yu-You

    2015-03-01

    Long-term performance of a lab-scale UASB reactor treating starch wastewater was investigated under different hydraulic retention times (HRT). Successful start-up could be achieved after 15days' operation. The optimal HRT was 6h with organic loading rate (OLR) 4g COD/Ld at COD concentration 1000mg/L, attaining 81.1-98.7% total COD removal with methane production rate of 0.33L CH4/g CODremoved. Specific methane activity tests demonstrated that methane formation via H2-CO2 and acetate were the principal degradation pathways. Vertical characterizations revealed that main reactions including starch hydrolysis, acidification and methanogenesis occurred at the lower part of reactor ("main reaction zone"); comparatively, at the up converting acetate into methane predominated ("substrate-shortage zone"). Further reducing HRT to 3h caused volatile fatty acids accumulation, sludge floating and performance deterioration. Sludge floating was ascribed to the excess polysaccharides in extracellular polymeric substances (EPS). More efforts are required to overcome sludge floating-related issues. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Characterization of some etalon matrices obtained by cement conditioning of the radioactive sludge

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nicu, M.; Mihai, F.

    1998-01-01

    The aim of this work was to establish new ways of investigation of some compounds which are important for studying physico-mechanical mechanisms, nature and structure of the intermediate and final products oc curing in reactions of the technological conditioning processes of the radioactive wastes by cementation after their treatment by precipitation or sorption process. Cement conditioning is, presently, the most used technology for the low and intermediate level waste treatment. Besides many advantages it also presents some disadvantages which limit the utilization area depending, firstly, on the chemical composition of the conditioned radioactive waste. In this work, the influence of different iron precipitates on cement structure is studied and assessed by changes in phase composition and mechanical resistance. Using mechanical resistance data, X-rays diffraction spectra and Moessbauer spectroscopy for iron precipitates and cement-iron precipitate samples, we obtained an image concerning chemical reactions and modifications which appear when iron precipitate is included in cement, between major components of cement and the added one. Moessbauer spectroscopy and X-rays diffraction were proved to be very useful to establish composition and structure of iron compounds used in treatment technology by chemical precipitation. Precipitation mechanism may be elucidated only by a thoroughgoing study of intermediate compounds obtained in successive precipitation phases. Depending on precipitation procedure, initial iron cations and order of adding of reactants, it was observed that the structure of finally obtained precipitates is different. Obtained results at compression tests on cement-iron precipitate samples are similarly with those obtained for reference cement matrix. These results demonstrate that iron precipitate in the sample with precipitate/cement ratio of 1/2 does not influence the mechanical resistance of the obtained matrix The presented results are in

  20. Characterizing lentic freshwater fish assemblages using multiple sampling methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fischer, Jesse R.; Quist, Michael C.

    2014-01-01

    Characterizing fish assemblages in lentic ecosystems is difficult, and multiple sampling methods are almost always necessary to gain reliable estimates of indices such as species richness. However, most research focused on lentic fish sampling methodology has targeted recreationally important species, and little to no information is available regarding the influence of multiple methods and timing (i.e., temporal variation) on characterizing entire fish assemblages. Therefore, six lakes and impoundments (48–1,557 ha surface area) were sampled seasonally with seven gear types to evaluate the combined influence of sampling methods and timing on the number of species and individuals sampled. Probabilities of detection for species indicated strong selectivities and seasonal trends that provide guidance on optimal seasons to use gears when targeting multiple species. The evaluation of species richness and number of individuals sampled using multiple gear combinations demonstrated that appreciable benefits over relatively few gears (e.g., to four) used in optimal seasons were not present. Specifically, over 90 % of the species encountered with all gear types and season combinations (N = 19) from six lakes and reservoirs were sampled with nighttime boat electrofishing in the fall and benthic trawling, modified-fyke, and mini-fyke netting during the summer. Our results indicated that the characterization of lentic fish assemblages was highly influenced by the selection of sampling gears and seasons, but did not appear to be influenced by waterbody type (i.e., natural lake, impoundment). The standardization of data collected with multiple methods and seasons to account for bias is imperative to monitoring of lentic ecosystems and will provide researchers with increased reliability in their interpretations and decisions made using information on lentic fish assemblages.

  1. Transuranic waste characterization sampling and analysis methods manual. Revision 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suermann, J.F.

    1996-04-01

    This Methods Manual provides a unified source of information on the sampling and analytical techniques that enable Department of Energy (DOE) facilities to comply with the requirements established in the current revision of the Transuranic Waste Characterization Quality Assurance Program Plan (QAPP) for the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) Transuranic (TRU) Waste Characterization Program (the Program) and the WIPP Waste Analysis Plan. This Methods Manual includes all of the testing, sampling, and analytical methodologies accepted by DOE for use in implementing the Program requirements specified in the QAPP and the WIPP Waste Analysis Plan. The procedures in this Methods Manual are comprehensive and detailed and are designed to provide the necessary guidance for the preparation of site-specific procedures. With some analytical methods, such as Gas Chromatography/Mass Spectrometry, the Methods Manual procedures may be used directly. With other methods, such as nondestructive characterization, the Methods Manual provides guidance rather than a step-by-step procedure. Sites must meet all of the specified quality control requirements of the applicable procedure. Each DOE site must document the details of the procedures it will use and demonstrate the efficacy of such procedures to the Manager, National TRU Program Waste Characterization, during Waste Characterization and Certification audits

  2. Optimization of organic contaminant and toxicity testing analytical procedures for estimating the characteristics and environmental significance of natural gas processing plant waste sludges

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Novak, N.

    1990-10-01

    The Gas Plant Sludge Characterization Phase IIB program is a continuation of the Canadian Petroleum Association's (CPA) initiatives to characterize sludge generated at gas processing plants. The objectives of the Phase IIB project were to develop an effective procedure for screening waste sludges or centrifuge/leachate generated from sludge samples for volatile, solvent-soluble and water-soluble organics; verify the reproducibility of the three aquatic toxicity tests recommended as the battery of tests for determining the environmental significance of sludge centrifugates or leachates; assess the performance of two terrestrial toxicity tests in determining the environmental significance of whole sludge samples applied to soil; and to assess and discuss the reproducibility and cost-effectiveness of the sampling and analytical techniques proposed for the overall sludge characterization procedure. Conclusions and recommendations are provided for sludge collection, preparation and distribution, organic analyses, toxicity testing, project management, and procedure standardization. The three aquatic and two terrestrial toxicity tests proved effective in indicating the toxicity of complex mixtures. 27 refs., 3 figs., 59 tabs

  3. Sewage sludges disinfection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alexandre, D.

    1977-01-01

    There is an hygienic risk in using biological sewage sludges for agriculture. Systematic analysis carried out on sludges samples obtained from purification plants in East and South part of France, show the almost uniform presence of pathogenic microorganisms. Some of it survive more than 9 months after soil application. Conventional process for disinfection: liming and heat are not suitable for agricultural use. On the other hand, irradiation involves no modification in structure and composition of sludges. Radiation doses required for disinfection vary according to microorganisms. If some of them are eliminated with rather light doses (200 krad) mycobacteria, viruses and eggs of worms resist to more important doses. Security dose is estimated around 1000 krad

  4. Characterization of different cassava samples by nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iulianelli, Gisele C.V.; Tavares, Maria I.B.

    2011-01-01

    Cassava root (Manihot esculenta Crantz) is grown in all Brazilian states, being an important product in the diet of Brazilians. For many families of the North and Northeast states, it may represent the main energy source. The cassava root flour has high levels of starch, in addition to containing fiber, lipids and some minerals. There is, however, great genetic variability, which results in differentiation in its chemical composition and structural aspect. Motivated by the economic, nutritional and pharmacological importance of this product, this work is aimed at characterizing six cassava flour samples by NMR spectroscopy. The spectra revealed the main chemical groups. Furthermore, the results confirmed differences on chemical and structural aspect of the samples. For instance, the F1 sample is richer in carbohydrates, while the F4 sample has higher proportion of glycolipids, the F2 sample has higher amylose content and the F6 sample exhibits a greater diversity of glycolipid types. Regarding the molecular structure, the NMR spectra indicated that the F1 sample is more organized at the molecular level, while the F3 and F5 samples are similar in amorphicity and in the molecular packing. (author)

  5. Characterization of functional microorganism groups and substrate in activated sludge and wastewater by AUR, NUR and OUR

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristensen, G. Holm; Jørgensen, P. Elberg; Henze, Mogens

    1992-01-01

    . The results indicated that influent biomass is of significance for the obtained fraction of denitrifiers to heterotrophs. For a separate nitrification stage activated sludge without denitrification a fraction of denitrifiers of 15-20% was found. The results of endogenous NUR and OUR determinations indicated...

  6. Characterization of rock samples and mineralogical controls on leachates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hammarstrom, Jane M.; Cravotta, Charles A.; Galeone, Daniel G.; Jackson, John C.; Dulong, Frank T.; Hornberger, Roger J.; Brady, Keith B.C.

    2009-01-01

    Rocks associated with coal beds typically include shale, sandstone, and (or) limestone. In addition to common rock-forming minerals, all of these rock types may contain sulfide and sulfate minerals, various carbonate minerals, and organic material. These different minerals have inherently different solubility characteristics, as well as different acid-generating or acid-neutralizing potentials. The abundance and composition of sulfur- and carbonate-bearing minerals are of particular interest in interpreting the leaching column data because (1) pyrite and carbonate minerals are the primary controls on the acid-base account of a sample, (2) these minerals incorporate trace metals that can be released during weathering, and (3) these minerals readily react during weathering due to mineral dissolution and oxidation of iron.Rock samples were collected by the Pennsylvania Department of Environmental Protection (PaDEP) from five different sites to assess the draft standardized leaching column method (ADTI-WP2) for the prediction of weathering rates and water quality at coal mines. Samples were sent to USGS laboratories for mineralogical characterization and to ActLabs for chemical analysis. The samples represent a variety of rock types (shales, sandstones, and coal refuse) that are typical of coal overburden in the eastern United States. These particular samples were chosen for testing the weathering protocols because they represent a range of geochemical and lithologic characteristics, sulfur contents, and acid-base accounting characteristics (Hornberger et al., 2003). The rocks contain variable amounts of pyrite and carbonate minerals and vary in texture.This chapter includes bulk rock chemical data and detailed mineralogical and textural data for unweathered starting materials used in the interlaboratory validation study, and for two samples used in the early phases of leaching column tests (Wadesville Sandstone, Leechburg Coal Refuse). We also characterize some of the

  7. ANALYSIS OF THE TANK 5F FINAL CHARACTERIZATION SAMPLES-2011

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oji, L.; Diprete, D.; Coleman, C.; Hay, M.

    2012-08-03

    The Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) was requested by SRR to provide sample preparation and analysis of the Tank 5F final characterization samples to determine the residual tank inventory prior to grouting. Two types of samples were collected and delivered to SRNL: floor samples across the tank and subsurface samples from mounds near risers 1 and 5 of Tank 5F. These samples were taken from Tank 5F between January and March 2011. These samples from individual locations in the tank (nine floor samples and six mound Tank 5F samples) were each homogenized and combined in a given proportion into 3 distinct composite samples to mimic the average composition in the entire tank. These Tank 5F composite samples were analyzed for radiological, chemical and elemental components. Additional measurements performed on the Tank 5F composite samples include bulk density and water leaching of the solids to account for water soluble species. With analyses for certain challenging radionuclides as the exception, all composite Tank 5F samples were analyzed and reported in triplicate. The target detection limits for isotopes analyzed were based on customer desired detection limits as specified in the technical task request documents. SRNL developed new methodologies to meet these target detection limits and provide data for the extensive suite of components. While many of the target detection limits were met for the species characterized for Tank 5F, as specified in the technical task request, some were not met. In a few cases, the relatively high levels of radioactive species of the same element or a chemically similar element precluded the ability to measure some isotopes to low levels. The Technical Task Request allows that while the analyses of these isotopes is needed, meeting the detection limits for these isotopes is a lower priority than meeting detection limits for the other specified isotopes. The isotopes whose detection limits were not met in all cases included the

  8. Analysis Of The Tank 5F Final Characterization Samples-2011

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oji, L. N.; Diprete, D.; Coleman, C. J.; Hay, M. S.

    2012-09-27

    The Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) was requested by SRR to provide sample preparation and analysis of the Tank 5F final characterization samples to determine the residual tank inventory prior to grouting. Two types of samples were collected and delivered to SRNL: floor samples across the tank and subsurface samples from mounds near risers 1 and 5 of Tank 5F. These samples were taken from Tank 5F between January and March 2011. These samples from individual locations in the tank (nine floor samples and six mound Tank 5F samples) were each homogenized and combined in a given proportion into 3 distinct composite samples to mimic the average composition in the entire tank. These Tank 5F composite samples were analyzed for radiological, chemical and elemental components. Additional measurements performed on the Tank 5F composite samples include bulk density and water leaching of the solids to account for water soluble species. With analyses for certain challenging radionuclides as the exception, all composite Tank 5F samples were analyzed and reported in triplicate. The target detection limits for isotopes analyzed were based on customer desired detection limits as specified in the technical task request documents. SRNL developed new methodologies to meet these target detection limits and provide data for the extensive suite of components. While many of the target detection limits were met for the species characterized for Tank 5F, as specified in the technical task request, some were not met. In a few cases, the relatively high levels of radioactive species of the same element or a chemically similar element precluded the ability to measure some isotopes to low levels. The Technical Task Request allows that while the analyses of these isotopes is needed, meeting the detection limits for these isotopes is a lower priority than meeting detection limits for the other specified isotopes. The isotopes whose detection limits were not met in all cases included the

  9. Examination of sludge from the Hanford K Basins fuel canisters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Makenas, B.J.

    1998-01-01

    Samples of sludges with a high uranium content have been retrieved from the fuel canisters in the Hanford K West and K East basins. The composition of these samples contrasts markedly with the previously reported content of sludge samples taken from the K East basin floor. Chemical composition, chemical reactivity, and particle size of sludge are summarized in this paper

  10. Statistical sampling applied to the radiological characterization of historical waste

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zaffora Biagio

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The evaluation of the activity of radionuclides in radioactive waste is required for its disposal in final repositories. Easy-to-measure nuclides, like γ-emitters and high-energy X-rays, can be measured via non-destructive nuclear techniques from outside a waste package. Some radionuclides are difficult-to-measure (DTM from outside a package because they are α- or β-emitters. The present article discusses the application of linear regression, scaling factors (SF and the so-called “mean activity method” to estimate the activity of DTM nuclides on metallic waste produced at the European Organization for Nuclear Research (CERN. Various statistical sampling techniques including simple random sampling, systematic sampling, stratified and authoritative sampling are described and applied to 2 waste populations of activated copper cables. The bootstrap is introduced as a tool to estimate average activities and standard errors in waste characterization. The analysis of the DTM Ni-63 is used as an example. Experimental and theoretical values of SFs are calculated and compared. Guidelines for sampling historical waste using probabilistic and non-probabilistic sampling are finally given.

  11. Detailed characterization of welding fumes in personal exposure samples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Quémerais, B; Mino, James; Amin, M R; Golshahi, H; Izadi, H

    2015-01-01

    The objective of the project was to develop a method allowing for detailed characterization of welding particles including particle number concentration, size distribution, surface chemistry and chemical composition of individual particles, as well as metal concentration of various welding fumes in personal exposure samples using regular sampling equipment. A sample strategy was developed to evaluate the variation of the collection methods on mass concentration. Samples were collected with various samplers and filters at two different locations using our collection system. The first location was using a robotic welding system while the second was manual welding. Collected samples were analysed for mass concentration using gravimetryand metal concentration using ICP/OES. More advanced analysis was performed on selected filters using X-Ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy to determine surface composition of the particles, and X-Ray Diffraction to determine chemical composition of the fumes. Results showed that the robotic system had a lot of variation in space when the collection system was located close to the weld. Collection efficiency was found to be quite variable depending upon the type of filter. As well, metal concentrations in blank filters were dependent upon the type of filter with MCE presenting with the highest blank values. Results obtained with the XRD and XPS systems showed that it was possible to analyse a small of powdered welding fume sample but results on filters were not conclusive. (paper)

  12. Summary of Laboratory Capabilities Fact Sheets Waste Sampling and Characterization Facility and 222-S Laboratory Complex

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    HADLEY, R.M.

    2002-01-01

    This summary of laboratory capabilities is provided to assist prospective responders to the CH2M HILL Hanford Group, Inc. (CHG) Requests for Proposal (RFP) issued or to be issued. The RFPs solicit development of treatment technologies as categorized in the CHG Requests for Information (RFI): Solid-Liquid Separations Technology - SOL: Reference-Number-CHG01; Cesium and Technetium Separations Technology - SOL: Reference-Number-CHG02; Sulfate Removal Technology - SOL: Reference-Number-CHG03; Containerized Grout Technology - SOL: Reference-Number-CHG04; Bulk Vitrification Technology - SOL: Reference-Number-CHG05; and TRU Tank Waste Solidification for Disposal at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant - SOL: Reference-Number-CHG06 Hanford Analytical Services, Technology Project Management (TPM), has the capability and directly related experience to provide breakthrough innovations and solutions to the challenges presented in the requests. The 222-S Complex includes the 70,000 sq ft 222-S Laboratory, plus several support buildings. The laboratory has 11 hot cells for handling and analyzing highly radioactive samples, including tank farm waste. Inorganic, organic, and radiochemical analyses are performed on a wide variety of air, liquid, soil, sludge, and biota samples. Capabilities also include development of process technology and analytical methods, and preparation of analytical standards. The TPM staff includes many scientists with advanced degrees in chemistry (or closely related fields), over half of which are PhDs. These scientists have an average 20 years of Hanford experience working with Hanford waste in a hot cell environment. They have hundreds of publications related to Hanford tank waste characterization and process support. These would include, but are not limited to, solid-liquid separations engineering, physical chemistry, particle size analysis, and inorganic chemistry. TPM has had revenues in excess of $1 million per year for the past decade in above

  13. Hollow fiber liquid phase microextraction combined with graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometry for the determination of methylmercury in human hair and sludge samples

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jiang Hongmei [Department of Chemistry, Wuhan University, Wuhan 430072 (China); Hu Bin [Department of Chemistry, Wuhan University, Wuhan 430072 (China)], E-mail: binhu@whu.edu.cn; Chen Beibei; Zu Wanqing [Department of Chemistry, Wuhan University, Wuhan 430072 (China)

    2008-07-15

    Two methods, based on hollow fiber liquid-liquid-liquid (three phase) microextraction (HF-LLLME) and hollow fiber liquid phase (two phase) microextraction (HF-LPME), have been developed and critically compared for the determination of methylmercury content in human hair and sludge by graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometry (GFAAS). In HF-LPME, methylmercury was extracted into the organic phase (toluene) prior to its determination by GFAAS, while inorganic mercury remained as a free species in the sample solution. In HF-LLLME, methylmercury was first extracted into the organic phase (toluene) and then into the acceptor phase (4% thiourea in 1 mol L{sup -1} HCl) prior to its determination by GFAAS, while inorganic mercury remained in the sample solution. The total mercury was determined by inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry (ICP-MS), and the levels of inorganic mercury in both HF-LLLME and HF-LPME were obtained by subtracting methylmercury from total mercury. The factors affecting the microextraction of methylmercury, including organic solvent, extraction time, stirring rate and ionic strength, were investigated and the optimal extraction conditions were established for both HF-LLLPME and HF-LPME. With a consumption of 3.0 mL of the sample solution, the enrichment factors were 204 and 55 for HF-LLLPME and HF-LPME, respectively. The limits of detection (LODs) for methylmercury were 0.1 {mu}g L{sup -1} and 0.4 {mu}g L{sup -1} (as Hg) with precisions (RSDs (%), c = 5 {mu}g L{sup -1} (as Hg), n = 5) of 13% and 11% for HF-LLLPME-GFAAS and HF-LPME-GFAAS, respectively. For ICP-MS determination of total mercury, a limit of detection of 39 ng L{sup -} {sup 1} was obtained. Finally, HF-LLLME-GFAAS was applied to the determination of methylmercury content in human hair and sludge, and the recoveries for the spiked samples were in the range of 99-113%. In order to validate the method, HF-LLLME-GFAAS was also applied to the analysis of a certified reference

  14. Low temperature circulating fluidized bed gasification and co-gasification of municipal sewage sludge. Part 1: Process performance and gas product characterization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomsen, Tobias Pape; Sárossy, Zsuzsa; Gøbel, Benny

    2017-01-01

    Results from five experimental campaigns with Low Temperature Circulating Fluidized Bed (LT-CFB) gasification of straw and/or municipal sewage sludge (MSS) from three different Danish municipal waste water treatment plants in pilot and demonstration scale are analyzed and compared. The gasification...... process is characterized with respect to process stability, process performance and gas product characteristics. All experimental campaigns were conducted at maximum temperatures below 750°C, with air equivalence ratios around 0.12 and with pure silica sand as start-up bed material. A total of 8600kg...... particles in the system. Co-gasification of MSS with sufficient amounts of cereal straw was found to be an effective way to mitigate these issues as well as eliminate thermal MSS drying requirements. Characterization of gas products and process performance showed that even though gas composition varied...

  15. CONSOLIDATION OF K BASIN SLUDGE DATA AND EXPERIENCES ON AGGLOMERATE FORMATION

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hill, S.R.

    2010-01-01

    . The unconfined compressive strength of samples from this testing, measured by a pocket penetrometer, infers that their shear strength may be between 120 kPa and 170 kPa (PNNL-16496). These short-duration hydrothermal tests were conducted at temperatures much greater than the temperature of the T Plant canyon cells (-7 C to 33 C); however, the strength results provide an initial bounding target for sludge stored for many years, and an upper range for simulants (042910-53451-TP02 Rev 1). Sampling and characterization activities conducted in 2009 have measured the total uranium content and speciation for sludge stored in Engineered Containers SCS-CON-220, -240, -250, and -260 (PNNL-19035). Based on on-going testing that has measured the shear strength of uranium samples containing varying uranium (IV) to uranium (VI) ratios and the characterization of the Engineered Containers SCS-CON-220, -240, -250, and -260, it is unlikely that agglomerates will form on a large scale in this sludge. The highest measured total uranium concentration in the Engineered Container SCS-CON-220 sludge is 35.2 wt% and only 4 wt% to 6 wt% (dry) in Engineered Containers SCS-CON -240, -250, and -260. The uranium concentrations in Engineered Containers SCS-CON-220, -240, -250, and -260 sludge are below the threshold for agglomerate formation. Settler sludge however is estimated to contain ∼ 80 wt% (dry) total uranium, which could lead to the formation of high strength agglomerates depending on the relative concentrations of U(IV) and U(VI) compounds. One of the chief concerns of the STP is sludge dry-out. Samples archived in PNNL hot cells have been known to dry out and form hard clods of material, which are then difficult to reconstitute (HNF-6705). In 1996, all but one of the samples archived at the 222-S Laboratory dried out. These samples were composed of sludge collected from the KE Basin floor and Weasel Pit. However, in the STP's current design plans for sludge stored in STSCs at T Plant

  16. CONSOLIDATION OF K BASIN SLUDGE DATA AND EXPERIENCES ON AGGLOMERATE FORMATION

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    HILL SR

    2010-06-10

    canister sludge. The unconfined compressive strength of samples from this testing, measured by a pocket penetrometer, infers that their shear strength may be between 120 kPa and 170 kPa (PNNL-16496). These short-duration hydrothermal tests were conducted at temperatures much greater than the temperature of the T Plant canyon cells (-7 C to 33 C); however, the strength results provide an initial bounding target for sludge stored for many years, and an upper range for simulants (042910-53451-TP02 Rev 1). Sampling and characterization activities conducted in 2009 have measured the total uranium content and speciation for sludge stored in Engineered Containers SCS-CON-220, -240, -250, and -260 (PNNL-19035). Based on on-going testing that has measured the shear strength of uranium samples containing varying uranium (IV) to uranium (VI) ratios and the characterization of the Engineered Containers SCS-CON-220, -240, -250, and -260, it is unlikely that agglomerates will form on a large scale in this sludge. The highest measured total uranium concentration in the Engineered Container SCS-CON-220 sludge is 35.2 wt% and only 4 wt% to 6 wt% (dry) in Engineered Containers SCS-CON -240, -250, and -260. The uranium concentrations in Engineered Containers SCS-CON-220, -240, -250, and -260 sludge are below the threshold for agglomerate formation. Settler sludge however is estimated to contain {approx} 80 wt% (dry) total uranium, which could lead to the formation of high strength agglomerates depending on the relative concentrations of U(IV) and U(VI) compounds. One of the chief concerns of the STP is sludge dry-out. Samples archived in PNNL hot cells have been known to dry out and form hard clods of material, which are then difficult to reconstitute (HNF-6705). In 1996, all but one of the samples archived at the 222-S Laboratory dried out. These samples were composed of sludge collected from the KE Basin floor and Weasel Pit. However, in the STP's current design plans for sludge

  17. Sludge pretreatment chemistry evaluation: Enhanced sludge washing separation factors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Colton, N.G.

    1995-03-01

    This report presents the work conducted in Fiscal Year 1994 by the Sludge Pretreatment Chemistry Evaluation Subtask for the Tank Waste Remediation System (TWRS) Tank Waste Treatment Science Task. The main purpose of this task, is to provide the technical basis and scientific understanding to support TWRS baseline decisions and actions, such as the development of an enhanced sludge washing process to reduce the volume of waste that will require high-level waste (HLW) vitrification. One objective within the Sludge Pretreatment Chemistry Evaluation Subtask was to establish wash factors for various SST (single-shell tank) sludges. First, analytical data were compiled from existing tank waste characterization reports. These data were summarized on tank-specific worksheets that provided a uniform format for reviewing and comparing data, as well as the means to verify whether the data set for each tank was complete. Worksheets were completed for 27 SST wastes. The analytical water wash data provided tank-specific information about the fraction of each component that dissolves with water, i.e., an estimate of tank-specific wash factors for evaluating tank-by-tank processing. These wash data were then used collectively to evaluate some of the wash factors that are assumed for the overall SST waste inventory; specifically, wash factors for elements that would be found primarily in sludges. The final step in this study was to incorporate the characterization and wash factor data into a spreadsheet that provides insight into the effect of enhanced sludge washing on individual tank sludges as well as for groups of sludges that may be representative of different waste types. Spreadsheet results include the estimated mass and percentage of each element that would be removed with washing and leaching. Furthermore, estimated compositions are given of the final wash and leach streams and residual solids, in terms of both concentration and dry weight percent

  18. Waste Sampling and Characterization Facility (WSCF) Complex Safety Analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    MELOY, R.T.

    2003-01-01

    The Waste Sampling and Characterization Facility (WSCF) is an analytical laboratory complex on the Hanford Site that was constructed to perform chemical and low-level radiological analyses on a variety of sample media in support of Hanford Site customer needs. The complex is located in the 600 area of the Hanford Site, east of the 200 West Area. Customers include effluent treatment facilities, waste disposal and storage facilities, and remediation projects. Customers primarily need analysis results for process control and to comply with federal, Washington State, and US. Department of Energy (DOE) environmental or industrial hygiene requirements. This document was prepared to analyze the facility for safety consequences and includes the following steps: Determine radionuclide and highly hazardous chemical inventories; Compare these inventories to the appropriate regulatory limits; Document the compliance status with respect to these limits; and Identify the administrative controls necessary to maintain this status

  19. Physical, chemical and dewatering characteristics of Ba/RaSO4 sludges from uranium milling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Skeaff, J.M.; Campbell, H.W.

    1980-01-01

    There is concern that long-term environmental pollution caused by radionuclide-bearing acid drainage could occur upon the abandonment of uranium tailings areas. One source of dissolved radionuclides could be the Ba/RaSO 4 sludges formed in most tailings ponds. Prior to discharge to open watercourses, uranium tailings decants are usually treated with barium chloride to coprecipitate dissolved radium. The resulting sludge is allowed to settle in ponds, the size and retention time of which will depend on the mine site. It may be necessary for environmental reasons to remove these sludges for permanent disposal. CANMET has awarded a contract to Kilborn Ltd. of Toronto to study methods for the recovery and dewatering of these sludges. To provide data for the Kilborn contract on the physical, chemical and dewatering of Ba/RaSO 4 sludges presently being produced at uranium mine/mill sites, samples were taken from the operational settling ponds at Rio Algom Mines Ltd., Elliot Lake. Dewatering characterization has also been conducted on two pilot plant facility sludges, one produced at the Wastewater Technology Centre's pilot plant at Rio Algom Mines, and the other from the pilot scale settling ponds designed by James F. MacLaren Ltd. for Rio Algom. The chemical and radionuclide analyses for the CANMET sludge are also reported

  20. Characterization of the planktonic microbiome in upflow anaerobic sludge blanket reactors during adaptation of mesophilic methanogenic granules to thermophilic operational conditions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhu, Xinyu; Treu, Laura; Kougias, Panagiotis

    2017-01-01

    Upflow anaerobic sludge blanket (UASB) technology refers to reactor technology where granules, i.e. self-immobilised microbial associations, are the biological catalysts involved in the anaerobic digestion process. During the start-up period, UASB reactors operate at relatively long HRT and there......Upflow anaerobic sludge blanket (UASB) technology refers to reactor technology where granules, i.e. self-immobilised microbial associations, are the biological catalysts involved in the anaerobic digestion process. During the start-up period, UASB reactors operate at relatively long HRT...... and therefore the liquid phase of the reactor becomes a favourable environment for microbial growth. The current study aimed to elucidate the dynamicity of the suspended microbial community in UASB reactors, during the transition from mesophilic to thermophilic conditions. High throughput 16S rRNA amplicon...... sequencing was used to characterize the taxonomic composition of the microbiome. The results showed that the microbial community was mainly composed by hydrolytic and fermentative bacteria. Results revealed relevant shifts in the microbial community composition, which is mainly determined by the operational...

  1. Sludge busters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pichon, Max

    2010-01-01

    Full text: A few years ago, For Earth developed low energy sub-surface aeration systems to increase the biological activity in the wastewater sludge ponds. Then came the idea to introduce probiotic bacteria to really ramp up the process, which promises massive time and cost savings in sludge management. Increasing the volumes of specific bacteria reactivates the sludge, accelerating biological nutrient removal in general and, by tailoring the bacteria, targeting specific organic waste types. The technology is already running at more than 30 councils across NSW and in some commercial settings, such as dairy farms. Shane McKibbin, GM of For Earth, said the 'Probiotic, Low Energy Aeration System' offers considerable upside. “The cost savings have been enormous with some councils, including the work done at Woolgoolga Water Reclamation Plant at Coffs Harbour,” he said. Sludge settling in wastewater treatment plant lagoons is typically pumped out, centrifuged to remove water and then landfilled. In Woolgoolga's case that process was costing Coffs Harbour Water $150 a cubic metre; McKibbin said they've slashed that to a measly $5 a cubic metre. An array of 'industrial air stones' is dropped 1m below the surface to create an oxygenated blanket across the surface, overcoming the tendency of sludge ponds to stagnate. The key though is floating probiotic dosing lines across the surface, which kick-starts the probiotics process. “Previously, some operators just wanted to throw it on with a bucket, so the bacteria would get thrown into one corner of the pond. But since we introduced the dosing system it has really improved the overall performance,” said McKibbin.The dosing pump system automatically applies the bacteria into the dosing line according to a specified program, ensuring the probiotics are spread out across the pond and across the week. “I would say it improves and accelerates the result by 30 per cent,” he adds. “The biggest problem was that

  2. Sludge busters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pichon, Max

    2010-07-15

    Full text: A few years ago, For Earth developed low energy sub-surface aeration systems to increase the biological activity in the wastewater sludge ponds. Then came the idea to introduce probiotic bacteria to really ramp up the process, which promises massive time and cost savings in sludge management. Increasing the volumes of specific bacteria reactivates the sludge, accelerating biological nutrient removal in general and, by tailoring the bacteria, targeting specific organic waste types. The technology is already running at more than 30 councils across NSW and in some commercial settings, such as dairy farms. Shane McKibbin, GM of For Earth, said the 'Probiotic, Low Energy Aeration System' offers considerable upside. “The cost savings have been enormous with some councils, including the work done at Woolgoolga Water Reclamation Plant at Coffs Harbour,” he said. Sludge settling in wastewater treatment plant lagoons is typically pumped out, centrifuged to remove water and then landfilled. In Woolgoolga's case that process was costing Coffs Harbour Water $150 a cubic metre; McKibbin said they've slashed that to a measly $5 a cubic metre. An array of 'industrial air stones' is dropped 1m below the surface to create an oxygenated blanket across the surface, overcoming the tendency of sludge ponds to stagnate. The key though is floating probiotic dosing lines across the surface, which kick-starts the probiotics process. “Previously, some operators just wanted to throw it on with a bucket, so the bacteria would get thrown into one corner of the pond. But since we introduced the dosing system it has really improved the overall performance,” said McKibbin.The dosing pump system automatically applies the bacteria into the dosing line according to a specified program, ensuring the probiotics are spread out across the pond and across the week. “I would say it improves and accelerates the result by 30 per cent,” he adds. “The biggest problem was that

  3. A review on paint sludge from automotive industries: Generation, characteristics and management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salihoglu, Guray; Salihoglu, Nezih Kamil

    2016-03-15

    affecting its characteristics, common disposal routes, the findings of the field trips to automotive manufacturing plants in Turkey, and a summary of the characterization findings of the paint sludge samples from a plant in Turkey. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Characterization of hazardous waste sites: a methods manual. Volume 2. Available sampling methods (second edition)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ford, P.J.; Turina, P.J.; Seely, D.E.

    1984-12-01

    Investigations at hazardous waste sites and sites of chemical spills often require on-site measurements and sampling activities to assess the type and extent of contamination. This document is a compilation of sampling methods and materials suitable to address most needs that arise during routine waste site and hazardous spill investigations. The sampling methods presented in this document are compiled by media, and were selected on the basis of practicality, economics, representativeness, compatability with analytical considerations, and safety, as well as other criteria. In addition to sampling procedures, sample handling and shipping, chain-of-custody procedures, instrument certification, equipment fabrication, and equipment decontamination procedures are described. Sampling methods for soil, sludges, sediments, and bulk materials cover the solids medium. Ten methods are detailed for surface waters, groundwater and containerized liquids; twelve are presented for ambient air, soil gases and vapors, and headspace gases. A brief discussion of ionizing radiation survey instruments is also provided

  5. Characterization of bio-oil from induction-heating pyrolysis of food-processing sewage sludges using chromatographic analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsai, Wen-Tien; Lee, Mei-Kuei; Chang, Jeng-Hung; Su, Ting-Yi; Chang, Yuan-Ming

    2009-05-01

    In this study, gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) was used to analyze the pyrolytic bio-oils and gas fractions derived from the pyrolysis of industrial sewage sludges using induction-heating technique. The liquid products were obtained from the cryogenic condensation of the devolatilization fraction in a nitrogen atmosphere using a heating rate of 300 degrees C/min ranging from 25 to 500 degrees C. The analytical results showed that the pyrolysis bio-oils were very complex mixtures of organic compounds and contained a lot of nitrogenated and/or oxygenated compounds such as aliphatic hydrocarbons, phenols, pyridines, pyrroles, amines, ketones, and so on. These organic hydrocarbons containing nitrogen and/or oxygen should originate from the protein and nucleic acid textures of the microbial organisms present in the sewage sludge. The non-condensable devolatilization fractions were also composed of nitrogenated and oxygenated compounds, but contained small fractions of phenols, 1H-indoles, and fatty carboxylic acids. On the other hand, the compositions in the non-condensable gas products were principally carbon dioxide, carbon monoxide and methane analyzed by gas chromatography-thermal conductivity detector (GC-TCD).

  6. Characterization of microbial community and antibiotic resistance genes in activated sludge under tetracycline and sulfamethoxazole selection pressure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, Yingying; Geng, Jinju; Ma, Haijun; Ren, Hongqiang; Xu, Ke; Ding, Lili

    2016-01-01

    To investigate the microbial community characteristics, antibiotic resistance genes (ARGs), and bioreactor effluent quality change under tetracycline (TC) and sulfamethoxazole (SMX) selection pressure, sequencing batch reactors (SBRs) were used with environmentally relevant concentration and high-level of TC and SMX concentrations (0, 5 ppb, 50 ppb and 10 ppm). Chemical oxygen demand (COD) and ammonia nitrogen (NH_4"+−N) removals appeared unchanged (p > 0.05) with 5 and 50 ppb, but decreased significantly with 10 ppm (p tetG > sul2 > tetA > intI1 > tetS > tetC. Pearson correlation analysis showed most ARGs (tetA, tetC, tetG, tetK, tetM, sul1) were significantly correlated with intI1 (p < 0.01). - Highlights: • COD and NH_4"+−N removals significantly decrease under 10 ppm TC or SMX. • Activated sludge EPS concentrations increase with increasing TC or SMX concentrations. • TC and SMX affect the microbial community diversity of activated sludge. • Actinobacteria abundances increase with increase of TC or SMX concentration. • ARGs abundance increases with addition of TC or SMX.

  7. Characterization of Vadose Zone Sediment: Uncontaminated RCRA Borehole Core Samples and Composite Samples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Serne, R. Jeffrey; Bjornstad, Bruce N.; Schaef, Herbert T.; Williams, Bruce A.; Lanigan, David C.; Horton, Duane G.; Clayton, Ray E.; Mitroshkov, Alexandre V.; Legore, Virginia L.; O'Hara, Matthew J.; Brown, Christopher F.; Parker, Kent E.; Kutnyakov, Igor V.; Serne, Jennifer N.; Last, George V.; Smith, Steven C.; Lindenmeier, Clark W.; Zachara, John M.; Burke, Deborah Sd.

    2001-01-01

    The overall goal of the of the Tank Farm Vadose Zone Project, led by CH2M HILL Hanford Group, Inc., is to define risks from past and future single-shell tank farm activities. To meet this goal, CH2M HILL Hanford Group, Inc. asked scientists from Pacific Northwest National Laboratory to perform detailed analyses on vadose zone sediment from within the S-SX Waste Management Area. This report is the first in a series of four reports to present the results of these analyses. Specifically, this report contains all the geologic, geochemical, and selected physical characterization data collected on vadose zone sediment recovered from RCRA borehole bore samples and composite samples. Intact cores from two RCRA boreholes (299-W22-48 and 299-W22-50) near the SX Tank Farm and four, large-quantity grab samples from outcrop sediment on and off the Hanford Site were sampled to better understand the fate of contaminants in the vadose zone beneath underground storage tanks at the Hanford Site. Borehole and outcrop samples analyzed for this report are located outside the tank farms, and therefore may be considered standard or background samples from which to compare contaminated sediments within the tank farms themselves. This report presents our interpretation of the physical, chemical, and mineralogical properties of the uncontaminated vadose zone sediments, and variations in the vertical distribution of these properties. The information presented in this report is intended to support preparation of the S-SX Field Investigation Report to be prepared by CH2M Hill Hanford Group, Inc. as well as future remediation actions at the S-SX Tank Farm

  8. Characterization of tannery sludge from the leather industry of Franca industrial district, SP, Brazil; Caracterizacao de um lodo de cromo proveniente da industria de couro do distrito industrial de Franca

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chambi, M.M.; Toffoli, S.M., E-mail: marvinchp@usp.br [Universidade de Sao Paulo (USP), SP (Brazil). Escola Politecnica. Departamento de Engenharia Metalurgica

    2011-07-01

    The industry of leather manufacture generates large quantities of solid leather waste with characteristics of high-polluting and hazardous conditions. Among these wastes, stands out the wet blue leather (chromed leather scraps), and the tanning sludge and secondary sludge generated in the processes of effluents treatment. These wastes contain Cr(III), which, under oxidizing conditions, can turn into Cr (VI), which is highly toxic. However, these wastes are a potential source of chromium oxide (traditional industrial pigment), which could be used by the glass and ceramic enamel industries. In this study, a preliminary characterization of a chromium sludge from the industrial district of Franca-SP was conducted. X-ray diffraction (XRD), chemical (XRF) and thermal (DTA / TG) analyses were used to determine the physical and chemical characteristics of this solid waste. The potential of using this material as an available and cheap pigment for the manufacture of enamels and glass is discussed. (author)

  9. Characterization of sludges of La Golondrina WWTP: sludges as final containers of the domestic wastewater pollution; Caracterizacion de fangos de la EDAR La Golondrina (EMACSA-Cordoba): su funcion como receptores finales de la contaminacion del agua residual urbana

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marin Galvin, R.; Alonso Perez de siles, L.; Rojas Moreno, F. J.

    2005-07-01

    Treatment of wastewater is to concentrate the original pollution in a by-product: the wastewater sludge or bio-solid. As example, La Golondrina WWTP (Cordoba-spain) promotes the production of 1,3 kg of sludge per m''3 of wastewater, yielding logically a treated water according to laws. Furthermore, the treatment process there applied reduces the levels of nine majority metals (Cu, Fe, Mn, Pb, Cd, Ni, Cr, Zn, Hg) from 2,72 mg/l to 1.42 mg/l in the treated water, generating almost, a sludge agrees with the spanish normative to sludge intended to agricultural use (its main fate). Summarizing, the treatment of wastewater supposes the concentration of the original biodegradable load into the sludge around 340 times, while metals exhibited a different concentration degree for each one (from 10.000 times for Fe, u pto 1-2 times for Cd and Hg). Finally, the concentration degree of a metal in the sludge is mainly led by the removed concentration of metal in the treatment process, and after, by the original concentration of metal in the influent wastewater. (Author) 24 refs.

  10. Characterization of the denitrification-associated phosphorus uptake properties of "Candidatus Accumulibacter phosphatis" clades in sludge subjected to enhanced biological phosphorus removal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jeong Myeong; Lee, Hyo Jung; Lee, Dae Sung; Jeon, Che Ok

    2013-03-01

    To characterize the denitrifying phosphorus (P) uptake properties of "Candidatus Accumulibacter phosphatis," a sequencing batch reactor (SBR) was operated with acetate. The SBR operation was gradually acclimated from anaerobic-oxic (AO) to anaerobic-anoxic-oxic (A2O) conditions by stepwise increases of nitrate concentration and the anoxic time. The communities of "Ca. Accumulibacter" and associated bacteria at the initial (AO) and final (A2O) stages were compared using 16S rRNA and polyphosphate kinase genes and using fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH). The acclimation process led to a clear shift in the relative abundances of recognized "Ca. Accumulibacter" subpopulations from clades IIA > IA > IIF to clades IIC > IA > IIF, as well as to increases in the abundance of other associated bacteria (Dechloromonas [from 1.2% to 19.2%] and "Candidatus Competibacter phosphatis" [from 16.4% to 20.0%]), while the overall "Ca. Accumulibacter" abundance decreased (from 55.1% to 29.2%). A series of batch experiments combined with FISH/microautoradiography (MAR) analyses was performed to characterize the denitrifying P uptake properties of the "Ca. Accumulibacter" clades. In FISH/MAR experiments using slightly diluted sludge (∼0.5 g/liter), all "Ca. Accumulibacter" clades successfully took up phosphorus in the presence of nitrate. However, the "Ca. Accumulibacter" clades showed no P uptake in the presence of nitrate when the sludge was highly diluted (∼0.005 g/liter); under these conditions, reduction of nitrate to nitrite did not occur, whereas P uptake by "Ca. Accumulibacter" clades occurred when nitrite was added. These results suggest that the "Ca. Accumulibacter" cells lack nitrate reduction capabilities and that P uptake by "Ca. Accumulibacter" is dependent upon nitrite generated by associated nitrate-reducing bacteria such as Dechloromonas and "Ca. Competibacter."

  11. Thermal activation of an industrial sludge for a possible valorization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lamrani Sanae

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available This work fits within the framework of sustainable management of sludge generated from wastewater treatment in industrial network. The studied sludge comes from an industry manufacturing sanitary ware products.Physico-chemical and mineralogical characterization was performed to give an identity card to the sludge. We noted the absence of metal pollution.The industrial sludge has been subjected to thermal activation at various temperatures (650°C to 850°C. The pozzolanic activity was evaluated by physico- chemical and mechanical methods [1]. Pozzolanicity measurement was carried out based on Chapelle test and conductivity revealed the existence of pozzolanic properties of the calcined samples. The best pozzolanic reactivity was obtained for the sample calcined at 800°C. We noticed a decrease in the reactivity of the sample calcined at 850°C. In addition, analysis by means of X-ray diffraction and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy showed that sludge recrystallization begins at a temperature of 850°C. Pozzolanicity index of the thermally treated samples was determined by measuring the mechanical resistance of mortar specimens previously kept in a saturated lime solution for 28 days (ASTM C618 [2]. The best pozzolanic activity index was obtained for the sample calcined at 800°C (109.1%.This work is a contribution to the research for new supplying sources of raw materials and additives in the field of construction. It presents a proposition of a promising solution for the valorization of waste material as an additive instead of being discharged into open air dumps causing a major environmental problem.

  12. F-Canyon Sludge Physical Properties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Poirier, M. R.; Hansen, P. R.; Fink, S. D.

    2005-01-01

    The Site Deactivation and Decommissioning (SDD) Organization is evaluating options to disposition the 800 underground tanks (including removal of the sludge heels from these tanks). To support this effort, DandD requested assistance from Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) personnel to determine the pertinent physical properties to effectively mobilize the sludge from these tanks (Tanks 804, 808, and 809). SDD provided SRNL with samples of the sludge from Tanks 804, 808, and 809. The authors measured the following physical properties for each tank: particle settling rate, shear strength (i.e., settled solids yield stress), slurry rheology (i.e., yield stress and consistency), total solids concentration in the sludge, soluble solids concentration of the sludge, sludge density, and particle size distribution

  13. Radioactive contamination of sewage sludge. Preliminary data

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Soeder, C J; Zanders, E; Raphael, T

    1986-01-01

    Because of the radioactivity released through the explosion of the nuclear reactor near Chernobyl radionuclides have been accumulated to a significant extent in sewage sludge in the Federal Republic of Germany. This is demonstrated for samples from four activated sludge plants according to a recent recommendation of the German Commission for Radiation Protection, there is until now no reason to deviate from the common practices of sludge disposal or incineration. The degree of radioactive contamination of plant materials produced on farm lands on which sewage sludge is being spread cannot be estimated with sufficient certainty yet. Additional information is required.

  14. Gas Generation from K East Basin Sludges - Series II Testing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bryan, Samuel A.; Delegard, Calvin H.; Schmidt, Andrew J.; Sell, Rachel L.; Silvers, Kurt L.; Gano, Susan R.; Thornton, Brenda M.

    2001-01-01

    This report describes work to examine the gas generation behavior of actual K East (KE) Basin floor, pit and canister sludge. Mixed and unmixed and fractionated KE canister sludge were tested, along with floor and pit sludges from areas in the KE Basin not previously sampled. The first report in this series focused on gas generation from KE floor and canister sludge collected using a consolidated sampling technique. The third report will present results of gas generation testing of irradiated uranium fuel fragments with and without sludge addition. The path forward for management of the K Basin Sludge is to retrieve, ship, and store the sludge at T Plant until final processing at some future date. Gas generation will impact the designs and costs of systems associated with retrieval, transportation and storage of sludge

  15. Viscosity evolution of anaerobic granular sludge

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pevere, A.; Guibaud, G.; Hullebusch, van E.D.; Lens, P.N.L.; Baudu, M.

    2006-01-01

    The evolution of the apparent viscosity at steady shear rate of sieved anaerobic granular sludge (20¿315 ¿m diameter) sampled from different full-scale anaerobic reactors was recorded using rotation tests. The ¿limit viscosity¿ of sieved anaerobic granular sludge was determined from the apparent

  16. K Basin sludge dissolution engineering study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Westra, A.G.

    1998-01-01

    The purpose of this engineering study is to investigate the available technology related to dissolution of the K Basin sludge in nitric acid. The conclusion of this study along with laboratory and hot cell tests with actual sludge samples will provide the basis for beginning conceptual design of the sludge dissolver. The K Basin sludge contains uranium oxides, fragments of metallic U, and some U hydride as well as ferric oxyhydroxide, aluminum oxides and hydroxides, windblown sand that infiltrated the basin enclosure, ion exchange resin, and miscellaneous materials. The decision has been made to dispose of this sludge separate from the fuel elements stored in the basins. The sludge will be conditioned so that it meets Tank Waste Remediation System waste acceptance criteria and can be sent to one of the underground storage tanks. Sludge conditioning will be done by dissolving the fuel constituents in nitric acid, separating the insoluble material, adding neutron absorbers for criticality safety, and then reacting the solution with caustic to co-precipitate the uranium and plutonium. There will be five distinct feed streams to the sludge conditioning process two from the K East (KE) Basin and three from the K West (KW) Basin. The composition of the floor and pit sludges which contain more iron oxides and sand than uranium is much different than the canister sludges which are composed of mostly uranium oxides. The sludge conditioning equipment will be designed to process all of the sludge streams, but some of the operating parameters will be adjusted as necessary to handle the different sludge stream compositions. The volume of chemical additions and the amount of undissolved solids will be much different for floor and pit sludge than for canister sludge. Dissolution of uranium metal and uranium dioxide has been studied quite thoroughly and much information is available. Both uranium metal and uranium dioxide have been dissolved on a large scale in nuclear fuel

  17. Sludge recovery apparatus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marmo, A.R.

    1979-01-01

    Sludge recovery machine comprising a hollow centrifuge, a vertical pipe for feeding in a liquid containing sludge and a sliding rake pressing against the internal wall of the centrifuge to dislodge and move the sludge, a power drive for spinning the centrifuge at high speed and a rotating drying table to take the sludge and dry it [fr

  18. Characterization of Vadose Zone Sediment: Uncontaminated RCRA Borehole Core Samples and Composite Samples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Serne, R. Jeffrey; Bjornstad, Bruce N.; Schaef, Herbert T.; Williams, Bruce A.; Lanigan, David C.; Horton, Duane G.; Clayton, Ray E.; Mitroshkov, Alexandre V.; Legore, Virginia L.; O'Hara, Matthew J.; Brown, Christopher F.; Parker, Kent E.; Kutnyakov, Igor V.; Serne, Jennifer N.; Last, George V.; Smith, Steven C.; Lindenmeier, Clark W.; Zachara, John M.; Burke, Deborah S.

    2008-01-01

    This report was revised in September 2008 to remove acid-extractable sodium data from Tables 4.14, 4.16, 5.20, 5.22, 5.43, and 5.45. The sodium data was removed due to potential contamination introduced during the acid extraction process. The rest of the text remains unchanged from the original report issued in February 2002. The overall goal of the of the Tank Farm Vadose Zone Project, led by CH2M HILL Hanford Group, Inc., is to define risks from past and future single-shell tank farm activities. To meet this goal, CH2M HILL Hanford Group, Inc. asked scientists from Pacific Northwest National Laboratory to perform detailed analyses on vadose zone sediment from within the S-SX Waste Management Area. This report is one in a series of four reports to present the results of these analyses. Specifically, this report contains all the geologic, geochemical, and selected physical characterization data collected on vadose zone sediment recovered from Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) borehole bore samples and composite samples

  19. Characterization of Vadose Zone Sediment: Uncontaminated RCRA Borehole Core Samples and Composite Samples

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Serne, R. Jeffrey; Bjornstad, Bruce N.; Schaef, Herbert T.; Williams, Bruce A.; Lanigan, David C.; Horton, Duane G.; Clayton, Ray E.; Mitroshkov, Alexandre V.; Legore, Virginia L.; O' Hara, Matthew J.; Brown, Christopher F.; Parker, Kent E.; Kutnyakov, Igor V.; Serne, Jennifer N.; Last, George V.; Smith, Steven C.; Lindenmeier, Clark W.; Zachara, John M.; Burke, Deborah S.

    2008-09-11

    This report was revised in September 2008 to remove acid-extractable sodium data from Tables 4.14, 4.16, 5.20, 5.22, 5.43, and 5.45. The sodium data was removed due to potential contamination introduced during the acid extraction process. The rest of the text remains unchanged from the original report issued in February 2002. The overall goal of the of the Tank Farm Vadose Zone Project, led by CH2M HILL Hanford Group, Inc., is to define risks from past and future single-shell tank farm activities. To meet this goal, CH2M HILL Hanford Group, Inc. asked scientists from Pacific Northwest National Laboratory to perform detailed analyses on vadose zone sediment from within the S-SX Waste Management Area. This report is one in a series of four reports to present the results of these analyses. Specifically, this report contains all the geologic, geochemical, and selected physical characterization data collected on vadose zone sediment recovered from Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) borehole bore samples and composite samples.

  20. SLUDGE WASHING AND DEMONSTRATION OF THE DWPF FLOWSHEET IN THE SRNL SHIELDED CELLS FOR SLUDGE BATCH 6 QUALIFICATION

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pareizs, J.; Pickenheim, B.; Bannochie, C.; Billings, A.; Bibler, N.; Click, D.

    2010-10-01

    Prior to initiating a new sludge batch in the Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF), Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) is required to simulate this processing, including Chemical Process Cell (CPC) simulation, waste glass fabrication, and chemical durability testing. This report documents this simulation for the next sludge batch, Sludge Batch 6 (SB6). SB6 consists of Tank 12 material that has been transferred to Tank 51 and subjected to Low Temperature Aluminum Dissolution (LTAD), Tank 4 sludge, and H-Canyon Pu solutions. Following LTAD and the Tank 4 addition, Liquid Waste Operations (LWO) provided SRNL a 3 L sample of Tank 51 sludge for SB6 qualification. Pu solution from H Canyon was also received. SB6 qualification included washing the sample per LWO plans/projections (including the addition of Pu from H Canyon), DWPF CPC simulations, waste glass fabrication (vitrification), and waste glass characterization and chemical durability evaluation. The following are significant observations from this demonstration. Sludge settling improved slightly as the sludge was washed. SRNL recommended (and the Tank Farm implemented) one less wash based on evaluations of Tank 40 heel projections and projections of the glass composition following transfer of Tank 51 to Tank 40. Thorium was detected in significant quantities (>0.1 wt % of total solids) in the sludge. In past sludge batches, thorium has been determined by Inductively Coupled Plasma-Mass Spectroscopy (ICP-MS), seen in small quantities, and reported with the radionuclides. As a result of the high thorium, SRNL-AD has added thorium to their suite of Inductively Coupled Plasma-Atomic Emission Spectroscopy (ICP-AES) elements. The acid stoichiometry for the DWPF Sludge Receipt and Adjustment Tank (SRAT) processing of 115%, or 1.3 mol acid per liter of SRAT receipt slurry, was adequate to accomplish some of the goals of SRAT processing: nitrite was destroyed to below 1,000 mg/kg and mercury was removed to

  1. Rheological properties of disintegrated sewage sludge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolski, Paweł

    2017-11-01

    The rheology of the sludge provides information about the capacity and the flow, which in the case of project tasks for the hydraulic conveying installation is an important control parameter. Accurate knowledge of the rheological properties of sludge requires the designation of rheological models. Models single and multiparameter (Ostwald, Bingham, Herschel-Bulkley'a, and others) allow an approximation of flow curves, and the determination of the boundaries of the flow of modified sludge allows you to control the process compaction or are dewatered sludge undergoing flow. The aim of the study was to determine the rheological parameters and rheological models of sludge conditioned by physical methods before and after the process of anaerobic digestion. So far, studies have shown that the application of conditioning in the preparation of sewage sludge increases shear stress, viscosity as well as the limits of flow in relation to the untreated sludge. Offset yield point by the application of a conditioning agent is associated with decreased flowability tested sludge, which has also been observed by analyzing the structure of the prepared samples. Lowering the yield point, and thus the shear stress was recorded as a result of the fermentation test of disintegrated sludge.

  2. Use of dry sludge from waste water treatment plants as an additive in prefabricated concrete brick

    OpenAIRE

    Yagüe, A.; Valls, S.; Vázquez, E.; Kuchinow, V.

    2002-01-01

    Dry sludge from the Sabadell Water Treatment Plant was used to prepare prefabricated concrete bricks. After characterising the sludge and the manufacturing process used to make the bricks, we define the conditions of addition of the sludges in the manufacture. Reference samples not containing sludge and samples containing 2 % of dry sludge by cement weight were prepared. The variation in density, porosity, absorption coefficient and compressive strength of the bricks with the presence of...

  3. Assessment of Jet Erosion for Potential Post-Retrieval K-Basin Settled Sludge

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wells, Beric E.; Enderlin, Carl W.; Gauglitz, Phillip A.; Peterson, Reid A.

    2009-09-29

    Packaged K-Basin sludge will be transported to the T Plant on the Hanford Site where it will be interim stored. The sludge will be retrieved from the storage containers and processed for disposal. A sample of high uranium content canister sludge, designated 96-13, "self-cemented" during laboratory storage. This sample was uncharacteristically strong compared to expected K-Basin material. The purpose for this work is to evaluate the potential retrieval of such sludge after storage at the T Plant via jet erosion. The specific objectives of this report are to determine the modes of erosion and the methods used to measure/assess the erodibility parameters of sludge and identify those parameters applicable to jet erosion. The erodibility parameters of sample 96-13 are characterized to the extent possible. These objectives have been met based on literature review, past experience at Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, and observation of sample 96-13 video during hot-cell activities.

  4. Rheology and Microbiology of Sludge from a Thermophilic Aerobic Membrane Reactor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alessandro Abbà

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available A thermophilic aerobic membrane reactor (TAMR treating high-strength COD liquid wastes was submitted to an integrated investigation, with the aim of characterizing the biomass and its rheological behaviour. These processes are still scarcely adopted, also because the knowledge of their biology as well as of the physical-chemical properties of the sludge needs to be improved. In this paper, samples of mixed liquor were taken from a TAMR and submitted to fluorescent in situ hybridization for the identification and quantification of main bacterial groups. Measurements were also targeted at flocs features, filamentous bacteria, and microfauna, in order to characterize the sludge. The studied rheological properties were selected as they influence significantly the performances of membrane bioreactors (MBR and, in particular, of the TAMR systems that operate under thermophilic conditions (i.e., around 50°C with high MLSS concentrations (up to 200 gTS L−1. The proper description of the rheological behaviour of sludge represents a useful and fundamental aspect that allows characterizing the hydrodynamics of sludge suspension devoted to the optimization of the related processes. Therefore, in this study, the effects on the sludge rheology produced by the biomass concentration, pH, temperature, and aeration were analysed.

  5. Gravitational sedimentation of flocculated waste activated sludge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chu, C P; Lee, D J; Tay, J H

    2003-01-01

    The sedimentation characteristics of flocculated wastewater sludge have not been satisfactorily explored using the non-destructive techniques, partially owing to the rather low solid content (ca. 1-2%) commonly noted in the biological sediments. This paper investigated, for the first time, the spatial-temporal gravitational settling characteristics of original and polyelectrolyte flocculated waste activated sludge using Computerized Axial Tomography Scanner. The waste activated sludge possessed a distinct settling characteristic from the kaolin slurries. The waste activated sludges settled more slowly and reached a lower solid fraction in the final sediment than the latter. Flocculation markedly enhanced the settleability of both sludges. Although the maximum achievable solid contents for the kaolin slurries were reduced, flocculation had little effects on the activated sludge. The purely plastic rheological model by Buscall and White (J Chem Soc Faraday Trans 1(83) (1987) 873) interpreted the consolidating sediment data, while the purely elastic model by Tiller and Leu (J. Chin. Inst. Chem. Eng. 11 (1980) 61) described the final equilibrated sediment. Flocculation produced lower yield stress during transient settling, thereby resulting in the more easily consolidated sludge than the original sample. Meanwhile, the flocculated activated sludge was stiffer in the final sediment than in the original sample. The data reported herein are valuable to the theories development for clarifier design and operation.

  6. Characterization Of Core Sample Collected From The Saltstone Disposal Facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cozzi, A.; Duncan, A.

    2010-01-01

    During the month of September 2008, grout core samples were collected from the Saltstone Disposal Facility, Vault 4, cell E. This grout was placed during processing campaigns in December 2007 from Deliquification, Dissolution and Adjustment Batch 2 salt solution. The 4QCY07 Waste Acceptance Criteria sample collected on 11/16/07 represents the salt solution in the core samples. Core samples were retrieved to initiate the historical database of properties of emplaced Saltstone and to demonstrate the correlation between field collected and laboratory prepared samples. Three samples were collected from three different locations. Samples were collected using a two-inch diameter concrete coring bit. In April 2009, the core samples were removed from the evacuated sample container, inspected, transferred to PVC containers, and backfilled with nitrogen. Samples furthest from the wall were the most intact cylindrically shaped cored samples. The shade of the core samples darkened as the depth of coring increased. Based on the visual inspection, sample 3-3 was selected for all subsequent analysis. The density and porosity of the Vault 4 core sample, 1.90 g/cm 3 and 59.90% respectively, were comparable to values achieved for laboratory prepared samples. X-ray diffraction analysis identified phases consistent with the expectations for hydrated Saltstone. Microscopic analysis revealed morphology features characteristic of cementitious materials with fly ash and calcium silicate hydrate gel. When taken together, the results of the density, porosity, x-ray diffraction analysis and microscopic analysis support the conclusion that the Vault 4, Cell E core sample is representative of the expected waste form.

  7. Fabrication and characterization of buckypapers for use in air sampling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oh, Jonghwa

    Occupational exposure to volatile organic compounds (VOCs) is a concern from a public health perspective. In many industrial activities, workers' exposure to VOCs can be sufficiently high to induce adverse health effects, so their monitoring is necessary. In exposure assessment, post sampling extraction and quantification are the typical analytical procedures. Recently, our group developed the photothermal desorption (PTD) technique in which a pulse of light thermally desorbs an analyte directly from a sorbent. Advantages of this technique are; it is solvent free, repeated analysis is possible, sorbents are reusable, and no high cost of equipment is required. PTD overcomes almost all drawbacks of current extraction methods. This study was aimed to develop and test a new sorbent which will efficiently work with PTD. Single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWNTs) were examined as potential sorbents because of their high surface area, great thermal conductivity, and efficient light absorption. SWNTs were fabricated into a self-supporting form (i.e., buckypaper (BP)) which will preserve its physical integrity under normal working conditions. Largely two types of SWNTs were used, arc discharge (AD) and high-pressure carbon monoxide (HiPco), and different fabrication methods were examined. Upon fabrication, their adsorption properties were characterized in terms of Brunauer, Emmett, and Teller (BET) surface area, pore size, and toluene adsorption capacity. HiPco BP and methanol-cleaned AD BP (suspended/rinsed with methanol) were the top two materials, showing the highest surface area (649 and 387 m²/g, respectively) and adsorption capacity (106 and 46 mg/g, respectively) with relatively small mean pore diameter (7.7 and 8.8 nm, respectively). To further improve the adsorption properties, specific heat treatment conditions for each type of BPs were employed. After initial treatments only HiPco BP and acetone-cleaned AD BP (suspended/rinsed with acetone) were selected for further

  8. Anaerobic Treatment Of Percolate From Faecal Sludge Drying Beds ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Composite percolate samples, from sludge drying beds of a pilot co-composting plant in Kumasi, Ghana, were characterised and subjected to laboratory scale anaerobic treatment. Two categories of percolate samples were investigated; samples seeded with anaerobic sludge and samples without seeding. The average ...

  9. Virological investigations on inadiated sewage sludge

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Epp, C.

    1980-08-01

    The virusinactivating activity of a Co 60 -irradiation pilot plant at Geiselbullach/Munich was to be examined. We investigated 16 impure sewage water, 15 purified sewage water, 32 raw sladge samples, 62 digested sludge samples before irradiation, 52 digested sludge samples after irradiation and 9 raw sludge samples after irradiation. We completed these investigations by adding poliovaccinevirus type 1 to the digested sludge before irradiation and by adding suspensions of pure virus in MEM + 2% FBS packed in synthetic capsules and mixtures of virus and sludge packed in synthetic capsules to the digested sludge. After the irradiation we collected the capsules and determined the virustiter. The testviruses were poliovaccinevirus type 1, poliowildvirus type 1, echovirus type 6, coxsackie-B-virus type 5, coxsackie-A-virus type 9 and adenovirus type 1. In the field trial the irradiation results were like the laboratory results assuming that the sewage sludge was homogenized enough by digestion and the solid particle concentration was not more than 3%. The D-value was 300-400 krad for enteroviruses and 700 krad for adenovirus. (orig.) [de

  10. Integral study of sewage sludges

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-01-01

    Sewage sludges are the by-product generated during the treatment process of waste water, and they are conformed by a solid phase which origin is the accumulation of pollutant materials which has been added to water during natural and anthropogenic activities. Its handling is one of the most serious problems faced by water treatment plants which involve the production, gathering, transportation, re utilization and final disposal of sewage sludges. The main purpose of this project is to perform a technical evaluation of the process of sewage sludge irradiation for its possible application as a choice for treatment and final disposal. Irradiation with gammas from Cobalt-60 shows effectiveness in disinfestation of sewage sludges, since they reduce six times the microbial population with a 7 KGy dose. In like manners with doses of 10 KGy is possible to bring down in 70 % the concentration of organic compounds, as well as to eliminate the presence of 6 to 22 organic compounds on samples of sewage sludges. The whole content of this work is presented in six sections: Introduction, Antecedents, Methodology, Conclusions, Suggestions and Bibliography. (Author)

  11. Caracterização de lodo gerado em estações de tratamento de água: perspectivas de aplicação agrícola Characterization of sludge generated in water treatment plants: prospects for agricultural application

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wander Gustavo Botero

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The work reported here involved the characterization of sludges produced at water treatment plants in Jaboticabal-SP using FeCl3 as flocculant, and in Taquaritinga-SP and Manaus-AM using Al2(SO43 as flocculant. An evaluation was also made of the interaction of organic matter extracted from the sludges with different metal species. The results indicated that all the sludges produced at water treatment plants have an important agricultural potential and that their use depends on the characteristics of the raw water and the type of flocculant employed in conventional treatment. The humic substances extracted from the sludges showed different affinities for metal species, favoring eventual exchanges between potentially toxic metals and macro- and micronutrients. An alternative for the use of sludge in agriculture is to pretreat it to remove potentially toxic metals and enrich it with micro- and macronutrients that can be released to the plant.

  12. Bacterial diversity characterization in petroleum samples from Brazilian reservoirs

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Oliveira, Valéria Maia; Sette, Lara Durães; Simioni, Karen Christina Marques; dos Santos Neto, Eugênio Vaz

    2008-01-01

    This study aimed at evaluating potential differences among the bacterial communities from formation water and oil samples originated from biodegraded and non-biodegraded Brazilian petroleum reservoirs by using a PCR-DGGE based approach. Environmental DNA was isolated and used in PCR reactions with bacterial primers, followed by separation of 16S rDNA fragments in the DGGE. PCR products were also cloned and sequenced, aiming at the taxonomic affiliation of the community members. The fingerprints obtained allowed the direct comparison among the bacterial communities from oil samples presenting distinct degrees of biodegradation, as well as between the communities of formation water and oil sample from the non-biodegraded reservoir. Very similar DGGE band profiles were observed for all samples, and the diversity of the predominant bacterial phylotypes was shown to be low. Cloning and sequencing results revealed major differences between formation water and oil samples from the non-biodegraded reservoir. Bacillus sp. and Halanaerobium sp. were shown to be the predominant components of the bacterial community from the formation water sample, whereas the oil sample also included Alicyclobacillus acidoterrestris, Rhodococcus sp., Streptomyces sp. and Acidithiobacillus ferrooxidans. The PCR-DGGE technique, combined with cloning and sequencing of PCR products, revealed the presence of taxonomic groups not found previously in these samples when using cultivation-based methods and 16S rRNA gene library assembly, confirming the need of a polyphasic study in order to improve the knowledge of the extent of microbial diversity in such extreme environments. PMID:24031244

  13. Fast Characterization of Moving Samples with Nano-Textured Surfaces

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Morten Hannibal; Hansen, Poul-Erik; Zalkovskij, Maksim

    2015-01-01

    Characterization of structures using conventional optical microscopy is restricted by the diffraction limit. Techniques like atomic force and scanning electron microscopy can investigate smaller structures but are very time consuming. We show that using scatterometry, a technique based on optical...... diffraction, integrated into a commercial light microscope we can characterize nano-textured surfaces in a few milliseconds. The adapted microscope has two detectors, a CCD camera used to easily find an area of interest and a spectrometer for the measurements. We demonstrate that the microscope has...

  14. Characterization of ASTM round-robin tungsten-powder samples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Slettevold, C.A.; Biermann, A.H.

    1975-01-01

    The Lawrence Livermore Laboratory Particle Characterization Laboratory Group has participated in an industry-wide round-robin investigation on characterization of tungsten powder. sponsored by the ASTM Subcommittee on Refractory-Metal Powders (B-09.3). The analyses performed at the suggestion of the ASTM subcommittee included measurements of tap density, apparent density, true density, average particle size, and surface area. Determinations of particle-weight and size distributions were also performed and particle inspection conducted by microscopy. This report describes the equipment and procedures used and summarizes the results of these analyses. (9 tables, 17 fig) (U.S.)

  15. Multi-instrument characterization of five nanodiamond samples: a thorough example of nanomaterial characterization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Bhupinder; Smith, Stacey J; Jensen, David S; Jones, Hodge F; Dadson, Andrew E; Farnsworth, Paul B; Vanfleet, Richard; Farrer, Jeffrey K; Linford, Matthew R

    2016-02-01

    Here, we report the most comprehensive characterization of nanodiamonds (NDs) yet undertaken. Five different samples from three different vendors were analyzed by a suite of analytical techniques, including X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), time-of-flight secondary ion mass spectrometry (ToF-SIMS), inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS), diffuse reflectance infrared Fourier transform (DRIFT) spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction (XRD), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), electron energy loss spectroscopy (EELS), Brunauer-Emmett-Teller (BET) surface area measurements, and particle size distribution (PSD) measurements. XPS revealed the elemental compositions of the ND surfaces (83-87 at.% carbon and 12-14 at.% oxygen) with varying amounts of nitrogen (0.4-1.8 at.%), silicon (0.1-0.7 at.%), and tungsten (0.3 at.% only in samples from one vendor). ToF-SIMS and ICP showed metal impurities (Al, Fe, Ni, Cr, etc. with unexpectedly high amounts of W in one vendor's samples: ca. 900 ppm). Principal component analyses were performed on the ToF-SIMS and ICP data. DRIFT showed key functional groups (-OH, C=O, C-O, and C=C). BET showed surface areas of 50-214 m(2)/g. XRD and TEM revealed PSD (bimodal distribution and a wide PSD, 5-100 nm, for one vendor's samples). XRD also provided particle sizes (2.7-27 nm) and showed the presence of graphite. EELS gave the sp(2)/sp(3) contents of the materials (37-88% sp(3)). PSD measurements were performed via differential sedimentation of the particles (mean particle size ca. 17-50 nm). This comprehensive understanding should allow for improved construction of nanodiamond-based materials.

  16. 183-H Basin sludge treatability test report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Biyani, R.K.

    1995-01-01

    This document presents the results from the treatability testing of a 1-kg sample of 183-H Basin sludge. Compressive strength measurements, Toxic Characteristic Leach Procedure, and a modified ANSI 16.1 leach test were conducted

  17. Fast pyrolysis of lignin, macroalgae and sewage sludge

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Trinh, N.T.

    2013-04-15

    Non-conventional biomass feedstock may also be applicable for fast pyrolysis processes. Among the forms of non-conventional biomasses, macroalgae, lignin (industrial residue) and sewage sludge may be attractive materials due to their low price, non-competitiveness with food crops and the possible utilization of solid wastes. Besides, a fast pyrolysis process can be used as a process to densify the biomass and produce bioslurry, a mixture of bio-oil and pyrolytic char. The bioslurry is found to be a possible feedstock for pressurized gasification plants. Thus, the aims of this project are to investigate fast pyrolysis properties of lignin, sewage sludge and macroalgae on a lab scale PCR and characterize their bio-oil properties. Bioslurry properties with respect to use as a feedstock for pressurized gasification is also investigated. Lignin and sewage sludge PCR pyrolysis provided bio-oil yields of 47 and 54 wt% daf, and oil energy recovery of 45 and 50 %, respectively. While the macroalgae PCR pyrolysis showed promising results with an organic oil yield of 65 wt% daf and an oil energy recovery of 76 %. The HHV of the lignin, sewage sludge and macroalgae oils were 29.7, 25.7 and 25.5 MJ/kg db respectively, and that are higher than that of typical bioiv oil from conventional biomasses (23-24 MJ/kg db). Almost all metals feedstock contents were contained in the chars at temperatures of 550 - 575 deg. C for lignin, sewage sludge and macroalgae PCR pyrolysis. Due to high feedstock nitrogen and sulfur contents, also a high level of nitrogen and sulfur of macroalgae and sewage sludge oils were observed compared to conventional bio-oil and this may limit their further industrial applications. The lignin char had a high proportion of small size particles, a HHV of 21 MJ/kg db and were almost free of chloride and sulfur, thus it is considered as a promising fuel for gasification or combustion; whereas macroalgae and sewage sludge chars containing high amounts of

  18. Co-digestion of municipal sludge and external organic wastes for enhanced biogas production under realistic plant constraints.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tandukar, Madan; Pavlostathis, Spyros G

    2015-12-15

    A bench-scale investigation was conducted to select external organic wastes and mixing ratios for co-digestion with municipal sludge at the F. Wayne Hill Water Resources Center (FWHWRC), Gwinnett County, GA, USA to support a combined heat and power (CHP) project. External wastes were chosen and used subject to two constraints: a) digester retention time no lower than 15 d; and b) total biogas (methane) production not to exceed a specific target level based on air permit constraints on CO2 emissions. Primary sludge (PS), thickened waste activated sludge (TWAS) and digested sludge collected at the FWHWRC, industrial liquid waste obtained from a chewing gum manufacturing plant (GW) and dewatered fat-oil-grease (FOG) were used. All sludge and waste samples were characterized and their ultimate digestibility was assessed at 35 °C. The ultimate COD to methane conversion of PS, TWAS, municipal sludge (PS + TWAS; 40:60 w/w TS basis), GW and FOG was 49.2, 35.2, 40.3, 72.7, and 81.1%, respectively. Co-digestion of municipal sludge with GW, FOG or both, was evaluated using four bench-scale, mesophilic (35 °C) digesters. Biogas production increased significantly and additional degradation of the municipal sludge between 1.1 and 30.7% was observed. Biogas and methane production was very close to the target levels necessary to close the energy deficit at the FWHWRC. Co-digestion resulted in an effluent quality similar to that of the control digester fed only with the municipal sludge, indicating that co-digestion had no adverse effects. Study results prove that high methane production is achievable with the addition of concentrated external organic wastes to municipal digesters, at acceptable higher digester organic loadings and lower retention times, allowing the effective implementation of CHP programs at municipal wastewater treatment plants, with significant cost savings. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Forest fuel characterization using direct sampling in forest plantations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eva Reyna Esmeralda Díaz García; Marco Aurelio González Tagle; Javier Jiménez Pérez; Eduardo JavierTreviño Garza; Diana Yemilet Ávila Flores

    2013-01-01

    One of the essential elements for a fire to occur is the flammable material. This is defined as the total biomass that has the ability to ignite and burn when exposed to a heat source. Fuel characterization in Mexican forest ecosystems is very scarce. However, this information is very important for estimating flammability and forest fire risk, fire behavior,...

  20. A Bayesian sampling strategy for hazardous waste site characterization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Skalski, J.R.

    1987-12-01

    Prior knowledge based on historical records or physical evidence often suggests the existence of a hazardous waste site. Initial surveys may provide additional or even conflicting evidence of site contamination. This article presents a Bayes sampling strategy that allocates sampling at a site using this prior knowledge. This sampling strategy minimizes the environmental risks of missing chemical or radionuclide hot spots at a waste site. The environmental risk is shown to be proportional to the size of the undetected hot spot or inversely proportional to the probability of hot spot detection. 12 refs., 2 figs

  1. Morphology and physiology characterization of activated sludge by image analysis; Caracterisation morphologique et physiologique de la biomasse des boues activees par analyse d'images

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pandolfi, D.

    2006-01-15

    The biological reactors of wastewater treatment by activated sludge are hosting a complex ecosystem, composed of different types of bacteria (filamentous, non filamentous), protozoa and metazoa. A good balance between the different types of bacteria is essential to achieve good settleability properties for the flocs in the clarifier. The flocs are formed by filamentous bacteria and exo-polymers produced by zoogleal bacteria. When filamentous bacteria are in excess, the floes do not settle correctly (bulking and foaming phenomena). Methods based on image analysis have been used to detect and characterize automatically filamentous bacteria as well as the abundance of exo-polymers. Monochrome or colour-images have been obtained by optical microscopy with classical (Gram, Neisser, Soudan Black) and fluorescent staining (BacLight, FISH). The validation of the different procedures was achieved on various full-scale treatment plants in Lorraine. Further experiments were carried out on lab-scale continuous and sequential reactors, in order to observe the effect of substrates, of temperature and starvation on the behavior of filamentous microorganisms. Under continuous or sequential aeration, for the same substrate, different Gram characteristics are observed. The study carried out on extracellular polymers with varying carbon/nitrogen ratios reveals that an excess of carbonaceous substance favors the production of polymers, which are essential for flocculation. The results obtained with the Gram and PHB (presence of lipids) procedures in condition of environmental stress (starvation and temperature) have shown that the populations have experienced structural alterations of their membranes. We have noticed that in periods of aerobic starvation the lipids which were present were used in ambient temperature, whereas in anaerobic conditions the polyphosphates were consumed. In absence or presence oxygen at a temperature of 4 deg C, it seems easier for filamentous bacteria to

  2. Morphology and physiology characterization of activated sludge by image analysis; Caracterisation morphologique et physiologique de la biomasse des boues activees par analyse d'images

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pandolfi, D

    2006-01-15

    The biological reactors of wastewater treatment by activated sludge are hosting a complex ecosystem, composed of different types of bacteria (filamentous, non filamentous), protozoa and metazoa. A good balance between the different types of bacteria is essential to achieve good settleability properties for the flocs in the clarifier. The flocs are formed by filamentous bacteria and exo-polymers produced by zoogleal bacteria. When filamentous bacteria are in excess, the floes do not settle correctly (bulking and foaming phenomena). Methods based on image analysis have been used to detect and characterize automatically filamentous bacteria as well as the abundance of exo-polymers. Monochrome or colour-images have been obtained by optical microscopy with classical (Gram, Neisser, Soudan Black) and fluorescent staining (BacLight, FISH). The validation of the different procedures was achieved on various full-scale treatment plants in Lorraine. Further experiments were carried out on lab-scale continuous and sequential reactors, in order to observe the effect of substrates, of temperature and starvation on the behavior of filamentous microorganisms. Under continuous or sequential aeration, for the same substrate, different Gram characteristics are observed. The study carried out on extracellular polymers with varying carbon/nitrogen ratios reveals that an excess of carbonaceous substance favors the production of polymers, which are essential for flocculation. The results obtained with the Gram and PHB (presence of lipids) procedures in condition of environmental stress (starvation and temperature) have shown that the populations have experienced structural alterations of their membranes. We have noticed that in periods of aerobic starvation the lipids which were present were used in ambient temperature, whereas in anaerobic conditions the polyphosphates were consumed. In absence or presence oxygen at a temperature of 4 deg C, it seems easier for filamentous bacteria to

  3. Simplified polymer characterization after microwave assisted sample preparation (T9)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lafer, M.; Kettisch, P.; Gfrerrer, M.

    2002-01-01

    Full text: Beside the determination of fillers and heavy metals in polymers after decomposition more often stabilizers, fire inhibitors and antistatic additive agents are measured alter using fast microwave accelerated solvent extraction. Determination of heavy metal traces for example in food packaging materials needs high sample weight to detect small amounts of impurities. High sample weight is also needed for plastic waste providing the homogeneity for representative analysis. Due to the high concentration of' organic carbon and the fact that the materials swim on the acid surface, closed vessel digestion had limits concerning sample weight. A new vessel insert in combination with extremely fast reaction control allows now to double or triple usual sample weights. High performance vessels can also be used to decompose polymers filled with TiO 2 , talcum, fibers or similar within short one or two step procedures gaining solutions without precipitates. Additional filtration or sample treatment is not necessary. For the determination of organic components more and more classical, but time consuming methods are replaced by microwave assisted solvent extraction. Instead of hours or even half days using Soxhlet extraction samples can be extracted within minutes using vessels and rotors similar to those used for decomposition. The dual use of one basic microwave instrument for both, analysis of inorganic as well as organic parameters will help to increase efficiency by reduced costs. (author)

  4. Investigation of possibilities for high heavy metal content sludges utilization by incorporating them in concrete products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simeonova A.

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available The safe removal of sludge, obtained during the surface treatment of different metal products, is a serious environmental problem. These sludges are usually characterized by a high content of heavy metals (Pb, Cu, Ni, Zn, Cr, Cd, Mn, low quality and are obtained in many small industrial units in the whole country, which makes their centralized treatment difficult. In world practice, different methods are used for component fixation of such sludge, in the aim to prevent leaching of the metals causing pollution of the soil and underground water. The aim of the recent work is to prepare the sludge in a form of light (keramzit fillers by preliminary treatment with binding substances and to introduce them in non supporting concrete products - curbs, stakes and similar products. The investigation was made with two types of sludge - from a production line for thermal treatment and hardening of different parts used in machine building and from a production line for surface decoration treatment (nickel-plating and chromium-plating of consumer products. The sludge were dried and ground and then granulated with a solution of water glass. After their solidifying the air dried granules with a size of 5 to 15 mm were treated with cement milk and air dried again. With the obtained granules, standard percolation test for leaching metals like Pb, Cu, Zn, Ni and Cr was carried out. After a preliminary calculation of concrete mixtures, these granules were mixed with Portland cement and concrete sample products were made. These molded concrete samples were characterized by their density, water absorption, and mechanical strength for defined standard periods of time. The samples were subjected to a modified percolation test for leaching metals. The metal concentration in eluates was determined by Atomic Spectral Analysis.

  5. Sewage sludge disintegration by high-pressure homogenization: a sludge disintegration model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yuxuan; Zhang, Panyue; Ma, Boqiang; Wu, Hao; Zhang, Sheng; Xu, Xin

    2012-01-01

    High-pressure homogenization (HPH) technology was applied as a pretreatment to disintegrate sewage sludge. The effects of homogenization pressure, homogenization cycle number, and total solid content on sludge disintegration were investigated. The sludge disintegration degree (DD(COD)), protein concentration, and polysaccharide concentration increased with the increase of homogenization pressure and homogenization cycle number, and decreased with the increase of sludge total solid (TS) content. The maximum DD(COD) of 43.94% was achieved at 80 MPa with four homogenization cycles for a 9.58 g/L TS sludge sample. A HPH sludge disintegration model of DD(COD) = kNaPb was established by multivariable linear regression to quantify the effects of homogenization parameters. The homogenization cycle exponent a and homogenization pressure exponent b were 0.4763 and 0.7324 respectively, showing that the effect of homogenization pressure (P) was more significant than that of homogenization cycle number (N). The value of the rate constant k decreased with the increase of sludge total solid content. The specific energy consumption increased with the increment of sludge disintegration efficiency. Lower specific energy consumption was required for higher total solid content sludge.

  6. Calculating Confidence, Uncertainty, and Numbers of Samples When Using Statistical Sampling Approaches to Characterize and Clear Contaminated Areas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Piepel, Gregory F.; Matzke, Brett D.; Sego, Landon H.; Amidan, Brett G.

    2013-04-27

    This report discusses the methodology, formulas, and inputs needed to make characterization and clearance decisions for Bacillus anthracis-contaminated and uncontaminated (or decontaminated) areas using a statistical sampling approach. Specifically, the report includes the methods and formulas for calculating the • number of samples required to achieve a specified confidence in characterization and clearance decisions • confidence in making characterization and clearance decisions for a specified number of samples for two common statistically based environmental sampling approaches. In particular, the report addresses an issue raised by the Government Accountability Office by providing methods and formulas to calculate the confidence that a decision area is uncontaminated (or successfully decontaminated) if all samples collected according to a statistical sampling approach have negative results. Key to addressing this topic is the probability that an individual sample result is a false negative, which is commonly referred to as the false negative rate (FNR). The two statistical sampling approaches currently discussed in this report are 1) hotspot sampling to detect small isolated contaminated locations during the characterization phase, and 2) combined judgment and random (CJR) sampling during the clearance phase. Typically if contamination is widely distributed in a decision area, it will be detectable via judgment sampling during the characterization phrase. Hotspot sampling is appropriate for characterization situations where contamination is not widely distributed and may not be detected by judgment sampling. CJR sampling is appropriate during the clearance phase when it is desired to augment judgment samples with statistical (random) samples. The hotspot and CJR statistical sampling approaches are discussed in the report for four situations: 1. qualitative data (detect and non-detect) when the FNR = 0 or when using statistical sampling methods that account

  7. Infrared characterization of environmental samples by pulsed photothermal spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seidel, W.; Foerstendorf, H.; Heise, K.H.; Nicolai, R.; Schamlott, A.; Ortega, J.M.; Glotin, F.; Prazeres, R.

    2004-01-01

    Low concentration of toxic radioactive metals in environmental samples often limits the interpretation of results of infrared studies investigating the interaction processes between the metal ions and environmental compartments. For the first time, we could show that photothermal infrared spectroscopy performed with a pulsed free electron laser can provide reliable infrared spectra throughout a distinct spectral range of interest. In this model investigation, we provide vibrational absorption spectra of a rare earth metal salt dissolved in a KBr matrix and a natural calcite sample obtained by photothermal beam deflection (PTBD) technique and FT-IR (Fourier-transform infrared) spectroscopy, respectively. General agreement was found between all spectra of the different recording techniques. Spectral deviations were observed with samples containing low concentration of the rare earth metal salt indicating a lower detection limit of the photothermal method as compared to conventional FT-IR spectroscopy. (authors)

  8. Placement of radium/barium sludges in tailings areas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Murphy, K.L.; Multamaki, G.E.

    1980-01-01

    Currently radium is removed from uranium mining and milling effluents by the addition of barium chloride to precipitate the radium as radium/barium sulphate. The precipitate is allowed to settle in sedimentation basins prior to discharge of the effluent. The sedimentation basins are not suitable for final disposal of the sludge, and placement of the sludges in the tailings area has been proposed. The geochemical environment of fresh tailings areas was characterized as an acidic, oxidized surface zone underlain by an alkaline, reduced zone comprising the rest of the tailings. The quantity of sludge produced was estimated to be small relative to the quantity of tailings, and therefor a relatively small amount of radium would be added to the tailings disposal area by the addition of sludge. To confirm whether sludge addition affected radionuclide solubilization, laboratory leaching tests were conducted on slurries of acid leach tailings, and sludge-tailings mixtures. Radium in the (Ra,Ba)SO 4 sludge was at least as stable as radium in the tailings, and the sludge was able to absorb radium released from the tailings. The addition of sludge did not affect uranium and thorium solubilization. From these results it appears that the placement of sludge in tailings areas would not adversely affect the stability of radionuclides in the tailings or sludge. (auth)

  9. Characterization of nano-textured samples in a production environment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Morten Hannibal; Hansen, Poul-Erik; Bilenberg, Brian

    2015-01-01

    , such as a machine floor. The acquisition and analysing time for the topological parameters height, width and sidewall angle is only a few milliseconds. It is demonstrated that by simple adaptions to an optical microscope we can measure nano-textured surfaces with an uncertainty of a few nanometers for the height......Nano-textured surfaces have been characterized by optical diffraction techniques using an adapted commercial light microscope with two detectors, a CCD camera and a spectrometer. We demonstrate that the microscope has a resolution in the nanometer range, also in an environment with many vibrations...

  10. Bioassay directed identification of toxicants in sludge and related reused materials from industrial wastewater treatment plants in the Yangtze River Delta.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fang, Binbin; Guo, Jing; Li, Fuxing; Giesy, John P; Wang, Lianjun; Shi, Wei

    2017-02-01

    Industrialized development of the Yangtze River Delta, China, has resulted in larger amounts of wastes, including sludges from treatment of these wastes. Methods to manage and dispose, including reuse were urgently needed. Sludge and reused products were collected from two largest factories, KEYUAN and HENGJIA where treated sludges were turned into bricks or sludge cake to be placed in landfills, respectively. Metals and organic compounds were quantified in sludges and leachates assessed by use of toxicity characterized leaching procedure (TCLP) while acute toxicity was determined by Daphnia magna. Nine metals were detected in all raw sludges with concentrations of Cr and Ni exceeding Chinese standards. For sludge leachate, concentrations of metals were all less than Chinese standards, which changed little after being made into cake by HENGJIA, but were significantly less after being made into brick by KEYUAN. Toxicity units (TU) for all samples are greater than 1.0 indicating that they are potentially toxic to aquatic organisms. TUs changed little after being made into filter cake, but were 10-fold less after being made into bricks. Cr and Ni contributed most to the total toxicity followed by Zn and Cu. Making of sludges into K-brick 1 resulted in better inactivation of contaminants, which resulted in less toxic potencies. So that is the recommended method for handling of industrial sludges. To further assure their safe reuse, additional research on identification of key toxicants and potential hazards, based on additional endpoints, by combining bio-tests and chemical analysis should be done for reused sludges. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Wipe sampling for characterization of noncompactable radioactive waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barbieri, Aline E.O.; Ferreira, Robson J.; Vicente, Roberto

    2009-01-01

    Wipe sampling is a method of monitoring radioactive surface contamination on working area and on radioactive, non-compactable wastes, constituted of large pieces of replaced parts of equipment in nuclear and radioactive installations. In this method, sampling is executed by rubbing a disc of filter paper on the contaminated surface in such a way as to collect entirely or partially the deposited material. The target radioisotopes are subsequently measured directly on the wipe or extracted by appropriate radio analytical methods and then qualitatively and quantitatively determined. The collection factor, or the efficiency with which the material is removed from the surface and deposited on the smear, is the main source of error in quantitative measurements. The determination of the collection efficiency is the object of this communication. (author)

  12. Results of EDS uranium samples characterization after hydrogen loading

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chicea, D.; Dash, J.

    2003-01-01

    Several experiments of loading natural uranium foils with hydrogen were done. Electrolysis was used for loading hydrogen into uranium, because it is the most efficient way for H loading. The composition of the surface and near surface of the samples was determined using an Oxford EDS spectrometer on a Scanning Electron Microscope, manufactured by ISI. Images were taken with several magnifications up to 3.4KX. Results reveal that when low current density was used, the surface patterns changed from granules on the surface having a typical size of 2-4 microns to pits under the surface having a typical size under one micron. When high current density was used the surface changed and presented deep fissures. The deep fissures are the result of the mechanical strain induced by the lattice expansion caused by hydrogen absorption. The surface composition was determined before and after hydrogen loading. Uranium, thorium platinum and carbon concentration were measured. Experiments suggest that the amount of thorium increases on the uranium sample with the total electric charge transported through electrolyte. Carbon concentration was found to decrease on the surface of the sample as the total electric charge transported through electrolyte increased. Platinum is used in electrolysis experiment as anode primarily because it does not dissolve in electrolyte and therefore it is not electro-deposited on the cathode surface. The results of the platinum concentration measurements on the surface of the samples we loaded with hydrogen reveal that the platinum concentration increased dramatically as the current density increased and that created platinum spots on the cathode surface. Work is in progress on the subject. (authors)

  13. Enhancement of biogas production from sewage sludge by addition of grease trap sludge

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grosser, A.; Neczaj, E.

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • Addition of grease trap sludge is interesting option for sewage sludge digestion. • Co-digestion of grease trap sludge and sewage sludge improved efficiency of process. • The anaerobic digestion can be carried out at short hydraulic retention time. • Long chain fatty acids concentration was below the ranges for inhibition of anaerobic digestion. - Abstract: Despite having many benefits, a low degree of volatile solids removal as well as long retention time are the main factors limiting the performance of the anaerobic digestion. Co-digestion of sewage sludge with other organic waste (for example fat rich materials) is one of the few potential ways to enhance the performance of the anaerobic digestion. In this article, the effects of adding fatty rich materials on the performance and stability of semi-continuous anaerobic digestion of sewage sludge were investigated on a 6 l laboratory-scale reactor (working volume equal to 5.5 l). The reactor was operated in a semi-continuous mode with a hydraulic retention time of 10 days. The data presented in this paper relate to the period in which the grease trap sludge accounted for 10, 12, 14, 16 and 18% of the mixture on the volatile solids basis. The results clearly indicate that the addition of fat rich materials like grease trap sludge can lead to a satisfactory increase in biogas yield in digester treating sewage sludge. The results showed that co-digestion can enhance the biogas yield by 28–82% compared to anaerobic digestion of sewage sludge alone (control sample). Moreover, the addition of grease trap sludge to digesters resulted in increased volatile solids removal from 44.38% (control sample) to 57.77% (feedstock with 14% addition of grease trap sludge). It was found that the increase of grease trap sludge in the feedstock had a direct impact on the biogas production and methane yield. This proposal has also been confirmed by statistical analysis such as Pearson correlation coefficients and

  14. A destructive sample preparation method for radioactive waste characterization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Olteanu, M.; Bucur, C.

    2015-01-01

    Acid digestion, using the microwave power, was applied for ''dissolution'' of different materials corresponding to the radioactive waste matrices resulted from a nuclear power plant operation, including exchange resin (cationic and mixed), concrete, paper, textile and activated charcoals. A small aliquot of solid sample (0.1-0.5g) was mixed with a known volume of digestion reagents (HNO3 67% - H2O2 30% or HNO3 67% - HCl 37%, with HF addition if the SiO2 was present in matrices) in a 100 ml PTFE vessel and it was mineralized using a Berghof digestion system, Speedwave 4. Starting from the manufacturer procedures, the technical parameters (temperature and mineralization time), the types and quantities of digestion reagents were optimized. After the mineralization process, the samples were transferred in centrifuge tubes, separated at 3500 rot/min and visually analysed. The obtained solutions were clear, without suspended or deposed materials and separated phases, ready for future separation processes of the ''difficult to measure'' radioisotopes. (authors)

  15. Characterization of natural colloids sampled from a fractured granite groundwater

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baik, Min Hoon; Keum, Dong Kwon; Hahn, Pil Soo [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Taejeon (Korea); Vilks, Peter [AECL Whiteshell Laboratories (Canada)

    2000-02-01

    This study was carried out as a part of international joint study of KAERI with AECL. The main purpose of this study is to analyze the physicochemical characteristics and sorption properties of natural colloids sampled from the deep fractured granite groundwater located in the Underground Research Laboratory (URL) of AECL. Physicochemical characteristics such as composition, size distribution, and concentrations of natural colloids was analyzed. This study will be basic data for the analysis of the effect of colloids on the radionuclide migration in a geological medium. This study may provide information for the evaluation of the roles and effects of colloids in the safety and performance assessment of a possible future radioactive waste repository. 20 refs., 8 figs., 8 tabs. (Author)

  16. Biological activity during co-composting of sludge issued from the OMW evaporation ponds with poultry manure-Physico-chemical characterization of the processed organic matter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hachicha, Salma; Sellami, Fatma; Cegarra, Juan; Hachicha, Ridha; Drira, Noureddine; Medhioub, Khaled; Ammar, Emna

    2009-02-15

    Olive mill sludge (OMS), a by-product resulting from natural evaporation of olive oil processing effluent, poses a major environmental threat. A current cost-effective practice of OMS management is composting. A mixture of OMS (60%) with poultry manure (PM) was successfully composted for 210 days. During the process, effluents of olive oil mill and confectionary were used to keep moisture at optimal level (40-60%). Biological indicators reflecting stability of the compost (microbial biota respiration and enumeration, and germination index) were analysed for the assessment of the product quality. The composted mixture showed a high microbial activity with a succession of microbial populations depending on the temperature reached during the biodegradation. The pathogen content from PM decreased with composting as did phytotoxic compounds. Phenols and lipids were reduced, respectively, by 40% and 84% while germination index increased with composting progress. Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopic analysis revealed that the final compost improved the aromatic content compared to the starting materials, with a decrease in aliphatic groups and a reduction in the easily assimilated components by the microflora acting during the biological process. The final compost was characterized by relatively high organic matter content (26.21%), a low C/N ratio (16.21), an alkaline pH (8.32), a relatively high electrical conductivity (9.21mS/cm) and a high level of nutrients. The germination index for Lepidium sativum L. was 87.71% after 210 days of composting, showing that the final compost was not phytotoxic.

  17. Development of bricks with incorporation of coal ash and sludge from water treatment plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Silva, Mauro Valerio da

    2011-01-01

    Sludge from treatment water Brazilian plant station are, frequently, disposed and launched directly in the water bodies, causing a negative impact in the environment. Also, coal ashes is produced by burning of coal in coal-fired power stations and is the industrial solid waste most generated in southern Brazil: approximately 4 million tons/y. The efficient disposal of coal ashes is an issue due to its massive volume and harmful risks to the environment. The aim of this work was study the feasibility of incorporating these two industrial wastes in a mass used in the manufacture of ecological bricks. Samples of fly ashes from a cyclone filter from a coal-fired power plant located at Figueira County in Parana State, Brazil and waterworks sludge of Terra Preta County in Sao Paulo State, Brazil, were used in the study. Fly ash-sludge and fly ash-sludge-soil-cement bricks were molded and tested, according to the Brazilians Standards. The materials were characterized by physical-chemical analysis, X-ray diffraction, thermal analysis, morphological analysis, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and granulometric analysis. The results indicate that the waterworks sludge and coal ashes have potential to be used on manufacturing soil-cement pressed bricks according to the of Brazilians Standards NBR 10836/94. (author)

  18. Radioactivity of sludge in Finland in 1987

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Puhakainen, M.; Rahola, T.

    1989-05-01

    Sewage sludge from municipal wastewater treatment plants was studied to determine its radionuclide concentrations. Measurements were made to find out whether any radionuclides from the nuclear power stations at Loviisa and Olkiluoto and from hospitals and medical laboratories could be detected in sludge additional to those originating from global and Chernobyl fallout. In the treatment process of water, aluminium sulphate sludge is developed at treatment plants using surface water. This kind of sludge was measured since it also concentrates radionuclides. Fallout nuclides from the Chernobyl nuclear power station after the accident predominated in all sewage sludge samples in Finland. In 1987 six different radionuclides originating from the Chernobyl fallout were detected in sewage sludge. In spring when the snow melted and large quantities of run off water flowed into the treatment plants, the activity concentrations clearly increased, but then started decreasing again. At the end of the year the highest measured 137 Cs activity concentrations were below 1000 Bq kg -1 dry weight. The highest activity concentration in sludge originated from iodine used fro medical purposes

  19. Use of sludge as ceramic materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morais, L.C.; Vianna, R.S.C.; Campos, V.; Rosa, A.H.; Buechler, P.M.

    2009-01-01

    Nowadays, with increase amounts of sludge derived from the treatment of domestic sewage put pressure into research on systems for the adequate use of these materials. The aim of the present work is to study the use of sludge ash, from sintering and calcinated process, as a raw material for the ceramic industry. Using the sewage sludge ashes as ceramic raw material there will be no contamination of soil and underground water. Metals and toxic compounds like Al, Fe, Ba, Cr, Cu, Mn and Zn oxides were analyzed and characterized by X-ray fluorescence (XRF), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and plasma emission spectroscopy (ICP-OES). The leached material was chemically analyzed where the integration of oxides into the ceramic matrix of sludge ash was observed. Residual decomposition was analyzed by TG, DTG and DTA curves. (author)

  20. Rheological characterisation of municipal sludge: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eshtiaghi, Nicky; Markis, Flora; Yap, Shao Dong; Baudez, Jean-Christophe; Slatter, Paul

    2013-10-01

    Sustainable sludge management is becoming a major issue for wastewater treatment plants due to increasing urban populations and tightening environmental regulations for conventional sludge disposal methods. To address this problem, a good understanding of sludge behaviour is vital to improve and optimize the current state of wastewater treatment operations. This paper provides a review of the recent experimental works in order for researchers to be able to develop a reliable characterization technique for measuring the important properties of sludge such as viscosity, yield stress, thixotropy, and viscoelasticity and to better understand the impact of solids concentrations, temperature, and water content on these properties. In this context, choosing the appropriate rheological model and rheometer is also important. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Specific methanogenic activity (SMA of industrial sludge from the aerobic and anaerobic biological treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Danieli Schneiders

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available In this study, specific methanogenic activity (SMA tests were performed on textile sludge and food industry sludge. The textile sludge from an activated sludge was collected at the entrance of the secondary biologic clarifier and the food sludge was collected in a UASB reactor. Once collected, the sludges were characterized and tested for SMA. It was found that the microrganisms present in the food sludge had SMA of 0.17 gCOD-CH4 gSSV.d-1 and 337.05 mL of methane production, while the microrganisms of the textile sludge presented 0.10 gCOD-CH4 gSSV.d-1 of SMA and 3.04 mL of methane production. Therefore, the food sludge was more suitable to be used as a starting inoculum in UASB.

  2. Polarimetric LIDAR with FRI sampling for target characterization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wijerathna, Erandi; Creusere, Charles D.; Voelz, David; Castorena, Juan

    2017-09-01

    Polarimetric LIDAR is a significant tool for current remote sensing applications. In addition, measurement of the full waveform of the LIDAR echo provides improved ranging and target discrimination, although, data storage volume in this approach can be problematic. In the work presented here, we investigated the practical issues related to the implementation of a full waveform LIDAR system to identify polarization characteristics of multiple targets within the footprint of the illumination beam. This work was carried out on a laboratory LIDAR testbed that features a flexible arrangement of targets and the ability to change the target polarization characteristics. Targets with different retardance characteristics were illuminated with a linearly polarized laser beam and the return pulse intensities were analyzed by rotating a linear analyzer polarizer in front of a high-speed detector. Additionally, we explored the applicability and the limitations of applying a sparse sampling approach based on Finite Rate of Innovations (FRI) to compress and recover the characteristic parameters of the pulses reflected from the targets. The pulse parameter values extracted by the FRI analysis were accurate and we successfully distinguished the polarimetric characteristics and the range of multiple targets at different depths within the same beam footprint. We also demonstrated the recovery of an unknown target retardance value from the echoes by applying a Mueller matrix system model.

  3. Hazardous Waste Code Determination for First/Second-Stage Sludge Waste Stream (IDCs 001, 002, 800)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arbon, R.E.

    2001-01-01

    This document, Hazardous Waste Code Determination for the First/Second-Stage Sludge Waste Stream, summarizes the efforts performed at the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL) to make a hazardous waste code determination on Item Description Codes (IDCs) 001, 002, and 800 drums. This characterization effort included a thorough review of acceptable knowledge (AK), physical characterization, waste form sampling, chemical analyses, and headspace gas data. This effort included an assessment of pre-Waste Analysis Plan (WAP) solidified sampling and analysis data (referred to as preliminary data). Seventy-five First/Second-Stage Sludge Drums, provided in Table 1-1, have been subjected to core sampling and analysis using the requirements defined in the Quality Assurance Program Plan (QAPP). Based on WAP defined statistical reduction, of preliminary data, a sample size of five was calculated. That is, five additional drums should be core sampled and analyzed. A total of seven drums were sampled, analyzed, and validated in compliance with the WAP criteria. The pre-WAP data (taken under the QAPP) correlated very well with the WAP compliant drum data. As a result, no additional sampling is required. Based upon the information summarized in this document, an accurate hazardous waste determination has been made for the First/Second-Stage Sludge Waste Stream

  4. Establishment of anammox process in sludge samples collected from swine wastewater treatment system Estabelecimento do processo anammox a partir de lodo de sistema de tratamento de efluente da suinocultura

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caroline G Casagrande

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The high load of nitrogen present in swine wastewater is one of the biggest management challenges of the activity. The Anammox process emerges as a good alternative for biological removal of nitrogen. This study aims to acclimate sludge collected from swine effluent treatment systems to establish the Anammox process. Two sludge samples were collected at Embrapa Swine and Poultry, Concordia - SC, Brazil, one from the bottom of an inactive anaerobic pond (inoculum A and another from an aeration tank (inoculum B. Both were acclimated until the depletion of NO3-N, being subsequently inoculated in two reactors (Reactor A - Inoculum A and Reactor B - Inoculum B. The Reactor A showed activity after 110 days of operation, while the Reactor B needed 170 days. The difference in the start-up time could be explained by the different environmental conditions to which each sludge was submitted. FISH and PCR analyses confirmed the presence of microorganisms with Anammox activity, demonstrating that the sludge of swine wastewater treatment systems is a good source of inoculum for the development of the Anammox process.A elevada carga de nitrogênio presente em efluentes da suinocultura é um dos maiores desafios de manejo da atividade. O processo Anammox surge como boa alternativa para a remoção biológica desse nutriente. Este trabalho teve como objetivo aclimatar diferentes amostras de lodos de sistemas de tratamento de efluentes da suinocultura com vistas ao estabelecimento do processo Anammox. Dois inóculos foram coletados na Embrapa Suínos e Aves, Concórdia - SC, um dos quais no fundo de uma lagoa anaeróbia inativa (Inóculo A e o outro, em um tanque de aeração (Inóculo B. Ambos foram aclimatados até cessar o consumo de N-NO3- e, posteriormente, inoculados em dois reatores (Reator A - Inóculo A e Reator B - Inóculo B. O Reator A apresentou atividade, após aproximadamente 110 dias de operação, enquanto o Reator B precisou de aproximadamente

  5. Synthetic fibers as an indicator of land application of sludge

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zubris, Kimberly Ann V.; Richards, Brian K.

    2005-01-01

    Synthetic fabric fibers have been proposed as indicators of past spreading of wastewater sludge. Synthetic fiber detectability was examined in sludges (dewatered, pelletized, composted, alkaline-stabilized) and in soils from experimental columns and field sites applied with those sludge products. Fibers (isolated by water extraction and examined using polarized light microscopy) were detectable in sludge products and in soil columns over 5 years after application, retaining characteristics observed in the applied sludge. Concentrations mirrored (within a factor of 2) predictions based on soil dilution. Fibers were detectable in field site soils up to 15 years after application, again retaining the characteristics seen in sludge products. Concentrations correlated with residual sludge metal concentration gradients in a well-characterized field site. Fibers found along preferential flow paths and/or in horizons largely below the mixed layer suggest some potential for translocation. Synthetic fibers were shown to be rapid and semi-quantitative indicators of past sludge application. - Synthetic fabric fibers present in wastewater sludge are a semi-quantitative long-term indicator of past sludge application in soils

  6. Characterization and performance of carbonaceous materials obtained from exhausted sludges for the anaerobic biodecolorization of the azo dye Acid Orange II

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Athalathil, S.; Stüber, F.; Bengoa, C.; Font, J. [Departament d’Enginyeria Quimica, ETSEQ, Universitat Rovira i Virgili, Av. Paisos Catalans 26, 43007 Tarragona, Catalunya (Spain); Fortuny, A. [Departament d’Enginyeria Quimica, EPSEVG, Universitat Politecnica de Catalunya, Av. Victor Balaguer s/n, 08800 Vilanova i la Geltru, Catalunya (Spain); Fabregat, A., E-mail: azael.fabregat@urv.cat [Departament d’Enginyeria Quimica, ETSEQ, Universitat Rovira i Virgili, Av. Paisos Catalans 26, 43007 Tarragona, Catalunya (Spain)

    2014-02-01

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • Carbonaceous materials were prepared from exhausted sludge materials. • High surface area and good physicochemical properties were achieved. • Utilization of waste sludge materials and mixed anaerobic cultures were used in a continuous anaerobic UPBR system (upflow packed bed biological reactor). • Effective treatment of dye contaminated wastewater in a cheapest and environmental friendly method was demonstrated. - Abstract: This work presents the preliminary study of new carbonaceous materials (CMs) obtained from exhausted sludge, their use in the heterogeneous anaerobic process of biodecolorization of azo dyes and the comparison of their performance with one commercial active carbon. The preparation of carbonaceous materials was conducted through chemical activation and carbonization. Chemical activation was carried out through impregnation of sludge-exhausted materials with ZnCl{sub 2} and the activation by means of carbonization at different temperatures (400, 600 and 800 °C). Their physicochemical and surface characteristics were also investigated. Sludge based carbonaceous (SBC) materials SBC400, SBC600 and SBC800 present values of 13.0, 111.3 and 202.0 m{sup 2}/g of surface area. Biodecolorization levels of 76% were achieved for SBC600 and 86% for SBC800 at space time (τ) of 1.0 min, similar to that obtained with commercial activated carbons in the continuous anaerobic up-flow packed bed reactor (UPBR). The experimental data fit well to the first order kinetic model and equilibrium data are well represented by the Langmuir isotherm model. Carbonaceous materials show high level of biodecolorization even at very short space times. Results indicate that carbonaceous materials prepared from sludge-exhausted materials have outstanding textural properties and significant degradation capacity for treating textile effluents.

  7. Fiscal Year 2001 Tank Characterization Technical Sampling Basis and Waste Information Requirements Document

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    ADAMS, M.R.

    2000-01-01

    The Fiscal Year 2001 Tank Characterization Technical Sampling Basis and Waste Information Requirements Document (TSB-WIRD) has the following purposes: (1) To identify and integrate sampling and analysis needs for fiscal year (FY) 2001 and beyond. (2) To describe the overall drivers that require characterization information and to document their source. (3) To describe the process for identifying, prioritizing, and weighting issues that require characterization information to resolve. (4) To define the method for determining sampling priorities and to present the sampling priorities on a tank-by-tank basis. (5) To define how the characterization program is going to satisfy the drivers, close issues, and report progress. (6)To describe deliverables and acceptance criteria for characterization deliverables

  8. Analysis of sludge using Proton induced X-ray emission

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aspiazu, J.; Moreno, E.; Andrade, E.; Miranda, J.; Citalan, S.; Moeller, G.; Soler, F.

    1996-01-01

    Regulations to control the huge amounts of sludge produced by wastewater are needed. Sludge generated in conventional sedimentators or anaerobic digesters were characterized by Proton Induced X-ray Emission (PIXE). It was possible to determine the presence of macro nutrient elements, such as P and K, and secondary nutrients like Ca, S, and Mg. Moreover, heavy elements like Cu, Zn, and Pb were also found. The sludge treatment in anaerobic digesters increased the amount of certain elements Al, Si, S, Cl, and K; decrease in Ca, Ti, and Cu, and no change in V, Cr, and Zn. Possible uses of this sludge are also suggested

  9. Basic and Acidic Leaching of Sludge from Melton Valley Storage Tank W-25

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Collins, J.L., Egan, B.Z., Beahm, E.C., Chase, C.W., Anderson, K.K.

    1997-10-01

    Bench-scale leaching tests were conducted with samples of tank waste sludge from the Melton Valley Storage Tank (MVST) Facility at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) to evaluate separation technology processes for use in concentrating the radionuclides and reducing the volume of waste for final disposal. This paper discusses the hot cell apparatus, the characterization of the sludge, the leaching methodology, and the results obtained from a variety of basic and acidic leaching tests of samples of sludge at ambient temperature. Basic leaching tests were also conducted at 75 and 95 deg C. The major alpha-,gamma., and beta-emitting radionuclides in the centrifuged, wet sludge solids were {sup 137}Cs, {sup 60}Co, {sup 154}Eu, {sup 241}Am, {sup 244}Cm {sup 90}Sr, Pu, U, and Th. The other major metals (in addition to the U and Th) and anions were Na, Ca, Al, K, Mg, NO{sub 3}{sup -},CO{sub 3}{sup 2-}, OH{sup -}, and O{sup 2-} organic carbon content was 3.0 +/- 1.0%. The pH was 13. A surprising result was that about 93% of the {sup 137}Cs in the centrifuged, wet sludge solids was bound in the solids and could not be solubilized by basic leaching at ambient temperature and 75 deg C. However, the solubility of the {sup 137}Cs was enhanced by heating the sludge to 95 deg C. In one of the tests,about 42% of the {sup 137}Cs was removed by leaching with 6.3 M NaOH at 95 deg C.Removing {sup 137}Cs from the W-25 sludge with nitric acid was a slow process. About 13% of the {sup 137}Cs was removed in 16 h with 3.0 M HNO{sub 3}. Only 22% of the {sup 137}Cs was removed in 117 h usi 6.0 M HNO{sub 3}. Successive leaching of sludge solids with 0.5 M, 3.0 M, 3.0 M; and 6.0 M HNO{sub 3} for a total mixing time of 558 h removed 84% of the {sup 137}Cs. The use of caustic leaching prior to HNO{sub 3} leaching, and the use of HF with HNO{sub 3} in acidic leaching, increased the rate of {sup 137}Cs dissolution. Gel formation proved to be one of the biggest problems associated with HNO{sub 3

  10. Basic and Acidic Leaching of Sludge from Melton Valley Storage Tank W-25

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Collins, J.L.; Egan, B.Z.; Beahm, E.C.; Chase, C.W.; Anderson, K.K.

    1997-10-01

    Bench-scale leaching tests were conducted with samples of tank waste sludge from the Melton Valley Storage Tank (MVST) Facility at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) to evaluate separation technology processes for use in concentrating the radionuclides and reducing the volume of waste for final disposal. This paper discusses the hot cell apparatus, the characterization of the sludge, the leaching methodology, and the results obtained from a variety of basic and acidic leaching tests of samples of sludge at ambient temperature. Basic leaching tests were also conducted at 75 and 95 deg C. The major alpha-,gamma., and beta-emitting radionuclides in the centrifuged, wet sludge solids were 137 Cs, 60 Co, 154 Eu, 241 Am, 244 Cm 90 Sr, Pu, U, and Th. The other major metals (in addition to the U and Th) and anions were Na, Ca, Al, K, Mg, NO 3 - ,CO 3 2- , OH - , and O 2- organic carbon content was 3.0 +/- 1.0%. The pH was 13. A surprising result was that about 93% of the 137 Cs in the centrifuged, wet sludge solids was bound in the solids and could not be solubilized by basic leaching at ambient temperature and 75 deg C. However, the solubility of the 137 Cs was enhanced by heating the sludge to 95 deg C. In one of the tests,about 42% of the 137 Cs was removed by leaching with 6.3 M NaOH at 95 deg C.Removing 137 Cs from the W-25 sludge with nitric acid was a slow process. About 13% of the 137 Cs was removed in 16 h with 3.0 M HNO 3 . Only 22% of the 137 Cs was removed in 117 h usi 6.0 M HNO 3 . Successive leaching of sludge solids with 0.5 M, 3.0 M, 3.0 M; and 6.0 M HNO 3 for a total mixing time of 558 h removed 84% of the 137 Cs. The use of caustic leaching prior to HNO 3 leaching, and the use of HF with HNO 3 in acidic leaching, increased the rate of 137 Cs dissolution. Gel formation proved to be one of the biggest problems associated with HNO 3 leaching of the W-25 sludge

  11. Evaluation of optimized bronchoalveolar lavage sampling designs for characterization of pulmonary drug distribution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clewe, Oskar; Karlsson, Mats O; Simonsson, Ulrika S H

    2015-12-01

    Bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) is a pulmonary sampling technique for characterization of drug concentrations in epithelial lining fluid and alveolar cells. Two hypothetical drugs with different pulmonary distribution rates (fast and slow) were considered. An optimized BAL sampling design was generated assuming no previous information regarding the pulmonary distribution (rate and extent) and with a maximum of two samples per subject. Simulations were performed to evaluate the impact of the number of samples per subject (1 or 2) and the sample size on the relative bias and relative root mean square error of the parameter estimates (rate and extent of pulmonary distribution). The optimized BAL sampling design depends on a characterized plasma concentration time profile, a population plasma pharmacokinetic model, the limit of quantification (LOQ) of the BAL method and involves only two BAL sample time points, one early and one late. The early sample should be taken as early as possible, where concentrations in the BAL fluid ≥ LOQ. The second sample should be taken at a time point in the declining part of the plasma curve, where the plasma concentration is equivalent to the plasma concentration in the early sample. Using a previously described general pulmonary distribution model linked to a plasma population pharmacokinetic model, simulated data using the final BAL sampling design enabled characterization of both the rate and extent of pulmonary distribution. The optimized BAL sampling design enables characterization of both the rate and extent of the pulmonary distribution for both fast and slowly equilibrating drugs.

  12. Availability of uranium present in the sludge generated at two stations of potable water treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Munoz-Serrano, A.; Baeza, A.; Salas, A.; Guillen, J.

    2013-01-01

    During the treatment is carried out in a Station Potable Water Treatment Plant sludge enriched are produced in components that have been removed from the water. The concentration and availability of radionuclides accumulated in a sludge during coagulation-flocculation will condition possible later use, so it is essential to carry out the characterization of sludge and its chemical speciation. (Author)

  13. Effect of Ionic Strength on Settling of Activated Sludge

    OpenAIRE

    M Ahmadi Moghadam, M Soheili, MM Esfahani

    2005-01-01

    Structural properties of activated sludge flocs were found to be sensitive to small changes in ionic strength. This study investigates the effect of ionic strength on settling of activated sludge. Samples were taken from activated sludge process of Ghazvin Sasan soft drink wastewater treatment plant, then treated with different ionic strengths of KCl and CaCl2 solution, after that the turbidity of supernatant was measured. The results indicated that low ionic strength resulted in a steeper sl...

  14. Bacterial regrowth potential in alkaline sludges from open-sun and covered sludge drying beds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alkan, U.; Topac, F.O.; Birden, B.; Baskaya, H.S. [Uludag University, Gorukle (Turkey). Dept. of Environmnetal Engineering

    2007-10-15

    The aim of this study was to compare the regrowth potentials of wastewater sludges dried in two pilot-scale drying processes namely, Open-Sun Sludge Drying Bed (OSDB) and Covered Sludge Drying Bed (CSDB). Quicklime and/or coal fly ash were added to raw sludge samples prior to drying processes in order to enhance bacterial inactivation. Following three drying cycles (March-April, June-July and August-October), sludge samples were taken from the beds for the regrowth experiments. Addition of alkaline materials prevented the regrowth of faecal coliforms in all rewetted samples except for the samples obtained after the rainfall events in OSDB. Rewetting of these samples in the regrowth experiments increased faecal coliform numbers by 3.5-7 log units. In contradiction, the observed bacterial numbers in rewetted alkaline samples from CSDB were below the EPA Class B criterion (2 million MPN g{center_dot} 1) dry sludge). The combination of additional heat from solar collectors, protection from the rain and the unfavourable living conditions owing to alkaline materials appeared to inactivate bacteria more effectively in CSDB and hence eliminated regrowth potential more efficiently.

  15. Sludge recovery apparatus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marmo, A.R.

    1979-01-01

    An improved design of a sludge recovery apparatus used in the fabrication of nuclear fuel is described. This apparatus provides for automatic separation of sludge from the grinder coolant, drying of the sludge into a flowable powder and transfer of the dry powder to a salvage container. It can be constructed to comply with criticality-safe-geometry requirements and to obviate need for operating personnel in its immediate vicinity. (UK)

  16. Comprehensive characterisation of sewage sludge for thermochemical conversion processes - Based on Singapore survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Wei Ping; Wang, Jing-Yuan

    2016-08-01

    Recently, sludge attracted great interest as a potential feedstock in thermochemical conversion processes. However, compositions and thermal degradation behaviours of sludge were highly complex and distinctive compared to other traditional feedstock led to a need of fundamental research on sludge. Comprehensive characterisation of sludge specifically for thermochemical conversion was carried out for all existing Water Reclamation Plants in Singapore. In total, 14 sludge samples collected based on the type, plant, and batch categorisation. Existing characterisation methods for physical and chemical properties were analysed and reviewed using the collected samples. Qualitative similarities and quantitative variations of different sludge samples were identified and discussed. Oxidation of inorganic in sludge during ash forming analysis found to be causing significant deviations on proximate and ultimate analysis. Therefore, alternative parameters and comparison basis including Fixed Residues (FR), Inorganic Matters (IM) and Total Inorganics (TI) were proposed for better understanding on the thermochemical characteristics of sludge. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Characterization of sewage sludge amended soils and related crop plants with respect to phytoavailability of heavy metals (Cd, Cr, Cu, Ni, Pb, Zn)

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Večeřa, Zbyněk; Dočekal, Bohumil; Marek, Petr; Sáňka, M.

    2001-01-01

    Roč. 8, 2-3 (2001), s. 243-252 ISSN 1231-7098 R&D Projects: GA MŠk OK 385 Grant - others:Copernicus(BE) ERB IC-15-CT98-0124 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z4031919 Keywords : determination of heavy metals * sewage sludge * soil analysis Subject RIV: CB - Analytical Chemistry, Separation

  18. Isolation of Asphaltene-Degrading Bacteria from Sludge Oil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pingkan Aditiawati

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Sludge oil contains 30%–50% hydrocarbon fractions that comprise saturated fractions, aromatics, resins, and asphaltene. Asphaltene fraction is the most persistent fraction. In this research, the indigenous bacteria that can degrade asphaltene fractions from a sludge oil sample from Balikpapan that was isolated using BHMS medium (Bushnell-Hass Mineral Salt with 0.01% (w/v yeast extract, 2% (w/v asphaltene extract, and 2% (w/v sludge oil. The ability of the four isolates to degrade asphaltene fractions was conducted by the biodegradation asphaltene fractions test using liquid cultures in a BHMS medium with 0.01% (w/v yeast extract and 2% (w/v asphaltene extract as a carbon source. The parameters measured during the process of biodegradation of asphaltene fractions include the quantification of Total Petroleum Hydrocarbon (g, log total number of bacteria (CFU/ml, and pH. There are four bacteria (isolates 1, 2, 3, and 4 that have been characterized to degrade asphaltic fraction and have been identified as Bacillus sp. Lysinibacillus fusiformes, Acinetobacter sp., and Mycobacterium sp., respectively. The results showed that the highest ability to degrade asphaltene fractions is that of Bacillus sp. (isolate 1 and Lysinibacillus fusiformes (Isolate 2, with biodegradation percentages of asphaltene fractions being 50% and 55%, respectively, and growth rate at the exponential phase is 7.17x107 CFU/mL.days and 4.21x107 CFU/mL.days, respectively.

  19. Development of an in situ method to define the rheological properties of slurries and sludges stored in underground tanks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heath, W.O.

    1987-04-01

    A method for measuring the in situ flow properties of high-level radioactive waste (HLW) sludges has been developed at Pacific Northwest Laboratory, along with a preconceptual design for a shear vane device that can be installed in underground HLW storage tanks and used to make those measurements remotely. The data obtained with this device will assist in the design of mixing equipment used to resuspend and remove HLW sludges from their storage tanks for downstream processing. This method is also suitable for remotely characterizing other types of waste sludges and slurries. Commonly available viscometric methods were adapted to allow characterization of sludge samples in the laboratory such that the laboratory and in-tank data can be directly compared (scaled up). Procedures for conducting measurements and analyzing the results in terms of useful mathematical models describing both start-up and steady-state flow behavior are presented, as is a brief tutorial on the types of flow behavior that can be exhibited by tank sludges. 30 refs., 36 figs., 14 tabs

  20. Photovoltaic's silica-rich waste sludge as supplementary cementitious material (SCM)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Quercia, G.; Putten, J.J.G. van der; Hüsken, G.; Brouwers, H.J.H.

    2013-01-01

    Waste sludge, a solid recovered from wastewater of photovoltaic-industries, composes of agglomerates of nano-particles like SiO 2 and CaCO 3 . This sludge deflocculates in aqueous solutions into nano-particles smaller than 1 μm. Thus, this sludge constitutes a potentially hazardous waste when it is improperly disposed. Due to its high content of amorphous SiO 2 , this sludge has a potential use as supplementary cementitious material (SCM) in concrete. In this study the main properties of three different samples of photovoltaic's silica-rich waste sludge (nSS) were physically and chemically characterized. The characterization techniques included: scanning electron microscopy (SEM), X-ray energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDS), X-ray diffraction (XRD), nitrogen physical adsorption isotherm (BET method), density by Helium pycnometry, particle size distribution determined by laser light scattering (LLS) and zeta-potential measurements by dynamic light scattering (DLS). In addition, a dispersability study was performed to design stable slurries to be used as liquid additives for the concrete production on site. The effects on the hydration kinetics of cement pastes by the incorporation of nSS in the designed slurries were determined using an isothermal calorimeter. A compressive strength test of standard mortars with 7% of cement replacement was performed to determine the pozzolanic activity of the waste nano-silica sludge. Finally, the hardened system was fully characterized to determine the phase composition. The results demonstrate that the nSS can be utilized as SCM to replace portion of cement in mortars, thereby decreasing the CO 2 footprint and the environmental impact of concrete. -- Highlights: •Three different samples of PV nano-silica sludge (nSS) were fully characterized. •nSS is composed of agglomerates of nano-particles like SiO 2 and CaCO 3 . •Dispersability studies demonstrated that nSS agglomerates are broken to nano-size. •nSS can be classified

  1. Photovoltaic's silica-rich waste sludge as supplementary cementitious material (SCM)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Quercia, G., E-mail: g.quercia@tue.nl [Materials innovation institute (M2i), Mekelweg 2, P.O. Box 5008, 2600 GA Delft (Netherlands); Eindhoven University of Technology, Department of the Built Environment, P.O. Box 513, 5600 MB Eindhoven (Netherlands); Putten, J.J.G. van der [Eindhoven University of Technology, Department of the Built Environment, P.O. Box 513, 5600 MB Eindhoven (Netherlands); Hüsken, G. [BAM Federal Institute for Materials Research and Testing, Unter den Eichen 87, D-12205 Berlin (Germany); Brouwers, H.J.H. [Eindhoven University of Technology, Department of the Built Environment, P.O. Box 513, 5600 MB Eindhoven (Netherlands)

    2013-12-15

    Waste sludge, a solid recovered from wastewater of photovoltaic-industries, composes of agglomerates of nano-particles like SiO{sub 2} and CaCO{sub 3}. This sludge deflocculates in aqueous solutions into nano-particles smaller than 1 μm. Thus, this sludge constitutes a potentially hazardous waste when it is improperly disposed. Due to its high content of amorphous SiO{sub 2}, this sludge has a potential use as supplementary cementitious material (SCM) in concrete. In this study the main properties of three different samples of photovoltaic's silica-rich waste sludge (nSS) were physically and chemically characterized. The characterization techniques included: scanning electron microscopy (SEM), X-ray energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDS), X-ray diffraction (XRD), nitrogen physical adsorption isotherm (BET method), density by Helium pycnometry, particle size distribution determined by laser light scattering (LLS) and zeta-potential measurements by dynamic light scattering (DLS). In addition, a dispersability study was performed to design stable slurries to be used as liquid additives for the concrete production on site. The effects on the hydration kinetics of cement pastes by the incorporation of nSS in the designed slurries were determined using an isothermal calorimeter. A compressive strength test of standard mortars with 7% of cement replacement was performed to determine the pozzolanic activity of the waste nano-silica sludge. Finally, the hardened system was fully characterized to determine the phase composition. The results demonstrate that the nSS can be utilized as SCM to replace portion of cement in mortars, thereby decreasing the CO{sub 2} footprint and the environmental impact of concrete. -- Highlights: •Three different samples of PV nano-silica sludge (nSS) were fully characterized. •nSS is composed of agglomerates of nano-particles like SiO{sub 2} and CaCO{sub 3}. •Dispersability studies demonstrated that nSS agglomerates are broken to nano

  2. Grimsel colloid exercise, an international intercomparison exercise on the sampling and characterization of groundwater colloids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Degueldre, C.

    1990-01-01

    The Grimsel colloid exercise was an intercomparison exercise which consisted of an in situ sampling phase followed by a colloid characterization step. The goal of this benchmark exercise, which involved 12 laboratories, was to evaluate both sampling and characterization techniques with emphasis on the colloid specific size distribution. The sampling phase took place at the Grimsel test site between 1 and 13 February 1988 and the participating groups produced colloid samples using various methods. This work was carried out within the Community COCO Club, as a component of the Mirage project (second phase)

  3. Sewage sludge irradiators: Batch and continuous flow

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lavale, D.S.; George, J.R.; Shah, M.R.; Rawat, K.P.

    1998-01-01

    The potential threat to the environment imposed by high pathogenic organism content in municipal wastewater, especially the sludge and the world-wide growing aspirations for a cleaner, salubrious environment have made it mandatory for the sewage and sludge to undergo treatment, prior to their ultimate disposal to mother nature. Incapabilities associated with the conventional wastewater treatments to mitigate the problem of microorganisms have made it necessary to look for other alternatives, radiation treatment being the most reliable, rapid and environmentally sustainable of them. To promote the use of radiation for the sludge hygienization, Department of Atomic Energy has endeavoured to set up an indigenous, Sludge Hygienization Research Irradiator (SHRI) in the city of Baroda. Designed for 18.5 PBq of 60 Co to disinfect the digested sludge, the irradiator has additional provision for treatment of effluent and raw sewage. From engineering standpoint, all the subsystems have been functioning satisfactorily since its commissioning in 1990. Prolonged studies, spanning over a period of six years, primarily focused on inactivation of microorganism revealed that 3 kGy dose of gamma radiation is adequate to make the sludge pathogen and odour-free. A dose of 1.6 kGy in raw sewage and 0.5 kGy in effluent reduced coliform counts down to the regulatory discharge limits. These observations reflect a possible cost-effective solution to the burgeoning problem of surface water pollution across the globe. In the past, sub 37 PBq 60 Co batch irradiators have been designed and commissioned successfully for the treatment of sludge. Characterized with low dose delivery rates they are well-suited for treating low volumes of sludge in batches. Some concepts of continuous flow 60 Co irradiators having larger activities, yet simple and economic in design, are presented in the paper

  4. Solid State Characterization of Commercial Crystalline and Amorphous Atorvastatin Calcium Samples

    OpenAIRE

    Shete, Ganesh; Puri, Vibha; Kumar, Lokesh; Bansal, Arvind K.

    2010-01-01

    Atorvastatin calcium (ATC), an anti-lipid BCS class II drug, is marketed in crystalline and amorphous solid forms. The objective of this study was to perform solid state characterization of commercial crystalline and amorphous ATC drug samples available in the Indian market. Six samples each of crystalline and amorphous ATC were characterized using X-ray powder diffractometry (XRPD), differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), thermogravimetric analysis, Karl Fisher titrimetry, microscopy (hot s...

  5. Tank 241-B-103 headspace gas and vapor characterization results for samples collected in February 1995

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huckaby, J.L.; Bratzel, D.R.

    1995-01-01

    Significant changes have been made to all of the original vapor characterization reports. This report documents specific headspace gas and vapor characterization results for all vapor sampling events to date. In addition, changes have been made to the original vapor reports to qualify the data based on quality assurance issues associated with the performing laboratories

  6. Tank 241-BX-104 headspace gas and vapor characterization results for samples collected in December 1994

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huckaby, J.L.; Bratzel, D.R.

    1995-01-01

    Significant changes have been made to all of the original vapor characterization reports. This report documents specific headspace gas and vapor characterization results for all vapor sampling events to date. In addition, changes have been made to the original vapor reports to qualify the data based on quality assurance issues associated with the performing laboratories

  7. Tank 241-U-203 headspace gas and vapor characterization results for samples collected in August 1995

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huckaby, J.L.; Bratzel, D.R.

    1995-09-01

    Significant changes have been made to all of the original vapor characterization reports. This report documents specific headspace gas and vapor characterization results for all vapor sampling events to date. In addition, changes have been made to the original vapor reports to qualify the data based on quality assurance issues associated with the performing laboratories

  8. Tank 241-C-106 headspace gas and vapor characterization results for samples collected in February 1994

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hackaby, J.L.; Bratzel, D.R.

    1995-01-01

    Significant changes have been made to all of the original vapor characterization reports. This report documents specific headspace gas and vapor characterization results for all vapor sampling events to date. In addition, changes have been made to the original vapor reports to qualify the data based on quality assurance issues associated with the performing laboratories

  9. Tank 241-S-111 headspace gas and vapor characterization results for samples collected in March 1995

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huckaby, J.L.; Bratzel, D.R.

    1995-09-01

    Significant changes have been made to all of the original vapor characterization reports. This report documents specific headspace gas and vapor characterization results for all vapor sampling events to date. In addition, changes have been made to the original vapor reports to qualify the data based on quality assurance issues associated with the performing laboratories

  10. Tank 241-U-103 headspace gas and vapor characterization results for samples collected in February 1995

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huckaby, J.L.; Bratzel, D.R.

    1995-01-01

    Significant changes have been made to all of the original vapor characterization reports. This report documents specific headspace gas and vapor characterization results for all vapor sampling events to date. In addition, changes have been made to the original vapor reports to qualify the data based on quality assurance issues associated with the performing laboratories

  11. Tank 241-SX-106 headspace gas and vapor characterization results for samples collected in March 1995

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huckaby, J.L.; Bratzel, D.R.

    1995-09-01

    Significant changes have been made to all of the original vapor characterization reports. This report documents specific headspace gas and vapor characterization results for all vapor sampling events to date. In addition, changes have been made to the original vapor reports to qualify the data based on quality assurance issues associated with the performing laboratories

  12. Tank 241-TX-105 headspace gas and vapor characterization results for samples collected in December 1995

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huckaby, J.L.; Bratzel, D.R.

    1995-01-01

    Significant changes have been made to all of the original vapor characterization reports. This report documents specific headspace gas and vapor characterization results for all vapor sampling events to date. In addition, changes have been made to the original vapor reports to qualify the data based on quality assurance issues associated with the performing laboratories

  13. Tank 241-C-102 headspace gas and vapor characterization results for samples collected in August 1994

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huckaby, J.L.; Bratzel, D.R.

    1995-09-01

    Significant changes have been made to all of the original vapor characterization reports. This report documents specific headspace gas and vapor characterization results for all vapor sampling events to date. In addition, changes have been made to the original vapor reports to qualify the data based on quality assurance issues associated with the performing laboratories

  14. Tank 241-BY-112 headspace gas and vapor characterization results for samples collected in November 1994

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huckaby, J.L.; Bratzel, D.R.

    1995-01-01

    Significant changes have been made to all of the original vapor characterization reports. This report documents specific headspace gas and vapor characterization results for all vapor sampling events to date. In addition, changes have been made to the original vapor reports to qualify the data based on quality assurance issues associated with the performing laboratories

  15. Tank 241-T-111 headspace gas and vapor characterization results for samples collected in January 1995

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huckaby, J.L.; Bratzel, D.R.

    1995-09-01

    Significant changes have been made to all of the original vapor characterization reports. This report documents specific headspace gas and vapor characterization results for all vapor sampling events to date. In addition, changes have been made to the original vapor reports to qualify the data based on quality assurance issues associated with the performing laboratories

  16. Tank 241-SX-103 headspace gas and vapor characterization results for samples collected in March 1995

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huckaby, J.L.; Bratzel, D.R.

    1995-09-01

    Significant changes have been made to all of the original vapor characterization reports. This report documents specific headspace gas and vapor characterization results for all vapor sampling events to date. In addition, changes have been made to the original vapor reports to qualify the data based on quality assurance issues associated with the performing laboratories

  17. Tank 241-TY-104 headspace gas and vapor characterization results for samples collected in April 1995

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huckaby, J.L.; Bratzel, D.R.

    1995-09-01

    Significant changes have been made to all of the original vapor characterization reports. This report documents specific headspace gas and vapor characterization results for all vapor sampling events to date. In addition, changes have been made to the original vapor reports to qualify the data based on quality assurance issues associated with the performing laboratories

  18. Tank 241-C-110 headspace gas and vapor characterization results for samples collected in August 1994

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huckaby, J.L.; Bratzel, D.R.

    1995-09-01

    Significant changes have been made to all of the original vapor characterization reports. This report documents specific headspace gas and vapor characterization results for all vapor sampling events to date. In addition, changes have been made to the original vapor reports to qualify the data based on quality assurance issues associated with the performing laboratories

  19. Tank 241-C-101 headspace gas and vapor characterization results for samples collected in September 1994

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huckaby, J.L.; Bratzel, D.R.

    1995-09-01

    Significant changes have been made to all of the original vapor characterization reports. This report documents specific headspace gas and vapor characterization results for all vapor sampling events to date. In addition, changes have been made to the original vapor reports to qualify the data based on quality assurance issues associated with the performing laboratories

  20. Tank 241-C-107 headspace gas and vapor characterization results for samples collected in September 1994

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huckaby, J.L.; Bratzel, D.R.

    1995-01-01

    Significant changes have been made to all of the original vapor characterization reports. This report documents specific headspace gas and vapor characterization results for all vapor sampling events to date. In addition, changes have been made to the original vapor reports to qualify the data based on quality assurance issues associated with the performing laboratories

  1. Tank 241-C-104 headspace gas and vapor characterization results for samples collected in March 1994

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huckaby, J.L.; Bratzel, D.R.

    1995-01-01

    Significant changes have been made to all of the original vapor characterization reports. This report documents specific headspace gas and vapor characterization results for all vapor sampling events to date. In addition, changes have been made to the original vapor reports to qualify the data based on quality assurance issues associated with the performing laboratories

  2. Sludge disinfection by combined treatment of bleaching powder and irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harsoyo

    1987-01-01

    Sludge disinfection by combined treatment of bleaching powder and irradiation. Disinfection of sludge by combined treatment of bleaching powder and irradiation has been investigated. Sludge were obtained from water and waste sanitation department (Dinas Kebersihan) DKI located at Kebon Nanas, Jakarta. Sludge were mixed with bleaching powder at the concentration of 0, 10 and 20 mg/l and then irradiated in multipurpose panoramic batch irradiator (PANBIT) with doses of 2, 4, 6, 8, and 10 kGy and a dose rate 9 kGy/h. The reducing colony form unit caused by the combined treatment depend on type bacteria observed in sludge. Pathogenic bacteria as Clostridium still survive at a dose of 10 kGy on sludge containing 20 mg/l bleaching powder, but Salmonella, Shigella, and Vibrio were not detected in this experiment, neither in the control nor in the irradiated samples. (author). 14 refs.; 4 figs

  3. Optical method for the characterization of laterally patterned samples in integrated circuits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maris, Humphrey J [Barrington, RI

    2009-03-17

    Disclosed is a method for characterizing a sample having a structure disposed on or within the sample, comprising the steps of applying a first pulse of light to a surface of the sample for creating a propagating strain pulse in the sample, applying a second pulse of light to the surface so that the second pulse of light interacts with the propagating strain pulse in the sample, sensing from a reflection of the second pulse a change in optical response of the sample, and relating a time of occurrence of the change in optical response to at least one dimension of the structure.

  4. Sampling and characterization of mixed wastes at the U.S. Department of Energy Rocky Flats Environmental Technology Site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baldwin, C.E.; Stakebake, J.L.

    1995-01-01

    The Rocky Flats Environmental Technology Site is a government-owned, contractor-operated facility that is part of the US Department of Energy (DOE) complex. This plant was originally designed and built as a manufacturing facility for the production of nuclear weapons components. Currently, efforts are focused on the treatment and disposal of residues and wastes that were products of these production activities. Federal regulations prohibit the land disposal of untreated radioactive hazardous waste in the same manner as non-radioactive or non-hazardous wastes. A strategy has been developed for achieving compliance with Federal regulations through a process of characterization and treatment. This paper describes the strategy and the methodology used for characterizing radioactive and chemically hazardous wastes. Characterization of four waste forms (fluid-bed incinerator ash, uranium oxide, solidified sludge, and combustibles) is discussed and the results available are presented

  5. K basins sludge removal sludge pretreatment system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chang, H.L.

    1997-01-01

    The Spent Nuclear Fuels Program is in the process of planning activities to remove spent nuclear fuel and other materials from the 100-K Basins as a remediation effort for clean closure. The 105 K- East and K-West Basins store spent fuel, sludge, and debris. Sludge has accumulated in the 1 00 K Basins as a result of fuel oxidation and a slight amount of general debris being deposited, by settling, in the basin water. The ultimate intent in removing the sludge and fuel is to eliminate the environmental risk posed by storing fuel at the K Basins. The task for this project is to disposition specific constituents of sludge (metallic fuel) to produce a product stream through a pretreatment process that will meet the requirements, including a final particle size acceptable to the Tank Waste Remediation System (TWRS). The purpose of this task is to develop a preconceptual design package for the K Basin sludge pretreatment system. The process equipment/system is at a preconceptual stage, as shown in sketch ES-SNF-01 , while a more refined process system and material/energy balances are ongoing (all sketches are shown in Appendix C). Thus, the overall process and 0535 associated equipment have been conservatively selected and sized, respectively, to establish the cost basis and equipment layout as shown in sketches ES- SNF-02 through 08

  6. Reuse of industrial sludge as construction aggregates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tay, J H; Show, K Y; Hong, S Y

    2001-01-01

    Industrial wastewater sludge and dredged marine clay are high volume wastes that needed enormous space at landfill disposal sites. Due to the limitation of land space, there is an urgent need for alternative disposal methods for these two wastes. This study investigates the possibility of using the industrial sludge in combination with marine clay as construction aggregates. Different proportions of sludge and clay were made into round and angular aggregates. It was found that certain mix proportions could provide aggregates of adequate strength, comparable to that of conventional aggregates. Concrete samples cast from the sludge-clay aggregates yield compressive strengths in the range of 31.0 to 39.0 N/mm2. The results showed that the round aggregates of 100% sludge and the crush aggregates of sludge with up to 20% clay produced concrete of compressive strengths which are superior to that of 38.0 N/mm2 for conventional aggregate. The study indicates that the conversion of high volume wastes into construction materials is a potential option for waste management.

  7. Energy and resource utilization of deinking sludge pyrolysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lou, Rui; Wu, Shubin; Lv, Gaojin; Yang, Qing

    2012-01-01

    The thermochemical conversion technique was applied in deinking sludge from the pulp and papermaking industrial to indagate the utilization of sludge biomass to energy, and the pyrolysis characteristics and pyrolytic products of deinking sludge were studied with thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) and pyrolysis coupled with gas chromatograph–mass spectrometer (Py-GC/MS). The static tubular furnace as an applied industrial research was used to study deinking sludge pyrolysis. The solid, gas and liquid of products was characterized by electron probe microanalysis (EPMA), gas chromatograph (GC) and gas chromatograph–mass (GC/MS), respectively. The results revealed that the weight-loss process of deinking sludge was a non-isothermal reaction and composed of four stages, i.e. dewater stage, volatile releasing stage, carbon burnout stage and some calcium carbonate decomposition. Pyrolytic products from deinking sludge in the static tubular furnace were comprised of the gaseous (29.78%), condensed liquid (bio-oil, 24.41%) and solid residues (45.81%). The volatiles from deinking sludge pyrolyzing were almost aromatic hydrocarbons, i.e. styrene, toluene and benzene and few acids and the solid was calcium carbonate (CaCO 3 ) that can be reused as paper filler. Deinking sludge was converted into high-grade fuel and chemicals by means of thermochemical conversion techniques, hence, pyrolysis of paper deinking sludge had a promising development on the comprehensive utilization.

  8. Respirometry in activated sludge

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Spanjers, H.

    1993-01-01

    The purpose of the study was (1) to develop a respiration meter capable of continuously measuring, using different procedures, the oxygen uptake rate of activated sludge and (2) to expand knowledge about respiration related characteristics of wastewater and activated sludge.

    A

  9. Tank 241-U-106 vapor sampling and analysis tank characterization report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huckaby, J.L.

    1995-01-01

    This report presents the details of the Hanford waste tank characterization study for tank 241-U-106. The drivers and objectives of the headspace vapor sampling and analysis were in accordance with procedures that were presented in other reports. The vapor and headspace gas samples were collected to determine the potential risks to tank farm workers due to fugitive emissions from the tank

  10. Soil Microbial Functional and Fungal Diversity as Influenced by Municipal Sewage Sludge Accumulation

    OpenAIRE

    Frąc, Magdalena; Oszust, Karolina; Lipiec, Jerzy; Jezierska-Tys, Stefania; Nwaichi, Eucharia Oluchi

    2014-01-01

    Safe disposal of municipal sewage sludge is a challenging global environmental concern. The aim of this study was to assess the response of soil microbial functional diversity to the accumulation of municipal sewage sludge during landfill storage. Soil samples of a municipal sewage sludge (SS) and from a sewage sludge landfill that was 3 m from a SS landfill (SS3) were analyzed relative to an undisturbed reference soil. Biolog EcoPlatesTM were inoculated with a soil suspension, and the Avera...

  11. Role of NAA in characterizations of sampling behaviors of multiple elements in CRMs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tian Weizhi; Ni Bangfa; Wang Pingsheng; Nie Huiling

    1997-01-01

    Taking the advantage of high precision and accuracy of neutron activation analysis (NAA), sampling constants have been determined for multielements in several international and Chinese reference materials. The suggested technique may be used for finding elements in existing CRMs qualified for quality control (QC) of small size samples (several mg or less), and characterizing sampling behaviors of multielements in new CRMs specifically made for QC of microanalysis

  12. Activated sludge model No. 3

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gujer, W.; Henze, M.; Mino, T.

    1999-01-01

    The Activated Sludge Model No. 3 (ASM3) can predict oxygen consumption, sludge production, nitrification and denitrification of activated sludge systems. It relates to the Activated Sludge Model No. 1 (ASM1) and corrects for some defects of ASM I. In addition to ASM1, ASM3 includes storage of org...

  13. Transportability Class of Americium in K Basin Sludge under Ambient and Hydrothermal Processing Conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Delegard, Calvin H.; Schmitt, Bruce E.; Schmidt, Andrew J.

    2006-08-01

    This report establishes the technical bases for using a ''slow uptake'' instead of a ''moderate uptake'' transportability class for americium-241 (241Am) for the K Basin Sludge Treatment Project (STP) dose consequence analysis. Slow uptake classes are used for most uranium and plutonium oxides. A moderate uptake class has been used in prior STP analyses for 241Am based on the properties of separated 241Am and its associated oxide. However, when 241Am exists as an ingrown progeny (and as a small mass fraction) within plutonium mixtures, it is appropriate to assign transportability factors of the predominant plutonium mixtures (typically slow) to the Am241. It is argued that the transportability factor for 241Am in sludge likewise should be slow because it exists as a small mass fraction as the ingrown progeny within the uranium oxide in sludge. In this report, the transportability class assignment for 241Am is underpinned with radiochemical characterization data on K Basin sludge and with studies conducted with other irradiated fuel exposed to elevated temperatures and conditions similar to the STP. Key findings and conclusions from evaluation of the characterization data and published literature are summarized here. Plutonium and 241Am make up very small fractions of the uranium within the K Basin sludge matrix. Plutonium is present at about 1 atom per 500 atoms of uranium and 241Am at about 1 atom per 19000 of uranium. Plutonium and americium are found to remain with uranium in the solid phase in all of the {approx}60 samples taken and analyzed from various sources of K Basin sludge. The uranium-specific concentrations of plutonium and americium also remain approximately constant over a uranium concentration range (in the dry sludge solids) from 0.2 to 94 wt%, a factor of {approx}460. This invariability demonstrates that 241Am does not partition from the uranium or plutonium fraction for any characterized sludge matrix. Most

  14. STABILIZATION AND TESTING OF MERCURY CONTAINING WASTES: BORDEN SLUDGE

    Science.gov (United States)

    This report details the stability assessment of a mercury containing sulfide treatment sludge. Information contained in this report will consist of background data submitted by the geneerator, landfill data supplied by EPA and characterization and leaching studies conducted by UC...

  15. Sludge minimization technologies - an overview

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oedegaard, Hallvard

    2003-07-01

    The management of wastewater sludge from wastewater treatment plants represents one of the major challenges in wastewater treatment today. The cost of the sludge treatment amounts to more that the cost of the liquid in many cases. Therefore the focus on and interest in sludge minimization is steadily increasing. In the paper an overview is given for sludge minimization (sludge mass reduction) options. It is demonstrated that sludge minimization may be a result of reduced production of sludge and/or disintegration processes that may take place both in the wastewater treatment stage and in the sludge stage. Various sludge disintegration technologies for sludge minimization are discussed, including mechanical methods (focusing on stirred ball-mill, high-pressure homogenizer, ultrasonic disintegrator), chemical methods (focusing on the use of ozone), physical methods (focusing on thermal and thermal/chemical hydrolysis) and biological methods (focusing on enzymatic processes). (author)

  16. REEMISSION OF MERCURY COMPOUNDS FROM SEWAGE SLUDGE DISPOSAL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beata Janowska

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The sewage sludge disposal and cultivation methods consist in storage, agricultural use, compost production, biogas production or heat treatment. The sewage sludge production in municipal sewage sludge treatment plants in year 2013 in Poland amounted to 540.3 thousand Mg d.m. The sewage sludge for agricultural or natural use must satisfy chemical, sanitary and environmental safety requirements. The heavy metal content, including the mercury content, determines the sewage sludge disposal method. Mercury has a high chemical activity and biological form compounds with different properties. The properties of the mercury present in sewage sludge or composts, its potential bioavailability depend on its physicochemical forms. Different forms of mercury, which are found in soil and sediments and sewage sludge, may be determined using various techniques sequential extraction. In order to assess the bioavailability the analysis of fractional of mercury in samples of sewage sludge and composts was made. For this purpose the analytical procedure based on a four sequential extraction process was applied. Mercury fractions were classified as exchangeable (EX, base soluble (BS, acids soluble (AS and oxidizable (OX. This article presents the research results on the mercury compounds contents in sewage sludge subjected to drying process, combustion and in composted sewage sludge. During drying and combustion process of the sewage sludge, mercury transforms into volatile forms that could be emitted into the atmosphere. The mercury fractionation in composted sewage sludge proved that mercury in compost occurs mainly in an organic fraction and in a residual fraction that are scarce in the environment.

  17. PBDEs in Italian sewage sludge and environmental risk of using sewage sludge for land application

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cincinelli, Alessandra; Martellini, Tania; Misuri, Lorenza; Lanciotti, Eudes; Sweetman, Andy; Laschi, Serena; Palchetti, Ilaria

    2012-01-01

    Polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) were determined in sewage sludge samples collected from eight Italian wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) between June 2009 and March 2010. Total PBDE concentrations ranged from 158.3 to 9427 ng g −1 dw, while deca-BDE (BDE-209) (concentrations ranging from 130.6 to 9411 ng g −1 dw) dominated the congener profile in all the samples, contributing between 77% and 99.8% of total PBDE. The suitability of using a magnetic particle enzyme-linked immunoassay (ELISA) to analyse PBDEs in sewage sludge was also tested. The ELISA results, expressed as BDE-47 equivalents, were well correlated with those obtained by GC–NCI–MS, with correlation coefficients (r 2 ) of 0.899 and 0.959, depending on the extraction procedure adopted. The risk assessment of PBDEs in sewage sludge addressed to land application was calculated. PEC soil values compared to the relative PNEC soil for penta and deca-BDE suggests that there is a low risk to the soil environment. - Highlights: ► PBDEs in sewage sludge were determined in eight Italian WWTPs for the first time. ► PBDEs concentrations showed differences between the eight investigated WWTPs. ► Deca-BDE (BDE-209) was the dominant congener in all samples. ► The suitability of using ELISA method to analyse PBDEs in sewage sludge was tested. ► The risk assessment of using sewage sludge for land application was evaluated. - Determination of PBDEs in sewage sludge by GC–NCI–MS and ELISA test and risk assessment when sewage sludge is used for land application.

  18. Solid state characterization of commercial crystalline and amorphous atorvastatin calcium samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shete, Ganesh; Puri, Vibha; Kumar, Lokesh; Bansal, Arvind K

    2010-06-01

    Atorvastatin calcium (ATC), an anti-lipid BCS class II drug, is marketed in crystalline and amorphous solid forms. The objective of this study was to perform solid state characterization of commercial crystalline and amorphous ATC drug samples available in the Indian market. Six samples each of crystalline and amorphous ATC were characterized using X-ray powder diffractometry (XRPD), differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), thermogravimetric analysis, Karl Fisher titrimetry, microscopy (hot stage microscopy, scanning electron microscopy), contact angle, and intrinsic dissolution rate (IDR). All crystalline ATC samples were found to be stable form I, however one sample possessed polymorphic impurity, evidenced in XRPD and DSC analysis. Amongst the amorphous ATC samples, XRPD demonstrated five samples to be amorphous 'form 27', while, one matched amorphous 'form 23'. Thermal behavior of amorphous ATC samples was compared to amorphous ATC generated by melt quenching in DSC. ATC was found to be an excellent glass former with T(g)/T(m) of 0.95. Residual crystallinity was detected in two of the amorphous samples by complementary use of conventional and modulated DSC techniques. The wettability and IDR of all amorphous samples was found to be higher than the crystalline samples. In conclusion, commercial ATC samples exhibited diverse solid state behavior that can impact the performance and stability of the dosage forms.

  19. Final Report For The Initial Solid Phase Characterization Of The 2011 Grab Samples And Composite For The C-109 Hard Heel Study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Page, J.S.; Cooke, G.A.; Pestovich, J.A.

    2011-01-01

    of both the crushed cobble and bulk material. Some of the trace phases were identified as uranium-rich (sodium diuranate and/or clarkeite), sodium aluminum-rich (dawsonite and/or sodium aluminate), and a sludge-like phase with a variable chemistry rich in iron, nickel, and lead. A composite was created from the grab samples and a sample was taken from the composite, labeled S11T009482, for solid phase characterization. In general, the vast majority of the particles and aggregates analyzed in the composite were either gibbsite or natrophosphate. A very minor phase consisting of dispersed small particles was rich in uranium.

  20. Sewage sludge solubilization by high-pressure homogenization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yuxuan; Zhang, Panyue; Guo, Jianbin; Ma, Weifang; Fang, Wei; Ma, Boqiang; Xu, Xiangzhe

    2013-01-01

    The behavior of sludge solubilization using high-pressure homogenization (HPH) treatment was examined by investigating the sludge solid reduction and organics solubilization. The sludge volatile suspended solids (VSS) decreased from 10.58 to 6.67 g/L for the sludge sample with a total solids content (TS) of 1.49% after HPH treatment at a homogenization pressure of 80 MPa with four homogenization cycles; total suspended solids (TSS) correspondingly decreased from 14.26 to 9.91 g/L. About 86.15% of the TSS reduction was attributed to the VSS reduction. The increase of homogenization pressure from 20 to 80 MPa or homogenization cycle number from 1 to 4 was favorable to the sludge organics solubilization, and the protein and polysaccharide solubilization linearly increased with the soluble chemical oxygen demand (SCOD) solubilization. More proteins were solubilized than polysaccharides. The linear relationship between SCOD solubilization and VSS reduction had no significant change under different homogenization pressures, homogenization cycles and sludge solid contents. The SCOD of 1.65 g/L was solubilized for the VSS reduction of 1.00 g/L for the three experimental sludge samples with a TS of 1.00, 1.49 and 2.48% under all HPH operating conditions. The energy efficiency results showed that the HPH treatment at a homogenization pressure of 30 MPa with a single homogenization cycle for the sludge sample with a TS of 2.48% was the most energy efficient.

  1. SLUDGE WASHING AND DEMONSTRATION OF THE DWPF FLOWSHEET IN THE SRNL SHIELDED CELLS FOR SLUDGE BATCH 5 QUALIFICATION

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pareizs, J; Cj Bannochie, C; Damon Click, D; Dan Lambert, D; Michael Stone, M; Bradley Pickenheim, B; Amanda Billings, A; Ned Bibler, N

    2008-11-10

    Sludge Batch 5 (SB5) is predominantly a combination of H-modified (HM) sludge from Tank 11 that underwent aluminum dissolution in late 2007 to reduce the total mass of sludge solids and aluminum being fed to the Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) and Purex sludge transferred from Tank 7. Following aluminum dissolution, the addition of Tank 7 sludge and excess Pu to Tank 51, Liquid Waste Operations (LWO) provided the Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) a 3-L sample of Tank 51 sludge for SB5 qualification. SB5 qualification included washing the sample per LWO plans/projections (including the addition of a Pu/Be stream from H Canyon), DWPF Chemical Process Cell (CPC) simulations, waste glass fabrication (vitrification), and waste glass chemical durability evaluation. This report documents: (1) The washing (addition of water to dilute the sludge supernatant) and concentration (decanting of supernatant) of the Tank 51 qualification sample to adjust sodium content and weight percent insoluble solids to Tank Farm projections. (2) The performance of a DWPF CPC simulation using the washed Tank 51 sample. This includes a Sludge Receipt and Adjustment Tank (SRAT) cycle, where acid is added to the sludge to destroy nitrite and remove mercury, and a Slurry Mix Evaporator (SME) cycle, where glass frit is added to the sludge in preparation for vitrification. The SME cycle also included replication of five canister decontamination additions and concentrations. Processing parameters for the CPC processing were based on work with a non radioactive simulant. (3) Vitrification of a portion of the SME product and Product Consistency Test (PCT) evaluation of the resulting glass. (4) Rheology measurements of the initial slurry samples and samples after each phase of CPC processing. This work is controlled by a Task Technical and Quality Assurance Plan (TTQAP) , and analyses are guided by an Analytical Study Plan. This work is Technical Baseline Research and Development (R

  2. Soil sample collection and analysis for the Fugitive Dust Characterization Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ashbaugh, Lowell L.; Carvacho, Omar F.; Brown, Michael S.; Chow, Judith C.; Watson, John G.; Magliano, Karen C.

    A unique set of soil samples was collected as part of the Fugitive Dust Characterization Study. The study was carried out to establish whether or not source profiles could be constructed using novel analytical methods that could distinguish soil dust sources from each other. The soil sources sampled included fields planted in cotton, almond, tomato, grape, and safflower, dairy and feedlot facilities, paved and unpaved roads (both urban and rural), an agricultural staging area, disturbed land with salt buildup, and construction areas where the topsoil had been removed. The samples were collected using a systematic procedure designed to reduce sampling bias, and were stored frozen to preserve possible organic signatures. For this paper the samples were characterized by particle size (percent sand, silt, and clay), dry silt content (used in EPA-recommended fugitive dust emission factors), carbon and nitrogen content, and potential to emit both PM 10 and PM 2.5. These are not the "novel analytical methods" referred to above; rather, it was the basic characterization of the samples to use in comparing analytical methods by other scientists contracted to the California Air Resources Board. The purpose of this paper is to document the methods used to collect the samples, the collection locations, the analysis of soil type and potential to emit PM 10, and the sample variability, both within field and between fields of the same crop type.

  3. Inactivation of poliovirus by gamma irradiation of wastewater sludges

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaupert, Norma L.; Burgi, Elsa; Scolaro, L.

    1999-01-01

    The effect of gamma radiation on poliovirus infectivity seeded in sludge samples was investigated in order to determine the radiation dose required to inactivate 90% of viral infectivity (D 10 ). Sludges were obtained from anaerobic pretreated sewages produced by San Felipe, a wastewater treatment facility located at the Tucuman province, Argentina. A D 10 of 3.34 kGy was determined for poliovirus type III, Sabin strain, suspended in sludge samples. This value dropped to 1.92 kGy when the virus was suspended in water. A virucidal effect associated to sludges was also demonstrated. These results will be of interest when considering the dose of gamma radiation to be applied to wastewater sludges in order to preserve the environment from viral contamination. (author)

  4. Analysis of sludge from Hanford K East Basin canisters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Makenas, B.J. [ed.] [comp.] [DE and S Hanford, Inc., Richland, WA (United States); Welsh, T.L. [B and W Protec, Inc. (United States); Baker, R.B. [DE and S Hanford, Inc., Richland, WA (United States); Hoppe, E.W.; Schmidt, A.J.; Abrefah, J.; Tingey, J.M.; Bredt, P.R.; Golcar, G.R. [Pacific Northwest National Lab., Richland, WA (United States)

    1997-09-12

    Sludge samples from the canisters in the Hanford K East Basin fuel storage pool have been retrieved and analyzed. Both chemical and physical properties have been determined. The results are to be used to determine the disposition of the bulk of the sludge and to assess the impact of residual sludge on dry storage of the associated intact metallic uranium fuel elements. This report is a summary and review of the data provided by various laboratories. Although raw chemistry data were originally reported on various bases (compositions for as-settled, centrifuged, or dry sludge) this report places all of the data on a common comparable basis. Data were evaluated for internal consistency and consistency with respect to the governing sample analysis plan. Conclusions applicable to sludge disposition and spent fuel storage are drawn where possible.

  5. Dewatering of sludges

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bode, P.

    1984-01-01

    A filter rig has been designed and built. Simulated magnox and alumino ferric hydroxide sludges have been successfully filtered on this equipment and both types of sludge produced a clear filtrate and a cake. The flow rates were low. The cake often partially remained adhered to the filter membrane instead of dropping clear during the filter cleaning cycle. This filtration technique can only be used on sludges which form a non-binding cake. Permeability of the membrane can be altered by stretching. Irradiation of the membrane showed that it should withstand 20 to 50 M.rads. (author)

  6. Spectral Characterization of Analog Samples in Anticipation of OSIRIS-REx's Arrival at Bennu

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donaldson Hanna, K. L.; Schrader, D. L.; Bowles, N. E.; Clark, B. E.; Cloutis, E. A.; Connolly, H. C., Jr.; Hamilton, V. E.; Keller, L. P.; Lauretta, D. S.; Lim, L. F.; hide

    2017-01-01

    NASA's Origins, Spectral Interpretation, Resource Identification, and Security-Regolith Explorer (OSIRIS-REx) mission successfully launched on September 8th, 2016. During its rendezvous with near-Earth asteroid (101955) Bennu beginning in 2018, OSIRIS-REx will characterize the asteroid's physical, mineralogical, and chemical properties in an effort to globally map the properties of Bennu, a primitive carbonaceous asteroid, and choose a sampling location]. In preparation for these observations, analog samples were spectrally characterized across visible, near- and thermal-infrared wavelengths and were used in initial tests on mineral-phase-detection and abundance-determination software algorithms.

  7. Characterization samples of Tigris river water treated with nano colloidal silver (physically, chemically, microbiologically)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dumboos, H. I.; Beden, S. J.; Zouari, K.; Chkir, N.; Ahmed, H. A.

    2012-12-01

    Many researches of using nano silver in purification of drinking water from bacteria and its effect on stan dared properties as drinking water were established. Two stages accomplished in these projects. First stage include preparation of colloidal silver with characterization process and prepare water samples through sedimentation, filtration process, PH and turbidity measure then treated with colloidal silver in volume ratio (0.1-Λ) ml/100ml. The second stage represent select the better results from stage one and take samples to determine the standard characterization values with chemical, physical and microbiological taste. Results will be compared with Iraq standard certification. (Author)

  8. The effect of bioleaching on sewage sludge pyrolysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Zhihua; Hu, Mian; Cui, Baihui; Liu, Shiming; Guo, Dabin; Xiao, Bo

    2016-02-01

    The effects of bioleaching on sewage sludge pyrolysis were studied. Sewage sludge was treated by bioleaching with solid concentrations of 6% (w/v), 8% (w/v), 10% (w/v). Results showed that bioleaching treatment could modify the physicochemical properties of sewage sludge and enhance the metals removal. The optimum removal efficiencies of heavy metals were achieved with solid concentration of 6% (w/v) bioleaching treatment: Cu, 73.08%; Zn, 78.67%; Pb, 24.65%; Cd, 79.46%. The characterization results of thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) showed that the bioleached sewage sludge with a 6% (w/v) solid concentration treatment was the easiest to decompose. Pyrolytic experiments of bioleached sewage sludge were performed in a laboratory-scale fixed bed reactor. Results indicated that bioleaching treatment greatly influenced the product yields and gas composition. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Enzyme Activities in Waste Water and Activated Sludge

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nybroe, Ole; Jørgensen, Per Elberg; Henze, Mogens

    1992-01-01

    The purpose of the present study was to evaluate the potential of selected enzyme activity assays to determine microbial abundance and heterotrophic activity in waste water and activated sludge. In waste water, esterase and dehydrogenase activities were found to correlate with microbial abundance...... measured as colony forming units of heterotrophic bacteria. A panel of four enzyme activity assays, α-glucosidase, alanine-aminopeptidase, esterase and dehydrogenase were used to characterize activated sludge and anaerobic hydrolysis sludge from a pilot scale plant. The enzymatic activity profiles were...... distinctly different, suggesting that microbial populations were different, or had different physiological properties, in the two types of sludge. Enzyme activity profiles in activated sludge from four full-scale plants seemed to be highly influenced by the composition of the inlet. Addition of hydrolysed...

  10. Physical Properties of Hanford Transuranic Waste Sludge

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Poloski, A. P.

    2004-01-01

    This project has two primary objectives. The first is to understand the physical properties and behavior of the Hanford transuranic (TRU) tank sludges under conditions that might exist during retrieval, treatment, packaging, and transportation for disposal at WIPP. The second primary objective is to develop a fundamental understanding of these sludge suspensions by correlating the macroscopic properties with particle interactions occurring at the colloidal scale in the various liquid media. The results of this research effort will enhance the existing understanding of agglomeration phenomena and the properties of complex colloidal suspensions. In addition, the knowledge gained and capabilities developed during this effort will aid in the development and optimization of techniques to process the wastes at various DOE sites. These objectives will be accomplished by: (1) characterizing the TRU sludges contained in the Hanford tanks that are intended for shipment to WIPP; (2) determining the physical behavior of the Hanford TRU tank sludges under conditions that might exist during treatment and packaging; (3) and modeling the retrieval, treatment, and packaging operations that will be performed at Hanford to dispose of TRU tank sludges

  11. Operational experience at the Sludge Treatment Facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sy, D.J.

    1987-01-01

    The Sludge Treatment Facility (STF) at the Oak Ridge Gaseous Diffusion Plant has been in operation since April 1987. The facility was designed to encapsulate hazardous sludge wastes in a cement matrix. Fixation will allow the waste to meet or exceed applicable compressive strength and leachability requirements. Thus, the grout mixture complies with the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) guidelines as a nonhazardous waste. The grout mixture is based upon a recipe formulation developed after several years of waste stream characterization and formulation studies. The wastes to be treated at the STF are wastes impounded in two ponds. The ponds have a combined capacity of 4.5 million gallons of sludge. The sludge is transferred from the ponds to a 15,000-gallon capacity storage tank by the use of a dredge. The grout mixture recipe dictates the amount of sludge, cement, fly ash, and admixture required for weighing per batch. All ingredients are weighed and then transferred to a tilt or high energy mixer for mixing. The grout mixture is then transferred to 89- or 96-gallon steel drums. The drums are placed in a storage yard designed for a point source discharge from the yard

  12. Bacterial composition of activated sludge - importance for floc and sludge properties

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nielsen, Per H.; Thomsen, Trine R.; Nielsen, Jeppe L.

    2003-07-01

    Activated sludge flocs consist of numerous constituents which, together with other factors, are responsible for floc structure and floc properties. These properties largely determine the sludge properties such as flocculation, settling and dewaterability. In this paper we briefly review the present knowledge about the role of bacteria in relation to floc and sludge properties, and we present a new approach to investigate the identity and function of the bacteria in the activated sludge flocs. The approach includes identification of the important bacteria and a characterization of their physiological and functional properties. It is carried out by use of culture-independent molecular biological methods linked with other methods to study the physiology and function maintaining a single cell resolution. Using this approach it was found that floc-forming properties differed among the various bacterial groups, e.g. that different microcolony-forming bacteria had very different sensitivities to shear and that some of them deflocculated under anaerobic conditions. in our opinion, the approach to combine identity with functional analysis of the dominant bacteria in activated sludge by in situ methods is a very promising way to investigate correlations between presence of specific bacteria, and floc and sludge properties that are of interest. (author)

  13. Ultrasonic techniques for the in situ characterisation of 'legacy' Waste sludges and dispersions - 59111

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hunter, Timothy; Biggs, Simon; Young, James; Fairweather, Michael; Peakall, Jeff

    2012-01-01

    Research being undertaken at the University of Leeds, as part of the DIAMOND university consortium, is exploring the effectiveness of various ultrasonic technologies as in situ probes to characterize and monitor nuclear waste slurries, such as the 'Legacy' Magnesium hydroxide sludges found in Sellafield, U.K. Through use of a commercial Acoustic Backscatter Sensor (ABS) with 1 - 5 MHz transducers, various properties of free-settling oxide simulant sludges were determined. Work was focused upon characterizing essentially 'static' sludges (to give prospective use as tools for the wastes in current deposits); although, the sensors also have potential as dispersion monitors during any future processing and storage of the Legacy wastes, as well as many other storage, clarifier or thickener systems across a wide range of industrial processing operations. ABS data of mixed glass powder dispersions was analysed and compared to scattering theory, to understand the correlations between acoustic attenuation and particulate concentration. The ABS was also calibrated to measure changes in average particulate concentration within a settling suspension over time, and showed the depth-wise segregation of the dispersion through the settling column at different particular time intervals. It was found that observed hindered settling also led to an increase in particulate concentration over the sludge zone and significant segregation occurred at moderate time intervals, due to the broad size distribution of the aggregates measured. It is hoped in future that these sensors may be able to be fitted to robotic handlers that have been installed onsite (and previously used for sampling), allowing fully automatic in situ sludge analysis. (authors)

  14. Sampling and physical and actinide characterization of colloids from the Grimsel test site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Longworth, G.; Ivanovich, M.

    1990-01-01

    Samples of groundwater from a granite fracture at the Grimsel test site in Switzerland have been collected as part of a second intercomparison of groundwater colloid sampling and characterization techniques carried out by members of the Coco Club (colloids and complexes) sponsored by the CEC. This report describes the Harwell contribution to this exercise. The bulk of naturally occurring actinides were found to reside in solution with 10 particles/I (detection limit ∼50 nm) for samples determined by three laboratories. The colloids were shown to be negatively charged using microelectrophoresis and to be relatively stable. There was evidence of a reduction in the pH of the water after storage due to air contamination. This work has served to identify the problems associated with colloid sampling and characterization techniques

  15. Metal fractionation in sludge from sewage UASB treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braga, A F M; Zaiat, M; Silva, G H R; Fermoso, F G

    2017-05-15

    This study evaluates the trace metal composition and fractionation in sludge samples from anaerobic sewage treatment plants from six cities in Brazil. Ten metals were evaluated: Ni, Mn, Se, Co, Fe, Zn, K, Cu, Pb and Cr. Specific methanogenic activity of the sludge was also evaluated using acetic acid as the substrate. Among the essential trace metals for anaerobic digestion, Se, Zn, Ni and Fe were found at a high percentage in the organic matter/sulfide fraction in all sludge samples analyzed. These metals are less available for microorganisms than other metals, i.e., Co and K, which were present in significant amounts in the exchangeable and carbonate fractions. Cu is not typically reported as an essential metal but as a possible inhibitor. One of the samples showed a total Cu concentration close to the maximal amount allowed for reuse as fertilizer. Among the non-essential trace metals, Pb was present in all sludge samples at similar low concentrations and was primarily present in the residual fraction, demonstrating very low availability. Cr was found at low concentrations in all sludge samples, except for the sludge from STP5; interestingly, this sludge presented the lowest specific methanogenic activity, indicating possible Cr toxicity. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Tank 241-C-111 vapor sampling and analysis tank characterization report. Revision 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huckaby, J.L.

    1995-01-01

    This report presents the details of the Hanford waste tank characterization study for tank 241-C-111. The drivers and objectives of the headspace vapor sampling and analysis were in accordance with procedures that were presented in other reports. The vapor and headspace gas samples were collected and analyzed to determine the potential risks to tank farm workers due to fugitive emissions from the tank

  17. Tank 241-BY-110 vapor sampling and analysis tank characterization report. Revision 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huckaby, J.L.

    1995-01-01

    This report presents the details of the Hanford waste tank characterization study for tank 241-BY-110. The drivers and objectives of the headspace vapor sampling and analysis were in accordance with procedures that were presented in other reports. The vapor and headspace gas samples were collected and analyzed to determine the potential risks to the tank farm workers due to fugitive emissions from the tank

  18. Tank 241-C-107 vapor sampling and analysis tank characterization report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huckaby, J.L.

    1995-01-01

    This report presents the details of the Hanford waste tank characterization study for tank 241-C-107. The drivers and objectives of the headspace vapor sampling and analysis were in accordance with procedures that were presented in other reports. The vapor and headspace gas samples were collected and analyzed to determine the potential risks to tank farm workers due to fugitive emissions from the tank

  19. Tank 241-C-102 vapor sampling and analysis tank characterization report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huckaby, J.L.

    1995-01-01

    This report presents the details of the Hanford waste tank characterization study for tank 241-C-102. The drivers and objectives of the headspace vapor sampling and analysis were in accordance with procedures that were presented in other reports. The vapor and headspace gas samples were collected and analyzed to determine the potential risks to tank farm workers due to fugitive emissions from the tank

  20. Tank 241-TY-101 vapor sampling and analysis tank characterization report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huckaby, J.L.

    1995-01-01

    This report presents the details of the Hanford waste tank characterization study for tank 241-TY-101. The drivers and objectives of the headspace vapor sampling and analysis were in accordance with procedure that were presented in other reports. The vapor and headspace gas samples were collected and analyzed to determine the potential risks to tank farm workers due to fugitive emissions from the tank

  1. Tank 241-BX-104 vapor sampling and analysis tank characterization report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huckaby, J.L.

    1995-01-01

    This report presents the details of the Hanford waste tank characterization study for tank 241-BX-104. The drivers and objectives of the headspace vapor sampling and analysis were in accordance with procedure that were presented in other reports. The vapor and headspace gas samples were collected and analyzed to determine the potential risks to tank farm workers due to fugitive emissions from the tank

  2. Tank 241-SX-106 vapor sampling and analysis tank characterization report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huckaby, J.L.

    1995-01-01

    This report presents the details of the Hanford waste tank characterization study for tank 241-SX-106. The drivers and objectives of the headspace vapor sampling and analysis were in accordance with procedure that were presented in other reports. The vapor and headspace gas samples were collected and analyzed to determine the potential risks to tank farm workers due to fugitive emissions from the tank

  3. Tank 241-T-107 vapor sampling and analysis tank characterization report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huckaby, J.L.

    1995-01-01

    This report presents the details of the Hanford waste tank characterization study for tank 241-T-107. The drivers and objectives of the headspace vapor sampling and analysis were in accordance with procedure that were presented in other reports. The vapor and headspace gas samples were collected and analyzed to determine the potential risks to tank farm workers due to fugitive emissions from the tank

  4. Tank 241-B-103 vapor sampling and analysis tank characterization report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huckaby, J.L.

    1995-01-01

    This report presents the details of the Hanford waste tank characterization study for tank 241-B-103. The drivers and objectives of the headspace vapor sampling and analysis were in accordance with procedure that were presented in other reports. The vapor and headspace gas samples were collected and analyzed to determine the potential risks to tank farm workers due to fugitive emissions from the tank

  5. Speciation of mercury in sludge solids: washed sludge

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bannochie, C. J. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); Lourie, A. P. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL)

    2017-10-24

    The objective of this applied research task was to study the type and concentration of mercury compounds found within the contaminated Savannah River Site Liquid Waste System (SRS LWS). A method of selective sequential extraction (SSE), developed by Eurofins Frontier Global Sciences1,2 and adapted by SRNL, utilizes an extraction procedure divided into seven separate tests for different species of mercury. In the SRNL’s modified procedure four of these tests were applied to a washed sample of high level radioactive waste sludge.

  6. Statistical evaluation of the data obtained from the K East Basin Sandfilter Backwash Pit samples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Welsh, T.L.

    1994-01-01

    Samples were obtained from different locations from the K Each Sandfilter Backwash Pit to characterize the sludge material. These samples were analyzed chemically for elements, radionuclides, and residual compounds. The analytical results were statistically analyzed to determine the mean analyte content and the associated variability for each mean value

  7. Tank Vapor Characterization Project: Vapor space characterization of waste Tank A-101, Results from samples collected on June 8, 1995

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pool, K.H.; Clauss, T.W.; McVeety, B.D.; Evans, J.C.; Thomas, B.L.; Olsen, K.B.; Fruchter, J.S.; Ligotke, M.W.

    1995-11-01

    This report describes the analytical results of vapor samples taken from the headspace of the waste storage tank 241-A-101 (Tank A-101) at the Hanford Site in Washington State. The results described in this report were obtained to characterize the vapors present in the tank headspace and to support safety evaluations and tank-farm operations. The results include air concentrations of selected inorganic and organic analytes and grouped compounds from samples obtained by Westinghouse Hanford Company (WHC) and provided for analysis to Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNL). Analyses were performed by the Vapor Analytical Laboratory (VAL) at PNL. Analyte concentrations were based on analytical results and, where appropriate, sample volumes provided by WHC. A summary of the results is listed in Table 1. Detailed descriptions of the analytical results appear in the text

  8. Mathematical experimental modeling for muffle furnace drying process of municipal sewage sludge in Beijing and Osaka

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, Xinyi; Takaoka, Masaki; Zhu, Fenfen; Oshita, Kazuyuki; Mizuno, Tadao; Morisawa, Shinsuke

    2010-01-01

    Over the past two decades, China has experienced rapid urbanization, which also leads to a lot of environmental problems including those of sewage sludge. As the amount of sewage sludge increases, conventional methods of treatment, such as compost and landfill, are facing the problems of limitations in demands or land. Considering that the demand of constructive materials in China keeps increasing, reusing municipal sewage sludge (MSS) in cement manufactory plant as fuels and raw materials is another practicable way to deal with it. The aim of this study is to describe the process of the heating of sewage sludge under different atmospheres of nitrogen and oxygen, and to find out some relation between the moisture of MSS and the heating time under different surrounding temperature by means of a mathematical model. In this study, we compared 4 kinds of MSS sampled in Beijing and Osaka. First of all, we defined the differences in those fundamental physical properties, such as concentration of various elements, calorific values and so on. Then the macroscopical thermal properties of the sludges were observed by means of thermogravimetric (TG) analysis. Both pyrolysis and combustion of 4 samples of MSS were studied by TG dynamic runs carried out at 10K/m. Visual observation of the heating profiles shows three stages in the heating process, which have been characterized. At last, we focused on batch processing drying tests using muffle furnace under temperature of 200, 250 and 300 degrees Celsius. The volatile matters loss besides moisture during heating process was evaluated and the experimental drying curves were matched with a mathematical model. (author)

  9. Sludge technology assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krause, T.R.; Cunnane, J.C.; Helt, J.E.

    1994-12-01

    The retrieval, processing, and generation of final waste forms from radioactive tank waste sludges present some of the most challenging technical problems confronting scientists and engineers responsible for the waste management programs at the various Department of Energy laboratories and production facilities. Currently, the Department of Energy is developing a strategy to retrieve, process, and generate a final waste form for the sludge that meets the acceptance criteria for the final disposition. An integral part of this strategy will be use of separation processes that treat the sludge; the goal is to meet feed criteria for the various processes that will generate the final waste form, such as vitrification or grouting. This document is intended to (1) identify separation technologies which are being considered for sludge treatment at various DOE sites, (2) define the current state of sludge treatment technology, (3) identify what research and development is required, (4) identify current research programs within either DOE or academia developing sludge treatment technology, and (5) identify commercial separation technologies which may be applicable. Due to the limited scope of this document, technical evaluations regarding the need for a particular separations technology, the current state of development, or the research required for implementation, are not provided

  10. Size Distributions and Characterization of Native and Ground Samples for Toxicology Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKay, David S.; Cooper, Bonnie L.; Taylor, Larry A.

    2010-01-01

    This slide presentation shows charts and graphs that review the particle size distribution and characterization of natural and ground samples for toxicology studies. There are graphs which show the volume distribution versus the number distribution for natural occurring dust, jet mill ground dust, and ball mill ground dust.

  11. Occurrence of Giardia cysts and Cryptosporidium oocysts in activated sludge samples in Campinas, SP, Brazil Ocorrência de cistos de Giardia e oocistos de Cryptosporidium em amostras de lodo ativado em Campinas, SP, Brasil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luciana Urbano Santos

    2004-04-01

    Full Text Available Giardia and Cryptosporidium have caused several outbreaks of gastroenteritis in humans associated with drinking water. Contaminated sewage effluents are recognized as a potential source of waterborne protozoa. Due to the lack of studies about the occurrence of these parasites in sewage samples in Brazil, we compared the efficiency of two procedures for concentrating cysts and oocysts in activated sludge samples of one sewage treatment plant. For this, the samples were submitted to i concentration by the ether clarification procedure (ECP and to ii purification by sucrose flotation method (SFM and aliquots of the pellets were examined by immunofluorescence. Giardia cysts were present in all samples (100.0%; n = 8 when using ECP and kit 1 reagents, while kit 2 resulted in six positive samples (85.7%; n = 7. As for SFM, cysts were detected in 75.0% and 100.0% of these samples (for kit 1 and 2, respectively. Regarding Cryptosporidium, two samples (25.0%; kit 1 and 28.5% for kit 2 were detected positive by using ECP, while for SFM, only one sample (examined by kit 1 was positive (12.5%. The results of the control trial revealed Giardia and Cryptosporidium recovery efficiency rates for ECP of 54.5% and 9.6%, while SFM was 10.5% and 3.2%, respectively. Considering the high concentration detected, a previous evaluation of the activated sludge before its application in agriculture is recommended and with some improvement, ECP would be an appropriate simple technique for protozoa detection in sewage samples.Giardia e Cryptosporidium causaram vários surtos epidêmicos de gastroenterite, associados à água potável. Efluentes de esgoto contaminados foram incriminados como uma fonte potencial de cistos e oocistos. Uma investigação foi conduzida para verificar a presença de cistos de Giardia e oocistos de Cryptosporidium em amostras de lodo ativado de uma Estação de Tratamento de Esgoto. Para isto as amostras foram submetidas: i a concentração pelo

  12. Sludge Stabilization Campaign blend plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    De Vries, M.L.

    1994-01-01

    This sludge stabilization blend plan documents the material to be processed and the order of processing for the FY95 Sludge Stabilization Campaign. The primary mission of this process is to reduce the inventory of unstable plutonium bearing sludge. The source of the sludge is residual and glovebox floor sweepings from the production of material at the Plutonium Finishing Plant (PFP). The reactive sludge is currently being stored in various gloveboxes at PFP. There are two types of the plutonium bearing material that will be thermally stabilized in the muffle furnace: Plutonium Reclamation Facility (PRF) sludge and Remote Mechanical C (RMC) Line material

  13. X-ray scattering for the characterization of lyophilized breast tissue samples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Elshemey, Wael M.; Mohamed, Fayrouz S.; Khater, Ibrahim M.

    2013-01-01

    This work investigates the possibility of characterizing breast cancer by measuring the X-ray scattering profiles of lyophilized excised breast tissue samples. Since X-ray scattering from water-rich tissue is dominated by scattering from water, the removal of water by lyophilization would enhance the characterization process. In the present study, X-ray scattering profiles of 22 normal, 22 malignant and 10 benign breast tissue samples are measured. The cut-offs of scatter diagrams, sensitivity, specificity and diagnostic accuracy of three characterization parameters (full width at half maximum (FWHM) for the peak at 1.1 nm −1 , area under curve (AUC), and ratio of 1st to 2nd scattering peak intensities (I 1 /I 2 %)) are calculated and compared to the data from non-lyophilized samples. Results show increased sensitivity (up to 100%) of the present data on lyophilized breast tissue samples compared to previously reported data for non-lyophilized samples while the specificity (up to 95.4%), diagnostic accuracy (up to 95.4%) and receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve values (up to 0.9979) for both sets of data are comparable. The present study shows significant differences between normal samples and each of malignant and benign samples. Only subtle differences exist between malignant and benign lyophilized breast tissue samples where FWHM=0.7±0.1 and 0.8±0.3, AUC=1.3±0.2 and 1.4±0.2 and I 1 /I 2 %=44.9±11.0 and 52.4±7.6 for malignant and benign samples respectively. - Highlights: • X-ray scattering profiles of breast tissue samples are acquired. • Three X-ray profile characterization parameters are calculated. • The cut-offs, sensitivity, specificity and diagnostic accuracy are calculated. • They are compared to the data from non-lyophilized samples. • Results show increased sensitivity in case of lyophilized samples

  14. Note: Radio frequency surface impedance characterization system for superconducting samples at 7.5 GHz.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, B P; Reece, C E; Phillips, H L; Geng, R L; Wang, H; Marhauser, F; Kelley, M J

    2011-05-01

    A radio frequency (RF) surface impedance characterization (SIC) system that uses a novel sapphire-loaded niobium cavity operating at 7.5 GHz has been developed as a tool to measure the RF surface impedance of flat superconducting material samples. The SIC system can presently make direct calorimetric RF surface impedance measurements on the central 0.8 cm(2) area of 5 cm diameter disk samples from 2 to 20 K exposed to RF magnetic fields up to 14 mT. To illustrate system utility, we present first measurement results for a bulk niobium sample.

  15. Separation and characterization of nanoparticles in complex food and environmental samples by field-flow fractionation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kammer, Frank von der; Legros, Samuel; Hofmann, Thilo

    2011-01-01

    The thorough analysis of natural nanoparticles (NPs) and engineered NPs involves the sequence of detection, identification, quantification and, if possible, detailed characterization. In a complex or heterogeneous sample, each step of this sequence is an individual challenge, and, given suitable...... has been applied for separation of various types of NP (e.g., organic macromolecules, and carbonaceous or inorganic NPs) in different types of media (e.g., natural waters, soil extracts or food samples).FFF can be coupled to different types of detectors that offer additional information...... conditions on all types of NP in the sample. A holistic methodological approach is preferable to a technique-focused one....

  16. Impact of sludge stabilization processes and sludge origin (urban or hospital) on the mobility of pharmaceutical compounds following sludge landspreading in laboratory soil-column experiments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lachassagne, Delphine; Soubrand, Marilyne; Casellas, Magali; Gonzalez-Ospina, Adriana; Dagot, Christophe

    2015-11-01

    This study aimed to determine the effect of sludge stabilization treatments (liming and anaerobic digestion) on the mobility of different pharmaceutical compounds in soil amended by landspreading of treated sludge from different sources (urban and hospital). The sorption and desorption potential of the following pharmaceutical compounds: carbamazepine (CBZ), ciprofloxacin (CIP), sulfamethoxazole (SMX), salicylic acid (SAL), ibuprofen (IBU), paracetamol (PAR), diclofenac (DIC), ketoprofen (KTP), econazole (ECZ), atenolol (ATN), and their solid-liquid distribution during sludge treatment (from thickening to stabilization) were investigated in the course of batch testing. The different sludge samples were then landspread at laboratory scale and leached with an artificial rain simulating 1 year of precipitation adapted to the surface area of the soil column used. The quality of the resulting leachate was investigated. Results showed that ibuprofen had the highest desorption potential for limed and digested urban and hospital sludge. Ibuprofen, salicylic acid, diclofenac, and paracetamol were the only compounds found in amended soil leachates. Moreover, the leaching potential of these compounds and therefore the risk of groundwater contamination depend mainly on the origin of the sludge because ibuprofen and diclofenac were present in the leachates of soils amended with urban sludge, whereas paracetamol and salicylic acid were found only in the leachates of soils amended with hospital sludge. Although carbamazepine, ciprofloxacin, sulfamethoxazole, ketoprofen, econazole, and atenolol were detected in some sludge, they were not present in any leachate. This reflects either an accumulation and/or (bio)degradation of these compounds (CBZ, CIP, SMX, KTP, ECZ, and ATN ), thus resulting in very low mobility in soil. Ecotoxicological risk assessment, evaluated by calculating the risk quotients for each studied pharmaceutical compound, revealed no high risk due to the

  17. Hydrothermal Testing of K Basin Sludge and N Reactor Fuel at Sludge Treatment Project Operating Conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Delegard, Calvin H.; Schmidt, Andrew J.; Thornton, Brenda M.

    2007-03-30

    The Sludge Treatment Project (STP), managed for the U. S. DOE by Fluor Hanford (FH), was created to design and operate a process to eliminate uranium metal from K Basin sludge prior to packaging for Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP). The STP process uses high temperature liquid water to accelerate the reaction, produce uranium dioxide from the uranium metal, and safely discharge the hydrogen. Under nominal process conditions, the sludge will be heated in pressurized water at 185°C for as long as 72 hours to assure the complete reaction (corrosion) of up to 0.25-inch diameter uranium metal pieces. Under contract to FH, the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) conducted bench-scale testing of the STP hydrothermal process in November and December 2006. Five tests (~50 ml each) were conducted in sealed, un-agitated reaction vessels under the hydrothermal conditions (e.g., 7 to 72 h at 185°C) of the STP corrosion process using radioactive sludge samples collected from the K East Basin and particles/coupons of N Reactor fuel also taken from the K Basins. The tests were designed to evaluate and understand the chemical changes that may be occurring and the effects that any changes would have on sludge rheological properties. The tests were not designed to evaluate engineering aspects of the process. The hydrothermal treatment affected the chemical and physical properties of the sludge. In each test, significant uranium compound phase changes were identified, resulting from dehydration and chemical reduction reactions. Physical properties of the sludge were significantly altered from their initial, as-settled sludge values, including, shear strength, settled density, weight percent water, and gas retention.

  18. Changes on sewage sludge stability after greenhouse drying

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soriano-Disla, J. M.; Houot, S.; Imhoff, M.; Valentin, N.; Gómez, I.; Navarro-Pedreño, J.

    2009-04-01

    The progressive implementation of the Urban Waste Water Treatment Directive 91/271/EEC in all the European member states is increasing the quantities of sewage sludge requiring disposal. Sludge application onto cultivated soils as organic fertilizers allows the recycling of nutrients. The application of only dehydrated sludges has generated many problems including unpleasant odours and difficult management (regarding transport and application) related to their high water content. One way to overcome these problems, in a cheap and clean way, is the drying of sludges using the energy of the sun under greenhouse conditions. This drying may affect sludge chemical characteristics including organic matter stability and nitrogen availability, parameters which have to be controlled for the proper management of dry sludge application onto soils. For this reason, the main aim of this work was to study the impact of greenhouse drying of different sewage sludges on their organic matter stability and nitrogen availability, assessed by biochemical fractionation and mineralization assays. Three sewage sludges were sampled before (dehydrated sludges) and after greenhouse drying (dried sludges). The analyses consisted of: humidity, organic matter, mineral and organic N contents, N and C mineralization during 91-day laboratory incubations in controlled conditions, and biochemical fractionation using the Van Soest procedure. Greenhouse drying decreased the water content from 70-80% to 10% and also the odours, both of which will improve the management of the final product from the perspective of application and transport. We also found that drying reduced the organic matter content of the sludges but not the biodegradability of the remaining carbon. Organic N mineralization occurred during greenhouse drying, explaining why mineral N content tended to increase and the potential mineralization of organic nitrogen decreased after greenhouse drying. The biochemical stability did not

  19. Microstructural characterization of archaeological samples coming from La Venta park, Tabasco, Mexico

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Espinosa P, M.F.; Rodriguez L, V.; Martinez, G.

    1997-01-01

    The Olmec culture was the first meso american civilization it presents its main establishment at the Veracruz and Tabasco states in Mexico. Owing to in time and to the weathering factors of the region as warmth, acid rain and that great humidity existing in the environment among others that have been provoked great erosion and damage on the pre hispanic monuments. Through Sem technique it was achieved the microstructural characterization of materials which conform the samples that correspond to those monuments where fundamentally feldspars have been found. It was determined the elemental composition of samples through Emission dispersive X-ray diffraction technique, the crystalline phases existing in samples were determined mainly finding feldspars, so of this way it was corroborated those obtained results through Sem. The materials characterization that are part of these pre hispanic monuments of La Ve nta park is essential for its conservation minimizing so the damage to pre hispanic pieces. (Author)

  20. Sampling and characterization of radioactive liquid wastes; Muestreo y caracterizacion de desechos liquidos radiactivos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zepeda R, C.; Monroy G, F.; Reyes A, T.; Lizcano, D. [ININ, Carretera Mexico-Toluca s/n, 52750 Ocoyoacac, Estado de Mexico (Mexico); Cruz C, A. C., E-mail: carla.zepeda@inin.gob.mx [SEP, Instituto Tecnologico de Orizaba, Av. Oriente 9, Col. Emiliano Zapata, 94320 Orizaba, Veracruz (Mexico)

    2017-09-15

    To define the management of radioactive liquid wastes stored in 200 L drums, its isotope and physicochemical characterization is essential. An adequate sampling, that is, representative and homogeneous, is fundamental to obtain reliable analytical results, therefore, in this work, the use of a sampling mechanism that allows collecting homogenous aliquots, in a safe way and minimizing the generation of secondary waste is proposed. With this mechanism, 56 drums of radioactive liquid wastes were sampled, which were characterized by gamma spectrometry, liquid scintillation, and determined the following physicochemical properties: ph, conductivity, viscosity, density and chemical composition by gas chromatography. 67.86% of the radioactive liquid wastes contains H-3 and of these, 47.36% can be released unconditionally, since it presents activities lower than 100 Bq/g. 94% of the wastes are acidic and 48% have viscosities <50 MPa s. (Author)

  1. Lipase and protease extraction from activated sludge

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gessesse, Amare; Dueholm, Thomas; Petersen, Steffen B.

    2003-01-01

    of gentle and efficient enzyme extraction methods from environmental samples is very important. In this study we present a method for the extraction of lipases and proteases from activated sludge using the non-ionic detergent Triton X-100, EDTA, and cation exchange resin (CER), alone or in combination...

  2. Enhancing faecal sludge management in peri-urban areas of Lusaka through faecal sludge valorisation: challenges and opportunities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tembo, J. M.; Nyirenda, E.; Nyambe, I.

    2017-03-01

    Lusaka, the capital city of Zambia, has two million inhabitants with 70% residing in peri-urban areas. Ninety (90) % of this population employ pit latrines for excretion generating approximately 22,680 tons of faecal sludge per annum. This sludge is inadequately managed hence of the generated amount, over 60% remains within the residential environment thereby compromising both the environment and public health. To foster a solution to this problem, a study was commissioned to assess faecal sludge valorisation potential and how it would impact on Faecal Sludge Management. The study evaluated policy, institutional and regulatory frameworks, sanitation practices including latrine construction and usage aspects and also characterised the faecal sludge for selected parameters relevant to valorisation. Four peri-urban areas were adopted as study sites. Policy issues together with existing institutional and regulatory frameworks were assessed through literature review. Sanitation practices were evaluated through physical observations, focus group discussions, interviews and questionnaire administration. Faecal sludge characterisation was through sampling and analysis. It was observed that there are policy gaps in fostering faecal sludge valorisation. Sanitation practices and latrines construction also do not favour valorisation. The quality of the raw sludge has potential for valorisation though again, some parameters like solid waste content require drastic changes in sanitation practices in order not to compromise the reuse potential of the sludge. It was concluded that if faecal sludge management is to be enhanced through valorisation, there is need to have policies promoting pit latrine faecal sludge reuse and strengthened regulatory and institutional frameworks in this respect.

  3. Test plan, sludge retrieval, sludge packaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Feigenbutz, L.V.

    1994-01-01

    This document provides direction for the cold testing of tools, equipment and systems which will be installed and operated in K-East (KE) Basin in support of the sludge retrieval and packaging project. The technical uncertainties related to the effectiveness of sludge retrieval procedures and equipment require that cold testing be completed before installation in KE Basin to identify and resolve existing problems, and to optimize the efficiency of all equipment and systems used. This plan establishes the responsibilities, test requirements, and documentation requirements necessary to complete cold tests of: (1) equipment with no potential for plant use; (2) prototype equipment and systems which may be upgraded for use in K-Basin; and (3) plant equipment and systems requiring cold acceptance testing prior to plant use. Some equipment and systems may have been subject to a formal design review and safety assessment; the results of which will be included as supporting documents to the operational readiness review (ORR)

  4. Stabilization of heavy metals in fired clay brick incorporated with wastewater treatment plant sludge: Leaching analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kadir, A. A.; Hassan, M. I. H.; Salim, N. S. A.; Sarani, N. A.; Ahmad, S.; Rahmat, N. A. I.

    2018-04-01

    Wastewater treatment sludge or known as sewage sludge is regarded as the residue and produced by the sedimentation of the suspended solid during treatment at the wastewater treatment plant. As such, this sludge was gained from the separation process of the liquids and solids. This sludge wastes has becomes national issues in recent years due to the increasing amount caused by population and industrialization growth in Malaysia. This research was conducted to fully utilize the sludge that rich in dangerous heavy metals and at the same time act as low cost alternative materials in brick manufacturing. The investigation includes determination of heavy metal concentration and chemical composition of the sludge, physical and mechanical properties. Wastewater treatment sludge samples were collected from wastewater treatment plant located in Johor, Malaysia. X-Ray Fluorescence was conducted to determine the heavy metals concentration of wastewater treatment sludge. Different percentage of sludges which are 0%, 1%, 5%, 10%, and 20%, has been incorporated into fired clay brick. The leachability of heavy metals in fired clay brick that incorporated with sludge were determined by using Toxicity Characteristic Leaching Procedure (TCLP) and Synthetic Precipitation Leachability Procedure (SPLP) that has been analyzed by using Inductively Coupled Plasma Mass Spectrometry (ICP-MS). The results show a possibility to stabilize the heavy metals in fired clay brick incorporated with wastewater treatment sludge. 20% of the sludge incorporated into the brick is the most suitable for building materials as it leached less heavy metals concentration and complying with USEPA standard.

  5. Thermogravimetric study and kinetic analysis of dried industrial sludge pyrolysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Guangrui; Song, Huijuan; Wu, Jinhu

    2015-07-01

    Thermogravimetric experiments of two different industrial sludge samples were carried out with non-isothermal temperature programs. The results indicated that the pyrolysis process contains three obvious stages and the main decomposition reaction occurred in the range of 200-600°C. The distributed activation energy model (DAEM) was also proposed describing equally well the pyrolysis behavior of the samples. The calculated activation energy was ranged from 170 to 593kJ/mol and 125 to 756kJ/mol for SLYG (sludge sample from chemical fiber factory) and SQD (sludge sample from woody industry), respectively. The reliability of this model not only provided good fit for all experiments, but also allowed accurate extrapolations to relative higher heating rates. Besides, the FTIR measurement was also used to further understand the relationship between pyrolysis behavior and chemical structures for industrial sludge. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Gravity settling of Hanford single-shell tank sludges

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brooks, K.P.; Rector, D.R.; Smith, P.A.

    1999-01-01

    The US Department of Energy plans to use gravity settling in million-gallon storage tanks while pretreating sludge on the Hanford site. To be considered viable in these large tanks, the supernatant must become clear, and the sludge must be concentrated in an acceptable time. These separations must occur over the wide range of conditions associated with sludge pretreatment. In the work reported here, gravity settling was studied with liter quantities of actual single-shell tank sludge from hanford Tank 241-C-107. Because of limited sludge availability, an approach was developed using the results of these liter-scale tests to predict full-scale operation. Samples were centrifuged at various g-forces to simulate compaction with higher layers of sludge. A semi-empirical settling model was then developed incorporating both the liter-scale settling data and the centrifuge compression results to describe the sludge behavior in a million-gallon tank. The settling model predicted that the compacted sludge solids would exceed 20 wt% in less than 30 days of settling in a 10-m-tall tank for all pretreatment steps

  7. ASSESSMENT OF THE POSSIBILITIES OF AGRICULTURAL USE OF SEWAGE SLUDGE FROM WASTEWATER TREATMENT PLANTS IN OLECKO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Magdalena Filkiewicz

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available According to the National Waste Management Plan 2014 (NWMP 2014 recommended method of utilization of sewage sludge is using it for agricultural purposes or for land reclamation. The sludge is characterized by a high content of organic substances, microelements and biogenic compounds, through which sewage sludge possess high soil formation and fertilization properties. It is assumed that in 2020 approximately 30% of the sludge production will be used for agricultural purposes, while 15% will be used for land reclamation. We have to remember that prior to the introduction of sludge into the ground, security, health and chemical requirements should be met. In order to use the sludge for agricultural purposes, the process of their disposal should be previously carried out e.g. Autoheated Thermophilic Aerobic Digestion (ATAD. It allows for hygienisation of sewage sludge and reducing the heavy metal content. As a result, processed sewage sludge is characterized by the presence of heavy metals in amounts which do not exceed the standards. It is also deprived of microorganisms. The stabilized sludge is characterized by high phosphorus and calcium content. Therefore there is possibility to use the examined sludge in agriculture.

  8. Thermal analysis and FTIR studies of sewage sludge produced in treatment plants. The case of sludge in the city of Uberlândia-MG, Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oliveira Silva, Jader de; Filho, Guimes Rodrigues; Silva Meireles, Carla da; Dias Ribeiro, Sabrina; Vieira, Júlia Graciele; Vieira da Silva, Cleuzilene; Alves Cerqueira, Daniel

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► In this study, the sludge was characterized by thermal analyses and FTIR. ► The superior calorific value of the sludge was 16.2 MJ kg −1 . ► The sludge showed a significant biodegradable portion of 65%. ► The UASB sludge can be used for energy source. - Abstract: The operation of anaerobic reactors in Brazil creates a by-product, sewage sludge, for which adequate treatment is necessary to obtain a solid and stable material. The burning of sewage sludge may be an effective alternative for its management, and looking to enhance its energy potential, an environmentally friendly method of disposal is necessary. As the quantity of sludge generated has increased over the past few years, the physical chemical characterization of this waste is the first stage for its utilization as raw material. The material was characterized by thermal analyses (Thermogravimetry (TG)/Differential Thermal Analysis (DTA) and Differential Scanning Calorimetry (DSC)) and Infrared Analysis (FTIR) in order to determine the main organic groups present in sludge. The calorific power of the anaerobically digested sludge of Uberlândia-MG, Brazil was measured, and an energy content equal to 16.2 MJ kg −1 was found, which is within the range of values reported in the literature.

  9. Thermal analysis and FTIR studies of sewage sludge produced in treatment plants. The case of sludge in the city of Uberlandia-MG, Brazil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oliveira Silva, Jader de [Instituto de Quimica da Universidade Federal de Uberlandia, Av. Joao Naves de Avila, 2121, CEP 38400-902, Cx. Postal 593, Uberlandia - Minas Gerais (Brazil); Departamento Municipal de Agua e Esgoto de Uberlandia (DMAE) (Brazil); Filho, Guimes Rodrigues, E-mail: guimes@ufu.br [Instituto de Quimica da Universidade Federal de Uberlandia, Av. Joao Naves de Avila, 2121, CEP 38400-902, Cx. Postal 593, Uberlandia - Minas Gerais (Brazil); Silva Meireles, Carla da; Dias Ribeiro, Sabrina; Vieira, Julia Graciele [Instituto de Quimica da Universidade Federal de Uberlandia, Av. Joao Naves de Avila, 2121, CEP 38400-902, Cx. Postal 593, Uberlandia - Minas Gerais (Brazil); Vieira da Silva, Cleuzilene [Faculdade de Engenharia Quimica da Universidade Federal de Uberlandia (Brazil); Alves Cerqueira, Daniel [Instituto de Ciencias Ambientais e Desenvolvimento Sustentavel da Universidade Federal da Bahia (Brazil)

    2012-01-20

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer In this study, the sludge was characterized by thermal analyses and FTIR. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The superior calorific value of the sludge was 16.2 MJ kg{sup -1}. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The sludge showed a significant biodegradable portion of 65%. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The UASB sludge can be used for energy source. - Abstract: The operation of anaerobic reactors in Brazil creates a by-product, sewage sludge, for which adequate treatment is necessary to obtain a solid and stable material. The burning of sewage sludge may be an effective alternative for its management, and looking to enhance its energy potential, an environmentally friendly method of disposal is necessary. As the quantity of sludge generated has increased over the past few years, the physical chemical characterization of this waste is the first stage for its utilization as raw material. The material was characterized by thermal analyses (Thermogravimetry (TG)/Differential Thermal Analysis (DTA) and Differential Scanning Calorimetry (DSC)) and Infrared Analysis (FTIR) in order to determine the main organic groups present in sludge. The calorific power of the anaerobically digested sludge of Uberlandia-MG, Brazil was measured, and an energy content equal to 16.2 MJ kg{sup -1} was found, which is within the range of values reported in the literature.

  10. Soil bioassays as tools for sludge compost quality assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Domene, Xavier; Sola, Laura; Ramirez, Wilson; Alcaniz, Josep M.; Andres, Pilar

    2011-01-01

    Composting is a waste management technology that is becoming more widespread as a response to the increasing production of sewage sludge and the pressure for its reuse in soil. In this study, different bioassays (plant germination, earthworm survival, biomass and reproduction, and collembolan survival and reproduction) were assessed for their usefulness in the compost quality assessment. Compost samples, from two different composting plants, were taken along the composting process, which were characterized and submitted to bioassays (plant germination and collembolan and earthworm performance). Results from our study indicate that the noxious effects of some of the compost samples observed in bioassays are related to the low organic matter stability of composts and the enhanced release of decomposition endproducts, with the exception of earthworms, which are favored. Plant germination and collembolan reproduction inhibition was generally associated with uncomposted sludge, while earthworm total biomass and reproduction were enhanced by these materials. On the other hand, earthworm and collembolan survival were unaffected by the degree of composting of the wastes. However, this pattern was clear in one of the composting procedures assessed, but less in the other, where the release of decomposition endproducts was lower due to its higher stability, indicating the sensitivity and usefulness of bioassays for the quality assessment of composts.

  11. Hexamethyldisilazane Removal with Mesoporous Materials Prepared from Calcium Fluoride Sludge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kao, Ching-Yang; Lin, Min-Fa; Nguyen, Nhat-Thien; Tsai, Hsiao-Hsin; Chang, Luh-Maan; Chen, Po-Han; Chang, Chang-Tang

    2018-05-01

    A large amount of calcium fluoride sludge is generated by the semiconductor industry every year. It also requires a high amount of fuel consumption using rotor concentrators and thermal oxidizers to treat VOCs. The mesoporous adsorbent prepared by calcium fluoride sludge was used for VOCs treatment. The semiconductor industry employs HMDS to promote the adhesion of photo-resistant material to oxide(s) due to the formation of silicon dioxide, which blocks porous adsorbents. The adsorption of HMDS (Hexamethyldisiloxane) was tested with mesoporous silica materials synthesized from calcium fluoride (CF-MCM). The resulting samples were characterized by XRD, XRF, FTIR, N2-adsorption-desorption techniques. The prepared samples possessed high specific surface area, large pore volume and large pore diameter. The crystal patterns of CF-MCM were similar with Mobil composite matter (MCM-41) from TEM image. The adsorption capacity of HMDS with CF-MCM was 40 and 80 mg g-1, respectively, under 100 and 500 ppm HMDS. The effects of operation parameters, such as contact time and mixture concentration, on the performance of CF-MCM were also discussed in this study.

  12. Characterization and forensic analysis of soil samples using laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jantzi, Sarah C; Almirall, José R

    2011-07-01

    A method for the quantitative elemental analysis of surface soil samples using laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS) was developed and applied to the analysis of bulk soil samples for discrimination between specimens. The use of a 266 nm laser for LIBS analysis is reported for the first time in forensic soil analysis. Optimization of the LIBS method is discussed, and the results compared favorably to a laser ablation inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (LA-ICP-MS) method previously developed. Precision for both methods was LIBS limits of detection were LIBS method successfully discriminated samples from two different sites in Dade County, FL. Analysis of variance, Tukey's post hoc test and Student's t test resulted in 100% discrimination with no type I or type II errors. Principal components analysis (PCA) resulted in clear groupings of the two sites. A correct classification rate of 99.4% was obtained with linear discriminant analysis using leave-one-out validation. Similar results were obtained when the same samples were analyzed by LA-ICP-MS, showing that LIBS can provide similar information to LA-ICP-MS. In a forensic sampling/spatial heterogeneity study, the variation between sites, between sub-plots, between samples and within samples was examined on three similar Dade sites. The closer the sampling locations, the closer the grouping on a PCA plot and the higher the misclassification rate. These results underscore the importance of careful sampling for geographic site characterization.

  13. Chemical and nano-mineralogical study for determining potential uses of legal Colombian gold mine sludge: Experimental evidence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sánchez-Peña, Nazly E; Narváez-Semanate, José L; Pabón-Patiño, Daniela; Fernández-Mera, Javier E; Oliveira, Marcos L S; da Boit, Kátia; Tutikian, Bernardo F; Crissien, Tito J; Pinto, Diana C; Serrano, Iván D; Ayala, Claudia I; Duarte, Ana L; Ruiz, José D; Silva, Luis F O

    2018-01-01

    The present study is focused on the chemical and nano-mineralogical characterization of sludge from gold mine activities, in order to put forward diverse solution alternatives, where lack of knowledge has been found. The sample was collected from "La Estrella" mine of Suarez, located in Department of Cauca, south-west Colombia. The sludge micro-structure and chemical composition were analyzed using a high resolution transmission electron microscopy (HR-TEM) equipped with a dispersive X-ray detector (EDS). X-ray diffraction technique was employed to identify the mineralogical phases present in the sludge. Additional mineralogical characterization was done by using RAMAN spectroscopy. Main findings points to its potential to be used as a fertilizer, this is why, mine sludge contains macronutrients such as P, Ca and S, together with micronutrients like Cu. However, the presence of goethite could decrease the mobilization of nutrients to soils, thus additional alternatives, for instance, a mixture with humus or another material containing Humic Acids should be done, in order to minimizing its retention effect. Additionally, another possible uses to explore could be as construction and ceramic material or in the wastewater treatment for nutrient retention and organic material removal. Rutile (TiO 2 nanoparticles) particles have been also detected, what could cause health concern due to its nanoparticle toxic character, mainly during gold extraction process. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Sludge pumping in water treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Solar Manuel, M. A.

    2010-01-01

    In water treatment processes is frequent to separate residual solids, with sludge shape, and minimize its volume in a later management. the technologies to applicate include pumping across pipelines, even to long distance. In wastewater treatment plants (WWTP), the management of these sludges is very important because their characteristics affect load losses calculation. Pumping sludge can modify its behavior and pumping frequency can concern treatment process. This paper explains advantages and disadvantages of different pumps to realize transportation sludge operations. (Author) 11 refs.

  15. Detection and Molecular Characterization of Gemycircularvirus from Environmental Samples in Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    da Silva Assis, Matheus Ribeiro; Vieira, Carmen Baur; Fioretti, Julia Monassa; Rocha, Mônica Simões; de Almeida, Pedro Ivo Neves; Miagostovich, Marize Pereira; Fumian, Tulio Machado

    2016-12-01

    Gemycircularvirus (GemyCV) is a group of viruses which has been recently proposed as a new viral genus detected in fecal and environmental samples around the world. GemyCVs have been detected in human blood, brain tissue, cerebrospinal fluid, and stool sample. In the present study, we demonstrate for the first time, through molecular detection and characterization, the presence of GemyCVs in environmental samples from Brazil. Our results show a percentage of positivity ranging from 69 (25/36) to 97 % (35/36) in river water samples collected in Manaus, Amazon region, and wastewater from a wastewater treatment plant located in Rio de Janeiro, respectively, revealing GemyCVs as an important environmental contaminant.

  16. Surface characterization of Nb samples electropolished with real superconducting rf accelerator cavities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xin Zhao

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available We report the results of surface characterizations of niobium (Nb samples electropolished together with a single cell superconducting radio-frequency accelerator cavity. These witness samples were located in three regions of the cavity, namely at the equator, the iris, and the beam pipe. Auger electron spectroscopy was utilized to probe the chemical composition of the topmost four atomic layers. Scanning electron microscopy with energy dispersive x ray for elemental analysis was used to observe the surface topography and chemical composition at the micrometer scale. A few atomic layers of sulfur (S were found covering the samples nonuniformly. Niobium oxide granules with a sharp geometry were observed on every sample. Some Nb-O granules appeared to also contain sulfur.

  17. High energy PIXE: A tool to characterize multi-layer thick samples

    Science.gov (United States)

    Subercaze, A.; Koumeir, C.; Métivier, V.; Servagent, N.; Guertin, A.; Haddad, F.

    2018-02-01

    High energy PIXE is a useful and non-destructive tool to characterize multi-layer thick samples such as cultural heritage objects. In a previous work, we demonstrated the possibility to perform quantitative analysis of simple multi-layer samples using high energy PIXE, without any assumption on their composition. In this work an in-depth study of the parameters involved in the method previously published is proposed. Its extension to more complex samples with a repeated layer is also presented. Experiments have been performed at the ARRONAX cyclotron using 68 MeV protons. The thicknesses and sequences of a multi-layer sample including two different layers of the same element have been determined. Performances and limits of this method are presented and discussed.

  18. INVESTIGATION OF THE TOTAL ORGANIC HALOGEN ANALYTICAL METHOD AT THE WASTE SAMPLING CHARACTERIZATION FACILITY (WSCF)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    DOUGLAS JG; MEZNARICH HD, PHD; OLSEN JR; ROSS GA; STAUFFER M

    2008-01-01

    Total organic halogen (TOX) is used as a parameter to screen groundwater samples at the Hanford Site. Trending is done for each groundwater well, and changes in TOX and other screening parameters can lead to costly changes in the monitoring protocol. The Waste Sampling and Characterization Facility (WSCF) analyzes groundwater samples for TOX using the United States Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) SW-846 method 9020B (EPA 1996a). Samples from the Soil and Groundwater Remediation Project (S and GRP) are submitted to the WSCF for analysis without information regarding the source of the sample; each sample is in essence a 'blind' sample to the laboratory. Feedback from the S and GRP indicated that some of the WSCF-generated TOX data from groundwater wells had a number of outlier values based on the historical trends (Anastos 2008a). Additionally, analysts at WSCF observed inconsistent TOX results among field sample replicates. Therefore, the WSCF lab performed an investigation of the TOX analysis to determine the cause of the outlier data points. Two causes were found that contributed to generating out-of-trend TOX data: (1) The presence of inorganic chloride in the groundwater samples: at inorganic chloride concentrations greater than about 10 parts per million (ppm), apparent TOX values increase with increasing chloride concentration. A parallel observation is the increase in apparent breakthrough of TOX from the first to the second activated-carbon adsorption tubes with increasing inorganic chloride concentration. (2) During the sample preparation step, excessive purging of the adsorption tubes with oxygen pressurization gas after sample loading may cause channeling in the activated-carbon bed. This channeling leads to poor removal of inorganic chloride during the subsequent wash step with aqueous potassium nitrate. The presence of this residual inorganic chloride then produces erroneously high TOX values. Changes in sample preparation were studied to more

  19. Analysis of petroleum oily sludge producing in petroleum field of Rio Grande do Norte, Brazil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lima, Cicero de Souza; Lima, Regineide Oliveira; Silva, Edjane Fabiula Buriti da; Castro, Kesia Kelly Vieira de; Chiavone Filho, Osvaldo; Araujo, Antonio Souza de [Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Norte (UFRN), RN (Brazil)

    2012-07-01

    In exploration and production of petroleum is generated solid waste different and components other. The petroleum oily sludge is a complex mix of components different (water, oil and solid). The petroleum oily sludge generally has other residues and is formed during production and operations, transport, storage and petroleum refining (atmospheric residue, vacuum residue and catalytic cracking residue). However, according to its origin, the compositions can be found quite varied for sludge. Observing the process steps production and refining is possible to locate its main sources and percentage contributions in terms of waste generation. The elemental analysis was performed with oily sludge from region and it showed different composition. For carbon element and hydrogen, small differences was observed, but for was observed greater differences for Oxygen element. The sludge has different inorganic and organic composition. The sludge from oil water separator (OWS) 2 showed a greater amount of oil (94.88%), this may indicate a residue of aggregate high for petroleum industry. In analysis of Saturates, Aromatics, Resins and Asphaltenes (SARA), the sludge from unloading showed amount high of saturates. The inorganic material separated from sludge was characterized and sludge from OWS 2 had high amount sulfur (41.57%). The sludge analyzed showed organic components high values, so it can be treated and reprocessed in process units petroleum industry. The analysis thermal degradation had a better setting for treated oily sludge. (author)

  20. Target preparation and characterization for multielemental analysis of liquid samples by use of accelerators

    CERN Document Server

    Liendo, J A; Fletcher, N R; Gómez, J; Caussyn, D D; Myers, S H; Castelli, C; Sajo-Bohus, L

    1999-01-01

    Elastic scattering at forward angles is tested as a useful alternative method to characterize liquid samples of scientific and/or technological interest. Solid residues of such samples deposited on light backings have been bombarded with 16 MeV sup 7 Li and 24 MeV sup 1 sup 6 O beams in order to determine the experimental configuration giving the best elemental mass separation. The elastically scattered ions were detected at 16 deg. , 20 deg. and 28 deg. with surface barrier detectors. The ratios between the mass separation and the line width obtained in the spectral region between carbon and oxygen varied between 2 and 13. This method is particularly useful for an accurate elemental characterization below sodium which is beyond the scope of standard techniques such as PIXE and TXRF provided the ion beam type, its kinetic energy and the target thickness are considered simultaneously.

  1. Experience with a pilot plant for the irradiation of sewage sludge: Experiments on the inactivation of viruses in sewage sludge after radiation treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Epp, C.

    1975-01-01

    Investigations examining the virus inactivating effect of a 60 Co-plant have up to now been limited to attempts to isolate virus from sludge samples taken from sewage sludge before and after irradiation with 300 krad. As in these sludge samples the presence of virus could be proved only on a rather irregular basis, an experiment was carried out in which defined virus quantities were packed into capsules and mixed with the digested sludge. At the end of the hygienization process these capsules were removed from the sludge and examined for virus content. In addition one radiation volume (5.6 m 3 ) was infected with attenuated polio virus type I and the virus content of the sludge titrated before and after the radiation treatment. (author)

  2. Health and safety plan for characterization sampling of ETR and MTR facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baxter, D.E.

    1994-10-01

    This health and safety plan establishes the procedures and requirements that will be used to minimize health and safety risks to persons performing Engineering Test Reactor and Materials Test Reactor characterization sampling activities, as required by the Occupational Safety and Health Administration standard, 29 CFR 1910.120. It contains information about the hazards involved in performing the tasks, and the specific actions and equipment that will be used to protect persons working at the site

  3. Note: A scanning electron microscope sample holder for bidirectional characterization of atomic force microscope probe tips

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eisenstein, Alon; Goh, M. Cynthia [Department of Chemistry and Institute for Optical Sciences, University of Toronto, 80 St. George Street, Toronto M5S 3H6 (Canada)

    2012-03-15

    A novel sample holder that enables atomic force microscopy (AFM) tips to be mounted inside a scanning electron microscopy (SEM) for the purpose of characterizing the AFM tips is described. The holder provides quick and easy handling of tips by using a spring clip to hold them in place. The holder can accommodate two tips simultaneously in two perpendicular orientations, allowing both top and side view imaging of the tips by the SEM.

  4. Characterization of Decommissioned PWR Vessel Internals Materials Samples: Material Certification, Fluence, and Temperature (Nonproprietary Version)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krug, M.; Shogan, R.; Fero, A.; Snyder, M.

    2004-01-01

    Pressurized water reactor (PWR) cores, operate under extreme environmental conditions due to coolant chemistry, operating temperature, and neutron exposure. Extending the life of PWRs require detailed knowledge of the changes in mechanical and corrosion properties of the structural austenitic stainless steel components adjacent to the fuel. This report contains basic material characterization information of the as-installed samples of reactor internals material which were harvested from a decommissioned PWR

  5. Strength Measurements of Archive K Basin Sludge Using a Soil Penetrometer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Delegard, Calvin H.; Schmidt, Andrew J.; Chenault, Jeffrey W.

    2011-12-06

    Spent fuel radioactive sludge present in the K East and K West spent nuclear fuel storage basins now resides in the KW Basin in six large underwater engineered containers. The sludge will be dispositioned in two phases under the Sludge Treatment Project: (1) hydraulic retrieval into sludge transport and storage containers (STSCs) and transport to interim storage in Central Plateau and (2) retrieval from the STSCs, treatment, and packaging for shipment to the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant. In the years the STSCs are stored, sludge strength is expected to increase through chemical reaction, intergrowth of sludge crystals, and compaction and dewatering by settling. Increased sludge strength can impact the type and operation of the retrieval equipment needed prior to final sludge treatment and packaging. It is important to determine whether water jetting, planned for sludge retrieval from STSCs, will be effective. Shear strength is a property known to correlate with the effectiveness of water jetting. Accordingly, the unconfined compressive strengths (UCS) of archive K Basin sludge samples and sludge blends were measured using a pocket penetrometer modified for hot cell use. Based on known correlations, UCS values can be converted to shear strengths. Twenty-six sludge samples, stored in hot cells for a number of years since last being disturbed, were identified as potential candidates for UCS measurement and valid UCS measurements were made for twelve, each of which was found as moist or water-immersed solids at least 1/2-inch deep. Ten of the twelve samples were relatively weak, having consistencies described as 'very soft' to 'soft'. Two of the twelve samples, KE Pit and KC-4 P250, were strong with 'very stiff' and 'stiff' consistencies described, respectively, as 'can be indented by a thumb nail' or 'can be indented by thumb'. Both of these sludge samples are composites collected from KE Basin floor and

  6. Strength Measurements of Archive K Basin Sludge Using a Soil Penetrometer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Delegard, Calvin H.; Schmidt, Andrew J.; Chenault, Jeffrey W.

    2011-01-01

    Spent fuel radioactive sludge present in the K East and K West spent nuclear fuel storage basins now resides in the KW Basin in six large underwater engineered containers. The sludge will be dispositioned in two phases under the Sludge Treatment Project: (1) hydraulic retrieval into sludge transport and storage containers (STSCs) and transport to interim storage in Central Plateau and (2) retrieval from the STSCs, treatment, and packaging for shipment to the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant. In the years the STSCs are stored, sludge strength is expected to increase through chemical reaction, intergrowth of sludge crystals, and compaction and dewatering by settling. Increased sludge strength can impact the type and operation of the retrieval equipment needed prior to final sludge treatment and packaging. It is important to determine whether water jetting, planned for sludge retrieval from STSCs, will be effective. Shear strength is a property known to correlate with the effectiveness of water jetting. Accordingly, the unconfined compressive strengths (UCS) of archive K Basin sludge samples and sludge blends were measured using a pocket penetrometer modified for hot cell use. Based on known correlations, UCS values can be converted to shear strengths. Twenty-six sludge samples, stored in hot cells for a number of years since last being disturbed, were identified as potential candidates for UCS measurement and valid UCS measurements were made for twelve, each of which was found as moist or water-immersed solids at least 1/2-inch deep. Ten of the twelve samples were relatively weak, having consistencies described as 'very soft' to 'soft'. Two of the twelve samples, KE Pit and KC-4 P250, were strong with 'very stiff' and 'stiff' consistencies described, respectively, as 'can be indented by a thumb nail' or 'can be indented by thumb'. Both of these sludge samples are composites collected from KE Basin floor and Weasel Pit locations. Despite both strong sludges having

  7. Gas Generation from K East Basin Sludges - Series I Testing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Delegard, Calvin H.; Bryan, Samuel A.; Schmidt, Andrew J.; Bredt, Paul R.; King, Christopher M.; Sell, Rachel L.; Burger, Leland L.; Silvers, Kurt L.

    2000-01-01

    This report describes work to examine the gas generation behavior of actual K East (KE) Basin floor and canister sludge. The path forward for management of the K Basin Sludge is to retrieve, ship, and store the sludge at T Plant until final processing at some future date. Gas generation will impact the designs and costs of systems associated with retrieval, transportation and storage of sludge. The overall goals for this testing were to collect detailed gas generation rate and composition data to ascertain the quantity and reactivity of the metallic uranium (and other reactive species) present in the K Basin sludge. The gas generation evaluation included four large-scale vessels (850 ml) and eight small-scale vessels (30 ml) in an all-metal, leak tight system. The tests were conducted for several thousand hours at ambient and elevated temperatures (32 C, 40 C, 60 C, 80 C, and 95 C) to accelerated the reactions and provide conclusive gas generation data within a reasonable testing period. The sludge used for these tests was collected from the KE Basin floor and canister barrels (containing damaged spent fuel elements) using a consolidated sampling technique (i.e., material from several locations was combined to form ''consolidated samples''). Portions of these samples were sieved to separate particles greater than 250 m (P250) from particle less than 250 m (M250). This separation was performed to mimic the separation operations that are planned during the retrieval of certain K Basin sludge types and to gain a better understanding of how uranium metal is distributed in the sludge. The corrosion rate of the uranium metal particles in the sludge was found to agree reasonably well with corrosion rates reported in the literature

  8. Bio-remediation of a sludge containing hydrocarbons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ayotamuno, M.J.; Okparanma, R.N.; Nweneka, E.K.; Ogaji, S.O.T.; Probert, S.D.

    2007-01-01

    Bio-augmentation has been used as a bio-remediation option for hydrocarbon-contaminated, oily-sludge restoration. This sludge was obtained from the Bonny-Terminal Improvement Project (BTIP) for Bonny Island, near Port Harcourt, Nigeria. Its total hydrocarbon-content (THC) was 69,372 mg/kg of sludge. Three treatment reactors (X, Y and Z) and one control reactor (A) were charged with 1500 g of oily sludge and 250 g of agricultural soil (i.e. an oily sludge to soil ratio of 6:1), the mixture homogenized and allowed to settle for seven days before various CFUs were added to reactors X, Y and Z. Reactor A did not receive any bio-preparation. The agricultural soil served both as a nutrient and a microbe carrier. With regularly scheduled mixing and watering, the THC reduction in the oily sludge varied between 40.7% and 53.2% within two weeks as well as between 63.7% and 84.5% within six weeks of applying the bio-remediation. The CFU counts of the added bio-preparation varied between 1.2 x 12 12 and 3.0 x 10 12 CFU/g of sludge and decreased to 7.0 x 10 11 CFU/g of sludge by the end of the sixth week. The pH of the degrading sludge fluctuated between 6.5 and 7.8 during the same period. When compared with the performance of the indigenous microbes in the control sample, the added bio-preparation evidently increased the THC reduction rate in the oily sludge

  9. TBT and TPhT persistence in a sludged soil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marcic, Christophe; Le Hecho, Isabelle; Denaix, Laurence; Lespes, Gaëtane

    2006-12-01

    The persistence of tributyltin (TBT) and triphenyltin (TPhT) in soils was studied, taking into consideration the quantity of sewage sludge, TBT and TPhT concentrations in soil as well as the soil pH. The organotin compounds (OTC) were introduced into the soil via a spiked urban sludge, simulating agricultural practise. OTC speciation was achieved after acidic extraction of soil samples followed by gas chromatography-pulsed flame photometric analysis (GC-PFPD). Leaching tests conducted on a spiked sludge showed that more than 98% of TBT are sorbed on the sludge. TBT persistence in soil appeared to depend on its initial concentration in sludge. Thus, it was more important when concentration is over 1000 microg(Sn) kg(-1) of sludge. More than 50% of the initial TBT added into the soil were still present after 2 months, whatever the experimental conditions. The main degradation product appeared to be dibutyltin. About 90% of TPhT were initially sorbed on sludge, whatever the spiking concentration in sludge was. However, TPhT seemed to be quantitatively exchangeable at the solid/liquid interface, according to the leaching tests. It was also significantly degraded in sludged soil as only about 20% of TPhT remain present after 2 months, the monophenyltin being the main degradation product. pH had a significant positive effect on TBT and particularly TPhT persistence, according to the initial amounts introduced into the soil. Thus, at pH over 7 and triorganotin concentration over 100 microg(Sn) kg(-1), less than 10% of TBT but about 60% of TPhT were degraded. When the sludge was moderately contaminated by triorganotins (typically 50 microg(Sn) kg(-1) in our conditions) the pH had no effect on TBT and TPhT persistence.

  10. Leaching of Heavy Metals Using SPLP Method from Fired Clay Brick Incorporating with Sewage Sludge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kadir, Aeslina Abdul; Salim, Nurul Salhana Abdul; Amira Sarani, Noor; Aqma Izurin Rahmat, Nur

    2017-05-01

    Sewage sludge is a by-product generate from wastewater treatment process. The sewage sludge contains significant trace metal such as Cr, Mn, Ni, Cu, Zn, As, Cd and Pb which are toxic to the environment. Sewage sludge is disposed of by landfilling method. However, this option not suitable because of land restriction and environmental control regulations imposed. Therefore, sewage sludge from wastewater treatment plant was incorporated into fired clay brick to produce good quality of brick as well as reducing heavy metals from sludge itself. Sewage sludge with 0%, 1%, 5%, 10% and 20% of were incorporated into fired clay bricks and fired at 1050°C temperature with heating rates of 1°C/min. The brick sample then crushed and sieved through 9.5 mm sieve for Synthetic Precipitation Leaching Procedure (SPLP). From the results, incorporation up to 20% of sewage sludge has leached less heavy metals and compliance with USEPA standard.

  11. Chemical composition of sewage sludge of domestic and industrial areas of Hyderabad

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ansari, T.P.; Kazi, T.G.; Kazi, G.H.

    2001-01-01

    A study on chemical composition sewage sludge of domestic and industrial areas of Hyderabad city has been carried out. The sludge samples were collected from various domestic and industrial areas of Hyderabad, over a period of 3 months. Analysis of sludge samples for different micro-nutrients and toxic elements has been accomplished by reliable analytical methods using atomic absorption, UV and colorimeter. It is observed that the levels of copper, nickel, zinc, lead and cadmium are higher in sludge samples of industrial area than those of domestic areas of Hyderabad. (author)

  12. Sampling

    CERN Document Server

    Thompson, Steven K

    2012-01-01

    Praise for the Second Edition "This book has never had a competitor. It is the only book that takes a broad approach to sampling . . . any good personal statistics library should include a copy of this book." —Technometrics "Well-written . . . an excellent book on an important subject. Highly recommended." —Choice "An ideal reference for scientific researchers and other professionals who use sampling." —Zentralblatt Math Features new developments in the field combined with all aspects of obtaining, interpreting, and using sample data Sampling provides an up-to-date treat

  13. Review on innovative techniques in oil sludge bioremediation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahdi, Abdullah M. El; Aziz, Hamidi Abdul; Eqab, Eqab Sanoosi

    2017-10-01

    Petroleum hydrocarbon waste is produced in worldwide refineries in significant amount. In Libya, approximately 10,000 tons of oil sludge is generated in oil refineries (hydrocarbon waste mixtures) annually. Insufficient treatment of those wastes can threaten the human health and safety as well as our environment. One of the major challenges faced by petroleum refineries is the safe disposal of oil sludge generated during the cleaning and refining process stages of crude storage facilities. This paper reviews the hydrocarbon sludge characteristics and conventional methods for remediation of oil hydrocarbon from sludge. This study intensively focuses on earlier literature to describe the recently selected innovation technology in oily hydrocarbon sludge bioremediation process. Conventional characterization parameters or measurable factors can be gathered in chemical, physical, and biological parameters: (1) Chemical parameters are consequently necessary in the case of utilization of topsoil environment when they become relevant to the presence of nutrients and toxic compounds; (2) Physical parameters provide general data on sludge process and hand ability; (3) Biological parameters provide data on microbial activity and organic matter presence, which will be used to evaluate the safety of the facilities. The objective of this research is to promote the bioremediating oil sludge feasibility from Marsa El Hariga Terminal and Refinery (Tobruk).

  14. Charcoal from paper sludge

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kobayashi, M

    1980-03-06

    Paper sludge containing less than or equal to 50% water is mixed with coffee shells and greater than or equal to 1 almond shells, orange skin, walnut shells, or bean jam waste, compacted, and dry distilled at 300-600 degrees to prepare charcoal. Thus, 1 ton of paper sludge was mixed with 100 kg each of coffee shells, almond shells, orange skin, and walnut shells; compacted and dry distilled 24 hours at approximately 450 degrees. The calorific value of the charcoal produced was approximately 7300 kcal/kg.

  15. Global Threat Reduction Initiative Fuel Thermo-Physical Characterization Project: Sample Management Plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Casella, Amanda J. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Pereira, Mario M. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Steen, Franciska H. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)

    2013-01-01

    This sample management plan provides guidelines for sectioning, preparation, acceptance criteria, analytical path, and end-of-life disposal for the fuel element segments utilized in the Global Threat Reduction Initiative (GTRI), Fuel Thermo-Physical Characterization Project. The Fuel Thermo-Physical Characterization Project is tasked with analysis of irradiated Low Enriched Uranium (LEU) Molybdenum (U-Mo) fuel element samples to support the GTRI conversion program. Sample analysis may include optical microscopy (OM), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) fuel-surface interface analysis, gas pycnometry (density) measurements, laser flash analysis (LFA), differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), thermogravimetry and differential thermal analysis with mass spectroscopy (TG /DTA-MS), Inductively Coupled Plasma Spectrophotometry (ICP), alpha spectroscopy, and Thermal Ionization Mass Spectroscopy (TIMS). The project will utilize existing Radiochemical Processing Laboratory (RPL) operating, technical, and administrative procedures for sample receipt, processing, and analyses. Test instructions (TIs), which are documents used to provide specific details regarding the implementation of an existing RPL approved technical or operational procedure, will also be used to communicate to staff project specific parameters requested by the Principal Investigator (PI). TIs will be developed, reviewed, and issued in accordance with the latest revision of the RPL-PLN-700, RPL Operations Plan. Additionally, the PI must approve all project test instructions and red-line changes to test instructions.

  16. Characterization of electron microscopes with binary pseudo-random multilayer test samples

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yashchuk, Valeriy V.; Conley, Raymond; Anderson, Erik H.; Barber, Samuel K.; Bouet, Nathalie; McKinney, Wayne R.; Takacs, Peter Z.; Voronov, Dmitriy L.

    2011-09-01

    Verification of the reliability of metrology data from high quality X-ray optics requires that adequate methods for test and calibration of the instruments be developed. For such verification for optical surface profilometers in the spatial frequency domain, a modulation transfer function (MTF) calibration method based on binary pseudo-random (BPR) gratings and arrays has been suggested [1,2] and proven to be an effective calibration method for a number of interferometric microscopes, a phase shifting Fizeau interferometer, and a scatterometer [5]. Here we describe the details of development of binary pseudo-random multilayer (BPRML) test samples suitable for characterization of scanning (SEM) and transmission (TEM) electron microscopes. We discuss the results of TEM measurements with the BPRML test samples fabricated from a WiSi 2/Si multilayer coating with pseudo-randomly distributed layers. In particular, we demonstrate that significant information about the metrological reliability of the TEM measurements can be extracted even when the fundamental frequency of the BPRML sample is smaller than the Nyquist frequency of the measurements. The measurements demonstrate a number of problems related to the interpretation of the SEM and TEM data. Note that similar BPRML test samples can be used to characterize X-ray microscopes. Corresponding work with X-ray microscopes is in progress.

  17. Characterization of electron microscopes with binary pseudo-random multilayer test samples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yashchuk, Valeriy V.; Conley, Raymond; Anderson, Erik H.; Barber, Samuel K.; Bouet, Nathalie; McKinney, Wayne R.; Takacs, Peter Z.; Voronov, Dmitriy L.

    2011-01-01

    Verification of the reliability of metrology data from high quality X-ray optics requires that adequate methods for test and calibration of the instruments be developed. For such verification for optical surface profilometers in the spatial frequency domain, a modulation transfer function (MTF) calibration method based on binary pseudo-random (BPR) gratings and arrays has been suggested and proven to be an effective calibration method for a number of interferometric microscopes, a phase shifting Fizeau interferometer, and a scatterometer [5]. Here we describe the details of development of binary pseudo-random multilayer (BPRML) test samples suitable for characterization of scanning (SEM) and transmission (TEM) electron microscopes. We discuss the results of TEM measurements with the BPRML test samples fabricated from a WiSi 2 /Si multilayer coating with pseudo-randomly distributed layers. In particular, we demonstrate that significant information about the metrological reliability of the TEM measurements can be extracted even when the fundamental frequency of the BPRML sample is smaller than the Nyquist frequency of the measurements. The measurements demonstrate a number of problems related to the interpretation of the SEM and TEM data. Note that similar BPRML test samples can be used to characterize X-ray microscopes. Corresponding work with X-ray microscopes is in progress.

  18. Characterization of acid-base properties of two gibbsite samples in the context of literature results.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adekola, F; Fédoroff, M; Geckeis, H; Kupcik, T; Lefèvre, G; Lützenkirchen, J; Plaschke, M; Preocanin, T; Rabung, T; Schild, D

    2011-02-01

    Two different gibbsites, one commercial and one synthesized according to a frequently applied recipe, were studied in an interlaboratory attempt to gain insight into the origin of widely differing reports on gibbsite acid-base surface properties. In addition to a thorough characterization of the two solids, several methods relevant to the interfacial charging were applied to the two samples: potentiometric titrations to obtain the "apparent" proton related surface charge density, zeta-potential measurements characterizing the potential at the plane of shear, and Attenuated Total Reflection Infrared Spectroscopy (ATR-IR) to obtain information on the variation of counter-ion adsorption with pH (using nitrate as a probe). Values of the IEP at 9-10 and 11.2-11.3 were found for the commercial and synthesized sample, respectively. The experimental observations revealed huge differences in the charging behavior between the two samples. Such differences also appeared in the titration kinetics. A detailed literature review revealed similar disparity with no apparent systematic trend. While previously the waiting time between additions had been advocated to explain such differences among synthesized samples, our results do not support such a conclusion. Instead, we find that the amount of titrant added in each aliquot appears to have a significant influence on the titration curves. While we can relate a number of observations to others, a number of open questions and contradictions remain. We suggest various processes, which can explain the observed behavior. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Risk assessments of polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) during sludge application in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qian, Jun

    2018-02-01

    Due to increasingly less space in municipal environment, waste management has become an urgent issue worldwide. As one of common municipal waste, sewage sludge from wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) contains abundant nutrients, some of which can be quite essential for plant growth. In consideration of nutrient recycling and energy saving, sludge application has been frequently promoted in many countries across the world. However, even after several sludge stabilization procedures, sewage sludge may still contain a large variety of toxic pollutants, especially some emerging organic contaminants (EOCs). Applied in various household products and plastic industries as additives, polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) have been constantly detected in sewage sludge samples from several cities in China since 2005, as well as some biosolid samples after sludge stabilization processes, suggesting their strong persistence and wide occurrence. During sludge application onto farmland soils, PBDEs may desorb from sludge particles and get attached by soil organic matter (SOM), followed by plant root uptake and translocation to aboveground tissues. In this study, data about current pollution of PBDEs in sewage sludge samples from China was reviewed, and the potential risks during sludge application was comprehensively assessed.

  20. Standard characterization of phosphate rock samples from the FAO/IAEA phosphate project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Binh, Truong; Zapata, F.

    2002-01-01

    Phosphate rocks (PR) are phosphate-bearing minerals that vary widely in their inherent characteristics and consequently their agronomic potential. In the framework of a FAO/IAEA networked research project, the evaluation of the agronomic effectiveness of natural and modified PR products under a variety of soil climate and crop management conditions was carried out. The characterization of phosphate rocks is the first and essential step in evaluating their suitability for direct application. If several PR sources are utilized, standardized methods should be used for comparison purposes to determine their agronomic potential. This paper describes the standard characterization of phosphate rock products utilized in the project, in particular the mineralogical and crystallographic analyses, physical analyses, chemical composition and solubility in conventional reagents. A total of 28 phosphate rock samples from 15 countries were collected and analyzed in specialized laboratories. The data on mineralogy, chemical composition and solubility in conventional reagents are closely interrelated. An arbitrary classification of the reactivity of the PR samples was made based on the solubility indices in conventional reagents. On another hand, the results of the crystallographic parameters, calculated indices of absolute solubility, specific surface and porosity reflect the variability of the physical state and the sample pre-conditioning treatment of the analyzed products. A proper characterization of phosphate rock samples should provide the maximum of basic information that can be obtained in a cost-effective manner in normal chemical laboratories. Based on the results of this characterization, the following determinations are recommended: a description of the sample, major elemental (total P, Ca, Mg) composition, solubility in conventional reagents (neutral ammonium citrate, citric and formic acid) and particle size analysis. The classification of PR samples for direct

  1. Characteristics and behaviour of interface sludges formed in the first extraction cycles of the purex process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gue, J.P.; Philippe, M.; Masson, M.

    1990-01-01

    The importance of clarification for the volume of sludges has been demonstrated. However, even very good clarification does not totally eliminate the extraction sludges. If their volume is considerably increased by the presence of dissolution fines that have escaped clarification, this only slightly alters the hydrodynamic behaviour of the pulsed column in the first cycles. The sludges obtained with and without feed clarification have been characterized and their origin recalled. The management of these bulky remains problematic for reprocessing

  2. Characterization of electron microscopes with binary pseudo-random multilayer test samples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yashchuk, Valeriy V.; Conley, Raymond; Anderson, Erik H.; Barber, Samuel K.; Bouet, Nathalie; McKinney, Wayne R.; Takacs, Peter Z.; Voronov, Dmitriy L.

    2010-01-01

    We discuss the results of SEM and TEM measurements with the BPRML test samples fabricated from a BPRML (WSi2/Si with fundamental layer thickness of 3 nm) with a Dual Beam FIB (focused ion beam)/SEM technique. In particular, we demonstrate that significant information about the metrological reliability of the TEM measurements can be extracted even when the fundamental frequency of the BPRML sample is smaller than the Nyquist frequency of the measurements. The measurements demonstrate a number of problems related to the interpretation of the SEM and TEM data. Note that similar BPRML test samples can be used to characterize x-ray microscopes. Corresponding work with x-ray microscopes is in progress.

  3. Analysis of sewage sludge and cover soil by neutron activation analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moon, J.H.; Lim, J.M.; Kim, S.H.; Chung, Y.S.

    2008-01-01

    The Korean government reported that in 2005, 4395 tons/day of sewage sludge were generated from sewage disposal facilities in Korea and only 11.03% of it was reused. In addition, as a direct landfill of sewage sludge was forbidden from June 2003, research for a relevant disposal technique has been increasing. In this study, the aims were to analyze the collected sewage sludge samples and to evaluate the possibility for their reuse by a comparison of the elemental contents from a sewage sludge and a cover soil. Sludge samples were collected from a sewage disposal plant in Daejeon city and the cover soil was produced by a dilution of a sewage sludge with quicklime. Instrumental neutron activation analysis was employed to determine the elemental contents in the samples. Twenty seven elements were analyzed and their concentrations were compared. (author)

  4. Impact of aerobic stabilization on the characteristics of treatment sludge in the leather tanning industry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cokgor, Emine Ubay; Aydinli, Ebru; Tas, Didem Okutman; Zengin, Gulsum Emel; Orhon, Derin

    2014-01-01

    The efficiency of aerobic stabilization on the treatment sludge generated from the leather industry was investigated to meet the expected characteristics and conditions of sludge prior to landfill. The sludge types subjected to aerobic stabilization were chemical treatment sludge, biological excess sludge, and the mixture of both chemical and biological sludges. At the end of 23 days of stabilization, suspended solids, volatile suspended solids and total organic carbon removal efficiencies were determined as 17%, 19% and 23% for biological sludge 31%, 35% and 54% for chemical sludge, and 32%, 34% and 63% for the mixture of both chemical and biological sludges, respectively. Model simulations of the respirometric oxygen uptake rate measurements showed that the ratio of active biomass remained the same at the end of the stabilization for all the sludge samples. Although mixing the chemical and biological sludges resulted in a relatively effective organic carbon and solids removal, the level of stabilization achieved remained clearly below the required level of organic carbon content for landfill. These findings indicate the potential risk of setting numerical restrictions without referring to proper scientific support.

  5. Enhanced dewaterability of textile dyeing sludge using micro-electrolysis pretreatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ning, Xun-An; Wen, Weibin; Zhang, Yaping; Li, Ruijing; Sun, Jian; Wang, Yujie; Yang, Zuoyi; Liu, Jingyong

    2015-09-15

    The effects of micro-electrolysis treatment on textile dyeing sludge dewatering and its mechanisms were investigated in this study. Capillary suction time (CST) and settling velocity (SV) were used to evaluate sludge dewaterability. Extracellular polymeric substances (EPS) concentration and sludge disintegration degree (DDSCOD) were determined to explain the observed changes in sludge dewaterability. The results demonstrated that the micro-electrolysis could significantly improve sludge dewaterability by disrupting the sludge floc structure. The optimal conditions of sludge dewatering were the reaction time of 20 min, initial pH of 2.5, Fe/C mass ratio of 1/1, and the iron powder dosage of 2.50 g/L, which achieved good CST (from 34.1 to 27.8 s) and SV (from 75 to 60%) reduction efficiency. In addition, the scanning electron microscope (SEM) images revealed that the treated sludge floc clusters are broken up and that the dispersion degree is better than that of a raw sludge sample. The optimal EPS concentration and DDSCOD to obtain maximum sludge dewaterability was 43-46 mg/L and 4.2-4.9%, respectively. The destruction of EPS was one of the primary reasons for the improvement of sludge dewaterability during micro-electrolysis treatment. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Combining Passive Sampling with Toxicological Characterization of Complex Mixtures of Pollutants from the Aquatic Environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jahnke, Annika; Witt, Gesine; Schäfer, Sabine; Haase, Nora; Escher, Beate I

    The combination of polymer-based passive sampling to collect complex environmental mixtures of pollutants, the transfer of these mixtures into bioassays, and their related toxicological characterization is still in its infancy. However, this approach has considerable potential to improve environmental hazard and risk assessment for two reasons. First, the passive sampler collects a broad range of chemicals representing the fraction of compounds available for diffusion and (bio)uptake, excluding a large part of the matrix; thus, extensive sample cleanup which could discriminate certain compounds can be avoided. Second, the toxicological characterization of samples using bioassays is complementary to chemical (target) analysis within environmental monitoring because it captures all chemicals exerting the same mode of toxic action and acting jointly in mixtures, thus providing a comprehensive picture of their overall combined effects. The scientific literature describes a range of examples from the water phase where passive sampling is usually carried out in the kinetic uptake regime for most chemicals although some may already have reached equilibrium. The composition of the chemical mixture changes from the water phase to the passive sampling material because of kinetic effects and polymer/water partition coefficients which depend on the chemicals' hydrophobicity. In contrast, only a few applications in sediment and biota have been described, but amongst these some pioneering studies have demonstrated the feasibility and potential of this combined approach. This chapter gives an overview of what has been carried out in this research area, focusing on opportunities and challenges, and points out desirable future developments with a focus on the importance of choosing a suitable combination of sampling and dosing to transfer (or re-establish) the environmental mixture into the bioassay.

  7. Characterization of pesticide exposure in a sample of pregnant women in Ecuador

    Science.gov (United States)

    Handal, Alexis J.; Hund, Lauren; Páez, Maritza; Bear, Samantha; Greenberg, Carolyn; Fenske, Richard A.; Barr, Dana Boyd

    2015-01-01

    Background Few studies have detailed the prenatal pesticide exposure levels of women employed in or residing near large-scale agricultural industries. This study reports pesticide metabolite levels during and shortly after pregnancy in a pilot study of workers in Ecuador. Methods Urine samples were collected for 16 rose workers and 10 non-agricultural workers enrolled into the study in early pregnancy. We measured six nonspecific organophosphate dialkylphosphate (DAP) pesticide metabolites, two alkylenebis-dithiocarbamate pesticide metabolites (ethylene thiourea [ETU] and propylene thiourea [PTU]), 3,5,6-trichloro-2-pyridinol [TCPy], malathion dicarboxylic acid, and two pyrethroid metabolites (2,2-dimethylcyclopropanecarboxylic acid and 3-phenooxybenzoic acid). Results We collected 141 urine samples (mean: 5.4 per woman). We observed high detection frequencies for five DAP metabolites and ETU, PTU, and TCPy. We report elevated levels of ETU in the entire sample (median 4.24 ng/mL, IQR 2.23, 7.18), suggesting other possible non-occupational pathways of exposure. We found no statistical differences in pesticide levels by current employment status, though the highest pesticide levels were among rose workers. We observed within-woman correlation in TCPy and PTU levels, but not in ETU or DAP levels. Conclusions The present study is the first to characterize prenatal pesticide exposure levels among working women in Ecuador. Limitations include a small sample size and use of a convenience sample. Strengths include a longitudinal design and multiple urine samples per woman. Results provide an initial characterization of prenatal pesticide exposure levels and how these levels vary over pregnancy in a community impacted by agricultural industry and will inform further studies in the region. PMID:26311023

  8. Protocols for the analytical characterization of therapeutic monoclonal antibodies. II - Enzymatic and chemical sample preparation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bobaly, Balazs; D'Atri, Valentina; Goyon, Alexandre; Colas, Olivier; Beck, Alain; Fekete, Szabolcs; Guillarme, Davy

    2017-08-15

    The analytical characterization of therapeutic monoclonal antibodies and related proteins usually incorporates various sample preparation methodologies. Indeed, quantitative and qualitative information can be enhanced by simplifying the sample, thanks to the removal of sources of heterogeneity (e.g. N-glycans) and/or by decreasing the molecular size of the tested protein by enzymatic or chemical fragmentation. These approaches make the sample more suitable for chromatographic and mass spectrometric analysis. Structural elucidation and quality control (QC) analysis of biopharmaceutics are usually performed at intact, subunit and peptide levels. In this paper, general sample preparation approaches used to attain peptide, subunit and glycan level analysis are overviewed. Protocols are described to perform tryptic proteolysis, IdeS and papain digestion, reduction as well as deglycosylation by PNGase F and EndoS2 enzymes. Both historical and modern sample preparation methods were compared and evaluated using rituximab and trastuzumab, two reference therapeutic mAb products approved by Food and Drug Administration (FDA) and European Medicines Agency (EMA). The described protocols may help analysts to develop sample preparation methods in the field of therapeutic protein analysis. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Magnetic Characterization of Sand and Boulder Samples from Citarum River and Their Origin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sudarningsih

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available The Citarum River is a nationally strategic river located near Bandung, the capital city of West Java Province. The feasibility of using magnetic methods for monitoring pollution level is currently being tested in the river. Due to its location in a volcanic area, the sediments from the river are expected to be highly magnetic. In this study, sand and boulder samples from Balekambang, a relatively pristine upstream area of the river, were subjected to magnetic and geochemical characterizations to establish the baseline for unpolluted sediments. Such baseline is important for future magnetic monitoring of sediments in the river. The mass-specific magnetic susceptibility of boulder samples was found to be varied from 819.2 to 2340.5 × 10-8m3 kg-1 while that of sand samples varied from 2293.9 to 3845.3 × 10-8m3 kg-1. These high magnetic susceptibility values infer that river sediments are highly magnetic even before being contaminated by industrial and household wastes. The predominant magnetic mineral in sand samples was multi-domain magnetite while that in boulder samples was single to pseudo-single domain magnetite. These differences were supported by the results from petrographic and XRF analyses, implying that the sand and boulder samples originated from different geological formations.

  10. Fabrication of a Sludge-Conditioning System for processing legacy wastes from the Gunite and Associated Tanks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Randolph, J.D.; Lewis, B.E.; Farmer, J.R.; Johnson, M.A.

    2000-01-01

    The Sludge Conditioning System (SCS) for the Gunite and Associated Tanks (GAATs) is designed to receive, monitor, characterize and process legacy waste materials from the South Tank Farm tanks in preparation for final transfer of the wastes to the Melton Valley Storage Tanks (MVSTs), which are located at Oak Ridge National Laboratory. The SCS includes (1) a Primary Conditioning System (PCS) Enclosure for sampling and particle size classification, (2) a Solids Monitoring Test Loop (SMTL) for slurry characterization, (3) a Waste Transfer Pump to retrieve and transfer waste materials from GAAT consolidation tank W-9 to the MVSTs, (4) a PulsAir Mixing System to provide mixing of consolidated sludges for ease of retrieval, and (5) the interconnecting piping and valving. This report presents the design, fabrication, cost, and fabrication schedule information for the SCS

  11. Hydraulic conductivity and soil-sewage sludge interactio