WorldWideScience

Sample records for slotted waveguide array

  1. Ka-Band Slot-Microstrip-Covered and Waveguide-Cavity-Backed Monopulse Antenna Array

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li-Ming Si

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available A slot-microstrip-covered and waveguide-cavity-backed monopulse antenna array is proposed for high-resolution tracking applications at Ka-band. The monopulse antenna array is designed with a microstrip with 2×32 slots, a waveguide cavity, and a waveguide monopulse comparator, to make the structure simple, reduce the feeding network loss, and increase the frequency bandwidth. The 2×32 slot-microstrip elements are formed by a metal clad dielectric substrate and slots etched in the metal using the standard printed circuit board (PCB process with dimensions of 230 mm  ×  10 mm. The proposed monopulse antenna array not only maintains the advantages of the traditional waveguide slot antenna array, but also has the characteristics of wide bandwidth, high consistence, easy of fabrication, and low cost. From the measured results, it exhibits good monopulse characteristics, including the following: the maximum gains of sum pattern are greater than 24 dB, the 3 dB beamwidth of sum pattern is about 2.2 degrees, the sidelobe levels of the sum pattern are less than −18 dB, and the null depths of the difference pattern are less than −25 dB within the operating bandwidth between 33.65 GHz and 34.35 GHz for VSWR ≤ 2.

  2. Wave Propagation in a coaxial waveguide with a periodic slot array

    CERN Document Server

    Alesini, D; Garganese, C; Migliorati, M; Palumbo, L

    2001-01-01

    In this paper we present the numerical and experimental study of the electromagnetic elds that propagate in a coaxial waveguide having periodic slots in the inner conductor. The aim of the work is to estimate the e ects of the holes on the phase velocity of the eld propagating in structures like the LHC liner, and to which extent these elds can be considered synchronous with the generating beam. To this end we have performed a numerical analysis by using the MAFIA simulation code, and have obtained, for a given geometry, the ampli- tude of the slowing down of the phase velocity due to the presence of the slot array. We have then performed a set of measurements of this e ect on a simple coaxial resonator, measuring the shift of the resonance frequencies produced by the slots. This shift, related to the phase velocity, has been compared with the results obtained with the simulations.

  3. Evaluation of slot-to-slot coupling between dielectric slot waveguides and metal-insulator-metal slot waveguides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kong, Deqing; Tsubokawa, Makoto

    2015-07-27

    We numerically analyzed the power-coupling characteristics between a high-index-contrast dielectric slot waveguide and a metal-insulator-metal (MIM) plasmonic slot waveguide as functions of structural parameters. Couplings due mainly to the transfer of evanescent components in two waveguides generated high transmission efficiencies of 62% when the slot widths of the two waveguides were the same and 73% when the waveguides were optimized by slightly different widths. The maximum transmission efficiency in the slot-to-slot coupling was about 10% higher than that in the coupling between a normal slab waveguide and an MIM waveguide. Large alignment tolerance of the slot-to-slot coupling was also proved. Moreover, a small gap inserted into the interface between two waveguides effectively enhances the transmission efficiency, as in the case of couplings between a normal slab waveguide and an MIM waveguide. In addition, couplings with very wideband transmissions over a wavelength region of a few hundred nanometers were validated.

  4. Optical Slot-Waveguide Based Biochemical Sensors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Angulo Barrios

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Slot-waveguides allow light to be guided and strongly confined inside a nanometer-scale region of low refractive index. Thus stronger light-analyte interaction can be obtained as compared to that achievable by a conventional waveguide, in which the propagating beam is confined to the high-refractive-index core of the waveguide. In addition, slot-waveguides can be fabricated by employing CMOS compatible materials and technology, enabling miniaturization, integration with electronic, photonic and fluidic components in a chip, and mass production. These advantages have made the use of slot-waveguides for highly sensitive biochemical optical integrated sensors an emerging field. In this paper, recent achievements in slot-waveguide based biochemical sensing will be reviewed. These include slot-waveguide ring resonator based refractometric label-free biosensors, label-based optical sensing, and nano-opto-mechanical sensors.

  5. Slot-waveguide biochemical sensor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barrios, Carlos A; Gylfason, Kristinn B; Sánchez, Benito; Griol, Amadeu; Sohlström, H; Holgado, M; Casquel, R

    2007-11-01

    We report an experimental demonstration of an integrated biochemical sensor based on a slot-waveguide microring resonator. The microresonator is fabricated on a Si3N4-SiO2 platform and operates at a wavelength of 1.3 microm. The transmission spectrum of the sensor is measured with different ambient refractive indices ranging from n=1.33 to 1.42. A linear shift of the resonant wavelength with increasing ambient refractive index of 212 nm/refractive index units (RIU) is observed. The sensor detects a minimal refractive index variation of 2x10(-4) RIU.

  6. A Waveguide Transverse Broad Wall Slot Radiating Between Baffles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dich, Mikael; Rengarajan, S.R.

    1997-01-01

    An analysis of the self impedance of waveguide-fed transverse slots radiating between baffles is presented. The region exterior to the slot is treated as a parallel plate (PP) waveguide which radiates into half space through an aperture in an infinite ground plane. The slot problem is analyzed...

  7. Rectangular-cladding silicon slot waveguide with improved nonlinear performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Zengzhi; Huang, Qingzhong; Wang, Yi; Xia, Jinsong

    2018-04-01

    Silicon slot waveguides have great potential in hybrid silicon integration to realize nonlinear optical applications. We propose a rectangular-cladding hybrid silicon slot waveguide. Simulation result shows that, with a rectangular-cladding, the slot waveguide can be formed by narrower silicon strips, so the two-photon absorption (TPA) loss in silicon is decreased. When the cladding material is a nonlinear polymer, the calculated TPA figure of merit (FOMTPA) is 4.4, close to the value of bulk nonlinear polymer of 5.0. This value confirms the good nonlinear performance of rectangular-cladding silicon slot waveguides.

  8. Arrayed waveguide Sagnac interferometer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Capmany, José; Muñoz, Pascual; Sales, Salvador; Pastor, Daniel; Ortega, Beatriz; Martinez, Alfonso

    2003-02-01

    We present a novel device, an arrayed waveguide Sagnac interferometer, that combines the flexibility of arrayed waveguides and the wide application range of fiber or integrated optics Sagnac loops. We form the device by closing an array of wavelength-selective light paths provided by two arrayed waveguides with a single 2 x 2 coupler in a Sagnac configuration. The equations that describe the device's operation in general conditions are derived. A preliminary experimental demonstration is provided of a fiber prototype in passive operation that shows good agreement with the expected theoretical performance. Potential applications of the device in nonlinear operation are outlined and discussed.

  9. Theory of a Traveling Wave Feed for a Planar Slot Array Antenna

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rengarajan, Sembiam

    2012-01-01

    Planar arrays of waveguide-fed slots have been employed in many radar and remote sensing applications. Such arrays are designed in the standing wave configuration because of high efficiency. Traveling wave arrays can produce greater bandwidth at the expense of efficiency due to power loss in the load or loads. Traveling wave planar slot arrays may be designed with a long feed waveguide consisting of centered-inclined coupling slots. The feed waveguide is terminated in a matched load, and the element spacing in the feed waveguide is chosen to produce a beam squinted from the broadside. The traveling wave planar slot array consists of a long feed waveguide containing resonant-centered inclined coupling slots in the broad wall, coupling power into an array of stacked radiating waveguides orthogonal to it. The radiating waveguides consist of longitudinal offset radiating slots in a standing wave configuration. For the traveling wave feed of a planar slot array, one has to design the tilt angle and length of each coupling slot such that the amplitude and phase of excitation of each radiating waveguide are close to the desired values. The coupling slot spacing is chosen for an appropriate beam squint. Scattering matrix parameters of resonant coupling slots are used in the design process to produce appropriate excitations of radiating waveguides with constraints placed only on amplitudes. Since the radiating slots in each radiating waveguide are designed to produce a certain total admittance, the scattering (S) matrix of each coupling slot is reduced to a 2x2 matrix. Elements of each 2x2 S-matrix and the amount of coupling into the corresponding radiating waveguide are expressed in terms of the element S11. S matrices are converted into transmission (T) matrices, and the T matrices are multiplied to cascade the coupling slots and waveguide sections, starting from the load end and proceeding towards the source. While the use of non-resonant coupling slots may provide an

  10. Modeling of Slot Waveguide Sensors Based on Polymeric Materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bettotti, Paolo; Pitanti, Alessandro; Rigo, Eveline; De Leonardis, Francesco; Passaro, Vittorio M. N.; Pavesi, Lorenzo

    2011-01-01

    Slot waveguides are very promising for optical sensing applications because of their peculiar spatial mode profile. In this paper we have carried out a detailed analysis of mode confinement properties in slot waveguides realized in very low refractive index materials. We show that the sensitivity of a slot waveguide is not directly related to the refractive index contrast of high and low materials forming the waveguide. Thus, a careful design of the structures allows the realization of high sensitivity devices even in very low refractive index materials (e.g., polymers) to be achieved. Advantages of low index dielectrics in terms of cost, functionalization and ease of fabrication are discussed while keeping both CMOS compatibility and integrable design schemes. Finally, applications of low index slot waveguides as substitute of bulky fiber capillary sensors or in ring resonator architectures are addressed. Theoretical results of this work are relevant to well established polymer technologies. PMID:22164020

  11. Modeling of Slot Waveguide Sensors Based on Polymeric Materials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lorenzo Pavesi

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Slot waveguides are very promising for optical sensing applications because of their peculiar spatial mode profile. In this paper we have carried out a detailed analysis of mode confinement properties in slot waveguides realized in very low refractive index materials. We show that the sensitivity of a slot waveguide is not directly related to the refractive index contrast of high and low materials forming the waveguide. Thus, a careful design of the structures allows the realization of high sensitivity devices even in very low refractive index materials (e.g., polymers to be achieved. Advantages of low index dielectrics in terms of cost, functionalization and ease of fabrication are discussed while keeping both CMOS compatibility and integrable design schemes. Finally, applications of low index slot waveguides as substitute of bulky fiber capillary sensors or in ring resonator architectures are addressed. Theoretical results of this work are relevant to well established polymer technologies.

  12. A design procedure for a slotted waveguide with probe-fed slots radiating into plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Colborn, J.A.

    1989-11-01

    A design procedure is developed for slotted-waveguide antennas with probe-fed slots. Radiation into a gyrotropic, plane-stratified medium is considered, nonzero waveguide wall thickness is assumed, and noncosinusoidal slot fields and arbitrary slot length up to about one free-space wavelength are allowed. External mutual coupling is taken into account by matching the tangential fields at the antenna surface. The particular case of longitudinal slots in the broad face of rectangular guide is analyzed. The motivation for this work is the design of such radiators for plasma heating and current-drive on thermonuclear fusion experiments, but some of the analysis is applicable to the probeless slotted waveguide used for avionics and communications. 20 refs., 5 figs

  13. Slotted Waveguide and Antenna Study for HPM and RF Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-07-25

    conventional rectangular slot arrays. The proposed CSR-SW A provided higher peak gain than the conventional lambda /4 rectangu lar slot array and a...more compact s ize (55% size reductjon) compared to the lambda /2 rectangular slot array. Both the theoretic and measured results suggest a return loss...in terms of scattering matrix S is: (I-8) With the scattering matrix S, we can compute the scattering field at any position. The resonance of SCCR

  14. Radio-Frequency design of a Lower Hybrid Slotted Waveguide Antenna.

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Helou, W.; Goniche, M.; Hillairet, J.; Žáček, František; Achard, J.; Adámek, Jiří; Bogár, Ondrej; Mollard, P.; Pascal, J.-Y.; Poli, S.; Šesták, David; Volpe, R.; Zajac, Jaromír

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 123, November (2017), s. 223-227 ISSN 0920-3796. [SOFT 2016: Symposium on Fusion Technology /29./. Prague, 05.09.2016-09.09.2016] Institutional support: RVO:61389021 Keywords : Lower Hybrid Current Drive * Slotted Waveguide Antenna * Phased arrays Subject RIV: JF - Nuclear Energetics OBOR OECD: Nuclear related engineering Impact factor: 1.319, year: 2016 https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0920379617304076

  15. Low Average Sidelobe Slot Array Antennas for Radiometer Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rengarajan, Sembiam; Zawardzki, Mark S.; Hodges, Richard E.

    2012-01-01

    In radiometer applications, it is required to design antennas that meet low average sidelobe levels and low average return loss over a specified frequency bandwidth. It is a challenge to meet such specifications over a frequency range when one uses resonant elements such as waveguide feed slots. In addition to their inherent narrow frequency band performance, the problem is exacerbated due to modeling errors and manufacturing tolerances. There was a need to develop a design methodology to solve the problem. An iterative design procedure was developed by starting with an array architecture, lattice spacing, aperture distribution, waveguide dimensions, etc. The array was designed using Elliott s technique with appropriate values of the total slot conductance in each radiating waveguide, and the total resistance in each feed waveguide. Subsequently, the array performance was analyzed by the full wave method of moments solution to the pertinent integral equations. Monte Carlo simulations were also carried out to account for amplitude and phase errors introduced for the aperture distribution due to modeling errors as well as manufacturing tolerances. If the design margins for the average sidelobe level and the average return loss were not adequate, array architecture, lattice spacing, aperture distribution, and waveguide dimensions were varied in subsequent iterations. Once the design margins were found to be adequate, the iteration was stopped and a good design was achieved. A symmetric array architecture was found to meet the design specification with adequate margin. The specifications were near 40 dB for angular regions beyond 30 degrees from broadside. Separable Taylor distribution with nbar=4 and 35 dB sidelobe specification was chosen for each principal plane. A non-separable distribution obtained by the genetic algorithm was found to have similar characteristics. The element spacing was obtained to provide the required beamwidth and close to a null in the E

  16. Label-free optical biosensing with slot-waveguides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barrios, Carlos A; Bañuls, María José; González-Pedro, Victoria; Gylfason, Kristinn B; Sánchez, Benito; Griol, Amadeu; Maquieira, A; Sohlström, H; Holgado, M; Casquel, R

    2008-04-01

    We demonstrate label-free molecule detection by using an integrated biosensor based on a Si(3)N(4)/SiO(2) slot-waveguide microring resonator. Bovine serum albumin (BSA) and anti-BSA molecular binding events on the sensor surface are monitored through the measurement of resonant wavelength shifts with varying biomolecule concentrations. The biosensor exhibited sensitivities of 1.8 and 3.2 nm/(ng/mm(2)) for the detection of anti-BSA and BSA, respectively. The estimated detection limits are 28 and 16 pg/mm(2) for anti-BSA and BSA, respectively, limited by wavelength resolution.

  17. Demonstration of slot-waveguide structures on silicon nitride / silicon oxide platform.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barrios, C A; Sánchez, B; Gylfason, K B; Griol, A; Sohlström, H; Holgado, M; Casquel, R

    2007-05-28

    We report on the first demonstration of guiding light in vertical slot-waveguides on silicon nitride/silicon oxide material system. Integrated ring resonators and Fabry-Perot cavities have been fabricated and characterized in order to determine optical features of the slot-waveguides. Group index behavior evidences guiding and confinement in the low-index slot region at O-band (1260-1370nm) telecommunication wavelengths. Propagation losses of <20 dB/cm have been measured for the transverse-electric mode of the slot-waveguides.

  18. Ion-implantation and analysis for doped silicon slot waveguides

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    McCallum J. C.

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available We have utilised ion implantation to fabricate silicon nanocrystal sensitised erbium-doped slot waveguide structures in a Si/SiO2/Si layered configuration and photoluminescence (PL and Rutherford backscattering spectrometry (RBS to analyse these structures. Slot waveguide structures in which light is confined to a nanometre-scale low-index region between two high-index regions potentially offer significant advantages for realisation of electrically-pumped Si devices with optical gain and possibly quantum optical devices. We are currently investigating an alternative pathway in which high quality thermal oxides are grown on silicon and ion implantation is used to introduce the Er and Si-ncs into the SiO2 layer. This approach provides considerable control over the Er and Si-nc concentrations and depth profiles which is important for exploring the available parameter space and developing optimised structures. RBS is well-suited to compositional analysis of these layered structures. To improve the depth sensitivity we have used a 1 MeV α beam and results indicate that a layered silicon-Er:SiO2/silicon structure has been fabricated as desired. In this paper structural results will be compared to Er photoluminescence profiles for samples processed under a range of conditions.

  19. A High-gain and Low-scattering Waveguide Slot Antenna of Artificial Magnetic Conductor Octagonal Ring Arrangement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    X. Liu

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available A novel design of high-gain and low-scattering waveguide slot antenna is proposed in this paper. Firstly the scattering pattern of artificial magnetic conductor (AMC composite surface is estimated by array factor analysis method. The comparison between octagonal ring arrangement and chessboard arrangement proves that the former arrangement has the characteristic of diffuseness-like and expands the bandwidth of radar cross section (RCS reduction. Secondly, the metal surface of waveguide slot antenna (WSA is replaced by the octagonal ring arrangement composite surface (ORACS. The gain is improved because of spurious radiation units which are around the slot. At the same time using the phase cancellation principle, a backscatter null achieves RCS reduction in the vertical direction. Experimental results show that the novel antenna after loading with the ORACS, the gain is improved by 5dB; the bandwidth of RCS reduction (reduction greater than 10dB is 5.24-5.92 GHz.

  20. Waveguide Phased Array Antenna Analysis and Synthesis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Visser, H.J.; Keizer, W.P.M.N.

    1996-01-01

    Results of two software packages for analysis and synthesis of waveguide phased array antennas are shown. The antennas consist of arrays of open-ended waveguides where irises can be placed in the waveguide apertures and multiple dielectric sheets in front of the apertures in order to accomplish a

  1. Tunable inkjet-printed slotted waveguide antenna on a ferrite substrate

    KAUST Repository

    Nafe, Ahmed; Farooqui, Muhammad; Shamim, Atif

    2015-01-01

    In this work an inkjet-printed frequency-tunable slotted waveguide antenna on a ferrite substrate is reported. Unlike the typical substrate integrated waveguide approach with via holes, a true 3D rectangular waveguide is realized by inkjet-printing

  2. Low-loss slot waveguides with silicon (111 surfaces realized using anisotropic wet etching

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kapil Debnath

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available We demonstrate low-loss slot waveguides on silicon-on-insulator (SOI platform. Waveguides oriented along the (11-2 direction on the Si (110 plane were first fabricated by a standard e-beam lithography and dry etching process. A TMAH based anisotropic wet etching technique was then used to remove any residual side wall roughness. Using this fabrication technique propagation loss as low as 3.7dB/cm was realized in silicon slot waveguide for wavelengths near 1550nm. We also realized low propagation loss of 1dB/cm for silicon strip waveguides.

  3. Energy characteristics of the double slot in the narrow wall of a rectangular waveguide

    OpenAIRE

    Martynenko, S. A.

    2005-01-01

    Based on approximation of the half-wave field distribution in the slots, an expression is derived for internal mutual conductance of closely-spaced slots, which form a double inclined slot in the narrow wall of a rectangular waveguide. The narrow wall has cut-outs reaching the broad wall. With the use of the method of induced magnetomotive forces, a mathematical model is devised for calculating the energy characteristics of the double slot. The impact of angle of inclination of the slots, dim...

  4. CFDTD Solution For Large Waveguide Slot Arrays

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Ho, T. Q; Hewett, C. A; Hunt, L. N; Ready, T. G; Baugher, M. C; Mikoleit, K. E

    2005-01-01

    The Finite Difference Time Domain (FDTD) technique consists of simulating time varying electromagnetic fields in various media with Maxwell's curl equations in the form of finite difference equations, which are then used in a leapfrog...

  5. Coupled mode theory of periodic waveguides arrays

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lavrinenko, Andrei; Chigrin, Dmitry N.

    We apply the scalar coupled mode theory to the case of waveguides array consisting om two periodic waveguides. One of the waveguides is arbitrary shifted along another. A longitudinal shift acts as a parameter in the coupled mode theory. The proposed theory explains peculiarities of modes dispers...... dispersion and transmission in coupled periodic waveguides systems. Analytical results are compared with the numerical ones obtained by the plane wave expansion and FDTD methods....

  6. Tuning ZOR in ENZ waveguide using a single longitudinal slot and equivalent circuit parameter extraction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vojnovic, Nebojsa; Jokanovic, Branka; Mitrovic, Miranda

    2014-01-01

    In this paper, the effects of placing a longitudinal slot in the channel region of a rectangular waveguide ENZ structure, are analyzed. A following investigation showed that changing the length of this slot can be employed to achieve tuning of only the tunneling frequency. Maximum resonant freque...

  7. Low crosstalk Arrayed Waveguide Grating with Cascaded Waveguide Grating Filter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Deng Yang; Liu Yuan; Gao Dingshan

    2011-01-01

    We propose a highly compact and low crosstalk arrayed waveguide grating (AWG) with cascaded waveguide grating (CWGF). The side lobes of the silicon nanowire AWG, which are normally introduced by fabrication errors, can be effectively suppressed by the CWGF. And the crosstalk can be improved about 15dB.

  8. Analytical study of optimal design and gain parameters of double-slot plasmonic waveguides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Handapangoda, Dayan; Rukhlenko, Ivan D; Premaratne, Malin

    2013-01-01

    We theoretically analyze guided modes in optically active and passive double-slot plasmonic waveguides. We show that for one of the two different mode symmetries supported by the waveguide, a most productive guiding condition can be realized by adjusting the thicknesses of the layers to optimal values. We also derive approximate analytic expressions to calculate the optimal geometrical parameters of the waveguide. Interestingly, our analysis shows that the propagation losses associated with the inverse mode symmetry of the double-slot waveguide are comparatively low, regardless of the dimensions of the waveguide. We further show that the propagation losses become the smallest in the limiting case of a single-slot (metal–dielectric–metal (MDM)) waveguide. For both double- and single-slot waveguides, we show that the gain required to overcome the losses can be reduced by choosing a dielectric with a low refractive index. We also derive accurate analytical expressions to readily estimate the critical gain and modal gain of the waveguides. (paper)

  9. Linearly tapered slot antenna circular array for mobile communications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simons, Rainee N.; Kelly, Eron; Lee, Richard Q.; Taub, Susan R.

    1993-01-01

    The design, fabrication and testing of a conformal K-band circular array is presented. The array consists of sixteen linearly tapered slot antennas (LTSA). It is fed by a 1:16 microstrip line power splitter via electromagnetic coupling. The array has an omni-directional pattern in the azimuth plane. In the elevation plane the beam is displaced above the horizon.

  10. Talbot Effect in Three Waveguide Arrays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhi, Li; Hai-Feng, Zhou; Jian-Yi, Yang; Xiao-Qing, Jiang

    2008-01-01

    By taking the coupling between the non-neighbourhood waveguides into account, the coupling characteristic of three waveguide arrays is analysed. The strong coupling equation of three waveguides is dealt with Laplace transform and LU decomposition. The general field evolution equation is obtained by inversion of the Laplace transform. The results show that the self-imaging conditions (Talbot effect) do not satisfy in general. The theoretical predictions are in good agreement with the BPM simulations. (fundamental areas of phenomenology (including applications))

  11. Spontaneous decay of a single quantum dot coupled to a metallic slot waveguide in the presence of leaky plasmonic modes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chen, Yuntian; Gregersen, Niels; Nielsen, Torben Roland

    2010-01-01

    in which the metallic slot waveguide is embedded. Compared to the ideal case of a homogenous dielectric environment, the coupling efficiency of an emitter to a metallic slot waveguide is significantly reduced. We attribute the reduction to the coupling to leaky plasmonic modes. By increasing the refractive...

  12. Nonlinear theory of a cyclotron autoresonance maser (CARM) amplifier with outer-slotted-coaxial waveguide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Qiu Chunrong; Ouyang Zhengbiao; Zhang Shichang; Zhang Huibo; Jin Jianbo; Lai Yingxin

    2005-01-01

    A self-consistent nonlinear theory for the outer-slotted-coaxial-waveguide cyclotron autoresonance maser (CARM) amplifier is presented, which includes the characteristic equation of the wave, coupling equation of the wave with the relativistic electron beam and the simulation model. The influences of the magnetic field, the slot depth and width are investigated. The interesting characteristic of the device is that the mode competition can be efficiently suppressed by slotting the outer wall of the coaxial waveguide. A typical example is given by the theoretical design of a 137 GHz outer-slotted-coaxial-waveguide CARM amplifier by utilizing an electron beam with a voltage of 90 kV, current of 50 A, velocity pitch angle of 0.85 and a magnetic field of 43.0 kG. The nonlinear simulation predicts a power of 467.9 kW, an electronic efficiency of 10.4% and a saturated gain of 46.7 dB, if the electron beam has no velocity spread. However, the axial velocity spread deteriorates the device; for example, if the axial velocity spread is 2%, the peak power decreases to 332.4 kW with an efficiency of 7.4% and a saturated gain of 45.22 dB. Simulation shows that the efficiency of the outer-slotted-coaxial-waveguide CARM amplifier may be increased from 10.4% to 29.6% by tapering the magnetic field

  13. Small slot waveguide rings for on-chip quantum optical circuits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rotenberg, Nir; Türschmann, Pierre; Haakh, Harald R; Martin-Cano, Diego; Götzinger, Stephan; Sandoghdar, Vahid

    2017-03-06

    Nanophotonic interfaces between single emitters and light promise to enable new quantum optical technologies. Here, we use a combination of finite element simulations and analytic quantum theory to investigate the interaction of various quantum emitters with slot-waveguide rings. We predict that for rings with radii as small as 1.44 μm, with a Q-factor of 27,900, near-unity emitter-waveguide coupling efficiencies and emission enhancements on the order of 1300 can be achieved. By tuning the ring geometry or introducing losses, we show that realistic emitter-ring systems can be made to be either weakly or strongly coupled, so that we can observe Rabi oscillations in the decay dynamics even for micron-sized rings. Moreover, we demonstrate that slot waveguide rings can be used to directionally couple emission, again with near-unity efficiency. Our results pave the way for integrated solid-state quantum circuits involving various emitters.

  14. Electromagnetically induced transparency and ultraslow optical solitons in a coherent atomic gas filled in a slot waveguide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Jin; Huang, Guoxiang

    2013-02-25

    We investigate the electromagnetically induced transparency (EIT) and nonlinear pulse propagation in a Λ-type three-level atomic gas filled in a slot waveguide, in which electric field is strongly confined inside the slot of the waveguide due to the discontinuity of dielectric constant. We find that EIT effect can be greatly enhanced due to the reduction of optical-field mode volume contributed by waveguide geometry. Comparing with the atomic gases in free space, the EIT transparency window in the slot waveguide system can be much wider and deeper, and the Kerr nonlinearity of probe laser field can be much stronger. We also prove that using slot waveguide ultraslow optical solitons can be produced efficiently with extremely low generation power.

  15. Nanoparticle sorting in silicon waveguide arrays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, H. T.; Zhang, Y.; Chin, L. K.; Yap, P. H.; Wang, K.; Ser, W.; Liu, A. Q.

    2017-08-01

    This paper presents the optical fractionation of nanoparticles in silicon waveguide arrays. The optical lattice is generated by evanescent coupling in silicon waveguide arrays. The hotspot size is tunable by changing the refractive index of surrounding liquids. In the experiment, 0.2-μm and 0.5-μm particles are separated with a recovery rate of 95.76%. This near-field approach is a promising candidate for manipulating nanoscale biomolecules and is anticipated to benefit the biomedical applications such as exosome purification, DNA optical mapping, cell-cell interaction, etc.

  16. Modeling of Coaxial Slot Waveguides Using Analytical and Numerical Approaches: Revisited

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kok Yeow You

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Our reviews of analytical methods and numerical methods for coaxial slot waveguides are presented. The theories, background, and physical principles related to frequency-domain electromagnetic equations for coaxial waveguides are reassessed. Comparisons of the accuracies of various types of admittance and impedance equations and numerical simulations are made, and the fringing field at the aperture sensor, which is represented by the lumped capacitance circuit, is evaluated. The accuracy and limitations of the analytical equations are explained in detail. The reasons for the replacement of analytical methods by numerical methods are outlined.

  17. A new method for the design of slot antenna arrays: Theory and experiment

    KAUST Repository

    Clauzier, Sebastien; Mikki, Said M.; Shamim, Atif; Antar, Yahia M. M.

    2016-01-01

    technique combines basic radiation theory and waveguide propagation theory in a novel analytical model that allows the prediction of the radiation characteristics of generic slots without the need to perform full-wave numerical solution. The analytical model

  18. Tunable inkjet-printed slotted waveguide antenna on a ferrite substrate

    KAUST Repository

    Nafe, Ahmed

    2015-04-13

    In this work an inkjet-printed frequency-tunable slotted waveguide antenna on a ferrite substrate is reported. Unlike the typical substrate integrated waveguide approach with via holes, a true 3D rectangular waveguide is realized by inkjet-printing of nano-particle based conductive ink on the broad faces as well as on sides of the substrate. The operating frequency of the antenna can be tuned by applying a variable static bias magnetic field that controls the permeability of the host ferrite substrate. The antenna operates about a center frequency of approximately 14 GHz with an instantaneous impedance bandwidth of 75 MHz. A fabricated prototype has demonstrated a tuning range of 10% (1.5 GHz) using an applied bias magnetic field of 3 kOe yielding it especially attractive for tunable and reconfigurable yet low cost microwave systems.

  19. Ultra-Broad Band Radar Cross Section Reduction of Waveguide Slot Antenna with Metamaterials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qiang Fu

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available To reduce the radar cross section of a waveguide slot antenna, a three-layer metamaterial is presented based on orthogonal double split-ring resonators. The absorption characteristics of three-layer metamaterial are demonstrated by simulation. Moreover, the metamaterials have been loaded on common waveguide slot antenna according to the surface current distribution. The ultra-broad band radar cross section reduction of the antenna with metamaterials had been theoretically and experimentally investigated by radiating and scattering performances. Experimental and simulated results showed that the proposed antenna with metamaterials performed broadband radar cross section reduction from 3.9 GHz to 18 GHz and the gain had been improved due to the coupling effect between slot and the period structure. The maximal radar cross section reduction achieved 17.81 dB at 8.68 GHz for x-polarized incidence and 21.79 dB at 6.25 GHz for y-polarized waves.

  20. Theoretical examination of the slot channel waveguide configured in a cylindrically symmetric dielectric ring profile

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gauthier, Robert C.; Alzahrani, Mohammed A.; Jafari, Seyed Hamed

    2014-10-01

    It has recently been experimentally demonstrated that slot channel waveguides, configured in cylindrical space, can support high azimuthal order modes similar to whispering-gallery modes. This paper presents a mode solver based on Maxwell's vector wave equation for the electric field cast into an eigenvalue problem using a Fourier-Bessel basis function space. The modal frequencies and field profiles of the high azimuthal order slot-channel-whispering-gallery (SCWG) modes are computed for a set of nanometer spaced silicon rings supported by oxide. The computations show, that in addition to the traditionally observed, lowest order mode, the structure may support higher order SCWG modes. We complete the analysis by computing structures response as an ambient medium index of refraction sensor which achieves over 400 nm per RIU sensitivity.

  1. Design of novel SOI 1 × 4 optical power splitter using seven horizontally slotted waveguides

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katz, Oded; Malka, Dror

    2017-07-01

    In this paper, we demonstrate a compact silicon on insulator (SOI) 1 × 4 optical power splitter using seven horizontal slotted waveguides. Aluminum nitride (AIN) surrounded by silicon (Si) was used to confine the optical field in the slot region. All of the power analysis has been done in transverse magnetic (TM) polarization mode and a compact optical power splitter as short as 14.5 μm was demonstrated. The splitter was designed by using full vectorial beam propagation method (FV-BPM) simulations. Numerical investigations show that this device can work across the whole C-band (1530-1565 nm) with excess loss better than 0.23 dB.

  2. Electro-optical modulator in a polymerinfiltrated silicon slotted photonic crystal waveguide heterostructure resonator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wülbern, Jan Hendrik; Petrov, Alexander; Eich, Manfred

    2009-01-05

    We present a novel concept of a compact, ultra fast electro-optic modulator, based on photonic crystal resonator structures that can be realized in two dimensional photonic crystal slabs of silicon as core material employing a nonlinear optical polymer as infiltration and cladding material. The novel concept is to combine a photonic crystal heterostructure cavity with a slotted defect waveguide. The photonic crystal lattice can be used as a distributed electrode for the application of a modulation signal. An electrical contact is hence provided while the optical wave is kept isolated from the lossy metal electrodes. Thereby, well known disadvantages of segmented electrode designs such as excessive scattering are avoided. The optical field enhancement in the slotted region increases the nonlinear interaction with an external electric field resulting in an envisaged switching voltage of approximately 1 V at modulation speeds up to 100 GHz.

  3. Nonlinear optical localization in embedded chalcogenide waveguide arrays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, Mingshan; Huang, Sheng; Wang, Qingqing; Chen, Kevin P.; Petek, Hrvoje

    2014-01-01

    We report the nonlinear optical localization in an embedded waveguide array fabricated in chalcogenide glass. The array, which consists of seven waveguides with circularly symmetric cross sections, is realized by ultrafast laser writing. Light propagation in the chalcogenide waveguide array is studied with near infrared laser pulses centered at 1040 nm. The peak intensity required for nonlinear localization for the 1-cm long waveguide array was 35.1 GW/cm 2 , using 10-nJ pulses with 300-fs pulse width, which is 70 times lower than that reported in fused silica waveguide arrays and with over 7 times shorter interaction distance. Results reported in this paper demonstrated that ultrafast laser writing is a viable tool to produce 3D all-optical switching waveguide circuits in chalcogenide glass

  4. Coplanar Waveguide Fed Compact Wide Circular-Slotted Antenna for Wi-Fi/WiMAX Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Samsuzzaman

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available A coplanar waveguide (CPW fed printing and wide circular slotted, dual band antenna for Wi-Fi/WiMAX applications are presented. The antenna mainly encompasses a ground with a wide circular slot in the centre, a rectangular feeding strip, and two pairs of symmetric planar inverted L (SPIL strips connecting with the slotted ground. The tuning effects of the rectangular patch, ground size, and SPIL strips to the resonance and matching condition are examined by HFSS and the prototype is fabricated and measured. The simulation and experimental results show that the antenna has an impedance bandwidth with −10 dB reflection coefficients 600 MHz (3.26–3.86 GHz, lower band and 1040 MHz (5.02–6.26 GHz, upper band, which can cover both the Wi-Fi 5.2/5.5/5.8 GHz and WiMAX 3.3/3.5/3.7/5.8 GHz bands. Moreover, a stable omnidirectional radiation pattern and average peak gain for lower band 3.23 dB and upper band 5.93 dB have been achieved, respectively.

  5. A new method for the design of slot antenna arrays: Theory and experiment

    KAUST Repository

    Clauzier, Sebastien

    2016-04-10

    The present paper proposes and validates a new general design methodology that can be used to automatically find proper positions and orientations of waveguide-based radiating slots capable of realizing any given radiation beam profile. The new technique combines basic radiation theory and waveguide propagation theory in a novel analytical model that allows the prediction of the radiation characteristics of generic slots without the need to perform full-wave numerical solution. The analytical model is then used to implement a low-cost objective function within a global optimization scheme (here genetic algorithm.) The algorithm is then deployed to find optimum positions and orientations of clusters of radiating slots cut into the waveguide surface such that any desired beam pattern can be obtained. The method is verified using both full-wave numerical solution and experiment.

  6. Silicon-based horizontal nanoplasmonic slot waveguides for on-chip integration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Shiyang; Liow, T Y; Lo, G Q; Kwong, D L

    2011-04-25

    Horizontal metal/insulator/Si/insulator/metal nanoplasmonic slot waveguide (PWG), which is inserted in a conventional Si wire waveguide, is fabricated using the standard Si-CMOS technology. A thin insulator between the metal and the Si core plays a key role: it not only increases the propagation distance as the theoretical prediction, but also prevents metal diffusion and/or metal-Si reaction. Cu-PWGs with the Si core width of ~134-21 nm and ~12-nm-thick SiO2 on each side exhibit a relatively low propagation loss of ~0.37-0.63 dB/µm around the telecommunication wavelength of 1550 nm, which is ~2.6 times smaller than the Al-counterparts. A simple tapered coupler can provide an effective coupling between the PWG and the conventional Si wire waveguide. The coupling efficiency as high as ~0.1-0.4 dB per facet is measured. The PWG allows a sharp bending. The pure bending loss of a Cu-PWG direct 90° bend is measured to be ~0.6-1.0 dB. These results indicate the potential for seamless integration of various functional nanoplasmonic devices in existing Si electronic photonic integrated circuits (Si-EPICs).

  7. Optical Cherenkov radiation in an As2S3 slot waveguide with four zero-dispersion wavelengths

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wang, Shaofei; Hu, Jungao; Guo, Hairun

    2013-01-01

    , dispersion profiles with four zero dispersion wavelengths are found to produce a phase-matching nonlinear process leading to a broadband resonant radiation. The broadband OCR investigated in the chalcogenide waveguide may find applications in on-chip wavelength conversion and near-infrared pulse generation.......We propose an approach for an efficient generation of optical Cherenkov radiation (OCR) in the near-infrared by tailoring the waveguide dispersion for a zero group-velocity mismatching between the radiation and the pump soliton. Based on an As2S3 slot waveguide with subwavelength dimensions...

  8. Design of a compact and integrated TM-rotated/TE-through polarization beam splitter for silicon-based slot waveguides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Yin; Xiao, Jinbiao

    2016-01-20

    A compact and integrated TM-rotated/TE-through polarization beam splitter for silicon-based slot waveguides is proposed and characterized. For the input TM mode, it is first transferred into the cross strip waveguide using a tapered directional coupler (DC), and then efficiently rotated to the corresponding TE mode using an L-shaped bending polarization rotator (PR). Finally, the TE mode for slot waveguide at the output end is obtained with the help of a strip-to-slot mode converter. By contrast, for the input TE mode, it almost passes through the slot waveguide directly and outputs at the bar end with nearly neglected coupling due to a large mode mismatch. Moreover, an additional S-bend connecting the tapered DC and bending PR is used to enhance the performance. Results show that a total device length of 19.6 μm is achieved, where the crosstalk (CT) and polarization conversion loss are, respectively -26.09 and 0.54 dB, for the TM mode, and the CT and insertion loss are, respectively, -22.21 and 0.41 dB, for the TE mode, both at 1.55 μm. The optical bandwidth is approximately 50 nm with a CT<-20  dB. In addition, fabrication tolerances and field evolution are also presented.

  9. Hybrid rib-slot-rib plasmonic waveguide with deep-subwavelength mode confinement and long propagation length

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kai Zheng

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available We propose a hybrid plasmonic waveguide where a combined rib-slot-rib structure is added on the metal substrate within a low-index gap region. The optical properties of the quasi-TM fundamental mode are numerically calculated using the finite element method. Compared to the traditional hybrid plasmonic waveguide, our designed waveguiding structure can support modes with tighter confinement and longer propagation length, by properly adjusting the geometry of the rib-slot-rib structure and the gap height. In details, it can provide the hybrid mode with mode area λ2/12000 and reasonable propagation distance 23.78 μm, simultaneously. Its excellent optical performance can facilitate potential applications in ultra-compact nanophotonic devices and circuits.

  10. CIRCULARLY POLARIZED SLOTTED APERTURE ANTENNA WITH COPLANAR WAVEGUIDE FED FOR BROADBAND APPLICATIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. T. P. MADHAV

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Coplanar waveguide fed circularly polarized microstrip patch antenna performance evaluation is presented in this paper. The broadband characteristics are attained by placing open end slot at the lower side of the antenna. The proposed design has the return loss of less than -10dB and VSWR<2 in the desired band of operation. A gain of 3dB to 4dB is attained in the desired band with good radiation characteristics and a suitable axial ratio of less than 3 dB is attained in the prescribed band of operation. Proposed antenna is fabricated on the FR4 substrate with dielectric constant of 4.4. Parametric analysis with change in substrate permittivity also performed and the optimized dimensions are presented in this work.

  11. Rectification of light refraction in curved waveguide arrays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Longhi, Stefano

    2009-02-15

    An "optical ratchet" for discretized light in photonic lattices, which enables observing rectification of light refraction at any input beam conditions, is theoretically presented, and a possible experimental implementation based on periodically curved zigzag waveguide arrays is proposed.

  12. Rectification of light refraction in curved waveguide arrays

    OpenAIRE

    Longhi, S.

    2010-01-01

    An 'optical ratchet' for discretized light in photonic lattices, which enables to observe rectification of light refraction at any input beam conditions, is theoretically presented, and a possible experimental implementation based on periodically-curved zigzag waveguide arrays is proposed.

  13. Analysis and synthesis of (SAR) waveguide phased array antennas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Visser, H. J.

    1994-02-01

    This report describes work performed due to ESA contract No. 101 34/93/NL/PB. Started is with a literature study on dual polarized waveguide radiators, resulting in the choice for the open ended square waveguide. After a thorough description of the mode matching infinite waveguide array analysis method - including finiteness effects - that forms the basis for all further described analysis and synthesis methods, the accuracy of the analysis software is validated by comparison with measurements on two realized antennas. These antennas have centered irises in the waveguide apertures and a dielectric wide angle impedance matching sheet in front of the antenna. A synthesis method, using simulated annealing and downhill simplex, is described next and different antenna designs, based on the analysis of a single element in an infinite array environment, are presented. Next, designs of subarrays are presented. Shown is the paramount importance of including the array environment in the design of a subarray. A microstrip patch waveguide exciter and subarray feeding network are discussed and the depth of the waveguide radiator is estimated. Chosen is a rectangular grid array with waveguides of 2.5 cm depth without irises and without dielectric sheet, grouped in linear 8 elements subarrays.

  14. A Photonic 1 × 4 Power Splitter Based on Multimode Interference in Silicon–Gallium-Nitride Slot Waveguide Structures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dror Malka

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, a design for a 1 × 4 optical power splitter based on the multimode interference (MMI coupler in a silicon (Si–gallium nitride (GaN slot waveguide structure is presented—to our knowledge, for the first time. Si and GaN were found as suitable materials for the slot waveguide structure. Numerical optimizations were carried out on the device parameters using the full vectorial-beam propagation method (FV-BPM. Simulation results show that the proposed device can be useful to divide optical signal energy uniformly in the C-band range (1530–1565 nm into four output ports with low insertion losses (0.07 dB.

  15. A Photonic 1 × 4 Power Splitter Based on Multimode Interference in Silicon–Gallium-Nitride Slot Waveguide Structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malka, Dror; Danan, Yossef; Ramon, Yehonatan; Zalevsky, Zeev

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, a design for a 1 × 4 optical power splitter based on the multimode interference (MMI) coupler in a silicon (Si)–gallium nitride (GaN) slot waveguide structure is presented—to our knowledge, for the first time. Si and GaN were found as suitable materials for the slot waveguide structure. Numerical optimizations were carried out on the device parameters using the full vectorial-beam propagation method (FV-BPM). Simulation results show that the proposed device can be useful to divide optical signal energy uniformly in the C-band range (1530–1565 nm) into four output ports with low insertion losses (0.07 dB). PMID:28773638

  16. A Photonic 1 × 4 Power Splitter Based on Multimode Interference in Silicon-Gallium-Nitride Slot Waveguide Structures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malka, Dror; Danan, Yossef; Ramon, Yehonatan; Zalevsky, Zeev

    2016-06-25

    In this paper, a design for a 1 × 4 optical power splitter based on the multimode interference (MMI) coupler in a silicon (Si)-gallium nitride (GaN) slot waveguide structure is presented-to our knowledge, for the first time. Si and GaN were found as suitable materials for the slot waveguide structure. Numerical optimizations were carried out on the device parameters using the full vectorial-beam propagation method (FV-BPM). Simulation results show that the proposed device can be useful to divide optical signal energy uniformly in the C-band range (1530-1565 nm) into four output ports with low insertion losses (0.07 dB).

  17. Optical analogue of relativistic Dirac solitons in binary waveguide arrays

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tran, Truong X., E-mail: truong.tran@mpl.mpg.de [Department of Physics, Le Quy Don University, 236 Hoang Quoc Viet str., 10000 Hanoi (Viet Nam); Max Planck Institute for the Science of Light, Günther-Scharowsky str. 1, 91058 Erlangen (Germany); Longhi, Stefano [Department of Physics, Politecnico di Milano and Istituto di Fotonica e Nanotecnologie del Consiglio Nazionale delle Ricerche, Piazza L. da Vinci 32, I-20133 Milano (Italy); Biancalana, Fabio [Max Planck Institute for the Science of Light, Günther-Scharowsky str. 1, 91058 Erlangen (Germany); School of Engineering and Physical Sciences, Heriot-Watt University, EH14 4AS Edinburgh (United Kingdom)

    2014-01-15

    We study analytically and numerically an optical analogue of Dirac solitons in binary waveguide arrays in the presence of Kerr nonlinearity. Pseudo-relativistic soliton solutions of the coupled-mode equations describing dynamics in the array are analytically derived. We demonstrate that with the found soliton solutions, the coupled mode equations can be converted into the nonlinear relativistic 1D Dirac equation. This paves the way for using binary waveguide arrays as a classical simulator of quantum nonlinear effects arising from the Dirac equation, something that is thought to be impossible to achieve in conventional (i.e. linear) quantum field theory. -- Highlights: •An optical analogue of Dirac solitons in nonlinear binary waveguide arrays is suggested. •Analytical solutions to pseudo-relativistic solitons are presented. •A correspondence of optical coupled-mode equations with the nonlinear relativistic Dirac equation is established.

  18. Copper nanorod array assisted silicon waveguide polarization beam splitter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Sangsik; Qi, Minghao

    2014-04-21

    We present the design of a three-dimensional (3D) polarization beam splitter (PBS) with a copper nanorod array placed between two silicon waveguides. The localized surface plasmon resonance (LSPR) of a metal nanorod array selectively cross-couples transverse electric (TE) mode to the coupler waveguide, while transverse magnetic (TM) mode passes through the original input waveguide without coupling. An ultra-compact and broadband PBS compared to all-dielectric devices is achieved with the LSPR. The output ports of waveguides are designed to support either TM or TE mode only to enhance the extinction ratios. Compared to silver, copper is fully compatible with complementary metal-oxide-semiconductor (CMOS) technology.

  19. Optical data exchange of m-QAM signals using a silicon-organic hybrid slot waveguide: proposal and simulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gui, Chengcheng; Wang, Jian

    2014-10-06

    We present modulation-format-transparent data exchange for m-ary quadrature amplitude modulation (m-QAM) signals using a single silicon-organic hybrid slot waveguide which offers tight light confinement and enhanced nonlinearity. By exploiting the parametric depletion effect of non-degenerate four-wave mixing (ND-FWM) process in the slot waveguide, we simulate low-power (exchange of 640 Gbaud (2.56 Tbit/s) optical time-division multiplexed (OTDM) 16-QAM and 640 Gbaud (3.84 Tbit/s) OTDM 64-QAM signals and characterize the operation performance in terms of error vector magnitude (EVM) and bit-error rate (BER). The calculated signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) penalties of data exchange are negligible for 2.56 Tbit/s 16-QAM signals and less than 2 dB for 3.84 Tbit/s 64-QAM signals at a BER of 2e-3. For a given pump power of 9 mW, the operation performance dependence on the waveguide length is studied, showing an optimized waveguide length of ~17 mm. For a given waveguide length of 17 mm, the SNR penalty of data exchange, at a BER of 2e-3, is kept below 4 dB when varying input pump power from 8.4 to 9.8 mW for 2.56 Tbit/s 16-QAM and from 8.9 to 9.2 mW for 3.84 Tbit/s 64-QAM. In addition, data exchange running at low speed (e.g. 20 Gbaud) and data exchange taking into account waveguide propagation loss are also analyzed with favorable operation performance.

  20. A Low VSWR and High Efficiency Waveguide Feed Antenna Array

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhao Xiao-Fang

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available A low VSWR and high efficiency antenna array operating in the Ku band for satellite communications is presented in this paper. To achieve high radiation efficiency and broad enough bandwidth, all-metal radiation elements and full-corporate waveguide feeding network are employed. As the general milling method is used in the multilayer antenna array fabrication, the E-plane waveguide feeding network is adopted here to suppress the wave leakage caused by the imperfect connectivity between adjacent layers. A 4 × 8 elements array prototype was fabricated and tested for verification. The measured results of proposed antenna array show bandwidth of 6.9% (13.9–14.8 GHz for VSWR < 1.5. Furthermore, antenna gain and efficiency of higher than 22.2 dBi and 80% are also exhibited, respectively.

  1. Coupling to the fast wave via a phased waveguide array

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Olson, L.; McWilliams, R.; Glanz, J.; Motley, R.W.

    1984-03-01

    A dielectric-loaded waveguide array has been used to launch fast waves into a plasma in which ω/sup pi/ < ω << ω/sub pe/ approx. ω/sub ce/. The wave propagates when accessibility and cutoff requirements are satisfied. Reflection coefficients as low as 1% have been measured. Use of the fast wave for steady-state current drive is suggested

  2. Coupling to the fast wave via a phased waveguide array

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Olson, L.; McWilliams, R.; Glanz, J.; Motley, R.W.

    1984-03-01

    A dielectric-loaded waveguide array has been used to launch fast waves into a plasma in which ..omega../sup pi/ < ..omega.. << ..omega../sub pe/ approx. ..omega../sub ce/. The wave propagates when accessibility and cutoff requirements are satisfied. Reflection coefficients as low as 1% have been measured. Use of the fast wave for steady-state current drive is suggested.

  3. Active-passive waveguide array for wave excitation in plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Motley, R.W.; Hooke, W.M.

    1979-11-01

    A modified version of the standard waveguide grill for exciting lower hybrid plasma waves is proposed. This version should reduce both the number of RF drive components and the amplitude of the (undesirable) surface waves. Results from a simple 2-element array are presented

  4. Crosstalk analysis of silicon-on-insulator nanowire-arrayed waveguide grating

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Kai-Li; An Jun-Ming; Zhang Jia-Shun; Wang Yue; Wang Liang-Liang; Li Jian-Guang; Wu Yuan-Da; Yin Xiao-Jie; Hu Xiong-Wei

    2016-01-01

    The factors influencing the crosstalk of silicon-on-insulator (SOI) nanowire arrayed waveguide grating (AWG) are analyzed using the transfer function method. The analysis shows that wider and thicker arrayed waveguides, outsider fracture of arrayed waveguide, and larger channel space, could mitigate the deterioration of crosstalk. The SOI nanowire AWGs with different arrayed waveguide widths are fabricated by using deep ultraviolet lithography (DUV) and inductively coupled plasma etching (ICP) technology. The measurement results show that the crosstalk performance is improved by about 7 dB through adopting 800 nm arrayed waveguide width. (paper)

  5. Application of Fourier-Bessel technique for computing Eigen-states in a Bragg cylindrical space slot channel waveguide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jafari, Seyed Hamed; Gauthier, Robert C.

    2015-02-01

    Maxwell's wave equations can be solved using different techniques in order to extract optical properties of a variety of dielectric structures. For structures that contain an extended axis which serve for the reference for cylindrical symmetry, we have shown that an expansion of the fields and inverse of the relative dielectric profile using a simplified and complete set of basis functions of Fourier-Bessel terms provide access to an eigenvalue formulation from which the eigen-states can be computed. We review the steps used to convert Maxwell's equation into an eigenvalue formulation, and then proceed to discuss several applications of the technique. For cylindrically symmetric structures, the computational technique provides a significantly reduced matrix order to be populated. New target structure for the presentation consists of cylindrical space slot channel waveguide in which the channel extends in azimuthal (ϕ) direction. The channel is provided by considering the etching of external side walls of "Bragg fiber". The configuration is similar to a structure that can support whispering-gallery modes, except that the modes highest field locations are within the ambient medium of the channel. Optical properties of this structure can be best examined through ?? field component which is discontinuous by ratio of relative dielectric constants when passing air-Bragg interfaces. The ability to select Bragg dielectric properties and to introduce non-uniformities in Bragg plane spacing provides access to tuning slot channel waveguide properties and design several novel configurations.

  6. On-chip broadband ultra-compact optical couplers and polarization splitters based on off-centered and non-symmetric slotted Si-wire waveguides

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haldar, Raktim; Mishra, V.; Dutt, Avik; Varshney, Shailendra K.

    2016-10-01

    In this work, we propose novel schemes to design on-chip ultra-compact optical directional couplers (DC) and broadband polarization beam splitters (PBS) based on off-centered and asymmetric dielectric slot waveguides, respectively. Slot dimensions and positions are optimized to achieve maximum coupling coefficients between two symmetric and non-symmetric slotted Si wire waveguides through overlap integral method. We observe >88% of enhancement in the coupling coefficients when the size-optimized slots are placed in optimal positions, with respect to the same waveguides with no slot. When the waveguides are parallel, in that case, a coupling length as short as 1.73 μm is accomplished for TM mode with the off-centered and optimized slots. This scheme enables us to design optical DC with very small footprint, L c ∼ 0.9 μm in the presence of S-bends. We also report a compact (L c ∼ 1.1 μm) on-chip broadband PBS with hybrid slots. Extinction ratios of 13 dB and 22.3 dB are realized with very low insertion loss (0.055 dB and 0.008 dB) for TM and TE modes at 1.55 μm, respectively. The designed PBS exhibits a bandwidth of 78 nm for the TM mode (C-and partial L-bands) and >100 nm for the TE mode (S + C + L wavelength bands). Such on-chip devices can be used to design compact photonic interconnects and quantum information processing units efficiently. We have also investigated the fabrication tolerances of the proposed devices and described the fabrication steps to realize such hybrid devices. Our results are in good agreement with 3D FDTD simulations.

  7. Two-Slotted Surface Coil Array for Magnetic Resonance Imaging at 4 Tesla

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Solis, S. E.; Hernandez, J. A.; Rodriguez, A. O.; Tomasi, D.

    2008-01-01

    Arrays of antennas have been widely accepted for magnetic resonance imaging applications due to their high signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) over large volumes of interest. A new surface coil based on the magnetron tube and called slotted surface coil, has been recently introduced by our group. This coil design experimentally demonstrated a significant improvement over the circular-shaped coil when used in the receive-only mode. The slotted coils formed a two-sheet structure with a 90 deg. separation and each coil had 6 circular slots. Numerical simulations were performed using the finite element method for this coil design to study the behaviour of the array magnetic field. Then, we developed a two-coil array for brain magnetic resonance imaging to be operated at the resonant frequency of 170 MHz in the transceiver mode. Phantom images were acquired with our coil array and standard pulse sequences on a research-dedicated 4 Tesla scanner. Numerical simulations demonstrated that electromagnetic interaction between the coil elements is negligible, and that the magnetic field showed a good uniformity. In vitro images showed the feasibility of this coil array for standard pulses for high field magnetic resonance imaging

  8. Group IV Materials for High Performance Methane Sensing in Novel Slot Optical Waveguides at 2.883 μm and 3.39 μm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vittorio M. N. PASSARO

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available In this paper a detailed investigation of novel photonic sensors based on slot waveguides has been carried out. Appropriate alloys of group IV materials, such as germanium (Ge, silicon (Si, carbon (C and tin (Sn, are applied in silicon-on-insulator (SOI technology for homogeneous optical sensing at 2.883 µm and 3.39 μm. Electronic and optical properties of group IV alloys have been investigated. In addition, we have designed novel group IV vertical slot waveguides in order to achieve ultra-high sensitivities, as well as good fabrication tolerances. All these features have been compared with well-known SOI slot waveguides for optical label-free homogeneous sensing at 1.55 µm. In conclusion, theoretical investigation of ring resonators based on these novel slot waveguides has revealed very good results in terms of ultra high sensing performance of methane gas, i.e., limit of detection ~ 3.6×10-5 RIU and wavelength sensitivity > 2×103 nm/RIU.

  9. Sensing performance of plasma-enhanced chemical vapor deposition SiC-SiO2-SiC horizontal slot waveguides

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pandraud, G.; Margallo-Balbas, E.; Sarro, P.M.

    2012-01-01

    We have studied, for the first time, the sensing capabilities of plasma-enhanced chemical vapor deposition (PECVD) SiC-SiO2-SiC horizontal slot waveguides. Optical propagation losses were measured to be 23.9 dB?cm for the quasi-transverse magnetic mode. To assess the potential of this device as a

  10. An analog of photon-assisted tunneling in a periodically modulated waveguide array

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Liping; Luo, Xiaobing; Yang, Xiaoxue; Wang, Mei; Lü, Xinyou; Wu, Ying

    2016-01-01

    We theoretically report an analog of photon-assisted tunneling (PAT) originated from dark Floquet state in a periodically driven lattice array without a static biased potential by studying a three-channel waveguide system in a non-high-frequency regime. This analog of PAT can be achieved by only periodically modulating the top waveguide and adjusting the distance between the bottom and its adjacent waveguide. It is numerically shown that the PAT resonances also exist in the five-channel waveguide system and probably exist in the waveguide arrays with other odd numbers of waveguides, but they will become weak as the number of waveguides increases. With origin different from traditional PAT, this type of PAT found in our work is closely linked to the existence of the zero-energy (dark) Floquet states. It is readily observable under currently accessible experimental conditions and may be useful for controlling light propagation in waveguide arrays. PMID:27767189

  11. Two-Element Tapered Slot Antenna Array for Terahertz Resonant Tunneling Diode Oscillators

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jianxiong Li

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Two-element tapered slot antenna (TSA array for terahertz (THz resonant tunneling diode (RTD oscillators is proposed in this paper. The proposed TSA array has the advantages of both the high directivity and high gain at the horizontal direction and hence can facilitate the horizontal communication between the RTD oscillators and other integrated circuit chips. A MIM (metal-insulator-metal stub with a T-shaped slot is used to reduce the mutual coupling between the TSA elements. The validity and feasibility of the proposed TSA array have been simulated and analyzed by the ANSYS/ANSOFT’s High Frequency Structure Simulator (HFSS. Detailed modeling approaches and theoretical analysis of the proposed TSA array have been fully addressed. The simulation results show that the mutual coupling between the TSA elements is reduced below −40 dB. Furthermore, at 500 GHz, the directivity, the gain, and the half power beam width (HPBW at the E-plane of the proposed TSA array are 12.18 dB, 13.09 dB, and 61°, respectively. The proposed analytical method and achieved performance are very promising for the antenna array integrated with the RTD oscillators at the THz frequency and could pave the way to the design of the THz antenna array for the RTD oscillators.

  12. Current-drive on the Versator-II tokamak with a slotted-waveguide fast-wave coupler

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Colborn, J.A.

    1987-11-01

    A slotted-waveguide fast-wave coupler has been constructed, without dielectric, and used to drive current on the Versator-II tokamak. Up to 35 kW of net microwave power at 2.45 GHz has been radiated into plasmas with 2 x 10 12 cm -3 ≤ mean of n/sub e/ ≤ 1.2 x 10 13 cm -3 and B/sub tor/ ≅ 1.0 T. The launched spectrum had a peak near N/sub parallel/ = -2.0 and a larger peak near N/sub parallel/ = 0.7. Radiating efficiency of the antenna was roughly independent of antenna position except when the antenna was at least 0.2 cm outside the limiter, in which case the radiating efficiency slightly improved as the antenna was moved farther outside. When the coupler was inside the limiter, radiating efficiency improved moderately with increased mean of n/sub e/. Current-drive efficiency was comparable to that of the slow wave and was not affected when the antenna spectrum was reversed; however, no current was driven for mean of n/sub e/ ≤ 2 x 10 12 cm -3 . These results indicate the fast wave was launched, but a substantial part of the power may have been mode-converted to the slow wave, possibly via a downshift in N/sub parallel/, and these slow waves may have been responsible for most of the driven current. Relevant theory for waves in plasma, current-drive efficiency, and coupling of the slotted-waveguide is discussed, the antenna design method is explained, and future work, including the construction of a much-improved probe-fed antenna, is described. 42 refs., 45 figs

  13. 16 channel 200 GHz arrayed waveguide grating based on Si nanowire waveguides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhao Lei; An Junming; Zhang Jiashun; Song Shijiao; Wu Yuanda; Hu Xiongwei

    2011-01-01

    A 16 channel arrayed waveguide grating demultiplexer with 200 GHz channel spacing based on Si nanowire waveguides is designed. The transmission spectra response simulated by transmission function method shows that the device has channel spacing of 1.6 nm and crosstalk of 31 dB. The device is fabricated by 193 nm deep UV lithography in silicon-on-substrate. The demultiplexing characteristics are observed with crosstalk of 5-8 dB, central channel's insertion loss of 2.2 dB, free spectral range of 24.7 nm and average channel spacing of 1.475 nm. The cause of the spectral distortion is analyzed specifically. (semiconductor devices)

  14. Waveguide-Based Antenna Arrays for 5G Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arismar Cerqueira Sodré

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available This work reports the development of two high-performance waveguide-based antenna arrays for 5G cellular networks, operating in the underutilized millimetre wave (mm-wave frequency spectrum. Two different scenarios of mm-wave communications are proposed for illustrating the applicability of the proposed arrays, which provide specific radiation patterns, namely, 12 dBi gain omnidirectional coverage in the 28 GHz band and dual-band sectorial coverage using the 28 and 38 GHz bands with gain up to 15.6 dBi. Numerical and experimental results of the array reflection coefficient, radiation pattern, and gain have been shown in an excellent agreement.

  15. Quantum model of light transmission in array waveguide gratings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Capmany, J; Mora, J; Fernández-Pousa, C R; Muñoz, P

    2013-06-17

    We develop, to the best of our knowledge, the first model for an array waveguide grating (AWG) device subject to quantum inputs and analyze its basic transformation functionalities for single-photon states. A commercial, cyclic AWG is experimentally characterized with weak input coherent states as a means of exploring its behaviour under realistic quantum detection. In particular it is shown the existence of a cutoff value of the average photon number below which quantum crosstalk between AWG ports is negligible with respect to dark counts. These results can be useful when considering the application of AWG devices to integrated quantum photonic systems.

  16. Integrated graphene based modulators enabled by interfacing plasmonic slot and silicon waveguides

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Xiao, Sanshui

    Graphene has offered a new paradigm for extremely fast and active optoelectronic devices due to its unique electronic and optical properties [1]. With the combination of high-index dielectric waveguides/resonators, several integrated graphene-based optical modulators have already been demonstrated...

  17. Dual Circularly Polarized Omnidirectional Antenna with Slot Array on Coaxial Cylinder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bin Zhou

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available A dual circularly polarized (CP omnidirectional antenna based on slot array in coaxial cylinder structure is presented in this paper. It is constructed by perpendicular slot pairs around and along the axis of the coaxial cylinder to realize the omnidirectional CP property, and two ports are assigned in its two sides as left hand circularly polarized (LHCP port and right hand circularly polarized (RHCP port, respectively. The proposed antenna achieves a bandwidth of 16.4% ranging from 5.05 to 5.95 GHz with an isolation higher than 15 dB between the two CP ports, and the return loss (RL is higher than 10 dB within the bandwidth in both of the two ports. From the measured results, the average axial ratio (AR of the proposed antenna in omnidirectional plane is lower than 1.5 dB.

  18. Ku-Band Traveling Wave Slot Array Using Simple Scanning Control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Host, Nicholas K.; Chen, Chi-Chih; Volakis, John L.; Miranda, Felix A.

    2015-01-01

    This paper introduces a feeding concept aimed at simplifying the backend (phase shifters) of traditional phased arrays. As an alternative to traditional phased arrays, we employ a traveling wave array (TWA) using a single feedline whose propagation constant is controlled via a single, small mechanical movement without a need for phase shifters to enable scanning. Specifically, a dielectric plunger is positioned within a parallel plate waveguide (PPW) transmission line (TL) that feeds the TWA. By adjusting the position of the dielectric plunger within the PPW feeding the TWA, beam steering is achieved. A 20 element array is designed at 13GHz shown to give stable realized gain across the angular range of -25 deg. less than or equal to theta less than or equal to 25 deg. A proof of concept array is fabricated and measured to demonstrate and validate the concept's operation.

  19. Efficient Full-Wave Analysis of Waveguide Arrays on Cylindrical Surfaces.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gerini, G.; Guglielmi, M.; Rozzi, T.; Zappelli, L.

    1999-01-01

    Conformal open-ended waveguide arrays received great attention in the early seventies. Recently, dielectric loaded waveguide radiators have been again proposed to achieve high dety microwave packaging [1], [2]. The efficient design of highly integrated array solutions, however, require fast and

  20. Investigation of 0.38 THz backward-wave oscillator based on slotted sine waveguide and pencil electron beam

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Luqi; Wei, Yanyu; Wang, Bing; Shen, Wenan; Xu, Jin; Gong, Yubin [National Key Laboratory of Science and Technology on Vacuum Electronics, School of Physical Electronics, University of Electronic Science and Technology of China, Chengdu 610054 (China); Park, Gun-Sik [The Department of Physics and Astronomy, Seoul National University, Seoul 151-747 (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-03-15

    A novel backward wave oscillator (BWO) is presented by utilizing a slotted sine waveguide with a pencil electron beam to produce the high power terahertz wave. The high frequency characteristics including dispersion properties, interaction impedances, and transmission characteristics of the slotted sine waveguide are analyzed in detail. The high frequency system including the output coupler, slow wave structure (SWS), and reflector are designed properly. A 3-D particle-in-cell mode is applied to predict the device performance of the BWO based on the novel SWS. The investigation results demonstrate that this device can generate over 8.05 W output power in the frequency range of 363.4–383.8 GHz by using a 30 mA pencil electron beam and adjusting the beam voltage from 20 kV to 32 kV.

  1. Projecting light beams with 3D waveguide arrays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crespi, Andrea; Bragheri, Francesca

    2017-01-01

    Free-space light beams with complex intensity patterns, or non-trivial phase structure, are demanded in diverse fields, ranging from classical and quantum optical communications, to manipulation and imaging of microparticles and cells. Static or dynamic spatial light modulators, acting on the phase or intensity of an incoming light wave, are the conventional choices to produce beams with such non-trivial characteristics. However, interfacing these devices with optical fibers or integrated optical circuits often requires difficult alignment or cumbersome optical setups. Here we explore theoretically and with numerical simulations the potentialities of directly using the output of engineered three-dimensional waveguide arrays, illuminated with linearly polarized light, to project light beams with peculiar structures. We investigate through a collection of illustrative configurations the far field distribution, showing the possibility to achieve orbital angular momentum, or to produce elaborate intensity or phase patterns with several singularity points. We also simulate the propagation of the projected beam, showing the possibility to concentrate light. We note that these devices should be at reach of current technology, thus perspectives are open for the generation of complex free-space optical beams from integrated waveguide circuits.

  2. Tunable arrayed waveguide grating driven by surface acoustic waves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crespo-Poveda, Antonio; Hernández-Mínguez, Alberto; Biermann, Klaus; Tahraoui, Abbes; Gargallo, Bernardo; Muñoz, Pascual; Santos, Paulo V.; Cantarero, Andrés.; de Lima, Maurício M.

    2016-03-01

    We present a design approach for compact reconfigurable phased-array wavelength-division multiplexing (WDM) devices with N access waveguides (WGs) based on multimode interference (MMI) couplers. The proposed devices comprise two MMI couplers which are employed as power splitters and combiners, respectively, linked by an array of N single-mode WGs. First, passive devices are explored. Taking advantage of the transfer phases between the access ports of the MMI couplers, we derive very simple phase relations between the arms that provide wavelength dispersion at the output plane of the devices. When the effective refractive index of the WGs is modulated with the proper relative optical phase difference, each wavelength component can switch paths between the preset output channel and the remaining output WGs. Moreover, very simple phase relations between the modulated WGs that enable the reconfiguration of the output channel distribution when the appropriated coupling lengths of the MMI couplers are chosen are also derived. In this way, a very compact expression to calculate the channel assignment of the devices as a function of the applied phase shift is derived for the general case of N access WGs. Finally, the experimental results corresponding to an acoustically driven phased-array WDM device with five access WGs fabricated on (Al,Ga)As are shown.

  3. Polymeric flat focal field arrayed waveguide grating using electron-beam direct writing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Si; Yan, Yingbai; Jin, Guofan; Wong, W. H.; Pun, E. Y. B.

    2004-06-01

    A four-channel 400-GHz spacing flat focal field arrayed waveguide grating (AWG) demultiplexer is designed based on polymeric optical waveguide. The waveguide core-layer material is a newly developed negative tone epoxy Novolak resin (ENR) polymer with ultravoilet (UV) cured resin Norland optical adhesive 61 (NOA61) as the cladding layer. The device is fabricated using electron-beam direct writing, which has less processing steps than the reported polymeric AWGs. The experimental result is presented.

  4. Bragg Grating Waveguide Array Ultrafast Laser Inscribed into the Cladding of a Flat Fiber

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beecher Stephen J.

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available We report the fabrication and initial characterization of a waveguide sensor array in the cladding of a flat fiber. The sensor, designed to independently measure the strain on three Bragg grating waveguides, exploits the true three dimensional fabrication technology of ultrafast laser inscription by placing these gratings in a non-planar configuration.

  5. Substrate Integrated Waveguide Based Phase Shifter and Phased Array in a Ferrite Low Temperature Co-fired Ceramic Package

    KAUST Repository

    Nafe, Ahmed A.

    2014-03-01

    Phased array antennas, capable of controlling the direction of their radiated beam, are demanded by many conventional as well as modern systems. Applications such as automotive collision avoidance radar, inter-satellite communication links and future man-portable satellite communication on move services require reconfigurable beam systems with stress on mobility and cost effectiveness. Microwave phase shifters are key components of phased antenna arrays. A phase shifter is a device that controls the phase of the signal passing through it. Among the technologies used to realize this device, traditional ferrite waveguide phase shifters offer the best performance. However, they are bulky and difficult to integrate with other system components. Recently, ferrite material has been introduced in Low Temperature Co-fired Ceramic (LTCC) multilayer packaging technology. This enables the integration of ferrite based components with other microwave circuitry in a compact, light-weight and mass producible package. Additionally, the recent concept of Substrate Integrated Waveguide (SIW) allowed realization of synthesized rectangular waveguide-like structures in planar and multilayer substrates. These SIW structures have been shown to maintain the merits of conventional rectangular waveguides such as low loss and high power handling capabilities while being planar and easily integrable with other components. Implementing SIW structures inside a multilayer ferrite LTCC package enables monolithic integration of phase shifters and phased arrays representing a true System on Package (SoP) solution. It is the objective of this thesis to pursue realizing efficient integrated phase shifters and phased arrays combining the above mentioned technologies, namely Ferrite LTCC and SIW. In this work, a novel SIW phase shifter in ferrite LTCC package is designed, fabricated and tested. The device is able to operate reciprocally as well as non-reciprocally. Demonstrating a measured maximum

  6. Two-photon Anderson localization in a disordered quadratic waveguide array

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bai, Y F; Xu, P; Lu, L L; Zhong, M L; Zhu, S N

    2016-01-01

    We theoretically investigate two-photon Anderson localization in a χ (2) waveguide array with off-diagonal disorder. The nonlinear parametric down-conversion process would enhance both the single-photon and the two-photon Anderson localization. In the strong disorder regime, the two-photon position correlation exhibits a bunching distribution around the pumped waveguides, which is independent of pumping conditions and geometrical structures of waveguide arrays. Quadratic nonlinearity can be supplied as a new ingredient for Anderson localization. Also, our results pave the way for engineering quantum states through nonlinear quantum walks. (paper)

  7. Active phase correction of high resolution silicon photonic arrayed waveguide gratings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gehl, M; Trotter, D; Starbuck, A; Pomerene, A; Lentine, A L; DeRose, C

    2017-03-20

    Arrayed waveguide gratings provide flexible spectral filtering functionality for integrated photonic applications. Achieving narrow channel spacing requires long optical path lengths which can greatly increase the footprint of devices. High index contrast waveguides, such as those fabricated in silicon-on-insulator wafers, allow tight waveguide bends which can be used to create much more compact designs. Both the long optical path lengths and the high index contrast contribute to significant optical phase error as light propagates through the device. Therefore, silicon photonic arrayed waveguide gratings require active or passive phase correction following fabrication. Here we present the design and fabrication of compact silicon photonic arrayed waveguide gratings with channel spacings of 50, 10 and 1 GHz. The largest device, with 11 channels of 1 GHz spacing, has a footprint of only 1.1 cm2. Using integrated thermo-optic phase shifters, the phase error is actively corrected. We present two methods of phase error correction and demonstrate state-of-the-art cross-talk performance for high index contrast arrayed waveguide gratings. As a demonstration of possible applications, we perform RF channelization with 1 GHz resolution. Additionally, we generate unique spectral filters by applying non-zero phase offsets calculated by the Gerchberg Saxton algorithm.

  8. A Design of Wide Band and Wide Beam Cavity-Backed Slot Antenna Array with Slant Polarization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huiying Qi

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Design of antenna array under the limitation of restricted size is a challenging problem. Cavity-backed slot antenna is widely used because of its advantages of small size, wide band, and wide beam. In this paper, a design of wide band and wide beam cavity-backed slot antenna array with the slant polarization is proposed. To obtain wide band and wide beam with limited size, the inverted microstrip-fed cavity-backed slot antenna (IMF-CBSA is adopted as the element of 1 × 4 antenna array. The slant polarized antennas and their feeding networks are adopted because of their simple structures. The performance of the proposed antenna array is verified by the simulations and experiments. The measured VSWR < 2 bandwidth is 55% at the center frequency 21.8 GHz, and the gain is larger than 12.2 dB. Experimental results demonstrate that the proposed design achieves wide band and beam with the size of 68 mm × 56 mm × 14.5 mm.

  9. Inhibition of light tunneling for multichannel excitations in longitudinally modulated waveguide arrays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lobanov, Valery E.; Vysloukh, Victor A.; Kartashov, Yaroslav V.

    2010-01-01

    We consider the evolution of multichannel excitations in longitudinally modulated waveguide arrays where the refractive index either oscillates out-of-phase in all neighboring waveguides or when it is modulated in phase in several central waveguides surrounded by out-of-phase oscillating neighbors. Both types of modulations allow resonant inhibition of light tunneling, but only the modulation of the latter type conserves the internal structure of multichannel excitations. We show that parameter regions where light tunneling inhibition is possible depend on the symmetry and structure of multichannel excitations. Antisymmetric multichannel excitations are more robust than their symmetric counterparts and experience nonlinearity-induced delocalization at higher amplitudes.

  10. Vapor-melt Ratio in Laser Fine Cutting of Slot Arrays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Xuyue; Meng Qingxuan; Kang Renke; Xu Wenji; Guo Dongming; Wang Lianji

    2011-01-01

    In order to improve cut quality for slot arrays, a new method of laser fine cutting under the consideration of the ratio of vapor to melt is presented. Laser cutting of 6063 aluminum alloy sheet, 0.5 mm in thickness, was carried out on a JK701H Nd:YAG pulse laser cutting system. The effects of vapor-melt ratio on kerf width, surface roughness and recast layer were studied which relate cutting qualities. Observation on the cut samples with different vapor-melt ratios (0.687, 1.574, 3.601 varied with laser power increasing, and 1.535, 3.601, 7.661 with decreasing of beam cutting speed) shows that high vapor-melt ratio improves laser cut quality clearly. Kerf width 0.2 mm of smooth area on kerf top area and thickness 2.03 μm of recast layer are obtained. No dross was found on the kerf bottom and the percentage of the smooth area is up to 40% out of whole kerf side. The research on vapor-melt ratio provides a deeper understanding of laser cutting and improves laser cut quality effectively.

  11. Introducing nanoresonators into a metal–dielectric–metal waveguide array to allow beam manipulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zheng, Gaige; Xu, Linhua; Chen, Yunyun; Wu, Yigen; Liu, Yuzhu

    2013-01-01

    Stub and circular ring-shaped plasmonic resonators are introduced into a metal–dielectric–metal (MDM) waveguide array to allow light transmission control. Light focusing and splitting effects are verified by the finite difference time domain method; the simulation results reveal that the resonators can be used for modulating the superposition phase of the interference between the surface plasmon wave (SPW) from the end of the resonator and the passing SPW in the waveguide array. Furthermore, a structure utilizing a stub cavity with nonlinear material to control the phase of the transmitted SPW is proposed; the deflection angle of the light can be controlled by means of the intensity of the incident light. The proposed MDM waveguide array with plasmonic resonators, with its compact size, ease of integration, and high output, certainly has potential for application in nanophotonic circuits. (paper)

  12. Engineered SOI slot waveguide ring resonator V-shape resonance combs for refraction index sensing up to 1300nm/RIU (Conference Presentation)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Weiwei; Serna, Samuel; Le Roux, Xavier; Vivien, Laurent; Cassan, Eric

    2016-05-01

    Bio-detection based on CMOS technology boosts the miniaturization of detection systems and the success on highly efficient, robust, accurate, and low coast Lab-on-Chip detection schemes. Such on chip detection technologies have covered healthy related harmful gases, bio-chemical analytes, genetic micro RNA, etc. Their monitoring accuracy is mainly qualified in terms of sensitivity and limit of the detection (LOD) of the detection system. In this context, recently developed silicon on insulator (SOI) optical devices have displayed highly performant detection abilities that LOD could go beyond 10-8RIU and sensitivity could exceeds 103nm/RIU. The SOI integrated optical sensing devices include strip/slotted waveguide consisting in structures like Mach-Zehnder interferometers (MZI), ring resonators (RR), nano cavities, etc. Typically, hollow core RR and nano-cavities could exhibit higher sensitivity due to their optical mode confinement properties with a partial localization of the electric field in low index sensing regions than devices based on evanescent field tails outside of the optical cores. Furthermore, they also provide larger sensing areas for surface functionalization to reach higher sensitivities and lower LODs. The state of art of hollow core devices, either based on Bragg gratings formed from a slot waveguide cavity or photonic crystal slot cavities, show sensitivities (S) up to 400nm/RIU and Figure of Merit (FOM) around 3,000 in water environment, FOM being defined as the inverse of LOD and precisely as FOM=SQ/λ, with λ the resonance wavelength and Q the quality factor of the considered resonator. Such high achieved FOMs in nano cavities are mainly due to their large Q factors around 15,000. While for mostly used RR, which do not require particular design strategies, relatively low Q factors around 1800 in water are met and moderate sensitivities about 300nm/RIU are found. In this work, we present here a novel slot ring resonator design to make

  13. Soliton Steering by Longitudinal Modulation of the Nonlinearity in Waveguide Arrays

    OpenAIRE

    Assanto, Gaetano; Cisneros, Luis A.; Minzoni, Antonmaria A.; Skuse, Benjamin D.; Smyth, Noel F.; Worthy, Annette L.

    2010-01-01

    We show how discrete solitary waves in one and two-dimensional waveguide arrays can be steered across the lattice via the introduction of a longitudinal periodic modulation of the nonlinear response. Through parametric energy transfer from the modulation to the solitary wave, the latter can increase its width and overcome the Peierls-Nabarro potential to propagate freely.

  14. Optical microwave filter based on spectral slicing by use of arrayed waveguide gratings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pastor, Daniel; Ortega, Beatriz; Capmany, José; Sales, Salvador; Martinez, Alfonso; Muñoz, Pascual

    2003-10-01

    We have experimentally demonstrated a new optical signal processor based on the use of arrayed waveguide gratings. The structure exploits the concept of spectral slicing combined with the use of an optical dispersive medium. The approach presents increased flexibility from previous slicing-based structures in terms of tunability, reconfiguration, and apodization of the samples or coefficients of the transversal optical filter.

  15. A new method for multi-bit and qudit transfer based on commensurate waveguide arrays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petrovic, J.; Veerman, J. J. P.

    2018-05-01

    The faithful state transfer is an important requirement in the construction of classical and quantum computers. While the high-speed transfer is realized by optical-fibre interconnects, its implementation in integrated optical circuits is affected by cross-talk. The cross-talk between densely packed optical waveguides limits the transfer fidelity and distorts the signal in each channel, thus severely impeding the parallel transfer of states such as classical registers, multiple qubits and qudits. Here, we leverage on the suitably engineered cross-talk between waveguides to achieve the parallel transfer on optical chip. Waveguide coupling coefficients are designed to yield commensurate eigenvalues of the array and hence, periodic revivals of the input state. While, in general, polynomially complex, the inverse eigenvalue problem permits analytic solutions for small number of waveguides. We present exact solutions for arrays of up to nine waveguides and use them to design realistic buses for multi-(qu)bit and qudit transfer. Advantages and limitations of the proposed solution are discussed in the context of available fabrication techniques.

  16. A Multimode Equivalent Network Approach for the Analysis of a 'Realistic' Finite Array of Open Ended Waveguides

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Neto, A.; Bolt, R.; Gerini, G.; Schmitt, D.

    2003-01-01

    In this contribution we present a theoretical model for the analysis of finite arrays of open-ended waveguides mounted on finite mounting platforms or having radome coverages. This model is based on a Multimode Equivalent Network (MEN) [1] representation of the radiating waveguides complete with

  17. FIBER AND INTEGRATED OPTICS: Bandgap modes in a coupled waveguide array

    Science.gov (United States)

    Usievich, B. A.; Nurligareev, D. Kh; Svetikov, V. V.; Sychugov, V. A.

    2009-08-01

    This work examines a waveguide array that consists of ten Nb2O5/SiO2 double layers and supports a 0.63-μm surface wave. The deposition of a Nb2O5 capping layer on top of the waveguide array enables a marked increase in the wave field intensity on its surface. The efficiency of surface-wave excitation in the Kretschmann configuration can be optimised by adjusting the number of double layers. We analyse the behaviour of the Bragg mode in relation to the thickness of the layer exposed to air and the transition of this mode from the second allowed band to the first through the bandgap of the system. In addition, the conventional leaky mode converts to a surface mode and then to a guided mode.

  18. S-parameters for weakly excited slots

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Albertsen, Niels Christian

    1999-01-01

    A simple approach to account for parasitic effects in weakly excited slots cut in the broad wall of a rectangular waveguide is proposed......A simple approach to account for parasitic effects in weakly excited slots cut in the broad wall of a rectangular waveguide is proposed...

  19. Geometrical optimization of the transmission and dispersion properties of arrayed waveguide gratings using two stigmatic point mountings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muñoz, P; Pastor, D; Capmany, J; Martínez, A

    2003-09-22

    In this paper, the procedure to optimize flat-top Arrayed Waveguide Grating (AWG) devices in terms of transmission and dispersion properties is presented. The systematic procedure consists on the stigmatization and minimization of the Light Path Function (LPF) used in classic planar spectrograph theory. The resulting geometry arrangement for the Arrayed Waveguides (AW) and the Output Waveguides (OW) is not the classical Rowland mounting, but an arbitrary geometry arrangement. Simulation using previous published enhanced modeling show how this geometry reduces the passband ripple, asymmetry and dispersion, in a design example.

  20. Calculation of coupling to slow and fast waves in the LHRF from phased waveguide arrays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pinsker, R.I.; Duvall, R.E.; Fortgang, C.M.; Colestock, P.L.

    1986-04-01

    A previously reported algorithm for solving the problem of coupling electromagnetic energy in the LHRF from a phased array of identical rectangular waveguides to a plane-stratified, magnetized cold plasma is numerically implemented. The resulting computer codes are sufficiently general to allow for an arbitrary number of waveguides with finite dimensions in both poloidal and toroidal directions, and are thus capable of computing coupling to both slow and fast waves in the plasma. Some of the details of the implementation and the extension of the algorithm to allow study of the Fourier spectrum of slow and fast waves launched by the array are discussed. Good agreement is found with previously reported, less general work for the slow wave launching case. The effect of phasing multirow arrays in the poloidal direction is studied, and an asymmetry between phasing 'up' and 'down' is found that persists in the case where the plasma adjacent to the array is uniform. A 4 x 3 array designed to launch fast waves of high phase velocity is studied. By using the optimal poloidal phasing, low reflection coefficients (absolute value of R 2 less than or equal to 20%) are found under some not unrealistic edge plasma conditions, but most of the input power is trapped in the outermost layer of the plasma. Implications of our results for fast wave current drive experiments are discussed

  1. Slots in dielectric image line as mode launchers and circuit elements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solbach, K.

    1981-01-01

    A planar resonator model is used to investigate slots in the ground plane of dielectric image lines. An equivalent circuit representation of the slot discontinuity is obtained, and the launching efficiency of the slot as a mode launcher is analyzed. Slots are also shown to be useful in the realization of dielectric image line array antennas. It is found that the slot discontinuity can be shown as a T-junction of the dielectric image line and a metal waveguide. The launching efficiency is found to increase with the dielectric constant of the dielectric image line, exhibiting a maximum value for guides whose height is slightly less than half a wavelength in the dielectric medium. The measured launching efficiencies of low permittivity dielectric image lines are found to be in good agreement with calculated values

  2. Dye gain gold NW array of surface plasmon polariton waveguide

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jun Zhu

    Full Text Available Plasmon lasers can support ultrasmall mode confinement and ultrafast dynamics with device feature sizes below the diffraction limit. At present in the single visible light frequency, the optical gain method of constraint SPP on metal nanowires structure reported less. We design the gold nanowire array structure, consisting of PMMA and R6G dye molecules as gain, by 488 nm pump in the middle of the nanowires position for wide range of light, use symmetry broken overcome that momentum does not match the photonic and SPP energy conversion. Theoretical analysis shows that dyes provide coherent optical feedback, resulting in nanowires face will observe laser properties of surface plasmons. Feature analysis: the incident light and pump joint strength is greater than the sum of strength which is the incident light, pump respectively. Under the effect of dye molecules gain effective, length of SPP transmission can increase 1 µm. The results achieved in a single optical frequency of stimulated radiation, application of dye optical gain can achieve continuous gain effect. This is for the future development of plasma amplifier and the wavelength laser. Keywords: SPP, Stimulated radiation, Gold nanowires array, Dye molecules

  3. Anderson localization with second quantized fields in a coupled array of waveguides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thompson, Clinton; Vemuri, Gautam; Agarwal, G. S.

    2010-01-01

    We report a theoretical study of Anderson localization of nonclassical light in an array of waveguides in which neighboring waveguides are evanescently coupled and in which the disorder can be added in a controlled manner. We use squeezed light at the input to investigate the effects of nonclassicality and compare the results with those obtained by using conventional classical fields, such as a coherent field and a Gaussian field. Our results show that there is an enhancement in fluctuations of localized light due to the medium's disorder. We find superbunching of the localized light, which may be useful for enhancing the interaction between radiation and matter. Another important consequence of sub-Poissonian statistics of the incoming light is to quench the total fluctuations at the output. Finally, we show that as a result of the multiplicative noise in the problem, the output field is far from Gaussian even if the input is a coherent field.

  4. Formation of discrete solitons as a function of waveguide array geometry under the well-confined mode condition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vergara-Betancourt, A; Martí-Panameño, E; Luis-Ramos, A; Parada-Alfonso, R

    2013-01-01

    Based on numerical techniques, in this paper, we study light propagation in two types of waveguide arrays. One array contains hexagonal cells, and the second contains honeycomb cells. The waveguides demonstrate the well-confined mode condition and possess Kerr nonlinearity. The mathematical model is based on the modified discrete nonlinear Schrödinger equation, which allows us to evaluate the influence of the array geometry on nonlinear light propagation, primarily the process of discrete soliton formation. The main conclusion involves the role of the coupling length; the greater the coupling length, the lower the power threshold required for discrete soliton formation. (paper)

  5. Preliminary Investigation of an SOI-based Arrayed Waveguide Grating Demodulation Integration Microsystem

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Hongqiang; Zhou, Wenqian; Liu, Yu; Dong, Xiaye; Zhang, Cheng; Miao, Changyun; Zhang, Meiling; Li, Enbang; Tang, Chunxiao

    2014-05-01

    An arrayed waveguide grating (AWG) demodulation integration microsystem is investigated in this study. The system consists of a C-band on-chip LED, a 2 × 2 silicon nanowire-based coupler, a fiber Bragg grating (FBG) array, a 1 × 8 AWG, and a photoelectric detector array. The coupler and AWG are made from silicon-on-insulator wafers using electron beam exposure and response-coupled plasma technology. Experimental results show that the excess loss in the MMI coupler with a footprint of 6 × 100 μm2 is 0.5423 dB. The 1 × 8 AWG with a footprint of 267 × 381 μm2 and a waveguide width of 0.4 μm exhibits a central channel loss of -3.18 dB, insertion loss non-uniformity of -1.34 dB, and crosstalk level of -23.1 dB. The entire system is preliminarily tested. Wavelength measurement precision is observed to reach 0.001 nm. The wavelength sensitivity of each FBG is between 0.04 and 0.06 nm/dB.

  6. All-optical LAN architectures based on arrayed waveguide grating multiplexers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woesner, Hagen

    1998-10-01

    The paper presents optical LAN topologies which are made possible using an Arrayed Waveguide Grating Multiplexer (AWGM) instead of a passive star coupler to interconnect stations in an all-optical LAN. Due to the collision-free nature of an AWGM it offers the n-fold bandwidth compared to the star coupler. Virtual ring topologies appear (one ring on each wavelength) if the number of stations attached to the AWGM is a prime number. A method to construct larger networks using Cayley graphs is shown. An access protocol to avoid collisions on the proposed network is outlined.

  7. Observation of Nonlinear Self-Trapping of Broad Beams in Defocusing Waveguide Arrays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bennet, Francis H.; Haslinger, Franz; Neshev, Dragomir N.; Kivshar, Yuri S.; Alexander, Tristram J.; Mitchell, Arnan

    2011-01-01

    We demonstrate experimentally the localization of broad optical beams in periodic arrays of optical waveguides with defocusing nonlinearity. This observation in optics is linked to nonlinear self-trapping of Bose-Einstein-condensed atoms in stationary periodic potentials being associated with the generation of truncated nonlinear Bloch states, existing in the gaps of the linear transmission spectrum. We reveal that unlike gap solitons, these novel localized states can have an arbitrary width defined solely by the size of the input beam while independent of nonlinearity.

  8. Acceleration of electrons in the vicinity of a lower hybrid waveguide array

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fuchs, V.; Goniche, M.; Demers, Y.; Jacquet, P.; Mailloux, J.

    1996-01-01

    The interaction of tokamak plasma edge electrons with the electric near field generated by a lower hybrid slow wave antenna is studied. Antenna field spectra of interest for current drive and/or plasma heating have lobes at high-n parallel values (n parallel approx-gt 30) intense enough for resonant acceleration of the relatively cold (∼25 eV) edge electrons. For waveguide electric fields, typically around 3 kV/cm, the higher-order modes overlap in the phase-space [B. V. Chirikov, Phys. Rep. 52, 263 (1979)], so that electron global stochasticity is induced. For Tokamak de Varennes (TdeV) [Dacute ecoste et al., Phys. Plasmas 1, 1497 (1994)] conditions and for 90 degree waveguide phasing, the stochastic limit in the current drive direction is about 2 keV, determined by the last overlapping mode. The progress of electrons through accessible phase space is very efficient: the TdeV 32 waveguide array can accelerate the electrons to the possible limit. An area-preserving map is derived to study the electron dynamics. Surface-of-section plots fully confirm the resonant wave-particle nature of the interaction. copyright 1996 American Institute of Physics

  9. Resonant absorption in semiconductor nanowires and nanowire arrays: Relating leaky waveguide modes to Bloch photonic crystal modes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fountaine, Katherine T., E-mail: kfountai@caltech.edu [Department of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, California Institute of Technology, 1200 E. California Blvd., Pasadena, California 91125 (United States); Joint Center for Artificial Photosynthesis, California Institute of Technology, 1200 E. California Blvd., Pasadena, California 91125 (United States); Whitney, William S. [Joint Center for Artificial Photosynthesis, California Institute of Technology, 1200 E. California Blvd., Pasadena, California 91125 (United States); Department of Physics, California Institute of Technology, 1200 E. California Blvd., Pasadena, California 91125 (United States); Atwater, Harry A. [Joint Center for Artificial Photosynthesis, California Institute of Technology, 1200 E. California Blvd., Pasadena, California 91125 (United States); Department of Applied Physics and Materials Science, California Institute of Technology, 1200 E. California Blvd., Pasadena, California 91125 (United States)

    2014-10-21

    We present a unified framework for resonant absorption in periodic arrays of high index semiconductor nanowires that combines a leaky waveguide theory perspective and that of photonic crystals supporting Bloch modes, as array density transitions from sparse to dense. Full dispersion relations are calculated for each mode at varying illumination angles using the eigenvalue equation for leaky waveguide modes of an infinite dielectric cylinder. The dispersion relations along with symmetry arguments explain the selectivity of mode excitation and spectral red-shifting of absorption for illumination parallel to the nanowire axis in comparison to perpendicular illumination. Analysis of photonic crystal band dispersion for varying array density illustrates that the modes responsible for resonant nanowire absorption emerge from the leaky waveguide modes.

  10. An investigation of transverse localization in a disordered waveguide array containing plasma materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ghasempour Ardakani, Abbas

    2014-01-01

    We investigate wave propagation through a disordered waveguide array composed of plasma materials. We first consider a system in which both the low and high index regions are plasma materials. To introduce disorder through the system, the electron plasma densities of the high index regions are selected to be random numbers. We study the effect of disorder strength on transverse localization. Our numerical results reveal that increasing the disorder level improves the quality of the transverse localization. The dependence of the localization features on the plasma density of the low index media and average of the plasma density of the high-index regions is also studied. Localization degrades with increasing plasma density of the low index media. However, transverse localization improves with increasing average plasma density of the high-index regions. Thus, using plasma materials in the disordered photonic lattices makes it possible to control transverse localization characteristics with plasma parameters, as well as applying an external magnetic field. Second, we consider a disordered waveguide array composed alternately of normal and plasma materials. The influence of the operating wavelength variation on the transverse localization is also discussed in this disordered system. It is demonstrated that the effective width of the injected wave at the output end increases with increasing wavelength. In this case, the increase of the average refractive index of normal materials leads to the improvement of transverse localization. (papers)

  11. Nanoscale waveguiding methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wang Chia-Jean

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available AbstractWhile 32 nm lithography technology is on the horizon for integrated circuit (IC fabrication, matching the pace for miniaturization with optics has been hampered by the diffraction limit. However, development of nanoscale components and guiding methods is burgeoning through advances in fabrication techniques and materials processing. As waveguiding presents the fundamental issue and cornerstone for ultra-high density photonic ICs, we examine the current state of methods in the field. Namely, plasmonic, metal slot and negative dielectric based waveguides as well as a few sub-micrometer techniques such as nanoribbons, high-index contrast and photonic crystals waveguides are investigated in terms of construction, transmission, and limitations. Furthermore, we discuss in detail quantum dot (QD arrays as a gain-enabled and flexible means to transmit energy through straight paths and sharp bends. Modeling, fabrication and test results are provided and show that the QD waveguide may be effective as an alternate means to transfer light on sub-diffraction dimensions.

  12. Equivalent-circuit model for stacked slot-based 2D periodic arrays of arbitrary geometry for broadband analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Astorino, Maria Denise; Frezza, Fabrizio; Tedeschi, Nicola

    2018-03-01

    The analysis of the transmission and reflection spectra of stacked slot-based 2D periodic structures of arbitrary geometry and the ability to devise and control their electromagnetic responses have been a matter of extensive research for many decades. The purpose of this paper is to develop an equivalent Π circuit model based on the transmission-line theory and Floquet harmonic interactions, for broadband and short longitudinal period analysis. The proposed circuit model overcomes the limits of identical and symmetrical configurations imposed by the even/odd excitation approach, exploiting both the circuit topology of a single 2D periodic array of apertures and the ABCD matrix formalism. The transmission spectra obtained through the equivalent-circuit model have been validated by comparison with full-wave simulations carried out with a finite-element commercial electromagnetic solver. This allowed for a physical insight into the spectral and angular responses of multilayer devices with arbitrary aperture shapes, guaranteeing a noticeable saving of computational resources.

  13. Multi-wavelength laser based on an arrayed waveguide grating and Sagnac loop reflectors monolithically integrated on InP

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Muñoz, P.; García-Olcina, R.; Doménech, J.D.; Rius, M.; Capmany, J.; Chen, L.R.; Habib, C.; Leijtens, X.J.M.; Vries, de T.; Heck, M.J.R.; Augustin, L.M.; Nötzel, R.; Robbins, D.J.

    2010-01-01

    In this paper, a multi-wavelength laser monolithically integrated on InP is presented. A linear laser cavity is built between two integrated Sagnac loop reflectors, with an Arrayed Waveguide Grating (AWG) as frequency selective device, and Semiconductor Optical Amplifiers (SOA) as gain sections. The

  14. Multidimensional microstructured photonic device based on all-solid waveguide array fiber and magnetic fluid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miao Yinping

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available An all-solid waveguide array fiber (WAF is one kind of special microstructured optical fiber in which the higher-index rods are periodically distributed in a low-index silica host to form the transverse two-dimensional photonic crystal. In this paper, one kind of multidimensional microstructured optical fiber photonic device is proposed by using electric arc discharge method to fabricate periodic tapers along the fiber axis. By tuning the applied magnetic field intensity, the propagation characteristics of the all-solid WAF integrated with magnetic fluid are periodically modulated in both radial and axial directions. Experimental results show that the wavelength changes little while the transmission loss increases for an applied magnetic field intensity range from 0 to 500 Oe. The magnetic field sensitivity is 0.055 dB/Oe within the linear range from 50 to 300 Oe. Meanwhile, the all-solid WAF has very similar thermal expansion coefficient for both high- and low-refractive index glasses, and thermal drifts have a little effect on the mode profile. The results show that the temperature-induced transmission loss is <0.3 dB from 26°C to 44°C. Further tuning coherent coupling of waveguides and controlling light propagation, the all-solid WAF would be found great potential applications to develop new micro-nano photonic devices for optical communications and optical sensing applications.

  15. Suppression of Higher Order Modes in an Array of Cavities Using Waveguides

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shashkov, Ya. V.; Sobenin, N. P.; Bazyl, D. S.; Kaminskiy, V. I.; Mitrofanov, A. A.; Zobov, M. M.

    An application of additional harmonic cavities operating at multiplies of the main RF system frequency of 400 MHz is currently under discussionin the framework of the High Luminosity LHC upgrade program [1,2]. A structure consisting of two 800 MHz single cell superconducting cavities with grooved beam pipes coupled by drift tubes has been suggested for implementation. However, it is desirable to increase the number of single cells installed in one cryomodule in order to decrease the number of transitions between "warm" and "cold" parts of the collider vacuum chamber. Unfortunately, it can lead to the appearance of higher order modes (HOM) trapped between the cavities. In order to solve this problem the methods of HOM damping with rectangular waveguides connected to the drift tubes were investigated and compared. We describe the results obtained for arrays of 2, 4 and 8 cavitiesin this paper.

  16. Field theory of a terahertz staggered double-grating arrays waveguide Cerenkov traveling wave amplifier

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xie, Wenqiu; He, Fangming [Institute of Electronics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100190 (China); University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100049 (China); Wang, Zicheng; Luo, Jirun; Zhao, Ding; Liu, Qinglun [Institute of Electronics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100190 (China)

    2014-04-15

    Based on a rectilinear sheet electron beam propagating through the tunnel of a staggered double-grating arrays waveguide (SDGAW) slow-wave structure (SWS), a three dimensional field theory for describing the modes and the beam-wave interaction is presented, in which the higher order terms inside the grooves are retained. The fields' distribution and the conductivity losses are also calculated utilizing the theoretical model. With the optimized parameters of the SWS and the electron beam, a 1 THz SDGAW Cerenkov traveling wave amplifier may obtain a moderate net gain (the peak gain is 12.7 dB/cm) and an ultra 3 dB wideband (0.19 THz) considering the serious Ohmic losses. The theoretical results have been compared with those calculated by 3D HFSS code and CST STUDIO particle-in-cell simulations.

  17. Novel O-band tunable fiber laser using an array waveguide grating

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahmad, H; Zulkifli, M Z; Latif, A A; Harun, S W

    2010-01-01

    A novel tunable fibre laser (TFL) operating in the ordinary band (O-band) of 1310 nm is proposed and demonstrated. The proposed TFL is developed using a 1×16 arrayed waveguide grating (AWG) as a slicing mechanism for the broadband amplified spontaneous emission (ASE) source and an optical channel selector (OCS) to provide the tunability. A semiconductor optical amplifier (SOA) with a centre wavelength of 1310 nm serves as the compact gain medium for the TFL and also as a broadband ASE source. The TFL has a tuning range of 1301.26 nm to 1311.18 nm with 9.92 nm span and a channel spacing of 0.7 nm. The measured output power is about –4 and –8 dBm and with a side node suppression ratio (SMSR) of 29 to 33 dB

  18. Nonlinear dynamics of solitary and optically injected two-element laser arrays with four different waveguide structures: a numerical study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Nianqiang; Susanto, H; Cemlyn, B R; Henning, I D; Adams, M J

    2018-02-19

    We study the nonlinear dynamics of solitary and optically injected two-element laser arrays with a range of waveguide structures. The analysis is performed with a detailed direct numerical simulation, where high-resolution dynamic maps are generated to identify regions of dynamic instability in the parameter space of interest. Our combined one- and two-parameter bifurcation analysis uncovers globally diverse dynamical regimes (steady-state, oscillation, and chaos) in the solitary laser arrays, which are greatly influenced by static design waveguiding structures, the amplitude-phase coupling factor of the electric field, i.e. the linewidth-enhancement factor, as well as the control parameter, e.g. the pump rate. When external optical injection is introduced to one element of the arrays, we show that the whole system can be either injection-locked simultaneously or display rich, different dynamics outside the locking region. The effect of optical injection is to significantly modify the nature and the regions of nonlinear dynamics from those found in the solitary case. We also show similarities and differences (asymmetry) between the oscillation amplitude of the two elements of the array in specific well-defined regions, which hold for all the waveguiding structures considered. Our findings pave the way to a better understanding of dynamic instability in large arrays of lasers.

  19. [Research on demodulation system for human body temperature measurement of intelligent clothing based on arrayed waveguide grating].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Xiao-gang; Miao, Chang-yun; Li, Hong-qiang; Li, En-bang; Liu, Zhi-hui; Wei, Ke-jia

    2012-08-01

    A system for demodulating distributed fiber Bragg grating sensors of the intelligent clothing was researched and realized, which is based on arrayed waveguide grating. The principle of demodulation method based on arrayed waveguide grating was analyzed, intensity--demodulating method was used to interrogate the wavelength of the fiber Bragg grating based on the building up of an experimental platform, and demodulation experiment of pre and post series of fiber Bragg grating was completed. The results show that the wavelength demodulation of the system has high linearity for fiber Bragg grating, the system gives a wavelength accuracy of 0.001 nm, and demodulation error caused by crosstalk between different sensors is 0.0005 nm. The measurement error of human body temperature is +/- 0.16 degrees C. It can be applied to the human body temperature measurement.

  20. Dirac equation in 2-dimensional curved spacetime, particle creation, and coupled waveguide arrays

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koke, Christian, E-mail: christian.koke@stud.uni-heidelberg.de [Institut für theoretische Physik, Philosophenweg 16, D-69120 Heidelberg (Germany); Noh, Changsuk, E-mail: changsuk@kias.re.kr [Korea Institute for Advanced Study, 85 Hoegiro, Seoul 130-722 (Korea, Republic of); Angelakis, Dimitris G., E-mail: dimitris.angelakis@gmail.com [Centre for Quantum Technologies, National University of Singapore, 2 Science Drive 3, 117542 (Singapore); School of Electronic and Computer Engineering, Technical University of Crete, Chania, Crete, 73100 (Greece)

    2016-11-15

    When quantum fields are coupled to gravitational fields, spontaneous particle creation may occur similarly to when they are coupled to external electromagnetic fields. A gravitational field can be incorporated as a background spacetime if the back-action of matter on the field can be neglected, resulting in modifications of the Dirac or Klein–Gordon equations for elementary fermions and bosons respectively. The semi-classical description predicts particle creation in many situations, including the expanding-universe scenario, near the event horizon of a black hole (the Hawking effect), and an accelerating observer in flat spacetime (the Unruh effect). In this work, we give a pedagogical introduction to the Dirac equation in a general 2D spacetime and show examples of spinor wave packet dynamics in flat and curved background spacetimes. In particular, we cover the phenomenon of particle creation in a time-dependent metric. Photonic analogs of these effects are then proposed, where classical light propagating in an array of coupled waveguides provides a visualisation of the Dirac spinor propagating in a curved 2D spacetime background. The extent to which such a single-particle description can be said to mimic particle creation is discussed.

  1. Waveguide resonance mode response of stacked structures of metallic sub-wavelength slit arrays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tokuda, Yasunori; Takano, Keisuke; Sakaguchi, Koichiro; Kato, Kosaku; Nakajima, Makoto; Akiyama, Koichi

    2018-05-01

    Detailed measurements of the optical properties of two-tier systems composed of metallic plates perforated with periodic sub-wavelength slit patterns were carried out using terahertz time-domain spectroscopy. We demonstrate that the transmission properties observed experimentally for various configurations can be reproduced successfully by simulations based on the finite-differential time-domain method. Fabry-Perot-like waveguide resonance mode behaviors specific to this quasi-dielectric system were then investigated. For structures with no lateral displacement between the slit-array plates, mode disappearance phenomena, which are caused by destructive interference between the odd-order mode and the blue- or red-shifted even-order modes, were observed experimentally. The uncommon behavior of the even-order modes was examined precisely to explain the slit-width dependence. For structures with half-pitched displacement between the plates, extraordinarily strong transmission was observed experimentally, even when the optical paths were shut off. This result was interpreted in terms of the propagation of surface plasmon polaritons through very thin and labyrinthine spacings that inevitably exist between the metallic plates. Furthermore, the optical mode disappearance phenomena are revealed to be characterized by anticrossing of the two mixing modes formed by even- and odd-order modes. These experimental observations that are supported theoretically are indispensable to the practical use of this type of artificial dielectric and are expected to encourage interest in optical mode behaviors that are not typically observed in conventional dielectric systems.

  2. Characteristics of the conductance of quantum waveguide containing an array of stubs: Numerical simulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gu Benyuan.

    1994-11-01

    We present the numerical investigations on the conductance of the quantum waveguide containing an array of stubs with the use of the transfer matrix approach. The profiles of the conductance as functions of the stub length and of the Fermi wave number of electrons depend on the number of the stubs as also on the geometric configuration of the stubs. The conductance performance of this system for disordered stub lengths and disordered stub intervals is examined in detail. It is found that the localization length substantially depends on the type of disorder, the extent of disorder and the Fermi wave number of electrons. The influence of the stub interval disorder is less serious than that of the stub length disorder. For the same extent of disorder, the localization length associated with the stub length disorder is much shorter than that associated with the stub interval disorder. Root-mean-square value of the conductance fluctuations depends on the extent of disorder. We also present the statistical distribution of conductance fluctuations in this disorder network structure. It is found that the statistical distribution can be normal or log-normal, depending on the extent of disorder. Finally, we find that the additivity of the inverse of the localization lengths corresponding to the individual disorders and their combined disorder seems to be valid with good accuracy in the weak disorder regime. (author). 24 refs, 9 figs, 1 tab

  3. High-aggregate-capacity visible light communication links using stacked multimode polymer waveguides and micro-pixelated LED arrays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bamiedakis, N.; McKendry, J. J. D.; Xie, E.; Gu, E.; Dawson, M. D.; Penty, R. V.; White, I. H.

    2018-02-01

    In recent years, light emitting diodes (LEDs) have gained renewed interest for use in visible light communication links (VLC) owing to their potential use as both high-quality power-efficient illumination sources as well as low-cost optical transmitters in free-space and guided-wave links. Applications that can benefit from their use include optical wireless systems (LiFi and Internet of Things), in-home and automotive networks, optical USBs and short-reach low-cost optical interconnects. However, VLC links suffer from the limited LED bandwidth (typically 100 MHz). As a result, a combination of novel LED devices, advanced modulation formats and multiplexing methods are employed to overcome this limitation and achieve high-speed (>1 Gb/s) data transmission over such links. In this work, we present recent advances in the formation of high-aggregate-capacity low cost guided wave VLC links using stacked polymer multimode waveguides and matching micro-pixelated LED (μLED) arrays. μLEDs have been shown to exhibit larger bandwidths (>200 MHz) than conventional broad-area LEDs and can be formed in large array configurations, while multimode polymer waveguides enable the formation of low-cost optical links onto standard PCBs. Here, three- and four-layered stacks of multimode waveguides, as well as matching GaN μLED arrays, are fabricated in order to generate high-density yet low-cost optical interconnects. Different waveguide topologies are implemented and are investigated in terms of loss and crosstalk performance. The initial results presented herein demonstrate good intrinsic crosstalk performance and indicate the potential to achieve >= 0.5 Tb/s/mm2 aggregate interconnection capacity using this low-cost technology.

  4. Waveguide-coupled micro-ball lens array suitable for mass fabrication

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chang, Lantian; Dijkstra, Meindert; Ismail, Nur; Pollnau, Markus; de Ridder, René M; Wörhoff, Kerstin; Subramaniam, Vinod; Kanger, Johannes S

    2015-01-01

    We demonstrate a fabrication procedure for the direct integration of micro-ball lenses on planar integrated optical channel waveguide chips with the aim to reduce the divergence of light that arises from the waveguide in both horizontal and vertical directions. Fabrication of the lenses is based on

  5. A grating coupler with a trapezoidal hole array for perfectly vertical light coupling between optical fibers and waveguides

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mizutani, Akio; Eto, Yohei; Kikuta, Hisao

    2017-12-01

    A grating coupler with a trapezoidal hole array was designed and fabricated for perfectly vertical light coupling between a single-mode optical fiber and a silicon waveguide on a silicon-on-insulator (SOI) substrate. The grating coupler with an efficiency of 53% was computationally designed at a 1.1-µm-thick buried oxide (BOX) layer. The grating coupler and silicon waveguide were fabricated on the SOI substrate with a 3.0-µm-thick BOX layer by a single full-etch process. The measured coupling efficiency was 24% for TE-polarized light at 1528 nm wavelength, which was 0.69 times of the calculated coupling efficiency for the 3.0-µm-thick BOX layer.

  6. A Wideband High-Gain Dual-Polarized Slot Array Patch Antenna for WiMAX Applications in 5.8 GHz

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amir Reza Dastkhosh

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available A low-cost, easy-to-fabricate, wideband and high-gain dual-polarized array antenna employing an innovative microstrip slot patch antenna element is designed and fabricated. The design parameters of the antenna are optimized using commercial softwares (Microwave Office and Zeland IE3D to get the suitable -parameters and radiation patterns. Finally, the simulation results are compared to the experimental ones and a good agreement is demonstrated. The antenna has an approximately bandwidth of 14% (5.15–5.9 GHz which covers Worldwide Interoperability Microwave Access (WiMAX/5.8. It also has the peak gain of 26 dBi for both polarizations and high isolation between two ports over a wide bandwidth.

  7. Low-loss bloch wave guiding in open structures and highly compact efficient waveguide-crossing arrays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Popovic, Milos

    2011-03-08

    Low-loss waveguide structures may comprise a multimode waveguide supporting a periodic light intensity pattern, and attachments disposed at the waveguide adjacent low-intensity regions of the light intensity pattern.

  8. Analysis of a Waveguide-Fed Metasurface Antenna

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, David R.; Yurduseven, Okan; Mancera, Laura Pulido; Bowen, Patrick; Kundtz, Nathan B.

    2017-11-01

    The metasurface concept has emerged as an advantageous reconfigurable antenna architecture for beam forming and wave-front shaping, with applications that include satellite and terrestrial communications, radar, imaging, and wireless power transfer. The metasurface antenna consists of an array of metamaterial elements distributed over an electrically large structure, each subwavelength in dimension and with subwavelength separation between elements. In the antenna configuration we consider, the metasurface is excited by the fields from an attached waveguide. Each metamaterial element can be modeled as a polarizable dipole that couples the waveguide mode to radiation modes. Distinct from the phased array and electronically-scanned-antenna architectures, a dynamic metasurface antenna does not require active phase shifters and amplifiers but rather achieves reconfigurability by shifting the resonance frequency of each individual metamaterial element. We derive the basic properties of a one-dimensional waveguide-fed metasurface antenna in the approximation in which the metamaterial elements do not perturb the waveguide mode and are noninteracting. We derive analytical approximations for the array factors of the one-dimensional antenna, including the effective polarizabilities needed for amplitude-only, phase-only, and binary constraints. Using full-wave numerical simulations, we confirm the analysis, modeling waveguides with slots or complementary metamaterial elements patterned into one of the surfaces.

  9. Problem-Matched Basis Functions for Microstrip Coupled Slot Arrays based on Transmission Line Green+s Functions (TLGF)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bruni, S.; Llombart, N.; Neto, A.; Gerini, G.; Maci, S.

    2004-01-01

    A method is proposed for the analysis of arrays of linear printed antennas. After the formulation of pertinent set of integral equations, the appropriate equivalent currents of the Method of Moments are represented in terms of two sets of entire domain basis functions. These functions synthesize on

  10. Co-simulation of a complete rectenna with a circular slot loop antenna in CPW technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rivière, Jérôme; Douyère, Alexandre; Cazour, Jonathan; Alicalapa, Frédéric; Luk, Jean-Daniel Lan Sun

    2017-05-01

    This study starts with the design of a planar and compact CPW antenna fabricated on Arlon AD1000 substrate, ɛr=10.35. The antenna is a coplanar waveguide (CPW) fed circular slot loop antenna matched to the standard impedance 50 Ω by two stubs. The goal is to implement this antenna with a CPW RF/DC rectifier to build an optimized low power level rectenna. The rectenna design is restricted to allow easy and fast fabrication of an array with a high reproducibility. The full rectenna is simulated and achieves 10% effciency at -20 dBm.

  11. A compact O-plus C-band switchable quad-wavelength fiber laser using arrayed waveguide grating

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Latif, A A; Zulkifli, M Z; Hassan, N A; Ahmad, H; Harun, S W; Ghani, Z A

    2010-01-01

    In this paper, a design of a quad-wavelength fiber laser (QWFL) operating in two different regions namely the O-band covering from 1302 nm to1317.4 nm and C-band from 1530.5 nm to 1548.0 nm is presented. Two different ASE sources from semiconductor optical amplifiers (SOAs) are used, one at 1310 nm and the other at1550 nm. By using a 1×24 channels arrayed waveguide grating (AWG) with 100 GHz interchannel spacing, the system is capable of generating 24 different wavelengths in more than 24 ways of quad-wavelength fiber laser with 0.6 nm and 0.8 nm of interval channel for O-band and C-band regions, respectively

  12. Complementary Walsh-Hadamard coded optical CDMA coder/decoders structured over arrayed-waveguide grating routers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Jen-Fa; Yang, Chao-Chin; Tseng, Shin-Pin

    2004-01-01

    In this paper, an optical code-division multiple-access (OCDMA) system with complementary Walsh-Hadamard coded optical encoder/decoder configuration structured over arrayed-waveguide grating (AWG) routers is examined. In the proposed system, each network user requires only two AWG routers to accomplish spectral encoding and decoding for complementary keying, thus, resulting a simpler and low cost system. Performance of the proposed system is analyzed by taking the effect of phase-induced intensity noise into account. The result indicates that the established system not only preserves the capability of suppressing multiple-access interference (MAI), but also improves bit-error-rate performance as compared to the conventional coders employing simple on-off keying.

  13. High-contrast grating hollow-core waveguide splitter applied to optical phased array

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Che; Xue, Ping; Zhang, Hanxing; Chen, Te; Peng, Chao; Hu, Weiwei

    2014-11-01

    A novel hollow-core (HW) Y-branch waveguide splitter based on high-contrast grating (HCG) is presented. We calculated and designed the HCG-HW splitter using Rigorous Coupled Wave Analysis (RCWA). Finite-different timedomain (FDTD) simulation shows that the splitter has a broad bandwidth and the branching loss is as low as 0.23 dB. Fabrication is accomplished with standard Silicon-On-Insulator (SOI) process. The experimental measurement results indicate its good performance on beam splitting near the central wavelength λ = 1550 nm with a total insertion loss of 7.0 dB.

  14. Ferrite LTCC based phased array antennas

    KAUST Repository

    Ghaffar, Farhan A.

    2016-11-02

    Two phased array antennas realized in multilayer ferrite LTCC technology are presented in this paper. The use of embedded bias windings in these designs allows the negation of external magnets which are conventionally employed with bulk ferrite medium. This reduces the required magnetostatic field strength by 90% as compared to the traditional designs. The phase shifters are implemented using the SIW technology. One of the designs is operated in the half mode waveguide topology while the other design is based on standard full mode waveguide operation. The two phase shifter designs are integrated with two element patch antenna array and slotted SIW array respectively. The array designs demonstrate a beam steering of 30° and ±19° respectively for a current excitation of 200 mA. The designs, due to their small factor can be easily integrated in modern communication systems which is not possible in the case of bulk ferrite based designs.

  15. Low threshold all-optical crossbar switch on GaAs-GaAlAs channel waveguide arrays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jannson, Tomasz; Kostrzewski, Andrew

    1994-09-01

    During the Phase 2 project entitled 'Low Threshold All-Optical Crossbar Switch on GaAs - GaAlAs Channel Waveguide Array,' Physical Optics Corporation (POC) developed the basic principles for the fabrication of all-optical crossbar switches. Based on this development. POC fabricated a 2 x 2 GaAs/GaAlAs switch that changes the direction of incident light with minimum insertion loss and nonlinear distortion. This unique technology can be used in both analog and digital networks. The applications of this technology are widespread. Because the all-optical network does not have any speed limitations (RC time constant), POC's approach will be beneficial to SONET networks, phased array radar networks, very high speed oscilloscopes, all-optical networks, IR countermeasure systems, BER equipment, and the fast growing video conferencing network market. The novel all-optical crossbar switch developed in this program will solve interconnect problems. and will be a key component in the widely proposed all-optical 200 Gb/s SONET/ATM networks.

  16. Transport Infrastructure Slot Allocation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koolstra, K.

    2005-01-01

    In this thesis, transport infrastructure slot allocation has been studied, focusing on selection slot allocation, i.e. on longer-term slot allocation decisions determining the traffic patterns served by infrastructure bottlenecks, rather than timetable-related slot allocation problems. The

  17. Solitary wave for a nonintegrable discrete nonlinear Schrödinger equation in nonlinear optical waveguide arrays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Li-Yuan; Ji, Jia-Liang; Xu, Zong-Wei; Zhu, Zuo-Nong

    2018-03-01

    We study a nonintegrable discrete nonlinear Schrödinger (dNLS) equation with the term of nonlinear nearest-neighbor interaction occurred in nonlinear optical waveguide arrays. By using discrete Fourier transformation, we obtain numerical approximations of stationary and travelling solitary wave solutions of the nonintegrable dNLS equation. The analysis of stability of stationary solitary waves is performed. It is shown that the nonlinear nearest-neighbor interaction term has great influence on the form of solitary wave. The shape of solitary wave is important in the electric field propagating. If we neglect the nonlinear nearest-neighbor interaction term, much important information in the electric field propagating may be missed. Our numerical simulation also demonstrates the difference of chaos phenomenon between the nonintegrable dNLS equation with nonlinear nearest-neighbor interaction and another nonintegrable dNLS equation without the term. Project supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant Nos. 11671255 and 11701510), the Ministry of Economy and Competitiveness of Spain (Grant No. MTM2016-80276-P (AEI/FEDER, EU)), and the China Postdoctoral Science Foundation (Grant No. 2017M621964).

  18. Response Characterization of a Fiber Optic Sensor Array with Dye-Coated Planar Waveguide for Detection of Volatile Organic Compounds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jae-Sung Lee

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available We have developed a multi-array side-polished optical-fiber gas sensor for the detection of volatile organic compound (VOC gases. The side-polished optical-fiber coupled with a polymer planar waveguide (PWG provides high sensitivity to alterations in refractive index. The PWG was fabricated by coating a solvatochromic dye with poly(vinylpyrrolidone. To confirm the effectiveness of the sensor, five different sensing membranes were fabricated by coating the side-polished optical-fiber using the solvatochromic dyes Reinhardt’s dye, Nile red, 4-aminophthalimide, 4-amino-N-methylphthalimide, and 4-(dimethylaminocinnamaldehyde, which have different polarities that cause changes in the effective refractive index of the sensing membrane owing to evanescent field coupling. The fabricated gas detection system was tested with five types of VOC gases, namely acetic acid, benzene, dimethylamine, ethanol, and toluene at concentrations of 1, 2,…,10 ppb. Second-regression and principal component analyses showed that the response properties of the proposed VOC gas sensor were linearly shifted bathochromically, and each gas showed different response characteristics.

  19. Theory for optimal design of waveguiding light concentrators in photovoltaic microcell arrays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Semichaevsky, Andrey V; Johnson, Harley T; Yoon, Jongseung; Nuzzo, Ralph G; Li, Lanfang; Rogers, John

    2011-06-10

    Efficiency of ultrathin flexible solar photovoltaic silicon microcell arrays can be significantly improved using nonimaging solar concentrators. A fluorophore is introduced to match the solar spectrum and the low-reflectivity wavelength range of Si, reduce the escape losses, and allow the nontracking operation. In this paper we optimize our solar concentrators using a luminescent/nonluminescent photon transport model. Key modeling results are compared quantitatively to experiments and are in good agreement with the latter. Our solar concentrator performance is not limited by the dye self-absorption. Bending deformations of the flexible solar collectors do not result in their indirect gain degradation compared to flat solar concentrators with the same projected area.

  20. Different optical properties in different periodic slot cavity geometrical morphologies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Jing; Shen, Meng; Du, Lan; Deng, Caisong; Ni, Haibin; Wang, Ming

    2016-09-01

    In this paper, optical properties of two-dimensional periodic annular slot cavity arrays in hexagonal close-packing on a silica substrate are theoretically characterized by finite difference time domain (FDTD) simulation method. By simulating reflectance spectra, electric field distribution, and charge distribution, we confirm that multiple cylindrical surface plasmon resonances can be excited in annular inclined slot cavities by linearly polarized light, in which the four reflectance dips are attributed to Fabry-Perot cavity resonances in the coaxial cavity. A coaxial waveguide mode TE11 will exist in these annular cavities, and the wavelengths of these reflectance dips are effectively tailored by changing the geometrical pattern of slot cavity and the dielectric materials filled in the cavities. These resonant wavelengths are localized in annular cavities with large electric field enhancement and dissipate gradually due to metal loss. The formation of an absorption peak can be explained from the aspect of phase matching conditions. We observed that the proposed structure can be tuned over the broad spectral range of 600-4000 nm by changing the outer and inner radii of the annular gaps, gap surface topography. Meanwhile, different lengths of the cavity may cause the shift of resonance dips. Also, we study the field enhancement at different vertical locations of the slit. In addition, dielectric materials filling in the annular gaps will result in a shift of the resonance wavelengths, which make the annular cavities good candidates for refractive index sensors. The refractive index sensitivity of annular cavities can also be tuned by the geometry size and the media around the cavity. Annular cavities with novel applications can be implied as surface enhanced Raman spectra substrates, refractive index sensors, nano-lasers, and optical trappers. Project supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant No. 61178044), the Natural Science Foundation

  1. Substrate Integrated Waveguide Based Phase Shifter and Phased Array in a Ferrite Low Temperature Co-fired Ceramic Package

    KAUST Repository

    Nafe, Ahmed A.

    2014-01-01

    that controls the phase of the signal passing through it. Among the technologies used to realize this device, traditional ferrite waveguide phase shifters offer the best performance. However, they are bulky and difficult to integrate with other system components

  2. Nonlinear defect localized modes and composite gray and anti-gray solitons in one-dimensional waveguide arrays with dual-flip defects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yan; Guan, Yefeng; Li, Hai; Luo, Zhihuan; Mai, Zhijie

    2017-08-01

    We study families of stationary nonlinear localized modes and composite gray and anti-gray solitons in a one-dimensional linear waveguide array with dual phase-flip nonlinear point defects. Unstaggered fundamental and dipole bright modes are studied when the defect nonlinearity is self-focusing. For the fundamental modes, symmetric and asymmetric nonlinear modes are found. Their stable areas are studied using different defect coefficients and their total power. For the nonlinear dipole modes, the stability conditions of this type of mode are also identified by different defect coefficients and the total power. When the defect nonlinearity is replaced by the self-defocusing one, staggered fundamental and dipole bright modes are created. Finally, if we replace the linear waveguide with a full nonlinear waveguide, a new type of gray and anti-gray solitons, which are constructed by a kink and anti-kink pair, can be supported by such dual phase-flip defects. In contrast to the usual gray and anti-gray solitons formed by a single kink, their backgrounds on either side of the gray hole or bright hump have the same phase.

  3. Slotted coax as a beam electrode

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lambertson, G.R.; Kim, K.J.; Voelker, F.V.

    1983-03-01

    The slot coupled TEM line has been employed at CERN as a pick up electrode in the GHz range. It is a compact and broad band device, and will be quite attractive if the coupling efficiency is competitive with an array of quarter wave loops. In this paper, we study various properties of such a structure

  4. A Truncated Waveguide Fed by a Microstrip as a Radiating Element for High-Performance Automotive Anticollision Radars

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giovanni Andrea Casula

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available A small truncated waveguide fed by a microstrip line through a transverse coupling slot is proposed and assessed as a high-performance antenna and array element in the K band and above. This antenna allows to obtain a high radiated power, with a very low cross-polar component in the radiated field. It is therefore particularly suitable for application in automotive anticollision radars. The proposed radiating element has been analyzed by a numerical code based on an in-house method of moments, and the microstrip feeding line has been modeled by its equivalent magnetic-wall waveguide. A linear array of such elements has been designed and matched with a BPF-inspired matching network allowing an in-band behavior suitable for anti-collision radar use, with an out-of-band rejection large enough to avoid the first receiving BPF.

  5. Development of a Compact Wide-Slot Antenna for Early Stage Breast Cancer Detection Featuring Circular Array Full-View Geometry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. S. Tiang

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available A novel planar type antenna printed on a high permittivity Rogers’ substrate is proposed for early stage microwave breast cancer detection. The design is based on a p-shaped wide-slot structure with 50 Ω microstrip feeding circuit to eliminate losses of transmission. The design parameters are optimized resulting in a good reflection coefficient at −10 dB from 4.5 to 10.9 GHz. Imaging result using inhomogeneous breast phantom indicates that the proposed antenna is capable of detecting a 5 mm size cancerous tumor embedded inside the fibroglandular region with dielectric contrast between the target and the surrounding materials ranging from 1.7 : 1 to 3.6 : 1.

  6. Light-emitting waveguide-plasmon polaritions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rodriguez, S.R.K.; Murai, S.; Verschuuren, M.A.; Gómez Rivas, J.

    2012-01-01

    We demonstrate the generation of light in an optical waveguide strongly coupled to a periodic array of metallic nanoantennas. This coupling gives rise to hybrid waveguide-plasmon polaritons (WPPs), which undergo a transmutation from plasmon to waveguide mode and vice versa as the eigenfrequency

  7. Waveguide harmonic damper for klystron amplifier

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kang, Y.

    1998-01-01

    A waveguide harmonic damper was designed for removing the harmonic frequency power from the klystron amplifiers of the APS linac. Straight coaxial probe antennas are used in a rectangular waveguide to form a damper. A linear array of the probe antennas is used on a narrow wall of the rectangular waveguide for damping klystron harmonics while decoupling the fundamental frequency in dominent TE 01 mode. The klystron harmonics can exist in the waveguide as waveguide higher-order modes above cutoff. Computer simulations are made to investigate the waveguide harmonic damping characteristics of the damper

  8. Novel hard mask fabrication method for hybrid plasmonic waveguide and metasurfaces

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Choudhury, Sajid; Zenin, Vladimir A.; Saha, Soham

    2017-01-01

    A hybrid plasmonic waveguide fabrication technique has been developed and waveguides fabricated using this technique have been demonstrated experimentally. The developed technique can be utilized for creating similar hybrid waveguide structures and metasurfaces with an array of material platforms...

  9. Waveguide based external cavity semiconductor lasers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oldenbeuving, Ruud; Klein, E.J.; Offerhaus, Herman L.; Lee, Christopher James; Verhaegen, M.; Boller, Klaus J.

    2012-01-01

    We report on progress of the project waveguide based external cavity semiconductor laser (WECSL) arrays. Here we present the latest results on our efforts to mode lock an array of tunable, external cavity semiconductor lasers.

  10. Multiplexed Simultaneous High Sensitivity Sensors with High-Order Mode Based on the Integration of Photonic Crystal 1 × 3 Beam Splitter and Three Different Single-Slot PCNCs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Jian; Huang, Lijun; Fu, Zhongyuan; Sun, Fujun; Tian, Huiping

    2016-07-07

    We simulated an efficient method for the sensor array of high-sensitivity single-slot photonic crystal nanobeam cavities (PCNCs) on a silicon platform. With the combination of a well-designed photonic crystal waveguide (PhCW) filter and an elaborate single-slot PCNC, a specific high-order resonant mode was filtered for sensing. A 1 × 3 beam splitter carefully established was implemented to split channels and integrate three sensors to realize microarrays. By applying the three-dimensional finite-difference-time-domain (3D-FDTD) method, the sensitivities calculated were S₁ = 492 nm/RIU, S₂ = 244 nm/RIU, and S₃ = 552 nm/RIU, respectively. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first multiplexing design in which each sensor cite features such a high sensitivity simultaneously.

  11. Multiplexed Simultaneous High Sensitivity Sensors with High-Order Mode Based on the Integration of Photonic Crystal 1 × 3 Beam Splitter and Three Different Single-Slot PCNCs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jian Zhou

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available We simulated an efficient method for the sensor array of high-sensitivity single-slot photonic crystal nanobeam cavities (PCNCs on a silicon platform. With the combination of a well-designed photonic crystal waveguide (PhCW filter and an elaborate single-slot PCNC, a specific high-order resonant mode was filtered for sensing. A 1 × 3 beam splitter carefully established was implemented to split channels and integrate three sensors to realize microarrays. By applying the three-dimensional finite-difference-time-domain (3D-FDTD method, the sensitivities calculated were S1 = 492 nm/RIU, S2 = 244 nm/RIU, and S3 = 552 nm/RIU, respectively. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first multiplexing design in which each sensor cite features such a high sensitivity simultaneously.

  12. Phased arrays of compact waveguide radiators and frequency selective surfaces : a multi-mode equivalent network approach

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gerini, G.

    2003-01-01

    The current trend for radar array antennas requires increased integration, as well as large bandwidth, for multifunction systems, and frequency/angular selectivity properties for structural integration on military platforms, like ships and aircrafts, with low radar cross section (RCS). We have

  13. Hybrid plasmonic waveguide-assisted Metal–Insulator–Metal ring resonator for refractive index sensing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butt, M. A.; Khonina, S. N.; Kazanskiy, N. L.

    2018-05-01

    A highly sensitive refractive index sensor based on an integrated hybrid plasmonic waveguide (HPWG) and a Metal-Insulator-Metal (M-I-M) micro-ring resonator is presented. In our design, there are two slot-waveguide-based micro-rings that encircle a gold disc. The outer slot WG is formed by the combination of Silicon-Air-Gold ring and the inner slot-waveguide is formed by Gold ring-Air-Gold disc. The slot-waveguide rings provide an interaction length sufficient to accumulate a detectable wavelength shift. The transmission spectrum and electric field distribution of this sensor structure are simulated using Finite Element Method (FEM). The sensitivity of this micro-ring resonator is achieved at 800 nm/RIU which is about six times higher than that of the conventional Si ring with the same geometry. Our proposed sensor design has a potential to find further applications in biomedical science and nano-photonic circuits.

  14. Broadcast Coded Slotted ALOHA

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ivanov, Mikhail; Brännström, Frederik; Graell i Amat, Alexandre

    2016-01-01

    We propose an uncoordinated medium access control (MAC) protocol, called all-to-all broadcast coded slotted ALOHA (B-CSA) for reliable all-to-all broadcast with strict latency constraints. In B-CSA, each user acts as both transmitter and receiver in a half-duplex mode. The half-duplex mode gives ...

  15. High-Q silicon-on-insulator slot photonic crystal cavity infiltrated by a liquid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Caër, Charles; Le Roux, Xavier; Cassan, Eric

    2013-01-01

    We report the experimental realization of a high-Q slot photonic crystal cavity in Silicon-On-Insulator (SOI) configuration infiltrated by a liquid. Loaded Q-factor of 23 000 is measured at telecom wavelength. The intrinsic quality factor inferred from the transmission spectrum is higher than 200 000, which represents a record value for slot photonic crystal cavities on SOI, whereas the maximum of intensity of the cavity is roughly equal to 20% of the light transmitted in the waveguide. This result makes filled slot photonic crystal cavities very promising for silicon-based light emission and ultrafast nonlinear optics

  16. A Novel Compact Wideband TSA Array for Near-Surface Ice Sheet Penetrating Radar Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Feng; Liu, Xiaojun; Fang, Guangyou

    2014-03-01

    A novel compact tapered slot antenna (TSA) array for near-surface ice sheet penetrating radar applications is presented. This TSA array is composed of eight compact antenna elements which are etched on two 480mm × 283mm FR4 substrates. Each antenna element is fed by a wideband coplanar waveguide (CPW) to coupled strip-line (CPS) balun. The two antenna substrates are connected together with a metallic baffle. To obtain wideband properties, another two metallic baffles are used along broadsides of the array. This array is fed by a 1 × 8 wideband power divider. The measured S11 of the array is less than -10dB in the band of 500MHz-2GHz, and the measured gain is more than 6dBi in the whole band which agrees well with the simulated results.

  17. Metal membrane with dimer slots as a universal polarizer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhukovsky, Sergej; Zalkovskij, Maksim; Malureanu, Radu; Kremers, Christian; Chigrin, Dmitry; Tang, Peter T.; Jepsen, Peter U.; Lavrinenko, Andrei V.

    2014-03-01

    In this work, we show theoretically and confirm experimentally that thin metal membranes patterned with an array of slot dimers (or their Babinet analogue with metal rods) can function as a versatile spectral and polarization filter. We present a detailed covariant multipole theory for the electromagnetic response of an arbitrary dimer based on the Green functions approach. The theory confirms that a great variety of polarization properties, such as birefringence, chirality and elliptical dichroism, can be achieved in a metal layer with such slot-dimer patterning (i.e. in a metasurface). Optical properties of the metasurface can be extensively tuned by varying the geometry (shape and dimensions) of the dimer, for example, by adjusting the sizes and mutual placement of the slots (e.g. inter-slot distance and alignment angle). Three basic shapes of dimers are analyzed: II-shaped (parallel slots), V-shaped, and T-shaped. These particular shapes of dimers are found to be sensitive to variations of the slots lengths and orientation of elements. Theoretical results are well supported by full-wave three-dimensional simulations. Our findings were verified experimentally on the metal membranes fabricated using UV lithography with subsequent Ni growth. Such metasurfaces were characterized using time-domain THz spectroscopy. The samples exhibit pronounced optical activity (500 degrees per wavelength) and high transmission: even though the slots cover only 4.3 % of the total membrane area the amplitude transmission reaches 0.67 at the resonance frequency 0.56 THz.

  18. Metal membrane with dimer slots as a universal polarizer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhukovsky, Sergei; Zalkovskij, Maksim; Malureanu, Radu

    2014-01-01

    In this work, we show theoretically and confirm experimentally that thin metal membranes patterned with an array of slot dimers (or their Babinet analogue with metal rods) can function as a versatile spectral and polarization filter. We present a detailed covariant multipole theory for the electr......In this work, we show theoretically and confirm experimentally that thin metal membranes patterned with an array of slot dimers (or their Babinet analogue with metal rods) can function as a versatile spectral and polarization filter. We present a detailed covariant multipole theory...

  19. Slot-dimer babinet metamaterials as polarization shapers for terahertz waves

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhukovsky, Sergei; Chigrin, D. N.; Lavrinenko, Andrei

    2013-01-01

    We theoretically study optical properties of free-standing metallic membranes patterned with an array of two-slot elements (dimers) comprising two rectangular slots of different dimensions and orientation. It is shown that these structures feature extraordinary optical transmission with strong...

  20. Slotted Photonic Crystal Sensors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scullion, Mark G.; Krauss, Thomas F.; Di Falco, Andrea

    2013-01-01

    Optical biosensors are increasingly being considered for lab-on-a-chip applications due to their benefits such as small size, biocompatibility, passive behaviour and lack of the need for fluorescent labels. The light guiding mechanisms used by many of them results in poor overlap of the optical field with the target molecules, reducing the maximum sensitivity achievable. This review article presents a new platform for optical biosensors, namely slotted photonic crystals, which provide higher sensitivities due to their ability to confine, spatially and temporally, the optical mode peak within the analyte itself. Loss measurements showed values comparable to standard photonic crystals, confirming their ability to be used in real devices. A novel resonant coupler was designed, simulated, and experimentally tested, and was found to perform better than other solutions within the literature. Combining with cavities, microfluidics and biological functionalization allowed proof-of-principle demonstrations of protein binding to be carried out. Higher sensitivities were observed in smaller structures than possible with most competing devices reported in the literature. This body of work presents slotted photonic crystals as a realistic platform for complete on-chip biosensing; addressing key design, performance and application issues, whilst also opening up exciting new ideas for future study. PMID:23503295

  1. Slotted Photonic Crystal Sensors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea Di Falco

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Optical biosensors are increasingly being considered for lab-on-a-chip applications due to their benefits such as small size, biocompatibility, passive behaviour and lack of the need for fluorescent labels. The light guiding mechanisms used by many of them results in poor overlap of the optical field with the target molecules, reducing the maximum sensitivity achievable. This review article presents a new platform for optical biosensors, namely slotted photonic crystals, which provide higher sensitivities due to their ability to confine, spatially and temporally, the optical mode peak within the analyte itself. Loss measurements showed values comparable to standard photonic crystals, confirming their ability to be used in real devices. A novel resonant coupler was designed, simulated, and experimentally tested, and was found to perform better than other solutions within the literature. Combining with cavities, microfluidics and biological functionalization allowed proof-of-principle demonstrations of protein binding to be carried out. Higher sensitivities were observed in smaller structures than possible with most competing devices reported in the literature. This body of work presents slotted photonic crystals as a realistic platform for complete on-chip biosensing; addressing key design, performance and application issues, whilst also opening up exciting new ideas for future study.

  2. Wave-guided optical waveguides

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Palima, Darwin; Bañas, Andrew Rafael; Vizsnyiczai, George

    2012-01-01

    This work primarily aims to fabricate and use two photon polymerization (2PP) microstructures capable of being optically manipulated into any arbitrary orientation. We have integrated optical waveguides into the structures and therefore have freestanding waveguides, which can be positioned anywhe...... bridge the diffraction barrier. This structure-mediated paradigm may be carried forward to open new possibilities for exploiting beams from far-field optics down to the subwavelength domain....

  3. Slot-Coupled Barbel Antenna

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Kasper Lüthje; Jakobsen, Kaj Bjarne

    2016-01-01

    A novel slot-coupled barbel antenna is designed and analyzed. A sensitivity analysis performed in order to improve the bandwidth, while the center frequency is kept constant.......A novel slot-coupled barbel antenna is designed and analyzed. A sensitivity analysis performed in order to improve the bandwidth, while the center frequency is kept constant....

  4. The cross waveguide grating: proposal, theory and applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muñoz, Pascual; Pastor, Daniel; Capmany, José

    2005-04-18

    In this paper a novel grating-like integrated optics device is proposed, the Cross Waveguide Grating (XWG). The device is based upon a modified configuration of a traditional Arrayed Waveguide Grating (AWG). The Arrayed Waveguides part is changed, as detailed along this document, giving the device both the ability of multi/demultiplexing and power splitting/coupling. Design examples and transfer function simulations show good agreement with the presented theory. Finally, some of the envisaged applications are outlined.

  5. Polymer Waveguide Fabrication Techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramey, Delvan A.

    1985-01-01

    The ability of integrated optic systems to compete in signal processing aplications with more traditional analog and digital electronic systems is discussed. The Acousto-Optic Spectrum Analyzer is an example which motivated the particular work discussed herein. Provided real time processing is more critical than absolute accuracy, such integrated optic systems fulfill a design need. Fan-out waveguide arrays allow crosstalk in system detector arrays to be controlled without directly limiting system resolution. A polyurethane pattern definition process was developed in order to demonstrate fan-out arrays. This novel process is discussed, along with further research needs. Integrated optic system market penetration would be enhanced by development of commercial processes of this type.

  6. Low-loss intersection of subwavelength plasmonic slot waveguides

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Xiao, Sanshui; Mortensen, Niels Asger

    2008-01-01

    and resonant-tunnelling effect, we design two types of compact cavity-based structures. Our results show that the crosstalk is eliminated and the throughput reaches the unity on resonance. Simulation results are in agreement with those from coupled-mode theory. Taking material loss into account, the symmetry...

  7. Dual Mode Slotted Monopole Antenna

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-01-05

    May 2017 The below identified patent application is available for licensing. Requests for information should be addressed to: TECHNOLOGY...REFERENCE TO OTHER PATENT APPLICATIONS [0002] None. BACKGROUND OF THE INVENTION (1) Field of the Invention [0003] The present invention is directed...to connect across slot 14. [0005] In United States Patent No. 6,127,983 to Rivera and Josypenko, it has been shown that the slotted cylinder

  8. A PML-FDTD ALGORITHM FOR SIMULATING PLASMA-COVERED CAVITY-BACKED SLOT ANTENNAS. (R825225)

    Science.gov (United States)

    A three-dimensional frequency-dependent finite-difference time-domain (FDTD) algorithm with perfectly matched layer (PML) absorbing boundary condition (ABC) and recursive convolution approaches is developed to model plasma-covered open-ended waveguide or cavity-backed slot antenn...

  9. Radial microstrip slotline feed network for circular mobile communications array

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simons, Rainee N.; Kelly, Eron S.; Lee, Richard Q.; Taub, Susan R.

    1994-01-01

    In mobile and satellite communications there is a need for low cost and low profile antennas which have a toroidal pattern. Antennas that have been developed for mobile communications include a L-Band electronically steered stripline phased array, a Ka-Band mechanically steered elliptical reflector antenna and a Ka-Band printed dipole. In addition, a L-Band mechanically steered microstrip array, a L-Band microstrip phased array tracking antenna for mounting on a car roof and an X-Band radial line slotted waveguide antenna have been demonstrated. In the above electronically scanned printed arrays, the individual element radiates normally to the plane of the array and hence require a phase shifter to scan the beam towards the horizon. Scanning in the azimuth is by mechanical or electronic steering. An alternate approach is to mount microstrip patch radiators on the surface of a cone to achieve the required elevation angle. The array then scans in the azimuth by beam switching.

  10. Matrix method for two-dimensional waveguide mode solution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Baoguang; Cai, Congzhong; Venkatesh, Balajee Seshasayee

    2018-05-01

    In this paper, we show that the transfer matrix theory of multilayer optics can be used to solve the modes of any two-dimensional (2D) waveguide for their effective indices and field distributions. A 2D waveguide, even composed of numerous layers, is essentially a multilayer stack and the transmission through the stack can be analysed using the transfer matrix theory. The result is a transfer matrix with four complex value elements, namely A, B, C and D. The effective index of a guided mode satisfies two conditions: (1) evanescent waves exist simultaneously in the first (cladding) layer and last (substrate) layer, and (2) the complex element D vanishes. For a given mode, the field distribution in the waveguide is the result of a 'folded' plane wave. In each layer, there is only propagation and absorption; at each boundary, only reflection and refraction occur, which can be calculated according to the Fresnel equations. As examples, we show that this method can be used to solve modes supported by the multilayer step-index dielectric waveguide, slot waveguide, gradient-index waveguide and various plasmonic waveguides. The results indicate the transfer matrix method is effective for 2D waveguide mode solution in general.

  11. Analytical and hybrid methods in the theory of slot-hole coupling of electrodynamic volumes

    CERN Document Server

    Katrich, Victor A; Berdnik, Sergey L; Berdnik, Sergey L

    2008-01-01

    Narration of the text is both laconic and visually accessible, providing the reader with the possibility of rapid study and application of methods of computer analysis of electrodynamic problemsThe book is aimed at university professors, researchers and those specialists who are interested in theory and practical analysis of waveguide devices and systems using slot coupling elementsTopics included in the book are directly based on the original research results obtained by the authors and otherwise unknown earlier.

  12. Design and Fabrication of Slotted Multimode Interference Devices for Chemical and Biological Sensing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Mayeh

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available We present optical sensors based on slotted multimode interference waveguides. The sensor can be tuned to highest sensitivity in the refractive index ranges necessary to detect protein-based molecules or other water-soluble chemical or biological materials. The material of choice is low-loss silicon oxynitride (SiON which is highly stable to the reactivity with biological agents and processing chemicals. Sensors made with this technology are suited to high volume manufacturing.

  13. The Gambling Reducing Slot Machine

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Callesen, Mette Buhl; Thomsen, Kristine Rømer; Linnet, Jakob

    2007-01-01

      The Gambling Reducing Slot Machine - Preliminary results Mette Buhl Callesen, Kristine Rømer Thomsen, Jakob Linnet and Arne Møller The PET Centre, Aarhus University Hospital and Centre of Functionally Integrative Neuroscience, Aarhus, Denmark   Slot machines are among the most addictive forms...... and willingness to continue gambling. The results may have important implications for understanding how to reduce gambling behavior in pathological gamblers.   [1] Griffiths, M. 1999. Gambling Technologies: Prospects for Problem Gambling. Journal of Gambling Studies, vol. 15(3), pp. 265-283.    ...

  14. Quantum waveguides

    CERN Document Server

    Exner, Pavel

    2015-01-01

    This monograph explains the theory of quantum waveguides, that is, dynamics of quantum particles confined to regions in the form of tubes, layers, networks, etc. The focus is on relations between the confinement geometry on the one hand and the spectral and scattering properties of the corresponding quantum Hamiltonians on the other. Perturbations of such operators, in particular, by external fields are also considered. The volume provides a unique summary of twenty five years of research activity in this area and indicates ways in which the theory can develop further. The book is fairly self-contained. While it requires some broader mathematical physics background, all the basic concepts are properly explained and proofs of most theorems are given in detail, so there is no need for additional sources. Without a parallel in the literature, the monograph by Exner and Kovarik guides the reader through this new and exciting field.

  15. A Novel Dual-Band Circularly Polarized Rectangular Slot Antenna

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Biao Li

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available A coplanar waveguide fed dual-band circularly polarized rectangular slot antenna is presented. The proposed antenna consists of a rectangular metal frame acting as a ground and an S-shaped monopole as a radiator. The spatial distribution of the surface current density is employed to demonstrate that the circular polarization is generated by the S-shaped monopole which controls the path of the surface currents. An antenna prototype, having overall dimension 37 × 37 × 1 mm3, has been fabricated on FR4 substrate with dielectric constant 4.4. The proposed antenna achieves 10 dB return loss bandwidths and 3 dB axial ratio (AR in the frequency bands 2.39–2.81 GHz and 5.42–5.92 GHz, respectively. Both these characteristics are suitable for WLAN and WiMAX applications.

  16. Microfabricated Waveguide Atom Traps.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jau, Yuan-Yu [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2017-09-01

    A nanoscale , microfabricated waveguide structure can in - principle be used to trap atoms in well - defined locations and enable strong photon-atom interactions . A neutral - atom platform based on this microfabrication technology will be prealigned , which is especially important for quantum - control applications. At present, there is still no reported demonstration of evanescent - field atom trapping using a microfabricated waveguide structure. We described the capabilities established by our team for future development of the waveguide atom - trapping technology at SNL and report our studies to overcome the technical challenges of loading cold atoms into the waveguide atom traps, efficient and broadband optical coupling to a waveguide, and the waveguide material for high - power optical transmission. From the atomic - physics and the waveguide modeling, w e have shown that a square nano-waveguide can be utilized t o achieve better atomic spin squeezing than using a nanofiber for first time.

  17. Optical touch screen based on waveguide sensing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Henrik Chresten; Jakobsen, Michael Linde; Hanson, Steen Grüner

    2011-01-01

    We disclose a simple, optical touch screen technique based on a planar injection molded polymer waveguide, a single laser, and a small linear detector array. The solution significantly reduces the complexity and cost as compared to existing optical touch technologies. Force detection of a touching...

  18. Quadrature Slotted Surface Coil Pair for Magnetic Resonance Imaging at 4 Tesla: Phantom Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Solis S.E.

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available A coil array was composed of two slotted surface coils forming a structure with two plates at 900, each one having 6 circular slots and is introduced in this paper. Numerical simulations of the magnetic field of this coil array were performed at 170 MHz using the finite element method to study its behaviour. This coil array was developed for brain magnetic resonance imaging to be operated at the resonant frequency of 170 MHz in the transceiver mode and quadrature driven. Numerical simulations demonstrated that electromagnetic interaction between the coil elements is negligible, and that the magnetic field showed a good uniformity. Phantom images were acquired with our coil array and standard pulse sequences on a research-dedicated 4 Tesla scanner. In vitro images showed the feasibility of this coil array for standard pulses and high field magnetic resonance imaging.

  19. Wavefront correction performed by a deformable mirror of arbitrary actuator pattern within a multireflection waveguide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Xingkun; Huang, Lei; Bian, Qi; Gong, Mali

    2014-09-10

    The wavefront correction ability of a deformable mirror with a multireflection waveguide was investigated and compared via simulations. By dividing a conventional actuator array into a multireflection waveguide that consisted of single-actuator units, an arbitrary actuator pattern could be achieved. A stochastic parallel perturbation algorithm was proposed to find the optimal actuator pattern for a particular aberration. Compared with conventional an actuator array, the multireflection waveguide showed significant advantages in correction of higher order aberrations.

  20. Seawave Slot-Cone Generator

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vicinanza, Diego; Margheritini, Lucia; Contestabile, Pasquale

    2009-01-01

    This paper discusses a new type of Wave Energy Converter (WEC) named Seawave Slot-Cone Generator (SSG). The SSG is a WEC of the overtopping type. The structure consists of a number of reservoirs one on the top of each others above the mean water level in which the water of incoming waves is store...... on sloping walls constituting the structure. The research is intended to be of direct use to engineers analyzing design and stability of this peculiar kind of coastal structure....

  1. CPW-fed Circularly Polarized Slot Antenna with Small Gap and Stick-shaped Shorted Strip for UHF FRID Readers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Chien-Yuan; Su, Chum-Chieh; Yang, Wei-Lin

    2018-04-01

    A new circularly polarized (CP) slot antenna with a small gap and a stick-shaped shorted strip is presented. The proposed antenna has a sufficient bandwidth for ultrahigh frequency (UHF) radio-frequency identification (RFID) reader applications. The antenna structure consists of a rectangular slot with a small gap, a stick-shaped shorted strip and a 50 Ω coplanar waveguide (CPW) feedline with an asymmetrical ground plane. By using the stick -shaped shorted strip to disturb magnetic current distribution on the slot, the CP radiation can be generated. The measured results demonstrate that the proposed antenna can reach a 10 dB return loss impedance bandwidth of 14.1 % (894-1030 MHz) and a 3 dB axial ratio (AR) bandwidth of 6.4 % (910-970 MHz). The whole antenna size is 80 × 80 × 1.6 mm3.

  2. Coupling slots without shunt impedance drop

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Balleyguier, P.

    1996-01-01

    It is well known that coupling slots between adjacent cells in a π-mode structure reduce shunt impedance per unit length with respect to single cell cavities. To design optimized coupling slots, one has to answer the following question: for a given coupling factor, what shape, dimension, position and number of slots lead to the lowest shunt impedance drop? A numerical study using the 3D code MAFIA has been carried out. The aim was to design the 352 MHz cavities for the high intensity proton accelerator of the TRISPAL project. The result is an unexpected set of four 'petal' slots. Such slots should lead to a quasi-negligible drop in shunt impedance: about -1% on average, for particle velocity from 0.4 c to 0.8 c. (author)

  3. A U-Shaped Slot UWB Antenna with Flexible and Wide Tunable Dual Notch Band

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhang Zhongmin

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available A coplanar waveguide (CPW fed ultra-wideband (UWB antenna with flexible and wide tunable dual bandnotched characteristics is proposed in this paper. The dual band-notched function is achieved by using an U-shaped slot inserted into the ellipse radiation patch and by using an elliptic parasitic slit placed near the ground plane. The wide tunable band-notched characteristic is implemented by adjusting the length of U-shaped slot and by adjusting the length of ellipse parasitic slit. The design aims to achieve wide reconfigurable band-notched features on the UWB antenna. The simulated results indicate that the proposed antenna has a wide bandwidth (VSWR under 2 from 2.9GHz to 12.6GHz with fractional bandwidth of 125%, and has a wide tunable notch band center frequency from 4.5GHz to 12.4GHz.

  4. Compact SOI optimized slot microring coupled phase-shifted Bragg grating resonator for sensing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Chao Ying; Zhang, Lei; Zhang, Cheng Mei

    2018-05-01

    We propose a novel sensor structure composed of a slot microring and a phase-shifted sidewall Bragg gratings in a slot waveguide. We first present a theoretical analysis of transmission by using the transfer matrix. Then, the mode-field distributions of transmission spectrum obtained from 3D simulations based on FDTD method demonstrates that our sensor exhibit theoretical sensitivity of 297 . 13 nm / RIU, a minimum detection limit of 1 . 1 × 10-4 RIU, the maximum extinction ratio of 20 dB, the quality factor of 2 × 103 and a compact dimension-theoretical structure of 15 μm × 8 . 5 μm. Finally, the sensor's performance is simulated for NaCl solution.

  5. Interconnect Between a Waveguide and a Dielectric Waveguide Comprising an Impedance Matched Dielectric Lens

    Science.gov (United States)

    Decrossas, Emmanuel (Inventor); Chattopadhyay, Goutam (Inventor); Chahat, Nacer (Inventor); Tang, Adrian J. (Inventor)

    2016-01-01

    A lens for interconnecting a metallic waveguide with a dielectric waveguide is provided. The lens may be coupled a metallic waveguide and a dielectric waveguide, and minimize a signal loss between the metallic waveguide and the dielectric waveguide.

  6. Planar waveguides and other confined geometries theory, technology, production, and novel applications

    CERN Document Server

    2015-01-01

    This book provides a comprehensive overview of the theoretical concepts and experimental applications of planar waveguides and other confined geometries, such as optical fibres. Covering a broad array of advanced topics, it begins with a sophisticated discussion of planar waveguide theory, and covers subjects including efficient production of planar waveguides, materials selection, nonlinear effects, and applications including species analytics down to single-molecule identification, and thermo-optical switching using planar waveguides. Written by specialists in the techniques and applications covered, this book will be a useful resource for advanced graduate students and researchers studying planar waveguides and optical fibers.

  7. Graphene antidot lattice waveguides

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Jesper Goor; Gunst, Tue; Markussen, Troels

    2012-01-01

    We introduce graphene antidot lattice waveguides: nanostructured graphene where a region of pristine graphene is sandwiched between regions of graphene antidot lattices. The band gaps in the surrounding antidot lattices enable localized states to emerge in the central waveguide region. We model...... the waveguides via a position-dependent mass term in the Dirac approximation of graphene and arrive at analytical results for the dispersion relation and spinor eigenstates of the localized waveguide modes. To include atomistic details we also use a tight-binding model, which is in excellent agreement...... with the analytical results. The waveguides resemble graphene nanoribbons, but without the particular properties of ribbons that emerge due to the details of the edge. We show that electrons can be guided through kinks without additional resistance and that transport through the waveguides is robust against...

  8. Optical waveguide demultiplexer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gajdaj, Yu.O.; Maslyukyivs'kij, R.M.; Sirota, A.V.

    2009-01-01

    For channels division in fibre-optical networks with wavelength multiplexing, the planar waveguide together with a prism coupler is offered for using. The planar waveguide fulfils a role of a dispersing unit, and prism coupler is the selector of optical channels. The parameters of the planar waveguide which provide maximal space division of adjacent information channels in networks with coarse wavelength multiplexing are calculated

  9. Experiences with rectangular waveguide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beltran, J.; Sepulveda, J. J.; Navarro, E. A.

    2000-01-01

    A simple and didactic experimental arrangement is presented to show wave propagation along a structure with translational symmetry, particularly the rectangular waveguide. Parameters of this waveguide as cutoff frequency, guide wavelength and field distribution of fundamental mode can be measured. For this purpose a large paralelepipedical waveguide structure is designed and built, its dimensions can be varied in order to change its parameters. (Author) 9 refs

  10. Improving plasmonic waveguides coupling efficiency using nanoantennas

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andryieuski, Andrei; Malureanu, Radu; Bouillard, Jean-Sebastien

    2012-01-01

    . The classical dipole antenna scheme can be improved by changing the nanoantenna geometry, adding constructive elements such as reflecting bars and mirrors and using arrays of antennas. The modelling designates that the coupling efficiency from a vertical fiber to a plasmonic waveguide can be improved more than......Plasmonic waveguides bear a lot of potential for photonic applications. However, one of the challenges for implementing them in devices is the low coupling efficiency to and from optical fibers. We report on our approach to facilitate the coupling efficiency with the use of metallic nanoantennas...... in 180 times in comparison with a direct fiber-waveguide coupling. Pros and cons of each configuration are discussed. Fabrication and characterisation results are reported....

  11. Reconfigurable optical manipulation by phase change material waveguides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Tianhang; Mei, Shengtao; Wang, Qian; Liu, Hong; Lim, Chwee Teck; Teng, Jinghua

    2017-05-25

    Optical manipulation by dielectric waveguides enables the transportation of particles and biomolecules beyond diffraction limits. However, traditional dielectric waveguides could only transport objects in the forward direction which does not fulfill the requirements of the next generation lab-on-chip system where the integrated manipulation system should be much more flexible and multifunctional. In this work, bidirectional transportation of objects on the nanoscale is demonstrated on a rectangular waveguide made of the phase change material Ge 2 Sb 2 Te 5 (GST) by numerical simulations. Either continuous pushing forces or pulling forces are generated on the trapped particles when the GST is in the amorphous or crystalline phase. With the technique of a femtosecond laser induced phase transition on the GST, we further proposed a reconfigurable optical trap array on the same waveguide. This work demonstrates GST waveguide's potential of achieving multifunctional manipulation of multiple objects on the nanoscale with plausible optical setups.

  12. Silicon Nitride Background in Nanophotonic Waveguide Enhanced Raman Spectroscopy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ashim Dhakal

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Recent studies have shown that evanescent Raman spectroscopy using a silicon nitride (SiN nanophotonic waveguide platform has higher signal enhancement when compared to free-space systems. However, signal-to-noise ratio from the waveguide at a low analyte concentration is constrained by the shot-noise from the background light originating from the waveguide itself. Hence, understanding the origin and properties of this waveguide background luminescence (WGBL is essential to developing mitigation strategies. Here, we identify the dominating component of the WGBL spectrum composed of a broad Raman scattering due to momentum selection-rule breaking in amorphous materials, and several peaks specific to molecules embedded in the core. We determine the maximum of the Raman scattering efficiency of the WGBL at room temperature for 785 nm excitation to be 4.5 ± 1 × 10−9 cm−1·sr−1, at a Stokes shift of 200 cm−1. This efficiency decreases monotonically for higher Stokes shifts. Additionally, we also demonstrate the use of slotted waveguides and quasi-transverse magnetic polarization as some mitigation strategies.

  13. Slot Antenna for Wireless Temperature Measurement Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Acar, Öncel; Jakobsen, Kaj Bjarne

    2016-01-01

    This paper presents a novel clover-slot antenna for a surface-acoustic-wave sensor based wireless temperature measurement system. The slot is described by a parametric locus curve that has the shape of a clover. The antenna is operated at high temperatures, in rough environments, and has a 43......% fractional bandwidth at the 2.4 GHz ISM-band. The slot antenna has been optimized for excitation by a passive chip soldered onto it. Measurement results are compared with simulation results and show good agreements....

  14. Vertically Polarized Omnidirectional Printed Slot Loop Antenna

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kammersgaard, Nikolaj Peter Iversen; Kvist, Søren H.; Thaysen, Jesper

    2015-01-01

    A novel vertically polarized omnidirectional printed slot loop antenna has been designed, simulated, fabricated and measured. The slot loop works as a magnetic loop. The loop is loaded with inductors to insure uniform and in-phase fields in the slot in order to obtain an omnidirectional radiation...... pattern. The antenna is designed for the 2.45 GHz Industrial, Scientific and Medical band. Applications of the antenna are many. One is for on-body applications since it is ideal for launching a creeping waves due to the polarization....

  15. Compact Probe for Power Detection from the Narrow Side of the Waveguide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kung, C.C.; Bernabei, S.; Gumbas, J.; Greenough, N.; Fredd, E.; Wilson, J.R.; Hosea, J.

    2004-01-01

    Phased array antennas with high directivity have a variety of applications. One of their applications is in RF heating for magnetically confined plasma fusion research. Among these RF heating schemes, waveguide arrays with careful phase control on each waveguide can act as a phased array antenna to deliver megawatts of power for heating fusion plasmas in the lower-hybrid range of frequencies (1 GHz-10 GHz). In order to achieve compactness, it is common to stack reduced height waveguide together to form the waveguide array. As long as the delivered power does not cause arcing in the waveguide, the waveguide height can be quite small. Due to this confined space in a stack of reduced height waveguides, power detection of the incident and reflected wave in the reduced height waveguide is extremely difficult. A new compact probe, which employs current loops, to monitor the incident and reflected wave from the narrow side of the reduced height waveguide has been developed. Its theory and performance will be reported in this paper

  16. Slot Machine Response Frequency Predicts Pathological Gambling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Linnet, Jakob; Rømer Thomsen, Kristine; Møller, Arne

    2013-01-01

    Slot machines are among the most addictive forms of gambling, and pathological gambling slot machine players represent the largest group of treatment seekers, accounting for 35% to 93% of the population. Pathological gambling sufferers have significantly higher response frequency (games / time......) on slot machines compared with non-problem gamblers, which may suggest increased reinforcement of the gambling behavior in pathological gambling. However, to date it is unknown whether or not the increased response frequency in pathological gambling is associated with symptom severity of the disorder....... This study tested the hypothesis that response frequency is associated with symptom severity in pathological gambling. We tested response frequency among twenty-two pathological gambling sufferers and twenty-one non-problem gamblers on a commercially available slot machine, and screened for pathological...

  17. Pumping slots: impedances and power losses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kurennoy, S [Maryland Univ., College Park, MD (United States). Dept. of Physics

    1996-08-01

    Contributions of pumping slots to the beam coupling impedances and power losses in a B-factory ring are considered. While their leading contribution is to the inductive impedance, for high-intensity machines with short bunches like e{sup +}e{sup -} B-factories the real part of the impedance and related loss factors are also important. Using an analytical approach we calculate the coupling impedances and loss factors due to slots in a ring with an arbitrary cross section of the vacuum chamber. Effects of the slot tilt on the beam impedance are also considered, and restrictions on the tilt angle are derived from limitations on the impedance increase. The power leakage through the slots is discussed briefly. The results are applied to the KEK B-factory. (author)

  18. Elevated CPW-Fed Slotted Microstrip Antenna for Ultra-Wideband Application

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chandan Kumar Ghosh

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Elevated-coplanar-waveguide- (ECPW- fed microstrip antenna with inverted “G” slots in the back conductor is presented. It is modeled and analyzed for the application of multiple frequency bands. The changes in radiation and the transmission characteristics are investigated by the introduction of the slots in two different positions at the ground plane (back conductor. The proposed antenna without slots exhibits a stop band from 2.55 GHz to 4.25 GHz while introducing two slots on the back conductor, two adjacent poles appear at central frequencies of 3.0 GHz and 3.9 GHz, respectively, and the antenna shows the ultra-wideband (UWB characteristics. The first pole appears at the central frequency of 3.0 GHz and covers the band width of 950 MHz, and the second pole exists at a central frequency of 3.90 GHz covering a bandwidth of 750 MHz. Experimental result shows that impedance bandwidth of 129% (S11<-10 dB is well achieved when the antenna is excited with both slots. Compared to most of the previously reported ECPW structures, the impedance bandwidth of this antenna is increased and also the size of the antenna becomes smaller and more suitable for many wireless applications like PCS (1850–1990 MHz, WLAN (2.4–2.484 GHz, WiMAX (2.5–2.69 GHz and 5.15–5.85 GHz, and also X-band communication.

  19. Sub-wavelength grating mode transformers in silicon slab waveguides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bock, Przemek J; Cheben, Pavel; Schmid, Jens H; Delâge, André; Xu, Dan-Xia; Janz, Siegfried; Hall, Trevor J

    2009-10-12

    We report on several new types of sub-wavelength grating (SWG) gradient index structures for efficient mode coupling in high index contrast slab waveguides. Using a SWG, an adiabatic transition is achieved at the interface between silicon-on-insulator waveguides of different geometries. The SWG transition region minimizes both fundamental mode mismatch loss and coupling to higher order modes. By creating the gradient effective index region in the direction of propagation, we demonstrate that efficient vertical mode transformation can be achieved between slab waveguides of different core thickness. The structures which we propose can be fabricated by a single etch step. Using 3D finite-difference time-domain simulations we study the loss, polarization dependence and the higher order mode excitation for two types (triangular and triangular-transverse) of SWG transition regions between silicon-on-insulator slab waveguides of different core thicknesses. We demonstrate two solutions to reduce the polarization dependent loss of these structures. Finally, we propose an implementation of SWG structures to reduce loss and higher order mode excitation between a slab waveguide and a phase array of an array waveguide grating (AWG). Compared to a conventional AWG, the loss is reduced from -1.4 dB to < -0.2 dB at the slab-array interface.

  20. A New Kind of Circular Polarization Leaky-Wave Antenna Based on Substrate Integrated Waveguide

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chong Zhang

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available A new kind of circular polarization leaky-wave antenna with N-shaped slots cut in the upper side of substrate integrated waveguide (SIW is investigated and presented. The radiation pattern and polarization axial ratio of the leaky-wave antenna are studied. The results show that the width of N-shaped slots has significant effect on the circular polarization property of the antenna. By properly choosing structural parameters, the SIW based leaky-wave antenna can realize circular polarization with excellent axial ratio in 8 GHz satellite band.

  1. Biologically Inspired Intercellular Slot Synchronization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander Tyrrell

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The present article develops a decentralized interbase station slot synchronization algorithm suitable for cellular mobile communication systems. The proposed cellular firefly synchronization (CelFSync algorithm is derived from the theory of pulse-coupled oscillators, common to describe synchronization phenomena in biological systems, such as the spontaneous synchronization of fireflies. In order to maintain synchronization among base stations (BSs, even when there is no direct link between adjacent BSs, some selected user terminals (UTs participate in the network synchronization process. Synchronization emerges by exchanging two distinct synchronization words, one transmitted by BSs and the other by active UTs, without any a priori assumption on the initial timing misalignments of BSs and UTs. In large-scale networks with inter-BS site distances up to a few kilometers, propagation delays severely affect the attainable timing accuracy of CelFSync. We show that by an appropriate combination of CelFSync with the timing advance procedure, which aligns uplink transmission of UTs to arrive simultaneously at the BS, a timing accuracy within a fraction of the inter-BS propagation delay is retained.

  2. Exact equivalent straight waveguide model for bent and twisted waveguides

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shyroki, Dzmitry

    2008-01-01

    Exact equivalent straight waveguide representation is given for a waveguide of arbitrary curvature and torsion. No assumptions regarding refractive index contrast, isotropy of materials, or particular morphology in the waveguide cross section are made. This enables rigorous full-vector modeling...... of in-plane curved or helically wound waveguides with use of available simulators for straight waveguides without the restrictions of the known approximate equivalent-index formulas....

  3. Compound semiconductor optical waveguide switch

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spahn, Olga B.; Sullivan, Charles T.; Garcia, Ernest J.

    2003-06-10

    An optical waveguide switch is disclosed which is formed from III-V compound semiconductors and which has a moveable optical waveguide with a cantilevered portion that can be bent laterally by an integral electrostatic actuator to route an optical signal (i.e. light) between the moveable optical waveguide and one of a plurality of fixed optical waveguides. A plurality of optical waveguide switches can be formed on a common substrate and interconnected to form an optical switching network.

  4. Active Photonic Crystal Waveguides

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ek, Sara

    This thesis deals with the fabrication and characterization of active photonic crystal waveguides, realized in III-V semiconductor material with embedded active layers. The platform offering active photonic crystal waveguides has many potential applications. One of these is a compact photonic...... due to photonic crystal dispersion. The observations are explained by the enhancement of net gain by light slow down. Another application based on active photonic crystal waveguides is micro lasers. Measurements on quantum dot micro laser cavities with different mirror configurations and photonic...

  5. Thermographic analysis of waveguide-irradiated insect pupae

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olsen, Richard G.; Hammer, Wayne C.

    1982-01-01

    Pupae of the insect Tenebrio molitor L. were thermographically imaged during waveguide irradiation through longitudinal slots. T. molitor pupae have been subjects of microwave-induced teratology for a number of years, but until now the smallness of the insect has prevented detailed dosimetry. High-resolution thermographic imaging equipment was used to obtain the magnitude and spatial distribution of absorbed microwave energy at three frequencies, 1.3, 5.95, and 10 GHz. The detail of the thermal images obtained is sufficient to show the differential heating of structures as small as a single insect leg. Results show that the electrical properties of the head, thorax, and abdomen are sufficiently different to seriously impair the usefulness of any theoretical dosimetric model of homogeneous composition. Some general features of correlation with a slab model in waveguide are given.

  6. Surface solitons in waveguide arrays: Analytical solutions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kominis, Yannis; Papadopoulos, Aristeidis; Hizanidis, Kyriakos

    2007-08-06

    A novel phase-space method is employed for the construction of analytical stationary solitary waves located at the interface between a periodic nonlinear lattice of the Kronig-Penney type and a linear or nonlinear homogeneous medium as well as at the interface between two dissimilar nonlinear lattices. The method provides physical insight and understanding of the shape of the solitary wave profile and results to generic classes of localized solutions having either zero or nonzero semi-infinite backgrounds. For all cases, the method provides conditions involving the values of the propagation constant of the stationary solutions, the linear refractive index and the dimensions of each part in order to assure existence of solutions with specific profile characteristics. The evolution of the analytical solutions under propagation is investigated for cases of realistic configurations and interesting features are presented such as their remarkable robustness which could facilitate their experimental observation.

  7. Band structures in two-dimensional phononic crystals with periodic Jerusalem cross slot

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yinggang; Chen, Tianning; Wang, Xiaopeng; Yu, Kunpeng; Song, Ruifang

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, a novel two-dimensional phononic crystal composed of periodic Jerusalem cross slot in air matrix with a square lattice is presented. The dispersion relations and the transmission coefficient spectra are calculated by using the finite element method based on the Bloch theorem. The formation mechanisms of the band gaps are analyzed based on the acoustic mode analysis. Numerical results show that the proposed phononic crystal structure can yield large band gaps in the low-frequency range. The formation mechanism of opening the acoustic band gaps is mainly attributed to the resonance modes of the cavities inside the Jerusalem cross slot structure. Furthermore, the effects of the geometrical parameters on the band gaps are further explored numerically. Results show that the band gaps can be modulated in an extremely large frequency range by the geometry parameters such as the slot length and width. These properties of acoustic waves in the proposed phononic crystals can potentially be applied to optimize band gaps and generate low-frequency filters and waveguides.

  8. Geometry and transport in a model of two coupled quadratic nonlinear waveguides

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stirling, James R.; Bang, Ole; Christiansen, Peter Leth

    2008-01-01

    This paper applies geometric methods developed to understand chaos and transport in Hamiltonian systems to the study of power distribution in nonlinear waveguide arrays. The specific case of two linearly coupled X(2) waveguides is modeled and analyzed in terms of transport and geometry in the pha...

  9. Stereoscopic display in a slot machine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laakso, M.

    2012-03-01

    This paper reports the results of a user trial with a slot machine equipped with a stereoscopic display. The main research question was to find out what kind of added value does stereoscopic 3D (S-3D) bring to slot games? After a thorough literature survey, a novel gaming platform was designed and implemented. Existing multi-game slot machine "Nova" was converted to "3DNova" by replacing the monitor with an S-3D display and converting six original games to S-3D format. To evaluate the system, several 3DNova machines were put available for players for four months. Both qualitative and quantitative analysis was carried out from statistical values, questionnaires and observations. According to the results, people find the S-3D concept interesting but the technology is not optimal yet. Young adults and adults were fascinated by the system, older people were more cautious. Especially the need to wear stereoscopic glasses provide a challenge; ultimate system would probably use autostereoscopic technology. Also the games should be designed to utilize its full power. The main contributions of this paper are lessons learned from creating an S-3D slot machine platform and novel information about human factors related to stereoscopic slot machine gaming.

  10. Omnidirectional optical waveguide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bora, Mihail; Bond, Tiziana C.

    2016-08-02

    In one embodiment, a system includes a scintillator material; a detector coupled to the scintillator material; and an omnidirectional waveguide coupled to the scintillator material, the omnidirectional waveguide comprising: a plurality of first layers comprising one or more materials having a refractive index in a first range; and a plurality of second layers comprising one or more materials having a refractive index in a second range, the second range being lower than the first range, a plurality of interfaces being defined between alternating ones of the first and second layers. In another embodiment, a method includes depositing alternating layers of a material having a relatively high refractive index and a material having a relatively low refractive index on a substrate to form an omnidirectional waveguide; and coupling the omnidirectional waveguide to at least one surface of a scintillator material.

  11. Maximum likelihood estimation of the position of a radiating source in a waveguide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hinich, M.J.

    1979-01-01

    An array of sensors is receiving radiation from a source of interest. The source and the array are in a one- or two-dimensional waveguide. The maximum-likelihood estimators of the coordinates of the source are analyzed under the assumptions that the noise field is Gaussian. The Cramer-Rao lower bound is of the order of the number of modes which define the source excitation function. The results show that the accuracy of the maximum likelihood estimator of source depth using a vertical array in a infinite horizontal waveguide (such as the ocean) is limited by the number of modes detected by the array regardless of the array size

  12. High slot utilization systems for electric machines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsu, John S

    2009-06-23

    Two new High Slot Utilization (HSU) Systems for electric machines enable the use of form wound coils that have the highest fill factor and the best use of magnetic materials. The epoxy/resin/curing treatment ensures the mechanical strength of the assembly of teeth, core, and coils. In addition, the first HSU system allows the coil layers to be moved inside the slots for the assembly purpose. The second system uses the slided-in teeth instead of the plugged-in teeth. The power density of the electric machine that uses either system can reach its highest limit.

  13. Plasmon resonant cavities in vertical nanowire arrays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bora, Mihail; Bond, Tiziana C.; Fasenfest, Benjamin J.; Behymer, Elaine M.

    2014-07-15

    Tunable plasmon resonant cavity arrays in paired parallel nanowire waveguides are presented. Resonances can be observed when the waveguide length is an odd multiple of quarter plasmon wavelengths, consistent with boundary conditions of node and antinode at the ends. Two nanowire waveguides can satisfy the dispersion relation of a planar metal-dielectric-metal waveguide of equivalent width equal to the square field average weighted gap. Confinement factors of over 10.sup.3 are possible due to plasmon focusing in the inter-wire space.

  14. Optical trapping via guided resonance modes in a Slot-Suzuki-phase photonic crystal lattice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Jing; Martínez, Luis Javier; Povinelli, Michelle L

    2012-03-12

    A novel photonic crystal lattice is proposed for trapping a two-dimensional array of particles. The lattice is created by introducing a rectangular slot in each unit cell of the Suzuki-Phase lattice to enhance the light confinement of guided resonance modes. Large quality factors on the order of 10⁵ are predicted in the lattice. A significant decrease of the optical power required for optical trapping can be achieved compared to our previous design.

  15. Slotting allowances to coordinate manufacturers’ retail sales effort

    OpenAIRE

    Foros, Øystein; Kind, Hans Jarle; Sand, Jan Yngve

    2007-01-01

    Slotting allowances are fees paid by manufacturers to get access to retailers’ shelf space. Although the main attention towards slotting allowances has been within the grocery industry, slotting allowances have also been applied within e.g. e-commerce and mobile telephony. In these industries we observe that distributors have large market power due to their control of access to customers. We analyse how shifting bargaining power from manufacturers to retailers and the use of slotting allowanc...

  16. Radiation from a Slot System in the Coaxial Line Shield

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katrich, V. A.; Lyashchenko, V. A.; Medvedev, N. V.

    2012-06-01

    The problem of electromagnetic wave excitation, scattering and radiation by the system of transverse slots, cut in the outer conductor of an infinite coaxial line, is solved by the magnetomotive forces method. The radiation and reflection coefficients of the circular and arc slot systems are investigated in dependence on slot sizes and feeder parameters. The processes of radiation into lossy material media are studied. The researches have been carried out with the interconnection between slots of internal and external regions considered.

  17. Gap Surface Plasmon Waveguide Analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Michael Grøndahl; Bozhevolnyi, Sergey I.

    2014-01-01

    Plasmonic waveguides supporting gap surface plasmons (GSPs) localized in a dielectric spacer between metal films are investigated numerically and the waveguiding properties at telecommunication wavelengths are presented. Especially, we emphasize that the mode confinement can advantageously...

  18. Silicon microphotonic waveguides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ta'eed, V.; Steel, M.J.; Grillet, C.; Eggleton, B.; Du, J.; Glasscock, J.; Savvides, N.

    2004-01-01

    Full text: Silicon microphotonic devices have been drawing increasing attention in the past few years. The high index-difference between silicon and its oxide (Δn = 2) suggests a potential for high-density integration of optical functions on to a photonic chip. Additionally, it has been shown that silicon exhibits strong Raman nonlinearity, a necessary property as light interaction can occur only by means of nonlinearities in the propagation medium. The small dimensions of silicon waveguides require the design of efficient tapers to couple light to them. We have used the beam propagation method (RSoft BeamPROP) to understand the principles and design of an inverse-taper mode-converter as implemented in several recent papers. We report on progress in the design and fabrication of silicon-based waveguides. Preliminary work has been conducted by patterning silicon-on-insulator (SOI) wafers using optical lithography and reactive ion etching. Thus far, only rib waveguides have been designed, as single-mode ridge-waveguides are beyond the capabilities of conventional optical lithography. We have recently moved to electron beam lithography as the higher resolutions permitted will provide the flexibility to begin fabricating sub-micron waveguides

  19. Impedance of a slotted-pipe kicker

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhou, Feng [Academia Sinica, Beijing, BJ (China). Inst. of High Energy Physics

    1996-08-01

    This paper introduces the principle of a new slotted kicker simply, which is made by using vacuum pipe itself with proper slits as current conductors, and then, presents a rough estimation of its longitudinal and transverse impedance, respectively. Calculation shows that its impedance is reduced significantly compared to our present air-coil kicker. (author)

  20. Slot Machine Response Frequency Predicts Pathological Gambling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Linnet, Jakob; Rømer Thomsen, Kristine; Møller, Arne

    2013-01-01

    . This study tested the hypothesis that response frequency is associated with symptom severity in pathological gambling. We tested response frequency among twenty-two pathological gambling sufferers and twenty-one non-problem gamblers on a commercially available slot machine, and screened for pathological...... in individuals with exacerbated pathological gambling symptoms. These findings may have important implications for detecting behaviors underlying pathological gambling....

  1. Of Slot Machines and Broken Test Tubes

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 19; Issue 5. Of Slot Machines and Broken Test Tubes. S Mahadevan. General Article Volume 19 Issue 5 May 2014 pp 395-405. Fulltext. Click here to view fulltext PDF. Permanent link: https://www.ias.ac.in/article/fulltext/reso/019/05/0395-0405. Keywords.

  2. Devices Based on Parallel-Plate Waveguides for Terahertz Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reichel, Kimberly S.

    The promise of terahertz (THz) frequencies for technological applications is wide, spanning from wireless communications for faster downloads to non-destructive imaging for security screening. Although the potential is high, there is a lack of the basic devices necessary to make these prospects a reality. One essential component for any electromagnetic wave technology is a waveguide, which as the name implies can guide light waves, like a hose would direct water from the source to the desired target location. Several waveguide types have been introduced for THz frequencies, one of the most promising of which is the parallel-plate waveguide (PPWG). The PPWG is attractive based on its superior waveguiding performance of efficient input coupling and low losses, but additionally it serves as an excellent platform for other purposes. The projects presented in this dissertation highlight a few new functionalities incorporated into, and enabled by, a PPWG for sensing, filtering, and splitting. First, we characterize a high quality factor resonator integrated into a PPWG used for microfluidic sensing. Typically, the characterization of the frequency-dependent electric field profile inside a narrowband resonator is challenging, either due to limited optical access or to the perturbative effects of invasive probes. In our situation however, the geometry of the PPWG allows for direct access to the resonant cavity via the open sides of the waveguide and a novel implementation of the air-biased coherent detection (ABCD) method permits non-invasive probing. Through both experiment and simulation, we see the narrowband frequencies trapped in the resonator and also discover an unexpected broadband asymmetric field distribution due to the resonator inside the waveguide, yielding new information that is not available in the far field. Second, we investigate a narrowband tunable filter based on extraordinary optical transmission (EOT) through a 1D array of subwavelength holes inside

  3. Influence of Closed Stator Slots on Cogging Torque

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ion, Trifu; Leban, Krisztina Monika; Ritchie, Ewen

    2013-01-01

    Cogging torque results due interaction of magnetic field of magnets and stator slots, and have negative effects on permanent magnet machines such as vibrations, noise, torque ripples and problems during turbine start-up and cut-in. In order to reduce cogging torque this paper presents a study...... of influence of closed stator slots on cogging torque using magnetic slot wedges....

  4. Nanoporous polymer liquid core waveguides

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gopalakrishnan, Nimi; Christiansen, Mads Brøkner; Ndoni, Sokol

    2010-01-01

    We demonstrate liquid core waveguides defined by UV to enable selective water infiltration in nanoporous polymers, creating an effective refractive index shift Δn=0.13. The mode confinement and propagation loss in these waveguides are presented.......We demonstrate liquid core waveguides defined by UV to enable selective water infiltration in nanoporous polymers, creating an effective refractive index shift Δn=0.13. The mode confinement and propagation loss in these waveguides are presented....

  5. Optical Waveform Sampling and Error-Free Demultiplexing of 1.28 Tb/s Serial Data in a Nanoengineered Silicon Waveguide

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ji, Hua; Pu, Minhao; Hu, Hao

    2011-01-01

    This paper presents the experimental demonstrations of using a pure nanoengineered silicon waveguide for 1.28 Tb/s serial data optical waveform sampling and 1.28 Tb/s–10 Gb/s error free demultiplexing. The 330-fs pulses are resolved in each 780-fs time slot in waveform sampling. Error...

  6. [Influence of slot size on torque control].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, Jun; Liu, Zhong-Hao; Zhang, Ding; Wu, Chuan-Jun

    2009-12-01

    To study the influence of two slot size brackets on torque control when teeth interacted in the same arch. After the upper arch was aligned and leveled in Typodont study, the inclinations of upper teeth 5 +/- 5 were measured when 0.457 2 mm x 0.635 0 mm OPA-K brackets and 0.558 8 mmx0.711 2 mm OPA-K brackets were filled with 0.431 8 mm x 0.635 0 mm stainless steel wire. This experiment was duplicated 10 times. The inclin of each tooth were transformed to the absolute values of the torque play angle psi by computing program, and paired-t test was used. The two kinds of slot size brackets were different with statistical significance on torque control. When the brackets were filled with 0.431 8 mm x 0.635 0 mm stainless steel wire, the absolute values of the angle psi in 0.558 8 mm x 0.711 2 mm and 0.457 2 mm x 0.635 0 mm slot size brackets were 6.140 degrees +/- 3.758 degrees and 2.608 degrees +/- 1.479 degrees respectively, and the average difference of that between the two slot size brackets was 3.532 degrees. The absolute values of the angle psi in the upper left and right canine brackets were 2.560 degrees +/- 2.605 degrees, 4.230 degrees +/- 2.817 degrees, 1.260 degrees +/- 0.747 degrees and 2.070 degrees +/- 0.663 degrees respectively, and average differences between them were smaller than that in the other teeth. There was difference between the two kinds of slot size brackets on torque control, and 0.457 2 mm x 0.635 0 mm slot size bracket controls torque better when filled with the same size wire. In this study, the teeth interaction in the same arch probably caused the result that the difference of two slot size brackets on torque control was less than the study results of the theory calculations and material studys before.

  7. Scalable electro-photonic integration concept based on polymer waveguides

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bosman, E.; Steenberge, G. van; Boersma, A.; Wiegersma, S.; Harmsma, P.J.; Karppinen, M.; Korhonen, T.; Offrein, B.J.; Dangel, R.; Daly, A.; Ortsiefer, M.; Justice, J.; Corbett, B.; Dorrestein, S.; Duis, J.

    2016-01-01

    A novel method for fabricating a single mode optical interconnection platform is presented. The method comprises the miniaturized assembly of optoelectronic single dies, the scalable fabrication of polymer single mode waveguides and the coupling to glass fiber arrays providing the I/O's. The low

  8. Apodized coupled resonator waveguides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Capmany, J; Muñoz, P; Domenech, J D; Muriel, M A

    2007-08-06

    In this paper we propose analyse the apodisation or windowing of the coupling coefficients in the unit cells of coupled resonator waveguide devices (CROWs) as a means to reduce the level of secondary sidelobes in the bandpass characteristic of their transfer functions. This technique is regularly employed in the design of digital filters and has been applied as well in the design of other photonic devices such as corrugated waveguide filters and fiber Bragg gratings. The apodisation of both Type-I and Type-II structures is discussed for several windowing functions.

  9. Numerical simulation of microwave pulse coupling into the rectangular cavity with aperture arrays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Rui; Yang Yiming; Qian Baoliang

    2008-01-01

    In this paper, the finite-difference time-domain (FDTD) algorithm is employed to simulate microwave pulse coupling into the rectangular cavity with aperture arrays. In the case in which the long-side of the slot in aperture arrays is perpendicular to the incident electrical field, and the electrical distribution of each center of slot in the aperture arrays in the process of microwave pulse coupling into the rectangular cavity with aperture arrays is analyzed in detail. We find that the effect of field enhancement of the slot in the middle of all the slots which distribute in the direction parallel to the incident electrical field is minimum and increases in turn from the middle to both sides symmetrically. We also find that the effect of field enhancement of the slot in the middle of all the slots which distribute in the direction perpendicular to the incident electrical field is maximum and decreases in turn from the middle to both sides symmetrically. In the same time, we investigate the factors that influence the effect of field enhancement of the center of each slot and the coupling electrical distribution in the cavity, including the number of slots and the spacing between slots. (authors)

  10. Optical Nano-antennae as Compact and Efficient Couplers from Free-space to Waveguide Modes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zenin, Vladimir A.; Malureanu, Radu; Volkov, Valentyn

    2015-01-01

    Optical nano-antennae are one of the possible solutions for coupling free-space radiation into subwavelength waveguides. Our efforts were concentrated on coupling between an optical fibre and a plasmonic slot waveguide. Such coupling is still an issue to be solved in order to advance the use...... of plasmonic waveguides for optical interconnects. During the talk, we will present our modelling optimisation, fabrication and measurement of the nano-antennae functionality. For the modelling part, we used CST Microwave studio for optimising the antenna geometry. Various antennae were modelled and fabricated....... The fabrication was based on electron beam lithography and lift-off processes. The measurements were performed with scattering scanning near-field microscope and allowed the retrieval of both amplitude and phase of the propagating plasmon. The obtained values agree very well with the theoretically predicted ones...

  11. Progress in planar optical waveguides

    CERN Document Server

    Wang, Xianping; Cao, Zhuangqi

    2016-01-01

    This book provides a comprehensive description of various slab waveguide structures ranged from graded-index waveguide to symmetrical metal-cladding waveguide. In this book, the transfer Matrix method is developed and applied to analyze the simplest case and the complex generalizations. A novel symmetrical metal-cladding waveguide structure is proposed and systematically investigated for several issues of interest, such as biochemical sensing, Goos-Hänchen shift and the slow light effect, etc. Besides, this book summarizes the authors’ research works on waveguides over the last decade. The readers who are familiar with basic optics theory may find this book easy to read and rather inspiring.

  12. Spectroelectrochemical sensing: planar waveguides

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ross, Susan E.; Shi Yining; Seliskar, Carl J.; Heineman, William R

    2003-09-30

    The spectroelectrochemical sensor combines in a single device electrochemistry, spectroscopy, and selective partitioning into a film, giving improved selectivity for applications that involve complex samples. Sensing is based on the change in optical signal that accompanies electrochemical modulation of analyte that has partitioned into the film. Two classes of optical quality chemically-selective films based on two different host materials, namely, sol-gel processed silica and cross-linked poly(vinyl alcohol) have been developed. Films are typically 400-700 nm thick. Three types of sensor platforms are discussed: a multiple internal reflection (MIR) optic consisting of a bilayer of an indium tin oxide (ITO) optically transparent electrode deposited on a 1-mm thick glass substrate, a planar waveguide in which a potassium ion-exchanged BK7 glass waveguide (5-9 {mu}m thick) was over-coated with a thin film of ITO, and a planar waveguide in which a potassium ion-exchanged BK7 glass waveguide channel was formed and a pair of electrodes deposited along side the channel. These sensors were evaluated with ferrocyanide and a selective film of PDMDAAC-SiO{sub 2}, where PDMDAAC=poly(dimethyl diallylammonium chloride)

  13. Spectroelectrochemical sensing: planar waveguides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ross, Susan E.; Shi Yining; Seliskar, Carl J.; Heineman, William R.

    2003-01-01

    The spectroelectrochemical sensor combines in a single device electrochemistry, spectroscopy, and selective partitioning into a film, giving improved selectivity for applications that involve complex samples. Sensing is based on the change in optical signal that accompanies electrochemical modulation of analyte that has partitioned into the film. Two classes of optical quality chemically-selective films based on two different host materials, namely, sol-gel processed silica and cross-linked poly(vinyl alcohol) have been developed. Films are typically 400-700 nm thick. Three types of sensor platforms are discussed: a multiple internal reflection (MIR) optic consisting of a bilayer of an indium tin oxide (ITO) optically transparent electrode deposited on a 1-mm thick glass substrate, a planar waveguide in which a potassium ion-exchanged BK7 glass waveguide (5-9 μm thick) was over-coated with a thin film of ITO, and a planar waveguide in which a potassium ion-exchanged BK7 glass waveguide channel was formed and a pair of electrodes deposited along side the channel. These sensors were evaluated with ferrocyanide and a selective film of PDMDAAC-SiO 2 , where PDMDAAC=poly(dimethyl diallylammonium chloride)

  14. Integrated Miniature Arrays of Optical Biomolecule Detectors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iltchenko, Vladimir; Maleki, Lute; Lin, Ying; Le, Thanh

    2009-01-01

    Integrated miniature planar arrays of optical sensors for detecting specific biochemicals in extremely small quantities have been proposed. An array of this type would have an area of about 1 cm2. Each element of the array would include an optical microresonator that would have a high value of the resonance quality factor (Q . 107). The surface of each microresonator would be derivatized to make it bind molecules of a species of interest, and such binding would introduce a measurable change in the optical properties of the microresonator. Because each microresonator could be derivatized for detection of a specific biochemical different from those of the other microresonators, it would be possible to detect multiple specific biochemicals by simultaneous or sequential interrogation of all the elements in the array. Moreover, the derivatization would make it unnecessary to prepare samples by chemical tagging. Such interrogation would be effected by means of a grid of row and column polymer-based optical waveguides that would be integral parts of a chip on which the array would be fabricated. The row and column polymer-based optical waveguides would intersect at the elements of the array (see figure). At each intersection, the row and column waveguides would be optically coupled to one of the microresonators. The polymer-based waveguides would be connected via optical fibers to external light sources and photodetectors. One set of waveguides and fibers (e.g., the row waveguides and fibers) would couple light from the sources to the resonators; the other set of waveguides and fibers (e.g., the column waveguides and fibers) would couple light from the microresonators to the photodetectors. Each microresonator could be addressed individually by row and column for measurement of its optical transmission. Optionally, the chip could be fabricated so that each microresonator would lie inside a microwell, into which a microscopic liquid sample could be dispensed.

  15. 24-ch microlens-integrated no-polish connector for optical interconnection with polymer waveguides

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shiraishi, Takashi; Yagisawa, Takatoshi; Ikeuchi, Tadashi; Daikuhara, Osamu; Tanaka, Kazuhiro

    2013-02-01

    We successfully developed a new 24-ch optical connector for polymer waveguides. The connector consists of a transparent thermoplastic resin that has two rectangular slits on one side for alignment of the waveguide films and integrated microlens arrays on the other side for coupling to the MT connector. Two 12-ch waveguide films were cut to a 3-mm width. The thickness of each waveguide film was controlled at 100 μm. The waveguide films were inserted into the slits until they touched the bottom face of the slit. Ultraviolet curing adhesive was used to achieve a short hardening process. The expanded beam in the transparent material is focused by the microlens arrays formed on the connector surface. This lens structure enables assembly without the need for a polishing process. We designed the lens for coupling between a step-index 40-μm rectangular waveguide and a graded-index 50-μm fiber. We achieved low-loss optical coupling by designing a method of providing asymmetric magnification between the horizontal and vertical directions in order to compensate for the asymmetric numerical aperture of the waveguide. The typical measured coupling losses from/to the waveguide to/from the fiber were 1.2 dB and 0.6 dB, respectively. The total coupling loss was as small as that of a physical contact connection.

  16. Congestion Pricing for Aircraft Pushback Slot Allocation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Lihua; Zhang, Yaping; Liu, Lan; Xing, Zhiwei

    2017-01-01

    In order to optimize aircraft pushback management during rush hour, aircraft pushback slot allocation based on congestion pricing is explored while considering monetary compensation based on the quality of the surface operations. First, the concept of the "external cost of surface congestion" is proposed, and a quantitative study on the external cost is performed. Then, an aircraft pushback slot allocation model for minimizing the total surface cost is established. An improved discrete differential evolution algorithm is also designed. Finally, a simulation is performed on Xinzheng International Airport using the proposed model. By comparing the pushback slot control strategy based on congestion pricing with other strategies, the advantages of the proposed model and algorithm are highlighted. In addition to reducing delays and optimizing the delay distribution, the model and algorithm are better suited for use for actual aircraft pushback management during rush hour. Further, it is also observed they do not result in significant increases in the surface cost. These results confirm the effectiveness and suitability of the proposed model and algorithm.

  17. Congestion Pricing for Aircraft Pushback Slot Allocation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lihua Liu

    Full Text Available In order to optimize aircraft pushback management during rush hour, aircraft pushback slot allocation based on congestion pricing is explored while considering monetary compensation based on the quality of the surface operations. First, the concept of the "external cost of surface congestion" is proposed, and a quantitative study on the external cost is performed. Then, an aircraft pushback slot allocation model for minimizing the total surface cost is established. An improved discrete differential evolution algorithm is also designed. Finally, a simulation is performed on Xinzheng International Airport using the proposed model. By comparing the pushback slot control strategy based on congestion pricing with other strategies, the advantages of the proposed model and algorithm are highlighted. In addition to reducing delays and optimizing the delay distribution, the model and algorithm are better suited for use for actual aircraft pushback management during rush hour. Further, it is also observed they do not result in significant increases in the surface cost. These results confirm the effectiveness and suitability of the proposed model and algorithm.

  18. Congestion Pricing for Aircraft Pushback Slot Allocation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yaping

    2017-01-01

    In order to optimize aircraft pushback management during rush hour, aircraft pushback slot allocation based on congestion pricing is explored while considering monetary compensation based on the quality of the surface operations. First, the concept of the “external cost of surface congestion” is proposed, and a quantitative study on the external cost is performed. Then, an aircraft pushback slot allocation model for minimizing the total surface cost is established. An improved discrete differential evolution algorithm is also designed. Finally, a simulation is performed on Xinzheng International Airport using the proposed model. By comparing the pushback slot control strategy based on congestion pricing with other strategies, the advantages of the proposed model and algorithm are highlighted. In addition to reducing delays and optimizing the delay distribution, the model and algorithm are better suited for use for actual aircraft pushback management during rush hour. Further, it is also observed they do not result in significant increases in the surface cost. These results confirm the effectiveness and suitability of the proposed model and algorithm. PMID:28114429

  19. High Power Test of an X-Band Slotted-IRIS Accelerator Structure at NLCTA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Doebert, S.; Fandos, R.; Grudiev, A.; Heikkinen, S.; Rodriquez, J.A.; Taborelli, M.; Wuensch, W.; Adolphsen, Chris E.; Laurent, L.

    2007-01-01

    The CLIC study group at CERN has built two X-band HDS (hybrid damped structure) accelerating structures for high-power testing in NLCTA at SLAC. These accelerating structures are novel with respect to their rf- design and their fabrication technique. The eleven-cell constant impedance structures, one made out of copper and one out of molybdenum, are assembled from clamped high-speed milled quadrants. They feature the same heavy higher-order-mode damping as nominal CLIC structures achieved by slotted irises and radial damping waveguides for each cell. The X-band accelerators are exactly scaled versions of structures tested at 30 GHz in the CLIC test facility, CTF3. The results of the X-band tests are presented and compared to those at 30 GHz to determine frequency scaling, and are compared to the extensive copper data from the NLC structure development program to determine material dependence and make a basic validation of the HDS design

  20. Enhanced and selective optical trapping in a slot-graphite photonic crystal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krishnan, Aravind; Huang, Ningfeng; Wu, Shao-Hua; Martínez, Luis Javier; Povinelli, Michelle L

    2016-10-03

    Applicability of optical trapping tools for nanomanipulation is limited by the available laser power and trap efficiency. We utilized the strong confinement of light in a slot-graphite photonic crystal to develop high-efficiency parallel trapping over a large area. The stiffness is 35 times higher than our previously demonstrated on-chip, near field traps. We demonstrate the ability to trap both dielectric and metallic particles of sub-micron size. We find that the growth kinetics of nanoparticle arrays on the slot-graphite template depends on particle size. This difference is exploited to selectively trap one type of particle out of a binary colloidal mixture, creating an efficient optical sieve. This technique has rich potential for analysis, diagnostics, and enrichment and sorting of microscopic entities.

  1. Low-loss curved subwavelength grating waveguide based on index engineering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Zheng; Xu, Xiaochuan; Fan, D. L.; Wang, Yaoguo; Chen, Ray T.

    2016-03-01

    Subwavelength grating (SWG) waveguide is an intriguing alternative to conventional optical waveguides due to its freedom to tune a few important waveguide properties such as dispersion and refractive index. Devices based on SWG waveguide have demonstrated impressive performances compared to those of conventional waveguides. However, the large loss of SWG waveguide bends jeopardizes their applications in integrated photonics circuits. In this work, we propose that a predistorted refractive index distribution in SWG waveguide bends can effectively decrease the mode mismatch noise and radiation loss simultaneously, and thus significantly reduce the bend loss. Here, we achieved the pre-distortion refractive index distribution by using trapezoidal silicon pillars. This geometry tuning approach is numerically optimized and experimentally demonstrated. The average insertion loss of a 5 μm SWG waveguide bend can be reduced drastically from 5.58 dB to 1.37 dB per 90° bend for quasi-TE polarization. In the future, the proposed approach can be readily adopted to enhance performance of an array of SWG waveguide-based photonics devices.

  2. Low-loss tunable 1D ITO-slot photonic crystal nanobeam cavity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amin, Rubab; Tahersima, Mohammad H.; Ma, Zhizhen; Suer, Can; Liu, Ke; Dalir, Hamed; Sorger, Volker J.

    2018-05-01

    Tunable optical material properties enable novel applications in both versatile metamaterials and photonic components including optical sources and modulators. Transparent conductive oxides (TCOs) are able to highly tune their optical properties with applied bias via altering their free carrier concentration and hence plasma dispersion. The TCO material indium tin oxide (ITO) exhibits unity-strong index change and epsilon-near-zero behavior. However, with such tuning the corresponding high optical losses, originating from the fundamental Kramers–Kronig relations, result in low cavity finesse. However, achieving efficient tuning in ITO-cavities without using light–matter interaction enhancement techniques such as polaritonic modes, which are inherently lossy, is a challenge. Here we discuss a novel one-dimensional photonic crystal nanobeam cavity to deliver a cavity system offering a wide range of resonance tuning range, while preserving physical compact footprints. We show that a vertical silicon-slot waveguide incorporating an actively gated-ITO layer delivers ∼3.4 nm of tuning. By deploying distributed feedback, we are able to keep the Q-factor moderately high with tuning. Combining this with the sub-diffraction limited mode volume (0.1 (λ/2n)3) from the photonic (non-plasmonic) slot waveguide, facilitates a high Purcell factor exceeding 1000. This strong light–matter-interaction shows that reducing the mode volume of a cavity outweighs reducing the losses in diffraction limited modal cavities such as those from bulk Si3N4. These tunable cavities enable future modulators and optical sources such as tunable lasers.

  3. Double-Slot Hybrid Plasmonic Ring Resonator Used for Optical Sensors and Modulators

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xu Sun

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available An ultra-high sensitivity double-slot hybrid plasmonic (DSHP ring resonator, used for optical sensors and modulators, is developed. Due to high index contrast, as well as plasmonic enhancement, a considerable part of the optical energy is concentrated in the narrow slots between Si and plasmonic materials (silver is used in this paper, which leads to high sensitivity to the infiltrating materials. By partial opening of the outer plasmonic circular sheet of the DSHP ring, a conventional side-coupled silicon on insulator (SOI bus waveguide can be used. Experimental results demonstrate ultra-high sensitivity (687.5 nm/RIU of the developed DSHP ring resonator, which is about five-times higher than for the conventional Si ring with the same geometry. Further discussions show that a very low detection limit (5.37 × 10−6 RIU can be achieved after loaded Q factor modifications. In addition, the plasmonic metal structures offer also the way to process optical and electronic signals along the same hybrid plasmonic circuits with small capacitance (~0.275 fF and large electric field, which leads to possible applications in compact high-efficiency electro-optic modulators, where no extra electrodes for electronic signals are required.

  4. Waveguide-based optofluidics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Karnutsch, Christian; Tomljenovic-Hanic, Snjezana; Monat, Christelle

    2010-01-01

    blocks in many applications, from microlasers and biomedical sensor systems to optical switches and integrated circuits. In this paper, we show that PhC microcavities can be formed by infusing a liquid into a selected section of a uniform PhC waveguide and that the optical properties of these cavities...... and highlight the benefits of an optofluidic approach, focusing on optofluidic cavities created in silicon photonic crystal (PhC) waveguide platforms. These cavities can be spatially and spectrally reconfigured, thus allowing a dynamic control of their optical characteristics. PhC cavities are major building...... can be tuned and adapted. By taking advantage of the negative thermo-optic coefficient of liquids, we describe a method which renders PhC cavities insensitive to temperature changes in the environment. This is only one example where the fluid-control of optical elements results in a functionality...

  5. Slot-coupled CW standing wave accelerating cavity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Shaoheng; Rimmer, Robert; Wang, Haipeng

    2017-05-16

    A slot-coupled CW standing wave multi-cell accelerating cavity. To achieve high efficiency graded beta acceleration, each cell in the multi-cell cavity may include different cell lengths. Alternatively, to achieve high efficiency with acceleration for particles with beta equal to 1, each cell in the multi-cell cavity may include the same cell design. Coupling between the cells is achieved with a plurality of axially aligned kidney-shaped slots on the wall between cells. The slot-coupling method makes the design very compact. The shape of the cell, including the slots and the cone, are optimized to maximize the power efficiency and minimize the peak power density on the surface. The slots are non-resonant, thereby enabling shorter slots and less power loss.

  6. Miniaturized dielectric waveguide filters

    OpenAIRE

    Sandhu, MY; Hunter, IC

    2016-01-01

    Design techniques for a new class of integrated monolithic high-permittivity ceramic waveguide filters are presented. These filters enable a size reduction of 50% compared to air-filled transverse electromagnetic filters with the same unloaded Q-factor. Designs for Chebyshev and asymmetric generalised Chebyshev filter and a diplexer are presented with experimental results for an 1800 MHz Chebyshev filter and a 1700 MHz generalised Chebyshev filter showing excellent agreement with theory.

  7. Incorporating an optical waveguide into a neural interface

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tolosa, Vanessa; Delima, Terri L.; Felix, Sarah H.; Pannu, Satinderpall S.; Shah, Kedar G.; Sheth, Heeral; Tooker, Angela C.

    2016-11-08

    An optical waveguide integrated into a multielectrode array (MEA) neural interface includes a device body, at least one electrode in the device body, at least one electrically conducting lead coupled to the at least one electrode, at least one optical channel in the device body, and waveguide material in the at least one optical channel. The fabrication of a neural interface device includes the steps of providing a device body, providing at least one electrode in the device body, providing at least one electrically conducting lead coupled to the at least one electrode, providing at least one optical channel in the device body, and providing a waveguide material in the at least one optical channel.

  8. Optically amplifying planar glass waveguides: Laser on a chip

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Guldberg-Kjær, Søren Andreas

    with UV-light and that permanent Bragg-gratings can be induced. Planar waveguide lasers with integrated Bragg-gratings are manufactured and characterised. It is shown that linewidths below 125 kHz and output powers around 0.5 mW can be obtained, and that the manufactured lasers are resistant to mechanical...... lightwave circuits, as well as provide the gain medium for integrated planar waveguide lasers. The work and the obtained results are presented in this thesis: The manufacturing of silica thin films is described and it is shown that the refractive index of the films can be controlled by germanium co...... as well as thermal influence. A simple method for producing an array of planar waveguide lasers is presented and it is shown that the difference in output wavelength of the individual lasers can be controlled with great accuracy....

  9. Planar waveguide amplifiers and laser in erbium doped silica

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Guldberg-Kjær, Søren Andreas; Kristensen, Martin

    1999-01-01

    with UV-light and that permanent Bragg-gratings can be induced. Planar waveguide lasers with integrated Bragg-gratings are manufactured and characterised. It is shown that linewidths below 125 kHz and output powers around 0.5 mW can be obtained, and that the manufactured lasers are resistant to mechanical...... lightwave circuits, as well as provide the gain medium for integrated planar waveguide lasers. The work and the obtained results are presented in this thesis: The manufacturing of silica thin films is described and it is shown that the refractive index o fthe films can be controlled by germanium co...... as well as thermal influence. A simple method for producing an array of planar waveguide lasers is presented and it is shown that the difference in output wavelength of the individual lasers can be controlled with great accuracy....

  10. A Microstrip Patch-Fed Short Backfire Antenna for the Tracking and Data Relay Satellite System-Continuation (TDRSS-C) Multiple Access (MA) Array

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nessel, James A.; Kory, Carol L.; Lambert, Kevin M.; Acosta, Roberto J.

    2006-01-01

    Short Backfire Antennas (SBAs) are widely utilized for mobile satellite communications, tracking, telemetry, and wireless local area network (WLAN) applications due to their compact structure and excellent radiation characteristics [1-3]. Typically, these SBA s consist of an excitation element (i.e., a half-wavelength dipole), a reflective bottom plane, a planar sub-reflector located above the "exciter", and an outer circular rim. This configuration is capable of achieving gains on the order of 13-15 dBi, but with relatively narrow bandwidths (approx.3%-5%), making it incompatible with the requirements of the next generation enhanced Tracking and Data Relay Satellite System-Continuation (TDRSS-C) Multiple Access (MA) array [1]. Several attempts have been made to enhance the bandwidth performance of the common dipole-fed SBA by employing various other feeding mechanisms (e.g., waveguide, slot) with moderate success [4-5]. In this paper, a novel method of using a microstrip patch is employed for the first time to excite an SBA. The patch element is fed via two H-shaped slots electromagnetically coupled to a broadband hybrid coupler to maintain a wide bandwidth, as well as provide for dual circular polarization capabilities.

  11. Anisotropic and nonlinear optical waveguides

    CERN Document Server

    Someda, CG

    1992-01-01

    Dielectric optical waveguides have been investigated for more than two decades. In the last ten years they have had the unique position of being simultaneously the backbone of a very practical and fully developed technology, as well as an extremely exciting area of basic, forefront research. Existing waveguides can be divided into two sets: one consisting of waveguides which are already in practical use, and the second of those which are still at the laboratory stage of their evolution. This book is divided into two separate parts: the first dealing with anisotropic waveguides, an

  12. The theory of the long waveguide structures radiating the LH waves into a plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hurtak, O.; Preinhaelter, J.

    1991-09-01

    It has been shown that the radiation into a plasma from a structure composed of a number of waveguides is well described by the theory of infinite structures. The theory results in an efficient numerical code which is appropriate namely for the study of the non-linear response of the plasma in front of the grill. Both the infinite conventional grill and the structure built up from an infinite series of identical N-waveguide multijunction sections are investigated. It is proved that the spectrum of the last structure is the superposition of N spectra of infinite conventional grills with specially selected phase shifts. The theoretical results for three long structures (24-waveguide conventional grill on ASDEX and two multijunction arrays - 32-waveguide grill on JET and 30-waveguide grill proposed for T15) are compared with the predictions of the theory of the corresponding infinite structures and the agreement is good. (author) 12 figs., 11 refs

  13. G-Tunnel pressurized slot-testing preparations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zimmerman, R.M.; Sifre-Soto, C.; Mann, K.L.; Bellman, R.A. Jr.; Luker, S.; Dodds, D.J.

    1992-04-01

    Designers and analysts of radioactive waste repositories must be able to predict the mechanical behavior of the host rock. Sandia National laboratories elected to conduct a development program on pressurized slot testing and featured (1) development of an improved method to cut slots using a chain saw with diamond-tipped cutters, (2) measurements useful for determining in situ stresses normal to slots, (3) measurements applicable for determining the in situ modulus of deformation parallel to a drift surface, and (4) evaluations of the potentials of pressurized slot strength testing. This report describes the preparations leading to the measurements and evaluations

  14. Scalable electro-photonic integration concept based on polymer waveguides

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bosman, E.; Van Steenberge, G.; Boersma, A.; Wiegersma, S.; Harmsma, P.; Karppinen, M.; Korhonen, T.; Offrein, B. J.; Dangel, R.; Daly, A.; Ortsiefer, M.; Justice, J.; Corbett, B.; Dorrestein, S.; Duis, J.

    2016-03-01

    A novel method for fabricating a single mode optical interconnection platform is presented. The method comprises the miniaturized assembly of optoelectronic single dies, the scalable fabrication of polymer single mode waveguides and the coupling to glass fiber arrays providing the I/O's. The low cost approach for the polymer waveguide fabrication is based on the nano-imprinting of a spin-coated waveguide core layer. The assembly of VCSELs and photodiodes is performed before waveguide layers are applied. By embedding these components in deep reactive ion etched pockets in the silicon substrate, the planarity of the substrate for subsequent layer processing is guaranteed and the thermal path of chip-to-substrate is minimized. Optical coupling of the embedded devices to the nano-imprinted waveguides is performed by laser ablating 45 degree trenches which act as optical mirror for 90 degree deviation of the light from VCSEL to waveguide. Laser ablation is also implemented for removing parts of the polymer stack in order to mount a custom fabricated connector containing glass fiber arrays. A demonstration device was built to show the proof of principle of the novel fabrication, packaging and optical coupling principles as described above, combined with a set of sub-demonstrators showing the functionality of the different techniques separately. The paper represents a significant part of the electro-photonic integration accomplishments in the European 7th Framework project "Firefly" and not only discusses the development of the different assembly processes described above, but the efforts on the complete integration of all process approaches into the single device demonstrator.

  15. Broadband wavelength conversion in a silicon vertical-dual-slot waveguide

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Guo, Kai; Lin, Li; Christensen, Jesper Bjerge

    2017-01-01

    strips, and put forward a method to achieve spectrally-flattened near-zero anomalous group-velocity dispersion at telecom wavelengths. A proposed structure provides a group-velocity dispersion parameter β2 of −60 ps2/km with an e ective mode area Aeff of 0.075 µm2 at 1550 nm. This structure is predicted...

  16. Vertically Polarized Omnidirectional Printed Slot Loop AntennaPrinted Slot Loop Antenna (invited)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kammersgaard, Nikolaj Peter Iversen; Kvist, Søren Helstrup; Thaysen, Jesper

    2015-01-01

    and in-phase fields in the slot in order to obtain an omnidirectional radiation pattern. The antenna is designed for the 2.45 GHz Industrial, Scientific and Medical band. Applications of the antenna are many. One is for on-body applications since it is ideal for launching a creeping waves due...

  17. Amplifier Module for 260-GHz Band Using Quartz Waveguide Transitions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Padmanabhan, Sharmila; Fung, King Man; Kangaslahti, Pekka P.; Peralta, Alejandro; Soria, Mary M.; Pukala, David M.; Sin, Seth; Samoska, Lorene A.; Sarkozy, Stephen; Lai, Richard

    2012-01-01

    Packaging of MMIC LNA (monolithic microwave integrated circuit low-noise amplifier) chips at frequencies over 200 GHz has always been problematic due to the high loss in the transition between the MMIC chip and the waveguide medium in which the chip will typically be used. In addition, above 200 GHz, wire-bond inductance between the LNA and the waveguide can severely limit the RF matching and bandwidth of the final waveguide amplifier module. This work resulted in the development of a low-loss quartz waveguide transition that includes a capacitive transmission line between the MMIC and the waveguide probe element. This capacitive transmission line tunes out the wirebond inductance (where the wire-bond is required to bond between the MMIC and the probe element). This inductance can severely limit the RF matching and bandwidth of the final waveguide amplifier module. The amplifier module consists of a quartz E-plane waveguide probe transition, a short capacitive tuning element, a short wire-bond to the MMIC, and the MMIC LNA. The output structure is similar, with a short wire-bond at the output of the MMIC, a quartz E-plane waveguide probe transition, and the output waveguide. The quartz probe element is made of 3-mil quartz, which is the thinnest commercially available material. The waveguide band used is WR4, from 170 to 260 GHz. This new transition and block design is an improvement over prior art because it provides for better RF matching, and will likely yield lower loss and better noise figure. The development of high-performance, low-noise amplifiers in the 180-to- 700-GHz range has applications for future earth science and planetary instruments with low power and volume, and astrophysics array instruments for molecular spectroscopy. This frequency band, while suitable for homeland security and commercial applications (such as millimeter-wave imaging, hidden weapons detection, crowd scanning, airport security, and communications), also has applications to

  18. Low loss hollow-core waveguide on a silicon substrate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Weijian; Ferrara, James; Grutter, Karen; Yeh, Anthony; Chase, Chris; Yue, Yang; Willner, Alan E.; Wu, Ming C.; Chang-Hasnain, Connie J.

    2012-07-01

    Optical-fiber-based, hollow-core waveguides (HCWs) have opened up many new applications in laser surgery, gas sensors, and non-linear optics. Chip-scale HCWs are desirable because they are compact, light-weight and can be integrated with other devices into systems-on-a-chip. However, their progress has been hindered by the lack of a low loss waveguide architecture. Here, a completely new waveguiding concept is demonstrated using two planar, parallel, silicon-on-insulator wafers with high-contrast subwavelength gratings to reflect light in-between. We report a record low optical loss of 0.37 dB/cm for a 9-μm waveguide, mode-matched to a single mode fiber. Two-dimensional light confinement is experimentally realized without sidewalls in the HCWs, which is promising for ultrafast sensing response with nearly instantaneous flow of gases or fluids. This unique waveguide geometry establishes an entirely new scheme for low-cost chip-scale sensor arrays and lab-on-a-chip applications.

  19. Vertical Slot Convection: A linear study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McAllister, A.; Steinolfson, R.; Tajima, T.

    1992-11-01

    The linear stability properties of fluid convection in a vertical slot were studied. We use a Fourier-Chebychev decomposition was used to set up the linear eigenvalue problems for the Vertical Slot Convection and Benard problems. The eigenvalues, neutral stability curves, and critical point values of the Grashof number, G, and the wavenumber were determined. Plots of the real and imaginary parts of the eigenvalues as functions of G and α are given for a wide range of the Prandtl number, Pr, and special note is made of the complex mode that becomes linearly unstable above Pr ∼ 12.5. A discussion comparing different special cases facilitates the physical understanding of the VSC equations, especially the interaction of the shear-flow and buoyancy induced physics. Making use of the real and imaginary eigenvalues and the phase properties of the eigenmodes, the eigenmodes were characterized. One finds that the mode structure becomes progressively simpler with increasing Pr, with the greatest complexity in the mid ranges where the terms in the heat equation are of roughly the same size

  20. Design of photonic phased array switches using nano electromechanical systems on silicon-on-insulator integration platform

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hussein, Ali Abdulsattar

    This thesis presents an introduction to the design and simulation of a novel class of integrated photonic phased array switch elements. The main objective is to use nano-electromechanical (NEMS) based phase shifters of cascaded under-etched slot nanowires that are compact in size and require a small amount of power to operate them. The structure of the switch elements is organized such that it brings the phase shifting elements to the exterior sides of the photonic circuits. The transition slot couplers, used to interconnect the phase shifters, are designed to enable biasing one of the silicon beams of each phase shifter from an electrode located at the side of the phase shifter. The other silicon beam of each phase shifter is biased through the rest of the silicon structure of the switch element, which is taken as a ground. Phased array switch elements ranging from 2x2 up to 8x8 multiple-inputs/multiple-outputs (MIMO) are conveniently designed within reasonable footprints native to the current fabrication technologies. Chapter one presents the general layout of the various designs of the switch elements and demonstrates their novel features. This demonstration will show how waveguide disturbances in the interconnecting network from conventional switch elements can be avoided by adopting an innovative design. Some possible applications for the designed switch elements of different sizes and topologies are indicated throughout the chapter. Chapter two presents the design of the multimode interference (MMI) couplers used in the switch elements as splitters, combiners and waveguide crossovers. Simulation data and design methodologies for the multimode couplers of interest are detailed in this chapter. Chapter three presents the design and analysis of the NEMS-operated phase shifters. Both simulations and numerical analysis are utilized in the design of a 0°-180° capable NEMS-operated phase shifter. Additionally, the response of some of the designed photonic phased

  1. Hollow waveguide cavity ringdown spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dreyer, Chris (Inventor); Mungas, Greg S. (Inventor)

    2012-01-01

    Laser light is confined in a hollow waveguide between two highly reflective mirrors. This waveguide cavity is used to conduct Cavity Ringdown Absorption Spectroscopy of loss mechanisms in the cavity including absorption or scattering by gases, liquid, solids, and/or optical elements.

  2. 49 CFR 236.809 - Signal, slotted mechanical.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Signal, slotted mechanical. 236.809 Section 236.809 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) FEDERAL RAILROAD... § 236.809 Signal, slotted mechanical. A mechanically operated signal with an electromagnetic device...

  3. Evaluation of two styles of slotted, flat-head screws

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reeves, C.A. Jr.; Johnson, W.B.

    1979-01-01

    A series of torque tests were performed to evaluate the relative merits of two different flat-head screws fabricated from a uranium--6% niobium alloy. The screws tested were machined with both normal, straight-through slots in the head and with slots having radiused bottoms. Test results indicate that both designs easily surpass the required 20-inch-pound-proof torque

  4. FDTD Analysis of U-Slot Rectangular Patch Antenna

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luk, K. M.; Tong, K. F.; Shum, S. M.; Lee, K. F.; Lee, R. Q.

    1997-01-01

    The U-slot rectangular patch antenna (Figure I) has been found experimentally to provide impedance and gain bandwidths of about 300 without the need of stacked or coplanar parasitic elements [1,2]. In this paper, simulation results of the U-slot patch using FDTD analysis are presented. Comparison with measured results are given.

  5. Slot Optimization Design of Induction Motor for Electric Vehicle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Yiming; Zhu, Changqing; Wang, Xiuhe

    2018-01-01

    Slot design of induction motor has a great influence on its performance. The RMxprt module based on magnetic circuit method can be used to analyze the influence of rotor slot type on motor characteristics and optimize slot parameters. In this paper, the authors take an induction motor of electric vehicle for a typical example. The first step of the design is to optimize the rotor slot by RMxprt, and then compare the main performance of the motor before and after the optimization through Ansoft Maxwell 2D. After that, the combination of optimum slot type and the optimum parameters are obtained. The results show that the power factor and the starting torque of the optimized motor have been improved significantly. Furthermore, the electric vehicle works at a better running status after the optimization.

  6. Slotted Circularly Polarized Microstrip Antenna for RFID Application

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Kumar

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available A single layer coaxial fed rectangular microstrip slotted antenna for circular polarization (CP is proposed for radio frequency identification (RFID application. Two triangular shaped slots and one rectangular slot along the diagonal axis of a square patch have been embedded. Due to slotted structure along the diagonal axis and less surface area, good quality of circular polarization has been obtained with the reduction in the size of microstrip antenna by 4.04 %. Circular polarization radiation performance has been studied by size and angle variation of diagonally slotted structures. The experimental result found for 10-dB return loss is 44 MHz with 10MHz of 3dB Axial Ratio (AR bandwidth respectively at the resonant frequency 910 MHz. The overall proposed antenna size including the ground plane is 80 mm x 80 mm x 4.572 mm.

  7. Acrylic and metal based Y-branch plastic optical fiber splitter with optical NOA63 polymer waveguide taper region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ehsan, Abang Annuar; Shaari, Sahbudin; Rahman, Mohd Kamil Abd.

    2011-01-01

    We proposed a simple low-cost acrylic and metal-based Y-branch plastic optical fiber (POF) splitter which utilizes a low cost optical polymer glue NOA63 as the main waveguiding medium at the waveguide taper region. The device is composed of three sections: an input POF waveguide, a middle waveguide taper region and output POF waveguides. A desktop high speed CNC engraver is utilized to produce the mold inserts used for the optical devices. Short POF fibers are inserted into the engraved slots at the input and output ports. UV curable optical polymer glue NOA63 is injected into the waveguide taper region and cured. The assembling is completed when the top plate is positioned to enclose the device structure and connecting screws are secured. Both POF splitters have an average insertion loss of 7.8 dB, coupling ratio of 55: 45 and 57: 43 for the acrylic and metal-based splitters respectively. The devices have excess loss of 4.82 and 4.73 dB for the acrylic and metal-based splitters respectively.

  8. Student-Led Objective Tutorial (SLOT) in Medical Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sivagnanam, Gurusamy; Saraswathi, Simansalam; Rajasekaran, Aiyalu

    2006-12-01

    Purpose - To assess an innovative tutoring program named 'Student-Led Objective Tutorial' (SLOT) among undergraduate medical students. Method - The program was conceptualized by the Pharmacology Unit of Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences, Asian Institute of Medicine Science & Technology (AIMST), Malaysia and implemented in the middle of 2005. A cohort of 246 medical undergraduate students (spread across 5 consecutive batches) participated. Following a brief explanation on the purpose and nature of SLOT, each batch was divided into small groups and was given a reading assignment on 4 previously delivered lecture topics. Each group was asked to prepare 3-5 multiple choice questions (MCQs) of their own in PowerPoint format to be presented, in turns, to the whole class on the day of SLOT. The proceedings were facilitated by 2 lecturers. Student feedback on the efficacy and benefits were assessed through an anonymous self administered questionnaire. Results - About 76% (188) of the students favored SLOT. The acceptance rate of SLOT was higher among males. There was no significant difference between batches in their opinions on whether to pursue SLOT in future. The most prevalent positive comment was that SLOT enhanced learning skills, and the negative comment being, it consumed more time. Conclusions - SLOT is a novel tutorial method which can offset faculty shortage with advantages like enhanced interest among teachers and learners, uniform reach of content, opportunities for group learning, and involvement of visual aids as teaching-learning (T-L) method. SLOT unraveled the students' potential of peer tutoring both inside as well as outside the classroom. Consumer tutors (students) can be tapped as a resource for SLOT for all subjects and courses in healthcare teaching.

  9. Freeform Phononic Waveguides

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Georgios Gkantzounis

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available We employ a recently introduced class of artificial structurally-disordered phononic structures that exhibit large and robust elastic frequency band gaps for efficient phonon guiding. Phononic crystals are periodic structures that prohibit the propagation of elastic waves through destructive interference and exhibit large band gaps and ballistic propagation of elastic waves in the permitted frequency ranges. In contrast, random-structured materials do not exhibit band gaps and favour localization or diffusive propagation. Here, we use structures with correlated disorder constructed from the so-called stealthy hyperuniform disordered point patterns, which can smoothly vary from completely random to periodic (full order by adjusting a single parameter. Such amorphous-like structures exhibit large band gaps (comparable to the periodic ones, both ballistic-like and diffusive propagation of elastic waves, and a large number of localized modes near the band edges. The presence of large elastic band gaps allows the creation of waveguides in hyperuniform materials, and we analyse various waveguide architectures displaying nearly 100% transmission in the GHz regime. Such phononic-circuit architectures are expected to have a direct impact on integrated micro-electro-mechanical filters and modulators for wireless communications and acousto-optical sensing applications.

  10. Photonic Crystal Waveguides in Triangular Lattice of Nanopillars

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chigrin, Dmitry N.; Lavrinenko, Andrei

    2004-01-01

    Photonic nanopillars waveguides have been analysed. Dielectric nanopillars are arranged in such way that they from a tringular lattice of 2D photonic crystal. Dispersion of the modes depends on the direction of the triangular lattice, Ã-J or Ã-X, in which nanopillars arrays are extended. Light fi....... Transmission spectra calculated by FDTD method completely reflect peculiarities of modes dispersion, showing up to 80% transmission for a realistic SOI nanopillar structure....

  11. Evanescent fields of laser written waveguides

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jukić, Dario; Pohl, Thomas; Götte, Jörg B.

    2015-03-01

    We investigate the evanescent field at the surface of laser written waveguides. The waveguides are written by a direct femtosecond laser writing process into fused silica, which is then sanded down to expose the guiding layer. These waveguides support eigenmodes which have an evanescent field reaching into the vacuum above the waveguide. We study the governing wave equations and present solution for the fundamental eigenmodes of the modified waveguides.

  12. Energy tunneling through narrow waveguide channel and design of small antennas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mitrović Miranda

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we investigate the conditions for energy tunneling through narrow channel obtained by reducing the height of rectangular waveguide. Tunneling of the energy occurs at the frequency for which the effective dielectric permittivity of the channel becomes equal to zero, so it can be treated as an ENZ (epsilon-near-zero metamaterial. We investigated how geometry of the channel and dielectric permittivity affect the transmission coefficient and field density in the channel. Adding slots in the channel, which are placed orthogonally to the wave propagation, we designed a small antenna with directivity of 5.44 dBi at the frequency of 3 GHz.

  13. Grating-Coupled Waveguide Cloaking

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Jia-Fu; Qu Shao-Bo; Ma Hua; Wang Cong-Min; Wang Xin-Hua; Zhou Hang; Xu Zhuo; Xia Song

    2012-01-01

    Based on the concept of a grating-coupled waveguide (GCW), a new strategy for realizing EM cloaking is presented. Using metallic grating, incident waves are firstly coupled into the effective waveguide and then decoupled into free space behind, enabling EM waves to pass around the obstacle. Phase compensation in the waveguide keeps the wave-front shape behind the obstacle unchanged. Circular, rectangular and triangular cloaks are presented to verify the robustness of the GCW cloaking. Electric field animations and radar cross section (RCS) comparisons convincingly demonstrate the cloaking effect

  14. Broadband enhancement of single photon emission and polarization dependent coupling in silicon nitride waveguides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bisschop, Suzanne; Guille, Antoine; Van Thourhout, Dries; Hens, Zeger; Brainis, Edouard

    2015-06-01

    Single-photon (SP) sources are important for a number of optical quantum information processing applications. We study the possibility to integrate triggered solid-state SP emitters directly on a photonic chip. A major challenge consists in efficiently extracting their emission into a single guided mode. Using 3D finite-difference time-domain simulations, we investigate the SP emission from dipole-like nanometer-sized inclusions embedded into different silicon nitride (SiNx) photonic nanowire waveguide designs. We elucidate the effect of the geometry on the emission lifetime and the polarization of the emitted SP. The results show that highly efficient and polarized SP sources can be realized using suspended SiNx slot-waveguides. Combining this with the well-established CMOS-compatible processing technology, fully integrated and complex optical circuits for quantum optics experiments can be developed.

  15. Optimization of silicon waveguides for gas detection application at mid-IR wavelengths

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butt, M. A.; Kozlova, E. S.

    2018-04-01

    There are several trace gases such as N2O, CO, CO2, NO, H2O, NO2, NH3, CH4 etc. which have their absorption peaks in Mid-IR spectrum These gases strongly absorb in the mid-IR > 2.5 μm spectral region due to their fundamental rotational and vibrational transitions. In this work, we modelled and optimized three different kinds of waveguides such as rib, strip and slot based on silicon platform to obtain maximum evanescent field ratio. These waveguides are designed at 3.39 μm and 4.67 μm which correspond to the absorption line of methane (CH4) and carbon monoxide (CO) respectively.

  16. Directional radiation of Babinet-inverted optical nanoantenna integrated with plasmonic waveguide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jineun; Roh, Young-Geun; Cheon, Sangmo; Jeong Kim, Un; Hwang, Sung Woo; Park, Yeonsang; Lee, Chang-Won

    2015-07-01

    We present a Babinet-inverted optical nanoantenna integrated with a plasmonic waveguide. Using an integrated nanoantenna, we can couple the plasmon guide mode in a metal-insulator-metal (MIM) structure into the resonant antenna feed directly. The resonantly excited feed slot then radiates to free space and generates a magnetic dipole-like far-field pattern. The coupling efficiency of the integrated nanoantenna is calculated as being approximately 19% using a three-dimensional finite-difference time-domain (3D FDTD) simulation. By adding an auxiliary groove structure along with the feed, the radiation direction can be controlled similar to an optical Yagi-Uda antenna. We also determine, both theoretically and experimentally, that groove depth plays a significant role to function groove structure as a reflector or a director. The demonstrated Babinet-inverted optical nanoantenna integrated with a plasmonic waveguide can be used as a “plasmonic via” in plasmonic nanocircuits.

  17. Investigation of a slot nanoantenna in optical frequency range

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dinesh kumar, V.; Asakawa, Kiyoshi

    2009-11-01

    Following the analogy of radio frequency slot antenna and its complementary dipole, we propose the implementation of a slot nanoantenna (SNA) in the optical frequency range. Using finite-difference time-domain (FDTD) method, we investigate the electromagnetic (EM) properties of a SNA formed in a thin gold film and compare the results with the properties of a gold dipole nanoantenna (DNA) of the same dimension as the slot. It is found that the response of the SNA is very similar to the DNA, like their counterparts in the radio frequency (RF) range. The SNA can enhance the near field intensity of incident field which strongly depends on its feedgap dimension. The resonance of the SNA is influenced by its slot length; for the increasing slot length, resonant frequency decreases whereas the sharpness of resonance increases. Besides, the resonance of the SNA is found sensitive to the thickness of metal film, when the latter is smaller than the skin depth. The effect of polarization of incident field on the EM response of the SNA was examined; the field enhancement is optimum when polarization is parallel to the feedgap. Finally, we calculate the radiation patterns of the DNA and SNA and compare them with those of the RF dipole antenna. The radiation pattern of the SNA is found to be independent of its slot length when excited at resonant frequency. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first study on a slot antenna in the optical frequency.

  18. MHD-flow in slotted channels with conducting walls

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Evtushenko, I.A.; Kirillov, I.R.; Reed, C.B.

    1994-07-01

    A review of experimental results is presented for magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) flow in rectangular channels with conducting walls and high aspect ratios (longer side parallel to the applied magnetic field), which are called slotted channels. The slotted channel concept was conceived at Efremov Institute as a method for reducing MHD pressure drop in liquid metal cooled blanket design. The experiments conducted by the authors were aimed at studying both fully developed MHD-flow, and the effect of a magnetic field on the hydrodynamics of 3-D flows in slotted channels. Tests were carried out on five models of the slotted geometry. A good agreement between test and theoretical results for the pressure drop in slotted channels was demonstrated. Application of a open-quotes one-electrode movable probeclose quotes for velocity measurement permitted measurement of the M-shape velocity profiles in the slotted channels. Suppression of 3-D inertial effects in slotted channels of complex geometry was demonstrated based on potential distribution data

  19. Optical waveguide theory

    CERN Document Server

    Snyder, Allan W

    1983-01-01

    This text is intended to provide an in-depth, self-contained, treatment of optical waveguide theory. We have attempted to emphasize the underlying physical processes, stressing conceptual aspects, and have developed the mathematical analysis to parallel the physical intuition. We also provide comprehensive supplementary sections both to augment any deficiencies in mathematical background and to provide a self-consistent and rigorous mathematical approach. To assist in. understanding, each chapter con­ centrates principally on a single idea and is therefore comparatively short. Furthermore, over 150 problems with complete solutions are given to demonstrate applications of the theory. Accordingly, through simplicity of approach and numerous examples, this book is accessible to undergraduates. Many fundamental topics are presented here for the first time, but, more importantly, the material is brought together to give a unified treatment of basic ideas using the simplest approach possible. To achieve such a goa...

  20. Two-Dimensional Planar Lightwave Circuit Integrated Spatial Filter Array and Method of Use Thereof

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ai, Jun (Inventor); Dimov, Fedor (Inventor)

    2015-01-01

    A large coherent two-dimensional (2D) spatial filter array (SFA), 30 by 30 or larger, is produced by coupling a 2D planar lightwave circuit (PLC) array with a pair of lenslet arrays at the input and output side. The 2D PLC array is produced by stacking a plurality of chips, each chip with a plural number of straight PLC waveguides. A pupil array is coated onto the focal plane of the lenslet array. The PLC waveguides are produced by deposition of a plural number of silica layers on the silicon wafer, followed by photolithography and reactive ion etching (RIE) processes. A plural number of mode filters are included in the silica-on-silicon waveguide such that the PLC waveguide is transparent to the fundamental mode but higher order modes are attenuated by 40 dB or more.

  1. Attenuation in Superconducting Circular Waveguides

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. H. Yeap

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available We present an analysis on wave propagation in superconducting circular waveguides. In order to account for the presence of quasiparticles in the intragap states of a superconductor, we employ the characteristic equation derived from the extended Mattis-Bardeen theory to compute the values of the complex conductivity. To calculate the attenuation in a circular waveguide, the tangential fields at the boundary of the wall are first matched with the electrical properties (which includes the complex conductivity of the wall material. The matching of fields with the electrical properties results in a set of transcendental equations which is able to accurately describe the propagation constant of the fields. Our results show that although the attenuation in the superconducting waveguide above cutoff (but below the gap frequency is finite, it is considerably lower than that in a normal waveguide. Above the gap frequency, however, the attenuation in the superconducting waveguide increases sharply. The attenuation eventually surpasses that in a normal waveguide. As frequency increases above the gap frequency, Cooper pairs break into quasiparticles. Hence, we attribute the sharp rise in attenuation to the increase in random collision of the quasiparticles with the lattice structure.

  2. MHD waveguides in space plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mazur, N. G.; Fedorov, E. N.; Pilipenko, V. A.

    2010-01-01

    The waveguide properties of two characteristic formations in the Earth's magnetotail-the plasma sheet and the current (neutral) sheet-are considered. The question of how the domains of existence of different types of MHD waveguide modes (fast and slow, body and surface) in the (k, ω) plane and their dispersion properties depend on the waveguide parameters is studied. Investigation of the dispersion relation in a number of particular (limiting) cases makes it possible to obtain a fairly complete qualitative pattern of all the branches of the dispersion curve. Accounting for the finite size of perturbations across the wave propagation direction reveals new additional effects such as a change in the critical waveguide frequencies, the excitation of longitudinal current at the boundaries of the sheets, and a change in the symmetry of the fundamental mode. Knowledge of the waveguide properties of the plasma and current sheets can explain the occurrence of preferred frequencies in the low-frequency fluctuation spectra in the magnetotail. In satellite observations, the type of waveguide mode can be determined from the spectral properties, as well as from the phase relationships between plasma oscillations and magnetic field oscillations that are presented in this paper.

  3. Energy dissipation of slot-type flip buckets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Jian-hua; Li, Shu-fang; Ma, Fei

    2018-03-01

    The energy dissipation is a key index in the evaluation of energy dissipation elements. In the present work, a flip bucket with a slot, called the slot-type flip bucket, is theoretically and experimentally investigated by the method of estimating the energy dissipation. The theoretical analysis shows that, in order to have the energy dissipation, it is necessary to determine the sequent flow depth h 1 and the flow speed V 1 at the corresponding position through the flow depth h 2 after the hydraulic jump. The relative flow depth h 2 / h 。 is a function of the approach flow Froude number Fr 。, the relative slot width b/B 。, and the relative slot angle θ/β. The expression for estimating the energy dissipation is developed, and the maximum error is not larger than 9.21%.

  4. Slot-type pickup/kicker for AA stochastic cooling

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN PhotoLab

    1979-01-01

    A "slotted transmission line" was used for both pickups and kickers of the cooling systems of the AA. They served for the cooling of the high-density antiproton stack, in momentum and both transverse planes. In the beginning in a single band, 1-2 GHz, later in 2 bands, 2-4 and 4-8 GHz. Here we see the slotted electrodes partly pulled out of the outer casing. See also 7906189, 7906581X, 7896193.

  5. Effects of geometry on slot-jet film cooling performance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hyams, D.G.; McGovern, K.T.; Leylek, J.H. [Clemson Univ., SC (United States)

    1995-10-01

    The physics of the film cooling process for shaped, inclined slot-jets with realistic slot-length-to-width ratios (L/s) is studied for a range of blowing ratio (M) and density ratio (DR) parameters typical of gas turbine operations. For the first time in the open literature, the effect of inlet and exit shaping of the slot-jet on both flow and thermal field characteristics is isolated, and the dominant mechanisms responsible for differences in these characteristics are documented. A previously documented computational methodology was applied for the study of four distinct configurations: (1) slot with straight edges and sharp corners (reference case); (2) slot with shaped inlet region; (3) slot with shaped exit region; and (4) slot with both shaped inlet and exit regions. Detailed field results as well as surface phenomena involving adiabatic film effectiveness ({eta}) and heat transfer coefficient (h) are presented. It is demonstrated that both {eta} and h results are vital in the proper assessment of film cooling performance. All simulations were carried out using a multi-block, unstructured/adaptive grid, fully explicit, time-marching solver with multi-grid, local time stepping, and residual smoothing type acceleration techniques. Special attention was paid to and full documentation provided for: (1) proper modeling of the physical phenomena; (2) exact geometry and high quality grid generation techniques; (3) discretization schemes; and (4) turbulence modeling issues. The key parameters M and DR were varied from 1.0 to 2.0 and 1.5 to 2.0, respectively, to show their influence. Simulations were repeated for slot length-to-width ratio (L/s) of 3.0 and 4.5 in order to explain the effects of this important parameter. Additionally, the performance of two popular turbulence models, standard k-F, and RNG k-E, were studied to establish their ability to handle highly elliptic jet/crossflow interaction type processes.

  6. Predictors of return rate discrimination in slot machine play.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coates, Ewan; Blaszczynski, Alex

    2014-09-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the extent to which accurate estimates of payback percentages and volatility combined with prior learning, enabled players to successfully discriminate between multi-line/multi-credit slot machines that provided differing rates of reinforcement. The aim was to determine if the capacity to discriminate structural characteristics of gaming machines influenced player choices in selecting 'favourite' slot machines. Slot machine gambling history, gambling beliefs and knowledge, impulsivity, illusions of control, and problem solving style were assessed in a sample of 48 first year undergraduate psychology students. Participants were subsequently exposed to a choice paradigm where they could freely select to play either of two concurrently presented PC-simulated slot machines programmed to randomly differ in expected player return rates (payback percentage) and win frequency (volatility). Results suggest that prior learning and cognitions (particularly gambler's fallacy) but not payback, were major contributors to the ability of a player to discriminate volatility between slot machines. Participants displayed a general tendency to discriminate payback, but counter-intuitively placed more bets on the slot machine with lower payback percentage rates.

  7. Photonic crystal waveguides in artificial opals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lavrinenko, Andrei; Kiyan, Roman; Neumeister, Andrei

    2008-01-01

    3D photonic crystals based on Si inverted-opals are numerically explored as hosts for effective air-channel waveguides, which can serve as parts of photonic circuits. Two basic shapes of straight waveguides are considered: cylindrical and a chain of spheres. Modelling shows that transmission...... is heavily dependent on the lattice position of the waveguide and its direction. Our experiments of defect inscription by 2-photon polymerization for the production of straight and bent waveguides in opal templates are reported....

  8. Theoretical study of the folded waveguide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, G.L.; Owens, T.L.; Whealton, J.H.

    1988-01-01

    We have applied a three-dimensional (3-D) algorithm for solving Maxwell's equations to the analysis of foleded waveguides used for fusion plasma heating at the ion cyclotron resonance frequency. A rigorous analysis of the magnetic field structure in the folded waveguide is presented. The results are compared to experimenntal measurements. Optimum conditions for the folded waveguide are discussed. 6 refs., 10 figs

  9. Fabrication of plasmonic waveguides for device applications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boltasseva, Alexandra; Leosson, Kristjan; Rosenzveig, Tiberiu

    2007-01-01

    and thickness-modulated gold strips different waveguide components including reflecting gratings can be realized. For applications where polarization is random or changing, metal nanowire waveguides are shown to be suitable candidates for efficient guiding of arbitrary polarized light. Plasmonic waveguides...

  10. Flexible long-range surface plasmon polariton single-mode waveguide for optical interconnects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vernoux, Christian; Chen, Yiting; Markey, Laurent

    2018-01-01

    We present the design, fabrication and characterization of long-range surface plasmon polariton waveguide arrays with materials, mainly silicones, carefully selected with the aim to be used as mechanically flexible single-mode optical interconnections, the socalled "plasmonic arc" working at 1.55μm...

  11. Low loss power splitter for antenna beam forming networks using probes in a waveguide

    OpenAIRE

    Dich, Mikael; Mortensen, Mette Dahl

    1994-01-01

    The design of a low loss one-to-four power splitter suitable for beam forming networks in antenna arrays is presented. The power splitter is constructed of a shorted waveguide in which five coaxial probes are inserted. Methods for the design of the power splitter are presented together with an experimental verification

  12. Low loss power splitter for antenna beam forming networks using probes in a waveguide

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dich, Mikael; Mortensen, Mette Dahl

    1994-01-01

    The design of a low loss one-to-four power splitter suitable for beam forming networks in antenna arrays is presented. The power splitter is constructed of a shorted waveguide in which five coaxial probes are inserted. Methods for the design of the power splitter are presented together...

  13. Coupled-resonator optical waveguides

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Raza, Søren; Grgic, Jure; Pedersen, Jesper Goor

    2010-01-01

    Coupled-resonator optical waveguides hold potential for slow-light propagation of optical pulses. The dispersion properties may adequately be analyzed within the framework of coupled-mode theory. We extend the standard coupled-mode theory for such structures to also include complex-valued paramet......Coupled-resonator optical waveguides hold potential for slow-light propagation of optical pulses. The dispersion properties may adequately be analyzed within the framework of coupled-mode theory. We extend the standard coupled-mode theory for such structures to also include complex...

  14. Waveguiding with surface plasmon polaritons

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Han, Zhanghua; Bozhevolnyi, Sergey I.

    2014-01-01

    the diffraction limit, i.e., on the nanoscale, while enhancing local field strengths by several orders of magnitude. This unique feature of SPP modes along with ever increasing demands for miniaturization of photonic components and circuits generates an exponentially growing interest to SPP-mediated radiation...... guiding and SPP-based waveguide components. Here we review the current status of this rapidly developing field, starting with a brief presentation of main planar SPP modes, and then describing in detail various SPP-based waveguide configurations that ensure two-dimensional mode confinement. Excitation...

  15. Compact Elliptically Tapered Slot Antenna with Non-uniform Corrugations for Ultra-wideband Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. G. Zhu

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available A small size elliptically tapered slot antenna (ETSA fed by coplanar waveguide (CPW for ultra-wideband (UWB applications is proposed. It is printed on an FR4 substrate and occupies a size of 37×34×0.8 mm^3. A pair of quarter circular shapes is etched on the radiator to reduce the size. To overcome the limitation of uniform corrugation, non-uniform corrugation is utilized to reduce the cross-polarization level. A parametric study is carried out to investigate the effects of circular cut and corrugations. In order to validate the design, a prototype is fabricated and measured. Both simulated and measured results confirm that the proposed antenna achieves a good performance of a reflection coefficient below -10 dB from 3.1 GHz to 10.6 GHz, including a maximum antenna gain of 8.1dBi, directional patterns in the end-fire direction, low cross-polarization level below -20 dB and linear phase response. The antenna is promising for applications in UWB impulse radar imaging.

  16. Humanizing machines: Anthropomorphization of slot machines increases gambling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riva, Paolo; Sacchi, Simona; Brambilla, Marco

    2015-12-01

    Do people gamble more on slot machines if they think that they are playing against humanlike minds rather than mathematical algorithms? Research has shown that people have a strong cognitive tendency to imbue humanlike mental states to nonhuman entities (i.e., anthropomorphism). The present research tested whether anthropomorphizing slot machines would increase gambling. Four studies manipulated slot machine anthropomorphization and found that exposing people to an anthropomorphized description of a slot machine increased gambling behavior and reduced gambling outcomes. Such findings emerged using tasks that focused on gambling behavior (Studies 1 to 3) as well as in experimental paradigms that included gambling outcomes (Studies 2 to 4). We found that gambling outcomes decrease because participants primed with the anthropomorphic slot machine gambled more (Study 4). Furthermore, we found that high-arousal positive emotions (e.g., feeling excited) played a role in the effect of anthropomorphism on gambling behavior (Studies 3 and 4). Our research indicates that the psychological process of gambling-machine anthropomorphism can be advantageous for the gaming industry; however, this may come at great expense for gamblers' (and their families') economic resources and psychological well-being. (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved).

  17. Geothermal reservoirs. Position of slotted section of the tube casing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carotenuto, A.; Vanoli, L.; Casarosa, C.

    1999-01-01

    In the present work the authors have verified the influence of the position of slotted section casing on heat rate drawn by plants for exploitation of geothermal reservoirs that use heat exchangers placed at the bottom of the well (DHE). This study have been done modelling numerically the aquifer, by means of finite element method, evaluating the heat rate drawn by the heat exchanger at different position of the slotted section of the tube casing. Numerical calculations have allowed to show the influence of the main characteristics of the aquifer and of the main characteristics of the aquifer and of the plant on design of the slotted section of the tube casing. In particular, the authors have studied the influence of i) equivalent conductivity and permeability of the aquifer, ii) mass flow rate and the inlet and outlet aquifer temperature difference in the well, iii) the ratio between the length of the slotted section and the thickness of the geothermal layer, varying the position of the slotted section of the tube casing in the aquifer [it

  18. Coupled nanopillar waveguides: optical properties and applications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chigrin, Dmitry N.; Zhukovsky, Sergei V.; Lavrinenko, Andrei

    2007-01-01

    , while guided modes dispersion is strongly affected by the waveguide structure. We present a systematic analysis of the optical properties of coupled nanopillar waveguides and discuss their possible applications for integrated optics. (C) 2007 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim......In this paper we review basic properties of coupled periodic and aperiodic nanopillar waveguides. A coupled nanopillar waveguide consists of several rows of periodically or aperiodically placed dielectric rods (pillars). In such a waveguide, light confinement is due to the total internal reflection...

  19. Small angle slot divertor concept for long pulse advanced tokamaks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, H. Y.; Sang, C. F.; Stangeby, P. C.; Lao, L. L.; Taylor, T. S.; Thomas, D. M.

    2017-04-01

    SOLPS-EIRENE edge code analysis shows that a gas-tight slot divertor geometry with a small-angle (glancing-incidence) target, named the small angle slot (SAS) divertor, can achieve cold, dissipative/detached divertor conditions at relatively low values of plasma density at the outside midplane separatrix. SAS exhibits the following key features: (1) strong enhancement of the buildup of neutral density in a localized region near the plasma strike point on the divertor target; (2) spreading of the cooling front across the divertor target with the slot gradually flaring out from the strike point, thus effectively reducing both heat flux and erosion on the entire divertor target surface. Such a divertor may potentially provide a power and particle handling solution for long pulse advanced tokamaks.

  20. Slot technique - an alternative method of scatter reduction in radiography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Panzer, W.; Widenmann, L.

    1983-01-01

    The most common method of scatter reduction in radiography is the use of an antiscatter grid. Its disadvantage is the absorption of a certain percentage of primary radiation in the lead strips of the grid and the fact that due to the limited thickness of the lead strips their scatter absorption is also limited. A possibility for avoiding this disadvantage is offered by the so-called slot technique, ie, the successive exposure of the subject with a narrow fan beam provided by slots in rather thick lead plates. The results of a comparison between grid and slot technique regarding dose to the patient, scatter reduction, image quality and the effect of automatic exposure control are reported. (author)

  1. Slotted Blades Savonius Wind Turbine Analysis by CFD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea Alaimo

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available In this paper a new bucket configuration for a Savonius wind generator is proposed. Numerical analyses are performed to estimate the performances of the proposed configuration by means of the commercial code COMSOL Multiphysics® with respect to Savonius wind turbine with overlap only. Parametric analyses are performed, for a fixed overlap ratio, by varying the slot position; the results show that for slot positioned near the blade root, the Savonius rotor improves performances at low tip speed ratio, evidencing a better starting torque. This circumstance is confirmed by static analyses performed on the slotted blades in order to investigate the starting characteristic of the proposed Savonius wind generator configuration.

  2. Low profile frequency agile MIMO slot antenna with TCM characterization

    KAUST Repository

    Ghalib, Asim

    2017-06-07

    In this paper, a frequency reconfigurable multiple-input-multiple-output (MIMO) slot antenna is presented. The proposed design is low profile and compact with wide tunability range, covering several well-known frequency bands from 1800 MHz to 2450 MHz. The frequency reconfigurability is achieved by loading the annular slot with varactor diodes. The antenna system is also analyzed for MIMO performance metrics. Moreover, the effect of circular slot antenna on the chassis modes is also investigated using the theory of characteristic modes (TCM). The physical principle behind frequency reconfigurability is also investigated using TCM analysis. An interesting finding is observed using varactor diodes for frequency reconfigurability, that is the reactive impedance loading does not alter the modal significance (MS) plots but only aid in the input impedance matching at different frequency bands.

  3. Dielectric waveguide amplifiers and lasers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pollnau, Markus

    The performance of semiconductor amplifiers and lasers has made them the preferred choice for optical gain on a micro-chip. In the past few years, we have demonstrated that also rare-earth-ion-doped dielectric waveguides show remarkable performance, ranging from a small-signal gain per unit length

  4. Glass Waveguides for Periodic Poling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fage-Pedersen, Jacob; Jacobsen, Rune Shim; Kristensen, Martin

    2005-01-01

    Planar silica-based waveguide devices have been developed for second-harmonic generation by poling with periodic electrodes. We show that detrimental charge transport can occur along interfaces, but with proper choice of fabrication, high-quality devices are obtained....

  5. Waveguides with asymptotically diverging twisting

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Krejčiřík, David

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 46, AUG (2015), s. 7-10 ISSN 0893-9659 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA14-06818S Institutional support: RVO:61389005 Keywords : quantum waveguide * exploding twisting * Quasi-bounded * Quasi-cylindrical * discrete spectrum Subject RIV: BE - Theoretical Physics Impact factor: 1.659, year: 2015

  6. Photonic-crystal waveguide biosensor

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skivesen, Nina; Têtu, Amélie; Kristensen, Martin

    2007-01-01

    A photonic-crystal waveguide sensor is presented for biosensing. The sensor is applied for refractive index measurements and detection of protein-concentrations. Concentrations around 10 μg/ml (0.15μMolar) are measured with excellent signal to noise ratio, and a broad, dynamic refractive index se...

  7. Monolithic Integrated Ceramic Waveguide Filters

    OpenAIRE

    Hunter, IC; Sandhu, MY

    2014-01-01

    Design techniques for a new class of integrated monolithic high permittivity ceramic waveguide filters are presented. These filters enable a size reduction of 50% compared to air-filled TEM filters with the same unloaded Q-Factor. Designs for both chebyshev and asymmetric generalized chebyshev filter are presented, with experimental results for an 1800 MHz chebyshev filter showing excellent agreement with theory.

  8. Poling of Planar Silica Waveguides

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Arentoft, Jesper; Kristensen, Martin; Jensen, Jesper Bo

    1999-01-01

    UV-written planar silica waveguides are poled using two different poling techniques, thermal poling and UV-poling. Thermal poling induces an electro-optic coefficient of 0.067 pm/V. We also demonstrate simultaneous UV-writing and UV-poling. The induced electro-optic effect shows a linear dependence...

  9. A Series-Fed Linear Substrate-Integrated Dielectric Resonator Antenna Array for Millimeter-Wave Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ke Gong

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available A series-fed linear substrate-integrated dielectric resonator antenna array (SIDRAA is presented for millimeter-wave applications, in which the substrate-integrated dielectric resonator antenna (SIDRA elements and the feeding structure can be codesigned and fabricated using the same planar process. A prototype 4 × 1 SIDRAA is designed at Ka-band and fabricated with a two-layer printed circuit board (PCB technology. Four SIDRAs are implemented in the Rogers RT6010 substrate using the perforation technique and fed by a compact substrate-integrated waveguide (SIW through four longitudinal coupling slots within the Rogers RT5880 substrate. The return loss, radiation patterns, and antenna gain were experimentally studied, and good agreement between the measured and simulated results is observed. The SIDRAA example provides a bandwidth of about 10% around 34.5 GHz for 10 dB return loss and stable broadside radiation patterns with the peak gain of 10.5–11.5 dBi across the band.

  10. Clean Air Slots Amid Dense Atmospheric Pollution in Southern Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hobbs, Peter V.

    2003-01-01

    During the flights of the University of Washington's Convair-580 in the Southern African Regional Science Initiative (SAFARI 2000) in southern Africa, a phenomenon was observed that has not been reported previously. This was the occurrence of thin layers of remarkably clean air, sandwiched between heavily polluted air, which persisted for many hours during the day. Photographs are shown of these clean air slots (CAS), and particle concentrations and light scattering coefficients in and around such slot are presented. An explanation is proposed for the propensity of CAS to form in southern Africa during the dry season.

  11. Design of Robust Adaptive Array Processors for Non-Stationary Ocean Environments

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Wage, Kathleen E

    2009-01-01

    The overall goal of this project is to design adaptive array processing algorithms that have good transient performance, are robust to mismatch, work with low sample support, and incorporate waveguide...

  12. Frequency selective surfaces integrated with phased array antennas

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Monni, S.

    2005-01-01

    Frequency Selective Surfaces (FSS's) are periodic arrays of patches and/or slots etched on a metal plate, having frequency and angular ??ltering properties. The FSS response to an excitation (for example a plane wave) is characterized in terms of its re ection and transmission coe??cient, and

  13. Analysis of the modal behavior of an antiguide diode laser array with Talbot filter

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Eijk, P.D.; van Eijk, Pieter D.; Reglat, Muriel; Vassilief, Georges; Krijnen, Gijsbertus J.M.; Driessen, A.; Mouthaan, A.J.

    An analysis of the filtering of the array modes in a resonant optical waveguide (ROW) array of antiguides by a diffractive spatial filter (a Talbot filter) is presented. A dispersion relation is derived for the array modes, allowing the calculation of the field distribution. The filtering is

  14. Calculation of induced rotor current in induction motors using a slotted semi-analytical harmonic model

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sprangers, R.L.J.; Gysen, B.L.J.; Paulides, J.J.H.; Waarma, J.; Lomonova, E.A.

    2014-01-01

    Recently, strong improvements have been made in the applicability of harmonic modeling techniques for electrical machines with slotted structures. Various implementations for permanent magnet motors and actuators have been investigated and applied in design and optimization tools. For the slotted

  15. An electrochromatography chip with integrated waveguides for UV absorbance detection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gustafsson, O; Mogensen, K B; Ohlsson, P D; Kutter, J P; Liu, Y; Jacobson, S C

    2008-01-01

    A silicon-based microchip for electrochromatographic separations is presented. Apart from a microfluidic network, the microchip has integrated UV-transparent waveguides for detection and integrated couplers for optical fibers on the chip, yielding the most complete chromatography microchip to date in terms of the integration of optical components. The microfluidic network and the optical components are fabricated in a single etching step in silicon and subsequently thermally oxidized. The separation column consists of a regular array of microfabricated solid support structures with a monolayer of an octylsilane covalently bonded to the surfaces to provide chromatographic interaction. The chip features a 1 mm long U-shaped detection cell and planar silicon dioxide waveguides that couple light to and from the detection cell. Microfabricated on-chip fiber couplers assure perfect alignment of optical fibers to the waveguides. The entire oxidized silicon microchip structure is sealed with a glass lid. Reversed phase electrochromatographic separation of three neutral compounds is demonstrated using UV absorbance detection at 254 nm. Baseline separation of the analytes is achieved in less than two minutes

  16. Designing neutral-atom nanotraps with integrated optical waveguides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burke, James P. Jr.; Chu, S.-T.; Bryant, Garnett W.; Williams, C.J.; Julienne, P.S.

    2002-01-01

    Integrated optical structures offer the intriguing potential of compact, reproducible waveguide arrays, rings, Y junctions, etc., that could be used to design evanescent field traps to transport, store, and interact atoms in networks as complicated as any integrated optical waveguide circuit. We theoretically investigate three approaches to trapping atoms above linear integrated optical waveguides. A two-color scheme balances the decaying evanescent fields of red- and blue-detuned light to produce a potential minimum above the guide. A one-color surface trap proposal uses blue-detuned light and the attractive surface interaction to provide a potential minimum. A third proposal uses blue-detuned light in two guides positioned above and below one another. The atoms are confined to the 'dark' spot in the vacuum gap between the guides. We find that all three approaches can be used to trap atoms in two or three dimensions with approximately 100 mW of laser power. We show that the dark spot guide is robust to light scatter and provides the most viable approach for constructing integrated optical circuits that could be used to transport and manipulate atoms in a controlled manner

  17. Slot-type pickup/kicker for AA stochastic cooling

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN PhotoLab

    1979-01-01

    A "slotted transmission line" was used for both pickups and kickers of the stochastic cooling systems of the AA. They served for the cooling of the high-density antiproton stack, in momentum and both transverse planes. In the beginning in a single band, 1-2 GHz, later in 2 bands, 2-4 and 4-8 GHz. See also 7906190, 7906193.

  18. Probabilistic Dynamic Framed Slotted ALOHA for RFID Tag Identification

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nguyen, Chuyen T.; Hayashi, Kazunori; Kaneko, Megumi

    2013-01-01

    In this paper, we study radio frequency identification tag identification problems using framed slotted ALOHA protocol. Each tag will be assumed to participate in the contention with a certain probability. Then, the frame size and the probability will be dynamically controlled by the reader in ev...

  19. Realistic Free-Spins Features Increase Preference for Slot Machines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Lorance F; Macaskill, Anne C; Hunt, Maree J

    2017-06-01

    Despite increasing research into how the structural characteristics of slot machines influence gambling behaviour there have been no experimental investigations into the effect of free-spins bonus features-a structural characteristic that is commonly central to the design of slot machines. This series of three experiments investigated the free-spins feature using slot machine simulations to determine whether participants allocate more wagers to a machine with free spins, and, which components of free-spins features drive this preference. In each experiment, participants were exposed to two computer-simulated slot machines-one with a free-spins feature or similar bonus feature and one without. Participants then completed a testing phase where they could freely switch between the two machines. In Experiment 1, participants did not prefer the machine with a simple free-spins feature. In Experiment 2 the free-spins feature incorporated additional elements such as sounds, animations, and an increased win frequency; participants preferred to gamble on this machine. The Experiment 3 "bonus feature" machine resembled the free spins machine in Experiment 2 except spins were not free; participants showed a clear preference for this machine also. These findings indicate that (1) free-spins features have a major influence over machine choice and (2) the "freeness" of the free-spins bonus features is not an important driver of preference, contrary to self-report and interview research with gamblers.

  20. Broadband, Low Sidelobe, Zero Height, Slotted Circular Disk Antenna

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A rigorous mathematical theory for a rotationally symmetrical slotted circular disk antenna was developed. The theory applies the principle of "Gradient Invariance" of electromagnetic fields to determine the field components that are unique and single valued at any point in space. To detemine the radiation characteristics of ...

  1. G-tunnel pressurized slot-testing evaluations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zimmerman, R.M.; Sifre-Soto, C.; Mann, K.L.; Bellman, R.A. Jr.; Luker, S.; Dodds, D.J.

    1992-04-01

    Designers and analysts of radioactive waste repositories must be able to predict the mechanical behavior of the host rock. Sandia National Laboratories elected to conduct a development program to enhance mechanical-type measurements. The program was focused on pressurized slot testing and featured (1) development of an improved method to cut slots using a chain saw with diamond-tipped cutters, (2) measurements useful for determining in situ stresses normal to slots, (3) measurements applicable for determining the in situ modulus of deformation parallel to a drift surface, and (4) evaluations of pressurized slot strength testing results and methods. This report contains data interpretation and evaluations. Included are recommendations for future efforts. This third report contains the interpretations of the testing with emphasis on the measurement results as they apply to describing rock behavior. In particular, emphases are placed on (1) normal stress determinations using the flatjack cancellation (FC) method, (2) modulus of deformation determinations, and (3) high pressure investigations. Most of the material in the first two reports is not repeated here. Appropriate data are repeated in tabular form

  2. Altering the "Near-Miss" Effect in Slot Machine Gamblers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dixon, Mark R.; Nastally, Becky L.; Jackson, James E.; Habib, Reza

    2009-01-01

    This study investigated the potential for recreational gamblers to respond as if certain types of losing slot machine outcomes were actually closer to a win than others (termed the "near-miss effect"). Exposure to conditional discrimination training and testing disrupted this effect for 10 of the 16 participants. These 10 participants demonstrated…

  3. Constraint-based local search for container stowage slot planning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pacino, Dario; Jensen, Rune Møller; Bebbington, Tom

    2012-01-01

    -sea vessels. This paper describes the constrained-based local search algorithm used in the second phase of this approach where individual containers are assigned to slots in each bay section. The algorithm can solve this problem in an average of 0.18 seconds per bay, corresponding to a 20 seconds runtime...

  4. Analysis and design of broadband U-slot cut rectangular microstrip ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    AMIT A DESHMUKH

    2017-07-15

    Jul 15, 2017 ... Abstract. Broadband microstrip antenna using variations of U-slot has been widely reported. However, in most of the reported work, an in-depth explanation about the mode introduced by U-slot and procedure to design. U-slot cut antennas at any given frequency is not explained. In this paper, first an ...

  5. Plasmonic nanopatch array for optical integrated circuit applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qu, Shi-Wei; Nie, Zai-Ping

    2013-11-08

    Future plasmonic integrated circuits with the capability of extremely high-speed data processing at optical frequencies will be dominated by the efficient optical emission (excitation) from (of) plasmonic waveguides. Towards this goal, plasmonic nanoantennas, currently a hot topic in the field of plasmonics, have potential to bridge the mismatch between the wave vector of free-space photonics and that of the guided plasmonics. To manipulate light at will, plasmonic nanoantenna arrays will definitely be more efficient than isolated nanoantennas. In this article, the concepts of microwave antenna arrays are applied to efficiently convert plasmonic waves in the plasmonic waveguides into free-space optical waves or vice versa. The proposed plasmonic nanoantenna array, with nanopatch antennas and a coupled wedge plasmon waveguide, can also act as an efficient spectrometer to project different wavelengths into different directions, or as a spatial filter to absorb a specific wavelength at a specified incident angle.

  6. Reverse-symmetry waveguides: Theory and fabrication

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Horvath, R.; Lindvold, Lars René; Larsen, N.B.

    2002-01-01

    We present an extensive theoretical analysis of reverse-symmetry waveguides with special focus on their potential application as sensor components in aqueous media and demonstrate a novel method for fabrication of such waveguides. The principle of reverse symmetry is based on making the refractive...... index of the waveguide substrate less than the refractive index of the medium covering the waveguiding film (n(water) = 1.33). This is opposed to the conventional waveguide geometry, where the substrate is usually glass or polymers with refractive indices of approximate to1.5. The reverse configuration...... are combined with air-grooved polymer supports to form freestanding single-material polymer waveguides of reverse symmetry capable of guiding light....

  7. Metal-clad waveguide sensors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skivesen, Nina

    This work concerns planar optical waveguide sensors for biosensing applications, with the focus on deep-probe sensing for micron-scale biological objects like bacteria and whole cells. In the last two decades planar metal-clad waveguides have been brieflyintroduced in the literature applied...... for various biosensing applications, however a thorough study of the sensor configurations has not been presented, but is the main subject of this thesis. Optical sensors are generally well suited for bio-sensing asthey show high sensitivity and give an immediate response for minute changes in the refractive...... index of a sample, due to the high sensitivity of optical bio-sensors detection of non-labeled biological objects can be performed. The majority of opticalsensors presented in the literature and commercially available optical sensors are based on evanescent wave sensing, however most of these sensors...

  8. ATLAS Cold Leg Top Slot Break Analysis using RELAP5

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sung, Haejung; Lee, Sang Ik; Park, Ju-Hyun; Choi, Tong-Soo [KEPCO NF, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-10-15

    U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (US-NRC) has been reviewing the design certification application for APR1400 submitted by Korea Electric Power Corporation (KEPCO). The main concern about cold leg top slot break is that cladding temperature might be increased by core uncover due to four loop seal reformation following flooding of safety injection water. An integral effect test for cold leg top slot break was performed by KAERI (Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute) using ATLAS (Advanced Thermal-Hydraulic Test Loop for Accident Simulation), which is a scaled down experimental facility for APR1400. In this study, RELAP5/MOD3.3/Patch04 is assessed by experimental result of ATLAS cold leg top slot break. Also, thermal hydraulic phenomena by four loop seals reformation is observed by RELAP5 result. The RELAP5/MOD3.3/Patch04 is assessed by the experimental result of ATLAS cold leg top slot break. The top slot break is described by offtake model, and the mass flow rate is fairly well estimated. The RELAP5 well predicts the correlation between general trend and four loop seal reformation. The pressure of the core region and the cladding temperature tends to increase during four loop seal reformation due to steam path blockage on four loop seals. It is presumed that the code cannot estimate two phase phenomena by loop seal clearing as same as experiments. In terms of cladding temperature, loop seal reformation due to loop seal elevation of APR1400 does not need to be the issue, since the void fraction at the active top core is maintained over 0.4.

  9. Excitation of waves in elastic waveguides by piezoelectric patch actuators

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Loveday, PW

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available for waveguides excited by piezoelectric patch actuators. The waveguide is modelled using specially developed waveguide finite elements. These elements are formulated using a complex exponential to describe the wave propagation along the structure and finite...

  10. Multilayer cladding with hyperbolic dispersion for plasmonic waveguides

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Babicheva, Viktoriia; Shalaginov, Mikhail Y.; Ishii, Satoshi

    2015-01-01

    We study the properties of plasmonic waveguides with a dielectric core and multilayer metal-dielectric claddings that possess hyperbolic dispersion. The waveguides hyperbolic multilayer claddings show better performance in comparison to conventional plasmonic waveguides. © OSA 2015....

  11. Pulsed Laser Deposition: passive and active waveguides

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Jelínek, Miroslav; Flory, F.; Escoubas, L.

    2009-01-01

    Roč. 34, č. 4 (2009), s. 438-449 ISSN 0268-1900 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA202/06/0216 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10100522 Keywords : PLD * pulsed laser deposition * laser ablation * passive waveguides * active waveguides * waveguide laser * sensors * thin films * butane detection Subject RIV: BH - Optics, Masers, Lasers Impact factor: 0.384, year: 2009

  12. All silicon waveguide spherical microcavity coupler device.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xifré-Pérez, E; Domenech, J D; Fenollosa, R; Muñoz, P; Capmany, J; Meseguer, F

    2011-02-14

    A coupler based on silicon spherical microcavities coupled to silicon waveguides for telecom wavelengths is presented. The light scattered by the microcavity is detected and analyzed as a function of the wavelength. The transmittance signal through the waveguide is strongly attenuated (up to 25 dB) at wavelengths corresponding to the Mie resonances of the microcavity. The coupling between the microcavity and the waveguide is experimentally demonstrated and theoretically modeled with the help of FDTD calculations.

  13. Two-dimensional Kagome photonic bandgap waveguide

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Jens Bo; Søndergaard, Thomas; Libori, Stig E. Barkou

    2000-01-01

    The transverse-magnetic photonic-bandgap-guidance properties are investigated for a planar two-dimensional (2-D) Kagome waveguide configuration using a full-vectorial plane-wave-expansion method. Single-moded well-localized low-index guided modes are found. The localization of the optical modes...... is investigated with respect to the width of the 2-D Kagome waveguide, and the number of modes existing for specific frequencies and waveguide widths is mapped out....

  14. Optical lattice-like cladding waveguides by direct laser writing: fabrication, luminescence, and lasing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nie, Weijie; He, Ruiyun; Cheng, Chen; Rocha, Uéslen; Rodríguez Vázquez de Aldana, Javier; Jaque, Daniel; Chen, Feng

    2016-05-15

    We report on the fabrication of optical lattice-like waveguide structures in an Nd:YAP laser crystal by using direct femtosecond laser writing. With periodically arrayed laser-induced tracks, the waveguiding cores can be located in either the regions between the neighbored tracks or the central zone surrounded by a number of tracks as outer cladding. The polarization of the femtosecond laser pulses for the inscription has been found to play a critical role in the anisotropic guiding behaviors of the structures. The confocal photoluminescence investigations reveal different stress-induced modifications of the structures inscribed by different polarization of the femtosecond laser beam, which are considered to be responsible for the refractive index changes of the structures. Under optical pump at 808 nm, efficient waveguide lasing at ∼1  μm wavelength has been realized from the optical lattice-like structure, which exhibits potential applications as novel miniature light sources.

  15. Guided modes in silicene-based waveguides

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Mengzhuo; He, Ying; Yang, Yanfang; Zhang, Huifang

    2018-02-01

    Silicene is a new Dirac-type electron system similar to graphene. A monolayer silicene sheet forms a quantum well induced by an electrostatic potential, which acts as an electron waveguide. The guided modes in the silicene waveguide have been investigated. Electron waves can propagate in the silicene-based waveguide in the cases of Klein tunneling and classical motion. The behavior of the wave function depends on the spin and valley indices. The amplitude of the electron wave function in the silicene waveguide can be controlled by the external electric field. These phenomena may be helpful for the potential applications of silicene-based electronic devices.

  16. Near-field characterization of plasmonic waveguides

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zenin, Volodymyr

    2014-01-01

    simply by changing geometric parameters of the waveguide, keeping in mind the trade-off between confinement and propagation losses. A broad variety of plasmonic waveguides and waveguide components, including antennas for coupling the light in/out of the waveguide, requires correspondent characterization...... capabilities, especially on experimental side. The most straight-forward and powerful technique for such purpose is scanning near-field optical microscopy, which allows to probe and map near-field distribution and therefore becomes the main tool in this project. The detailed description of the used setups...

  17. Analysis and design of arrayed waveguide gratings with MMI couplers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Munoz, P; Pastor, D; Capmany, J

    2001-09-24

    We present an extension of the AWG model and design procedure described in [1] to incorporate multimode interference, MMI, couplers. For the first time to our knowledge, a closed formula for the passing bands bandwidth and crosstalk estimation plots are derived.

  18. AMELIA CESTOL Test: Acoustic Characteristics of Circulation Control Wing with Leading- and Trailing-Edge Slot Blowing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horne, William C.; Burnside, Nathan J.

    2013-01-01

    The AMELIA Cruise-Efficient Short Take-off and Landing (CESTOL) configuration concept was developed to meet future requirements of reduced field length, noise, and fuel burn by researchers at Cal Poly, San Luis Obispo and Georgia Tech Research Institute under sponsorship by the NASA Fundamental Aeronautics Program (FAP), Subsonic Fixed Wing Project. The novel configuration includes leading- and trailing-edge circulation control wing (CCW), over-wing podded turbine propulsion simulation (TPS). Extensive aerodynamic measurements of forces, surfaces pressures, and wing surface skin friction measurements were recently measured over a wide range of test conditions in the Arnold Engineering Development Center(AEDC) National Full-Scale Aerodynamics Complex (NFAC) 40- by 80-Ft Wind Tunnel. Acoustic measurements of the model were also acquired for each configuration with 7 fixed microphones on a line under the left wing, and with a 48-element, 40-inch diameter phased microphone array under the right wing. This presentation will discuss acoustic characteristics of the CCW system for a variety of tunnel speeds (0 to 120 kts), model configurations (leading edge(LE) and/or trailing-edge(TE) slot blowing, and orientations (incidence and yaw) based on acoustic measurements acquired concurrently with the aerodynamic measurements. The flow coefficient, Cmu= mVSLOT/qSW varied from 0 to 0.88 at 40 kts, and from 0 to 0.15 at 120 kts. Here m is the slot mass flow rate, VSLOT is the slot exit velocity, q is dynamic pressure, and SW is wing surface area. Directivities at selected 1/3 octave bands will be compared with comparable measurements of a 2-D wing at GTRI, as will as microphone array near-field measurements of the right wing at maximum flow rate. The presentation will include discussion of acoustic sensor calibrations as well as characterization of the wind tunnel background noise environment.

  19. The Role of Auditory Features Within Slot-Themed Social Casino Games and Online Slot Machine Games.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bramley, Stephanie; Gainsbury, Sally M

    2015-12-01

    Over the last few years playing social casino games has become a popular entertainment activity. Social casino games are offered via social media platforms and mobile apps and resemble gambling activities. However, social casino games are not classified as gambling as they can be played for free, outcomes may not be determined by chance, and players receive no monetary payouts. Social casino games appear to be somewhat similar to online gambling activities in terms of their visual and auditory features, but to date little research has investigated the cross over between these games. This study examines the auditory features of slot-themed social casino games and online slot machine games using a case study design. An example of each game type was played on three separate occasions during which, the auditory features (i.e., music, speech, sound effects, and the absence of sound) within the games were logged. The online slot-themed game was played in demo mode. This is the first study to provide a qualitative account of the role of auditory features within a slot-themed social casino game and an online slot machine game. Our results found many similarities between how sound is utilised within the two games. Therefore the sounds within these games may serve functions including: setting the scene for gaming, creating an image, demarcating space, interacting with visual features, prompting players to act, communicating achievements to players, providing reinforcement, heightening player emotions and the gaming experience. As a result this may reduce the ability of players to make a clear distinction between these two activities, which may facilitate migration between games.

  20. Slot Parameter Optimization for Multiband Antenna Performance Improvement Using Intelligent Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erdem Demircioglu

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper discusses bandwidth enhancement for multiband microstrip patch antennas (MMPAs using symmetrical rectangular/square slots etched on the patch and the substrate properties. The slot parameters on MMPA are modeled using soft computing technique of artificial neural networks (ANN. To achieve the best ANN performance, Particle Swarm Optimization (PSO and Differential Evolution (DE are applied with ANN’s conventional training algorithm in optimization of the modeling performance. In this study, the slot parameters are assumed as slot distance to the radiating patch edge, slot width, and length. Bandwidth enhancement is applied to a formerly designed MMPA fed by a microstrip transmission line attached to the center pin of 50 ohm SMA connecter. The simulated antennas are fabricated and measured. Measurement results are utilized for training the artificial intelligence models. The ANN provides 98% model accuracy for rectangular slots and 97% for square slots; however, ANFIS offer 90% accuracy with lack of resonance frequency tracking.

  1. Competition and evolution of dielectric waveguide mode and plasmonic waveguide mode

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Sheng-Nan; Fang, Yun-Tuan

    2017-10-01

    In order to study the coupling and evolution law of the waveguide mode and two plasmonic surface modes, we construct a line defect waveguide based on hexagonal honeycomb plasmonic photonic crystal. Through adjusting the radius of the edge dielectric rods, the competition and evolution behaviors occur between dielectric waveguide mode and plasmonic waveguide mode. There are three status: only plasmonic waveguide modes occur for rA 0.25a; two kinds of modes coexist for 0.09a advantages in achieving slow light.

  2. Optical biosensor based on a silicon nanowire ridge waveguide for lab on chip applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gamal, Rania; Ismail, Yehea; Swillam, Mohamed A

    2015-01-01

    We propose a novel sensor using a silicon nanowire ridge waveguide (SNRW). This waveguide is comprised of an array of silicon nanowires on an insulator substrate that has the envelope of a ridge waveguide. The SNRW inherently maximizes the overlap between the material-under-test and the incident light wave by introducing voids to the otherwise bulk structure. When a sensing sample is injected, the voids within the SNRW adopt the refractive index of the material-under-test. Hence, the strong contribution of the material-under-test to the overall modal effective index will greatly augment the sensitivity. Additionally, the ridge structure provides a fabrication convenience as it covers the entire substrate, ensuring that the etching process would not damage the substrate. Finite-difference time-domain simulations are conducted and showed that the percentage change in the effective index due to a 1% change in the surrounding environment is more than 170 times the change perceived in an evanescent-detection based bulk silicon ridge waveguide. Moreover, the SNRW proves to be more sensitive than recent other, non-evanescent sensors. In addition, the detection limit for this structure was revealed to be as small as 10 −8 . A compact bimodal waveguide based on SNRW is designed and tested. It delivers high sensitivity values that offer comparable performance to similar low-index light-guiding sensing configurations; however, our proposed structure has much smaller footprints and allows high dense integration for lab-on-chip applications. (paper)

  3. Cusp-Gun Sixth-Harmonic Slotted Gyrotron

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stutzman, R. C.; McDermott, D. B.; Hirata Luhmann, Y., Jr.; Gallagher, D. A.; Spencer, T. A.

    2000-10-01

    A high-harmonic slotted gyrotron has been constructed at UC Davis to be driven by a 70 kV, 3.5 A, axis-encircling electron beam from a Northrop Grumman Cusp gun. The 94 GHz, slotted sixth-harmonic gyrotron is predicted to generate 50 kW with an efficiency of 20%. Using the profile of the adiabatic field reversal from the UC Davis superconducting test-magnet, EGUN simulations predict that an axis-encircling electron beam will be generated with an axial velocity spread of Δ v_z/v_z=10% for the desired velocity ratio of α =v_z/v_z=1.5. The design will also be presented for an 8th-harmonic W-band gyrotron whose magnetic field can be supplied by a lightweight permanent magnet.

  4. Evaluation of detectable angle of mid-infrared slot antennas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Obara, R.; Horikawa, J.; Shimakage, H.; Kawakami, A.

    2017-07-01

    For evaluations of a mid-infrared (MIR) detectors with antenna, we constructed an angular dependence measurement system of the antenna properties. The fabricated MIR detector consisted of twin slot antennas and a bolometer. The area of the slot antennas was designed to be 2.6 × 0.2 μm2 as to resonate at 61 THz, and they were located parallel and separated 1.6 μm each other. The bolometer was fabricated using by a 7.0-nm thick NbN thin film, and located at the center of the twin antennas. We measured polarization angle dependence and directivity, and showed that the MIR antennas have polarization dependence and directivity like radiofrequency antennas.

  5. A CdZnTe slot-scanned detector for digital mammography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mainprize, James G.; Ford, Nancy L.; Yin Shi; Gordon, Eli E.; Hamilton, William J.; Tuemer, Tuemay O.; Yaffe, Martin J.

    2002-01-01

    A new high-resolution detector has been developed for use in a slot-scanned digital mammography system. The detector is a hybrid device that consists of a CCD operating in time-delay integration mode that is bonded to a 150-μm-thick CdZnTe photoconductor array. The CCD was designed with a detector element pitch of 50 μm. Two devices were evaluated with differing crystalline quality. Incomplete charge collection was a source of reduction in DQE. This occurs in both devices due to characteristically low mobility-lifetime products for CdZnTe, with the greatest losses demonstrated by the multicrystalline sample. The mobility-lifetime products for the multicrystalline device were found to be 2.4x10 -4 and 4.0x10 -7 cm 2 /V for electrons and holes, respectively. The device constructed with higher quality single crystal CdZnTe demonstrated mobility-lifetime products of 1.0x10 -4 and 4.4x10 -6 cm 2 /V for electrons and holes. The MTF and DQE for the device were measured at several exposures and results were compared to predictions from a linear systems model of signal and noise propagation. The MTF at a spatial frequency of 10 mm -1 exceeded 0.18 and 0.56 along the scan and slot directions, respectively. Scanning motion and CCD design limited the resolution along the scan direction. For an x-ray beam from a tungsten target tube with 40 μm molybdenum filtration operated at 26 kV, the single crystal device demonstrated a DQE(0) of 0.70±0.02 at 7.1x10 -6 C/kg (27 mR) exposure to the detector, despite its relatively poor charge collection efficiency

  6. Reconfigurable optical interconnection network for multimode optical fiber sensor arrays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, R. T.; Robinson, D.; Lu, H.; Wang, M. R.; Jannson, T.; Baumbick, R.

    1992-01-01

    A single-source, single-detector architecture has been developed to implement a reconfigurable optical interconnection network multimode optical fiber sensor arrays. The network was realized by integrating LiNbO3 electrooptic (EO) gratings working at the Raman Na regime and a massive fan-out waveguide hologram (WH) working at the Bragg regime onto a multimode glass waveguide. The glass waveguide utilized the whole substrate as a guiding medium. A 1-to-59 massive waveguide fan-out was demonstrated using a WH operating at 514 nm. Measured diffraction efficiency of 59 percent was experimentally confirmed. Reconfigurability of the interconnection was carried out by generating an EO grating through an externally applied electric field. Unlike conventional single-mode integrated optical devices, the guided mode demonstrated has an azimuthal symmetry in mode profile which is the same as that of a fiber mode.

  7. Topology optimization of two-dimensional waveguides

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Jakob Søndergaard; Sigmund, Ole

    2003-01-01

    In this work we use the method of topology optimization to design two-dimensional waveguides with low transmission loss.......In this work we use the method of topology optimization to design two-dimensional waveguides with low transmission loss....

  8. Hyperentangled photon sources in semiconductor waveguides

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kang, Dongpeng; Helt, L. G.; Zhukovsky, Sergei

    2014-01-01

    We propose and analyze the performance of a technique to generate mode and polarization hyperentangled photons in monolithic semiconductor waveguides using two concurrent type-II spontaneous parametric down-conversion (SPDC) processes. These two SPDC processes are achieved by waveguide engineering...

  9. Systematic Design of Slow Light Waveguides

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wang, Fengwen

    it is vulnerable to manufacturing disorders. This thesis aims to design novel waveguides to alleviate signal distortions and propagation loss using optimization methodologies, and to explore the design robustness with respect to manufacturing imperfections. To alleviate the signal distortions in waveguides...

  10. Discontinuities during UV writing of waveguides

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Svalgaard, Mikael; Harpøth, Anders; Andersen, Marc

    2005-01-01

    UV writing of waveguides can be hampered by discontinuities where the index change process suddenly shuts down. We show that thermal effects may account for this behaviour.......UV writing of waveguides can be hampered by discontinuities where the index change process suddenly shuts down. We show that thermal effects may account for this behaviour....

  11. Testing Born-Infeld Electrodynamics in Waveguides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ferraro, Rafael

    2007-01-01

    Waveguides can be employed to test nonlinear effects in electrodynamics. We solve Born-Infeld equations for TE waves in a rectangular waveguide. We show that the energy velocity acquires a dependence on the amplitude, and harmonic components appear as a consequence of the nonlinear behavior

  12. Fundamental losses in planar Bragg waveguides

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vinogradov, A. V.; Mitrofanov, A. N.; Popov, A. V.; Fedin, M. A.

    2007-01-01

    This paper considers a planar Bragg waveguide. The guided modes and their dissipation due to the fundamental absorption are described. In the interacting-wave approximation, an analytical relation between the characteristics of the modes and parameters of the Bragg-waveguide geometry was

  13. Bends and splitters in graphene nanoribbon waveguides

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhu, Xiaolong; Yan, Wei; Mortensen, N. Asger

    2013-01-01

    We investigate the performance of bends and splitters in graphene nanoribbon waveguides. Although the graphene waveguides are lossy themselves, we show that bends and splitters do not induce any additional loss provided that the nanoribbon width is sub-wavelength. We use transmission line theory...

  14. Silicon waveguides produced by wafer bonding

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Poulsen, Mette; Jensen, Flemming; Bunk, Oliver

    2005-01-01

    X-ray waveguides are successfully produced employing standard silicon technology of UV photolithography and wafer bonding. Contrary to theoretical expectations for similar systems even 100 mu m broad guides of less than 80 nm height do not collapse and can be used as one dimensional waveguides...

  15. Slot-type pickup/kicker for AA stochastic cooling

    CERN Multimedia

    1979-01-01

    A "slotted transmission line" was used for both pickups and kickers of the stochastic cooling systems of the AA. They served for the cooling of the high-density antiproton stack, in momentum and both transverse planes. In the beginning, in a single band, 1-2 GHz, later in 2 bands, 2-4 and 4-8 GHz. View down the centre of a pickup or kicker. See also 7906189, 7906190, 7906583.

  16. Pulsar Polar Cap and Slot Gap Models: Confronting Fermi Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harding, Alice K.

    2012-01-01

    Rotation-powered pulsars are excellent laboratories for studying particle acceleration as well as fundamental physics of strong gravity, strong magnetic fields and relativity. I will review acceleration and gamma-ray emission from the pulsar polar cap and slot gap. Predictions of these models can be tested with the data set on pulsars collected by the Large Area Telescope on the Fermi Gamma-Ray Telescope over the last four years, using both detailed light curve fitting and population synthesis.

  17. Wave Pressures on Seawave Slot-Cone Generator

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vicinanza, Diego; Kofoed, Jens Peter; Frigaard, Peter

    2006-01-01

    This paper presents results on loading action on an innovative caisson breakwater for electricity production. The work reported here contributes to the European Union Sixth Framework programme priority 6.1 (Sustainable Energy System), contract 019831, titled "Full- scale demonstration of robust...... and high efficiency energy converter" (WAVESSG). Information on wave loading acting on Wave Energy Convert (WEC) Seawave Slot-Cone GEnerator (SSG) exposed to extreme wave conditions are reported....

  18. broadband, low sidelobe, zero height, slotted circular disk antenna

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    of argument rr where J? = jwµ.(slot of the antenna can be obtained by substituting 'Tr', hack into the field equations. The results are given hy the ...

  19. Quantum Electrodynamics in Photonic Crystal Waveguides

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Henri Thyrrestrup

    In this thesis we have performed quantum electrodynamics (QED) experiments in photonic crystal (PhC) waveguides and cavity QED in the Anderson localized regime in disordered PhC waveguides. Decay rate measurements of quantum dots embedded in PhC waveguides has been used to map out the variations...... in the local density of states (LDOS) in PhC waveguides. From decay rate measurements on quantum dot lines temperature tuned in the vicinity of the waveguide band edge, a β-factor for a single quantum dot of more then 85% has been extracted. Finite difference time domain simulations (FDTD) for disordered Ph...... is shown to increase from 3 − 7 um for no intentional disorder to 25 um for 6% disorder. A distribution of losses is seen to be necessary to explain the measured Q-factor distributions. Finally we have performed a cavity QED experiment between single quantum dots and an Anderson localized mode, where a β...

  20. Perturbation measurement of waveguides for acoustic thermometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, H.; Feng, X. J.; Zhang, J. T.

    2013-09-01

    Acoustic thermometers normally embed small acoustic transducers in the wall bounding a gas-filled cavity resonator. At high temperature, insulators of transducers loss electrical insulation and degrade the signal-to-noise ratio. One essential solution to this technical trouble is to couple sound by acoustic waveguides between resonator and transducers. But waveguide will break the ideal acoustic surface and bring perturbations(Δf+ig) to the ideal resonance frequency. The perturbation model for waveguides was developed based on the first-order acoustic theory in this paper. The frequency shift Δf and half-width change g caused by the position, length and radius of waveguides were analyzed using this model. Six different length of waveguides (52˜1763 mm) were settled on the cylinder resonator and the perturbation (Δf+ig) were measured at T=332 K and p=250˜500 kPa. The experiment results agreed with the theoretical prediction very well.

  1. A piezoelectric ultrasonic linear micromotor using a slotted stator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yun, Cheol-Ho; Watson, Brett; Friend, James; Yeo, Leslie

    2010-08-01

    A novel ultrasonic micro linear motor that uses 1st longitudinal and 2nd bending modes, derived from a bartype stator with a rectangular slot cut through the stator length, has been proposed and designed for end-effect devices of microrobotics and bio-medical applications. The slot structure plays an important role in the motor design, and can be used not only to tune the resonance frequency of the two vibration modes but also to reduce the undesirable longitudinal coupling displacement caused by bending vibration at the end of the stator. By using finite element analysis, the optimal slot dimension to improve the driving tip motion was determined, resulting in the improvement of the motor performance. The trial linear motor, with a weight of 1.6 g, gave a maximum driving velocity of 1.12 m/s and a maximum driving force of 3.4 N. A maximum mechanical output power of 1.1 W was obtained at force of 1.63 N and velocity of 0.68 m/s. The output mechanical power per unit weight was 688 W/kg.

  2. Photonic waveguides theory and applications

    CERN Document Server

    Boudrioua, Azzedine

    2009-01-01

    This book presents the principles of non-linear integrated optics. The first objective is to provide the reader with a thorough understanding of integrated optics so that they may be able to develop the theoretical and experimental tools to study and control the linear and non-linear optical properties of waveguides.The potential use of these structures can then be determined in order to realize integrated optical components for light modulation and generation. The theoretical models are accompanied by experimental tools and their setting in order to characterize the studied phenomenon. Th

  3. Electromagnetic Modeling of Distributed-Source-Excitation of Coplanar Waveguides: Applications to Traveling-Wave Photomixers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pasqualini, Davide; Neto, Andrea; Wyss, Rolf A.

    2001-01-01

    In this work an electromagnetic model and subsequent design is presented for a traveling-wave, coplanar waveguide (CPW) based source that will operate in the THz frequency regime. The radio frequency (RF) driving current is a result of photoexcitation of a thin GaAs membrane using two frequency-offset lasers. The GaAs film is grown by molecular-beam-epitaxy (MBE) and displays sub-ps carrier lifetimes which enable the material conductivity to be modulated at a very high rate. The RF current flows between electrodes deposited on the GaAs membrane which are biased with a DC voltage source. The electrodes form a CPW and are terminated with a double slot antenna that couples the power to a quasi-optical system. The membrane is suspended above a metallic reflector to launch all radiation in one direction. The theoretical investigation and consequent design is performed in two steps. The first step consists of a direct evaluation of the magnetic current distribution on an infinitely extended coplanar waveguide excited by an impressed electric current distributed over a finite area. The result of the analysis is the difference between the incident angle of the laser beams and the length of the excited area that maximizes the RF power coupled to the CPW. The optimal values for both parameters are found as functions of the CPW and membrane dimensions as well as the dielectric constants of the layers. In the second step, a design is presented of a double slot antenna that matches the CPW characteristic impedance and gives good overall performance. The design is presently being implemented and measurements will soon be available.

  4. A Planar Switchable 3-D-Coverage Phased Array Antenna and Its User Effects for 28-GHz Mobile Terminal Applications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhang, Shuai; Chen, Xiaoming; Syrytsin, Igor A.

    2017-01-01

    This paper introduces a planar switchable 3D-coverage phased array for 28 GHz mobile terminal applications. In order to realize 3D-coverage beam scan with a simple planar array, chassis surface waves are efficiently excited and controlled by three identical slot subarrays. Three subarrays switch...

  5. A multi-slot surface coil for MRI of dual-rat imaging at 4 T

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Solis, S E; Rodriguez, A O; Wang, R; Tomasi, D

    2011-01-01

    A slotted surface coil inspired by the hole-and-slot cavity magnetron was developed for magnetic resonance imaging of obese rats at 4 T. Full-wave analysis of the magnetic field was carried out at 170 MHz for both the slotted and circular-shaped coils. The noise figure values of two coils were investigated via the numerical calculation of the quality factors. Fat simulated phantoms to mimic overweight rats were included in the analysis with weights ranging from 300 to 900 g. The noise figures were 1.2 dB for the slotted coil and 2.4 dB for the circular coil when loaded with 600 g of simulated phantom. A slotted surface coil with eight circular slots and a circular coil with similar dimensions were built and operated in the transceiver mode, and their performances were experimentally compared. The imaging tests in phantoms demonstrated that the slotted surface coil has a deeper RF-sensitivity and better field uniformity than the single-loop RF-coil. High quality images of two overweight Zucker rats were acquired simultaneously with the slotted surface coil using standard spin-echo pulse sequences. Experimental results showed that the slotted surface coil outperformed the circular coil for imaging considerably overweight rats. Thus, the slotted surface coil can be a good tool for MRI experiments in rats on a human whole-body 4 T scanner.

  6. Flexural and Thermal Properties of Novel Energy Conservation Slotted Reinforced Concrete Beams

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gao Ma

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Conventional solid reinforced concrete (RC beams were modified to slotted beams for consideration as thermal insulation structural components. The slotted beam consisted of an outer and an inner beam, respectively, with a slot located near the middle of the beam along its width direction for filling thermal insulation material. Flexural and thermal behavior of the slotted beams were investigated. Three RC reference solid beams and six slotted beams were fabricated and tested under four-point bending tests. The test results indicated that the failure mode of both slotted beams and the solid beams was flexural failure. However, the damage process of the slotted beams was different from that of the solid beams at the final loading stage. The moment curvature analysis indicated that the tensile reinforcement ratio of the outer and inner beams had an important effect on the flexural behavior, especially the ductility of the slotted beams. Thermal study indicated that the heat transfer coefficient of the slotted beam was greatly reduced and the thermal inertia factor increased a lot, compared with the solid beam. In addition, FE simulation results showed that a new frame structure using slotted beams exhibited obvious and attractive thermal insulation property.

  7. A multi-slot surface coil for MRI of dual-rat imaging at 4 T

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Solis, S E; Rodriguez, A O [Departamento de Ingenieria Electrica, Universidad Autonoma Metropolitana Iztapalapa, Mexico, DF 09340 (Mexico); Wang, R; Tomasi, D, E-mail: arog@xanum.uam.mx [Medical Department, Brookhaven National Laboratory, Upton, NY 11973 (United States)

    2011-06-21

    A slotted surface coil inspired by the hole-and-slot cavity magnetron was developed for magnetic resonance imaging of obese rats at 4 T. Full-wave analysis of the magnetic field was carried out at 170 MHz for both the slotted and circular-shaped coils. The noise figure values of two coils were investigated via the numerical calculation of the quality factors. Fat simulated phantoms to mimic overweight rats were included in the analysis with weights ranging from 300 to 900 g. The noise figures were 1.2 dB for the slotted coil and 2.4 dB for the circular coil when loaded with 600 g of simulated phantom. A slotted surface coil with eight circular slots and a circular coil with similar dimensions were built and operated in the transceiver mode, and their performances were experimentally compared. The imaging tests in phantoms demonstrated that the slotted surface coil has a deeper RF-sensitivity and better field uniformity than the single-loop RF-coil. High quality images of two overweight Zucker rats were acquired simultaneously with the slotted surface coil using standard spin-echo pulse sequences. Experimental results showed that the slotted surface coil outperformed the circular coil for imaging considerably overweight rats. Thus, the slotted surface coil can be a good tool for MRI experiments in rats on a human whole-body 4 T scanner.

  8. A multi-slot surface coil for MRI of dual-rat imaging at 4T

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Solis, S.E.; Tomasi, D.; Solis, S.E.; Wang, R.; Tomasi, D.; Rodriguez, A.O.

    2011-07-01

    A slotted surface coil inspired by the hole-and-slot cavity magnetron was developed for magnetic resonance imaging of obese rats at 4 T. Full-wave analysis of the magnetic field was carried out at 170 MHz for both the slotted and circular-shaped coils. The noise figure values of two coils were investigated via the numerical calculation of the quality factors. Fat simulated phantoms to mimic overweight rats were included in the analysis with weights ranging from 300 to 900 g. The noise figures were 1.2 dB for the slotted coil and 2.4 dB for the circular coil when loaded with 600 g of simulated phantom. A slotted surface coil with eight circular slots and a circular coil with similar dimensions were built and operated in the transceiver mode, and their performances were experimentally compared. The imaging tests in phantoms demonstrated that the slotted surface coil has a deeper RF-sensitivity and better field uniformity than the single-loop RF-coil. High quality images of two overweight Zucker rats were acquired simultaneously with the slotted surface coil using standard spin-echo pulse sequences. Experimental results showed that the slotted surface coil outperformed the circular coil for imaging considerably overweight rats. Thus, the slotted surface coil can be a good tool for MRI experiments in rats on a human whole-body 4 T scanner.

  9. Investigation of a 7-pole/6-slot Halbach-magnetized permanent-magnet linear alternator used for free-piston stirling engines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Ping; Tong, Chengde; Zhao, Jing; Yu, Bin; Li, Lin; Bai, Jingang; Zhang, Lu

    2012-04-01

    This paper investigates a 7-pole/6-slot Halbach-magnetized permanent-magnet linear alternator used for free piston Stirling engines (FPSEs). Taking the advantages of Halbach array, a 1 kW prototype alternator is designed. Considering the rms value of electromotive force (EMF) and harmonic distortion, the optimal length ratio of the axial- and radial-magnetized permanent magnets and thicknesses of the permanent magnets are optimized by 2D finite element method. The alternator detent force, which is an important factor for smooth operation of FPSEs, is studied by optimizing slot tip and end tooth. The load and thermal performances of the final design are simulated. A prototype alternator was designed, built and tested. Experimental data indicated satisfactory design.

  10. Silicon Photonic Waveguides for Near- and Mid-Infrared Regions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stankovic, S.; Milosevic, M.; Timotijevic, B.; Yang, P. Y.; Teo, E. J.; Crnjanski, J.; Matavulj, P.; Mashanovich, G. Z.

    2007-11-01

    The basic building block of every photonic circuit is a waveguide. In this paper we investigate the most popular silicon waveguide structures in the form of a silicon-on-insulator rib waveguide. We also analyse two structures that can find applications in mid- and long-wave infrared regions: free-standing and hollow core omnidirectional waveguides.

  11. Ultrafast Laser Fabrication of Bragg Waveguides in GLS Chalcogenide Glass

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    McMillen Ben

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available We present work on the fabrication of Bragg waveguides in gallium-lanthanum-sulfide chalcogenide glass using an ultrafast laser. Waveguides were written with a single pass while modulating the writing beam. The spatial and temporal profile of the writing beam was ontrolled during waveguide fabrication in order to control the shape and size of the waveguide cross-section.

  12. Design Investigation of a Laminated Waveguide Fed Multi-Band DRA for Military Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Pramod; Dwari, Santanu; Singh, Shailendra; Agrawal, N. K.

    2017-12-01

    In this paper a laminated waveguide fed DR Antenna is investigated. It can use for moderate power military applications. Cylindrical DRA is excited by two closely spaced asymmetric longitudinal slots on the broad wall of the laminated cavity are responsible for producing three different frequency bands. Parametric study of slots has been done with the help of commercial software ANSOFT HFSS. All the bands have sharp rejection. The final model of the antenna is simulated, fabricated and experimentally measured. Measured results are in quite accordant with design results. SIW feeding structures have small losses, moderate power handling capacity, low costs, compact sizes and can be seamlessly integrated with planar circuits. At all the bands 9.76 GHz, 10.53 GHz and 11.8 GHz resonant frequency, the antenna shows 56 MHz, 160 MHz, and 250 MHz impedance bandwidth (for VSWR<2) with 6 dB,6.2 dB and 6.8 dB gain respectively. Simulated and measured results reveal outstanding performance with a cross-polar level of 29 dB lower than that of the co-polar level at 9.76 GHz, the cross-polar level of 32 dB lower than that of the co-polar level at 10.53, GHz, and similarly cross-polar level of 30 dB lower than that of the co-polar level at 11.8 GHz.

  13. Undulator radiation in a waveguide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Geloni, G.; Saldin, E.; Schneidmiller, E.; Yurkov, M.

    2007-03-15

    We propose an analytical approach to characterize undulator radiation near resonance, when the presence of the vacuum-pipe considerably affects radiation properties. This is the case of the far-infrared undulator beamline at the Free-electron LASer (FEL) in Hamburg (FLASH), that will be capable of delivering pulses in the TeraHertz (THz) range. This undulator will allow pump-probe experiments where THz pulses are naturally synchronized to the VUV pulse from the FEL, as well as the development of novel electron-beam diagnostics techniques. Since the THz radiation diffraction-size exceeds the vacuum-chamber dimensions, characterization of infrared radiation must be performed accounting for the presence of a waveguide.We developed a theory of undulator radiation in a waveguide based on paraxial and resonance approximation. We solved the field equation with a tensor Green's function technique, and extracted figure of merits describing in a simple way the influence of the vacuum-pipe on the radiation pulse as a function of the problem parameters. Our theory, that makes consistent use of dimensionless analysis, allows treatment and physical understanding of many asymptotes of the parameter space, together with their region of applicability. (orig.)

  14. Undulator radiation in a waveguide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Geloni, G.; Saldin, E.; Schneidmiller, E.; Yurkov, M.

    2007-03-01

    We propose an analytical approach to characterize undulator radiation near resonance, when the presence of the vacuum-pipe considerably affects radiation properties. This is the case of the far-infrared undulator beamline at the Free-electron LASer (FEL) in Hamburg (FLASH), that will be capable of delivering pulses in the TeraHertz (THz) range. This undulator will allow pump-probe experiments where THz pulses are naturally synchronized to the VUV pulse from the FEL, as well as the development of novel electron-beam diagnostics techniques. Since the THz radiation diffraction-size exceeds the vacuum-chamber dimensions, characterization of infrared radiation must be performed accounting for the presence of a waveguide.We developed a theory of undulator radiation in a waveguide based on paraxial and resonance approximation. We solved the field equation with a tensor Green's function technique, and extracted figure of merits describing in a simple way the influence of the vacuum-pipe on the radiation pulse as a function of the problem parameters. Our theory, that makes consistent use of dimensionless analysis, allows treatment and physical understanding of many asymptotes of the parameter space, together with their region of applicability. (orig.)

  15. Dynamical theory of single-photon transport in a one-dimensional waveguide coupled to identical and nonidentical emitters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liao, Zeyang; Nha, Hyunchul; Zubairy, M. Suhail

    2016-11-01

    We develop a general dynamical theory for studying a single-photon transport in a one-dimensional (1D) waveguide coupled to multiple emitters which can be either identical or nonidentical. In this theory, both the effects of the waveguide and non-waveguide vacuum modes are included. This theory enables us to investigate the propagation of an emitter excitation or an arbitrary single-photon pulse along an array of emitters coupled to a 1D waveguide. The dipole-dipole interaction induced by the non-waveguide modes, which is usually neglected in the literature, can significantly modify the dynamics of the emitter system as well as the characteristics of the output field if the emitter separation is much smaller than the resonance wavelength. Nonidentical emitters can also strongly couple to each other if their energy difference is less than or of the order of the dipole-dipole energy shift. Interestingly, if their energy difference is close but nonzero, a very narrow transparency window around the resonance frequency can appear which does not occur for identical emitters. This phenomenon may find important applications in quantum waveguide devices such as optical switches and ultranarrow single-photon frequency comb generator.

  16. Waveguide-Based Biosensors for Pathogen Detection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nile Hartman

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Optical phenomena such as fluorescence, phosphorescence, polarization, interference and non-linearity have been extensively used for biosensing applications. Optical waveguides (both planar and fiber-optic are comprised of a material with high permittivity/high refractive index surrounded on all sides by materials with lower refractive indices, such as a substrate and the media to be sensed. This arrangement allows coupled light to propagate through the high refractive index waveguide by total internal reflection and generates an electromagnetic wave—the evanescent field—whose amplitude decreases exponentially as the distance from the surface increases. Excitation of fluorophores within the evanescent wave allows for sensitive detection while minimizing background fluorescence from complex, “dirty” biological samples. In this review, we will describe the basic principles, advantages and disadvantages of planar optical waveguide-based biodetection technologies. This discussion will include already commercialized technologies (e.g., Corning’s EPIC® Ô, SRU Biosystems’ BIND™, Zeptosense®, etc. and new technologies that are under research and development. We will also review differing assay approaches for the detection of various biomolecules, as well as the thin-film coatings that are often required for waveguide functionalization and effective detection. Finally, we will discuss reverse-symmetry waveguides, resonant waveguide grating sensors and metal-clad leaky waveguides as alternative signal transducers in optical biosensing.

  17. Investigation of slot discharge on a 239 MVA hydro generator stator winding

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, S.; Hong, W. [BC Hydro and Power Authority, Vancouver, BC (Canada)

    2009-07-01

    This paper discussed a slot discharge investigation conducted on a 239 MVA generator stator winding. The generator in which the winding was located had experienced core split distortion, stator winding phase-to-phase failures, winding failures during Hipot testing, and high partial discharge (PD) activity. The results of on-line PD testing data were evaluated. The stator winding was subjected to visual inspections, bar dissections, and failure mechanism analyses. Eleven winding bars were removed from the stator slots in order to assess groundwall insulation conditions and identify the cause of the slot discharge activity. It was determined that the root cause of the slot discharge was a loose, non-uniform bar in the slot. The vibrating bar caused the semi-conductive coating to wear out and degraded the armour tape. Results of the study demonstrated the importance of on-line PD monitoring for detecting slot PD activity. 4 refs., 3 tabs., 11 figs.

  18. Measurement of the depth of narrow slotted sections in eddy current reference standards

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Young-Joo; Kim, Young-gil; Ahn, Bongyoung; Yoon, Dong-Jin

    2007-02-01

    The dimensions of the slots in eddy current (EC) reference standards are too narrow to be measured by general depth measurement methods such as the optical (laser) or stylus methods. However, measurement of the dimensions of the machined slots is a prerequisite to using the blocks as references. The present paper suggests a measurement method for the slotted section using an ultrasonic test. The width and depth of the slots measured in our study are roughly 0.1 mm and 0.5 mm, respectively. The time of flight (TOF) of the ultrasonic wave was measured precisely. The ultrasonic velocity in the material of the EC reference standard was calculated with the measured values of the TOF and its thickness. Reflected waves from the tip of the slot and the bottom surface of the EC standard were successfully classified. Using this method we have successfully determined the depth of the slotted section.

  19. High-power planar dielectric waveguide lasers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shepherd, D.P.; Hettrick, S.J.; Li, C.; Mackenzie, J.I.; Beach, R.J.; Mitchell, S.C.; Meissner, H.E.

    2001-01-01

    The advantages and potential hazards of using a planar waveguide as the host in a high-power diode-pumped laser system are described. The techniques discussed include the use of proximity-coupled diodes, double-clad waveguides, unstable resonators, tapers, and integrated passive Q switches. Laser devices are described based on Yb 3+ -, Nd 3+ -, and Tm 3+ -doped YAG, and monolithic and highly compact waveguide lasers with outputs greater than 10 W are demonstrated. The prospects for scaling to the 100 W level and for further integration of devices for added functionality in a monolithic laser system are discussed. (author)

  20. Guided modes of elliptical metamaterial waveguides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Halterman, Klaus; Feng, Simin; Overfelt, P. L.

    2007-01-01

    The propagation of guided electromagnetic waves in open elliptical metamaterial waveguide structures is investigated. The waveguide contains a negative-index media core, where the permittivity ε and permeability μ are negative over a given bandwidth. The allowed mode spectrum for these structures is numerically calculated by solving a dispersion relation that is expressed in terms of Mathieu functions. By probing certain regions of parameter space, we find the possibility exists to have extremely localized waves that transmit along the surface of the waveguide

  1. A self-repairing polymer waveguide sensor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Song, Young J; Peters, Kara J

    2011-01-01

    This paper presents experimental demonstrations of a self-repairing strain sensor waveguide created by self-writing in a photopolymerizable resin system. The sensor is fabricated between two multi-mode optical fibers via lightwaves in the ultraviolet (UV) wavelength range and operates as a sensor through interrogation of the power transmitted through the waveguide in the infrared (IR) wavelength range. After failure of the sensor occurs due to loading, the waveguide re-bridges the gap between the two optical fibers through the UV resin. The response of the original sensor and the self-repaired sensor to strain are measured and show similar behaviors

  2. The waveguide Free-Electron Laser. 14

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Walsh, J.E.

    1990-01-01

    The general characteristics of free-electron lasers (FELs) which employ a waveguiding structure to confine electromagnetic fields and to couple them to the electron beam is discussed. The mode structure of the basic parallel plate waveguide and its adaptation via quasi-optical techniques to FEL resonator design are considered in detail. A summary of the theory of FEL systems which depend intrinsically on a guide structure (micro-undulator, Cerenkov and metal-grating FELs) and a review of progress on waveguide FEL experiments are also presented. (author). 44 refs.; 16 figs

  3. Nanofocusing in a tapered graphene plasmonic waveguide

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dai, Yunyun; Zhu, Xiaolong; Mortensen, N. Asger

    2015-01-01

    Gated or doped graphene can support plasmons making it a promising plasmonic material in the terahertz regime. Here, we show numerically that in a tapered graphene plasmonic waveguide mid- and far-infrared light can be focused in nanometer scales, far beyond the diffraction limit. The underlying...... physics lies in that when propagating along the direction towards the tip both the group and phase velocities of the plasmons supported by the tapered graphene waveguide are reduced accordingly, eventually leading to nanofocusing at the tip with a huge enhancement of optical fields. The nanofocusing...... of optical fields in tapered graphene plasmonic waveguides could be potentially exploited in the enhancement of light–matter interactions....

  4. Nonlinear optical model for strip plasmonic waveguides

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lysenko, Oleg; Bache, Morten; Lavrinenko, Andrei

    2016-01-01

    This paper presents a theoretical model of nonlinear optical properties for strip plasmonic waveguides. The particular waveguides geometry that we investigate contains a gold core, adhesion layers, and silicon dioxide cladding. It is shown that the third-order susceptibility of the gold core...... significantly depends on the layer thickness and has the dominant contribution to the effective third-order susceptibility of the long-range plasmon polariton mode. This results in two nonlinear optical effects in plasmonic waveguides, which we experimentally observed and reported in [Opt. Lett. 41, 317 (2016...... approaches. (C) 2016 Optical Society of America...

  5. Sm 3+-doped polymer optical waveguide amplifiers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Lihui; Tsang, Kwokchu; Pun, Edwin Yue-Bun; Xu, Shiqing

    2010-04-01

    Trivalent samarium ion (Sm 3+) doped SU8 polymer materials were synthesized and characterized. Intense red emission at 645 nm was observed under UV laser light excitation. Spectroscopic investigations show that the doped materials are suitable for realizing planar optical waveguide amplifiers. About 100 μm wide multimode Sm 3+-doped SU8 channel waveguides were fabricated using a simple UV exposure process. At 250 mW, 351 nm UV pump power, a signal enhancement of ˜7.4 dB at 645 nm was obtained for a 15 mm long channel waveguide.

  6. Mechanism Design for Multi-slot Ads Auction in Sponsored Search Markets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, Xiaotie; Sun, Yang; Yin, Ming; Zhou, Yunhong

    In this paper, we study pricing models for multi-slot advertisements, where advertisers can bid to place links to their sales webpages at one or multiple slots on a webpage, called the multi-slot AD auction problem. We develop and analyze several important mechanisms, including the VCG mechanism for multi-slot ads auction, the optimal social welfare solution, as well as two weighted GSP-like protocols (mixed and hybrid). Furthermore, we consider that forward-looking Nash equilibrium and prove its existence in the weighted GSP-like pricing protocols.

  7. Design of a Compact Wideband Antenna Array for Microwave Imaging Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Puskely

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available In the paper, wideband antenna arrays aimed at microwave imaging applications and SAR applications operating at Ka band were designed. The antenna array feeding network is realized by a low-loss SIW technology. Moreover, we have replaced the large feed network comprised of various T and Y junctions by a simple broadband network of compact size to more reduce losses in the substrate integrated waveguide and also save space on the PCB. The designed power 8-way divider is complemented by a wideband substrate integrated waveguide to a grounded coplanar waveguide transition and directly connected to the antenna elements. The measured results of antenna array are consistent with our simulation. Obtained results of the developed array demonstrated improvement compared to previously developed binary feed networks with microstrip or SIW splitters.

  8. Implementation and Investigation of a Compact Circular Wide Slot UWB Antenna with Dual Notched Band Characteristics using Stepped Impedance Resonators

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yingsong Li

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available A coplanar waveguide (CPW fed ultra-wideband (UWB antenna with dual notched band characteristics is presented in this paper. The circular wide slot and circular radiation patch are utilized to broaden the impedance bandwidth of the UWB antenna. The dual notched band functions are achieved by employing two stepped impedance resonators (SIRs which etched on the circular radiation patch and CPW excitation line, respectively. The two notched bands can be controlled by adjusting the dimensions of the two stepped impedance resonators which give tunable notched band functions. The proposed dual notched band UWB antenna has been designed in details and optimized by means of HFSS. Experimental and numerical results show that the proposed antenna with compact size of 32 × 24 mm2, has an impedance bandwidth range from 2.8 GHz to 13.5 Hz for voltage standing-wave ratio (VSWR less than 2, except the notch bands 5.0 GHz - 6.2 GHz for HIPERLAN/2 and IEEE 802.11a (5.1 GHz - 5.9 GHz and 8.0 GHz - 9.3 GHz for satellite and military applications.

  9. Induced high-order resonance linewidth shrinking with multiple coupled resonators in silicon-organic hybrid slotted two-dimensional photonic crystals for reduced optical switching power in bistable devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoang, Thu Trang; Ngo, Quang Minh; Vu, Dinh Lam; Le, Khai Q.; Nguyen, Truong Khang; Nguyen, Hieu P. T.

    2018-01-01

    Shrinking the linewidth of resonances induced by multiple coupled resonators is comprehensively analyzed using the coupled-mode theory (CMT) in time. Two types of coupled resonators under investigation are coupled resonator optical waveguides (CROWs) and side-coupled resonators with waveguide (SCREW). We examine the main parameters influencing on the spectral response such as the number of resonators (n) and the phase shift (φ) between two adjacent resonators. For the CROWs geometry consisting of n coupled resonators, we observe the quality (Q) factor of the right- and left-most resonant lineshapes increases n times larger than that of a single resonator. For the SCREW geometry, relying on the phase shift, sharp, and asymmetric resonant lineshape of the high Q factor a narrow linewidth of the spectral response could be achieved. We employ the finite-difference time-domain (FDTD) method to design and simulate two proposed resonators for practical applications. The proposed coupled resonators in silicon-on-insulator (SOI) slotted two-dimensional (2-D) photonic crystals (PhCs) filled and covered with a low refractive index organic material. Slotted PhC waveguides and cavities are designed to enhance the electromagnetic intensity and to confine the light into small cross-sectional area with low refractive index so that efficient optical devices could be achieved. A good agreement between the theoretical CMT analysis and the FDTD simulation is shown as an evidence for our accurate investigation. All-optical switches based on the CROWs in the SOI slotted 2-D PhC waveguide that are filled and covered by a nonlinear organic cladding to overcome the limitations of its well-known intrinsic properties are also presented. From the calculations, we introduce a dependency of the normalized linewidth of the right-most resonance and its switching power of the all-optical switches on number of resonator, n. This result might provide a guideline for all-optical signal processing on

  10. Planar waveguide concentrator used with a seasonal tracker.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bouchard, Sébastien; Thibault, Simon

    2012-10-01

    Solar concentrators offer good promise for reducing the cost of solar power. Planar waveguides equipped with a microlens slab have already been proposed as an excellent approach to produce medium to high concentration levels. Instead, we suggest the use of a cylindrical microlens array to get useful concentration without tracking during the day. To use only a seasonal tracking system and get the highest possible concentration, cylindrical microlenses are placed in the east-west orientation. Our new design has an acceptance angle in the north-south direction of ±9° and ±54° in the east-west axis. Simulation of our optimized system achieves a 4.6× average concentration level from 8:30 to 16:30 with a maximum of 8.1× and 80% optical efficiency. The low-cost advantage of waveguide-based solar concentrators could support their use in roof-mounted solar panels and eliminate the need for an expensive and heavy active tracker.

  11. Dark Flow, Depression and Multiline Slot Machine Play.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dixon, Mike J; Stange, Madison; Larche, Chanel J; Graydon, Candice; Fugelsang, Jonathan A; Harrigan, Kevin A

    2018-03-01

    Multiline slot machines allow for a unique outcome type referred to as a loss disguised as a win (LDW). An LDW occurs when a player gains credits on a spin, but fewer credits than their original wager (e.g. 15-cent gain on a 20-cent wager). These outcomes alter the gambler's play experience by providing frequent, albeit smaller, credit gains throughout a playing session that are in fact net losses. Despite this negative overall value, research has shown that players physiologically respond to LDWs as if they are wins, not losses. These outcomes also create a "smoother" experience for the player that seems to promote a highly absorbing, flow-like state that we have called "dark flow". Past research has indicated that there may be a relationship between problem gambling status and dark flow, as well as between dark flow, depression, and gambling expectancies. In this study, we sought to further understand these relationships, while examining the influence of LDWs on game preference in the context of single versus multiline slots play. We used a realistic slot machine simulator equipped with a force transducer to measure how hard players pressed the spin button following different outcomes. This measure of arousal showed that LDWs were treated similarly to small wins. Participants overwhelmingly preferred the multiline game and experienced more positive affect while playing it, compared to the single-line game. Problem gambling severity index scores were related to dark flow in both games, but this relationship was stronger for the multiline game. Additionally, depression symptomatology and dark flow were strongly correlated in the multiline game, with significant relationships between depression and gambling expectancy, and gambling expectancy and dark flow ratings also emerging.

  12. Waveguide silicon nitride grating coupler

    Science.gov (United States)

    Litvik, Jan; Dolnak, Ivan; Dado, Milan

    2016-12-01

    Grating couplers are one of the most used elements for coupling of light between optical fibers and photonic integrated components. Silicon-on-insulator platform provides strong confinement of light and allows high integration. In this work, using simulations we have designed a broadband silicon nitride surface grating coupler. The Fourier-eigenmode expansion and finite difference time domain methods are utilized in design optimization of grating coupler structure. The fully, single etch step grating coupler is based on a standard silicon-on-insulator wafer with 0.55 μm waveguide Si3N4 layer. The optimized structure at 1550 nm wavelength yields a peak coupling efficiency -2.6635 dB (54.16%) with a 1-dB bandwidth up to 80 nm. It is promising way for low-cost fabrication using complementary metal-oxide- semiconductor fabrication process.

  13. Slot-type kicker for the AA stochastic cooling

    CERN Multimedia

    Photographic Service

    1979-01-01

    A "slotted transmission line" structure was used for both pickups and the kicker of one of the stochastic cooling systems of the Antiproton Accumulator (AA). They served for the cooling of the high-density stack, in momentum and in both transverse planes. In the beginning in a single band, 1-2 GHz, later in 3 bands, 1-2, 2-4 and 4-8 GHz. The kicker of the first generation, shown here, was located where the dispersion was zero and the beam size small, and thus had a quadratic cross-section. The pickups were rectangular and wider in the horizontal plane. See also 7906193

  14. Circularly Polarized Slotted Microstrip Patch Antenna with Finite Ground Plane

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sanyog Rawat

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available In this paper a new geometry of circularly polarized patch antenna is proposed with improved bandwidth. The radiation performance of proposed patch antenna is investigated using IE3D simulation software and its performance is compared with that of conventional rectangular patch antenna. The simulated return loss, axial ratio and impedance with frequency for the proposed antenna are reported in this paper. It is shown that by selecting suitable ground-plane dimensions, air gap and location of the slots, the impedance bandwidth can be enhanced upto 10.15% as compared to conventional rectangular patch (4.24% with an axial ratio bandwidth of 4.05%.

  15. Stability of a slotted ALOHA system with capture effect

    Science.gov (United States)

    Onozato, Yoshikuni; Liu, Jin; Noguchi, Shoichi

    1989-02-01

    The stability of a slotted ALOHA system with capture effect is investigated under a general communication environment where terminals are divided into two groups (low-power and high-power) and the capture effect is modeled by capture probabilities. An approximate analysis is developed using catastrophe theory, in which the effects of system and user parameters on the stability are characterized by the cusp catastrophe. Particular attention is given to the low-power group, since it must bear the strain under the capture effect. The stability conditions of the two groups are given explicitly by bifurcation sets.

  16. Pulsar Polar Cap and Slot Gap Models: Confronting Fermi Data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alice K. Harding

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Rotation-powered pulsars are excellent laboratories for studying particle acceleration as well as fundamental physics of strong gravity, strong magnetic fields and relativity. Particle acceleration and high-energy emission from the polar caps is expected to occur in connection with electron-positron pair cascades. I will review acceleration and gamma-ray emission from the pulsar polar cap and associated slot gap. Predictions of these models can be tested with the data set on pulsars collected by the Large Area Telescope on the Fermi Gamma-Ray Telescope over the last four years, using both detailed light curve fitting, population synthesis and phase-resolved spectroscopy.

  17. Ultralow-loss CMOS copper plasmonic waveguides

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fedyanin, Dmitry Yu.; Yakubovsky, Dmitry I.; Kirtaev, Roman V.

    2016-01-01

    with microelectronics manufacturing technologies. This prevents plasmonic components from integration with both silicon photonics and silicon microelectronics. Here, we demonstrate ultralow-loss copper plasmonic waveguides fabricated in a simple complementary metal-oxide semiconductor (CMOS) compatible process, which...

  18. Silica suspended waveguide splitter-based biosensor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harrison, M. C.; Hawk, R. M.; Armani, A. M.

    2012-03-01

    Recently, a novel integrated optical waveguide 50/50 splitter was developed. It is fabricated using standard lithographic methods, a pair of etching steps and a laser reflow step. However, unlike other integrated waveguide splitters, the waveguide is elevated off of the silicon substrate, improving its interaction with biomolecules in solution and in a flow field. Additionally, because it is fabricated from silica, it has very low optical loss, resulting in a high signal-to-noise ratio, making it ideal for biosensing. By functionalizing the device using an epoxy-silane method using small samples and confining the protein solutions to the device, we enable highly efficient detection of CREB with only 1 μL of solution. Therefore, the waveguide coupler sensor is representative of the next generation of ultra-sensitive optical biosensors, and, when combined with microfluidic capabilities, it will be an ideal candidate for a more fully-realized lab-on-a-chip device.

  19. Progress on erbium-doped waveguide components

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjarklev, Anders Overgaard; Berendt, Martin Ole; Broeng, Jes

    1997-01-01

    The recent development in erbium-doped fiber amplifiers, and fiber lasers is reviewed. Also the latest results on planar erbium-doped waveguide amplifiers and high erbium concentration characterisation methods are presented...

  20. Low-index discontinuity terahertz waveguides

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagel, Michael; Marchewka, Astrid; Kurz, Heinrich

    2006-10-01

    A new type of dielectric THz waveguide based on recent approaches in the field of integrated optics is presented with theoretical and experimental results. Although the guiding mechanism of the low-index discontinuity (LID) THz waveguide is total internal reflection, the THz wave is predominantly confined in the virtually lossless low-index air gap within a high-index dielectric waveguide due to the continuity of electric flux density at the dielectric interface. Attenuation, dispersion and single-mode confinement properties of two LID structures are discussed and compared with other THz waveguide solutions. The new approach provides an outstanding combination of high mode confinement and low transmission losses currently not realizable with any other metal-based or photonic crystal approach. These exceptional properties might enable the breakthrough of novel integrated THz systems or endoscopy applications with sub-wavelength resolution.

  1. Minimum wakefield achievable by waveguide damped cavity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lin, X.E.; Kroll, N.M.

    1995-01-01

    The authors use an equivalent circuit to model a waveguide damped cavity. Both exponentially damped and persistent (decay t -3/2 ) components of the wakefield are derived from this model. The result shows that for a cavity with resonant frequency a fixed interval above waveguide cutoff, the persistent wakefield amplitude is inversely proportional to the external Q value of the damped mode. The competition of the two terms results in an optimal Q value, which gives a minimum wakefield as a function of the distance behind the source particle. The minimum wakefield increases when the resonant frequency approaches the waveguide cutoff. The results agree very well with computer simulation on a real cavity-waveguide system

  2. Hybrid numerical calculation method for bend waveguides

    OpenAIRE

    Garnier , Lucas; Saavedra , C.; Castro-Beltran , Rigoberto; Lucio , José Luis; Bêche , Bruno

    2017-01-01

    National audience; The knowledge of how the light will behave in a waveguide with a radius of curvature becomes more and more important because of the development of integrated photonics, which include ring micro-resonators, phasars, and other devices with a radius of curvature. This work presents a numerical calculation method to determine the eigenvalues and eigenvectors of curved waveguides. This method is a hybrid method which uses at first conform transformation of the complex plane gene...

  3. Accurate modeling of UV written waveguide components

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Svalgaard, Mikael

    BPM simulation results of UV written waveguide components that are indistinguishable from measurements can be achieved on the basis of trajectory scan data and an equivalent step index profile that is very easy to measure.......BPM simulation results of UV written waveguide components that are indistinguishable from measurements can be achieved on the basis of trajectory scan data and an equivalent step index profile that is very easy to measure....

  4. Accurate modelling of UV written waveguide components

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Svalgaard, Mikael

    BPM simulation results of UV written waveguide components that are indistinguishable from measurements can be achieved on the basis of trajectory scan data and an equivalent step index profile that is very easy to measure.......BPM simulation results of UV written waveguide components that are indistinguishable from measurements can be achieved on the basis of trajectory scan data and an equivalent step index profile that is very easy to measure....

  5. Optimization of metal-clad waveguide sensors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skivesen, N.; Horvath, R.; Pedersen, H.C.

    2005-01-01

    The present paper deals with the optimization of metal-clad waveguides for sensor applications to achieve high sensitivity for adlayer and refractive index measurements. By using the Fresnel reflection coefficients both the angular shift and the width of the resonances in the sensorgrams are taken...... into account. Our optimization shows that it is possible for metal-clad waveguides to achieve a sensitivity improvement of 600% compared to surface-plasmon-resonance sensors....

  6. Transmission of infrared radiation through cylindrical waveguides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nucara, A.; Dore, P.; Calvani, P.; Cannavo', D.; Marcelli, A.

    1998-01-01

    Measurement of the transmittance of infrared radiation (v -1 ) through cylindrical waveguides are presented and discussed. The experimental results are compared with numerical simulations, obtained through conventional ray tracing programs. Finally, it' estimated the transmittance of a waveguide in the case of an infrared synchrotron radiation source. Are applied the results to the case of the DAΦNE collider, where a synchrotron radiation beamline for the far infrared is under construction

  7. Schroedinger covariance states in anisotropic waveguides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Angelow, A.; Trifonov, D.

    1995-03-01

    In this paper Squeezed and Covariance States based on Schroedinger inequality and their connection with other nonclassical states are considered for particular case of anisotropic waveguide in LiNiO 3 . Here, the problem of photon creation and generation of squeezed and Schroedinger covariance states in optical waveguides is solved in two steps: 1. Quantization of electromagnetic field is provided in the presence of dielectric waveguide using normal-mode expansion. The photon creation and annihilation operators are introduced, expanding the solution A-vector(r-vector,t) in a series in terms of the Sturm - Liouville mode-functions. 2. In terms of these operators the Hamiltonian of the field in a nonlinear waveguide is derived. For such Hamiltonian we construct the covariance states as stable (with nonzero covariance), which minimize the Schroedinger uncertainty relation. The evolutions of the three second momenta of q-circumflex j and p-circumflex j are calculated. For this Hamiltonian all three momenta are expressed in terms of one real parameters s only. It is found out how covariance, via this parameter s, depends on the waveguide profile n(x,y), on the mode-distributions u-vector j (x,y), and on the waveguide phase mismatching Δβ. (author). 37 refs

  8. Concept of ceramics-free coaxial waveguide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arai, Hiroyuki

    1994-01-01

    A critical key point of the ITER IC antenna is ceramics support of an internal conductor of a coaxial antenna feeder close to the plasma, because dielectric loss tangent of ceramics enhanced due to neutron irradiation limits significantly the antenna injection power. This paper presents a ceramics-free waveguide to overcome this problem by a T-shaped ridged waveguide with arms for the mechanical support. This ridged waveguide has a low cutoff frequency for its small cross section, which has been proposed for the conceptual design study of Fusion Experimental Reactor (FER) IC system and the high frequency supplementary IC system for ITER. This paper presents the concept of ceramics-free coaxial waveguide consisting of the coaxial-line and the ridged waveguide. This paper also presents the cutoff frequency and the electric field distribution of the ridged waveguide calculated by a finite element method and an approximate method. The power handling capability more than 3 MW is evaluated by using the transmission-line theory and the optimized antenna impedance considering the ITER plasma parameters. We verify this transmission-line model by one-tenth scale models experimentally. (author)

  9. Revisiting Street Intersections Using Slot-Based Systems.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Remi Tachet

    Full Text Available Since their appearance at the end of the 19th century, traffic lights have been the primary mode of granting access to road intersections. Today, this centuries-old technology is challenged by advances in intelligent transportation, which are opening the way to new solutions built upon slot-based systems similar to those commonly used in aerial traffic: what we call Slot-based Intersections (SIs. Despite simulation-based evidence of the potential benefits of SIs, a comprehensive, analytical framework to compare their relative performance with traffic lights is still lacking. Here, we develop such a framework. We approach the problem in a novel way, by generalizing classical queuing theory. Having defined safety conditions, we characterize capacity and delay of SIs. In the 2-road crossing configuration, we provide a capacity-optimal SI management system. For arbitrary intersection configurations, near-optimal solutions are developed. Results theoretically show that transitioning from a traffic light system to SI has the potential of doubling capacity and significantly reducing delays. This suggests a reduction of non-linear dynamics induced by intersection bottlenecks, with positive impact on the road network. Such findings can provide transportation engineers and planners with crucial insights as they prepare to manage the transition towards a more intelligent transportation infrastructure in cities.

  10. Ultra-Wideband Printed Slot Radiators with Controllable Frequency Characteristics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. L. Chernyshev

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available We have studied the possibility of creating ultra-wideband (UWB antennas with controlled frequency response of matching based on the printed slot antenna Vivaldi by introducing controlled resonators directly into the structure of the radiator. In the area of irregular slotline there are printed switched resonators with variable capacitance (varactor model, which allow tuning the frequency characteristics for each state of switching cavities, providing bandpass and band-barrage properties of the antenna. The investigation of reconfigurable printed resonators in the system of reconfigurable resonators of a bandpass filter is conducted. The paper considers filter to provide restructuring in the band (3-9 GHz. Electrodynamic simulation of the device was carried out in the time domain using a finite integration method. A bandstop reconfigurable filter is also investigated. The filter located on the substrate opposite the slit is based on tunable L-shaped resonator that has one end connected to the short-circuitor through the board metallization; the other end remains open and is brought into the region of interaction with the slotline. Such filter provides an effective narrow-band suppression and can be easily tuned to the desired frequency channel. The combination of these two types of filters allows you to create a controlled print Vivaldi slot antenna with combined properties. The paper investigates parameters of the scattering and radiation pattern of the antenna in different modes.

  11. A slotted access control protocol for metropolitan WDM ring networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baziana, P. A.; Pountourakis, I. E.

    2009-03-01

    In this study we focus on the serious scalability problems that many access protocols for WDM ring networks introduce due to the use of a dedicated wavelength per access node for either transmission or reception. We propose an efficient slotted MAC protocol suitable for WDM ring metropolitan area networks. The proposed network architecture employs a separate wavelength for control information exchange prior to the data packet transmission. Each access node is equipped with a pair of tunable transceivers for data communication and a pair of fixed tuned transceivers for control information exchange. Also, each access node includes a set of fixed delay lines for synchronization reasons; to keep the data packets, while the control information is processed. An efficient access algorithm is applied to avoid both the data wavelengths and the receiver collisions. In our protocol, each access node is capable of transmitting and receiving over any of the data wavelengths, facing the scalability issues. Two different slot reuse schemes are assumed: the source and the destination stripping schemes. For both schemes, performance measures evaluation is provided via an analytic model. The analytical results are validated by a discrete event simulation model that uses Poisson traffic sources. Simulation results show that the proposed protocol manages efficient bandwidth utilization, especially under high load. Also, comparative simulation results prove that our protocol achieves significant performance improvement as compared with other WDMA protocols which restrict transmission over a dedicated data wavelength. Finally, performance measures evaluation is explored for diverse numbers of buffer size, access nodes and data wavelengths.

  12. Losses Disguised as Wins Affect Game Selection on Multiline Slots.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graydon, Candice; Stange, Madison; Dixon, Mike J

    2018-05-05

    Multiline slots are exciting games that contain features which make them alluring. One such feature is a loss disguised as a win (LDW); wherein, players win less than they wager (e.g., bet 2 dollars, win back 50 cents), but this net loss is disguised by flashing graphics and winning sounds. Research to date concludes that LDWs are both rewarding and reinforcing. Here, we investigated whether LDWs affect players' game selection. Thirty-two undergraduate students with experience playing slot machines played 100 spins on four games-two had positive payback percentages (115%) and two had negative payback percentages (85%) after 100 spins. For each payback percentage condition, there was a game with no LDWs and a game with a moderate number of LDWs. For the 100 spins, players could choose to play whichever game they wished. They then rated their preference for each game following the 100-spins and chose a game to continue playing. The majority of players preferred playing the positive payback percentage game with LDWs and chose to continue playing this game over the three other games. We conclude that in addition to LDWs being reinforcing and rewarding, LDWs do in fact influence game selection. We conclude that responsible gambling initiatives should educate players about LDWs.

  13. Linear and nonlinear properties of segmented waveguides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Katz, M.

    1998-07-01

    This dissertation deals with Periodically Segmented Waveguides (PSW), which are applied on KTiOP0 4 (KTP) crystals, by chemical ion-exchange process. In these waveguides, the crystal polarity and refractive index are periodically modulated to obtain Quasi Phase Matching (QPM) between the fundamental and second-harmonic waves. PSW is a relatively new optical device which exhibits unique optical properties in comparison with a continuous waveguide. The possibility of utilizing the KTP-PSW as a compact, cw, blue-violet, source by doubling infra-red light, is the main motivation for studying the optical properties of KTP segmented waveguides. Nevertheless, much attention in this work is also given to the study of linear optical properties of KTP-PSW, most of which, to my best knowledge, has not been studied yet. Controlling and understanding the linear optical properties of KTP-PSW, are required, for applying the PSW as an optical device by its own, and for control and characterization of the non-linear optical properties of the waveguide. In this work the dependence of the linear optical properties of KTP-PSW on geometrical parameters (period size, duty cycle and waveguide width) were studied. The experimental measured parameters include the PSW near field and the Bragg reflections, which appear due lo the grating structure of the waveguide. The possibility of controlling the wavelength and intensity, of the segmented waveguide Bragg reflections of regular period and super-period, is shown theoretically and experimentally. An unexpected dependence was found, by the experimental measurement, between the index profile and the ion-exchanged segment area,. The segmented waveguide dispersion curve, n eff (λ) in the infra-red region was found, A main part of the research work is dedicated to the study of nonlinear characteristics of PSW. The different factors, which effect the Second Harmonic Generation (SHG), are measured experimentally and analyzed. The experimental

  14. Slotted rotatable target assembly and systematic error analysis for a search for long range spin dependent interactions from exotic vector boson exchange using neutron spin rotation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haddock, C.; Crawford, B.; Fox, W.; Francis, I.; Holley, A.; Magers, S.; Sarsour, M.; Snow, W. M.; Vanderwerp, J.

    2018-03-01

    We discuss the design and construction of a novel target array of nonmagnetic test masses used in a neutron polarimetry measurement made in search for new possible exotic spin dependent neutron-atominteractions of Nature at sub-mm length scales. This target was designed to accept and efficiently transmit a transversely polarized slow neutron beam through a series of long open parallel slots bounded by flat rectangular plates. These openings possessed equal atom density gradients normal to the slots from the flat test masses with dimensions optimized to achieve maximum sensitivity to an exotic spin-dependent interaction from vector boson exchanges with ranges in the mm - μm regime. The parallel slots were oriented differently in four quadrants that can be rotated about the neutron beam axis in discrete 90°increments using a Geneva drive. The spin rotation signals from the 4 quadrants were measured using a segmented neutron ion chamber to suppress possible systematic errors from stray magnetic fields in the target region. We discuss the per-neutron sensitivity of the target to the exotic interaction, the design constraints, the potential sources of systematic errors which could be present in this design, and our estimate of the achievable sensitivity using this method.

  15. A Microfluidic Device with an Integrated Waveguide Beam Splitter for Velocity Measurements of Flowing Particles by Fourier Transformation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mogensen, Klaus Bo; Kwok, Y.C.; Eijkel, J.C.T.

    2003-01-01

    A microfabricated capillary electrophoresis device for velocity measurements of flowing particles is presented. It consists of a 1 x 128 planar waveguide beam splitter monolithically integrated with an electrically insulated fluidic channel network for fluorescence excitation at multiple points...... optics. The integrated planar waveguide beam splitter was, furthermore, permanently connected to the light source by a glued-on optical fiber, to achieve a robust and alignment-free operation of the system. The velocity was measured using a Fourier transformation with a Shah function, since the response...... of the fight array was designed to approximate a square profile. Deviations from this response were observed as a result of the multimode nature of the integrated waveguides....

  16. Heterogeneous integration of thin film compound semiconductor lasers and SU8 waveguides on SiO2/Si

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palit, Sabarni; Kirch, Jeremy; Mawst, Luke; Kuech, Thomas; Jokerst, Nan Marie

    2010-02-01

    We present the heterogeneous integration of a 3.8 μm thick InGaAs/GaAs edge emitting laser that was metal-metal bonded to SiO2/Si and end-fire coupled into a 2.8 μm thick tapered SU8 polymer waveguide integrated on the same substrate. The system was driven in pulsed mode and the waveguide output was captured on an IR imaging array to characterize the mode. The waveguide output was also coupled into a multimode fiber, and into an optical head and spectrum analyzer, indicating lasing at ~997 nm and a threshold current density of 250 A/cm2.

  17. Extremely High-Birefringent Asymmetric Slotted-Core Photonic Crystal Fiber in THz Regime

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Islam, Raonaqul; Habib, Selim; Hasanuzzaman, G.K.M.

    2015-01-01

    We present a thorough numerical analysis of a highly birefringent slotted porous-core circular photonic crystal fiber (PCF) for terahertz (THz) wave guidance. The slot shaped air-holes break the symmetry of the porous-core which offers a very high birefringence whereas the compact geometry of the...

  18. 14 CFR 93.226 - Allocation of slots in low-demand periods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Allocation of slots in low-demand periods. 93.226 Section 93.226 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF... low-demand periods. (a) If there are available slots in the following time periods and there are no...

  19. Bead beavior in a non-continues slot die coating regime

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Langen, A.; Senes, A.; Vries, I. de; Groen, P.

    2015-01-01

    Sheet-to-sheet slot die coating is a crucial intermediate technique to bring organic and large area electronics (e.g. OLED and Flexible OPV) towards mass roll-to-roll productions. The coating on substrate has to be uniform within nanometers. Additional settings are added to the slot die coater for a

  20. 14 CFR 93.218 - Slots for transborder service to and from Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... Canada. 93.218 Section 93.218 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF... service to and from Canada. (a) Except as otherwise provided in this subpart, international slots...'Hare in the Winter season. (c) Any modification to the slot base by the Government of Canada or the...

  1. Vision-Based Parking-Slot Detection: A Benchmark and A Learning-Based Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lin Zhang

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Recent years have witnessed a growing interest in developing automatic parking systems in the field of intelligent vehicles. However, how to effectively and efficiently locating parking-slots using a vision-based system is still an unresolved issue. Even more seriously, there is no publicly available labeled benchmark dataset for tuning and testing parking-slot detection algorithms. In this paper, we attempt to fill the above-mentioned research gaps to some extent and our contributions are twofold. Firstly, to facilitate the study of vision-based parking-slot detection, a large-scale parking-slot image database is established. This database comprises 8600 surround-view images collected from typical indoor and outdoor parking sites. For each image in this database, the marking-points and parking-slots are carefully labeled. Such a database can serve as a benchmark to design and validate parking-slot detection algorithms. Secondly, a learning-based parking-slot detection approach, namely P S D L , is proposed. Using P S D L , given a surround-view image, the marking-points will be detected first and then the valid parking-slots can be inferred. The efficacy and efficiency of P S D L have been corroborated on our database. It is expected that P S D L can serve as a baseline when the other researchers develop more sophisticated methods.

  2. Burnout and distribution of liquid between the flow core and wall films in narrow slot channels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boltenko, E. A.; Shpakovskii, A. A.

    2010-03-01

    Previous works on studying distribution of liquid between the flow core and wall films in narrow slot channels are briefly reviewed. Interrelation between mass transfer processes and burnout is shown. A procedure for calculating burnout on convex and concave heat-transfer surfaces in narrow slot channels is presented.

  3. Slot opening optimization of surface mounted permanent magnet motor for cogging torque reduction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abbaszadeh, K.; Rezaee Alam, F.; Teshnehlab, M.

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► The slot opening shift method is an efficient method for cogging torque reduction. ► Using slot opening skew method, the trapezoidal waveform of back-emf is maintained. ► Using the conventional slot skewing, the wave shape of back-emf is sinusoidal. ► The novelty of paper is using of air–gap permeance harmonics as objective function. ► Other novelty of this paper is using the different optimization algorithms. - Abstract: In this paper, slot opening skew method is used for cogging torque reduction. A three layer stator model is considered for a six-pole PM-BLDC motor (a PM-BLDC motor with 18-slots, six-poles and length of 5 cm) and then a 2D dual model is extracted for this 3D slot opening skew model. The angular shifts of slot opening position in the first and third layers than middle layer are considered as optimization parameters. Slot opening shape is optimized by using different optimization algorithms, such as, the response surface methodology (RSM), the genetic algorithm (GA) and the particle swarm optimization (PSO). In order to using of GA and PSO, the analytical relationship is derived for the air–gap permeance function. The optimization results of these algorithms are being consistent with each other and are verified with FEA results. The results show the significant reduction of cogging torque about 77%.

  4. Cogging Torque Reduction by Slot-Opening Shift for Permanent Magnet Machines

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Liu, Ting; Huang, Shoudao; Gao, Jian

    2013-01-01

    In this paper, an effective cogging torque reduction method based on shifting the slot-openings is presented. Stator teeth are divided into groups and proper slot-opening shift is applied for each group. The cogging torque can then be greatly reduced while the back-EMF waveforms remain symmetrical...

  5. Antenna Array Construction on a Mobile Terminal Chassis at 3.5 GHz for LTE Advanced

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Syrytsin, Igor A.; Zhang, Shuai; Pedersen, Gert F.

    2017-01-01

    This paper proposes a method of constructing an antenna array on the typical ground plane of the modern mobile terminal. An IFA and a slot in a metal frame antenna elements have been used to illustrate the proposed method. The radiation pattern of the element is recorded at the chosen number of t...

  6. Switchable Phased Antenna Array with Passive Elements for 5G Mobile Terminals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Syrytsin, Igor A.; Zhang, Shuai; Pedersen, Gert F.

    2017-01-01

    In this paper, a reconfigurable phased antenna array system is constructed for the mobile terminals in the context of 5G communication system. The proposed antenna system operates at the resonance frequency of 28 GHz. The reconfigurability of the antenna element is achieved by using a passive slot...

  7. Examination report: Remote video examination of air slots under the primary tank at 241-AN-107

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pedersen, L.T.

    1998-01-01

    This report documents the results of remote video examination of air slots in the insulating concrete slab beneath the primary tank at 241-AN-107. Life Extension Equipment Engineering has selected tank 241-AN-107 for ultrasonic evaluation of tank wall, knuckle, and floor plates. Access to the primary tank floor plates is via the air slots which were formed into the insulating concrete slab during tank construction (reference drawings H-2-71105 and H-2-71160). Prior to deployment of the ultrasonic inspection equipment it is desirable to examine the air slots for obstructions and debris which could impede the ultrasonic equipment. The criteria, equipment description, deliverables, and responsibilities for examination of the air slots are described in HNF-1949, Rev. 0, ''Engineering Task Plan for Remote Video Examination of Air Slots Under the Primary Tank at 241-AN-107''

  8. FEM Analysis of Brushless DC Servomotor with Fractional Number of Slots per Pole

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    BALUTA, G.

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available The authors present in this paper the analysis with Finite Element Method (FEM of the magnetic circuit for a Brushless DC servomotor with fractional number of slots/pole (9 slots and 10 poles. For this purpose, FEMM 4.2 software package was used for the analysis. To obtain the waveforms of Back-ElectroMotive Forces (BEMFs, electromagnetic and cogging torque for servomotor a program in LUA scripting language (integrated into interactive shell of FEMM4.2 has been created. A comparation with a structure with integer number of slots/pole (18 slots and 6 poles was also realized. The analysis results prove that the structure chosen is an optimal solution: sinusoidal waveforms of BEMFs, improved electromagnetic torque and reduced cogging torque. Therefore, the operating characteristics of the servomotor with 9/10 slots/poles manufactured by Sistem Euroteh Company and included in an integrated electrical drives system are presented in this paper.

  9. Passive Frequency Selective Surface Array as a Diffuser for Destroying Millimeter Wave Coherence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saiful Islam

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the design, construction, and testing of grounded frequency selective surface (FSS array as a diffuser for destroying millimeter wave coherence which is used to eliminate speckle in active millimeter wave imaging. To create stochastically independent illumination patterns, we proposed a diffuser based on random-phase distributions obtained by changing the incident frequency. The random-phase diffuser was obtained by mixing up the phase relations between the cells of a deterministic function (e.g., beam splitter. The slot length of FSS is the main design parameter used to optimize the phase shifting properties of the array. The critical parameters of the diffuser array design, such as phase relation with slot lengths, losses, and bandwidth, are discussed. We designed the FSS arrays with finite integral technique (FIT, fabricated by etching technique, and characterized the S-parameters with a free-space MVNA, and measured the radiation patterns with a BWO in motorized setup.

  10. Array capabilities and future arrays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radford, D.

    1993-01-01

    Early results from the new third-generation instruments GAMMASPHERE and EUROGAM are confirming the expectation that such arrays will have a revolutionary effect on the field of high-spin nuclear structure. When completed, GAMMASHPERE will have a resolving power am order of magnitude greater that of the best second-generation arrays. When combined with other instruments such as particle-detector arrays and fragment mass analysers, the capabilites of the arrays for the study of more exotic nuclei will be further enhanced. In order to better understand the limitations of these instruments, and to design improved future detector systems, it is important to have some intelligible and reliable calculation for the relative resolving power of different instrument designs. The derivation of such a figure of merit will be briefly presented, and the relative sensitivities of arrays currently proposed or under construction presented. The design of TRIGAM, a new third-generation array proposed for Chalk River, will also be discussed. It is instructive to consider how far arrays of Compton-suppressed Ge detectors could be taken. For example, it will be shown that an idealised open-quote perfectclose quotes third-generation array of 1000 detectors has a sensitivity an order of magnitude higher again than that of GAMMASPHERE. Less conventional options for new arrays will also be explored

  11. Modeling arbitrarily directed slots that are narrow both in width and depth with regard to the FDTD spatial cell

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Riley, D.J.; Turner, C.D.

    1991-12-31

    The Hybrid Thin-Slot Algorithm (HTSA) integrates a transient integral-equation solution for an aperture in an infinite plane into a finite-difference time-domain (FDTD) code. The technique was introduced for linear apertures and was extended to include wall loss and lossy internal gaskets. A general implementation for arbitrary thin slots is briefly described here. The 3-D FDTD-code TSAR was selected for the implementation. The HTSA does not provide universal solutions to the narrow slot problem, but has merits appropriate for particular applications. The HTSA is restricted to planar slots, but can solve the important case that both the width and depth of the slot are narrow compared to the FDTD spatial cell. IN addition, the HTSA is not bound to the FDTD discrete spatial and time increments, and therefore, high-resolution solutions for the slot physics are possible. The implementation of the HTSA into TSAR is based upon a ``slot data file`` that includes the cell indices where the desired slots are exist within the FDTD mesh. For an HTSA-defined slot, the wall region local to the slot is shorted, and therefore, to change the slot`s topology simply requires altering the file to include the desired cells. 7 refs.

  12. Evanescent Waveguide Apparatus and Method for Measurement of Dielectric Constant

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Tonn, David A

    2005-01-01

    .... In one embodiment, a metal septum is inserted between two samples of the unknown material to thereby reduce the cross-sectional area of the waveguide aperture by splitting width a of the rectangular waveguide in half...

  13. Launching transverse-electric Localized Waves from a circular waveguide

    KAUST Repository

    Salem, Mohamed; Niver, Edip

    2011-01-01

    Axially symmetric transverse electric (TE) modes of a circular waveguide section are used to synthesize the vector TE Localized Wave (LW) field at the open end of the waveguide section. The necessary excitation coefficients of these modes

  14. Fiber-Drawn Metamaterial for THz Waveguiding and Imaging

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Atakaramians, Shaghik; Stefani, Alessio; Li, Haisu

    2017-01-01

    and sub-diffraction imaging. We show the experimental demonstration of THz radiation guidance through hollow core waveguides with metamaterial cladding, where substantial improvements were realized compared to conventional hollow core waveguides, such as reduction of size, greater flexibility, increased...

  15. Spatial mode discriminator based on leaky waveguides

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Jing; Liu, Jialing; Shi, Hongkang; Chen, Yuntian

    2018-06-01

    We propose a conceptually simple and experimentally compatible configuration to discriminate the spatial mode based on leaky waveguides, which are inserted in-between the transmission link. The essence of such a spatial mode discriminator is to introduce the leakage of the power flux on purpose for detection. Importantly, the leaky angle of each individual spatial mode with respect to the propagation direction are different for non-degenerated modes, while the radiation patterns of the degenerated spatial modes in the plane perpendicular to the propagation direction are also distinguishable. Based on these two facts, we illustrate the operation principle of the spatial mode discriminators via two concrete examples; a w-type slab leaky waveguide without degeneracy, and a cylindrical leaky waveguide with degeneracy. The correlation between the leakage angle and the spatial mode distribution for a slab leaky waveguide, as well as differences between the in-plane radiation patterns of degenerated modes in a cylindrical leaky waveguide, are verified numerically and analytically. Such findings can be readily useful in discriminating the spatial modes for optical communication or optical sensing.

  16. A GRASP algorithm for the container stowage slot planning problem

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Parreno, Francisco; Pacino, Dario; Alvarez-Valdes, Ramon

    2016-01-01

    in clusters along the vessel. For each of those clusters a specific position for each container must be found. Compared to previous studies, we have introduced two new features: the explicit handling of rolled out containers and the inclusion of separations rules for dangerous cargo. We present a novel......This work presents a generalization of the Slot Planning Problem which raises when the liner shipping industry needs to plan the placement of containers within a vessel (stowage planning). State-of-the-art stowage planning relies on a heuristic decomposition where containers are first distributed...... integer programming formulation and a Greedy Randomized Adaptive Search Procedure (GRASP) to solve the problem. The approach is able to find high-quality solution within 1 s. We also provide comparison with the state-of-the-art on an existing and a new set of benchmark instances. (C) 2016 Elsevier Ltd...

  17. Quad-Band U-Slot Antenna for Mobile Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. L. Ruiz

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, two different planar quad-band antennas are designed, modeled, fabricated and measured. Subsequently, the antennas are redesigned using an electromagnetic band gap substrate (EBG. Those new planar antennas operate in four frequency bands: 900 MHz, 1 800 MHz (both GSM, 1 900 MHz (USA and 2 400 to 2 500 MHz (Bluetooth The antenna has four narrow U-shaped slots etched to the patch. Using software, CST Microwave Studio [1], Zeland IE3D [2], and FEMLAB [3], simulations have been carried out to investigate the antenna's performance and characteristics. The antennas designed have been also built and measured to compare the real results with those obtained from the simulations.

  18. Thermal microphotonic sensor and sensor array

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watts, Michael R [Albuquerque, NM; Shaw, Michael J [Tijeras, NM; Nielson, Gregory N [Albuquerque, NM; Lentine, Anthony L [Albuquerque, NM

    2010-02-23

    A thermal microphotonic sensor is disclosed for detecting infrared radiation using heat generated by the infrared radiation to shift the resonant frequency of an optical resonator (e.g. a ring resonator) to which the heat is coupled. The shift in the resonant frequency can be determined from light in an optical waveguide which is evanescently coupled to the optical resonator. An infrared absorber can be provided on the optical waveguide either as a coating or as a plate to aid in absorption of the infrared radiation. In some cases, a vertical resonant cavity can be formed about the infrared absorber to further increase the absorption of the infrared radiation. The sensor can be formed as a single device, or as an array for imaging the infrared radiation.

  19. Performance of multiclad scintillating and clear waveguide fibers read out with visible light photon counters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baumbaugh, B. (Department of Physics, University of Notre Dame, Notre Dame, IN 46556 (United States)); Erdman, J. (Department of Physics, University of Notre Dame, Notre Dame, IN 46556 (United States)); Gaskell, D. (Department of Physics, University of Notre Dame, Notre Dame, IN 46556 (United States)); Lu, Q. (Department of Physics, University of Notre Dame, Notre Dame, IN 46556 (United States)); Marchant, J. (Department of Physics, University of Notre Dame, Notre Dame, IN 46556 (United States)); Ruchti, R. (Department of Physics, University of Notre Dame, Notre Dame, IN 46556 (United States)); Wayne, M. (Department of Physics, University of Notre Dame, Notre Dame, IN 46556 (United States)); Cooper, C. (Department of Physics, Purdue University, West Lafayette, IN 47907 (United States)); Hinson, J. (Department of Physics, Purdue University, West Lafayette, IN 47907 (United States)); Koltick, D.S. (Department of Physics, Purdue University, West Lafayette, IN 47907 (United State

    1994-06-15

    Measurements have been made of the performance of scintillating fibers read out with visible light photon counters (VLPCs). The light yields of single-clad and multiclad scintillating fibers have been compared. The experiment consisted of 3 m long scintillating fibers of 830 [mu]m diameter optically coupled to 8 m long waveguide fibers of 965 [mu]m diameter read out with HISTE-IV VLPCs. For the case of multiclad scintillating fiber and waveguide, an average of 6.2 photoelectrons was detected from the far end of the scintillating fiber if the fiber end was unmirrored, and 10.2 photoelectrons if the fiber end was mirrored. With this substantial photoelectron yield, minimum-ionizing tracks can be easily detected in fiber arrays, and excellent performance characteristics are expected for the fiber trackers designed for the D0 experiment at the Fermilab Tevatron Collider and the SDC experiment at the SSC Laboratory. ((orig.))

  20. Large-Area Binary Blazed Grating Coupler between Nanophotonic Waveguide and LED

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hongqiang Li

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available A large-area binary blazed grating coupler for the arrayed waveguide grating (AWG demodulation integrated microsystem on silicon-on-insulator (SOI was designed for the first time. Through the coupler, light can be coupled into the SOI waveguide from the InP-based C-band LED for the AWG demodulation integrated microsystem to function. Both the length and width of the grating coupler are 360 μm, as large as the InP-based C-band LED light emitting area in the system. The coupler was designed and optimized based on the finite difference time domain method. When the incident angle of the light source is 0°, the coupling efficiency of the binary blazed grating is 40.92%, and the 3 dB bandwidth is 72 nm at a wavelength of 1550 nm.

  1. Finite-width plasmonic waveguides with hyperbolic multilayer cladding

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Babicheva, Viktoriia; Shalaginov, Mikhail Y.; Ishii, Satoshi

    2015-01-01

    Engineering plasmonic metamaterials with anisotropic optical dispersion enables us to tailor the properties of metamaterial-based waveguides. We investigate plasmonic waveguides with dielectric cores and multilayer metal-dielectric claddings with hyperbolic dispersion. Without using any homogeniz......Engineering plasmonic metamaterials with anisotropic optical dispersion enables us to tailor the properties of metamaterial-based waveguides. We investigate plasmonic waveguides with dielectric cores and multilayer metal-dielectric claddings with hyperbolic dispersion. Without using any...

  2. Position dependent spin wave spectrum in nanostrip magnonic waveguides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Qi; Zhang, Huaiwu; Ma, Guokun; Liao, Yulong; Zhong, Zhiyong; Zheng, Yun

    2014-01-01

    The dispersion curves of propagating spin wave along different positions in nanostrip magnonic waveguides were studied by micromagnetic simulation. The results show that the modes of spin wave in the nanostrip magnonic waveguide are dependent on the position and the weak even modes of spin wave are excited even by symmetric excitation fields in a nanostrip magnonic waveguide. The reasons of the position dependent dispersion curve are explained by associating with geometrical confinement in the nanostrip magnonic waveguide

  3. SNP Arrays

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jari Louhelainen

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available The papers published in this Special Issue “SNP arrays” (Single Nucleotide Polymorphism Arrays focus on several perspectives associated with arrays of this type. The range of papers vary from a case report to reviews, thereby targeting wider audiences working in this field. The research focus of SNP arrays is often human cancers but this Issue expands that focus to include areas such as rare conditions, animal breeding and bioinformatics tools. Given the limited scope, the spectrum of papers is nothing short of remarkable and even from a technical point of view these papers will contribute to the field at a general level. Three of the papers published in this Special Issue focus on the use of various SNP array approaches in the analysis of three different cancer types. Two of the papers concentrate on two very different rare conditions, applying the SNP arrays slightly differently. Finally, two other papers evaluate the use of the SNP arrays in the context of genetic analysis of livestock. The findings reported in these papers help to close gaps in the current literature and also to give guidelines for future applications of SNP arrays.

  4. Numerical characterization of nanopillar photonic crystal waveguides and directional couplers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chigrin, Dmitry N.; Lavrinenko, Andrei; Sotomayor Torres, Clivia M.

    2005-01-01

    We numerically characterize a novel type of a photonic crystal waveguide, which consists of several rows of periodically arranged dielectric cylinders. In such a nanopillar photonic crystal waveguide, light confinement is due to the total internal reflection. A nanopillar waveguide is a multimode...

  5. Utilization of optical waveguides in dosimetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Darikova, A.; Vanickova, M.; Matejec, V.; Pospisilova, M.

    1994-01-01

    Some optical waveguides used for communication purposes are very sensitive to ionizing radiation.Ionizing radiation radiation affects the optical waveguides by creating color centers that are responsible for the transmission loss.This transmission loss is the function of wavelength of the passing light. The dose of ionizing radiation will manifest itself not only in the magnitude of the transmission loss value but even in changing the position of maximum of the transmission loss curve with respect to the wavelength. The position of the maximum is stable in time and temperature and independent of dose rate. The study of effects of ionizing radiation on the optical waveguides leads to the possibility of utilizing them not only as sensors of ionizing radiation but even as a dosimeters. 4 figs., 2 refs. (author)

  6. Quantum Dots in Photonic Crystal Waveguides

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sollner, Immo Nathanael

    This Thesis is focused on the study of quantum electrodynamics in photonic crystal waveguides. We investigate the interplay between a single quantum dot and the fundamental mode of the photonic crystal waveguide. We demonstrate experimental coupling eciencies for the spontaneous emission...... into the mode exceeding 98% for emitters spectrally close to the band-edge of the waveguide mode. In addition we illustrate the broadband nature of the underlying eects, by obtaining coupling eciencies above 90% for quantum dots detuned from the band edge by as far as 20nm. These values are in good agreement...... with numerical simulations. Such a high coupling eciency implies that the system can be considered an articial 1D-atom, and we theoretically show that this system can generate strong photon-photon interaction, which is an essential functionality for deterministic optical quantum information processing. We...

  7. Ultra-compact plasmonic waveguide modulators

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Babicheva, Viktoriia

    of developing new material platforms for integrated plasmonic devices. Furthermore, novel plasmonic materials such as transparent conductive oxides and transition metal nitrides can offer a variety of new opportunities. In particular, they offer adjustable/tailorable and nonlinear optical properties, dynamic...... modulators based on ultra-compact waveguides with different active cores. Plasmonic modulators with the active core such as indium phosphides or ferroelectrics sandwiched between metal plates have promising characteristics. Apart from the speed and dimensions advantages, the metal plates can serve...... as electrodes for electrical pumping of the active material making it easier to integrate. Including an additional layer in the plasmonic waveguide, in particular an ultrathin transparent conductive oxide film, allows the control of the dispersive properties of the waveguide and thus the higher efficiency...

  8. Large-bandwidth planar photonic crystal waveguides

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Søndergaard, Thomas; Lavrinenko, Andrei

    2002-01-01

    A general design principle is presented for making finite-height photonic crystal waveguides that support leakage-free guidance of light over large frequency intervals. The large bandwidth waveguides are designed by introducing line defects in photonic crystal slabs, where the material in the line...... defect has appropriate dispersion properties relative to the photonic crystal slab material surrounding the line defect. A three-dimensional theoretical analysis is given for large-bandwidth waveguide designs based on a silicon-air photonic crystal slab suspended in air. In one example, the leakage......-free single-mode guidance is found for a large frequency interval covering 60% of the photonic band-gap....

  9. Study on wake structure characteristics of a slotted micro-ramp with large-eddy simulation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dong, Xiangrui; Chen, Yaohui; Dong, Gang; Liu, Yixin, E-mail: cyh873@163.com [National Key Laboratory of Transient Physics, Nanjing University of Science and Technology, Nanjing, 210094 (China)

    2017-06-15

    In this paper, a novel slotted ramp-type micro vortex generator (slotted micro-ramp) for flow separation control is simulated in the supersonic flow of Ma = 1.5, based on large eddy simulation combined with the finite volume method. The wake structure characteristics and control mechanisms of both slotted and standard micro-ramps are presented and discussed. The results show that the wake of standard micro-ramp includes a primary counter-rotating streamwise vortex pair, a train of vortex rings, and secondary vortices. The slotted micro-ramp has more complicated wake structures, which contain a confluent counter-rotating streamwise vortex pair and additional streamwise vortices, with the same rotation generated by slot and the vortex rings enveloping the vortex pair. The additional vortices generated by the slot of the micro-ramp can mix with the primary counter-rotating vortex pair, extend the life time, and strengthen the vortex intensity of primary vortex pair. Moreover, the slot can effectively alleviate, or even eliminate the backflow and decrease the profile drag induced by the standard micro-ramp, therefore improving the efficiency of separation control. (paper)

  10. [The characteristics of and social support for pathological gamblers among "pachinko" or "slot" users in Japan].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumagami, Takashi

    2014-01-01

    In Japan, there are one to two million people suspected of being pathological gamblers according to the definition in DSM-IV-TR. Almost all of them use "pachinko" or "slot," which are gambling stores, throughout Japan, that number 12,000 in total. However, the characteristics and ratio of pathological "pachinko" and "slot" gamblers have not been investigated. The author aimed to determine the characteristics, ratio, and social support available for these users. The author administered an internet survey for users of "pachinko" or "slot." Two hundred and fifty users visited "pachinko" or "slot" stores more than twice a week, and 250 users visited once a week or once a month. The Japanese version of the South Oaks Gambling Screen was administered, and gamblers were asked about their awareness of pathological gambling and the condition of their social support. The author observed that 70.2% of "pachinko" or "slot" users were suspected pathological gamblers and 28.6% of "pachinko" or "slot" users were severe gamblers. A total of 39.3% of them were aware of their pathological gambling, and 6.5% of users who had awareness of pathological gambling had social support. However, most of their social support consisted of family and friends, and almost none of them attended psychiatric clinics, community health centers, or self-help groups like gamblers anonymous. Almost all "pachinko" or "slot" users were suspected of being pathological or severe gamblers. However, they did not approach psychiatric facilities or self-help groups. The author strongly recommends the need for educational programs in junior or high school to prevent future pathological gambling, and create awareness of the dangers of pathological gambling through TV commercials and "pachinko" or "slot" stores. Pathological gambling is a disease that afflicts many people; hence, psychiatric and social welfare professionals should continue to stress the dangers of and offer prevention programs for "pachinko" or

  11. Bidirectional waveguide coupling with plasmonic Fano nanoantennas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guo, Rui; Decker, Manuel, E-mail: manuel.decker@anu.edu.au; Staude, Isabelle; Neshev, Dragomir N.; Kivshar, Yuri S. [Nonlinear Physics Centre and Centre for Ultrahigh Bandwidth Devices for Optical Systems (CUDOS), Research School of Physics and Engineering, The Australian National University, Canberra ACT 0200 (Australia)

    2014-08-04

    We introduce the concept of a bidirectional, compact single-element Fano nanoantenna that allows for directional coupling of light in opposite directions of a high-index dielectric waveguide for two different operation wavelengths. We utilize a Fano resonance to tailor the radiation phases of a gold nanodisk and a nanoslit that is inscribed into the nanodisk to realize bidirectional scattering. We show that this Fano nanoantenna operates as a bidirectional waveguide coupler at telecommunication wavelengths and, thus, is ideally suitable for integrated wavelength-selective light demultiplexing.

  12. Poling of UV-written Waveguides

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Arentoft, Jesper; Kristensen, Martin; Hübner, Jörg

    1999-01-01

    We report poling of UV-written silica waveguides. Thermal poling induces an electro-optic coefficient of 0.05 pm/V. We also demonstrate simultaneous UV-writing and UV-poling. No measurable decay in the induced electro-optic effect was detected after nine months......We report poling of UV-written silica waveguides. Thermal poling induces an electro-optic coefficient of 0.05 pm/V. We also demonstrate simultaneous UV-writing and UV-poling. No measurable decay in the induced electro-optic effect was detected after nine months...

  13. Chaotic behavior of a quantum waveguide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pérez-Aguilar, H., E-mail: hiperezag@yahoo.com [Facultad de Ciencias Físico-Matemáticas, Universidad Michoacana de San Nicolás de Hidalgo, Av. Francisco J. Mújica S/N 58030, Morelia, Michoacán (Mexico); Mendoza-Suárez, A.; Tututi, E.S. [Facultad de Ciencias Físico-Matemáticas, Universidad Michoacana de San Nicolás de Hidalgo, Av. Francisco J. Mújica S/N 58030, Morelia, Michoacán (Mexico); Herrera-González, I.F. [Instituto de Física, Benemérita Universidad Autónoma de Puebla, Apartado Postal J-48, 72570 Puebla (Mexico)

    2013-02-15

    In this work we consider an infinite quantum waveguide composed of two periodic, hard walls, one-dimensional rippled surfaces. We find that, under certain conditions, the proposed system presents some traces of quantum chaos, when the corresponding classical limit has chaotic behavior. Thus, it is possible to obtain disordered probability densities in a system with smooth surfaces. When the system has chaotic behavior we show numerically that the correlation length of the autocorrelation function of the probability density goes to zero. To corroborate some properties obtained for infinite waveguide that are physically admissible, we study the corresponding finite version of this system.

  14. Chaotic behavior of a quantum waveguide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pérez-Aguilar, H.; Mendoza-Suárez, A.; Tututi, E.S.; Herrera-González, I.F.

    2013-01-01

    In this work we consider an infinite quantum waveguide composed of two periodic, hard walls, one-dimensional rippled surfaces. We find that, under certain conditions, the proposed system presents some traces of quantum chaos, when the corresponding classical limit has chaotic behavior. Thus, it is possible to obtain disordered probability densities in a system with smooth surfaces. When the system has chaotic behavior we show numerically that the correlation length of the autocorrelation function of the probability density goes to zero. To corroborate some properties obtained for infinite waveguide that are physically admissible, we study the corresponding finite version of this system

  15. Experimental investigations on channelized coplanar waveguide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simons, Rainee N.; Ponchak, George E.; Martzaklis, Konstantinas S.; Romanofsky, Robert R.

    1990-01-01

    A new variant of coplanar waveguide (CPW) which was termed channelized coplanar waveguide (CCPW) is presented. Measured propagation characteristics for CCPW such as epsilon(eff) and unloaded Q as a function of geometrical parameters and frequency are presented. The measured and modeled epsilon(eff) are also compared. Equivalent circuit model element values are presented for a CCPW open circuit and a CCPW right angle bend. A CCPW matched T-junction, matched 1:3 junction, and a novel coax-to-CCPW in-phase, N-way, radial power divider are also demonstrated.

  16. Cascaded Quadratic Soliton Compression in Waveguide Structures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Guo, Hairun

    between the Kerr nonlinear effects and the dispersive effects in the medium. A Kerr-like nonlinearity is produced through the cascaded phase mismatched quadratic process, e.g. the second harmonic generation process, which can be flexibly tuned in both the sign and the amplitude, making possible a strong......-phase-matching technology is not necessarily needed. In large-RI-changed waveguides, CQSC is extended to the mid-infrared range to generate single-cycle pulses with purely nonlinear interactions, since an all-normal dispersion profile could be achieved within the guidance band. We believe that CQSC in quadratic waveguides...

  17. Ultrafast Nonlinear Signal Processing in Silicon Waveguides

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Oxenløwe, Leif Katsuo; Mulvad, Hans Christian Hansen; Hu, Hao

    2012-01-01

    We describe recent demonstrations of exploiting highly nonlinear silicon waveguides for ultrafast optical signal processing. We describe wavelength conversion and serial-to-parallel conversion of 640 Gbit/s data signals and 1.28 Tbit/s demultiplexing and all-optical sampling.......We describe recent demonstrations of exploiting highly nonlinear silicon waveguides for ultrafast optical signal processing. We describe wavelength conversion and serial-to-parallel conversion of 640 Gbit/s data signals and 1.28 Tbit/s demultiplexing and all-optical sampling....

  18. Localization of nonlinear excitations in curved waveguides

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gaididei, Yu. B.; Christiansen, Peter Leth; Kevrekidis, P. G.

    2005-01-01

    numerical simulations of the nonlinear problem and in this case localized excitations are found to persist. We found also interesting relaxational dynamics. Analogies of the present problem in context related to atomic physics and particularly to Bose–Einstein condensation are discussed.......Motivated by the examples of a curved waveguide embedded in a photonic crystal and cold atoms moving in a waveguide created by a spatially inhomogeneous electromagnetic field, we examine the effects of geometry in a 'quantum channel' of parabolic form. Starting with the linear case we derive exact...

  19. Effect of patterns and inhomogeneities on the surface of waveguides used for optical waveguide lightmode spectroscopy applications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Horvath, R.; Voros, J.; Graf, R.

    2001-01-01

    It has been found that patterns acid inhomogeneities on the surface of the waveguide used fur optical waveguide lightmode spectroscopy applications can produce broadening and fine structure in the incoupled light peak spectra. During cell spreading on the waveguide, a broadening of the incoupling...

  20. electrode array

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    PROF EKWUEME

    A geoelectric investigation employing vertical electrical soundings (VES) using the Ajayi - Makinde Two-Electrode array and the ... arrangements used in electrical D.C. resistivity survey. These include ..... Refraction Tomography to Study the.

  1. FLOW VISUALIZATION OF RECTANGULAR SLOT AIR JET IMPINGEMENT ON FLAT SURFACES

    OpenAIRE

    Satheesha V *1, B. K. Muralidhra2, Abhilash N3, C. K. Umesh4

    2018-01-01

    Jet impingement near the mid-chord of the gas turbine blade is treated as a flat plate. Experimental and numerical investigations are carried out for a single slot air jet impinging on flat surface for two different rectangular slots of dimension (3mm x 65 mm) and (5mm x 65 mm). Experimentation is done to study the flow pattern topography on the flat target plate, with varying the flow rate from 20 LPM to 50 LPM by varying the nozzle to plate distance from 9 mm to 24 mm for slot jet of 3mm an...

  2. Opening and closing of band gaps in magnonic waveguide by rotating the triangular antidots - A micromagnetic study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vivek, T.; Bhoomeeswaran, H.; Sabareesan, P.

    2018-05-01

    Spin waves in ID periodic triangular array of antidots are encarved in a permalloy magnonic waveguide is investigated through micromagnetic simulation. The effect of the rotating array of antidots and in-plane rotation of the scattering centers on the band structure are investigated, to indicate new possibilities of fine tuning of spin-wave filter pass and stop bands. The results show that, the opening and closing of band gaps paves a way for band pass and stop filters on waveguide. From the results, the scattering center and strong spatial distribution field plays crucible role for controlling opening and closing bandgap width of ˜12 GHz for 0° rotation. We have obtained a single narrow bandgap of width 1GHz is obtained for 90° rotation of the antidot. Similarly, the tunability is achieved for desired microwave applications done by rotating triangular antidots with different orientation.

  3. Coaxial waveguide mode reconstruction and analysis with THz digital holography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xinke; Xiong, Wei; Sun, Wenfeng; Zhang, Yan

    2012-03-26

    Terahertz (THz) digital holography is employed to investigate the properties of waveguides. By using a THz digital holographic imaging system, the propagation modes of a metallic coaxial waveguide are measured and the mode patterns are restored with the inverse Fresnel diffraction algorithm. The experimental results show that the THz propagation mode inside the waveguide is a combination of four modes TE₁₁, TE₁₂, TM₁₁, and TM₁₂, which are in good agreement with the simulation results. In this work, THz digital holography presents its strong potential as a platform for waveguide mode charactering. The experimental findings provide a valuable reference for the design of THz waveguides.

  4. Improved equivalent circuit for twin slot terahertz receivers

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGrath, W. R.

    2002-01-01

    Series-fed coplanar waveguide embedding circuits are being developed for terahertz mixers using, in particular, submicron-sized superconducting devices, such as hot electron bolometers as the nonlinear element. Although these mixers show promising performance, they usually also show a considerable downward shift in the center frequency, when compared with simulations obtained by using simplified models. This makes it very difficult to design low-noise mixers for a given THz frequency. This shiftis principally caused by parasitics due to the extremely small details (in terms of wavelength) of the device, and by the electrical properties of the RF choke filter in the DC/IF line. In this paper, we present an improved equivalent network model of such mixer circuits which agrees with measured results at THz frequencies and we propose a new set of THz bolometric mixers that have been fabricated and are currently being tested.

  5. Diffraction of an Electromagnetic Wave on a Dielectric Rod in a Rectangular Waveguide. A Method of Partial Waveguide Filling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zav'yalov, A. S.

    2018-04-01

    A variant of the method of partial waveguide filling is considered in which a sample is put into a waveguide through holes in wide waveguide walls at the distance equal to a quarter of the wavelength in the waveguide from a short-circuiter, and the total input impedance of the sample in the waveguide is directly measured. The equivalent circuit of the sample is found both without and with account of the hole. It is demonstrated that consideration of the edge effect makes it possible to obtain more exact values of the dielectric permittivity.

  6. Chalcogenide Glass Optical Waveguides for Infrared Biosensing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bruno Bureau

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Due to the remarkable properties of chalcogenide (Chg glasses, Chg optical waveguides should play a significant role in the development of optical biosensors. This paper describes the fabrication and properties of chalcogenide fibres and planar waveguides. Using optical fibre transparent in the mid-infrared spectral range we have developed a biosensor that can collect information on whole metabolism alterations, rapidly and in situ. Thanks to this sensor it is possible to collect infrared spectra by remote spectroscopy, by simple contact with the sample. In this way, we tried to determine spectral modifications due, on the one hand, to cerebral metabolism alterations caused by a transient focal ischemia in the rat brain and, in the other hand, starvation in the mouse liver. We also applied a microdialysis method, a well known technique for in vivo brain metabolism studies, as reference. In the field of integrated microsensors, reactive ion etching was used to pattern rib waveguides between 2 and 300 μm wide. This technique was used to fabricate Y optical junctions for optical interconnections on chalcogenide amorphous films, which can potentially increase the sensitivity and stability of an optical micro-sensor. The first tests were also carried out to functionalise the Chg planar waveguides with the aim of using them as (biosensors.

  7. Finite mode analysis through harmonic waveguides

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Alieva, T.; Wolf, K.B.

    2000-01-01

    The mode analysis of signals in a multimodal shallow harmonic waveguide whose eigenfrequencies are equally spaced and finite can be performed by an optoelectronic device, of which the optical part uses the guide to sample the wave field at a number of sensors along its axis and the electronic part

  8. Planar optical waveguide sensor of ammonia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarkisov, Sergey S.; Curley, Michael J.; Boykin, Courtney; Diggs, Darnell E.; Grote, James G.; Hopkins, Frank K.

    2004-12-01

    We describe a novel sensor of ammonia based on a planar optical waveguide made of a thin film of polymer polyimide doped with indicator dye bromocresol purple. The film of dye-doped polyimide demonstrated reversible increase of absorption with a peak near 600 nm in response to presence of ammonia in ambient air. Coupling of input and output optic fibers with the waveguide was done by means of coupling prisms or coupling grooves. The latter configuration has the advantage of low cost, less sensitivity to temperature variation, and the possibility of coupling from both sides of the waveguide. Special experimental setup was built to test the sensor. It included test gas chamber with sealed optic fiber feed-throughs, gas filling line, laser source, photodetector, and signal processing hardware and software. The sensor was capable of detecting 100 ppm of ammonia in air within 8 seconds. Further increase of sensitivity can be achieved by adding more dye dopant to the polymer, increase of the length of the waveguide, and suppression of noise. Overexposure of the sensor to more than 5000 ppm of ammonia led to the saturation of the polymer film and, as a result, significant decrease of sensitivity and increase of the response time. The sensor can be used as low cost component of a distributed optical network of chemical sensors for monitoring presence of hazardous industrial pollutants in air.

  9. Chaotic waveguide-based resonators for microlasers

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Méndez-Bermúdez, J. A.; Luna-Acosta, G. A.; Šeba, Petr; Pichugin, K. N.

    2003-01-01

    Roč. 67, č. 16 (2003), 161104/1-161104/4 ISSN 0163-1829 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z1010914 Keywords : waveguide * laser * resonators Subject RIV: BM - Solid Matter Physics ; Magnetism Impact factor: 2.962, year: 2003

  10. UV Defined Nanoporous Liquid Core Waveguides

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christiansen, Mads Brøkner; Gopalakrishnan, Nimi; Ndoni, Sokol

    2011-01-01

    Nanoporous liquid core waveguides, where both core and cladding are made from the same material, are presented. The nanoporous polymer used is intrinsically hydrophobic, but selective UV exposure enables it to infiltrate with an aqueous solution, thus raising the refractive index from 1.26 to 1...

  11. Planned waveguide electric field breakdown studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Faya; Li Zenghai

    2012-01-01

    This paper presents an experimental setup for X-band rf breakdown studies. The setup is composed of a section of WR90 waveguide with a tapered pin located at the middle of the waveguide E-plane. Another pin is used to rf match the waveguide so it operates in a travelling wave mode. By adjusting the penetration depth of the tapered pin, different surface electric field enhancements can be obtained. The setup will be used to study the rf breakdown rate dependence on power flow in the waveguide for a constant maximum surface electric field on the pin. Two groups of pins have been designed. The Q of one group is different and very low. The other has a similar Q. With the test of the two groups of pins, we should be able to discern how the net power flow and Q affect the breakdown. Furthermore, we will apply an electron beam treatment to the pins to study its effect on breakdown. Overall, these experiments should be very helpful in understanding rf breakdown phenomena and could significantly benefit the design of high gradient accelerator structures.

  12. Novel concepts for terahertz waveguide spectroscopy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jepsen, Peter Uhd

    2009-01-01

    . With such waveguides we demonstrate that it is possible to perform quantitative spectroscopy on very small volumes of sample material inside the PPWG. Using continuous-wave as well as femtosecond excitation we inject carriers into semiconductor material in the transparent PPWG, and perform static as well as transient...

  13. Ka-band waveguide rotary joint

    KAUST Repository

    Yevdokymov, Anatoliy; Sirenko, Kostyantyn; Kryzhanovskiy, Volodymyr; Pazynin, Vadim

    2013-01-01

    The authors present a design of a waveguide rotary joint operating in Ka-band with central frequency of 33 GHz, which also acts as an antenna mount. The main unit consists of two flanges with a clearance between them; one of the flanges has three

  14. Multilayer Graphene for Waveguide Terahertz Modulator

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Khromova, I.; Andryieuski, Andrei; Lavrinenko, Andrei

    2014-01-01

    We study terahertz to infrared electromagnetic properties of multilayer graphene/dielectric artificial medium and present a novel concept of terahertz modulation at midinfrared wavelengths. This approach allows the realization of high-speed electrically controllable terahertz modulators based...... on hollow waveguide sections filled with multilayer graphene....

  15. Femtosecond laser written waveguides deep inside silicon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pavlov, I; Tokel, O; Pavlova, S; Kadan, V; Makey, G; Turnali, A; Yavuz, Ö; Ilday, F Ö

    2017-08-01

    Photonic devices that can guide, transfer, or modulate light are highly desired in electronics and integrated silicon (Si) photonics. Here, we demonstrate for the first time, to the best of our knowledge, the creation of optical waveguides deep inside Si using femtosecond pulses at a central wavelength of 1.5 μm. To this end, we use 350 fs long, 2 μJ pulses with a repetition rate of 250 kHz from an Er-doped fiber laser, which we focused inside Si to create permanent modifications of the crystal. The position of the beam is accurately controlled with pump-probe imaging during fabrication. Waveguides that were 5.5 mm in length and 20 μm in diameter were created by scanning the focal position along the beam propagation axis. The fabricated waveguides were characterized with a continuous-wave laser operating at 1.5 μm. The refractive index change inside the waveguide was measured with optical shadowgraphy, yielding a value of 6×10 -4 , and by direct light coupling and far-field imaging, yielding a value of 3.5×10 -4 . The formation mechanism of the modification is discussed.

  16. Hardy Inequalities in Globally Twisted Waveguides

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Briet, Ph.; Hammedi, H.; Krejčiřík, David

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 105, č. 7 (2015), s. 939-958 ISSN 0377-9017 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA14-06818S Institutional support: RVO:61389005 Keywords : quantum waveguides * twisted tubes * Dirichlet Laplacian * Hardy inequality Subject RIV: BE - Theoretical Physics Impact factor: 1.517, year: 2015

  17. Time evolution of propagating nonpremixed flames in a counterflow, annular slot burner under AC electric fields

    KAUST Repository

    Tran, Vu Manh; Cha, Min

    2016-01-01

    alternating current electric fields to a gap between the upper and lower parts of a counterflow, annular slot burner and present the characteristics of the propagating nonpremixed edge-flames produced. Contrary to many other previous studies, flame

  18. Pathological gambling: A comparison of gambling at German-style slot machines and "Classical" gambling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fabian, T

    1995-09-01

    German-style slot machines and related legal issues are described. On the basis of a survey on 437 members of self-help groups (Gamblers Anonymous) in Germany, slot machine gamblers were compared with casino gamblers on such variables as sociodemographic data, gambling behaviour, financial expenditure, emotional experience while gambling, symptoms of pathological gambling, psychosocial consequences and gambling related delinquency. The casino gamblers' gambling behaviour is financially more extensive. There were similarities regarding the emotional intensity of the gambling experience. However the casino gamblers show more pronounced symptoms of pathological gambling and the psychosocial consequences of their gambling behaviour are more severe. In spite of these differences, the data show that for young people slot machines can be as stimulating and therefore as dangerous as casino gambling. The young slot machine gambler runs a similar risk of acquiring a pathological gambling habit as the casino gambler.

  19. Development of high power models of four-slot Annular Coupled Structure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kageyama, T.; Morozumi, Y.; Yoshino, K.; Yamazaki, Y.

    1994-01-01

    A π/2-mode standing-wave linac (f=1.296 GHz) of an Annular Coupled Structure (ACS) has been developed for the 1-GeV proton linac of the Japanese Hadron Project (JHP). This ACS has four coupling slots between accelerating and coupling cells in order to suppress higher order mode mixing with the π/2 coupling mode. High-β(β=v/c=0.78) and low-β(0.52) prototypes were constructed and tested up to each design RF power. Concerning the effect of the coupling slots on the fields of a coupled-cavity linac, it was found that the slot configuration of the side-coupled structure (SCS) tilts the accelerating field. On the other hand, the four-slot configuration of the ACS gives an almost axially symmetric accelerating field to the beam. (author)

  20. Hydraulic performance of a low specific speed centrifugal pump with Spanwise-Slotted Blades

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ye, D X; Li, H; Wang, Y

    2013-01-01

    The hydraulic efficiency of a low specific speed centrifugal pump is low because of the long and narrow meridian flow passage, and the severe disk friction. Spanwise slotted blade flow control technology has been applied to the low specific speed centrifugal pump. This paper concluded that spanwise slotted blades can improve the pump performance in both experiments and simulations. In order to study the influence to the impeller and volute by spanwise slotted blade, impeller efficiency and volute efficiency were defined. The minimum volute efficiency and the maximum pump efficiency appear at the same time in the design flow condition in the unsteady simulation. The mechanism of spanwise slotted blade flow control technology should be researched furthermore

  1. Efficient waveguide coupler based on metal materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Wenjun; Yang, Junbo; Chang, Shengli; Zhang, Jingjing; Lu, Huanyu

    2015-10-01

    Because of the diffraction limit of light, the scale of optical element stays in the order of wavelength, which makes the interface optics and nano-electronic components cannot be directly matched, thus the development of photonics technology encounters a bottleneck. In order to solve the problem that coupling of light into the subwavelength waveguide, this paper proposes a model of coupler based on metal materials. By using Surface Plasmon Polaritons (SPPs) wave, incident light can be efficiently coupled into waveguide of diameter less than 100 nm. This paper mainly aims at near infrared wave band, and tests a variety of the combination of metal materials, and by changing the structural parameters to get the maximum coupling efficiency. This structure splits the plane incident light with wavelength of 864 nm, the width of 600 nm into two uniform beams, and separately coupled into the waveguide layer whose width is only about 80 nm, and the highest coupling efficiency can reach above 95%. Using SPPs structure will be an effective method to break through the diffraction limit and implement photonics device high-performance miniaturization. We can further compress the light into small scale fiber or waveguide by using the metal coupler, and to save the space to hold more fiber or waveguide layer, so that we can greatly improve the capacity of optical communication. In addition, high-performance miniaturization of the optical transmission medium can improve the integration of optical devices, also provide a feasible solution for the photon computer research and development in the future.

  2. Modeling fiber motion in a pulp pressure screen: the effect of slot shape

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dong, S.; Salcudean, M.; Gartshore, I.

    2003-01-01

    A pressure screen is a piece of equipment in the pulp and paper industry used either to remove contaminants from the pulp suspension or to separate fibers having different properties. Contaminants such as fiber bundles, bark and plastic specks are introduced when fibers are separated from the wood by mechanical or chemical pulping processes. Contaminants significantly affect the strength and smoothness of the paper and must be removed before the final paper is produced. The screen plate is a critical part of the pressure screen and its design is the key to screen performance. This paper uses a new and comprehensive CFD simulation tool to examine the flow and fiber behavior in a single slot screen having any reasonable slot shape. -This simulation tool includes three coupled models: first, the flow model solves the Reynolds Averaged Navier-Stokes (RANS) equation using the standard k - ε turbulence model to predict the flow field in the equipment. Second, a three-dimensional flexible fiber model is used to track the fiber trajectory in the screen. Third, a very general wall model is used to deal with the case when a fiber touches the equipment wall. The simulated results show that the slot shape has a critical influence on fiber behavior and screen performance. Three general slot shapes were investigated: the smooth slot, the step-step contour slot and slope-slope contour slot. Of these the slope-slope contour slot provides the best passage for the fibers with a length of 1mm and 3mm. (author)

  3. CFD Analysis of a Centrifugal Fan for Performance Enhancement using Converging Boundary Layer Suction Slots

    OpenAIRE

    K. Vasudeva Karanth; N. Yagnesh Sharma

    2009-01-01

    Generally flow behavior in centrifugal fan is observed to be in a state of instability with flow separation zones on suction surface as well as near the front shroud. Overall performance of the diffusion process in a centrifugal fan could be enhanced by judiciously introducing the boundary layer suction slots. With easy accessibility of CFD as an analytical tool, an extensive numerical whole field analysis of the effect of boundary layer suction slots in discrete regions ...

  4. Filter arrays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Page, Ralph H.; Doty, Patrick F.

    2017-08-01

    The various technologies presented herein relate to a tiled filter array that can be used in connection with performance of spatial sampling of optical signals. The filter array comprises filter tiles, wherein a first plurality of filter tiles are formed from a first material, the first material being configured such that only photons having wavelengths in a first wavelength band pass therethrough. A second plurality of filter tiles is formed from a second material, the second material being configured such that only photons having wavelengths in a second wavelength band pass therethrough. The first plurality of filter tiles and the second plurality of filter tiles can be interspersed to form the filter array comprising an alternating arrangement of first filter tiles and second filter tiles.

  5. Queueing models for token and slotted ring networks. Thesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peden, Jeffery H.

    1990-01-01

    Currently the end-to-end delay characteristics of very high speed local area networks are not well understood. The transmission speed of computer networks is increasing, and local area networks especially are finding increasing use in real time systems. Ring networks operation is generally well understood for both token rings and slotted rings. There is, however, a severe lack of queueing models for high layer operation. There are several factors which contribute to the processing delay of a packet, as opposed to the transmission delay, e.g., packet priority, its length, the user load, the processor load, the use of priority preemption, the use of preemption at packet reception, the number of processors, the number of protocol processing layers, the speed of each processor, and queue length limitations. Currently existing medium access queueing models are extended by adding modeling techniques which will handle exhaustive limited service both with and without priority traffic, and modeling capabilities are extended into the upper layers of the OSI model. Some of the model are parameterized solution methods, since it is shown that certain models do not exist as parameterized solutions, but rather as solution methods.

  6. A Dual Band Slotted Patch Antenna on Dielectric Material Substrate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Habib Ullah

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available A low profile, compact dual band slotted patch antenna has been designed using finite element method-based high frequency full-wave electromagnetic simulator. The proposed antenna fabricated using LPKF printed circuit board (PCB fabrication machine on fiberglass reinforced epoxy polymer resin material substrate and the performance of the prototype has been measured in a standard far-field anechoic measurement chamber. The measured impedance bandwidths of (reflection coefficient <-10 dB 12.26% (14.3–16.2 GHZ, 8.24% (17.4–18.9 GHz, and 3.08% (19.2–19.8 have been achieved through the proposed antenna prototype. 5.9 dBi, 3.37 dBi, and 3.32 dBi peak gains have been measured and simulated radiation efficiencies of 80.3%, 81.9%, and 82.5% have been achieved at three resonant frequencies of 15.15 GHz, 18.2 GHz, and 19.5 GHz, respectively. Minimum gain variation, symmetric, and almost steady measured radiation pattern shows that the proposed antenna is suitable for Ku and K band satellite applications.

  7. Development of an economical and ecological optimized multi slot fish bypass

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tauber, M.; Mader, H.

    2009-01-01

    The European Union's Water Framework Directive (WFD), which came into force in 2000, represents a new framework governing water policies. The ecological objectives of the directive are sometimes in conflict with the historical use of waterbodies for hydropower generation. This paper discussed the mitigation of negative economical effects caused by outfitting hydropower plants with fish migration facilities claimed by the WFD. In particular, it reviewed the new modified version of the Vertical Slot Fishpass which reduces water discharge while maintaining or even enhancing the biological migration of aquatic species. Reducing the flow rate in the fish bypass results in more available water for hydropower generation, which is economically advantageous for operators. The available water resource is simply used more efficiently. The bypass was modified by adding additional slot baffles and guide walls in order to induce intended losses at roughness obstacles and to obtain isolated roughness current in the multi slot area. A Froude similarity model was used to obtain the results of the first phase of this project. Different arrangements of the slot baffles and locations were measured. The results of all trials revealed that the newly developed multi slot variants have clear advantages over conventional vertical slot fish passages. Discharge was reduced by up to 34 per cent while still maintaining the same water levels in the pools. As such, the general flow velocities were also reduced by about 10 per cent, thereby achieving the primary objective of the project. 7 refs., 18 figs

  8. Collaborative en-route and slot allocation algorithm based on fuzzy comprehensive evaluation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Shangwen; Guo, Baohua; Xiao, Xuefei; Gao, Haichao

    2018-01-01

    To allocate the en-routes and slots to the flights with collaborative decision making, a collaborative en-route and slot allocation algorithm based on fuzzy comprehensive evaluation was proposed. Evaluation indexes include flight delay costs, delay time and the number of turning points. Analytic hierarchy process is applied to determining index weights. Remark set for current two flights not yet obtained the en-route and slot in flight schedule is established. Then, fuzzy comprehensive evaluation is performed, and the en-route and slot for the current two flights are determined. Continue selecting the flight not yet obtained an en-route and a slot in flight schedule. Perform fuzzy comprehensive evaluation until all flights have obtained the en-routes and slots. MatlabR2007b was applied to numerical test based on the simulated data of a civil en-route. Test results show that, compared with the traditional strategy of first come first service, the algorithm gains better effect. The effectiveness of the algorithm was verified.

  9. EFFECTS OF SLOTTED BLADING ON SECONDARY FLOW IN HIGHLY LOADED COMPRESSOR CASCADE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    RAMZI MDOUKI

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available With the aim to increase allowable blade loadings and enlarge stable operating range in highly loaded compressor, this work is carried out in order to explore the potential of passive control via slotted bladings in linear cascade configurations under both design and stall conditions. Through an extensive 2D-numerical study, the effects of location, width and slope of slots were analysed and the best configuration was identified. Based on the optimal slot, the 3D aerodynamic performances of cascade were studied and the influence of slotted blading to control endwall flow was investigated. Both 2D and 3D calculations are performed on steady RANS solver with standard k-epsilon turbulence model and low Mach number regime. The total loss coefficient, turning angle and flow visualizations on the blade and end-wall surfaces are adopted to describe the different configurations. The obtained results show, for 2D situation, that a maximum of 28.3% reduction in loss coefficient had been reached and the flow turning was increased with approximately 5°. Concerning 3D flow fields the slots marked their benefit at large incoming flow angles which delays the separation on both end wall and blade suction surface at mid span. However, at design conditions, the slotted blades are not able to control secondary flows near the wall and so, lose their potential.

  10. Slotted cage resonator for high-field magnetic resonance imaging of rodents

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marrufo, O; Vasquez, F; Solis, S E; Rodriguez, A O, E-mail: arog@xanum.uam.mx [Departamento de Ingenieria Electrica, Universidad Autonoma Metropolitana Iztapalapa, Mexico, DF 09340 (Mexico)

    2011-04-20

    A variation of the high-frequency cavity resonator coil was experimentally developed according to the theoretical frame proposed by Mansfield in 1990. Circular slots were used instead of cavities to form the coil endplates and it was called the slotted cage resonator coil. The theoretical principles were validated via a coil equivalent circuit and also experimentally with a coil prototype. The radio frequency magnetic field, B1, produced by several coil configurations was numerically simulated using the finite-element approach to investigate their performances. A transceiver coil, 8 cm long and 7.6 cm in diameter, and composed of 4 circular slots with a 15 mm diameter on both endplates, was built to operate at 300 MHz and quadrature driven. Experimental results obtained with the slotted cage resonator coil were presented and showed very good agreement with the theoretical expectations for the resonant frequency as a function of the coil dimensions and slots. A standard birdcage coil was also built for performance comparison purposes. Phantom images were then acquired to compute the signal-to-noise ratio of both coils showing an important improvement of the slotted cage coil over the birdcage coil. The whole-body images of the mouse were also obtained showing high-quality images. Volume resonator coils can be reliably built following the physical principles of the cavity resonator design for high-field magnetic resonance imaging applications of rodents.

  11. Results of pressurized-slot measurements in the G-Tunnel underground facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zimmerman, R.M.; Mann, K.L.; Dodds, D.J.

    1989-01-01

    A rock-mechanics field-testing program is underway at Sandia National Laboratories (SNL) as part of the YMP. SNL has the responsibility for assessing the repository design and performance as well as characterizing the geomechanical behavior of the rock. SNL has conducted field experiments in G-Tunnel in Rainier Mesa at the NTS, where tuffs similar to those at Yucca Mountain, the potential repository site, are found. Later experiments are planned as part of the YMP Exploratory Shaft investigations at Yucca Mountain. Major geomechanical factors in repository developments are determinations of the stress state and the deformability of the rock mass (described by the modulus of deformation). One feature of SNL's rock-mechanics program was the development of a testing program for cutting thin slots in a jointed welded tuff and utilizing flatjacks for pressurizing these thin-slots on a relatively, large scale. Objectives in the pressurized-slot testing in G-Tunnel have been to apply and possibly improve methods for (1) utilizing the flatjack cancellation (FC) method for measuring stresses normal to the slot and (2) measuring the modulus of deformation of the jointed rock surrounding the slot. This paper discusses the results of field measurements in and around a single slot and evaluates potential applications and limitations. 10 refs., 1 fig., 4 tabs

  12. Frequency Reconfigurable Circular Patch Antenna with an Arc-Shaped Slot Ground Controlled by PIN Diodes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yao Chen

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, a compact frequency reconfigurable circular patch antenna with an arc-shaped slot loaded in the ground layer is proposed for multiband wireless communication applications. By controlling the ON/OFF states of the five PIN diodes mounted on the arc-shaped slot, the effective length of the arc-shaped slot and the effective length of antennas current are changed, and accordingly six-frequency band reconfiguration can be achieved. The simulated and measured results show that the antenna can operate from 1.82 GHz to 2.46 GHz, which is located in DCS1800 (1.71–1.88 GHz, UMTS (2.11–2.20 GHz, WiBro (2.3–2.4 GHz, and Bluetooth (2.4–2.48 GHz frequency bands and so forth. Compared to the common rectangular slot circular patch antenna, the proposed arc-shaped slot circular patch antenna not only has a better rotational symmetry with the circular patch and substrate but also has more compact size. For the given operating frequency at 1.82 GHz, over 55% area reduction is achieved in this design with respect to the common design with rectangular slot. Since the promising frequency reconfiguration, this antenna may have potential applications in modern multiband and multifunctional mobile communication systems.

  13. Nanoscale devices based on plasmonic coaxial waveguide resonators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahigir, A.; Dastmalchi, P.; Shin, W.; Fan, S.; Veronis, G.

    2015-02-01

    Waveguide-resonator systems are particularly useful for the development of several integrated photonic devices, such as tunable filters, optical switches, channel drop filters, reflectors, and impedance matching elements. In this paper, we introduce nanoscale devices based on plasmonic coaxial waveguide resonators. In particular, we investigate threedimensional nanostructures consisting of plasmonic coaxial stub resonators side-coupled to a plasmonic coaxial waveguide. We use coaxial waveguides with square cross sections, which can be fabricated using lithography-based techniques. The waveguides are placed on top of a silicon substrate, and the space between inner and outer coaxial metals is filled with silica. We use silver as the metal. We investigate structures consisting of a single plasmonic coaxial resonator, which is terminated either in a short or an open circuit, side-coupled to a coaxial waveguide. We show that the incident waveguide mode is almost completely reflected on resonance, while far from the resonance the waveguide mode is almost completely transmitted. We also show that the properties of the waveguide systems can be accurately described using a single-mode scattering matrix theory. The transmission and reflection coefficients at waveguide junctions are either calculated using the concept of the characteristic impedance or are directly numerically extracted using full-wave three-dimensional finite-difference frequency-domain simulations.

  14. FDTD simulation of amorphous silicon waveguides for microphotonics applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fantoni, A.; Lourenço, P.; Pinho, P.; Vieira, M.,

    2017-05-01

    In this work we correlate the dimension of the waveguide with small variations of the refractive index of the material used for the waveguide core. We calculate the effective modal refractive index for different dimensions of the waveguide and with slightly variation of the refractive index of the core material. These results are used as an input for a set of Finite Difference Time Domain simulation, directed to study the characteristics of amorphous silicon waveguides embedded in a SiO2 cladding. The study considers simple linear waveguides with rectangular section for studying the modal attenuation expected at different wavelengths. Transmission efficiency is determined analyzing the decay of the light power along the waveguides. As far as near infrared wavelengths are considered, a-Si:H shows a behavior highly dependent on the light wavelength and its extinction coefficient rapidly increases as operating frequency goes into visible spectrum range. The simulation results show that amorphous silicon can be considered a good candidate for waveguide material core whenever the waveguide length is as short as a few centimeters. The maximum transmission length is highly affected by the a-Si:H defect density, the mid-gap density of states and by the waveguide section area. The simulation results address a minimum requirement of 300nm×400nm waveguide section in order to keep attenuation below 1 dB cm-1.

  15. Differential InP HEMT MMIC Amplifiers Embedded in Waveguides

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kangaslahti, Pekka; Schlecht, Erich; Samoska, Lorene

    2009-01-01

    Monolithic microwave integrated-circuit (MMIC) amplifiers of a type now being developed for operation at frequencies of hundreds of gigahertz contain InP high-electron-mobility transistors (HEMTs) in a differential configuration. The differential configuration makes it possible to obtain gains greater than those of amplifiers having the single-ended configuration. To reduce losses associated with packaging, the MMIC chips are designed integrally with, and embedded in, waveguide packages, with the additional benefit that the packages are compact enough to fit into phased transmitting and/or receiving antenna arrays. Differential configurations (which are inherently balanced) have been used to extend the upper limits of operating frequencies of complementary metal oxide/semiconductor (CMOS) amplifiers to the microwave range but, until now, have not been applied in millimeter- wave amplifier circuits. Baluns have traditionally been used to transform from single-ended to balanced configurations, but baluns tend to be lossy. Instead of baluns, finlines are used to effect this transformation in the present line of development. Finlines have been used extensively to drive millimeter- wave mixers in balanced configurations. In the present extension of the finline balancing concept, finline transitions are integrated onto the affected MMICs (see figure). The differential configuration creates a virtual ground within each pair of InP HEMT gate fingers, eliminating the need for inductive vias to ground. Elimination of these vias greatly reduces parasitic components of current and the associated losses within an amplifier, thereby enabling more nearly complete utilization of the full performance of each transistor. The differential configuration offers the additional benefit of multiplying (relative to the single-ended configuration) the input and output impedances of each transistor by a factor of four, so that it is possible to use large transistors that would otherwise have

  16. A fast semi-analytical model for the slotted structure of induction motors with 36/28 stator/rotor slot combination

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sprangers, R.L.J.; Paulides, J.J.H.; Gysen, B.L.J.; Lomonova, E.A.

    2014-01-01

    A fast, semi-analyticalmodel for inductionmotors (IMs) with 36/28 stator/rotor slot combination is presented. In comparison to traditional analytical models for IMs, such as lumped parameter, magnetic equivalent circuit and anisotropic layer models, the presented model calculates a continuous

  17. Airport slots and slot allocation: driver for mismatch between airline network and city needs? : the case of Rotterdam The Hague Airport

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van den Brandt, Marc; Mujica Mota, Miguel; Boosten, Geert; Hromádka, Martin

    2014-01-01

    Aviation increasingly faces capacity challenges exposing inefficiencies and shortcomings of aviation related processes and systems. The European slot allocation system was designed in an era with little to no capacity constraints, now resulting in regulations not fitting in today’s developments.

  18. Improvement The Transmission Efficiency For Wireless Packet Communication Systems Using Automatic Control for power And Time Slot Width Of Slotted Non persistent ISMA Protocol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saad M. Hardan

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available In packed communication systems which use a protocol, the protocol should perform the allocation of channels such that the transmission channel is used efficiently. Efficiency is usually measured in terms of channel throughput and the average transmission  delay. The Slotted Nonpersistent ISMA protocol is one of random access protocols used in packed communication systems. In this research a Slotted Nonpersistent ISMA protocol Model with automatic control for power and time slot is proposed. the suggested algorithm enable the base station(access point to control  the protocol time slot length and  transmission power in a dynamic way to control the normalized propagation delay d and to maintain all the uplink signals in the limit of captured power threshold (capture ratio in order to control the  throughput and the average transmission delay of the communication system by an automatic method. the computer simulation results  confirm the activity of the  proposed algorithm for increasing the  throughput and decreasing the average transmission delay by an accepted ratios.

  19. Synthesis of the Thickness Profile of the Waveguide Layer of the Thin Film Generalized Waveguide Luneburg Lens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ayryan E.A.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available A local variation in the thickness of the waveguide layer of integrated optics waveguide causes a local decrease of phase velocity, and hence bending of rays and of the wave front. The relationship of the waveguide layer thickness profile h (y, z with the distribution of the effective refractive index of the waveguide β (y, z is described in terms of a particular model of waveguide solutions of the Maxwell equations. In the model of comparison waveguides the support of the thickness irregularity of the waveguide layer Δh coincides with the support of inhomogeneity of the effective refractive index Δβ. A more adequate but more cumbersome model of the adiabatic waveguide modes allows them to mismatch supp Δh ⊃ supp Δβ. In this paper, we solve the problem of the Δh reconstruction on the base of given Δβ of the thin film generalized waveguide Luneburg lens in a model of adiabatic waveguide modes. The solution is found in the form of a linear combination of Gaussian exponential functions and in the form of a cubic spline for the cylindrically symmetric Δh (r and in the form of a cubic spline for Δβ (r.

  20. Numerical study of a confined slot impinging jet with nanofluids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manca Oronzio

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Heat transfer enhancement technology concerns with the aim of developing more efficient systems to satisfy the increasing demands of many applications in the fields of automotive, aerospace, electronic and process industry. A solution for obtaining efficient cooling systems is represented by the use of confined or unconfined impinging jets. Moreover, the possibility of increasing the thermal performances of the working fluids can be taken into account, and the introduction of nanoparticles in a base fluid can be considered. Results In this article, a numerical investigation on confined impinging slot jet working with a mixture of water and Al2O3 nanoparticles is described. The flow is turbulent and a constant temperature is applied on the impinging. A single-phase model approach has been adopted. Different geometric ratios, particle volume concentrations and Reynolds number have been considered to study the behavior of the system in terms of average and local Nusselt number, convective heat transfer coefficient and required pumping power profiles, temperature fields and stream function contours. Conclusions The dimensionless stream function contours show that the intensity and size of the vortex structures depend on the confining effects, given by H/W ratio, Reynolds number and particle concentrations. Furthermore, for increasing concentrations, nanofluids realize increasing fluid bulk temperature, as a result of the elevated thermal conductivity of mixtures. The local Nusselt number profiles show the highest values at the stagnation point, and the lowest at the end of the heated plate. The average Nusselt number increases for increasing particle concentrations and Reynolds numbers; moreover, the highest values are observed for H/W = 10, and a maximum increase of 18% is detected at a concentration equal to 6%. The required pumping power as well as Reynolds number increases and particle concentrations grow, which is almost 4