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Sample records for slip ring designed

  1. Inorganic glass ceramic slip rings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glossbrenner, E. W.; Cole, S. R.

    1972-01-01

    Prototypes of slip rings have been fabricated from ceramic glass, a material which is highly resistant to deterioration due to high temperature. Slip ring assemblies were not structurally damaged by mechanical tests and performed statisfactorily for 200 hours.

  2. Electro-optical hybrid slip ring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, En

    2005-11-01

    . A laboratory scale non-contact Electro-Optical Hybrid Slip Ring system was successfully constructed, and its performance was determined. Experimental results affirmed the advantages of this new technology over current slip ring design.

  3. Asynchronous slip-ring motor synchronized with permanent magnets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Glinka Tadeusz

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The electric LSPMSM motor presented in the paper differs from standard induction motor by rotor design. The insulated start-up winding is located in slots along the rotor circumference. The winding ends are connected to the slip-rings. The rotor core contains permanent magnets. The electromechanical characteristics for synchronous operation were calculated, as were the start-up characteristics for operation with a short-circuited rotor winding. Two model motors were used for the calculations, the V-shaped Permanent Magnet (VPM – Fig. 3, and the Linear Permanent Magnet (IPM – Fig. 4, both rated at 14.5 kW. The advantages of the investigated motor are demonstrated in the conclusions.

  4. Testing of silver-, copper- and electro-graphite brush materials for slip ring units

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nordlund, Erik; Magnussen, Freddy; Bassilous, Gamal; Thelin, Peter

    2004-07-01

    In a novel hybrid propulsion system, the Four Quadrant Transducer (4QT), a slip ring unit is required to transfer alternating current to a rotating three-phase winding. This is an automotive application with high demands on cost effectiveness and reliability and the slip ring unit is one of the potentially weak links in the system that has to be investigated carefully. This paper investigates the impact on the performance of a slip ring unit equipped with different brush materials. The investigation focuses on the losses and the temperature rises in the slip ring unit. (author)

  5. The phase slip factor of the electrostatic cryogenic storage ring CSR

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grieser, Manfred; von Hahn, Robert; Vogel, Stephen; Wolf, Andreas

    2017-07-01

    To determine the momentum spread of an ion beam from the measured revolution frequency distribution, the knowledge of the phase slip factor of the storage ring is necessary. The slip factor was measured for various working points of the cryogenic storage ring CSR at MPI for Nuclear Physics, Heidelberg and was compared with simulations. The predicted functional relationship of the slip factor and the horizontal tune depends on the different islands of stability, which has been experimentally verified. This behavior of the slip factor is in clear contrast to that of magnetic storage rings.

  6. Decay ring design

    CERN Document Server

    Chancé, A; Bouquerel, E; Hancock, S; Jensen, E

    The study of the neutrino oscillation between its different flavours needs pureand very intense fluxes of high energy, well collimated neutrinos with a welldetermined energy spectrum. A dedicated machine seems to be necessarynowadays to reach the required flux. A new concept based on the β-decayof radioactive ions which were accelerated in an accelerator chain was thenproposed. After ion production, stripping, bunching and acceleration, the unstableions are then stored in a racetrack-shaped superconducting decay ring.Finally, the ions are accumulated in the decay ring until being lost. The incomingbeam is merged to the stored beam by using a specific RF system, whichwill be presented here.We propose here to study some aspects of the decay ring, such as its opticalproperties, its RF system or the management of the losses which occur in thering (mainly by decay or by collimation).

  7. SXLS storage ring design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1991-01-01

    X-ray lithography has emerged as a strong candidate to meet the demands of ever finer linewidths on integrated circuits, particularly for linewidths less than .25 microns. Proximity printing X-ray lithography makes use of soft X-rays to shadow print an image of a mask onto a semiconductor wafer to produce integrated circuits. To generate the required X-rays in sufficient quantities to make commercial production viable, electron storage rings have been proposed as the soft X-ray sources. Existing storage rings have been used to do the initial development work and the success of these efforts has led the lithographers to request that new rings be constructed that are dedicated to X-ray lithography. As a result of a series of workshops held at BNL [10.3] which were attended by both semiconductor and accelerator scientists, the following set of zeroth order specifications' on the light and electron beam of a storage ring for X-ray lithography were developed: critical wavelength of light: λ c = 6 to 10 angstroms, white light power: P = 0.25 to 2.5 watts/mrad, horizontal collection angle per port: θ = 10 to 50 mrad, electron beam sizes: σ x ∼ σ y y ' < 1 mrad

  8. Design of low energy ring(s)

    CERN Document Server

    Lachaize, Antoine

    During the last two years, several upgrades of the initial baseline scenario were studied with the aim of increasing the average intensity of ion beams in the accelerator chain of the Beta Beam complex. This is the reason why the Rapid Cycling Synchrotron (RCS) specifications were reconsidered many times [1], [2], [3].General considerations on the optical design were presented at the Beta Beam Task Meetings held at CERN and at Saclay in 2005 [4]. More detailed beam optics studies were performed during the next months. Lattices, RF system parameters, multi-turn injection scheme, fast extraction, closed orbit correction and chromaticity correction systems were proposed for different versions of the RCS [5], [6], [7].Finally, the RCS specifications have stabilized in November 2006 after the fourth Beta Beam Task Meeting when it was decided to fix the maximum magnetic rigidity of ion beams to 14.47 T.m (3.5 GeV equivalent proton energy) and to adopt a ring physical radius of 40 m in order to facilitate injectio...

  9. Hierarchical Ring Network Design Using Branch-and-Price

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomadsen, Tommy; Stidsen, Thomas K.

    2005-01-01

    link establishment costs and the link capacity costs into account. Hierarchical ring network design problems combines the following optimization problems: Clustering, hub selection, metro ring design, federal ring design and routing problems. In this paper a branch-and-price algorithm is presented...... for jointly solving the clustering problem, the metro ring design problem and the routing problem. Computational results are given for networks with up to 36 nodes....

  10. Novel BCH Code Design for Mitigation of Phase Noise Induced Cycle Slips in DQPSK Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Leong, M. Y.; Larsen, Knud J.; Jacobsen, G.

    2014-01-01

    We show that by proper code design, phase noise induced cycle slips causing an error floor can be mitigated for 28 Gbau d DQPSK systems. Performance of BCH codes are investigated in terms of required overhead......We show that by proper code design, phase noise induced cycle slips causing an error floor can be mitigated for 28 Gbau d DQPSK systems. Performance of BCH codes are investigated in terms of required overhead...

  11. A Low-Energy Ring Lattice Design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cai, Yunhai

    2002-01-01

    The PEP-N project at SLAC [1] consists of a Very Low-Energy small electron Ring (VLER) that will collide with the low-energy 3.1 GeV positron beam (LER) of PEP-II, producing center-of-mass energies between the 1.1 GeV and the J/ψ. The beams will collide head-on and will be separated in the detector magnetic field which is part of the Interaction Region [2]. The IP β functions were chosen such as to optimize both luminosity and beam-beam tune shifts, while keeping the LER tune shifts small. This paper describes the lattice design of the VLER for the ''baseline'' at 500 MeV

  12. Shoe sole tread designs and outcomes of slipping and falling on slippery floor surfaces.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li-Wen Liu

    Full Text Available A gait experiment was conducted under two shoe sole and three floor conditions. The shoe soles and floors were characterized by the tread and groove designs on the surface. The coefficients of friction (COF on the floor in the target area were measured. The subjects were required to walk on a walkway and stepping on a target area covered with glycerol. The motions of the feet of the subjects were captured. Gait parameters were calculated based on the motion data. Among the 240 trials, there were 37 no-slips, 81 microslips, 45 slides, and 77 slips. It was found that the condition with shoe sole and floor had both tread grooves perpendicular to the walking direction had the highest COF, the shortest slip distance, and the lowest percentages of slide and slip. The condition with shoe sole and floor had both tread grooves parallel to the walking direction had the lowest COF and the longest slip distance among all experimental conditions. The Pearson's correlation coefficients between slip distance and slip velocity, time to foot flat, foot angle, and compensatory step length were 0.82 (p<0.0001, 0.33 (p<0.0001, -0.54 (p<0.0001, and -0.51 (p<0.0001, respectively.

  13. Design of Piston Ring Friction Tester Apparatus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Klit, Peder

    2006-01-01

    One of the major prerequisites for calculating piston ring friction is a good description of the tribological situation. Piston rings operate in three different lubrication regimes and the theoretical models should be capable to describe this. A very important condition for describing the frictio......One of the major prerequisites for calculating piston ring friction is a good description of the tribological situation. Piston rings operate in three different lubrication regimes and the theoretical models should be capable to describe this. A very important condition for describing...... the frictional behavior of a piston ring correctly is knowledge about the amount of lubricant present. For piston rings the external load may be established by measuring the pressure distribution, i.e. the pressure drop in the piston ring package. Speed and temperature may also be established. The amount...... available is reflected in the friction absorbed in the bearing. The following properties will be measured: Oil fillm thickness - along liner (axial variation), oil film thickness - along piston ring (circumferential variation), piston tilt, temperature of piston rings and liner, pressure at piston lands...

  14. A design of a quasi-isochronous storage ring

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, S.Y.; Trbojevic, D.

    1993-07-01

    Isochronous electron storage rings may offer advantages for future high luminosity meson factories. A Quasi-isochronous lattice based on the design principle of flexible γτ lattice is studied. The emittance and chromatic properties of such a lattice are studied. Applications of this design techniques for electron storage rings will be discussed

  15. Design of 3 GeV booster ring lattice

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Etisken, O., E-mail: ozgur.etisken@cern.ch; Ciftci, A. K., E-mail: abbas.kenan.ciftci@cern.ch [Ankara University, Ankara (Turkey)

    2016-03-25

    The aim of this study is to design of a 3 GeV booster ring for the 3 GeV storage ring. Electrons are needed to be accelerated to 3.0 GeV from 0.15 GeV energy. In this frame, we studied on two options for booster ring; a compact booster and the booster that shares the same tunnel with the storage ring. The lattice type has been chosen FODO for both options, lattice parameters are calculated, sextupole magnets are used to decrease dynamic aperture problem and dynamic aperture calculations are also made with considering of the necessary conditions. After designing and calculating of the parameters, these designs have been compared with each other. In addition to this comparison, these booster design parameters have been compared with some world centers design parameters and the reliability of the booster design is seen. Beam optics, OPA and Elegant simulation programs have been used in the study calculations.

  16. Assessment of slip resistance under footwear materials, tread designs, floor contamination, and floor inclination conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Kai Way; Chen, Chih-Yong; Chen, Ching Chung; Liu, Liwen

    2012-01-01

    Slip and fall incidences are common in our daily lives. They are not only important environmental safety issues but also important occupational safety and health problems. The purpose of this study was to use the Brungraber Mark II to measure the friction so as to investigate the effects of the shoe sole, surface condition and the inclined angle of the floor and their interactions on friction coefficient. The results of the study showed the effects of all the main factors and their interactions were significant (p<0.001). Engineering designs & ergonomic interventions in slip & fall prevention should take these factors in full consideration.

  17. Analysis of Alternative Ring Resonator Designs

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-08-01

    also change the current path in the soil possibly introducing small inductances or capacitances into the resonator antenna system. Since Q of a circuit... inductance , L, and capacitance , C, of the effective ring resonator circuit could then change its resonance and therefore the result of the measurement...as radar waves are reflected from soil and penetrate into it. In particular, knowledge of these properties is critical for detection and location of

  18. Design studies for the electron storage ring EUTERPE

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xi Boling.

    1995-01-01

    The 400 MeV electron storage ring EUTERPE is under construction at Eindhoven University of Technology. The ring is to be used as an experimental tool for accelerator physics studies and synchroton radiation applications. The main task of the current research work is the electron optical design of the ring. Lattice design is a basis for machine design as a whole. Design aspects regarding the basic lattice, based on single particle dynamics, include determination of the equilibrium beam size and bunch length, design of achromatic bending sections, selection of tune values, correction of chromaticity, and minimization of the natural emittance in the ring. The basic lattice designed for the EUTERPE ring has a high flexibility so that different electron optical modes can be realized easily. In low energy storage rings with a high beam current, collective effects can cause a significant change in the bunch length, the transverse emittance and the beam lifetime. In order to ensure a good optical performance for the ring, the choice of suitable parameters concerning the vacuum and RF system are essential as far as collective effects are concerned. An estimation of the collective effects in the ring is given. The injector for EUTERPE is a 75 MeV racetrack microtron which is injected from a 10 MeV linac. In order to get sufficient beam current in the ring, a special procedure of continuous injection with an adjustable locally shifted closed orbit has been presented. Details of the injection procedure and numerical simulations are given. (orig./HSI)

  19. Design studies for the electron storage ring EUTERPE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xi Boling

    1995-05-18

    The 400 MeV electron storage ring EUTERPE is under construction at Eindhoven University of Technology. The ring is to be used as an experimental tool for accelerator physics studies and synchroton radiation applications. The main task of the current research work is the electron optical design of the ring. Lattice design is a basis for machine design as a whole. Design aspects regarding the basic lattice, based on single particle dynamics, include determination of the equilibrium beam size and bunch length, design of achromatic bending sections, selection of tune values, correction of chromaticity, and minimization of the natural emittance in the ring. The basic lattice designed for the EUTERPE ring has a high flexibility so that different electron optical modes can be realized easily. In low energy storage rings with a high beam current, collective effects can cause a significant change in the bunch length, the transverse emittance and the beam lifetime. In order to ensure a good optical performance for the ring, the choice of suitable parameters concerning the vacuum and RF system are essential as far as collective effects are concerned. An estimation of the collective effects in the ring is given. The injector for EUTERPE is a 75 MeV racetrack microtron which is injected from a 10 MeV linac. In order to get sufficient beam current in the ring, a special procedure of continuous injection with an adjustable locally shifted closed orbit has been presented. Details of the injection procedure and numerical simulations are given. (orig./HSI).

  20. Structural Design and Sealing Performance Analysis of Biomimetic Sealing Ring

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chuanjun Han

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In order to reduce the failure probability of rubber sealing rings in reciprocating dynamic seal, a new structure of sealing ring based on bionics was designed. The biomimetic ring has three concave ridges and convex bulges on each side which are very similar to earthworms. Bulges were circularly designed and sealing performances of the biomimetic ring in both static seal and dynamic seal were simulated by FEM. In addition, effects of precompression, medium pressure, speed, friction coefficient, and material parameters on sealing performances were discussed. The results show that von Mises stress of the biomimetic sealing ring distributed symmetrically in no-pressure static sealing. The maximum von Mises stress appears on the second bulge of the inner side. High contact stress concentrates on left bulges. Von Mises stress distribution becomes uneven under medium pressure. Both von Mises stress and contact stress increase when precompression, medium pressure, and rubber hardness increase in static sealing. Biomimetic ring can avoid rolling and distortion in reciprocating dynamic seal, and its working life is much longer than O-ring and rectangular ring. The maximum von Mises stress and contact stress increase with the precompression, medium pressure, rubber hardness, and friction coefficient in reciprocating dynamic seal.

  1. Seco-B-Ring Steroidal Dienynes with Aromatic D Ring: Design, Synthesis and Biological Evaluation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcin Szybinski

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Continuing our structure-activity studies on the vitamin D analogs with the altered intercyclic seco-B-ring fragment, we designed compounds possessing dienyne system conjugated with the benzene D ring. Analysis of the literature data and the docking experiments seemed to indicate that the target compounds could mimic the ligands with a good affinity to the vitamin D receptor (VDR. Multi-step synthesis of the C/D-ring building block of the tetralone structure was achieved and its enol triflate was coupled with the known A-ring fragments, possessing conjugated enyne moiety, using Sonogashira protocol. The structures of the final products were confirmed by NMR, UV and mass spectroscopy. Their binding affinities for the full-length human VDR were determined and it was established that compound substituted at C-2 with exomethylene group showed significant binding to the receptor. This analog was also able to induce monocytic differentiation of HL-60 cells.

  2. Conceptual design of a moving-ring reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, A.C.; Carlson, G.A.; Ashworth, C.P.

    1986-01-01

    A design of a prototype moving-ring reactor was completed, and a development plan for a pilot reactor is outlined. The fusion fuel is confined in current-carrying rings of magnetically field-reversed plasma (''compact toroids''). The plasma rings, formed by a coaxial plasma gun, undergo adiabatic magnetic compression to ignition temperature while they are being injected into the reactor's burner section. The cylindrical burner chamber is divided into three ''burn stations.'' Separator coils and a slight axial guide field gradient are used to shuttle the ignited toroids rapidly from one burn station to the next, pausing for one-third of the total burn time at each station. Deuterium-tritium- 3 He ice pellets refuel the rings at a rate that maintains constant radiated power. The fusion power per ring is approx. =105.5 MW. The burn time to reach a fusion energy gain of Q = 30 is 5.9 s

  3. Design of delay insensitive circuits using multi-ring structures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sparsø, Jens; Staunstrup, Jørgen; Dantzer-Sørensen, Michael

    1992-01-01

    The design and VLSI implementation of a delay insensitive circuit that computes the inner product of two vec·tors is described. The circuit is based on an iterative serial-parallel multiplication algorithm. The design is based on a data flow approach using pipelines and rings that are combined...... functionality and reasonable performance are readily designed...

  4. Design Issues of the Pre-Compression Rings of Iter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knaster, J.; Baker, W.; Bettinali, L.; Jong, C.; Mallick, K.; Nardi, C.; Rajainmaki, H.; Rossi, P.; Semeraro, L.

    2010-04-01

    The pre-compression system is the keystone of ITER. A centripetal force of ˜30 MN will be applied at cryogenic conditions on top and bottom of each TF coil. It will prevent the `breathing effect' caused by the bursting forces occurring during plasma operation that would affect the machine design life of 30000 cycles. Different alternatives have been studied throughout the years. There are two major design requirements limiting the engineering possibilities: 1) the limited available space and 2) the need to hamper eddy currents flowing in the structures. Six unidirectionally wound glass-fibre composite rings (˜5 m diameter and ˜300 mm cross section) are the final design choice. The rings will withstand the maximum hoop stresses replacing the pre-compression rings in case of malfunctioning is possible, they have to sustain the load during the entire 20 years of machine operation. The present paper summarizes the pre-compression ring R&D carried out during several years. In particular, we will address the composite choice and mechanical characterization, assessment of creep or stress relaxation phenomena, sub-sized rings testing and the optimal ring fabrication processes that have led to the present final design.

  5. Design and Experimental Research of a Novel Stick-Slip Type Piezoelectric Actuator

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mingxing Zhou

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available A linear piezoelectric actuator based on the stick-slip principle is presented and tested in this paper. With the help of changeable vertical preload force flexure hinge, the designed linear actuator can achieve both large travel stick-slip motion and high-resolution stepping displacement. The developed actuator mainly consists of a bridge-type flexure hinge mechanism, a compound parallelogram flexure hinge mechanism, and two piezoelectric stacks. The mechanical structure and motion principle of the linear actuator were illustrated, and the finite element method (FEM is adopted. An optimal parametric study of the flexure hinge is performed by a finite element analysis-based response surface methodology. In order to investigate the actuator’s working performance, a prototype was manufactured and a series of experiments were carried out. The results indicate that the maximum motion speed is about 3.27 mm/s and the minimum stepping displacement is 0.29 μm. Finally, a vibration test was carried out to obtain the first natural frequency of the actuator, and an in situ observation was conducted to investigate actuator’s stick-slip working condition. The experimental results confirm the feasibility of the proposed actuator, and the motion speed and displacement are both improved compared with the traditional stick-slip motion actuator.

  6. Design of the SLC damping ring to linac transport lines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fieguth, T.H.; Murray, J.J.

    1983-07-01

    The first and second order optics for the damping ring to linac transport line are designed to preserve the damped transverse emittance while simultaneously compressing the bunch length of the beam to that length required for reinjection into the linac. This design, including provisions for future control of beam polarization, is described

  7. Investigation of frequency stability and design criteria of ring lasers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Christian; Lichtenberg Hansen, P.; Buchhave, Preben

    1996-01-01

    We present a comprehensive Jones matrix analysis of two commonly used ring laser resonators. Different aspects on how to obtain low loss eigenmodes and/or high loss difference between the two directions of the cavity, and thus high frequency stability, are investigated. Also different approximati...... approximations are evaluated. Since the theory has been kept general, the derived results can be applied to a large class of ring laser designs. Finally the influence of backscattered light on the stability is considered. Experimental results on two ring lasers are discussed.......We present a comprehensive Jones matrix analysis of two commonly used ring laser resonators. Different aspects on how to obtain low loss eigenmodes and/or high loss difference between the two directions of the cavity, and thus high frequency stability, are investigated. Also different...

  8. Fermilab Recycler Ring: Technical design report. Revision 1.1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jackson, G.

    1996-07-01

    This report describes the technical design of the Fermilab Recycler Ring. The purpose of the Recycler is to augment the luminosity increase anticipated from the implementation of the Fermi III upgrade project, which has as its main component the Fermilab Main Injector construction project. The Recycler is a fixed 8 GeV kinetic energy storage ring. It is located in the Main Injector tunnel directly above the Main Injector beamline, near the ceiling. The construction schedule calls for the installation of the Recycler ring before the installation shutdown of the Main Injector. This aggressive construction schedule is made possible by the exclusive use of permanent magnets in the ring lattice, removing the need for expensive conventional iron/copper magnet construction along with the related power supplies, cooling water system, and electrical safety systems. The location, operating energy, and mode of construction are chosen to minimize operational impacts on both Fermilab's ongoing High Energy Physics program and the Main Injector construction project

  9. Update on the MEIC electron collider ring design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The electron collider ring of the Medium-energy Electron-Ion Collider (MEIC) at Jefferson Lab is designed to accumulate and store a high-current polarized electron beam for collisions with an ion beam. We consider a design of the electron collider ring based on reusing PEP-II components, such as magnets, power supplies, vacuum system, etc. This has the potential to significantly reduce the cost and engineering effort needed to bring the project to fruition. This paper reports on an electron ring optics design considering the balance of PEP-II hardware parameters (such as dipole sagitta, magnet field strengths and acceptable synchrotron radiation power) and electron beam quality in terms of equilibrium emittances.

  10. Update on the MEIC electron collider ring design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The electron collider ring of the Medium-energy Electron-Ion Collider (MEIC) at Jefferson Lab is designed to accumulate and store a high-current polarized electron beam for collisions with an ion beam. We consider a design of the electron collider ring based on reusing PEPII components, such as magnets, power supplies, vacuum system, etc. This has the potential to significantly reduce the cost and engineering effort needed to bring the project to fruition. This paper reports on an electron ring optics design considering the balance of PEP-II hardware parameters (such as dipole sagitta, magnet field strengths and acceptable synchrotron radiation power) and electron beam quality in terms of equilibrium emittances.

  11. An investigation of the effects of pneumatic actuator design on slip control for heavy vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Jonathan I.; Cebon, David

    2013-01-01

    Progress in reducing actuator delays in pneumatic brake systems is opening the door for advanced anti-lock braking algorithms to be used on heavy goods vehicles. However, little has been published on slip controllers for air-braked heavy vehicles, or the effects of slow pneumatic actuation on their design and performance. This paper introduces a sliding mode slip controller for air-braked heavy vehicles. The effects of pneumatic actuator delays and flow rates on stopping performance and air (energy) consumption are presented through vehicle simulations. Finally, the simulations are validated with experiments using a hardware-in-the-loop rig. It is shown that for each wheel, pneumatic valves with delays smaller than 3 ms and orifice diameters around 8 mm provide the best performance.

  12. Conceptual design for the STAR barrel electromagnetic calorimeter support rings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bielick, E.; Fornek, T.; Spinka, H.; Underwood, D.

    1994-01-01

    The STAR electromagnetic calorimeter (EMC) will be used to measure the energy of photons and electrons from collisions of beams of particles in the RHIC accelerator under construction at Brookhaven National Laboratory. The present design is documented in the EMC Conceptual Design Report, and consists of a cylindrical barrel and two flat endcap calorimeter sections. The barrel EMC will consist of 120 modules, each subtending 6 degrees in azimuthal angle about the beam (φ), and half the barrel length. Each module will be subdivided into ''towers'' of alternating scintillator and lead, which project to the nominal interaction point. There is a strong coupling between the designs for the EMC and for the conventional solenoidal magnet, which will be located immediately outside the barrel EMC. For example, the inner radius of the magnet must be minimized to lower costs and to reduce the STAR detector's outer diameter to fit within constraints of the existing detector building. This condition requires the calorimeter modules to be just thick enough to accomplish physics goals and to support their weight with small deflections. This note describes progress in the design of the EMC support rings. Several ring designs and methods of construction have been considered. In addition, installation and alignment problems for both the rings and the rails have been considered in more depth. Finally, revised stress calculations for the recommended ring designs have been performed. Most of this work has been done in close collaboration with the STAR magnet subgroup

  13. Design studies of high-luminoisty ring-ring- eletron-ion collider at CEBAF.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bogacz, A.; Brindza, P.; Bruell, A.; Cardman, L.; Delayen, J.; Ostroumov, P.; Derbenev, Y.; Ent, R.; Evtushenko, P.; Grames, J.; Hutton, A.; Krafft, G.; Li, R.; Merminga, L.; Musson, J.; Poelker, M.; Thomas, A.; Wojteshowski, B.; Yunn, B.; Zhang, Y.; Fischer, W.; Montag, C.; Dudnikov, V.; Belov, A.; Derenchuk, V.; Physics; Jefferson Lab.; BNL; BTG; INR; IUCF

    2007-08-01

    Experimental studies of fundamental structure of nucleons require an electron-ion collider of a center-of-mass energy up to 90 GeV at luminosity up to 10{sup 35} cm{sup -2}s{sup -1} with both beams polarized. A CEBAF-based collider of 9 GeV electrons/positrons and 225 GeV ions is envisioned to meet this science need and as a next step for CEBAF after the planned 12 GeV energy upgrade of the fixed target program. A ring-ring scheme of this collider developed recently takes advantage of the existing polarized electron CW beam from the CEBAF and a green-field design of an ion complex with electron cooling. We present a conceptual design and report design studies of this high-luminosity collider.

  14. Design for a practical, low-emittance damping ring

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krejcik, P.

    1988-01-01

    The luminosity requirements for future high-energy linear colliders calls for very low emittances in the two beams. These low emittances can be achieved with damping rings, but, in order to reach the design goal of a factor 10 improvement over present day machines, great care must be taken in their design. This paper emphasizes the need to address simultaneously all of the factors which limit the operational emittance in the ring. Particularly since in standard designs there is a conflict between different design parameters which makes it difficult to extrapolate such designs to very low emittances. The approach chosen here is to resolve such conflicts by separating their design solutions. Wigglers are used predominantly in zero-dispersion regions to achieve the desired damping rate, whereas in the arcs high dispersion insertions are made in regions of zero curvature to allow for easier chromaticity control

  15. Design Studies of High-Luminosity Ring-Ring Electron-Ion Collider at CEBAF

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bogacz, Alex; Bogacz, Slawomir; Bogacz, Alex; Bogacz, Slawomir; Brindza, Paul; Bruell, Antje; Derbenev, Yaroslav; Ent, Rolf; Krafft, Geoffrey; Merminga, Nikolitsa; Musson, John; Wojtsekhowski, Bogdan; Yunn, Byung; Zhang, Yuhong; Qiang, Ji; Li, Rui

    2008-06-01

    An electron-ion collider of a center-of-mass energy up to 90 GeV at luminosity up to 1035 cm-2s-1 with both beams highly polarized is essential for exploring the new QCD frontier of strong color fields in nuclear and precisely imaging the sea-quarks and gluons in the nucleon. A conceptual design of a ring-ring collider based on CEBAF (ELIC) with energies up to 9 GeV for electrons/positrons and up to 225 GeV for protons and 100 GeV/u for ions has been proposed to fulfill the science desire and to serve as the next step for CEBAF after the planned 12 GeV energy upgrade of the fixed target program. Here, we summarize recent design progress for the ELIC complex with four interaction points (IP); including interaction region optics with chromatic aberration compensation scheme and complete lattices for the Figure-8 collider rings. Further optimization of crab crossing angles at the IPs, simulations of beam-beam interactions, and electron polarization in the Figure-8 ring and its matching at

  16. SNS accumulator ring design and space charge considerations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weng, W.T.

    1998-01-01

    The goal of the proposed Spallation Neutron Source (SNS) is to provide a short pulse proton beam of about 0.5micros with average beam power of 1MW. To achieve such purpose, a proton storage ring operated at 60Hz with 1 x 10 14 protons per pulse at 1GeV is required. The Accumulator Ring (AR) receives 1msec long H - beam bunches of 28mA from a 1GeV linac. Scope and design performance goals of the AR are presented. About 1,200 turns of charge exchange injection is needed to accumulate 1mA in the ring. After a brief description of the lattice design and machine performance parameters, space charge related issues, such as: tune shifts, stopband corrections, halo generation and beam collimation etc. is discussed

  17. Using simulation to aid trial design: Ring-vaccination trials.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matt David Thomas Hitchings

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The 2014-6 West African Ebola epidemic highlights the need for rigorous, rapid clinical trial methods for vaccines. A challenge for trial design is making sample size calculations based on incidence within the trial, total vaccine effect, and intracluster correlation, when these parameters are uncertain in the presence of indirect effects of vaccination.We present a stochastic, compartmental model for a ring vaccination trial. After identification of an index case, a ring of contacts is recruited and either vaccinated immediately or after 21 days. The primary outcome of the trial is total vaccine effect, counting cases only from a pre-specified window in which the immediate arm is assumed to be fully protected and the delayed arm is not protected. Simulation results are used to calculate necessary sample size and estimated vaccine effect. Under baseline assumptions about vaccine properties, monthly incidence in unvaccinated rings and trial design, a standard sample-size calculation neglecting dynamic effects estimated that 7,100 participants would be needed to achieve 80% power to detect a difference in attack rate between arms, while incorporating dynamic considerations in the model increased the estimate to 8,900. This approach replaces assumptions about parameters at the ring level with assumptions about disease dynamics and vaccine characteristics at the individual level, so within this framework we were able to describe the sensitivity of the trial power and estimated effect to various parameters. We found that both of these quantities are sensitive to properties of the vaccine, to setting-specific parameters over which investigators have little control, and to parameters that are determined by the study design.Incorporating simulation into the trial design process can improve robustness of sample size calculations. For this specific trial design, vaccine effectiveness depends on properties of the ring vaccination design and on the

  18. Double Ring Antenna Design for MIMO Application in Mobile Terminals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhao, Kun; Zhang, Shuai; Ying, Zhinong

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, We present a MIMO bezel antenna design composed by a seamless double metal ring structure. The MIMO antenna mainly operates in the loop mode and can cover the majority of globe cellular bands. Good efficiencies (>-4dB) and a low envelope correlation coefficient (<0.5) are achieved,...

  19. DESIGN RING THROTTLE CONFUSED FOR HYDRO-PNEUMATIC

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. Sedach

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The peculiarities of the ring design confused throttle. The dependences for calculating the minimum area cross-section and a working area of the current coordinate. The estimation of the in-fluence of the main geometrical parameters of the throttle on the hydraulic losses.

  20. Calibration Device Designed for proof ring used in SCC Experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, X. Y.; Kang, Z. Y.; Yu, Y. L.

    2017-11-01

    In this paper, a calibration device for proof ring used in SCC (Stress Corrosion Cracking) experiment was designed. A compact size loading device was developed to replace traditional force standard machine or a long screw nut. The deformation of the proof ring was measured by a CCD (Charge-Coupled Device) during the calibration instead of digital caliper or a dial gauge. The calibration device was verified at laboratory that the precision of force loading is ±0.1% and the precision of deformation measurement is ±0.002mm.

  1. Conceptual Design of ILC Damping Ring Wiggler Straight Vacuum System

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marks, S.; Kennedy, K.; Plate, D.; Schlueter, R.D.; Zisman, M.

    2007-01-01

    The positron and electron damping rings for the International Linear Collider will contain long straight sections consisting of twenty wiggler/quadrupole pairs. The wigglers will be based upon the CESR superconducting design. There are a number of challenges associated with the design of the wiggler straight vacuum system, in particular, the absorption of photon power generated by the wigglers. This paper will present the overall conceptual design of the wiggler straight vacuum system developed for the ILC Reference Design Report. Particular emphasis will be placed on photon power load calculations and the absorber design

  2. Magnet design for an ultralow emittance storage ring

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Saeidi

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The Iranian Light Source Facility (ILSF is a new 3 GeV synchrotron radiation laboratory which is in the design stage. The ILSF storage ring (SR is based on a Five-Bend Achromat (5BA lattice providing an ultra-low beam emittance of 0.48 nm rad. The ring is comprised of 100 pure dipole magnets, 320 quadrupoles, and 320 sextupoles with additional coils for dipole and skew quadrupole correctors. In this paper, we present some design features of the SR magnets and discuss the detailed physical design of these electromagnets. The related electrical and cooling calculations and mechanical design issues have been investigated as well.

  3. Status of the MEIC ion collider ring design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morozov, Vasiliy; Derbenev, Yaroslav; Harwood, Leigh; Hutton, Andrew; Lin, Fanglei; Pilat, Fulvia; Zhang, Yuhong; Cai, Yunhai; Nosochkov, Y. M.; Sullivan, Michael; Wang, M.-H.; Wienands, Uli; Gerity, James; Mann, Thomas; McIntyre, Peter; Pogue, Nathaniel; Sattarov, Akhdiyor

    2015-09-01

    We present an update on the design of the ion collider ring of the Medium-energy Electron-Ion Collider (MEIC) proposed by Jefferson Lab. The design is based on the use of super-ferric magnets. It provides the necessary momentum range of 8 to 100 GeV/c for protons and ions, matches the electron collider ring design using PEP-II components, fits readily on the JLab site, offers a straightforward path for a future full-energy upgrade by replacing the magnets with higher-field ones in the same tunnel, and is more cost effective than using presently available current-dominated super-conducting magnets. We describe complete ion collider optics including an independently-designed modular detector region.

  4. Status of the MEIC ion collider ring design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morozov, V. S.; Derbenev, Ya. S.; Harwood, L.; Hutton, A.; Lin, F.; Pilat, F.; Zhang, Y.; Cai, Y.; Nosochkov, Y. M.; Sullivan, M.; Wang, M-H; Wienands, U.; Gerity, J.; Mann, T.; McIntyre, P.; Pogue, N. J.; Satttarov, A.

    2015-01-01

    We present an update on the design of the ion collider ring of the Medium-energy Electron-Ion Collider (MEIC) proposed by Jefferson Lab. The design is based on the use of super-ferric magnets. It provides the necessary momentum range of 8 to 100 GeV/c for protons and ions, matches the electron collider ring design using PEP-II components, fits readily on the JLab site, offers a straightforward path for a future full-energy upgrade by replacing the magnets with higher-field ones in the same tunnel, and is more cost effective than using presently available current-dominated superconducting magnets. We describe complete ion collider optics including an independently-designed modular detector region.

  5. Recent Progress on Design Studies of High-Luminosity Ring-Ring Electron-Ion Collider at CEBAF

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Y; Bruell, A; Chevtsov, P; Derbenev, Y S; Ent, R; Krafft, G A; Li, R; Merminga, L

    2009-05-01

    The conceptual design of a ring-ring electron-ion collider based on CEBAF has been continuously optimized to cover a wide center-of-mass energy region and to achieve high luminosity and polarization to support next generation nuclear science programs. Here, we summarize the recent design improvements and R&D progress on interaction region optics with chromatic aberration compensation, matching and tracking of electron polarization in the Figure-8 ring, beam-beam simulations and ion beam cooling studies.

  6. Some remarks on the design of HIF current multiplication rings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reich, K.H.

    1983-12-01

    The conceptual design of heavy ion fusion drivers has now reached a state, where the overall approach has become fairly clear. One design features an RF linac plus current and beam multiplication rings. The present remarks concern the assignment of multiturn injection, beam storage and bunching to an optimized number of rings and transport lines, as well as some criteria for their designs. The main parameter constraints are discussed, showing how they can be met, although there is little flexibility at the present stage of understanding and technology. A shortened version of this report is scheduled for presentation at the ''INS International Symposium on Heavy Ion Accelerators and Their Application to Inertial Fusion'' Tokyo, January 23-27 1984. (author)

  7. A damping ring design for future linear colliders

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Raubenheimer, T.O.; Gabella, W.E.; Morton, P.L.; Lee, M.J.; Rivkin, L.Z.; Ruth, R.D.

    1989-03-01

    In this paper we present a preliminary design of a damping ring for the TeV Linear Collider (TLC), a future linear collider with an energy of 1/2 to 1 TeV in the center of mass. Because of limits on the emittance, repetition rate and longitudinal impedance, we use combined function FODO cells with wigglers in insertion regions; there are approximately 22 meters of wigglers in the 155 meter ring. The ring has a normalized horizontal emittance, including the effect of intrabeam scattering, which is less than 3 /times/ 10/sup /minus/6/ and an emittance ratio of ε/sub x/ ∼ 100ε/sub y/. It is designed to damp bunches for 7 vertical damping times while operating at a repetition rate of 360 Hz. Because of these requirements on the emittance and the damping per bunch, the ring operates at 1.8 GeV and is relatively large, allowing more bunches to be damped at once. 10 refs., 5 figs., 2 tabs

  8. Magnet design for a low-emittance storage ring

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johansson, Martin; Anderberg, Bengt; Lindgren, Lars-Johan

    2014-01-01

    The magnet design of the MAX IV 3 GeV storage ring replaces the conventional support girder + discrete magnets scheme of previous third-generation light sources with a compact integrated design having several consecutive magnet elements precision-machined out of a common solid iron block. The MAX IV 3 GeV storage ring, currently under construction, pursues the goal of low electron beam emittance by using a multi-bend achromat magnet lattice, which is realised by having several consecutive magnet elements precision-machined out of a common solid iron block, 2.3–3.4 m long. With this magnet design solution, instead of having 1320 individual magnets, the MAX IV 3 GeV storage ring is built up using 140 integrated ‘magnet block’ units, containing all these magnet elements. Major features of this magnet block design are compactness, vibration stability and that the alignment of magnet elements within each unit is given by the mechanical accuracy of the CNC machining rather than individual field measurement and adjustment. This article presents practical engineering details of implementing this magnet design solution, and mechanical + magnetic field measurement results from the magnet production series. At the time of writing (spring 2014), the production series, which is totally outsourced to industry, is roughly half way through, with mechanical/magnetic QA conforming to specifications. It is the conclusion of the authors that the MAX IV magnet block concept, which has sometimes been described as new or innovative, is from a manufacturing point of view simply a collection of known mature production methods and measurement procedures, which can be executed at fixed cost with a low level of risk

  9. Design and experiment of a small-scale walking robot employing stick-slip motion principle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Gangqiang; Li, Chaodong; Yuan, Tao

    2017-11-01

    We describe the design and control of a four legged walking robot, 45 g in weight and 130 mm × 105 mm × 25 mm in size. Each leg consists of two piezoelectric bimorph actuators that are bonded at the free end by a flexure and an end-effector. The robot generates stick-slip locomotion when applying sawtooth shaped voltage signals. Friction between legs and a contact surface is analyzed by using the Coulomb friction model. Locomotion characteristics are measured in several experiments. The robot was driven with frequencies up to 75 Hz, and a maximum velocity of 65 mm/s was obtained at two frequencies: 45 Hz with 190 Vpp driving voltage and 60 Hz with 170 Vpp driving voltage, respectively.

  10. Design and experiment of a small-scale walking robot employing stick-slip motion principle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Gangqiang; Li, Chaodong; Yuan, Tao

    2017-11-01

    We describe the design and control of a four legged walking robot, 45 g in weight and 130 mm × 105 mm × 25 mm in size. Each leg consists of two piezoelectric bimorph actuators that are bonded at the free end by a flexure and an end-effector. The robot generates stick-slip locomotion when applying sawtooth shaped voltage signals. Friction between legs and a contact surface is analyzed by using the Coulomb friction model. Locomotion characteristics are measured in several experiments. The robot was driven with frequencies up to 75 Hz, and a maximum velocity of 65 mm/s was obtained at two frequencies: 45 Hz with 190 Vpp driving voltage and 60 Hz with 170 Vpp driving voltage, respectively.

  11. Design of the WNR proton storage ring lattice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cooper, R.K.; Lawrence, G.P.

    1977-01-01

    The Weapons Neutron Research Facility, now approaching operational status, is a pulsed neutron time-of-flight facility utilizing bursts of 800 MeV protons from the LAMPF linac. The protons strike a heavy metal target and produce a broad energy spectrum of neutrons via spallation reactions. Ideally the width of the proton pulse should approach a delta function in order to achieve good neutron energy resolution. Practically, the shortest pulse that can be employed in the facility is that produced by a single LAMPF micropulse, which, at design current, contains approximately 5 x 10 8 protons. With the addition of a storage ring capable of accumulating many micropulses, this intensity can be increased, as can the repetition rate. Moreover, by storing an unbunched beam, a low repetition rate, very intense proton burst can be generated. This latter mode of usage allows neutron time-of-flight studies using large neutron targets, for which pulse lengths of the order of several hundred nanoseconds are suitable. The primary goals of the ring are reported: (i) to increase the intensity of the burst to 10 11 protons while retaining a short pulse length; (ii) to increase the repetition rate of the bursts by at least a factor of six; and (iii) to store as many particles as possible, uniformly distributed around the ring

  12. Magnet design for a low-emittance storage ring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johansson, Martin; Anderberg, Bengt; Lindgren, Lars-Johan

    2014-01-01

    The MAX IV 3 GeV storage ring, currently under construction, pursues the goal of low electron beam emittance by using a multi-bend achromat magnet lattice, which is realised by having several consecutive magnet elements precision-machined out of a common solid iron block, 2.3–3.4 m long. With this magnet design solution, instead of having 1320 individual magnets, the MAX IV 3 GeV storage ring is built up using 140 integrated ‘magnet block’ units, containing all these magnet elements. Major features of this magnet block design are compactness, vibration stability and that the alignment of magnet elements within each unit is given by the mechanical accuracy of the CNC machining rather than individual field measurement and adjustment. This article presents practical engineering details of implementing this magnet design solution, and mechanical + magnetic field measurement results from the magnet production series. At the time of writing (spring 2014), the production series, which is totally outsourced to industry, is roughly half way through, with mechanical/magnetic QA conforming to specifications. It is the conclusion of the authors that the MAX IV magnet block concept, which has sometimes been described as new or innovative, is from a manufacturing point of view simply a collection of known mature production methods and measurement procedures, which can be executed at fixed cost with a low level of risk. PMID:25177980

  13. The design of the Spectrometer Ring at the HIAF

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, B.; Yang, J. C.; Xia, J. W.; Yan, X. L.; Hu, X. J.; Mao, L. J.; Sheng, L. N.; Wu, J. X.; Yin, D. Y.; Chai, W. P.; Shen, G. D.; Ge, W. W.; Wang, G.; Zhao, H.; Ruan, S.; Ma, X. W.; Wang, M.; Litvinov, S.; Wen, W. Q.; Chen, X. C.; Chen, R. J.; Tang, M. T.; Wu, W.; Luo, C.; Zhao, T. C.; Shi, C. F.; Fu, X.; Liu, J.; Liang, L.

    2018-02-01

    The Spectrometer Ring (SRing) is an essential part of the High Intensity heavy-ion Accelerator Facility project (HIAF) in China. It is designed as a multi-functional experimental storage ring, which will be able to operate in three ion optical operation modes. The SRing will be used as a time-of-flight mass spectrometer for short-lived, especially neutron-rich nuclei. It will also be used to collect and cool Rare Isotope Beams (RIBs) or highly-charged stable ion beams for nuclear and atomic physics experiments. The design magnetic rigidity is in the range 1.5 to 15 Tm. The beam cooling system consists of stochastic cooling and electron cooling devices. With a help of an electron cooler, stored ions will be decelerated to a minimum energy of 30 MeV/u by RF cavities. The extraction system of the SRing will allow cooled ion beams to be extracted to an external target for further ion manipulations or reaction experiments. The general ion optics design and technical requirements of SRing subsystems are presented and discussed in this paper.

  14. The Ku70/80 ring in Non-Homologous End-Joining: easy to slip on, hard to remove.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kragelund, Birthe B; Weterings, Eric; Hartmann-Petersen, Rasmus; Keijzers, Guido

    2016-01-01

    Non-homologous end-joining (NHEJ) is an essential DNA double strand break repair pathway during all cell cycle stages. Deficiency in NHEJ factors can lead to accumulation of unrepaired DNA breaks or faulty DNA repair, which may ultimately result in cell death, senescence or carcinogenesis. The Ku70/80 heterodimer is a key-player in the NHEJ pathway and binds to DNA termini with high affinity, where it helps to protect DNA ends from degradation and to recruit other NHEJ factors required for repair. The mechanism of Ku70/80 detachment from the DNA helix after completion of DNA repair is incompletely understood. Some data suggest that certain DNA repair factors are ubiquitylated and targeted for proteasomal degradation after repair. Recent studies suggest that Ku80 is conjugated to lysine48-linked ubiquitin chains by the Skp1-Cullin-F-box (SCF) complex and/or the RING finger protein 8 (RNF8) ubiquitin-protein ligases, followed by rapid proteasomal degradation. In this review we address the structure and function of the Ku70/80 heterodimer and how ubiquitylation may affect the release of Ku70/80 from chromatin and its subsequent degradation via the ubiquitin-proteasome system.

  15. Extending Resolution of Fault Slip With Geodetic Networks Through Optimal Network Design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sathiakumar, Sharadha; Barbot, Sylvain Denis; Agram, Piyush

    2017-12-01

    Geodetic networks consisting of high precision and high rate Global Navigation Satellite Systems (GNSS) stations continuously monitor seismically active regions of the world. These networks measure surface displacements and the amount of geodetic strain accumulated in the region and give insight into the seismic potential. SuGar (Sumatra GPS Array) in Sumatra, GEONET (GNSS Earth Observation Network System) in Japan, and PBO (Plate Boundary Observatory) in California are some examples of established networks around the world that are constantly expanding with the addition of new stations to improve the quality of measurements. However, installing new stations to existing networks is tedious and expensive. Therefore, it is important to choose suitable locations for new stations to increase the precision obtained in measuring the geophysical parameters of interest. Here we describe a methodology to design optimal geodetic networks that augment the existing system and use it to investigate seismo-tectonics at convergent and transform boundaries considering land-based and seafloor geodesy. The proposed network design optimization would be pivotal to better understand seismic and tsunami hazards around the world. Land-based and seafloor networks can monitor fault slip around subduction zones with significant resolution, but transform faults are more challenging to monitor due to their near-vertical geometry.

  16. Development and verification of a reciprocating test rig designed for investigation of piston ring tribology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Michael Torben; Imran, Tajammal; Klit, Peder

    2009-01-01

    This paper describes the development and verification of a reciprocating test rig, which was designed to study the piston ring tribology. A crank mechanism is used to generate a reciprocating motion for a moving plate, which acts as the liner. A stationary block acting as the ring package is loaded......, which is suitable for the study of piston ring tribology....

  17. Ring Irrigation System (RIS design through customer preference representation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ridwan Infandra I.Z.

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available In agricultural field, irrigation is one of the most interesting considerations affecting the rate of plant growth and development. Micro-irrigation as the dripping or sprinkle method is one of the irrigation types that applies the small amount of water for fulfilling the humidity requirement. The most important factors affecting the demand of water for plants are soil conditions and effect of climatic factors. With less human labour required, to improve the irrigation method from the recent days, analyzing water used or water permeation automatically through the soil moisture has been raised as the interesting topic. Proposed in this research is the ring irrigation system (RIS which is introduced as an alternative channel for emitters that drip water directly onto the soil at the plant’s root zone where the soil conditions before and after watering can be quickly detected by the sensors. This RIS can be used for the potted plant, green house, or other small farm fields. Product design and development (PDD is applied in this research for assisting the designer to understand and create the RIS prototype properly according to the customer’s requirements where the suggested functions obtained will be added and tested.

  18. Storage ring at HIE-ISOLDE Technical design report

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Grieser, M.; Litvinov, Yu. A.; Raabe, R.; Blaum, K.; Blumenfeld, Y.; Butler, P. A.; Wenander, F.; Woods, P. J.; Aliotta, M.; Andreyev, A.; Artemyev, A.; Atanasov, D.; Aumann, T.; Balabanski, D.; Barzakh, A.; Batist, L.; Bernardes, A. -P.; Bernhardt, D.; Billowes, J.; Bishop, S.; Borge, M.; Borzov, I.; Boston, A. J.; Brandau, C.; Catford, W.; Catherall, R.; Cederkall, J.; Cullen, D.; Davinson, T.; Dillmann, I.; Dimopoulou, C.; Dracoulis, G.; Duellmann, Ch. E.; Egelhof, P.; Estrade, A.; Fischer, D.; Flanagan, K.; Fraile, L.; Fraser, M. A.; Freeman, S. J.; Geissel, H.; Gerl, J.; Greenlees, P.; Grisenti, R. E.; Habs, D.; von Hahn, R.; Hagmann, S.; Hausmann, M.; He, J. J.; Heil, M.; Huyse, M.; Jenkins, D.; Jokinen, A.; Jonson, B.; Joss, D. T.; Kadi, Y.; Kalantar-Nayestanaki, N.; Kay, B. P.; Kiselev, O.; Kluge, H. -J.; Kowalska, M.; Kozhuharov, C.; Kreim, S.; Kroell, T.; Kurcewicz, J.; Labiche, M.; Lemmon, R. C.; Lestinsky, M.; Lotay, G.; Ma, X. W.; Marta, M.; Meng, J.; Muecher, D.; Mukha, I.; Mueller, A.; Murphy, A. St J.; Neyens, G.; Nilsson, T.; Nociforo, C.; Noertershaeuser, W.; Page, R. D.; Pasini, M.; Petridis, N.; Pietralla, N.; Pfuetzner, M.; Podolyak, Z.; Regan, P.; Reed, M. W.; Reifarth, R.; Reiter, P.; Repnow, R.; Riisager, K.; Rubio, B.; Sanjari, M. S.; Savin, D. W.; Scheidenberger, C.; Schippers, S.; Schneider, D.; Schuch, R.; Schwalm, D.; Schweikhard, L.; Shubina, D.; Siesling, E.; Simon, H.; Simpson, J.; Smith, J.; Sonnabend, K.; Steck, M.; Stora, T.; Stoehlker, T.; Sun, B.; Surzhykov, A.; Suzaki, F.; Tarasov, O.; Trotsenko, S.; Tu, X. L.; Van Duppen, P.; Volpe, C.; Voulot, D.; Walker, P. M.; Wildner, E.; Winckler, N.; Winters, D. F. A.; Wolf, A.; Xu, H. S.; Yakushev, A.; Yamaguchi, T.; Yuan, Y. J.; Zhang, Y. H.; Zuber, K.; Bosch, F.M.

    We propose to install a storage ring at an ISOL-type radioactive beam facility for the first time. Specifically, we intend to setup the heavy-ion, low-energy ring TSR at the HIE-ISOLDE facility in CERN, Geneva. Such a facility will provide a capability for experiments with stored secondary beams

  19. Conceptual design of elliptical cavities for intensity and position sensitive beam measurements in storage rings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sanjari, M S; Chen, X; Hülsmann, P; Litvinov, Yu A; Nolden, F; Piotrowski, J; Steck, M; Stöhlker, Th

    2015-01-01

    Position sensitive beam monitors are indispensable for the beam diagnostics in storage rings. Apart from their applications in the measurements of beam parameters, they can be used in non-destructive in-ring decay studies of radioactive ion beams as well as enhancing precision in the isochronous mass measurement technique. In this work, we introduce a novel approach based on cavities with elliptical cross-section, in order to compensate the limitations of known designs for the application in ion storage rings. The design is aimed primarily for future heavy ion storage rings of the FAIR project. The conceptual design is discussed together with simulation results. (paper)

  20. New prism ring laser design incorporating frustrated total internal reflection output coupling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Heyde, C.; Hansen, P.L.; Buchhave, Preben

    1997-01-01

    A novel prism ring laser design incorporating total internal reflection resonator mirrors and frustrated total internal reflection output coupling is analyzed and tested experimentally.......A novel prism ring laser design incorporating total internal reflection resonator mirrors and frustrated total internal reflection output coupling is analyzed and tested experimentally....

  1. Parameters and design optimization of the ring piezoelectric ceramic transformer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiří Erhart

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Main aim of the presented paper is the theoretical analysis and experimental verification of the transformation parameters for the new type of nonhomogeneously poled ring transformer. The input part is poled in the thickness direction and output part in the radial direction. Two transformer geometries are studied — the input part is at inner ring segment, or it is at the outer ring segment. The optimum electrode size aspect ratios have been found experimentally as d1∕D≈0.60−0.65 for the ring with aspect ratio d∕D=0.2. The fundamental as well as higher overtone resonances were studied for the transformation ratio, the optimum resistive load, efficiency and no-load transformation ratio. Higher overtones have better transformation parameters compared to the fundamental resonance. The new type ring transformer exhibits very high transformation ratios up to 200 under no-load and up to 13.4 under a high efficiency of 97% at the optimum load conditions of 10 kΩ. Strong electric field gradient at the output circuit is applicable for the electrical discharge generation.

  2. Interaction region design for a ring ring version of the LHEC study

    CERN Document Server

    Appleby, R B; Dainton, J; Holzer, B; Bettoni, S; Bruning, O; Russenschuck, S H; Kostka, P; Kling, A; Nagorny, B; Schneekloth, U; Polini, A; Klein, M

    2010-01-01

    The LHeC aims at colliding hadron-lepton beams with center of mass energies in the TeV scale. For this purpose the existing LHC storage ring is extended by a high energy electron accelerator in the energy range of 60 to 140 GeV. The electron beam will be accelerated and stored in a LEP like storage ring in the LHC tunnel. In this paper we present the layout of the interaction region which has to deliver at the same time well matched beam optics and an efficient separation of the electron and proton beams. In general the large momentum difference of the two colliding beams provides a very elegant way to solve this problem: A focusing scheme that leads to the required beamsizes of the electrons and protons is combined with an early but gentle beam separation to avoid parasitic beam encounters and still keep the synchrotron radiation level in the IR within reasonable limits. We present in this paper two versions of this concept: A high luminosity layout where the mini β magnets are embedded into the detector de...

  3. Design, Construction and Evaluation of an Interchangeable Digital System to Measure Slip and Ground Speed of Existing 2WD Tractors in Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M Khosravi

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available The majority of existing tractors in Iran are not equipped with any tools to measure and display slip and ground speed. This is mainly due to the lack of national standards for measuring tools and instruments of tractors. In current research, an interchangeable system for two wheel drive tractors has been designed. Furthermore, it has been assessed after construction. To measure actual and theoretical ground speed, four rotary encoders for sensing the rotation of front and rear wheels have been utilized. Slip and ground speed were measured by means of software which has been developed in an ATmega16PU microprocessor. The measured slip and speed are digitally displayed on tractor dashboard. To evaluate the performance of the system, the measured values of ground speed and slip were compared with their calculated values obtained from conventional method. The Micro-controller has been programmed in such a way that the effect of front wheel sliding on slip is eliminated. In all evaluation conditions (in field and on asphalt, the maximum difference between system measurements for slip and speed and calculated slip and speed via conventional method was 2.4% and 0.2 km h-1, respectively. With slight alteration this system can be fitted on any kind of exiting two wheel drive tractors in the country.

  4. A FODO racetrack ring for nuSTORM: design and optimization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, A.; Bross, A.; Neuffer, D.

    2017-07-01

    The goal of nuSTORM is to provide well-defined neutrino beams for precise measurements of neutrino cross-sections and oscillations. The nuSTORM decay ring is a compact racetrack storage ring with a circumference of ~ 480 m that incorporates large aperture (60 cm diameter) magnets. There are many challenges in the design. In order to incorporate the Orbit Combination section (OCS), used for injecting the pion beam into the ring, a dispersion suppressor is needed adjacent to the OCS . Concurrently, in order to maximize the number of useful muon decays, strong bending dipoles are needed in the arcs to minimize the arc length. These dipoles create strong chromatic effects, which need to be corrected by nonlinear sextupole elements in the ring. In this paper, a FODO racetrack ring design and its optimization using sextupolar fields via both a Genetic Algorithm (GA) and a Simulated Annealing (SA) algorithm will be discussed.

  5. First results for a FCC-hh ring optics design

    CERN Document Server

    Chance, Antoine; Payet, Jacques; Alemany Fernandez, Reyes; Holzer, Bernhard; Schulte, Daniel

    2015-01-01

    The first order considerations of the optics for the FCC-hh ring are presented. The arc cell is generated taking into account some general considerations like the whole circumference, maximum gradients and lengths of the elements in the cell. The integration of the insertion regions started. Three types of Dispersion Suppressors (DIS) are studied. The sensitivity of the arc parameters to these layout considerations is studied in more detail. An alternative layout is shown as well.

  6. Design of dual ring wavelength filters for WDM applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sathyadevaki, R.; Shanmuga sundar, D.; Sivanantha Raja, A.

    2016-12-01

    Wavelength division multiplexing plays a prime role in an optical communication due to its advantages such as easy network expansion, longer span lengths etc. In this work, photonic crystal based filters with the dual rings are proposed which act as band pass filters (BPF) and channel drop filter (CDF) that has found a massive applications in C and L-bands used for wavelength selection and noise filtering at erbium doped fiber amplifiers and dense wavelength division multiplexing operation. These filters are formulated on the square lattice with crystal rods of silicon material of refractive index 3.4 which are perforated on an air of refractive index 1. Dual ring double filters (band pass filter and channel drop filter) on single layout possess passing and dropping band of wavelengths in two distinct arrangements with entire band quality factors of 92.09523 & 505.263 and 124.85019 & 456.8633 for the pass and drop filters of initial setup and amended setup respectively. These filters have the high-quality factor with broad and narrow bandwidths of 16.8 nm & 3.04 nm and 12.85 nm & 3.3927 nm. Transmission spectra and band gap of the desired filters is analyzed using Optiwave software suite. Two dual ring filters incorporated on a single layout comprises the size of 15×11 μm which can also be used in the integrated photonic chips for the ultra-compact unification of devices.

  7. Design of a lattice for JAERI storage ring (JSR)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harada, Shunji; Yokomizo, Hideaki; Yanagida, Kenichi

    1990-08-01

    The new 8GeV synchrotron radiation facility (SPring-8) is planned to be constructed in Japan, and our institute (JAERI) are involved in this project with RIKEN. A compact electron storage ring JSR has been constructed in JAERI in order to study various kind of accelerator technologies, to test some devices such as the insertion devices and the beam monitors, and to train young researchers. The ring size is limited by the available space of a linac building, so that the circumference of JSR becomes 20.546 m. However, even in this small ring, one straight section with the length of ∼1.5 m, where the dispersion is free, is provided for the insertion device study. JSR takes Chasman-Green lattice with a superperiodicity of three. JSR is possible not only to suppress the dispersion but also to leave it on the long straight section. An electron beam from a linac is accepted into JSR in any operating modes. (author)

  8. Design concepts of a storage ring for a high power XUV free electron laser

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cornacchia, M.; Bisognano, J.; Chattopadhyay, S.

    1985-08-01

    The study of a storage ring capable of sustaining an electron beam of the quality required for a High Gain Free Electron Laser in the vacuum ultraviolet and x-ray region is reported. A method is described for the optimization of the design of the storage ring, where several competing and often conflicting requirements come into play. An example design is presented of a ring that satisfies the required conditions of beam quality and is able to produce coherent radiation at 400 A with tens of megawatts of peak power

  9. Design and implementation of a fiber optic link for a token ring local area network

    OpenAIRE

    Doran, Thomas J.

    1992-01-01

    Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited This thesis described the design and implementation of a fiber optic link for a token ring local area network (LAN). It features the use of fiber optic channels as the transmission medium between a computer system and a wiring concentrator to convert a physical ring design into a star-wired configuration. The LAN was controlled by the TMS380 LAN Adapter chipset, which provided all diagnostic and network management features to include...

  10. Design and implementation of a token-ring optic local area network interface module

    OpenAIRE

    Anderson, Mary L.

    1989-01-01

    Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited This thesis describes the design and implementation of a token-ring fiber optic local area network (LAN) interface module. The token-ring protocol implementing the IEEE 802.5 standard is reviewed. The initial LAN electrical signal operating at 4 Mbps is provided by a LAN adapter card based on the TMS380 chipset developed for twisted pair copper wire. This design features analog implementations of both the input ele...

  11. Cabling design of booster and storage ring construction progress of TPS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Y.-S.; Liu, K.-B.; Liu, C.-Y.; Wang, b.-S.

    2017-06-01

    The 2012 Taiwan Photon Source (TPS) cable construction project started after 10 months to complete the cable laying and installation of power supply. The circumference of the booster ring (BR) is 496.8 m, whereas that of the storage ring (SR) is 518.4 m. Beam current is set to 500 mA at 3.3 GeV. The paper on grounding systems discusses the design of the ground wire (cabling tray. The flow and size of the ground current are carefully evaluated to avoid grounded current from flowing everywhere, which causes interference problems. In the design of the TPS, special shielding will be established to isolate the effects of electromagnetic interference on the magnet and ground current. Booster ring dipoles are connected by a series of 54-magnet bending dipole; the cable size of its stranded wire measures 250 mm2, with a total length of 5000 m. Booster ring and storage ring quadrupoles have 150 magnets; the cable size of their stranded wire is 250 mm2, with a total length of 17000 m. Storage ring dipole consists of 48 magnets; the cable size of its stranded wire is 325 mm2, with a total length of 6000 m. This study discusses the power supply cabling design of the storage ring and booster ring construction progress of TPS. The sections of this paper are divided into discussions of the construction of the control and instrument area, cabling layout of booster ring and storage ring, as well as the installation and commission machine. This study also discusses the use of a high-impedance meter to determine the effect of cabling insulation and TPS power supply machine on energy transfer to ensure the use of safe and correct magnet.

  12. Preliminary Design of an Inductive Adder for CLIC Damping Rings

    CERN Document Server

    Holma, J

    2011-01-01

    The Compact Linear Collider (CLIC) study is exploring the scheme for an electron-positron collider with high luminosity and a nominal centre-of-mass energy of 3 TeV. The CLIC damping rings will produce ultra-low emittance beam, with high bunch charge, necessary for the luminosity performance of the collider. To limit the beam emittance blow-up due to oscillations, the pulse power modulators for the damping rings kickers must provide extremely flat, high-voltage, pulses: specifications call for a 160 ns duration flattop of 12.5 kV, 250 A, with a combined ripple and droop of not more than ±0.02 %. A solid-state modulator, the inductive adder, is a very promising approach to meeting the demanding specifications; this topology allows the use of both digital and analogue modulation. To effectively use modulation techniques to achieve such low ripple and droop requires an in-depth knowledge of the behaviour of the solid-state switching components and their gate drivers, as well as a good understanding of the overa...

  13. Design, modeling and testing of integrated ring extractor for high resolution electrohydrodynamic (EHD) 3D printing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Yiwei; Dong, Jingyan

    2017-03-01

    This paper presents an integrated ring extractor design in electrohydrodynamic (EHD) printing, which can overcome the standoff height limitation in the EHD printing process, and improve printing capability for 3D structures. Standoff height in the EHD printing will affect printing processes and limit the height of the printed structure when the ground electrode is placed under the substrate. In this work, we designed and integrated a ring electrode with the printing nozzle to achieve a self-working printer head, which can start and maintain the printing process without the involvement of the substrate. We applied a FEA method to model the electric field potential distribution and strength to direct the ring extractor design, which provides a similar printing capability with the system using substrate as the ground electrode. We verified the ring electrode design by experiments, and those results from the experiments demonstrated a good match with results from the FEA simulation. We have characterized the printing processes using the integrated ring extractor, and successfully applied this newly designed ring extractor to print polycaprolactone (PCL) 3D structures.

  14. Design, modeling and testing of integrated ring extractor for high resolution electrohydrodynamic (EHD) 3D printing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Han, Yiwei; Dong, Jingyan

    2017-01-01

    This paper presents an integrated ring extractor design in electrohydrodynamic (EHD) printing, which can overcome the standoff height limitation in the EHD printing process, and improve printing capability for 3D structures. Standoff height in the EHD printing will affect printing processes and limit the height of the printed structure when the ground electrode is placed under the substrate. In this work, we designed and integrated a ring electrode with the printing nozzle to achieve a self-working printer head, which can start and maintain the printing process without the involvement of the substrate. We applied a FEA method to model the electric field potential distribution and strength to direct the ring extractor design, which provides a similar printing capability with the system using substrate as the ground electrode. We verified the ring electrode design by experiments, and those results from the experiments demonstrated a good match with results from the FEA simulation. We have characterized the printing processes using the integrated ring extractor, and successfully applied this newly designed ring extractor to print polycaprolactone (PCL) 3D structures. (paper)

  15. Design summary of the magnet support structures for the proton storage ring injection line upgrade

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bernardin, J.D.; Ledford, J.E.; Smith, B.G.

    1997-05-01

    This report summarizes the technical engineering and design issues associated with the Proton Storage Ring (PSR) Injection Line upgrade of the Los Alamos Neutron Science Center (LANSCE). The main focus is on the engineering design calculations of several magnet support structures. The general procedure based upon a set number of design criteria is outlined, followed by a case-by-case summary of the engineering design analyses, reutilization or fabrication callouts and design safety factors

  16. Design summary of the magnet support structures for the proton storage ring injection line upgrade

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bernardin, J.D.; Ledford, J.E.; Smith, B.G.

    1997-05-01

    This report summarizes the technical engineering and design issues associated with the Proton Storage Ring (PSR) Injection Line upgrade of the Los Alamos Neutron Science Center (LANSCE). The main focus is on the engineering design calculations of several magnet support structures. The general procedure based upon a set number of design criteria is outlined, followed by a case-by-case summary of the engineering design analyses, reutilization or fabrication callouts and design safety factors.

  17. Slip-stacking Dynamics for High-Power Proton Beams at Fermilab

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eldred, Jeffrey Scott [Indiana Univ., Bloomington, IN (United States)

    2015-12-01

    Slip-stacking is a particle accelerator configuration used to store two particle beams with different momenta in the same ring. The two beams are longitudinally focused by two radiofrequency (RF) cavities with a small frequency difference between them. Each beam is synchronized to one RF cavity and perturbed by the other RF cavity. Fermilab uses slip-stacking in the Recycler so as to double the power of the 120 GeV proton beam in the Main Injector. This dissertation investigates the dynamics of slip-stacking beams analytically, numerically and experimentally. In the analytic analysis, I find the general trajectory of stable slip-stacking particles and identify the slip-stacking parametric resonances. In the numerical analysis, I characterize the stable phase-space area and model the particle losses. In particular, I evaluate the impact of upgrading the Fermilab Booster cycle-rate from 15 Hz to 20 Hz as part of the Proton Improvement Plan II (PIP-II). The experimental analysis is used to verify my approach to simulating slip-stacking loss. I design a study for measuring losses from the longitudinal single-particle dynamics of slip-stacking as a function of RF cavity voltage and RF frequency separation. I further propose the installation of a harmonic RF cavity and study the dynamics of this novel slip-stacking configuration. I show the harmonic RF cavity cancels out parametric resonances in slip-stacking, reduces emittance growth during slip-stacking, and dramatically enhances the stable phase-space area. The harmonic cavity is expected to reduce slip-stacking losses to far exceed PIP-II requirements. These results raise the possibility of extending slip-stacking beyond the PIP-II era.

  18. Design of the compressor/stretcher ring of the Japanese Hadron Project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ohmori, C.; Noda, A.; Kimiya, Y.; Kihara, M.; Yamane, I.

    1991-01-01

    A possibility of adopting a racetrack-type design for the compressor/stretcher ring of the Japanese Hadron Project is described. This design has two long straight sections to enable to inject the H - beam and to produce a high β point for the slow extraction. (author)

  19. Design of the compressor/stretcher ring of the Japanese Hadron Project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ohmori, C.; Noda, A.; Kamiya, Y.; Kihara, M.; Yamane, I.

    1991-02-01

    A possibility of adopting a racetrack-type design for the compressor/stretcher ring of the Japanese Hadron Project is described. This design has two long straight sections to enable to inject the H - beam and to produce a high β point for the slow extraction. (author)

  20. Beam-Loss Driven Design Optimization for the Spallation Neutron Source (SNS) Ring

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wei, J.

    1999-01-01

    This paper summarizes three-state design optimization for the Spallation Neutron Source (SNS) ring: linear machine design (lattice, aperture, injection, magnet field errors and misalignment), beam core manipulation (painting, space charge, instabilities, RF requirements), and beam halo consideration (collimation, envelope variation, e-p issues etc.)

  1. Modelling Paleoearthquake Slip Distributions using a Gentic Algorithm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindsay, Anthony; Simão, Nuno; McCloskey, John; Nalbant, Suleyman; Murphy, Shane; Bhloscaidh, Mairead Nic

    2013-04-01

    Along the Sunda trench, the annual growth rings of coral microatolls store long term records of tectonic deformation. Spread over large areas of an active megathrust fault, they offer the possibility of high resolution reconstructions of slip for a number of paleo-earthquakes. These data are complex with spatial and temporal variations in uncertainty. Rather than assuming that any one model will uniquely fit the data, Monte Carlo Slip Estimation (MCSE) modelling produces a catalogue of possible models for each event. From each earthquake's catalogue, a model is selected and a possible history of slip along the fault reconstructed. By generating multiple histories, then finding the average slip during each earthquake, a probabilistic history of slip along the fault can be generated and areas that may have a large slip deficit identified. However, the MCSE technique requires the production of many hundreds of billions of models to yield the few models that fit the observed coral data. In an attempt to accelerate this process, we have designed a Genetic Algorithm (GA). The GA uses evolutionary operators to recombine the information held by a population of possible slip models to produce a set of new models, based on how well they reproduce a set of coral deformation data. Repeated iterations of the algorithm produce populations of improved models, each generation better satisfying the coral data. Preliminary results have shown the GA to be capable of recovering synthetically generated slip distributions based their displacements of sets of corals faster than the MCSE technique. The results of the systematic testing of the GA technique and its performance using both synthetic and observed coral displacement data will be presented.

  2. Design parameters for a small storage ring optimized as an x-ray lithography source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grobman, W.D.

    1983-01-01

    This paper examines the design parameters for a ''compact storage ring'' which is matched well to x-ray lithographic requirements, but is as small as possible. This calculation uses a model of a lithographic system which obtains its input parameters from a technology of mask, resist and beam line based on the IBM program at the Brookhaven National Laboratory vacuum ultraviolet electron storage ring. Based on this lithographic system, we model exposure throughput as a function of storage ring parameters to understand which storage ring designs provide adequate but not excessive soft x-ray flux in the lithographically important region. Our scan of storage ring sources will cover a wide range of energies and magnetic fields, to permit consideration of superconducting as well as more standard strong- or weak-focusing designs. Furthermore, we will show that the results of the calculations presented here can be scaled in a simple way to cover a wide range of x-ray lithography system assumptions

  3. ALGORITHMIC FACILITIES AND SOFTWARE FOR VIRTUAL DESIGN OF ANTI-BLOCK AND COUNTER-SLIPPING SYSTEMS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. N. Hurski

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper considers algorithms of designing a roadway covering for virtual test of mobile machine movement dynamics; an algorithm of forming actual values of forces/moments in «road–wheel–car» contact and their derivatives, and also a software for virtual designing of mobile machine dynamics.

  4. Fundamental Design Principles of Linear Collider Damping Rings, with an Application to CLIC

    CERN Document Server

    Potier, J P

    2000-01-01

    Damping Rings for Linear Colliders have to produce very small normalised emittances at a high repetition rate. A previous paper presented analytical expressions for the equilibrium emittance of an arc cell as a function of the deflection angle per dipole. In addition, an expression for the lattice parameters providing the minimum emittance, and a strategy to stay close to this, were proposed. This analytical approach is extended to the detailed design of Damping Rings, taking into account the straight sections and the damping wigglers. Complete rings, including wiggler and injection insections, were modelled with the MAD [1] program, and their performance was found to be in good agreement with the analytical calculation. With such an approach it is shown that a Damping Ring corresponding to the Compact Linear Collider (CLIC) parameters at 0.5 and 1 TeV centre-of-mass energy, and tunable for two different sets of emittance and injection repetition rate, can be designed using the same ring layout.

  5. Electrostatic design of the barrel CRID [Cherenkov Ring Imaging Detector] and associated measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abe, K.; Hasegawa, K.; Suekane, F.; Yuta, H.; Bean, A.; Caldwell, D.; Duboscq, J.; Hale, D.; Huber, J.; Lu, A.; Mathys, L.; McHugh, S.; Morrison, R.; Witherell, M.; Yellin, S.; Coyle, P.; Coyne, D.; Gagnon, P.; Williams, D.A.; Jacques, P.; Plano, R.; Stamer, P.; Hasegawa, K.; Johnson, R.A.; Martinez, J.; Nussbaum, M.; Santha, K.S.; Shoup, A.; Stockdale, I.; Suekane, F.; Whitaker, J.S.; Wilson, R.J.

    1990-04-01

    We report on the electrostatic design and related measurements of the barrel Cherenkov Ring Imaging Detector for the Stanford Large Detector experiment at the Stanford Linear Accelerator Center Linear Collider. We include test results of photon feedback in TMAE-laden gas, distortion measurements in the drift boxes and corona measurements. 13 refs., 21 figs

  6. Electrostatic design of the barrel CRID (Cherenkov Ring Imaging Detector) and associated measurements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abe, K.; Hasegawa, K.; Suekane, F.; Yuta, H. (Tohoku Univ., Sendai (Japan). Dept. of Physics); Antilogus, P.; Aston, D.; Bienz, T.; Bird, F.; Dunwoodie, W.; Hallewell, G.; Kawahara, H.; Kwon, Y.; Leith, D.W.G.S.; Muller, D.; Nagamine, T.; Pavel, T.; Ratcliff, B.; Rensing, P.; Schultz, D.; Shapiro, S.; Simopoulos, C.; Solodov, E.; Toge, N.; Va' Vra, J. Williams, H. (Stanford Linear Accelerator Center, Menlo Park, CA (US

    1990-04-01

    We report on the electrostatic design and related measurements of the barrel Cherenkov Ring Imaging Detector for the Stanford Large Detector experiment at the Stanford Linear Accelerator Center Linear Collider. We include test results of photon feedback in TMAE-laden gas, distortion measurements in the drift boxes and corona measurements. 13 refs., 21 figs.

  7. Augmented Reality som wearable. Et design for visuel læring i sygeplejerskeuddannelsens anatomiundervisning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Buhl, Mie; Rahn, Annette

    2015-01-01

    Artiklen omhandler design og implementering af Augmented Reality (AR) i form af en wearable i sygeplejerskeuddannelsens anatomiundervisning, mere specifikt undervisning i lungeanatomi og respiration, med fokus på potentialer for visuel læring. Projektet undersøger, hvordan en udviklet AR...

  8. A Virtual Tool for Minimum Cost Design of a Wind Turbine Tower with Ring Stiffeners

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fatih Karpat

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Currently, renewable energy resources are becoming more important to reduce greenhouse gas emissions and increase energy efficiency. Researchers have focused on all components of wind turbines to increase reliability and minimize cost. In this paper, a procedure including a cost analysis method and a particle swarm optimization algorithm has been presented to efficiently design low cost steel wind turbine towers. A virtual tool is developed in MATLAB for the cost optimization of wind turbine steel towers with ring stiffeners using a particle swarm optimization algorithm. A wind turbine tower optimization problem in the literature is solved using the developed computer program. In the optimization procedure the optimization results match very well with the optimization results obtained previously. The wall thickness of the shell segments and the dimensions of the ring stiffeners are selected as the design variables, and the limits of the local buckling for the flat ring stiffeners, the local shell buckling limit, the panel ring buckling limit and the limitation of the frequency are considered the design constraints. Numerical examples are presented to understand the impacts of the design variables on the total cost of the wind turbine tower.

  9. Design of a dual linear polarization antenna using split ring resonators at X-band

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmed, Sadiq; Chandra, Madhukar

    2017-11-01

    Dual linear polarization microstrip antenna configurations are very suitable for high-performance satellites, wireless communication and radar applications. This paper presents a new method to improve the co-cross polarization discrimination (XPD) for dual linear polarized microstrip antennas at 10 GHz. For this, three various configurations of a dual linear polarization antenna utilizing metamaterial unit cells are shown. In the first layout, the microstrip patch antenna is loaded with two pairs of spiral ring resonators, in the second model, a split ring resonator is placed between two microstrip feed lines, and in the third design, a complementary split ring resonators are etched in the ground plane. This work has two primary goals: the first is related to the addition of metamaterial unit cells to the antenna structure which permits compensation for an asymmetric current distribution flow on the microstrip antenna and thus yields a symmetrical current distribution on it. This compensation leads to an important enhancement in the XPD in comparison to a conventional dual linear polarized microstrip patch antenna. The simulation reveals an improvement of 7.9, 8.8, and 4 dB in the E and H planes for the three designs, respectively, in the XPD as compared to the conventional dual linear polarized patch antenna. The second objective of this paper is to present the characteristics and performances of the designs of the spiral ring resonator (S-RR), split ring resonator (SRR), and complementary split ring resonator (CSRR) metamaterial unit cells. The simulations are evaluated using the commercial full-wave simulator, Ansoft High-Frequency Structure Simulator (HFSS).

  10. Design and Fabrication of Nanostructures Based on DNA Ring-Protein Complex

    Science.gov (United States)

    Furukawa, Hideki; Endo, Tatsuro; Yanagida, Yasuko; Hatsuzawa, Takeshi

    2008-06-01

    In this report, we describe the design and fabrication of DNA nanostructures (“DNA glasses”, “DNA serial rings”, and “DNA chains”) using DNA ring-protein complexes. An experiment was performed to fabricate DNA ring-conjugated biotin using two types of DNA (“vector DNA” and “insert DNA”). The vector DNA was obtained by cutting plasmid DNA with restriction enzymes. The insert DNA (DNA conjugated with biotin) was obtained using a DNA synthesizer. After ligation and the introduction of streptavidin-modified gold nanoparticles, DNA structures were obtained. Subsequently, the DNA structures were observed by atomic force microscopy (AFM).

  11. Design and performance analysis of delay insensitive multi-ring structures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sparsø, Jens; Staunstrup, Jørgen

    1993-01-01

    . The vector multiplier circuit has been laid out, submitted for fabrication and successfully tested. Throughout the analysis elements from this design are used to illustrate the design and performance analysis techniques. The design technique is based on a data flow approach using pipelines and rings......A set of simple design and performance analysis techniques that have been successfully used to design a number of nontrivial delay insensitive circuits is described. Examples are building blocks for digital filters and a vector multiplier using a serial-parallel multiply and accumulate algorithm...

  12. Storage ring design of the 8 GeV synchrotron radiation facility (SPring-8)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hara, M.; Bc, S.H.; Motonaga, S.

    1990-01-01

    In Japan, RIKEN (Institute of Physical and Chemical Research) and JAERI (Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute) have organized a joint design team and started a design study for an 8 GeV synchrotron radiation X-ray source. This paper outlines the status of the design study for the 8 GeV highly brilliant synchrotron radiation X-ray source ring named Super Photon Ring (SPring-8). The facility consists of a main storage ring, a full-energy injector booster synchrotron and a pre-injector 1 GeV linac. The injector linac and synchrotron are laid outside the storage ring because to permit the use of the linac and synchrotron not only as an injector but also as an electron or positron beam source. The purpose of the facility is to provide stable photon beams with high brilliance in the X-ray region. The energy of the stored electrons (positrons) is fixed at 8 GeV to fulfill the required condition using conventional type insertion devices. (N.K.)

  13. Incorporating Structural Health Monitoring in the design of slip formed concrete wind turbine towers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hovgaard, Mads Knude

    The design of most civil structures follows the partial-safety-factor format. The partial-safety-factors are coefficients written in codes and guidelines, i.e. decided by administrative societal organs. They ensure that all new structures have similar and sufficient safety levels. When civil...... into the maintenance planning, as the data adds information concerning the reliability. Parallel to the evolution of this applied science, the disciplines of condition monitoring, fault detection, nondestructive evaluation and damage prognosis, have spawned the topic of Structural Health Monitoring (SHM). Formally...... speaking, SHM is the discipline of transforming sequential information of a structure’s dynamic response, typically obtained during normal operating conditions, to real-time decisions of actions regarding maintenance and operations. This being said, very little effort has been put into the value...

  14. Design of all-optical flip-flop by using optical bistability in passive micro-rings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Karimi, M.; Abolfazli, M. J.; Rouholamini Nejad, H.; Bahrampour, A.

    2007-01-01

    In this paper at first, Optical bistability in the micro ring resonators in the presence of Kerr and two-photon absorption effects is studied and also, attenuation in micro rings with these nonlinear effects is calculated. An all-optical R-S flip-flop is designed by using optical bistability. Conditions for SET and RESET signals are calculated and their dependences on the optical parameters of micro rings are investigated.

  15. Vacuum system design for the PEP-II B Factory High-Energy Ring

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Perkins, C.; Bostic, D.; Daly, E.

    1994-06-01

    The design of the vacuum system for the PEP-II B Factory High-Energy Ring is reviewed. The thermal design and vacuum requirements are particularly challenging in PEP-II due to high stored beam currents up to 3.0 amps in 1658 bunches. The vacuum chambers for the HER arcs are fabricated by electron beam welding extruded copper sections up to 6 m long. Design of these chambers and the vacuum PumPing configuration is described with results from vacuum and thermal analyses

  16. Overall design concepts for the APS storage ring machine protection system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lumpkin, A.; Fuja, R.; Votaw, A.; Wang, X.; Shu, D.; Stepp, J.; Arnold, N.; Nawrocki, G.; Decker, G.; Chung, Y.

    1995-01-01

    The basic design and status of the machine protection system for the Advanced Photon Source (APS) storage ring are discussed. The machine is passively safe to the bending magnet sources, but the high power of the insertion devices requires missteering conditions to be identified and the beam aborted in less than one millisecond. The basic aspects of waterflow, temperature, beam position, etc. monitoring are addressed. Initial commissioning of subsystems and sensors is statused

  17. Design and construction of an Offner spectrometer based on geometrical analysis of ring fields.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Seo Hyun; Kong, Hong Jin; Lee, Jong Ung; Lee, Jun Ho; Lee, Jai Hoon

    2014-08-01

    A method to obtain an aberration-corrected Offner spectrometer without ray obstruction is proposed. A new, more efficient spectrometer optics design is suggested in order to increase its spectral resolution. The derivation of a new ring equation to eliminate ray obstruction is based on geometrical analysis of the ring fields for various numerical apertures. The analytical design applying this equation was demonstrated using the optical design software Code V in order to manufacture a spectrometer working in wavelengths of 900-1700 nm. The simulation results show that the new concept offers an analytical initial design taking the least time of calculation. The simulated spectrometer exhibited a modulation transfer function over 80% at Nyquist frequency, root-mean-square spot diameters under 8.6 μm, and a spectral resolution of 3.2 nm. The final design and its realization of a high resolution Offner spectrometer was demonstrated based on the simulation result. The equation and analytical design procedure shown here can be applied to most Offner systems regardless of the wavelength range.

  18. Design and Prototyping of an Ionization Profile Monitor for the SNS Accumulator Ring

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bartkoski, Dirk A [ORNL; Deibele, Craig E [ORNL; Polsky, Yarom [ORNL

    2014-12-01

    An ionization profile monitor (IPM) has been designed for the Spallation Neutron Source (SNS) accumulator ring. Utilizing ionized electrons produced by beam-gas ionization, the SNS IPM uses a 120 kV bias potential to overcome beam space charge and accelerate electrons towards a movable particle detector. A 300 G magnetic field is used to confine the transverse electron motion, resulting in profile errors at the estimated 7% level. With a system bandwidth of 17.5 MHz. The SNS IPM is capable of measuring turn-by-turn beam profiles for a fully accumulated beam. This paper presents a description of the system and design.

  19. New design of a triplexer using ring resonator integrated with directional coupler based on photonic crystals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Yaw-Dong; Shih, Tien-Tsorng; Lee, Jian-Jang

    2009-11-01

    In this paper, we proposed the design of directional coupler integrated with ring resonator based on two-dimensional photonic crystals (2D PCs) to develop a triplexer filter. It can be widely used as the fiber access network element for multiplexer-demultiplexer wavelength selective in fiber-to-the-home (FTTH) communication systems. The directional coupler is chosen to separate the wavelengths of 1490nm and 1310nm. The ring resonator separates the wavelength of 1550nm. The transmission efficiency is larger than 90%. Besides, the total size of propose triplexer is only 19μm×12μm. We present simulation results using the finite-difference time-domain (FDTD) method for the proposed structure.

  20. Design of the Injection and extraction system and related machine protection for the Clic Damping Rings

    CERN Document Server

    Apsimon, Robert; Barnes, Mike; Borburgh, Jan; Goddard, Brennan; Papaphilippou, Yannis; Uythoven, Jan

    2014-01-01

    Linear machines such as CLIC have relatively low rates of collision between bunches compared to their circular counterparts. In order to achieve the required luminosity, a very small spot size is envisaged at the interaction point, thus a low emittance beam is needed. Damping rings are essential for producing the low emittances needed for the CLIC main beam. It is crucial that the beams are injected and extracted from the damping rings in a stable and repeatable fashion to minimise emittance blow-up and beam jitter at the interaction point; both of these effects will deteriorate the luminosity at the interaction point. In this paper, the parameters and constraints of the injection and extraction systems are considered and the design of these systems is optimised within this parameter space. Related machine protection is considered in order to prevent damage from potential failure modes of the injection and extraction systems.

  1. Design, Synthesis, and Antibacterial Evaluation of Oxazolidinones with Fused Heterocyclic C-Ring Substructure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deshmukh, Mahesh S; Jain, Nidhi

    2017-11-09

    A series of novel oxazolidinone antibacterials with diverse fused heteroaryl C-rings bearing hydrogen bond donor and hydrogen bond acceptor functionalities were designed and synthesized. The compound with benzoxazinone C-ring substructure ( 8c ) exhibited superior activity compared to linezolid against a panel of Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria. Structural modifications at C5-side chain of 8c resulted in identification of several potent compounds ( 12a , 12b , 12g , and 12h ). Selected compounds 8c and 12a showed very good microsomal stability and no CYP 450 liability, thus clearing preliminary safety hurdles. A docking model of 12a binding to 23S rRNA suggested that the increased potency of 12a is due to additional ligand-receptor interaction.

  2. An improved ultra-wideband bandpass filter design using split ring resonator with coupled microstrip line

    Science.gov (United States)

    Umeshkumar, Dubey Suhmita; Kumar, Manish

    2018-04-01

    This paper incorporates an improved design of Ultra Wideband Bandpass filter by using split ring resonators (SRR) along with the coupled microstrip lines. The use of split ring resonators and shunt step impedance open circuit stub enhances the stability due to transmission zeroes at the ends. The designing of filter and simulation of parameters is carried out using Ansoft's HFSS 13.0 software on RT/Duroid 6002 as a substrate with dielectric constant of 2.94. The design utilizes a frequency band from 22GHz to 29GHz. This band is reserved for Automotive Radar system and sensors as per FCC specifications. The proposed design demonstrates insertion loss less than 0.6dB and return loss better than 12dB at mid frequency i.e. 24.4GHz. The reflection coefficient shows high stability of about 12.47dB at mid frequency. The fractional bandwidth of the proposed filter is about 28.7% and size of filter design is small due to thickness of 0.127mm.

  3. Conceptual Design Report. Antiproton - Proton Collider Upgrade 20 GeV Rings. Technical Components and Civil Construction May, 1988

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1988-05-01

    This report contains a description of the design and cost estimate of two new 20 GeV rings which will be required to support the upgrade of the Fermilab Collider with a luminosity goal of 5x10 31 cm-2s-1. The new rings include an antiproton post-accumulator, denoted the Antiproton Super Booster (ASB), and a proton post-booster, denoted the Proton Super Booster (PSB). The siting of the rings is shown in Figure I-1. Both rings are capable of operation at 20 GeV, eliminating the need for ever again injecting beam into the Main Ring below transition, and significantly enhancing Main Ring performance. The Antiproton Super Booster is designed to accept and accumulate up to 4x1012 antiprotons from the existing Antiproton Accumulator, and deliver them to the Main Ring at 20 GeV for acceleration and injection into the Collider. It is also designed to accept diluted antiprotons from the Main Ring at 20 GeV for recooling. The PSB accepts 8.9 GeV protons from the existing Booster and accelerates them to 20 GeV for injection into the Main Ring. The PSB is designed to operate at 5 Hz. The siting shown in Figure I-1 has the attractive feature that it removes all Main Ring injection hardware from the AO straight section, opening the possibility of installing a third proton-antiproton interaction region in the Tevatron Collider.

  4. Design of coupler for the NSLS-II storage ring superconducting RF cavity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yeddulla, M.; Rose, J.

    2011-03-28

    NSLS-II is a 3GeV, 500mA, high brightness, 1 MW beam power synchrotron facility that is designed with four superconducting cavities working at 499.68 MHz. To operate the cavities in over-damped coupling condition, an External Quality Factor (Qext) of {approx}65000 is required. We have modified the existing coupler for the CESR-B cavity which has a Qext of {approx}200,000 to meet the requirements of NSLS-II. CESR-B cavity has an aperture coupler with a coupler 'tongue' connecting the cavity to the waveguide. We have optimized the length, width and thickness of the 'tongue' as well as the width of the aperture to increase the coupling using the three dimensional electromagnetic field solver, HFSS. Several possible designs will be presented. We have modified the coupler of the CESR-B cavity to be used in the storage ring at the NSLS-II project using HFSS and verified using CST Microwave Studio. Using a combination of increasing the length and width of the coupler tongue and increasing the width of the aperture, the external Q of the cavity coupler was decreased to {approx}65000 as required for the design of the NSLS-II storage ring design.

  5. Ground-up circular Higgs Factory ring design and cell length optimization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Talman, Richard

    2017-02-01

    A “ground-up” Higgs Factory design methodology is described. For concreteness, numerical parameter choices are drawn primarily from CEPC, the Circular Electron Positron Collider. The goals are to find: (i) optimal parameters, (ii) improved understanding , (iii) a tentative lattice design. As illustration of the method, six chromaticity-corrected lattices, with cell lengths ranging from 45 m to 280 m, all with identical βy = 2 mm or βy = 10 mm intersection region optics, are designed and their properties compared. For simplicity only a single “toy ring,” circumference (76 km), with one interaction point, and a single beam energy (120 GeV) is considered. For the cell-length optimization a figure of merit FOM (essentially integrated luminosity) is maximized consistent with a dimensionless “fine tuning penalty function” or figure of demerit FOD not being allowed to exceed a conservatively chosen upper limit. The tentative recommendation from this investigation is that the optimal CEPC route is (except for obvious changes) to simply copy LEP: 80 m cell length and two-in-one single-ring operation. The main luminosity-increasing improvements are increased radius and power, top-off-full-energy-injection, noninterleaved sextupoles, more than 100 beam bunch operation, and improved intersection region design. Local chromaticity compensation (with its inevitable intense hard X-rays incident on the detectors) is found to be unnecessary. With these changes luminosity in excess of 1034cm-2s-1 is projected to be achievable.

  6. Liquid ring vacuum pumps, compressors and systems conventional and hermetic design

    CERN Document Server

    Bannwarth, Helmut

    2006-01-01

    Based on the very successful German editions, this English version has been thoroughly updated and revised to reflect the developments of the last years and the latest innovations in the field.Throughout, the author makes excellent use of real-life examples and highly praised didactics to disseminate his expert knowledge needed by vacuum technology users and engineers in their daily work at industrial plants, as consultants or in design offices. He covers in detail the most modern liquid ring pumps, with chapters dedicated to maintenance, explosion prevention and general procedures for saf

  7. ACCELERATOR PHYSICS CHALLENGES IN THE DESIGN OF MULTI-BEND-ACHROMAT-BASED STORAGE RINGS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Borland, M.; Hettel, R.; Leemann, S. C.; Robin, D. S.

    2017-06-01

    With the recent success in commissioning of MAX IV, the multi-bend achromat (MBA) lattice has begun to deliver on its promise to usher in a new generation of higher-brightness synchrotron light sources. In this paper, we begin by reviewing the challenges, recent success, and lessons learned of the MAX-IV project. Drawing on these lessons, we then describe the physics challenges in even more ambitious rings and how these can be met. In addition, we touch on engineering issues and choices that are tightly linked with the physics design.

  8. Value engineering on the designed operator work tools for brick and rings wells production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ayu Bidiawati J., R.; Muchtiar, Yesmizarti; Wariza, Ragil Okta

    2017-06-01

    Operator working tools in making brick and ring wells were designed and made, and the value engineering was calculated to identify and develop the function of these tools in obtaining the balance between cost, reliability and appearance. This study focused on the value of functional components of the tools and attempted to increase the difference between the costs incurred by the generated values. The purpose of this study was to determine the alternatives of tools design and to determine the performance of each alternative. The technique was developed using FAST method that consisted of five stages: information, creative, analytical, development and presentation stage. The results of the analysis concluded that the designed tools have higher value and better function description. There were four alternative draft improvements for operator working tools. The best alternative was determined based on the rank by using matrix evaluation. Best performance was obtained by the alternative II, amounting to 98.92 with a value of 0.77.

  9. Global Optimization of Damping Ring Designs Using a Multi-Objective Evolutionary Algorithm

    CERN Document Server

    Emery, Louis

    2005-01-01

    Several damping ring designs for the International Linear Collider have been proposed recently. Some of the specifications, such as circumference and bunch train, are not fixed yet. Designers must make a choice anyway, select a geometry type (dog-bone or circular), an arc cell type (TME or FODO), and optimize linear and nonlinear part of the optics. The design process include straightforward steps (usually the linear optics), and some steps not so straightforward (when nonlinear optics optimization is affected by the linear optics). A first attempt at automating this process for the linear optics is reported. We first recognize that the optics is defined by just a few primary parameters (e.g., phase advance per cell) that determine the rest (e.g., quadrupole strength). In addition to the exact specification of circumference, equilibrium emittance and damping time there are some other quantities which could be optimized that may conflict with each other. A multiobjective genetic optimizer solves this problem b...

  10. Low-loss design for the high-intensity accumulator ring of the Spallation Neutron Source

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Wei

    2000-08-01

    Full Text Available This paper summarizes the low-loss design for the Spallation Neutron Source accumulator ring [“Spallation Neutron Source Design Manual” (unpublished]. A hybrid lattice consisting of FODO arcs and doublet straights provides optimum matching and flexibility for injection and collimation. For this lattice, optimization focuses on six design goals: a space-charge tune shift low enough (below 0.15 to avoid strong resonances, adequate transverse and momentum acceptance for efficient beam collimation, injection optimized for desired target beam shape and minimal halo development, compensation of magnet field errors, control of impedance and instability, and prevention against accidental system malfunction. With an expected collimation efficiency of more than 90%, the uncontrolled fractional beam loss is expected to be at the 10^{-4} level.

  11. Storage rings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    O' Neill, Gerald K.

    1963-04-15

    The development of storage rings is discussed. Advantages of such devices are pointed out as well as their limits, requirements, and design and fabrication problems. Information gained by the operation of small electron storage rings is included, and three experiments are proposed for colliding-beam facilities. (D.C.W.)

  12. Design and construction of a large 4C ring laser: ROMY

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gebauer, André; Schreiber, Ulrich; Igel, Heiner; Hadziioannou, Céline; Donner, Stefanie; Bernauer, Felix; Wassermann, Joachim; Edgorf, Sven; Simonelli, Andrea

    2017-04-01

    State of the art ring laser technology gives access to measure very small rotation changes in geodesy and geophysics over a wide frequency range. The interferometric observation technique use two counter-propagating laser beam, the Sagnac effect. This yields to the fact that these observation method is entirely insensitive to translational motions. Until beginning this year only one component ring laser observations was available around the vertical axis. The ROMY project will deliver 4 components in space measuring rotations redundancy for geosciences computed into the Cartesian three directions. Followings that ROMY is the first instrument able to measure the full rotation vector. The sensitivity scales with the size of the instrument and ended up in a tetrahedron shape of 12 m side length standing on a tip. A compromise between the involved parameters and the possibility of physical constructing of such a large instrument. The pure hardware construction has needed more than 1.5 years. It is outlined the design, development and construction from scratch up to receiving the proposed observation. Involved are the characterisation and the potential of ROMY now and in future.

  13. Design of beam optics for the future circular collider e^{+}e^{-} collider rings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Oide

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available A beam optics scheme has been designed for the future circular collider-e^{+}e^{-} (FCC-ee. The main characteristics of the design are: beam energy 45 to 175 GeV, 100 km circumference with two interaction points (IPs per ring, horizontal crossing angle of 30 mrad at the IP and the crab-waist scheme [P. Raimondi, D. Shatilov, and M. Zobov, arXiv:physics/0702033; P. Raimondi, M. Zobov, and D. Shatilov, in Proceedings of the 22nd Particle Accelerator Conference, PAC-2007, Albuquerque, NM (IEEE, New York, 2007, p. TUPAN037.] with local chromaticity correction. The crab-waist scheme is implemented within the local chromaticity correction system without additional sextupoles, by reducing the strength of one of the two sextupoles for vertical chromatic correction at each side of the IP. So-called “tapering” of the magnets is applied, which scales all fields of the magnets according to the local beam energy to compensate for the effect of synchrotron radiation (SR loss along the ring. An asymmetric layout near the interaction region reduces the critical energy of SR photons on the incoming side of the IP to values below 100 keV, while matching the geometry to the beam line of the FCC proton collider (FCC-hh [A. Chancé et al., Proceedings of IPAC’16, 9–13 May 2016, Busan, Korea, TUPMW020 (2016.] as closely as possible. Sufficient transverse/longitudinal dynamic aperture (DA has been obtained, including major dynamical effects, to assure an adequate beam lifetime in the presence of beamstrahlung and top-up injection. In particular, a momentum acceptance larger than ±2% has been obtained, which is better than the momentum acceptance of typical collider rings by about a factor of 2. The effects of the detector solenoids including their compensation elements are taken into account as well as synchrotron radiation in all magnets. The optics presented in this paper is a step toward a full conceptual design for the collider. A number of issues

  14. Design and construction of the Donner 280-crystal positron ring for dynamic transverse section emission imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Derenzo, S.E.; Banchero, P.G.; Cahoon, J.L.; Huesman, R.H.; Vuletich, T.; Budinger, T.F.

    1977-09-01

    The design and construction of a medical imaging system for the rapid, accurate, three-dimensional imaging of positron-labeled compounds in the human body are described. Our medical research goals include quantifying blood flow and metabolism in human heart muscle and brain. The system consists of a large gantry containing lead shielding and a ring of 280 NaI(Tl) detectors that completely encircles the patient; 280 photomultiplier tubes, preamplifiers and timing discriminators; circuits that determine whenever a crystal has detected a gamma ray in time coincidence (i.e., within 12 nsec) of any of the opposing 105 crystals and determine the addresses of the crystals involved; 120K words of 12 bit memory for the simultaneous acquisition of data from eight portions of the cardiac cycle; and a hardwired image reconstructor capable of filtering and backprojecting data from 140 views to form a 210 x 210 computed transverse section image in less than 2 sec

  15. Prestressed Ring Beam in the Church of St. Peter’s and Paul’s in Bodzanow, Design and Realization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szydlowski, Rafal; Labuzek, Barbara; Turcza, Monika

    2017-10-01

    The present trend in architecture is designing thin. slender and spacious architectural forms. It has become the reason for searching for new solutions and finding new ways of use of the existing construction ones. Recently, the first time in Poland, the post-tensioning has been used in realization of church building. In the Church of St. Peter’s and Paul’s in Bodzanow (near Cracow) was designed circumferential ring beam post-tensioned with 4 unbounded tendons to transfer peripheral tensile forces from the roof. Thanks to the use of a prestressed ring beam hidden in the wall, large cross-section of roof girders was possible to be avoided, as well as a massive reinforced concrete ring or additional steel tie-rods. The paper presents the applied solutions in details with the theoretical calculated results as well as the results of prestressing measured in site during tensioning of tendons. Based on presented results some conclusions have been drawn.

  16. Stirling engine piston ring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howarth, Roy B.

    1983-01-01

    A piston ring design for a Stirling engine wherein the contact pressure between the piston and the cylinder is maintained at a uniform level, independent of engine conditions through a balancing of the pressure exerted upon the ring's surface and thereby allowing the contact pressure on the ring to be predetermined through the use of a preloaded expander ring.

  17. Design considerations for a feedback system to control self-bunching in ion-storage rings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ziemann, V.

    2001-02-01

    We discuss the feasibility of a feedback system to cure self-bunching of the electron-cooled coasting ion-beam in CELSIUS. Such a system may also aid stable operation of accumulator rings for future spallation neutron sources or heavy ion rings used for inertial fusion energy production

  18. The design of the optical components and gas control systems of the CERN Omega Ring Imaging Cerenkov Detector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Apsimon, R.J.; Cowell, J.; Flower, P.S.

    1985-06-01

    A large Ring Imaging Cerenkov Detector (RICH) has been commissioned for use at the CERN Omega Spectrometer. The general design of the device is discussed, and the dependence of the attainable spatial resolution and range of particle identification on its optical parameters is illustrated. The construction and performance of the major optical components and gas systems of the detector are also described. (author)

  19. Deconstructing geologic slip rates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gold, R. D.

    2017-12-01

    Discrepancies between geologic and geodetic slip rates are recognized globally. However, understanding the significance of those discrepancies requires a complete inventory of the sources of uncertainty often deeply hidden or ignored in slip-rate estimates. In this presentation, I will examine underappreciated complexities associated with geologic estimates of fault slip rates along strike-slip faults. Slip-rate measurements are made from geomorphic features displaced by faulting and age constraints derived from chronologic or stratigraphic data. Sources of uncertainty associated with offset measurements include measurement errors, ambiguities in feature reconstructions, and distributed faulting and bulk off-fault deformation. Sources of uncertainty associated with age constraints include analytical uncertainties, inheritance in the sample material, post-depositional contamination, and often most critically, ambiguity in how to associate sample ages with the landforms or deposits from which they were collected. Additional sources of uncertainty associated with slip-rate measurements include the time interval over which geologic slip rates are determined (e.g., number of earthquake cycles) and the impact of secular variation in slip. I will use case studies from the San Andreas fault system, the Walker Lane, and Tibet to explore sources of uncertainty in geologic slip rates and highlight practices that can mitigate those uncertainties. I will emphasize the need for bracketing the age of faulted landforms using numerous geochronometers, documenting numerous offset landforms, and sampling a range of magnitudes of slip in a probabilistic framework.

  20. Design status of the 2.5 GeV National Synchrotron Light Source x-ray ring

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krinsky, S.; Blumberg, L.; Bittner, J.; Galayda, J.; Heese, R.; Schuchman, J.C.; van Steenbergen, A.

    1979-01-01

    The present state of the design of the 2.5 GeV electron storage ring for the National Synchrotron Light Source is described. This ring will serve as a dedicated source of synchrotron radiation in the wavelength range 0.1 A to 30 A. While maintaining the basic high brigtness features of the eariler developed lattice structure, recent work resulted in a more economical magnet system, is simplified chromaticity corrections, and improved distribution of the X-ray beam lines. In addition, the adequacy of the dynamic aperture for stable betatron oscillations has been verified for a variety of betatron tunes

  1. Progress on the Design of the Storage Ring Vacuum System for the Advanced Photon Source Upgrade Project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stillwell, B.; Billett, B.; Brajuskovic, B.; Carter, J.; Kirkus, E.; Lale, M.; Lerch, J.; Noonan, J.; O' Neill, M.; Rocke, B.; Suthar, K.; Walters, D.; Wiemerslage, G.; Zientek, J.

    2017-06-20

    Recent work on the design of the storage ring vacuum system for the Advanced Photon Source Upgrade project (APS-U) includes: revising the vacuum system design to accommodate a new lattice with reverse bend magnets, modifying the designs of vacuum chambers in the FODO sections for more intense incident synchrotron radiation power, modifying the design of rf-shielding bellows liners for better performance and reliability, modifying photon absorber designs to make better use of available space, and integrated planning of components needed in the injection, extraction and rf cavity straight sections. An overview of progress in these areas is presented.

  2. The design and development of a ring cathode electron gun as an evaporation source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Poyner, G.T.

    1976-01-01

    The RG2 ring cathode gun is a simple application of electron beam heating. The gun described was developed to provide a relatively inexpensive source for evaporating a range of metals and oxides which were otherwise difficult or impossible to evaporate by conventional resistance heating. Following several stages of improvement the gun was progressively reduced in size and the 'optics', or focusing, improved so that in its existing state an area of approximately 2mm diameter is heated. It was decided to limit the accelerating voltage as far as possible to minimize the practical problems associated with its operation and also the manufacture of the power supply. As development proceeded it became apparent that the relatively low accelerating voltage chosen improved the flexibility of the gun. Two versions are manufactured, the first, equipped with a six position rotary hearth, and the second, utilising a single hearth, is intended to be used as one of a pair. The latter design was reduced in size even further in order to minimize the distance between two adjacent guns. (author)

  3. Design, synthesis and structure-activity relationships studies on the D ring of the natural product triptolide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Hongtao; Tang, Huanyu; Feng, Huijin; Li, Yuanchao

    2014-02-01

    Triptolide is a diterpene triepoxide natural product isolated from Tripterygium wilfordii Hook F, a traditional Chinese medicinal herb. Triptolide has previously been shown to possess antitumor, anti-inflammatory, immunosuppressive, and antifertility activities. Earlier reports suggested that the five-membered unsaturated lactone ring (D ring) is essential for potent cytotoxicity, however, to the best of our knowledge, systematic structure-activity relationship studies have not yet been reported. Here, four types of D ring-modified triptolide analogues were designed, synthesized and evaluated against human ovarian (SKOV-3) and prostate (PC-3) carcinoma cell lines. The results suggest that the D ring is essential to potency, however it can be modified, for example to C18 hydrogen bond acceptor and/or donor furan ring analogues, without complete loss of cytotoxic activity. Interestingly, evaluation of the key series of C19 analogues showed that this site is exquisitely sensitive to polarity. Together, these results will guide further optimization of this natural product lead compound for the development of potent and potentially clinically useful triptolide analogues. Copyright © 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  4. Constant Slip Control System of an Asynchronous Motor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martynas Šapurov

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Asynchronous motors are efficiently controlled using the scalar method. Main problems appear when the motor is fully loaded and desired rotation speed is slow. In such cases, the motor slip exceeds the magnitude of the nominal slip, causing the increase in stator current. The constant slip method was designed to control hardly loaded asynchronous motor. In this particular situation, the constant slip method provides a better efficiency than the scalar method. The magnitude of the motor current refers to the slip: the less is the slip, the less is the magnitude. It is impossible to find the optimal slip for minimization of current with the help of a model. Therefore, the nominal slip value was used as optimal.Article in Lithuanian

  5. Ground Reaction Forces in Alternative Footwear during Slip Events

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Harish Chander

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Slips, trips and falls are major causitive factors for occupational and non-occupational falls. Alternative footwear such has crocs and flip flops have been used in and around work places and communities that can be slip prone environments. The purpose of the study is to analyze the effects of alternative footwear [crocs (CC, flip-flops (FF] and industry standard slip resistant shoes (LT on ground reaction forces (GRFs during slip events. Eighteen healthy male participants following a repeated measures design for each footwear condition, were tested for heel kinematics during normal dry surface gait (NG; unexpected slip (US, alert slip (AS and expected slip (ES. A 3x4 repeated measures ANOVA was used to analyze the dependent vertical GRFs parameters (Mean Z-GRF and Peak Z-GRF at p = 0.05. Significant interactions between footwear and gait trials were found for Mean Z-GRF and significant main effect in gait trials for Peak Z-GRF were evident. On average significantly lower GRFs were seen in slip trials compared to normal gait. FF exhibited significantly lower GRFs during slip trials while LT demonstrated lower GRFs in normal gait. The reduced ground reaction forces during all slip events compared to normal gait can be attributed to the incomplete weight transfer on the slipping foot during the unexpected and alert slips and to the anticipation of the slippery environment in expected slips. Flip flops which had greater incidence of slips also demonstrated reduced GRFs compared to CC and LT during slip events, further suggesting incomplete weight transfer, while during normal gait, LT demonstrated reduced GRFs compared to alternative footwear owing to its cushioning midsole properties. The LT with lowest incidence of slips demonstrates to be the choice of footwear for maneuvering slippery flooring conditions and for reducing impact reaction forces during non-slippery flooring conditions. Keywords: Slips, Falls, Alternative Footwear, Ground Reaction

  6. Preliminary Design Study of a Pre-booster Damping Ring for the FCC e+e− Injector

    CERN Document Server

    Etisken, O; Papaphilippou, Y

    2017-01-01

    The aim of the FCC e+e− lepton collider is to collide particles in the energy range 40–175 GeV. The FCC e+e− injector complex needs to produce and transport high-intensity e+e− beams at a fast repetition rate of about 0.1 Hz to top up the collider at its collision energy. A basic parameter set exists for all collider energies, assuming a 10 GeV linac operating with a large number of bunches accumulating in the existing SPS, which serves as pre-accelerator and damping ring before the bunches are transferred to the high-energy booster. The purpose of this study is to provide the conceptual design of an alternative damping and accelerator ring, replacing the SPS in the current scheme. This ring will have an injection energy of around 6 GeV and an extraction energy of around 20 GeV. Apart from establishing the basic ring parameters, the final study will include the optics design and layout, and single particle linear and non-linear dynamics optimization, including magnetic and alignment error tolerances. ...

  7. Design of 8-ft-Diameter Barrel Test Article Attachment Rings for Shell Buckling Knockdown Factor Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lovejoy, Andrew E.; Hilburger, Mark W.

    2010-01-01

    The Shell Buckling Knockdown Factor (SBKF) project includes the testing of sub-scale cylinders to validate new shell buckling knockdown factors for use in the design of the Ares-I and Ares-V launch vehicles. Test article cylinders represent various barrel segments of the Ares-I and Ares-V vehicles, and also include checkout test articles. Testing will be conducted at Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) for test articles having an eight-foot diameter outer mold line (OML) and having lengths that range from three to ten feet long. Both ends of the test articles will be connected to the test apparatus using attachment rings. Three multiple-piece and one single-piece design for the attachment rings were developed and analyzed. The single-piece design was chosen and will be fabricated from either steel or aluminum (Al) depending on the required safety factors (SF) for test hardware. This report summarizes the design and analysis of these attachment ring concepts.

  8. Enhanced dynamical stability with harmonic slip stacking

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeffrey Eldred

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available We develop a configuration of radio-frequency (rf cavities to dramatically improve the performance of slip stacking. Slip stacking is an accumulation technique used at Fermilab to nearly double proton intensity by maintaining two beams of different momenta in the same storage ring. The two particle beams are longitudinally focused in the Recycler by two 53 MHz 100 kV rf cavities with a small frequency difference between them. We propose an additional 106 MHz 20 kV rf cavity with a frequency at the double the average of the upper and lower main rf frequencies. We show the harmonic rf cavity cancels out the resonances generated between the two main rf cavities and we derive the relationship between the harmonic rf voltage and the main rf voltage. We find the area factors that can be used to calculate the available phase space area for any set of beam parameters without individual simulation. We establish Booster beam quality requirements to achieve 99% slip stacking efficiency. We measure the longitudinal distribution of the Booster beam and use it to generate a realistic beam model for slip stacking simulation. We demonstrate that the harmonic rf cavity can not only reduce particle loss during slip stacking, but also reduce the final longitudinal emittance.

  9. Optimization design of high power ultrasonic circular ring radiator in coupled vibration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Long; Lin, Shuyu; Hu, Wenxu

    2011-10-01

    This paper presents a new high power ultrasonic (HPU) radiator, which consists of a transducer, an ultrasonic horn, and a metal circular ring. Both the transducer and horn in longitudinal vibrations are used to drive a metal circular ring in a radial-axial coupled vibration. This coupled vibration cannot only generate ultrasound in both the radial and axial directions, but also focus the ultrasound inside the circular ring. Except for the radial-axial coupled vibration mode, the third longitudinal harmonic vibration mode with relative large vibration amplitude is also detected, which can be used as another operation mode. Overall, the HPU with these two vibration modes should have good potential to be applied in liquid processing, such as sonochemistry, ultrasonic cleaning, and Chinese herbal medicine extraction. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Design and synthesis of fused polycycles via Diels–Alder reaction and ring-rearrangement metathesis as key steps

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sambasivarao Kotha

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Atom efficient processes such as the Diels–Alder reaction (DA and the ring-rearrangement metathesis (RRM have been used to design new polycycles. In this regard, ruthenium alkylidene catalysts are effective in realizing the RRM of bis-norbornene derivatives prepared by DA reaction and Grignard addition. Here, fused polycycles are assembled which are difficult to produce by conventional synthetic routes.

  11. Design, installation, and commissioning of the D0 overpass at the Fermilab main ring

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gerig, R.; May, M.; Moore, C.; Ohnuma, S.; Pruss, S.; Turkot, F.

    1985-06-01

    In order to accommodate large detectors for anti pp studies at the Tevatron, the Main Ring has been modified to be non-planar. A 700 foot-long portion of the ring has been reworked to create an overpass which displaces the beam orbit upwards by 51 inches at the D0 long straight section. The overpass region follows the ''screw'' geometry proposed by T. Collins. A set of four vertically bending dipoles were inserted into the Main Ring lattice; they are powered on a separate bus and operate at twice the current and field level of a standard bend. To make space for these vertical bends, at each vertical bend point two of the four standard dipoles in a half-cell are removed and the other two are powered at twice the current and field level of the rest of the ring. The vertical bends also have a set of trim coils powered by a separate supply so that any difference in the horizontal and vertical bending strengths can be compensated. The D0 overpass was commissioned with beam in November-December 1984. The principal effect on beam dynamics - predicted and observed - is the introduction of momentum dispersion in the vertical dimension of peak value 1.9m. To preserve closed orbit quality during acceleration, the vertical bends must track the rest of the ring with a precision of better than 0.1%. The Main Ring-Tevatron complex has now been running the fixed-target program for four months; the impact of the D0 overpass on accelerator performance has been minimal

  12. Ring accelerators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gisler, G.; Faehl, R.

    1983-01-01

    We present two-dimensional simulations in (r-z) and r-theta) cylinderical geometries of imploding-liner-driven accelerators of rings of charged particles. We address issues of azimuthal and longitudinal stability of the rings. We discuss self-trapping designs in which beam injection and extraction is aided by means of external cusp fields. Our simulations are done with the 2-1/2-D particle-in-cell plasma simulation code CLINER, which combines collisionless, electromagnetic PIC capabilities with a quasi-MHD finite element package

  13. Optics Design and Performance of an Ultra-Low Emittance Damping Ring for the Compact Linear Collider

    CERN Document Server

    Korostelev, M S

    2006-01-01

    A high-energy (0.5-3.0 TeV centre of mass) electron-positron Compact Linear Collider (CLIC) is being studied at CERN as a new physics facility. The design study has been optimized for 3 TeV centre-of-mass energy. Intense bunches injected into the main linac must have unprecedentedly small emittances to achieve the design luminosity 1035cm-2s-1 required for the physics experiments. The positron and electron bunch trains will be provided by the CLIC injection complex. This thesis describes an optics design and performance of a positron damping ring developed for producing such ultra-low emittance beam. The linear optics of the CLIC damping ring is optimized by taking into account the combined action of radiation damping, quantum excitation and intrabeam scattering. The required beam emittance is obtained by using a TME (Theoretical Minimum Emittance) lattice with compact arcs and short period wiggler magnets located in dispersionfree regions. The damping ring beam energy is chosen as 2.42 GeV. The lattice featu...

  14. Theory of coherent quantum phase slips in Josephson junction chains with periodic spatial modulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Svetogorov, Aleksandr E.; Taguchi, Masahiko; Tokura, Yasuhiro; Basko, Denis M.; Hekking, Frank W. J.

    2018-03-01

    We study coherent quantum phase slips which lift the ground state degeneracy in a Josephson junction ring, pierced by a magnetic flux of the magnitude equal to half of a flux quantum. The quantum phase-slip amplitude is sensitive to the normal mode structure of superconducting phase oscillations in the ring (Mooij-Schön modes). These, in turn, are affected by spatial inhomogeneities in the ring. We analyze the case of weak periodic modulations of the system parameters and calculate the corresponding modification of the quantum phase-slip amplitude.

  15. Tema 2: Augmented Reality som wearable. Et design for visuel læring i sygeplejerskeuddannelsens anatomiundervisning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mie Buhl

    2016-01-01

    Projektet undersøger, hvordan en udviklet AR-applikation, der via iPad og et tag, der bæres af en person, kan anvendes til at forstå forholdet mellem den fysiske krops lunge og billedet af en lunge. Dette gennemføres gennem udvikling og afprøvning af et didaktisk design. Undersøgelsen trækker på en Design Based Research (DBR-tilgang og inddrager viden om AR og wearables og Inquiry Based Science Education (IBSE samt visuel læring og visuelle fagkulturer inden for medicin. Designafprøvningerne viser, at wearables optimerer visuel læring, men også at små justeringer af AR-teknologi mellem første og anden iteration flytter studerendes læringsfokus fra fagindhold til metakommunikation om medieringsformer. Artiklen konkluderer, at kombinationen mellem wearable og IBSE kan understøtte visuel læring til gavn for et helhedssyn på anatomiundervisning og patientpleje.

  16. Tema 2: Augmented Reality som wearable. Et design for visuel læring i sygeplejerskeuddannelsens anatomiundervisning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mie Buhl

    2015-12-01

    Projektet undersøger, hvordan en udviklet AR-applikation, der via iPad og et tag, der bæres af en person, kan anvendes til at forstå forholdet mellem den fysiske krops lunge og billedet af en lunge. Dette gennemføres gennem udvikling og afprøvning af et didaktisk design. Undersøgelsen trækker på en Design Based Research (DBR-tilgang og inddrager viden om AR og wearables og Inquiry Based Science Education (IBSE samt visuel læring og visuelle fagkulturer inden for medicin. Designafprøvningerne viser, at wearables optimerer visuel læring, men også at små justeringer af AR-teknologi mellem første og anden iteration flytter studerendes læringsfokus fra fagindhold til metakommunikation om medieringsformer. Artiklen konkluderer, at kombinationen mellem wearable og IBSE kan understøtte visuel læring til gavn for et helhedssyn på anatomiundervisning og patientpleje.

  17. Revision of Booster to Storage Ring Transport Line Design and Injection Scheme for Top-Up Operation at NSRRC

    CERN Document Server

    Wang, Min-Huey; Chen, Jenny; Chen June Rong; Hsu, Kuo-Tung; Kuo, Chin-Cheng; Luo, Gwo-Huei

    2005-01-01

    In order to help the operation of constant current, the optics of booster to storage ring transport line (BTS) design is reinvestigated. The initial twiss parameters are derived by measurement. The optics of the transport line is readjusted according to the measured initial beam parameters. The design of pulse width of the injection kicker is also changed from 1.2μsecond to 2.0μsecond. The injection scheme is reviewed and the effects of the kicker error on both injected beam and stored beam are investigated and shown in this report.

  18. Ring-shaped inductive sensor design and application to pressure sensing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Noh, Myoung Gyu; Baek, Seong Ki; Park, Young Woo; Kim, Sun Young

    2015-01-01

    Inductive sensors are versatile and economical devices that are widely used to measure a wide variety of physical variables, such as displacement, force, and pressure. In this paper, we propose a simple inductive sensor consisting of a thin partial ring and a coil set. The self-inductance of the sensor was estimated using magnetic circuit analysis and validated through finite element analysis (FEA). The natural frequency of the ring was estimated using Castigliano's theorem and the method of equivalent mass. The estimation was validated through experiments and FEA. A prototype sensor with a signal processing circuit is built and applied to noninvasively sense the pressure inside a flexible tube. The obtained sensor outputs show quadratic behavior with respect to the pressure. When fitted to a quadratic equation, the least-square measurement error was less than 2%. The results confirm the feasibility of pressure sensing using the proposed inductive sensor

  19. Metal rings and discs Matlab/Simulink 3D model for ultrasonic sandwich transducer design

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jovanović I.

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Metal-endings are integral part of different ultrasonic sandwich transducers. In this paper a new Matlab/Simulink 3D model of the finite metal rings and discs of various dimensions is realized. With this model, which describes both the thickness and the radial resonant modes, and the coupling between them, mechanical impedance of the sample can be easily computed. Resonance frequency-length curves for rings and disks with various materials and for different selected dimensions are given. Also, comparisons of the different approaches in determining of their resonant frequencies are shown. The proposed Matlab/Simulink model requires simpler implementation than other analytical models. That enabled modifying of 1D theory and simplified modelling and projecting of the ultrasonic sandwich transducers with short-endings. Finally, the computed and experimental results are compared. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. TR33035, br. III43014 i br. OI172057

  20. Design and simulation of fast pulsed kicker/bumper units for the positron accumulator ring at APS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Ju; Volk, G.J.

    1991-01-01

    In the design of fast pulsed kicker/burner units for a positron accumulator ring (PAR) at APS, different pulse forming networks (PFN) are considered and different structures for the magnet are studied and simulated. Three fast pulsed kicker/bumper magnets are required in PAR for the beam injection and/or extraction at 450 MeV. These magnets have the same design because they have identical specifications and are expected to produce identical magnetic fields. Each kicker/bumper magnet is required to generate a magnetic field of 0.06 T with rise-time of 80 ns, a flat-top of 80 ns and a fall-time of 80 ns. This paper describes some design considerations and computer simulation results of different designs

  1. Structure design and motion simulation of the pin-cycloid gear planetary reducer with ring-plate-type

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duan, Hongjie; Li, Lijun; Tao, Junyi

    2017-06-01

    The pin-cycloid gear planetary reducer with ring-plate-type is a new type of reducers. It has high transmission ratio range and high efficiency. In this paper the working principle of pin-cycloid gear planetary reducer is discussed, and the structure of the reducer is designed. Especially for the complexity and the difficulty in modelling of the cycloid gear tooth profile, the parametric design module of cycloid gear is developed to solve the cycloid gear modelling problem through the second development of Solid Works. At last, the speed schemes of the input shaft and output shaft of the reducer are obtained by the motion simulation. Through the analysis of the simulation curves, the rationality of the structure design is proved, which provides a theoretical basis for the design and manufacture of the reducer.

  2. Designing a Ring-VCO for RFID Transponders in 0.18 μm CMOS Process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jubayer Jalil

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In radio frequency identification (RFID systems, performance degradation of phase locked loops (PLLs mainly occurs due to high phase noise of voltage-controlled oscillators (VCOs. This paper proposes a low power, low phase noise ring-VCO developed for 2.42 GHz operated active RFID transponders compatible with IEEE 802.11 b/g, Bluetooth, and Zigbee protocols. For ease of integration and implementation of the module in tiny die area, a novel pseudodifferential delay cell based 3-stage ring oscillator has been introduced to fabricate the ring-VCO. In CMOS technology, 0.18 μm process is adopted for designing the circuit with 1.5 V power supply. The postlayout simulated results show that the proposed oscillator works in the tuning range of 0.5–2.54 GHz and dissipates 2.47 mW of power. It exhibits a phase noise of −126.62 dBc/Hz at 25 MHz offset from 2.42 GHz carrier frequency.

  3. Design and Analysis of a Novel 25 GHz Interleaver for DWDM Applications with Two Ring Configurations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tsair-Chun Liang

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available We present a novel scheme of an excellent flat-top 25 GHz optical interleaver based on two ring configurations. And the Advanced Systems Analysis Program (ASAP optical modeling software has been utilized for the interleaver design. The optical path difference for interference and the phase shift are provided by the interferometer with two birefringent crystals and dual-ring arrangement. The proposed structure exhibits the passband utilization of more than 90% and the channel isolation greater than 95 dB within the C-band. Furthermore, we improve the dispersion performance by employing λ/6 wave plates as birefringent compensators for interleavers. The research results illustrate that our proposed scheme with compensator can improve the dispersion of more than 85.8%. Comparing the performance with the previous studies of optical interleavers with birefringent crystal and ring structure, the proposed system can achieve an excellent 25 GHz multichannel filter for dense wavelength division multiplexing (DWDM transmission systems.

  4. Designing a ring-VCO for RFID transponders in 0.18 μm CMOS process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jalil, Jubayer; Reaz, Mamun Bin Ibne; Bhuiyan, Mohammad Arif Sobhan; Rahman, Labonnah Farzana; Chang, Tae Gyu

    2014-01-01

    In radio frequency identification (RFID) systems, performance degradation of phase locked loops (PLLs) mainly occurs due to high phase noise of voltage-controlled oscillators (VCOs). This paper proposes a low power, low phase noise ring-VCO developed for 2.42 GHz operated active RFID transponders compatible with IEEE 802.11 b/g, Bluetooth, and Zigbee protocols. For ease of integration and implementation of the module in tiny die area, a novel pseudodifferential delay cell based 3-stage ring oscillator has been introduced to fabricate the ring-VCO. In CMOS technology, 0.18 μm process is adopted for designing the circuit with 1.5 V power supply. The postlayout simulated results show that the proposed oscillator works in the tuning range of 0.5-2.54 GHz and dissipates 2.47 mW of power. It exhibits a phase noise of -126.62 dBc/Hz at 25 MHz offset from 2.42 GHz carrier frequency.

  5. Experiments on the dynamics and sedimentary products of glacier slip

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iverson, Neal R.; Zoet, Lucas K.

    2015-09-01

    Experimental work in glacial geomorphology is focused almost entirely on processes in the thin shear zone at the beds of sliding glaciers, where ice at its pressure-melting temperature moves over either rigid rock or deformable till. Experiments with rotary shear devices illuminate constitutive behavior there, central to the dynamics of fast-moving glaciers, and provide a foundation for interpreting the sedimentary record of glacier slip and associated sediment transport. Results from experiments designed to study ice sliding over a rigid wavy bed, shear deformation of till, and plowing of clasts across the surface of a till bed point to a common conclusion: drag at the bed can decrease with increasing slip velocity, thereby concentrating driving stress elsewhere and promoting rapid glacier flow. This rate-weakening behavior at glacier beds is in contrast to the viscous slip resistance assumed in ice-sheet models and most efforts to determine distributions of basal drag from glacier surface velocities. Ring-shear experiments in which various basal tills and more idealized materials are sheared to high strains provide quantitative insight into grain size evolution, mixing at contacts between basal tills, microstructure development, particle-fabric development, and development of anisotropy of magnetic susceptibility. Preferred orientations of principal magnetic susceptibilities provide the most dependable and complete description of till shear patterns. When applied to basal tills of the geologic record, magnetic till fabrics measured along thick till sections and calibrated experimentally indicate that deformation of the bed by two lobes of the Laurentide ice sheet was shallow (< 1 m), patchy, and occurred as till progressively accreted. Rates of sediment transport by bed shear were thus significantly less than estimates based on models that invoke deep, pervasive shear of the bed. The lack of an experimental tradition in glacial geomorphology leaves many research

  6. A Compact Light Source: Design and Technical Feasibility Study of a Laser-Electron Storage Ring X-Ray Source

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Loewen, R

    2004-02-02

    Thomson scattering infrared photons off energetic electrons provides a mechanism to produce hard X-rays desirable for applied sciences research. Using a small, modest energy (25MeV) electron storage ring together with a resonantly-driven optical storage cavity, a narrow spectrum of hard X-rays could be produced with the quality and monochromatic intensity approaching that of beamline sources at large synchrotron radiation laboratories. The general design of this X-ray source as well as its technical feasibility are presented. In particular, the requirements of optical pulse gain enhancement in an external cavity are described and experimentally demonstrated using a CW mode-locked laser.

  7. Design of all-optical memory cell using EIT and lasing without inversion phenomena in optical micro ring resonators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pasyar, N.; Yadipour, R.; Baghban, H.

    2017-07-01

    The proposed design of the optical memory unit cell contains dual micro ring resonators in which the effect of lasing without inversion (LWI) in three-level nano particles doped over the optical resonators or integrators as the gain segment is used for loss compensation. Also, an on/off phase shifter based on electromagnetically induced transparency (EIT) in three-level quantum dots (QDs) has been used for data reading at requested time. Device minimizing for integrated purposes and high speed data storage are the main advantages of the optical integrator based memory.

  8. stability analysis of static slip-energy recovery drive via eigenvalue

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Dr Obe

    the speed control of slip-ring induction motor is presented. A set of nonlinear ... load torque. Xf filter reactance at base frequency referred to stator. Rf filter resistance at base frequency referred to stator. Lf filter inductance. S. Motor slip. Vs stator phase voltage ... system is supplied via a D.C reactor and a chopper which are ...

  9. Mechanical design upgrade of the APS storage ring rf cavity tuner

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jones, J.; Bromberek, D.; Kang, Y.

    1997-01-01

    The Advanced Photon Source (APS) storage ring (SR) rf system employs four banks of four spherical, single-cell resonant cavities. Each cavity is tuned by varying the cavity volume through insertion/retraction of a copper piston located at the circumference of the cavity and oriented perpendicular to the accelerator beam. During the commissioning of the APS SR, the tuners and cavity tuner ports were prone to extensive arcing and overheating. The existing tuners were modified to eliminate the problems, and two new, redesigned tuners were installed. In both cases marked improvements were obtained in the tuner mechanical performance. As measured by tuner piston and flange surface temperatures, tuner heating has been reduced by a factor of five in the new version. Redesign considerations discussed include tuner piston-to-housing alignment, tuner piston and housing materials and cooling configurations, and tuner piston sliding electrical contacts. The tuner redesign is also distinguished by a modular, more maintainable assembly

  10. Design and Construction of Multi-Variable Vortex-Ring Bubble Generator for Use in Interactive Exhibit

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-01

    ring bubble, vortex ring, Interactive Exhibit, STEM, diaphragm valve, toroidal ring 15. NUMBER OF PAGES 69 16. PRICE CODE 17. SECURITY...encountered in previous thesis work by Hobbs in 2000 for the construction and quantification of a toroidal bubble apparatus. How do you protect the...motion (Akhmentov 2). Experimental observation of vortex rings have shown them to be composed of a toroidal volume of circulating fluid moving in a

  11. Design and use of a folded four-ring double-tuned birdcage coil for rat brain sodium imaging at 9.4 T

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ha, YongHyun; Choi, Chang-Hoon; Worthoff, Wieland A.; Shymanskaya, Aliaksandra; Schöneck, Michael; Willuweit, Antje; Felder, Jörg; Shah, N. Jon

    2018-01-01

    A folded four-ring quadrature birdcage coil was designed and constructed with a double-tune configuration of an outer high-pass coil for 1H (400 MHz) and inner low-pass coil for 23Na (105.72 MHz at 9.4 T). The coil was evaluated on the bench and in the scanner, comparing its performance with that of single-tuned coils and a large four-ring coil. All coils were tuned and matched and the isolation between two quadrature ports was found to be better than -13.7 dB for 1H and -27 dB for 23Na. Signal-to-noise ratios (SNRs) were calculated and 23Na flip angle maps were acquired. 23Na SNR of the folded four-ring reached ∼93% of that obtained with the single-tuned coil. A set of in vivo1H and 23Na axial images to cover the whole rat brain were obtained. The performance of the folded four-ring coil and its benefit for 23Na imaging experiments have been demonstrated. This proposed four-ring coil could avoid length restrictions, e.g. the shoulders, by folding the outer rings vertically. This facilitates the construction of double-tuned four-ring birdcage coils just to fit the head, leading to higher filling factors and better SNR.

  12. Design and use of a folded four-ring double-tuned birdcage coil for rat brain sodium imaging at 9.4 T.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ha, YongHyun; Choi, Chang-Hoon; Worthoff, Wieland A; Shymanskaya, Aliaksandra; Schöneck, Michael; Willuweit, Antje; Felder, Jörg; Shah, N Jon

    2018-01-01

    A folded four-ring quadrature birdcage coil was designed and constructed with a double-tune configuration of an outer high-pass coil for 1 H (400 MHz) and inner low-pass coil for 23 Na (105.72 MHz at 9.4 T). The coil was evaluated on the bench and in the scanner, comparing its performance with that of single-tuned coils and a large four-ring coil. All coils were tuned and matched and the isolation between two quadrature ports was found to be better than -13.7 dB for 1 H and -27 dB for 23 Na. Signal-to-noise ratios (SNRs) were calculated and 23 Na flip angle maps were acquired. 23 Na SNR of the folded four-ring reached ∼93% of that obtained with the single-tuned coil. A set of in vivo 1 H and 23 Na axial images to cover the whole rat brain were obtained. The performance of the folded four-ring coil and its benefit for 23 Na imaging experiments have been demonstrated. This proposed four-ring coil could avoid length restrictions, e.g. the shoulders, by folding the outer rings vertically. This facilitates the construction of double-tuned four-ring birdcage coils just to fit the head, leading to higher filling factors and better SNR. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Fluid Pressures at the Shoe-Floor-Contaminant Interface During Slips: Effects of Tread & Implications on Slip Severity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beschorner, Kurt E.; Albert, Devon L.; Chambers, April J.; Redfern, Mark S.

    2018-01-01

    Previous research on slip and fall accidents has suggested that pressurized fluid between the shoe and floor is responsible for initiating slips yet this effect has not been verified experimentally. This study aimed to 1) measure hydrodynamic pressures during slipping for treaded and untreaded conditions; 2) determine the effects of fluid pressure on slip severity; and 3) quantify how fluid pressures vary with instantaneous resultant slipping speed, position on the shoe surface, and throughout the progression of the slip. Eighteen subjects walked on known dry and unexpected slippery floors, while wearing treaded and untreaded shoes. Fluid pressure sensors, embedded in the floor, recorded hydrodynamic pressures during slipping. The maximum fluid pressures (mean+/−standard deviation) were significantly higher for the untreaded conditions (124 +/−75 kPa) than the treaded conditions (1.1 +/−0.29 kPa). Maximum fluid pressures were positively correlated with peak slipping speed (r = 0.87), suggesting that higher fluid pressures, which are associated with untreaded conditions, resulted in more severe slips. Instantaneous resultant slipping speed and position of sensor relative to the shoe sole and walking direction explained 41% of the fluid pressure variability. Fluid pressures were primarily observed for untreaded conditions. This study confirms that fluid pressures are relevant to slipping events, consistent with fluid dynamics theory (i.e. the Reynolds equation), and can be modified with shoe tread design. The results suggest that the occurrence and severity of unexpected slips can be reduced by designing shoes/floors that reduce underfoot fluid pressures. PMID:24267270

  14. Association between Slip Severity and Muscle Synergies of Slipping

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Moein Nazifi

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Falls impose significant negative impacts to the US population and economy. A significant number of falls may be prevented via appropriate slip-responses since a strong relation exists between slips and falls. More importantly, as severe slips are more prone to result in a fall, identifying severe slippers along with the responsible factors for their adverse motor control and severe slipping should be the highest priority in fall prevention process. Previous studies have suggested that muscle synergies may be building blocks of the central nervous system in controlling motor tasks. Muscle synergies observed during slipping (‘post-slip-initiation synergies’ or ‘just briefly,’ ‘slipping muscle synergies’, may represent the fundamental blocks of the neural control during slipping. Hence, studying the differences in slipping muscle synergies of mild and severe slippers can potentially reveal the differences in their neural control and subsequently, indicate the responsible factors for the adverse post-slip response in severe slippers. Even though the slipping muscle synergies have been investigated before, it still remains unclear on how the slip severity is associated with the slipping muscle synergies. More importantly, muscle synergies can be interpreted not only as neural blocks but also as physical sub-tasks of the main motor task. Hence, studying the differences of slipping synergies of mild and severe slippers would reveal the discrepancies in sub-tasks of their post-slip response. These discrepancies help pinpoint the malfunctioning sub-function associated with inadequate motor response seen in severe slippers. Twenty healthy subjects were recruited and underwent an unexpected slip (to extract their slipping synergies. Subjects were classified into mild and severe slippers based on their Peak Heel Speed. An independent t-test revealed several significant inter-group differences for muscle synergies of mild and severe slippers

  15. Design and construction of the front-end electronics data acquisition for the SLD CRID [Cherenkov Ring Imaging Detector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hoeflich, J.; McShurley, D.; Marshall, D.; Oxoby, G.; Shapiro, S.; Stiles, P.; Spencer, E.

    1990-10-01

    We describe the front-end electronics for the Cherenkov Ring Imaging Detector (CRID) of the SLD at the Stanford Linear Accelerator Center. The design philosophy and implementation are discussed with emphasis on the low-noise hybrid amplifiers, signal processing and data acquisition electronics. The system receives signals from a highly efficient single-photo electron detector. These signals are shaped and amplified before being stored in an analog memory and processed by a digitizing system. The data from several ADCs are multiplexed and transmitted via fiber optics to the SLD FASTBUS system. We highlight the technologies used, as well as the space, power dissipation, and environmental constraints imposed on the system. 16 refs., 10 figs

  16. Design and Analysis of Miniaturized Microstrip Patch Antenna with Metamaterials Based on Modified Split-Ring Resonator for UWB Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khedrouche, D.; Bougoutaia, T.; Hocini, A.

    2016-11-01

    In this paper, a miniaturized microstrip patch antenna using a negative index metamaterial with modified split-ring resonator (SRR) unit cells is proposed for ultra-wideband (UWB) applications. The new design of metamaterial based microstrip patch antenna has been optimized to provide an improved bandwidth and multiple frequency operations. All the antenna performance parameters are presented in response-graphs. Also it is mentioned that the physical dimensions of the metamaterial based patch antenna are very small, which is convenient to modern communication. A 130 % bandwidth, covering the frequency band of 2.9-13.5 GHz, (for return loss less than or equal -10 dB) is achieved, which allow the antenna to operate in the Federal Communication Commission (FCC) band. In addition, the antenna has a good radiation pattern in the ultra-wide band spectrum, and it is nearly omnidirectional.

  17. A Design Report of the Baseline for PEP-X: an Ultra-Low Emittance Storage Ring

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bane, Karl; Bertsche, Kirk; Cai, Yunhai; Chao, Alex; Corbett, Willian; Fox, John; Hettel, Robert; Huang, Xiaobiao; Huang, Zhirong; Ng, Cho-Kuen; Nosochkov, Yuri; Novokhatski, Sasha; Radedeau, Thomas; Raubenheimer, Tor; Rivetta, Claudio; Safranek, James; Seeman, John; Stohr, Joachim; Stupakov, Gennady; Wang, Lanfa; Wang, Min-Huey; /SLAC

    2010-06-02

    Over the past year, we have worked out a baseline design for PEP-X, as an ultra-low emittance storage ring that could reside in the existing 2.2-km PEPII tunnel. The design features a hybrid lattice with double bend achromat (DBA) cells in two arcs and theoretical minimum emittance (TME) cells in the remaining four arcs. Damping wigglers are used to reduce the horizontal emittance to 86 pm-rad at zero current for a 4.5 GeV electron beam. At a design current of 1.5 A, the horizontal emittance increases, due to intrabeam scattering, to 164 pm-rad when the vertical emittance is maintained at a diffraction limited 8 pm-rad. The baseline design will produce photon beams achieving a brightness of 10{sup 22} (ph/s/mm{sup 2}/mrad{sup 2}/0.1% BW) at 10 keV in a 3.5-m conventional planar undulator. Our study shows that an optimized lattice has adequate dynamic aperture, while accommodating a conventional off-axis injection system. In this report, we present the results of study, including the lattice properties, nonlinear dynamics, intra-beam scattering and Touschek lifetime, RF system, and collective instabilities. Finally, we discuss the possibility of partial lasing at soft X-ray wavelengths using a long undulator in a straight section.

  18. Token ring technology report

    CERN Document Server

    2013-01-01

    Please note this is a Short Discount publication. This report provides an overview of the IBM Token-Ring technology and products built by IBM and compatible vendors. It consists of two sections: 1. A summary of the design trade-offs for the IBM Token-Ring. 2. A summary of the products of the major token-ring compatible vendors broken down by adapters and components, wiring systems, testing, and new chip technology.

  19. Spannungsgesteuerter Ring-Oszillator

    OpenAIRE

    Wang, Z.; Thiede, A.

    1999-01-01

    The oscillator (1) of integrated monolithic design has several analogue amplifier units (2) connected in a ring. The individual amplifiers are frequency selective in regard to a resonance frequency. The phase displacements of the amplifiers are chosen so that the total phase displacement over the ring at the resonance frequencies of the amplifiers amounts to 3600 or a whole number multiple of that. The number of amplifiers selected corresponds to the overall quality factor for the ring oscill...

  20. Slip in quantum fluids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Einzel, D.; Parpia, J.M.

    1997-01-01

    In this review the authors describe theoretical and experimental investigations of general slip phenomena in context with the flow of the quantum liquids 3 He, 4 He and their mixtures at low temperatures. The phenomena of slip is related to a boundary effect. It occurs when sufficiently dilute gases flow along the wall of an experimental cell. A fluid is said to exhibit slip when the fluid velocity at the wall is not equal to the wall's velocity. Such a situation occurs whenever the wall reflects the fluid particles in a specular-like manner, and/or if the fluid is describable in terms of a dilute ordinary gas (classical fluid) or a dilute gas of thermal excitations (quantum fluid). The slip effect in quantum fluids is discussed theoretically on the basis of generalized Landau-Boltzmann transport equations and generalized to apply to a regime of ballistic motion of the quasiparticles in the fluid. The central result is that the transport coefficient of bulk shear viscosity, which typically enters in the Poiseuille flow resistance and the transverse acoustic impedance, has to be replaced by geometry dependent effective viscosity, which depends on the details of the interaction of the fluid particles with the cell walls. The theoretical results are compared with various experimental data obtained in different geometries and for both Bose and Fermi quantum fluids. Good agreement between experiment and theory is found particularly in the case of pure normal and superfluid 3 He, with discrepancies probably arising because of deficiencies in characterization of the experimental surfaces

  1. Optimizing Floating Guard Ring Designs for FASPAX N-in-P Silicon Sensors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shin, Kyung-Wook [Argonne; Bradford, Robert [Argonne; Lipton, Ronald [Fermilab; Deptuch, Gregory [Fermilab; Fahim, Farah [Fermilab; Madden, Tim [Argonne; Zimmerman, Tom [Fermilab

    2016-10-06

    FASPAX (Fermi-Argonne Semiconducting Pixel Array X-ray detector) is being developed as a fast integrating area detector with wide dynamic range for time resolved applications at the upgraded Advanced Photon Source (APS.) A burst mode detector with intended $\\mbox{13 $MHz$}$ image rate, FASPAX will also incorporate a novel integration circuit to achieve wide dynamic range, from single photon sensitivity to $10^{\\text{5}}$ x-rays/pixel/pulse. To achieve these ambitious goals, a novel silicon sensor design is required. This paper will detail early design of the FASPAX sensor. Results from TCAD optimization studies, and characterization of prototype sensors will be presented.

  2. A proposed design and fabrication of lenses and mirrors from a set of spherical rings that produce desired energy distributions for solar energy applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gonzalez-Garcia, Jorge [Universidad Tecnologica de la Mixteca UTM, Km 2.5 Carretera a Acatlima, Huajuapan de Leon Oaxaca, C. P. 69000 (Mexico); Facultad de Ciencias Fisico-Matematicas, Benemerita Universidad Autonoma de Puebla BUAP, Apartado Postal 1152, 72570 Puebla (Mexico); Vazquez-Montiel, Sergio [Instituto de Optica, Instituto Nacional de Astrofisica, Optica y Electronica INAOE, Santa Maria, Tonantzintla Puebla, Apartado Postal 51 y 216 (Mexico); Santiago-Alvarado, Agustin [Universidad Tecnologica de la Mixteca UTM, Km 2.5 Carretera a Acatlima, Huajuapan de Leon Oaxaca, C. P. 69000 (Mexico); Instituto de Optica, Instituto Nacional de Astrofisica, Optica y Electronica INAOE, Santa Maria, Tonantzintla Puebla, Apartado Postal 51 y 216 (Mexico); Cordero-Davila, Alberto [Facultad de Ciencias Fisico-Matematicas, Benemerita Universidad Autonoma de Puebla BUAP, Apartado Postal 1152, 72570 Puebla (Mexico); Castro-Gonzalez, Graciela [Universidad Tecnologica de la Mixteca UTM, Km 2.5 Carretera a Acatlima, Huajuapan de Leon Oaxaca, C. P. 69000 (Mexico)

    2009-12-15

    The amount of energy contained in the solar aureole affects the performance of solar systems. Solar optical systems are, therefore, dependent on the characteristics of the shape of the sun in a specific geographical location. For this reason, the present study proposes the design of solid lenses and mirrors modelled from a set of concentric spherical rings that give a desired distribution of energy in the focal plane. One hundred spherical rings, whose optimum curvature radius values were calculated by Genetic Algorithms, were employed in the modelling process. The study also proposes a design of a petal tool to polish lens and mirror surfaces. (author)

  3. Virtual private network design : a proof of the tree routing conjecture on ring networks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hurkens, C.A.J.; Keijsper, J.C.M.; Stougie, L.

    2007-01-01

    A basic question in virtual private network (VPN) design is if the symmetric version of the problem always has an optimal solution which is a tree network. An affirmative answer would imply that the symmetric VPN problem is solvable in polynomial time. We give an affirmative answer in case the

  4. Virtual private network design: a proof of the tree routing conjecture on ring networks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    C.A.J. Hurkens (Cor); J.C.M. Keijsper; L. Stougie (Leen)

    2005-01-01

    htmlabstractA basic question in Virtual Private Network (VPN) design is if the symmetric version of the problem always has an optimal solution which is a tree network. An affirmative answer would imply that the symmetric VPN problem is solvable in polynomial time. We give an affirmative answer in

  5. The ring laser gyro

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chow, W. W.; Gea-Banacloche, J.; Pedrotti, L. M.; Sanders, V. E.; Schleich, W.; Scully, M. O.

    1985-01-01

    This paper presents a review of both active and passive ring laser devices. The operating principles of the ring laser are developed and discussed, with special emphasis given to the problems associated with the achievement of greater sensitivity and stability. First-principle treatments of the nature of quantum noise in the ring laser gyro and various methods designed to avoid low-rotation-rate lock-in are presented. Descriptions of state-of-the-art devices and current and proposed applications (including a proposed test of metric theories of gravity using a passive cavity ring laser) are given.

  6. Quasi-isochronous storage rings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Robin, D.; Forest, E.; Pellegrini, C.; Amiry, A.

    1993-01-01

    A study is made of the single-particle dynamics of an electron-positron storage ring where the phase-slip factor is made small in order to make the ring nearly isochronous and reduce the bunch length. What is found is that a quasi-isochronous ring makes it possible to obtain a bunch length in the millimeter range, about one order of magnitude shorter than present values. In this study we have extended the work of others on isochronous storage rings by quantitatively including higher-order terms in the longitudinal equations of motion. Scaling laws are then derived relating the linear term with the next-highest-order term. These scaling laws, which are derived from a two-dimensional Hamiltonian (one dimension of position and one of momentum), establish criteria for stability. These scaling laws are then checked with full six-dimensional tracking on one particular lattice

  7. Token Ring Project

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adela Ionescu

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Ring topology is a simple configuration used to connect processes that communicate among themselves. A number of network standards such as token ring, token bus, and FDDI are based on the ring connectivity. This article will develop an implementation of a ring of processes that communicate among themselves via pipe links. The processes are nodes in the ring. Each process reads from its standard input and writes in its standard output. N-1 process redirects the its standard output to a standard input of the process through a pipe. When the ring-structure is designed, the project can be extended to simulate networks or to implement algorithms for mutual exclusion

  8. Design and analysis of dual ring resonator based 2D-photonic crystal WDDM

    Science.gov (United States)

    Venkatachalam, K.; Robinson, S.; Kumar, D. Sriram

    2017-06-01

    In this paper, four channel 2D Photonic Crystal (PC) based Wavelength Division Demultiplexer (WDDM) using 2D-Photonic Crystal is proposed and designed. The important functional parameters of the proposed demultiplexer such as transmission efficiency, Q factor and resonant wavelength are analyzed. The Plane Wave Expansion (PWE) method and Finite Difference Time Domain (FDTD) method are employed to calculate the photonic band gap and normalized output spectrum of the proposed demultiplexer. The average transmission efficiency and Q factor of this proposed device is about 93% and 781, respectively. The overall size of the demultiplexer is around 681 µm2 which will be suitable for integrated optics for future all optical networks.

  9. Vortex rings

    CERN Document Server

    Akhmetov, D G

    2009-01-01

    This text on vortex rings covers their theoretical foundation, systematic investigations, and practical applications such as the extinction of fires at gushing oil wells. It pays special attention to the formation and motion of turbulent vortex rings.

  10. Physics and design issues of asymmetric storage ring colliders as B-factories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chattopadhyay, S.

    1989-08-01

    This paper concentrates on generic R ampersand D and design issues of asymmetric colliders via a specific example, namely a 9 GeV x 3 GeV collider based on PEP at SLAC. An asymmetric e + -e - collider at the Y(4s) and with sufficiently high luminosity (10 33 -10 34 cm -2 s -1 ) offers the possibility of studying mixing, rare decays, and CP violation in the B bar B meson system, as well as ''beautiful'' tau-charm physics, and has certain qualitative advantages from detection and machine design points of view. These include: the energy constraint; clean environment (∼25% B + B - , B 0 bar B 0 ); large cross section (1 nb); vertex reconstruction (from the time development of space-time separated B and bar B decays due to moving center-of-mass); reduced backgrounds; greatest sensitivity to CP violation in B → CP eigenstate; the possibility of using higher collision frequencies, up to 100 MHz, in a head-on colliding mode using magnetic separation. It is estimated that for B → ΨK s , an asymmetric collider has an advantage equivalent to a factor of five in luminosity relative to a symmetric one. There are, however, questions with regard to the physics of the asymmetric beam-beam coulomb interaction that may limit the intrinsic luminosity and the possibility of realizing the small beam pipes necessary to determine the vertices. 16 refs., 2 figs

  11. Simulation of engine auxiliary drive V-belt slip motion. Part 1. Development of belt slip model; Engine hoki V belt slip kyodo no simulation. 1. Belt slip model no kaihatsu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kurisu, T. [Mazda Motor Corp., Hiroshima (Japan)

    1997-10-01

    V-belts are widely used for driving auxiliary components of an engine. Inadequet design of such belt system sometimes results in troubles such as belt squeak, side rubber separation and/or bottom rubber crack. However, there has been no design tools which can predict belt slip quantitatively. The author developed a motion simulation program of Auxiliary Drive V-Belt System considering belt slip. The program showed good prediction accuracy for belt slip motion. This paper describes the simulation model. 1 ref., 12 figs.

  12. Pedestrians in wintertime-effects of using anti-slip devices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berggård, Glenn; Johansson, Charlotta

    2010-07-01

    Pedestrians slipping and falling is a major safety problem around the world, not least in countries with long winters such as Sweden. About 25000-30000 people need medical care every year for treatment of fall injuries in Sweden. Use of appropriate shoes and anti-slip devices are examples of individual measures that have been suggested to prevent slipping and falling. An intervention study was performed during the period February to April 2008. The study, which focused on healthy adults in northern Sweden, examined the effect of using anti-slip devices on daily walking journeys and prevention of slip and falls. The respondents were divided into three groups: an Intervention Group, a Control Group, with similar distribution of gender and age, and a Comparison Group. Four questionnaires were distributed: (1) background, (2) daily diary of distance walked and occurrence of incidents or accidents reported weekly, (3) detailed incident or fall report and (4) experiences of using anti-slip devices for those who used these devices during the trial period. Half of the respondents stated that they had previous experience of using anti-slip devices. In this study, 52% of the respondents used anti-slip devices. Anti-slip devices improve the walking capability during wintertime. Among those using appropriate anti-slip devices, the average daily walking distance was found to be statistically significantly longer compared to people not using anti-slip devices. This study indicates that an increase in daily walking distance can be made without increasing the risk of slips/falls when using anti-slip devices. The study also indicates that by using appropriate anti-slip devices and having information about when and where to use them, based on their design, people avoid having slips and falls. The respondents experienced in using anti-slip devices in this study will continue to use them and will also recommend others to use anti-slip devises. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights

  13. Design of an X-Ray Imaging System for the Low-Energy Ring of PEP-II

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fisher, A

    2004-01-01

    An x-ray beam-size monitor for positrons in the low-energy ring (LER) of the PEP-II B Factory at SLAC is being designed to accommodate the present 2-A, 3.1-GeV beam and anticipated currents of up to 4.7 A. The final photon stop of an arc will be rebuilt to pass dipole radiation through cooled apertures to optics 17 m from the source. The initial installation will use pinhole optics with a calculated resolution of 35 m. We then plan an upgrade using zone-plate imaging to obtain a resolution of 6 m. Two multilayer x-ray mirrors precede the zone plate, limiting the bandwidth to 1%, in order to avoid chromatic blurring and protect the zone plate. Despite the narrow bandwidth, the zone plate's larger diameter compared to a pinhole camera allows for a comparable photon flux. We will image all of the available 1700 LER bunches and also measure them individually, searching for variations along the train due to electron-cloud and beam-beam effects, using a scanning detector conceptually derived from a wire scanner. A mask with three narrow slots at different orientations will scan the image to obtain three projections. In one passage, signals from a fast scintillator and photomultiplier will be rapidly digitized and sorted to profile each bunch

  14. Design considerations for a digital feedback system to control self-bunching in ion-storage rings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. Ziemann

    2001-04-01

    Full Text Available We discuss the feasibility of a digital feedback system to cure self-bunching of the electron-cooled coasting ion beam in ion-storage rings such as CELSIUS [S. Holm, A. Johansson, S. Kullander, and D. Reistad, Phys. Scr. 34, 513–532 (1986]. Such a system is based on a fast digital filter that acts as a tunable artificial wake potential. It may also aid stable operation of accumulator rings for future spallation neutron sources or heavy ion rings used for inertial fusion energy production.

  15. Planetary Rings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tiscareno, Matthew S.

    Planetary rings are the only nearby astrophysical disks and the only disks that have been investigated by spacecraft (especially the Cassini spacecraft orbiting Saturn). Although there are significant differences between rings and other disks, chiefly the large planet/ring mass ratio that greatly enhances the flatness of rings (aspect ratios as small as 10- 7), understanding of disks in general can be enhanced by understanding the dynamical processes observed at close range and in real time in planetary rings.We review the known ring systems of the four giant planets, as well as the prospects for ring systems yet to be discovered. We then review planetary rings by type. The A, B, and C rings of Saturn, plus the Cassini Division, comprise our solar system's only dense broad disk and host many phenomena of general application to disks including spiral waves, gap formation, self-gravity wakes, viscous overstability and normal modes, impact clouds, and orbital evolution of embedded moons. Dense narrow rings are found both at Uranus (where they comprise the main rings entirely) and at Saturn (where they are embedded in the broad disk) and are the primary natural laboratory for understanding shepherding and self-stability. Narrow dusty rings, likely generated by embedded source bodies, are surprisingly found to sport azimuthally confined arcs at Neptune, Saturn, and Jupiter. Finally, every known ring system includes a substantial component of diffuse dusty rings.Planetary rings have shown themselves to be useful as detectors of planetary processes around them, including the planetary magnetic field and interplanetary impactors as well as the gravity of nearby perturbing moons. Experimental rings science has made great progress in recent decades, especially numerical simulations of self-gravity wakes and other processes but also laboratory investigations of coefficient of restitution and spectroscopic ground truth. The age of self-sustained ring systems is a matter of

  16. Simulating spontaneous aseismic and seismic slip events on evolving faults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herrendörfer, Robert; van Dinther, Ylona; Pranger, Casper; Gerya, Taras

    2017-04-01

    Plate motion along tectonic boundaries is accommodated by different slip modes: steady creep, seismic slip and slow slip transients. Due to mainly indirect observations and difficulties to scale results from laboratory experiments to nature, it remains enigmatic which fault conditions favour certain slip modes. Therefore, we are developing a numerical modelling approach that is capable of simulating different slip modes together with the long-term fault evolution in a large-scale tectonic setting. We extend the 2D, continuum mechanics-based, visco-elasto-plastic thermo-mechanical model that was designed to simulate slip transients in large-scale geodynamic simulations (van Dinther et al., JGR, 2013). We improve the numerical approach to accurately treat the non-linear problem of plasticity (see also EGU 2017 abstract by Pranger et al.). To resolve a wide slip rate spectrum on evolving faults, we develop an invariant reformulation of the conventional rate-and-state dependent friction (RSF) and adapt the time step (Lapusta et al., JGR, 2000). A crucial part of this development is a conceptual ductile fault zone model that relates slip rates along discrete planes to the effective macroscopic plastic strain rates in the continuum. We test our implementation first in a simple 2D setup with a single fault zone that has a predefined initial thickness. Results show that deformation localizes in case of steady creep and for very slow slip transients to a bell-shaped strain rate profile across the fault zone, which suggests that a length scale across the fault zone may exist. This continuum length scale would overcome the common mesh-dependency in plasticity simulations and question the conventional treatment of aseismic slip on infinitely thin fault zones. We test the introduction of a diffusion term (similar to the damage description in Lyakhovsky et al., JMPS, 2011) into the state evolution equation and its effect on (de-)localization during faster slip events. We compare

  17. Optimized design method for trench-assisted grade-index ring-core fiber with low DMD and large Aeff

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qiao, Xihui; Tu, Jiajing; Long, Keping

    2017-02-01

    We propose a kind of trench-assisted graded-index ring-core fiber (TA-GI-RCF) with a low refractive index rod deployed in the center of the core, which supports three LP modes (LP01, LP11 and LP21) transmission. There are two difficulties about designing TA-GI-RCF, one is to depart LP21 mode from LP02 mode because their effective indices are too close which makes it difficult to realize only three LP modes transmission; the other one is how to make sure these three LP modes reach the receiver end with low differential mode delay (DMD), so that the computation complexity of multi-input multi-output (MIMO) digital signal process (DSP) can be reduced. At first, we realize the separation of LP21 mode and LP02 mode in TA-GI-RCF by enlarging the size of low refractive index rod. We next investigate the influence of the TA-GI-RCF structural parameters on DMD and DMD slope, and find that a graded-index core and a low refractive index rod can flexibly tune the DMD, and a trench can flexibly control the DMD slope. Through optimizing the core parameters, we find that the design region of α is 1.01 2.23 and that of Δ1 is 0.28% 0.46% at r1=30 μm, where α is the profile exponent and Δ1 is the relative refractive index difference between core and cladding. Simulation results show that TA-GI-RCF can achieve the effective area (Aeff) of LP01 mode over 2000 μm2 and the |DMD| between LP01 mode and LP11 mode is DMD over whole C+L band and large Aeff.

  18. Slips of the Pun

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Balle, Søren Hattesen

    2008-01-01

    are just as much about how their punning is a mere suggestive play with words, having no determinate, let alone finally determinable sense – sexual or otherwise. Incidentally, Ashbery’s poetic ‘I’ in his long poem “A Wave” (1984) asks: “Were we making sense?” The question is interesting from two points......’ at the same time, the second one of which gets told as a result of a simple slip of a pun. If one story of the poem is the poet-speaker’s hermeneutic quest for the possible meaningfulness of a past love affair, the other – somewhat less conspicuously – introduces his attempt to remember and recover the bodily...

  19. Slip Prediction through Tactile Sensing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Somrak PETCHARTEE

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper introduces a new way to predict contact slip using a resistive tactile sensor. The prototype sensor can be used to provide intrinsic information relating to geometrical features situated on the surface of grasped objects. Information along the gripper finger surface is obtained with a measurement resolution dependant on the number of discrete tactile elements. The tactile sensor predicts the partial slip of a tactile surface by sensing micro vibrations in tangential forces which are caused by an expansion of the slip regions within the contact area. The location of the local slip is not specified but its occurrence can be predicted immediately following micro vibration detection. Predictive models have been used to develop a set of rules which predict the slip based on fluctuations in tactile signal data.

  20. Mechanism design for the increase of team performance: An economic experimentusing O-Ring and Foolproof theories

    OpenAIRE

    Tanita Kiatkarun Author-Email; Komsan Suriya

    2013-01-01

    This study constructs an economic experiment following O-ring and Foolproof theories to investigate the relationship between group formation and performance. This study will evaluate whether, or not Thais favor to work in a sequential working process (O-ring theory) or in a brainstorming process (Foolproof theory). Moreover, it will figure out the optimal combination in a group and whether a good team should contain more talented persons or just a moderate person can lead a group of weak pers...

  1. Modified Design of Pin-on-Ring Tribometer for Hip Joint Prostheses Measurement; Case Study on Salat Activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Khafidh

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Total hip replacement (THR is one of the most successful orthopedic surgical procedures for replacing a broken hip joint. In THR, wear may occur at the articulating surface of the acetabular cup and the femoral head. In Indonesia, the country with the largest Muslim population in the world, most of the inhabitants do salat (praying every day. THR users are banned from doing salat for fear it will damage the hip joint prostheses. The previous wear calculation methods on the hip joint prostheses use the gravimetric, coordinate measuring machine (CMM, profiler, and geometric method. The disadvantages of the previous methods are that the geometry of the wear patch and the wear volume are only known at the end of the experiment, so they cannot be used to calculate the specific wear rate values in real time. So far, in every modeling of the hip joint prostheses, the values of the specific wear rate are assumed to be constant. This paper reports on the design modification of a pin-on-ring tribometer that is used to measure the wear volumes in hip joint prostheses. The result shows that modifications of the femoral head holder, reciprocating motion, elastic joint, and extra displacement transducer is needed to get the specific wear rate value. The calculation method to find the delta volume that is the value of displacement less than the displacement minimum (δmin is based on a graph, while the calculation method to find the delta volume that is the value of displacement that is more than the displacement minimum (δmin is based on an equation. In the salat test protocol, the longest test time was during the sujud (prostration motion, which took 1034.17 minutes in the experiment.

  2. Entropy Stability and the No-Slip Wall Boundary Condition

    KAUST Repository

    Svärd, Magnus

    2018-01-18

    We present an entropy stable numerical scheme subject to no-slip wall boundary conditions. To enforce entropy stability only the no-penetration boundary condition and a temperature condition are needed at a wall, and this leads to an L bound on the conservative variables. In this article, we take the next step and design a finite difference scheme that also bounds the velocity gradients. This necessitates the use of the full no-slip conditions.

  3. Slip flow in graphene nanochannels

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    . Kannam, Sridhar; Billy, Todd; Hansen, Jesper Schmidt

    2011-01-01

    . E 84, 016313 (2011)10.1103/PhysRevE.84.016313]. We first calculate the fluid-graphene interfacial friction coefficient, from which we can predict the slip length and the average velocity of the first fluid layer close to the wall (referred to as the slip velocity). Using direct nonequilibrium...... therefore enables one to directly calculate this intrinsic friction coefficient between fluid and solid and the slip length for a given fluid and solid, which is otherwise tedious to calculate using direct NEMD simulations at low pressure gradients or shear rates. The advantages of the EMD method over...

  4. Storage ring group summary

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    King, N.M.

    1980-01-01

    The Storage Ring Group set out to identify and pursue salient problems in accelerator physics for heavy ion fusion, divorced from any particular reference design concept. However, it became apparent that some basic parameter framework was required to correlate the different study topics. As the Workshop progressed, ring parameters were modified and updated. Consequently, the accompanying papers on individual topics will be found to refer to slightly varied parameters, according to the stage at which the different problems were tackled

  5. The Hanford Site's Gable Mountain structure: A comparison of the recurrence of design earthquakes based on fault slip rates and a probabilistic exposure model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rohay, A.C.

    1991-01-01

    Gable Mountain is a segment of the Umtanum Ridge-Gable Mountain structural trend, an east-west trending series of anticlines, one of the major geologic structures on the Hanford Site. A probabilistic seismic exposure model indicates that Gable Mountain and two adjacent segments contribute significantly to the seismic hazard at the Hanford Site. Geologic measurements of the uplift of initially horizontal (11-12 Ma) basalt flows indicate that a broad, continuous, primary anticline grew at an average rate of 0.009-0.011 mm/a, and narrow, segmented, secondary anticlines grew at rates of 0.009 mm/a at Gable Butte and 0.018 mm/a at Gable Mountain. The buried Southeast Anticline appears to have a different geometry, consisting of a single, intermediate-width anticline with an estimated growth rate of 0.007 mm/a. The recurrence rate and maximum magnitude of earthquakes for the fault models were used to estimate the fault slip rate for each of the fault models and to determine the implied structural growth rate of the segments. The current model for Gable Mountain-Gable Butte predicts 0.004 mm/a of vertical uplift due to primary faulting and 0.008 mm/a due to secondary faulting. These rates are roughly half the structurally estimated rates for Gable Mountain, but the model does not account for the smaller secondary fold at Gable Butte. The model predicted an uplift rate for the Southeast Anticline of 0.006 mm/a, caused by the low open-quotes fault capabilityclose quotes weighting rather than a different fault geometry. The effects of previous modifications to the fault models are examined and potential future modifications are suggested. For example, the earthquake recurrence relationship used in the current exposure model has a b-value of 1.15, compared to a previous value of 0.85. This increases the implied deformation rates due to secondary fault models, and therefore supports the use of this regionally determined b-value to this fault/fold system

  6. Double acting stirling engine piston ring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howarth, Roy B.

    1986-01-01

    A piston ring design for a Stirling engine wherein the contact pressure between the piston and the cylinder is maintained at a uniform level, independent of engine conditions through a balancing of the pressure exerted upon the ring's surface and thereby allowing the contact pressure on the ring to be predetermined through the use of a preloaded expander ring.

  7. Design, fabrication and characterization of multi-guard-ring furnished p+n-n+ silicon strip detectors for future HEP experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lalwani, Kavita; Jain, Geetika; Dalal, Ranjeet; Ranjan, Kirti; Bhardwaj, Ashutosh

    2016-07-01

    Si detectors, in various configurations (strips and pixels), have been playing a key role in High Energy Physics (HEP) experiments due to their excellent vertexing and high precision tracking information. In future HEP experiments like upgrade of the Compact Muon Solenoid experiment (CMS) at the Large Hadron Collider (LHC), CERN and the proposed International Linear Collider (ILC), the Si tracking detectors will be operated in a very harsh radiation environment, which leads to both surface and bulk damage in Si detectors which in turn changes their electrical properties, i.e. change in the full depletion voltage, increase in the leakage current and decrease in the charge collection efficiency. In order to achieve the long term durability of Si-detectors in future HEP experiments, it is required to operate these detectors at very high reverse biases, beyond the full depletion voltage, thus requiring higher detector breakdown voltage. Delhi University (DU) is involved in the design, fabrication and characterization of multi-guard-ring furnished ac-coupled, single sided, p+n-n+ Si strip detectors for future HEP experiments. The design has been optimized using a two-dimensional numerical device simulation program (TCAD-Silvaco). The Si strip detectors are fabricated with eight-layers mask process using the planar fabrication technology by Bharat Electronic Lab (BEL), India. Further an electrical characterization set-up is established at DU to ensure the quality performance of fabricated Si strip detectors and test structures. In this work measurement results on non irradiated Si Strip detectors and test structures with multi-guard-rings using Current Voltage (IV) and Capacitance Voltage (CV) characterization set-ups are discussed. The effect of various design parameters, for example guard-ring spacing, number of guard-rings and metal overhang on breakdown voltage of test structures have been studied.

  8. Stick-slip and Torsional Friction Factors in Inclined Wellbores

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aarsnes Ulf Jakob F.

    2018-01-01

    The model is shown to have a good match with the surface and downhole behavior of two deviated wellbores for depths ranging from 1500 to 3000 meters. In particular, the model replicates the amplitude and period of the oscillations, in both the topside torque and the downhole RPM, as caused by the along-string stick slip. It is further shown that by using the surface behavior of the drill-string during rotational startup, an estimate of the static and dynamic friction factors along the wellbore can be obtained, even during stick-slip oscillations, if axial tension in the drillstring is considered. This presents a possible method to estimate friction factors in the field when off-bottom stick slip is encountered, and points in the direction of avoiding stick slip through the design of an appropriate torsional start-up procedure without the need of an explicit friction test.

  9. Multiplate magnetorheological fluid limited slip differential clutch

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kavlicoglu, Barkan M.; Gordaninejad, Faramarz; Evrensel, Cahit A.; Fuchs, Alan; Korol, George

    2003-08-01

    This study focuses on the design and characterization of a multi-plate magneto-rheological fluid (MRF) limited slip differential (LSD) clutch. Three-dimensional electromagnetic finite element analyzes are performed to optimize the MRF LSD clutch design. The torque transfer capacity of the clutch is predicted utilizing Bingham-Plastic constitutive model of the MRF. The MRF LSD clutch is tested at different velocities and applied magnetic fields. The clutch heating is also examined under different operating conditions to determine the thermal effects on the torque transfer performance of the multi-plate clutch.

  10. Design and characterization of 16-mode PANDA polarization-maintaining few-mode ring-core fiber for spatial division multiplexing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Yuan; Zhao, Yongli; Yu, Xiaosong; Han, Jiawei; Zhang, Jie

    2017-11-01

    A PANDA polarization-maintaining few-mode ring-core fiber (PM-FM-RCF) structure with two air holes around the ring core is proposed. The relative mode multiplicity factor (RMMF) is defined to evaluate the spatial efficiency of the designed PM-FM-RCF. The performance analysis and comparison of the proposed PANDA PM-FM-RCFs considering three different types of step-index profiles are detailed. Through modal characteristic analysis and numerical simulation, the PM-FM-RCF with a lower refractive index difference (Δnoi=1.5%) between the ring core and the inner central circle can support up to 16 polarization modes with large RMMF at C-band, which shows the optimum modal properties compared with the PM-FM-RCF with higher Δnoi. All the supported polarization modes are effectively separated from their adjacent polarization modes with effective refractive index differences (Δn) larger than 10-4, which also show relatively small chromatic dispersion (-20 to 25 ps/nm/km), low attenuation (<1.4 dB/km), and small bending radius (˜8 mm) over the C-band. The designed PM-FM-RCF can be compatible with standard single-mode fibers and applied in multiple-input multiple-output-free spatial division multiplexing optical networks for short-reach optical interconnection.

  11. Determinantal rings

    CERN Document Server

    Bruns, Winfried

    1988-01-01

    Determinantal rings and varieties have been a central topic of commutative algebra and algebraic geometry. Their study has attracted many prominent researchers and has motivated the creation of theories which may now be considered part of general commutative ring theory. The book gives a first coherent treatment of the structure of determinantal rings. The main approach is via the theory of algebras with straightening law. This approach suggest (and is simplified by) the simultaneous treatment of the Schubert subvarieties of Grassmannian. Other methods have not been neglected, however. Principal radical systems are discussed in detail, and one section is devoted to each of invariant and representation theory. While the book is primarily a research monograph, it serves also as a reference source and the reader requires only the basics of commutative algebra together with some supplementary material found in the appendix. The text may be useful for seminars following a course in commutative ring theory since a ...

  12. ring system

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    1,3,2-DIAZABORACYCLOALKANE. RING SYSTEM. Negussie Retta" and Robert H. Neilson. 'Department of Chemistry, Addis Ababa University, P.O. Box 1176, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia. Department of Chemistry, Texas Christian University.

  13. Vascular ring

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... trachea) and esophagus can lead to breathing and digestive problems. The more the ring presses down, the more severe the symptoms will be. Breathing problems may include: ... Digestive symptoms are rare, but may include: Choking Difficulty ...

  14. Optimal Slip Ratio Based Fuzzy Control of Acceleration Slip Regulation for Four-Wheel Independent Driving Electric Vehicles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guodong Yin

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available To improve the driving performance and the stability of the electric vehicle, a novel acceleration slip regulation (ASR algorithm based on fuzzy logic control strategy is proposed for four-wheel independent driving (4WID electric vehicles. In the algorithm, angular acceleration and slip rate based fuzzy controller of acceleration slip regulation are designed to maintain the wheel slip within the optimal range by adjusting the motor torque dynamically. In order to evaluate the performance of the algorithm, the models of the main components related to the ASR of the four-wheel independent driving electric vehicle are built in MATLAB/SIMULINK. The simulations show that the driving stability and the safety of the electric vehicle are improved for fuzzy logic control compared with the conventional PID control.

  15. Design report for an annular fuel element for accommodation of a carbide test bundle on the ring position of the KNK II/2 test zone

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haefner, H.E.

    1982-03-01

    This report describes an annular oxide element with Mark II rods for accommodation of a 19-pin carbide test bundle on position 201 in the test zone of the second core of KNK II as well as its behavior during the period of operation. The ring element comprises within a driver wrapper in three rows of pins 102 fuel pins of 7.6 mm diameter and six structural rods for fixing the spark eroded spacers. The report deals with the ring element with its individual components fuel rod, bundle, wrappers, head and foot and describes methods, criteria and results concerning the design. The carbide test bundle to be accommodated by the annular carrier element will be treated in a separate report. The loadability of the annular element with its components is demonstrated by generally valid standards for strength criteria

  16. Ligand design for site-selective metal coordination: synthesis of transition-metal complexes with η{sup 6}-coordination of the central ring of anthracene

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Karslyan, Eduard E.; Borissova, Alexandra O.; Perekalin, Dmitry S. [Nesmeyanov Institute of Organoelement Compounds, Russian Academy of Sciences, Moscow (Russian Federation)

    2017-05-08

    A polycyclic aromatic ligand for site-selective metal coordination was designed by using DFT calculations. The computational prediction was confirmed by experiments: 2,3,6,7-tetramethoxy-9,10-dimethylanthracene initially reacts with [(C{sub 5}H{sub 5})Ru(MeCN){sub 3}]BF{sub 4} to give the kinetic product with a [(C{sub 5}H{sub 5})Ru]{sup +} fragment coordinated at the terminal ring, which is then transformed into the thermodynamic product with coordination through the central ring. These isomeric complexes have markedly different UV/Vis spectra, which was explained by analysis of the frontier orbitals. At the same time, the calculations suggest that electrostatic interactions are mainly responsible for the site selectivity of the coordination. (copyright 2017 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  17. Integrated Ring Resonators The Compendium

    CERN Document Server

    Rabus, Dominik G

    2007-01-01

    The optical filter, which has emerged in the last few years in integrated optics, is resonator based. Ring-resonator filters do not require facets or gratings for optical feedback and are thus particularly suited for monolithic integration with other components. Ring resonators find applications not only in optical networks, but also as sensors. The required passband shape of ring resonator-filters can be custom designed by the use of configurations of various ring coupled resonators. This book describes the current state-of-the-art on these devices with respect to design, fabrication and application.

  18. Slip of Spreading Viscoplastic Droplets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jalaal, Maziyar; Balmforth, Neil J; Stoeber, Boris

    2015-11-10

    The spreading of axisymmetric viscoplastic droplets extruded slowly on glass surfaces is studied experimentally using shadowgraphy and swept-field confocal microscopy. The microscopy furnishes vertical profiles of the radial velocity using particle image velocimetry (PIV) with neutrally buoyant tracers seeded in the fluid. Experiments were conducted for two complex fluids: aqueous solutions of Carbopol and xanthan gum. On untreated glass surfaces, PIV demonstrates that both fluids experience a significant amount of effective slip. The experiments were repeated on glass that had been treated to feature positive surface charges, thereby promoting adhesion between the negatively charged polymeric constituents of the fluids and the glass surface. The Carbopol and xanthan gum droplets spread more slowly on the treated surface and to a smaller radial distance. PIV demonstrated that this reduced spreading was associated with a substantial reduction in slip. For Carbopol, the effective slip could be eliminated entirely to within the precision of the PIV measurements; the reduction in slip was less effective for xanthan gum, with a weak slip velocity remaining noticeable.

  19. Design of computer-generated hologram with ring focus for nonmechanical corneal trephination with Er:YAG laser in penetrating keratoplasty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Langenbucher, A; Seitz, B; Kus, M M; van der Heyd, G; Köchle, M; Naumann, G O

    1999-01-01

    To calculate a beam-shaping optical element for homogeneous intensity distribution within a focal ring to be used in nonmechanical trephination with the Er:YAG laser in penetrating keratoplasty instead of a spot guiding device. The phase distribution behind a holographic optical element (HOE) k psi(u) can be described by the addition of the hologram phase phiH(u) to the beam phase phiE(u): k psi(u) = phiH(u) + phiE(u), k = 2pi/lambda, where u denotes the coordinates inside the hologram aperture, k an integer, and lambda the laser wavelength. To avoid discontinuous wavefronts leading to speckle noise, a smooth phase function is necessary. After transforming the hologram aperture coordinates into the focal plane x in a focal distance f, psi can be retrieved from the slope equation: inverted delta psi(u) = x(u) - u/f. Creating a ring focus can be reduced to an essentially one-dimensional problem by separation of variables due to the symmetry condition. We calculated a computer-generated eight-level phase-only HOE with 4096 x 4096 pixels from a Gaussian-distributed 2.94 Er:YAG laser spot with a beam diameter of 10 mm and a focal distance of 100 mm. Thereby, a ring focus with an inner/outer radius of 7/8 mm can be created. To avoid Poisson's spo, the symmetry of the problem was broken by circular modulation of the phase leading to a spiral-like structure. The calculated efficiency of the HOE relating the energy within the ring to the total energy was 91%. With an HOE it is possible to redistribute the energy along the desired focal ring. The HOE design can be adapted to the intensity distribution of the impinging laser beam with its characteristic aperture shape. A circular homogeneous corneal trephination depth is possible, because the energy fluctuation from pulse to pulse does not locally affect the ablation process. A ring focus for the Er:YAG laser has the potential to render superfluous a manual beam control via micromanipulator and to allow a more rapid and more

  20. On first cycle slip time of phase-locked loops in cascade

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuen, J. H.

    1974-01-01

    Precise measurement and spacecraft tracking are obtained by using phase-locked loops in cascade in two-way communications links. Statistics on cycle slip time are of vital importance in system planning and design. This paper presents: (1) results of a computer simulation study of the mean time to first cycle slip of cascade phase-locked loops preceded by bandpass limiters, and (2) the determination of probability distributions of cycle slip. Numerical results are obtained for a typical coherent communication system.

  1. Effective slip lengths for flows over surfaces with nanobubbles: the effects of finite slip

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hendy, S C; Lund, N J

    2009-01-01

    We consider effective slip lengths for flows of simple liquids over surfaces contaminated by gaseous nanobubbles. In particular, we examine whether the effects of finite slip over the liquid-bubble interface are important in limiting effective slip lengths over such surfaces. Using an expression that interpolates between the perfect slip and finite slip regimes for flow over bubbles, we conclude that for the bubble dimensions and coverages typically reported in the literature the effects of finite slip are secondary, reducing effective slip lengths by only 10%. Further, we find that nanobubbles do not significantly increase slip lengths beyond those reported for bare hydrophobic surfaces.

  2. Instabilities and resistance fluctuations in thin accelerated superconducting rings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karttunen, Mikko; Elder, K R; Tarlie, Martin B; Grant, Martin

    2002-08-01

    The nonequilibrium properties of a driven quasi-one-dimensional superconducting ring subjected to a constant electromotive force (emf) is studied. The emf accelerates the superconducting electrons until the critical current is reached and a dissipative phase slip occurs that lowers the current. The phase-slip phenomena is examined as a function of the strength of the emf, thermal noise, and normal state resistivity. Numerical and analytic methods are used to make detailed predictions for the magnitude of phase slips and subsequent dissipation.

  3. Topological rings

    CERN Document Server

    Warner, S

    1993-01-01

    This text brings the reader to the frontiers of current research in topological rings. The exercises illustrate many results and theorems while a comprehensive bibliography is also included. The book is aimed at those readers acquainted with some very basic point-set topology and algebra, as normally presented in semester courses at the beginning graduate level or even at the advanced undergraduate level. Familiarity with Hausdorff, metric, compact and locally compact spaces and basic properties of continuous functions, also with groups, rings, fields, vector spaces and modules, and with Zorn''s Lemma, is also expected.

  4. The Rolling with Slipping Experiment in the Virtual Physics Laboratory--Context-Based Teaching Material

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maidana, Nora L.; da Fonseca, Monaliza; Barros, Suelen F.; Vanin, Vito R.

    2016-01-01

    The Virtual Laboratory was created as a complementary educational activity, with the aim of working abstract concepts from an experimental point of view. In this work, the motion of a ring rolling and slipping in front of a grid printed panel was recorded. The frames separated from this video received a time code, and the resulting set of images…

  5. Thomson's Jumping Ring Over a Long Coil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeffery, Rondo N.; Amiri, Farhang

    2018-03-01

    The classic jumping ring apparatus consists of a coil with an iron core that extends out of the coil. A copper or aluminum ring placed over the iron core jumps upward when AC power is applied to the coil. In this paper we will examine a modified design of the jumping ring apparatus, called the "long-coil design." It allows the ring to jump upward or downward, depending on the starting position of the ring. These features shed significant light on the study of the force that causes the ring to jump.

  6. Ring interferometry

    CERN Document Server

    Malykin, Grigorii B; Zhurov, Alexei

    2013-01-01

    This monograph is devoted to the creation of a comprehensive formalism for quantitative description of polarized modes' linear interaction in modern single-mode optic fibers. The theory of random connections between polarized modes, developed in the monograph, allows calculations of the zero shift deviations for a fiber ring interferometer. The monograph addresses also the

  7. BERKELEY: ALS ring

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1993-01-01

    Everybody at Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory's Center for Beam Physics is pleased with the rapid progress in commissioning LBL's Advanced Light Source (ALS) electron storage ring, the foundation for this third-generation synchrotron radiation facility. Designed for a maximum current of 400 mA, the ALS storage ring reached 407 mA just 24 days after storing the first beam on 16 March. ALS construction as a US Department of Energy (DOE) national user facility to provide high-brightness vacuum ultra-violet and soft x-ray radiation began in October 1987. One technical requirement marking project completion was to accumulate a 50-mA current in the storage ring. The ALS passed this milestone on 24 March, a week ahead of the official deadline. Once injected, the electron beam decays quasi-exponentially primarily because of interactions with residual gas molecules in the storage-ring vacuum chamber. Eventually, when the pressure in the vacuum chamber with beam decreases toward the expected operating level of 1 nano Torr, it will only be necessary to refill the storage ring at intervals of four to eight hours. At present the vacuum is improving rapidly as surfaces are irradiated (scrubbed) by the synchrotron radiation itself. At 100 mA, beam lifetime was about one hour (9 April)

  8. Design Report for a 19-pin carbide test-bundle in a ring-subassembly of the test zone of KNK II/2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haefner, H.E.

    1982-03-01

    This report describes a 19-rod carbide test bundle in an annular oxide ring element placed at the position 201 of the test zone in the second core of KNK II as well as its behavior during the period of operation. The selected fuel rod concept includes low pellet density and a relatively large gap width as well as helium bonding between fuel and cladding. Characteristic design and operation data are: rod diameter 8.5 mm, pellet diameter 7.0 mm, maximum nominal linear rating 800 W/cm, maximum nominal burnup 70 MWd/kgHM. This report exclusively deals with the carbide test bundle and its individual components; it describes methods, criteria and results concerning the design. The annular carrier element with its head and foot is treated in a separate report. The loadability of the test bundle and its individual components is demonstrated by generally valid standards for strength criteria [de

  9. Phase-slip-induced dissipation in an atomic Bose-Hubbard system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKay, D; White, M; Pasienski, M; DeMarco, B

    2008-05-01

    Phase-slips control dissipation in many bosonic systems, determining the critical velocity of superfluid helium and the generation of resistance in thin superconducting wires. Technological interest has been largely motivated by applications involving nanoscale superconducting circuit elements, such as standards based on quantum phase-slip junctions. Although phase slips caused by thermal fluctuations at high temperatures are well understood, controversy remains over the role of phase slips in small-scale superconductors--in solids, problems such as uncontrolled noise sources and disorder complicate their study and application. Here we show that phase slips can lead to dissipation in a clean and well-characterized Bose-Hubbard system, by experimentally studying the transport of ultracold atoms trapped in an optical lattice. In contrast to previous work, we explore a low-velocity regime described by the three-dimensional Bose-Hubbard model that is unaffected by instabilities, and we measure the effect of temperature on the dissipation strength. The damping rate of atomic motion (the analogue of electrical resistance in a solid) in the confining parabolic potential is well fitted by a model that includes finite damping at zero temperature. The low-temperature behaviour is consistent with the theory of quantum tunnelling of phase slips, whereas at higher temperatures a crossover consistent with a transition to thermal activation of phase slips is evident. Motion-induced features reminiscent of vortices and vortex rings associated with phase slips are also observed in time-of-flight imaging. These results clarify the role of phase slips in superfluid systems. They may also be of relevance in understanding the source of metallic phases observed in thin films, or serve as a test bed for theories of bosonic dissipation based upon variants of the Bose-Hubbard model.

  10. Collector ring project at FAIR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dolinskii, A; Blell, U; Dimopoulou, C; Gorda, O; Leibrock, H; Litvinov, S; Laier, U; Schurig, I; Weinrich, U; Berkaev, D; Koop, I; Starostenko, A; Shatunov, P

    2015-01-01

    The collector ring is a dedicated ring for fast cooling of ions coming from separators at the FAIR project. To accommodate optimal technical solutions, a structure of a magnet lattice was recently reviewed and modified. Consequently, more appropriate technical solutions for the main magnets could be adopted. A general layout and design of the present machine is shown. The demanding extraction schemes have been detailed and open design issues were completed. (paper)

  11. Ultrafast harmonic rf kicker design and beam dynamics analysis for an energy recovery linac based electron circulator cooler ring

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yulu Huang

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available An ultrafast kicker system is being developed for the energy recovery linac (ERL based electron circulator cooler ring (CCR in the proposed Jefferson Lab Electron Ion Collider (JLEIC, previously named MEIC. In the CCR, the injected electron bunches can be recirculated while performing ion cooling for 10–30 turns before the extraction, thus reducing the recirculation beam current in the ERL to 1/10−1/30 (150  mA-50  mA of the cooling beam current (up to 1.5 A. Assuming a bunch repetition rate of 476.3 MHz and a recirculating factor of 10 in the CCR, the kicker is required to operate at a pulse repetition rate of 47.63 MHz with pulse width of around 2 ns, so that only every 10th bunch in the CCR will experience a transverse kick while the rest of the bunches will not be disturbed. Such a kicker pulse can be synthesized by ten harmonic modes of the 47.63 MHz kicker pulse repetition frequency, using up to four quarter wavelength resonator (QWR based deflecting cavities. In this paper, several methods to synthesize such a kicker waveform will be discussed and a comparison of their beam dynamics performance is made using ELEGANT. Four QWR cavities are envisaged with high transverse shunt impedance requiring less than 100 W of total rf power for a Flat-Top kick pulse. Multipole fields due to the asymmetry of this type of cavity are analyzed. The transverse emittance growth due to the sextupole component is simulated in ELEGANT. Off-axis injection and extraction issues and beam optics using a multicavity kick-drift scheme will also be discussed.

  12. Quantum phase slips in charge-density waves: the system-size effect

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hatakenaka, Noriyuki; Shiobara, Masato; Matsuda, Ken-Ichi; Tanda, Satoshi

    1998-03-01

    We present a phenomenological model for quantum phase slips of charge-density waves that takes into account the system-size effect. The process of quantum nucleation leading to the phase slip changes from vortex pair to vortex ring creations as the external electric field increases, which is analogous to the evolution of a ripple in a rectanglar water tank. The clossover field is determined by the system size. The present model describes a number of features observed in the nonohmic conductivity in TsS3 at low temperature.

  13. Dimensional crossover of quantum nucleation processes in charge-density-wave phase slips

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hatakenaka, Noriyuki; Shiobara, Masato; Matsuda, Ken-Ichi; Tanda, Satoshi

    1998-01-01

    A phenomenological model for quantum phase slips of charge-density waves that takes into account the system-size effect is presented. The process of quantum nucleation leading to the phase slip changes from vortex-pair to vortex-ring creations as the external electric field increases, which is analogous to the evolution of a ripple in a rectangular water tank. The crossover field is determined by the system size. The present model describes a number of features observed in the nonohmic conductivity in TaS3 at low temperature.

  14. DESIGN AND INITIAL RESULTS OF A TURN-BY-TURN BEAM POSITION MONITORING SYSTEM FOR MULTIPLE BUNCH OPERATION OF THE ATF DAMPING RING

    CERN Document Server

    Christian, G B; Bett, D R; Burrows, P N; Davis, M R; Gerbershagen, A; Perry, C; Constance, B; Resta-Lopez, J

    2011-01-01

    An FPGA-based monitoring system has been developed to study multi-bunch beam instabilities in the damping ring (DR) of the KEK Accelerator Test Facility (ATF), utilising a stripline beam position monitor (BPM) and existing BPM processor hardware. The system is designed to record the horizontal and/or vertical positions of up to three bunches in the DR in single-bunch multi-train mode or the head bunch of up to three trains in multi-bunch mode, with a bunch spacing of 5.6 ns. The FPGA firmware and data acquisition software were modified to record turn-by-turn data for up to six channels and 1–3 bunches in the DR. An overview of the system and initial results will be presented.

  15. Ionization cooling ring for muons

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Palmer

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available Practical ionization cooling rings could lead to lower cost or improved performance in neutrino factory or muon collider designs. The ring modeled here uses realistic three-dimensional fields. The performance of the ring compares favorably with the linear cooling channel used in the second U.S. Neutrino Factory Study. The normalized 6D emittance of an ideal ring is decreased by a factor of approximately 240, compared with a factor of only 15 for the linear channel. We also examine such real-world effects as windows on the absorbers and rf cavities and leaving empty lattice cells for injection and extraction. For realistic conditions the ring decreases the normalized 6D emittance by a factor of 49.

  16. Investigation of Floor Surface Finishes for Optimal Slip Resistance Performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    In-Ju Kim

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: Increasing the slip resistance of floor surfaces would be desirable, but there is a lack of evidence on whether traction properties are linearly correlated with the topographic features of the floor surfaces or what scales of surface roughness are required to effectively control the slipperiness of floors. Objective: This study expands on earlier findings on the effects of floor surface finishes against slip resistance performance and determines the operative ranges of floor surface roughness for optimal slip resistance controls under different risk levels of walking environments. Methods: Dynamic friction tests were conducted among three shoes and nine floor specimens under wet and oily environments and compared with a soapy environment. Results: The test results showed the significant effects of floor surface roughness on slip resistance performance against all the lubricated environments. Compared with the floor-type effect, the shoe-type effect on slip resistance performance was insignificant against the highly polluted environments. The study outcomes also indicated that the oily environment required rougher surface finishes than the wet and soapy ones in their lower boundary ranges of floor surface roughness. Conclusion: The results of this study with previous findings confirm that floor surface finishes require different levels of surface coarseness for different types of environmental conditions to effectively manage slippery walking environments. Collected data on operative ranges of floor surface roughness seem to be a valuable tool to develop practical design information and standards for floor surface finishes to efficiently prevent pedestrian fall incidents. Keywords: floor surface finishes, operational levels of floor surface roughness, slip resistance, wet, soapy and oily environments

  17. The Relative Contribution to Small Finger Abduction of the Ulnar Versus Radial Slip of the EDM: Implications for Tendon Transfers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akinleye, Sheriff D; Culbertson, Maya Deza; Cappelleti, Giacomo; Garofolo, Garret; Choueka, Jack

    2017-09-01

    The extensor digiti minimi (EDM) tendon is commonly divided into a radial slip (EDM-R) and an ulnar slip (EDM-U). To our knowledge, the degree to which each EDM slip concomitantly abducts the small finger with active extension has not been formally tested. This study sought to characterize the comparative contributions of finger abduction inherent to each slip of the EDM to observe the sequelae of active small finger extension following transfer of the contralateral slip. Eighteen fresh-frozen cadaveric hands were used in this study. Starting with the hand in resting position, a controlled traction of 10 N was applied to each slip of the EDM tendon. The range of small finger abduction with respect to the fixed ring finger was recorded utilizing infrared reflective markers tracked through the range of motion using a digital video camera. The mean abduction of the small finger when the radial slip of the EDM tendon was tested was 13.33° (95% confidence interval [CI]: 10.10°-16.55°), which was significantly different ( P ≤ .001) than small finger abduction produced by the ulnar slip of the EDM, with a mean of 23.72° (95% CI: 19.40°-28.04°). Given the fact that the ulnar slip of the EDM tendon is shown to be the major contributor of aberrant abduction with active small finger extension, as traction on this slip produces almost twice as much abduction as the radial slip, the EDM-U is the ideal donor graft with respect to tendon transfers of the EDM.

  18. Applications of first order matricial theory to the calculation of storage ring designed for producing synchrotron radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Machado, J.M.

    1984-01-01

    A review of first order matrix theory (linear approximation) used for calculating component elements of a particle accelerator employing the synchrotron principle of alternated gradient, is presented. Based on this theory, criteria for dimensioning synchrotron designed, exclusively for producing electromagnetic radiation, are established. The problem to find out optimum disposition of elements (straight line sections, quadrupolar magnetic lens, etc.) which take advantages of deflector magnets of the DCI synchrotron (Orsay Linear Accelerator Laboratory, French) aiming to construct a synchrotron designed to operate as electromagnetic radiation source, is solved. (M.C.K.) [pt

  19. Longitudinal wheel slip during ABS braking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartikainen, Lassi; Petry, Frank; Westermann, Stephan

    2015-02-01

    Anti-lock braking system (ABS) braking tests with two subcompact passenger cars were performed on dry and wet asphalt, as well as on snow and ice surfaces. The operating conditions of the tyres in terms of wheel slip were evaluated using histograms of the wheel slip data. The results showed different average slip levels for different road surfaces. It was also found that changes in the tyre tread stiffness affected the slip operating range through a modification of the slip value at which the maximum longitudinal force is achieved. Variation of the tyre footprint length through modifications in the inflation pressure affected the slip operating range as well. Differences in the slip distribution between vehicles with different brake controllers were also observed. The changes in slip operating range in turn modified the relative local sliding speeds between the tyre and the road. The results highlight the importance of the ABS controller's ability to adapt to changing slip-force characteristics of tyres and provide estimates of the magnitude of the effects of different tyre and road operating conditions.

  20. Contribution to the pathogenesis of slipped disk

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kohlbach, W.

    1981-01-01

    The article describes the various types of slipped disk, such as spondylolisthesis, pseudo-spondylolisthesis and retrolisthesis, and their widely different basic features of anatomic pathology. (orig.) [de

  1. Experiments on vibration-driven stick-slip locomotion: A sliding bifurcation perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du, Zhouwei; Fang, Hongbin; Zhan, Xiong; Xu, Jian

    2018-05-01

    Dry friction appears at the contact interface between two surfaces and is the source of stick-slip vibrations. Instead of being a negative factor, dry friction is essential for vibration-driven locomotion system to take effect. However, the dry-friction-induced stick-slip locomotion has not been fully understood in previous research, especially in terms of experiments. In this paper, we experimentally study the stick-slip dynamics of a vibration-driven locomotion system from a sliding bifurcation perspective. To this end, we first design and build a vibration-driven locomotion prototype based on an internal piezoelectric cantilever. By utilizing the mechanical resonance, the small piezoelectric deformation is significantly amplified to drive the prototype to achieve effective locomotion. Through identifying the stick-slip characteristics in velocity histories, we could categorize the system's locomotion into four types and obtain a stick-slip categorization diagram. In each zone of the diagram the locomotion exhibits qualitatively different stick-slip dynamics. Such categorization diagram is actually a sliding bifurcation diagram; crossing from one stick-slip zone to another corresponds to the triggering of a sliding bifurcation. In addition, a simplified single degree-of-freedom model is established, with the rationality of simplification been explained theoretically and numerically. Based on the equivalent model, a numerical stick-slip categorization is also obtained, which shows good agreement with the experiments both qualitatively and quantitatively. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first work that experimentally generates a sliding bifurcation diagram. The obtained stick-slip categorizations deepen our understanding of stick-slip dynamics in vibration-driven systems and could serve as a base for system design and optimization.

  2. Ring insertions as light sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Green, G.K.

    1975-01-01

    Bending magnets can be inserted in the long straight sections of electron storage rings to produce synchrotron radiation. If the design is carefully proportioned, the bending magnets create only a small perturbation of the properties of the ring. The resulting spectra have favorable optical properties as sources for spectroscopy and diffraction studies. The characteristics of the source are discussed, and the geometrical requirements of the magnets are presented

  3. Experimental Investigation of Bearing Slip in a Wind Turbine Gearbox During a Transient Grid Loss Event

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Helsen, Jan; Guo, Yi; Keller, Jonathan; Guillaume, Patrick

    2016-12-01

    This work investigates the behaviour of the high speed stage of a wind turbine gearbox during a transient grid loss event. Dynamometer testing on a full scale wind turbine nacelle is used. A combination of external and internal gearbox measurements is analysed. Particular focus is on the characterization of the high speed shaft tapered roller bearing slip behaviour. This slipping behaviour is linked to dynamic events by many researchers and described as potential bearing failure initiator. However only limited full scale dynamic testing is documented. Strain gauge bridges in grooves along the circumference of the outer ring are used to characterize the bearing behaviour in detail. It is shown that during the transient event the high speed shaft experiences a combined torsional and bending deformation. These unfavourable loading conditions induce roller slip in the bearings during the torque reversals indicating the potential of the applied load case to go beyond the preload of the tapered roller bearing.

  4. Slipping on pedestrian surfaces: methods for measuring and evaluating the slip resistance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wetzel, Christoph; Windhövel, Ulrich; Mewes, Detlef; Ceylan, Orhan

    2015-01-01

    Tripping, slipping and falling accidents are among the types of accident with a high incidence. This article describes the requirements concerning slip resistance, as well as the state of the art of slip resistance measurement standards in the European Community and the USA. The article also describes how risk assessment can be performed in the field.

  5. Meaning-making matters in product design: users' sensory perceptions and experience evaluations of long-acting vaginal gels and intravaginal rings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosen, Rochelle K; van den Berg, Jacob J; Vargas, Sara E; Senocak, Natali; Shaw, Julia G; Buckheit, Robert W; Smith, Kelley Alison; Guthrie, Kate Morrow

    2015-12-01

    Users' sensory perceptions and experiences of intravaginal products can inform acceptability and adherence. Focusing on the meanings women derive from formulation/device characteristics facilitates developers' design iterations toward optimizing user experience. We investigated how users of long-acting gels and intravaginal rings (IVRs) impute meaning to characteristics that may affect future product use. Focus groups were conducted with contraceptive IVR and vaginal lubricant users. Current perceptibility science and historical theory on the cultural acceptability of fertility regulating methods informed the analysis. A total of 21 IVR users and 29 lubricant users attended focus groups in which they manipulated products in their hands and discussed reactions to product characteristics. Participants used prior product experiences and sensory perceptions of prototype manipulations to inform meanings about product properties and performance for pregnancy, disease prevention, comfort, and perceived efficacy. The meanings derived from product characteristics depended on why the product would be used; a characteristic deemed problematic in one risk context may be considered preferable in another. Intravaginal product users create narratives that ascribe influence or causality to product characteristics. These meanings, whether correct or incorrect biologically, will shape vaginal product acceptability, use, and effectiveness. Long-acting and sustained-release drug delivery systems will be part of the multipurpose prevention continuum. Developers must consider how sensory experiences and culturally salient assumptions shape the meanings users make of product design characteristics. Those meanings will ultimately impact use and effectiveness. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Design of a Dual-Band Bidirectional Antenna Using Superellipse-Monopole-Fed Rectangular Ring for IEEE 802.11 a/b/g/n Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ekajit Khoomwong

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the design of a dual-band bidirectional ring antenna fed by a superellipse surface probe for 2.4/5 GHz WLAN applications. The Method of Moments (MoM with RWG basis function was utilized in the study and design processes. A prototype antenna was fabricated successfully with the advantages of simple and low-cost structure. The measured impedance bandwidth of 810 MHz (2.10–2.91 GHz and 2.39 GHz (3.57–5.96 GHz is achieved for the first and second band, respectively. The peak gains are also feasible, 4.67 dBi at 2.45 GHz and 7.83 dBi at 5.5 GHz, with bidirectional radiation patterns for both bands. From the experimental field tests, the proposed antenna was suitable for most applications in long and narrow communication sites in 2.4/5 GHz bands as desired. Also, the measured and calculated results were in good agreement.

  7. Ringing phenomenon of the fiber ring resonator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ying, Diqing; Ma, Huilian; Jin, Zhonghe

    2007-08-01

    A resonator fiber-optic gyro (R-FOG) is a high-accuracy inertial rotation sensor based on the Sagnac effect. A fiber ring resonator is the core sensing element in the R-FOG. When the frequency of the fiber ring resonator input laser is swept linearly with time, ringing of the output resonance curve is observed. The output field of the fiber ring resonator is derived from the superposition of the light transmitted through the directional coupler directly and the multiple light components circulated in the fiber ring resonator when the frequency of the laser is swept. The amplitude and phase of the output field are analyzed, and it is found that the difference in time for different light components in the fiber ring resonator to reach a point of destructive interference causes the ringing phenomenon. Finally the ringing phenomenon is observed in experiments, and the experimental results agree with the theoretical analysis well.

  8. Status of the SLC damping rings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hutton, A.M.; Davies-White, W.A.; Delahaye, J.P.

    1985-06-01

    Electron beams of full design energy 1.21 GeV and nearly full design intensity 4 x 10 10 particles/pulse (design 5 x 10 10 ) have been extracted from the Stanford Linac and successfully stored in the electron damping ring. Beams of less intensity have been extracted from the ring and reinjected into the Linac. The present intensity limits are not thought to be fundamental. The operating experience with the electron ring and the status of the construction of the positron ring will be discussed. 11 refs., 1 fig., 2 tabs

  9. VUV optical ring resonator for Duke storage ring free electron laser

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, S.H.; Litvinenko, V.N.; Madey, J.M.J. [Duke Univ., Durham, NC (United States)] [and others

    1995-12-31

    The conceptual design of the multifaceted-mirror ring resonator for Duke storage ring VUV FEL is presented. The expected performance of the OK-4 FEL with ring resonator is described. We discuss in this paper our plans to study reflectivity of VUV mirrors and their resistivity to soft X-ray spontaneous radiation from OK-4 undulator.

  10. ASSOCIATIVE RINGS SOLVED AS LIE RINGS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. B. Smirnov

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper has proved that an associative ring which is solvable of a n- class as a Lie ring has a nilpotent ideal of the nilpotent class not more than 3×10n–2  and a corresponding quotient ring satisfies an identity [[x1, x2, [x3, x4

  11. Design and construction of a measurement amplifier for use in the beam diagnosis of an accelerator ring plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Konrath, H.

    1989-11-01

    The measurement amplifier can be used in the frequency range of 0 to 2 MHz, is VME bus compatible and has an accuracy of ± 1.5%. Its amplification of 0 to 40 dB can be set remotely. The circuit was designed with computer aid by means of the simulation program SPICE. The amplifier consists of two successive amplifier stages. The first amplifier stage uses a video operational amplifier as its main element, and the 2nd amplifier stage uses a trans-impedance amplifier. A prototype was produced, in order to be able to check the simulation results and to use the experience gained in a ready to use amplifier. The sample amplifier was fitted on a VME bus PCB using screening. Optimisation was carried out on this sample and the measured properties were compared with the calculated results from simulation. The properties of the amplifier were checked from the DC characteristic, the Bode diagram, the transient behaviour, the distortion factor, the noise figure, the temperature behaviour and the channel separation. The specifications are compiled and an assessment of the amplifier is given. (orig./HP) [de

  12. Radical theory of rings

    CERN Document Server

    Gardner, JW

    2003-01-01

    Radical Theory of Rings distills the most noteworthy present-day theoretical topics, gives a unified account of the classical structure theorems for rings, and deepens understanding of key aspects of ring theory via ring and radical constructions. Assimilating radical theory's evolution in the decades since the last major work on rings and radicals was published, the authors deal with some distinctive features of the radical theory of nonassociative rings, associative rings with involution, and near-rings. Written in clear algebraic terms by globally acknowledged authorities, the presentation

  13. Feet kinematics upon slipping discriminate between recoveries and three types of slip-induced falls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allin, Leigh J; Nussbaum, Maury A; Madigan, Michael L

    2018-01-03

    This study investigated the relationship between feet kinematics upon slipping while walking and the outcome of the slip. Seventy-one slips (induced by walking over an unexpectedly slippery surface) were analysed, which included 37 recoveries, 16 feet-split falls, 11 feet-forward falls and seven lateral falls. Feet kinematics differed between recoveries and three types of slip-induced falls, and a discriminant model including six measures of feet kinematics correctly predicted 87% of slip outcomes. Two potentially modifiable characteristics of the feet kinematics upon slipping that can improve the likelihood of successfully averting a fall were identified: (1) quickly arresting the motion of the slipping foot and (2) a recovery step that places the trailing toe approximately 0-10% body height anterior to the sacrum. These results may inform the development of task-specific balance training interventions that promote favourable recovery responses to slipping. Practitioner Summary: This study investigated the relationship between feet movements upon slipping and outcomes of the slip. Potentially modifiable characteristics that can reduce the likelihood of falling were: (1) quickly arresting slipping foot motion and (2) a recovery step that places the trailing toe approximately 0-10% body height anterior to the sacrum.

  14. Prototype moving-ring reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, A.C. Jr.; Ashworth, C.P.; Abreu, K.E.

    1982-01-01

    We have completed a design of the Prototype Moving-Ring Reactor. The fusion fuel is confined in current-carrying rings of magnetically-field-reversed plasma (Compact Toroids). The plasma rings, formed by a coaxial plasma gun, undergo adiabatic magnetic compression to ignition temperature while they are being injected into the reactor's burner section. The cylindrical burner chamber is divided into three burn stations. Separator coils and a slight axial guide field gradient are used to shuttle the ignited toroids rapidly from one burn station to the next, pausing for 1/3 of the total burn time at each station. D-T- 3 He ice pellets refuel the rings at a rate which maintains constant radiated power

  15. Spontaneously Healable Thermoplastic Elastomers Achieved through One-Pot Living Ring-Opening Metathesis Copolymerization of Well-Designed Bulky Monomers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Ji-Xing; Long, Ying-Yun; Pan, Li; Men, Yong-Feng; Li, Yue-Sheng

    2016-05-18

    We report here a series of novel spontaneously healable thermoplastic elastomers (TPEs) with a combination of improved mechanical and good autonomic self-healing performances. Hard-soft diblock and hard-soft-hard triblock copolymers with poly[exo-1,4,4a,9,9a,10-hexahydro-9,10(1',2')-benzeno-l,4-methanoanthracene] (PHBM) as the hard block and secondary amide group containing norbornene derivative polymer as the soft block were synthesized via living ring-opening metathesis copolymerization by use of Grubbs third-generation catalyst through sequential monomer addition. The microstructure, mechanical, self-healing, and surface morphologies of the block copolymers were thoroughly studied. Both excellent mechanical performance and self-healing capability were achieved for the block copolymers because of the interplayed physical cross-link of hard block and dynamic interaction formed by soft block in the self-assembled network. Under an optimized hard block (PHBM) weight ratio of 5%, a significant recovery of tensile strength (up to 100%) and strain at break (ca. 85%) was achieved at ambient temperature without any treatment even after complete rupture. Moreover, the simple reaction operations and well-designed monomers offer versatility in tuning the architectures and properties of the resulting block copolymers.

  16. MUON STORAGE RINGS - NEUTRINO FACTORIES

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    PARSA, Z.

    2000-01-01

    The concept of a muon storage ring based Neutrino Source (Neutrino Factory) has sparked considerable interest in the High Energy Physics community. Besides providing a first phase of a muon collider facility, it would generate more intense and well collimated neutrino beams than currently available. The BNL-AGS or some other proton driver would provide an intense proton beam that hits a target, produces pions that decay into muons. The muons must be cooled, accelerated and injected into a storage ring with a long straight section where they decay. The decays occurring in the straight sections of the ring would generate neutrino beams that could be directed to detectors located thousands of kilometers away, allowing studies of neutrino oscillations with precisions not currently accessible. For example, with the neutrino source at BNL, detectors at Soudan, Minnesota (1,715 km), and Gran Sasso, Italy (6,527 km) become very interesting possibilities. The feasibility of constructing and operating such a muon-storage-ring based Neutrino-Factory, including geotechnical questions related to building non-planar storage rings (e.g. at 8degree angle for BNL-Soudan, and 3degree angle for BNL-Gran Sasso) along with the design of the muon capture, cooling, acceleration, and storage ring for such a facility is being explored by the growing Neutrino Factory and Muon Collider Collaboration (NFMCC). The authors present overview of Neutrino Factory concept based on a muon storage ring, its components, physics opportunities, possible upgrade to a full muon collider, latest simulations of front-end, and a new bowtie-muon storage ring design

  17. Optofluidic ring resonator dye lasers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Yuze; Suter, Jonathan D.; Fan, Xudong

    2010-02-01

    We overview the recent progress on optofluidic ring resonator (OFRR) dye lasers developed in our research group. The fluidics and laser cavity design can be divided into three categories: capillary optofluidic ring resonator (COFRR), integrated cylindrical optofluidic ring resonator (ICOFRR), and coupled optofluidic ring resonator (CpOFRR). The COFRR dye laser is based on a micro-sized glass capillary with a wall thickness of a few micrometers. The capillary circular cross-section forms the ring resonator and supports the whispering gallery modes (WGMs) that interact evanescently with the gain medium in the core. The laser cavity structure is versatile to adapt to the gain medium of any refractive index. Owing to the high Q-factor (>109), the lasing threshold of 25 nJ/mm2 is achieved. Besides directly pump the dye molecules, lasing through fluorescence resonance energy transfer (FRET) between the donor and acceptor dye molecules is also studied in COFRR laser. The energy transfer process can be further controlled by designed DNA scaffold labeled with donor/acceptor molecules. The ICOFRR dye laser is based on a cylindrical ring resonator fused onto the inner surface of a thick walled glass capillary. The structure has robust mechanical strength to sustain rapid gain medium circulation. The CpOFRR utilizes a cylindrical ring resonator fused on the inner surface of the COFRR capillary. Since the capillary wall is thin, the individual WGMs of the cylindrical ring resonator and the COFRR couples strongly and forms Vernier effect, which provides a way to generate a single mode dye laser.

  18. Ion Rings for Magnetic Fusion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Greenly, John, B.

    2005-07-31

    of a reactor-scale FRC, and the FIREX program was intended to test the ideas behind this approach. We will describe in this report the technological development path and advances in physics understanding that allowed FIREX to reach a regime in which ion rings were reproducibly created with up to about half the current necessary to produce field reversal. Unfortunately, the experiments were limited to this level by a fundamental, unanticipated aspect of the physics of strong ion rings in plasma. The FIREX ring is a strongly anisotropic, current-carrying population of ions moving faster than the Alfven speed in the background plasma. The rapidly changing ring current excites very large-amplitude Alfven waves in the plasma, and these waves strongly affect the ring, causing rapid energy loss in a way that is not compatible with the success of the ring trapping scenario around which FIREX was designed. The result was that FIREX rings were always very short-lived. We will discuss the implication of these results for possible future use of large-orbit ions in FRCs. In short, it appears that a certain range of the parameters characterizing the ring Alfven mach number and distribution function must be avoided to allow the existence of a long-lived energetic ion component in an FRC. This report will explain why FIREX experimental results cannot be directly scaled to quantitatively predict this range for a particular FRC configuration. This will require accurate, three-dimensional simulations. FIREX results do constitute a very good dataset for validating such a code, and simulations already carried out during this program provide a guide to the important physics involved.

  19. Airborne Antenna System for Minimum-Cycle-Slip GPS Reception

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wright, C. Wayne

    2009-01-01

    a coordinated turn. For small-radius, short-time coordinated turns, it is necessary to employ banks as steep as 45 , and turns involving such banks are times and for confining airplanes as closely as possible to areas to be surveyed. The idea underlying the design is that if the antenna can be kept properly aimed, then the incidence of cycle slips caused by loss or weakness of signals can be minimized. The system includes an articulating GPS antenna and associated electronic circuitry mounted under a radome atop an airplane. The electronic circuitry includes a microprocessor-based interface-circuit-and-data-translation module. The system receives data on the current attitude of the airplane from the inertial navigation system of the airplane. The microprocessor decodes the attitude data and uses them to compute commands for the GPS-antenna-articulating mechanism to tilt the antenna, relative to the airplane, in opposition to the roll or bank of the airplane to keep the antenna pointed toward the zenith. The system was tested aboard the hurricane- hunting airplane of the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) [see figure] during an 11-hour flight to observe the landfall of Hurricane Bret in late summer of 1999. No bank-angle restrictions were imposed during the flight. Post-flight analysis of the GPS trajectory data revealed that no cycle slip had occurred.considered normal maneuvers. These steep banks are highly desirable for minimizing flight

  20. Quantum nucleation of phase slips in Bose-Einstein condensates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Buechler, H.P.; Blatter, G.; Geschkenbein, V.B.; Rossijskaya Akademiya Nauk, Moscow

    2001-01-01

    We present a theoretical study of quantum fluctuations in a Bose-Einstein condensate confined within a thin cylindrical trap and perturbed by a moving impurity. We derive an effective action which maps the problem to that of a massive particle with damping in a periodic potential. Quantum fluctuations lead to a finite nucleation rate of phase slips and we make use of known results in our determination of the transport characteristic. Real Bose-Einstein condensate are finite systems and exhibit interesting effects depending on topology: in superfluid rings we obtain a critical velocity below which the nucleation rate is quenched. In a cigar shaped condensate the low-energy action is equivalent to that of a capacitively shunted Josephson junction. The state with a well defined phase difference across the impurity then is unstable towards a decoupled state with a fixed number of particles on either side of the impurity. (orig.)

  1. Effects of TimeSlips on Cornell Scale for Depression in Dementia scores of senile dementia patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hui-Ying Chen

    2016-03-01

    Conclusion: TimeSlips is beneficial to relieve depressive symptoms and ameliorate the emotions of mild or moderate senile dementia patients, thus improving their life quality and reducing the burden of their caregivers. A large-scale experimental research on TimeSlips with rigorous design is proposed for further studies.

  2. Proton storage rings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rau, R.R.

    1978-04-01

    A discussion is given of proton storage ring beam dynamic characteristics. Topics considered include: (1) beam energy; (2) beam luminosity; (3) limits on beam current; (4) beam site; (5) crossing angle; (6) beam--beam interaction; (7) longitudinal instability; (8) effects of scattering processes; (9) beam production; and (10) high magnetic fields. Much of the discussion is related to the design parameters of ISABELLE, a 400 x 400 GeV proton---proton intersecting storage accelerator to be built at Brookhaven National Laboratory

  3. Alternative loop rings

    CERN Document Server

    Goodaire, EG; Polcino Milies, C

    1996-01-01

    For the past ten years, alternative loop rings have intrigued mathematicians from a wide cross-section of modern algebra. As a consequence, the theory of alternative loop rings has grown tremendously. One of the main developments is the complete characterization of loops which have an alternative but not associative, loop ring. Furthermore, there is a very close relationship between the algebraic structures of loop rings and of group rings over 2-groups. Another major topic of research is the study of the unit loop of the integral loop ring. Here the interaction between loop rings and group ri

  4. Design and synthesis of hybrid cyclophanes containing thiophene and indole units via Grignard reaction, Fischer indolization and ring-closing metathesis as key steps

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sambasivarao Kotha

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available We demonstrate a new synthetic strategy to cyclophanes containing thiophene and indole moieties via Grignard addition, Fischer indolization and ring-closing metathesis as key steps.

  5. Collins' bypass for the main ring

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ohnuma, S.

    1982-01-01

    Design of the bypass for the main ring at Fermilab is discussed. Specific design features discussed include space, path length, geometric closure, matching of betatron functions, and external dispersion. Bypass parameters are given

  6. A Summary and Status of the SNS Ring Vacuum Systems

    CERN Document Server

    Mapes, Michael; Hseuh Hsiao Chaun; Ladd, Peter; Rank, Jim; Smart, Loralie; Todd, Robert J; Weiss, Daniel

    2005-01-01

    The Spallation Neutron Source (SNS) ring is designed to accumulate high intensity protons. The SNS ring vacuum system consists of the High Energy Beam Transport (HEBT) line, Accumulator Ring and the Ring to Target Beam Transport (RTBT) line. The Accumulator ring has a circumference of 248m with 4 arcs and 4 straight sections, while the RTBT and HEBT have a total length of 350m of beam transport line. Ultrahigh vacuum of 10-9

  7. Slip resistance of casual footwear: implications for falls in older adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menz, H B; Lord, S T; McIntosh, A S

    2001-01-01

    A large proportion of falls in older people are caused by slipping. Previous occupational safety research suggests that inadequate footwear may contribute to slipping accidents; however, no studies have assessed the slip resistance of casual footwear. To evaluate the slip resistance of different types of casual footwear over a range of common household surfaces. The slip resistance of men's Oxford shoes and women's fashion shoes with different heel configurations was determined by measuring the dynamic coefficient of friction (DCoF) at heel contact (in both dry and wet conditions) on a bathroom tile, concrete, vinyl flooring and a terra cotta tile using a specially-designed piezoelectric force plate apparatus. Analysis of variance revealed significant shoe, surface, and shoe-surface interaction effects. Men's Oxford shoes exhibited higher average DCoF values than the women's fashion shoes, however, none of the shoes could be considered safe on wet surfaces. Application of a textured sole material did not improve slip resistance of any of the shoes on wet surfaces. Heel geometry influences the slip resistance of casual footwear on common household surfaces. The suboptimal performance of all of the test shoes on wet surfaces suggests that a safety standard for casual footwear is required to assist in the development of safe footwear for older people. Copyright 2001 S. Karger AG, Basel

  8. Report of the eRHIC Ring-Ring Working Group

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aschenauer, E. C. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Berg, S. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Blaskiewicz, M. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Brennan, M. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Fedotov, A. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Fischer, W. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Litvinenko, V. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Montag, C. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Palmer, R. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Parker, B. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Peggs, S. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Ptitsyn, V. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Ranjbar, V. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Tepikian, S. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Trbojevic, D. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Willeke, F. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States)

    2015-10-13

    This report evaluates the ring-ring option for eRHIC as a lower risk alternative to the linac-ring option. The reduced risk goes along with a reduced initial luminosity performance. However, a luminosity upgrade path is kept open. This upgrade path consists of two branches, with the ultimate upgrade being either a ring-ring or a linac-ring scheme. The linac-ring upgrade could be almost identical to the proposed linac-ring scheme, which is based on an ERL in the RHIC tunnel. This linac-ring version has been studied in great detail over the past ten years, and its significant risks are known. On the other hand, no detailed work on an ultimate performance ring-ring scenario has been performed yet, other than the development of a consistent parameter set. Pursuing the ring-ring upgrade path introduces high risks and requires significant design work that is beyond the scope of this report.

  9. Computational fluid dynamics study of the optimal design and operating conditions of the segmentation ring used in parallel segmented flow columns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smits, Wim; Desmet, Gert

    2013-06-14

    We report on a numerical study wherein we modeled the influence of the segmentation ring used in the recently introduced parallel segmented flow concept. The study reconfirms that the parallel segmented flow concept can indeed improve separation performance of radially heterogeneous beds. It was however also found that the segmentation ring in itself introduces significant flow disturbances. Depending on its thickness and the fraction of the total flow rate going through the central opening, the ring itself can constitute a loss in volumetric variance (σv(2)) in the order of a few up to a few tens of μl(2). Although the ideal flow-split ring would be infinitely thin, it was found that halving the current 0.62mm ring thickness used in literature to 0.31mm would already eliminate most of its negative effect. At the inlet, the optimal central flow rate fraction for a 0.62mm as well as a 0.31mm wide ring in a 4.6mm I.D. column lies in the range of 0.25-0.4. At the outlet, the optimal range is 0.15-0.4. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Dynamical stability of slip-stacking particles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eldred, Jeffrey; Zwaska, Robert

    2014-09-01

    We study the stability of particles in slip-stacking configuration, used to nearly double proton beam intensity at Fermilab. We introduce universal area factors to calculate the available phase space area for any set of beam parameters without individual simulation. We find perturbative solutions for stable particle trajectories. We establish Booster beam quality requirements to achieve 97% slip-stacking efficiency. We show that slip-stacking dynamics directly correspond to the driven pendulum and to the system of two standing-wave traps moving with respect to each other.

  11. Real Closed Rings and Real Closed * Rings

    OpenAIRE

    Capco, Jose

    2007-01-01

    Here we try to distinguish and compare different notions of real closedness mainly one developed by N. Schwartz in his Habilitationschrift and the other developed by A. Sankaranand K. Varadarajan which we shall call real closed *. We stick to the definition of real closed rings as defined and characterized N. Schwartz and we try to determine and characterize real closed rings that are real closed *. The main result is that real closed rings have unique real closure * and that real closure of ...

  12. Electroosmosis of Powell-Eyring fluids under interfacial slip.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goswami, Prakash; Mondal, Pranab Kumar; Dutta, Sanmitra; Chakraborty, Suman

    2015-03-01

    We investigate the EOF of a Powell-Eyring fluid through a slit microchannel, employing Navier slip boundary condition. Using an analytical scheme consistent with the homotopy perturbation method, we bring out the alteration in the underlying flow dynamics as attributable to the nonlinear interactions between fluid rheology and electrostatics over interfacial scales. We validate the approximate analytical solutions by comparing those with results from numerical analysis. We unveil a regime of phenomenal amplification in the net volumetric flow rate, realized as a consequence of an intricate interplay between interfacial electromechanics, slipping hydrodynamics, and the flow rheology. Our results may have far ranging consequences in the design of various biomicrofluidic devises/systems, which are often used for the manipulation of non-Newtonain fluids. © 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  13. Wheel slip control of ABS using ER valve pressure modulator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Seung-Bok; Cho, Myung-Soo; Kim, Yong-Il; Choi, Young-Tai; Wereley, Norman M.

    2004-07-01

    This paper presents a wheel slip control via sliding mode controller for a new anti-lock brake system (ABS) of a passenger vehicle using electrorheological (ER) valve pressure modulator. The principal design parameters of the ER valves and hydraulic booster are appropriately determined by considering braking pressure variation during ABS operation. An electrically controllable pressure modulator using the ER valves is then constructed and its governing equations are derived. Subsequently, the pressure control performance of the new pressure modulator is experimentally evaluated. The governing equations of motion for a quarter car wheel model are derived and the sliding mode controller is formulated for wheel slip control. Hardware in the loop simulation (HILS) for braking performance evaluation is undertaken in order to demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed ABS associated with the ER valve pressure modulator.

  14. Cage slip characteristics of a cylindrical roller bearing with a trilobe-raceway

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sier DENG

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Based on dynamic analysis of rolling bearings, the nonlinear dynamic differential equations of a cylindrical roller bearing with a trilobe-raceway were established and solved by the GSTIFF (gear stiff integer algorithm with a variable step. The influences of structural parameters and the tolerance of the trilobe-raceway, working conditions of the bearing, and the outer ring installation method on cage slip characteristics were investigated. The results show that: (i The cage slip ratio and bearing rating life of a cylindrical roller bearing with a trilobe-raceway would reduce when the low-radius (radius of the outer raceway contour at the lowest point and D-value (difference value between the high and low points of the outer raceway contour decrease, and the former (low-radius contributes more significantly. (ii The cage slip ratio of a cylindrical roller bearing with a trilobe-raceway rises with the increase of the bearing speed, and decreases with the increase of the radial force; the variation range increases with the increase of the low-radius. (iii When the installation angle of the outer ring increases in a period, the cage slip ratio remains unchanged while the bearing rating life rises up a little. Therefore, when installing a cylindrical roller bearing with a trilobe-raceway, the location of the maximum radius shall be under that of the radial force to improve the bearing rating life. (iv With the increase of the roundness of the base circle where the radius of the lowest points of the trilobe-raceway contour locates, the cage slip ratio rises gradually and the bearing rating life decreases.

  15. Falls study: Proprioception, postural stability, and slips.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sohn, Jeehoon; Kim, Sukwon

    2015-01-01

    The present study evaluated effects of exercise training on the proprioception sensitivity, postural stability, and the likelihood of slip-induced falls. Eighteen older adults (6 in balance, 6 in weight, and 6 in control groups) participated in this study. Three groups met three times per week over the course of eight weeks. Ankle and knee proprioception sensitivities and postural stability were measured. Slip-induced events were introduced for all participants before and after training. The results indicated that, overall, strength and postural stability were improved only in the training group, although proprioception sensitivity was improved in all groups. Training for older adults resulted in decreased likelihood of slip-induced falls. The study suggested that proprioception can be improved by simply being active, however, the results suggested that training would aid older adults in reducing the likelihood of slip-induced falls.

  16. Flexible ring seal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abbes, Claude; Gournier, Andre; Rouaud, Christian; Villepoix, Raymond de.

    1976-01-01

    The invention concerns a flexible metal ring seal, able to ensure a perfect seal between two bearings due to the crushing and elastic deformation properties akin to similar properties in elastomers. Various designs of seal of this kind are already known, particularly a seal made of a core formed by a helical wire spring with close-wound turns and with high axial compression ratio, closed on itself and having the shape of an annulus. This wire ring is surrounded by at least one envelope having at rest the shape of a toroidal surface of which the generating circle does not close on itself. In a particular design mode, the seal in question can include, around the internal spring, two envelopes of which one in contact with the spring is composed of a low ductility elastic metal, such as mild steel or stainless steel and the other is, on the contrary, made of a malleable metal, such as copper or nickel. The first envelope evenly distributes the partial crushing of the spring, when the seal is tightened, on the second envelope which closely fits the two surfaces between which the seal operates. The stress-crushing curve characteristic of the seal comprises two separate parts, the first with a relatively sharp slope corresponds to the start of the seal compression phase, enabling at least some of these curves to reach the requisite seal threshold very quickly, then, beyond this, a second part, practically flat, where the stress is appreciably constant for a wide operating bracket [fr

  17. Groups, rings, modules

    CERN Document Server

    Auslander, Maurice

    2014-01-01

    This classic monograph is geared toward advanced undergraduates and graduate students. The treatment presupposes some familiarity with sets, groups, rings, and vector spaces. The four-part approach begins with examinations of sets and maps, monoids and groups, categories, and rings. The second part explores unique factorization domains, general module theory, semisimple rings and modules, and Artinian rings. Part three's topics include localization and tensor products, principal ideal domains, and applications of fundamental theorem. The fourth and final part covers algebraic field extensions

  18. Magnetic resonance imaging at primary diagnosis cannot predict subsequent contralateral slip in slipped capital femoral epiphysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wensaas, Anders [Akershus University Hospital, Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, Loerenskog (Norway); Wiig, Ola; Terjesen, Terje [Oslo University Hospital, Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, Rikshospitalet (Norway); Castberg Hellund, Johan; Khoshnewiszadeh, Behzad [Oslo University Hospital, Department of Radiology and Nuclear Medicine, Ullevaal (Norway)

    2017-12-15

    Prophylactic fixation of the contralateral hip in slipped capital femoral epiphysis (SCFE) is controversial, and no reliable method has been established to predict subsequent contralateral slip. The main purpose of this study was to evaluate if magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) performed at primary diagnosis could predict future contralateral slip. Twenty-two patients with unilateral SCFE were included, all had MRI of both hips taken before operative fixation. Six different parameters were measured on the MRI: the MRI slip angle, the greatest focal widening of the physis, the global widening of the physis measured at three locations (the midpoint of the physis and 1 cm lateral and medial to the midpoint), periphyseal (epiphyseal and metaphyseal) bone marrow edema, the presence of pathological joint effusion, and the amount of joint effusion measured from the lateral edge of the greater trochanter. Mean follow-up was 33 months (range, 16-63 months). Six patients were treated for contralateral slip during the follow-up time and a comparison of the MRI parameters of the contralateral hip in these six patients and in the 16 patients that remained unilateral was done to see if subsequent contralateral slip was possible to predict at primary diagnosis. All MRI parameters were significantly altered in hips with established SCFE compared with the contralateral hips. However, none of the MRI parameters showed any significant difference between patients who had a subsequent contralateral slip and those that remained unilateral. MRI taken at primary diagnosis could not predict future contralateral slip. (orig.)

  19. Proton storage ring summer workshop

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lawrence, G.P.; Cooper, R.K.

    1977-10-01

    During the week of August 16, 1976 a Workshop was held at the Los Alamos Scientific Laboratory (LASL) on the Proton Storage Ring (PSR) for the Weapons Neutron Research Facility (WNRF). Written contributions were solicited from each of the participants in the Workshop, and the contributions that were received are presented. The papers do not represent polished or necessarily complete work, but rather represent ''first cuts'' at their respective areas. Topics covered include: (1) background information on the storage ring; (2) WNRF design; (3) rf transient during filling; (4) rf capture; (5) beam bunch compression; (6) transverse space charge limits; (7) transverse resistive instability in the PSR; (8) longitudinal resistive instability; (9) synchrotron frequency splitting; (10) E Quintus Unum--off resonance; (11) first harmonic bunching in the storage ring; (12) kicker considerations; (13) beam extraction; (14) ferrite kicker magnets; and (15) E Quintus Unum: a possible ejection scheme

  20. Birth Control Ring

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Staying Safe Videos for Educators Search English Español Birth Control Ring KidsHealth / For Teens / Birth Control Ring What's in this article? What Is ... español Anillo vaginal anticonceptivo What Is It? The birth control ring is a soft, flexible, doughnut-shaped ...

  1. The prevention of slipping accidents: a review and discussion of work related to the methodology of measuring slip resistance

    OpenAIRE

    Leclercq , Sylvie

    1999-01-01

    International audience; The recommendations made after the analysis of accidents following an incident of slipping often include the use of anti-slip footwear and/or the installation of an anti-slip floor covering. Such recommendations make it necessary to study biomechanical and tribologic phenomena that occur during slipping, in particular in order to develop criteria for the evaluation of the slip resistance of footwear and floor surfaces. Consequently, research which deals with the preven...

  2. Active and recent strike-slip tectonics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nur, Amos; Boccaletti, Mario

    An international workshop cosponsored by the Department of Geology, University of Florence, Italy and the Department of Geophysics, Stanford University, Stanford, Calif., was held in Florence, Italy, April 18-20, 1989,on the topic of active and recent strike-slip tectonics in the continental crust. Workshop participants from Turkey, Ethiopia, Israel, Greece, and various universities in Italy, Spain, West Germany, France, the United Kingdom, Brazil, and the United States reported on a broad range of studies involving strike-slip faulting in continental crustal setting. As it turned out, much of the work reported on involved aspects of strike-slip faulting that are only poorly understood, especially crustal deformation, which is distributed over a multiplicity of faults, or even fault domains.One of the rewarding aspects of this workshop was the diversity of geographic areas and geological settings covered by the reporters. The north and east Anatolian faults, the Dead Sea transform zone, western Turkey, north and central Greece, Malta, Sicily, southern Italy, the bethic Cordillera in southern Spain, Tunisia, Tibet and southwest China, offshore Brazil, Alaska, Nevada, and California. A recurring observation reported for all those areas was mixed mode faulting, i.e., the coterminous or sequential occurrence of strike-slip and normal faulting, or strike-slip and thrust, and in many instances also strikeslip, normal and thrust faulting in a single tectonic setting.

  3. Asymmetrical slip propensity: required coefficient of friction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seo, Jung-suk; Kim, Sukwon

    2013-07-31

    Most studies in performing slips and falls research reported their results after the ipsilateral leg of subjects (either right foot or left foot) was guided to contact the contaminated floor surface although many studies indicated concerns for asymmetries of legs in kinematic or kinetic variables. Thus, the present study evaluated if dominant leg's slip tendency would be different from non-dominant leg's slip tendency by comparing the Required Coefficient of Friction (RCOF) of the two lower limbs. Forty seven health adults participated in the present study. RCOF was measured when left or right foot of subjects contacted the force platforms respectively. Paired t-test was performed to test if RCOF and heel velocity (HCV) of dominant legs was different from that of non-dominant legs. It was suggested that the asymmetry in RCOFs and HCV between the two lower limbs existed. The RCOFs of non-dominant legs were higher than that of dominant legs. The results indicated that asymmetry in slip propensity, RCOF, was existed in lower extremity. The results from the study suggested that it would be benefit to include a variable, such as asymmetry, in slips and falls research.

  4. Constraining the roughness degree of slip heterogeneity

    KAUST Repository

    Causse, Mathieu

    2010-05-07

    This article investigates different approaches for assessing the degree of roughness of the slip distribution of future earthquakes. First, we analyze a database of slip images extracted from a suite of 152 finite-source rupture models from 80 events (Mw = 4.1–8.9). This results in an empirical model defining the distribution of the slip spectrum corner wave numbers (kc) as a function of moment magnitude. To reduce the “epistemic” uncertainty, we select a single slip model per event and screen out poorly resolved models. The number of remaining models (30) is thus rather small. In addition, the robustness of the empirical model rests on a reliable estimation of kc by kinematic inversion methods. We address this issue by performing tests on synthetic data with a frequency domain inversion method. These tests reveal that due to smoothing constraints used to stabilize the inversion process, kc tends to be underestimated. We then develop an alternative approach: (1) we establish a proportionality relationship between kc and the peak ground acceleration (PGA), using a k−2 kinematic source model, and (2) we analyze the PGA distribution, which is believed to be better constrained than slip images. These two methods reveal that kc follows a lognormal distribution, with similar standard deviations for both methods.

  5. Injuries from slips and trips in construction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lipscomb, Hester J; Glazner, Judith E; Bondy, Jessica; Guarini, Kenneth; Lezotte, Dennis

    2006-05-01

    Construction injuries preceded by a slip or trip were documented using data from the building of the Denver International Airport (Denver, Colorado, USA), the largest construction project in the world at the time. Slips and trips occurred at a rate of 5/200,000 h worked accounting for 18% of all injuries and 25% of workers' compensation payments, or more than $10 million. Slips contributed to the vast majority (85%) of same-level falls and over 30% of falls from height, as well as a significant number of musculoskeletal injures sustained after slipping or tripping but without falling. The injury burden would have been under-recognized in analyses of most coded compensation records. In contrast to other types of injuries, the most common contributing factors were environmental in nature including conditions of walking and working surfaces, terrain and weather. Due to the very dynamic nature of construction work, reducing slips and trips will require a focus on environmental and organizational solutions that evolve as the site changes and the construction project evolves.

  6. Quantifying slip balance in the earthquake cycle: Coseismic slip model constrained by interseismic coupling

    KAUST Repository

    Wang, Lifeng

    2015-11-11

    The long-term slip on faults has to follow, on average, the plate motion, while slip deficit is accumulated over shorter time scales (e.g., between the large earthquakes). Accumulated slip deficits eventually have to be released by earthquakes and aseismic processes. In this study, we propose a new inversion approach for coseismic slip, taking interseismic slip deficit as prior information. We assume a linear correlation between coseismic slip and interseismic slip deficit, and invert for the coefficients that link the coseismic displacements to the required strain accumulation time and seismic release level of the earthquake. We apply our approach to the 2011 M9 Tohoku-Oki earthquake and the 2004 M6 Parkfield earthquake. Under the assumption that the largest slip almost fully releases the local strain (as indicated by borehole measurements, Lin et al., 2013), our results suggest that the strain accumulated along the Tohoku-Oki earthquake segment has been almost fully released during the 2011 M9 rupture. The remaining slip deficit can be attributed to the postseismic processes. Similar conclusions can be drawn for the 2004 M6 Parkfield earthquake. We also estimate the required time of strain accumulation for the 2004 M6 Parkfield earthquake to be ~25 years (confidence interval of [17, 43] years), consistent with the observed average recurrence time of ~22 years for M6 earthquakes in Parkfield. For the Tohoku-Oki earthquake, we estimate the recurrence time of~500-700 years. This new inversion approach for evaluating slip balance can be generally applied to any earthquake for which dense geodetic measurements are available.

  7. Slip resistance of winter footwear on snow and ice measured using maximum achievable incline.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsu, Jennifer; Shaw, Robert; Novak, Alison; Li, Yue; Ormerod, Marcus; Newton, Rita; Dutta, Tilak; Fernie, Geoff

    2016-05-01

    Protective footwear is necessary for preventing injurious slips and falls in winter conditions. Valid methods for assessing footwear slip resistance on winter surfaces are needed in order to evaluate footwear and outsole designs. The purpose of this study was to utilise a method of testing winter footwear that was ecologically valid in terms of involving actual human testers walking on realistic winter surfaces to produce objective measures of slip resistance. During the experiment, eight participants tested six styles of footwear on wet ice, on dry ice, and on dry ice after walking over soft snow. Slip resistance was measured by determining the maximum incline angles participants were able to walk up and down in each footwear-surface combination. The results indicated that testing on a variety of surfaces is necessary for establishing winter footwear performance and that standard mechanical bench tests for footwear slip resistance do not adequately reflect actual performance. Practitioner Summary: Existing standardised methods for measuring footwear slip resistance lack validation on winter surfaces. By determining the maximum inclines participants could walk up and down slopes of wet ice, dry ice, and ice with snow, in a range of footwear, an ecologically valid test for measuring winter footwear performance was established.

  8. Efficacy of a rubber outsole with a hybrid surface pattern for preventing slips on icy surfaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamaguchi, Takeshi; Hsu, Jennifer; Li, Yue; Maki, Brian E

    2015-11-01

    Conventional winter-safety footwear devices, such as crampons, can be effective in preventing slips on icy surfaces but the protruding studs can lead to other problems such as trips. A new hybrid (rough and smooth) rubber outsole was designed to provide high slip resistance without use of protruding studs or asperities. In the present study, we examined the slip resistance of the hybrid rubber outsole on both dry (-10 °C) and wet (0 °C) icy surfaces, in comparison to three conventional strap-on winter anti-slip devices: 1) metal coils ("Yaktrax Walker"), 2) gritted (sandpaper-like) straps ("Rough Grip"), and 3) crampons ("Altagrips-Lite"). Drag tests were performed to measure static (SCOF) and dynamic (DCOF) coefficients of friction, and gait trials were conducted on both level and sloped ice surfaces (16 participants). The drag-test results showed relatively high SCOF (≧0.37) and DCOF (≧0.31) values for the hybrid rubber sole, at both temperatures. The other three footwear types exhibited lower DCOF values (0.06-0.20) when compared with the hybrid rubber sole at 0 °C (p footwear types, when descending a slope at -10 °C (6% of trials vs 0%; p footwear-related differences in slip frequency, distance or velocity. These results indicate that the slip-resistance of the hybrid rubber sole on icy surfaces was comparable to conventional anti-slip footwear devices. Given the likely advantages of the hybrid rubber sole (less susceptibility to tripping, better slip resistance on non-icy surfaces), this type of sole should contribute to a decrease in fall accidents; however, further research is needed to confirm its effectiveness under a wider range of test conditions. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd and The Ergonomics Society. All rights reserved.

  9. Galactic rings revisited - I. CVRHS classifications of 3962 ringed galaxies from the Galaxy Zoo 2 Database

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buta, Ronald J.

    2017-11-01

    Rings are important and characteristic features of disc-shaped galaxies. This paper is the first in a series that re-visits galactic rings with the goals of further understanding the nature of the features and for examining their role in the secular evolution of galaxy structure. The series begins with a new sample of 3962 galaxies drawn from the Galaxy Zoo 2 citizen science data base, selected because zoo volunteers recognized a ring-shaped pattern in the morphology as seen in Sloan Digital Sky Survey colour images. The galaxies are classified within the framework of the Comprehensive de Vaucouleurs revised Hubble-Sandage system. It is found that zoo volunteers cued on the same kinds of ring-like features that were recognized in the 1995 Catalogue of Southern Ringed Galaxies. This paper presents the full catalogue of morphological classifications, comparisons with other sources of classifications and some histograms designed mainly to highlight the content of the catalogue. The advantages of the sample are its large size and the generally good quality of the images; the main disadvantage is the low physical resolution that limits the detectability of linearly small rings such as nuclear rings. The catalogue includes mainly inner and outer disc rings and lenses. Cataclysmic (`encounter-driven') rings (such as ring and polar ring galaxies) are recognized in less than 1 per cent of the sample.

  10. Slip rate and slip magnitudes of past earthquakes along the Bogd left-lateral strike-slip fault (Mongolia)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prentice, Carol S.; Rizza, M.; Ritz, J.F.; Baucher, R.; Vassallo, R.; Mahan, S.

    2011-01-01

    We carried out morphotectonic studies along the left-lateral strike-slip Bogd Fault, the principal structure involved in the Gobi-Altay earthquake of 1957 December 4 (published magnitudes range from 7.8 to 8.3). The Bogd Fault is 260 km long and can be subdivided into five main geometric segments, based on variation in strike direction. West to East these segments are, respectively: the West Ih Bogd (WIB), The North Ih Bogd (NIB), the West Ih Bogd (WIB), the West Baga Bogd (WBB) and the East Baga Bogd (EBB) segments. Morphological analysis of offset streams, ridges and alluvial fans—particularly well preserved in the arid environment of the Gobi region—allows evaluation of late Quaternary slip rates along the different faults segments. In this paper, we measure slip rates over the past 200 ka at four sites distributed across the three western segments of the Bogd Fault. Our results show that the left-lateral slip rate is∼1 mm yr–1 along the WIB and EIB segments and∼0.5 mm yr–1 along the NIB segment. These variations are consistent with the restraining bend geometry of the Bogd Fault. Our study also provides additional estimates of the horizontal offset associated with the 1957 earthquake along the western part of the Bogd rupture, complementing previously published studies. We show that the mean horizontal offset associated with the 1957 earthquake decreases progressively from 5.2 m in the west to 2.0 m in the east, reflecting the progressive change of kinematic style from pure left-lateral strike-slip faulting to left-lateral-reverse faulting. Along the three western segments, we measure cumulative displacements that are multiples of the 1957 coseismic offset, which may be consistent with a characteristic slip. Moreover, using these data, we re-estimate the moment magnitude of the Gobi-Altay earthquake at Mw 7.78–7.95. Combining our slip rate estimates and the slip distribution per event we also determined a mean recurrence interval of∼2500

  11. Physics of quantum rings

    CERN Document Server

    Fomin, Vladimir M

    2013-01-01

    This book deals with a new class of materials, quantum rings. Innovative recent advances in experimental and theoretical physics of quantum rings are based on the most advanced state-of-the-art fabrication and characterization techniques as well as theoretical methods. The experimental efforts allow to obtain a new class of semiconductor quantum rings formed by capping self-organized quantum dots grown by molecular beam epitaxy. Novel optical and magnetic properties of quantum rings are associated with non-trivial topologies at the nanoscale. An adequate characterization of quantum rings is po

  12. Modeling and Analyzing the Slipping of the Ball Screw

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nannan Xu

    Full Text Available AbstractThis paper aims to set up the ball systematic slipping model and analyze the slipping characteristics caused by different factors for a ball screw operating at high speeds. To investigate the ball screw slipping mechanism, transformed coordinate system should be established firstly. Then it is used to set up mathematical modeling for the ball slipping caused by the three main reasons and the speed of slipping can be calculated. Later, the influence of the contact angle, helix angle and screw diameter for ball screw slipping will be analyzed according to the ball slipping model and slipping speeds equation and the slipping analysis will be obtained. Finally, curve of slipping analysis and that of mechanical efficiency of the ball screw analysis by Lin are compared, which will indirectly verify the correctness of the slipping model. The slipping model and the curve of slipping analysis established in this paper will provide theory basis for reducing slipping and improving the mechanical efficiency of a ball screw operating at high speeds.

  13. Ring cavity for a Raman capillary waveguide amplifier

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurnit, N.A.

    1981-01-27

    A regenerative ring amplifier and regenerative ring oscillator are described which function to feed back a portion of the Stokes signal to complete the ring cavity. The ring cavity configuration allows the CO/sub 2/ laser pump signal and Stokes signal to copropagate through the Raman capillary waveguide amplifier. A Raman capillary waveguide amplifier is also provided in the return leg of the ring cavity to increase gain without increasing the round trip time. Additionally, the ring cavity can be designed such that the amplified Stokes signal is synchronous with the mode-locked spikes of the incoming CO/sub 2/ laser pump signal.

  14. Ring cavity for a Raman capillary waveguide amplifir

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurnit, N.A.

    1981-01-27

    A regenerative ring amplifier and regenerative ring oscillator are described which function to feed back a portion of the Stokes signal to complete the ring cavity. The ring cavity configuration allows the CO/sub 2/ laser pump signal and Stokes signal to copropagate through the Raman capillary waveguide amplifier. A Raman capillary waveguide amplifier is also provided in the return leg of the ring cavity to increase gain without increasing the round trip time. Additionally, the ring cavity can be designed such that the amplified Stokes signal is synchronous with the mode-locked spikes of the incoming CO/sub 2/ laser pump signal.

  15. Slipping slender bodies and enhanced flagellar locomotion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Man, Yi; Lauga, Eric

    2017-11-01

    In the biological world, many cells exploit slender appendages to swim, include numerous species of bacteria, algae and spermatozoa. A classical method to describe the flow field around such appendages is slender-body theory (SBT), which is often used to study flagellar motility in Newtonian fluids. However, biology environments are often rheologically complex due to the presence of polymers. These polymers generically phase-separate near rigid boundaries where low-viscosity fluid layers lead to effective slip on the surface. In this talk, we present an analytical derivation of SBT in the case where the no-slip boundary condition on the appendage is replaced by a Navier slip boundary condition. Our results demonstrate in particular a systematic reduction of the resistance coefficient of the slender filaments in their tangential direction, which leads to enhanced flagellar locomotion.

  16. Wall slip of bubbles in foams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saugey, A.; Drenckhan, W.; Weaire, D.

    2006-05-01

    We present a computational analysis of the flow of liquid foam along a smooth wall, as encountered in the transport of foams in vessels and pipes. We concentrate on the slip of the bubbles at the wall and present some novel finite element calculations of this motion for the case of fully mobile gas/liquid interfaces. Our two-dimensional simulations provide for the first time the bubble shapes and entire flow field, giving detailed insight into the distribution of stresses and dissipation in the system. In particular, we investigate the relationship between the drag force and the slip velocity of the bubble, which for small slip velocities obeys power laws, as predicted by previous semianalytical treatments.

  17. Surgical repair of central slip avulsion injuries with Mitek bone anchor--retrospective analysis of a case series.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Chan, Jeffrey C Y

    2007-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to describe our technique of central slip repair using the Mitek bone anchor and to evaluate the treatment outcome. Eight digits in eight patients were reconstructed using the bone anchor: three little fingers, two middle fingers, two index fingers and one ring finger. There were two immediate and six delayed repairs (range from one day to eight months). Four patients had pre-operative intensive splinting and physiotherapy to restore passive extension of the proximal interphalangeal joint prior to central slip reconstruction. All patients have made good progress since surgery. No patient requires a second procedure and none of the bone anchors have dislodged or loosened. We conclude that the Mitek bone anchor is a reliable technique to achieve soft tissue to bone fixation in central slip avulsion injuries. We recommend that this technique be considered as a treatment option for patients requiring surgical repair.

  18. National synchrotron light source VUV storage ring

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blumberg, L.; Bittner, J.; Galayda, J.; Heese, R.; Krinsky, S.; Schuchman, J.; van Steenbergen, A.

    1979-01-01

    A 700 MeV electron storage ring designed for synchrotron radiation applications is described. Lattice and stability calculations are presented and the vacuum, correction and injection systems are discussed

  19. Vaporization of fault water during seismic slip

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Jianye; Niemeijer, André R.; Fokker, Peter A.

    2017-06-01

    Laboratory and numerical studies, as well as field observations, indicate that phase transitions of pore water might be an important process in large earthquakes. We present a model of the thermo-hydro-chemo-mechanical processes, including a two-phase mixture model to incorporate the phase transitions of pore water, occurring during fast slip (i.e., a natural earthquake) in order to investigate the effects of vaporization on the coseismic slip. Using parameters from typical natural faults, our modeling shows that vaporization can indeed occur at the shallow depths of an earthquake, irrespective of the wide variability of the parameters involved (sliding velocity, friction coefficient, gouge permeability and porosity, and shear-induced dilatancy). Due to the fast kinetics, water vaporization can cause a rapid slip weakening even when the hydrological conditions of the fault zone are not favorable for thermal pressurization, e.g., when permeability is high. At the same time, the latent heat associated with the phase transition causes the temperature rise in the slip zone to be buffered. Our parametric analyses reveal that the amount of frictional work is the principal factor controlling the onset and activity of vaporization and that it can easily be achieved in earthquakes. Our study shows that coseismic pore fluid vaporization might have played important roles at shallow depths of large earthquakes by enhancing slip weakening and buffering the temperature rise. The combined effects may provide an alternative explanation for the fact that low-temperature anomalies were measured in the slip zones at shallow depths of large earthquakes.

  20. Slipping processes in residual badlands reliefs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Díaz-Hernández, Jose Luis; Yepes, Jorge

    2010-05-01

    We define slips as structures developed by more or less saturated colloidal suspension that slide down the walls of residual reliefs found in badlands. These suspensions seem to originate in the soils crowning gully reliefs and also from rainwater dripping onto the walls of poorly cemented sediments such as siltstone. We call this process slipping and the resulting morphologies represent a group of minor badlands forms, often linked to piping and fluting. Slipping occurs according to the following sequence of forms: 1. Mud droplets. These are irregular linear structures caused by mud droplets sliding down sub-vertical walls. The droplet is usually found at the end of a small channel. These morphologies represent the course of the sliding droplets that become fossilized and not the impact of the droplets on the sediment. 2. Slips sensu stricto. These are uninterrupted surface structures covering sub-vertical walls to a greater or lesser extent. The thickness of this type of covering varies from a few millimetres to 5cm. The inner structure of the slips consists of small laminas (» 100mm) and on the exterior they often present drip channels. A special case of these forms is butterfly structures, which appear in isolation, with repetitive patterns and the appearance of a winged insect stuck to the wall. 3. Pseudo-stalactites. These are free-standing conical regrowths with some similarity to stalactites in a karst cave. They occur when slips grow to over 5cm thick. The growth of these forms is similar to that of slips, with external superposition of fine, concentric layers with no central pore. A variety of these pseudo-stalactites are nodulous stalactites whose genesis is unknown. In this context, we should mention the existence of occasional stalagmites. In other cases, curtains of pseudo-stalactites can be found where these patterns are repeated finely. A more evolved stage of this form is the coalescence of pseudo-stalactites, representing a massive advance of

  1. Recent Progress on Modeling Slip Deformation in Shape Memory Alloys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sehitoglu, H.; Alkan, S.

    2018-03-01

    This paper presents an overview of slip deformation in shape memory alloys. The performance of shape memory alloys depends on their slip resistance often quantified through the Critical Resolved Shear Stress (CRSS) or the flow stress. We highlight previous studies that identify the active slip systems and then proceed to show how non-Schmid effects can be dominant in shape memory slip behavior. The work is mostly derived from our recent studies while we highlight key earlier works on slip deformation. We finally discuss the implications of understanding the role of slip on curtailing the transformation strains and also the temperature range over which superelasticity prevails.

  2. Storage ring development at the National Synchrotron Light Source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krinsky, S.; Bittner, J.; Fauchet, A.M.; Johnson, E.D.; Keane, J.; Murphy, J.; Nawrocky, R.J.; Rogers, J.; Singh, O.V.; Yu, L.H.

    1991-09-01

    This report contains papers on the following topics: Transverse Beam Profile Monitor; Bunch Length Measurements in the VUV Storage Ring; Photoelectric Effect Photon Beam Position Monitors; RF Receivers for Processing Electron Beam Pick-up Electrode Signals; Real-Time Global Orbit Feedback Systems; Local Orbit Feedback; Active Interlock System for High Power Insertion Devices in the X-ray Ring; Bunch Lengthening Cavity for the VUV Ring; SXLS Storage Ring Design

  3. Brane world black rings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sahay, Anurag; Sengupta, Gautam

    2007-01-01

    Five dimensional neutral rotating black rings are described from a Randall-Sundrum brane world perspective in the bulk black string framework. To this end we consider a rotating black string extension of a five dimensional black ring into the bulk of a six dimensional Randall-Sundrum brane world with a single four brane. The bulk solution intercepts the four brane in a five dimensional black ring with the usual curvature singularity on the brane. The bulk geodesics restricted to the plane of rotation of the black ring are constructed and their projections on the four brane match with the usual black ring geodesics restricted to the same plane. The asymptotic nature of the bulk geodesics are elucidated with reference to a bulk singularity at the AdS horizon. We further discuss the description of a brane world black ring as a limit of a boosted bulk black 2 brane with periodic identification

  4. Slip resistance testing - Zones of uncertainty

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bowman, R.

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper considers recent and current potential developments in the international standardisation of slip resistance. It identifies some limitations of the wet barefoot ramp test, such that changes should be made if it is to be more widely used. It also identifies some limitations of the new European SlipSTD Publicly Available Specification, such as insufficient allowance for the deterioration of slip resistance as tiles inevitably wear.

    Este trabajo considera los desarrollos recientes y potenciales que hay en la actualidad en el desarrollo de las normas internacionales sobre la resistencia al resbalamiento. Identifica algunas limitaciones del ensayo de la rampa para pies descalzos en húmedo, para que se realicen cambios, si se va a usar de forma más extendida. También identifica algunas limitaciones de la nueva Especificación Europea Públicamente Disponible SlipSTD, como la falta de tener en cuenta adecuadamente el deterioro de la resistencia al resbalamiento de las baldosas a medida que inevitablemente se vayan desgastando.

  5. Estimated combined steady state tyre slip characteristics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fernandez, A.L.A.; Pauwelussen, J.P.

    2001-01-01

    Excessive behaviour of vehicles is often the subject of study, motivated by either the development of active safety systems uch as ESP, or the improvement of vehicle performance such as for racecars. In all of these cases, combined slip needs to be taken into account. In many cases however, the full

  6. Hydrodynamic slip length as a surface property

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramos-Alvarado, Bladimir; Kumar, Satish; Peterson, G. P.

    2016-02-01

    Equilibrium and nonequilibrium molecular dynamics simulations were conducted in order to evaluate the hypothesis that the hydrodynamic slip length is a surface property. The system under investigation was water confined between two graphite layers to form nanochannels of different sizes (3-8 nm). The water-carbon interaction potential was calibrated by matching wettability experiments of graphitic-carbon surfaces free of airborne hydrocarbon contamination. Three equilibrium theories were used to calculate the hydrodynamic slip length. It was found that one of the recently reported equilibrium theories for the calculation of the slip length featured confinement effects, while the others resulted in calculations significantly hindered by the large margin of error observed between independent simulations. The hydrodynamic slip length was found to be channel-size independent using equilibrium calculations, i.e., suggesting a consistency with the definition of a surface property, for 5-nm channels and larger. The analysis of the individual trajectories of liquid particles revealed that the reason for observing confinement effects in 3-nm nanochannels is the high mobility of the bulk particles. Nonequilibrium calculations were not consistently affected by size but by noisiness in the smallest systems.

  7. PRODUCTION OF SLIP CAST CALCIA HOLLOWWARE

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stoddard, S.D.; Nuckolls, D.E.; Cowan, R.E.

    1963-12-31

    A method for producing slip cast calcia hollow ware in which a dense calcia grain is suspended in isobutyl acetate or a mixture of tertiary amyl alcohol and o-xylene is presented. A minor amount of triethanolamine and oleic acid is added to the suspension vehicle as viscosity adjusting agents and the suspension is cast in a plaster mold, dried, and fired. (AEC)

  8. Slip systems, lattice rotations and dislocation boundaries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Winther, Grethe

    2008-01-01

    of dislocation structure formed, in particular the crystallographic alignment of dislocation boundaries, and the slip pattern are demonstrated. These relations are applied to polycrystals deformed in tension and rolling, producing good agreement with experiment for rolling but less good agreement for tension...

  9. Radioactive gold ring dermatitis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miller, R.A.; Aldrich, J.E. (Dalhousie Univ., Halifax, Nova Scotia (Canada))

    1990-08-01

    A superficial squamous cell carcinoma developed in a woman who wore a radioactive gold ring for more than 30 years. Only part of the ring was radioactive. Radiation dose measurements indicated that the dose to basal skin layer was 2.4 Gy (240 rad) per week. If it is assumed that the woman continually wore her wedding ring for 37 years since purchase, she would have received a maximum dose of approximately 4600 Gy.

  10. Vortex and source rings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Branlard, Emmanuel Simon Pierre

    2017-01-01

    The velocity field, vector potential and velocity gradient of a vortex ring is derived in this chapter. The Biot-Savart law for the vector potential and velocity is expressed in a first section. Then, the flow is derived at specific locations: on the axis, near the axis and in the far field where...... is dedicated to vortex rings. Source rings are only briefly mentioned....

  11. Radioactive gold ring dermatitis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miller, R.A.; Aldrich, J.E.

    1990-01-01

    A superficial squamous cell carcinoma developed in a woman who wore a radioactive gold ring for more than 30 years. Only part of the ring was radioactive. Radiation dose measurements indicated that the dose to basal skin layer was 2.4 Gy (240 rad) per week. If it is assumed that the woman continually wore her wedding ring for 37 years since purchase, she would have received a maximum dose of approximately 4600 Gy

  12. From coffee ring to spherulites ring of poly(ethylene oxide) film from drying droplet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Yinchun; Zhang, Xuerong; Qiu, Maibo; Wei, Yan; Zhou, Qiong; Huang, Di

    2018-03-01

    We discuss how the "spherulites ring" morphology and "coffee ring" profile of PEO film formed by the drying droplet at glass substrate with different heating rate. Upon increasing the heating rate of substrate, it is found that deposited PEO film from drying droplet shows the unusually observed "coffee ring" profile and "spherulites ring" morphology. The main mechanism for this phenomenon is proposed to be an enhanced Marangoni convection which is induced by the increased solute concentration gradient and reduced viscous force above 70 °C. A simple formation mechanism of the unusually observed "coffee ring" profile and "spherulites ring" morphology is proposed. These findings can be exploited to trace the center of Marangoni convection, with potential applications in designing the spherulite patterns of crystalline polymer films in ink-jet printing and self-assembly fields.

  13. Permeability Evolution of Slowly Slipping Faults in Shale Reservoirs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Wei; Reece, Julia S.; Gensterblum, Yves; Zoback, Mark D.

    2017-11-01

    Slow slip on preexisting faults during hydraulic fracturing is a process that significantly influences shale gas production in extremely low permeability "shale" (unconventional) reservoirs. We experimentally examined the impacts of mineralogy, surface roughness, and effective stress on permeability evolution of slowly slipping faults in Eagle Ford shale samples. Our results show that fault permeability decreases with slip at higher effective stress but increases with slip at lower effective stress. The permeabilities of saw cut faults fully recover after cycling effective stress from 2.5 to 17.5 to 2.5 MPa and increase with slip at constant effective stress due to asperity damage and dilation associated with slip. However, the permeabilities of natural faults only partially recover after cycling effective stress returns to 2.5 MPa and decrease with slip due to produced gouge blocking fluid flow pathways. Our results suggest that slowly slipping faults have the potential to enhance reservoir stimulation in extremely low permeability reservoirs.

  14. Next generation GNSS single receiver cycle slip reliability

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Teunissen, P.J.G.; De Bakker, P.F.

    2009-01-01

    In this contribution we study the multi-frequency, carrier-phase slip detection capabilities of a single receiver. Our analysis is based on an analytical expression that we present for themulti-frequencyminimal detectable carrier phase cycle slip.

  15. Two superconducting storage rings: ISABELLE

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sanford, J.R.

    1978-01-01

    The general features of the design and the status of the ISABELLE storage ring project at the present time are reported. It brings up to date the results reported at the National Particle Accelerator Conference in March 1977. The most significant change since that time has been an upgrading of the energy of the overall facility, and acceptance of the project by the Department of Energy

  16. JAERI storage ring JSR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yokomizo, H.; Harada, S.; Yanagida, K.; Yokoyama, M.; Nagai, T.; Suzuki, Y.; Mashiko, K.; Ishizaki, N.; Tayama, H.

    1990-01-01

    A design study for a next generation 8 GeV synchrotron radiation facility is in progress in Japan, and the Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute (JAERI) and Institute of Physical and Chemical Research (RIKEN) have join forces in this project. A compact electron storage ring JSR has been under construction in the linac building in the Tokai Research Establishment of JAERI to serve for studies of various kind of accelerator technologies, examination of insertion devices and beam monitors, and training of young researchers. This paper describes the lattice design, injection system, magnets, vacuum system, RF system, control system and beam monitors and presents some operation results regarding the electron beam injection and storage. The JSR is presently in good condition concerning it's fundamental functions such as injection, storage at around 150 MeV and 300 MeV, and acceleration from 150 MeV and 300 MeV. Photon induced gas desorption is still large because the vacuum chamber has not been aged heavily by synchrotron radiation. (N.K.)

  17. Performance analysis of a microcontroller based slip power recovery ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Slip power recovery wound rotor induction motor drives are used in high power, limited speed range applications where control of slip power provides the variable speed drive system. In this paper, the steady state performance analysis of conventional slip power recovery scheme using static line commutated inverter in the ...

  18. Evidence for Truncated Exponential Probability Distribution of Earthquake Slip

    KAUST Repository

    Thingbaijam, Kiran K. S.

    2016-07-13

    Earthquake ruptures comprise spatially varying slip on the fault surface, where slip represents the displacement discontinuity between the two sides of the rupture plane. In this study, we analyze the probability distribution of coseismic slip, which provides important information to better understand earthquake source physics. Although the probability distribution of slip is crucial for generating realistic rupture scenarios for simulation-based seismic and tsunami-hazard analysis, the statistical properties of earthquake slip have received limited attention so far. Here, we use the online database of earthquake source models (SRCMOD) to show that the probability distribution of slip follows the truncated exponential law. This law agrees with rupture-specific physical constraints limiting the maximum possible slip on the fault, similar to physical constraints on maximum earthquake magnitudes.We show the parameters of the best-fitting truncated exponential distribution scale with average coseismic slip. This scaling property reflects the control of the underlying stress distribution and fault strength on the rupture dimensions, which determines the average slip. Thus, the scale-dependent behavior of slip heterogeneity is captured by the probability distribution of slip. We conclude that the truncated exponential law accurately quantifies coseismic slip distribution and therefore allows for more realistic modeling of rupture scenarios. © 2016, Seismological Society of America. All rights reserverd.

  19. A ring-type multi-DOF ultrasonic motor with four feet driving consistently.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Shengjun; Xiong, Huaiyin; Liu, Yingxiang; Chen, Weishan; Liu, Junkao

    2017-04-01

    A new type of multiple-degree-of-freedom (multi-DOF) ultrasonic motor was developed aiming at high output torque and compact structure. To reach this purpose, a ring type composite stator was proposed with four driving feet uniformly arranged in the inner circumference of the ring stator. The stator employs two orthogonal axial bending modes and a radial bending mode, by exciting two of them simultaneously, to generate elliptic trajectories on driving feet tips and to push sphere rotor around x, y and z axis respectively. Based on the deduced criteria, a specific combination of the A(0,5) axial bending modes and R(0,2) radial bending mode were chosen to realize that the rotating directions of the elliptical driving trajectories on four feet tips can push the sphere rotor to spin in the same direction consistently, thus the efficiency and output performance will be improved by decreasing the slip between feet and rotor. FEM was used to design the motor including selecting key parameters to tune the resonant frequencies by sensitivity analysis, and a prototype was fabricated and tested. The experiment results showed that the maximum output torque of the motor is 0.118Nm and the maximum speed is 55r/min. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. EBT ring physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Uckan, N.A.

    1980-04-01

    This workshop attempted to evaluate the status of the current experimental and theoretical understanding of hot electron ring properties. The dominant physical processes that influence ring formation, scaling, and their optimal behavior are also studied. Separate abstracts were prepared for each of the 27 included papers

  1. Children of Sex Rings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunt, Patricia; Baird, Margaret

    1990-01-01

    Outlines three major differentiating categories of children who were sexually abused by sex rings: level of fear, ability to trust, and disclosure confusion. Addresses denial and resistance regarding child sexual exploitation by a ring among practitioners in the child welfare system. (Author/BB)

  2. Illustration of Saturn's Rings

    Science.gov (United States)

    2001-01-01

    This illustration shows a close-up of Saturn's rings. These rings are thought to have formed from material that was unable to form into a Moon because of tidal forces from Saturn, or from a Moon that was broken up by Saturn's tidal forces.

  3. Relativistic ring models

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ujevic, Maximiliano [Universidade Federal do ABC (UFABC), Santo Andre, SP (Brazil). Centro de Ciencias Naturais e Humanas; Letelier, Patricio S.; Vogt, Daniel [Universidade Estadual de Campinas (UNICAMP), SP (Brazil). Inst. de Matematica, Estatistica e Computacao Cientifica. Dept. de Matematica Aplicada

    2011-07-01

    Full text: Relativistic thick ring models are constructed using previously found analytical Newtonian potential-density pairs for flat rings and toroidal structures obtained from Kuzmin-Toomre family of discs. This was achieved by inflating previously constructed Newtonian ring potentials using the transformation |z|{yields}{radical}z{sup 2} + b{sup 2}, and then finding their relativistic analog. The models presented have infinite extension but the physical quantities decays very fast with the distance, and in principle, one could make a cut-off radius to consider it finite. In particular, we present systems with one ring, two rings and a disc with a ring. Also, the circular velocity of a test particle and its stability when performing circular orbits are presented in all these models. Using the Rayleigh criterion of stability of a fluid at rest in a gravitational field, we find that the different systems studied present a region of non-stability that appears in the intersection of the disc and the ring, and between the rings when they become thinner. (author)

  4. Beam dynamics in Compton ring gamma sources

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eugene Bulyak

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available Electron storage rings of GeV energy with laser pulse stacking cavities are promising intense sources of polarized hard photons which, via pair production, can be used to generate polarized positron beams. In this paper, the dynamics of electron bunches circulating in a storage ring and interacting with high-power laser pulses is studied both analytically and by simulation. Both the common features and the differences in the behavior of bunches interacting with an extremely high power laser pulse and with a moderate pulse are discussed. Also considerations on particular lattice designs for Compton gamma rings are presented.

  5. Imaging rings in ring imaging Cherenkov counters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ratcliff, Blair N

    2002-11-25

    The general concepts used to form images in Ring Imaging Cherenkov (RICH) counters are described and their performance properties compared. Particular attention is paid to issues associated with imaging in the time dimension, especially in Detectors of Internally Reflected Cherenkov light (DIRCs).

  6. Rings and their modules

    CERN Document Server

    Bland, Paul E

    2011-01-01

    This book is an introduction to the theory of rings and modules that goes beyond what one normally obtains in a graduate course in abstract algebra. In addition to the presentation of standard topics in ring and module theory, it also covers category theory, homological algebra and even more specialized topics like injective envelopes and projective covers, reflexive modules and quasi-Frobenius rings, and graded rings and modules. The book is a self-contained volume written in a very systematic style: allproofs are clear and easy for the reader to understand and allarguments are based onmaterials contained in the book. A problem sets follow each section. It is suitable for graduate and PhD students who have chosen ring theory for their research subject.

  7. The rolling with slipping experiment in the virtual physics laboratory—context-based teaching material

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maidana, Nora L.; da Fonseca, Monaliza; Barros, Suelen F.; Vanin, Vito R.

    2016-07-01

    The Virtual Laboratory was created as a complementary educational activity, with the aim of working abstract concepts from an experimental point of view. In this work, the motion of a ring rolling and slipping in front of a grid printed panel was recorded. The frames separated from this video received a time code, and the resulting set of images can be visually inspected to determine the object angular and center-of-mass positions at known moments. From the positions versus time table, it is possible to analyse the dynamical evolution of the system and the ensuing physical interpretation of the ring rotation and translation. It is also shown here how this hands-on activity has been assigned to university students, that access the material from the website www.fep.if.usp.br/~fisfoto.

  8. Grasping Force Control for a Robotic Hand by Slip Detection Using Developed Micro Laser Doppler Velocimeter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nobutomo Morita

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this paper is to show the feasibility of grasping force control by feeding back signals of the developed micro-laser Doppler velocimeter (μ-LDV and by discriminating whether a grasped object is slipping or not. LDV is well known as a high response surface velocity sensor which can measure various surfaces—such as metal, paper, film, and so on—thus suggesting the potential application of LDV as a slip sensor for grasping various objects. However, the use of LDV as a slip sensor has not yet been reported because the size of LDVs is too large to be installed on a robotic fingertip. We have solved the size problem and enabled the performance of a feasibility test with a few-millimeter-scale LDV referred to as micro-LDV (μ-LDV by modifying the design which was adopted from MEMS (microelectromechanical systems fabrication process. In this paper, by applying our developed μ-LDV as a slip sensor, we have successfully demonstrated grasping force control with three target objects—aluminum block, wood block, and white acrylic block—considering that various objects made of these materials can be found in homes and factories, without grasping force feedback. We provide proofs that LDV is a new promising candidate slip sensor for grasping force control to execute target grasping.

  9. Grasping Force Control for a Robotic Hand by Slip Detection Using Developed Micro Laser Doppler Velocimeter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morita, Nobutomo; Nogami, Hirofumi; Higurashi, Eiji; Sawada, Renshi

    2018-01-23

    The purpose of this paper is to show the feasibility of grasping force control by feeding back signals of the developed micro-laser Doppler velocimeter (μ-LDV) and by discriminating whether a grasped object is slipping or not. LDV is well known as a high response surface velocity sensor which can measure various surfaces-such as metal, paper, film, and so on-thus suggesting the potential application of LDV as a slip sensor for grasping various objects. However, the use of LDV as a slip sensor has not yet been reported because the size of LDVs is too large to be installed on a robotic fingertip. We have solved the size problem and enabled the performance of a feasibility test with a few-millimeter-scale LDV referred to as micro-LDV (μ-LDV) by modifying the design which was adopted from MEMS (microelectromechanical systems) fabrication process. In this paper, by applying our developed μ-LDV as a slip sensor, we have successfully demonstrated grasping force control with three target objects-aluminum block, wood block, and white acrylic block-considering that various objects made of these materials can be found in homes and factories, without grasping force feedback. We provide proofs that LDV is a new promising candidate slip sensor for grasping force control to execute target grasping.

  10. Wheel Slip Control of Vehicle ABS Using Piezoactuator-Based Valve System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juncheol Jeon

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a novel piezoactuator-based valve for vehicle ABS. The piezoactuator located in one side of a rigid beam makes a displacement required to control the pressure at a flapper-nozzle of the pneumatic valve. In order to obtain the wide control range of the pressure, a pressure modulator comprised of dual-type cylinder and piston is proposed. The governing equation of the piezovalve system which consists of the proposed piezoactuator-based valve and the pressure modulator is obtained. The longitudinal vehicle dynamics and the wheel slip condition are then formulated. In order to evaluate the performance of the proposed piezovalve system from the viewpoint of the vehicle ABS, a sliding mode controller is designed for wheel slip control. The tracking control performances for the desired wheel slip rate are evaluated and the braking performances in terms of braking distance are then presented on different road conditions (dry asphalt, wet asphalt, and wet jennite. It is clearly shown that the desired wheel slip rate is well achieved and the braking distance and braking time can be significantly reduced by using the proposed piezovalve system associated with the slip rate controller.

  11. Vanishing stick-slip friction in few-layer graphenes: the thickness effect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Liang; Ma, Tian-Bao; Hu, Yuan-Zhong; Wang, Hui

    2011-07-15

    We report the thickness dependence of intrinsic friction in few-layer graphenes, adopting molecular dynamics simulations. The friction force drops dramatically with decreasing number of layers and finally approaches zero with two or three layers. The results, which are robust over a wide range of temperature, shear velocity, and pressure are quantitatively explained by a theoretical model with regard to lateral stiffness, slip length, and maximum lateral force, which could provide a new conceptual framework for understanding stick-slip friction. The results reveal the crucial role of the dimensional effect in nanoscale friction, and could be helpful in the design of graphene-based nanodevices.

  12. Insole sensor system for real-time detection of biped slip.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lincoln, Lucas Samuel; Bamberg, Stacy J

    2010-01-01

    The study of bipedal gait is important for two primary reasons: biomimetic robotics and human gait rehabilitation. Both fields have numerous models describing bipedal locomotion that require a no-slip interaction with the ground for accuracy. This paper presents a low cost wearable sensor system capable of identifying slip in real time, which could afford rehabilitative analysts important information on the nature of patient falls, and provide robot designers a feedback ability with which to implement an active traction control system. The system can functionally provide better than 90% detection rates when calibrated to an individual.

  13. Relation between boundary slip mechanisms and waterlike fluid behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ternes, Patricia; Salcedo, Evy; Barbosa, Marcia C.

    2018-03-01

    The slip of a fluid layer in contact with a solid confining surface is investigated for different temperatures and densities using molecular dynamic simulations. We show that for an anomalous waterlike fluid the slip goes as follows: for low levels of shear, defect slip appears and is related to the particle exchange between the fluid layers; at high levels of shear, global slip occurs and is related to the homogeneous distribution of the fluid in the confining surfaces. The oscillations in the transition velocity from defect to global slip are shown to be associated with changes in the layering distribution in the anomalous fluid.

  14. Latest on polarization in electron storage rings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chao, A.W.

    1983-01-01

    The field of beam polarization in electron storage rings is making rapid progress in recent several years. This report is an attempt to summarize some of these developments concerning how to produce and maintain a high level of beam polarization. Emphasized will be the ideas and current thoughts people have on what should and could be done on electron rings being designed at present such as HERA, LEP and TRISTAN. 23 references

  15. Efficient worm-like locomotion: slip and control of soft-bodied peristaltic robots.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daltorio, Kathryn A; Boxerbaum, Alexander S; Horchler, Andrew D; Shaw, Kendrick M; Chiel, Hillel J; Quinn, Roger D

    2013-09-01

    In this work, we present a dynamic simulation of an earthworm-like robot moving in a pipe with radially symmetric Coulomb friction contact. Under these conditions, peristaltic locomotion is efficient if slip is minimized. We characterize ways to reduce slip-related losses in a constant-radius pipe. Using these principles, we can design controllers that can navigate pipes even with a narrowing in radius. We propose a stable heteroclinic channel controller that takes advantage of contact force feedback on each segment. In an example narrowing pipe, this controller loses 40% less energy to slip compared to the best-fit sine wave controller. The peristaltic locomotion with feedback also has greater speed and more consistent forward progress

  16. On thermal stability in incompressible slip flow

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bestman, A.R.

    1990-12-01

    The paper considers the classical problem of the stability of a layer of fluid heated from below, but in the case when the density is low and there is slip flow at the bounding walls. The eigenvalue problem which ensures is tackled by taking cognisance of the orthogonality of Bessel function of the first kind. It is observed that the Rayleigh number for the onset of instability, for the case of marginal stability, is increased by gas rarefication. (author). 2 refs

  17. New slip control system considering actuator dynamics

    OpenAIRE

    Soltani, Amirmasoud; Assadian, Francis

    2015-01-01

    A new control strategy for wheel slip control, considering the complete dynamics of the electro-hydraulic brake (EHB) system, is developed and experimentally validated in Cranfield University's HiL system. The control system is based on closed loop shaping Youla-parameterization method. The plant model is linearized about the nominal operating point, a Youla parameter is defined for all stabilizing feedback controller and control performance is achieved by employing closed loop shaping techni...

  18. Surface slip during large Owens Valley earthquakes

    KAUST Repository

    Haddon, E. K.

    2016-01-10

    The 1872 Owens Valley earthquake is the third largest known historical earthquake in California. Relatively sparse field data and a complex rupture trace, however, inhibited attempts to fully resolve the slip distribution and reconcile the total moment release. We present a new, comprehensive record of surface slip based on lidar and field investigation, documenting 162 new measurements of laterally and vertically displaced landforms for 1872 and prehistoric Owens Valley earthquakes. Our lidar analysis uses a newly developed analytical tool to measure fault slip based on cross-correlation of sublinear topographic features and to produce a uniquely shaped probability density function (PDF) for each measurement. Stacking PDFs along strike to form cumulative offset probability distribution plots (COPDs) highlights common values corresponding to single and multiple-event displacements. Lateral offsets for 1872 vary systematically from approximate to 1.0 to 6.0 m and average 3.31.1 m (2 sigma). Vertical offsets are predominantly east-down between approximate to 0.1 and 2.4 m, with a mean of 0.80.5 m. The average lateral-to-vertical ratio compiled at specific sites is approximate to 6:1. Summing displacements across subparallel, overlapping rupture traces implies a maximum of 7-11 m and net average of 4.41.5 m, corresponding to a geologic M-w approximate to 7.5 for the 1872 event. We attribute progressively higher-offset lateral COPD peaks at 7.12.0 m, 12.8 +/- 1.5 m, and 16.6 +/- 1.4 m to three earlier large surface ruptures. Evaluating cumulative displacements in context with previously dated landforms in Owens Valley suggests relatively modest rates of fault slip, averaging between approximate to 0.6 and 1.6 mm/yr (1 sigma) over the late Quaternary.

  19. Slip processing of high Tc superconductors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sinha, R.K.; Sinha, R.K.

    1991-01-01

    Slip-processing technique has been used to fabricate tapes and alumina-supported films of superconducting YBa 2 Cu 3 Osub(7-x). Good densification and connectivity are revealed by scanning electron microscopy. Both the tape and film show superconductivity well above the liquid nitrogen temperature with a transition range of 3deg and 5degK respectively. (author). 10 refs., 4 figs

  20. Dynamic slip of polydisperse linear polymers using partitioned plate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ebrahimi, Marzieh; Konaganti, Vinod Kumar; Hatzikiriakos, Savvas G.

    2018-03-01

    The slip velocity of an industrial grade high molecular weight high-density polyethylene (HDPE) is studied in steady and dynamic shear experiments using a stress/strain controlled rotational rheometer equipped with a parallel partitioned plate geometry. Moreover, fluoroalkyl silane-based coating is used to understand the effect of surface energy on slip in steady and dynamic conditions. The multimode integral Kaye-Bernstein-Kearsley-Zapas constitutive model is applied to predict the transient shear response of the HDPE melt obtained from rotational rheometer. It is found that a dynamic slip model with a slip relaxation time is needed to adequately predict the experimental data at large shear deformations. Comparison of the results before and after coating shows that the slip velocity is largely affected by surface energy. Decreasing surface energy by coating increases slip velocity and decreases the slip relaxation time.

  1. Fiber Ring Optical Gyroscope (FROG)

    Science.gov (United States)

    1979-01-01

    The design, construction, and testing of a one meter diameter fiber ring optical gyro, using 1.57 kilometers of single mode fiber, are described. The various noise components: electronic, thermal, mechanical, and optical, were evaluated. Both dc and ac methods were used. An attempt was made to measure the Earth rotation rate; however, the results were questionable because of the optical and electronic noise present. It was concluded that fiber ring optical gyroscopes using all discrete components have many serious problems that can only be overcome by discarding the discrete approach and adapting an all integrated optic technique that has the laser source, modulator, detector, beamsplitters, and bias element on a single chip.

  2. Behavioral Mapless Navigation Using Rings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monroe, Randall P.; Miller, Samuel A.; Bradley, Arthur T.

    2012-01-01

    This paper presents work on the development and implementation of a novel approach to robotic navigation. In this system, map-building and localization for obstacle avoidance are discarded in favor of moment-by-moment behavioral processing of the sonar sensor data. To accomplish this, we developed a network of behaviors that communicate through the passing of rings, data structures that are similar in form to the sonar data itself and express the decisions of each behavior. Through the use of these rings, behaviors can moderate each other, conflicting impulses can be mediated, and designers can easily connect modules to create complex emergent navigational techniques. We discuss the development of a number of these modules and their successful use as a navigation system in the Trinity omnidirectional robot.

  3. Episodic Tremor and Slip: an Experimental Approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voisin, C.; Renard, F.; Larose, E.; Grasso, J.

    2008-12-01

    We have devised a laboratory experiment to investigate the frictional and acoustic patterns of a salt slider over a large number of deformation cycles. We observe a continuous change of the frictional behavior of the slider under constant experimental conditions of stiffness, temperature and loading velocity. The stick-slip regime is progressively vanishing, eventually reaching the stable sliding regime. Concomitantly, the contact interface, observed under the microscope, develops a striated morphology with contact asperities increase in length and width, arguing for an increase in the critical slip distance dc. Complementary experiments including velocity jumps show that the frictional parameters of the rate and state friction law, a and b, progressively vanish with accumulated slip. The ultimate stage of friction is therefore rate and state independent under our experimental conditions. The Acoustic Emission evolves with cumulative displacement and interface ageing, following a trend from strong impulsive events to a collection of smaller amplitude and longer duration signals. We tentatively extend these results to natural subduction zones: shallow loud earthquakes, medium depth slow, deeper silent quakes and deepest steady-state creep are reproduced by the ageing of contact interface with cumulative displacement. In the meantime, the seismic energy release is evolving from seismic-like signals to NVT-like signals. NVT would emerge as the local recollection of the unstable behavior of the contact interface globally evolving towards the stable sliding regime.

  4. Oscillatory Stokes Flow Past a Slip Cylinder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palaniappan, D.

    2013-11-01

    Two-dimensional transient slow viscous flow past a circular cylinder with Navier slip boundary conditions is considered in the limit of low-Reynolds number. The oscillatory Stokes flow problem around a cylinder is solved using the stream function method leading to an analytic solution in terms of modified Bessel functions of the second kind. The corresponding steady-state behavior yields the familiar paradoxical result first detected by Stokes. It is noted that the two key parameters, viz., the frequency λ, and the slip coefficient ξ have a significant impact on the flow field in the vicinity of the cylinder contour. In the limit of very low frequency, the flow is dominated by a term containing a well-known biharmonic function found by Stokes that has a singular behavior at infinity. Local streamlines for small times show interesting flow patterns. Attached eddies due to flow separation - observed in the no-slip case - either get detached or pushed away from the cylinder surface as ξ is varied. Computed asymptotic results predict that the flow exhibits inviscid behavior far away from the cylinder in the frequency range 0 < λ << 1 . Although the frequency of oscillations is finite, our exact solutions reveal fairly rapid transitions in the flow domain. Research Enhancement grant, TAMUCC.

  5. Aseismic and seismic slip induced by fluid injection from poroelastic and rate-state friction modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Y.; Deng, K.; Harrington, R. M.; Clerc, F.

    2016-12-01

    Solid matrix stress change and pore pressure diffusion caused by fluid injection has been postulated as key factors for inducing earthquakes and aseismic slip on pre-existing faults. In this study, we have developed a numerical model that simulates aseismic and seismic slip in a rate-and-state friction framework with poroelastic stress perturbations from multi-stage hydraulic fracturing scenarios. We apply the physics-based model to the 2013-2015 earthquake sequences near Fox Creek, Alberta, Canada, where three magnitude 4.5 earthquakes were potentially induced by nearby hydraulic fracturing activity. In particular, we use the relocated December 2013 seismicity sequence to approximate the fault orientation, and find the seismicity migration spatiotemporally correlate with the positive Coulomb stress changes calculated from the poroelastic model. When the poroelastic stress changes are introduced to the rate-state friction model, we find that slip on the fault evolves from aseismic to seismic in a manner similar to the onset of seismicity. For a 15-stage hydraulic fracturing that lasted for 10 days, modeled fault slip rate starts to accelerate after 3 days of fracking, and rapidly develops into a seismic event, which also temporally coincides with the onset of induced seismicity. The poroelastic stress perturbation and consequently fault slip rate continue to evolve and remain high for several weeks after hydraulic fracturing has stopped, which may explain the continued seismicity after shut-in. In a comparison numerical experiment, fault slip rate quickly decreases to the interseismic level when stress perturbations are instantaneously returned to zero at shut-in. Furthermore, when stress perturbations are removed just a few hours after the fault slip rate starts to accelerate (that is, hydraulic fracturing is shut down prematurely), only aseismic slip is observed in the model. Our preliminary results thus suggest the design of fracturing duration and flow

  6. Ring chromosome 13

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brandt, C A; Hertz, Jens Michael; Petersen, M B

    1992-01-01

    A stillborn male child with anencephaly and multiple malformations was found to have the karyotype 46,XY,r(13) (p11q21.1). The breakpoint at 13q21.1, determined by high resolution banding, is the most proximal breakpoint ever reported in patients with ring chromosome 13. In situ hybridisation...... with the probe L1.26 confirmed the derivation from chromosome 13 and DNA polymorphism analysis showed maternal origin of the ring chromosome. Our results, together with a review of previous reports of cases with ring chromosome 13 with identified breakpoints, could neither support the theory of distinct clinical...

  7. Faithfully quadratic rings

    CERN Document Server

    Dickmann, M

    2015-01-01

    In this monograph the authors extend the classical algebraic theory of quadratic forms over fields to diagonal quadratic forms with invertible entries over broad classes of commutative, unitary rings where -1 is not a sum of squares and 2 is invertible. They accomplish this by: (1) Extending the classical notion of matrix isometry of forms to a suitable notion of T-isometry, where T is a preorder of the given ring, A, or T = A^2. (2) Introducing in this context three axioms expressing simple properties of (value) representation of elements of the ring by quadratic forms, well-known to hold in

  8. The g-2 ring

    CERN Multimedia

    1974-01-01

    The precise measurement of "g-2", the anomalous magnetic moment of the muon, required a special muon storage ring with electrostatic focussing and very accurate knowledge of the magnetic bending field. For more details see under photo 7405430.

  9. System design aspects and flight experience of the electrical interfaces across the Galileo spacecraft spin bearing assembly

    Science.gov (United States)

    Landano, Matthew R.

    1993-01-01

    The Galileo spacecraft design uses a dual-spin general configuration with spun and despun sections; the mechanical connection between the two sections is accomplished by means of a spin bearing assembly (SBA) whose electrical interfacing uses both slip rings/brushes and rotary transformers that are located within the SBA. Attention is presently given to the design features of the SBA, the electrical interface flight anomaly and investigation experience with Galileo to date, and the responses of the Galileo Flight Team to those anomalies.

  10. Saturn's dynamic D ring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hedman, M.M.; Burns, J.A.; Showalter, M.R.; Porco, C.C.; Nicholson, P.D.; Bosh, A.S.; Tiscareno, M.S.; Brown, R.H.; Buratti, B.J.; Baines, K.H.; Clark, R.

    2007-01-01

    The Cassini spacecraft has provided the first clear images of the D ring since the Voyager missions. These observations show that the structure of the D ring has undergone significant changes over the last 25 years. The brightest of the three ringlets seen in the Voyager images (named D72), has transformed from a narrow, <40-km wide ringlet to a much broader and more diffuse 250-km wide feature. In addition, its center of light has shifted inwards by over 200 km relative to other features in the D ring. Cassini also finds that the locations of other narrow features in the D ring and the structure of the diffuse material in the D ring differ from those measured by Voyager. Furthermore, Cassini has detected additional ringlets and structures in the D ring that were not observed by Voyager. These include a sheet of material just interior to the inner edge of the C ring that is only observable at phase angles below about 60??. New photometric and spectroscopic data from the ISS (Imaging Science Subsystem) and VIMS (Visual and Infrared Mapping Spectrometer) instruments onboard Cassini show the D ring contains a variety of different particle populations with typical particle sizes ranging from 1 to 100 microns. High-resolution images reveal fine-scale structures in the D ring that appear to be variable in time and/or longitude. Particularly interesting is a remarkably regular, periodic structure with a wavelength of ??? 30 ?? km extending between orbital radii of 73,200 and 74,000 km. A similar structure was previously observed in 1995 during the occultation of the star GSC5249-01240, at which time it had a wavelength of ??? 60 ?? km. We interpret this structure as a periodic vertical corrugation in the D ring produced by differential nodal regression of an initially inclined ring. We speculate that this structure may have formed in response to an impact with a comet or meteoroid in early 1984. ?? 2006 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Child sex rings.

    OpenAIRE

    Wild, N J; Wynne, J M

    1986-01-01

    Details of 11 child sex rings identified in one working class community were obtained by interviewing investigating police officers and examining health and social services records. The rings contained 14 adult male perpetrators and 175 children aged 6-15 years. Most perpetrators used child ringleaders to recruit victims; others became a "family friend" or obtained a position of authority over children. Secrecy was encouraged and bribery, threats, and peer pressure used to induce participatio...

  12. Matrimonial ring structures

    OpenAIRE

    Hamberger, Klaus; Houseman, Michael; Daillant, Isabelle; White, Douglas R.; Barry, Laurent

    2006-01-01

    The paper deals with matrimonial rings, a particular kind of cycles in kinship networks which result when spouses are linked to each other by ties of consanguinity or affinity. By taking a network-analytic perspective, the paper endeavours to put this classical issue of structural kinship theory on a general basis, such as to allow conclusions which go beyond isolated discussions of particular ring types (like "cross-cousin marriage", "sister exchange", and so forth). The paper provides a def...

  13. Achieving Translationally Invariant Trapped Ion Rings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urban, Erik; Li, Hao-Kun; Noel, Crystal; Hemmerling, Boerge; Zhang, Xiang; Haeffner, Hartmut

    2017-04-01

    We present the design and implementation of a novel surface ion trap design in a ring configuration. By eliminating the need for wire bonds through the use of electrical vias and using a rotationally invariant electrode configuration, we have realized a trap that is able to trap up to 20 ions in a ring geometry 45um in diameter, 400um above the trap surface. This large trapping height to ring diameter ratio allows for global addressing of the ring with both lasers and electric fields in the chamber, thereby increasing our ability to control the ring as a whole. Applying compensating electric fields, we measure very low tangential trap frequencies (less than 20kHz) corresponding to rotational barriers down to 4mK. This measurement is currently limited by the temperature of the ions but extrapolation indicates the barrier can be reduced much further with more advanced cooling techniques. Finally, we show that we are able to reduce this energy barrier sufficiently such that the ions are able to overcome it either through thermal motion or rotational motion and delocalize over the full extent of the ring. This work was funded by the Keck Foundation and the NSF.

  14. Analysis of Unsteady Axisymmetric Squeezing Fluid Flow with Slip and No-Slip Boundaries Using OHAM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mubashir Qayyum

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In this manuscript, An unsteady axisymmetric flow of nonconducting, Newtonian fluid squeezed between two circular plates is studied with slip and no-slip boundaries. Using similarity transformation, the system of nonlinear partial differential equations is reduced to a single fourth order ordinary differential equation. The resulting boundary value problems are solved by optimal homotopy asymptotic method (OHAM and fourth order explicit Runge-Kutta method (RK4. It is observed that the results obtained from OHAM are in good agreement with numerical results by means of residuals. Furthermore, the effects of various dimensionless parameters on the velocity profiles are investigated graphically.

  15. A Cane Improves Postural Recovery From an Unpracticed Slip During Walking in People With Parkinson Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saengsirisuwan, Vitoon; Carlson-Kuhta, Patricia; Horak, Fay B.

    2012-01-01

    Background Little is known about the effects of use of a cane on balance during perturbed gait or whether people with Parkinson disease (PD) benefit from using a cane. Objectives The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effects of cane use on postural recovery from a slip due to repeated surface perturbations in individuals with PD compared with age- and sex-matched individuals who were healthy. Design This was a prospective study with 2 groups of participants. Methods Fourteen individuals with PD (PD group) and 11 individuals without PD (control group) walked across a platform that translated 15 cm rightward at 30 cm/s during the single-limb support phase of the right foot. Data from 15 trials in 2 conditions (ie, with and without an instrumented cane in the right hand) were collected in random order. Outcome measures included lateral displacement of body center of mass (COM) due to the slip and compensatory step width and length after the perturbation. Results Cane use improved postural recovery from the first untrained slip, characterized by smaller lateral COM displacement, in the PD group but not in the control group. The beneficial effect of cane use, however, occurred only during the first perturbation, and those individuals in the PD group who demonstrated the largest COM displacement without a cane benefited the most from use of a cane. Both PD and control groups gradually decreased lateral COM displacement across slip exposures, but a slower learning rate was evident in the PD group participants, who required 6, rather than 3, trials for adapting balance recovery. Limitations Future studies are needed to examine the long-term effects of repeated slip training in people with PD. Conclusions Use of a cane improved postural recovery from an unpracticed slip in individuals with PD. Balance in people with PD can be improved by training with repeated exposures to perturbations. PMID:22628583

  16. Grooved Fuel Rings for Nuclear Thermal Rocket Engines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emrich, William

    2009-01-01

    An alternative design concept for nuclear thermal rocket engines for interplanetary spacecraft calls for the use of grooved-ring fuel elements. Beyond spacecraft rocket engines, this concept also has potential for the design of terrestrial and spacecraft nuclear electric-power plants. The grooved ring fuel design attempts to retain the best features of the particle bed fuel element while eliminating most of its design deficiencies. In the grooved ring design, the hydrogen propellant enters the fuel element in a manner similar to that of the Particle Bed Reactor (PBR) fuel element.

  17. Fixed recurrence and slip models better predict earthquake behavior than the time- and slip-predictable models 1: repeating earthquakes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rubinstein, Justin L.; Ellsworth, William L.; Chen, Kate Huihsuan; Uchida, Naoki

    2012-01-01

    The behavior of individual events in repeating earthquake sequences in California, Taiwan and Japan is better predicted by a model with fixed inter-event time or fixed slip than it is by the time- and slip-predictable models for earthquake occurrence. Given that repeating earthquakes are highly regular in both inter-event time and seismic moment, the time- and slip-predictable models seem ideally suited to explain their behavior. Taken together with evidence from the companion manuscript that shows similar results for laboratory experiments we conclude that the short-term predictions of the time- and slip-predictable models should be rejected in favor of earthquake models that assume either fixed slip or fixed recurrence interval. This implies that the elastic rebound model underlying the time- and slip-predictable models offers no additional value in describing earthquake behavior in an event-to-event sense, but its value in a long-term sense cannot be determined. These models likely fail because they rely on assumptions that oversimplify the earthquake cycle. We note that the time and slip of these events is predicted quite well by fixed slip and fixed recurrence models, so in some sense they are time- and slip-predictable. While fixed recurrence and slip models better predict repeating earthquake behavior than the time- and slip-predictable models, we observe a correlation between slip and the preceding recurrence time for many repeating earthquake sequences in Parkfield, California. This correlation is not found in other regions, and the sequences with the correlative slip-predictable behavior are not distinguishable from nearby earthquake sequences that do not exhibit this behavior.

  18. Study on the Bond-Slip Performance of CFSSTs Based on Push-Out Tests

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lai Wang

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available To study the interfacial bond-slip performance of concrete-filled square steel tubes (CFSSTs, taking the core concrete strength, slenderness ratio, and width-to-thickness ratio as the influencing factors; 9 specimens were designed with 3 factors and 3 levels for the orthogonal test method. In addition, different from the above 9 specimens, one specimen without rust removal was designed for the purpose of comparison. Based on the bond stress distribution and deformation coordination relationships between the specimens during the push-out tests, a theoretical formula for calculating the relative slip of a CFSST was deduced. The results show that with the increase of load, the relative slip at the loading ends was earlier than that at the free ends of the specimens; the interfacial bond failure and relative slip gradually developed from the two ends towards the centre of the specimens; the increase of the bond stress in the middle part was faster than that at the ends of the specimens. The order of these factors from main to secondary is the presence of rust in the inner wall of the square steel tube, the slenderness ratio, the core concrete strength, and the width-to-thickness ratio.

  19. Closed central slip injuries--a missed diagnosis?

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Nugent, N

    2011-09-01

    The extensor apparatus of the finger is a complex structure and injury can lead to significant digital dysfunction. Closed central slip injuries may be missed or diagnosis delayed because of lack of an open wound and often no radiographic abnormality, and can result in boutonniere deformities if untreated. This study aimed to quantify the number of patients attending with closed central slip injuries and to ascertain if the initial diagnosis was correct. The number of patients presenting to us over a 6 month period was recorded. The original diagnosis, time to diagnosis of central slip injury and the presence\\/absence of a boutonniere deformity were recorded. Ten patients were included in the study. Seven (70%) injuries were due to sport. Eight (80%) had a delayed diagnosis of central slip injury. Six (60%) had previously presented to general practitioners or emergency departments. Seven (70%) had boutonniere deformities. Closed central slip injuries can be missed. Simple clinical tests can diagnose central slip disruption.

  20. Boundary Slip and Surface Interaction: A Lattice Boltzmann Simulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yan-Yan, Chen; Hua-Bing, Li; Hou-Hui, Yi

    2008-01-01

    The factors affecting slip length in Couette geometry flows are analysed by means of a two-phase mesoscopic lattice Boltzmann model including non-ideal fluid-fluid and fluid-wall interactions. The main factors influencing the boundary slip are the strength of interactions between fluid-fluid and fluid-wall particles. Other factors, such as fluid viscosity, bulk pressure may also change the slip length. We find that boundary slip only occurs under a certain density (bulk pressure). If the density is large enough, the slip length will tend to zero. In our simulations, a low density layer near the wall does not need to be postulated a priori but emerges naturally from the underlying non-ideal mesoscopic dynamics. It is the low density layer that induces the boundary slip. The results may be helpful to understand recent experimental observations on the slippage of micro flows

  1. Ionospheric Cycle Slip Processing in Triple-frequency GNSS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    HUANG Lingyong

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available A new method based on three linear independence geometry-free and ionosphere-free (GIF combinations to detect and repair cycle-slip is advanced to finishing the cycle slip processing under the higher ionospheric activity. In order to ensure that the cycle slip correction is accurate, the repair value is validated by a second-order, time-difference phase ionospheric residual (STPIR combination. And then, this method is validated and analyzed by using the triple-frequency data with higher ionospheric error. The experiment results show that this method can nearly detect and repair all the cycle slip except several insensitive cycle slip under high ionospheric activity. So this method can be used to cycle slip procession in triple-frequency precise point position and other un-differenced dynamic navigation and position.

  2. Surface slip during large Owens Valley earthquakes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haddon, E.K.; Amos, C.B.; Zielke, O.; Jayko, Angela S.; Burgmann, R.

    2016-01-01

    The 1872 Owens Valley earthquake is the third largest known historical earthquake in California. Relatively sparse field data and a complex rupture trace, however, inhibited attempts to fully resolve the slip distribution and reconcile the total moment release. We present a new, comprehensive record of surface slip based on lidar and field investigation, documenting 162 new measurements of laterally and vertically displaced landforms for 1872 and prehistoric Owens Valley earthquakes. Our lidar analysis uses a newly developed analytical tool to measure fault slip based on cross-correlation of sublinear topographic features and to produce a uniquely shaped probability density function (PDF) for each measurement. Stacking PDFs along strike to form cumulative offset probability distribution plots (COPDs) highlights common values corresponding to single and multiple-event displacements. Lateral offsets for 1872 vary systematically from ∼1.0 to 6.0 m and average 3.3 ± 1.1 m (2σ). Vertical offsets are predominantly east-down between ∼0.1 and 2.4 m, with a mean of 0.8 ± 0.5 m. The average lateral-to-vertical ratio compiled at specific sites is ∼6:1. Summing displacements across subparallel, overlapping rupture traces implies a maximum of 7–11 m and net average of 4.4 ± 1.5 m, corresponding to a geologic Mw ∼7.5 for the 1872 event. We attribute progressively higher-offset lateral COPD peaks at 7.1 ± 2.0 m, 12.8 ± 1.5 m, and 16.6 ± 1.4 m to three earlier large surface ruptures. Evaluating cumulative displacements in context with previously dated landforms in Owens Valley suggests relatively modest rates of fault slip, averaging between ∼0.6 and 1.6 mm/yr (1σ) over the late Quaternary.

  3. Slipping Rib Syndrome: An elusive diagnosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turcios, Nelson L

    2017-03-01

    Slipping rib syndrome remains rarely recognized and frequently undiagnosed or misdiagnosed. Awareness of this condition may prevent extensive and unnecessary diagnostic evaluation and avoid chronic debilitating pain. Persistent lower chest and/or upper abdomen pain after analgesic treatment may suggest the possibility of this disorder. The diagnosis of this syndrome, is a clinical one, based on history and the hooking maneuver. A few cases have been published in the literature, giving no clear consensus about the treatment of this condition. In this overview article, clinical manifestations, diagnostic approach, and treatment modalities of this syndrome will be discussed. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. A Magnetic Wheel Structure for an Omni-Directional Microrobot to Limit Slip Effect

    OpenAIRE

    Yiliang Jin; Jiapin Chen; Zhenbo Li

    2009-01-01

    To fulfill the microassembly work successfully, an omnidirectional mobile microrobot is presented. To finish the micron size task, the positioning precision of the robot is highly important. But some unpredictable factors, especially the slip effect in wheel, would affect the precision of the robot and cause unwanted deviation. To limit the deviation and optimize the positioning performance of the robot, a new wheel structure is designed. The design of the new wheel is based on magnetic princ...

  5. Nonlinear contact between pipeline's outer wall and slip-on buckle arrestor's inner wall during buckling process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Weilin; Liu, Jiande; Dong, Sheng; Zhang, Xin; Ma, Xiaozhou

    2017-02-01

    In order to theoretically study the buckle propagation of subsea pipelines with slip-on buckle arrestors, a two-dimensional ring model was set up to represent the pipeline and a nonlinear spring model was adopted to simulate the contact between pipeline's inner walls and between pipeline's outer wall and slip-on buckle arrestor's inner wall during buckle propagation. In addition, some reverse springs are added to prevent the wall of left and right sides separating from the inner wall of slip-on buckle arrestors. Considering large deformation kinematics relations and the elastic-plastic constitutive relation of material, balance equations were established with the principle of virtual work. The variation of external pressure with respect to the cross-sectional area of pipelines was analyzed, and the lower bound of the crossover pressure of slip-on buckle arrestors was calculated based on Maxwell's energy balance method. By comparing the theoretical results with experiment and finite element numerical simulation, the theoretical method is proved to be correct and reliable.

  6. Study of the Flow Temperature and Ring Design Influence on the Response of a New Reduced-Size Calorimetric Cell for Nuclear Heating Quantification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Volte, A.; Reynard-Carette, C.; Brun, J.; De Vita, C.; Carette, M.; Fiorido, T.; Lyoussi, A.; Fourmentel, D.; Villard, J.-F.; Guimbal, P.

    2018-01-01

    This paper concerns experimental studies of different designs of a new compact calorimetric cell under laboratory conditions. This kind of cell is used for the measurement of the nuclear heating rate inside Material Testing Reactors thanks to differential calorimetry. The results, obtained by applying an operating protocol corresponding to a preliminary out-of-pile calibration step, are presented for three designs. The influence of the horizontal-fin design is shown on the calibration curve and the sensor sensitivity. The influence of the external fluid flow temperature is given for the quarter design. The different responses of the calorimetric cell are explained by taken into account a 1D analytical thermal model coupling thermal conductive and radiative transfers.

  7. Slipped vertebral epiphysis (report of 2 cases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Majid Reza Farrokhi

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available

    • Avulsion or fracture of posterior ring apophysis of lumbar vertebra is an uncommon cause of radicular low back pain in pediatric age group, adolescents and athletes. This lesion is one of differential diagnosis of disc herniation. We reported two teenage boys with sever low back pain and sciatica during soccer play that ultimately treated with diagnosis of lipped vertebral apophysis.
    • KEY WORDS: Ring Apophysis, vertebral fracture, sciatica, low back pain, disc herniation.

  8. Design of Multi-Layer Optical Fibers with Ring Refractive Index to Reduce Dispersion and Increase Bandwidth in Broadband Optical Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Seifouri

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The main goal in this paper is to design single-mode optical fibers for DWDM networks, which are used today in rapid communications. These networks require low dispersion in a wide range of wavelengths. So, in this paper, multi-layer optical fibers with low dispersion value and flat dispersion slope in wavelength range of (1.5-1.6µm are designed, using optimization algorithms.

  9. Estimates of CSR Instability Thresholds for Various Storage Rings

    CERN Document Server

    Zimmermann, Frank

    2010-01-01

    We review the key predictions and conditions by several authors for the onset of longitudinal instabilities due to coherent synchrotron radiation (CSR), and evaluate them numerically for various storage rings, namely the KEKB High Energy Ring (HER) & Low Energy Ring (LER), SuperKEKB HER & LER, old and new designs of the SuperKEKB Damping Ring (DR), SuperB HER & LER, CLIC DR (2009 and 2010 design parameters), SLC DR, and ATF DR. We show that the theoretical uncertainty in the instability onset is at least at the level of 20-30% in bunch intensity. More importantly, we present some doubts about the general applicability for many of these storage rings of some commonly used formulae. To cast further light on these questions, an experiment at lower beam energy on the ATF Damping Ring is proposed.

  10. Beam Instrumentation for the Spallation Neutron Source Ring

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Witkover, R. L.; Cameron, P. R.; Shea, T. J.; Connolly, R. C.; Kesselman, M.

    1999-01-01

    The Spallation Neutron Source (SNS) will be constructed by a multi-laboratory collaboration with BNL responsible for the transfer lines and ring. The 1 MW beam power necessitates careful monitoring to minimize un-controlled loss. This high beam power will influence the design of the monitors in the high energy beam transport line (HEBT) from linac to ring, in the ring, and in the ring-to-target transfer line (RTBT). The ring instrumentation must cover a 3-decade range of beam intensity during accumulation. Beam loss monitoring will be especially critical since un-controlled beam loss must be kept below 10 -4 . A Beam-In-Gap (BIG) monitor is being designed to assure out-of-bucket beam will not be lost in the ring

  11. Stochastic Wheel-Slip Compensation Based Robot Localization and Mapping

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SIDHARTHAN, R. K.

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Wheel slip compensation is vital for building accurate and reliable dead reckoning based robot localization and mapping algorithms. This investigation presents stochastic slip compensation scheme for robot localization and mapping. Main idea of the slip compensation technique is to use wheel-slip data obtained from experiments to model the variations in slip velocity as Gaussian distributions. This leads to a family of models that are switched depending on the input command. To obtain the wheel-slip measurements, experiments are conducted on a wheeled mobile robot and the measurements thus obtained are used to build the Gaussian models. Then the localization and mapping algorithm is tested on an experimental terrain and a new metric called the map spread factor is used to evaluate the ability of the slip compensation technique. Our results clearly indicate that the proposed methodology improves the accuracy by 72.55% for rotation and 66.67% for translation motion as against an uncompensated mapping system. The proposed compensation technique eliminates the need for extro receptive sensors for slip compensation, complex feature extraction and association algorithms. As a result, we obtain a simple slip compensation scheme for localization and mapping.

  12. Is the co-seismic slip distribution fractal?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milliner, Christopher; Sammis, Charles; Allam, Amir; Dolan, James

    2015-04-01

    Co-seismic along-strike slip heterogeneity is widely observed for many surface-rupturing earthquakes as revealed by field and high-resolution geodetic methods. However, this co-seismic slip variability is currently a poorly understood phenomenon. Key unanswered questions include: What are the characteristics and underlying causes of along-strike slip variability? Do the properties of slip variability change from fault-to-fault, along-strike or at different scales? We cross-correlate optical, pre- and post-event air photos using the program COSI-Corr to measure the near-field, surface deformation pattern of the 1992 Mw 7.3 Landers and 1999 Mw 7.1 Hector Mine earthquakes in high-resolution. We produce the co-seismic slip profiles of both events from over 1,000 displacement measurements and observe consistent along-strike slip variability. Although the observed slip heterogeneity seems apparently complex and disordered, a spectral analysis reveals that the slip distributions are indeed self-affine fractal i.e., slip exhibits a consistent degree of irregularity at all observable length scales, with a 'short-memory' and is not random. We find a fractal dimension of 1.58 and 1.75 for the Landers and Hector Mine earthquakes, respectively, indicating that slip is more heterogeneous for the Hector Mine event. Fractal slip is consistent with both dynamic and quasi-static numerical simulations that use non-planar faults, which in turn causes heterogeneous along-strike stress, and we attribute the observed fractal slip to fault surfaces of fractal roughness. As fault surfaces are known to smooth over geologic time due to abrasional wear and fracturing, we also test whether the fractal properties of slip distributions alters between earthquakes from immature to mature fault systems. We will present results that test this hypothesis by using the optical image correlation technique to measure historic, co-seismic slip distributions of earthquakes from structurally mature, large

  13. Slipped capital femoral epiphysis: A modern treatment protocol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Slavković Nemanja

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The treatment of a patient with slipped capital femoral epiphysis begins with an early diagnosis and accurate classification. On the basis of symptom duration, clinical findings and radiographs, slipped capital femoral epiphysis is classified as pre-slip, acute, acute-on-chronic and chronic. The long-term outcome of slipped capital femoral epiphysis is directly related to severity and the presence or absence of avascular necrosis and/or chondrolysis. Therefore, the first priority in the treatment of slipped capital femoral epiphysis is to avoid complications while securing the epiphysis from further slippage. Medical treatment of patients with acute and acute-on-chronic slipped capital femoral epiphysis, as well as those presented in pre-slip stage, is the safest, although time-consuming. Manipulations, especially forced and repeated, are not recommended due to higher avascular necrosis risk. The use of intraoperative fluoroscopy to assist in the placement of internal fixation devices has markedly increased the success of surgical treatment. Controversy remains as to whether the proximal femoral epiphysis in severe, chronic slipped capital femoral epiphysis should be realigned by extracapsular osteotomies or just fixed in situ. The management protocol for slipped capital femoral epiphysis depends on the experience of the surgeon, motivation of the patient and technical facilities.

  14. Analytical solutions for squeeze flow with partial wall slip

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Laun, HM; Rady, M; Hassager, Ole

    1999-01-01

    Squeeze flow between parallel plates of a purely viscous material is considered for small gaps both for a Newtonian and power law fluid with partial wall slip. The results for the squeeze force as a function of the squeezing speed reduce to the Stefan and Scott equations in the no slip limit......, respectively. The slip velocity at the plate increases linearly with the radius up to the rim slip velocity upsilon(s). For small Saps H, the resulting apparent Newtonian rim shear rate-measured for a constant rim shear stress, i.e. an imposed force increasing proportional to 1/H-yields a straight line...

  15. Strong dynamical effects during stick-slip adhesive peeling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dalbe, Marie-Julie; Santucci, Stéphane; Cortet, Pierre-Philippe; Vanel, Loïc

    2014-01-07

    We consider the classical problem of the stick-slip dynamics observed when peeling a roller adhesive tape at a constant velocity. From fast imaging recordings, we extract the dependence of the stick and slip phase durations on the imposed peeling velocity and peeled ribbon length. Predictions of Maugis and Barquins [in Adhesion 12, edited by K. W. Allen, Elsevier ASP, London, 1988, pp. 205-222] based on a quasistatic assumption succeed to describe quantitatively our measurements of the stick phase duration. Such a model however fails to predict the full stick-slip cycle duration, revealing strong dynamical effects during the slip phase.

  16. Hitchhikers’ guide to analysing bird ringing data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Harnos Andrea

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Bird ringing datasets constitute possibly the largest source of temporal and spatial information on vertebrate taxa available on the globe. Initially, the method was invented to understand avian migration patterns. However, data deriving from bird ringing has been used in an array of other disciplines including population monitoring, changes in demography, conservation management and to study the effects of climate change to name a few. Despite the widespread usage and importance, there are no guidelines available specifically describing the practice of data management, preparation and analyses of ringing datasets. Here, we present the first of a series of comprehensive tutorials that may help fill this gap. We describe in detail and through a real-life example the intricacies of data cleaning and how to create a data table ready for analyses from raw ringing data in the R software environment. Moreover, we created and present here the R package; ringR, designed to carry out various specific tasks and plots related to bird ringing data. Most methods described here can also be applied to a wide range of capture-recapture type data based on individual marking, regardless to taxa or research question.

  17. Strike-slip tectonics during rift linkage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pagli, C.; Yun, S. H.; Ebinger, C.; Keir, D.; Wang, H.

    2017-12-01

    The kinematics of triple junction linkage and the initiation of transforms in magmatic rifts remain debated. Strain patterns from the Afar triple junction provide tests of current models of how rifts grow to link in area of incipient oceanic spreading. Here we present a combined analysis of seismicity, InSAR and GPS derived strain rate maps to reveal that the plate boundary deformation in Afar is accommodated primarily by extensional tectonics in the Red Sea and Gulf of Aden rifts, and does not require large rotations about vertical axes (bookshelf faulting). Additionally, models of stress changes and seismicity induced by recent dykes in one sector of the Afar triple junction provide poor fit to the observed strike-slip earthquakes. Instead we explain these patterns as rift-perpendicular shearing at the tips of spreading rifts where extensional strains terminate against less stretched lithosphere. Our results demonstrate that rift-perpendicular strike-slip faulting between rift segments achieves plate boundary linkage during incipient seafloor spreading.

  18. A New Olympic Ring Shaped Antenna for UWB Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Saidaiah

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we propose a new Olympic Ring Shaped antenna for UWB applications. The proposed antenna is designed to operate from 3.1 to 10.6 GHz. It consists of a five circular ring shapes form an Olympic ring shape with a partial ground plane. A detail of proposed antenna simulation is done using CST software and measured results are presented and discussed.

  19. Requirements on internal targets for the Aladdin storage ring

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Holt, R.J.

    1984-01-01

    The feasibility of performing electron scattering experiments with polarized targets in electron storage rings is explored by considering an electron-deuteron scattering experiment at the Aladdin storage ring. It is noted that this new method is compatible with recent proposals for linac-stretcher-ring accelerator designs. A new method for producing a polarized hydrogen or deuterium target is proposed and some preliminary results are described. 21 references, 6 figures, 1 table

  20. Halo and space charge issues in the SNS Ring

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fedotov, A.V.; Abell, D.T.; Beebe-Wang, J.; Lee, Y.Y.; Malitsky, N.; Wei, J.; Gluckstern, R.L.

    2000-01-01

    The latest designs for high-intensity proton rings require minimizing beam-induced radioactivation of the vacuum chamber. Although the tune depression in the ring is much smaller than in high-intensity linacs, space-charge contributions to halo formation and, hence, beam loss may be significant. This paper reviews our current understanding of halo formation issues for the Spallation Neutron Source (SNS) accumulator ring

  1. Reduced length design of 9.8 MHz RF accelerating cavity for the positron accumulator ring (PAR) of the Advanced Photon Source (APS)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kang, Y.W.; Bridges, J.F.; Kustom, R.L.

    1993-07-01

    A 9.8-MHz RF accelerating cavity is developed for the first harmonic system in the APS PAR and an aluminum unit is tested. The design goal si 40 kV at the accelerating gap, Q-factor of {approximately} 7,000 for the accelerating mode, 1.2-m diameter, 1.6-m length with good mechanical strength and stability. The design employs no dielectric or ferrite loading for tuning. The cavity is a plunger-loaded reentrant coaxial structure; the end of the inner conductor facing the wall has a piston-shaped loading structure which consists of a circular disk and a cylinder. The RF characteristic of the cavity was investigated using the URMEL-T and MAFIA programs. Compared with a coaxial structure with lumped element capacitive loading, this design gives improved RF characteristics.

  2. Almost ring theory

    CERN Document Server

    2003-01-01

    This book develops thorough and complete foundations for the method of almost etale extensions, which is at the basis of Faltings' approach to p-adic Hodge theory. The central notion is that of an "almost ring". Almost rings are the commutative unitary monoids in a tensor category obtained as a quotient V-Mod/S of the category V-Mod of modules over a fixed ring V; the subcategory S consists of all modules annihilated by a fixed ideal m of V, satisfying certain natural conditions. The reader is assumed to be familiar with general categorical notions, some basic commutative algebra and some advanced homological algebra (derived categories, simplicial methods). Apart from these general prerequisites, the text is as self-contained as possible. One novel feature of the book - compared with Faltings' earlier treatment - is the systematic exploitation of the cotangent complex, especially for the study of deformations of almost algebras.

  3. Performance of Oil Pumping Rings: An Analytical and Experimental Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eusepi, M. W.; Walowit, J. A.; Pinkus, O.; Holmes, P.

    1986-01-01

    A steady-state design computer program was developed to predict the performance of pumping rings as functions of geometry, applied loading, speed, ring modulus, and fluid viscosity. Additional analyses were developed to predict transient behavior of the ring and the effects of temperature rises occurring in the hydrodynamic film between the ring and shaft. The analysis was initially compared with previous experimental data and then used to design additional rings for further testing. Tests were performed with Rulon, carbon-graphite, and babbit rings. The design analysis was used to size all of the rings and to select the ranges of clearances, thickness, and loading. Although full quantitative agreement was lacking, relative agreement existed in that rings that were predicted to perform well theoretically, generally performed well experimentally. Some causes for discrepanices between theory and experiment are believed to be due to starvation, leakage past the secondary seal at high pressures, and uncertainties in the small clearances and local inlet temperatures to the pumping ring. A separate preliminary analysis was performed for a pumping Leningrader seal. This anlaysis can be used to predict the film thickness and flow rate thr ough the seal as a function of pressure, speed, loading, and geometry.

  4. A Model for Low-Frequency Earthquake Slip

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chestler, S. R.; Creager, K. C.

    2017-12-01

    Using high-resolution relative low-frequency earthquake (LFE) locations, we calculate the patch areas (Ap) of LFE families. During episodic tremor and slip (ETS) events, we define AT as the area that slips during LFEs and ST as the total amount of summed LFE slip. Using observed and calculated values for AP, AT, and ST, we evaluate two end-member models for LFE slip within an LFE family patch. In the ductile matrix model, LFEs produce 100% of the observed ETS slip (SETS) in distinct subpatches (i.e., AT ≪ AP). In the connected patch model, AT = AP, but ST ≪ SETS. LFEs cluster into 45 LFE families. Spatial gaps (˜10 to 20 km) between LFE family clusters and smaller gaps within LFE family clusters serve as evidence that LFE slip is heterogeneous on multiple spatial scales. We find that LFE slip only accounts for ˜0.2% of the slip within the slow slip zone. There are depth-dependent trends in the characteristic (mean) moment and in the number of LFEs during both ETS events (only) and the entire ETS cycle (Mcets and NTets and Mcall and NTall, respectively). During ETS, Mc decreases with downdip distance but NT does not change. Over the entire ETS cycle, Mc decreases with downdip distance, but NT increases. These observations indicate that deeper LFE slip occurs through a larger number (800-1,200) of small LFEs, while updip LFE slip occurs primarily during ETS events through a smaller number (200-600) of larger LFEs. This could indicate that the plate interface is stronger and has a higher stress threshold updip.

  5. Investigation of piston ring – cylinder liner dry wear using a block-on-ring test rig

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bihlet, Uffe; Klit, Peder; Felter, Christian L.

    Characterization of the wear of piston rings and cylinder liner is an important aspect of large two stroke diesel engine design. Two major wear mechanisms exist; corrosive wear and mechanical wear. This paper deals with the most aggressive form of the latter, which is known as scuffing. Different...... that ceramic coating on the piston ring decreases the dry wear rate of both piston ring and liner, while the coefficient of friction is increased....

  6. Stable CSR in Storage Rings: A Model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sannibale, F.

    2005-01-01

    A comprehensive historical view of the work done on coherent synchrotron radiation (CSR) in storage rings is given in reference [1]. Here we want just to point out that even if the issue of CSR in storage rings was already discussed over 50 years ago, it is only recently that a considerable number of observations have been reported. In fact, intense bursts of coherent synchrotron radiation with a stochastic character were measured in the terahertz frequency range, at several synchrotron light source storage rings [2-8]. It has been shown [8-11], that this bursting emission of CSR is associated with a single bunch instability, usually referred as microbunching instability (MBI), driven by the fields of the synchrotron radiation emitted by the bunch itself. Of remarkably different characteristics was the CSR emission observed at BESSY II in Berlin, when the storage ring was tuned into a special low momentum compaction mode [12, 13]. In fact, the emitted radiation was not the quasi-random bursting observed in the other machines, but a powerful and stable flux of broadband CSR in the terahertz range. This was an important result, because it experimentally demonstrated the concrete possibility of constructing a stable broadband source with extremely high power in the terahertz region. Since the publication of the first successful experiment using the ring as a CSR source [14], BESSY II has regular scheduled user's shifts dedicated to CSR experiments. At the present time, several other laboratories are investigating the possibility of a CSR mode of operation [15-17] and a design for a new ring optimized for CSR is at an advanced stage [18]. In what follows, we describe a model that first accounts for the BESSY II observations and then indicates that the special case of BESSY II is actually quite general and typical when relativistic electron storage rings are tuned for short bunches. The model provides a scheme for predicting and optimizing the performance of ring

  7. Stable CSR in storage rings: A model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sannibale, Fernando; Byrd, John M.; Loftsdottir, Agusta; Venturini, Marco; Abo-Bakr, Michael; Feikes, Jorge; Holldack, Karsten; Kuske, Peter; Wustefeld, Godehart; Hubers, Heinz-Willerm; Warnock, Robert

    2005-01-01

    A comprehensive historical view of the work done on coherent synchrotron radiation (CSR) in storage rings is given in reference [1]. Here we want just to point out that even if the issue of CSR in storage rings was already discussed over 50 years ago, it is only recently that a considerable number of observations have been reported. In fact, intense bursts of coherent synchrotron radiation with a stochastic character were measured in the terahertz frequency range, at several synchrotron light source storage rings [2-8]. It has been shown [8-11], that this bursting emission of CSR is associated with a single bunch instability, usually referred as microbunching instability (MBI), driven by the fields of the synchrotron radiation emitted by the bunch itself. Of remarkably different characteristics was the CSR emission observed at BESSY II in Berlin, when the storage ring was tuned into a special low momentum compaction mode [12, 13]. In fact, the emitted radiation was not the quasi-random bursting observed in the other machines, but a powerful and stable flux of broadband CSR in the terahertz range. This was an important result, because it experimentally demonstrated the concrete possibility of constructing a stable broadband source with extremely high power in the terahertz region. Since the publication of the first successful experiment using the ring as a CSR source [14], BESSY II has regular scheduled user s shifts dedicated to CSR experiments. At the present time, several other laboratories are investigating the possibility of a CSR mode of operation [15-17] and a design for a new ring optimized for CSR is at an advanced stage [18]. In what follows, we describe a model that first accounts for the BESSY II observations and then indicates that the special case of BESSY II is actually quite general and typical when relativistic electron storage rings are tuned for short bunches. The model provides a scheme for predicting and optimizing the performance of ring

  8. Effects of embedment including slip and separation on seismic SSI response of a nuclear reactor building

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saxena, Navjeev; Paul, D.K.

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► Both the slip and separation of reactor base reduce with increase in embedment. ► The slip and separation become insignificant beyond 1/4 and 1/2 embedment respectively. ► The stresses in reactor reduce significantly upto 1/4 embedment. ► The stress reduction with embedment is more pronounced in case of tensile stresses. ► The modeling of interface is important beyond 1/8 embedment as stresses are underestimated otherwise. - Abstract: The seismic response of nuclear reactor containment building considering the effects of embedment, slip and separation at soil–structure interface requires modeling of the soil, structure and interface altogether. Slip and separation at the interface causes stress redistribution in the soil and the structure around the interface. The embedment changes the dynamic characteristics of the soil–structure system. Consideration of these aspects allows capturing the realistic response of the structure, which has been a research gap and presented here individually as well as taken together. Finite element analysis has been carried out in time domain to attempt the highly nonlinear problem. The study draws important conclusions useful for design of nuclear reactor containment building.

  9. Report of the New Rings Study Group

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Holmes, S.D.; Dugan, G.; Marriner, J.

    1987-01-01

    We have taken the approach here of trying to understand both the feasibility and practicality of varied options for new rings at Fermilab, rather than trying to produce a single detailed design. In other words, this document is not a design report and should not be construed as such. Our perception of the potential needs for new rings (in order of priority) is as follows: Antiproton Storage and/or Recovery: A facility for storing up to 4 x 10 12 antiprotons is needed. Recovery of antiprotons from the collider becomes a viable option if the luminosity is indeed dominated by emittance dilution rather than beam loss. New or Post-Booster: The goal here would be to inject into the existing Main Ring above transition. Improved performance of the Main Ring would be anticipated. New Main Ring: Advantages would include better emittance preservation, a faster cycle time for antiproton production, and the removal of interference/backgrounds at the B0 and D0 detectors. We discuss in this paper various scenarios based on one or more combinations of the above possibilities. 14 figs., 10 tabs

  10. Report of the New Rings Study Group

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Holmes, S.D.; Dugan, G.; Marriner, J.

    1987-10-19

    We have taken the approach here of trying to understand both the feasibility and practicality of varied options for new rings at Fermilab, rather than trying to produce a single detailed design. In other words, this document is not a design report and should not be construed as such. Our perception of the potential needs for new rings (in order of priority) is as follows: Antiproton Storage and/or Recovery: A facility for storing up to 4 x 10/sup 12/ antiprotons is needed. Recovery of antiprotons from the collider becomes a viable option if the luminosity is indeed dominated by emittance dilution rather than beam loss. New or Post-Booster: The goal here would be to inject into the existing Main Ring above transition. Improved performance of the Main Ring would be anticipated. New Main Ring: Advantages would include better emittance preservation, a faster cycle time for antiproton production, and the removal of interference/backgrounds at the B0 and D0 detectors. We discuss in this paper various scenarios based on one or more combinations of the above possibilities. 14 figs., 10 tabs.

  11. The Vibration Ring. Phase 1; [Seedling Fund

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asnani, Vivake M.; Krantz, Timothy L.; Delap, Damon C.; Stringer, David B.

    2014-01-01

    The vibration ring was conceived as a driveline damping device to prevent structure-borne noise in machines. It has the appearance of a metal ring, and can be installed between any two driveline components like an ordinary mechanical spacer. Damping is achieved using a ring-shaped piezoelectric stack that is poled in the axial direction and connected to an electrical shunt circuit. Surrounding the stack is a metal structure, called the compression cage, which squeezes the stack along its poled axis when excited by radial driveline forces. The stack in turn generates electrical energy, which is either dissipated or harvested using the shunt circuit. Removing energy from the system creates a net damping effect. The vibration ring is much stiffer than traditional damping devices, which allows it to be used in a driveline without disrupting normal operation. In phase 1 of this NASA Seedling Fund project, a combination of design and analysis was used to examine the feasibility of this concept. Several designs were evaluated using solid modeling, finite element analysis, and by creating prototype hardware. Then an analytical model representing the coupled electromechanical response was formulated in closed form. The model was exercised parametrically to examine the stiffness and loss factor spectra of the vibration ring, as well as simulate its damping effect in the context of a simplified driveline model. The results of this work showed that this is a viable mechanism for driveline damping, and provided several lessons for continued development.

  12. Fusion rings and fusion ideals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Troels Bak

    This dissertation investigates fusion rings, which are Grothendieck groups of rigid, monoidal, semisimple, abelian categories. Special interest is in rational fusion rings, i.e., fusion rings which admit a finite basis, for as commutative rings they may be presented as quotients of polynomial rings...... by the so-called fusion ideals. The fusion rings of Wess-Zumino-Witten models have been widely studied and are well understood in terms of precise combinatorial descriptions and explicit generating sets of the fusion ideals. They also appear in another, more general, setting via tilting modules for quantum...

  13. Fusion Rings for Quantum Groups

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Henning Haahr; Stroppel, Catharina

    2012-01-01

    We study the fusion rings of tilting modules for a quantum group at a root of unity modulo the tensor ideal of negligible tilting modules. We identify them in type A with the combinatorial rings from [12] and give a similar description of the sp2n-fusion ring in terms of noncommutative symmetric...... functions. Moreover we give a presentation of all fusion rings in classical types as quotients of polynomial rings. Finally we also compute the fu- sion rings for type G2....

  14. Lattices for antiproton rings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Autin, B.

    1984-01-01

    After a description of the constraints imposed by the cooling of Antiprotons on the lattice of the rings, the reasons which motivate the shape and the structure of these machines are surveyed. Linear and non-linear beam optics properties are treated with a special amplification to the Antiproton Accumulator. (orig.)

  15. Flushing Ring for EDM

    Science.gov (United States)

    Earwood, L.

    1985-01-01

    Removing debris more quickly lowers cutting time. Operation, cutting oil and pressurized air supplied to ring placed around workpiece. Air forces oil through small holes and agitates oil as it flows over workpiece. High flow rate and agitation dislodge and remove debris. Electrical discharge removes material from workpiece faster.

  16. The No-Slip Boundary Condition in Fluid Mechanics

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Ideas leading to the resolution of the problem of no-slip condition for fluid velocity at a solid surface are traced in this concluding part of the article. In the continuum limit velocity slip being zero is established beyond any doubt now. Even turbulent flows which have a large velocity gradient near a wall have to satisfy the ...

  17. Multiparameter Monitoring and Prevention of Fault-Slip Rock Burst

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shan-chao Hu

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Fault-slip rock burst is one type of the tectonic rock burst during mining. A detailed understanding of the precursory information of fault-slip rock burst and implementation of monitoring and early warning systems, as well as pressure relief measures, are essential to safety production in deep mines. This paper first establishes a mechanical model of stick-slip instability in fault-slip rock bursts and then reveals the failure characteristics of the instability. Then, change rule of mining-induced stress and microseismic signals before the occurrence of fault-slip rock burst are proposed, and multiparameter integrated early warning methods including mining-induced stress and energy are established. Finally, pressure relief methods targeting large-diameter boreholes and coal seam infusion are presented in accordance with the occurrence mechanism of fault-slip rock burst. The research results have been successfully applied in working faces 2310 of the Suncun Coal Mine, and the safety of the mine has been enhanced. These research results improve the theory of fault-slip rock burst mechanisms and provide the basis for prediction and forecasting, as well as pressure relief, of fault-slip rock bursts.

  18. Prediction of fluid velocity slip at solid surfaces

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Jesper Schmidt; Todd, Billy; Daivis, Peter

    2011-01-01

    methods, it allows us to directly compute the intrinsic wall-fluid friction coefficient rather than an empirical friction coefficient that includes all sources of friction for planar shear flow. The slip length predicted by our method is in excellent agreement with the slip length obtained from direct...

  19. Effective velocity boundary condition at a mixed slip surface

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sbragaglia, M.; Prosperetti, Andrea

    2007-01-01

    This paper studies the nature of the effective velocity boundary condition for liquid flow over a plane boundary on which small free-slip islands are randomly distributed. It is found that an effective Navier partial-slip condition for the velocity emerges from a statistical analysis valid for

  20. The No-Slip Boundary Condition in Fluid Mechanics

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Historical Development. A brief and excellent review of this problem of velocity slip in fluid flow is given in the book by Goldstein [1]. We freely borrow from this book adding some explanations and supple- ments based on the earlier discussion in Part 1. We saw that Newton tacitly assumed the no-slip condition in the.

  1. Theoretical Proposals of Quantum Phase-slip Devices

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hriscu, A.M.

    2012-01-01

    This thesis describes a series of theoretical proposals of novel circuits that embed ultrathin superconducting nanowires with coherent quantum phase-slips (QPS). The motivation for our proposals is twofold: firstly, to facilitate unambiguous experimental verification of coherent phase-slips.

  2. Ring Bubbles of Dolphins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shariff, Karim; Marten, Ken; Psarakos, Suchi; White, Don J.; Merriam, Marshal (Technical Monitor)

    1996-01-01

    The article discusses how dolphins create and play with three types of air-filled vortices. The underlying physics is discussed. Photographs and sketches illustrating the dolphin's actions and physics are presented. The dolphins engage in this behavior on their own initiative without food reward. These behaviors are done repeatedly and with singleminded effort. The first type is the ejection of bubbles which, after some practice on the part of the dolphin, turn into toroidal vortex ring bubbles by the mechanism of baroclinic torque. These bubbles grow in radius and become thinner as they rise vertically to the surface. One dolphin would blow two in succession and guide them to fuse into one. Physicists call this a vortex reconnection. In the second type, the dolphins first create an invisible vortex ring in the water by swimming on their side and waving their tail fin (also called flukes) vigorously. This vortex ring travels horizontally in the water. The dolphin then turns around, finds the vortex and injects a stream of air into it from its blowhole. The air "fills-out" the core of the vortex ring. Often, the dolphin would knock-off a smaller ring bubble from the larger ring (this also involves vortex reconnection) and steer the smaller ring around the tank. One other dolphin employed a few other techniques for planting air into the fluke vortex. One technique included standing vertically in the water with tail-up, head-down and tail piercing the free surface. As the fluke is waved to create the vortex ring, air is entrained from above the surface. Another technique was gulping air in the mouth, diving down, releasing air bubbles from the mouth and curling them into a ring when they rose to the level of the fluke. In the third type, demonstrated by only one dolphin, the longitudinal vortex created by the dorsal fin on the back is used to produce 10-15 foot long helical bubbles. In one technique she swims in a curved path. This creates a dorsal fin vortex since

  3. ELASR – An electrostatic storage ring for atomic and molecular physics at KACST

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamed O.A. El Ghazaly

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available A new ELectrostAtic Storage Ring (ELASR has been designed and built at the King Abdulaziz City for Science and Technology (KACST, in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia. It was developed to be the core of a new storage ring laboratory for atomic and molecular physics at KACST. ELASR follows the standard design of the pioneering storage ring ELISA and it thereby features a racetrack single-bend shaped ring. Complementary simulation code packages were used to work out the design under the requirements of the projected experiments. This paper reports a short description of the ELASR storage ring through an overview of its design and construction.

  4. Slip Line Field Applied To Deep Drawing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miguel, V.; Benet, J.; Coello, J.; Calatayud, A.; Martínez, A.

    2007-05-01

    Slip Line Field is a numerical method applied for modelling plane-strain processes. This method has been successfully checked properly for sheet drawing. Flange deformation in deep drawing is considered without change in thickness. A drawing mechanical test has been developed in order to reproduce the flange stresses state in sheet strips with the rolling direction selected. The fundamentals of this test, and some experimental results obtained from it, have been presented previously in different Congresses. In this work, an algorithm based on SLF has been implemented and theoretical results evaluated for different conditions. The algorithm have been applied to a mild DDQ steel and to a DDQ AISI 304 stainless steel. Theoretical and experimental results are compared. A good concordance in them has been found out under some conditions. One of the most important aspects is that it must not be considered tensile material properties but a modified behavior under multiaxial conditions.

  5. Variable area manifolds for ring mirror heat exchangers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eng, Albert; Senterfitt, Donald R.

    1988-05-01

    A laser ring mirror assembly is disclosed which supports and cools an annular ring mirror of a high powered laser with a cooling manifold which has a coolant flow design which is intended to reduce thermal distortions of the ring mirror by minimizing azimuthal variations in temperature around its circumference. The cooling manifold has complementary pairs of cooling passages each of which conduct coolant in opposite flow directions. The manifold also houses adjusters which vary the depth between the annular ring mirror and each cooling, and which vary the flow area of the cooling passage to produce a control over the cooling characteristics of the cooling manifold.

  6. Antiprotons in the CERN intersecting storage rings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bryant, P.J.

    1984-01-01

    High-sensitivity electronics for TTl and ring 2 had been developed and installed, the original experimental stochastic cooling systems in the ISR were rebuilt and considerably improved, the split-field magnet (SFM) vacuum chamber was modified, some steering dipoles were designed, made and installed, and finally innumerable interlocks and computer programs were revised for antiproton operation. (orig./HSI)

  7. Axisymmetric Tornado Simulations with a Semi-Slip Boundary

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brian H. Fiedler

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The structure of natural tornadoes and simulated analogs are sensitive to the lower boundary condition for friction. Three-dimensional numerical simulations of storms require a choice for turbulence parameterizations and resolution of wind near the lower boundary. This article explores some of the consequences of choices of a surface drag coefficient on the structure of a mature simulated tornado, using a conventional axisymmetric model. The surface drag parameterization is explored over the range of the semi-slip condition, including the extremes of no-slip and free-slip. A moderate semi-slip condition allows for an extreme pressure deficit, but without the unrealistic vortex breakdown of the no-slip condition.

  8. Stick-slip substructure in rapid tape peeling

    KAUST Repository

    Thoroddsen, Sigurdur T.

    2010-10-15

    The peeling of adhesive tape is known to proceed with a stick-slip mechanism and produces a characteristic ripping sound. The peeling also produces light and when peeled in a vacuum, even X-rays have been observed, whose emissions are correlated with the slip events. Here we present direct imaging of the detachment zone when Scotch tape is peeled off at high speed from a solid surface, revealing a highly regular substructure, during the slip phase. The typical 4-mm-long slip region has a regular substructure of transverse 220 μm wide slip bands, which fracture sideways at speeds over 300 m/s. The fracture tip emits waves into the detached section of the tape at ∼100 m/s, which promotes the sound, so characteristic of this phenomenon.

  9. FUZZY RINGS AND ITS PROPERTIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karyati Karyati

    2017-01-01

      One of algebraic structure that involves a binary operation is a group that is defined  an un empty set (classical with an associative binary operation, it has identity elements and each element has an inverse. In the structure of the group known as the term subgroup, normal subgroup, subgroup and factor group homomorphism and its properties. Classical algebraic structure is developed to algebraic structure fuzzy by the researchers as an example semi group fuzzy and fuzzy group after fuzzy sets is introduced by L. A. Zadeh at 1965. It is inspired of writing about semi group fuzzy and group of fuzzy, a research on the algebraic structure of the ring is held with reviewing ring fuzzy, ideal ring fuzzy, homomorphism ring fuzzy and quotient ring fuzzy with its properties. The results of this study are obtained fuzzy properties of the ring, ring ideal properties fuzzy, properties of fuzzy ring homomorphism and properties of fuzzy quotient ring by utilizing a subset of a subset level  and strong level  as well as image and pre-image homomorphism fuzzy ring.   Keywords: fuzzy ring, subset level, homomorphism fuzzy ring, fuzzy quotient ring

  10. A Magnetic Wheel Structure for an Omni-directional Microrobot to Limit Slip Effect

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yiliang Jin

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available To fulfill the microassembly work successfully, an omnidirectional mobile microrobot is presented. To finish the micron size task, the positioning precision of the robot is highly important. But some unpredictable factors, especially the slip effect in wheel, would affect the precision of the robot and cause unwanted deviation. To limit the deviation and optimize the positioning performance of the robot, a new wheel structure is designed. The design of the new wheel is based on magnetic principle while considering the potential problems brought by the magnetic units. With nonlinear dynamic analysis with slip of the microrobot and simulations based on it, the slippage effect is shown to be limited a lot with the application of new wheel structure. And following experiments are executed to verify the optimization brought by the magnetic wheel structure.

  11. A Magnetic Wheel Structure for an Omni-Directional Microrobot to Limit Slip Effect

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yiliang Jin

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available To fulfill the microassembly work successfully, an omnidirectional mobile microrobot is presented. To finish the micron size task, the positioning precision of the robot is highly important. But some unpredictable factors, especially the slip effect in wheel, would affect the precision of the robot and cause unwanted deviation. To limit the deviation and optimize the positioning performance of the robot, a new wheel structure is designed. The design of the new wheel is based on magnetic principle while considering the potential problems brought by the magnetic units. With nonlinear dynamic analysis with slip of the microrobot and simulations based on it, the slippage effect is shown to be limited a lot with the application of new wheel structure. And following experiments are executed to verify the optimization brought by the magnetic wheel structure.

  12. How informative are slip models for aftershock forecasting?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bach, Christoph; Hainzl, Sebastian

    2013-04-01

    Coulomb stress changes (ΔCFS) have been recognized as a major trigger mechanism for earthquakes, in particular aftershock distributions and the spatial patterns of ΔCFS are often found to be correlated. However, the Coulomb stress calculations are based on slip inversions and the receiver fault mechanisms which both contain large uncertainties. In particular, slip inversions are usually non-unique and often differ strongly for the same earthquakes. Here we want to address the information content of those inversions with respect to aftershock forecasting. Therefore we compare the slip models to randomized fractal slip models which are only constrained by fault information and moment magnitude. The uncertainty of the aftershock mechanisms is considered by using many receiver fault orientations, and by calculating ΔCFS at several depth layers. The stress change is then converted into an aftershock probability map utilizing a clock advance model. To estimate the information content of the slip models, we use an Epidemic Type Aftershock Sequence (ETAS) model approach introduced by Bach and Hainzl (2012), where the spatial probability density of direct aftershocks is related to the ΔCFS calculations. Besides the directly triggered aftershocks, this approach also takes secondary aftershock triggering into account. We quantify our results by calculating the information gain of the randomized slip models relative to the corresponding published slip model. As case studies, we investigate the aftershock sequences of several well-known main shocks such as 1992 Landers, 1999 Hector Mine, 2004 Parkfield, 2002 Denali. First results show a huge difference in the information content of slip models. For some of the cases up to 90% of the random slip models are found to perform better than the originally published model, for some other cases only few random models are found performing better than the published slip model.

  13. A Laboratory Experimental Study: An FBG-PVC Tube Integrated Device for Monitoring the Slip Surface of Landslides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Kai; Zhang, Shaojie; Chen, Jiang; Teng, Pengxiao; Wei, Fangqiang; Chen, Qiao

    2017-10-30

    A new detection device was designed by integrating fiber Bragg grating (FBG) and polyvinyl chloride (PVC) tube in order to monitor the slip surface of a landslide. Using this new FBG-based device, a corresponding slope model with a pre-set slip surface was designed, and seven tests with different soil properties were carried out in laboratory conditions. The FBG sensing fibers were fixed on the PVC tube to measure strain distributions of PVC tube at different elevation. Test results indicated that the PVC tube could keep deformation compatible with soil mass. The new device was able to monitor slip surface location before sliding occurrence, and the location of monitored slip surface was about 1-2 cm above the pre-set slip surface, which basically agreed with presupposition results. The monitoring results are expected to be used to pre-estimate landslide volume and provide a beneficial option for evaluating the potential impact of landslides on shipping safety in the Three Gorges area.

  14. Lateral traction of laminar flow between sliding pair with heterogeneous slip/no-slip surface

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhenpeng Wu

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available The problem of shaft axial motion which significantly affects the lubrication performance has been a common phenomenon in journal bearing systems. The existing work involved in the solution of shaft axial motion is also very rare. In this study, we choose to examine the flow between sliding pair in which regard we present a unique heterogeneous surface consisting of a slip zone and a no-slip zone. The results reveal the following points: 1 By appropriately arranging the slip zone to change the angle between the borderline and the moving direction of the upper plate, it is possible to control the direction of the lateral traction in which the liquid film acts on the upper plate. 2 Exponent of the power function of the borderline and aspect ratio of the computational domain are large or small are not conducive to increasing the effect of lateral traction. For the object of this study, the final results of the optimization are shown that the lateral traction can account for 20% of the resistance.

  15. Lateral traction of laminar flow between sliding pair with heterogeneous slip/no-slip surface

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Zhenpeng; Zeng, Liangcai; Chen, Xiaolan; Chen, Keying; Ding, Xianzhong

    2017-11-01

    The problem of shaft axial motion which significantly affects the lubrication performance has been a common phenomenon in journal bearing systems. The existing work involved in the solution of shaft axial motion is also very rare. In this study, we choose to examine the flow between sliding pair in which regard we present a unique heterogeneous surface consisting of a slip zone and a no-slip zone. The results reveal the following points: 1) By appropriately arranging the slip zone to change the angle between the borderline and the moving direction of the upper plate, it is possible to control the direction of the lateral traction in which the liquid film acts on the upper plate. 2) Exponent of the power function of the borderline and aspect ratio of the computational domain are large or small are not conducive to increasing the effect of lateral traction. For the object of this study, the final results of the optimization are shown that the lateral traction can account for 20% of the resistance.

  16. Spatiotemporal evolution of premonitory fault slip prior to stick-slip instability: New insight into the earthquake preparation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhuo, Y. Q.; Liu, P.; Guo, Y.; Ji, Y.; Ma, J.

    2017-12-01

    Premonitory fault slip, which begins with quasistatic propagation followed by quasidynamic propagation, may be a key clue bridging the "stick" state and "slip" state of a fault. More attentions have been paid for a long time to the temporal resolution of measurement than the spatial resolution, leading to the incomplete interpretation for the spatial evolution of premonitory slip, particularly during the quasistatic phase. In the present study, measurement of the quasistatic propagation of premonitory slip is achieved at an ultrahigh spatial resolution via a digital image correlation method. Multiple premonitory slip zones are observed and found to be controlled spatially by the fault contact heterogeneity, particularly the strong contact patches that prevent the propagation of premonitory slip and accumulate strain. As a result, premonitory slip is accelerated within constrained week contact spaces and consequently triggers the breakout of quasidynamic propagation. The results provide new insights into the quasistatic propagation of premonitory slip and may offer new interpretations for the earthquake nucleation process. This work is fund by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant No. 41572181), the Basic Scientific Funding of Chinese National Nonprofit Institutes (Grant No. IGCEA1415, IGCEA1525), and the Early-Stage Work of Key Breakthrough Plan in Seismology from China Earthquake Administration.

  17. Prospect of polarized targets in electron rings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Holt, R.J.

    1984-01-01

    The feasibility of performing electron scattering experiments with polarized targets in electron storage rings is discussed. Three examples of the physics which would be accessible with this novel method are given. It is noted that this new method is compatible with recent proposals for linac-stretcher-ring accelerator designs. A new method for producing a polarized hydrogen or deuterium target is proposed and some preliminary results are described. A brief summary of laser-driven polarized targets as well as conventionally-produced polarized atomic beams is included

  18. e-læring

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Helms, Niels Henrik

    e-læring kan defineres på ganske mange måder. Ordet e-læring består jo tydeligt nok af to elementer. E + læring ligesom e-handel eller e-banking, og umiddelbart vil de fleste nok sige, at det så handler om læring vha. internettet. I bidraget advokeres for en læringsmæssig frem for normativ tilgang....

  19. The cryogenic storage ring CSR

    Science.gov (United States)

    von Hahn, R.; Becker, A.; Berg, F.; Blaum, K.; Breitenfeldt, C.; Fadil, H.; Fellenberger, F.; Froese, M.; George, S.; Göck, J.; Grieser, M.; Grussie, F.; Guerin, E. A.; Heber, O.; Herwig, P.; Karthein, J.; Krantz, C.; Kreckel, H.; Lange, M.; Laux, F.; Lohmann, S.; Menk, S.; Meyer, C.; Mishra, P. M.; Novotný, O.; O'Connor, A. P.; Orlov, D. A.; Rappaport, M. L.; Repnow, R.; Saurabh, S.; Schippers, S.; Schröter, C. D.; Schwalm, D.; Schweikhard, L.; Sieber, T.; Shornikov, A.; Spruck, K.; Sunil Kumar, S.; Ullrich, J.; Urbain, X.; Vogel, S.; Wilhelm, P.; Wolf, A.; Zajfman, D.

    2016-06-01

    An electrostatic cryogenic storage ring, CSR, for beams of anions and cations with up to 300 keV kinetic energy per unit charge has been designed, constructed, and put into operation. With a circumference of 35 m, the ion-beam vacuum chambers and all beam optics are in a cryostat and cooled by a closed-cycle liquid helium system. At temperatures as low as (5.5 ± 1) K inside the ring, storage time constants of several minutes up to almost an hour were observed for atomic and molecular, anion and cation beams at an energy of 60 keV. The ion-beam intensity, energy-dependent closed-orbit shifts (dispersion), and the focusing properties of the machine were studied by a system of capacitive pickups. The Schottky-noise spectrum of the stored ions revealed a broadening of the momentum distribution on a time scale of 1000 s. Photodetachment of stored anions was used in the beam lifetime measurements. The detachment rate by anion collisions with residual-gas molecules was found to be extremely low. A residual-gas density below 140 cm-3 is derived, equivalent to a room-temperature pressure below 10-14 mbar. Fast atomic, molecular, and cluster ion beams stored for long periods of time in a cryogenic environment will allow experiments on collision- and radiation-induced fragmentation processes of ions in known internal quantum states with merged and crossed photon and particle beams.

  20. Nuevos diseños de filtros planares en tecnologías de microcinta y finline utilizando resonadores de anillos divididos Novel designs of planar filters in microstrip and finline technologies using split ring resonators

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A León

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available En este artículo se presenta una técnica mejorada para diseñar filtros en configuraciones planares. Este nuevo procedimiento se aplica para mejorar el desempeño de estos dispositivos. Este trabajo ilustra que los resonadores de anillos complementarios divididos (CSRRs acoplados eléctricamente a una línea de transmisión y los resonadores de anillos divididos (SRRs acoplados magnéticamente a una estructura finline pueden emplearse con la intención de mejorar el diseño de tales filtros. Con este propósito se analizan variantes clásicas de filtros de ondas milimétricas. Estos componentes incluyen filtros pasabajo de microcinta, filtros finline pasabanda y supresores de banda, así como filtros supresores de banda en finline antipodal. Se discuten las propiedades de estas configuraciones y los resultados experimentales se encuentran en buen acuerdo con las simulaciones. Los resultados muestran la utilidad y validez de las nuevas estructuras ya que es posible lograr bajas pérdidas de inserción y bandas de transición muy agudas con alta capacidad de rechazo.In this paper an improved technique is outlined to design filters in planar configurations. The new procedure is applied to enhance the performance of these devices. This work illustrates that complementary split-ring resonators (CSRRs, electrically coupled to a microstrip transmission line and split-ring resonators (SRRs magnetically coupled to a finline structure can be applied to improve the design of such filters. For this purpose, classical variants of millimeter wave filters have been analyzed. These components include microstrip low-pass filters, finline bandpass/bandstop filters and antipodal finline bandstop filters. The properties of these configurations are discussed; the experimental data are in good agreement with the simulations. The results show the usefulness and validity of the new structures as it is possible to achieve a very low insertion loss and very sharp

  1. Beam Diagnostics of the Small Isochronous Ring

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Felix Marti; Eduard Pozdeyev

    2004-07-01

    The purpose of this paper is to describe the beam diagnostic systems in the Small Isochronous Ring (SIR) developed and built at the National Superconducting Cyclotron Laboratory (NSCL) at Michigan State University (MSU). SIR is a small-scale experiment that simulates the dynamics of intense beams in large accelerators. A 20 to 30 keV hydrogen or deuterium ion bunch is injected in the ring, extracted after a variable number of turns and its longitudinal profile is studied. Some of the diagnostic tools available in SIR include an emittance measurement system in the injection line, scanning wires in different sections of the ring, phosphor screens at the injection and extraction points and a fast Faraday cup in the extraction line. The design of these systems and the kind of beam information they provide are discussed in detail.

  2. Nonlinear dynamics aspects of modern storage rings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Helleman, R.H.G.; Kheifets, S.A.

    1986-01-01

    It is argued that the nonlinearity of storage rings becomes an essential problem as the design parameters of each new machine are pushed further and further. Yet the familiar methods of classical mechanics do not allow determination of single particle orbits over reasonable lengths of time. It is also argued that the single particle dynamics of a storage ring is possibly one of the cleanest and simplest nonlinear dynamical systems available with very few degrees of freedom. Hence, reasons are found for accelerator physicists to be interested in nonlinear dynamics and for researchers in nonlinear dynamics to be interested in modern storage rings. The more familiar methods of treating nonlinear systems routinely used in acclerator theory are discussed, pointing out some of their limitations and pitfalls. 39 refs., 1 fig

  3. Clean elements in abelian rings

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    equivalent to being clean for an abelian ring is 'topologically boolean'. In line with [1] we say that a ring R (not necessarily commutative) is right (resp. left) topologically boolean, or a right (resp. left) tb-ring for short, if for every pair of distinct maximal right (resp. left) ideals of R there is an idempotent in exactly one of them.

  4. Functional levels of floor surface roughness for the prevention of slips and falls: clean-and-dry and soapsuds-covered wet surfaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, In-Ju; Hsiao, Hongwei; Simeonov, Peter

    2013-01-01

    Literature has shown a general trend that slip resistance performance improves with floor surface roughness. However, whether slip resistance properties are linearly correlated with surface topographies of the floors or what roughness levels are required for effective slip resistance performance still remain to be answered. This pilot study aimed to investigate slip resistance properties and identify functional levels of floor surface roughness for practical design applications in reducing the risk of slip and fall incidents. A theory model was proposed to characterize functional levels of surface roughness of floor surfaces by introducing a new concept of three distinctive zones. A series of dynamic friction tests were conducted using 3 shoes and 9 floor specimens under clean-and-dry as well as soapsuds-covered slippery wet environments. The results showed that all the tested floor-shoe combinations provided sufficient slip resistances performance under the clean-and-dry condition. A significant effect of floor type (surface roughness) on dynamic friction coefficient (DFC) was found in the soapsuds-covered wet condition. As compared to the surface roughness effects, the shoe-type effects were relatively small. Under the soapsuds-covered wet condition, floors with 50 μm in Ra roughness scale seemed to represent an upper bound in the functional range of floor surface roughness for slip resistance because further increase of surface roughness provided no additional benefit. A lower bound of the functional range for slip resistance under the soapsuds-covered wet condition was estimated from the requirement of DFC > 0.4 at Ra ≅ 17 μm. Findings from this study may have potential safety implications in the floor surface design for reducing slip and fall hazards. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  5. Ring Confidential Transactions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shen Noether

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available This article introduces a method of hiding transaction amounts in the strongly decentralized anonymous cryptocurrency Monero. Similar to Bitcoin, Monero is a cryptocurrency which is distributed through a proof-of-work “mining” process having no central party or trusted setup. The original Monero protocol was based on CryptoNote, which uses ring signatures and one-time keys to hide the destination and origin of transactions. Recently the technique of using a commitment scheme to hide the amount of a transaction has been discussed and implemented by Bitcoin Core developer Gregory Maxwell. In this article, a new type of ring signature, A Multilayered Linkable Spontaneous Anonymous Group signature is described which allows one to include a Pedersen Commitment in a ring signature. This construction results in a digital currency with hidden amounts, origins and destinations of transactions with reasonable efficiency and verifiable, trustless coin generation. The author would like to note that early drafts of this were publicized in the Monero Community and on the #bitcoin-wizards IRC channel. Blockchain hashed drafts are available showing that this work was started in Summer 2015, and completed in early October 2015. An eprint is also available at http://eprint.iacr.org/2015/1098.

  6. Annular ring zoom system using two positive axicons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dickey, Fred M.; Conner, Jacob D.

    2011-10-01

    The production of an annular ring of light with a variable diameter has applications in laser material processing and machining, particle manipulation, and corneal surgery. This can readily be accomplished using a positive and negative axicon pair. However, negative axicons are very expensive and difficult to obtain with small diameters. In this paper, we present a design of an annular ring zoom system using two positive axicons. One axicon is placed a distance before a primary lens that is greater than some prescribed minimum, and the second axicon is placed after the primary lens. The position of the second axicon determines the ring diameter. The ring diameter can be zoomed from some maximum design size to a zero diameter ring (spot). Experimental results from a developmental system will be presented.

  7. Experimental study on Bond slip relationship of Steel sleeve

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wang J.C.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The assembled concrete structure is usually connected with the steel bar through the sleeve. In order to realize the optimum design of sleeve structure and develop new sleeve, the author put forward a new test method, and made 18 specimens for uniaxial tensile test. Study the influence of the strength of grouting material, diameter of reinforcing steel bar on bond slip relationship between steel bar and grouting material and its failure characteristics by experimental research. This result suggests that with the increase of age, the bond strength between steel bar and grouting material is increasing gradually, the increase speed gradually slowed down after 20 days. For CT20H sleeve, with the increase of the diameter of reinforcement, the bond strength between reinforcement and grouting material increased gradually. Conclusion: In the optimization design of the sleeve, under the premise of ensuring the smooth injection of grouting material and be convenient for the positioning of the reinforced members, reducing the inner diameter of the sleeve can improve the bond strength between reinforcement and grouting material.

  8. Velocity- and slip-dependent weakening on the Tohoku plate boundary fault: shallow coseismic slip facilitated by foreshock afterslip

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ito, Y.; Ikari, M.; Ujiie, K.; Kopf, A.

    2016-12-01

    Understanding of role of slow earthquakes as they relate to the occurrence of both megathrust earthquakes and tsunami earthquakes is necessary to mitigate these disasters in the near future. Laboratory shearing experiments is one of important approach to evaluate these relationships. Here, we use powdered gouge samples from JFAST (IODP Expedition 343) Hole C0019E, core sample 17R-1, which is the plate boundary fault zone in the Japan Trench subduction zone. In this region, both large coseismic slip during the 2011 Tohoku-Oki earthquake as well as discrete slow slip events (SSE) have occurred. Experiments were conducted in a single-direct shear apparatus under normal stress of 16 MPa, with total shear displacements of up to 16 mm. We evaluate both the velocity- and slip-dependence of friction by extracting the velocity-dependent friction parameters a, b, and Dc, and measuring the rate of change in friction coefficient with shear displacement as the slip-dependence of friction. We report that in friction experiments using the Tohoku fault zone samples, an increase in sliding velocity exceeding that of earthquake afterslip can induce a change from steady-state frictional strength or slip hardening friction to slip-weakening frictional behavior. Our results show that the slip weakening is observed when the slip velocity exceeds 1 x 10-6 m/s during our experiments, while steady-state frictional strength or slip hardening is observed below 1x10-6 m/s. In the Japan Trench region, two slow events were observed at the downdip edge of the mainshock coseismic slip zone (< 30 m) were observed. These are an episodic SSE with a slip velocity of 0.1 x 10-6, and afterslip after the largest foreshock with a slip velocity of 2 x 10-6 m/s. This suggests that the afterslip may have facilitated the large coseismic slip during the mainshock on the plate boundary fault of the Tohoku-Oki earthquake.

  9. Perception of slipperiness and prospective risk of slipping at work.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Courtney, Theodore K; Verma, Santosh K; Chang, Wen-Ruey; Huang, Yueng-Hsiang; Lombardi, David A; Brennan, Melanye J; Perry, Melissa J

    2013-01-01

    Falls are a leading cause of injury at work, and slipping is the predominant cause of falling. Prior research has suggested a modest correlation between objective measures (such as coefficient of friction, COF) and subjective measures of slipperiness (such as worker perceptions) in the workplace. However, the degree of association between subjective measures and the actual risk of slipping at the workplace is unknown. This study examined the association between perception of slipperiness and the risk of slipping. 475 workers from 36 limited-service restaurants participated in a 12-week prospective cohort study. At baseline, demographic information was collected, participants rated floor slipperiness in eight areas of the restaurant, and work environment factors, such as COF, were measured. Restaurant-level and area-level mean perceptions of slipperiness were calculated. Participants then reported their slip experience at work on a weekly basis for the next 12 weeks. The associations between perception of slipperiness and the rate of slipping were assessed. Adjusting for age, gender, body mass index, education, primary language, mean COF, use of slip-resistant shoes, and restaurant chain, each 1-point increase in mean restaurant-level perception of slipperiness (4-point scale) was associated with a 2.71 times increase in the rate of slipping (95% CI 1.25 to 5.87). Results were similar for area-level perception within the restaurant (rate ratios (RR) 2.92, 95% CI 2.41 to 3.54). Perceptions of slipperiness and the subsequent rate of slipping were strongly associated. These findings suggest that safety professionals, risk managers and employers could use aggregated worker perceptions of slipperiness to identify slipping hazards and, potentially, to assess intervention effectiveness.

  10. Perception of slipperiness and prospective risk of slipping at work

    Science.gov (United States)

    Courtney, Theodore K; Verma, Santosh K; Chang, Wen-Ruey; Huang, Yueng-Hsiang; Lombardi, David A; Brennan, Melanye J; Perry, Melissa J

    2013-01-01

    Objectives Falls are a leading cause of injury at work, and slipping is the predominant cause of falling. Prior research has suggested a modest correlation between objective measures (such as coefficient of friction, COF) and subjective measures of slipperiness (such as worker perceptions) in the workplace. However, the degree of association between subjective measures and the actual risk of slipping at the workplace is unknown. This study examined the association between perception of slipperiness and the risk of slipping. Methods 475 workers from 36 limited-service restaurants participated in a 12-week prospective cohort study. At baseline, demographic information was collected, participants rated floor slipperiness in eight areas of the restaurant, and work environment factors, such as COF, were measured. Restaurant-level and area-level mean perceptions of slipperiness were calculated. Participants then reported their slip experience at work on a weekly basis for the next 12 weeks. The associations between perception of slipperiness and the rate of slipping were assessed. Results Adjusting for age, gender, body mass index, education, primary language, mean COF, use of slip-resistant shoes, and restaurant chain, each 1-point increase in mean restaurant-level perception of slipperiness (4-point scale) was associated with a 2.71 times increase in the rate of slipping (95% CI 1.25 to 5.87). Results were similar for area-level perception within the restaurant (rate ratios (RR) 2.92, 95% CI 2.41 to 3.54). Conclusions Perceptions of slipperiness and the subsequent rate of slipping were strongly associated. These findings suggest that safety professionals, risk managers and employers could use aggregated worker perceptions of slipperiness to identify slipping hazards and, potentially, to assess intervention effectiveness. PMID:22935953

  11. Frictional melting and stick-slip behavior in volcanic conduits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kendrick, Jackie Evan; Lavallee, Yan; Hirose, Takehiro; di Toro, Giulio; Hornby, Adrian Jakob; Hess, Kai-Uwe; Dingwell, Donald Bruce

    2013-04-01

    Dome-building eruptions have catastrophic potential, with dome collapse leading to devastating pyroclastic flows with almost no precursory warning. During dome growth, the driving forces of the buoyant magma may be superseded by controls along conduit margins; where brittle fracture and sliding can lead to formation of lubricating cataclasite and gouge. Under extreme friction, pseudotachylyte may form at the conduit margin. Understanding the conduit margin processes is vital to understanding the continuation of an eruption and we postulate that pseudotachylyte generation could be the underlying cause of stick-slip motion and associated seismic "drumbeats", which are so commonly observed at dome-building volcanoes. This view is supported by field evidence in the form of pseudotachylytes identified in lava dome products at Soufrière Hills (Montserrat) and Mount St. Helens (USA). Both eruptions were characterised by repetitive, periodic seismicity and lava spine extrusion of highly viscous magma. High velocity rotary shear (HVR) experiments demonstrate the propensity for melting of the andesitic and dacitic material (from Soufrière Hills and Mount St. Helens respectively) at upper conduit stress conditions (HVR experiments which mimic rapid velocity fluctuations in stick-slip behavior demonstrate velocity-weakening behavior of melt, with a tendency for unstable slip. During ascent, magma may slip and undergo melting along the conduit margin. In the process the shear resistance of the slip zone is increased, acting as a viscous brake halting slip (the "stick" of stick-slip motion). Sufficient buoyancy-driven pressures from ascending magma below eventually overcome resistance to produce a rapid slip event (the "slip") along the melt-bearing slip zone, which is temporarily lubricated due to velocity-weakening. New magma below experiences the same slip event more slowly (as the magma decompresses) to produce a viscous brake and the process is repeated. This allows a

  12. Detection of slip from multiple sites in an artificial finger

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Muridan, N; Chappell, P H; Cranny, A; White, N M [Electronic Systems and Devices Group, School of Electronics and Computer Science, University of Southampton, SO17 1BJ (United Kingdom); Cotton, D P J, E-mail: nm07r@ecs.soton.ac.u [Nanoscience Centre, University of Cambridge, Cambridge (United Kingdom)

    2009-07-01

    A Piezoelectric thick-film sensor is a good candidate for the extraction of information from object slip in hand prosthesis. Five slip sensors were fabricated on different linkages of an artificial hand. The signals from each sensor were compared to the output from the sensor mounted on the fingertip. An analysis of the output signals from all the sensors indicates that the linkage sensors also produce similar output signals to the fingertip sensor. In the next phase of the research, velocity and acceleration of the slipped object will be considered in the analysis.

  13. Rate-Dependent Slip of Newtonian Liquid at Smooth Surfaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhu, Yingxi; Granick, Steve

    2001-01-01

    Newtonian fluids were placed between molecularly smooth surfaces whose spacing was vibrated at spacings where the fluid responded as a continuum. Hydrodynamic forces agreed with predictions from the no-slip boundary condition only provided that flow rate (peak velocity normalized by spacing) was low, but implied partial slip when it exceeded a critical level, different in different systems, correlated with contact angle (surface wettability). With increasing flow rate and partially wetted surfaces, hydrodynamic forces became up to 2--4 orders of magnitude less than expected by assuming the no-slip boundary condition that is commonly stated in textbooks

  14. Ionospheric Cycle Slip Processing in Triple-frequency GNSS

    OpenAIRE

    HUANG Lingyong; ZHAI Guojun; OUYANG Yongzhong; XU Guangxiu; LI Kaifeng; HUANG Xianyuan; FAN Long

    2015-01-01

    A new method based on three linear independence geometry-free and ionosphere-free (GIF) combinations to detect and repair cycle-slip is advanced to finishing the cycle slip processing under the higher ionospheric activity. In order to ensure that the cycle slip correction is accurate, the repair value is validated by a second-order, time-difference phase ionospheric residual (STPIR) combination. And then, this method is validated and analyzed by using the triple-frequency data with higher ion...

  15. Low-emittance Storage Rings

    CERN Document Server

    Wolski, Andrzej

    2014-01-01

    The effects of synchrotron radiation on particle motion in storage rings are discussed. In the absence of radiation, particle motion is symplectic, and the beam emittances are conserved. The inclusion of radiation effects in a classical approximation leads to emittance damping: expressions for the damping times are derived. Then, it is shown that quantum radiation effects lead to excitation of the beam emittances. General expressions for the equilibrium longitudinal and horizontal (natural) emittances are derived. The impact of lattice design on the natural emittance is discussed, with particular attention to the special cases of FODO-, achromat- and theoretical-minimum-emittance-style lattices. Finally, the effects of betatron coupling and vertical dispersion (generated by magnet alignment and lattice tuning errors) on the vertical emittance are considered.

  16. Piranti Lunak Pengujian Struktur Matematika Grup, Ring, Field Berbasis Osp (Open Source Program

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ngarap Im Manik

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available This design of a computer software is a development and continuation of the software made on the previous research (2009/2010. However, this further research developed and expanded the scopes of testing more on the Siclic Group, Isomorphism Group, Semi Group, Sub Group and Abelian Group, Factor Ring, Sub Ring and Polynomial Ring; developed on the OSP (Open Source Program-based. The software was developed using the OSP-based language programming, such Java, so it is open and free to use for its users. This research succeeded to develop an open source software of Java program that can be used for testing specific mathematical Groups, such Ciclic Group, Isomorphism Group, Semi Group, Sub Group and Abelian Group, and Rings, Commutative Ring, Division Ring, Ideal Sub Ring, Ring Homomorphism, Ring Epimorphism and Fields. By the results, the software developed was able to test as same as the results from manual testing.

  17. Laboratory study of electromagnetic initiation of slip

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. Chikhladze

    2002-06-01

    Full Text Available Recently Russian seismologists reported the triggering effect of MHD soundings on microseismic activity in the Central Asia test area.The paper focuses on an experimental test of the possibility of triggering the mechanical instability of a system that is close to critical state by a series of electromagnetic pulses.The mechanical system consisted of two pieces of rock;the upper piece can slip on the fixed supporting sample if the latter one is tilted up to the critical angle.In this state,the triggering of mechanical instability by some weak impact such as electrical pulse became more probable.The slope of support in the experiment is an analogue of tectonic stress in natural conditions.The preliminary experiments,carried out in a dry environment,at the humidity of atmosphere 30-50%,show that a strong EM-pulse induces sliding of a sample of rock (granite,basalt,labradoriteplaced on the supporting sample which is inclined at the slope close to,but less than,the critical angle with a probability 0.07.

  18. General aspects of slip from technique in the construction of containment structure of the Narora Atomic Power Station

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tilak, M.M.

    1975-01-01

    The paper describes one of the modern techniques of construction methods, i.e. use of slip form technique. Important features in adopting the above technique and its impact on construction aspects and design parameters in respect of containment structure are briefly discussed. (author)

  19. Generalized Extended State Observer Approach to Robust Tracking Control for Wheeled Mobile Robot with Skidding and Slipping

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hyo-Seok Kang

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper proposes a robust tracking controller based on a Generalized Extended State Observer (GESO method for a wheeled mobile robot (WMR with unknown skidding and slipping. Skidding and slipping of a WMR are inevitable in practice. We regard skidding and slipping as disturbances and modify the dynamics model to consider them simply. Then, we adopt the GESO to design a robust tracking controller at kinematic and dynamic level. Using Lyapunov theory, we derive the control law and guarantee the stability of the control system. The proposed control achieves attenuation of the disturbance and convergence of the tracking errors. The performance of the proposed method is verified by some simulation results.

  20. Guide to the Main Ring DO overpass

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Turkot, F.

    1985-01-01

    The DO overpass is a modification of the beam orbit in Main Ring in order to better accommodate a Tevatron collider detector at DO. The orbit is moved up approx. 51 inches over most of the long straight section at DO, thus making the Main Ring the world's first non-planar proton synchrotron. A similar overpass, but with four times the displacement, is planned for the CDF detector at the BO straight section. The nominal separation between the beam orbit in the Main Ring and the orbit in the Tevatron is 25.5 inches. Early in the design study of a detector that would utilize the Tevatron is a anti pp collider, it was apparent that a larger separation at the detector was highly desirable. In 1981, Tom Collins proposed a specific lattice geometry in the Main Ring for achieving larger separation, called ''the screw beam''. His proposal has served as the basis for the design of both the BO and DO overpasses. The main purpose of this report is to describe in some detail the implementation of the DO overpass. Topics to be covered include: (a) geometry of the overpass orbit, (b) the new hardware in the tunnel, (c) the power supply system, (d) the control facility, (e) accelerator beam dynamics ramifications, and (f) commissioning experience. A secondary purpose is to provide a fairly complete ''bibliography'' to the sources of information on the overpass. 17 refs., 17 figs

  1. Shape fabric development in rigid clast populations under pure shear: The influence of no-slip versus slip boundary conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mulchrone, Kieran F.; Meere, Patrick A.

    2015-09-01

    Shape fabrics of elliptical objects in rocks are usually assumed to develop by passive behavior of inclusions with respect to the surrounding material leading to shape-based strain analysis methods belonging to the Rf/ϕ family. A probability density function is derived for the orientational characteristics of populations of rigid ellipses deforming in a pure shear 2D deformation with both no-slip and slip boundary conditions. Using maximum likelihood a numerical method is developed for estimating finite strain in natural populations deforming for both mechanisms. Application to a natural example indicates the importance of the slip mechanism in explaining clast shape fabrics in deformed sediments.

  2. The high luminosity interaction region for a ring-ring Large Hadron Electron Collider

    Science.gov (United States)

    Appleby, R. B.; Thompson, L.; Holzer, B.; Fitterer, M.; Bernard, N.; Kostka, P.

    2013-12-01

    The Large Hadron Electron Collider (LHeC) project is a proposal for high luminosity TeV-scale electron-proton (ep) collisions at the LHC. The LHeC Conceptual Design Report presented an early overview of the machine, including an electron linac solution and a solution involving a 60 GeV electron storage ring. Here we present a new complete solution for the collision insertion of this electron ring, incorporating all constraints including those imposed by the LHC and, for the first time, proving the feasibility of ep collisions at a luminosity of ˜1033 cm-2s-1 in the LHC era. The solution presented offers high luminosity while maintaining the large detector coverage required by the particle physics programme. This negates the earlier need for two separate interaction region designs, one optimized for high luminosity at the cost of detector coverage, and the other for lower luminosity but higher coverage. Synchrotron radiation emission is also a major factor in electron accelerator design, and studies are presented showing the feasibility of the design in this regard. The design is found to be technically viable, solving the problem of TeV-scale, high luminosity and high coverage ep collisions at a ring-ring LHeC.

  3. SOR-ring failure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kitamura, Hideo

    1981-01-01

    It was in the autumn of 1976 that the SOR-ring (synchrotron radiation storage ring) has commenced the regular operation. Since then, the period when the operation was interrupted due to the failures of SOR-ring itself is in total about 8 weeks. Failures and accidents have occurred most in the vacuum system. Those failure experiences are described on the vacuum, electromagnet, radio-frequency acceleration and beam transport systems with their interrupted periods. The eleven failures in the vacuum system have been reported, such as bellows breakage in a heating-evacuating period, leakage from the bellows of straight-through valves (made in U.S.A. and Japan), and leakage from the joint flange of the vacuum system. The longest interruption was 5 weeks due to the failure of a domestically manufactured straight-through valve. The failures of the electromagnet system involve the breakage in a cooling water system, short circuit of a winding in the Q magnet power transformer, blow of a fuse protecting the deflection magnet power source by the current less than the rating, and others. The failures of the RF acceleration system include the breakage of an output electronic tube the breakage of a cavity ceramic, RF voltage fluctuation due to the contact deterioration at a cavity electrode, and the failure of grid bias power source. It is necessary to select the highly reliable components for the vacuum system because the vacuum system failures require longer time for recovery, and very likely to induce secondary and tertiary failures. (Wakatsuki, Y.)

  4. Experimental characterization of a flexible thermal slip sensor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Francomano, Maria Teresa; Accoto, Dino; Guglielmelli, Eugenio

    2012-11-08

    Tactile sensors are needed for effectively controlling the interaction between a robotic hand and the environment, e.g., during manipulation of objects, or for the tactile exploration of unstructured environments, especially when other sensing modalities, such as vision or audition, become ineffective. In the case of hand prostheses, mainly intended for dexterous manipulation of daily living objects, the possibility of quickly detecting slip occurrence, thus avoiding inadvertent falling of the objects, is prodromal to any manipulation task. In this paper we report on a slip sensor with no-moving parts, based on thermo-electrical phenomena, fabricated on a flexible substrate and suitable for integration on curved surfaces, such as robotic finger pads. Experiments performed using a custom made test bench, which is capable of generating controlled slip velocities, show that the sensor detects slip events in less than 50 ms. This response time is short enough for enabling future applications in the field of hand prosthetics.

  5. Some sources for a slip in a translation by Freud.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grossman, W I

    1988-01-01

    Among Freud's papers, we find instances in which Freud describes the "psychopathology of everyday life" as he found it in himself and in others. "A Religious Experience" (Freud, 1928) contains examples of both kinds. In addition, this paper contains a slip of which Freud appears to have been unaware. Freud's paper interprets a religious conversion described in a letter written to him in English. In the translation of this letter into German, Freud inserted material that was not present in the original. He mentions another slip he made in speaking about the letter. These slips and some associated details in the paper indicate persisting unconscious conflict. The content of these slips and details points to an association with Freud's childhood anxiety dream reported in The Interpretation of Dreams (Freud, 1900). Freud's associations and discussion of that dream lead to the Philippson Bible of his childhood, which provides additional connections to the paper of 1928.

  6. Wheel slip dump valve for railway braking system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xuan; Zhang, LiHao; Li, QingXuan; Shi, YanTao

    2017-09-01

    As we all know, pneumatic braking system plays an important role in the safety of the whole vehicle. In the anti slip braking system, the pressure of braking cylinder can be adjusted by the quick power response of wheel slip dump valve, so that the lock situation won’t occur during vehicle service. During the braking of railway vehicles, the braking force provided by braking disc reduces vehicle’s speed. But the locking slip will happen due to the oversize of braking force or the reduction of sticking coefficient between wheel and rail. It will cause not only the decline of braking performance but also the increase of braking distance. In the meanwhile, it will scratch the wheel and influence the stable running of vehicles. Now, the speed of passenger vehicle has been increased. In order to shorten the braking distance as far as possible, sticking stickiness must be fully applied. So the occurrence probability of wheel slip is increased.

  7. How to stop smoking: Dealing with a slip up

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... gov/ency/patientinstructions/000855.htm How to stop smoking: Dealing with a slip up To use the ... Read up on stress management and practice the techniques Join a support group or program to help ...

  8. Non-slipping domains of a pulled spool

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wagner, Clemens; Vaterlaus, Andreas

    2014-01-01

    We have investigated the pulled spool by considering pulling angles up to 360 ∘ . Our focus was on downward pulling forces with pulling angles in the range of 180 ∘ to 360 ∘ . In this range we have found a domain of pulling angles where the spool never starts to slip independent of the strength of the pulling force. The size of the domain depends on the static friction coefficient and on the moment of inertia of the spool. The non-slipping domain is mainly formed around the critical angle where the static friction force becomes zero. For low static friction the non-slipping domain decays into two different domains. We have determined the limiting angles of the non-slipping domains and explored the transitions from a single domain to two separated domains in parameter space. (paper)

  9. Femtoslicing in Storage Rings

    CERN Document Server

    Khan, Shaukat

    2005-01-01

    The generation of ultrashort synchrotron radiation pulses by laser-induced energy modulation of electrons and their subsequent transverse displacement, now dubbed "femtoslicing," was demonstrated at the Advanced Light Source in Berkeley. More recently, a femtoslicing user facility was commissioned at the BESSY storage ring in Berlin, and another project is in progress at the Swiss Light Source. The paper reviews the principle of femtoslicing, its merits and shortcomings, as well as the variations of its technical implementation. Various diagnostics techniques to detect successful laser-electron interaction are discussed and experimental results are presented.

  10. Fusion Rings for Quantum Groups

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Henning Haahr; Stroppel, Catharina

    2014-01-01

    We study the fusion rings of tilting modules for a quantum group at a root of unity modulo the tensor ideal of negligible tilting modules. We identify them in type A with the combinatorial rings from Korff, C., Stroppel, C.: The sl(ˆn)k-WZNW fusion ring: a combinato-rial construction and a realis......We study the fusion rings of tilting modules for a quantum group at a root of unity modulo the tensor ideal of negligible tilting modules. We identify them in type A with the combinatorial rings from Korff, C., Stroppel, C.: The sl(ˆn)k-WZNW fusion ring: a combinato-rial construction...... and a realisation as quotient of quantum cohomology. Adv. Math. 225(1), 200–268, (2010) and give a similar description of the sp2n-fusion ring in terms of non-commutative symmetric functions. Moreover we give a presentation of all fusion rings in classical types as quotients of polynomial rings. Finally we also...... compute the fusion rings for type G2....

  11. Viscosity of ring polymer melts

    KAUST Repository

    Pasquino, Rossana

    2013-10-15

    We have measured the linear rheology of critically purified ring polyisoprenes, polystyrenes, and polyethyleneoxides of different molar masses. The ratio of the zero-shear viscosities of linear polymer melts η0,linear to their ring counterparts η0,ring at isofrictional conditions is discussed as a function of the number of entanglements Z. In the unentangled regime η0,linear/η 0,ring is virtually constant, consistent with the earlier data, atomistic simulations, and the theoretical expectation η0,linear/ η0,ring = 2. In the entanglement regime, the Z-dependence of ring viscosity is much weaker than that of linear polymers, in qualitative agreement with predictions from scaling theory and simulations. The power-law extracted from the available experimental data in the rather limited range 1 < Z < 20, η0,linear/η0,ring ∼ Z 1.2±0.3, is weaker than the scaling prediction (η0,linear/η0,ring ∼ Z 1.6±0.3) and the simulations (η0,linear/ η0,ring ∼ Z2.0±0.3). Nevertheless, the present collection of state-of-the-art experimental data unambiguously demonstrates that rings exhibit a universal trend clearly departing from that of their linear counterparts, and hence it represents a major step toward resolving a 30-year-old problem. © 2013 American Chemical Society.

  12. Saturn ring temperature variations with approaching ring equinox

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spilker, L.; Leyrat, C.; Flandes, A.; Altobelli, N.; Pilorz, S.; Ferrari, C.; Edgington, S.

    2009-04-01

    Cassini's Composite Infrared Spectrometer (CIRS) has acquired a wide-ranging set of thermal measurements of Saturn's main rings (A, B, C and Cassini Division) at solar elevations ranging from less than one degree to 24 degrees. At Saturn equinox in August the solar elevation angle will reach zero as the sun traverses from the south to north side of the rings. For the data acquired to date, temperatures were retrieved for the lit and unlit rings over a variety of ring geometries that include solar elevation, as well as spacecraft elevation, phase angle and local hour angle. To first order, the largest temperature changes on the lit face of the rings are driven by variations in phase angle while differences in temperature with changing spacecraft elevation and local time are a secondary effect. Decreasing ring temperature with decreasing solar elevation are observed for both the lit and unlit faces of the rings after phase angle and local time effects are taken into account. As the solar elevation continues to decrease, the ring temperatures are decreasing in a non-linear fashion. The difference in temperature between the lit and unlit sides of the rings is decreasing also with decreasing solar elevation. Using ring thermal models developed by Leyrat we extrapolate to the expected minimum ring temperatures at equinox for our planned CIRS ring observations. This research was carried out at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology, under contract with NASA and at CEA Saclay supported by the "Programme National de Planetologie". Copyright 2009 California Institute of Technology. Government sponsorship acknowledged.

  13. Wheel rolling constraints and slip in mobile robots

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shekhar, S.

    1997-03-01

    It is widely accepted that dead reckoning based on the rolling with no slip condition on wheels is not a reliable method to ascertain the position and orientation of a mobile robot for any reasonable distance. The author establishes that wheel slip is inevitable under the dynamic model of motion using classical results on the accessibility and controllability in nonlinear control theory and an analytical model of rolling of two linearly elastic bodies.

  14. Stokes flow with slip and Kuwabara boundary conditions

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    R. Narasimhan (Krishtel eMaging) 1461 1996 Oct 15 13:05:22

    When λ2 = 0 (no-slip), we recover the Stokes resistance [2]. Fz = 6πµUd. (. 1 −. 1. 5 ε. ) (6.20) for a solid oblate spheroid and when λ2 = 1 (perfect-slip), (6.19) reduces the drag froce on the gaseous oblate spheroid as. Fz = 4πµUd. (. 1 +. 1. 15 ε. ) . (6.21). Figure 1. Variation of RCD with respect to volume concentration (c) for ...

  15. Status of Slip Stacking at Fermilab Main Injector

    CERN Document Server

    Seiya, Kiyomi; Chase, Brian; Dey, Joseph; Kourbanis, Ioanis; MacLachlan, James A; Meisner, Keith G; Pasquinelli, Ralph J; Reid, John; Rivetta, Claudio H; Steimel, Jim

    2005-01-01

    In order to increase proton intensity on anti proton production cycle of the Main Injector we are going to use the technique of 'slip stacking' and doing machine studies. In slip stacking, one bunch train is injected at slightly lower energy and second train is at slightly higher energy. Afterwards they are aligned longitudinally and captured with one rf bucket. This longitudinal stacking process is expected to double the bunch intensity. The required intensity for anti proton production is 8·1012

  16. The LSU Electron Storage Ring, the first commercially-built storage ring

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sah, R.

    1990-01-01

    The Brobeck Division of Maxwell Laboratories, Inc., is building the first industrially-produced storage ring. It will be located at Louisiana State University (LSU) at the Center for Advanced Microstructures and Devices (CAMD) in Baton Rouge. The purpose of this electron storage ring is to provide intense beams of x-rays to advance the state-of-the-art in lithography and to permit research in a broad area. This facility consists of a 1.2 GeV, 400 mA electron storage ring with a 200 MeV linac injector. The magnet lattice is a Chasman-Green design (double-bend achromat), and the ring circumference is 55.2 meters. There are four 3.0 meter, dispersion-free straight sections, one for injection, one for the 500 MHz RF cavity, and two for possible future insertion devices. The storge ring construction project is in the detailed-design stage, and many systems are in the initial stages of fabrication. 4 figs., 1 tab

  17. A flexible slip sensor using triboelectric nanogenerator approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xudong; Liang, Jiaming; Xiao, Yuxiang; Wu, Yichuan; Deng, Yang; Wang, Xiaohao; Zhang, Min

    2018-03-01

    With the rapid development of robotic technology, tactile sensors for robots have gained great attention from academic and industry researchers. Tactile sensors for slip detection are essential for human-like steady control in dexterous robot hand. In this paper, we propose and demonstrate a flexible slip sensor based on triboelectric nanogenerator with a seesaw structure. The sensor is composed of two porous PDMS layers separated by an inverted trapezoid structure with a height of 500 μm. In order to customize the sensitivity of the sensor, porous PDMS was fabricated by mixing PDMS with deionized water thoroughly and then removing water with heat. Laser-induced porous graphene and aluminium are served as the pair of contact materials. To detect slip from different directions, two sets of the electrode pair were used. Experimental results show a distinct difference between static state and the moment when a slip happens was detected. In addition, the output voltage of the sensors increased as the increase of slip velocity from 0.25 mm/s to 2.5 mm/s. The flexible slip sensor proposed here shows the potential applications in smart robotics and prosthesis.

  18. Molecular Dynamics Simulations of Slip on Curved Surfaces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ross D.A.

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available We present Molecular Dynamics (MD simulations of liquid water confined within nanoscale geometries, including slit-like and cylindrical graphitic pores. These equilibrium results are used for calculating friction coefficients, which in turn can be used to calculate slip lengths. The slip length is a material property independent of the fluid flow rate. It is therefore a better quantity for study than the fluid velocity at the wall, also known as the slip velocity. Once the slip length has been found as a function of surface curvature, it can be used to parameterise Lattice Boltzmann (LB simulations. These larger scale simulations are able to tell us about how fluid transport is affected by slip in complex geometries; not just limited to single pores. Applications include flow and transport in nano-porous engine valve deposits and gas shales. The friction coefficient is found to be a function of curvature and is higher for fluid on convex surfaces and lower for concave surfaces. Both concave and convex surfaces approach the same value of the friction coefficient, which is constant above some critical radius of curvature, here found to be 7.4 ± 2.9 nm. The constant value of the friction coefficient is 10,000 ± 600 kg m−2 s−1, which is equivalent to a slip length of approximately 67 ± 4 nm.

  19. Origins of oblique-slip faulting during caldera subsidence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holohan, Eoghan P.; Walter, Thomas R.; Schöpfer, Martin P. J.; Walsh, John J.; van Wyk de Vries, Benjamin; Troll, Valentin R.

    2013-04-01

    Although conventionally described as purely dip-slip, faults at caldera volcanoes may have a strike-slip displacement component. Examples occur in the calderas of Olympus Mons (Mars), Miyakejima (Japan), and Dolomieu (La Reunion). To investigate this phenomenon, we use numerical and analog simulations of caldera subsidence caused by magma reservoir deflation. The numerical models constrain mechanical causes of oblique-slip faulting from the three-dimensional stress field in the initial elastic phase of subsidence. The analog experiments directly characterize the development of oblique-slip faulting, especially in the later, non-elastic phases of subsidence. The combined results of both approaches can account for the orientation, mode, and location of oblique-slip faulting at natural calderas. Kinematically, oblique-slip faulting originates to resolve the following: (1) horizontal components of displacement that are directed radially toward the caldera center and (2) horizontal translation arising from off-centered or "asymmetric" subsidence. We informally call these two origins the "camera iris" and "sliding trapdoor" effects, respectively. Our findings emphasize the fundamentally three-dimensional nature of deformation during caldera subsidence. They hence provide an improved basis for analyzing structural, geodetic, and geophysical data from calderas, as well as analogous systems, such as mines and producing hydrocarbon reservoirs.

  20. Nocturia Is Associated with Slipping and Falling.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    So Young Kim

    Full Text Available Several reports have demonstrated associations between falls and nocturia in the elderly. However, little information is available regarding other age groups. This study evaluated the relationship between the frequency of nocturia and falls in men using a large, population-based survey in Korea, and the results were adjusted for various confounding factors. Data from a 2011 Korean community health survey (KCHS were retrieved for 92,660 men aged 19 to 103 years. Information regarding the history of slips or falls in the past year was collected. The frequency of nocturia was classified as 0, 1, 2, 3, 4, and ≥ 5 instances a night. Walking during the day, education, income, body mass index (BMI, smoking, alcohol consumption, sleep time, stress level and medical histories of hypertension, diabetes mellitus, hyperlipidemia, cerebral stroke, angina or myocardial infarction, arthritis, and osteoporosis were adjusted using multiple logistic regression analysis with complex sampling. A subgroup analysis was conducted for young (19-30 years, middle-aged (31-60 years, and elderly individuals (61+ years. Approximately 14.6% of the men had a history of falls. Their mean age was 42.9 years, which was significantly higher than that of the non-faller group (P < 0.001. An increased frequency of nocturia was associated with increased adjusted odds ratio (AOR for falls (AOR for 1 instance of nocturia/night = 1.41 [95% confidence interval, 1.33-1.50]; AOR for 2 instances = 1.41 [1.33-1.50]; AOR for 3 instances = 2.00 [1.75-2.28]; AOR for 4 instances = 2.12 [1.73-2.61]; AOR for ≥ 5 instances = 2.02 [1.74-2.36], P < 0.001. In the subgroup analysis, the AORs for falls significantly increased in all age groups as the frequency of nocturia increased.

  1. Damping Ring R&D at CESR-TA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rubin, David L. [Cornell Univ., Ithaca, NY (United States). Dept. of Physics

    2015-01-23

    Accelerators that collide high energy beams of matter and anti-matter are essential tools for the investigation of the fundamental constituents of matter, and the search for new forms of matter and energy. A “Linear Collider” is a machine that would bring high energy and very compact bunches of electrons and positrons (anti-electrons) into head-on collision. Such a machine would produce (among many other things) the newly discovered Higgs particle, enabling a detailed study of its properties. Among the most critical and challenging components of a linear collider are the damping rings that produce the very compact and intense beams of electrons and positrons that are to be accelerated into collision. Hot dilute particle beams are injected into the damping rings, where they are compressed and cooled. The size of the positron beam must be reduced more than a thousand fold in the damping ring, and this compression must be accomplished in a fraction of a second. The cold compact beams are then extracted from the damping ring and accelerated into collision at high energy. The proposed International Linear Collider (ILC), would require damping rings that routinely produce such cold, compact and intense beams. The goal of the Cornell study was a credible design for the damping rings for the ILC. Among the technical challenges of the damping rings; the development of instrumentation that can measure the properties of the very small beams in a very narrow window of time, and mitigation of the forces that can destabilize the beams and prevent adequate cooling, or worse lead to beam loss. One of the most pernicious destabilizing forces is due to the formation of clouds of electrons in the beam pipe. The electron cloud effect is a phenomenon in particle accelerators in which a high density of low energy electrons, build up inside the vacuum chamber. At the outset of the study, it was anticipated that electron cloud effects would limit the intensity of the positron ring

  2. Coherent Instabilities of ILC Damping Ring

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heifets, S.; Stupakov, G.; Bane, K.; /SLAC

    2006-09-27

    The paper presents the first attempt to estimates the ILC damping ring impedance and compare thresholds of the classical instabilities for several designs initially proposed for the DR. The work was carried out in the spring of 2006. Since then the choice of the DR is narrowed. Nevertheless, the analysis described may be useful for the next iterations of the beam stability. Overall, the conventional instabilities will have little impact on the ring performance provided the careful design of the ring minimizes the impedance below acceptable level indicated above. The only exception is the transverse CB instability. The longitudinal CB is less demanding. However, even the transverse CB instability would have threshold current above nominal provided the aperture in the wigglers is increased from 8 mm to 16 mm. The microwave instability needs more studies. Nevertheless, we should remember that the ILC DR is different from existing high-current machines at least in two respects: absence of the beam-beam tune spread stabilizing beams in colliders, and unusual strict requirements for low emittance. That may cause new problems such as bunch emittance dilution due to high-frequency wakes (BPMs, grooves), etc. Even if such a possibility exists, it probably universal for all machines and ought be addressed in the design of vacuum components rather than have effect on the choice of the machine design.

  3. Ring Image Analyzer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strekalov, Dmitry V.

    2012-01-01

    Ring Image Analyzer software analyzes images to recognize elliptical patterns. It determines the ellipse parameters (axes ratio, centroid coordinate, tilt angle). The program attempts to recognize elliptical fringes (e.g., Newton Rings) on a photograph and determine their centroid position, the short-to-long-axis ratio, and the angle of rotation of the long axis relative to the horizontal direction on the photograph. These capabilities are important in interferometric imaging and control of surfaces. In particular, this program has been developed and applied for determining the rim shape of precision-machined optical whispering gallery mode resonators. The program relies on a unique image recognition algorithm aimed at recognizing elliptical shapes, but can be easily adapted to other geometric shapes. It is robust against non-elliptical details of the image and against noise. Interferometric analysis of precision-machined surfaces remains an important technological instrument in hardware development and quality analysis. This software automates and increases the accuracy of this technique. The software has been developed for the needs of an R&TD-funded project and has become an important asset for the future research proposal to NASA as well as other agencies.

  4. NRL ion ring program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kapetanakos, C.A.; Golden, J.; Drobot, A.; Mahaffey, R.A.; Marsh, S.J.; Pasour, J.A.

    1977-01-01

    An experiment is under way to form a storng proton ring using the 200 ka, 1.2 MeV, 50 nsec hollow proton beam recently generated at NRL. The 5 m long magnetic field configuration consists of a magnetic cusp, a compressing magnetic field, a gate field and a magnetic mirror. The midplane value of the magnetic mirror is such that the major radius of the ring will be about 10 cm. The degree of field reversal that will be achieved with 5 x 10 16 protons per pulse from the existing beam depends upon the field reversal is possible with the 600 kA proton beam that would be generated from the low inductance coaxial triode coupled to the upgraded Gamble II generator. The propagation and trapping of an intense proton beam in the experimental magnetic field configuration is investigated numerically. The results show that the self magnetic has a very pronounced effect on the dynamics of the gyrating protons

  5. On thickness of Saturn rings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brahic, Andre; Laques, Pierre; Lecacheux, Jean; Servan, Bernard; Despiau, Raymond; Michet, Daniel; Renard, Leopold

    1980-01-01

    Electronographic plates of Saturn were taken during the transit of the Earth through the ring plane. Observing conditions were more favorable than those prevailing in 1966. Thanks to the quality of the detectors and the telescopes, it has been possible to make a more precise photometric determination of the brightness of the ring seen edge on and to measure the brightness variation with respect to the distance to the center of the planet. Extrapolating to the case where the elevation of the Earth above the ring plane is strictly zero, we deduce an apparent photometric ring thickness equal to 1.5+-0.3 km. For an homogeneous layer of small particles colliding inelastically, theory predicts a thickness of the order of a few particles radii, i.e. a few tens of meters. The observed brightness could be explained by the E ring, the brightness of large chunks, condensations and warping of the ring [fr

  6. Civil Engineering Feasibility Studies for Future Ring Colliders at CERN

    CERN Document Server

    Bruning, O; Myers, S; Osborne, J; Rossi, L; Waaijer, C; Zimmermann, F

    2013-01-01

    CERN civil engineers are studying the feasibility of several potential ring colliders to complement the LHC: an 80km circular tunnel to house the TLEP and VHE-LHC, and the ring-ring and linac-ring options for the LHeC. The feasibility of these projects is largely dependent on civil design and geotechnical and environmental risks. As civil infrastructure works typically represent one third of the cost of major physics projects, it is critical that the construction costs are well understood from the conceptual stage. This proceeding presents the first results of the feasibility studies for the 80km tunnel and the linac-ring LHeC. Presented at IPAC'13 Shanghai, 12-17 May 2013

  7. Saturn's Rings and Associated Ring Plasma Cavity: Evidence for Slow Ring Erosion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farrell, W. M.; Kurth, W. S.; Gurnett, D. A.; Persoon, A. M.; MacDowall, R. J.

    2017-01-01

    We re-examine the radio and plasma wave observations obtained during the Cassini Saturn orbit insertion period, as the spacecraft flew over the northern ring surface into a radial distance of 1.3 Rs (over the C-ring). Voyager era studies suggest the rings are a source of micro-meteoroid generated plasma and dust, with theorized peak impact-created plasma outflows over the densest portion of the rings (central B-ring). In sharp contrast, the Cassini Radio and Plasma Wave System (RPWS) observations identify the presence of a ring-plasma cavity located in the central portion of the B-ring, with little evidence of impact-related plasma. While previous Voyager era studies have predicted unstable ion orbits over the C- ring, leading to field-aligned plasma transport to Saturns ionosphere, the Cassini RPWS observations do not reveal evidence for such instability-created plasma fountains. Given the passive ring loss processes observed by Cassini, we find that the ring lifetimes should extend >10(exp 9) years, and that there is limited evidence for prompt destruction (loss in <100 Myrs).

  8. Half-cycle slip activity of persistent slip bands at different stages of fatigue life of polycrystalline nickel

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Weidner, A.; Man, Jiří; Tirschler, W.; Klapetek, P.; Blochwitz, C.; Polák, Jaroslav; Skrotzki, W.

    2008-01-01

    Roč. 492, č. 1-2 (2008), s. 118-127 ISSN 0921-5093 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA106/06/1096 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z20410507 Keywords : persistent slip band * slip activity * half-cycle deformation * atomic force microscopy * scanning electron microscopy * nickel Subject RIV: JL - Materials Fatigue, Friction Mechanics Impact factor: 1.806, year: 2008

  9. Caustic rings of dark matter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sikivie, P.

    1997-01-01

    It is shown that the infall of collisionless dark matter onto isolated galaxies produce a series of caustic rings in the halo dark matter distribution. The properties of these caustics are investigated. It is found in particular that the density profile of the caustic behaves as the inverse distance to the ring. Bumps in the rotation curve of NGC 3198 are interpreted as due to caustic rings of dark matter

  10. APS Storage Ring vacuum chamber fabrication

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goeppner, G.A.

    1990-01-01

    The 1104-m circumference Advanced Photon Source Storage Ring Vacuum System is composed of 240 individual sections, which are fabricated from a combination of aluminum extrusions and machined components. The vacuum chambers will have 3800 weld joints, each subject to strict vacuum requirements, as well as a variety of related design criteria. The vacuum criteria and chamber design are reviewed, including a discussion of the weld joint geometries. The critical fabrication process parameters for meeting the design requirements are discussed. The experiences of the prototype chamber fabrication program are presented. Finally, the required facilities preparation for construction activity is briefly described. 6 refs., 6 figs., 1 tab

  11. Acceleration of magnetized plasma rings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hartman, D.; Eddleman, J.; Hammer, J.H.

    1982-01-01

    One scheme is considered, acceleration of a ring between coaxial electrodes by a B/sub theta/ field as in a coaxial rail-gun. If the electrodes are conical, a ring accelerated towards the apex of the cone undergoes self-similar compression (focussing) during acceleration. Because the allowable acceleration force F/sub a/ = kappa U/sub m//R (kappa - 2 , the accelerating distance for conical electrodes is considerably shortened over that required for coaxial electrodes. In either case however, since the accelerating flux can expand as the ring moves, most of the accelerating field energy can be converted into kinetic energy of the ring leading to high efficiency

  12. Saturn's Rings Edge-on

    Science.gov (United States)

    1995-01-01

    In one of nature's most dramatic examples of 'now-you see-them, now-you-don't', NASA's Hubble Space Telescope captured Saturn on May 22, 1995 as the planet's magnificent ring system turned edge-on. This ring-plane crossing occurs approximately every 15 years when the Earth passes through Saturn's ring plane.For comparison, the top picture was taken by Hubble on December 1, 1994 and shows the rings in a more familiar configuration for Earth observers.The bottom picture was taken shortly before the ring plane crossing. The rings do not disappear completely because the edge of the rings reflects sunlight. The dark band across the middle of Saturn is the shadow of the rings cast on the planet (the Sun is almost 3 degrees above the ring plane.) The bright stripe directly above the ring shadow is caused by sunlight reflected off the rings onto Saturn's atmosphere. Two of Saturn's icy moons are visible as tiny starlike objects in or near the ring plane. They are, from left to right, Tethys (slightly above the ring plane) and Dione.This observation will be used to determine the time of ring-plane crossing and the thickness of the main rings and to search for as yet undiscovered satellites. Knowledge of the exact time of ring-plane crossing will lead to an improved determination of the rate at which Saturn 'wobbles' about its axis (polar precession).Both pictures were taken with Hubble's Wide Field Planetary Camera 2. The top image was taken in visible light. Saturn's disk appears different in the bottom image because a narrowband filter (which only lets through light that is not absorbed by methane gas in Saturn's atmosphere) was used to reduce the bright glare of the planet. Though Saturn is approximately 900 million miles away, Hubble can see details as small as 450 miles across.The Wide Field/Planetary Camera 2 was developed by the Jet Propulsion Laboratory and managed by the Goddard Spaced Flight Center for NASA's Office of Space Science.This image and other images and

  13. ring og refleksion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wahlgren, B.; Rattleff, Pernille; Høyrup, S.

    State of the art inden for forskning om læring på arbejdspladsen samt gennemgang af læringsteori og refleksionsbegrebet hos Dewey, Dreyfus, Schön, Argyris, Kolb, Jarvis, Mezirow og Brookfield. Afsluttes med diskussion af syntetiseret model for læring på arbejdspladsen.......State of the art inden for forskning om læring på arbejdspladsen samt gennemgang af læringsteori og refleksionsbegrebet hos Dewey, Dreyfus, Schön, Argyris, Kolb, Jarvis, Mezirow og Brookfield. Afsluttes med diskussion af syntetiseret model for læring på arbejdspladsen....

  14. Experimental results from the small isochronous ring

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eduard Pozdeyev

    2005-05-01

    The Small Isochronous Ring (SIR) is a compact, low-energy storage ring designed to investigate the beam dynamics of high-intensity isochronous cyclotrons and synchrotrons at the transition energy. The ring was developed at Michigan State University (MSU) and has been operational since December 2003. It stores 20 keV hydrogen beams with a peak current of 10-20 microamps for up to 200 turns. The transverse and longitudinal profiles of extracted bunches are measured with an accuracy of approximately 1 mm. The high accuracy of the measurements makes the experimental data attractive for validation of multi-particle space charge codes. The results obtained in the ring show a fast growth of the energy spread induced by the space charge forces. The energy spread growth is accompanied by a breakup of the beam bunches into separated clusters that are involved in the vortex motion specific to the isochronous regime. The experimental results presented in the paper show a remarkable agreement with simulations performed with the code CYCO. In this paper, we discuss specifics of space charge effects in the isochronous regime, present results of experiments in SIR, and conduct a detailed comparison of the experimental data with results of simulations.

  15. Stick-slip friction of gecko-mimetic flaps on smooth and rough surfaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Das, Saurabh; Cadirov, Nicholas; Chary, Sathya; Kaufman, Yair; Hogan, Jack; Turner, Kimberly L; Israelachvili, Jacob N

    2015-03-06

    The discovery and understanding of gecko 'frictional-adhesion' adhering and climbing mechanism has allowed researchers to mimic and create gecko-inspired adhesives. A few experimental and theoretical approaches have been taken to understand the effect of surface roughness on synthetic adhesive performance, and the implications of stick-slip friction during shearing. This work extends previous studies by using a modified surface forces apparatus to quantitatively measure and model frictional forces between arrays of polydimethylsiloxane gecko footpad-mimetic tilted microflaps against smooth and rough glass surfaces. Constant attachments and detachments occur between the surfaces during shearing, as described by an avalanche model. These detachments ultimately result in failure of the adhesion interface and have been characterized in this study. Stick-slip friction disappears with increasing velocity when the flaps are sheared against a smooth silica surface; however, stick-slip was always present at all velocities and loads tested when shearing the flaps against rough glass surfaces. These results demonstrate the significance of pre-load, shearing velocity, shearing distances, commensurability and shearing direction of gecko-mimetic adhesives and provide us a simple model for analysing and/or designing such systems. © 2015 The Author(s) Published by the Royal Society. All rights reserved.

  16. Stick–slip friction of gecko-mimetic flaps on smooth and rough surfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Das, Saurabh; Cadirov, Nicholas; Chary, Sathya; Kaufman, Yair; Hogan, Jack; Turner, Kimberly L.; Israelachvili, Jacob N.

    2015-01-01

    The discovery and understanding of gecko ‘frictional-adhesion’ adhering and climbing mechanism has allowed researchers to mimic and create gecko-inspired adhesives. A few experimental and theoretical approaches have been taken to understand the effect of surface roughness on synthetic adhesive performance, and the implications of stick–slip friction during shearing. This work extends previous studies by using a modified surface forces apparatus to quantitatively measure and model frictional forces between arrays of polydimethylsiloxane gecko footpad-mimetic tilted microflaps against smooth and rough glass surfaces. Constant attachments and detachments occur between the surfaces during shearing, as described by an avalanche model. These detachments ultimately result in failure of the adhesion interface and have been characterized in this study. Stick–slip friction disappears with increasing velocity when the flaps are sheared against a smooth silica surface; however, stick–slip was always present at all velocities and loads tested when shearing the flaps against rough glass surfaces. These results demonstrate the significance of pre-load, shearing velocity, shearing distances, commensurability and shearing direction of gecko-mimetic adhesives and provide us a simple model for analysing and/or designing such systems. PMID:25589569

  17. A geophone wireless sensor network for investigating glacier stick-slip motion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martinez, Kirk; Hart, Jane K.; Basford, Philip J.; Bragg, Graeme M.; Ward, Tyler; Young, David S.

    2017-08-01

    We have developed an innovative passive borehole geophone system, as part of a wireless environmental sensor network to investigate glacier stick-slip motion. The new geophone nodes use an ARM Cortex-M3 processor with a low power design capable of running on battery power while embedded in the ice. Only data from seismic events was stored, held temporarily on a micro-SD card until they were retrieved by systems on the glacier surface which are connected to the internet. The sampling rates, detection and filtering levels were determined from a field trial using a standard commercial passive seismic system. The new system was installed on the Skalafellsjökull glacier in Iceland and provided encouraging results. The results showed that there was a relationship between surface melt water production and seismic event (ice quakes), and these occurred on a pattern related to the glacier surface melt-water controlled velocity changes (stick-slip motion). Three types of seismic events were identified, which were interpreted to reflect a pattern of till deformation (Type A), basal sliding (Type B) and hydraulic transience (Type C) associated with stick-slip motion.

  18. Helium pumping with liquid ring vacuum pump

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mathy, C.; Gravil, B.; Sauvigne, G.; Verdier, J.

    1983-09-01

    At first the main principles for operation and building of liquid ring pumps are remembered and an experiment is described which allowed to assess the performance data of such pumps when used to pump helium gas with oil. Although they have been designed to pump air with water the adaptation for helium is rather simple, the input power is slightly higher in the same flow and pressure conditions, but the limit of the succion pressure is lowered [fr

  19. Coiffured black rings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bena, Iosif; Ross, Simon F.; Warner, Nicholas P.

    2014-08-01

    We describe a new type of hair on supersymmetric black string and black ring solutions, which produces the largest known violation of black hole uniqueness, parameterized by an arbitrary function and hence an infinite number of continuous parameters. The new solutions can have non-trivial density profiles for the electric fields along the horizon, and yet have a geometry that is regular, although generically not infinitely differentiable, at the horizon. Both neutral and charged probes can cross the horizon without experiencing divergent forces. We also find restricted examples, parameterized by a few arbitrary continuous parameters, where the charge densities fluctuate but the metric does not and hence is completely differentiable. Our new class of solutions owes its existence to a mechanism reminiscent of the Q-ball: in the simplest examples the metric has more symmetry than the matter that supports it.

  20. Ring-constrained Join

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yiu, Man Lung; Karras, Panagiotis; Mamoulis, Nikos

    2008-01-01

    We introduce a novel spatial join operator, the ring-constrained join (RCJ). Given two sets P and Q of spatial points, the result of RCJ consists of pairs (p, q) (where p ε P, q ε Q) satisfying an intuitive geometric constraint: the smallest circle enclosing p and q contains no other points in P, Q....... This new operation has important applications in decision support, e.g., placing recycling stations at fair locations between restaurants and residential complexes. Clearly, RCJ is defined based on a geometric constraint but not on distances between points. Thus, our operation is fundamentally different...... from the conventional distance joins and closest pairs problems. We are not aware of efficient processing algorithms for RCJ in the literature. A brute-force solution requires computational cost quadratic to input size and it does not scale well for large datasets. In view of this, we develop efficient...

  1. Hunting for shallow slow-slip events at Cascadia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Y. J.; Bletery, Q.; Fan, W.; Janiszewski, H. A.; Lynch, E.; McCormack, K. A.; Phillips, N. J.; Rousset, B.; Seyler, C.; French, M. E.; Gaherty, J. B.; Regalla, C.

    2017-12-01

    The discovery of slow earthquakes at subduction zones is one of the major breakthroughs of Earth science in the last two decades. Slow earthquakes involve a wide spectrum of fault slip behaviors and seismic radiation patterns, such as tremor, low-frequency earthquakes, and slow-slip events. The last of these are particularly interesting due to their large moment releases accompanied by minimal ground shaking. Slow-slip events have been reported at various subduction zones ; most of these slow-slip events are located down-dip of the megathrust seismogenic zone, while a few up-dip cases have recently been observed at Nankai and New Zealand. Up-dip slow-slip events illuminate the structure of faulting environments and rupture mechanisms of tsunami earthquakes. Their possible presence and location at a particular subduction zone can help assess earthquake and tsunami hazard for that region. However, their typical location distant from the coast requires the development of techniques using offshore instrumentation. Here, we investigate the absolute pressure gauges (APG) of the Cascadia Initiative, a four year amphibious seismic experiment, to search for possible shallow up-dip slow-slip events in the Cascadia subduction zone. These instruments are collocated with ocean bottom seismometers (OBS) and located close to buoys and onshore GPS stations, offering the opportunity to investigate the utility of multiple datasets. Ultimately, we aim to develop a protocol to analyze APG data for offshore shallow slow-slip event detections and quantify uncertainties, with direct applications to understanding the up-dip subduction interface system in Cascadia.

  2. On separable extensions of group rings and quaternion rings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    George Szeto

    1978-01-01

    Full Text Available The purposes of the present paper are (1 to give a necessary and sufficient condition for the uniqueness of the separable idempotent for a separable group ring extension RG(R may be a non-commutative ring, and (2 to give a full description of the set of separable idempotents for a quaternion ring extension RQ over a ring R, where Q are the usual quaternions i,j,k and multiplication and addition are defined as quaternion algebras over a field. We shall show that RG has a unique separable idempotent if and only if G is abelian, that there are more than one separable idempotents for a separable quaternion ring RQ, and that RQ is separable if and only if 2 is invertible in R.

  3. Injection and Extraction Lines for the ILC Damping Rings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reichel, Ina

    2007-01-01

    The current design for the injection and extraction lines into and out of the ILC Damping Rings is presented as well as the design for the abort line. Due to changes of the geometric boundary conditions by other subsystems of the ILC, a modular approach has been used to be able to respond to recurring layout changes while reusing previously designed parts

  4. Virtual Exploration of the Ring Systems Chemical Universe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Visini, Ricardo; Arús-Pous, Josep; Awale, Mahendra; Reymond, Jean-Louis

    2017-11-27

    Here, we explore the chemical space of all virtually possible organic molecules focusing on ring systems, which represent the cyclic cores of organic molecules obtained by removing all acyclic bonds and converting all remaining atoms to carbon. This approach circumvents the combinatorial explosion encountered when enumerating the molecules themselves. We report the chemical universe database GDB4c containing 916 130 ring systems up to four saturated or aromatic rings and maximum ring size of 14 atoms and GDB4c3D containing the corresponding 6 555 929 stereoisomers. Almost all (98.6%) of these ring systems are unknown and represent chiral 3D-shaped macrocycles containing small rings and quaternary centers reminiscent of polycyclic natural products. We envision that GDB4c can serve to select new ring systems from which to design analogs of such natural products. The database is available for download at www.gdb.unibe.ch together with interactive visualization and search tools as a resource for molecular design.

  5. Electrostatic ultra-low-energy antiproton recycling ring

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Siggel-King, M. R. F.; Papash, A.; Knudsen, H.; Holzscheiter, M.; Welsch, C. P.

    2011-01-01

    There is a strong need to push forward developments in the storage and control of ultra-low-energy antiproton beams to enable important scientific research. To this end, a small electrostatic ring, and associated electrostatic acceleration section, is being designed and developed by the QUASAR group. The ring will be placed on the MUSASHI beamline at the CERN-AD. It will serve as a prototype for the future ultra-low energy storage ring (USR), to be integrated at the facility for low-energy antiproton and ion research (FLAIR) and will enable various components of the USR to be tested and optimised. A reaction microscope will be integrated in the ring to enable partial ionisation cross section measurements to be made. This small recycler ring will be unique due to its combination of size, electrostatic nature and energy and type of circulating particles (ca 3–30 keV antiprotons). A short electrostatic accelerating section is also being developed, which will be placed between the beamline and the ring to accelerate the antiprotons from the trap extraction energy (typically 250 eV) to the final required (re-circulating) energy. The AD recycler project will be described, including ring design, accelerating injection section and the inclusion of a reaction microscope and the experiments it will enable.

  6. DELPHI's Ring Imaging Cherenkov Chamber

    CERN Multimedia

    1989-01-01

    The hundreds of mirrors around this Ring Imaging Cherenkov Chamber reflect cones of light created by fast moving particles to a detector. The velocity of a particle can be measured by the size of the ring produced on the detector. DELPHI, which ran from 1989 to 2000 on the LEP accelerator, was primarily concerned with particle identification.

  7. Caustic rings of dark matter

    OpenAIRE

    Sikivie, Pierre

    1997-01-01

    It is shown that the infall of collisionless dark matter onto isolated galaxies produces a series of caustic rings in the halo dark matter distribution. The properties of these caustics are investigated. The density profile of the caustic is derived for a specific case. Bumps in the rotation curve of NGC 3198 are interpreted as due to caustic rings of dark matter.

  8. Pyrimidine-pyridine ring interconversion

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Plas, van der H.C.

    2003-01-01

    This chapter discusses the pyrimidine-to-pyridine ring transformation and pyridine-to-pyrimidine ring transformation. In nucleophile-induced pyrimidine-to-pyridine rearrangements, two types of reactions can be distinguished depending on the structure of the nucleophile: (1) reactions in which the

  9. Quantum control of coherent π -electron ring currents in polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mineo, Hirobumi; Fujimura, Yuichi

    2017-12-01

    We present results for quantum optimal control (QOC) of the coherent π electron ring currents in polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). Since PAHs consist of a number of condensed benzene rings, in principle, there exist various coherent ring patterns. These include the ring current localized to a designated benzene ring, the perimeter ring current that flows along the edge of the PAH, and the middle ring current of PAHs having an odd number of benzene rings such as anthracene. In the present QOC treatment, the best target wavefunction for generation of the ring current through a designated path is determined by a Lagrange multiplier method. The target function is integrated into the ordinary QOC theory. To demonstrate the applicability of the QOC procedure, we took naphthalene and anthracene as the simplest examples of linear PAHs. The mechanisms of ring current generation were clarified by analyzing the temporal evolutions of the electronic excited states after coherent excitation by UV pulses or (UV+IR) pulses as well as those of electric fields of the optimal laser pulses. Time-dependent simulations of the perimeter ring current and middle ring current of anthracene, which are induced by analytical electric fields of UV pulsed lasers, were performed to reproduce the QOC results.

  10. Earthquake slip distribution estimation, using a random vector approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hooper, A. J.

    2012-12-01

    InSAR and/or GNSS data are routinely used to invert for the slip distribution on faults that rupture during earthquakes. Where exactly slip occurred has implications for future seismic hazard. However, in order to regularize the inversion, extra assumptions about the smoothness of the slip distribution are usually included, which do not have a physical basis. Here we propose a new approach for constraining the slip distribution based on a random vector model following a von Karman autocorrelation function. While this approach also has no physical basis, it does have empirical support from a stochastic analysis of seismic finite-source slip inversions (Mai and Beroza, 2002). We implement the random vector constraint in a Bayesian fashion and use a Markov chain Monte Carlo (MCMC) algorithm to derive the posterior joint probability distribution for each of the slipping patches. The von Karman function depends on two parameters: correlation length and Hurst number (related to fractal dimension). We use histograms from the stochastic analysis for these two parameters, which differ in along-strike and down-dip directions, to derive prior probability distributions, but allow them to vary during the inversion as hyperparameters. We also let the model parameters that control the fault geometry vary freely. In other inversion approaches these are usually fixed prior to inversion for distributed slip, due primarily to the difficulty in searching the resulting model space within a reasonable CPU time. To overcome this problem we have implemented a variation to the usual MCMC approach, in which the step size for each of the model parameters is regularly updated to optimize convergence time. We have applied our approach to a number of earthquakes and find that the results sometimes differ markedly to those incorporating the common Laplacian smoothing constraint. In addition, the fast run times mean that this approach could be routinely applied to data from the upcoming Sentinel

  11. Overview of collective effects in the NLC main damping rings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wolski, A.; Santis, S. de

    2002-01-01

    The present design for the NLC Main Damping Rings (MDRs) meets the specifications for acceptance and extracted emittance, in the limit of zero current. However, the relatively large bunch charge and moderate energy mean that a variety of collective effects can impact the beam dynamics, leading to loss of stability or increase of equilibrium emittance. These effects include intrabeam scattering, impedance from numerous sources, fast ion instability, and (in the positron ring) electron cloud. In this note, we survey the expected impact on damping ring performance from each of a number of collective effects, and discuss the priorities for future studies in this area

  12. Synthesis of Volumetric Ring Antenna Array for Terrestrial Coverage Pattern

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alberto Reyna

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a synthesis of a volumetric ring antenna array for a terrestrial coverage pattern. This synthesis regards the spacing among the rings on the planes X-Y, the positions of the rings on the plane X-Z, and uniform and concentric excitations. The optimization is carried out by implementing the particle swarm optimization. The synthesis is compared with previous designs by resulting with proper performance of this geometry to provide an accurate coverage to be applied in satellite applications with a maximum reduction of the antenna hardware as well as the side lobe level reduction.

  13. Delay-insensitive Multi-ring Structures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sparsø, Jens; Staunstrup, Jørgen

    1993-01-01

    algorithm. The vector multiplier has been laid out, submitted for fabrication, and successfully tested. This design is described in detail to illustrate the design and the performance analysis techniques. The design technique is based on a data flow approach using pipelines and rings that are composed......This paper describes a set of simple design and performance analysis techniques that have been successfully used to design a number of non-trivial delay-insensitive circuits. Examples are building blocks for digital filters and a vector multiplier using a serial-parallel multiply and accumulate......, and the main contribution of the paper is the comprehensive, integrated presentation of the material, including a thorough description of the vector multiplier design example....

  14. Soil slips and debris flows on terraced slopes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. B. Crosta

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Terraces cover large areas along the flanks of many alpine and prealpine valleys. Soil slips and soil slips-debris flows are recurrent phenomena along terraced slopes. These landslides cause damages to people, settlements and cultivations. This study investigates the processes related to the triggering of soil slip-debris flows in these settings, analysing those occurred in Valtellina (Central Alps, Italy on November 2000 after heavy prolonged rainfalls. 260 landslides have been recognised, mostly along the northern valley flank. About 200 soil slips and slumps occurred in terraced areas and a third of them evolved into debris flows. Field work allowed to recognise the settings at soil slip-debris flow source areas. Landslides affected up to 2.5 m of glacial, fluvioglacial and anthropically reworked deposits overlying metamorphic basement. Laboratory and in situ tests allowed to characterise the geotechnical and hydraulic properties of the terrains involved in the initial failure. Several stratigraphic and hydrogeologic factors have been individuated as significant in determining instabilities on terraced slopes. They are the vertical changes of physical soil properties, the presence of buried hollows where groundwater convergence occurs, the rising up of perched groundwater tables, the overflow and lateral infiltration from superficial drainage network, the runoff concentration by means of pathways and the insufficient drainage of retaining walls.

  15. Slip velocity of large neutrally buoyant particles in turbulent flows

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bellani, G; Variano, E A

    2012-01-01

    We discuss possible definitions for a stochastic slip velocity that describes the relative motion between large particles and a turbulent flow. This definition is necessary because the slip velocity used in the standard drag model fails when particle size falls within the inertial subrange of ambient turbulence. We propose two definitions, selected in part due to their simplicity: they do not require filtration of the fluid phase velocity field, nor do they require the construction of conditional averages on particle locations. A key benefit of this simplicity is that the stochastic slip velocity proposed here can be calculated equally well for laboratory, field and numerical experiments. The stochastic slip velocity allows the definition of a Reynolds number that should indicate whether large particles in turbulent flow behave (a) as passive tracers; (b) as a linear filter of the velocity field; or (c) as a nonlinear filter to the velocity field. We calculate the value of stochastic slip for ellipsoidal and spherical particles (the size of the Taylor microscale) measured in laboratory homogeneous isotropic turbulence. The resulting Reynolds number is significantly higher than 1 for both particle shapes, and velocity statistics show that particle motion is a complex nonlinear function of the fluid velocity. We further investigate the nonlinear relationship by comparing the probability distribution of fluctuating velocities for particle and fluid phases. (paper)

  16. Scaling analysis for the investigation of slip mechanisms in nanofluids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Savithiri, S; Pattamatta, Arvind; Das, Sarit K

    2011-07-26

    The primary objective of this study is to investigate the effect of slip mechanisms in nanofluids through scaling analysis. The role of nanoparticle slip mechanisms in both water- and ethylene glycol-based nanofluids is analyzed by considering shape, size, concentration, and temperature of the nanoparticles. From the scaling analysis, it is found that all of the slip mechanisms are dominant in particles of cylindrical shape as compared to that of spherical and sheet particles. The magnitudes of slip mechanisms are found to be higher for particles of size between 10 and 80 nm. The Brownian force is found to dominate in smaller particles below 10 nm and also at smaller volume fraction. However, the drag force is found to dominate in smaller particles below 10 nm and at higher volume fraction. The effect of thermophoresis and Magnus forces is found to increase with the particle size and concentration. In terms of time scales, the Brownian and gravity forces act considerably over a longer duration than the other forces. For copper-water-based nanofluid, the effective contribution of slip mechanisms leads to a heat transfer augmentation which is approximately 36% over that of the base fluid. The drag and gravity forces tend to reduce the Nusselt number of the nanofluid while the other forces tend to enhance it.

  17. The viscous slip coefficient for a binary gas mixture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Knackfuss, Rosenei F.

    2009-01-01

    For a moderately small rarefaction, the Navier-Stokes equations are associated with of the slip boundary condition, i e the velocity of the gas on the surface is different from zero at the surface, but its tangential component, depends on the profile distribution of velocity and temperature near the surface. The slip for the velocity profile near the surface is determined by the viscous slip coefficient. The viscous slip coefficient can be determined solving the equation of the Boltzmann or the kinetic equations which are simplified forms of Boltzmann equation with respect to the operator of collision. For this reason, in this work is presented the derivation of the solution of the viscous-slip problem for the mixtures of two noble gases, based on the McCormack model that is developed in terms of an analytical version of the discrete ordinates method has been applied with excellent results, to derive solutions to several problems in rarefied gas dynamics. To complete the problem, include the gas-surface interaction, based on the model of Cercignani-Lampis, which, unlike the model of Maxwell, has two accommodation coefficients: the coefficient of accommodation of tangential moment and the energy accommodation coefficient kinetics due to normal component of velocity. (author)

  18. Measurement of Quantum Phase-Slips in Josephson Junction Chains

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guichard, Wiebke

    2011-03-01

    Quantum phase-slip dynamics in Josephson junction chains could provide the basis for the realization of a new type of topologically protected qubit or for the implementation of a new current standard. I will present measurements of the effect of quantum phase-slips on the ground state of a Josephson junction chain. We can tune in situ the strength of the phase-slips. These phase-slips are the result of fluctuations induced by the finite charging energy of each junction in the chain. Our measurements demonstrate that a Josephson junction chain under phase bias constraint behaves in a collective way. I will also show evidence of coherent phase-slip interference, the so called Aharonov-Casher effect. This phenomenon is the dual of the well known Aharonov-Bohm interference. In collaboration with I.M. Pop, Institut Neel, C.N.R.S. and Universite Joseph Fourier, BP 166, 38042 Grenoble, France; I. Protopopov, L. D. Landau Institute for Theoretical Physics, Kosygin str. 2, Moscow 119334, Russia and Institut fuer Nanotechnologie, Karlsruher Institut fuer Technologie, 76021 Karlsruhe, Germany; and F. Lecocq, Z. Peng, B. Pannetier, O. Buisson, Institut Neel, C.N.R.S. and Universite Joseph Fourier. European STREP MIDAS, ANR QUANTJO.

  19. Scaling analysis for the investigation of slip mechanisms in nanofluids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Savithiri S

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The primary objective of this study is to investigate the effect of slip mechanisms in nanofluids through scaling analysis. The role of nanoparticle slip mechanisms in both water- and ethylene glycol-based nanofluids is analyzed by considering shape, size, concentration, and temperature of the nanoparticles. From the scaling analysis, it is found that all of the slip mechanisms are dominant in particles of cylindrical shape as compared to that of spherical and sheet particles. The magnitudes of slip mechanisms are found to be higher for particles of size between 10 and 80 nm. The Brownian force is found to dominate in smaller particles below 10 nm and also at smaller volume fraction. However, the drag force is found to dominate in smaller particles below 10 nm and at higher volume fraction. The effect of thermophoresis and Magnus forces is found to increase with the particle size and concentration. In terms of time scales, the Brownian and gravity forces act considerably over a longer duration than the other forces. For copper-water-based nanofluid, the effective contribution of slip mechanisms leads to a heat transfer augmentation which is approximately 36% over that of the base fluid. The drag and gravity forces tend to reduce the Nusselt number of the nanofluid while the other forces tend to enhance it.

  20. Relating stick-slip friction experiments to earthquake source parameters

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGarr, Arthur F.

    2012-01-01

    Analytical results for parameters, such as static stress drop, for stick-slip friction experiments, with arbitrary input parameters, can be determined by solving an energy-balance equation. These results can then be related to a given earthquake based on its seismic moment and the maximum slip within its rupture zone, assuming that the rupture process entails the same physics as stick-slip friction. This analysis yields overshoots and ratios of apparent stress to static stress drop of about 0.25. The inferred earthquake source parameters static stress drop, apparent stress, slip rate, and radiated energy are robust inasmuch as they are largely independent of the experimental parameters used in their estimation. Instead, these earthquake parameters depend on C, the ratio of maximum slip to the cube root of the seismic moment. C is controlled by the normal stress applied to the rupture plane and the difference between the static and dynamic coefficients of friction. Estimating yield stress and seismic efficiency using the same procedure is only possible when the actual static and dynamic coefficients of friction are known within the earthquake rupture zone.

  1. Separating rings detection in fuel channels of Embalse NPP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Obrutsky, L.S.; Otero, P.A.; Schmidt, O.A.

    1988-01-01

    The design specifications of Embalse Nuclear Power Plants (CANDU Type Reactor 600Mw) define the positions to be taken by 4 separating rings of the fuel channels. Experience has demonstrated the displacement possibility of the above mentioned rings. It means a risk of contact between pressure tube and calandria tube. In order to determine the position of separating rings, an inspection system based on Eddy Currents technique was developed by CNEA personnel. Detection is performed through two special probes operating according the ''emitter-receiver'' principle. Obtained signals and its relative position are recorded in a video tape and registered in paper. The probe is telecommanded by an automatic equipment. In this paper the construction and calibration of the detection equipment is described, as well as the propulsion. Final results are also outlined in the inspection carried out in November 1986 when an effective displacement of separating rings was verified from its design position in most of the inspected tubes

  2. Binomial Rings: Axiomatisation, Transfer and Classification

    OpenAIRE

    Xantcha, Qimh Richey

    2011-01-01

    Hall's binomial rings, rings with binomial coefficients, are given an axiomatisation and proved identical to the numerical rings studied by Ekedahl. The Binomial Transfer Principle is established, enabling combinatorial proofs of algebraical identities. The finitely generated binomial rings are completely classified. An application to modules over binomial rings is given.

  3. Burnside Rings of Fusion Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Reeh, Sune Precht

    In this thesis we study the interactions between saturated fusion systems and group actions of the underlying p-groups. For a saturated fusion system F on a finite p-group S we construct the Burnside ring of F in terms of the finite S-sets whose actions respect the structure of the fusion system...... of Burnside rings given by multiplication with the characteristic idempotent, and we show that this map is the transfer map previously constructed. Applying these results, we show that for every saturated fusion system the ring generated by all (non-idempotent) characteristic elements in the p-local double...... Burnside ring is isomorphic to the p-local Burnside ring of the fusion system, and we disprove a conjecture by Park-Ragnarsson-Stancu on the composition product of fusion systems....

  4. Vortex Ring Extremization for Low Speed Maneuvering of Underwater Vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohseni, Kamran

    2004-11-01

    Most attempts in underwater locomotion have been focused on propeller thrust generation or recently on flapping locomotion. However, new developments in autonomous and tethered underwater vehicles motivated closer look at the biomimetics of sea animals. To this end, Cephalopoda and jelly fish utilize pulsatile jets and vortex formation for locomotion. To avoid further complications with background flows, we focus on the formation of the leading vortex ring rather than a train of vortices. It is shown that a pinched-off vortex ring characterizes the extremum impulse accumulated by the leading vortex ring in vortex formation process. An appropriate scaling for vortex ring impulse is found and the limiting values of the non-dimensionalized impulses are established. An estimate for the non-dimensional impulses is provided by equating their values from the slug model with their values from a vortex in the Norbury family of vortices. For a vortex ring generator with constant kinetic energy and circulation generation rate, the pinched-off vortex ring has a maximum impulse of I_nd^E ≈ 11 normalized by the circulation and energy. On the other hand, for a vortex ring generator with constant rate of circulation generation at a constant translational velocity, a pinched-off vortex ring produces a minimum impulse of I_nd^Γ ≈ 0.12 normalized by the circulation and translational velocity. Direct numerical simulations of vortex ring formation and vortex ring pinch-off process are performed and the estimated values of the non-dimensionalized impulses are confirmed. These ideas are employed in designing a vortex jet generator for low speed maneuvering of underwater robots. The presented vortex generators are simple and low cost, they consume little valuable payload space, and they have no moving external parts. Experimental data are presented in support of the optimal formation number of 4 for maximum thrust generation.

  5. Overcurvature describes the buckling and folding of rings from curved origami to foldable tents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mouthuy, Pierre-Olivier; Coulombier, Michael; Pardoen, Thomas; Raskin, Jean-Pierre; Jonas, Alain M.

    2012-12-01

    Daily-life foldable items, such as popup tents, the curved origami sculptures exhibited in the Museum of Modern Art of New York, overstrained bicycle wheels, released bilayered microrings and strained cyclic macromolecules, are made of rings buckled or folded in tridimensional saddle shapes. Surprisingly, despite their popularity and their technological and artistic importance, the design of such rings remains essentially empirical. Here we study experimentally the tridimensional buckling of rings on folded paper rings, lithographically processed foldable microrings, human-size wood sculptures or closed arcs of Slinky springs. The general shape adopted by these rings can be described by a single continuous parameter, the overcurvature. An analytical model based on the minimization of the energy of overcurved rings reproduces quantitatively their shape and buckling behaviour. The model also provides guidelines on how to efficiently fold rings for the design of space-saving objects.

  6. Beam dynamics in a storage ring for neutral (polar) molecules

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lambertson, Glen R.

    2003-01-01

    The force from a non-uniform electric field on the electric dipole moment of a molecule may be used to circulate and focus molecules in a storage ring. The nature of the forces from multipole electrodes for bending and focusing are described for strong-field-seeking and for weak-field-seeking molecules. Fringe-field forces are analyzed. Examples of storage ring designs are presented; these include long straight sections and provide bunching and acceleration

  7. COLLECTIVE EFFECTS IN THE NSLS-II STORAGE RING

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    KRINSKY, S.; BENGTSSON, J.; BERG, J.S.; BLASKIEWICZ, M.; BLEDNYKH, A.; GUO, W.; MALITSKY, N.; MONTAG, C.; PODOBEDOV, B.; ROSE, J.; TOWNE, N.; YU, L.H.

    2007-01-01

    A new high-brightness synchrotron light source (NSLS-II) is under design at BNL. The 3-GeV NSLS-II storage ring has a double-bend achromatic lattice with damping wigglers installed in zero-dispersion straights to reduce the emittance below 1nm. In this paper, we present an overview of the impact of collective effects upon the performance of the storage ring. Subjects discussed include instability thresholds, Touschek lifetime and intra-beam scattering

  8. COLLECTIVE EFFECTS IN THE NSLS-II STORAGE RING.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    KRINSKY,S.; BENGTSSON, J.; BERG, J.S.; BLASKIEWICZ, M.; BLEDNYKH, A.; GUO, W.; MALITSKY, N.; MONTAG, C.; PODOBEDOV, B.; ROSE, J.; TOWNE, N.; YU, L.H.

    2007-06-25

    A new high-brightness synchrotron light source (NSLS-II) is under design at BNL. The 3-GeV NSLS-II storage ring has a double-bend achromatic lattice with damping wigglers installed in zero-dispersion straights to reduce the emittance below 1nm. In this paper, we present an overview of the impact of collective effects upon the performance of the storage ring. Subjects discussed include instability thresholds, Touschek lifetime and intra-beam scattering.

  9. Evaluation of ring impedance of the Photon Factory storage ring

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kiuchi, T.; Izawa, M.; Tokumoto, S.; Hori, Y.; Sakanaka, S.; Kobayashi, M.; Kobayakawa, H.

    1992-05-01

    The loss parameters of the ducts in the Photon Factory (PF) storage ring were evaluated using the wire method and the code TBCI. Both the measurement and the calculation were done for a different bunch length (σ) ranging from 23 to 80 ps. The PF ring impedance was estimated to be |Z/n|=3.2 Ω using the broadband impedance model. The major contribution to the impedance comes from the bellows and the gate valve sections. Improvements of these components will lower the ring impedance by half. (author)

  10. Observing and modeling the spectrum of a slow slip event: Constraints on the scaling of slow slip and tremor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hawthorne, J. C.; Bartlow, N. M.; Ghosh, A.

    2017-12-01

    We estimate the normalized moment rate spectrum of a slow slip event in Cascadia and then attempt to reproduce it. Our goal is to further assess whether a single physical mechanism could govern slow slip and tremor events, with durations that span 6 orders of magnitude, so we construct the spectrum by parameterizing a large slow slip event as the sum of a number of subevents with various durations. The spectrum estimate uses data from three sources: the GPS-based slip inversion of Bartlow et al (2011), PBO borehole strain measurements, and beamforming-based tremor moment estimates of Ghosh et al (2009). We find that at periods shorter than 1 day, the moment rate power spectrum decays as frequencyn, where n is between 0.7 and 1.4 when measured from strain and between 1.2 and 1.4 when inferred from tremor. The spectrum appears roughly flat at periods of 1 to 10 days, as both the 1-day-period strain and tremor data and the 6-day-period slip inversion data imply a moment rate power of 0.02 times the the total moment squared. We demonstrate one way to reproduce this spectrum: by constructing the large-scale slow slip event as the sum of a series of subevents. The shortest of these subevents could be interpreted as VLFEs or even LFEs, while longer subevents might represent the aseismic slip that drives rapid tremor reverals, streaks, or rapid tremor migrations. We pick the subevent magnitudes from a Gutenberg-Richter distribution and place the events randomly throughout a 30-day interval. Then we assign each subevent a duration that scales with its moment to a specified power. Finally, we create a moment rate function for each subevent and sum all of the moment rates. We compute the summed slow slip moment rate spectra with two approaches: a time-domain numerical computation and a frequency-domain analytical summation. Several sets of subevent parameters can allow the constructed slow slip event to match the observed spectrum. One allowable set of parameters is of

  11. Oblique interaction of a laminar vortex ring with a non-deformable free surface: Vortex reconnection and breakdown

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Balakrishnan, S K; Thomas, T G; Coleman, G N

    2011-01-01

    Direct Numerical Simulation (DNS) is used to study the interaction of a laminar vortex ring with a non-deformable, free-slip surface at an oblique angle of incidence. The interaction leads to the well-known phenomenon of vortex reconnection. It was found that the reconnection process leads to rapid production of small-scale vortical structures. This phenomenon was found to be related to the kinematics of the reconection process.

  12. SLIP VELOCITY IN PULSED DISC AND DOUGHNUT EXTRACTION COLUMN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Outokesh

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available In the present work, slip velocity has been measured in a 76 mm diameter pulsed disc and doughnut extraction column for four different liquid-liquid systems. The effects of operating variables including pulsation intensity and dispersed and continuous phase flow rates on slip velocity have been investigated. The existence of three different operational regimes, namely mixersettler, transition, and emulsion regimes, was observed when the energy input was changed. Empirical correlations are derived for prediction of the slip velocity in terms of operating variables, physical properties of the liquid systems, and column geometry for different regimes. Good agreement between prediction and experiments was found for all operating conditions that were investigated.

  13. Effects of Spine Motion on Foot Slip in Quadruped Bounding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dongliang Chen

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Translation and bend of the spine in the sagittal plane during high-speed quadruped running were investigated. The effect of the two spine motions on slip between the foot and the ground was also explored. First, three simplified sagittal plane models of quadruped mammals were studied in symmetric bounding. The first model’s trunk allowed no relative motion, the second model allowed only trunk bend, and the third model allowed both bend and translation. Next, torque was introduced to equivalently replace spine motion and the possibility of foot slip of the three models was analyzed theoretically. The results indicate that the third model has the least possibility of slip. This conclusion was further confirmed by simulation experiments. Finally, the conclusion was verified by the reductive model crawling robot.

  14. Atomistic Determination of Cross-Slip Pathway and Energetics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Torben; Jacobsen, Karsten Wedel; Leffers, Torben

    1997-01-01

    The mechanism for cross slip of a screw dislocation in Cu is determined by atomistic simulations that only presume the initial and final states of the process. The dissociated dislocation constricts in the primary plane and redissociates into the cross-slip plane while still partly in the primary...... plane. The transition state and activation energy for cross slip as well as the energies of the involved dislocation constrictions are determined. One constriction has a negative energy compared to parallel partials. The energy vs splitting width for recombination of parallel partials into a perfect...... dislocation is determined. The breakdown of linear elasticity theory for small splitting widths is studied. [S0031-9007(97)04444-X]....

  15. Preliminary design development of 100 KW rotary power transfer device

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weinberger, S. M.

    1981-01-01

    Contactless power transfer devices for transferring electrical power across a rotating spacecraft interface were studied. A power level of 100 KW was of primary interest and the study was limited to alternating current devices. Rotary transformers and rotary capacitors together with the required dc to ac power conditioning electronics were examined. Microwave devices were addressed. The rotary transformer with resonant circuit power conditioning was selected as the most feasible approach. The rotary capacitor would be larger while microwave devices would be less efficient. A design analysis was made of a 100 KW, 20 kHz power transfer device consisting of a rotary transformer, power conditioning electronics, drive mechanism and heat rejection system. The size, weight and efficiency of the device were determined. The characteristics of a baseline slip ring were presented. Aspects of testing the 100 KW power transfer device were examined. The power transfer device is a feasible concept which can be implemented using presently available technologies.

  16. Offset of latest pleistocene shoreface reveals slip rate on the Hosgri strike-slip fault, offshore central California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Samuel Y.; Hartwell, Stephen R.; Dartnell, Peter

    2014-01-01

    The Hosgri fault is the southern part of the regional Hosgri–San Gregorio dextral strike‐slip fault system, which extends primarily in the offshore for about 400 km in central California. Between Morro Bay and San Simeon, high‐resolution multibeam bathymetry reveals that the eastern strand of the Hosgri fault is crossed by an ∼265  m wide slope interpreted as the shoreface of a latest Pleistocene sand spit. This sand spit crossed an embayment and connected a western fault‐bounded bedrock peninsula and an eastern bedrock highland, a paleogeography resembling modern coastal geomorphology along the San Andreas fault. Detailed analysis of the relict shoreface with slope profiles and slope maps indicates a lateral slip rate of 2.6±0.9  mm/yr, considered a minimum rate for the Hosgri given the presence of an active western strand. This slip rate indicates that the Hosgri system takes up the largest share of the strike‐slip fault budget and is the most active strike‐slip fault west of the San Andreas fault in central California. This result further demonstrates the value and potential of high‐resolution bathymetry in characterization of active offshore faults.

  17. The Slip Behavior and Source Parameters for Spontaneous Slip Events on Rough Faults Subjected to Slow Tectonic Loading

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tal, Yuval; Hager, Bradford H.

    2018-02-01

    We study the response to slow tectonic loading of rough faults governed by velocity weakening rate and state friction, using a 2-D plane strain model. Our numerical approach accounts for all stages in the seismic cycle, and in each simulation we model a sequence of two earthquakes or more. We focus on the global behavior of the faults and find that as the roughness amplitude, br, increases and the minimum wavelength of roughness decreases, there is a transition from seismic slip to aseismic slip, in which the load on the fault is released by more slip events but with lower slip rate, lower seismic moment per unit length, M0,1d, and lower average static stress drop on the fault, Δτt. Even larger decreases with roughness are observed when these source parameters are estimated only for the dynamic stage of the rupture. For br ≤ 0.002, the source parameters M0,1d and Δτt decrease mutually and the relationship between Δτt and the average fault strain is similar to that of a smooth fault. For faults with larger values of br that are completely ruptured during the slip events, the average fault strain generally decreases more rapidly with roughness than Δτt.

  18. Factors associated with use of slip-resistant shoes in US limited-service restaurant workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verma, Santosh K; Courtney, Theodore K; Corns, Helen L; Huang, Yueng-Hsiang; Lombardi, David A; Chang, Wen-Ruey; Brennan, Melanye J; Perry, Melissa J

    2012-06-01

    Slips and falls are a leading cause of injury at work. Several studies have indicated that slip-resistant shoes can reduce the risk of occupational slips and falls. Few studies, however, have examined the determinants of slip-resistant shoe use. This study examined the individual and workplace factors associated with slip-resistant shoe use. 475 workers from 36 limited-service restaurants in the USA participated in a study of workplace slipping. Demographic and job characteristic information about each participant was collected. Restaurant managers provided information on whether slip-resistant shoes were provided and paid for by the employer and whether any guidance was given regarding slip-resistant shoe use when they were not provided. Kitchen floor coefficient of friction was measured. Slip-resistant status of the shoes was determined by noting the presence of a 'slip-resistant' marking on the sole. Poisson regression with robust SE was used to calculate prevalence ratios. 320 participants wore slip-resistant shoes (67%). In the multivariate analysis, the prevalence of slip-resistant shoe use was lowest in 15-19-year age group. Women were more likely to wear slip-resistant shoes (prevalence ratio 1.18, 95% CI 1.07 to 1.31). The prevalence of slip-resistant shoe use was lower when no guidance regarding slip-resistant shoes was given as compared to when they were provided by the employer (prevalence ratio 0.66, 95% CI 0.55 to 0.79). Education level, job tenure and the mean coefficient of friction had no significant effects on the use of slip-resistant shoes. Provision of slip-resistant shoes was the strongest predictor of their use. Given their effectiveness and low cost, employers should consider providing slip-resistant shoes at work.

  19. Eigenpolarization theory of monolithic nonplanar ring oscillators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nilsson, Alan C.; Gustafson, Eric K.; Byer, Robert L.

    1989-01-01

    Diode-laser-pumped monolithic nonplanar ring oscillators (NPROs) in an applied magnetic field can operate as unidirectional traveling-wave lasers. The diode laser pumping, monolithic construction, and unidirectional oscillation lead to narrow linewidth radiation. Here, a comprehensive theory of the eigenpolarizations of a monolithic NPRO is presented. It is shown how the properties of the integral optical diode that forces unidirectional operation depend on the choice of the gain medium, the applied magnetic field, the output coupler, and the geometry of the nonplanar ring light path. Using optical equivalence theorems to gain insight into the polarization characteristics of the NPRO, a strategy for designing NPROs with low thresholds and large loss nonreciprocities is given. An analysis of the eigenpolarizations for one such NPRO is presented, alternative optimization approaches are considered, and the prospects for further reducing the linewidths of these lasers are briefly discussed.

  20. Decay ring status / studies

    CERN Document Server

    Chance, A

    2008-01-01

    The aim of "beta-beams" is to produce highly energetic pure electron neutrino and anti-neutrino beams coming from β-decay of radioactive ions. In CERN baseline, after accelerating, the ions 6He2+ and 18Ne10+ are stored in a racetrack-shaped-decay ring until they are lost [1]. Consequently, the injection compensates the losses which occurred between two cycles. Two main loss sources were identified: the β decay and the injection scheme. After giving the optics, we will see how to protect the magnetic elements from the decay products. The injections scheme will be then detailed with its implications. We will see that the injection process makes a collimation section in energy necessary. Since the magnetic elements are not perfect, we will take into account the magnet misalignment and the multipole defects in the dipoles. We will talk then about the closed orbit distortion due to misalignment defects and about the long-term transverse stability with the dynamic aperture.