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Sample records for skarn deposit environmental

  1. Genetic relationships between skarn ore deposits and magmatic activity in the Ahar region, Western Alborz, NW Iran

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    Mollai Habib

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Paleocene to Oligocene tectonic processes in northwest Iran resulted in extensive I-type calc-alkaline and alkaline magmatic activity in the Ahar region. Numerous skarn deposits formed in the contact between Upper Cretaceous impure carbonate rocks and Oligocene-Miocene plutonic rocks. This study presents new field observations of skarns in the western Alborz range and is based on geochemistry of igneous rocks, mineralogy of the important skarn deposits, and electron microprobe analyses of skarn minerals. These data are used to interpret the metasomatism during sequential skarn formation and the geotectonic setting of the skarn ore deposit related igneous rocks. The skarns were classified into exoskarn, endoskarn and ore skarn. Andraditic garnet is the main skarn mineral; the pyroxene belongs to the diopside-hedenbergite series. The skarnification started with pluton emplacement and metamorphism of carbonate rocks followed by prograde metasomatism and the formation of anhydrous minerals like garnet and pyroxene. The next stage resulted in retro gradation of anhydrous minerals along with the formation of oxide minerals (magnetite and hematite followed by the formation of hydrosilicate minerals like epidote, actinolite, chlorite, quartz, sericite and sulfide mineralization. In addition to Fe, Si and Mg, substantial amounts of Cu, along with volatile components such as H2S and CO2 were added to the skarn system. Skarn mineralogy and geochemistry of the igneous rocks indicate an island arc or subduction-related origin of the Fe-Cu skarn deposit.

  2. Geological and Geochemical Characteristics of Skarn Type Lead-Zinc Deposit in Baoshan Block, Yunnan Province

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    Yao, Xue; Wang, Peng

    2017-11-01

    Baoshan block is an important Pb-Zn-Fe-Cu polymetallic ore-concentration area which is located in southern of the Sanjiang metallogenic belt in western Yunnan. The article is studying about the geological and geochemical characteristics of the skarn type lead-zinc deposit in Baoshan block. The skarn-type lead-zinc deposit Baoshan block is characterized by skarn and skarn marble, and the orebodies are layered, or bedded along the interlayer fault, which are significantly controlled by structure. The research about Stable isotope S, H and O indicates that the ore-forming fluids are mainly derived from magmatic water, partly mixed with parts of metamorphic water and atmospheric precipitation. The initial Sr isotopic Sr87/Sr86 ratio suggests that the ore-forming materials derived from deep concealed magmatic rock, age of Rb-Sr mineralization is similar to that of Yanshanian granite. In conclusion, the Yanshanian tectonic-magmatic-fluid coupling mineralization of Yanshan formation is the main reason for the skarn-type lead-zinc deposit in the Baoshan block.

  3. A New Zincian Greenockite Occurrence in the Saishitang Cu Skarn Deposit, Qinghai Province, Northwest China

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    Jianping Liu

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Zn-Cd-S series minerals not only comprise industrial resources for Zn and Cd, but are also significant mineralogical indicators for hydrothermal ore-forming processes. Due to its unique formation conditions and rare occurrence, our understanding of the formation of zincian greenockite in natural systems is limited. Zincian greenockite was discovered during mineralogical studies in the Saishitang Cu skarn deposit, Qinghai Province, Northwest China. This provided an ideal opportunity to assess the occurrence and formation of zincian greenockite in skarn-type deposits. Ore minerals were observed using reflected-light microscopy, and the zincian greenockite was further analyzed using electron-probe microanalysis (EPMA and X-ray diffraction (XRD. The zincian greenockite occurs in the bornite–chalcopyrite ores and is composed of subhedral to anhedral grains approximately 50 × 150 μm2 to 200 × 300 μm2 in size, replaces the bornite, and is replaced by native silver. Two phases (I and II were identified based on back-scattered electron images, X-ray element-distributions maps, and EPMA data. The textural relationship indicated that Phase I was replaced by Phase II. Phase I contained high Zn (14.6 to 21.7 mol % ZnS and low Cd (72.4 to 82.2 mol % CdS, while Phase II contained low Zn (5.6 to 9.1 mol % ZnS and high Cd (85.4 to 89.9 mol % CdS. The zincian greenockite was formed at temperature of 300~270 °C during the transformation from a reducing environment to an oxidizing one in the late stage of the mineralization process in the Saishitang deposit.

  4. Magmatic-dominated fluid evolution in the Jurassic Nambija gold skarn deposits (southeastern Ecuador)

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    Vallance, Jean; Fontboté, Lluís; Chiaradia, Massimo; Markowski, Agnès; Schmidt, Susanne; Vennemann, Torsten

    2009-05-01

    and the compositional variability of chlorite, essentially controlled by host rock compositions. Gold was precipitated at this stage as a result of cooling and pH increase related to CO2 effervescence, which both result in destabilization of gold-bearing chloride complexes. Significant ingression of external fluids took place after gold deposition only, as recorded by δ18O values of 0.4‰ to 6.2‰ for fluids depositing quartz (below 350°C) in sulfide-rich barren veins. Low-temperature (bearing skarn deposits, not only the prograde stage but also the gold-precipitating retrograde stage is dominated by fluids of magmatic origin.

  5. Geology and Characteristics of Pb-Zn-Cu-Ag Skarn Deposit at Ruwai, Lamandau Regency, Central Kalimantan

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    Arifudin Idrus

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available DOI: 10.17014/ijog.v6i4.126This study is dealing with geology and characteristics of mineralogy, geochemistry, and physicochemical conditions of hydrothermal fluid responsible for the formation of skarn Pb-Zn-Cu-Ag deposit at Ruwai, Lamandau Regency, Central Kalimantan. The formation of Ruwai skarn is genetically associated with calcareous rocks consisting of limestone and siltstone (derived from marl? controlled by NNE-SSW-trending strike slip faults. It is localized along N 70° E-trending thrust fault, which also acts as the contact zone between sedimentary and volcanic rocks in the area. The Ruwai skarn is mineralogically characterized by prograde alteration comprising garnet (andradite and clino-pyroxene (wollastonite, and retrograde alteration composed of epidote, chlorite, calcite, and sericite. Ore mineralization is typified by sphalerite, galena, and chalcopyrite, formed at early retrograde stage. Galena is typically enriched in silver up to 0.45 wt % and bismuth of about 1 wt %. No Ag-sulphides are identified within the ore body. Geochemically, SiO is enriched and CaO is depleted in limestone, consistent with silicic alteration (quartz and calc-silicate and decarbonatization of the wallrock. The measured resources of the deposit are 2,297,185 tonnes at average grades of 14.98 % Zn, 6.44% Pb, 2.49 % Cu, and 370.87 g/t Ag. Ruwai skarn orebody was originated at moderate temperatures of 250 - 266 °C and low salinity of 0.3 - 0.5 wt.% NaCl eq. The late retrograde stage was formed at low temperature of 190 - 220 °C and low salinity of ~0.35 wt.% NaCl eq., which was influenced by meteoric water incursion at the late stage of the Ruwai Pb-Zn-Cu-Ag skarn formation.

  6. Formation of the Vysoká-Zlatno Cu-Au skarn-porphyry deposit, Slovakia

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    Koděra, Peter; Lexa, Jaroslav; Fallick, Anthony E.

    2010-12-01

    The central zone of the Miocene Štiavnica stratovolcano hosts several occurrences of Cu-Au skarn-porphyry mineralisation, related to granodiorite/quartz-diorite porphyry dyke clusters and stocks. Vysoká-Zlatno is the largest deposit (13.4 Mt at 0.52% Cu), with mineralised Mg-Ca exo- and endoskarns, developed at the prevolcanic basement level. The alteration pattern includes an internal K- and Na-Ca silicate zone, surrounded by phyllic and argillic zones, laterally grading into a propylitic zone. Fluid inclusions in quartz veinlets in the internal zone contain mostly saline brines with 31-70 wt.% NaCl eq. and temperatures of liquid-vapour homogenization (Th) of 186-575°C, indicating fluid heterogenisation. Garnet contains inclusions of variable salinity with 1-31 wt.% NaCl eq. and Th of 320-360°C. Quartz-chalcopyrite veinlets host mostly low-salinity fluid inclusions with 0-3 wt.% NaCl eq. and Th of 323-364°C. Data from sphalerite from the margin of the system indicate mixing with dilute and cooler fluids. The isotopic composition of fluids in equilibrium with K-alteration and most skarn minerals (both prograde and retrograde) indicates predominantly a magmatic origin (δ18Ofluid 2.5-12.3‰) with a minor meteoric component. Corresponding low δDfluid values are probably related to isotopic fractionation during exsolution of the fluid from crystallising magma in an open system. The data suggest the general pattern of a distant source of magmatic fluids that ascended above a zone of hydraulic fracturing below the temperature of ductile-brittle transition. The magma chamber at ˜5-6 km depth exsolved single-phase fluids, whose properties were controlled by changing PT conditions along their fluid paths. During early stages, ascending fluids display liquid-vapour immiscibility, followed by physical separation of both phases. Low-salinity liquid associated with ore veinlets probably represents a single-phase magmatic fluid/magmatic vapour which contracted into

  7. Typomorphic Characteristics of Molybdenite from the Bystrinsky Cu-Au Porphyry-Skarn Deposit, Eastern Transbaikal Region, Russia

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    Kovalenker, V. A.; Trubkin, N. V.; Abramova, V. D.; Plotinskaya, O. Yu.; Kiseleva, G. D.; Borisovskii, S. E.; Yazykova, Yu. I.

    2018-01-01

    The paper presents pioneering data on the composition, texture, and crystal structure of molybdenite from various types of molybdenum mineralization at the Bystrinsky Cu-Au-Fe porphyry-skarn deposit in the eastern Transbaikal region, Russia. The data were obtained using electron microprobe analysis (EMPA), laser ablation-inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (LA-ICP-MS), and high-resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM). Molybdenite found at the deposit in skarn, sulfide-poor quartz veins, and quartz-feldspar alteration markedly differs in the concentrations of trace elements determined by their species in the mineral, as well as in its structural features. Molybdenite-2H from skarn associated with phyllosilicates occurs as ultrafine crystals with uniform shape and texture; no dislocations or inclusions were found but amorphous silica was. The molybdenite composition is highly contrasting in the content and distribution of both structure-related (Re, W, and Se) and other (Mn, Co, Ni, Cu, Zn, As, Ag, Cd, Sb, Te, Ag, Pd, Au, Hg, Pb, and Bi) metals. In the sulfide-poor quartz veins, highly structurally heterogeneous (2H + 3R) molybdenite microcrystals with abundant defects (dislocations and volumetrically distributed inclusions) are associated with illite, goethite, and barite. Some single crystals are unique three-phase (2H + 3R polytypes + amorphous MoS2). The mineral has a low concentration of all trace elements, which are uniformly distributed. However, individual domains with uniquely high Pd, Te, Ni, Hg, and W concentrations caused by mineral inclusions are found in some grains. Molybdenite from quartz-feldspar alteration is characterized by low concentrations of all trace elements except for Re and Se, which enrich some domains of the grains. Our data indicate that the compositional and structural heterogeneity of molybdenite from the Bystrinsky deposit are its crucial features, which obviously correlate with the types of Mo mineralization.

  8. Usability of #betta#-spectrometric method to prospecting for copper-porphyric skarn and gold-quartz-sulfide deposits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Syromyatnikov, N.G.; Ivanova, Eh.I.; Karpukhin, V.G.; Trofimova, L.A.; Tolmachev, I.I.

    1982-01-01

    Possibility of the prospecting for non-radioactive element deposits by means of radioactive elements as indicators is studied. Radioactive elements (uranium, thorium and potassium) were determined by gamma spectroscopy. Radiometric methods of prospecting are effective and economical. Clark contents of radioelements in rocks were determined in situ by field gamma spectrometers. It is established that copper-porphyric deposits are regularly controlled from the surface by aureoles of increased uranium contents, which sizes reach 400x500 m and can be revealed by gamma spectroscopy during 1:25000 and more large-scale survey. Skarn-ore zones of deposits of different mineral types (copper, polymetallic, iron ore ones) are fixed on the surface by increased radioactivity; this fact can be used as search criterion. Gold-bearing quartz veins differ from barren lodes by a higher level of total radioactivity and high potassium content. Top walls of ore-bearing quartz veins are mainly enriched by radioelements

  9. Multiphase formation of the Obří důl polymetallic skarn deposit, West Sudetes, Bohemian Massif: geochemistry and Re–Os dating of sulfide mineralization

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    Veselovský, F.; Ackerman, Lukáš; Pašava, J.; Žák, Karel; Haluzová, Eva; Creaser, R. A.; Dobeš, P.; Erban, V.; Tásler, R.

    2018-01-01

    Roč. 53, č. 5 (2018), s. 665-682 ISSN 0026-4598 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA13-15390S Institutional support: RVO:67985831 Keywords : Bohemian Massif * polymetallic skarn deposit * West Sudetes * arsenopyrite * Re–Os geochronology Subject RIV: DB - Geology ; Mineralogy OBOR OECD: Geology Impact factor: 3.396, year: 2016

  10. Geology, mineralization, and fluid inclusion study of the Kuru-Tegerek Au-Cu-Mo skarn deposit in the Middle Tien Shan, Kyrgyzstan

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    Soloviev, Serguei G.; Kryazhev, Sergey; Dvurechenskaya, Svetlana

    2018-02-01

    The Kuru-Tegerek Cu-Au-Mo deposit is situated in a system of Late Carboniferous subduction-related magmatic arcs of the Middle Tien Shan, which together constitute a metallogenic belt of Cu-Au-Mo (±W) porphyry, with local skarns, deposits. The deposit is related to magnetite-series gabbro-diorite to tonalite intrusion. It contains prograde magnesian and calcic skarns with abundant magnetite, associated with gabbro-diorite, and retrograde skarn with Cu mineralization, formed after intrusion of tonalite. Subsequent propylitic alteration introduced abundant chalcopyrite and pyrrhotite, and native Au culminating in zones overprinting magnetite and garnet skarn. Later quartz-muscovite-carbonate veins, formed after intrusion of late mafic quartz monzogabbro dikes, contain chalcopyrite, pyrite, arsenopyrite and other sulfides and sulfosalts, tellurides, and native Au. The earliest retrograde skarn garnet contains gaseous low-salinity (1.7-3.4 wt.% NaCl eq.) fluid inclusions homogenizing at 460-500 °C into vapor, indicating that the early fluid released from crystallizing magma was a low-density vapor. It was followed by more saline (4.0-5.0 wt.% NaCl eq.), high-temperature (400-440 °C) aqueous fluid, as fluid release from the magma progressed. Boiling of this fluid at temperatures of 420 to 370 °C and a pressure of 350-300 bar produced a low-salinity (0.6-1.2 wt.% NaCl eq.), essentially gaseous, and high-salinity (from 39 to 31 wt.% NaCl eq.) brine, with possible metal (including Cu) partitioning into both gaseous and aqueous-saline phases. Boiling was coeval with sulfide deposition in the retrograde skarn. The latest episode of the retrograde skarn stage included direct separation of saline ( 40-42 wt.% NaCl eq.) fluid from crystallizing magma. The separation of saline ( 40 to 14 wt.% NaCl eq.) fluids from a crystallizing magmatic melt continued during the propylitic stage, when fluid cooling from 370 to 320 °C, together with decreasing fO2, caused Cu and especially

  11. The formation and trace elements of garnet in the skarn zone from the Xinqiao Cu-S-Fe-Au deposit, Tongling ore district, Anhui Province, Eastern China

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    Xiao, Xin; Zhou, Tao-fa; White, Noel C.; Zhang, Le-jun; Fan, Yu; Wang, Fang-yue; Chen, Xue-feng

    2018-03-01

    Xinqiao is a large copper-gold deposit and consists of two major mineralization types: stratabound and skarn. The skarn occurs along the contact between a quartz diorite intrusion and Carboniferous-Triassic limestone. Xinqiao has a strongly developed skarn zone, including endoskarn and exoskarn; the exoskarn is divided into proximal and distal exoskarn. We present systematic major, trace and rare earth element (REE) concentrations for garnets from the skarn zone, discuss the factors controlling the incorporation of trace elements into the garnets, and constrain the formation and evolution of the garnet from skarn zone in Xinqiao deposit. Grossular (Adr20-44Grs56-80) mostly occurs in endoskarn and has typical HREE-enriched and LREE-depleted patterns, with small Eu anomalies and low ∑REE. Garnets from the exoskarn show complex textures and chemical compositions. The composition of garnets range from Al-rich andradite (Adr63-81Grs19-47) to andradite (Adr67-98Grs2-33). Garnet in endoskarn has typical HREE-enriched and LREE-depleted patterns. Al-rich andradite in proximal skarn has small Eu anomalies and moderate ∑REE. Andradite from distal exoskarn shows strong positive Eu anomalies and has variable ∑REE. The U, Y, Fe and Al relationship with ∑REE shows that two mechanisms controlled incorporation of REE into the garnets: crystal chemistry (substitution and interstitial solid solution) mainly controlled in the endoskarn garnet (grossular) and the proximal exoskarn (Al-rich andradite), and fluid and rock chemistry (surface adsorption and occlusion) controlled REEs in the distal exoskarn. Furthermore, Al has a negative relationship with ∑REE indicating that REE3+ did not follow a coupled, YAG-type substitution into the garnets. Variations in textures and trace and rare earth elements of garnets suggest that the garnets in the endoskarn formed by slow crystal growth at low W/R ratios and near-neutral pH in a closed system during periods of diffusive metasomatism

  12. Geochemistry of rare earth elements in the Baba Ali magnetite skarn deposit, western Iran – a key to determine conditions of mineralisation

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    Zamanian Hassan

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The Baba Ali skarn deposit, situated 39 km to the northwest of Hamadan (Iran, is the result of a syenitic pluton that intruded and metamorphosed the diorite host rock. Rare earth element (REE values in the quartz syenite and diorite range between 35.4 and 560 ppm. Although the distribution pattern of REEs is more and less flat and smooth, light REEs (LREEs in general show higher concentrations than heavy REEs (HREEs in different lithounits. The skarn zone reveals the highest REE-enriched pattern, while the ore zone shows the maximum depletion pattern. A comparison of the concentration variations of LREEs (La–Nd, middle REEs (MREEs; Sm–Ho and HREEs (Er–Lu of the ore zone samples to the other zones elucidates two important points for the distribution of REEs: 1 the distribution patterns of LREEs and MREEs show a distinct depletion in the ore zone while representing a great enrichment in the skarn facies neighbouring the ore body border and decreasing towards the altered diorite host rock; 2 HREEs show the same pattern, but in the exoskarn do not reveal any distinct increase as observed for LREEs and MREEs. The ratio of La/Y in the Baba Ali skarn ranges from 0.37 to 2.89. The ore zone has the highest La/Y ratio. In this regard the skarn zones exhibit two distinctive portions: 1 one that has La/Y >1 beingadjacent to the ore body and; 2 another one with La/Y < 1 neighbouring altered diorite. Accordingly, the Baba Ali profile, from the quartz syenite to the middle part of the exoskarn, demonstrates chiefly alkaline conditions of formation, with a gradual change to acidic towards the altered diorite host rocks. Utilising three parameters, Ce/Ce*, Eu/Eu* and (Pr/Ybn, in different minerals implies that the hydrothermal fluids responsible for epidote and garnet were mostly of magmatic origin and for magnetite, actinolite and phlogopite these were of magmatic origin with low REE concentration or meteoric water involved.

  13. LA-ICP-MS U-Th-Pb Dating and Trace Element Geochemistry of Allanite: Implications on the Different Skarn Metallogenesis between the Giant Beiya Au and Machangqing Cu-Mo-(Au Deposits in Yunnan, SW China

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    Yu Fu

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The giant Beiya Au skarn deposit and Machangqing porphyry Cu-Mo-(Au deposit are located in the middle part of the Jinshajiang–Ailaoshan alkaline porphyry metallogenic belt. The Beiya deposit is the largest Au skarn deposit in China, whilst the Machangqing deposit comprises a well-developed porphyry-skarn-epithermal Cu-Mo-(Au mineral system. In this paper, we present new allanite U-Th-Pb ages and trace element geochemical data from the two deposits and discuss their respective skarn metallogenesis. Based on the mineral assemblage, texture and Th/U ratio, the allanite from the Beiya and Machangqing deposits are likely hydrothermal rather than magmatic. Laser ablation-inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry (LA-ICP-MS allanite U-Th-Pb dating has yielded Th-Pb isochron ages of 33.4 ± 4.6 Ma (MSWD = 0.22 (Beiya and 35.4 ± 9.8 Ma (MSWD = 0.26 (Machangqing, representing the retrograde alteration and magnetite skarn mineralization age of the two deposits. The Beiya and Machangqing alkali porphyry-related mineralization are synchronous and genetically linked to the magmatic hydrothermal activities of the Himalayan orogenic event. Major and trace element compositions reveal that the Beiya allanite has higher Fe3+/(Fe3+ + Fe2+ ratios, U content and Th content than the Machangqing allanite, which indicate a higher oxygen fugacity and F content for the ore-forming fluids at Beiya. Such differences in the ore-forming fluids may have contributed to the different metallogenic scales and metal types in the Beiya and Machangqing deposit.

  14. Multiphase formation of the Obří důl polymetallic skarn deposit, West Sudetes, Bohemian Massif: geochemistry and Re-Os dating of sulfide mineralization

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    Veselovský, František; Ackerman, Lukáš; Pašava, Jan; Žák, Karel; Haluzová, Eva; Creaser, Robert A.; Dobeš, Petr; Erban, Vojtěch; Tásler, Radko

    2018-06-01

    The Obří důl Fe-Cu-As polymetallic sulfide skarn deposit is developed in a metamorphic series in the West Sudetes, Bohemian Massif. It consists of lenses of marble, calc-silicate rocks, and skarns. We studied the Gustav orebody, which is located few hundred meters away from the contact with a large, late-orogenic Variscan Krkonoše-Jizera Plutonic Complex (KJPC) emplaced into shallow crust. Mineralogical and fluid inclusion study evidence indicates that the main sulfide stage, dominated by pyrrhotite, arsenopyrite, and chalcopyrite originated from aqueous hydrothermal fluids with salinity up to 8 wt% NaCl eq. with minimum homogenization temperatures ranging from 324 to 358 °C. These fluids mainly replaced carbonate-rich lithologies. Carbon, oxygen, and strontium isotope data in Ca-rich rocks imply total overprinting by channelized metasomatic fluid flow, which is most probably related to the intrusion of the KJPC, whereas δ34S values of sulfides argue for a magmatic source of sulfur. The Re-Os age of arsenopyrite overlaps published age data for the KJPC and suggests synchronous formation of the main sulfide mineralization and pluton emplacement.

  15. Study of REE behaviors, fluid inclusions, and O, S stable Isotopes in Zafar-abad iron skarn deposit, NW Divandarreh, Kordestan province

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    Mehrdad Barati

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Introduction The Zafar-abad iron ore deposit, situated in the NW part of Divandarreh (lat. 36°01'14" and long. 46°58'22". The ore body is located on the northern margin of the Sanandaj-Sirjan igneous metamorphic zone. The Zafar-abad Fe-skarn deposit is one of the important, medium- size mineral deposits in western Iran. REE patterns of skarn magnetite were among others studied in Skarn deposit by (Taylor, 1979 Hydrothermal alteration and fluid-rock interaction significantly affect total contents of REE and their patterns in fluids. Moreover, fractionation of REE by chemical complication, adsorption effects and redox reactions are characteristic processes determining REE behavior during crystallization. Stable isotope data for oxygen and sulfur have been widely used with great success to trace the origin and evolution history of paleo-hydrothermal fluids of meteoric, magmatic, and metamorphic. Materials and methods The present study investigates REE and stable Isotope geochemistry of magnetite and pyrite in Zafar-abad deposit and temperature of trapped fluid inclusions based on geothermometry analysis. In order to study the major, trace and REE compositions of Zafar-abad magnetite, twelve samples were collected from surface of ore exposures. The emphasis during sampling was on ores with primary textures. Discussion The Zafar-abad district is situated in Mesozoic and Cenozoic sedimentary, meta-sedimentary and meta-igneous rocks in Sanandaj-Sirjan igneous metamorphic zone. Sedimentary sequences dominantly composed of calcareous and conglomerate rocks. Various meta-sedimentary rocks are intercalated with the sedimentary rocks, and comprise biotite and muscovite-rich schist, calc-schist, calc-silicate rock. Several distinct ductile tectonic fabrics have been identified around the Zafar-abad deposit. The main ore body at Zafar-abad is in the form of a roughly horizontal, discordant, lens to tabular-shaped body plunging 10° NW, where it appears to

  16. Geology, mineralization, and fluid inclusion characteristics of the Skrytoe reduced-type W skarn and stockwork deposit, Sikhote-Alin, Russia

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    Soloviev, Serguei G.; Kryazhev, Sergey G.

    2017-08-01

    The Skrytoe deposit (>145 Kt WO3, average grade 0.449% WO3) in the Sikhote-Alin orogenic system (Eastern Russia) is situated in a metallogenic belt of W, Sn-W, Au, and Au-W deposits formed in a late to post-collisional tectonic environment after cessation of active subduction. It is localized within a mineralized district of reduced-type skarn W and veined Au (±W) deposits and occurrences related to the Early Cretaceous ilmenite-series plutonic suite. The deposit incorporates large stockworks of scheelite-bearing veinlets related to propylitic (amphibole, chlorite, quartz) and phyllic (quartz, sericite, albite, apatite, and carbonate) hydrothermal alteration. The stockwork cuts flat-lying mafic volcanic rocks and limestone partially replaced by pyroxene skarn that host the major W orebodies. Scheelite is associated with pyrrhotite and/or arsenopyrite, with minor chalcopyrite and other sulfide minerals; the late phyllic stage assemblages hosts Bi and Au mineralization. The fluid evolution included low-salinity moderate-temperature, moderate-pressure (˜370-390 °C, ˜800 bars) methane-dominated carbonic-aqueous fluids that formed post-skarn propylitic alteration assemblages. Then, at the phyllic stage, there has been an evolution from methane-dominated, moderate-temperature (330-360 °C), low-salinity (<12.3 wt% NaCl equiv.) fluids forming the early quartz-sericite-albite-arsenopyrite assemblage, through lower temperature (290-330 °C) methane-dominated, low-salinity (˜9-10 wt% NaCl equiv.) fluids forming the intermediate quartz-sericite-albite-scheelite-pyrrhotite assemblage, to yet lower temperature (245-320 °C) CO2-dominated carbonic-aqueous low-salinity (˜1-7 wt% NaCl equiv.) fluids forming the late quartz-sericite-sulfide-Bi-Au assemblage. Recurrent fluid immiscibility (phase separation) and cooling probably affected W solubility and promoted scheelite deposition. The stable isotope data support a sedimentary source of carbon (δ13Cfluid = ˜-21 to -10

  17. Single crystal structure analyses of scheelite-powellite CaW1-xMoxO4 solidsolutions and unique occurrence in Jisyakuyama skarn deposits

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    Yamashita, K.; Yoshiasa, A.; Miyazaki, H.; Tokuda, M.; Tobase, T.; Isobe, H.; Nishiyama, T.; Sugiyama, K.; Miyawaki, R.

    2017-12-01

    Jisyakuyama skarn deposit, Fukuchi, Fukuoka, Japan, shows a simple occurrenceformed by penetration of hot water into limestone cracks. A unique occurrence of scheelite-powellite CaW1-xMoxO4 minerals is observed in the skarn deposit. Many syntheticexperiments for scheelite-powellite solid solutions have been reported as research onfluorescent materials. In this system it is known that a complete continuous solid solution isformed even at room temperature. In this study, we have carried out the chemical analyses,crystal structural refinements and detail description of occurrence on scheelite-powelliteminerals. We have also attempted synthesis of single crystal of solid solution in a widecomposition range. The chemical compositions were determined by JEOL scanningelectron microscope and EDS, INCA system. We have performed the crystal structurerefinements of the scheelite-powellite CaW1-xMoxO4 solid solutions (x=0.0-1.0) byRIGAKU single-crystal structure analysis system RAPID. The R and S values are around0.0s and 1.03. As the result of structural refinements of natural products and many solidsolutions, we confirm that most large natural single crystals have compositions at bothendmembers, and large solid solution crystals are rare. The lattice constants, interatomicdistances and other crystallographic parameters for the solid solution change uniquely withcomposition and it was confirmed as a continuous solid solution. Single crystals of scheeliteendmember + powellite endmember + solid solution with various compositions form anaggregate in the deposit (Figure 1). Crystal shapes of powellite and scheelite arehypidiomorphic and allotriomorphic, respectively. Many solid solution crystals areaccompanied by scheelite endmember and a compositional gap is observed betweenpowellite and solid-solution crystals. The presence of several penetration solutions withsignificantly different W and Mo contents may be assumed. This research can be expectedto lead to giving restrictive

  18. Geology, mineralization, and fluid inclusion characteristics of the Kashkasu W-Mo-Cu skarn deposit associated with a high-potassic to shoshonitic igneous suite in Kyrgyzstan, Tien Shan: Toward a diversity of W mineralization in Central Asia

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    Soloviev, Serguei G.; Kryazhev, Sergey G.

    2018-03-01

    The Kashkasu deposit is part of the subduction-related Late Paleozoic (Late Carboniferous) metallogenic belt of Tien Shan. It is associated with a multiphase monzodiorite-monzonite-granodiorite-granite pluton of the magnetite-series high-K calc-alkaline to shoshonitic igneous suite. The deposit contains zones of W-Mo-Cu oxidized prograde and retrograde skarns, with abundant andraditic garnet, magnetite, locally scapolite and K-feldspar, as well as scheelite, chalcopyrite, and molybdenite. Skarns are overprinted by quartz-carbonate-sericite (phyllic alteration) zones with scheelite and sulfides. Prograde calcic skarn and initial retrograde skarns were formed from a high temperature (650 °C to 450-550 °C), high pressure (2000 bars to 600-900 bars) magmatic-hydrothermal low- to high-salinity aqueous chloride fluid. The gradual fluid evolution was interrupted by the intrusion of granodiorite and likely associated release of low-salinity (∼7-8 wt% NaCl equiv.) fluid. Ascent of this fluid to shallower levels and/or its cooling to 400-500 °C has resulted in phase separation into low-salinity (2.1-3.1 wt% NaCl equiv.) vapor and coexisting brine (35-40 wt% NaCl equiv.). The boiling was coincident with most intense scheelite deposition in retrograde skarn. Later retrograde skarn assemblages were formed from a gaseous, low- to moderate-salinity (3.4-8.1 wt% NaCl equiv.) fluid and then from high salinity (37-42 wt% NaCl equiv.) aqueous chloride fluids, the latter being enriched in Ca (17-20 wt% CaCl2) that could also affect scheelite deposition. Another cycle of fluid exsolution from crystallizing magma corresponded to quartz-carbonate-sericite-scheelite-sulfide (phyllic) alteration stage, with the early low-salinity (5.3-8.4 wt% NaCl-equiv.) fluid followed by later high-salinity (33.5-38.2 wt% NaCl-equiv.) fluid. The sulfur isotope data (δ34S = +5.1 to +9.0) suggest significant sulfur sourcing from sedimentary rocks enriched in seawater sulfate, possibly evaporites.

  19. Hydrothermal titanite from the Chengchao iron skarn deposit: temporal constraints on iron mineralization, and its potential as a reference material for titanite U-Pb dating

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Hao; Li, Jian-Wei; McFarlane, Christopher R. M.

    2017-09-01

    Uranium-lead isotopes and trace elements of titanite from the Chengchao iron skarn deposit (Daye district, Eastern China), located along the contact zones between Triassic marine carbonates and an early Cretaceous intrusive complex consisting of granite and quartz diorite, were analyzed using laser ablation inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry to provide temporal constraints on iron mineralization and to evaluate its potential as a reference material for titanite U-Pb geochronology. Titanite grains from mineralized endoskarn have simple growth zoning patterns, exhibit intergrowth with magnetite, diopside, K-feldspar, albite and actinolite, and typically contain abundant primary two-phase fluid inclusions. These paragenetic and textural features suggest that these titanite grains are of hydrothermal origin. Hydrothermal titanite is distinct from the magmatic variety from the ore-related granitic intrusion in that it contains unusually high concentrations of U (up to 2995 ppm), low levels of Th (12.5-453 ppm), and virtually no common Pb. The REE concentrations are much lower, as are the Th/U and Lu/Hf ratios. The hydrothermal titanite grains yield reproducible uncorrected U-Pb ages ranging from 129.7 ± 0.7 to 132.1 ± 2.7 Ma (2σ), with a weighted mean of 131.2 ± 0.2 Ma [mean standard weighted deviation (MSWD) = 1.7] that is interpreted as the timing of iron skarn mineralization. This age closely corresponds to the zircon U-Pb age of 130.9 ± 0.7 Ma (MSWD = 0.7) determined for the quartz diorite, and the U-Pb ages for zircon and titanite (130.1 ± 1.0 Ma and 131.3 ± 0.3 Ma) in the granite, confirming a close temporal and likely genetic relationship between granitic magmatism and iron mineralization. Different hydrothermal titanite grains have virtually identical uncorrected U-Pb ratios suggestive of negligible common Pb in the mineral. The homogeneous textures and U-Pb characteristics of Chengchao hydrothermal titanite suggest that the mineral might be a

  20. Geochronology and geochemistry of the granitoids and ore - forming age in the Xiaoyao tungsten polymetallic skarn deposit in the Jiangnan Massif tungsten belt, China: Implications for their petrogenesis, geodynamic setting, and mineralization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Qiangwei; Mao, Jingwen; Wu, Shenghua; Zhang, Zhaochong; Xu, Shengfa

    2018-01-01

    The Xiaoyao tungsten polymetallic skarn deposit in the eastern Jiangnan Massif of Yangtze Block is located at the contact between a granodiorite pluton and Sinian-Cambrian limestone. The intrusions in the tungsten-rich district comprise the Xiaoyao and other granodiorite plutons and granite porphyry dikes. The age determinations by LA-ICP-MS U-Pb dating of zircons indicate that the granodiorite formed at 149.4 ± 1.1 Ma, whereas the granite porphyry was emplaced at 133.2 ± 0.7 Ma. Re-Os dating of molybdenite from the skarn orebodies yielded a weighted average age of 148.7 ± 2.3 Ma (n = 5). These ages indicate that the tungsten mineralization is temporally related to the granodiorite. The granodiorites are metaluminous (A/CNK = 0.86-0.98) and in the high-K calc-alkaline series. They contain hornblende and have a negative correlation between P2O5 and SiO2, indicating that they are typical I-type intrusions. The granite porphyries exhibit high alkali contents (Na2O + K2O = 7.97-9.53%), elevated FeOT/(FeOT + MgO) ratios (0.83-0.94), high concentrations of Zr, Nb, Ce, and Y, and high Zr saturation temperatures (average of 812 °C); thus, they are geochemically similar to A-type intrusions. The initial 87Sr/86Sr and εNd(t) values range respectively from 0.7074 to 0.7083 and from - 7.9 to - 1.3 for the granodiorite, and from 0.7008 to 0.7083 and from - 6.3 to - 4.7 for the granite porphyry. In addition, two-stage Nd model ages (T2DM) of 1.0-1.6 Ga for the granodiorite and 1.3-1.4 Ga for the granite porphyry indicate that the Proterozoic crustal rocks of the Shangxi Group could have contributed to the Xiaoyao magmas. The rhenium contents of the molybdenite grains vary from 32 to 136 ppm, suggesting that the molybdenum was derived mainly from a mixture of mantle and crustal sources. Based on the new geochemical data and regional geological investigations, we propose that the Late Jurassic mineralization-related I-type granodiorite was derived from the Neoproterozoic

  1. Skarn and ore formation at Seriphos, Greece as a consequence of granodiorite intrusion

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Salemink, J.

    1985-01-01

    On the island of Seriphos, Greece, the shallow intrusion of a granodiorite pluton into a series of previously regionally metamorphosed gneisses, marbles and marble-bearing schists produced a contact metamorphic aureole and extensive deposits of Ca-Fe-Mg skarns and Fe-ores. Structural and

  2. Mineralogy and skarnification processes at the Avan Cu-Fe Skarn, northeast of Kharvana, NW Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mir Ali Asghar Mokhtari

    2017-02-01

    . Investigation of genesis, mineralogy and geochemistry of Fe-Cu skarn in Astamal area, NE Kharvana, Eastern Azarbaijan. MSc. Thesis, University of Tabriz, Tabriz, Iran, 185 pp. (in Persian with English abstract Calagari, A.A. and Hosseinzadeh, G., 2005. The mineralogy of copper-bearing skarn to the east of the Sungun-Chay River, East-Azarbaijan, Iran. Journal of Asian Earth Sciences, 28(4-6: 423-438. Karimzadeh Somarin, A. and Moayed, M., 2002. Granite and gabbro-diorite associated skarn deposits of NW Iran. Ore geology reviews, 20(3-4: 127-138. Mokhtari, M.A.A., 2008. Petrology, geochemistry and petrogenesis of Qaradagh batholith (east of Syahrood, Eastern Azarbaijan and related skarn with considering mineralization. Ph.D. Thesis, Tarbiat Modares University, Tehran, Iran, 347 pp. (in Persian with English abstract Mokhtari, M.A.A., 2012. The mineralogy and petrology of the Pahnavar Fe skarn, in the Eastern Azarbaijan, NW Iran. Central European Journal of Geosciences, 4(4: 578-591.

  3. Petrology and Geochemistry of Shakh Sefid Granitoid and related skarn in the North of Rayen (southeastern of Kerman

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Habib biabangard

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available The Shakh Sefid Granitoid pluton and related Skarn are located 80 Km in the southeastern of Kerman and 20 Km north of Rayen. This area   is geologically located in the southeastern of the Lut block in the Central Iran. The Shakh Sefid Granitoid with Eocene-Oligocene age cuts the Cretaceous sedimentary rocks and led to the formation of Skarn. The granitoids are granite and granodiorite in composition composing of quartz, plagioclase, orthoclase, as primary minerals, biotite as minor and chlorite and sericite as secondary minerals. The sedimentary rocks are shale, sandstone, siltstone and limestone. Metamorphic rocks are marble and Skarns. The Skarn is calcic type. Garnet (grossular-andradite, tremolite and magnetite are the main minerals that are often accompanied with hematite, goethite and limonite. Pyrite, chalcopyrite and copper carbonate (malachite and azurite are the other minerals in Skarn. Geochemical studies show that the amount of major and minor elements of granitoid with increasing SiO2 content do not change due to the uniform mass, low dispersion of elements which result from heterogeneous textures and low alteration zone. Spider diagrams from minor elements normalized to Chondrite and primitive mantle show enrichment of all elements except for Ti, positive anomalies of Th, Pb and negative anomalies of Ti, P and Sr for the Sakh Sefid granitoids are probably due to crustal contamination. They are enriched in light rare earth elements (LREE between 10 to 100 times and heavy elements (HREE enrichment between 1 to 10 times compared to the reference (chondrite and regular pattern with approximately the same slope , the parallel trends indicate that the granitoid rocks share  a common source rock . The Shakh Sefid granitoid is I-type, metaluminous to peraluminous belonging to an active continental margin. Mineral and Mineralization in Kuh Shakh Sefid skarn is remarkably similar to iron skarn deposits. Minerals such as garnet and

  4. Main characteristics and genesis of the Vale de Pães skarn (Cuba-Vidigueira, Ossa Morena Zone, Portugal

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    Salgueiro, R.

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available The Vale de Pães (Cuba-Vidigueira mineralisation is composed of magnetite ± sulphides and hosted in a Pre-Variscan metamorphic sequence intruded by igneous rocks belonging to the Beja Igneous Complex. Its mineral and chemical features are compatible with a zoned Fe-skarn: Mg-rich (Fo + Di90, oxidised and Ca-rich (Grs + Di81-39, oxidised or relatively reduced. In the Fe-Mg skarn, magnetite deposition occurred along with the anhydrous mineral assemblage at ≈ 600 °C; sulphides precipitated from the retrograde stage onset (≤ 550 °C and during the hydrated and carbonate phases formation period (< 420 °C. In the Fe-Ca skarn, magnetite precipitated during the retrograde stage (< 550 °C together with the hydrated mineral association, and was followed by sulphides at ≈ 400°C. The mineralising process involved moderate-high salinity fluids and was controlled by variations in redox potential and pH.

    La mineralización del Vale de Pães (Cuba-Vidigueira, compuesta de magnetita ± sulfuros, se produce dentro de una secuencia metamórfica ante-Varisca intruida por el Complejo Ígneo de Beja (Beja Igneous Complex. Sus características químicas y mineralógicas son consistentes con un skarn de Fe zonificado: rico en Mg (Fo + Di≈90, oxidado y rico en Ca (Grs + Di81-39, oxidado o relativamente reducido. En el skarn de Fe-Mg, la deposición de magnetita acompaña a la paragénesis mineral anhidra (≈ 600 °C; la precipitación de sulfuros se produce desde el comienzo de la etapa retrógrada (≤ 550 °C y continuó durante la formación de fases hidratadas y carbonatadas (< 420 °C. En el skarn de Fe-Ca, la magnetita se genera en la fase de retroceso (< 550 °C, en relación con la asociación de minerales hidratados, seguido de sulfuro (≈ 400 °C. El proceso de mineralización de los fluidos de salinidad moderada-alta era controlado por los cambios en el potencial redox y el pH.

  5. Multiwalled Carbon Nanotube Deposition on Model Environmental Surfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deposition of multiwalled carbon nanotubes (MWNTs) on model environmental surfaces was investigated using a quartz crystal microbalance with dissipation monitoring (QCM-D). Deposition behaviors of MWNTs on positively and negatively charged surfaces were in good agreement with Der...

  6. Environmental monitoring program to NUCLEMON deposits in Botuxim - Itu

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1980-01-01

    An Environmental monitoring program to be executed in routine as caution against a possible contamination in adjacents regions of Radioactive Materials deposits sites of Santo Amaro (USAM)/NUCLEMON is presented. (author) [pt

  7. Atmospheric deposition and environmental quality in Italy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mosello, R.

    1993-01-01

    For Italy's Po River hydrological basin, artificial reservoirs have a great importance; water reserve is about 1600 million cubic meters for the hydroelectric reservoirs and about 76 million cubic meters for irrigation. Relevant to studies on water quality and acidification in the Po River Basin, this paper reviews some aspects of research on atmospheric deposition, i.e., geographical variability, long term trends, and effects on surface waters

  8. Sulfur isotope study of the Velardeña skarn (Zn-Pb), Durango, Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jimenez, A.

    2012-04-01

    Sulfur isotope study of the Velardeña skarn (Zn-Pb), Durango, Mexico Abigail Jimenez-Franco1*, Pura Alfonso Abella2, Carles Canet3, Eduardo González-Partida4 1 Posgrado en Ciencias de la Tierra, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México, Ciudad Universitaria, Delegación Coyoacán, 04510 México D.F., Mexico 2 Departament d'Enginyeria Minera i Recursos Naturals, Universitat Politècnica de Catalunya, Av de Les Bases de Manresa 61-73, 08242 Manresa. 3Instituto de Geofísica, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México, Ciudad Universitaria, Delegación Coyoacán, 04510 México D.F., Mexico 4Centro de Geociencias, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México, Campus Juriquilla, Boulevard Juriquilla 3001, 76230 Santiago de Querétaro, Qro., Mexico The Velardeña mining district is located in north-eastern part of the state of Durango, in northern of Mexico. The ore deposit is a lead-zinc, garnet-rich skarn developed at the contact between granite porphyry dikes (Eocene) and well-laminated limestones with interbedded chert (Albian-Cenomanian). A study of sulfur isotopes has been carried out in various sulfide minerals of the ores of Velardeña, in order to: (a) constrain the possible sources of sulfur and, therefore, better understand the sulfide mineralizing processes, and (b) to estimate the temperature of the ore-forming stage of the skarn. Sulfur isotope analyses were performed in 21 pure fractions of sulfide minerals of the ore mineralization (pyrite, chalcopyrite, sphalerite and galena). The mineral separation was performed using a series of sieves, and the purity of the samples was verified under a binocular microscope. Isotopic analyses were done on a Finnigan MAT Delta C flow elemental analyzer coupled to a TC-EA, according with the method of Giesemann et al. (1974). The δ34S values of the analyzed sulfides range mostly between -0.6 and +2.6 ‰ (relative to the CDT standard). These values are indicative of a magmatic source of sulfur. A single analysis falls

  9. Skarn-mineralized porphyry adakites in the Harlik arc at Kalatage, E. Tianshan (NW China): Slab melting in the Devonian-early Carboniferous in the southern Central Asian Orogenic Belt

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mao, Qigui; Yu, Mingjie; Xiao, Wenjiao; Windley, Brian F.; Li, Yuechen; Wei, Xiaofeng; Zhu, Jiangjian; Lü, Xiaoqiang

    2018-03-01

    The geodynamic control of mineralization in the accretionary evolution of the Central Asian Orogenic Belt (CAOB) has long been controversial. Here we report new field, geochemical and geochronological data on recently defined porphyry and skarn-type ore deposits (Devonian-Early Carboniferous) in the Kalatage area in the middle of the Harlik-Dananhu arc, Eastern Tianshan, NW China in the southern CAOB, with the aim of better understanding the accretionary tectonics and genesis of porphyry and skarn-type mineralization. The Yudai porphyry Cu-(Au) deposits and the Xierqu skarn Cu-Fe-(Au) deposits are closely associated with Middle Devonian adakitic diorite porphyries (382-390 Ma), which are calc-alkaline and characterized by high Na2O/K2O ratios and Sr contents (310-1020 ppm), strong depletion of HREE (e.g., Yb = 0.80-1.44 ppm) and Y (7.68-14.50 ppm), and all enriched in Rb, Sr, Ba, K and depleted in Nb and Ti. They are characterized by distinctive Eu positive anomalies, high Na2O contents and MORB-like Sr and Nd isotope signatures (high εNd(t) = +6.1 to +7.0 and low (87Sr/86Sr)i = 0.70412-0.70462). These adakites most likely formed by melting of a young/hot subducted oceanic slab, and adakites in general are important carriers of porphyry Cu ± (Au) deposits. Early Carboniferous adakites in the Tuwu area south of Kalatage are known to have similar features. Therefore, skarn-mineralized porphyry adakites get younger from north to south, suggesting southward migration of the Harlik-Dananhu arc from 390 Ma to 322 Ma. These data indicate that partial melting of hot (and/or young) oceanic crustal slabs were an important mechanism of accretionary crustal growth and mineralization in the southern CAOB.

  10. CMAS Interactions with Advanced Environmental Barrier Coatings Deposited via Plasma Spray- Physical Vapor Deposition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harder, B. J.; Wiesner, V. L.; Zhu, D.; Johnson, N. S.

    2017-01-01

    Materials for advanced turbine engines are expected to have temperature capabilities in the range of 1370-1500C. At these temperatures the ingestion of sand and dust particulate can result in the formation of corrosive glass deposits referred to as CMAS. The presence of this glass can both thermomechanically and thermochemically significantly degrade protective coatings on metallic and ceramic components. Plasma Spray- Physical Vapor Deposition (PS-PVD) was used to deposit advanced environmental barrier coating (EBC) systems for investigation on their interaction with CMAS compositions. Coatings were exposed to CMAS and furnace tested in air from 1 to 50 hours at temperatures ranging from 1200-1500C. Coating composition and crystal structure were tracked with X-ray diffraction and microstructure with electron microscopy.

  11. Loess as an environmental archive of atmospheric trace element deposition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blazina, T.; Winkel, L. H.

    2013-12-01

    Environmental archives such as ice cores, lake sediment cores, and peat cores have been used extensively to reconstruct past atmospheric deposition of trace elements. These records have provided information about how anthropogenic activities such as mining and fossil fuel combustion have disturbed the natural cycles of various atmospherically transported trace elements (e.g. Pb, Hg and Se). While these records are invaluable for tracing human impacts on such trace elements, they often provide limited information about the long term natural cycles of these elements. An assumption of these records is that the observed variations in trace element input, prior to any assumed anthropogenic perturbations, represent the full range of natural variations. However, records such as those mentioned above which extend back to a maximum of ~400kyr may not capture the potentially large variations of trace element input occurring over millions of years. Windblown loess sediments, often representing atmospheric deposition over time scales >1Ma, are the most widely distributed terrestrial sediments on Earth. These deposits have been used extensively to reconstruct continental climate variability throughout the Quaternary and late Neogene periods. In addition to being a valuable record of continental climate change, loess deposits may represent a long term environmental archive of atmospheric trace element deposition and may be combined with paleoclimate records to elucidate how fluctuations in climate have impacted the natural cycle of such elements. Our research uses the loess-paleosol deposits on the Chinese Loess Plateau (CLP) to quantify how atmospheric deposition of trace elements has fluctuated in central China over the past 6.8Ma. The CLP has been used extensively to reconstruct past changes of East Asian monsoon system (EAM). We present a suite of trace element concentration records (e.g. Pb, Hg, and Se) from the CLP which exemplifies how loess deposits can be used as an

  12. Kr-Ar and Rb-Sr dating and the genesis of tungsten at the Clea tungsten skarn property, Selwyn Mountains, Yukon Territory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Godwin, C.I.; Armstrong, R.L.; Tompson, K.M.

    1980-01-01

    Tungsten skarn deposits on the Clea property in the Selwyn Mountains, Y.T., are related genetically to a quartz monzonite stock, about 500 metres in diameter at the surface. Lower Paleozoic sedimentary rocks are metamorphosed for a distance of 3 km from the stock. Tugnsten-bearing skarn mineralization within the altered sedimentary rocks is of two types: sulphide-rich pods and calc-silicate beds. The most significant sheelite concentration is in calc-silicate beds near or adjacent to the quartz monzonite stock. Discordant K-Ar and Rb-Sr isotopic dates indicate that the stock is probably of early Late Cretaceous age, 94 Ma or slightly older, and that it cooled slowly. High initial 87 Sr/ 86 Sr ratios and disequilibrium relationships between K-feldspar phenocrysts and groundmass minerals in the porphyritic phase of the granite rock, and between different granite rock specimens, indicate contamination of crystallizing magma by old sialic continental crust which extends westward under the Selwyn Basin. This study is significant to regional tungsten exploration. Granite rocks associated with tungsten deposits, in this part of the Canadian Cordillera at least, appear to have specific isotope characteristics that indicate they were generated at a specific time and in a particular way. (auth)

  13. High Temperature Multilayer Environmental Barrier Coatings Deposited Via Plasma Spray-Physical Vapor Deposition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harder, Bryan James; Zhu, Dongming; Schmitt, Michael P.; Wolfe, Douglas E.

    2014-01-01

    Si-based ceramic matrix composites (CMCs) require environmental barrier coatings (EBCs) in combustion environments to avoid rapid material loss. Candidate EBC materials have use temperatures only marginally above current technology, but the addition of a columnar oxide topcoat can substantially increase the durability. Plasma Spray-Physical Vapor Deposition (PS-PVD) allows application of these multilayer EBCs in a single process. The PS-PVD technique is a unique method that combines conventional thermal spray and vapor phase methods, allowing for tailoring of thin, dense layers or columnar microstructures by varying deposition conditions. Multilayer coatings were deposited on CMC specimens and assessed for durability under high heat flux and load. Coated samples with surface temperatures ranging from 2400-2700F and 10 ksi loads using the high heat flux laser rigs at NASA Glenn. Coating morphology was characterized in the as-sprayed condition and after thermomechanical loading using electron microscopy and the phase structure was tracked using X-ray diffraction.

  14. Mineralogy and geochemistry of Skarn Fe orebody and syenodioritic intrusive host rock in Zeber Kuh prospect area (SW Bardaskan, South Khorasan province

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    Hossein Narooie

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available The Zeber Kuh prospect area is located southwest of Bardaskan, South Khorasan province, in the northeastern Iran. Lithologically, the area includes Rizu and Soltanieh Formations metamorphosed carbonate rocks, which were intruded by syenogranitic and syenodioritic intrusions. Field observations and laboratory studies such as structural controls of orebody, metasomatic replacement and formation of low temperature H2O-bearing minerals, and the occurrence of magnetite and pyrite associated with chlorite, epidote, calcite, and quartz indicate that  the iron mineralization is low temperature skarn-type. The source of Fe mineralization is probably a younger intrusive rock at depth. Hydrothermal ore fluid was ascended within fault zone and/or contact between the intrusive rock and the  carbonate unit and generated orebody. Iron grade ranges from 54 to 65 wt.% and sulfur value is > 3 wt.%. Magnetite chemistry and Ti, V, Al, Mn, Ni, and Cr contents are similar to skarn deposit. Biotite syenodiorite host rock has hypidiomorphic granular texture and it consists of plagioclase, K-feldspar, biotite, and apatite minerals. Chemically, this intrusive rock is K-series alkaline type, which was generated in within plate zone. This magma is characterized by strong enrichment in LREE, LILE (Rb, Cs, Ba, and K, HFSE (Nb, Zr, and Ti, and P elements. The primary magma is produced by low degree partial melting of garnet lherzolite from asthenospheric to boundary of asthenospheric-lithospheric mantle.

  15. Studies of petrography, metasomatic alteration, and genesis of Kamtal iron-copper skarn, northeast of Kharvana, East-Azarbaijan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rasool Ferdowsi

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Kamtal skarn is located 15 km northeast of Kharvana, East-Azarbaijan. A quartz-monzonitic stock of Oligocene age intruded the upper Cretaceous sedimentary sequence (claystone, limestone, marl, and siltstone developing noticeable metamorphic (marble, hornfels and metasomatic (skarn alteration zones along the contact. Kamtal skarn is of calcic type and consists of both endoskarn and exoskarn zones. Exoskarn includes two zones of garnet skarn and epidote skarn. Skarnification processes are divided mainly in two major stages (1 prograde and (2 retrograde. During prograde stage, the emplacement of intrusive body caused isochemical metamorphism of the wall rocks and developed marble and hornfels units in enclosing rocks. Crystallization of intrusive body led to evolvement of hydrothermal fluid phase which infiltrated into enclosing rocks. Reaction of these fluids with the early-formed metamorphosed wall rocks brought about extensive progressive metasomatic alteration characterized by the formation of anhydrous calc-silicate minerals such as garnets and pyroxenes at a temperature range of 420-550°C and ¦O2=10-22-10-25. Retrograde stage was accompanied by some physicochemical changes (decrease in temperature to <420°C and increase in ¦S2 which caused the alteration of pre-existing anhydrous calc-silicates to hydrous calc-silicates (epidote, and tremolite-actinolite, silicates (quartz, chlorites, and other clay minerals, oxides (magnetite and hematite, sulfides (pyrite, chalcopyrite, and tetrahedrite, and carbonate (calcite. Comparison of Kamtal skarn with some other ones of corresponding type from Iran and other countries shows that Kamtal skarn well resembles to Anjerd and Pahnavar skarns in East-Azarbaijan.

  16. Age of the granitic magmatism and the W-Mo mineralization in skarns of the Seridó belt (NE Brazil) based on zircon U-Pb (SHRIMP) and molybdenite Re-Os dating

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hollanda, Maria Helena B. M. de; Souza Neto, João A.; Archanjo, Carlos J.; Stein, Holly; Maia, Ana C. S.

    2017-11-01

    Over five hundred W-Mo skarns have been reported in the Neoproterozoic Seridó belt in the northeastern Brazil. The origin of these mineralizations has been attributed to metasomatic reactions occuring after the infiltration of hydrothermal fluids that are mostly derived from the plutonic magmatic activity that ranged between approximately 600 and 525 Ma. Here we date molybdenite using N-TIMS on Re-Os analysis of three major scheelite deposits (Brejuí, Bonfim and Bodó) hosted in the skarn horizons of the metasedimentary sequence. Molybdenite is an integral part of the mineralizations that include scheelite in skarns and, in the Bonfim deposit, gold concentrate in late brittle faults. The Re-Os ages are 554 ± 2 Ma (Brejuí), 524 ± 2 Ma (Bonfim) and 510 ± 2 Ma (Bodó). The age of the Brejuí molybdenite, however, appears to be anomalous based on the local geology of the deposit, which is located next to the contact of a batholith dated ca. 575 Ma. In turn, the Bonfim molybdenite yields similar ages in replicated samples with variable high Re contents. New U-Pb SHRIMP ages of four biotite (leuco)granite plutons vary from 577 ± 5 Ma to 526 ± 8 Ma, which overlap with molybdenite crystallization. These results indicate a close connection between the W-Mo mineralizations and the plutonic activity that intruded the belt after the peak HT/LP metamorphism. The latest pulses of felsic magmatism, which were contemporaneous with the emplacement of Be-Ta-Nb-Li pegmatites, therefore constitute a potential guide in the Seridó belt for prospective W-Mo deposits.

  17. The Technological Mineralogical Research of Molybdenum in Skarn-type Ore of Huangshaping Polymetallic Mining Area, Hunan, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, W. H.; Pan, J. Y.

    2017-10-01

    Huangshaping is one of the most important polymetallic deposits in the south of Hunan Province. Through field investigation, chemical analysis, observation under the optical microscope, energy spectrum analysis of the SEM and X-ray diffraction, the author made a technological mineralogical research of molybdenum on skarn-type ore, and the result shows that the ore containing molybdenum is mainly on the contact of the granite porphyry and the impure limestone in the lower carboniferous Shidengzi group. Besides molybdenum, the ore minerals contain scheelite, native bismuth, bismuthinite, magnetite and so on; and the gangue minerals are mainly andradite, fluorite and wollastonite. Part of the molybdenum exists in the scheelite in form of isomorphism, and there is an obvious negative correlation between MoO3 and WO3. The molybdenite granularity is mainly located in the 0.04~ 0.08mm area, which accounts for 29.5% of the total and is the finely disseminated ore. For samples of 70%, 90%, and 100% with the particle size of more than 200 meshes, the maximum recovery of the molybdenite are 75.15%, 86.45% and 91.25% respectively. So there will be a better use of molybdenum if we properly improve the grinded particle size of the comprehensive samples. As part of the molybdenum is distributed in the scheelite lattice, the actual recovery rate in this area may decline compared with the ideal value.

  18. Evolution of borate minerals from contact metamorphic to hydrothermal stages: Ludwigite-group minerals and szaibélyite from the Vysoká - Zlatno skarn, Slovakia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bilohuščin, Vladimír; Uher, Pavel; Koděra, Peter; Milovská, Stanislava; Mikuš, Tomáš; Bačík, Peter

    2017-09-01

    Borate minerals of the ludwigite group (LGM) and szaibélyite in association with hydroxylclinohumite, clinochlore, a serpentine mineral, magnesian magnetite, spinel, magnesite, dolomite and sulphide minerals, occur in a magnesian exoskarn in the R-20 borehole located in the Vysoká - Zlatno Cu-Au porphyry-skarn deposit, located within the Štiavnica Neogene stratovolcano, Western Carpathians, central Slovakia. The skarn is developed along the contact of Miocene granodiorite to quartz-diorite porphyry and a Middle-Upper Triassic dolomite-shale-psammite-anhydrite sedimentary sequence. The boron minerals were investigated by electron probe micro-analyser (EPMA) and micro-Raman techniques. The source of boron could have been from the granodiorite/quartz diorite intrusion; however some supply of B from adjacent evaporite-bearing sediments is also possible. Based on textural and compositional data, the minerals originated during two stages. (1) An early high-temperature, contact-metamorphic and metasomatic stage comprises coarse-crystalline aggregate of LGM (types 1 to 3) in association with hydroxylclinohumite, magnetite, and rarely spinel inclusions in LGM. Compositional variations of LGM show a crystallization sequence from early azoproite [≤17 wt% TiO2; 0.40 atoms pre formula unit (apfu) Ti, which correspond to ≤79 mol% of the Mg2(Mg0.5Ti0.5)O2(BO3) end-member], Ti-Al-rich members of LGM, "aluminoludwigite "[≤14 wt% Al2O3; ≤0.53 apfu, ≤53 mol% of Mg2AlO2(BO3) end-member] and Al-rich ludwigite in the central zone of crystals, to Ti-Al-poor ludwigite in outer parts of crystals. (2) Minerals of the late retrograde serpentinization and hydrothermal stage form irregular veinlets and aggregates, including partial alteration of hydroxylclinohumite to the serpentine-group mineral and clinochlore, replacement of LGM by szaibélyite, formation of the latest generation of Fe-rich, Ti-Al poor ludwigite in veinlets (type 4), and precipitation of dolomite, magnesite and

  19. Petrology of skarns in the north and the southwest of Qazan (South Qamsar with emphasis on the mineral chemistry of garnet and pyroxene

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Chavideh

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available The Oligo-Miocene Qazan granitoid body caused contact metamorphic of surrounding rocks and skarn formation in the wall limestone. The main intrusive rocks are essentially granite to diorite in composition. Two different types of skarn, exo and endoskarn have been developed. On the base of microprobe data, the northern skarn are characterized by zoning and the amounts of andradite and grossular changes oscillatory. While garnets from the southwestern skarn is predominantly andradite in composition. Using Fe/Ti vs. Al/ (Al+Fe+Mn diagram that were calculated based on the mole percent of the used elements, it is estimated that about less than 50 percent hydrothermal waters were involved for the northern skarn whereas it was over this amount for the southwestern skarn. This leds to difference in garnet composition. The composition of clinopyroxene in both skarns is the same (diopside. As a result, hydrothermal fluids have not had much influence on pyroxene genesis. With regards to the occurrence of mineral assemblage and the presence of wollastonite in the skarns under study, these rocks have evolved in temperature above 500 ° C and O2 fugacity in the range of 10-17 to 10-15.

  20. Estimated environmental radionuclide transfer and deposition into outdoor swimming pools

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tagami, Kazumi; Nagata, Izumi; Sueki, Keisuke

    2014-01-01

    In 2011, a large radioactive discharge occurred at the Fukushima Daiichi nuclear power plant. This plant is located within a climatically temperate region where outdoor swimming pools are popular. Although it is relatively easy to decontaminate pools by refilling them with fresh water, it is difficult to maintain safe conditions given highly contaminated diurnal dust falls from the surrounding contaminated ground. Our objectives in this paper were to conduct daily radioactivity measurements, to determine the quantity of radioactive contaminants from the surrounding environment that invade outdoor pools, and to investigate the efficacy of traditional pool cleaners in removing radioactive contaminants. The depositions in the paper filterable particulates ranged from 0 to 62,5 Bq/m 2 /day, with the highest levels found in the southern Tohoku District containing Fukushima Prefecture and in the Kanto District containing Tokyo Metro. They were approximately correlated with the ground contamination. Traditional pool cleaners eliminated 99% of contaminants at the bottom of the pool, reducing the concentration to 41 Bq/m 2 after cleaning. Authors recommended the deposition or the blown radionuclides into outdoor swimming pools must be considered into pool regulations when the environments exactly polluted with radionuclides. - Highlights: • Deposition into outdoor swimming pool in a habitable areas estimated 72 Bq/m 2 /day. • More than 500 Bq/m 2 /day deposition will exceed our national guideline (10 Bq/l) of swimming pool. • Vacuum pool cleaner eliminates 99% radionuclides deposition

  1. Mineral magnetic environmental record in clastic cave deposits

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Šlechta, Stanislav; Kadlec, Jaroslav

    2008-01-01

    Roč. 38, special issue (2008), s. 134-134 ISSN 1335-2806. [Paleo, Rock and Environmental Magnetism. Castle Meeting /11./. 22.06.2008-28.06.2008, Bojnice] Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z30130516 Keywords : mineral magnetic environmental reconstruction * cave sediments * Moravian Karst Subject RIV: DE - Earth Magnetism, Geodesy, Geography

  2. Origin of the pegmatite veins within the skarn body at Vevčice near Znojmo (Gfohl Unit, Moldanubian Zone)

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Buriánek, D.; Houzar, S.; Krmíček, Lukáš; Šmerda, J.

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 62, č. 1 (2017), s. 1-23 ISSN 1802-6222 Institutional support: RVO:67985831 Keywords : diorite pegmatite * skarn * mineralogy * geochemistry * Moldanubian Zone * Bohemian Massif Subject RIV: DB - Geology ; Mineralogy OBOR OECD: Geology Impact factor: 0.609, year: 2016

  3. Environmental Characteristics of Carbonatite and Alkaline Intrusion-related Rare Earth Element (REE) Deposits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seal, R. R., II; Piatak, N. M.

    2017-12-01

    Carbonatites and alkaline intrusions are important sources of REEs. Environmental risks related to these deposit types have been assessed through literature review and evaluation of the geochemical properties of representative samples of mill tailings and their leachates. The main ore mineral in carbonatite deposits is bastnasite [(Ce,La)(CO3)F], which is found with dolomite and calcite ( 65 %), barite (20 - 25 %), plus a number of minor accessory minerals including sulfides such as galena and pyrite. Generally, alkaline intrusion-related REE deposits either occur in layered complexes or with dikes and veins cutting alkaline intrusions. Such intrusions have a more diverse group of REE ore minerals that include fluorcarbonates, oxides, silicates, and phosphates. Ore also can include minor calcite and iron (Fe), lead (Pb), and zinc (Zn) sulfides. The acid-generating potential of both deposit types is low because of a predominance of carbonate minerals in the carbonatite deposits, the presence of feldspars and minor calcite in alkaline intrusion-related deposits, and to only minor to trace occurrence of potentially acid-generating sulfide minerals. Both deposit types, however, are produced by igneous and hydrothermal processes that enrich high-field strength, incompatible elements, which typically are excluded from common rock-forming minerals. Elements such as yttrium (Y), niobium Nb), zirconium (Zr), hafnium (Hf), tungsten (W), titanium (Ti), tantalum (Ta), scandium (Sc), thorium (Th), and uranium (U) can be characteristic of these deposits and may be of environmental concern. Most of these elements, including the REEs, but with the exception of U, have low solubilities in water at the near-neutral pH values expected around these deposits. Mill tailings from carbonatite deposits can exceed residential soil and sediment criteria for Pb, and leachates from mill tailings can exceed drinking water guidelines for Pb. The greatest environmental challenges, however, are

  4. Methodology of testing environmental samples from the area surrounding radioactive waste deposits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kropikova, S.; Pastuchova, D.

    1979-01-01

    Methods are described of environmental sample investigation in the area surrounding radioactive waste deposits, namely monitoring ground water, surface water, sediments, water flows and catchments, vegetation and soil. Methods of sample preparation, and methods of radionuclides determination in mixtures are also discussed, as are spot activity measurement methods. (author)

  5. Simulation of 7Be monthly depositions using normally available data on environmental monitoring and local meteorology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sakashita, Tetsuya; Nakamura, Yuji; Doi, Masahiro

    2003-01-01

    Monthly depositions of Beryllium-7 were simulated using normally available data on environmental monitoring and local meteorology over a 5-year period, from 1986 to 1990. The washout scheme of ApSimon et al., the constant dry deposition velocity (0.002 ms -1 ), and the rainout scheme of Kasibhatla et al. (K scheme) were used for simulation. Seasonal variations in the observed depositions were relatively well simulated by the present parameterization, however, there was a tendency for simulations to exceed the observed values, when heavy rain was measured. The revised parameterization of rainout scheme was introduced and improved the overestimation. The result may suggest that aerosols containing 7 Be are removed at a relatively high rate from the formation area of raindrops. (author)

  6. Pulsed Laser Deposition of Polymers Doped with Fluorescent Probes. Application to Environmental Sensors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rebollar, E; Villavieja, Mm; Gaspard, S; Oujja, M; Corrales, T; Georgiou, S; Domingo, C; Bosch, P; Castillejo, M

    2007-01-01

    Pulsed laser deposition (PLD) has been used to obtain thin films of poly(methyl methacrylate) and polystyrene doped with fluorescent probes, amino aromatic compounds S5 and S6, that could be used to sense the presence of contaminating environmental agents. These dopants both in solution and inserted in polymeric films are sensitive to changes in pH, viscosity and polarity, increasing their fluorescence emission and/or modifying the position of their emission band. Films deposits on quartz substrates, obtained by irradiating targets with a Ti:Sapphire laser (800 nm, 120 fs pulse) were analyzed by optical and Environmental Scanning Electron Microscopy, Fluorescence Microscopy, Laser-Induced Fluorescence, Micro Raman Spectroscopy and Flow Injection Analysis-Mass Spectrometry. The transfer of the polymer and the probe to the substrate is observed to be strongly dependent on the optical absorption coefficient of the polymeric component of the target at the irradiation wavelength

  7. Ammonia Emission and Deposition in Scotland and Its Potential Environmental Impacts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.A. Sutton

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available The main source of atmospheric ammonia (NH3 in Scotland is livestock agriculture, which accounts for 85% of emissions. The local magnitude of emissions therefore depends on livestock density, type, and management, with major differences occurring in various parts of Scotland. Local differences in agricultural activities therefore result in a wide range of NH3 emissions, ranging from less than 0.2 kg N ha−1 year−1 in remote areas of the Scottish Highlands to over 100 kg N ha−1 year−1 in areas with intensive poultry farming. Scotland can be divided loosely into upland and lowland areas, with NH3 emission being less than and more than 5 kg N ha−1 year−1, respectively.Many semi-natural ecosystems in Scotland are vulnerable to nitrogen deposition, including bogs, moorlands, and the woodland ground flora. Because NH3 emissions occur in the rural environment, the local deposition to sensitive ecosystems may be large, making it essential to assess the spatial distribution of NH3 emissions and deposition. A spatial model is applied here to map NH3 emissions and these estimates are applied in atmospheric dispersion and deposition models to estimate atmospheric concentrations of NH3 and NH4+, dry deposition of NH3, and wet deposition of NHx. Although there is a high level of local variability, modelled NH3 concentrations show good agreement with the National Ammonia Monitoring Network, while wet deposition is largest at high altitude sites in the south and west of Scotland. Comparison of the modelled NHx deposition fields with estimated thresholds for environmental effects (“critical loads” shows that thresholds are exceeded across most of lowland Scotland and the Southern Uplands. Only in the cleanest parts of the north and west is nitrogen deposition not a cause for concern. Given that the most intense effects occur within a few kilometres of sources, it is suggested that local spatial abatement policies would be a useful complement to

  8. Acidic precipitation. Volume 3: Sources, deposition, and canopy interactions. Advances in environmental science

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lindberg, S.E.; Page, A.L.; Norton, S.A. (eds.)

    1990-01-01

    As has been the case with many environmental issues of the twentieth century, acidic precipitation has its origin in emissions to the atmosphere of numerous compounds from both natural and man-made sources. This volume emphasizes the atmospheric aspects of acidic precipitation and all that this term has come to include (e.g. toxic gases such as ozone, trace metals, aluminum, and oxides of nitrogen). It progresses from emissions of the precursors of acidic precipitation to their eventual deposition on environmental surfaces. The chapters describe the sources of acidic and basic airborne substances, their interactions in the atmosphere and with rain droplets, and their reactions with other airborne constituents such as aluminum and other metals. Also discussed are the use of metals as tracers of sources of the precursors of acidic precipitation and as tracers of historical deposition rates, the processes controlling the removal of airborne material as dry deposition and deposition interactions with the forest canopy, and past and future trends in atmospheric emissions and options for their abatement.

  9. Aligning environmental and regulatory procedures with a holistic project management approach for residue deposits

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Snyman, BJ

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available ). 1.1 Legislative responses in South Africa The advent of a democratic South Africa has brought about the promulgation of new environmental legislation. This was necessary to give legal effect to the principles of sustainability as laid down.... Often project delays can be ascribed to non-conformance to the legal and regulatory processes, because: • The South African EIA legislative process that is applicable to mine residue deposition does not focus on project management procedures, project...

  10. Acid deposition and assessment of its critical load for the environmental health of waterbodies in a subtropical watershed, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jia, Junjie; Gao, Yang

    2017-12-01

    Atmospheric acidic deposition in subtropical watersheds poses an environmental risk of causing acidification of aquatic ecosystems. In this study, we evaluated the frequency of acid deposition in a subtropical forest ecosystem and the associated critical loads of acidity for a sensitive aquatic ecosystem. We found that out of 132 rainfall events, 33(25%) were acidic rainfall occurrences. Estimated wet acid deposition (2282.78 eq·ha-1·yr-1), consistent with SO42- and NH4+ deposition, was high in spring and summer and low in autumn and winter. Waterbodies surrounded by mixed wood and citrus orchard experience severe acidification, mostly from S deposition because acidic deposition exceeds the corresponding critical loads of acidity. Modifications that take acid rain deposition into consideration are needed for land-use and agricultural management strategies to improve the environmental health of waterbodies in subtropical watersheds.

  11. Application of semiempirical expressions to the alpha and beta radiometry of environmental depositions samples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Perez Tamayo, L.

    1996-01-01

    Were applied two semiempirical equations exponential beta absorption and Bragg-Kleeman approximation complementary to experimental corrections for beta backscattering and auto absorption of beta and alpha radiations in measurements of environmental depositions samples In the first case was verified the validity of mentioned corrections with an application boundary to mass greater than 300 Pb-210 (0.015 mg/cm 2 ) In the second case, the Bragg-Kleeman approximation combined with the experimental beta corrections, bring a judgment to determine the fundamental alpha and beta emisors samples which results the Pb-210 group

  12. Ensuring the Environmental and Industrial Safety in Solid Mineral Deposit Surface Mining

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trubetskoy, Kliment; Rylnikova, Marina; Esina, Ekaterina

    2017-11-01

    The growing environmental pressure of mineral deposit surface mining and severization of industrial safety requirements dictate the necessity of refining the regulatory framework governing safe and efficient development of underground resources. The applicable regulatory documentation governing the procedure of ore open-pit wall and bench stability design for the stage of pit reaching its final boundary was issued several decades ago. Over recent decades, mining and geomechanical conditions have changed significantly in surface mining operations, numerous new software packages and computer developments have appeared, opportunities of experimental methods of source data collection and processing, grounding of the permissible parameters of open pit walls have changed dramatically, and, thus, methods of risk assessment have been perfected [10-13]. IPKON RAS, with the support of the Federal Service for Environmental Supervision, assumed the role of the initiator of the project for the development of Federal norms and regulations of industrial safety "Rules for ensuring the stability of walls and benches of open pits, open-cast mines and spoil banks", which contribute to the improvement of economic efficiency and safety of mineral deposit surface mining and enhancement of the competitiveness of Russian mines at the international level that is very important in the current situation.

  13. A synthesis of mineralization styles and geodynamic settings of the Paleozoic and Mesozoic metallic ore deposits in the Altay Mountains, NW China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Fuquan; Geng, Xinxia; Wang, Rui; Zhang, Zhixin; Guo, Xuji

    2018-06-01

    The Altay Mountains within the Xinjiang region of northwestern China hosts major metallic ore deposits. Here we review the geological characteristics, metallogenic features and tectonic settings of these deposits. The metallic ore deposits in the Altay Mountains occur mainly within four regions: North Altay, Central Altay, South Altay and Erqis. We recognize seven types of metallic ore deposits in the Altay Mountains: VMS, submarine volcanogenic iron, magmatic, skarn, pegmatite, hydrothermal vein (Cu-Zn, Fe) and orogenic gold. Among these types, the VMS, pegmatite, orogenic gold and skarn deposits are the most common. Most of the rare metal pegmatite deposits are distributed in Central Altay, with only a few in South Altay. The VMS, submarine volcanogenic type iron and skarn-type deposits are distributed in South Altay, whereas the orogenic-type gold deposits are distributed in the Erqis Fault belt. The hydrothermal vein-type deposits occur in the Erqis Fault belt and Chonghu'er Basin in South Altay. Magmatic-type deposits are mostly in the Erqis Fault belt and Central Altay. Based on isotopic age data, the VMS, submarine volcanogenic-type Fe and skarn-type Cu, Pb, Zn, Fe mineralization occurred during Early-Middle Devonian (∼410-377 Ma), orogenic-type Au, magmatic-type Cu-Ni, and a small number of skarn-type Fe, hydrothermal vein-type Cu-Zn, pegmatite-type rare-metal deposits in Early-Middle Permian (293-261 Ma), pegmatite-type rare-metal deposits, few skarn-type Fe deposit in Early-Middle Triassic (248-232 Ma), and dominantly represented by pegmatite-type rare-metal deposits in Late Triassic-Early Jurassic (223-180 Ma). The metallic ore deposits in the Altay Mountains formed in various tectonic settings, such as the Early-Middle Devonian continental arc and oceanic island arc, Early-Middle Permian post-collisional extensional setting, and Triassic-Early Jurassic intracontinental setting.

  14. A reassessment of the deposition velocity in the prediction of the environmental transport of radioiodine from air to milk

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hoffman, F.O.

    1977-01-01

    The environmental transport of radioiodine from air to milk under conditions of dry deposition is considered with especial reference to the misinterpretation of experimentally derived values of the deposition velocity of elemental iodine by previous workers which has resulted in an apparent underestimation of this value. It is suggested that published predictions of the milk-to-air ratio be adjusted to account for this apparent error. (U.K.)

  15. Preparation Of Deposited Sediment Sample By Casting Method For Environmental Study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hutabarat, Tommy; Ristin PI, Evarista

    2000-01-01

    The preparation of deposited sediment sample by c asting m ethod for environmental study has been carried out. This method comprises separation of size fraction and casting process. The deposited sediment samples were wet sieved to separate the size fraction of >500 mum, (250-500) mum, (125-250) mum and (63-125) mum and settling procedures were followed for the separation of (40-63) mum, (20-40) mum, (10-20) mum and o C, ashed at 450 o C, respectively. In the casting process of sample, it was used polyester rapid cure resin and methyl ethyl ketone peroxide (MEKP) hardener. The moulded sediment sample was poured onto caster, allow for 60 hours long. The aim of this method is to get the casted sample which can be used effectively, efficiently and to be avoided from contamination of each other samples. Before casting, samples were grinded up to be fine. The result shows that casting product is ready to be used for natural radionuclide analysis

  16. Processes in Environmental Depositional Systems and Deformation in Sedimentary Basins: Goals for Exoloration in Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sandoval-Ochoa, J.

    2005-05-01

    Among the recent needs to establish new goals in the mexican energy industry to increase the petroleum reserves, has been necessary to recapitulate on some academic an operative concepts and definitions applied to the Petroliferous Basins Exploration; first of all, in order to understand the Petroleum System in given tectonophysical framework. The tectonophysical environment experienced by the petroliferous basin in the southwestern Gulf of Mexico, merely in the Campeche Sound and adjacent terrestrial regions (Figure 1); has been the result of interaction among the tectonic plates, the Coco's Plate with impingement and subduction beneath the Northamerican Plate and the Yucatán Microplate and even in very deep connection with the oceanic crust of southwesternmost portion of the Gulf of Mexico and the one of the Caribbean sea beneath the gulf of Belize-Honduras. The tectonosedimentary effects in the Campeche Bay starting with the skeleton formed for the Cenozoic Era, kept simultaneous conditions in depositions and deformations because of strain, stress and collapse fields, acted through this Era up to the present day, as observed in the surface Aguayo et al, 1999 and Sandoval, 2000. The involved portions of the crust and its boundaries have also been performing the relative sinking of the mere southwestern centre of the Gulf of Mexico, and the rising of the southeastern lands of Mexico. In the middle contiguity are found the productive Tertiary basins of: Comalcalco, Macuspana, Salina del Itsmo, Campeche-Champoton and other in deep waters; all of them, in an arrangement of basins among distensive faulted blocks in echelon, falling down to the deep centre of the Gulf Sandoval, op cit. With this scenario and that ones of other basins, a recapitulation on concepts and definitions, has been made on the regional natural processes of the environmental depositional systems and on the basins analysis in the tectonophysical framework, in order to reflect on the

  17. Short Term vs Long Term Environmental Reconstruction from Carbonated Deposits of the Limagne Area (Massif Central, France)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barbecot, F.; Gibert, E.; Amokrane, Y.; Massault, M.; Noret, A. [Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique Interaction et Dynamique des Environnements de Surface, Universite Paris (France); Ghaleb, B. [Geotop, Universite du Quebec a Montreal, Montreal (Canada)

    2013-07-15

    A 80 cm sequence has been cored from carbonated travertine in the limagne area (French Massif Central, France) in order to document recent environmental fluctuations (0-100 a) of gaseous springs, in relation to the environmental and geochemical parameters that control the isotopic signatures of modern carbonate deposits. The chronology of these finely laminated deposits that are ideal for reconstructing hydrological conditions at very narrow time steps is determined through AMS-{sup 14}C and {sup 210}Pb/{sup 226}Ra radiometric methods. Preliminary results highlight a high enrichment in stable isotopes (eg up to +8 per mille vs VPDB for {delta}{sup 13}C), likely linked to both recharge temperature and degassing processes. Moreover, two general trends are superimposed: the first one, cyclic, may be correlated to the hydrologic annual/biannual budget while the second one, linear, implies a long term environmental trend. (author)

  18. Geochemical Peculiarities of Galena and Sphalerite from Polymetallic Deposits of the Dal'negorskii Ore Region (Primorsky Krai, Russia)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rogulina, L. I.; Moiseenko, V. G.; Ponomarchuk, V. A.

    2018-04-01

    New data on the composition of the major minerals from the skarn and vein polymetallic deposits of the Dal'negorskii ore region are reported. Analysis of galena and sphalerite was carried out by the X-ray fluorescent energy-dispersive method of synchrotron radiation for the first time. It is shown that the minor elements in major minerals of different deposits are typomorphic. Among these elements are Fe, Cu, Ni, Cd, Ag, Sn, and Sb, as well as In in sphalerite and Te in galena. The high concentrations of Ag, Cu, Te, Cd, and In in the extracted minerals indicate the complex character of mineralization. The compositional patterns of ore minerals characterize the sequence of mineral formation from the skarn to vein ores, and the sequence of deposits from the mesothermal to epithermal conditions. This provides geochemical evidence for the stage model of the formation of mineralization in the Dal'negorskii ore region.

  19. U-Pb, Re-Os and Ar-Ar dating of the Linghou polymetallic deposit, Southeastern China: Implications for metallogenesis of the Qingzhou-Hangzhou metallogenic belt

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Yanwen; Xie, Yuling; Liu, Liang; Lan, Tingguan; Yang, Jianling; Sebastien, Meffre; Yin, Rongchao; Liang, Songsong; Zhou, Limin

    2017-04-01

    The Qingzhou-Hangzhou metallogenic belt (QHMB) in Southeastern China has gained increasingly attention in recent years. However, due to the lack of reliable ages on intrusions and associated deposits in this belt, the tectonic setting and metallogenesis of the QHMB have not been well understood. The Linghou polymetallic deposit in northwestern Zhejiang Province is one of the typical deposits of the QHMB. According to the field relationships, this deposit consists of the early Cu-Au-Ag and the late Pb-Zn-Cu mineralization stages. Molybdenite samples with a mineral assemblage of molybdenite-chalcopyrite-pyrite ± quartz are collected from the copper mining tunnel near the Cu-Au-Ag ore bodies. Six molybdenite samples give the Re-Os model ages varying from 160.3 to 164.1 Ma and yield a mean age of 162.2 ± 1.4 Ma for the Cu-Au-Ag mineralization. Hydrothermal muscovite gives a well-defined Ar-Ar isochron age of 160.2 ± 1.1 Ma for the Pb-Zn-Cu mineralization. Three phases of granodioritic porphyry have been distinguished in this deposit, and LA-ICP-MS zircon U-Pb dating shows that they have formed at 158.8 ± 2.4 Ma, 158.3 ± 1.9 Ma and 160.6 ± 2.1 Ma, comparable to the obtained ages of the Cu-Au-Ag and Pb-Zn-Cu mineralization. Therefore, these intrusive rocks have a close temporal and spatial relationship with the Cu-Au-Ag and Pb-Zn-Cu ore bodies. The presences of skarn minerals (e.g., garnet) and vein-type ores, together with the previous fluid inclusion and H-O-C-S-Pb isotopic data, clearly indicate that the Cu-Au-Ag and Pb-Zn-Cu mineralization are genetically related to these granodiorite porphyries. This conclusion excludes the possibility that this deposit is of ;SEDEX; type and formed in a sag basin of continental rifts setting as previously proposed. Instead, it is proposed that the Linghou polymetallic and other similar deposits in the QHMB, such as the 150-160 Ma Yongping porphyry-skarn Cu-Mo, Dongxiang porphyry? Cu, Shuikoushan/Kangjiawang skarn Pb

  20. Oasis deposits in the southern margin of the Taklimakan Desert and abrupt environmental changes during the last 30 ka

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shu, P.; Li, B.; Wang, H.; Cheng, P.; An, Z.; Zhou, W.; Zhang, D. D.

    2017-12-01

    Taklimakan Desert, the largest arid landform in the Eurasia, is one of the most important dust sources in the world. Growing evidences shows that millennial-scale abrupt climate changes during the last glacial period in the region. However, records on millennial-scale climate and environmental changes remain poorly understood because dating eolian, lacustrine, and fluvial sediments and establishing the reliable environmental proxies from these records are always challenging. Here, we present 32 AMS 14C dates of bulk sediments, grain size, and Rb/Sr ratio parameters from the oasis sequence and dates of bulk loess and charcoal from the upstream source regions to examine the significance of oasis sediments on millennial-scale environmental changes in the Taklimakan Desert. We found that substantial reversal of radiocarbon dates on total organic carbon (TOC) was controlled by source region organic carbon input. Loess hills, alpine meadow north of the study region provided fluvial deposits along drainage system and deflation in the river valleys further provide eolain materials. We argue that early oasis deposits experienced deflation and re-deposition less severe than the younger oasis deposits. After refining radiocarbon age-depth relationships for an age model by Bacon package, proxy records show substantial abrupt fluctuations in climate and environments during the last glacial period, among which three wet intervals, two dry periods are identified. The wetter and warmer conditions during the Holocene facilitated human to occupy the oasis.

  1. Environmental hazard assessment of a marine mine tailings deposit site and potential implications for deep-sea mining.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mestre, Nélia C; Rocha, Thiago L; Canals, Miquel; Cardoso, Cátia; Danovaro, Roberto; Dell'Anno, Antonio; Gambi, Cristina; Regoli, Francesco; Sanchez-Vidal, Anna; Bebianno, Maria João

    2017-09-01

    Portmán Bay is a heavily contaminated area resulting from decades of metal mine tailings disposal, and is considered a suitable shallow-water analogue to investigate the potential ecotoxicological impact of deep-sea mining. Resuspension plumes were artificially created by removing the top layer of the mine tailings deposit by bottom trawling. Mussels were deployed at three sites: i) off the mine tailings deposit area; ii) on the mine tailings deposit beyond the influence from the resuspension plumes; iii) under the influence of the artificially generated resuspension plumes. Surface sediment samples were collected at the same sites for metal analysis and ecotoxicity assessment. Metal concentrations and a battery of biomarkers (oxidative stress, metal exposure, biotransformation and oxidative damage) were measured in different mussel tissues. The environmental hazard posed by the resuspension plumes was investigated by a quantitative weight of evidence (WOE) model that integrated all the data. The resuspension of sediments loaded with metal mine tails demonstrated that chemical contaminants were released by trawling subsequently inducing ecotoxicological impact in mussels' health. Considering as sediment quality guidelines (SQGs) those indicated in Spanish action level B for the disposal of dredged material at sea, the WOE model indicates that the hazard is slight off the mine tailings deposit, moderate on the mine tailings deposit without the influence from the resuspension plumes, and major under the influence of the resuspension plumes. Portmán Bay mine tailings deposit is a by-product of sulphide mining, and despite differences in environmental setting, it can reflect the potential ecotoxic effects to marine fauna from the impact of resuspension of plumes created by deep-sea mining of polymetallic sulphides. A similar approach as in this study could be applied in other areas affected by sediment resuspension and for testing future deep-sea mining sites in

  2. Valuation of environmental problems in landfill deposition and composting - test of methodology; Verdsetting av miljoekonsekvenser av avfallsdeponering og kompostering - metodeutproeving

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leknes, Einar; Movik, Espen; Wiik, Ragnhild; Meissnes, Rudolf

    1995-08-01

    This study is aimed at the tests and design of methods for valuation of environmental problems associated with the landfill deposition of household waste. An extensive review of literature has been conducted with respect to the environmental impacts and valuation methods. Environmental impact assessment and valuation with respect to emission of greenhouse gases (GHG's), leachate and disamenity, have been performed for 4 Norwegian landfills. These differ in their approach towards waste treatment in terms of GHG-collection, briquette production and composting and also in their location in terms of proximity to residential areas and the quality of natural recipients. The study shows that the collection of methane and production of briquettes causes major reductions in the generation of GHG's, whereas composting brings significant reductions for all types of environmental impacts. (author)

  3. Valuation of environmental problems in landfill deposition and composting - test of methodology; Verdsetting av miljoekonsekvenser av avfallsdeponering og kompostering - metodeutproeving

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leknes, Einar; Movik, Espen; Wiik, Ragnhild; Meissnes, Rudolf

    1995-08-01

    This study is aimed at the tests and design of methods for valuation of environmental problems associated with the landfill deposition of household waste. An extensive review of literature has been conducted with respect to the environmental impacts and valuation methods. Environmental impact assessment and valuation with respect to emission of greenhouse gases (GHG's), leachate and disamenity, have been performed for 4 Norwegian landfills. These differ in their approach towards waste treatment in terms of GHG-collection, briquette production and composting and also in their location in terms of proximity to residential areas and the quality of natural recipients. The study shows that the collection of methane and production of briquettes causes major reductions in the generation of GHG's, whereas composting brings significant reductions for all types of environmental impacts. (author)

  4. Yb2Si2O7 Environmental Barrier Coatings Deposited by Various Thermal Spray Techniques: A Preliminary Comparative Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bakan, Emine; Marcano, Diana; Zhou, Dapeng; Sohn, Yoo Jung; Mauer, Georg; Vaßen, Robert

    2017-08-01

    Dense, crack-free, uniform, and well-adhered environmental barrier coatings (EBCs) are required to enhance the environmental durability of silicon (Si)-based ceramic matrix composites in high pressure, high gas velocity combustion atmospheres. This paper represents an assessment of different thermal spray techniques for the deposition of Yb2Si2O7 EBCs. The Yb2Si2O7 coatings were deposited by means of atmospheric plasma spraying (APS), high-velocity oxygen fuel spraying (HVOF), suspension plasma spraying (SPS), and very low-pressure plasma spraying (VLPPS) techniques. The initial feedstock, as well as the deposited coatings, were characterized and compared in terms of their phase composition. The as-sprayed amorphous content, microstructure, and porosity of the coatings were further analyzed. Based on this preliminary investigation, the HVOF process stood out from the other techniques as it enabled the production of vertical crack-free coatings with higher crystallinity in comparison with the APS and SPS techniques in atmospheric conditions. Nevertheless, VLPPS was found to be the preferred process for the deposition of Yb2Si2O7 coatings with desired characteristics in a controlled-atmosphere chamber.

  5. Properties of the bentonite from Lieskovec deposit and their possible environmental applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andrejkovicova, S.

    2008-01-01

    The community increasingly focuses on broader uses of raw materials, occurring in relatively sufficient amounts. Among them, bentonite play very important role in the environmental applications. Results presented herein are related to the yet comprehensively unexplored Fe-rich bentonite from Lieskovec deposit, Central Slovakia. The objective of this study was complex investigation of Lieskovec bentonite deposit. This bentonite was developed from andesitic pyroclastics; the dominant mineral in all the samples is iron-rich montmorillonite, covering 29 to 56 mass % in the samples. The accessory minerals include kaolinite (5-17 mass %), quartz (3-28 mass %), muscovite/illite (3-16 mass %), volcanic glass (6-14 mass %), orthoclase (1-12 mass %), opal (1-8 mass %) and cristobalite (1-3 mass %). Structural Fe(III) is mainly in phyllosilicates accounting for 70 % to 90 % of the total Fe in the unfractionated samples; less than 5 % is Fe(II). The remainder of the Fe is present in oxide and/or oxyhydroxide phases dominated by poorly ordered goethite and hematite with possibly some maghemite. Basic properties of bentonites result from the structure of the smectites. Size fractionation did not lead to pure smectite. Kaolinite and mica were not successfully removed. Quartz and feldspars were dismantled effectively. Non-clay minerals contribution decreased. Smectite content increased after separation up to 75 mass %. Low cation exchange capacities between 35 and 61 meq/100 g are caused also by low magnesium content in the octahedral sheets of montmorillonite, suggesting lower isomorphic Mg for Al substitution in the octahedral sheets of smectite and thus its lower octahedral charge. The main factor influencing CECs is smectite content affecting dominantly also the geotechnical properties. Geotechnical properties of Lieskovec bentonite, such as liquid limit in range 64-80 % and water adsorption by Enslin test 123-265 % were insufficient for utilization in geo-synthetic clay

  6. Quantification of Gaseous Elemental Mercury Dry Deposition to Environmental Surfaces using Mercury Stable Isotopes in a Controlled Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rutter, A. P.; Schauer, J. J.; Shafer, M. M.; Olson, M.; Robinson, M.; Vanderveer, P.; Creswell, J. E.; Parman, A.; Mallek, J.; Gorski, P.

    2009-12-01

    Andrew P. Rutter (1) * *, James J, Schauer (1,2) *, Martin M. Shafer(1,2), Michael R. Olson (1), Michael Robinson (1), Peter Vanderveer (3), Joel Creswell (1), Justin L. Mallek (1), Andrew M. Parman (1) (1) Environmental Chemistry and Technology Program, 660 N. Park St, Madison, WI 53705. (2) Wisconsin State Laboratory of Hygiene, 2601 Agriculture Drive, Madison, WI 53718. (3) Biotron, University of Wisconsin - Madison, 2115 Observatory Drive, Madison, WI 53706 * Correspond author(jjschauer@wisc.edu) * *Presenting author (aprutter@wisc.edu) Abstract Gaseous elemental mercury (GEM) is the predominant component of atmospheric mercury outside of arctic depletion events, and locations where anthropogenic point sources are not influencing atmospheric concentrations. GEM constitutes greater than 99% of the mercury mass in most rural and remote locations. While dry and wet deposition of atmospheric mercury is thought to be dominated by oxidized mercury (a.k.a. reactive mercury), only small GEM uptake to environmental surfaces could impact the input of mercury to terrestrial and aquatic ecosystems. Dry deposition and subsequent re-emission of gaseous elemental mercury is a pathway from the atmosphere that remains only partially understood from a mechanistic perspective. In order to properly model GEM dry deposition and re-emission an understanding of its dependence on irradiance, temperature, and relative humidity must be measured and parameterized for a broad spectrum of environmental surfaces colocated with surrogate deposition surfaces used to make field based dry deposition measurements. Measurements of isotopically enriched GEM dry deposition were made with a variety of environmental surfaces in a controlled environment room at the University of Wisconsin Biotron. The experimental set up allowed dry deposition components which are not easily separated in the field to be decoupled. We were able to isolate surface transfer processes from variabilities caused by

  7. Environmental and geochemical assessment of surface sediments on irshansk ilmenite deposit area

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Наталия Олеговна Крюченко

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available It is revealed the problem of pollution of surface sediments of Irshansk ilmenite deposit area of various chemical elements hazard class (Mn, V, Ba, Ni, Co, Cr, Mo, Cu, Pb, Zn. It is determined its average content in surface sediments of various functional areas (forest and agricultural land, flood deposits, reclaimed land, calculated geochemical criteria, so given ecological and geochemical assessment of area

  8. In-flight monitoring of particle deposition in the environmental control systems of commercial airliners in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Qing; Xu, Qiuyu; Liu, Wei; Lin, Chao-Hsin; Wei, Daniel; Baughcum, Steven; Norris, Sharon; Chen, Qingyan

    2017-04-01

    Severe air pollution and low on-time performance of commercial flights in China could increase particle deposition in the environmental control systems (ECSs) of commercial airliners. The particles deposited in the ECSs could negatively affect the performance of the airplanes. In addition, particles that penetrate into the aircraft cabin could adversely impact the health of passengers and crew members. This investigation conducted simultaneous measurements of particle mass concentration and size distribution inside and outside the cabin during 64 commercial flights of Boeing 737 and Airbus 320 aircraft departing from or arriving at Tianjin Airport in China. The results showed that the PM2.5 mass concentration deposition in the ECSs of these airplanes ranged from 50% to 90%, which was much higher than that measured in an airplane with a ground air-conditioning unit. The average deposition rates of particles with diameters of 0.5-1 μm, 1-2 μm, 2-5 μm, 5-10 μm, and >10 μm were 89 ± 8%, 85 ± 13%, 80 ± 13%, 73 ± 15%, and 80 ± 14%, respectively. The in-flight measurement results indicated that the particle concentration in the breathing zone was higher than that in the air-supply zone, which implies a significant contribution by particles in the interior of the cabin. Such particles come from human emissions or particle resuspension from interior surfaces.

  9. Significance of relic carbonate deposits along the central and southwestern margin of India for late Quaternary environmental and sea level changes

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Rao, V.P.; Montaggioni, L.; Vora, K.H.; Almeida, F.; Rao, K.M.; Rajagopalan, G.

    Environmental and sea level indicators were investigated using dredge samples from late Quaternary carbonate deposits along the shelf break between Goa and Cape Comorin, India. Geomorphic features in the area were identified from sonar profiles...

  10. Influence of terrestrial radionuclides on environmental gamma exposure in a uranium deposit in Paraíba, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Araújo Dos Santos Júnior, José; Dos Santos Amaral, Romilton; Simões Cezar Menezes, Rômulo; Reinaldo Estevez Álvarez, Juan; Marques do Nascimento Santos, Josineide; Herrero Fernández, Zahily; Dias Bezerra, Jairo; Antônio da Silva, Alberto; Francys Rodrigues Damascena, Kennedy; de Almeida Maciel Neto, José

    2017-07-01

    One of the main natural uranium deposits in Brazil is located in the municipality of Espinharas, in the State of Paraíba. This area may present high levels of natural radioactivity due to the presence of these radionuclides. Since this is a populated area, there is need for a radioecological dosimetry assessment to investigate the possible risks to the population. Based on this problem, the objective of this study was to estimate the environmental effective dose outdoors in inhabited areas influenced by the uranium deposit, using the specific activities of equivalent uranium, equivalent thorium and 40 K and conversion factors. The environmental assessment was carried using gamma spectroscopy in sixty-two points within the municipality, with a high-resolution gamma spectrometer with HPGe semiconductor detector and Be window. The results obtained ranged from 0.01 to 19.11 mSv y -1 , with an average of 2.64 mSv y -1 . These levels are, on average, 23 times higher than UNSCEAR reference levels and up to 273 times the reference value of the earth's crust for primordial radionuclides. Therefore, given the high radioactivity levels found, we conclude that there is need for further investigation to evaluate the levels of radioactivity in indoor environments, which will reflect more closely the risks of the local population. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Mineralogy, geochemistry and origin of Zafarabad iron deposit based on REE and trace elements of magnetite

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehrdad Barati

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Zafarabad iron deposit is located northwest of Divandareh, in the northern margin of Sanandaj-Sirjan plutonic-metamorphic zone. The deposit is in lentoid to tubular shape, within a shear zone and occrrued in host rocks of calc-schist and limestone. Magnetite with massive, cataclastic and replacement textures are the main phases, while pyrite and other sulfide minerals are found. Major and trace elements are measured by ICP-MS and ICP-AES methods. Based on some ratios of trace elements in the ore samples and (Ti+V vs. Cal+Al+Mn and Ti+V vs. Ni/(Cr+Mn diagrams which are used for classification of iron deposit types, Zafarabad iron deposit fall in the range of skarn deposits. Spider diagrams show a steady decline from LREE to HREE elements with Eu (mean value of 0.06 ppm and Ce (mean value of 0.94 ppm negative anomalies. Comparing the distribution patterns of REE for the Zafarabad magnetites with those of various types of iron deposits shows that the REE pattern for Zafarabad is similar to these deposits. Analysis of calculated parameters for REE shows that the hydrothermal fluids responsible for mineralization are mainly of magmatic origin through fractionation and crystallization processes of a deep iron rich fluid phase and its emplacement within the carbonate rocks, forming iron skarn.

  12. Environmental impact of early Basque mining and smelting recorded in a high ash minerogenic peat deposit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Monna, F.; Galop, D.; Carozza, L.; Tual, M.; Beyrie, A.; Marembert, F.; Chateau, C.; Dominik, J.; Grousset, F.E.

    2004-01-01

    More than four metres of core, covering almost 5000 years of deposition, were collected in a high ash minerogenic peat deposit located in the High Aldudes valley (Basque country), an area well known for its mineral abundance, exploited from Roman Times at least. Although minerogenic peatlands are not generally considered as the best archives to reconstruct past atmospheric metal deposition history, lead isotopic geochemistry demonstrates the integrity of the Pb record at least within the three upper meters; that is to say over the last four millennia. Zn, Cd and Cu may have been widely redistributed either by biological cycling, advective groundwater movements, or diffusional processes. Anthropogenic lead input phases are clearly pinpointed by positive shifts in Pb/Sc ratios with concomitant sharp drops in 206 Pb/ 207 Pb ratios. They are often accompanied by significant declines in tree taxa, interpreted as increasing demand for wood to supply energy for local mining and/or metallurgical operations. Periods of mining and/or smelting activity are identified during Antiquity and Modern Times, and are also confirmed by textual and field evidence. Inputs from the Rio Tinto (Southern Spain), often invoked as a major lead contributor to the European atmosphere during Roman Times, were not detected here. This remote source was probably masked by local inputs. Other mining and/or smelting phases, only suspected by archaeologists, are here identified as early as the Bronze Age. Although the durations of these phases are possibly overestimated because of detrital inputs consequent to the release of lead from polluted soils over a long period of time after major pollutant inputs, the periods at which pollution peaks occur are in good agreement with archaeological knowledge and palaeo-botanical data. The combination of geochemical and palaeo-botanical techniques with field archaeology, therefore provides a powerful tool in studying the interaction of early human societies with

  13. Studies of environmental radioactivity in Cumbria: Part 3. Measurements of radionuclides in airborne and deposited material

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pattenden, N.J.; Cambray, R.S.; Playford, K.; Eakins, J.D.; Fisher, E.M.R.

    1980-09-01

    Six stations sampling airborne particulate and deposited material were established in the Cumbrian coastal region. The measurements were undertaken to study current atmospheric levels and to discriminate between material from nuclear weapon tests, routine atmospheric discharges from the nuclear reprocessing works at Windscale and other sources, e.g. the sea. The results show that samples of both airborne and deposited material contain radionuclide concentrations in excess of those expected from nuclear weapon fallout. For Pu and 241 Am isotopes, the excess material comes mainly from a seaward direction. The transfer mechanism is probably resuspension, but the actinide levels are much greater than would be expected from the simple transfer of bulk seawater. For 137 Cs, the material in excess of amounts expected from nuclear weapon fallout can be attributed largely to Windscale discharges to air and seaspray containing the bulk seawater concentration of 137 Cs. Other fission products present in amounts exceeding nuclear weapon fallout were 106 Ru, 125 Sb, 134 Cs and 144 Ce. Tritium was also observed in amounts slightly in excess of nuclear weapon fallout. The highest observed annual average concentration in air for Pu isotopes was 0.2% of the derived air concentration, modified for members of the public, of 2.3 mBq/m 3 . (author)

  14. Applying a new understanding of supergene REE deposit formation to global exploration initiatives for environmentally sustainable resources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hardy, Liam; Smith, Martin; Hood, Leo; Heller, Shaun; Faltyn, Rowan; Blum, Astrid; Bamberger, Axel

    2017-04-01

    ). Rare earth elements: A review of production, processing, recycling and associated environmental issues; EPA600/R-12/572. United States Environmental Protection Agency. Hardy, L. (2016). A novel mechanism for the formation of REE ion-adsorption deposits. Presented to: MDSG Winter Meeting, Bristol University, 20/12/16. Jenkins, R. (1979). The Road to Alto: An account of peasants, capitalists and their soil in the mountains of Southern Portugal. London: Pluto, ISBN: 0861040767. Marquis, E. (2016). Ion Adsorption-Type REE Deposit associated with the Ambohimirahavavy Alkaline Complex: Potential Controls on Mineralisation. Presented to: MDSG Winter Meeting, Bristol University, 20/12/16.

  15. Environmental effects on the tensile strength of chemically vapor deposited silicon carbide fibers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhatt, R. T.; Kraitchman, M. D.

    1985-01-01

    The room temperature and elevated temperature tensile strengths of commercially available chemically vapor-deposited (CVD) silicon carbide fibers were measured after 15 min heat treatment to 1600 C in various environments. These environments included oxygen, air, argon and nitrogen at one atmosphere and vacuum at 10/9 atmosphere. Two types of fibers were examined which differed in the SiC content of their carbon-rich coatings. Threshold temperature for fiber strength degradation was observed to be dependent on the as-received fiber-flaw structure, on the environment and on the coating. Fractographic analyses and flexural strength measurements indicate that tensile strength losses were caused by surface degradation. Oxidation of the surface coating is suggested as one possible degradation mechanism. The SiC fibers containing the higher percentage of SiC near the surface of the carbon-rich coating show better strength retention and higher elevated temperature strength.

  16. Environmental impact statements concerning final deposition of spent nuclear fuels a.o

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Larsen, B.; Schibbye, K.; Andersson, Johan; Norrby, S.; Timm, T.; Haegg, C.; Johansson, Gunnar

    1995-02-01

    Five governmental authorities concerned in licensing a swedish nuclear waste repository have outlined recommendations for what should be covered by an environmental impact statement, i.e. defined which laws should be applied, tried to develop a consensus on the handling the EIS in the licensing procedure, to identify potential problems due to prevailing (or non-existing) rules on EIS especially concerning roles and conflicts of objective

  17. Personal monitoring of 218Po and 214Po radionuclide deposition onto individuals under normal environmental exposure conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eatough, J.P.; Worley, A.; Moss, G.R.

    1999-01-01

    Personal dosemeters have been utilized to monitor the deposition of the radon decay products 218 Po and 214 Po onto individuals under normal environmental exposure conditions. Each detector consists of TASTRAK alpha-sensitive plastic incorporated into an ordinary working wristwatch. Subsequent analysis provides energy discrimination of the detected alpha-particle decays, and allows events from the individual radon decay products 218 Po and 214 Po, attached to the detector surface, to be uniquely identified. Assuming similar deposition onto skin and detector surfaces, the activity per unit area of deposited radionuclides can be determined for exposed skin. Forty-one personal dosemeters were issued to volunteers selected through the hospital medical physics departments at Reading, Northampton, Exeter and Plymouth. Each volunteer was also issued with a personal radon dosemeter to determine their individual radon exposure. The volunteers wore the two dosemeters simultaneously and continuously for a period of around one month. Correlations were observed between the radon exposure of the individual and the activity per unit area of 218 Po and 214 Po on the detector surface. From these correlations it can be estimated that at the UK average radon exposure of 20 Bq m -3 , the number of decays/cm 2 /year on continuously exposed skin surface is between 3500 and 28 000 for 218 Po, and between 7000 and 21 000 for 214 Po. These results can be combined with theoretical modelling of the dose distribution in the skin to yield the alpha-particle radiation dose to any identified target cells. (author)

  18. The calculation of external gamma-ray doses from airborne and deposited radionuclides in the environmental code NECTAR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Corbett, J.O.

    1982-02-01

    A computer program has been developed for the rapid evaluation of external gamma-ray doses from airborne and deposited radionuclide mixtures. Based on a gaussian dispersion model, the program calculates the dose at any position, including points high above ground level or upwind of the source. Meteorological frequency data for wind speed, direction, atmospheric stability and rainfall are fully taken into account. The calculational model assumes that the ground surface is perfectly flat and that gamma-ray paths are entirely in air; the possible errors caused by these and other assumptions are discussed, with suggested correction factors. The program applies various criteria to determine the best approximation or numerical integration method for each target point; execution times (on an IBM 370 machine) thus vary from less than 0.01s to about 0.3s per target point for a single weather category. The program has been incorporated in the environmental release program NECTAR. (author)

  19. Results of environmental radioactivity measurements in the Member States of the European Community for air - deposition - water - milk. 1981

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1983-01-01

    This is the 21st report on ambient radioactivity published by the Health and Safety Directorate of the Commission of the European Communities. It was drawn up using the data collected by stations responsible for environmental radioactivity monitoring in Member States. The results are extracts from the data sent to the Commission under Article 36 of the Treaty of Rome establishing the European Atomic Energy Community. The results presented in this report deal with radioactivity of the air, deposition, surface water and milk during 1981 in the ten Member States of the European Community, viz. Belgium, Denmark, Federal Republic of Germany, Greece, France, Ireland, Italy, Luxembourg, the Netherlands and the United Kingdom. The results are presented under four main headings: artificial radioactivity in the air at ground level; artificial radioactivity in deposition; radioactivity of water; radioactivity of milk. The report also contains the list of sampling stations and laboratories, together with a list of publications by Member States in this field. This report places special emphasis on the measurement results for specific radionuclides, but it also contains data on total beta activity so as to ensure continuity vis-a-vis previous and provide comparative values

  20. Late-Holocene Environmental Reconstruction and Depositional History from a Taxodium Swamp near Lake Pontchartrain in Southern Louisiana

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryu, J.; Bianchette, T. A.; Liu, K. B.; Yao, Q.; Maiti, K.

    2017-12-01

    The hydrological and environmental history of estuarine wetlands in Louisiana is not well-documented. To better understand the depositional processes in coastal wetlands, this study aims to reconstruct the environmental changes and document the occurrence of event deposits found in a bald cypress (Taxodium distichum) swamp approximately 800 m west of Lake Pontchartrain, a site susceptible to wind-generated storm surges as well as inundation from other fluvial and lacustrine processes. 210Pb analysis of a 59 cm sediment core (WMA-1) suggests that it has a sedimentation rate of 0.39 cm/year, consistent with the detection of a 137Cs peak at 17 cm from the core top. Results of sedimentological, geochemical, and palynological analyses reveal that the core contains two distinct sediment facies: an organic-rich dark brown peat unit from 0 to 29 cm containing low concentrations of terrestrial elements (e.g., Ti, Fe, and K), and a clay unit from 30 to 59 cm with elevated concentrations of most elements. Two thin clay layers, at 3-5 cm and 14-19 cm, embedded in the upper peat section are probably attributed to two recent storm events, Hurricane Isaac (2012) and Hurricane Gustav (2008), because both hurricanes caused heavy rain and significant storm-surge flooding at the study site. The pollen assemblage in the clay section is dominated by TCT (mainly Taxodium), but it is replaced by Salix and wetland herbaceous taxa in the overlying peat section. The multi-proxy data suggest that a cypress swamp has been present at the site for at least several hundred years but Taxodium was being replaced by willow (Salix) and other bottomland hardwood trees and wetland herbs as the water level dropped. Human activities may have been an important factor causing the hydrological and ecological changes at the site during the past century.

  1. Quantifying the environmental impact of particulate deposition from dry unpaved roadways

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Becker, D.L.

    1979-01-01

    Airborne dust is the air pollutant most frequently observed to exceed National Ambient Air Quality Standards in rural areas. This pollutant (also referred to as suspended particulates) may originate from point sources (e.g., large areas of bare soil or pollen-producing vegetation.) Most sources of atmospheric particulates, whether natural or anthropogenic, are difficult to quantify by means of a source strength (i.e., mass of particulates emitted per unit time). A numerical model was developed for calculating the source strength and quantifying the atmospheric transport and eposition of dust generated on unpaved roadways. This model satisfies the second-order differential equation for the diffusion process and also the equation of mass conservation. Input to the model includes meterological variables, surface roughness characteristics, and the size distribution and suspended particulate concentration of dust as sampled downwind of an unpaved roadway. By using predetermined tolerance levels of airborne concentrations or tolerance levels of deposition, maximum allowable vehicular traffic volume can be established. The model also may be used to estimate reduction in photosynthesis resulting from fugitive dust from point or line sources. The contribug ion to sedimentation in aquatic bodies, resulting from airborne particulates also may be assessed with this model.

  2. Environmental sensing with optical fiber sensors processed with focused ion beam and atomic layer deposition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flores, Raquel; Janeiro, Ricardo; Dahlem, Marcus; Viegas, Jaime

    2015-03-01

    We report an optical fiber chemical sensor based on a focused ion beam processed optical fiber. The demonstrated sensor is based on a cavity formed onto a standard 1550 nm single-mode fiber by either chemical etching, focused ion beam milling (FIB) or femtosecond laser ablation, on which side channels are drilled by either ion beam milling or femtosecond laser irradiation. The encapsulation of the cavity is achieved by optimized fusion splicing onto a standard single or multimode fiber. The empty cavity can be used as semi-curved Fabry-Pérot resonator for gas or liquid sensing. Increased reflectivity of the formed cavity mirrors can be achieved with atomic layer deposition (ALD) of alternating metal oxides. For chemical selective optical sensors, we demonstrate the same FIB-formed cavity concept, but filled with different materials, such as polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS), poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA) which show selective swelling when immersed in different solvents. Finally, a reducing agent sensor based on a FIB formed cavity partially sealed by fusion splicing and coated with a thin ZnO layer by ALD is presented and the results discussed. Sensor interrogation is achieved with spectral or multi-channel intensity measurements.

  3. Emission, transmission, deposition and environmental effects of ammonia from agricultural sources

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Erisman, J.W. [ECN Clean Fossil Fuels, Petten (Netherlands); Dammgen, U. [Federal Agricultural Research Centre, Institute of Agroecology, Braunschweig (Germany)

    2005-05-01

    Air pollution in Europe has been regarded as a severe problem for several decades, the adverse effects being: the influence on the physical properties of the atmosphere itself, in particular its energy balance (global warming), and visibility; the influence on atmospheric chemistry (formation and destruction of both ground level and stratospheric ozone); the input of chemicals into terrestrial and aquatic ecosystems causing acidification and eutrophication leading to forest decline as well as changes in ecosystem structure and function; the effects on human health and welfare (the respiratory system). Since the sulfur dioxide problem seems to have been solved to a large extent in most countries in Western Europe, atmospheric nitrogen compounds are considered a major source of acidification. As most natural and near-natural ecosystems have developed with nitrogen as a limiting factor, increased inputs of reactive atmospheric nitrogen cause changes in their structure, function and nutrient dynamics. These effects are attributed to surplus nutrition (eutrophication) of the respective systems as the result of increased nitrogen inputs. At first it seemed logical to connect them with sources similar to those for sulfur (power plants, combustion engines, domestic heating); however, it soon became clear that reduced nitrogen (ammonia and ammonium in particulates) also plays a major role. This review is to collate the present state of knowledge with regard to ammonia emissions, its atmospheric transport and chemistry as well as its deposition and the resulting effects. It restricts itself to a description of the situation in Europe.

  4. Environmental effects on electrical properties of Cr-Si-Ni resistive films deposited by magnetron sputtering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Yuqin; Dong Xianping; Wu Jiansheng

    2005-01-01

    The present paper investigated the environmental effects on electrical properties stability and long-term reliability of magnetron sputtered Cr-Si-Ni resistive films in 3.5% NaCl, 0.5 M Na 2 SO 4 and 0.5 M HCl solutions at 25 deg. C, which simulated marine, industrial and acidic environments. The relative resistance change (ΔR/R) for the annealed films revealed that the films had the best electrical properties stability and long-term reliability in industrial environments at 25 deg. C. After immersion in corrosion solutions for 480 h, the value of ΔR/R for the films was only 0.41% in industrial environments, and the values were 0.56 and 1.96% in marine and acidic environments, respectively. The polarization measurements and AES results indicated that the films presented a spontaneous trend to passivation, and could form a dense and stable protective oxide layer (Si oxide) on its surface rapidly that protected the films from further corrosion in three different environments. Furthermore, the formed passive film in industrial environments exhibited much more protective effects on the films than in marine and acidic environments

  5. THE ENVIRONMENTAL THE ENVIRONMENTAL DEPOSITION ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    eobe

    elements in sediment is closely tied to several factors such as the ... in elucidating probable physicochemical conditions ... Other influence and ... Proposed that the ratio of vanadium to nickel and crude ..... Ion exchange in clays and other.

  6. Late Quaternary sea level and environmental changes from relic carbonate deposits of the western margin of India

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Rao, V.P.; Rajagopalan, G.; Vora, K.H.; Almeida, F.

    . The petrology and mineralogy of the deposits indicate that except for aragonite sands and foraminiferal nodules, the others were formed in shallow marine conditions and serve as sea level indicators. Radiocarbon dates were measured for 62 relic deposits covering...

  7. Environmental radioactivity in Caithness and Sutherland. Pt. 1: Food-chain model validation and the attribution of radionuclide sources to deposition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rose, C.L.; Halliwell, C.M.

    1995-01-01

    This study is part of a continuing programme investigating the behaviour of environmental radioactivity in the vicinity of the AEA Technology establishment at Dounreay, Caithness and Sutherland. The study aims were to assess the applicability of a National Radiological Protection Board (NRPB) food-chain model to the Caithness and Sutherland area, and to determine the contribution of different radionuclide sources to activities in measured total deposition in the same region. The NRPB model predicts the movement of radionuclides through the food-chain, and in this study was validated by comparing model outputs with measured crop data (ryegrass and clover). Five radionuclides ( 137 Cs, 90 Sr, 239+240 Pu, 238 Pu, 241 Am) were considered. The contribution of different radionuclide sources to activities in total deposition were divided into three categories: Dounreay stack inputs, sea-to-land transfer, and the combined contribution from nuclear weapons testing and Chernobyl fallout. The analyses indicated that the contribution of the Dounreay stack to total deposition was very small for the radionuclides studied. The Chernobyl accident made a large impact on the total deposition of 137 Cs in the study area, and 90 Sr deposition was also affected by this, but to a much lesser extent. The Chernobyl accident appeared to have no effect on total Pu deposition in the region. The cessation of nuclear weapons testing and the length of time since Chernobyl meant that actual 137 Cs and 90 Sr deposition as a result of weapons/Chernobyl inputs had reached a low level by the end of the study period (summer 1987). It became evident that a contribution to total deposition was being made by additional factors, thought to be local resuspension of large particles for 137 Cs, and possibly deposition of plant material for 90 Sr. For Pu, sea-to-land transfer was probably an important contributor at coastal sites. (Author)

  8. Atmospheric Deposition Modeling Results

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — This asset provides data on model results for dry and total deposition of sulfur, nitrogen and base cation species. Components include deposition velocities, dry...

  9. How relevant is the deposition of mercury onto snowpacks? – Part 1: A statistical study on the impact of environmental factors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. A. Pfaffhuber

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available A portion of the highly toxic methylmercury that bioaccumulates in aquatic life is created from mercury entering bodies of water with snowpack meltwater. To determine the importance of meltwater as a source of aquatic mercury, it is necessary to understand the environmental processes that govern the behavior of snowpack-related mercury. In this study we investigate relationships among 5 types of snowpack-related mercury observations and 20 model environmental variables. The observation types are the 24-h fractional loss of mercury from surface snow, and the concentrations of mercury in surface snow, seasonal snowpacks, the snowpack meltwater's ionic pulse, and long-term snowpack-related records. The model environmental variables include those related to atmospheric mercury, insolation, wind, atmospheric stability, snowpack physical characteristics, atmospheric pressure, and solid precipitation. Bivariate and multiple linear regressions were performed twice for each mercury observation type: once with all observations, and once excluding observations from locations where the snowpack's burden of oxidizing and stabilizing halogens is known or presumed to affect snowpack mercury. Since no observations from long-term snowpack-related records were considered affected by halogens, this group of observations was included with the sets of uninfluenced observations and was not discussed with the complete, original sets of observations. When all observations are included, only 37% of their variability can be explained, on average, with significance confidence levels averaging 81%; a separate regression model predicts each mercury observation type. Without the influence of halogens, the regression models are able to explain an average of 79% of the observations' variability with significance confidence levels averaging 97%. The snowpack-related mercury observations are most strongly controlled by the dry and wet depositions of oxidized mercury, and by

  10. Metamorphic Rock-Hosted Orogenic Gold Deposit Type as a Source of Langkowala Placer Gold, Bombana, Southeast Sulawesi

    OpenAIRE

    Idrus, Arifudin; Nur, I; Warmada, I. W; Fadlin, Fadlin

    2011-01-01

    DOI: 10.17014/ijog.v6i1.114In 2008, placer gold was discovered in Langkowala area (Bombana Regency), Southeast Sulawesi, Indonesia, and more than 60,000 traditional gold miners in the early 2009 have been operating by digging vertical pits and panning active stream sediments. The grade of placer gold ranges from 50 to 140 g/t. Local geological framework indicates that the placer gold is not related to volcanic rock-related hydrothermal gold deposit, e.g. epithermal, skarn or porphyry. This pa...

  11. Nature, diversity of deposit types and metallogenic relations of South China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaw, K.; Peters, S.G.; Cromie, P.; Burrett, C.; Hou, Z.

    2007-01-01

    The South China Region is rich in mineral resources and has a wide diversity of deposit types. The region has undergone multiple tectonic and magmatic events and related metallogenic processes throughout the earth history. These tectonic and metallogenic processes were responsible for the formation of the diverse styles of base and precious metal deposits in South China making it one of the resource-rich regions in the world. During the Proterozoic, the South China Craton was characterised by rifting of continental margin before eruption of submarine volcanics and development of platform carbonate rocks, and the formation of VHMS, stratabound copper and MVT deposits. The Phanerozoic metallogeny of South China was related to opening and closing of the Tethyan Ocean involving multiple orogenies by subduction, back-arc rifting, arc-continent collision and post-collisional extension during the Indosinian (Triassic), Yanshanian (Jurassic to Cretaceous) and Himalayan (Tertiary) Orogenies. The Late Palaeozoic was a productive metallogenic period for South China resulting from break-up and rifting of Gondwana. Significant stratabound base and precious metal deposits were formed during the Devonian and Carboniferous (e.g., Fankou and Dabaoshan deposits). These Late Palaeozoic SEDEX-style deposits have been often overprinted by skarn systems associated with Yanshanian magmatism (e.g., Chengmenshan, Dongguashan and Qixiashan). A number of Late Palaeozoic to Early Mesozoic VHMS deposits also developed in the Sanjiang fold belt in the western part of South China (e.g., Laochang and Gacun). South China has significant sedimentary rock-hosted Carlin-like deposits, which occur in the Devonian- to Triassic-aged accretionary wedge or rift basins at the margin of the South China Craton. They are present in a region at the junction of Yunnan, Guizhou, and Guangxi Provinces called the 'Southern Golden Triangle', and are also present in NW Sichuan, Gansu and Shaanxi, in an area known as

  12. Environmental factors controlling the seasonal variability in particle sizedistribution of modern Saharan dust deposited off Cape Blanc

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Friese, C.A.; van der Does, M.; Merkel, U.; Iversen, M.H.; Fischer, G.; Stuut, J-B W.

    2016-01-01

    The particle sizes of Saharan dust in marine sediment core records have been used frequently as a proxyfor trade-wind speed. However, there are still large uncertainties with respect to the seasonality of theparticle sizes of deposited Saharan dust off northwestern Africa and the factors influencing

  13. The Hominin Sites and Paleolakes Drilling Project : inferring the environmental context of human evolution from eastern African rift lake deposits

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cohen, A.; Campisano, C.; Arrowsmith, R.; Asrat, A.; Behrensmeyer, A. K.; Deino, A.; Feibel, C.; Hill, A.; Johnson, R.; Kingston, J.; Lamb, H.; Lowenstein, T.; Noren, A.; Olago, D.; Owen, R. B.; Potts, R.; Reed, K.; Renaut, R.; Schäbitz, F.; Tiercelin, J.-J.; Trauth, M. H.; Wynn, J.; Ivory, S.; Brady, K.; O'Grady, R.; Rodysill, J.; Githiri, J.; Russell, J.; Foerster, V.; Dommain, R.; Rucina, S.; Deocampo, D.; Russell, J.; Billingsley, A.; Beck, C.; Dorenbeck, G.; Dullo, L.; Feary, D.; Garello, D.; Gromig, R.; Johnson, T.; Junginger, A.; Karanja, M.; Kimburi, E.; Mbuthia, A.; Mccartney, T.; Mcnulty, E.; Muiruri, V.; Nambiro, E.; Negash, E. W.; Njagi, D.; Wilson, J. N.; Rabideaux, N.; Raub, T.; Sier, M. J.; Smith, P.; Urban, J.; Warren, M.; Yadeta, M.; Yost, C.; Zinaye, B.

    2016-01-01

    The role that climate and environmental history may have played in influencing human evolution has been the focus of considerable interest and controversy among paleoanthropologists for decades. Prior attempts to understand the environmental history side of this equation have centered around the

  14. ENVIRONMENTAL MONITORING USING LINDEN TREE LEAVES AS NATURAL TRAPS OF ATMOSPHERIC DEPOSITION: A PILOT STUDY IN TRANSILVANIA, ROMANIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MIHÁLY BRAUN

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Atmospheric pollution caused by toxic elements is an emerging problem of concern. Tree leaves have been widely used as indicator of atmospheric pollutions and they are effective alternatives to the moreusual biomonitoring methods. Tree leaves can be used as natural traps of atmospheric deposition. Elemental composition of dust deposited onto leaf surfaces can be used to characterize the urban environment. A pilot survey including 16 Romanian settlements was carried out in order to evaluate the characteristics and sources of air pollutants. Tree leaves (Tilia tomentosa, Tilia cordata, Tilia platyphyllos were collected and used for the measurements. Elemental analyses were carried out by ICP-OES and ICP-MS. Principal component and discriminant analyses were used to characterizing and estimating the level of pollution. Settlements were grouped on the basis of discriminant function values. Multivariate comparison of chemical data ordered the settlements into 3 main groups, which showed a systematic geographic distribution.

  15. Environmental magnetic studies on some Quaternary sediments of varied depositional settings in the Indian sub-continent

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Sangode, S.J.; Sinha, R.; Phartiyal, B.; Chauhan, O.S.; Mazari, R.K.; Bagati, T.N.; Suresh, N.; Mishra, S.; Kumar, R.; Bhattacharjee, P.

    susceptibility, high field hysteresis parameters and their ratios and bivariate plots. Besides applying the conventional models, new and multi-parametric environmental magnetic models for finer discrimination of the mineral magnetic assemblages (MMA) amongst...

  16. Magnetite as the indicator of ore genesis for the Huangshaping polymetallic deposit, southern Hunan Province, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, T.; Ma, D.; Lu, J.; Zhang, R.

    2017-12-01

    Huangshaping polymetallic deposit, located in southern Hunan Province, China, hosts abundant W-Mo-Pb-Zn mineralization which linked with the skarn system located between late Mesozoic high-K calc-alkaline to shoshonitic granitoids and the Carboniferous carbonate in this deposit. In this study, concentrations of trace and minor elements of the magnetites from different skarn stages are obtained by in situ LA-ICP-MS analysis, in order to further understand the polymetallic mineralization processes within this deposit. The generally high concentrations of spinel elements, including Mg, Al, Ti, Mn, V, Cr, Co, Ni, Ga, Ge, and Sn, in all magnetites from this deposit suggest that these elements are incorporated into magnetite lattice by substituting Fe3+ and/or Fe2+. However, the various concentrations of Na, Si, K, Ca, and W elements in magnetites, combining the abnormal time-resolved analytical signals of LA-ICP-MS analyses, suggest that these elements are significantly affected by the fluid inclusions in magnetites. Two groups of magnetites can be further distinguished based on their trace and minor elements concentrations: Group-1 magnetites, including those in medium grain garnets and calcite, have obvious lower Na, Si, K, Ca, Sn, W, but higher Mg, Al, Ti, V, Co, Ni, Zn concentrations compared with Group-2 magnetites, which including those in coarse grain garnets, tremolite, and bulk magnetite ores. This suggests that the hydrothermal fluids where Group-2 magnetites precipitated are evolved magmatic fluids which have undergone the crystal fractionation during the early skarn stages (eg. Garnet and tremolite), the high Na, Si, K, and Ca in the hydrothermal fluids probably result from the dissolution of the host rocks, such as limestone, sandstone, and evaporite horizons in this deposit. However, the Group-1 magnetites probably precipitated in the hydrothermal fluids with low salinity, which result the low Na, Si, K, and Ca in these magnitites. Furthermore, these

  17. Geologic map of Kundelan ore deposits and prospects, Zabul Province, Afghanistan; modified from the 1971 original map compilations of K.I. Litvinenko and others

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tucker, Robert D.; Peters, Stephen G.; Stettner, Will R.; Masonic, Linda M.; Moran, Thomas W.

    2015-10-26

    This map and cross sections are redrafted modified versions of the Geological map of the Kundelan ore deposit area, scale 1:10,000 (graphical supplement no. 18) and the Geological map of the Kundelan deposits, scale 1:2,000 (graphical supplement no. 3) both contained in an unpublished Soviet report by Litvinenko and others (1971) (report no. 0540). The unpublished Soviet report was prepared in cooperation with the Ministry of Mines and Industries of the Royal Government of Afghanistan in Kabul during 1971. This redrafted map and cross sections illustrate the geology of the main Kundelan copper-gold skarn deposit, located within the Kundelan copper and gold area of interest (AOI), Zabul Province, Afghanistan. Areas of interest (AOIs) of non-fuel mineral resources within Afghanistan were first described and defined by Peters and others (2007) and later by the work of Peters and others (2011a). The location of the main Kundelan copper-gold skarn deposit (area of this map) and the Kundelan copper and gold AOI is shown on the index map provided on this map sheet.

  18. Relic carbonate deposits along the western margin of India: Sea level and environmental changes during the Late Quaternary

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Rao, V.P.

    sands (pelletal/oolitic sediments) and aragonite-cemented limestones, oyster shells, corals, coralline-algal and foraminiferal-dominated nodules. The petrology and mineralogy of the deposits indicate that except for aragonite sands and foraminiferal... pellets while others are ooilte- dominated. The age of the sands ranges between 14.3 ka to 7.6 cal kaBP. The limestones associated with the platform exhibit acicular aragonite cements and their ages lie between 11 ka and 13.3 kaBP. Large oyster shells...

  19. Mineral Deposit Data for Epigenetic Base- and Precious-metal and Uranium-thorium Deposits in South-central and Southwestern Montana and Southern and Central Idaho

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klein, T.L.

    2004-01-01

    Metal deposits spatially associated with the Cretaceous Boulder and Idaho batholiths of southwestern Montana and southern and central Idaho have been exploited since the early 1860s. Au was first discovered in placer deposits; exploitation of vein deposits in bedrock soon followed. In 1865, high-grade Ag vein deposits were discovered and remained economically important until the 1890s. Early high-grade deposits of Au, Ag and Pb were found in the weathered portions of the veins systems. As mining progressed to deeper levels, Ag and Pb grades diminished. Exploration for and development of these vein deposits in this area have continued until the present. A majority of these base- and precious-metal vein deposits are classified as polymetallic veins (PMV) and polymetallic carbonate-replacement (PMR) deposits in this compilation. Porphyry Cu and Mo, epithermal (Au, Ag, Hg and Sb), base- and precious-metal and W skarn, W vein, and U and Th vein deposits are also common in this area. The world-class Butte Cu porphyry and the Butte high-sulfidation Cu vein deposits are in this study area. PMV and PMR deposits are the most numerous in the region and constitute about 85% of the deposit records compiled. Several types of syngenetic/diagenetic sulfide mineral deposits in rocks of the Belt Supergroup or their equivalents are common in the region and they have been the source of a substantial metal production over the last century. These syngenetic deposits and their metamorphosed/structurally remobilized equivalents were not included in this database; therefore, deposits in the Idaho portion of the Coeur d'Alene district and the Idaho Cobalt belt, for example, have not been included because many of them are believed to be of this type.

  20. Factors controlling present-day tufa dynamics in the Monasterio de Piedra Natural Park (Iberian Range, Spain): depositional environmental settings, sedimentation rates and hydrochemistry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vázquez-Urbez, M.; Arenas, C.; Sancho, C.; Osácar, C.; Auqué, L.; Pardo, G.

    2010-07-01

    The tufa record and hydrochemical characteristics of the River Piedra in the Monasterio de Piedra Natural Park (NE Spain) were studied for 6 years. The mean discharge of this river was 1.22 m3/s. The water was supersaturated with calcium carbonate. The HCO3 -, Ca2+ and TDIC concentrations decreased along the 0.5-km-long studied stretch, whereas the calcite SI showed no systematic downstream or seasonal variation over the same stretch. Several sedimentary subenvironments exist in which four broad types of tufa facies form: (1) Dense laminated tufa (stromatolites), (2) Dense to porous, massive tufa, (3) Porous, coarsely laminated tufa with bryophytes and algae, and (4) Dense, hard, laminated deposits in caves. The half-yearly period thickness and weight of sediment accumulated on 14 tablets installed in several subenvironments showed that the deposition rate was greater in fast flowing river areas and in stepped waterfalls, and lower in slow flowing or standing river areas and in spray and splash areas. Mechanical CO2 outgassing is the main factor controlling calcite precipitation on the river bed and in waterfalls, but this process does not explain the seasonal changes in depositional rates. The deposition rates showed a half-yearly period pattern recorded in all fluvial subenvironments persistent over time (5.26 mm, 0.86 g/cm2 in warm periods; 2.26 mm, 0.13 g/cm2 in cool periods). Mass balance calculations showed higher calcite mass values in warm (21.58 mg/L) than in cool (13.68 mg/L) periods. This biannual variation is mainly attributed to the seasonal differences in temperature that caused changes in inorganic calcite precipitation rate and in biomass and the correlative photosynthetic activity. Tufa sedimentation was therefore controlled by both physicochemical and biological processes. The results of this study may help test depositional rates and their environmental controls and thus assess the climatic and hydrological significance of ancient tufas in semi

  1. Insights into fluid flow and environmental conditions present in deep-sea hydrothermal vent deposits from measurements of permeability and porosity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gribbin, J. L.; Zhu, W.; Tivey, M. K.

    2008-12-01

    in the observed EPPRs. Identifying the links between specific EPPRs and chimney growth processes will provide better understanding of how environmental conditions (e.g., temperature, pH, flow rate) change over time, which has important consequences for faunal communities residing within and on the exteriors of vent deposits.

  2. Environmental geochemistry at Red Mountain, an unmined volcanogenic massive sulphide deposit in the Bonnifield district, Alaska Range, east-central Alaska

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eppinger, R.G.; Briggs, P.H.; Dusel-Bacon, C.; Giles, S.A.; Gough, L.P.; Hammarstrom, J.M.; Hubbard, B.E.

    2007-01-01

    The unmined, pyrite-rich Red Mountain (Dry Creek) deposit displays a remarkable environmental footprint of natural acid generation, high metal and exceedingly high rate earth element (REE) concentrations in surface waters. The volcanogenic massive sulphide deposit exhibits well-constrained examples of acid-generating, metal-leaching, metal-precipitation and self-mitigation (via co-precipitation, dilution and neutralization) processes that occur in an undisturbed natural setting, a rare occurrence in North America. Oxidative dissolution of pyrite and associated secondary reactions under near-surface oxidizing conditions are the primary causes for the acid generation and metal leaching. The deposit is hosted in Devonian to Mississippian felsic metavolcanic rocks of the Mystic Creek Member of the Totatlanika Schist. Water samples with the lowest pH (many below 3.5), highest specific conductance (commonly >2500 ??S/cm) and highest major- and trace-element concentrations are from springs and streams within the quartz-sericite-pyrite alteration zone. Aluminum, Cd, Co, Cu, Fe, Mn, Ni, Pb, Y, Zn and, particularly, the REEs are found in high concentrations, ranging across four orders of magnitude. Waters collected upstream from the alteration zone have near-neutral pH, lower specific conductance (370 to 830 ??S/cm), lower metal concentrations and measurable alkalinities. Water samples collected downstream of the alteration zone have pH and metal concentrations intermediate between these two extremes. Stream sediments are anomalous in Zn, Pb, S, Fe, Cu, As, Co, Sb and Cd relative to local and regional background abundances. Red Mountain Creek and its tributaries do not, and probably never have, supported significant aquatic life. ?? 2007 AAG/ Geological Society of London.

  3. Leach of the weathering crust elution-deposited rare earth ore for low environmental pollution with a combination of (NH4)2SO4 and EDTA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Jie; Qiao, Jiyang; Xue, Qiang; Liu, Fei; Chen, Honghan; Zhang, Guochen

    2018-05-01

    High concentration of ammonium sulfate, a typical leaching agent, was often used in the mining process of the weathering crust elution-deposited rare earth ore. After mining, a lot of ammonia nitrogen and labile heavy metal fractions were residual in tailings, which may result in a huge potential risk to the environment. In this study, in order to achieve the maximum extraction of rare earth elements and reduce the labile heavy metal, extraction effect and fraction changes of lanthanum (La) and lead (Pb) in the weathering crust elution-deposited rare earth ore were studied by using a compound agent of (NH 4 ) 2 SO 4 -EDTA. The extraction efficiency of La was more than 90% by using 0.2% (NH 4 ) 2 SO 4 -0.005 M EDTA, which was almost same with that by using 2.0% (NH 4 ) 2 SO 4 solution. In contrast, the extraction efficiency of Pb was 62.3% when use 0.2% (NH 4 ) 2 SO 4 -0.005 M EDTA, which is much higher than that (16.16%) achieved by using 2.0% (NH 4 ) 2 SO 4 solution. The released Pb fractions were mainly acid extractable and reducible fractions, and the content of reducible fraction being leached accounted for 70.45% of the total reducible fraction. Therefore, the use of 0.2% (NH 4 ) 2 SO 4 -0.005 M EDTA can not only reduce the amount of (NH 4 ) 2 SO 4 , but also decrease the labile heavy metal residues in soil, which provides a new way for efficient La extraction with effective preventing and controlling environmental pollution in the process of mining the weathering crust elution-deposited rare earth ore. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Results of environmental radioactivity measurements in the Member States of European Community for air-deposition-water 1973-1974, milk 1972-1973-1974

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1977-01-01

    The present document is the fifteenth report published by the Health and Safety Directorate of the Commission of the European Communities concerning ambient radioactivity and using the data collected by the stations in charge of the surveillance of the environmental radioactivity in Member States. The results are compiled and extracted from the data sent to the Commission in application of Article 36 of the Treaty of Rome instituting the European Atomic Energy Community. It is the first document in which data from Denmark, Ireland and the United Kingdom which joined the European Community on 1 January 1973 are included in addition to data from Belgium, the Federal Republic of Germany, France, Italy, Luxembourg and the Netherlands. The results presented in this report cover the years 1973 and 1974 for air deposition and surface water and the years 1972, 1973 and 1974 for milk

  5. The environmental behaviour of Chernobyl deposition in a high fallout region of Sweden: analysis of the results of a soil measurement programme

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shaer, J.; Nair, S.

    1989-04-01

    Sweden received a particularly high level of fallout from the reactor accident at Chernobyl in April 1986. An environmental monitoring programme was initiated jointly by the CEGB and Studsvik to study the behaviour of the deposited radionuclides in the rural and urban environment of Gaevle where the highest depositions were recorded. This report is concerned with the analysis of the rural data collected over the period from August 1987 to August 1988. The aim has been to develop an improved model to predict the migration of radionuclides through pasture soil. Two alternative models were developed; the first a compartment model and the second a diffusion-advection model modified to account for fixation. The predictions of the two models were tested against the results of the monitoring programme. Least squares analyses were used to establish the better of the two models and to obtain estimates of the model parameters. In all but one case, the diffusion model was found to provide the better description of the behaviour of radionuclides; the effect of advection was found to be negligible. It is intended that this model will be incorporated into an improved model to predict the uptake of activity into animal products. (author)

  6. Modeled Wet Nitrate Deposition

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — Modeled data on nitrate wet deposition was obtained from Dr. Jeff Grimm at Penn State Univ. Nitrate wet depostion causes acidification and eutrophication of surface...

  7. Environmental geochemistry of a Kuroko-type massive sulfide deposit at the abandoned Valzinco mine, Virginia, USA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seal, Robert R. [US Geological Survey, 954 National Center, Reston, VA 20192 (United States)], E-mail: rseal@usgs.gov; Hammarstrom, Jane M.; Johnson, Adam N.; Piatak, Nadine M.; Wandless, Gregory A. [US Geological Survey, 954 National Center, Reston, VA 20192 (United States)

    2008-02-15

    The abandoned Valzinco mine, which worked a steeply dipping Kuroko-type massive sulfide deposit in the Virginia Au-pyrite belt, contributed significant metal-laden acid-mine drainage to the Knight's Branch watershed. The host rocks were dominated by metamorphosed felsic volcanic rocks, which offered limited acid-neutralizing potential. The ores were dominated by pyrite, sphalerite, galena, and chalcopyrite, which represented significant acid-generating potential. Acid-base accounting and leaching studies of flotation tailings - the dominant mine waste at the site - indicated that they were acid generating and therefore, should have liberated significant quantities of metals to solution. Field studies of mine drainage from the site confirmed that mine drainage and the impacted stream waters had pH values from 1.1 to 6.4 and exceeded aquatic ecosystem toxicity limits for Fe, Al, Cd, Cu, Pb and Zn. Stable isotope studies of water, dissolved SO{sub 4}{sup 2-}, and primary and secondary sulfate and sulfide minerals indicated that two distinct sulfide oxidation pathways were operative at the site: one dominated by Fe(III) as the oxidant, and another by molecular O{sub 2} as the oxidant. Reaction-path modeling suggested that geochemical interactions between tailings and waters approached a steady state within about a year. Both leaching studies and geochemical reaction-path modeling provided reasonable predictions of the mine-drainage chemistry.

  8. Environmental efficiency and legal possibility of mineralized water dispose in the suprasalt sequence of the verkhnekamskoe deposit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    С. Ю. Квиткин

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The production of potash fertilizers at PJSC Uralkali is accompanied by the formation of excess solutions/brines, located on the sludge dump, where also comes water from salt brines and tailing piles, clay-salt slimes and atmospheric precipitation. After mechanical purification and reduction of the solutions/brines mineralization in the order of 5 million m3/year are emitted into surface waters. The studies carried out by Uralkali in 2000-2006 at the Verkhnekamskoe field, revealed an opportunity of underground disposal of mineralized brines/wastewater in the upper part of the salt-marl layer, directly overlapping the salt deposits and situated at depths not exceeding 300 m. Obtained results are confirmed by the state geological commission of the Federal Agency on Mineral Resources. The location of mineralized solutions in reservoir beds with an almost unlimited capacitive potential does not lead to the change in the hydrodynamic and hydrochemical regime of the underground hydrosphere and lessen the burden on the environment. To implement underground disposal of mineralized process brines/wastewater, it is necessary to amend the «Concerning Subsurface Resources» Federal Law. Proposals of Uralkali to amend the «Concerning Subsurface Resources» Federal Law are supported by the Federal Agency for Mineral Resources and Federal Service for Supervision of Natural Resources.

  9. Research of environmental radiation dose on the inside of residence next of uranium deposit in Espinharas, Paraiba, Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dias Bezerra, Jairo; Dos Santos Amaral, Romilton; Araujo dos Santos Junior, Jose; Antonio da Silva, Alberto

    2015-01-01

    Humans are exposed to ionizing radiation, especially those natural sources originating from terrestrial radionuclides belonging to the radioactive series of 238 U and 233 Th, accompanied by the 40 K, which represents the major contribution to external and internal exposure. The increase of this dose in more than 40% in indoor environments is associated with building homes, close to areas with high levels of Natural Occurrences Radioactive Materials (NORM). The study area is located in the western region of the state of Paraiba and was chosen because it contains a major uranium deposits in Brazil, which has an average grade of 1,200 mg.kg -1 of U 3 O 8 . Were monitored 119 residences, in order to determine the effective doses in the air in indoor environments and the possible contribution of radon. For measure the doses, thermoluminescent dosimeters type LiF:Mg, Ti were used. The results obtained for effective dose rates, ranges from 0.71 to 2.07 mSv.y -1 , with an average value of 0.90 mSv.y -1 , getting these above the global reference value established by UNSCEAR that is 1.92 mSv.y -1 , should be investigated the condition of radioecological risk in indoor environments. (Author)

  10. Mineralogy, chemistry of magnetite and genesis of Korkora-1 iron deposit, east of Takab, NW Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Maanijou

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Introduction There is an iron mining complex called Shahrak 60 km east of Takab town, NW Iran. The exploration in the Shahrak deposit (general name for all iron deposits of the area started in 1992 by Foolad Saba Noor Co. and continued in several periods until 2008. The Shahrak deposit comprising 10 ore deposits including Korkora-1, Korkora-2, Shahrak-1, Shahrak-2, Shahrak-3, Cheshmeh, Golezar, Sarab-1, Sarab-2, and Sarab-3 deposits Sheikhi, 1995 with total 60 million tons of proved ore reserves. The Fe grade ranges from 45 to 65% (average 50%. The ore reserves of these deposits vary and the largest one is Korkora-1 with 15 million tons of 55% Fe and 0.64% S. The Korkora-1 ore deposit is located in western Azarbaijan and Urumieh-Dokhtar volcanic zone, at the latitude of 36°21.8´, and longitude of 47°32´. Materials and methods Six thin-polished sections were made on magnetite, garnet, and amphibole for EPMA (Electron Probe Micro Analysis. EPMA was performed using a JEOL JXA-733 electron microprobe at the University of New Brunswick, Canada, with wavelength-dispersive spectrometers. Results and discussion Outcropped units of the area are calc-alkaline volcanics of rhyolite, andesite and dacite and carbonate rocks of Qom Formation in which intrusion of diorite to granodiorite and quartzdoirite caused contact metamorphism, alteration plus skarnization and formation of actinolite, talc, chlorite, phlogopite, quartz, calcite, epidote and marblization in the vicinity of the ore deposit. Iron mineralization formed at the contacts of andesite and dacite with carbonates in Oligo-Miocene. The study area consists of skarn, metamorphic rocks, and iron ore zones. The shape of the deposit is lentoid to horizontal with some alteration halos. The ore occurred as replacement, massive, disseminated, open-space filling and breccia. The ore minerals of the deposit include low Ti-magnetite (0.04 to 0.2 wt % Ti, minor apatite, and sulfide minerals such as pyrite

  11. The environmental neurotoxin β-N-methylamino-l-alanine (l-BMAA) is deposited into birds' eggs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andersson, Marie; Karlsson, Oskar; Brandt, Ingvar

    2018-01-01

    The neurotoxic amino acid β-N-methylamino-L-alanine (BMAA) has been implicated in the etiology of neurodegenerative disorders. BMAA is also a known developmental neurotoxin and research indicates that the sources of human and wildlife exposure may be more diverse than previously anticipated. The aim of the present study was therefore to examine whether BMAA can be transferred into birds' eggs. Egg laying quail were dosed with 14 C-labeled BMAA. The distribution of radioactivity in the birds and their laid eggs was then examined at different time points by autoradiography and phosphoimaging analysis. To evaluate the metabolic stability of the BMAA molecule, the distribution of 14 C-methyl- and 14 C-carboxyl-labeled BMAA were compared. The results revealed a pronounced incorporation of radioactivity in the eggs, predominantly in the yolk but also in the albumen. Imaging analysis showed that the concentrations of radioactivity in the liver decreased about seven times between the 24h and the 72h time points, while the concentrations in egg yolk remained largely unchanged. At 72h the egg yolk contained about five times the concentration of radioactivity in the liver. Both BMAA preparations gave rise to similar distribution pattern in the bird tissues and in the eggs, indicating metabolic stability of the labeled groups. The demonstrated deposition into eggs warrants studies of BMAAs effects on bird development. Moreover, birds' eggs may be a source of human BMAA exposure, provided that the laying birds are exposed to BMAA via their diet. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Environmental concentration and atmospheric deposition of halogenated flame retardants in soil from Nepal: Source apportionment and soil-air partitioning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yadav, Ishwar Chandra; Devi, Ningombam Linthoingambi; Li, Jun; Zhang, Gan

    2018-02-01

    While various investigations have been driven on polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) and other flame retardants (FRs) in different framework around the world, information about contamination and fate of PBDEs and other FRs in developing countries especially in the Indian subcontinent is uncommon. Nepal being located in the Indian subcontinent, very little is known about contamination level of semi-volatile organic pollutants discharged into the environment. This motivated us to investigate the environmental fate of halogenated flame retardant (HFRs) in Nepalese condition. In this study, we investigated the concentration, fate, and sources of 9 PBDEs, 2 dechlorane plus isomers (DPs), and 6 novel brominated flame retardants (NBFRs). Moreover, air-soil exchange and soil-air partitioning were also evaluated to characterize the pattern of air-soil exchange and environmental fate. In general, the concentrations of NBFRs in soil were more prevalent than PBDEs and DPs, and accounted 95% of ∑HFRs. By and large, the concentrations of NBFRs and DPs were measured high in Kathmandu, while PBDEs level exceeded in Pokhara. Principal component analysis (PCA) study suggested contributions from commercial penta-, octa-, and deca-BDEs products and de-bromination of highly brominated PBDEs as the significant source of PBDEs. Likewise, low f anti ratio suggested DPs in soil might have originated from long-range atmospheric transport from remote areas, while high levels of decabromodiphenyl ethane (DBDPE) in soil were linked with the use of wide varieties of consumer products. The estimated fugacity fraction (ff) for individual HFR was quite lower (soil is overwhelming. Soil-air partitioning study revealed neither octanol-air partition coefficient (K OA ) nor black carbon partition coefficient (K BC-A ) is an appropriate surrogate for soil organic matter (SOM), subsequently, absorption by SOM has no or little role in the partitioning of HFRs. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All

  13. Distribution and classification of Serine β-lactamases in Brazilian Hospital Sewage and Other Environmental Metagenomes deposited in Public Databases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adriana Fróes

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available β-lactam is the most used antibiotic class in the clinical area and it acts on blocking the bacteria cell wall synthesis, causing cell death. However, some bacteria have evolved resistance to these antibiotics mainly due the production of enzymes known as β-lactamases. Hospital sewage is an important source of dispersion of multidrug-resistant bacteria in rivers and oceans. In this work, we used next-generation DNA sequencing to explore the diversity and dissemination of serine β-lactamases in two hospital sewage from Rio de Janeiro, Brazil (South -SZ- and North Zone -NZ, presenting different profiles, and to compare them with public environmental data available. Also, we propose a Hidden-Markov-Model approach to screen potential serine β-lactamases genes (in public environments samples and generated hospital sewage data, exploring its evolutionary relationships. Due to the high variability in β-lactamases, we used a position-specific scoring matrix search method (RPS-BLAST against conserved domain database profiles (CDD, Pfam, and COG followed by visual inspection to detect conserved motifs, to increase the reliability of the results and remove possible false positives. We were able to identify novel β-lactamases from Brazilian hospital sewage and to estimate relative abundance of its types. The highest relative abundance found in SZ was the Class A (50%, while Class D is predominant in NZ (55%. CfxA (65% and ACC (47% types were the most abundant genes detected in SZ, while in NZ the most frequent were OXA-10 (32%, CfxA (28%, ACC (21%, CEPA (20% and FOX (19%. Phylogenetic analysis revealed β-lactamases from Brazilian hospital sewage grouped in the same clade and close to sequences belonging to Firmicutes and Bacteroidetes groups, but distant from potential β-lactamases screened from public environmental data, that grouped closer to β-lactamases of Proteobacteria. Our results demonstrated that HMM-based approach identified homologs of

  14. Distribution and Classification of Serine β-Lactamases in Brazilian Hospital Sewage and Other Environmental Metagenomes Deposited in Public Databases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fróes, Adriana M; da Mota, Fábio F; Cuadrat, Rafael R C; Dávila, Alberto M R

    2016-01-01

    β-lactam is the most used antibiotic class in the clinical area and it acts on blocking the bacteria cell wall synthesis, causing cell death. However, some bacteria have evolved resistance to these antibiotics mainly due the production of enzymes known as β-lactamases. Hospital sewage is an important source of dispersion of multidrug-resistant bacteria in rivers and oceans. In this work, we used next-generation DNA sequencing to explore the diversity and dissemination of serine β-lactamases in two hospital sewage from Rio de Janeiro, Brazil (South Zone, SZ and North Zone, NZ), presenting different profiles, and to compare them with public environmental data available. Also, we propose a Hidden-Markov-Model approach to screen potential serine β-lactamases genes (in public environments samples and generated hospital sewage data), exploring its evolutionary relationships. Due to the high variability in β-lactamases, we used a position-specific scoring matrix search method (RPS-BLAST) against conserved domain database profiles (CDD, Pfam, and COG) followed by visual inspection to detect conserved motifs, to increase the reliability of the results and remove possible false positives. We were able to identify novel β-lactamases from Brazilian hospital sewage and to estimate relative abundance of its types. The highest relative abundance found in SZ was the Class A (50%), while Class D is predominant in NZ (55%). CfxA (65%) and ACC (47%) types were the most abundant genes detected in SZ, while in NZ the most frequent were OXA-10 (32%), CfxA (28%), ACC (21%), CEPA (20%), and FOX (19%). Phylogenetic analysis revealed β-lactamases from Brazilian hospital sewage grouped in the same clade and close to sequences belonging to Firmicutes and Bacteroidetes groups, but distant from potential β-lactamases screened from public environmental data, that grouped closer to β-lactamases of Proteobacteria. Our results demonstrated that HMM-based approach identified homologs of

  15. Results of environmental radioactivity measurements in the Member States of the European Community for air - deposition - water - milk - 1977

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1979-01-01

    The present document is the seventeenth report published by the Health and Safety Directorate of the Commission of the European Communities concerning ambient radioactivity. It was drawn up using the data collected by the stations responsible for environmental radioactivity monitoring in the Member States. The results are extracts from the data sent to the Commission in application of Article 36 of the Treaty of Rome establishing the European Atomic Energy Community. The results presented in this report deal with radioactive contamination of the air, precipitation and fallout, surface water and milk during 1977 in the nine Member States of the European Community, viz. Belgium, Denmark, the Federal Republic of Germany, France, Italy, Ireland, Luxembourg, the Netherlands and the United Kingdom. The report also contains supplementary data on short-lived radioelements detected during the fourth quarter of 1977, the list of sampling stations and laboratories together With a list of publications by Member States in this field. This report places special emphasis on the measurement results for specific radionuclides, but it also contains data on total beta activity so as to ensure continuity vis-a-vis previous reports and provide comparative values

  16. Technique for controllable vapor-phase deposition of 1-nitro(14C)pyrene and other polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons onto environmental particulate matter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lucas, S.V.; Lee, K.W.; Melton, C.W.; Lewtas, J.; Ball, L.M.

    1991-01-01

    To produce environmental particles fortified with a polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) for toxicology studies, an experimental apparatus was devised for deposition of the desired chemical species onto particles in a controlled and reproducible manner. The technique utilized consists of dispersion of the particles on a gaseous stream at a controlled rate, thermal vaporization of a solution of PAH, delivery of the vaporized PAH into the aerosol of particles at a controlled rate, subsequent condensation of the PAH onto the particles, and final recovery of the coated particles. The effectiveness of this approach was demonstrated by vapor-coating a 14 C-labeled PAH (1-nitro( 14 C)-pyrene) onto diesel engine exhaust particles that had previously been collected by tunnel dilution sampling techniques. Using the 14 C label as a tracer, the coated particles were characterized with respect to degree of coating, integrity of particle structure and absence of chemical decomposition of the coating substrate. The study demonstrates that the described method provides a controllable means for depositing a substance uniformly and with a high coating efficiency onto aerosolized particles. The technique was also used to vapor-coat benzo(a)pyrene onto diesel engine exhaust and urban ambient air particulate matter, and 2-nitrofluoranthene onto urban ambient air particulate matter. Coating efficiencies of about 400 micrograms/g particulate matter were routinely obtained on a single coating run, and up to 1200 micrograms/g (1200 ppm) were achieved after a second pass through the process. The coated particles were subsequently utilized in biological fate, distribution and metabolism studies

  17. Origins and exploration significance of replacement and vein-type alunite deposits in the Marysvale volcanic field, west central Utah.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cunningham, C.G.; Rye, R.O.; Steven, T.A.; Mehnert, H.H.

    1984-01-01

    Alunite in the Marysvale volcanic field forms two (three are described) different types of deposits which contrast in appearance and conditions of origin: 1) Replacement deposits are generally fine-grained and formed by near-surface replacement of intermediate-composition volcanic rocks. The deposits form a bead necklace around a monzonite stock. Each deposit is zoned horizontally from alunitic cores to kaolinitic and propylitic envelopes and zoned vertically from pyrite/propylite upward through alunite/jarosite/hematite to a silica cap. Alunite does not extend below 100 m. Sulphur isotope ratios agree with derivation from underlying Mesozoic evaporites. 2) Natroalunite of 14-m.y. age crosscuts replacement-type alunite deposits. Its S-isotope ratios are comparable with those of pyrite in the volcanics. The Na may be from underlying Mesozoic halites. 3) Veins of coarse-grained alunite of 14-m.y. age filled extension fractures above a postulated stock. S-isotope ratios indicate a probable magmatic source. The contrasting properties of the Marysvale alunite deposits preclude any simple relation to ore deposits, but serve to refine interpretations based on other geological considerations. The replacement deposits are a logical near-surface result of skarn forming processes at depth around the monzonite stock. The vein- type deposits are a logical near-surface result of porphyry metallization in an underlying stock. -G.J.N.

  18. Photosynthesis and oxidative stress in the restinga plant species Eugenia uniflora L. exposed to simulated acid rain and iron ore dust deposition: Potential use in environmental risk assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rust Neves, Natalia; Oliva, Marco Antonio; Cruz Centeno, Danilo da; Costa, Alan Carlos; Ferreira Ribas, Rogerio [Departamento de Biologia Vegetal, Universidade Federal de Vicosa, Av. PH Rolfs, Campus, Vicosa, Minas Gerais, 36570-000 (Brazil); Gusmao Pereira, Eduardo, E-mail: egpereira@gmail.com [Departamento de Biologia Vegetal, Universidade Federal de Vicosa, Av. PH Rolfs, Campus, Vicosa, Minas Gerais, 36570-000 (Brazil)

    2009-06-01

    The Brazilian sandy coastal plain named restinga is frequently subjected to particulate and gaseous emissions from iron ore factories. These gases may come into contact with atmospheric moisture and produce acid rain. The effects of the acid rain on vegetation, combined with iron excess in the soil, can lead to the disappearance of sensitive species and decrease restinga biodiversity. The effects of iron ore dust deposition and simulated acid rain on photosynthesis and on antioxidant enzymes were investigated in Eugenia uniflora, a representative shrub species of the restinga. This study aimed to determine the possible utility of this species in environmental risk assessment. After the application of iron ore dust as iron solid particulate matter (SPM{sub Fe}) and simulated acid rain (pH 3.1), the 18-month old plants displayed brown spots and necrosis, typical symptoms of iron toxicity and injuries caused by acid rain, respectively. The acidity of the rain intensified leaf iron accumulation, which reached phytotoxic levels, mainly in plants exposed to iron ore dust. These plants showed the lowest values for net photosynthesis, stomatal conductance, transpiration, chlorophyll a content and electron transport rate through photosystem II (PSII). Catalase and superoxide dismutase activities were decreased by simulated acid rain. Peroxidase activity and membrane injury increased following exposure to acid rain and simultaneous SPM{sub Fe} application. Eugenia uniflora exhibited impaired photosynthetic and antioxidative metabolism in response to combined iron and acid rain stresses. This species could become a valuable tool in environmental risk assessment in restinga areas near iron ore pelletizing factories. Non-invasive evaluations of visual injuries, photosynthesis and chlorophyll a fluorescence, as well as invasive biochemical analysis could be used as markers.

  19. Photosynthesis and oxidative stress in the restinga plant species Eugenia uniflora L. exposed to simulated acid rain and iron ore dust deposition: Potential use in environmental risk assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rust Neves, Natalia; Oliva, Marco Antonio; Cruz Centeno, Danilo da; Costa, Alan Carlos; Ferreira Ribas, Rogerio; Gusmao Pereira, Eduardo

    2009-01-01

    The Brazilian sandy coastal plain named restinga is frequently subjected to particulate and gaseous emissions from iron ore factories. These gases may come into contact with atmospheric moisture and produce acid rain. The effects of the acid rain on vegetation, combined with iron excess in the soil, can lead to the disappearance of sensitive species and decrease restinga biodiversity. The effects of iron ore dust deposition and simulated acid rain on photosynthesis and on antioxidant enzymes were investigated in Eugenia uniflora, a representative shrub species of the restinga. This study aimed to determine the possible utility of this species in environmental risk assessment. After the application of iron ore dust as iron solid particulate matter (SPM Fe ) and simulated acid rain (pH 3.1), the 18-month old plants displayed brown spots and necrosis, typical symptoms of iron toxicity and injuries caused by acid rain, respectively. The acidity of the rain intensified leaf iron accumulation, which reached phytotoxic levels, mainly in plants exposed to iron ore dust. These plants showed the lowest values for net photosynthesis, stomatal conductance, transpiration, chlorophyll a content and electron transport rate through photosystem II (PSII). Catalase and superoxide dismutase activities were decreased by simulated acid rain. Peroxidase activity and membrane injury increased following exposure to acid rain and simultaneous SPM Fe application. Eugenia uniflora exhibited impaired photosynthetic and antioxidative metabolism in response to combined iron and acid rain stresses. This species could become a valuable tool in environmental risk assessment in restinga areas near iron ore pelletizing factories. Non-invasive evaluations of visual injuries, photosynthesis and chlorophyll a fluorescence, as well as invasive biochemical analysis could be used as markers.

  20. Two mineralization events in the Baiyinnuoer Zn-Pb deposit in Inner Mongolia, China: Evidence from field observations, S-Pb isotopic compositions and U-Pb zircon ages

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Si-Hong; Chen, Chun-Liang; Bagas, Leon; Liu, Yuan; Han, Ning; Kang, Huan; Wang, Ze-Hai

    2017-08-01

    The Xing-Mong Orogenic Belt (XMOB) is located in the eastern part of the Central Asian Orogenic Belt (CAOB) and has experienced multiple tectonic events. The Baiyinnuoer Pb-Zn deposit may be a rare case that documents two periods of mineralization in the tectonically complex XMOB. There are two types of Pb-Zn mineralization in the deposit: (1) skarn-type ore, hosted by the skarn in the contact zone between marble and granodiorite and within the marble and (2) vein-type ore, hosted by crystal tuff and feldspar porphyry. This study revealed that the host rocks, mineral assemblages, mineralization occurrences, S-Pb isotopes, and ages between the two types of ore are notably different. Zircon U-Pb dating indicates that the granodiorite was emplaced in the Early Triassic (244 ± 1 to 242 ± 1 Ma), the crystal tuff was deposited in the Early Cretaceous (140 ± 1 to 136 ± 1 Ma), and the feldspar porphyry was intruded in the Early Cretaceous (138 ± 2 to 136 ± 2 Ma). The first skarn mineralization occurred at ∼240 Ma and the second vein-type Pb-Zn mineralization took place between 136 and 129 Ma. Thus the Triassic orebodies were overprinted by Early Cretaceous mineralization. The sphalerite and galena from the skarn mineralization have higher δ34S values (-4.7 to +0.3‰) than the sphalerite, galena and aresenopyrite from the vein-type mineralization (-7.5 to -4.2‰), indicating different sulfur sources or ore-forming processes for the two types of mineralization. The Pb isotopic compositions of the two types of ore are very similar, suggesting similar lead sources. Geochemistry and Nd-Pb-Hf isotopic systematics of the igneous rocks in the region show that the Triassic granodiorite was generated from hybridization of mafic and felsic magmas due to strong crust-mantle interaction under the collisional setting that resulted following the closure of the Paleo-Asian Ocean and the collision of North China and Siberian cratons at the end of the Permian; while the

  1. Environmental impact of flood: the study of arsenic speciation in exchangeable fraction of flood deposits of Warta river (Poland) in determination of "finger prints" of the pollutants origin and the ways of the migration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kozak, Lidia; Skolasińska, Katarzyna; Niedzielski, Przemysław

    2012-09-01

    The paper presents the application of the hyphenated technique - high-performance liquid chromatography with atomic absorption spectrometry detection with hydride generation (HPLC-HG-AAS) - in the determinations of inorganic forms of arsenic: As(III) and As(V) in the exchangeable fraction of flood deposits. The separation of analytical signals of the determined arsenic forms was obtained using an ion-exchange column in a chromatographic system with the atomic absorption spectrometer as a detector, at the determination limits of 5 ngg(-1) for As(III) and 10 ngg(-1) for As(V). Flood deposits were collected after big flood event in valley of the Warta river which took place in summer 2010. Samples of overbank deposits were taken in Poznań agglomeration and vicinity (NW Poland). The results of determinations of arsenic forms in the exchangeable fraction of flood deposits allowed indication of a hypothetical path of deposits migration transported by a river during flood and environmental threats posed by their deposition by flood. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Genesis of the Bangbule Pb-Zn-Cu polymetallic deposit in Tibet, western China: Evidence from zircon U-Pb geochronology and S-Pb isotopes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kan, Tian; Zheng, Youye; Gao, Shunbao

    2016-04-01

    The Banbule Pb-Zn-Cu skarn deposit is located in the Longger-Gongbujiangda volcanic magma arc in the Gangdese-Nyainqentanglha Plate. It is the only lead-zinc polymetallic deposit discovered in the westernmost Nyainqentanglha metallogenic belt. The measured and indicated resources include 0.9 Mt of Pb+Zn (4.77% Pb and 4.74% Zn, respectively), 6499 t of Cu, and 178 t of Ag (18.75g/t Ag). The orebodies mainly occur as lenses, veins and irregular shapes in the contact zone between the quartz-porphyry and limestone of the Upper Permian Xiala Formation, or in the boundaries between limestone and sandstone. Pb-Zn-Cu mineralization in the Banbule deposit is closely associated with skarns. The ore minerals are dominated by galena, sphalerite, chalcopyrite, bornite, and magnetite, with subordinate pyrite, malachite, and azurite. The gangue minerals are mainly garnet, actinolite, diopside, quartz, and calcite. The ore-related quartz-porphyry displays LA-ICP-MS zircon U-Pb age of 77.31±0.74 Ma. The δ34S values of sulfides define a narrow range of -0.8 to 4.7‰ indicating a magmatic source for the ore-forming materials. Lead isotopic systematics yield 206Pb/204Pb of 18.698 to 18.752, 207Pb/204Pb of 15.696 to 15.760, and 208Pb/204Pb of 39.097 to 39.320. The data points are constrained around the growth curves of upper crust and orogenic belt according to the tectonic discrimination diagrams. The calculated Δβ - Δγ values plot within the magmatic field according to the discrimination diagram of Zhu et al. (1995). The S-Pb isotopic data suggest that Bangbule is a typical skarn deposit, and the Pb-Zn-Cu mineralization is genetically related to the quartz-porphyry in the mining district. The discovery of the Bangbule deposit indicates that there is metallogenic potential in the westernmost Nyainqentanglha belt, which is of great importance for the exploration work in this area.

  3. Effect of nine years of animal waste deposition on profile distribution of heavy metals in Abeokuta, south-western Nigeria and its implication for environmental quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azeez, J O; Adekunle, I O; Atiku, O O; Akande, K B; Jamiu-Azeez, S O

    2009-09-01

    Uncontrolled deposition of waste from animal farms is a common practice in south-western Nigeria, and the presence of heavy metals in soil constitutes environmental and health hazards by polluting the soil, ground water, adjoining streams and rivers. The study investigated the profile distribution of Mn, Pb, Cd, Zn, Fe, Cu, Ni and Cr in some tropical Alfisols in south-western Nigeria after nine years disposal of animal wastes. The amount of these metals in the soil horizons was high enough to cause health and phytotoxic risks. All the metals except Zn and Cr increased down the profile, while Mn, Pb, Cd, Fe, Cu and Ni accumulated at 80-120 cm depth. The increment of these metals at this depth over the top soil were 26%, 143%, 72%, 47%, 328% for Mn, Pb, Cd, Cu and Ni, respectively. It thus, shows their mobility and the possibility of polluting ground water. The Mn content at the poultry and cattle waste sites increased by 127% and 25%, respectively over the control, while that of cattle and swine dump site for Cd content were 9.82 and 15.63 mg kg(-1), respectively. Lead content also increased by 8.52 and 5.25 mg kg(-1), respectively. There was the accumulation of Zn and Cu at the swine dump site while the cattle dump site had the highest amounts of nickel and chromium. The least amount of Fe was recorded at the swine waste dump site. The reduction in organic matter with depths together with the reduced pH might have favored the mobility of the metals. The ranking of pollution among the sites was poultry>swine>cattle>sheep and could be due to the type of ration fed, the vaccination programmes, sanitation programmes and other management practices.

  4. Tsunami deposits

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2013-08-15

    The NSC (the Nuclear Safety Commission of Japan) demand to survey on tsunami deposits by use of various technical methods (Dec. 2011), because tsunami deposits have useful information on tsunami activity, tsunami source etc. However, there are no guidelines on tsunami deposit survey in JAPAN. In order to prepare the guideline of tsunami deposits survey and evaluation and to develop the method of tsunami source estimation on the basis of tsunami deposits, JNES carried out the following issues; (1) organizing information of paleoseismological record and tsunami deposit by literature research, (2) field survey on tsunami deposit, and (3) designing the analysis code of sediment transport due to tsunami. As to (1), we organize the information gained about tsunami deposits in the database. As to (2), we consolidate methods for surveying and identifying tsunami deposits in the lake based on results of the field survey in Fukui Pref., carried out by JNES. In addition, as to (3), we design the experimental instrument for hydraulic experiment on sediment transport and sedimentation due to tsunamis. These results are reflected in the guideline on the tsunami deposits survey and evaluation. (author)

  5. Tsunami deposits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2013-01-01

    The NSC (the Nuclear Safety Commission of Japan) demand to survey on tsunami deposits by use of various technical methods (Dec. 2011), because tsunami deposits have useful information on tsunami activity, tsunami source etc. However, there are no guidelines on tsunami deposit survey in JAPAN. In order to prepare the guideline of tsunami deposits survey and evaluation and to develop the method of tsunami source estimation on the basis of tsunami deposits, JNES carried out the following issues; (1) organizing information of paleoseismological record and tsunami deposit by literature research, (2) field survey on tsunami deposit, and (3) designing the analysis code of sediment transport due to tsunami. As to (1), we organize the information gained about tsunami deposits in the database. As to (2), we consolidate methods for surveying and identifying tsunami deposits in the lake based on results of the field survey in Fukui Pref., carried out by JNES. In addition, as to (3), we design the experimental instrument for hydraulic experiment on sediment transport and sedimentation due to tsunamis. These results are reflected in the guideline on the tsunami deposits survey and evaluation. (author)

  6. Short- and medium-chain chlorinated paraffins in air and soil of subtropical terrestrial environment in the pearl river delta, South China: distribution, composition, atmospheric deposition fluxes, and environmental fate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yan; Li, Jun; Cheng, Zhineng; Li, Qilu; Pan, Xiaohui; Zhang, Ruijie; Liu, Di; Luo, Chunling; Liu, Xiang; Katsoyiannis, Athanasios; Zhang, Gan

    2013-03-19

    Research on the environmental fate of short- and medium-chain chlorinated paraffins (SCCPs and MCCPs) in highly industrialized subtropical areas is still scarce. Air, soil, and atmospheric deposition process in the Pearl River Delta of South China were investigated, and the average SCCP and MCCP concentrations were 5.2 μg/sampler (17.69 ng/m(3)) and 4.1 μg/sampler for passive air samples, 18.3 and 59.3 ng/g for soil samples, and 5.0 and 5.3 μg/(m(2)d) for deposition samples, respectively. Influenced by primary sources and the properties of chlorinated paraffins (CPs), a gradient trend of concentrations and a fractionation of composition from more to less industrialized areas were discovered. Intense seasonal variations with high levels in summer air and winter deposition samples indicated that the air and deposition CP levels were controlled mainly by the vapor and particle phase, respectively. Complex environmental processes like volatilization and fractionation resulted in different CP profiles in different environment matrixes and sampling locations, with C(10-11) C(l6-7) and C(14) C(l6-7), C(10-12) C(l6-7) and C(14) C(l6-8), and C(11-12) C(l6-8) and C(14) C(l7-8) dominating in air, soil, and atmospheric deposition, respectively. Shorter-chain and less chlorinated congeners were enriched in air in the less industrialized areas, while longer-chain and higher chlorinated congeners were concentrated in soil in the more industrialized areas. This is suggesting that the gaseous transport of CPs is the dominant mechanism responsible for the higher concentrations of lighter and likely more mobile CPs in the rural areas.

  7. Project for solving of environmental problems caused by ash emission and deposition from the thermal power plant 'Nikola Tesla' at Obrenovac

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Simonovic, B.R.; Vukmirovic, Z.; Ilic, M.

    2002-01-01

    The problem of ash emission and deposition from the Thermal Power Plant 'Nikola Tesla' (TPPNT) in Obrenovac commences with the date of their construction. Up to now, mainly, some analysis of several possible influences of ash (emitted or deposited on the ash and slug dump) was done. We believe that is time now, due to the consequences for a long time, to pose and to resolve the whole problem of ash emission and deposition from TPPNT Obrenovac. Due to the very big production capacity, an enormous amount of fly ash (particle size of 90-200 μm) is emitted to a large area near Obrenovac. Very large quantities of ash and slug (more than 2 millions tons annually) produced during coal burning were deposited on the dump very close to the river Sava. Some of the multiple consequences due to elution of heavy metals, water spilling from the dump and mixing with ground water and surface water of river Sava, weathering of fine particles of ash by wind, acid rains near to the thermal power plants, and other influences of flying and deposited ash on the environment of the whole area are always present. Due to the complexity of the posed problem, a multidisciplinary experts' team was formed to cover all aspects of negative influences of ash emission and deposition from TPPNT Obrenovac. Our project comprises a large number of subprojects covering different problem solving, diminution or removal of all negative influences according to European standards and regulations. (author)

  8. Exogenous deposits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khasanov, A.Kh.

    1988-01-01

    Exogenous deposits forming as a result of complex exogenous processes, passed under the influence of outside forces on the Earth surface. To them relate physical and chemical weathering, decomposition and decay of mineral masses, redistribution and transportation of material, forming and deposit of new minerals and ores steady on the earth surface conditions

  9. Environmental stress in German forests; assessment of critical deposition levels and their exceedances and meteorological stress for crown condition monitoring sites in Germany

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Klap, J.M.; Reinds, G.J.; Bleeker, A.; Vries, de W.

    2000-01-01

    Site-specific estimations of meteorological stress and atmospheric deposition were made for the systematic 8 x 8 km2 forest condition monitoring network in Germany for the years 1987-1995. Winter cold and late frost were important temperature stress variables and relative transpiration was a good

  10. Four magnetite generations in the Precambrian Varena Iron Ore deposit, SE Lithuania, as a result of rock-fluid interactions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skridlaite, Grazina; Prusinskiene, Sabina; Siliauskas, Laurynas

    2017-04-01

    Iron ores in Precambrian crystalline basement of the Varena area, SE Lithuania, were discovered during the detail geological-geophysical exploration in 1982-1992. They are covered with 210-500 m thick sediments. The Varena Iron Ore deposit (VIOD) may yield from 71 to 219.6 million tons of iron ore according to different economic evaluations (Marfin, 1996). They were assumed to be of metasomatic and hydrothermal origin, however several other hypotheses explaining the VIOZ origin, e.g. as a layered mafic or carbonatite intrusions were also suggested. Magnetites of the VIOD were thoroughly investigated by the Cameca SX100 microprobe at the Warsaw University and by the Quanta 250 Energy Dispersive Spectroscopy (EDS) at the Nature Research Centre in Vilnius, Lithuania. Four generations of magnetite were distinguished in the studied serpentine-magnetite ores (D8 drilling) and were compared with the earlier studied and reference magnetites. The earliest, spinel inclusion-rich magnetite cores (Mag-1) have the highest trace element contents (in wt%): Si (0.032), Al (0.167-0.248), Mg (0.340-0.405), Ti (0.215-0.254), V (0.090-0.138) etc. They might have formed during an early metamorphism and/or related skarn formation. Voluminous second magnetite (Mag-2) replacing olivine, pyroxenes, spinel and other skarn minerals at c. 540o C (Magnetite-Ilmenite geothermometer) has much lower trace element abundances, probably washed out by hydrothermal fluids. The latest magnetites (Mag-3 and Mag-4) overgrow the earlier ones and occur near or within the sulfide veins (Mag-4). As was observed from microtextures, the Mag-3 and Mag-4 have originated from the late thermal reworking by dissolution-reprecipitation processes. To imply an origin of the studied magnetites, they were compared to the earlier studied magmatic-metamorphic (1058 drilling), presumably skarn (982 drilling) magnetites from the studied area and plotted in the major magnetite ore type fields according to Dupuis and Beaudoin

  11. Arc-related porphyry molybdenum deposit model: Chapter D in Mineral deposit models for resource assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Ryan D.; Hammarstrom, Jane M.; Piatak, Nadine M.; Seal, Robert R.

    2012-01-01

    This report provides a descriptive model for arc-related porphyry molybdenum deposits. Presented within are geological, geochemical, and mineralogical characteristics that differentiate this deposit type from porphyry copper and alkali-feldspar rhyolite-granite porphyry molybdenum deposits. The U.S. Geological Survey's effort to update existing mineral deposit models spurred this research, which is intended to supplement previously published models for this deposit type that help guide mineral-resource and mineral-environmental assessments.

  12. Deposition of carbon dioxide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2001-01-01

    In Norway, there is currently a debate about whether or not to build gas power stations. To meet the possibility of reduced emission quotas for carbon dioxide in the future, current interest focuses on the incorporation of large-scale separation and deposition of carbon dioxide when such plants are planned. A group of experts concludes that this technology will become self-financing by means of environmental taxes. From the environmental point of view, taxes upon production are to be preferred over taxes on consumption

  13. Origin of the volcanic-hosted Yamansu Fe deposit, Eastern Tianshan, NW China: constraints from pyrite Re-Os isotopes, stable isotopes, and in situ magnetite trace elements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Xiao-Wen; Zhou, Mei-Fu; Beaudoin, Georges; Gao, Jian-Feng; Qi, Liang; Lyu, Chuan

    2018-01-01

    The Yamansu Fe deposit (32 Mt at 51% Fe) in the Eastern Tianshan Orogenic Belt of NW China is hosted in early Carboniferous volcano-sedimentary rocks and spatially associated with skarn. The paragenetic sequence includes garnet-diopside (I), magnetite (II), hydrous silicate-sulfide (III), and calcite-quartz (IV) stages. Pyrite associated with magnetite has a Re-Os isochron age of 322 ± 7 Ma, which represents the timing of pyrite and, by inference, magnetite mineralization. Pyrite has δ 34SVCDT values of - 2.2 to + 2.9‰, yielding δ 34SH2S values of - 3.1 to 2‰, indicating the derivation of sulfur from a magmatic source. Calcite from stages II and IV has δ 13CVPDB values from - 2.5 to - 1.2‰, and - 1.1 to 1.1‰, and δ 18OVSMOW values from 11.8 to 12.0‰ and - 7.7 to - 5.2‰, respectively. Calculated δ 13C values of fluid CO2 and water δ 18O values indicate that stage II hydrothermal fluids were derived from magmatic rocks and that meteoric water mixed with the hydrothermal fluids in stage IV. Some ores contain magnetite with obvious chemical zoning composed of dark and light domains in BSE images. Dark domains have higher Mg, Al, Ca, Mn, and Ti but lower Fe and Cr contents than light domains. The chemical zoning resulted from a fluctuating fluid composition and/or physicochemical conditions (oscillatory zoning), or dissolution-precipitation (irregular zoning) via infiltration of magmatic-hydrothermal fluids diluted by late meteoric water. Iron was mainly derived from fluids similar to that in skarn deposits.

  14. Molybdenite Re/Os dating, zircon U-Pb age and geochemistry of granitoids in the Yangchuling porphyry W-Mo deposit (Jiangnan tungsten ore belt), China: Implications for petrogenesis, mineralization and geodynamic setting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mao, Jingwen; Xiong, Bikang; Liu, Jun; Pirajno, Franco; Cheng, Yanbo; Ye, Huishou; Song, Shiwei; Dai, Pan

    2017-08-01

    The Yangchuling W-Mo deposit, located in the Jiangnan porphyry-skarn (JNB) tungsten ore belt, is the first recognized typical porphyry W-Mo deposit in China in the 1980's. Stockworks and disseminated W-Mo mineralization occur in the roof pendant of a 0.3 km2 monzogranitic porphyry stock that intruded into a granodiorite stock, hosted by Neoproterozoic phyllite and slate. LA-ICPMS zircon U-Pb analyses suggest that of the monzogranitic porphyry and granodiorite were formed at 143.8 ± 0.5 Ma and 149.8 ± 0.6 Ma, respectively. Six molybdenite samples yielded a Re-Os weighted mean age of 146.4 ± 1.0 Ma. Geochemical data show that both granodiorite and monzogranitic porphyry are characterized by enrichment of large ion lithophile elements (LILE) relative to high field strength elements (HFSE), indicating a peraluminous nature (A/CNK = 1.01-1.08). Two granitoids are characterized by a negative slope with significant light REE/heavy REE fractionation [(La/Yb)N = 8.38-23.20] and negative Eu anomalies (Eu/Eu* = 0.69-0.76). The P2O5 contents of the Yangchuling granitoids range from 0.12% to 0.17% and exhibit a negative correlation with SiO2, reflecting that they are highly fractionated I-type. They have high initial 87Sr/86Sr ratios (0.7104-0.7116), low negative εNd(t) (- 5.05 to - 5.67), and homogeneous εHf(t) between - 1.39 and - 2.17, indicating similar sources. Additionally, two-stage Nd model ages (TDM2) of 1.3-1.4 Ga and two-stage Hf model ages (TDM2) of 1.2-1.3 Ga are consistent, indicating that Neoproterozoic crustal rocks of the Shuangqiaoshan Group could have contributed to form the Yangchuling magmas. Considering the two groups of parallel Late Mesozoic ore belts, namely the Jiangnan porphyry-skarn tungsten belt (JNB) in the south and the Middle-Lower Yangtze River porphyry-skarn Cu-Au-Mo-Fe ore belt (YRB) in the north, the Nanling granite-related W-Sn ore belt (NLB) in the south, the neighboring Qin-Hang porphyry-skarn Cu-Mo-hydrothermal Pb-Zn-Ag ore belt (QHB

  15. Granite-related Yangjiashan tungsten deposit, southern China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Guiqing; Mao, Jingwen; Li, Wei; Fu, Bin; Zhang, Zhiyuan

    2018-04-01

    The Yangjiashan scheelite-bearing deposit (38,663 metric tons of WO3 with an average ore grade of 0.70% WO3) is hosted in quartz veins in a biotite monzogranite intrusion and surrounding slate in the Xiangzhong Metallogenic Province of southern China. The monzogranite has a zircon SHRIMP U-Pb age of 406.6 ± 2.8 Ma (2σ, n = 20, MSWD = 1.4). Cassiterite coexisting with scheelite yields a weighted mean 206Pb/238U age of 409.8 ± 5.9 Ma (2σ, n = 30, MSWD = 0.20), and molybdenite intergrown with scheelite yields a weighted mean Re-Os age of 404.2 ± 3.2 Ma (2σ, n = 3, MSWD = 0.10). These results suggest that the Yangjiashan tungsten deposit is temporally related to the Devonian intrusion. The δD and calculated δ18OH2O values of quartz intergrown with scheelite range from - 87 to - 68‰, and - 1.2 to 3.4‰, respectively. Sulfides have a narrow range of δ34S values of - 2.9 to - 0.7‰ with an average value of - 1.6‰ (n = 16). The integration of geological, stable isotope, and geochronological data, combined with the quartz-muscovite greisen style of ore, supports a magmatic-hydrothermal origin for the tungsten mineralization. Compared to the more common tungsten skarn, quartz-wolframite vein, and porphyry tungsten deposits, as well as orogenic gold deposits worldwide, the Yangjiashan tungsten deposit is an unusual example of a granite-related, gold-poor, scheelite-bearing quartz vein type of deposit. The calcium needed for the formation of scheelite is derived from the sericitization of calcic plagioclase in the monzogranite and Ca-bearing psammitic country rocks, and the relatively high pH, reduced and Ca-rich mineralizing fluid may be the main reasons for the formation of scheelite rather than wolframite at Yangjiashan.

  16. Cave deposits as a sedimentary trap for the Marine Isotope Stage 3 environmental record: The case study of Pod Hradem, Czech Republic

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Nejman, L.; Lisá, Lenka; Doláková, N.; Horáček, I.; Bajer, A.; Novák, J.; Wright, D.; Sullivan, M.; Wood, R.; Gargett, R. H.; Pacher, M.; Sázelová, Sandra; Nývltová Fišáková, Miriam; Rohovec, Jan; Králík, M.

    2018-01-01

    Roč. 497, 15 May 2018 (2018), s. 201-217 ISSN 0031-0182 Institutional support: RVO:67985831 ; RVO:68081758 Keywords : palaeoclimate * geoarchaeology * human occupation * micromorphology * geochemistry Subject RIV: AC - Archeology, Anthropology, Ethnology (ARUB-Q) OBOR OECD: Environmental sciences (social aspects to be 5.7); Archaeology (ARUB-Q) Impact factor: 2.578, year: 2016

  17. Metal dispersion and mobility in soils from the Lik Zn-Pb-Ag massive sulphide deposit, NW Alaska: Environmental and exploration implications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelley, K.D.; Kelley, D.L.

    2003-01-01

    The Lik deposit in northern Alaska is a largely unexposed shale-hosted Zn-Pb-Ag massive sulphide deposit that is underlain by continuous permafrost. Residual soils overlying the mineralized zone have element enrichments that are two to six times greater than baseline values. The most prominent elements are Ag, Mo, P, Se, Sr, V by total 4-acid digestion and Tl by a weak partial digestion (Enzyme Leach or EL) because they show multi-point anomalies that extend across the entire mineralized zone, concentration ranges are 0.5-2.6 ppm Ag, 4-26 ppm Mo, 0.1-0.3% P, 3-22 ppm Se, 90-230 ppm Sr, 170-406 ppm V, and 1.6-30 ppb Tl. Lead, Sb, and Hg are also anomalous (up to 178 ppm, 30 ppm, and 1.9 ppm, respectively), but all are characterized by single point anomalies directly over the mineralized zone, with only slightly elevated concentrations over the lower mineralized section. Zinc (total) has a consistent baseline response of 200 ppm, but it is not elevated in soils overlying the mineralized zone. However, Zn by EL shows a distinct single-point anomaly over the ore zone that suggests it was highly mobile and partly adsorbed on oxides or other secondary phases during weathering. In situ analyses (by laser ablation ICP-MS) of pyrite and sphalerite from drill core suggest that sphalerite is the primary residence for Ag, Cd, and Hg in addition to Zn, and pyrite contains As, Fe, Sb, and Tl. The level and degree of oxidation, and the proportion of reacting pyrite and carbonate minerals are two factors that affected the mobility and transport of metals. In oxidizing conditions, Zn is highly mobile relative to Hg and Ag, perhaps explaining the decoupling of Zn from the other sphalerite-hosted elements in the soils. Soils are acidic (to 3.9 pH) directly over the deposit due to the presence of acid-producing pyrite, but acid-neutralizing carbonate away from the mineralized zone yield soils that are near neutral. The soils therefore formed in a complex system involving oxidation and

  18. Jabiluka environmental studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morley, A.W.; Koontz, D.V.; Sanderson, N.T. (Pancontinental Mining Ltd., Sydney (Australia))

    1984-02-01

    Environmental baseline studies associated with development of the Jabiluka uranium deposits are described. Some basic characteristics of the area local to the deposits are reported and a brief explanation is provided of the nature of, and philosophy behind the environmental studies. The major findings from this program are discussed.

  19. Jabiluka environmental studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morley, A.W.; Koontz, D.V.; Sanderson, N.T.

    1984-01-01

    Environmental baseline studies associated with development of the Jabiluka uranium deposits are described. Some basic characteristics of the area local to the deposits are reported and a brief explanation is provided of the nature of, and philosophy behind the environmental studies. The major findings from this program are discussed. (author)

  20. Limitations in the Use of Archived Vent Mussel Samples to Assess Genetic Connectivity Among Seafloor Massive Sulfide Deposits: A Case Study with Implications for Environmental Management

    OpenAIRE

    Boschen, Rachel E.; Rowden, Ashley A.; Clark, Malcolm R.; Gardner, Jonathan P. A.

    2015-01-01

    Genetic connectivity studies can inform the design of mitigation strategies used in environmental management. However, the expense of developing species-specific molecular markers and collecting samples at appropriate spatial and temporal scales can be prohibitive. Using archived material and existing molecular markers may provide a cost-effective way to assess population connectivity. Genetic connectivity studies are increasingly in demand in the deep sea in response to mounting anthropogeni...

  1. Modelling the deposition of airborne radionuclides into the urban environment. First report of the VAMP Urban Working Group. Part of the IAEA/CEC co-ordinated research programme on the validation of environmental model predictions (VAMP)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-08-01

    A co-ordinated research programme was begun at the IAEA in 1988 with the short title of Validation of Environmental Model Predictions (VAMP). The VAMP Urban Working Group aims to examine, by means of expert review combined with formal validation exercises, modelling for the assessment of the radiation exposure of urban populations through the external irradiation and inhalation pathways. An aim of the studies is to evaluate the lessons learned and to document the improvements in modelling capability as a result of experience gained following the Chernobyl accident. This Technical Document, the first report of the Group, addresses the subject of the deposition of airborne radionuclides into the urban environment. It summarizes not only the present status of modelling in this field, but also the results of a limited validation exercise that was performed under the auspices of VAMP. 42 refs, figs and tabs

  2. [NIR and XRD analysis of drill-hole samples from Zhamuaobao iron-graphite deposit, Inner Mongolia].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Ying-kui; Cao, Jian-jin; Wu, Zheng-quan; Dai, Dong-le; Lin, Zu-xu

    2015-01-01

    The author analyzed the 4202 drill-hole samples from Zhamuaobao iron-graphite deposit by using near infrared spectroscopy(NIR) and X-ray diffraction(XRD) measuring and testing techniques, and then compared and summarized the results of two kinds of testing technology. The results indicate that some difference of the mineral composition exists among different layers, the lithology from upper to deeper is the clay gravel layer of tertiary and quaternary, mudstone, mica quartz schist, quartz actinolite scarn, skarnization marble, iron ore deposits, graphite deposits and mica quartz schist. The petrogenesis in different depth also shows difference, which may indicate the geological characteristic to some extent. The samples had mainly undergone such processes as oxidization, carbonation, chloritization and skarn alteration. The research results can not only improve the geological feature of the mining area, but also have great importance in ore exploration, mining, mineral processing and so on. What's more, as XRD can provide preliminary information about the mineral composition, NIR can make further judgement on the existence of the minerals. The research integrated the advantages of both NIR and XRD measuring and testing techniques, put forward a method with two kinds of modern testing technology combined with each other, which may improve the accuracy of the mineral composition identification. In the meantime, the NIR will be more wildly used in geography on the basis of mineral spectroscopy.

  3. Environmental studies in two communes of Santiago de Chile by the analysis of magnetic properties of particulate matter deposited on leaves of roadside trees

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muñoz, David; Aguilar, Bertha; Fuentealba, Raúl; Préndez, Margarita

    2017-03-01

    Emissions from motor vehicles are considered to be one of the main sources of airborne particulate matter in Santiago. International researchers have shown that particulate matter contains metal oxides and magnetic particles, both of which are emitted mainly from vehicles exhaust pipes. On the other hand, trees are effective in reducing such contamination, so that they act as passive collectors of particulate matter. This work presents the results obtained from the first magnetic study of the particulate matter collected in two areas of the city of Santiago de Chile. Magnetic susceptibility and Saturation Isothermic Remanent Magnetization (SIRM) were determined in leaves from abundant urban trees and from urban dust samples. Results indicate that most of the samples contain ferromagnetic minerals with magnetite (Fe3O4) as the main carrier. Values of magnetic susceptibility (SI ×10-6 m3/kg) in the range 0.04-0.24 for leaves and in the range 10-45 for urban dust were determinated. In one of the city areas studied, significant correlation between the particulate matter deposited on leaves of Platanus orientalis and measured traffic flows was obtained. In addition, it was possible to estimate that the species Platanus orientalis and Acer negundo have a better ability to capture particulate matter than the species Robinia pseudoacacia.

  4. Enhanced nitrogen deposition over China

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Xuejun; Zhang, Ying; Han, Wenxuan; Tang, Aohan; Shen, Jianlin; Cui, Zhenling; Christie, Peter; Zhang, Fusuo [College of Resources and Environmental Sciences, China Agricultural University, Beijing 100193 (China); Vitousek, Peter [Department of Biology, Stanford University, Stanford, California 94305 (United States); Erisman, Jan Willem [VU University Amsterdam, 1081 HV Amsterdam (Netherlands); Goulding, Keith [The Sustainable Soils and Grassland Systems Department, Rothamsted Research, Harpenden AL5 2JQ (United Kingdom); Fangmeier, Andreas [Institute of Landscape and Plant Ecology, University of Hohenheim, 70593 Stuttgart (Germany)

    2013-02-28

    China is experiencing intense air pollution caused in large part by anthropogenic emissions of reactive nitrogen. These emissions result in the deposition of atmospheric nitrogen (N) in terrestrial and aquatic ecosystems, with implications for human and ecosystem health, greenhouse gas balances and biological diversity. However, information on the magnitude and environmental impact of N deposition in China is limited. Here we use nationwide data sets on bulk N deposition, plant foliar N and crop N uptake (from long-term unfertilized soils) to evaluate N deposition dynamics and their effect on ecosystems across China between 1980 and 2010. We find that the average annual bulk deposition of N increased by approximately 8 kilograms of nitrogen per hectare (P < 0.001) between the 1980s (13.2 kilograms of nitrogen per hectare) and the 2000s (21.1 kilograms of nitrogen per hectare). Nitrogen deposition rates in the industrialized and agriculturally intensified regions of China are as high as the peak levels of deposition in northwestern Europe in the 1980s, before the introduction of mitigation measures. Nitrogen from ammonium (NH4+) is the dominant form of N in bulk deposition, but the rate of increase is largest for deposition of N from nitrate (NO3-), in agreement with decreased ratios of NH3 to NOx emissions since 1980. We also find that the impact of N deposition on Chinese ecosystems includes significantly increased plant foliar N concentrations in natural and semi-natural (that is, non-agricultural) ecosystems and increased crop N uptake from long-term-unfertilized croplands. China and other economies are facing a continuing challenge to reduce emissions of reactive nitrogen, N deposition and their negative effects on human health and the environment.

  5. Environmental-geochemical characteristics of Cu in the soil and water in copper-rich deposit area of southeastern Hubei Province, along the middle Yangtze River, Central China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Ling; Wang Lu; Yin Kedong; Lv Ying; Zhang Derong

    2009-01-01

    In this study, the natural Cu background concentration and Cu natural and anthropogenic contamination in soil, water and crop were investigated systematically in Huangshi area. The results show that regional geology is the dominant factor controlling the natural Cu background concentration in soil and water, and that pH is important to control the vertical distribution of Cu in soil under the same geographical and climatic conditions. The mineralization of rock bodies causes the natural Cu increase in soil and water, whereas, a large number of mining-smelting plants and chemical works are the main sources of Cu anthropogenic contamination. Cu in naturally and anthropogenically polluted soil displays differences in total and available contents, vertical distribution patterns and physico-chemical properties, the same happens in water. - Consider the rock-soil-water-crop as a system to study the geochemical activities and environmental pollution of copper.

  6. Results of environmental radioactivity measurements in the member states of the European Community for air, deposition, water, milk, 1975-1976

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1978-01-01

    The present document is the sixteenth report published by the Health and Safety Directorate of the Commission of the European Communities concerning ambient radioactivity. It was drawn up using the data collected by the stations in charge of the surveillance of environmental radioactivity in the Member States. The results are extracts from the data sent to the Commission in application of Article 36 of the Treaty of Rome instituting the European Atomic Energy Community. This is the second document which includes data from the enlarged community-viz. Belgium, the Federal Republic of Germany, France, Italy, Luxembourg, the Netherlands, plus Denmark, Ireland and the United Kingdom, who joined the Community on 1 January 1973. The results presented in this report deal with radioactive contamination of the air, precipitaton and fallout, surface water and milk during 1975 and 1976

  7. Mineral potential tracts for orogenic, Carlin-like, and epithermal gold deposits in the Islamic Republic of Mauritania, (phase V, deliverable 69): Chapter H in Second projet de renforcement institutionnel du secteur minier de la République Islamique de Mauritanie (PRISM-II)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldfarb, Richard J.; Marsh, Erin; Anderson, Eric D.; Horton, John D.; Finn, Carol A.; Beaudoin, Georges

    2015-01-01

    The gold resources of Mauritania presently include two important deposits and a series of poorly studied prospects. The Tasiast belt of deposits, which came into production in 2007, is located in the southwestern corner of the Rgueïbat Shield and defines a world-class Paleoproterozoic(?) orogenic gold ore system. The producing Guelb Moghrein deposit occurs along a shear zone in Middle Archean rocks at the bend in the Northern Mauritanides and is most commonly stated to be an iron oxide-copper-gold (IOCG) type of deposit, although it also has some important characteristics of orogenic gold and skarn deposits. Both major deposits are surrounded by numerous prospects that show similar mineralization styles. The Guelb Moghrein deposit, and IOCG deposit types in general are discussed in greater detail in a companion report by Fernette (2015). In addition, many small gold prospects, which are probably orogenic gold occurrences and are suggested to be early Paleozoic in age, occur along the length of Southern Mauritanides. Existing data indicate the gold deposits and prospects in Mauritania have a sulfide assemblage most commonly dominated by pyrrhotite and chalcopyrite, and have ore-related fluids with apparently high salinities.

  8. A radon progeny deposition model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rielage, Keith; Elliott, Steven R.; Hime, Andrew; Guiseppe, Vincent E.; Westerdale, S.

    2010-01-01

    The next generation low-background detectors operating underground aim for unprecedented low levels of radioactive backgrounds. Although the radioactive decays of airborne radon (particularly 222 Rn) and its subsequent progeny present in an experiment are potential backgrounds, also problematic is the deposition of radon progeny on detector materials. Exposure to radon at any stage of assembly of an experiment can result in surface contamination by progeny supported by the long half life (22 y) of 210 Pb on sensitive locations of a detector. An understanding of the potential surface contamination from deposition will enable requirements of radon-reduced air and clean room environments for the assembly of low background experiments. It is known that there are a number of environmental factors that govern the deposition of progeny onto surfaces. However, existing models have not explored the impact of some environmental factors important for low background experiments. A test stand has been constructed to deposit radon progeny on various surfaces under a controlled environment in order to develop a deposition model. Results from this test stand and the resulting deposition model are presented.

  9. A Radon Progeny Deposition Model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guiseppe, V. E.; Elliott, S. R.; Hime, A.; Rielage, K.; Westerdale, S.

    2011-01-01

    The next generation low-background detectors operating underground aim for unprecedented low levels of radioactive backgrounds. Although the radioactive decays of airborne radon (particularly 222 Rn) and its subsequent progeny present in an experiment are potential backgrounds, also problematic is the deposition of radon progeny on detector materials. Exposure to radon at any stage of assembly of an experiment can result in surface contamination by progeny supported by the long half life (22 y) of 210 Pb on sensitive locations of a detector. An understanding of the potential surface contamination from deposition will enable requirements of radon-reduced air and clean room environments for the assembly of low background experiments. It is known that there are a number of environmental factors that govern the deposition of progeny onto surfaces. However, existing models have not explored the impact of some environmental factors important for low background experiments. A test stand has been constructed to deposit radon progeny on various surfaces under a controlled environment in order to develop a deposition model. Results from this test stand and the resulting deposition model are presented.

  10. Infraordinary Deposits

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2016-01-01

    The exhibition Infraordinary Deposits presents three works in progress by PhD Fellow Espen Lunde Nielsen from the on-going PhD project Architectural Probes of the Infraordinary: Social Coexistence through Everyday Spaces. The infraordinary is understood as the opposite of the extraordinary...... and as that which is ‘worn half-invisible’ by use. Nevertheless, these unregarded spaces play a vital role to the social dimension of the city. The selected projects (‘urban biopsies’) on display explore how people coexist through these spaces and within the city itself, either through events in real......, daily 8.45 – 15.00 Where: Aarhus School of Architecture, The Canteen, Nørreport 18, 8000 Aarhus C...

  11. Petrological and geochemical features of the early Paleozoic granitic gneisses and iron ores in the Tianhu iron deposit, Eastern Tianshan, NW China: Implications for ore genesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Jiahao; Mao, Jingwen; Yang, Fuquan; Chai, Fengmei; Shen, Ping

    2017-08-01

    This paper reports whole-rock geochemical, zircon U-Pb and Hf isotopic data for ore-hosted granitic gneisses, mineral compositions of oxides, and sulfur isotopic data for sulfides in iron ores from the Tianhu deposit, central part of the Eastern Tianshan. Our results can provide crucial constraints on the genesis of granitic gneisses and early Paleozoic tectonic setting of the Eastern Tianshan. LA-ICP-MS U-Pb dating on magmatic zircons yielded weighted mean 206Pb/238U ages of 463 to 438 Ma, interpreted as the crystallization ages of the granitic protoliths and the formation ages of the Tianhu Group. Zircon U-Pb age of ore-hosted granitic gneiss (ca. 459 Ma) can provide reliable constrains on upper limit for iron mineralization age in the Tianhu deposit. Geochemical characteristics suggest that the protoliths of the Tianhu granitic gneisses are metaluminous to weakly peraluminous high-K calc-alkaline granitic rocks, exhibiting typical subduction-related features such as strong enrichment in LREE and LILE and depletion in HFSE. Zircon Hf isotopic compositions show a positive trend from 463 to 438 Ma, indicating that 460 Ma magmas came from both ancient and juvenile sources, whereas 438 Ma magmas involved more juvenile material. Some early Paleozoic granitoids were recently identified in the Eastern Tianshan with the ages between ca. 475 and ca. 425 Ma. The formation of these early Paleozoic granitoids was in response to subduction processes, suggesting that subduction of Junggar Ocean probably began in the Early Ordovician and lasted until Late Silurian. Pyrite and pyrrhotite in iron ores have δ34SCDT values from + 4.6 to + 15.7‰, which are consistent with the marine source, but inconsistent with the magmatic source or those involved evaporites in skarn iron deposit. Geological, geochemical, and isotopic data suggest that the Tianhu iron ores were formed by volcano-sedimentary processes in a subduction environment during the early Paleozoic time, and Tianhu is a

  12. Acid deposition. Origins, impacts and abatement strategies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Longhurst, J.W.S. (Manchester Polytechnic, Acid Rain Information Centre (United Kingdom). Dept. of Environmental and Geographical Studies) (ed.)

    1991-01-01

    The subject of acid deposition is one of the most important of our contemporary environmental problems. Presenting and discussing new data on the sources and effects of such deposition, this book seeks to assist in the definition of our future research requirements and policy developments. It is divided into four broad themes: Emissions, Chemistry and Deposition, Ecosystem Effects (freshwater, soils and forest systems), Effects on Structural Materials, and Mitigation, Control and Management. (orig.) With 130 figs.

  13. ROE Wet Sulfate Deposition 2009-2011

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — The raster data represent the amount of wet sulfate deposition in kilograms per hectare from 2009 to 2011. Summary data in this indicator were provided by EPA’s...

  14. Uranium deposits of Australia to 1975

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spannari, S.

    1979-01-01

    This bibliography provides a retrospective account of Australian uranium deposits, particularly the unpublished materials in the Australian Capital Territory. Some abstracts are included. Occurrences, mineralogy, ore genesis, structural controls and the eonomic geology of uranium deposits are covered but the mining of uranium, exploration reports, surveys, environmental aspects and controversial materials are not

  15. Cripple Creek and other alkaline-related gold deposits in the Southern Rocky Mountains, USA: Influence of regional tectonics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelley, K.D.; Ludington, S.

    2002-01-01

    Alkaline-related epithermal vein, breccia, disseminated, skarn, and porphyry gold deposits form a belt in the southern Rocky Mountains along the eastern edge of the North American Cordillera. Alkaline igneous rocks and associated hydrothermal deposits formed at two times. The first was during the Laramide orogeny (about 70-40 Ma), with deposits restricted spatially to the Colorado mineral belt (CMB). Other alkaline igneous rocks and associated gold deposits formed later, during the transition from a compressional to an extensional regime (about 35-27 Ma). These younger rocks and associated deposits are more widespread, following the Rocky Mountain front southward, from Cripple Creek in Colorado through New Mexico. All of these deposits are on the eastern margin of the Cordillera, with voluminous calc-alkaline rocks to the west. The largest deposits in the belt include Cripple Creek and those in the CMB. The most important factor in the formation of all of the gold deposits was the near-surface emplacement of relatively oxidized volatile-rich alkaline magmas. Strontium and lead isotope compositions suggest that the source of the magmas was subduction-modified subcontinental lithosphere. However, Cripple Creek alkaline rocks and older Laramide alkaline rocks in the CMB that were emplaced through hydrously altered LREE-enriched rocks of the Colorado (Yavapai) province have 208Pb/204Pb ratios that suggest these magmas assimilated and mixed with significant amounts of lower crust. The anomalously hot, thick, and light crust beneath Colorado may have been a catalyst for large-scale transfer of volatiles and crustal melting. Increased dissolved H2O (and CO2, F, Cl) of these magmas may have resulted in more productive gold deposits due to more efficient magmatic-hydrothermal systems. High volatile contents may also have promoted Te and V enrichment, explaining the presence of fluorite, roscoelite (vanadium-rich mica) and tellurides in the CMB deposits and Cripple Creek as

  16. Investigation on radioactivity of deposition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vaas, L.H.; Smetsers, R.C.G.M.; Mattern, F.C.M.; Drost, R.M.S. van; Ockhuizen, A.; Glastra, P.; Koolwijk, A.C.

    1990-04-01

    This report of the Dutch National Institute of Public Health and Environmental Protection (RIVM) summarizes the results of measurements of radionuclides deposited in the Netherlands in 1988. The samples of deposition were taken at Bilthoven, located near the center of the country. In 1988 measurements were carried out to determine the activities of γ-emitters, where 7 Be, 40 K, 134 Cs and 137 Cs were identified, and those of 3 H, 210 Pb and 210 Po. Also the gross α-, gross β- and gross γ-activities were determined. (author). 10 refs.; 7 figs.; 6 tabs

  17. Atmospheric deposition 2000. NOVA 2003; Atmosfaerisk deposition 2000. NOVA 2003

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ellermann, T.; Hertel, O.; Hovmand, M.F.; Kemp, K.; Skjoeth, C.A.

    2001-11-01

    This report presents measurements and calculations from the atmospheric part of NOVA 2003 and covers results for 2000. It summarises the main results concerning concentrations and depositions of nitrogen, phosphorus and sulphur compounds related to eutrophication and acidification. Depositions of atmospheric compounds to Danish marine waters as well as land surface are presented. Measurements: In 2000 the monitoring program consisted of eight stations where wet deposition of ammonium, nitrate, phosphate (semi quantitatively) and sulphate were measured using bulk precipitation samplers. Six of the stations had in addition measurements of atmospheric content of A, nitrogen, phosphorus, and sulphur compounds in gas and particulate phase carried out by use of filter pack samplers. Filters were analysed at the National Environmental Research Institute. Furthermore nitrogen dioxide were measured using nitrogen dioxide filter samplers and monitors. Model calculations: The measurements in the monitoring program were supplemented with model calculations of concentrations and depositions of nitrogen and sulphur compounds to Danish land surface, marine waters, fjords and bays using the ACDEP model (Atmospheric Chemistry and Deposition). The model is a so-called trajectory model and simulates the physical and chemical processes in the atmosphere using meteorological and emission data as input. The advantage of combining measurements with model calculations is that the strengths of both methods is obtained. Conclusions concerning: 1) actual concentration levels at the monitoring stations, 2) deposition at the monitoring stations, 3) seasonal variations and 4) long term trends in concentrations and depositions are mainly based on the direct measurements. These are furthermore used to validate the results of the model calculations. Calculations and conclusions concerning: 1) depositions to land surface and to the individual marine water, 2) contributions from different emission

  18. Worldwide deposition of 90Sr through 1984

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Larsen, R.J.; Juzdan, Z.R.

    1986-10-01

    The deposition of 90 Sr in the Northern Hemisphere during 1984 was 0.3 PBq (0.008 MCi), while that of the Southern Hemisphere was 0.1 PBq (0.003 MCi). This resulted in a total deposition on the surface of the earth during 1984 of 0.4 PBq (0.011 MCi). This is the lowest total yearly deposit since the initiation of the Environmental Measurements Laboratory's global fallout program in the mid-1950's. The worldwide cumulative deposit decreased to 357 PBq (9.6 MCi)

  19. An exploration hydrogeochemical study at the giant Pebble porphyry Cu-Au-Mo deposit, Alaska, USA, using high-resolution ICP-MS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eppinger, Robert G.; Fey, David L.; Giles, Stuart A.; Kelley, Karen D.; Smith, Steven M.

    2012-01-01

    A hydrogeochemical study using high resolution ICP-MS was undertaken at the giant Pebble porphyry Cu-Au-Mo deposit and surrounding mineral occurrences. Surface water and groundwater samples from regional background and the deposit area were collected at 168 sites. Rigorous quality control reveals impressive results at low nanogram per litre (ng/l) levels. Sites with pH values below 5.1 are from ponds in the Pebble West area, where sulphide-bearing rubble crop is thinly covered. Relative to other study area waters, anomalous concentrations of Cu, Cd, K, Ni, Re, the REE, Tl, SO42− and F− are present in water samples from Pebble West. Samples from circum-neutral waters at Pebble East and parts of Pebble West, where cover is much thicker, have anomalous concentrations of Ag, As, In, Mn, Mo, Sb, Th, U, V, and W. Low-level anomalous concentrations for most of these elements were also found in waters surrounding nearby porphyry and skarn mineral occurrences. Many of these elements are present in low ng/l concentration ranges and would not have been detected using traditional quadrupole ICP-MS. Hydrogeochemical exploration paired with high resolution ICP-MS is a powerful new tool in the search for concealed deposits.

  20. Metamorphic Rock-Hosted Orogenic Gold Deposit Type as a Source of Langkowala Placer Gold, Bombana, Southeast Sulawesi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arifudin Idrus

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available DOI: 10.17014/ijog.v6i1.114In 2008, placer gold was discovered in Langkowala area (Bombana Regency, Southeast Sulawesi, Indonesia, and more than 60,000 traditional gold miners in the early 2009 have been operating by digging vertical pits and panning active stream sediments. The grade of placer gold ranges from 50 to 140 g/t. Local geological framework indicates that the placer gold is not related to volcanic rock-related hydrothermal gold deposit, e.g. epithermal, skarn or porphyry. This paper describes a preliminary study on possible primary deposit type as a source of the Langkowala (Bombana secondary placer gold. A field study indicates that the Langkowala (Bombana placer/paleoplacer gold is possibly related to gold-bearing quartz veins/veinlets hosted by metamorphic rocks particularly mica schist and metasediments in the area. These quartz veins/veinlets are currently recognized in metamorphic rocks at Wumbubangka Mountains, a northern flank of Rumbia Mountain Range. Sheared, segmented quartz veins/veinlets are of 2 cm to 2 m in width and contain gold in a grade varying between 2 and 61 g/t. At least, there are two generations of the quartz veins. The first generation of quartz vein is parallel to foliation of mica schist and metasediments with general orientation of N 300oE/60o; the second quartz vein generation crosscut the first quartz vein and the foliation of the wallrock. The first quartz veins are mostly sheared/deformed, brecciated, and occasionally sigmoidal, whereas the second quartz veins are relatively massive. The similar quartz veins/veinlets types are also probably present in Mendoke Mountain Range, in the northern side of Langkowala area. This primary gold deposit is called as ‘orogenic gold type’. The orogenic gold deposit could be a new target of gold exploration in Indonesia in the future.

  1. Geochronology and geochemistry constraints of the Early Cretaceous Taibudai porphyry Cu deposit, northeast China, and its tectonic significance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Zhen-Hua; Mao, Jing-Wen; Wu, Xin-Li; Ouyang, Hen-Gen

    2015-05-01

    The southern Great Xing'an Range (SGXR), located in the southeastern part of Inner Mongolia, China, shows intense Mesozoic tectono-magmatic activity and hosts economically important polymetallic (Cu-Pb-Zn-Sn-Fe-Ag-Au-Mo) mineralization. Here, we present new zircon U-Pb ages, whole-rock geochemical data, Nd-Sr-Hf isotopic data and Re-Os ages for the Taibudai deposit in the SGXR. The Taibudai granitoids show high SiO2 (70.62-72.13 wt.%) and alkali (Na2O + K2O = 7.04-8.60 wt.%) concentrations, low MgO (0.89-1.37 wt.%) and Al2O3 (∼14 wt.%), ASI ratios molybdenite from the deposit yield an ore-forming age of 137.1 ± 1.4 Ma. Re contents range from 4.37 to 41.77 ppm, implying ore material components have a mixed crust-mantle origin. SHRIMP analysis of zircons show that the monzogranitic porphyry and biotite granite in the Taibudai deposit were formed at 137.0 ± 0.9 Ma and 138.3 ± 0.9 Ma, respectively, indicating a temporal link between granitic magmatism and Cu mineralization. This result, combined with the regional geology, tectonic evolution, and age data from the literature, suggests that the Early Cretaceous (∼140 Ma) was the peak metallogenic epoch for the Great Xing'an Range, and the mineralization in this period generally takes the form of porphyry, skarn, or hydrothermal polymetallic ore deposits in an active extensional continental margin environment. The Taibudai porphyry and associated mineralization provides a typical example of magmatism and metallogeny associated with a Paleo-Pacific plate subduction, continental margin, back-arc extensional setting.

  2. Environmental geochemical study of Red Mountain--an undisturbed volcanogenic massive sulfide deposit in the Bonnifield District, Alaska range, east-central Alaska: Chapter I in Recent U.S. Geological Survey studies in the Tintina Gold Province, Alaska, United States, and Yukon, Canada--results of a 5-year project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eppinger, Robert G.; Briggs, Paul H.; Dusel-Bacon, Cynthia; Giles, Stuart A.; Gough, Larry P.; Hammarstrom, Jane M.; Hubbard, Bernard E.

    2007-01-01

    The Red Mountain volcanogenic massive sulfide (VMS) deposit exhibits well-constrained examples of acid-generating, metal-leaching, metal-precipitation, and self-mitigation (via co-precipitation, dilution, and neutralization) processes that occur in an undisturbed natural setting, a rare occurrence in North America. The unmined pyrite-rich deposit displays a remarkable environmental footprint of natural acid generation, high metal concentrations, and exceedingly high rare-earth-element (REE) concentrations in surface waters. Dissolution of pyrite and associated secondary reactions under near-surface, oxidizing conditions are the primary causes for the acid generation and metal leaching. The deposit is hosted in Devonian to Mississippian felsic metavolcanic rocks of the Mystic Creek Member of the Totatlanika Schist.

  3. Economical Atomic Layer Deposition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wyman, Richard; Davis, Robert; Linford, Matthew

    2010-10-01

    Atomic Layer Deposition is a self limiting deposition process that can produce films at a user specified height. At BYU we have designed a low cost and automated atomic layer deposition system. We have used the system to deposit silicon dioxide at room temperature using silicon tetrachloride and tetramethyl orthosilicate. Basics of atomic layer deposition, the system set up, automation techniques and our system's characterization are discussed.

  4. Re–Os isotope geochronology of the Shangbao pyrite–flourite deposit in southeastern Hunan, South China: Evidence for multiple mineralization events and the role of crust–mantle interaction in polymetallic deposits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cheng-Cheng Huang

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available In South China, both crustal reworking and crust–mantle interaction were important geological processes during the Paleozoic and Mesozoic eras. However, the relationships between these two processes and metal mineralization are still unknown. Here we report rhenium and osmium isotopic data for pyrite grains from a pyrite deposit associated with a granite intrusion in the Shangbao area, southeastern Hunan Province (South China. Two pyrite samples, both containing many euhedral pyrite grains, were collected from the same locality, but the samples yield distinct ages. Six euhedral pyrite grains from one sample yield an isochronal age of 279 ± 12 Ma, with an initial 187Os/188Os ratio of 0.39 ± 0.71, and Re and Os concentrations of 0.12–63.5 ppb and 2.14–185 ppt, respectively. This Early Permian age is in good agreement with the age of the strata that host the pyrite deposit. Five euhedral pyrite grains from the other sample yield an isochronal age of 75.2 ± 4.3 Ma, with an initial 187Os/188Os ratio of 0.141 ± 0.030 and Re and Os concentrations of 0.15–0.43 ppb and 1.0–39.9 ppt, respectively. If one pyrite grain with the highest 187Re/188Os and 187Os/188Os ratios is excluded, other four pyrite grains give an isochronal age of 85 ± 13 Ma. The Late Cretaceous age (75–85 Ma is consistent with the zircon U–Pb age of the Shangbao granites (80.1 ± 0.3 Ma to within uncertainties. Considering also the relatively lower radiogenic initial 187Os/188Os ratio of this sample, we suggest that the later stage pyrite ore was probably formed through crystallization from the magmatic hydrothermal fluids. Combined with other geological and associated magmatic data, we propose a skarn-related fluid–ore interaction process to explain the second stage of metallogenesis in the Shangbao pyrite deposit. The Early Permian pyrite ore was deposited in a brine basin with evaporites during the Early Permian. Later magmatic hydrothermal

  5. GEOLOGICAL FEATURES OF NEOGENE BASINS HOSTING BORATE DEPOSITS: AN OVERVIEW OF DEPOSITS AND FUTURE FORECAST, TURKEY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cahit HELVACI

    2015-12-01

    hydroboracite are present in west Anatolia, Death Valley, California, and Sijes (Argentina. Quaternary borates are present in salars (Andes and playa- lakes and salt pans (USA-Tibet. Boron is a rare element in the Earth’s crust, but extraordinary concentrations can be found in limited places. The formation of borate deposits can be classified as follows: a skarn group associated with intrusives and consisting of silicates and iron oxides; a magnesium oxide group hosted by marine evaporitic sediments; and a sodium– and calcium–borate hydrates group associated with playa-lake sediments and explosive volcanic activity. Some conditions are essential for the formation of economically viable borate deposits in playa-lake volcano-sedimentary sequences: formation of playa-lake environment; concentration of boron in the playa lake, sourced from andesitic to rhyolitic volcanics, direct ash fall into the basin, or hydrothermal solutions along graben faults; thermal springs near the area of volcanism; arid to semi-arid climatic conditions; and lake water with a pH of between 8.5 and 11. A borate is defined as any compound that contains or supplies boric oxide (B2O3. A large number of minerals contain boric oxide, but the three that are most important from a worldwide commercial standpoint are borax, ulexite, and colemanite, which are produced in a limited number of countries. Turkey has the largest borax, ulexite and colemanite reserves in the world and all the world’s countries are dependent upon the colemanite and ulexite reserves of Turkey. Most of the world’s commercial borate deposits are mined by open pit methods. Brines from Searles Lake, and presumably the Chinese sources, are recovered by either controlled evaporation or carbonation. Boric acid is one of the final products produced from most of the processes. Further research on the mineralogy and chemistry of borate minerals and associated minerals will the production and utilization of borate end-products.

  6. Mineralogy and electron microprobe studies of magnetite in the Sarab-3 iron Ore deposit, southwest of the Shahrak mining region (east Takab

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Maanijou

    2018-04-01

    intruded into host rocks. Skarnification occurred at the two stages of progressive and regressive. At the progressive stage, the reaction of fluids and host rocks turned to the formation of anhydrous calc-silicate minerals such as garnet and clinopyroxene. At the regressive stage with the change of physicochemical conditions like decreasing temperature, these minerals converted to hydrous silicates (tremolite-actinolite, epidote and phyllosilcates (chlorite, serpentine, talk, and phlogopite. Also, minerals such as oxides (magnetite and hematite, sulfides (pyrite and chalcopyrite and calcite were formed. At a late stage, with activations of fluids, quartz-calcite mineralized veins formed. At the supergene stage, the oxidation process leads to the formation of alteration minerals from the main mineralization. Although there are magnesian minerals in the skarn, its main composition is calcic. The shape of the deposit is lentoid to horizontal and in some places bed formed along with some alteration halos. The ore minerals include low Ti-magnetite (with an average of 0.02 wt % Ti, hematite and sulfide minerals such as pyrite, pyrrhotite and chalcopyrite. Magnetite is the most important mineral with disseminated, vein, open-space filling, aggregate, accumulation, island and cataclastic textures. The magnetite at Sarab-3 is generated in 2 stages: At the first stage, magnetite has mass to mosaic textures that indicate the first phase of deposition in the area and at the second stage magnetite is gray magnetites that are placed as narrow bands around hematite or on the primary magnetite. Hematite in the area is formed either as hypogene hematite with plate or blade texture that is formed before the formation of early magnetite or supergene hematite that itself is formed due to alteration and weathering of magnetite in the superficial and shallow part of the deposit. In the surface area of the deposit, ore minerals are strongly altered to mixtures of oxide and hydroxide minerals

  7. World distribution of uranium deposits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fairclough, M. C.; Irvine, J. A.; Katona, L. F.; Simmon, W. L.; Bruneton, P.; Mihalasky, Mark J.; Cuney, M.; Aranha, M.; Pylypenko, O.; Poliakovska, K.

    2018-01-01

    Deposit data derived from IAEA UDEPO (http://infcis.iaea.org/UDEPO/About.cshtml) database with assistance from P. Bruneton (France) and M. Mihalasky (U.S.A.). The map is an updated companion to "World Distribution of Uranium Deposits (UDEPO) with Uranium Deposit Classification, IAEA Tech-Doc-1629". Geology was derived from L.B. Chorlton, Generalized Geology of the World, Geological Survey of Canada, Open File 5529 , 2007. Map production by M.C. Fairclough (IAEA), J.A. Irvine (Austrailia), L.F. Katona (Australia) and W.L. Slimmon (Canada). World Distribution of Uranium Deposits, International Atomic Energy Agency, Vienna, Austria. Cartographic Assistance was supplied by the Geological Survey of South Australia, the Saskatchewan Geological Survey and United States Geological Survey to the IAEA. Coastlines, drainage, and country boundaries were obtained from ArcMap, 1:25 000 000 scale, and are copyrighted data containing the intellectual property of Environmental Systems Research Institute (ESRI). The use of particular designations of countries or territories does not imply any judgment by the publisher, the IAEA, as to the legal status of such countries or territories, of their authorities and institutions or of the delimitation of their boundaries. Any revisions or additional geological information known to the user would be welcomed by the International Atomic Energy Agency and the Geological Survey of Canada.

  8. Electro-Deposition Laboratory

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The electro-deposition laboratory can electro-deposit various coatings onto small test samples and bench level prototypes. This facility provides the foundation for...

  9. Calcium Pyrophosphate Deposition (CPPD)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Patient / Caregiver Diseases & Conditions Calcium Pyrophosphate Deposition (CPPD) Calcium Pyrophosphate Deposition (CPPD) Fast Facts The risk of ... young people, too. Proper diagnosis depends on detecting calcium pyrophosphate crystals in the fluid of an affected ...

  10. Geological aspects of acid deposition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bricker, O.P.

    1984-01-01

    The general pattern of rain falling on the earth and reacting with the materials of the lithosphere (the weathering reactions so familiar to every beginning geology student) began soon after the earth was formed and has continued to the present. Anthropogenic additions to the natural acidic components of the atmosphere have increased since the time of the industrial revolution until they now rival or exceed those of the natural system. The severity of the environmental perturbations caused by these anthropogenic additions to the atmosphere has become a hotly debated topic in scientific forums and in the political arena. The six chapters in this book address various aspects of the acid deposition phenomenon from a geological perspective. It is hoped that the geological approach will be useful in bringing the problem more clearly into focus and may shed light on the geochemical processes that modify the chemical composition of acid deposition after it encounters and reacts with the materials of the lithosphere

  11. Acid Deposition Phenomena

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ramadan, A.E.K.

    2004-01-01

    Acid deposition, commonly known as acid rain, occurs when emissions from the combustion of fossil fuels and other industrial processes undergo complex chemical reactions in the atmosphere and fall to the earth as wet deposition (rain, snow, cloud, fog) or dry deposition (dry particles, gas). Rain and snow are already naturally acidic, but are only considered problematic when less than a ph of 5.0 The main chemical precursors leading to acidic conditions are atmospheric concentrations of sulfur dioxide (SO 2 ) and nitrogen oxides (NO x ). When these two compounds react with water, oxygen, and sunlight in the atmosphere, the result is sulfuric (H 2 SO 4 ) and nitric acids (HNO 3 ), the primary agents of acid deposition which mainly produced from the combustion of fossil fuel and from petroleum refinery. Airborne chemicals can travel long distances from their sources and can therefore affect ecosystems over broad regional scales and in locations far from the sources of emissions. According to the concern of petroleum ministry with the environment and occupational health, in this paper we will discussed the acid deposition phenomena through the following: Types of acidic deposition and its components in the atmosphere Natural and man-made sources of compounds causing the acidic deposition. Chemical reactions causing the acidic deposition phenomenon in the atmosphere. Factors affecting level of acidic deposition in the atmosphere. Impact of acid deposition. Procedures for acidic deposition control in petroleum industry

  12. The Pulsed Cylindrical Magnetron for Deposition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korenev, Sergey

    2012-10-01

    The magnetron sputtering deposition of films and coatings broadly uses in microelectronics, material science, environmental applications and etc. The rate of target evaporation and time for deposition of films and coatings depends on magnetic field. These parameters link with efficiency of gas molecules ionization by electrons. The cylindrical magnetrons use for deposition of films and coatings on inside of pipes for different protective films and coatings in oil, chemical, environmental applications. The classical forming of magnetic field by permanent magnets or coils for big and long cylindrical magnetrons is complicated. The new concept of pulsed cylindrical magnetron for high rate deposition of films and coating for big and long pipes is presented in this paper. The proposed cylindrical magnetron has azimuthally pulsed high magnetic field, which allows forming the high ionized plasma and receiving high rate of evaporation material of target (central electrode). The structure of proposed pulsed cylindrical magnetron sputtering system is given. The main requirements to deposition system are presented. The preliminary data for forming of plasma and deposition of Ta films and coatings on the metal pipers are discussed. The comparison of classical and proposed cylindrical magnetrons is given. The analysis of potential applications is considered.

  13. Environmental protection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Klinda, J.; Lieskovska, Z.

    1998-01-01

    In this chapter environmental protection in the Slovak Republic in 1997 are reviewed. The economics of environmental protection, state budget, Slovak state environmental fund, economic instruments, environmental laws, environmental impact assessment, environmental management systems, and environmental education are presented

  14. Late-Hercynian intrusion-related gold deposits: An integrated model on the Tighza polymetallic district, central Morocco

    Science.gov (United States)

    Éric, Marcoux; Khadija, Nerci; Yannick, Branquet; Claire, Ramboz; Gilles, Ruffet; Jean-Jacques, Peucat; Ross, Stevenson; Michel, Jébrak

    2015-07-01

    Gold have been recently recognized in the Tighza (formerly Jebel Aouam) district, in the Hercynian belt of central Morocco. This district has long been known for its W mineralization, as well as major Pb-Ag-Zn, and minor Sb-Ba deposits, all geographically associated with late-Hercynian calc-alkaline magmatism. Gold mineralization in the district is mainly hosted by thick W-Au quartz veins located around the "Mine granite" small granitic plug. Within the veins, gold grade is highest (up to 70 g/t) close to the granite but rapidly decreases going outward from the granite, defining a perigranitic zoning. Anomalous gold grades have also been measured in hydrothermal skarn layers close to two other granitic plugs (Kaolin granite and Mispickel granite), associated with disseminated As-Fe sulfides. The paragenetic sequence for the W-Au quartz veins shows three stages: (1) an early oxidized stage with wolframite-scheelite associated with early quartz (Q1), (2) an intermediate Bi-As-Te-Mo-Au sulfide stage with loellingite, bismuth minerals and native gold with a later quartz (Q2), restricted to a narrow distance from the granite, and (3) a late lower temperature As-Cu-Zn-(Pb) stage with abundant massive pyrrhotite, arsenopyrite and sphalerite, locally forming independent veins ("pyrrhotite vein"). Both Q1 hyaline and Q2 saccharoidal gold-bearing quartz display aqua-carbonic fluids with minor H2S and Cu and an homogeneous composition (81 mole% H2O, 18 mole% CO2 and about 1 mole% NaCl). The trapping pressure is estimated to 1.5-2 kbar with temperature ranging from 300 to 350 °C. Q1 inclusions have exploded indicating an uplift of the Tighza block, that lead to saccharoidal Q2 quartz deposition with multiphase NaCl-saturated fluid inclusions. 40Ar/39Ar dating demonstrates that the "Mine granite", tungsten skarnoid, scheelite-molybdenite veins, and very likely gold-bearing veins are coeval, emplaced at 286 ± 1 Ma. Multiple and widespread metal sources are indicated by

  15. Hirabayashi, Satoshi; Kroll, Charles N.; Nowak, David J. 2011. Component-based development and sensitivity analyses of an air pollutant dry deposition model. Environmental Modelling & Software. 26(6): 804-816.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Satoshi Hirabayashi; Chuck Kroll; David Nowak

    2011-01-01

    The Urban Forest Effects-Deposition model (UFORE-D) was developed with a component-based modeling approach. Functions of the model were separated into components that are responsible for user interface, data input/output, and core model functions. Taking advantage of the component-based approach, three UFORE-D applications were developed: a base application to estimate...

  16. Deposition of contaminant aerosol on human skin

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersson, Kasper Grann; Roed, Jørn; Byrne, M.A.

    2006-01-01

    Over recent years, it has been established that deposition of various types of pollutant aerosols (e.g., radioactive) on human skin can have serious deleterious effects on health. However. only few investigations in the past have been devoted to measurement of deposition velocities on skin...... of particles of the potentially problematic sizes. An experimental programme has shown the deposition velocities on skin of particles in the ca. 0.5-5 mu m AMAD range to be high and generally associated with great variations. A series of investigations have been made to identify some of the factors that lead...... to this variation. Part of the variation was found to be caused by differences between individuals, whereas another part was found to be related to environmental factors, The identification of major influences on skin contaminant deposition is important in estimating health effects as well as in identifying means...

  17. Earth Surface Processes, Landforms and Sediment Deposits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bridge, John; Demicco, Robert

    Earth surface processes, landforms and sediment deposits are intimately related - involving erosion of rocks, generation of sediment, and transport and deposition of sediment through various Earth surface environments. These processes, and the landforms and deposits that they generate, have a fundamental bearing on engineering, environmental and public safety issues; on recovery of economic resources; and on our understanding of Earth history. This unique textbook brings together the traditional disciplines of sedimentology and geomorphology to explain Earth surface processes, landforms and sediment deposits in a comprehensive and integrated way. It is the ideal resource for a two-semester course in sedimentology, stratigraphy, geomorphology, and Earth surface processes from the intermediate undergraduate to beginning graduate level. The book is also accompanied by a website hosting illustrations and material on field and laboratory methods for measuring, describing and analyzing Earth surface processes, landforms and sediments.

  18. Deposition Measurements in NSTX

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skinner, C. H.; Kugel, H. W.; Hogan, J. T.; Wampler, W. R.

    2004-11-01

    Two quartz microbalances have been used to record deposition on the National Spherical Torus Experiment. The experimental configuration mimics a typical diagnostic window or mirror. An RS232 link was used to acquire the quartz crystal frequency and the deposited thickness was recorded continuously with 0.01 nm resolution. Nuclear Reaction Analysis of the deposit was consistent with the measurement of the total deposited mass from the change in crystal frequency. We will present measurements of the variation of deposition with plasma conditions. The transport of carbon impurities in NSTX has been modelled with the BBQ code. Preliminary calculations indicated a negligible fraction of carbon generated at the divertor plates in quiescent discharges directly reaches the outer wall, and that transient events are responsible for the deposition.

  19. Shedding of ash deposits

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zbogar, Ana; Frandsen, Flemming; Jensen, Peter Arendt

    2009-01-01

    Ash deposits formed during fuel thermal conversion and located on furnace walls and on convective pass tubes, may seriously inhibit the transfer of heat to the working fluid and hence reduce the overall process efficiency. Combustion of biomass causes formation of large quantities of troublesome...... ash deposits which contain significant concentrations of alkali, and earth-alkali metals. The specific composition of biomass deposits give different characteristics as compared to coal ash deposits, i.e. different physical significance of the deposition mechanisms, lower melting temperatures, etc....... Low melting temperatures make straw ashes especially troublesome, since their stickiness is higher at lower temperatures, compared to coal ashes. Increased stickiness will eventually lead to a higher collection efficiency of incoming ash particles, meaning that the deposit may grow even faster...

  20. Modular plants for small deposits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Josa, J.M.; Moral, A.; Otero, J.L.; Suarez, E.

    1985-01-01

    The large investment required to recover uranium from small deposits is the greatest obstacle to their economic development. Various concepts (caravan mill, pure mill or semimobile mill) have been elaborated in different countries. Studies have also been made in Spain to develop a simple and economic flowsheet suitable for the beneficiation of small uranium deposits. An acid heap-leaching and solvent extraction process was chosen because there is already a great deal of experience of it in Spain. Modifications were necessary to make the equipment easy to transport and also to have a low and reusable investment when this flowsheet is used for small deposits. The aim was to develop a modular plant with all the elements fitted in compact units that needs little site preparation and little time and effort to connect the units. A standard small portable crushing plant can be borrowed and the mining operation and heap construction can be put to contract. There is a solvent extraction unit (150 m 3 /d) in continuous operation (24 h/d) and concentrate precipitation and handling facilities. The whole of the equipment is standard and as light as possible. Little civil engineering is required and the erection of the plant only needs a few months. The uranium capacity of these modular plants is between 35 and 50 t U 3 O 8 /a. Special consideration has been paid to regulations and the environmental aspects. (author)

  1. Uraniferous surficial deposits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Toens, P.D.; Hambleton-Jones, B.B.

    1980-10-01

    As a result of the discovery of uranium in surficial deposits of Tertiary to Recent age, in Australia and Southern Africa, increasing attention is being paid to the location and understanding of the genesis of these deposits. The paper discusses the definitions and terminology currently in use and a classification of these deposits is presented. It is concluded that in order to obtain a measure of clarity, the terms calcrete, gypcrete and dolocrete should not be used to describe the uraniferous valley-fill deposits of Southern Africa and Australia [af

  2. Mineralogy, fluid inclusion petrography, and stable isotope geochemistry of Pb-Zn-Ag veins at the Shizhuyuan deposit, Hunan Province, southeastern China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Shenghua; Mao, Jingwen; Yuan, Shunda; Dai, Pan; Wang, Xudong

    2018-01-01

    The Shizhuyuan polymetallic deposit is located in the central part of the Nanling region, southeastern China, and consists of proximal W-Sn-Mo-Bi skarns and greisens and distal Pb-Zn-Ag veins. The sulfides and sulfosalts in the distal veins formed in three distinct stages: (1) an early stage of pyrite and arsenopyrite, (2) a middle stage of sphalerite and chalcopyrite, and (3) a late stage of galena, Ag-, Sn-, and Bi-bearing sulfides and sulfosalts, and pyrrhotite. Combined sulfide and sulfosalt geothermometry and fluid inclusion analyses indicate that the early stage of mineralization occurred at a temperature of 400 °C and involved boiling under hydrostatic pressure ( 200 bar), with the temperature of the system dropping during the late stage to 200 °C. Laser Raman analysis indicates that the fluid inclusions within the studied minerals are dominated by H2O, although some contain carbonate solids and CH4 gas. Vein-hosted sulfides have δ34S values of 3.8-6.3‰ that are interpreted as indicative of a magmatic source of sulfur. The mineralization process can be summarized as follows: an aqueous fluid exsolved on final crystallization of the Qianlishan pluton, ascended along fracture zones, cooled to <400 °C, and boiled under hydrostatic conditions, and with decreasing temperature and sulfur fugacity, sulfide and sulfosalt minerals precipitated successively from the Ag-Cu-Zn-Fe-Pb-Sb-As-S-bearing fluid system.

  3. Regional tectonics, geology, magma chamber processes and mineralisation of the Jinchuan nickel-copper-PGE deposit, Gansu Province, China: A review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T.M. (Mike Porter

    2016-05-01

    The Jinchuan ultramafic intrusion was injected into three interconnected sub-chambers, each containing a separate orebody. It essentially comprises an olivine-orthopyroxene-chromite cumulate, with interstitial orthopyroxene, clinopyroxene, plagioclase and phlogopite, and is predominantly composed of lherzolite (∼80%, with an outer rim of olivine pyroxenite and cores of mineralised dunite. Mineralisation occurs as disseminated and net-textured sulphides, predominantly within the dunite, with lesser, PGE rich lenses, late massive sulphide accumulations, small copper rich pods and limited mineralised diopside skarn in wall rock marbles. The principal ore minerals are pyrrhotite (the dominant sulphide, pentlandite, chalcopyrite, cubanite, mackinawite and pyrite, with a variety of platinum group minerals and minor gold. The deposit underwent significant post-magmatic tremolite-actinolite, chlorite, serpentine and magnetite alteration. The volume of the Jinchuan intrusion accounts for <3% of the total parental magma required to generate the contained olivine and sulphide. It is postulated that mafic melt, intruded into the lower crust, hydraulically supported by density contrast buoyancy from below the Moho, ponded in a large staging chamber, where crystallisation and settling formed a lower sulphide rich mush. This mush was subsequently injected into nearby shallow dipping faults to form the Jinchuan intrusion.

  4. MAPLE deposition of nanomaterials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Caricato, A.P.; Arima, V.; Catalano, M.; Cesaria, M.; Cozzoli, P.D.; Martino, M.; Taurino, A.; Rella, R.; Scarfiello, R.; Tunno, T.; Zacheo, A.

    2014-01-01

    The matrix-assisted pulsed laser evaporation (MAPLE) has been recently exploited for depositing films of nanomaterials by combining the advantages of colloidal inorganic nanoparticles and laser-based techniques. MAPLE-deposition of nanomaterials meeting applicative purposes demands their peculiar properties to be taken into account while planning depositions to guarantee a congruent transfer (in terms of crystal structure and geometric features) and explain the deposition outcome. In particular, since nanofluids can enhance thermal conductivity with respect to conventional fluids, laser-induced heating can induce different ablation thermal regimes as compared to the MAPLE-treatment of soft materials. Moreover, nanoparticles exhibit lower melting temperatures and can experience pre-melting phenomena as compared to their bulk counterparts, which could easily induce shape and or crystal phase modification of the material to be deposited even at very low fluences. In this complex scenario, this review paper focuses on examples of MAPLE-depositions of size and shape controlled nanoparticles for different applications highlights advantages and challenges of the MAPLE-technique. The influence of the deposition parameters on the physical mechanisms which govern the deposition process is discussed.

  5. MAPLE deposition of nanomaterials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Caricato, A.P., E-mail: annapaola.caricato@le.infn.it [Department of Mathematics and Physics “E. De Giorgi”, University of Salento, Via Arnesano, I-73100 Lecce (Italy); Arima, V.; Catalano, M. [National Nanotechnology Laboratory (NNL), CNR Istituto Nanoscienze, c/o Distretto Tecnologico, Via Arnesano n. 16, I-73100 Lecce (Italy); Cesaria, M. [Department of Mathematics and Physics “E. De Giorgi”, University of Salento, Via Arnesano, I-73100 Lecce (Italy); Cozzoli, P.D. [Department of Mathematics and Physics “E. De Giorgi”, University of Salento, Via Arnesano, I-73100 Lecce (Italy); National Nanotechnology Laboratory (NNL), CNR Istituto Nanoscienze, c/o Distretto Tecnologico, Via Arnesano n. 16, I-73100 Lecce (Italy); Martino, M. [Department of Mathematics and Physics “E. De Giorgi”, University of Salento, Via Arnesano, I-73100 Lecce (Italy); Taurino, A.; Rella, R. [Institute for Microelectronics and Microsystems, IMM-CNR, Via Monteroni, I-73100 Lecce (Italy); Scarfiello, R. [National Nanotechnology Laboratory (NNL), CNR Istituto Nanoscienze, c/o Distretto Tecnologico, Via Arnesano n. 16, I-73100 Lecce (Italy); Tunno, T. [Department of Mathematics and Physics “E. De Giorgi”, University of Salento, Via Arnesano, I-73100 Lecce (Italy); Zacheo, A. [Department of Mathematics and Physics “E. De Giorgi”, University of Salento, Via Arnesano, I-73100 Lecce (Italy); National Nanotechnology Laboratory (NNL), CNR Istituto Nanoscienze, c/o Distretto Tecnologico, Via Arnesano n. 16, I-73100 Lecce (Italy)

    2014-05-01

    The matrix-assisted pulsed laser evaporation (MAPLE) has been recently exploited for depositing films of nanomaterials by combining the advantages of colloidal inorganic nanoparticles and laser-based techniques. MAPLE-deposition of nanomaterials meeting applicative purposes demands their peculiar properties to be taken into account while planning depositions to guarantee a congruent transfer (in terms of crystal structure and geometric features) and explain the deposition outcome. In particular, since nanofluids can enhance thermal conductivity with respect to conventional fluids, laser-induced heating can induce different ablation thermal regimes as compared to the MAPLE-treatment of soft materials. Moreover, nanoparticles exhibit lower melting temperatures and can experience pre-melting phenomena as compared to their bulk counterparts, which could easily induce shape and or crystal phase modification of the material to be deposited even at very low fluences. In this complex scenario, this review paper focuses on examples of MAPLE-depositions of size and shape controlled nanoparticles for different applications highlights advantages and challenges of the MAPLE-technique. The influence of the deposition parameters on the physical mechanisms which govern the deposition process is discussed.

  6. Factors influencing chloride deposition in a coastal hilly area and application to chloride deposition mapping

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Guan

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Chloride is commonly used as an environmental tracer for studying water flow and solute transport in the environment. It is especially useful for estimating groundwater recharge based on the commonly used chloride mass balance (CMB method. Strong spatial variability in chloride deposition in coastal areas is one difficulty encountered in appropriately applying the method. A high-resolution bulk chloride deposition map in the coastal region is thus needed. The aim of this study is to construct a chloride deposition map in the Mount Lofty Ranges (MLR, a coastal hilly area of approximately 9000 km2 spatial extent in South Australia. We examined geographic (related to coastal distance, orographic, and atmospheric factors that may influence chloride deposition, using partial correlation and regression analyses. The results indicate that coastal distance, elevation, as well as terrain aspect and slope, appear to be significant factors controlling chloride deposition in the study area. Coastal distance accounts for 70% of spatial variability in bulk chloride deposition, with elevation, terrain aspect and slope an additional 15%. The results are incorporated into a de-trended residual kriging model (ASOADeK to produce a 1 km×1 km resolution bulk chloride deposition and concentration maps. The average uncertainty of the deposition map is about 20–30% in the western MLR, and 40–50% in the eastern MLR. The maps will form a useful basis for examining catchment chloride balance for the CMB application in the study area.

  7. Urban acid deposition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Conlan, D.E.; Longhurst, J.W.S.; Gee, D.R.; Hare, S.E.

    1991-07-01

    In this document results from the Greater Manchester Acid Deposition Survey (GMADS), an urban precipitation chemistry network, for 1990 are presented. Full analytical methods are described along with the precision and accuracy of the methods used. The spatial variability of precipitation chemistry and deposition over this urban region was investigated using a network of twenty collectors. Concentrations of non marine sulphate, ammonium, calcium and hydrogen, and nitrogen dioxide gas concentrations all show significant spatial variability. The spatial variability of the deposition rates of non marine sulphate, nitrate, ammonium, hydrogen and calcium were significant. (Author).

  8. Electroless atomic layer deposition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson, David Bruce; Cappillino, Patrick J.; Sheridan, Leah B.; Stickney, John L.; Benson, David M.

    2017-10-31

    A method of electroless atomic layer deposition is described. The method electrolessly generates a layer of sacrificial material on a surface of a first material. The method adds doses of a solution of a second material to the substrate. The method performs a galvanic exchange reaction to oxidize away the layer of the sacrificial material and deposit a layer of the second material on the surface of the first material. The method can be repeated for a plurality of iterations in order to deposit a desired thickness of the second material on the surface of the first material.

  9. Environmental review of the Mary Kathleen uranium minesite, Northwest Queensland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Costelloe, M.T.; Lottermoser, B.G.; Ashley, P.M.

    1999-01-01

    Full text: The Mary Kathleen uranium deposit, in northwest Queensland, was discovered in 1954 and mined in 19561963 and 1976-1982. Rehabilitation of the site was completed in 1985 and the work won an award for environmental excellence. In 1999 gamma-ray data, plus stream sediment, soil, rock chip, mineral efflorescence, vegetation and water samples were collected from selected sites to assist in the examination of the current environmental status of the rehabilitated area. This paper presents preliminary results and interpretations. In the Mark Kathleen open pit, skarn type U-Th-REE mineralisation is hosted in amphibolite grade metamorphosed calc-silicate, mafic to intermediate igneous and sedimentary rocks. Remnant ore zones are composed of medium to coarse grained garnet and clinopyroxene, with accessory allanite, plagioclase, pyrrhotite, chalcopyrite and uraninite. Later retrograde alteration to chlorite, calcite, sericite, epidote and scapolite occurs. Fine grained uraninite is enclosed in allanite, and is partly replaced by metamict products nd traces of galena. Elevated gamma-ray readings in the open pit correspond to exposed ore lenses, the former haul road and abandoned ore stockpiles (up to 16 mSv/year). Surficial oxidation of ore and adjacent sulphide-bearing calc-silicate rocks has led to contemporary precipitation of yellow, orange, green and white mineral efflorescences on the pit walls. Wallrock oxidation of reactive sulphides (mainly pyrrhotite breakdown) produces acidic solutions, however, buffering reactions of these fluids with gangue calc-silicates and carbonate phases prevent low pH conditions from developing. The open pit lake is approximately 40m deep and contains saline (0.15%) surface waters which are Ca-, SO 4 -rich with elevated Cu, Fe, Mn, Ni, U and Zn at a pH of 6.11. Waste rock piles are up to 30m thick and have been covered by a thin veneer of benign waste. However, there are high radiation levels on several waste rock piles (up to 20

  10. Alluvial Deposits in Iowa

    Data.gov (United States)

    Iowa State University GIS Support and Research Facility — This coverage maps alluvial deposits throughout Iowa. This generally would include areas of alluvial soils associated with modern streams that are identified on...

  11. 75 FR 20041 - Deposits

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-16

    ... transmission to (202) 906- 6518; or send an e-mail to [email protected] . OTS will post... DD implements the Truth in Savings Act, part of the Federal Deposit Insurance Corporation Improvement...

  12. Uranium deposit research, 1983

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ruzicka, V.; LeCheminant, G.M.

    1984-01-01

    Research on uranium deposits in Canada, conducted as a prerequisite for assessment of the Estimated Additional Resources of uranium, revealed that (a) the uranium-gold association in rudites of the Huronian Supergroup preferably occurs in the carbon layers; (b) chloritized ore at the Panel mine, Elliot Lake, Ontario, occurs locally in tectonically disturbed areas in the vicinity of diabase dykes; (c) mineralization in the Black Sturgeon Lake area, Ontario, formed from solutions in structural and lithological traps; (d) the Cigar Lake deposit, Saskatchewan, has two phases of mineralization: monomineralic and polymetallic; (e) mineralization of the JEB (Canoxy Ltd.) deposit is similar to that at McClean Lake; (f) the uranium-carbon assemblage was identified in the Claude deposit, Carswell Structure; and (g) the Otish Mountains area, Quebec, should be considered as a significant uranium-polymetallic metallogenic province

  13. Automatic Payroll Deposit System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davidson, D. B.

    1979-01-01

    The Automatic Payroll Deposit System in Yakima, Washington's Public School District No. 7, directly transmits each employee's salary amount for each pay period to a bank or other financial institution. (Author/MLF)

  14. Deposition of acidifying compounds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fowler, D.; Cape, J.N.; Sutton, M.A.; Mourne, R.; Hargreaves, K.J.; Duyzer, J.H.; Gallagher, M.W.

    1992-01-01

    Inputs of acidifying compounds to terrestrial ecosystems include deposition of the gases NO 2 , NO, HNO 2 , HNO 3 , NH 3 and SO 2 and the ions NO 3- , NH 4+ , SO 4 2- and H + in precipitation, cloud droplets and particles. Recent research has identified particular ecosystems and regions in which terrestrial effects are closely linked with specific deposition processes. This review paper identifies areas in which important developments have occurred during the last five years and attempts to show which aspects of the subject are most important for policy makers. Amongst the conclusions drawn, the authors advise that current uncertainties in estimates of S and N inputs by dry deposition should be incorporated in critical load calculations, and that, in regions dominated by wet deposition, spatial resolution of total inputs should be improved to match the current scales of information on landscape sensitivity to acidic inputs. 44 refs., 9 figs

  15. Speleothem (Cave Deposit) Data

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Records of past temperature, precipitation, and other aspects of climate derived from mineral deposits found in caves. Parameter keywords describe what was measured...

  16. Identification and characterization of tsunami deposits off southeast ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    6Institute of Environmental Geosciences, Department of Earth and Environmental Sciences, Pukyong National. University ... challenging topic to be developed in studies on tsunami hazard assessment. Two core ... A tsunami is one of the most terrifying natural hazards .... identify tsunami deposits in a beach environment.

  17. Gemstone deposits of Serbia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miladinović Zoran

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Gemstone minerals in Serbia have never been regarded as an interesting and significant resource. Nevertheless, more than 150 deposits and occurrences have been recorded and some of them preliminarily explored in the last 50 years. The majority of deposits and occurrences are located within the Serbo-Macedonian metallogenic province and the most significant metallogenic units at the existing level of knowledge are the Fruska Gora ore district, Cer ore district, Sumadija metallogenic zone, Kopaonik metallogenic zone and Lece-Halkidiki metallogenic zone. The most important genetic type of deposits is hydrothermal, particularly in case of serpentinite/peridotite as host/parent rock. Placer deposits are also economically important. The dominant gemstones are silica minerals: chalcedony (Chrysoprase, carnelian, bluish chalcedony etc., jasper (picture, landscape, red etc., common opal (dendritic, green, milky white etc., silica masses (undivided, and quartz (rock crystal, amethyst etc.. Beside silica minerals significant gemstones in Serbia include also beryl (aquamarine, garnet (almandine and pyrope, tourmaline, fluorite, rhodochrosite, carbonate-silica breccia, carbonate-silica onyx, silicified wood, howlite, serpentinite, marble onyx, and kyanite. This paper aims to present an overview of Serbian gemstone deposits and occurrences and their position based on a simplified gemstone metallogenic map of Serbia, as well as genetic-industrial classification of gemstone deposits and gemstone varieties.

  18. Uranium deposits in Africa

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wilpolt, R.H.; Simov, S.D.

    1979-01-01

    Africa is not only known for its spectacular diamond, gold, copper, chromium, platinum and phosphorus deposits but also for its uranium deposits. At least two uranium provinces can be distinguished - the southern, with the equatorial sub-province; and the south Saharan province. Uranium deposits are distributed either in cratons or in mobile belts, the first of sandstone and quartz-pebble conglomerate type, while those located in mobile belts are predominantly of vein and similar (disseminated) type. Uranium deposits occur within Precambrian rocks or in younger platform sediments, but close to the exposed Precambrian basement. The Proterozoic host rocks consist of sediments, metamorphics or granitoids. In contrast to Phanerozoic continental uranium-bearing sediments, those in the Precambrian are in marginal marine facies but they do contain organic material. The geology of Africa is briefly reviewed with the emphasis on those features which might control the distribution of uranium. The evolution of the African Platform is considered as a progressive reduction of its craton area which has been affected by three major Precambrian tectonic events. A short survey on the geology of known uranium deposits is made. However, some deposits and occurrences for which little published material is available are treated in more detail. (author)

  19. Gemstone deposits of Serbia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miladinović, Zoran; Simić, Vladimir; Jelenković, Rade; Ilić, Miloje

    2016-06-01

    Gemstone minerals in Serbia have never been regarded as an interesting and significant resource. Nevertheless, more than 150 deposits and occurrences have been recorded and some of them preliminarily explored in the last 50 years. The majority of deposits and occurrences are located within the Serbo-Macedonian metallogenic province and the most significant metallogenic units at the existing level of knowledge are the Fruska Gora ore district, Cer ore district, Sumadija metallogenic zone, Kopaonik metallogenic zone and Lece-Halkidiki metallogenic zone. The most important genetic type of deposits is hydrothermal, particularly in case of serpentinite/peridotite as host/parent rock. Placer deposits are also economically important. The dominant gemstones are silica minerals: chalcedony (Chrysoprase, carnelian, bluish chalcedony etc.), jasper (picture, landscape, red etc.), common opal (dendritic, green, milky white etc.), silica masses (undivided), and quartz (rock crystal, amethyst etc.). Beside silica minerals significant gemstones in Serbia include also beryl (aquamarine), garnet (almandine and pyrope), tourmaline, fluorite, rhodochrosite, carbonate-silica breccia, carbonate-silica onyx, silicified wood, howlite, serpentinite, marble onyx, and kyanite. This paper aims to present an overview of Serbian gemstone deposits and occurrences and their position based on a simplified gemstone metallogenic map of Serbia, as well as genetic-industrial classification of gemstone deposits and gemstone varieties.

  20. Modelling of the transfer of radiocaesium from deposition to lake ecosystems. Report of the VAMP aquatic working group. Part of the IAEA/CEC co-ordinated research programme on the validation of environmental model predictions (VAMP)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2000-03-01

    The environmental impact of releases of radionuclides from nuclear installations can be predicted using assessment models. For such assessments information on their reliability must be provided. Ideally models should be developed and tested using actual data on the transfer of the nuclides which are site specific for the environment being modelled. In the past, generic data have often been taken from environmental contamination that resulted from the fallout from the nuclear weapons testing in the 1950s and 1960s or from laboratory experiments. However, it has always been recognized that there may be differences in the physico-chemical form of the radionuclides from these sources as compared to those that could be released from nuclear installations. Furthermore, weapons fallout was spread over time; it did not provide a single pulse which is generally used in testing models that predict time dependence. On the other hand, the Chernobyl accident resulted in a single pulse, which was detected and measured in a variety of environments throughout Europe. The acquisition of these new data sets justified the establishment of an international programme aimed at collating data from different IAEA Member States and at co-ordinating work on new model testing studies. The IAEA established a Co-ordinated Research Programme (CRP) on 'Validation of Environmental Model Predictions' (VAMP). The principal objectives of the VAMP Co-ordinated Research Programme were: (a) To facilitate the validation of assessment models for radionuclide transfer in the terrestrial, aquatic and urban environments. It is envisaged that this will be achieved by acquiring suitable sets of environmental data from the results of the national research and monitoring programmes established following the Chernobyl release. (b) To guide, if necessary, environmental research and monitoring efforts to acquire data for the validation of models used to assess the most significant radiological exposure pathways

  1. Investigating Dry Deposition of Ozone to Vegetation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, Sam J.; Heald, Colette L.

    2018-01-01

    Atmospheric ozone loss through dry deposition to vegetation is a critically important process for both air quality and ecosystem health. The majority of atmospheric chemistry models calculate dry deposition using a resistance-in-series parameterization by Wesely (1989), which is dependent on many environmental variables and lookup table values. The uncertainties contained within this parameterization have not been fully explored, ultimately challenging our ability to understand global scale biosphere-atmosphere interactions. In this work, we evaluate the GEOS-Chem model simulation of ozone dry deposition using a globally distributed suite of observations. We find that simulated daytime deposition velocities generally reproduce the magnitude of observations to within a factor of 1.4. When correctly accounting for differences in land class between the observations and model, these biases improve, most substantially over the grasses and shrubs land class. These biases do not impact the global ozone burden substantially; however, they do lead to local absolute changes of up to 4 ppbv and relative changes of 15% in summer surface concentrations. We use MERRA meteorology from 1979 to 2008 to assess that the interannual variability in simulated annual mean ozone dry deposition due to model input meteorology is small (generally less than 5% over vegetated surfaces). Sensitivity experiments indicate that the simulation is most sensitive to the stomatal and ground surface resistances, as well as leaf area index. To improve ozone dry deposition models, more measurements are necessary over rainforests and various crop types, alongside constraints on individual depositional pathways and other in-canopy ozone loss processes.

  2. Aerosol Deposition and Solar Panel Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arnott, W. P.; Rollings, A.; Taylor, S. J.; Parks, J.; Barnard, J.; Holmes, H.

    2015-12-01

    Passive and active solar collector farms are often located in relatively dry desert regions where cloudiness impacts are minimized. These farms may be susceptible to reduced performance due to routine or episodic aerosol deposition on collector surfaces. Intense episodes of wind blown dust deposition may negatively impact farm performance, and trigger need to clean collector surfaces. Aerosol deposition rate depends on size, morphology, and local meteorological conditions. We have developed a system for solar panel performance testing under real world conditions. Two identical 0.74 square meter solar panels are deployed, with one kept clean while the other receives various doses of aerosol deposition or other treatments. A variable load is used with automation to record solar panel maximum output power every 10 minutes. A collocated sonic anemometer measures wind at 10 Hz, allowing for both steady and turbulent characterization to establish a link between wind patterns and particle distribution on the cells. Multispectral photoacoustic instruments measure aerosol light scattering and absorption. An MFRSR quantifies incoming solar radiation. Solar panel albedo is measured along with the transmission spectra of particles collected on the panel surface. Key questions are: At what concentration does aerosol deposition become a problem for solar panel performance? What are the meteorological conditions that most strongly favor aerosol deposition, and are these predictable from current models? Is it feasible to use the outflow from an unmanned aerial vehicle hovering over solar panels to adequately clean their surface? Does aerosol deposition from episodes of nearby forest fires impact performance? The outlook of this research is to build a model that describes environmental effects on solar panel performance. Measurements from summer and fall 2015 will be presented along with insights gleaned from them.

  3. Depositional environment of the San Miguel lignite deposit in Atascosa and McMullen Counties, Texas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gowan, S.W.

    1985-01-01

    An analysis of the environment of deposition of the San Miguel lignite deposit was carried out in order to understand newly discovered characteristics of the deposit. The environment of deposition of the overburden and underburden was evaluated through an interpretation of three continuous cores. Four coal cores and a highwall section were carefully described to determine the depositional environmental of the coal seams and partings. These studies were supplemented by the construction of seam and parting isopachs, and the analysis of the distribution of sulfur isotopes, sulfur, forms, and total sulfur within the coal. The sedimentary package is composed of a basal prograding barrier that beach, dune, and back-barrier sands. This unit correlates with a downdip sand that was also interpreted as a prograding barrier by other authors. The barrier is overlain by a series of slit and clay deposits of lagoonal, tidal flat, and tidal channel origin. These deposits are capped by restricted lagoon sediments composed of green, calcareous clays that occasionally contain shell layers. The restricted lagoon deposits formed when the barrier closed the lagoon off from the sea. Peat forming freshwater swamps eventually became established behind the barrier and on top of the restricted lagoon sediments. The parting isopachs reveal a reticulate morphology similar to the mangrove swamps located lateral to the modern Niger River Delta. The partings represent vegetated tidal flat deposits that formed during periodic invasions by the sea that killed the swamp and inundated the peat with sulfate rich water. The lignite interval is capped by open lagoon and tidal flat sediments.

  4. Vein type uranium deposits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1986-01-01

    Veins are tabular- or sheet-like masses of minerals occupying or following a fracture or a set of fractures in the enclosing rock. They have been formed later than the country rock and fractures, either by filling of the open spaces or by partial or complete replacement of the adjoining rock or most commonly by both of these processes combined. This volume begins with the occurrences and deposits known from old shield areas and the sedimentary belts surrounding them. They are followed by papers describing the European deposits mostly of Variscan age, and by similar deposits known from China being of Jurassic age. The volume is completed by two papers which do not fit exactly in the given scheme. A separate abstract was prepared for each of the 25 papers in this report

  5. Geochronology and geochemistry of the granites from the Zhuxi W-Cu ore deposit in South China: Implication for petrogenesis, geodynamical setting and mineralization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Xiaofei; Hou, Zengqian; Zhao, Miao; Chen, Guohua; Rao, Jianfeng; Li, Yan; Wei, Jin; Ouyang, Yongpeng

    2018-04-01

    The giant Zhuxi tungsten deposit is located in the Taqian-Fuchun Ore Belt in northeastern Jiangxi province, and genetically associated with the Zhuxi granitic stocks and dykes. Three mineralization-related granites including granite porphyry dykes (GP), biotite granitic stocks (BG), and white granitic dykes (WG), were identified in the Zhuxi deposit. SHRIMP zircon U-Pb analysis for the three granitic rocks present ages ranging from 153.5 ± 1.0 Ma to 150.4 ± 1.0 Ma. The BG mainly contains quartz, microcline, albite, biotite and muscovite with minor accessory minerals including zircon, apatite, monazite, Ti/Fe oxides, and dolerite. However, the WG is mainly composed of quartz, microcline and albite with minor muscovite and accessory minerals. The GP is a medium-grained porphyritic granite and its phenocrysts include quartz, alkali feldspar, muscovite and plagioclase. All the Zhuxi granites have high SiO2 content (71.97 wt%-81.19 wt%) and total alkali (3.25 wt%-9.42 wt%), and their valid aluminum saturation index (ASI) values show a wide range of 1.03 to 2.49. High Rb/Sr ratios, low Sr content (data suggest that these highly fractionated I-S transform-type granites were originated from magmas which showed affinity with the Proterozoic continent and the Shuangqiaoshan Group and little mantle contribution was involved during the generation of Zhuxi granitic rocks. Extreme fractional crystallization resulted in further enrichment of tungsten in the evolved granitic magma. New data, presented together with previously published data, suggest that the Zhuxi granitic complex was likely to be formed during lithospheric compression setting during the late Jurassic to early Cretaceous. The biotite granite stock predominately contributed to the production of skarn alteration and mineralization, followed by the white granite dyke; the granite porphyry dykes have little effect.

  6. Optical thin film deposition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Macleod, H.A.

    1979-01-01

    The potential usefulness in the production of optical thin-film coatings of some of the processes for thin film deposition which can be classified under the heading of ion-assisted techniques is examined. Thermal evaporation is the process which is virtually universally used for this purpose and which has been developed to a stage where performance is in almost all respects high. Areas where further improvements would be of value, and the possibility that ion-assisted deposition might lead to such improvements, are discussed. (author)

  7. Radionuclide deposition control

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1980-01-01

    A method is described for controlling the deposition, on to the surfaces of reactor components, of the radionuclides manganese-54, cobalt-58 and cobalt-60 from a liquid stream containing the radionuclides. The method consists of disposing a getter material (nickel) in the liquid stream, and a non-getter material (tantalum, tungsten or molybdenum) as a coating on the surfaces where deposition is not desired. The process is described with special reference to its use in the coolant circuit in sodium cooled fast breeder reactors. (U.K.)

  8. Deposition potential of polonium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heal, H. G.

    1948-11-23

    The cathodic deposition potential for polonium in concentrations of 10{sup -13} normal and 8 x 10{sup -13} normal, the former being 100-fold smaller than the smallest concentrations previously studied, has been determined. The value is 0.64 volt on the hydrogen scale. Considering the various ways in which the graphs can reasonably be drawn, we consider the maximum possible error to be of the order of +- 0.03 volt. There is apparently no shift of deposition potential between concentrations of 10{sup -8} and 10{sup -13} normal, indicating that the Nernst equation is not applicable in these circumstances.

  9. Reactive polymer fused deposition manufacturing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kunc, Vlastimil; Rios, Orlando; Love, Lonnie J.; Duty, Chad E.; Johs, Alexander

    2017-05-16

    Methods and compositions for additive manufacturing that include reactive or thermosetting polymers, such as urethanes and epoxies. The polymers are melted, partially cross-linked prior to the depositing, deposited to form a component object, solidified, and fully cross-linked. These polymers form networks of chemical bonds that span the deposited layers. Application of a directional electromagnetic field can be applied to aromatic polymers after deposition to align the polymers for improved bonding between the deposited layers.

  10. ENVIRONMENTAL CONCERN AND ENVIRONMENTALLY ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    critique of theoretical approaches towards understanding the formation of environmental attitudes, a model has been developed ... instances, people must have the motivation and know- ... feelings and emotion, and behaviour to behavioural.

  11. Ion Deposited Carbon Coatings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1983-07-01

    PAGE ("’hen Dita t,,I,, efl TABLE OF CONTENTS Section No. Title Page No. 1.0 OBJECTIVE 1 2.0 SCOPE 2 3.0 BACKGROUND 3 4.0 COATINGS DEPOSITION 4 4.1...scientific, ards of measure. The Committee, and Confer- technical, practical, and teaching purposes.ence voting members, are leading professional On the

  12. Plasma deposition of refractories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kudinov, V.V.; Ivanov, V.M.

    1981-01-01

    The problems of deposition, testing and application of plasma coating of refractory metals and oxides are considered. The process fundamentals, various manufacturing procedures and equipment for their realization are described in detail. Coating materials are given (Al, Mg, Al 2 O 3 , ZrO 2 , MgAlO 4 ) which are used in reactor engineering and their designated purposes are shown [ru

  13. 75 FR 34533 - Deposits

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-17

    ... collection request (ICR) described below has been submitted to the Office of Management and Budget (OMB) for..., Attention: Desk Officer for OTS, U.S. Office of Management and Budget, 725 17th Street, NW., Room 10235... statement the institution sends to the consumer. Regulation DD contains rules for advertisements of deposit...

  14. Human Q fever incidence is associated to spatiotemporal environmental conditions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van Leuken, J. P G; Swart, A. N.; Brandsma, J.; Terink, W.; Van de Kassteele, J.; Droogers, P.; Sauter, F.; Havelaar, A. H.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/072306122; Van der Hoek, W.

    2016-01-01

    Airborne pathogenic transmission from sources to humans is characterised by atmospheric dispersion and influence of environmental conditions on deposition and reaerosolisation. We applied a One Health approach using human, veterinary and environmental data regarding the 2009 epidemic in The

  15. A new approach for modeling dry deposition velocity of particles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giardina, M.; Buffa, P.

    2018-05-01

    The dry deposition process is recognized as an important pathway among the various removal processes of pollutants in the atmosphere. In this field, there are several models reported in the literature useful to predict the dry deposition velocity of particles of different diameters but many of them are not capable of representing dry deposition phenomena for several categories of pollutants and deposition surfaces. Moreover, their applications is valid for specific conditions and if the data in that application meet all of the assumptions required of the data used to define the model. In this paper a new dry deposition velocity model based on an electrical analogy schema is proposed to overcome the above issues. The dry deposition velocity is evaluated by assuming that the resistances that affect the particle flux in the Quasi-Laminar Sub-layers can be combined to take into account local features of the mutual influence of inertial impact processes and the turbulent one. Comparisons with the experimental data from literature indicate that the proposed model allows to capture with good agreement the main dry deposition phenomena for the examined environmental conditions and deposition surfaces to be determined. The proposed approach could be easily implemented within atmospheric dispersion modeling codes and efficiently addressing different deposition surfaces for several particle pollution.

  16. Environmental radioactivity 1996

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1997-01-01

    Environmental Radioactivity in New Zealand and Rarotonga : annual report 1996 was published in May this year. The 1996 environmental radioactivity monitoring programme included, as usual, measurements in New Zealand and the Cook Islands of atmospheric, deposited and dairy product radioactivity. The environment in the New Zealand and Cook Island regions has now virtually returned to the situation in the 'pre-nuclear' era. The contination of monitoring, although at a reduced level of intensity, is basically to ensure that any change from the present state, due to any source of radioactivity does not go undetected or unquestioned. (author)

  17. A thermoluminescence study of vempalle dolomites and its depositional environments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bhattacharya, A.K.; Rao, C.N.; Kaul, I.K.

    1976-01-01

    An attempt has been made to interpret the depositional environment of Vempalle dolomites (India) by thermoluminescence method. It has been demonstrated that glow curve patterns reflect the environmental condition of deposition for carbonate sediments. The glow curves were obtained for natural samples as well as samples irradiated by Co 60 and compared. A majority of the samples were concluded to be diagenetic. (A.K.)

  18. Post-depositional fracturing and subsidence of pumice flow deposits: Lascar Volcano, Chile.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whelley, Patrick L; Jay, J; Calder, E S; Pritchard, M E; Cassidy, N J; Alcaraz, S; Pavez, A

    Unconsolidated pyroclastic flow deposits of the 1993 eruption of Lascar Volcano, Chile, have, with time, become increasingly dissected by a network of deeply penetrating fractures. The fracture network comprises orthogonal sets of decimeter-wide linear voids that form a pseudo-polygonal grid visible on the deposit surface. In this work, we combine shallow surface geophysical imaging tools with remote sensing observations and direct field measurements of the deposit to investigate these fractures and their underlying causal mechanisms. Based on ground penetrating radar images, the fractures are observed to have propagated to depths of up to 10 m. In addition, orbiting radar interferometry shows that deposit subsidence of up to 1 cm/year -1 occurred between 1993 and 1996 with continued subsidence occurring at a slower rate thereafter. In situ measurements show that 1 m below the surface, the 1993 deposits remain 5°C to 15°C hotter, 18 years after emplacement, than adjacent deposits. Based on the observed subsidence as well as estimated cooling rates, the fractures are inferred to be the combined result of deaeration, thermal contraction, and sedimentary compaction in the months to years following deposition. Significant environmental factors, including regional earthquakes in 1995 and 2007, accelerated settling at punctuated moments in time. The spatially variable fracture pattern relates to surface slope and lithofacies variations as well as substrate lithology. Similar fractures have been reported in other ignimbrites but are generally exposed only in cross section and are often attributed to formation by external forces. Here we suggest that such interpretations should be invoked with caution, and deformation including post-emplacement subsidence and fracturing of loosely packed ash-rich deposits in the months to years post-emplacement is a process inherent in the settling of pyroclastic material.

  19. Increasing Recycling through Container Deposit : A Fixed Effects analysis of the Swedish increase in Container Deposit September 2010

    OpenAIRE

    Thörnelöf, Ivar

    2016-01-01

    This thesis analyze the impact on recycling from the increase in the deposit on metal cans that took place in Sweden, September 2010. This is done by using a fixed effects model, fixed on municipality, month, and year. Additionally, the thesis investigates the response of different socioeconomic groups to this change by investigating the interaction between deposit and variables for the socioeconomic factors of interest. Interactions for income, education, immigration, environmental awareness...

  20. Corrosion properties of aluminum based alloys deposited by ion beam assisted deposition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Enders, B.; Krauss, S.; Wolf, G.K.

    1994-01-01

    The replacement of cadmium coatings by other protective measures is an important task because of the environmentally detrimental properties of cadmium. Therefore, aluminum and aluminum alloy coatings containing elements such as silicon or magnesium with more positive or negative positions in the galvanic series in relation to pure aluminum were deposited by ion beam assisted deposition onto glass and low carbon steel. Pure aluminum films were deposited onto low carbon steel in order to study the influence of the ion-to-atom arrival ratio and the angle of ion incidence on the corrosion properties. For examination of the pitting behavior as a function of the concentration of alloying element, quasipotentiostatic current-potential and potentiostatic current-time plots were measured in chlorine-containing acetate buffer. It is shown that these alloys can protect steel substrates under uniform and pitting corrosion conditions considerably better than pure aluminum coatings. ((orig.))

  1. 78 FR 56583 - Deposit Insurance Regulations; Definition of Insured Deposit

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-13

    ... as a potential global deposit insurer, preserve confidence in the FDIC deposit insurance system, and... the United States.\\2\\ The FDIC generally pays out deposit insurance on the next business day after a... since 2001 and total approximately $1 trillion today. In many cases, these branches do not engage in...

  2. Uranium deposits of Zaire

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kitmut, D.; Malu wa Kalenga

    1979-01-01

    Since April 1960, following the closing of the Shinkolobwe mine, the Republic of Zaire has ceased to be a producer of uranium. Nevertheless, Gecamines (Generale des carrieres et mines du Zaire), a wholly state-owned company, is continuing its research on uranium occurrences which have been discovered in its concession in the course of aerial radiometric prospecting. The most recent campaign was the one carried out in 1969 and 1972 by Hunting Company. On-the-ground verification of these shows has not yet resulted in the discovery of a workable deposit. There are other sectors cutting across Zaire which might well contain uranium deposits: this is true of the sedimentary phosphates of the region of Lower Zaire as well as of the frontier region between Zaire and the Central African Empire. However, no detailed exploration work has yet been carried out. (author)

  3. 20 CFR 703.306 - Kinds of negotiable securities that may be deposited; conditions of deposit; acceptance of deposits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... the Act in the amount fixed by the Office under the regulations in this part shall deposit any... deposited; conditions of deposit; acceptance of deposits. 703.306 Section 703.306 Employees' Benefits... negotiable securities that may be deposited; conditions of deposit; acceptance of deposits. A self-insurer or...

  4. Thorium ore deposits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Angelelli, Victorio.

    1984-01-01

    The main occurences of the thorium minerals of the Argentine Republic which have not been exploited, due to their reduced volume, are described. The thoriferous deposits have three genetic types: pegmatitic, hydrothermal and detritic, being the most common minerals: monazite, thorite and thorogummite. The most important thorium accumulations are located in Salta, being of less importance those of Cordoba, Jujuy and San Juan. (M.E.L.) [es

  5. Manganese deposition in drinking water distribution systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerke, Tammie L; Little, Brenda J; Barry Maynard, J

    2016-01-15

    This study provides a physicochemical assessment of manganese deposits on brass and lead components from two fully operational drinking water distributions systems. One of the systems was maintained with chlorine; the other, with secondary chloramine disinfection. Synchrotron-based in-situ micro X-ray adsorption near edge structure was used to assess the mineralogy. In-situ micro X-ray fluorescence mapping was used to demonstrate the spatial relationships between manganese and potentially toxic adsorbed metal ions. The Mn deposits ranged in thickness from 0.01 to 400 μm. They were composed primarily of Mn oxides/oxhydroxides, birnessite (Mn(3+) and Mn(4+)) and hollandite (Mn(2+) and Mn(4+)), and a Mn silicate, braunite (Mn(2+) and Mn(4+)), in varying proportions. Iron, chromium, and strontium, in addition to the alloying elements lead and copper, were co-located within manganese deposits. With the exception of iron, all are related to specific health issues and are of concern to the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (U.S. EPA). The specific properties of Mn deposits, i.e., adsorption of metals ions, oxidation of metal ions and resuspension are discussed with respect to their influence on drinking water quality. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Origin and chemical composition of evaporite deposits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, George William

    1960-01-01

    A comparative study of marine evaporite deposits forming at the present time along the pacific coast of central Mexico and evaporite formations of Permian age in West Texas Basin was made in order to determine if the modern sediments provide a basis for understanding environmental conditions that existed during deposition of the older deposits. The field work was supplemented by investigations of artificial evaporite minerals precipitated in the laboratory and by study of the chemical composition of halite rock of different geologic ages. The environment of deposition of contemporaneous marine salt deposits in Mexico is acidic, is strongly reducing a few centimeters below the surface, and teems with microscopic life. Deposition of salt, unlike that of many other sediments, is not wholly a constructional phenomenon. Permanent deposits result only if a favorable balance exists between deposition in the dry season and dissolution in the wet season. Evaporite formations chosen for special study in the West Texas Basin are, in ascending order, the Castile, Salado, and Rustler formations, which have a combined thickness of 1200 meters. The Castile formation is largely composed of gypsum rock, the Salado, halite rock, and the Rustler, quartz and carbonate sandstone. The lower part of the Castile formation is bituminous and contains limestone laminae. The Castile and Rustler formations thicken to the south at the expense of salt of the intervening Salado formation. The clastic rocks of the Rustler formation are interpreted as the deposits of a series of barrier islands north of which halite rock of the Salado was deposited. The salt is believed to have formed in shallow water of uniform density that was mixed by the wind. Where water depth exceeded the depth of the wind mixing, density stratification developed, and gypsum was deposited. Dense water of high salinity below the density discontinuity was overlain by less dense, more normally saline water which was derived from

  7. Electrophoretic deposition of biomaterials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boccaccini, A. R.; Keim, S.; Ma, R.; Li, Y.; Zhitomirsky, I.

    2010-01-01

    Electrophoretic deposition (EPD) is attracting increasing attention as an effective technique for the processing of biomaterials, specifically bioactive coatings and biomedical nanostructures. The well-known advantages of EPD for the production of a wide range of microstructures and nanostructures as well as unique and complex material combinations are being exploited, starting from well-dispersed suspensions of biomaterials in particulate form (microsized and nanoscale particles, nanotubes, nanoplatelets). EPD of biological entities such as enzymes, bacteria and cells is also being investigated. The review presents a comprehensive summary and discussion of relevant recent work on EPD describing the specific application of the technique in the processing of several biomaterials, focusing on (i) conventional bioactive (inorganic) coatings, e.g. hydroxyapatite or bioactive glass coatings on orthopaedic implants, and (ii) biomedical nanostructures, including biopolymer–ceramic nanocomposites, carbon nanotube coatings, tissue engineering scaffolds, deposition of proteins and other biological entities for sensors and advanced functional coatings. It is the intention to inform the reader on how EPD has become an important tool in advanced biomaterials processing, as a convenient alternative to conventional methods, and to present the potential of the technique to manipulate and control the deposition of a range of nanomaterials of interest in the biomedical and biotechnology fields. PMID:20504802

  8. Radionuclides deposition over Antarctica

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pourchet, M.; Magand, O.; Frezzotti, M.; Ekaykin, A.; Winther, J.-G.

    2003-01-01

    A detailed and comprehensive map of the distribution patterns for both natural and artificial radionuclides over Antarctica has been established. This work integrates the results of several decades of international programs focusing on the analysis of natural and artificial radionuclides in snow and ice cores from this polar region. The mean value (37±20 Bq m -2 ) of 241 Pu total deposition over 28 stations is determined from the gamma emissions of its daughter 241 Am, presenting a long half-life (432.7 yrs). Detailed profiles and distributions of 241 Pu in ice cores make it possible to clearly distinguish between the atmospheric thermonuclear tests of the fifties and sixties. Strong relationships are also found between radionuclide data ( 137 Cs with respect to 241 Pu and 210 Pb with respect to 137 Cs), make it possible to estimate the total deposition or natural fluxes of these radionuclides. Total deposition of 137 Cs over Antarctica is estimated at 760 TBq, based on results from the 90-180 deg. East sector. Given the irregular distribution of sampling sites, more ice cores and snow samples must be analyzed in other sectors of Antarctica to check the validity of this figure

  9. Hydrothermal Fluid evolution in the Dalli porphyry Cu-Au Deposit: Fluid Inclusion microthermometry studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alireza Zarasvandi

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Introduction A wide variety of world-class porphyry Cu deposits occur in the Urumieh-Dohktar magmatic arc (UDMA of Iran.The arc is composed of calc-alkaline granitoid rocks, and the ore-hosting porphyry intrusions are dominantly granodiorite to quartz-monzonite (Zarasvandi et al., 2015. It is believed that faults played an important role in the emplacement of intrusions and subsequentporphyry-copper type mineralization (Shahabpour, 1999. Three main centers host the porphyry copper mineralization in the UDMA: (1 Ardestan-SarCheshmeh-Kharestan zone, (2 Saveh-Ardestan district; in the central parts of the UDMA, hosting the Dalli porphyry Cu-Au deposit, and (3 Takab-Mianeh-Qharahdagh-Sabalan zone. Mineralized porphyry coppersystems in the UDMA are restricted to Oligocene to Mioceneintrusions and show potassic, sericitic, argillic, propylitic and locally skarn alteration (Zarasvandi et al., 2005; Zarasvandi et al., 2015. In the Dalli porphyry deposit, four hydrothermal alteration zones, includingpotassic, sericitic, propylitic, and argillic types have been described in the two discrete mineralized areas, namely, northern and southern stocks. Hypogenemineralization includes chalcopyrite, pyrite, and magnetite, with minor occurrences of bornite.Supergene activity has produced gossan, oxidized minerals and enrichment zones. The supergene enrichment zone contains chalcocite and covellite with a 10-20 m thickness. Mineralization in the northern stock is mainly composed of pyrite and chalcopyrite. The aim of this study is the investigation and classification of hydrothermal veins and the constraining of physicochemical compositions of ore-forming fluids using systematic investigation of fluid inclusions. Materials and methods Twenty samples were collected from drill holes. Thin and polished sections were prepared from hydrothermal veins of thepotassic, sericitic and propylitic alteration zones. Samples used for fluid inclusion measurements were collected

  10. Deposition and Resuspension of Particles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lengweiler, P.; Nielsen, Peter V.; Moser, A.

    A new experimental set-up to investigate the physical process of dust deposition and resuspension on and from surfaces is introduced. Dust deposition can reduce the airBorne dust concentration considerably. As a basis for developing methods to eliminate dust related problems in rooms......, there is a need for better understanding of the mechanism of dust deposition and resuspension....

  11. A Micrometeorological Perspective on Deposition

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Niels Otto

    1981-01-01

    An expression for the dry deposition velocity is given in terms of constant flux layer scaling. Numerical values of upper bounds on the deposition velocity is given for a typical situation. Some remarks are then offered on the relative merits of various ways in which the combined diffusion-deposition...

  12. Market Discipline and Deposit Insurance

    OpenAIRE

    Peresetsky, Anatoly

    2008-01-01

    The paper examines Russian banks’ household deposit interest rates for the transition period of setting up the deposit insurance system. Monthly observations of Russian banks’ interest rates and balance sheets are used in a fixed effects panel data model. It is shown market discipline has been significantly diminished after switching to the deposit insurance.

  13. Environmental Performance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Svabo, Connie; Lindelof, Anja Mølle

    from the perspective of time and liveness as experienced in art on environmental performance discussing how environmental performances frame the temporality of the world. The paper engages with contemporary examples of environmental performances from various disciplines (sound, video, television...

  14. Environmental Aesthetics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Svabo, Connie; Ekelund, Kathrine

    2015-01-01

    The philosophical subfield environmental aesthetics can contribute to the design of sustainable futures. Environmental aesthetics provides a conceptual framework for understanding the relationship between nature and culture. Current positions in environmental aesthetics are lined out and used...

  15. Electrophoretic Deposition of Gallium with High Deposition Rate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hanfei Zhang

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available In this work, electrophoretic deposition (EPD is reported to form gallium thin film with high deposition rate and low cost while avoiding the highly toxic chemicals typically used in electroplating. A maximum deposition rate of ~0.6 μm/min, almost one order of magnitude higher than the typical value reported for electroplating, is obtained when employing a set of proper deposition parameters. The thickness of the film is shown to increase with deposition time when sequential deposition is employed. The concentration of Mg(NO32, the charging salt, is also found to be a critical factor to control the deposition rate. Various gallium micropatterns are obtained by masking the substrate during the process, demonstrating process compatibility with microfabrication. The reported novel approach can potentially be employed in a broad range of applications with Ga as a raw material, including microelectronics, photovoltaic cells, and flexible liquid metal microelectrodes.

  16. Deposits of the Peruvian Pisco Formation compared to layered deposits on Mars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sowe, M.; Bishop, J. L.; Gross, C.; Walter, S.

    2013-09-01

    Deposits of the Peruvian Pisco Formation are morphologically similar to the mounds of Juventae Chasma at the equatorial region on Mars (Fig. 1). By analyzing these deposits, we hope to gain information about the environmental conditions that prevailed during sediment deposition and erosion, hence conditions that might be applicable to the Martian layered and hydrated deposits. Mariner 9 data of the Martian mid-latitudes have already shown evidence of the wind-sculptured landforms that display the powerful prevailing eolian regime [1]. In addition, [2] reported on similarities between Martian erosional landforms and those of the rainless coastal desert of central Peru from the Paracas peninsula to the Rio Ica. As indicated by similar erosional patterns, hyper-arid conditions and unidirectional winds must have dominated at least after deposition of the sediments, which are intermixed volcaniclastic materials and evaporate minerals at both locations. Likewise, variations in composition are displayed by alternating layers of different competence. The Pisco formation bears yardangs on siltstones, sandstones and clays with volcaniclastic admixtures [3] whereas the presence of sulphate minerals and the omnipresent mafic mineralogy has been reported for the layered mounds of Juventae Chasma equally [4]. Likewise, a volcanic airfall deposition and lacustrine formation have been proposed for the sulphate-rich deposits of Juventae Chasma [5,6]. In order to find out about potential spectral similarities, we performed a detailed spectral analysis of the surface by using LANDSAT and Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER) VNIR/ SWIR data (visible to near-infrared and shortwave infrared region).

  17. Progress in the Study of Coastal Storm Deposits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiong, Haixian; Huang, Guangqing; Fu, Shuqing; Qian, Peng

    2018-05-01

    Numerous studies have been carried out to identify storm deposits and decipher storm-induced sedimentary processes in coastal and shallow-marine areas. This study aims to provide an in-depth review on the study of coastal storm deposits from the following five aspects. 1) The formation of storm deposits is a function of hydrodynamic and sedimentary processes under the constraints of local geological and ecological factors. Many questions remain to demonstrate the genetic links between storm-related processes and a variety of resulting deposits such as overwash deposits, underwater deposits and hummocky cross-stratification (HCS). Future research into the formation of storm deposits should combine flume experiments, field observations and numerical simulations, and make full use of sediment source tracing methods. 2) Recently there has been rapid growth in the number of studies utilizing sediment provenance analysis to investigate the source of storm deposits. The development of source tracing techniques, such as mineral composition, magnetic susceptibility, microfossil and geochemical property, has allowed for better understanding of the depositional processes and environmental changes associated with coastal storms. 3) The role of extreme storms in the sedimentation of low-lying coastal wetlands with diverse ecosystem services has also drawn a great deal of attention. Many investigations have attempted to quantify widespread land loss, vertical marsh sediment accumulation and wetland elevation change induced by major hurricanes. 4) Paleostorm reconstructions based on storm sedimentary proxies have shown many advantages over the instrumental records and historic documents as they allow for the reconstruction of storm activities on millennial or longer time scales. Storm deposits having been used to establish proxies mainly include beach ridges and shelly cheniers, coral reefs, estuary-deltaic storm sequences and overwash deposits. Particularly over the past few

  18. Environmental Law

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    2001-01-01

    Contains information on the National Environmental Policy Act, the Clean Water Act, the Clean Air Act, the Endangered Species Act, the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability...

  19. Dry deposition on urban surfaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roed, J.

    1985-01-01

    In order to facilitate developing a model for deposition in urban areas, beryllium-7, created by cosmic radiation and fall-out cesium-137, have been used as tracers in measurements designed to find the dry deposition velocity on building surfaces. A literature review has revealed that very little work has been done on deposition in urban areas; therefore, a major effort on meausring the deposition parameter is needed to construct reliable models in this field. Deposition velocities in the range from 0.001-0.04 cm/s have been found. (author)

  20. Thermal plasma chemical vapor deposition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heberlein, J.; Pfender, E.

    1993-01-01

    Thermal plasmas, with temperatures up to and even exceeding 10 4 K, are capable of producing high density vapor phase precursors for the deposition of relatively thick films. Although this technology is still in its infancy, it will fill the void between the relatively slow deposition processes such as physical vapor deposition and the high rate thermal spray deposition processes. In this chapter, the present state-of-the-art of this field is reviewed with emphasis on the various types of reactors proposed for this emerging technology. Only applications which attracted particular attention, namely diamond and high T c superconducting film deposition, are discussed in greater detail. (orig.)

  1. Comparison of simulated to actual plutonium deposition at the Savannah River Plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carlson, D.C.; Garrett, A.J.; Gay, D.D.; Murphy, C.E.; Pinder, J.E. III.

    1982-01-01

    Minute amounts of plutonium are released from the Savannah River Plant (SRP) separations facilities and deposited in the surrounding environs. Long-term deposition measurements show that contributions to offsite environmental plutonium by the SRP are negligible compared to fallout from weapons tests. The Savannah River Laboratory (SRL) recently developed a deposition model and compared its predictions to the observed plutonium deposition pattern. The model reproduced the observed range of deposition rates when full and truncated lognormal distributions of particle sizes were used to represent the emissions. Model predictions of total deposition out to 30 km were low by about a factor of two relative to estimates based on integrations of the empirical deposition curves. More measurements are planned, which should reduce uncertainties about model assumptions and the observed deposition rates

  2. Uranium ore deposits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Angelelli, Victorio.

    1984-01-01

    The main uranium deposits and occurrences in the Argentine Republic are described, considering, in principle, their geologic setting, the kind of 'model' of the mineralization and its possible origin, and describing the ore species present in each case. The main uraniferous accumulations of the country include the models of 'sandstong type', veintype and impregnation type. There are also other kinds of accumulations, as in calcrete, etc. The main uranium production has been registered in the provinces of Mendoza, Salta, La Rioja, Chubut, Cordoba and San Luis. In each case, the minerals present are mentioned, having been recognized 37 different species all over the country (M.E.L.) [es

  3. Stratigraphic implications of uranium deposits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Langford, F.F.

    1980-01-01

    One of the most consistent characteristics of economic uranium deposits is their restricted stratigraphic distribution. Uraninite deposited with direct igneous affiliation contains thorium, whereas chemical precipitates in sedimentary rocks are characterized by thorium-free primary uranium minerals with vanadium and selenium. In marine sediments, these minerals form low-grade disseminations; but in terrestrial sediments, chiefly fluvial sandstones, the concentration of uranium varies widely, with the high-grade portions constituting ore. Pitchblende vein deposits not only exhibit the same chemical characteristics as the Colorado-type sandstone deposits, but they have a stratigraphically consistent position at unconformities covered by fluvial sandstones. If deposits in such diverse situations have critical features in common, they are likely to have had many features of their origin in common. Thus, vein deposits in Saskatchewan and Australia may have analogues in areas that contain Colorado-type sandstone deposits. In New Mexico, the presence of continental sandstones with peneconformable uranium deposits should also indicate good prospecting ground for unconformity-type vein deposits. All unconformities within the periods of continental deposition ranging from Permian to Cretaceous should have uranium potential. Some situations, such as the onlap of the Abo Formation onto Precambrian basement in the Zuni Mountains, may be directly comparable to Saskatchewan deposition. However, uranium occurrences in the upper part of the Entrada Sandstone suggest that unconformities underlain by sedimentary rocks may also be exploration targets

  4. Sandstone-type uranium deposits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Austin, S.R.; D'Andrea, R.F. Jr.

    1978-01-01

    Three overall factors are necessary for formation of uranium deposits in sandstone: a source of uranium, host rocks capable of transmitting uranium-bearing solutions, and a precipitant. Possible sources of uranium in sandstone-type deposits include groundwaters emanating from granitic highlands, arkosic sediments, tuffaceous material within or overlying the host rocks, connate fluids, and overlying black shales. The first three sources are considered the most likely. Host rocks are generally immature sandstones deposited in alluvial-fan, intermontane-basin or marginal-marine environments, but uranium deposits do occur in well-winnowed barrier-bar or eolian sands. Host rocks for uranium deposits generally show coefficients of permeability on the order of 1 to 100 gal/day/ft 2 . Precipitants are normally agents capable of reducing uranium from the uranyl to the uranous state. The association of uranium with organic matter is unequivocal; H 2 S, a powerful reductant, may have been present at the time of formation of some deposits but may go unnoticed today. Vanadium can serve to preserve the tabular characteristics of some deposits in the near-surface environment, but is considered an unlikely primary precipitant for uranium. Uranium deposits in sandstone are divided into two overall types: peneconcordant deposits, which occur in locally reducing environments in otherwise oxidized sandstones; and roll-type deposits, which occur at the margin of an area where an oxidized groundwater has permeated an otherwise reduced sandstone. Uranium deposits are further broken down into four subclasses; these are described

  5. Geological factors of deposit formation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grushevoj, G.V.

    1980-01-01

    Geologic factors of hydrogenic uranium deposit formation are considered. Structural, formation and lithological-facies factors of deposit formation, connected with zones of stratal oxidation, are characterized. Peculiarities of deposit localization, connected with orogenic structures of Mesozoic and lenozoic age, are described. It is noted that deposits of anagenous group are widely spread in Paleozoic formations, infiltration uranium deposits are localized mainly in Cenozoic sediments, while uranium mineralization both anagenous and infiltration groups are widely developed in Mesozoic sediments. Anagenous deposits were formed in non-oxygen situation, their age varies from 200 to 55 mln years. Infiltration deposit formation is determined by asymmetric oxidation zonation, their age varies from 10 - 40 mln years to dozens of thousand years [ru

  6. Assimilation of carbonate country rock by the parent magma of the Panzhihua Fe-Ti-V deposit (SW China: Evidence from stable isotopes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Clément Ganino

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available The Panzhihua intrusion in southwest China is part of the Emeishan Large Igneous Province and host of a large Fe-Ti-V ore deposit. During emplacement of the main intrusion, multiple generations of mafic dykes invaded carbonate wall rocks, producing a large contact aureole. We measured the oxygen-isotope composition of the intrusions, their constituent minerals, and samples of the country rock. Magnetite and plagioclase from Panzhihua intrusion have δ18O values that are consistent with magmatic equilibrium, and formed from magmas with δ18O values that were 1–2‰ higher than expected in a mantle-derived magma. The unmetamorphosed country rock has high δ18O values, ranging from 13.2‰ (sandstone to 24.6–28.6‰ (dolomite. The skarns and marbles from the aureole have lower δ18O and δ13C values than their protolith suggesting interaction with fluids that were in exchange equilibrium with the adjacent mafic magmas and especially the numerous mafic dykes that intruded the aureole. This would explain the alteration of δ18O of the dykes which have significantly higher values than expected for a mantle-derived magma. Depending on the exact δ18O values assumed for the magma and contaminant, the amount of assimilation required to produce the elevated δ18O value of the Panzhihua intrusion was between 8 and 13.7 wt.%, assuming simple mixing. The exact mechanism of contamination is unclear but may involve a combination of assimilation of bulk country rock, mixing with a melt of the country rock and exchange with CO2-rich fluid derived from decarbonation of the marls and dolomites. These mechanisms, particularly the latter, were probably involved in the formation of the Fe-Ti-V ores.

  7. Mapping the spatial distribution of chloride deposition across Australia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davies, P. J.; Crosbie, R. S.

    2018-06-01

    The high solubility and conservative behaviour of chloride make it ideal for use as an environmental tracer of water and salt movement through the hydrologic cycle. For such use the spatial distribution of chloride deposition in rainfall at a suitable scale must be known. A number of authors have used point data acquired from field studies of chloride deposition around Australia to construct relationships to characterise chloride deposition as a function of distance from the coast; these relationships have allowed chloride deposition to be interpolated in different regions around Australia. In this paper we took this a step further and developed a chloride deposition map for all of Australia which includes a quantification of uncertainty. A previously developed four parameter model of chloride deposition as a function of distance from the coast for Australia was used as the basis for producing a continental scale chloride deposition map. Each of the four model parameters were made spatially variable by creating parameter surfaces that were interpolated using a pilot point regularisation approach within a parameter estimation software. The observations of chloride deposition were drawn from a literature review that identified 291 point measurements of chloride deposition over a period of 80 years spread unevenly across all Australian States and Territories. A best estimate chloride deposition map was developed from the resulting surfaces on a 0.05 degree grid. The uncertainty in the chloride deposition map was quantified as the 5th and 95th percentile of 1000 calibrated models produced via Null Space Monte Carlo analysis and the spatial variability of chloride deposition across the continent was consistent with landscape morphology. The temporal variability in chloride deposition on a decadal scale was investigated in the Murray-Darling Basin, this highlighted the need for long-term monitoring of chloride deposition if the uncertainty of the continental scale map is

  8. FDIC Summary of Deposits (SOD) Download File

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Deposit Insurance Corporation — The FDIC's Summary of Deposits (SOD) download file contains deposit data for branches and offices of all FDIC-insured institutions. The Federal Deposit Insurance...

  9. Environmental strategy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zabkar, Vesna; Cater, Tomaz; Bajde, Domen

    2013-01-01

    perspective, appropriate environmental strategies in compliance with environmental requirements aim at building competitive advantages through sustainable development. There is no universal “green” strategy that would be appropriate for each company, regardless of its market requirements and competitive......Environmental issues and the inclusion of environmental strategies in strategic thinking is an interesting subject of investigation. In general, managerial practices organized along ecologically sound principles contribute to a more environmentally sustainable global economy. From the managerial...

  10. The importance of variations in the deposition velocity assumed for the assessment of airborne radionuclide releases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miller, C.W.; Hoffman, F.O.; Shaeffer, D.L.

    1978-01-01

    In environmental radiological assessments, the depletion of airborne plumes by dry deposition processes and the subsequent contamination of ground and vegetation have been estimated through the use of a parameter termed the 'deposition velocity'. The sensitivity of environmental assessment models to changes in values of deposition velocity is here examined so that the effect of potential variations of deposition velocity on calculations of radiation dose can be determined. The results show that until more data are available great care must be exercised when applying theoretical ideas and scientific judgement in the selection of a value of the deposition velocity to be used in calculating the dose to man as a result of deposition. (U.K.)

  11. Deposition of strontium and calcium in snail shell

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rosenthal, Jr, G M; Nelson, D J; Gardiner, D A

    1965-07-03

    The relative effects of strontium and calcium concentrations in the environment on their uptake and incorporation into snail shell were investigated. /sup 45/Ca and /sup 85/Sr were used as tracers and specific activities were used to determine deposition. Data are presented in tables and graphs. Deposition of both calcium and strontium in the snail shell depended primarily on the respective concentrations of these elements in the immediate environment. A slight effect of strontium on calcium deposition was observed. There was found to be a minimum strontium deposition for various combinations of strontium and calcium in the environment. It was concluded that strontium uptake is more closely associated with environmental strontium concentrations than with calcium concentrations.

  12. Production of oil from Intermountain West tar sands deposits

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Glassett, J.M.; Glassett, J.A.

    1976-03-01

    Six tar sand deposits in the Intermountain West, each containing more than one billion barrels of oil in place, are identified. All of these deposits are in eastern Utah and contain a total of twenty-eight billion barrels of oil. The names of the six deposits arranged in descending order of desirability for large-scale surface-mining oil recovery operations are as follows: Sunnyside, Tar Sand Triangle, Asphalt Ridge, P.R. Spring, Circle Cliffs, and Hill Creek. An overview of each deposit is presented including geology, surface-mining variables, chemical processing variables, environmental aspects, and economics. A comparison of Utah tar sands and Athabasca, Alberta, Canada tar sands is also presented.

  13. Plutonium in uranium deposits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Curtis, D.; Fabryka-Martin, J.; Aguilar, R.; Attrep, M. Jr.; Roensch, F.

    1992-01-01

    Plutonium-239 (t 1/2 , 24,100 yr) is one of the most persistent radioactive constituents of high-level wastes from nuclear fission power reactors. Effective containment of such a long-lived constituent will rely heavily upon its containment by the geologic environment of a repository. Uranium ore deposits offer a means to evaluate the geochemical properties of plutonium under natural conditions. In this paper, analyses of natural plutonium in several ores are compared to calculated plutonium production rates in order to evaluate the degree of retention of plutonium by the ore. The authors find that current methods for estimating production rates are neither sufficiently accurate nor precise to provide unambiguous measures of plutonium retention. However, alternative methods for evaluating plutonium mobility are being investigated, including its measurement in natural ground waters. Preliminary results are reported and establish the foundation for a comprehensive characterization of plutonium geochemistry in other natural environments

  14. Classification of Uranium deposits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dahlkamp, F.J.

    1978-01-01

    A listing of the recognized types of uranium mineralization shows nineteen determinable types out of which only six can be classified as of economic significance at present: Oligomiitic quartz pebble conglomerates, sandstone types, calcretes, intra-intrusive types, hydrothermal veins, veinlike types. The different types can be genetically related to prevalent geological environments, i.e. 1. the primary uranium occurrences formed by endogenic processes, 2. the secondary derived from the primary by subsequent exogenic processes, 3. the tertiary occurrences are assumed to be formed by endogenic metamorphic processes, although little is known about the behaviour of the uranium during the metamorphosis and therefore the metallogenesis of this tertiary uranium generation is still vague. A metallotectonic-geochronologic correlation of the uranium deposits shows a distinct affinity of the uranium to certain geological epochs: The Upper Archean, Lower Proterozoic, the Hercynian and, in a less established stage, the Upper Proterozoic. (orig.) 891 HP/orig. 892 MKO [de

  15. Locating underground uranium deposits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Felice, P.E.

    1979-01-01

    Underground uranium deposits are located by placing wires of dosimeters each about 5 to 18 mg/cm 2 thick underground in a grid pattern. Each dosimeter contains a phosphor which is capable of storing the energy of alpha particles. In each pair one dosimeter is shielded from alpha particles with more than 18 mg/cm 2 thick opaque material but not gamma and beta rays and the other dosimeter is shielded with less than 1 mg/cm 2 thick opaque material to exclude dust. After a period underground the dosimeters are heated which releases the stored energy as light. The amount of light produced from the heavily shielded dosimeter is subtracted from the amount of light produced from the thinly shielded dosimeter to give an indication of the location and quantity of uranium underground

  16. Global deposition of airborne dioxin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Booth, Shawn; Hui, Joe; Alojado, Zoraida; Lam, Vicky; Cheung, William; Zeller, Dirk; Steyn, Douw; Pauly, Daniel

    2013-10-15

    We present a global dioxin model that simulates one year of atmospheric emissions, transport processes, and depositions to the earth's terrestrial and marine habitats. We map starting emission levels for each land area, and we also map the resulting deposits to terrestrial and marine environments. This model confirms that 'hot spots' of deposition are likely to be in northern Europe, eastern North America, and in parts of Asia with the highest marine dioxin depositions being the northeast and northwest Atlantic, western Pacific, northern Indian Ocean and the Mediterranean. It also reveals that approximately 40% of airborne dioxin emissions are deposited to marine environments and that many countries in Africa receive more dioxin than they produce, which results in these countries being disproportionately impacted. Since human exposure to dioxin is largely through diet, this work highlights food producing areas that receive higher atmospheric deposits of dioxin than others. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Air pollution: Tropospheric ozone, and wet deposition of sulfate and inorganic nitrogen

    Science.gov (United States)

    John W. Coulston

    2009-01-01

    The influence of air pollutants on ecosystems in the United States is an important environmental issue. The term “air pollution” encompasses a wide range of topics, but acid deposition and ozone are primary concerns in the context of forest health. Acid deposition partially results from emissions of sulfur dioxide, nitrogen oxides, and ammonia that are deposited in wet...

  18. DEPOSITION DISTRICUTION AMONG THE PARALLEL PATHWAYS IN THE HUMAN LUNG CONDUCTING AIRWAY STRUCTURE.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DEPOSITION DISTRIBUTION AMONG THE PARALLEL PATHWAYS IN THE HUMAN LUNG CONDUCTING AIRWAY STRUCTURE. Chong S. Kim*, USEPA National Health and Environmental Effects Research Lab. RTP, NC 27711; Z. Zhang and C. Kleinstreuer, Department of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering, North C...

  19. Distribution and Aggregate Thickness of Salt Deposits of the United States

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — The map shows the distribution and aggregate thickness of salt deposits of the United States. This information is from contour map sheets, scanned and processed for...

  20. Sedimentation and paleoecology of Pliocene lagoonal-shallow marine deposits on the island of Rhodes (Greece)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Broekman, J.A.

    1974-01-01

    A detailed analysis of the depositional and paleontological characteristics of a section of the Pliocene Kritika Formation on the island of Rhodos is presented. The environmental significance of sedimentary structures, the paleoecology of benthonic Foraminifera, and the sequentional

  1. Letters initiating Clean Water Act 404(c) review of mining at Pebble deposit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Correspondence between EPA and the Pebble Limited Partnership and the State of Alaska initiating review under section 404(c) of the Clean Water Act of potential adverse environmental effects associated with mining the Pebble deposit in southwest Alaska.

  2. ANALYSIS OF RESPIRATORY DEPOSITION OF INHALED AMBIENT AEROSOLS FOR DIFFERENT DOSE METRICS

    Science.gov (United States)

    ANALYSIS OF RESPIRATORY DEPOSITION OF INHALED AMBIENT AEROSOLS FOR DIFFERENT DOSE METRICS.Chong S. Kim, SC. Hu**, PA Jaques*, US EPA, National Health and Environmental Effects Research Laboratory, Research Triangle Park, NC 27711; **IIT Research Institute, Chicago, IL; *South...

  3. EnviroAtlas - Atmospheric Nitrogen Deposition by 12-digit HUC for the Conterminous United States (2006)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — This EnviroAtlas dataset includes annual nitrogen and sulfur deposition within each 12-digit HUC subwatershed for the year 2006. Values are provided for total...

  4. EnviroAtlas - Atmospheric Nitrogen Deposition by 12-digit HUC for the Conterminous United States (2002)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — This EnviroAtlas dataset includes annual nitrogen and sulfur deposition within each 12-digit HUC subwatershed for the year 2002. Values are provided for total...

  5. A remote coal deposit revisited

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bojesen-Kofoed, Jørgen A.; Kalkreuth, Wolfgang; Petersen, Henrik I.

    2012-01-01

    discovery. The outcrops found in 2009 amount to approximately 8 m of sediment including a coal seam of 2 m thickness. More outcrops and additional coal deposits most certainly are to be found, pending further fieldwork. The deposits are Middle Jurassic, Callovian, in age and were deposited in a floodplain...... environment related to meandering river channels. Spores and pollen in the lower fluvial deposits reflect abundant vegetation of ferns along the river banks. In contrast, a sparse spore and pollen flora in the coals show a mixed vegetation of ferns and gymnosperms. Based on proximate and petrographic analyses...

  6. Does chronic nitrogen deposition during biomass growth affect atmospheric emissions from biomass burning?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michael R Giordano; Joey Chong; David R Weise; Akua A Asa-Awuku

    2016-01-01

    Chronic nitrogen deposition has measureable impacts on soil and plant health.We investigate burning emissions from biomass grown in areas of high and low NOx deposition. Gas and aerosolphase emissions were measured as a function of photochemical aging in an environmental chamber at UC-Riverside. Though aerosol chemical speciation was not...

  7. 76 FR 41392 - Interest on Deposits; Deposit Insurance Coverage

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-07-14

    ... banks' funding costs and also allow them to plan business growth more dependably and rigorously... of business deposits by offering continually higher rates of interest. Three of the four contended... deposits. They reasoned that large banks will offer high rates of interest and lure away business...

  8. Laser ablation and deposition of wide bandgap semiconductors: plasma and nanostructure of deposits diagnosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanz, M.; López-Arias, M.; Rebollar, E.; de Nalda, R.; Castillejo, M.

    2011-12-01

    Nanostructured CdS and ZnS films on Si (100) substrates were obtained by nanosecond pulsed laser deposition at the wavelengths of 266 and 532 nm. The effect of laser irradiation wavelength on the surface structure and crystallinity of deposits was characterized, together with the composition, expansion dynamics and thermodynamic parameters of the ablation plume. Deposits were analyzed by environmental scanning electron microscopy, atomic force microscopy and X-ray diffraction, while in situ monitoring of the plume was carried out with spectral, temporal and spatial resolution by optical emission spectroscopy. The deposits consist of 25-50 nm nanoparticle assembled films but ablation in the visible results in larger aggregates (150 nm) over imposed on the film surface. The aggregate free films grown at 266 nm on heated substrates are thicker than those grown at room temperature and in the former case they reveal a crystalline structure congruent with that of the initial target material. The observed trends are discussed in reference to the light absorption step, the plasma composition and the nucleation processes occurring on the substrate.

  9. Termination of BIF deposition in the Paleoproterozoic: the Tongwane Formation, South Africa

    OpenAIRE

    Schroeder, Stefan; Warke, Matthew

    2016-01-01

    The Tongwane Formation (~2.4 Ga) conformably overlies banded iron formations (BIF; Penge Iron Formation) on the Kaapvaal Craton, South Africa. As such, it provides a unique window into depositional processes and environmental conditions in the aftermath of major Archean-Paleoproterozoic BIF deposition, and on the eve of irreversible environmental oxygenation in the Great Oxidation Event (GOE, ~2.35 Ga). This study presents the first sedimentological and bulk-rock geochemical characterization ...

  10. Uranium deposits in granitic rocks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nishimori, R.K.; Ragland, P.C.; Rogers, J.J.W.; Greenberg, J.K.

    1977-01-01

    This report is a review of published data bearing on the geology and origin of uranium deposits in granitic, pegmatitic and migmatitic rocks with the aim of assisting in the development of predictive criteria for the search for similar deposits in the U.S. Efforts were concentrated on the so-called ''porphyry'' uranium deposits. Two types of uranium deposits are primarily considered: deposits in pegmatites and alaskites in gneiss terrains, and disseminations of uranium in high-level granites. In Chapter 1 of this report, the general data on the distribution of uranium in igneous and metamorphic rocks are reviewed. Chapter 2 contains some comments on the classification of uranium deposits associated with igneous rocks and a summary of the main features of the geology of uranium deposits in granites. General concepts of the behavior of uranium in granites during crustal evolution are reviewed in Chapter 3. Also included is a discussion of the relationship of uranium mineralization in granites to the general evolution of mobile belts, plus the influence of magmatic and post-magmatic processes on the distribution of uranium in igneous rocks and related ore deposits. Chapter 4 relates the results of experimental studies on the crystallization of granites to some of the geologic features of uranium deposits in pegmatites and alaskites in high-grade metamorphic terrains. Potential or favorable areas for igneous uranium deposits in the U.S.A. are delineated in Chapter 5. Data on the geology of specific uranium deposits in granitic rocks are contained in Appendix 1. A compilation of igneous rock formations containing greater than 10 ppM uranium is included in Appendix 2. Appendix 3 is a report on the results of a visit to the Roessing area. Appendix 4 is a report on a field excursion to eastern Canada

  11. Characteristics of Wet Deposition in Japan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iwasaki, A.; Arakaki, T.

    2017-12-01

    Acid deposition survey in Japan has started since 1991 by Japan Environmental Laboratories Association (JELA). The JELA has about 60 monitoring sites for wet deposition including remote, rural and urban area. The measured constituents of wet deposition are; precipitation, pH, electric conductivity, major Anions, and major Cations. From those data, we analyze spatial and temporal variations of wet deposition components in Japan. Among the 60 monitoring sites, 39 sampling sites were selected in this study, which have kept sampling continuously between 2003JFY and 2014JFY. All samples were collected by wet-only samplers. To analyze area characteristics, all the areas were divided into 6 regions; Northern part of Japan (NJ), Facing the Japan Sea (JS), Eastern part of Japan (EJ), Central part of Japan (CJ), Western part of Japan (WJ) and Southern West Islands (SW). NO3- and non-sea-salt-SO42- (nss-SO42-) are major components of rain acidification. Especially, between December and February (winter) the air mass from west affected the temporal variations of those acid components and the concentrations were higher in JS and WJ regions than those in other regions. Japanese ministry of the Environment reported that mixing ratio of NO2 in Japan has been less than 0.04ppm since 1976, and that of SO2 has been less than 0.02ppm since 1978. Their concentrations in Japan have remained flat or slowly decreased recently. However the temporal variations of NO3-/nss-SO42- ratio in winter in JS region were significantly increased on average at 2.2% y-1 from 2003JFY to 2014JFY. The results suggest that long-range transboundary air pollutants increased NO3- concentrations and NO3-/nss-SO42- ratio.

  12. Environmental studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mohd Tadza Abd Rahman

    2003-01-01

    Nuclear Technology offers unique method, yet effective for environmental research. Nuclear techniques are invented to carry out research activities on environmental pollutions, erosion and slope stability, landslide ground water studies and water pollution

  13. Environmental management

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Guicherit, R.

    1996-01-01

    Elements of a national environmental management system include: • monitoring networks to establish the prevailing environmental quality; • emission inventories, and projected emission inventories based on population growth, increase of traffic density, and economie growth; taking into account

  14. A New Occurrence Model for National Assessment of Undiscovered Volcanogenic Massive Sulfide Deposits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shanks, W.C. Pat; Dusel-Bacon, Cynthia; Koski, Randolph; Morgan, Lisa A.; Mosier, Dan; Piatak, Nadine M.; Ridley, Ian; Seal, Robert R.; Schulz, Klaus J.; Slack, John F.; Thurston, Roland

    2009-01-01

    Volcanogenic massive sulfide (VMS) deposits are very significant current and historical resources of Cu-Pb-Zn-Au-Ag, are active exploration targets in several areas of the United States and potentially have significant environmental effects. This new USGS VMS deposit model provides a comprehensive review of deposit occurrence and ore genesis, and fully integrates recent advances in the understanding of active seafloor VMS-forming environments, and integrates consideration of geoenvironmental consequences of mining VMS deposits. Because VMS deposits exhibit a broad range of geological and geochemical characteristics, a suitable classification system is required to incorporate these variations into the mineral deposit model. We classify VMS deposits based on compositional variations in volcanic and sedimentary host rocks. The advantage of the classification method is that it provides a closer linkage between tectonic setting and lithostratigraphic assemblages, and an increased predictive capability during field-based studies.

  15. Environmental Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    1980-01-01

    Burns & McDonnell Engineering's environmental control study is assisted by NASA's Computer Software Management and Information Center's programs in environmental analyses. Company is engaged primarily in design of such facilities as electrical utilities, industrial plants, wastewater treatment systems, dams and reservoirs and aviation installations. Company also conducts environmental engineering analyses and advises clients as to the environmental considerations of a particular construction project. Company makes use of many COSMIC computer programs which have allowed substantial savings.

  16. Environmental procedures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-01-01

    The European Bank has pledged in its Agreement to place environmental management at the forefront of its operations to promote sustainable economic development in central and eastern Europe. The Bank's environmental policy is set out in the document titled, Environmental Management: The Bank's Policy Approach. This document, Environmental Procedures, presents the procedures which the European Bank has adopted to implement this policy approach with respect to its operations. The environmental procedures aim to: ensure that throughout the project approval process, those in positions of responsibility for approving projects are aware of the environmental implications of the project, and can take these into account when making decisions; avoid potential liabilities that could undermine the success of a project for its sponsors and the Bank; ensure that environmental costs are estimated along with other costs and liabilities; and identify opportunities for environmental enhancement associated with projects. The review of environmental aspects of projects is conducted by many Bank staff members throughout the project's life. This document defines the responsibilities of the people and groups involved in implementing the environmental procedures. Annexes contain Environmental Management: The Bank's Policy Approach, examples of environmental documentation for the project file and other ancillary information

  17. Environmental biology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tschumi, P.A.

    1981-01-01

    Environmental biology illustrates the functioning of ecosystems and the dynamics of populations with many examples from limnology and terrestrial ecology. On this basis, present environmental problems are analyzed. The present environmental crisis is seen as a result of the failure to observe ecological laws. (orig.) [de

  18. Environmental challenge

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Conable, B.; Warford, J.; Partow, Z.; Lutz, E.; Munasinghe, M.

    1991-09-01

    The contents include the following: Development and the Environment: A Global Balance; Evolution of the World Bank's Environmental Policy; Accounting for the Environment; Public Policy and the Environment; Managing Drylands; Environmental Action Plans in Africa; Agroforestry in Sub-Saharan Africa; Irrigation and the Environmental Challenge; Curbing Pollution in Developing Countries; Global Warming and the Developing World; and The Global Environment Facility

  19. Mosses as an integrating tool for monitoring PAH atmospheric deposition: comparison with total deposition and evaluation of bioconcentration factors. A year-long case-study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foan, Louise; Domercq, Maria; Bermejo, Raúl; Santamaría, Jesús Miguel; Simon, Valérie

    2015-01-01

    Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) atmospheric deposition was evaluated at a remote site in Northern Spain using moss biomonitoring with Hylocomium splendens (Hedw.) Schimp., and by measuring the total deposition fluxes of PAHs. The year-long study allowed seasonal variations of PAH content in mosses to be observed, and these followed a similar trend to those of PAH fluxes in total deposition. Generally, atmospheric deposition of PAHs is greater in winter than in summer, due to more PAH emissions from domestic heating, less photoreactivity of the compounds, and intense leaching of the atmosphere by wet deposition. However, fractionation of these molecules between the environmental compartments occurs: PAH fluxes in total deposition and PAH concentrations in mosses are correlated with their solubility (r=0.852, pPAH fluxes can be estimated with moss biomonitoring data if the bioconcentration or 'enriching' factors are known. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Liquefier Dynamics in Fused Deposition

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bellini, Anna; Guceri, Selcuk; Bertoldi, Maurizio

    2004-01-01

    Layered manufacturing (LM) is an evolution of rapid prototyping (RP) technology whereby a part is built in layers. Fused deposition modeling (FDM) is a particular LM technique in which each section is fabricated through vector style deposition of building blocks, called roads, which...

  1. NURE uranium deposit model studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Crew, M.E.

    1981-01-01

    The National Uranium Resource Evaluation (NURE) Program has sponsored uranium deposit model studies by Bendix Field Engineering Corporation (Bendix), the US Geological Survey (USGS), and numerous subcontractors. This paper deals only with models from the following six reports prepared by Samuel S. Adams and Associates: GJBX-1(81) - Geology and Recognition Criteria for Roll-Type Uranium Deposits in Continental Sandstones; GJBX-2(81) - Geology and Recognition Criteria for Uraniferous Humate Deposits, Grants Uranium Region, New Mexico; GJBX-3(81) - Geology and Recognition Criteria for Uranium Deposits of the Quartz-Pebble Conglomerate Type; GJBX-4(81) - Geology and Recognition Criteria for Sandstone Uranium Deposits in Mixed Fluvial-Shallow Marine Sedimentary Sequences, South Texas; GJBX-5(81) - Geology and Recognition Criteria for Veinlike Uranium Deposits of the Lower to Middle Proterozoic Unconformity and Strata-Related Types; GJBX-6(81) - Geology and Recognition Criteria for Sandstone Uranium Deposits of the Salt Wash Type, Colorado Plateau Province. A unique feature of these models is the development of recognition criteria in a systematic fashion, with a method for quantifying the various items. The recognition-criteria networks are used in this paper to illustrate the various types of deposits

  2. Sandstone-type uranium deposits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Finch, W.I.; Davis, J.F.

    1985-01-01

    World-class sandstone-type uranium deposits are defined as epigenetic concentrations of uranium minerals occurring as uneven impregnations and minor massive replacements primarily in fluvial, lacustrine, and deltaic sandstone formations. The main purpose of this introductory paper is to define, classify, and introduce to the general geologic setting for sandstone-type uranium deposits

  3. Laser deposition of HTSC films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sobol', Eh.N.; Bagratashvili, V.N.; Zherikhin, A.N.; Sviridov, A.P.

    1990-01-01

    Studies of the high-temperature superconducting (HTSC) films fabrication by the laser deposition are reviewed. Physical and chemical processes taking place during laser deposition are considered, such as the target evaporation, the material transport from the target to the substrate, the film growth on the substrate, thermochemical reactions and mass transfer within the HTSC films and their stability. The experimental results on the laser deposition of different HTSC ceramics and their properties investigations are given. The major technological issues are discussed including the deposition schemes, the oxygen supply, the target compositions and structure, the substrates and interface layers selection, the deposition regimes and their impact on the HTSC films properties. 169 refs.; 6 figs.; 2 tabs

  4. Annual report for 1979, Results of environmental radioactivity control on the 'B. Kidric' Institute site - precipitations, dust deposition, soil, plants, river sludge (Danube), Annex 2; Godisnji izvestaj za 1979. godinu, Rezultati rada na poslovima kontrole radioaktivnosti zivotne sredine na teritoriji Instituta 'B.Kidric' Deo: padavine i natalozena prasina, vode, zemljiste, rastinje, recni mulj (Dunav), Prilog 2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ajdacic, N; Martic, M; Vujovic, V; Janicijevic, Z; Jovanovic, J [Institute of Nuclear Sciences Boris Kidric, Vinca, Beograd (Serbia and Montenegro)

    1980-10-15

    As previously, the control of the environmental radioactivity on the Institute site, was done by measuring the total beta activity of the following samples: precipitation, fallout deposits; water, soil, plants, and water and sediments from the Danube river at 1145 km. The regular control included 1706 samples. In addition to the regular control of the environment of the nuclear facility a number of water and heavy water samples were analyzed related to the repair and renewal actions at the RA reactor. Results of these analyses (total beta activity, electric conductivity and gamma spectrometry) were submitted in separate reports. Upon demand of the dosimetry service responsible for the control of the working environment of Radioisotope Laboratory 070, six samples (surface contamination, plants and soil) were taken from the area behind the HL building where radioactive waste is kept. Total beta activity of these samples has shown significant contamination of the soil and plants. Director and the decontamination service of the radiation protection laboratory were informed immediately about these results so that adequate measures could be undertaken. [Serbo-Croat] Kontrola radioaktivnosti zivotne sredine na teritoriji IBK, kao i prethodnih godina, vrsena je merenjem totalne beta radioaktivnosti uzoraka: padavina i natalozene prasine, voda, zemljista, rastinja i uzoraka vode i sedimenata uzimanih sa 1145 km reke Dunav. U okviru redovne kontrole sakupljeno je 1706 uzoraka. Pored redovne kontrole radioaktivnosti okoline nuklearnog postrojenja obradjeno je i mereno vise uzoraka voda, kao i teske vode (u vezi sa remontom reaktora RA), Rezultati ovih analiza (totalna beta aktivnost, elekticna provodljivost i gama specrometrijska analiza) podneti su u vidu posebnih izvestaja. Na zahtev dozimetrijske sluzbe odgovorne za kontrolu radne sredine u OOUR-070, odredjena je totalna beta aktivnost sest uzoraka briseva, rastinja i zemljista u cilju ustanovljavanja kontaminacije

  5. Polymer deposition morphology by electrospray deposition - Modifications through distance variation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Altmann, K.; Schulze, R.-D.; Friedrich, J.

    2014-01-01

    Electrospray deposition (ESD) of highly diluted polymers was examined with regard to the deposited surface structure. Only the flight distance (flight time) onto the resulting deposited surface was varied from 20 to 200 mm. An apparatus without any additional heating or gas flows was used. Polyacrylic acid (PAA) and polyallylamine (PAAm) in methanol were deposited on Si wafers. The polymer layers were characterized by scanning electron microscopy, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, derivatization reactions and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy using a grazing incidence unit. SEM images illustrated the changing structures of PAA and PAAm. For PAA the deposited structure changed from a smooth film (20 mm) to a film with individual droplets on the coated surface (100 mm and 200 mm), while for PAAm individual droplets can be seen at all distances. The ESD process with cascades of splitting droplets slows down for PAA after distances greater than 40 mm. In contrast, the ESD process for PAAm is nearly stopped within the first flight distance of 20 mm. Residual solvent analysis showed that most of the solvent evaporated within the first 20 mm capillary-sample distance. - Highlights: • We deposited polyacrylic acid and polyallylamine by electrospray ionization (ESI). • The morphology in dependence of flight distance (20 mm to 200 mm) was analyzed. • The amount of residual solvent after deposition was determined. • ESI-process slows down for polyacrylic acid after 40 mm flight distance. • ESI-Process is complete for polyallylamine within the first 20 mm

  6. Environmental history

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pawson, Eric; Christensen, Andreas Aagaard

    2017-01-01

    Environmental history is an interdisciplinary pursuit that has developed as a form of conscience to counter an increasingly powerful, forward-looking liberal theory of the environment. It deals with the relations between environmental ideas and materialities, from the work of the geographers George...... risks”. These are exposed by environmental history’s focus on long-run analysis and its narrative form that identifies the stories that we tell ourselves about nature. How a better understanding of past environmental transformations helps to analyse society and agency, and what this can mean...... for solutions and policies, is the agenda for an engaged environmental history from now on....

  7. Environmental law

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ketteler, G.; Kippels, K.

    1988-01-01

    In section I 'Basic principles' the following topics are considered: Constitutional-legal aspects of environmental protection, e.g. nuclear hazards and the remaining risk; European environmental law; international environmental law; administrative law, private law and criminal law relating to the environment; basic principles of environmental law, the instruments of public environmental law. Section II 'Special areas of law' is concerned with the law on water and waste, prevention of air pollution, nature conservation and care of the countryside. Legal decisions and literature up to June 1988 have been taken into consideration. (orig./RST) [de

  8. 20 CFR 703.207 - Kinds of negotiable securities that may be deposited; conditions of deposit; acceptance of deposits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... amount fixed by the Office under the regulations in this part shall deposit any negotiable securities... deposited; conditions of deposit; acceptance of deposits. 703.207 Section 703.207 Employees' Benefits... AND RELATED STATUTES INSURANCE REGULATIONS Insurance Carrier Security Deposit Requirements § 703.207...

  9. Environmental research and environmental protection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1975-01-01

    At the request of the Ministry for Research and Technology, the 'Arbeitsgemeinschaft der Grossforschungseinrichtungen' (AGF) presented in 1972 an information brochure called 'Activities in the field of environmental research and environmental protection', closely associated with the environmental programme of the Federal government (1971). The information brochure reports on those activities of the working group's members which are closely, or less closely, connected with questions concerning environmental research and protection, however, investments for the protection of the individual facilities in internal operation are excluded. The AGF programme 'Environmental research and environmental protection' comprises contributions, brought up to date, of member companies. From the 'AGF programme survey 1974' it contains 'Environmental research' as well as aspects of nuclear development with environmental relevance. Technologies not harmful to the environment developed by the research facilities are only mentioned very briefly. (orig.) [de

  10. (Environmental technology)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boston, H.L.

    1990-10-12

    The traveler participated in a conference on environmental technology in Paris, sponsored by the US Embassy-Paris, US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), the French Environmental Ministry, and others. The traveler sat on a panel for environmental aspects of energy technology and made a presentation on the potential contributions of Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) to a planned French-American Environmental Technologies Institute in Chattanooga, Tennessee, and Evry, France. This institute would provide opportunities for international cooperation on environmental issues and technology transfer related to environmental protection, monitoring, and restoration at US Department of Energy (DOE) facilities. The traveler also attended the Fourth International Conference on Environmental Contamination in Barcelona. Conference topics included environmental chemistry, land disposal of wastes, treatment of toxic wastes, micropollutants, trace organics, artificial radionuclides in the environment, and the use biomonitoring and biosystems for environmental assessment. The traveler presented a paper on The Fate of Radionuclides in Sewage Sludge Applied to Land.'' Those findings corresponded well with results from studies addressing the fate of fallout radionuclides from the Chernobyl nuclear accident. There was an exchange of new information on a number of topics of interest to DOE waste management and environmental restoration needs.

  11. Environmental spaces

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Henrik Gutzon

    Using the development of intergovernmental environmental cooperation in the Baltic Sea area as a concrete example, the aim of this study is to explore how the 'environment' in situations of environmental interdependence is identified and institutionalised as political-geographical objects....... 'Environmental interdependence' is to this end conceptualised as a tension between 'political spaces' of discrete state territories and 'environmental spaces' of spatially nested ecosystems. This tension between geographies of political separateness and environmental wholeness is the implicit or explicit basis...... for a large and varied literature. But in both its critical and problemsolving manifestations, this literature tends to naturalise the spatiality of environmental concerns: environmental spaces are generally taken for granted. On the suggestion that there is a subtle politics to the specification...

  12. Phanerozoic environments of black shale deposition and the Wilson Cycle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Trabucho-Alexandre

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available The spatial and temporal distribution of black shales is related to the development of environments in which they accumulate and to a propitious combination of environmental variables. In recent years, much has been done to improve our understanding of the mechanisms behind the temporal distribution of black shales in the Phanerozoic and of the environmental variables that result in their deposition. However, the interpretation of ancient black shale depositional environments is dominated by an oversimplistic set of three depositional models that do not capture their complexity and dynamics. These three models, the restricted circulation, the (open ocean oxygen minimum and the continental shelf models, are an oversimplification of the variety of black shale depositional environments that arise and coexist throughout the course of a basin's Wilson Cycle, i.e. the dynamic sequence of events and stages that characterise the evolution of an ocean basin, from the opening continental rift to the closing orogeny. We examine the spatial distribution of black shales in the context of the Wilson Cycle using examples from the Phanerozoic. It is shown that the geographical distribution of environments of black shale deposition and the position of black shales in the basin infill sequence strongly depend on basin evolution, which controls the development of sedimentary environments where black shales may be deposited. The nature of the black shales that are deposited, i.e. lithology and type of organic matter, also depends on basin evolution and palaeogeography. We propose that in studies of black shales more attention should be given to the sedimentary processes that have led to their formation and to the interpretation of their sedimentary environments.

  13. Mechanisms in environmental control

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lindeneg, K.

    1994-01-01

    The theory of implementation provides methods for decentralization of decisions in societies. By using mechanisms (game forms) it is possible (in theory) to implement attractive states in different economic environments. As an example the market mechanisms can implement Pareto-efficient and individual rational allocations in an Arrow-Debreu economic environment without market failures. And even when there exists externalities the market mechanism sometime can be used if it is possible to make a market for the goods not allocated on a market already - examples are marketable emission permits, and deposit refund systems. But environmental problems can often be explained by the existence of other market failures (e.g. asymmetric information), and then the market mechanism do not work properly. And instead of using regulation or traditional economic instruments (subsidies, charges, fees, liability insurance, marketable emission permits, or deposit refund systems) to correct the problems caused by market failures, some other methods can be used to deal with these problems. This paper contains a survey of mechanisms that can be used in environmental control when the problems are caused by the existence of public goods, externalities, asymmetric information, and indivisible goods in the economy. By examples it will be demonstrated how the Clarke-Groves mechanism, the Cournot-Lindahl mechanism, and other mechanisms can be used to solve specific environmental problems. This is only theory and examples, but a recent field study have used the Cournot-Lindahl mechanism to solve the problem of lake liming in Sweden. So this subject may be of some interests for environmental policy in the future. (au) 23 refs

  14. Science of mineral deposits and economics of energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mackowsky, M.T.

    1978-01-01

    The availability of fossile energy carriers is investigated with regard to raw material reserves and their know deposits, by means of output and consumption. According to the author's opinion its discussion should have a priority over all discussions concerning energy crisis, energy supply and environmental protection. The author also touches the high measure of political problems beside the geoscientifical and technological problems of raw material supply. He briefly points to the general situation on the energy market with the help of data on stocks and consumption as given by the 10th International Energy Conference 1977 at Istambul and eventually deals with topics on mineral deposits science and uranium production. (HK) [de

  15. Fat, oil and grease deposits in sewers: characterisation of deposits and formation mechanisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, J B; Clarkson, C; Mant, C; Drinkwater, A; May, E

    2012-12-01

    Fat, oil and grease deposits (FOG) in sewers are a major problem and can cause sewer overflows, resulting in environmental damage and health risks. Often simplistically portrayed as cooling of fats, recent research has suggested that saponification may be involved in FOG formation. However there are still questions about the mechanisms effecting transformations in sewers and the role and source of metal cations involved in saponification. This study characterises FOG deposits from pumping stations, sewers and sewage works from different water hardness zones across the UK. The sites all had previous problems with FOG and most catchments contained catering and food preparation establishments. The FOG deposits were highly variable with moisture content ranging from 15 to 95% and oil content from 0 to 548 mg/g. Generally the pumping stations had lower moisture content and higher fat content, followed by the sewers then the sewage works. The water in contact with the FOG had high levels of oil (mean of about 800 mg/L) and this may indicate poor kitchen FOG management practices. FOG fatty acid profiles showed a transformation from unsaturated to saturated forms compared to typical cooking oils. This seems to relate to ageing in the sewer network or the mechanism of formation, as samples from pumping stations had higher proportions of C18:1 compared to C16. This may be due to microbial transformations by bacteria such as Clostridium sp. in a similar process to adipocere formation. There was an association between water hardness and increased Ca levels in FOG along with harder deposits and higher melting points. A link between FOG properties and water hardness has not been previously reported for field samples. This may also be due to microbial processes, such as biocalcification. By developing the understanding of these mechanisms it may be possible to more effectively control FOG deposits, especially when combined with promotion of behavioural change. Copyright © 2012

  16. Formation of hydrothermal tin deposits: Raman spectroscopic evidence for an important role of aqueous Sn(IV) species

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt, Christian

    2018-01-01

    The speciation of tin and the solubility of cassiterite in H2O + HCl were determined at temperatures to 600 °C using in situ Raman spectroscopy. In addition, information on the fluid-melt partition of Sn was obtained at 700 °C and indicated a preference of the fluid only at HCl concentrations that are much higher than in fluids exsolved from natural felsic melts. Dissolution of cassiterite generally resulted in formation of Sn(IV) species unless reduced conditions were generated by hydrogen permeation or carbohydrates in the starting material. The prevalent aqueous Sn(IV) species was [SnCl4(H2O)2]0, with additional [SnCl3(H2O)3]+ and [SnCl5(H2O)]-. The only detectable Sn(II) species was very likely [Sn(II)Cl3]-. Cassiterite solubility increased with HCl concentration and was generally high in H2O+HCl fluids, with no strong dependencies on temperature, pressure, or the oxidation state of tin in the fluid. The Sn(IV) concentrations at 500 and 600 °C determined from the integrated ν1[Sn(IV)sbnd Cl] band intensity are in good agreement with literature data on the cassiterite solubility in H2O + HCl at oxygen fugacities along the hematite-magnetite buffer. The combined results from previous experimental studies and this study demonstrate that HCl molality is a crucial parameter for hydrothermal mobilization and transport of tin and for cassiterite precipitation, and that pH, pressure and temperature are less important. Current models on hydrothermal tin deposit formation need to be augmented to include Sn(IV)sbnd Cl complexes as significant tin-transporting species. Irrespective of the oxidation state of tin in the fluid, cassiterite precipitates due to reaction of the hydrothermal fluid with the wall rock (greisen or skarn formation), dilution (mixing with meteoric water) or a decrease in the HCl activity in the aqueous liquid by boiling. A redox reaction is only required for tin transported as Sn(II) to be converted to Sn(IV).

  17. Surface deposition from radioactive plumes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garland, J.A.

    1980-01-01

    Accidents involving nuclear plants may release radioactive particles and gases to the atmosphere. Dry deposition of particles has been investigated mainly in the laboratory and a general understanding of the transfer mechanisms has been established. However there is apparently a substantial discrepancy between the few field observations of dry deposition of particles and laboratory measurements, particularly for 0.1 - 1 μm particles for which laboratory work shows very small deposition rates. In addition there are few estimates of deposition rates for forest and some other kinds of terrain. The most important gas in the context of a nuclear accident is I-131 and the behaviour of this gas at grass surfaces has received much attention. However smaller quantities of other gases and vapours may be released and the surface absorption of these species may require further investigation. In addition there is little knowledge of the behaviour of gases over many types of surface. The rate of deposition of particles and gases is influenced by many parameters including wind speed and the temperature stratification of the lower atmosphere. Conditions which give poor atmospheric dispersion usually give lower deposition velocities. Transfer to man depends on the availability of deposited materials on crops and grass. A wide range of isotopes including iodine and several metallic fission products are lost with a half life for residence on grass ranging from a few days to a few tens days, depending on climatic conditions

  18. Soil Acidification due to Acid Deposition in Southern China

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liao, Bohan

    1999-12-31

    Anthropogenic emission of SO{sub 2} and NO{sub x} to the atmosphere has made acid deposition one of the most serious environmental problems. In China, acid deposition research started in the late 1970s. The present thesis is part of a joint Chinese-Norwegian research project. The main goal of the thesis was to investigate the mechanism of soil acidification, to estimate soil responses to acid deposition, and to compare relative soil sensitivity to acidification in southern China. Laboratory experiments and modelling simulations were included. Specifically, the thesis (1) studies the characteristics of anion adsorption and cation release of the soils from southern China, (2) examines the effects of increased ionic strength in the precipitation and the effects of anion adsorption on cation release from the soils, (3) compares the relative sensitivity of these soils to acidification and the potentially harmful effects of acid deposition, (4) estimates likely soil responses to different deposition scenarios, including changes in soil waters and soil properties, and (5) investigates long-term changes in soils and soil waters in the Guiyang catchment due to acid deposition. 218 refs., 31 figs., 23 tabs.

  19. Soil Acidification due to Acid Deposition in Southern China

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liao, Bohan

    1998-12-31

    Anthropogenic emission of SO{sub 2} and NO{sub x} to the atmosphere has made acid deposition one of the most serious environmental problems. In China, acid deposition research started in the late 1970s. The present thesis is part of a joint Chinese-Norwegian research project. The main goal of the thesis was to investigate the mechanism of soil acidification, to estimate soil responses to acid deposition, and to compare relative soil sensitivity to acidification in southern China. Laboratory experiments and modelling simulations were included. Specifically, the thesis (1) studies the characteristics of anion adsorption and cation release of the soils from southern China, (2) examines the effects of increased ionic strength in the precipitation and the effects of anion adsorption on cation release from the soils, (3) compares the relative sensitivity of these soils to acidification and the potentially harmful effects of acid deposition, (4) estimates likely soil responses to different deposition scenarios, including changes in soil waters and soil properties, and (5) investigates long-term changes in soils and soil waters in the Guiyang catchment due to acid deposition. 218 refs., 31 figs., 23 tabs.

  20. ITO thin films deposited by advanced pulsed laser deposition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Viespe, Cristian; Nicolae, Ionut; Sima, Cornelia; Grigoriu, Constantin; Medianu, Rares

    2007-01-01

    Indium tin oxide thin films were deposited by computer assisted advanced PLD method in order to obtain transparent, conductive and homogeneous films on a large area. The films were deposited on glass substrates. We studied the influence of the temperature (room temperature (RT)-180 deg. C), pressure (1-6 x 10 -2 Torr), laser fluence (1-4 J/cm 2 ) and wavelength (266-355 nm) on the film properties. The deposition rate, roughness, film structure, optical transmission, electrical conductivity measurements were done. We deposited uniform ITO thin films (thickness 100-600 nm, roughness 5-10 nm) between RT and 180 deg. C on a large area (5 x 5 cm 2 ). The films have electrical resistivity of 8 x 10 -4 Ω cm at RT, 5 x 10 -4 Ω cm at 180 deg. C and an optical transmission in the visible range, around 89%

  1. Particle deposition in ventilation ducts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sippola, Mark Raymond [Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States)

    2002-09-01

    Exposure to airborne particles is detrimental to human health and indoor exposures dominate total exposures for most people. The accidental or intentional release of aerosolized chemical and biological agents within or near a building can lead to exposures of building occupants to hazardous agents and costly building remediation. Particle deposition in heating, ventilation and air-conditioning (HVAC) systems may significantly influence exposures to particles indoors, diminish HVAC performance and lead to secondary pollutant release within buildings. This dissertation advances the understanding of particle behavior in HVAC systems and the fates of indoor particles by means of experiments and modeling. Laboratory experiments were conducted to quantify particle deposition rates in horizontal ventilation ducts using real HVAC materials. Particle deposition experiments were conducted in steel and internally insulated ducts at air speeds typically found in ventilation ducts, 2-9 m/s. Behaviors of monodisperse particles with diameters in the size range 1-16 μm were investigated. Deposition rates were measured in straight ducts with a fully developed turbulent flow profile, straight ducts with a developing turbulent flow profile, in duct bends and at S-connector pieces located at duct junctions. In straight ducts with fully developed turbulence, experiments showed deposition rates to be highest at duct floors, intermediate at duct walls, and lowest at duct ceilings. Deposition rates to a given surface increased with an increase in particle size or air speed. Deposition was much higher in internally insulated ducts than in uninsulated steel ducts. In most cases, deposition in straight ducts with developing turbulence, in duct bends and at S-connectors at duct junctions was higher than in straight ducts with fully developed turbulence. Measured deposition rates were generally higher than predicted by published models. A model incorporating empirical equations based on the

  2. Acid Deposition Maps in Spain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Artinano, B.; Cabal, H.; Garcia, C.

    1998-01-01

    Animal and monthly deposition velocity and total sulfur deposition maps have been performed for the peninsular Spain for 1992 by using the inferential method. To do this, updated databases with high space and time resolution, for land uses (CORINE) and meteorological information from analysis modelling for the same year, have been utilized. The final result are deposition maps in a 5x5 Km 2 grid which allow to assess the methodology used in Europe to obtain the maps of excedances over the critical loads of pollutants. (Author) 32 refs

  3. Environmental taxes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ekins, P.; Andersen, Mikael Skou; Vos, H.

    EXECUTIVE SUMMARY1.Although the 5th Environmental Action Programme of the EU in 1992 recommended the greater use of economic instruments such as environmental taxes, there has been little progress in their use since then at the EU level. At Member State level, however, there has been a continuing...... increase in the use of environmental taxes over the last decade, which has accelerated in the last 5-6 years. This is primarily apparent in Scandinavia, but it is also noticeable in Austria, Belgium, France, Germany, The Netherlands and the United Kingdom.2.Evaluation studies of 16 environmental taxes have...... been identified and reviewed in this report. Within the limitations of the studies, it appears that these taxes have been environmentally effective (achieving their environmental objectives) and they seem to have achieved such objectives at reasonable cost. Examples of particularly successful taxes...

  4. Environmental Science

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2001-02-15

    This book gives descriptions of environmental pollution such as water and soil pollution, harmful chemicals substances and radiation, nature protection on wild animals, wild plants, and nature park, environmental assessment, and environmental management. It deals with the earth environment on change and the cause of the earth environment, ozone layer, global warming and acid fallout, plan for the earth control and environment information and information system.

  5. Deposition and interception of radionuclides. Current knowledge and future requirements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1998-12-01

    Following an accidental or routine release of radionuclides into the environment, a good knowledge of deposition processes is necessary in order to accurately predict the radiation dose to members of the public. In order to understand the environmental impact of released radionuclides and their transfer through the environment, including the food chain to man, there have been numerous studies on deposition of radionuclides to a range of surfaces such as bare soil, crops, forests, water bodies and urban surfaces. The RADREM committee provides a forum for liaison on UK research and monitoring in the areas of radioactive substances and radioactive waste management. RADREM has set up four sub-committees to cover issues related to radioactivity in the atmospheric, terrestrial and aquatic environments as well as those related radioactive waste management. One of the sub-committee tasks is to organise seminars and workshops on specific topics of interest. The first of these was the workshop on 'Deposition and Interception of Radionuclides: Current knowledge and future requirements' organised last year by the Ministry of Agriculture, Fisheries and Food (MAFF), acting as secretariat for the Terrestrial Environment Sub-Committee (TESC) of RADREM. The intent of this workshop was to provide an opportunity to exchange information on deposition-related aspects between representatives from various interested parties including government, regulatory bodies, industry and research organisations. Through presentations and discussions, this workshop addressed current developments in the areas of deposition and interception of radionuclides by various surfaces and served to identify areas which need further research. Papers were presented on various aspects of deposition and interception of radionuclides including deposition into grass, fruits and other crops as well as deposition into urban areas and forests

  6. Responses of Surface Ozone Air Quality to Anthropogenic Nitrogen Deposition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, L.; Zhao, Y.; Tai, A. P. K.; Chen, Y.; Pan, Y.

    2017-12-01

    Human activities have substantially increased atmospheric deposition of reactive nitrogen to the Earth's surface, inducing unintentional effects on ecosystems with complex environmental and climate consequences. One consequence remaining unexplored is how surface air quality might respond to the enhanced nitrogen deposition through surface-atmosphere exchange. We combine a chemical transport model (GEOS-Chem) and a global land model (Community Land Model) to address this issue with a focus on ozone pollution in the Northern Hemisphere. We consider three processes that are important for surface ozone and can be perturbed by addition of atmospheric deposited nitrogen: emissions of biogenic volatile organic compounds (VOCs), ozone dry deposition, and soil nitrogen oxide (NOx) emissions. We find that present-day anthropogenic nitrogen deposition (65 Tg N a-1 to the land), through enhancing plant growth (represented as increases in vegetation leaf area index (LAI) in the model), could increase surface ozone from increased biogenic VOC emissions, but could also decrease ozone due to higher ozone dry deposition velocities. Meanwhile, deposited anthropogenic nitrogen to soil enhances soil NOx emissions. The overall effect on summer mean surface ozone concentrations show general increases over the globe (up to 1.5-2.3 ppbv over the western US and South Asia), except for some regions with high anthropogenic NOx emissions (0.5-1.0 ppbv decreases over the eastern US, Western Europe, and North China). We compare the surface ozone changes with those driven by the past 20-year climate and historical land use changes. We find that the impacts from anthropogenic nitrogen deposition can be comparable to the climate and land use driven surface ozone changes at regional scales, and partly offset the surface ozone reductions due to land use changes reported in previous studies. Our study emphasizes the complexity of biosphere-atmosphere interactions, which can have important

  7. Environmental protection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hull, A.P.

    1979-01-01

    Environmental Studies and Internal Dosimetry projects include: Environmental Protection; 1977 Environmental Monitoring Report; Sewage Sludge Disposal on the Sanitary Landfill; Radiological Analyses of Marshall Islands Environmental Samples, 1974 to 1976; External Radiation Survey and Dose Predictions for Rongelap, Utirik, Rongerik, Ailuk, and Wotje Atolls; Marshall Islands - Diet and Life Style Study; Dose Reassessment for Populations on Rongelap and Utirik Following Exposure to Fallout from BRAVO Incident (March 1, 1954); Whole Body Counting Results from 1974 to 1979 for Bikini Island Residents; Dietary Radioactivity Intake from Bioassay Data, a Model Applied to 137 Cs Intake by Bikini Island Residents; and External Exposure Measurements at Bikini Atoll

  8. Environmental physics

    CERN Document Server

    Smith, Clare

    2001-01-01

    Environmental Physics is a comprehensive introduction to the physical concepts underlying environmental science. The importance and relevance of physics is emphasised by its application to real environmental problems with a wide range of case studies. Applications included cover energy use and production, global climate, the physics of living things, radioactivity, environmental remote sensing, noise pollution and the physics of the Earth. The book makes the subject accessible to those with little physics background, keeping mathematical treatment straightforward. The text is lively and informative, and is supplemented by numerous illustrations, photos, tables of useful data, and a glossary of key terms.

  9. Environmental radon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Majumdar, S.K.; Schmalz, R.F.; Miller, E.W.

    1990-01-01

    This book covers many aspects of environmental radon, including: historical perspectives; occurrence and properties; detection, measurement, and mitigation, radon and health; and political, economic, and legislative impacts

  10. Environmental Risk

    Data.gov (United States)

    Kansas Data Access and Support Center — The Identified Sites coverage, used to support the environmental quality program, references types and concentrations of contaminants, contaminated media and...

  11. The anthracite of Nazar-Aylok Deposit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pachadzhanov, D.N.; Valiev, Yu.Ya.

    2013-01-01

    Present article is devoted to anthracite of Nazar-Aylok Deposit. The ash content, composition of coals of Nazar-Aylok Deposit and thickness of deposit were considered. The coal samples were studied by means of neutron activation analysis.

  12. Characterization of the acidic cold seep emplaced jarositic Golden Deposit, NWT, Canada, as an analogue for jarosite deposition on Mars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Battler, Melissa M.; Osinski, Gordon R.; Lim, Darlene S. S.; Davila, Alfonso F.; Michel, Frederick A.; Craig, Michael A.; Izawa, Matthew R. M.; Leoni, Lisa; Slater, Gregory F.; Fairén, Alberto G.; Preston, Louisa J.; Banerjee, Neil R.

    2013-06-01

    Surficial deposits of the OH-bearing iron sulfate mineral jarosite have been observed in several places on Mars, such as Meridiani Planum and Mawrth Vallis. The specific depositional conditions and mechanisms are not known, but by comparing martian sites to analogous locations on Earth, the conditions of formation and, thus, the martian depositional paleoenvironments may be postulated. Located in a cold semi-arid desert ˜100 km east of Norman Wells, Northwest Territories, Canada, the Golden Deposit (GD) is visible from the air as a brilliant golden-yellow patch of unvegetated soil, approximately 140 m × 50 m. The GD is underlain by permafrost and consists of yellow sediment, which is precipitating from seeps of acidic, iron-bearing groundwater. On the surface, the GD appears as a patchwork of raised polygons, with acidic waters flowing from seeps in troughs between polygonal islands. Although UV-Vis-NIR spectral analysis detects only jarosite, mineralogy, as determined by X-ray diffraction and inductively coupled plasma emission spectrometry, is predominantly natrojarosite and jarosite, with hydronium jarosite, goethite, quartz, clays, and small amounts of hematite. Water pH varies significantly over short distances depending on proximity to acid seeps, from 2.3 directly above seeps, to 5.7 several m downstream from seeps within the deposit, and up to 6.5 in ponds proximal to the deposit. Visual observations of microbial filament communities and phospholipid fatty acid analyses confirm that the GD is capable of supporting life for at least part of the year. Jarosite-bearing sediments extend beneath vegetation up to 70 m out from the deposit and are mixed with plant debris and minerals presumably weathered from bedrock and glacial till. This site is of particular interest because mineralogy (natrojarosite, jarosite, hematite, and goethite) and environmental conditions (permafrost and arid conditions) at the time of deposition are conceivably analogous to jarosite

  13. Deposition of Boron in Possible Evaporite Deposits in Gale Crate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gasda, P. J.; Peets, E.; Lamm, S. N.; Rapin, W.; Lanza, N.; Frydenvang, J.; Clark, B. C.; Herkenhoff, K. E.; Bridges, J.; Schwenzer, S. P.; Haldeman, E. B.; Wiens, R. C.; Maurice, S.; Clegg, S. M.; Delapp, D.; Sanford, V.; Bodine, M. R.; McInroy, R.

    2017-12-01

    Boron has been previously detected in Gale crater using the ChemCam instrument on board the NASA Curiosity rover within calcium sulfate fracture fill hosted by lacustrine mudstone and eolian sandstone units. Recent results show that up to 300 ppm B is present in the upper sections of the lacustrine unit. Boron has been detected in both the groundwater-emplaced calcium sulfate fracture fill materials and bedding-parallel calcium sulfate layers. The widespread bedding-parallel calcium sulfate layers within the upper strata of the lacustrine bedrock that Curiosity has encountered recently could be interpreted as primary evaporite deposits. We have two hypotheses for the history of boron in Gale crater. In both hypotheses, borates were first deposited as lake water evaporated, depositing primary evaporates that were later re-dissolved by groundwater, which redistributed the boron into secondary evaporitic calcium sulfate fracture fill deposits. In the first scenario, Gale crater may have undergone a period of perennial lake formation during a drier period of martian history, depositing layers of evaporitic minerals (including borates) among lacustrine mudstone layers. In the second scenario, lake margins could have become periodically exposed during cyclic drops in lake level and subsequently desiccated. Evaporites were deposited and desiccation features were formed in lowstand deposits. Either hypothetical scenario of evaporite deposition would promote prebiotic chemical reactions via wet-dry cycles. Boron may be an important prebiotic element, and as such, its presence in ancient martian surface and groundwater provides evidence that important prebiotic chemical reactions could occur on Mars if organics were present. The presence of boron in ancient Gale crater groundwater also provides additional evidence that a habitable environment existed in the martian subsurface well after the expected disappearance of liquid water on the surface of Mars. We will report on the

  14. Atomic layer deposition for semiconductors

    CERN Document Server

    Hwang, Cheol Seong

    2014-01-01

    This edited volume discusses atomic layer deposition (ALD) for all modern semiconductor devices, moving from the basic chemistry of ALD and modeling of ALD processes to sections on ALD for memories, logic devices, and machines.

  15. Gasoline from Kumkol deposit petroleum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nadirov, A.N.; Zhizhin, N.I.; Musaeva, Z.G.

    1997-01-01

    Samples of gasoline from petroleum of Kumkol deposit are investigated by chromatographic analysis. It is found, that gasoline is characterizing by increased content of iso-paraffin hydrocarbons. (author)

  16. Electrospark deposition for die repair

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Tušek

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The electrospark deposition is a process for surfacing of hard metal alloys, e.g. carbides and stellites, on the surfaces of new or old machine elements. In this process, a high current is conducted through an oscillating electrode and a substrate for a very short period of time. In the paper, the process is described and the thickness of deposited layer, chemical composition, dilution rate and the layer roughness are determined.

  17. Mineralogy, occurrence of mineralization and temperature-pressure conditions of the Agh-Daragh polymetallic deposit in the Ahar-Arasbaran metallogenic area

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heydar Asgharzadeh Asl

    2017-07-01

    reproducibility of ±1°C. However, it was reduced to 0.1–0.5°C/min near phase transformation, with a reproducibility of ±0.1°C. Results Mineralization that occurs in the area is mainly related to the Sheiviar Dagh intrusive rocks and it includes a variety of types of skarn, porphyry- and vein-type, epithermal and intrusion related deposits. Agh Daragh mineralization occurs at least in three states including: 1 stockwork-disseminated, 2 vein-type and 3 replacement (skarn. In order to determine the nature and characteristics of granodiorites hosted Ayran Goli mineralization, the biotites points were analyzed. The Ayran Goli granodiorite with calc-alkaline nature is related to orogenic zones that is associated with subduction zones. To determine the chemical properties of the minerals in Gowdal skarn mineralization, garnet and chlorite have been used for analysis which are often located at repidolite and picnochlorite positions. Electron micro probe analysis (EMPA of magnetite from the Chupanlar area showed that it belongs to porphyry and Kiruna type deposits. Based on the observations made, three types of aqueous fluid inclusions were distinguished in the quartz-sulfide veins, including halite-saturated aqueous (H2O–NaCl±KCl, aqueous two-phase (H2O–NaCl±CaCl2, and monophase liquid and vapor fluid inclusions. Discussion Because of the lack of CO2-bearing fluid inclusions phase in the samples, we used a temperature-pressure relationship intersection in order to obtain the depth of mineralization. However, but at this study salt-rich inclusions (type 1 the dissolution of halite homogeneous solid phase (Bodnar, 1994 were used in order to estimate the standing deposit. Considering the temperature of the liquid-vapor homogenization (Thl-v, temperatures between 201 to 474°C, homogenization halite (TmNaCl between 196 to 434°C (48 wt% NaCl eq. in the solid phase inclusions with halite, minimum and the maximum pressure between 4.0 and 7.2, respectively that occur at 0.4 to 2

  18. Legal Deposit of Electronic Publications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Burcu Umut Zan

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available The most important and basic role of the deposition studies, which are the greatest contributions to the knowledge sharing, is to gather the artistic and philosophical works of a country and provide them for the use of future researchers. However, since early deposition studies were limited with printed publications, they do not involve the electronic publication types appearing with the development of information technology. This stems from the fact that the electronic publications require procedures different from those of the printed publications in terms of deposition steps because of their structures. Today, in order to guarantee that all registered cultural products, which are mostly produced and used in the electronic environment could be fully collected, electronic publications should also be covered by and regulated under legal deposit. This study analyzes the deposition of electronic publications, within the framework of their storage and protection, being put in the use of the users as well as the common approaches to deposition practices in the world parallel to the developments in the information technology. The related situation in Turkey was also evaluated.

  19. Uncertainty analysis of environmental models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Monte, L.

    1990-01-01

    In the present paper an evaluation of the output uncertainty of an environmental model for assessing the transfer of 137 Cs and 131 I in the human food chain are carried out on the basis of a statistical analysis of data reported by the literature. The uncertainty analysis offers the oppotunity of obtaining some remarkable information about the uncertainty of models predicting the migration of non radioactive substances in the environment mainly in relation to the dry and wet deposition

  20. Environmental occurrences

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Black, D.G.

    1995-01-01

    This section of the 1994 Hanford Site Environmental Report summarizes the onsite and offsite releases of radioactive and regulated materials. The specific agencies notified of the releases depended on the type, amount, and location of the individual occurrences. The more significant of these off-normal environmental occurrences are summarized in this section

  1. Environmental law

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bender, B.; Sparwasser, R.

    1988-01-01

    Environmental law is discussed exhaustively in this book. Legal and scientific fundamentals are taken into account, a systematic orientation is given, and hints for further information are presented. The book covers general environmental law, plan approval procedures, protection against nuisances, atomic law and radiation protection law, water protection law, waste management law, laws on chemical substances, conservation law. (HSCH) [de

  2. Environmental occurrences

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Black, D.G.

    1995-06-01

    This section of the 1994 Hanford Site Environmental Report summarizes the onsite and offsite releases of radioactive and regulated materials. The specific agencies notified of the releases depended on the type, amount, and location of the individual occurrences. The more significant of these off-normal environmental occurrences are summarized in this section.

  3. Environmental Tectonics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Foged, Isak Worre

    2016-01-01

    This chapter intends to clarify and argue for the approach to re- search taken within the PhD thesis ‘Environmental Tectonics’ by elaborating on an architectural research methodology that is based on the objective of the thesis as described in the associated abstra- ct. Environmental sustainable...

  4. Environmental Restoration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zeevaert, T.; Vanmarcke, H

    1998-07-01

    The objectives of SCK-CEN's programme on environmental restoration are (1) to optimize and validate models for the impact assessment from environmental, radioactive contaminations, including waste disposal or discharge; (2) to support the policy of national authorities for public health and radioactive waste management. Progress and achievements in 1997 are reported.

  5. A climatological model for risk computations incorporating site- specific dry deposition influences

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Droppo, J.G. Jr.

    1991-07-01

    A gradient-flux dry deposition module was developed for use in a climatological atmospheric transport model, the Multimedia Environmental Pollutant Assessment System (MEPAS). The atmospheric pathway model computes long-term average contaminant air concentration and surface deposition patterns surrounding a potential release site incorporating location-specific dry deposition influences. Gradient-flux formulations are used to incorporate site and regional data in the dry deposition module for this atmospheric sector-average climatological model. Application of these formulations provide an effective means of accounting for local surface roughness in deposition computations. Linkage to a risk computation module resulted in a need for separate regional and specific surface deposition computations. 13 refs., 4 figs., 2 tabs

  6. Environmental medicine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Steneberg, A.

    1996-01-01

    'Environmental medicine' deals with the manifold health problems from environmental factors of chemical, physical and psychosocial origin that are possible or have been observed. The book gives insight into the current state of knowledge of environmental medicine institutions, possibilities of diagnosis and therapeutic methods. It offers a systematic overview of pollutant sources and pollutant effects and points out, inter alia, syndromes that are discussed in connection with environmental factors: not only allergies and carcinogenous diseases but also symptom complexes that are hard to diagnose by ordinary methods such as the sick-building syndrome, multiple sensitivity to chemicals, electrosensitivity, amalgam intoxications, disorders due to wood preservatives and fungal diseases. The lingering course of a disease and a set of symptoms varying from one patient to another are the rule, not the exception, because environmental diseases are due above all to the chronic uptake of low pollutant doses (orig./MG) [de

  7. The origin of the Tongkeng-Changpo tin deposit, Dachang metal district, Guangxi, China: clues from fluid inclusions and He isotope systematics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minghai, Cai; Jingwen, Mao; Ting, Liang; Pirajno, Franco; Huilan, Huang

    2007-08-01

    Tongkeng-Changpo is the largest tin deposit within the giant Dachang polymetallic tin ore field in Guangxi, southern China, which is part of a large skarn system associated with Cretaceous granitoids. The Tongkeng-Changpo mineralization consists of veins and stockworks in the upper levels and replacement stratiform orebodies (mantos) at lower levels. Based on textural relationships, three major mineralizing stages can be recognized: stage I with cassiterite, sulphides, stannite, tourmaline, and quartz; stage II with cassiterite, sulphides, sulphosalts, quartz, and calcite; and stage III with calcite as the main phase. The study of fluid inclusions has shown that there are two main fluid types: CO2 and NaCl-H2O. Homogenization temperatures are 270 to 365°C, 210 to 240°C, and 140 to 190°C for stages I, II, and III, respectively. Salinities range from 1 to 7 wt.% NaCl equiv. in the early ore stage and 3 to 10 wt.% NaCl equiv. in the late stages. Laser Raman Spectroscopy indicates that the inclusion fluids in stages I and II were of carbono-aqueous composition, with minor amounts of CH4 and H2S, whereas those in stage III were aqueous. Helium isotopic analyses of inclusion fluids indicate that the 3He/4He ratios in the ore veins are in between 1.2 to 2.9 Ra (Ra = 1.4 × 10-6, modern atmospheric ratio), and range from 1.6 to 2.5 Ra in the stratiform orebodies. This range of 3He/4He ratios is significantly higher than that of crustal fluids (0.01-0.05 Ra). The similar characteristics of fluid inclusions and their He isotopic composition, as well as age constraints, indicate that the ore veins and stratiform orebodies of the Tongkeng-Changpo deposit formed from the same hydrothermal system, likely related to granite intrusions of the Mesozoic Yanshanian tectono-thermal event. In addition, the high R/Ra ratios indicate a mantle contribution in the ore fluids.

  8. Expanding atmospheric acid deposition in China from the 1990s to the 2010s

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Haili; Wang, Qiufeng

    2017-04-01

    Atmospheric acid deposition is considered a global environmental issue. China has been experiencing serious acid deposition, which is anticipated to be more serious with the country's economic development and increasing consumption of fossil fuels in recent decades. By collecting nationwide data on pH and concentrations of sulfate (SO42-) and nitrate (NO3-) in precipitation between 1980 and 2014 in China, we explored the spatiotemporal variations of precipitation acid deposition (bulk deposition) and their influencing factors. Our results showed that average precipitation pH values were 4.86 and 4.84 in the 1990s and 2010s, respectively. This suggests that precipitation acid deposition in China has not seriously changes. Average SO42- deposition declined from 30.73 to 28.61 kg S ha-1 yr-1 but average NO3- deposition increased from 4.02 to 6.79 kg N ha-1 yr-1. Specifically, the area of severe precipitation acid deposition in southern China has shrunk to some extent as a result of decreasing pollutant emissions, whereas the area of moderate precipitation acid deposition has expanded in northern China, associated with rapid industrial and transportation development. Significant positive correlations have been found between precipitation acid deposition, energy consumption, and rainfall. Our findings provide a comprehensive evaluation of the spatiotemporal dynamics of precipitation acid deposition in China over past three decades, and confirm the idea that strategies implemented to save energy and reduce pollutant emissions in China have been effective in alleviating precipitation acid deposition. These findings might be used to demonstrate how developing countries could achieve economic development and environmental protection through the implementation of advanced technologies to reduce pollutant emissions.

  9. Environmental law

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kloepfer, M.

    1989-01-01

    This comprehensive reference book on environmental law and practice also is a valuable textbook for students specializing in the field. The entire law on pollution control and environmental protection is presented in an intelligent system, covering the latest developments in the Federal and Land legislation, public environmental law, and the related provisions in the fields of civil law and criminal law. The national survey is rounded up by information concerning the international environmental law, environmental law of the European Communities, and of other foreign countries as e.g. Austria and Switzerland. The author also reviews conditions in neighbouring fields such as technology and labour law, environmental economy, environmental policy. Special attention is given to current topics, as e.g. relating to genetic engineering, disused landfills or industrial sites, soil protection, transport of hazardous goods, liability for damage to forests, atomic energy law, and radiation protection law. The latest publishing dates of literature and court decisions considered in the book are in the first months of 1989. (RST) [de

  10. Geology, Geochemistry and Ground Magnetic Survey on Kalateh Naser Iron Ore Deposit, Khorasan Jonoubi Province

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saeed Saadat

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Introduction Ground magnetometer surveys is one of the oldest geophysical exploration methods used in identifying iron reserves. The correct interpretation of ground magnetic surveys, along with geological and geochemical data will not only reduce costs but also to indicate the location, depth and dimensions of the hidden reserves of iron (Robinson and Coruh, 2005; Calagari, 1992. Kalateh Naser prospecting area is located at 33° 19َ to 33° 19ََ 42" latitude and 60° 0' to 60° 9َ 35" longitude in the western side of the central Ahangaran mountain range, eastern Iran (Fig.1. Based on primary field evidences, limited outcrops of magnetite mineralization were observed and upon conducting ground magnetic survey, evidence for large Iron ore deposits were detected (Saadat, 2014. This paper presents the geological and geochemical studies and the results of magnetic measurements in the area of interest and its applicability in exploration of other potential Iron deposits in the neighboring areas. Materials and methods To better understand the geological units of the area, samples were taken and thin sections were studied. Geochemical studies were conducted through XRF and ICP-Ms and wet chemistry analysis. The ground magnetic survey was designed to take measurements from grids of 20 meter apart lines and 10 meter apart points along the north-south trend. 2000 points were measured during a 6-day field work by expert geophysicists. Records were made by Canadian manufactured product Magnetometer Proton GSM19T (Fig. 2. Properties of Proton Magnetometer using in magnetic survey in Kalateh Naser prospecting area is shown in Table 1. Total magnetic intensity map, reduced to pole magnetic map, analytic single map, first vertical derivative map and upward continuation map have been prepared for this area. Results The most significant rock units in the area are cretaceous carbonate rocks (Fig. 3. The unit turns to shale and thin bedded limestone in the

  11. Felsic magmatism and uranium deposits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cuney, Michel

    2014-01-01

    The strongly incompatible behaviour of uranium in silicate magmas results in its concentration in the most felsic melts and a prevalence of granites and rhyolites as primary U sources for the formation of U deposits. Despite its incompatible behavior, U deposits resulting directly from magmatic processes are quite rare. In most deposits, U is mobilized by hydrothermal fluids or ground water well after the emplacement of the igneous rocks. Of the broad range of granite types, only a few have U contents and physico-chemical properties that permit the crystallization of accessory minerals from which uranium can be leached for the formation of U deposits. The first granites on Earth, which crystallized uraninite, dated at 3.1 Ga, are the potassic granites from the Kaapval craton (South Africa) which were also the source of the detrital uraninite for the Dominion Reef and Witwatersrand quartz pebble conglomerate deposits. Four types of granites or rhyolites can be sufficiently enriched in U to represent a significant source for the genesis of U deposits: per-alkaline, high-K met-aluminous calc-alkaline, L-type peraluminous and anatectic pegmatoids. L-type peraluminous plutonic rocks in which U is dominantly hosted in uraninite or in the glass of their volcanic equivalents represent the best U source. Per-alkaline granites or syenites are associated with the only magmatic U-deposits formed by extreme fractional crystallization. The refractory character of the U-bearing minerals does not permit their extraction under the present economic conditions and make them unfavorable U sources for other deposit types. By contrast, felsic per-alkaline volcanic rocks, in which U is dominantly hosted in the glassy matrix, represent an excellent source for many deposit types. High-K calc-alkaline plutonic rocks only represent a significant U source when the U-bearing accessory minerals (U-thorite, allanite, Nb oxides) become metamict. The volcanic rocks of the same geochemistry may be

  12. Felsic magmatism and uranium deposits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cuney, M.

    2014-01-01

    Uranium strongly incompatible behaviour in silicate magmas results in its concentration in the most felsic melts and a prevalence of granites and rhyolites as primary U sources for the formation of U deposits. Despite its incompatible behaviour, U deposits resulting directly from magmatic processes are quite rare. In most deposits, U is mobilized by hydrothermal fluids or ground water well after the emplacement of the igneous rocks. Of the broad range of granite types, only a few have have U contents and physico-chemical properties that permit the crystallization of accessory minerals from which uranium can be leached for the formation of U deposits. The first granites on Earth which crystallized uraninite appeared at 3.1 Ga, are the potassic granites from the Kaapval craton (South Africa) which were also the source of the detrital uraninite for the Dominion Reef and Witwatersrand quartz pebble conglomerate deposits. Four types of granites or rhyolites can be sufficiently enriched in U to represent a significant source for the genesis of U deposits: peralkaline, high-K metaluminous calc-alkaline, L-type peraluminous ones and anatectic pegmatoids. L-type peraluminous plutonic rocks in which U is dominantly hosted in uraninite or in the glass in their volcanic equivalents represent the best U source. Peralkaline granites or syenites represent the only magmatic U-deposits formed by extreme fractional crystallization. The refractory character of the U-bearing minerals does not permit their extraction at the present economic conditions and make them unfavourable U sources for other deposit types. By contrast, felsic peralkaline volcanic rocks, in which U is dominantly hosted in the glassy matrix, represent an excellent source for many deposit types. High-K calc-alkaline plutonic rocks only represent a significant U source when the U-bearing accessory minerals [U-thorite, allanite, Nb oxides] become metamict. The volcanic rocks of the same geochemistry may be also a

  13. Mineral deposits of the Silica plateau – evaluation of selected geological factors of the environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    BalហBartolomej

    2001-12-01

    Full Text Available The Silica plateau is a part of a greatest karst area in the Slovak republic - Protected Landscape Area Slovak karst (CHKO Slovenský kras. Karst areas belong to the most sensitive environments, from the point of view of impacts caused by anthropogenous activities. This area reacts sensitively, disturbing the environmental balance caused by mining of mineral deposits. Three mineral deposits of industrial rocks: one deposit of decorative stone - Silická Brezová and two deposits of building stone – Silická Brezová I and Lipovník, respectively, were registered on January 1-st, 2001 in the territory of the Silica plateau. Some deposits utilized in the past namely two deposits of building raw materials (Hrušov and Krásnohorská Dlhá Lúka and one Pb-Zn ore deposit (Ardovo are also mentioned and evaluated in the paper. From the point of view of economical potential of the area, mineral deposits have a character of geopotentials. However the utilization of deposits represents negative anthropogenous impact. When compared with another forms of optimal and rational utilization of the country, e.g. agriculture, forestry, water management, construction, tourism etc., mineral deposits have a character of geobarriers. This research was carried out in the frame of the VEGA Grant No. 1/6090/1999.

  14. Modelling atmospheric deposition flux of Cadmium and Lead in urban areas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cherin, Nicolas

    2017-01-01

    According to WHO, air pollution is responsible for more than 3.7 million premature deaths each year (OMS, 2014). Moreover, among these deaths, more than 70 within urban areas. Consequently, the health and environmental impacts of pollutants within these urban areas are of great concern in air quality studies. The deposition fluxes of air pollutants, which can be significant near sources of pollution, have rarely been modeled within urban areas. Historically, atmospheric deposition studies have focused mostly on remote areas to assess the potential impacts on ecosystems of acid deposition and nitrogen loading. Therefore, current atmospheric deposition models may not be suitable to simulate deposition fluxes in urban areas, which include complex surface geometries and diverse land use types. Atmospheric dry deposition is typically modeled using an average roughness length, which depends on land use. This classical roughness-length approach cannot account for the spatial variability of dry deposition in complex settings such as urban areas. Urban canopy models have been developed to parameterize momentum and heat transfer. We extend this approach here to mass transfer, and a new dry deposition model based on the urban canyon concept is presented. It uses a local mixing-length parameterization of turbulence within the canopy, and a description of the urban canopy via key parameters to provide spatially distributed dry deposition fluxes. This approach provides spatially distributed dry deposition fluxes depending on surfaces (streets, walls, roofs) and flow regimes (recirculation and ventilation) within the urban area. (author) [fr

  15. Low grade uranium deposits of India - a bane or boon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chaki, Anjan

    2010-01-01

    , uranium mining industry in India provides direct and indirect employment to thousands of people and still operates in profit mode. Environmental concerns and radiation exposure to mining and milling personnel negligible in the case of low grade deposits. The new mines, which are going to be opened in Tummalapalle, Andhra Pradesh; Domiasiat, Meghalaya; Gogi, Karnataka; Rohil, Rajasthan etc. will create substantial direct and indirect employment opportunities and transform the economy of these regions. (author)

  16. Environmental Management

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lehmann, Martin

    The doctoral research project is co-financed by DUCED-I&UA and is part of a joint effort of Thai, Malay, South African and Danish universities to conduct collaborative research on the overarching theme "Environmental Management: Globalisation and Industrial Governance in Developing Countries......". The PhD project is expected to conclude ultimo 2005. Environmental management and cleaner production (CP) are both internationally recognised as tools for minimising environmental impacts of production or services. However, several studies have shown that especially SMEs, which probably amount to more...

  17. Environmental Performance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lindelof, Anja Mølle; Schmidt, Ulrik; Svabo, Connie

    2017-01-01

    Do ants and grasshoppers perform? Do clouds, plants and melting ice? Do skyscrapers, traffic jams and computer vira? And what happens to our understanding of liveness if that is the case? This chapter takes ongoing theoretical disputes about the nature of live performance in performance studies...... as its starting point to investigate liveness within a specific kind of contemporary performance: ‘environmental performances’. Environmental performances are arts practices that take environmental processes as their focus by framing activities of non-human performers such as clouds, wind and weeds - key...

  18. Vein-type uranium deposits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rich, R.A.; Holland, H.D.; Petersen, U.

    1975-01-01

    A critical review is presented of published data bearing on the mineralogy, paragenesis, geochemistry, and origin of veiw-type uranium deposits. Its aim is to serve as a starting point for new research and as a basis for the development of new exploration strategies. During the formation of both vein and sandstone types of deposits uranium seems to have been dissolved by and transported in rather oxidized solutions, and deposited where these solutions encountered reducing agents such as carbon, sulfides, ferrous minerals and hydrocarbons. Granitic rocks abnormally enriched in uranium have apparently been the most common source for uranium in vein-type deposits. Oxidizing solutions have been derived either from the surface or from depth. Surface solutions saturated with atmospheric oxygen have frequently passed through red bed or clean sandstone conduits on their way to and from uranium source rocks. Deep solutions of non-surface origin have apparently become sufficiently oxidizing by passage through and equilibration with red beds. The common association of clean sandstones or red beds with uranium-rich granites in the vicinity of vein-type uranium deposits is probably not fortuitous, and areas where these rock types are found together are considered particularly favorable targets for uranium exploration

  19. Restoration of uranium solution mining deposits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Devries, F.W.; Lawes, B.C.

    1982-01-01

    A process is provided for restoring an ore deposit after uranium solution mining using ammonium carbonate leaching solutions has ceased. The process involves flushing the deposit with an aqueous solution of a potassium salt during which potassium ions exchange with ammonium ions remaining in the deposit. The ammonium containing flushing solution is withdrawn from the deposit for disposal

  20. Understanding the spectrum of diesel injector deposits

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Quigley, Robert; Barbour, Robert [Lubrizol Limited, Derby (United Kingdom); Arters, David; Bush, Jim [Lubrizol Corporation, Wickliffe, OH (United States)

    2013-06-01

    Understanding the origin of diesel fuel injector deposits used to be relatively simple; for the most part they were caused by the decomposition of fuel during the combustion process, were generally organic in nature and typically only affected the nozzle orifices. However, modem fuel injector designs appear to be both more severe in terms of generating conditions conducive to creating new and different types of deposits and more likely to have their operation affected by those deposits. Changes to fuel composition and type have in some cases increased the potential pool of reactive species or provided new potential deposit precursors. As a result, the universe of diesel injector deposits now range from the traditional organic to partially or fully inorganic in nature and from nozzle coking deposits to deposits which can seize the internal components of the injector; so called internal diesel injector deposits. Frequently, combinations of inorganic and organic deposits are found. While power loss is one well known issue associated with nozzle deposits, other field problems resulting from these new deposits include severe issues with drivability, emissions, fuel consumption and even engine failure. Conventional deposit control additive chemistries were developed to be effective against organic nozzle coking deposits. These conventional additives in many cases may prove ineffective against this wide range of deposit types. This paper discusses the range of deposits that have been found to adversely impact modem diesel fuel injectors and compares the performance of conventional and new, advanced deposit control additives against these various challenges to proper fuel injector functioning. (orig.)

  1. Restoration of uranium solution mining deposits

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Devries, F.W.; Lawes, B.C.

    1982-01-19

    A process is provided for restoring an ore deposit after uranium solution mining using ammonium carbonate leaching solutions has ceased. The process involves flushing the deposit with an aqueous solution of a potassium salt during which potassium ions exchange with ammonium ions remaining in the deposit. The ammonium containing flushing solution is withdrawn from the deposit for disposal.

  2. Environmental Empowerment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sumrall, William J.; Aronin, Gene

    1993-01-01

    Describes having students write individual letters to learn about environmental issues and get students involved. With encouragement, students will learn that they can make a difference by addressing their concerns to people who have the power to direct change. (PR)

  3. Environmental decontamination

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cristy, G.A.; Jernigan, H.C. (eds.)

    1981-02-01

    The record of the proceedings of the workshop on environmental decontamination contains twenty-seven presentations. Emphasis is placed upon soil and surface decontamination, the decommissioning of nuclear facilities, and assessments of instrumentation and equipment used in decontamination. (DLS)

  4. Environmental Health

    Science.gov (United States)

    Our environment affects our health. If parts of the environment, like the air, water, or soil become polluted, it ... in the home can trigger asthma attacks. Some environmental risks are a part of the natural world, ...

  5. Environmental history

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pawson, Eric; Christensen, Andreas Aagaard

    2017-01-01

    Environmental history is an interdisciplinary pursuit that has developed as a form of conscience to counter an increasingly powerful, forward-looking liberal theory of the environment. It deals with the relations between environmental ideas and materialities, from the work of the geographers George...... Perkins Marsh, Carl Sauer, and Clarence Glacken, to more recent global-scale assessments of the impact of the “great acceleration” since 1950. Today’s “runaway world” paradoxically embraces risk management in an attempt to determine its own future whilst generating a whole new category of “manufactured...... risks”. These are exposed by environmental history’s focus on long-run analysis and its narrative form that identifies the stories that we tell ourselves about nature. How a better understanding of past environmental transformations helps to analyse society and agency, and what this can mean...

  6. Environmental pathology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mottet, N.K.

    1985-01-01

    This book contains 14 selections. Some of the titles are: Injury by Ionizing Radiations; Urinary System; Immune System; Chemical Carcinogenesis; The Molecular Basis of Environmental Mutagenesis; and Reproductive Toxicity

  7. Environmental taxes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zoran Šinković

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Environmental taxes should result in an improvement or prevention of deterioration of the environment. Although more advanced than previously existing Act on Excise Duty on Passenger Cars, Other Motor Vehicles, Vessels and Aircrafts from the 1997th year, the new law will hardly Croatia bring visible environmental benefit. Its application should not be expected to reduce the negative impacts of road traffic on air quality and greenhouse gas emissions until it does not clearly define how it will be at least part of the funds collected under this levy will be spent on measures to encourage the use of say hybrid or electric vehicles. Yet we should not neglect the fact that there is still need to work on educating people about the importance of environmental protection and any measures to be taken in the sphere of environmental protection should follow economic policies with a particular community or a country.

  8. Environmental decontamination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cristy, G.A.; Jernigan, H.C.

    1981-02-01

    The record of the proceedings of the workshop on environmental decontamination contains twenty-seven presentations. Emphasis is placed upon soil and surface decontamination, the decommissioning of nuclear facilities, and assessments of instrumentation and equipment used in decontamination

  9. Analysing the Cenozoic depositional record

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Goledowski, Bartosz; Clausen, O.R.; Nielsen, S.B.

    2008-01-01

    It is well known that sediment deposition in the North Sea and on the Norwegian Shelf varied significantly during the Cenozoic as a consequence of varying erosion rate mainly in Western Scandinavia, in Scotland and in the Alps. Recent results have demonstrated that a causal relationship exists...... of variations in erosion rates. Here we present the rationale behind the project, the data available and some preliminary results. The dense seismic and well coverage in the area makes it possible to estimate the rate of deposition of matrix mass. Assuming that sediment storage is not important, this provides...... models. The matrix mass deposition history will be compared with the paleoclimate record (e.g. oxygen isotope curves) to see if the previously observed correlation in the eastern North Sea can be extended to other ages and locations.  ...

  10. Surficial uranium deposits in Algeria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mokaddem, M.; Fuchs, Y.

    1984-01-01

    Along southern border of the Hoggar (Algeria) Precambrian shield, Lower Palaeozoic sediments lie unconformably on weathered metamorphic rocks. Along the eastern border of the Tin Seririne basin some good examples of the weathered rocks underneath the unconformity are exposed. The palaeosurface is a peneplain with only minor topographical reliefs from one to a few metres high. The nature and intensity of the weathering process was controlled by the topography, and the existence of badly drained areas is particularly important. At one such area the Tahaggart uranium ore deposit was discovered. The uranium ore consists mainly of torbernite and autunite. The deposit is present in the weathered gneiss underneath the palaeosurface. Mineralogical and geochemical observations indicated that the ore deposit was formed during the period of weathering which was controlled by climatological and palaeotopographical factors. (author)

  11. Sub-aerial tailings deposition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Knight, R.B.; Haile, J.P.

    1984-01-01

    The sub-aerial technique involves the systematic deposition of tailings in thin layers and allowing each layer to settle, drain and partially air dry prior to covering with a further layer. Underdrainage produces densities in excess of those achieved by sub-aqueous deposition and any air-drying serves to preconsolidate each layer with a resulting further increase in density. The low permeability of the tailings surface resulting from this deposition technique results in high runoff coefficients and, by decanting the runoff component of direct precipitation, a net evaporation condition can be achieved even in high rainfall areas. An underdrainage system prevents the build-up of excess pore-pressures within the tailings mass and at decommissioning the tailings are fully consolidated and drained thereby eliminating the possibility of any long term seepage. This paper presents a general description of these design concepts, and details of two projects where the concepts have been applied

  12. The StreamCat Dataset: Accumulated Attributes for NHDPlusV2 (Version 2.1) Catchments for the Conterminous United States: National Atmospheric Deposition Program National Trends Network - Nitrogen Deposition

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — This dataset represents deposition estimates of nutrients within individual local NHDPlusV2 catchments and upstream, contributing watersheds based on the National...

  13. Environmental protection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martinez, A.S.

    1987-01-01

    The question of environment protection related to the use of nuclear energy aiming to power generation, based on the harmonic concept of economic and industrial development, preserving the environment, is discussed. A brief study of environmental impacts for some energy sources, including nuclear energy, to present the systems of a nuclear power plant which aim at environmental protection, is done. (M.C.K.) [pt

  14. TULSA UNIVERSITY PARAFFIN DEPOSITION PROJECTS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cem Sarica; Michael Volk

    2004-06-01

    As oil and gas production moves to deeper and colder water, subsea multiphase production systems become critical for economic feasibility. It will also become increasingly imperative to adequately identify the conditions for paraffin precipitation and predict paraffin deposition rates to optimize the design and operation of these multi-phase production systems. Although several oil companies have paraffin deposition predictive capabilities for single-phase oil flow, these predictive capabilities are not suitable for the multiphase flow conditions encountered in most flowlines and wellbores. For deepwater applications in the Gulf of Mexico, it is likely that multiphase production streams consisting of crude oil, produced water and gas will be transported in a single multiphase pipeline to minimize capital cost and complexity at the mudline. Existing single-phase (crude oil) paraffin deposition predictive tools are clearly inadequate to accurately design these pipelines, because they do not account for the second and third phases, namely, produced water and gas. The objective of this program is to utilize the current test facilities at The University of Tulsa, as well as member company expertise, to accomplish the following: enhance our understanding of paraffin deposition in single and two-phase (gas-oil) flows; conduct focused experiments to better understand various aspects of deposition physics; and, utilize knowledge gained from experimental modeling studies to enhance the computer programs developed in the previous JIP for predicting paraffin deposition in single and two-phase flow environments. These refined computer models will then be tested against field data from member company pipelines.

  15. Hereditary iron and copper deposition

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aaseth, Jan; Flaten, Trond Peder; Andersen, Ole

    2007-01-01

    Hereditary deposition of iron (primary haemochromatosis) or copper (Wilson's disease) are autosomal recessive metabolic disease characterized by progressive liver pathology and subsequent involvement of various other organs. The prevalence of primary haemochromatosis is approximately 0.5%, about......, they may be inadequate in patients diagnosed so late that extensive body deposits of metal have been developed. The main research needs in this field are to further clarify molecular mechanisms of disease progression and to develop new chelators that are more effective and less toxic than those presently...

  16. EnviroAtlas - Atmospheric Nitrogen and Sulfur Deposition by 12-digit HUC for the Conterminous United States (2011)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — This EnviroAtlas dataset includes annual nitrogen and sulfur deposition within each 12-digit HUC subwatershed for the year 2011. Values are provided for total...

  17. Mathematical geology studies of deposit prospect types

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Guangping

    1998-08-01

    Exact certainty prospect type of uranium deposit, not only can assure the quality of deposit prospects, but also increase economic benefits. Based on the standard of geological prospect of uranium deposit, the author introduces a method of Fuzzy Synthetical Comment for dividing prospect type of uranium deposit. The practical applications demonstrate that the regression accuracy, discriminated by Zadeh operator, of 15 known deposits is 100%

  18. Bank deposits, notions and features of accounting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Georgeta MELNIC

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Bank deposits are the main method of raising capital and short-term available savings. The opening and using of the bank deposits is the main function of banks. In 2004 the Deposit Guarantee Fund was set up in the Republic of Moldova of Deposit Guarantee Fund and for the first time there was established a guaranteed bank minimum in case of bank insolvency which is currently 6,000 lei for the deposit of each natural person.

  19. Acid deposition: a select review 1852-1990. 2. Effects on materials and health; abatement strategies and programmes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Longhurst, J.W.S.; Raper, D.W.; Lee, D.S.; Heath, B.A.; Conlan, B.; King, H.J. (Manchester Metropolitan University, Manchester (United Kingdom). Atmospheric Research and Information Centre)

    1993-10-01

    Part 2 of this review is concerned with the impact of acid deposits and their precursors on materials and human health, and with the control technologies and programmes introduced as a consequence of the environmental impacts of acid deposition. 269 refs., 8 figs., 8 tabs.

  20. Environmental aspects of tritium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Quisenberry, D.R.

    1979-01-01

    The potential radiological implications of environmental tritium releases must be determined in order to develop a programme for dealing with the tritium inventory predicted for the nuclear power industry which, though still in its infancy, produces tritium in megacurie quantities annually. Should the development of fusion power generation become a reality, it will create a potential source for large releases of tritium, much of it in the gaseous state. At present about 90% of the tritium produced enters the environment through gaseous and liquid effluents and is deposited in the hydrosphere as tritiated water. Tritium can be assimilated by plants and animals and organically bound, regardless of the exposure pathway. However, there appears to be no concentration factor relative to hydrogen at any level of food chains analysed to date. The body burden, for man, is dependent on the exposure pathway and tissue-bound fractions are primarily the result of organically bound tritium in food. (author)

  1. Advanced deposition model for thermal activated chemical vapor deposition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cai, Dang

    Thermal Activated Chemical Vapor Deposition (TACVD) is defined as the formation of a stable solid product on a heated substrate surface from chemical reactions and/or dissociation of gaseous reactants in an activated environment. It has become an essential process for producing solid film, bulk material, coating, fibers, powders and monolithic components. Global market of CVD products has reached multi billions dollars for each year. In the recent years CVD process has been extensively used to manufacture semiconductors and other electronic components such as polysilicon, AlN and GaN. Extensive research effort has been directed to improve deposition quality and throughput. To obtain fast and high quality deposition, operational conditions such as temperature, pressure, fluid velocity and species concentration and geometry conditions such as source-substrate distance need to be well controlled in a CVD system. This thesis will focus on design of CVD processes through understanding the transport and reaction phenomena in the growth reactor. Since the in situ monitor is almost impossible for CVD reactor, many industrial resources have been expended to determine the optimum design by semi-empirical methods and trial-and-error procedures. This approach has allowed the achievement of improvements in the deposition sequence, but begins to show its limitations, as this method cannot always fulfill the more and more stringent specifications of the industry. To resolve this problem, numerical simulation is widely used in studying the growth techniques. The difficulty of numerical simulation of TACVD crystal growth process lies in the simulation of gas phase and surface reactions, especially the latter one, due to the fact that very limited kinetic information is available in the open literature. In this thesis, an advanced deposition model was developed to study the multi-component fluid flow, homogeneous gas phase reactions inside the reactor chamber, heterogeneous surface

  2. Deposition and Resuspension of Particles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lengweiler, P.; Nielsen, Peter V.; Moser, A.

    To investigate the physical process of deposition and resuspension of particles in the indoor environment, scale experiments are used and a sampling method is established. The influences of surface orientation and turbulence and velocity of the air on the dust load on a surface are analysed....

  3. Cluster Implantation and Deposition Apparatus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hanif, Muhammad; Popok, Vladimir

    2015-01-01

    In the current report, a design and capabilities of a cluster implantation and deposition apparatus (CIDA) involving two different cluster sources are described. The clusters produced from gas precursors (Ar, N etc.) by PuCluS-2 can be used to study cluster ion implantation in order to develop...

  4. Deposition gradients across mangrove fringes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Horstman, Erik Martijn; Mullarney, Julia C.; Bryan, K.R.; Sandwell, Dean R.; Aagaard, Troels; Deigaard, Rolf; Fuhrman, David

    2017-01-01

    Observations in a mangrove in the Whangapoua Harbour, New Zealand, have shown that deposition rates are greatest in the fringing zone between the tidal flats and the mangrove forest, where the vegetation is dominated by a cover of pneumatophores (i.e. pencil roots). Current speeds and suspended

  5. Uranium extraction from underground deposits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wolfe, C.R.

    1982-01-01

    Uranium is extracted from underground deposits by passing an aqueous oxidizing solution of carbon dioxide over the ore in the presence of calcium ions. Complex uranium carbonate or bicarbonate ions are formed which enter the solution. The solution is forced to the surface and the uranium removed from it

  6. Electrolytic nickel deposits upon uranium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baudin, G.; Chauvin, G.; Coriou, H.; Hure, J.

    1958-01-01

    The authors present a new possibility to protect uranium by very adherent nickel deposits got by aqueous medium electrolysis. Surface treatment of uranium is based upon the chemical etching method from Lietazke. After thermal treatments at 600, 700 and 800 deg. C, under vacuum, a good intermetallic U-Ni diffusion is observed for each case. (author) [fr

  7. IAEA Classification of Uranium Deposits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bruneton, Patrice

    2014-01-01

    Classifications of uranium deposits follow two general approaches, focusing on: • descriptive features such as the geotectonic position, the host rock type, the orebody morphology, …… : « geologic classification »; • or on genetic aspects: « genetic classification »

  8. Advances in energy deposition theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Paretzke, H.G.

    1980-01-01

    In light of the fields of radiation protection and dosimetric problems in medicine, advances in the area of microscopic target related studies are discussed. Energy deposition is discussed with emphasis upon track structures of electrons and heavy charged particles and track computer calculations

  9. Unconformity-related uranium deposits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ewers, G.R.; Ferguson, J.

    1985-01-01

    Documentation of ore deposit characterisation is being undertaken to assess the controls of uranium mineralisation associated with Proterozoic unconformities. The Turee Creek uranium prospect in Western Australia is associated with a faulted contact between the Middle Proterozoic Kunderong Sandstone and the Lower Proterozoic Wyloo Group

  10. Nitrogen deposition and terrestrial biodiversity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christopher M. Clark; Yongfei Bai; William D. Bowman; Jane M. Cowles; Mark E. Fenn; Frank S. Gilliam; Gareth K. Phoenix; Ilyas Siddique; Carly J. Stevens; Harald U. Sverdrup; Heather L. Throop

    2013-01-01

    Nitrogen deposition, along with habitat losses and climate change, has been identified as a primary threat to biodiversity worldwide (Butchart et al., 2010; MEA, 2005; Sala et al., 2000). The source of this stressor to natural systems is generally twofold: burning of fossil fuels and the use of fertilizers in modern intensive agriculture. Each of these human...

  11. Electro-spark deposition technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johnson, R.N. [Pacific Northwest National Lab., Richland, WA (United States)

    1997-12-01

    Electro-Spark Deposition (ESD) is a micro-welding process that uses short duration, high-current electrical pulses to deposit or alloy a consumable electrode material onto a metallic substrate. The ESD process was developed to produce coatings for use in severe environments where most other coatings fail. Because of the exceptional damage resistance of these coatings, and the versatility of the process to apply a wide variety of alloys, intermetallics, and cermets to metal surfaces, the ESD process has been designated critical to the life and economy of the advanced fossil energy systems as the higher temperatures and corrosive environments exceed the limits of known structural materials to accommodate the service conditions. Developments include producing iron aluminide-based coatings with triple the corrosion resistance of the best previous Fe{sub 3}Al coatings, coatings with refractory metal diffusion barriers and multi layer coatings for achieving functionally gradient properties between the substrate and the surface. A new development is the demonstration of advanced aluminide-based ESD coatings for erosion and wear applications. One of the most significant breakthroughs to occur in the last dozen years is the discovery of a process regime that yields an order of magnitude increase in deposition rates and achievable coating thicknesses. Achieving this regime has required the development of advanced ESD electronic capabilities. Development is now focused on further improvements in deposition rates, system reliability when operating at process extremes, and economic competitiveness.

  12. Deposit competition and loan markets

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Arping, S.

    Less-intense competition for deposits, by mitigating banks’ incentive to take excessive risks, is traditionally believed to lead to lower non-performing loan (NPL) ratios and more-stable banks. This paper revisits this proposition in a model with borrower moral hazard in which banks’ NPL ratios

  13. The uranium deposits of Ontario

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Robertson, J.A.

    1981-01-01

    The principal types of uranium deposits in Ontario are carbonatites and fenites, alkalic volcanic rocks, pegiatites, calc-silicate rocks, pyritic quartz-pebble conglomerates, polymictic conglomerates and some pelitic rocks, and various 'pitchblende' deposits including late Precambrian unconformities, possibly late Precambrian diabase dikes, and other unconformities: carbonates, sandstones, lignites, and semi-pelitic rocks of middle and upper Precambrian age. Only red unzoned pegmatite and the pyritic quartz-pebble conglomerate have supported production. Ontario reasonably assured and estimated resources in the economic and subeconomic categories in 1977 amounted to 553 000 tonnes U, and 1977 production was 4000 tonnes U. Measured, indicated, and inferred resources in the Elliot Lake - Agnew Lake area are at least 400 000 tonnes U. The latter deposits are also a significant thorium resource. Geological features reflecting major changes in physics and chemistry are prime controls on distribution of uranium deposits. Geological province and subprovince boundaries, major faults, higher metamorphic grades, domain boundaries related to quartz monzonite batholiths, alkalic complexes, and the distribution of carbonate rocks are examples of such geological features

  14. Persisting roughness when deposition stops.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwartz, Moshe; Edwards, S F

    2004-12-01

    Useful theories for growth of surfaces under random deposition of material have been developed by several authors. The simplest theory is that introduced by Edwards and Wilkinson (EW), which is linear and soluble. Its nonlinear generalization by Kardar, Parisi, and Zhang (KPZ) resulted in many subsequent studies. Yet both EW and KPZ theories contain an unphysical feature. When deposition of material is stopped, both theories predict that as time tends to infinity, the surface becomes flat. In fact, of course, the final surface is not flat, but simply has no gradients larger than the gradient related to the angle of repose. We modify the EW and KPZ theories to accommodate this feature and study the consequences for the simpler system which is a modification of the EW equation. In spite of the fact that the equation describing the evolution of the surface is not linear, we find that the steady state in the presence of noise is not very different in the long-wavelength limit from that of the linear EW equation. The situation is quite different from that of EW when deposition stops. Initially there is still some rearrangement of the surface, but that stops as everywhere on the surface the gradient is less than that related to the angle of repose. The most interesting feature observed after deposition stops is the emergence of history-dependent steady-state distributions.

  15. Discharge cleaning of carbon deposits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mozetic, M.; Vesel, A.; Drenik, A.

    2006-01-01

    Experimental results of discharge cleaning of carbon deposits are presented. Deposits were prepared by creating plasma in pure methane. The methane was cracked in RF discharge at the output power of 250 W. The resultant radicals were bonded to the wall of discharge vessel forming a thin film of hydrogenated black carbon with the thickness of about 200nm. The film was then cleaned in situ by oxygen plasma with the density of about 1x10 16 m -3 , electron temperature of 5 eV, neutral gas kinetic temperature of about 100 0 C and neutral atom density of 6x10 21 m -3 . The treatment time was 30 minutes. The efficiency of plasma cleaning was monitored by optical emission spectroscopy. As long as the wall was contaminated with carbon deposit, substantial emission of the CO molecules was detected. As the cleaning was in progress, the CO emission was decreasing and vanished after 30 minutes when the discharge vessel became free of any carbon. The results are explained by interaction of plasma radicals with carbon deposits. (author)

  16. Environmental dosimetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gold, R.

    1977-01-01

    For more than 60 years, natural radiation has offered broad opportunities for basic research as evidenced by many fundamental discoveries. Within the last decade, however, dramatic changes have occurred in the motivation and direction of this research. The urgent need for economical energy sources entailing acceptably low levels of environmental impact has compelled the applied aspects of our radiation environment to become overriding considerations. It is within this general framework that state-of-the-art environmental dosimetry techniques are reviewed. Although applied motivation and relevance underscores the current milieu for both reactor and environmental dosimetry, a perhaps even more unifying force is the broad similarity of reactor and environmental radiation fields. In this review, a comparison of these two mixed radiation fields is presented stressing the underlying similarities that exist. On this basis, the evolution of a strong inner bond between dosimetry methods for both reactor and environmental radiation fields is described. The existence of this bond will be illustrated using representative examples of observed spectra. Dosimetry methods of particularly high applicability for both of these fields are described. Special emphasis is placed on techniques of high sensitivity and absolute accuracy which are capable of resolving the components of these mixed radiation fields

  17. Atmospheric concentrations and deposition of oxidised sulfur and nitrogen species at Petaling Jaya, Malaysia, 1993-1998

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ayers, G.P.; Gillett, R.W.; Manins, P.C. [CSIRO Atmospheric Research, Aspendale, VIC (Australia); Peng Leong Chow; Fook Lim Sze [Malaysian Meteorological Service, Petaling Jaya (Malaysia); Kong Cheah Wai [Tenaga Nasional R and D Berhad, Kajang (Malaysia)

    2000-02-01

    Wet-only rainwater composition, acid-precursor gas mixing ratios and aerosol loading were determined from weekly-averaged samples at Petaling Jaya, Malaysia, over the five year period from March 1993 to March 1998. Annual deposition fluxes of acidic sulfur and nitrogen species estimated from these data show this site to be heavily impacted by acidic deposition, with total oxidised sulfur plus nitrogen deposition in the range 277-480 meq m{sup -2} yr{sup -1}. Average contributions were 56% as sulfur species, 44% as nitrogen species, with wet deposition in this region of high rainfall accounting for 67% of total deposition. Thus total acid deposition fluxes were equivalent to levels that provided motivation for emissions reduction programs in both Europe and North America. The possibility of adverse environmental effects in Malaysia caused by acid deposition therefore merits serious consideration and assessment.

  18. Effects of experimental seaweed deposition on lizard and ant predation in an island food web.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piovia-Scott, Jonah; Spiller, David A; Schoener, Thomas W

    2011-01-28

    The effect of environmental change on ecosystems is mediated by species interactions. Environmental change may remove or add species and shift life-history events, altering which species interact at a given time. However, environmental change may also reconfigure multispecies interactions when both species composition and phenology remain intact. In a Caribbean island system, a major manifestation of environmental change is seaweed deposition, which has been linked to eutrophication, overfishing, and hurricanes. Here, we show in a whole-island field experiment that without seaweed two predators--lizards and ants--had a substantially greater-than-additive effect on herbivory. When seaweed was added to mimic deposition by hurricanes, no interactive predator effect occurred. Thus environmental change can substantially restructure food-web interactions, complicating efforts to predict anthropogenic changes in ecosystem processes.

  19. Environmental microbiology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Briški, Felicita; Vuković Domanovac, Marija

    2017-10-01

    For most people, microorganisms are out of sight and therefore out of mind but they are large, extremely diverse group of organisms, they are everywhere and are the dominant form of life on planet Earth. Almost every surface is colonized by microorganisms, including our skin; however most of them are harmless to humans. Some microorganisms can live in boiling hot springs, whereas others form microbial communities in frozen sea ice. Among their many roles, microorganisms are necessary for biogeochemical cycling, soil fertility, decomposition of dead plants and animals and biodegradation of many complex organic compounds present in the environment. Environmental microbiology is concerned with the study of microorganisms in the soil, water and air and their application in bioremediation to reduce environmental pollution through the biological degradation of pollutants into non-toxic or less toxic substances. Field of environmental microbiology also covers the topics such as microbially induced biocorrosion, biodeterioration of constructing materials and microbiological quality of outdoor and indoor air.

  20. Environmental terrorism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zirschky, J.

    1988-01-01

    Environmental terrorism is described as the deliberate use or threat of use of physical, chemical, nuclear, or bacteriological agents in the commission of a terrorist act; an act in which either the agent is delivered to a target population by use of an environmental medium (such as air, water, or soil) or the agent is used to render a natural resource unsuitable for a desired use. Among the recommendations for safeguarding against environmental terrorism are: changes in reporting requirements for chemical inventories and sensitive information such as security measures; development of effective emergency response plans; development of a public relations program to be implemented after an incident in which the goal of the terrorist is to discredit a particular company; and protection from liability for terrorist acts

  1. Environmental management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Girard, M.; Mondino, M.

    2000-01-01

    Nowadays, unlike in the past, companies have to operate in a context of sustainable development, in which the economic and social development, production and consumption have to take into account the medium and long term impact on environment. The article sets forth some considerations about these subjects, which are assuming a growing importance in the management of companies: the variable environment may for instance be a factor of discrimination between being competitive or not. In order to characterise the context within which the environmental management has to be applied, some basic concepts about environmental management systems, Life Cycle Assessment, and Eco labeling are illustrated. As an example of application of the methodology described, a brief reference to the Italgas Group Environmental Report is given [it

  2. Environmental Tracers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Trevor Elliot

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Environmental tracers continue to provide an important tool for understanding the source, flow and mixing dynamics of water resource systems through their imprint on the system or their sensitivity to alteration within it. However, 60 years or so after the first isotopic tracer studies were applied to hydrology, the use of isotopes and other environmental tracers are still not routinely necessarily applied in hydrogeological and water resources investigations where appropriate. There is therefore a continuing need to promote their use for developing sustainable management policies for the protection of water resources and the aquatic environment. This Special Issue focuses on the robustness or fitness-for-purpose of the application and use of environmental tracers in addressing problems and opportunities scientifically, to promote their wider use and to address substantive issues of vulnerability, sustainability, and uncertainty in (groundwater resources systems and their management.

  3. Microbial deposition of gold nanoparticles by the metal-reducing bacterium Shewanella algae

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Konishi, Y.; Tsukiyama, T.; Tachimi, T.; Saitoh, N.; Nomura, T.; Nagamine, S.

    2007-01-01

    Microbial reduction and deposition of gold nanoparticles was achieved at 25 deg. C over the pH range 2.0-7.0 using the mesophilic bacterium Shewanella algae in the presence of H 2 as the electron donor. The reductive deposition of gold by the resting cells of S. algae was a fast process: 1 mM AuCl 4 - ions were completely reduced to elemental gold within 30 min. At a solution pH of 7, gold nanoparticles 10-20 nm in size were deposited in the periplasmic space of S. algae cells. At pH 2.8, gold nanoparticles 15-200 nm in size were deposited on the bacterial cells, and the biogenic nanoparticles exhibited a variety of shapes that included nanotriangles: in particular, single crystalline gold nanotriangles 100-200 nm in size were microbially deposited. At a solution pH of 2.0, gold nanoparticles about 20 nm in size were deposited intracellularly, and larger gold particles approximately 350 nm in size were deposited extracellularly. The solution pH was an important factor in controlling the morphology of the biogenic gold particles and the location of gold deposition. Microbial deposition of gold nanoparticles is potentially attractive as an environmentally friendly alternative to conventional methods

  4. Festive environmentalism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olwig, Mette Fog; Christiansen, Lene Bull

    2016-01-01

    Mikhail Bakhtin’s idea of the carnivalesque is applied here to a case study of eco-voluntourism at the Roskilde Festival, an international culture and music event held in Denmark. In the literature on popular forms of environmentalism a dichotomy between engaging and educating about the political...... ecology of environmental issues through empathy and affect versus fun and entertainment, is often drawn. We argue that the carnivalesque enables festivals to move beyond this dichotomy by implicitly acknowledging a mind-body tension (against a fixed binary), as embedded in Western culture, and by offering...

  5. Environmental law

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1980-01-01

    This pocketbook contains major federal regulations on environmental protection. They serve to protect and cultivate mankind's natural foundations of life, to preserve the environment. The environmental law is devided as follows: Constitutional law on the environment, common administrative law on the environment, special administrative law on the environment including conservation of nature and preservation of rural amenities, protection of waters, waste management, protection against nuisances, nuclear energy and radiation protection, energy conservation, protection against dangerous substances, private law relating to the environment, criminal law relating to the environment. (HSCH) [de

  6. Inkjet printing of aqueous rivulets: Formation, deposition, and applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bromberg, Vadim

    early-time dynamics during rivulet formation in determining the nature of subsequent particle convection and deposition. New flow and deposition phenomena have also been identified and leveraged to develop novel processes for deposition of micron-scale electrically conducting lines of silver nanoparticles. Low-temperature processing of printed silver nitrate lines with environmentally benign Ar plasma to improve electrical properties has also been investigated and will be discussed.

  7. Improving deposition tester to study adherent deposits in papermaking

    OpenAIRE

    Monte Lara, Concepción; Sánchez, Mónica; Blanco Suárez, Ángeles; Negro Álvarez, Carlos; Tijero Miquel, Julio

    2012-01-01

    Conventional methods used for the quantification of adherent material contained in a pulp suspension propose either filtration of the sample, which may lead to loss of sticky material in the filtrate, or dilution of the pulp, which may cause destabilization of the dissolved and colloidal material; thus, leading to unreliable results. In 1998, the Cellulose and Paper Group of University Complutense of Madrid developed a deposition tester which aimed to quantify the adherence of material (micro...

  8. Constructing deposition chronologies for peat deposits using radiocarbon dating

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Piotrowska

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Radiocarbon dating is one of the main methods used to establish peat chronologies. This article reviews the basis of the method and its application to dating of peat deposits. Important steps in the radiocarbon dating procedure are described, including selection and extraction of material (and fractions for dating, chemical and physical preparation of media suitable for measurements, measurements of 14C activity or concentration, calculations, calibration of results and age-depth modelling.

  9. Radiological impact assessment in Bagjata uranium deposit: a case study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sarangi, A.K.; Bhowmik, S.C.; Jha, V.N.

    2007-01-01

    The uranium ore mining facility, in addition to the desirable product, produces wastes in the form of environmental releases or effluents to air, water and soil. The toxicological and other (non-radiological) effects are generally addressed in EIA/EMP studies as per MOEF guidelines. Since the uranium ore is radioactive, it is desirable to conduct a study on radiological effects considering the impacts of radiological releases to the environment. Before undertaking the commercial mining operations at Bagjata uranium deposit in the Singhbhum east district of Jharkhand, pre-operational radiological base line data were generated and a separate study on radiological impact on various environmental matrices was conducted in line with the International Atomic Energy Agency's laid out guidelines. The paper describes the philosophy of such studies and the findings that helped in formulating a separate environmental management plan. (author)

  10. Vapor deposition of tantalum and tantalum compounds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Trkula, M.

    1996-01-01

    Tantalum, and many of its compounds, can be deposited as coatings with techniques ranging from pure, thermal chemical vapor deposition to pure physical vapor deposition. This review concentrates on chemical vapor deposition techniques. The paper takes a historical approach. The authors review classical, metal halide-based techniques and current techniques for tantalum chemical vapor deposition. The advantages and limitations of the techniques will be compared. The need for new lower temperature processes and hence new precursor chemicals will be examined and explained. In the last section, they add some speculation as to possible new, low-temperature precursors for tantalum chemical vapor deposition

  11. Adhesion Strength of Biomass Ash Deposits

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Laxminarayan, Yashasvi; Jensen, Peter Arendt; Wu, Hao

    2016-01-01

    . Therefore, timely removal of ash deposits is essential for optimal boiler operation. In order to improve the qualitative and quantitative understanding of deposit shedding in boilers, this study investigates the shear adhesion strength of biomass ash deposits on superheater tubes. Artificial biomass ash...... deposits were prepared on superheater tubes and sintered in an oven at temperatures up to 1000 °C. Subsequently, the deposits were sheared off by an electrically controlled arm, and the corresponding adhesion strength was measured. The results reveal the effect of temperature, ash/deposit composition......, sintering duration, and steel type on the adhesion strength....

  12. Elemental concentrations in deposited dust on leaves along an urbanization gradient.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simon, Edina; Baranyai, Edina; Braun, Mihály; Cserháti, Csaba; Fábián, István; Tóthmérész, Béla

    2014-08-15

    Environmental health is an essential component of the quality of life in modern societies. Monitoring of environmental quality and the assessment of environmental risks are often species based on the elemental concentration of deposited dust. Our result suggested that stomata size and distribution were the most important factors influencing the accumulation of air contaminants in leaves. We found that the leaves' surfaces of Acer negundo and Celtis occidentalis were covered by a large number of trichomes, and these species have proven to be suitable biomonitors for atmospheric pollution difficult; these can be overcome using bioindicator species. Leaves of Padus serotina, Acer campestre, A. negundo, Quercus robur and C. occidentalis were used to assess the amount of deposited dust and the concentration of contaminants in deposited dust in and around the city of Debrecen, Hungary. Samples were collected from an urban, suburban and rural area along an urbanization gradient. The concentrations of Ba, Cu, Fe, Mn, Ni, Pb, S, Sr and Zn were determined in deposited dust using ICP-OES. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) was used to explore the morphological structure and dust absorbing capacity of leaves. We found significant differences in dust deposition among species, and dust deposition correlated with trichomes' density. Principal component analysis (PCA) also showed a total separation of tree. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Environmental catalysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Montes Consuelo; Villa, Aida Luz

    1996-01-01

    The term environmental catalysis has been used lately to refer to a variety of applications of the catalysis, those which, they have grouped in the following categories: a) Control of emissions (chimney Gases and gases of the vehicles, Compound Organic Volatile (VOC), Scents, Chlorofluorocarbons) b) Conversion of having undone solids or liquids. C) Selective obtaining of alternating products that replace polluting compounds. d)replacement of catalysis environmentally dangerous And e)Development of catalysts for the obtaining of valuable chemical products without the formation of polluting by-products. In the group of Environmental Catalysis comes working in the first category, Particularly, in the exploration of active catalysts in the decrease of the emissions coming from combustion systems, carbon monoxide, hydrocarbons, nitrogen oxides (NOx), N20 and sulfur (SOx). Our fundamental premise is that the molecular meshes are catalytic potential for the development of a technology environmentally clean. These materials understand a class of inorganic compound with unique properties and intimately related with the structure. The net of the molecular meshes consists on tetrahedral configuration atoms (Al,Si, P, etc.) united to each other by oxygen atoms. As a result they are not formed three-dimensional structures alone with channels and cavities but also, with openings bounded by rings that consist of a certain number of tetrahedral atoms

  14. Environmental Quality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abelson, Philip H.

    1972-01-01

    Data from the Third Annual Report of the United States Council of Environmental Quality are used in an editorial advocating the use of some of the money committed to cleaning air and water to create a more adequate knowledge base for action. (AL)

  15. Environmental surveys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Costa-Ribeiro, C.

    1977-01-01

    An environmental survey conducted in high natural radioactivity areas and methods used to evaluated radiation doses received by the population are presented. It is shown doses absorved due to ingestion of radioactively contaminated food and water. Exposure to external gamma radiation fields or inhalation of abnormal quantities of natural airborne radioactivity are discussed [pt

  16. Environmental Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heiser, Ed

    Furnished in this comprehensive report is a resume of a five-year experimental program in environmental education conducted by the Eastern Montana College Laboratory School in conjunction with Eastern Montana College and the Billings School District #2. The basic purpose of the program is to make teachers, and in turn students, aware of the…

  17. Environmental Assessment

    OpenAIRE

    The Inspection Panel

    2017-01-01

    The Inspection Panel, the World Bank’s independent accountability mechanism, has released the third report in its Emerging Lessons Series. The latest report identifies lessons from Panel cases related to environmental assessment (EA) issues. The Panel is an impartial fact-finding body, independent from the World Bank management and staff, reporting directly to the Board. In response to com...

  18. Environmental implications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clark, K.

    1997-01-01

    The environmental concerns typical of the Canadian Arctic and the Beaufort Sea, which impacted on oil and gas exploration were discussed. Environmental regulations and legislation in existence were explained. Most regulations required submission of permit applications that among other things, described the type of equipment to be used and the time and duration of the use. Companies also had to demonstrate that they had the capability to deal with oil spill scenarios. If an oil spill had a significant effect on the numbers of animals, the Inuit would have to be compensated. According to members of the native population, much damage was done initially to wildlife habitats and population, although this improved somewhat later as regulations concerning seismic and explosive activities were strengthened and technology improved, producing fewer harmful environmental impacts. All in all, activity in the Beaufort Sea did not result in any major environmental disasters, but there were many disturbances in the seafloor, permafrost and ice dynamics, as well as an increase in ambient noise levels which resulted in behavioural changes in the organisms close to the drilling activities. 19 figs

  19. Geochronology and petrogenesis of the Qibaoshan Cu-polymetallic deposit, northeastern Hunan Province: Implications for the metal source and metallogenic evolution of the intracontinental Qinhang Cu-polymetallic belt, South China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Shunda; Mao, Jingwen; Zhao, Panlao; Yuan, Yabin

    2018-03-01

    The recently recognized Qinhang metallogenic belt (QHMB) is an economically important intracontinental Mesozoic porphyry-skarn Cu-polymetallic metallogenic belt in South China. However, the origin of the ore-bearing magma and the major factors controlling the different metal assemblages in the QHMB are still unclear. The Qibaoshan deposit is a large Cu-Au-Pb-Zn-Ag-Fe deposit located at the juncture between the northern and central parts of the QHMB. In this study, new zircon U-Pb ages, Hf-O isotopic data, molybdenite Re-Os ages, and whole-rock geochemical data are combined to constrain the timing of the mineralization and the origin and petrogenesis of the ore-bearing porphyry in the Qibaoshan deposit. The ages obtained from both zircon U-Pb and molybdenite Re-Os dating fall in the Late Jurassic (between 152.7 and 148.3 Ma), revealing that this deposit is significantly younger than previously estimated (227-184 Ma). The Qibaoshan ore-bearing quartz porphyry shows variable negative zircon εHf(t) values (-14.8 to -5.5), high δ18O values (8.4 to 10.8‰), and high Mg# values (69.1 to 73.0), indicating that it formed via the partial melting of ancient crust triggered by the injection of mantle-derived magma. Zircon Hf-O isotopic modeling of the mixing of two extreme endmembers indicates that the magmatic source comprised 70-80% reworked ancient crustal components and 20-30% depleted mantle components. Based on comparisons with other ore-bearing porphyries in the QHMB, a magmatic source dominated by crust-derived material and relatively low oxygen fugacities (ΔFMQ -1.8 to ΔFMQ +0.8) was responsible for the high (Pb + Zn)/Cu ratio in the Qibaoshan deposit, and the Pb, Zn and Ag were mainly derived from the reworked ancient crust. Although four analyses of inherited Neoproterozoic zircons ( 800 Ma) have variable positive εHf(t) values (0.72 to 11.21), indicating that Neoproterozoic juvenile crust was involved in the formation of the Qibaoshan ore-bearing quartz

  20. Environmental education

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abdulhaye, F.

    2005-01-01

    The environment is an intricate mixture of natural, built and social components. The natural environment includes air, water, land, climate, flora and fauna, while the built environment consists of the fabric of building infrastructure and open space. The social component of the environment embraces the aesthetics, amenity quality, architectural style, heritages, law behavior, values and traditions of the society. In ecological terms the environment is a distortion of natural ecosystems or an ecosystem in its own right. A characteristic of the urban area is their fast changing nature with respect to their size, form, density and activity. This dynamism stems out of the basic functions of economic, social and cultural developments. The complexity and multiplicity of urban activities gives rise to a variety of environmental problems. Given their different level of economic and social development and the geography, not all the cities have identical problems, yet they have much in common. While the large cities of developed countries have long suffered the problem of pollution, inner city decay and neighborhood collapse, those in the less developed countries face more varied complex problems due to their overpopulation, poverty, inadequacy and poor quality of urban services, infrastructure, transportation, and changing life style. However the increasing pollution is common to the most of the cities and is the major cause of environmental degradation. Given the very serious nature of this problem it is essential to tackle this issue by incorporating the environmental concerns in the education system of Pakistan. This paper would give a brief overview of the environmental problems, and a detailed analysis of the status environmental issues in Pakistan. (author)

  1. Investigation on the age of mineralization in the Sungun porphyry Cu-Mo deposit, NW Iran with a regional metallogenic perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simmonds, Vartan; Moazzen, Mohssen; Mathur, Ryan

    2016-04-01

    The Sungun porphyry copper deposit (PCD) is located in NW Iran, neighbouring several other PCDs and prospects in the region and the Lesser Caucasus (south Armenia). It lies on the Urumieh-Dokhtar magmatic arc (UDMA), which formed through the northeast-ward subduction of the Neo-Tethyan oceanic crust beneath the Central Iranian plate during late-Mesozoic and early-Cenozoic [1], and hosts the porphyry copper metallogenic belt of Iran. The Sungun PCD is the second largest deposit in Iran with ore reserves of about 850 Mt at 0.62 wt% Cu and 0.01 wt% Mo and probable reserves over 1Gt. The monzonitic to quartz monzonitic porphyry stock intruded the upper Cretaceous carbonates and Eocene volcano-sedimentary rocks. It produced a skarn-type mineralization at its contact zone with the carbonate rocks, as well as vast hydrothermal alteration zones and porphyry-type Cu and Mo mineralization. The zircon U-Pb age of the host porphyry stock is about 22.5±0.4 to 20.1±0.4 Ma [2]. Re-Os dating of four molybdenite separates from this PCD shows ages ranging between 22.9±0.2 to 21.7±0.2 Ma, with an average of 22.57±0.2 Ma, corresponding to the early Miocene (Aquitanian). These ages indicate that both the porphyry stock and the Cu-Mo mineralization are post-collisional events, similar to many other deposits and prospects in NW and central Iran and south Armenia, and the mineralization occurred shortly after the emplacement of the host stock, corresponding better to the ages obtained from the marginal parts of the stock. Magmatism and mineralization in Sungun coincides with the third metallogenic epoch in the Lesser Caucasus (Eocene to Miocene; [3]), though it is considerably younger than all of the dated PCDs and prospects in the south Armenia. It also postdates Cu-Mo mineralizations in the Saheb Divan (35 Ma), Qaradagh batholith (31.22±0.28 to 25.19±0.19 Ma), as well as Haft Cheshmeh PCD (28.18±0.42 to 27.05±0.37 Ma) in NW Iran, while it seems to be coeval with the Kighal

  2. Dust deposit in recirculation regions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Griemert, R.

    1985-03-01

    The present report shows investigations, which have been carried out in a closed duct at forward and backward facing steps. Distribution of fluid velocity and fluid fluctuations in and normal to main flow direction as well as the distribution of Reynolds shear stress have been measured. The mass transfer downstream of a backward facing step has been investigated as well. By using graphite-, copper-, tin- and rubber dust, conditions of deposition have been defined experimentally. A serie of photos shows the filling of a recirculation region downstream of a backward facing step with graphite dust. The present investigations allow to avoid deposition of dust in recirculation regions by selecting the fluid numbers in an appropriate way. (orig.) [de

  3. High throughput semiconductor deposition system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, David L.; Ptak, Aaron Joseph; Kuech, Thomas F.; Schulte, Kevin; Simon, John D.

    2017-11-21

    A reactor for growing or depositing semiconductor films or devices. The reactor may be designed for inline production of III-V materials grown by hydride vapor phase epitaxy (HVPE). The operating principles of the HVPE reactor can be used to provide a completely or partially inline reactor for many different materials. An exemplary design of the reactor is shown in the attached drawings. In some instances, all or many of the pieces of the reactor formed of quartz, such as welded quartz tubing, while other reactors are made from metal with appropriate corrosion resistant coatings such as quartz or other materials, e.g., corrosion resistant material, or stainless steel tubing or pipes may be used with a corrosion resistant material useful with HVPE-type reactants and gases. Using HVPE in the reactor allows use of lower-cost precursors at higher deposition rates such as in the range of 1 to 5 .mu.m/minute.

  4. The unending deposit insurance mess.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kane, E J

    1989-10-27

    The thrift institution deposit insurance mess is rooted in defects in political and bureaucratic accountability. Under existing incentives, covering up evidence of poor regulatory performance and relaxing binding capital requirements are rational governmental responses to widespread industry insolvency. Similarly, aggressive industry risk taking is a rational response by thrift managers to regulatory forbearances. Far from acknowledging these incentive defects, the Bush plan for cleaning up the mess adopts theories that spotlight other causes: specifically, poor thrift management and the deregulation of thrift institution activities and of deposit interest rates. To end the mess, politicians and regulators must jettison these comfortable theories and surrender discretion that permits them to finesse the need to budget for governmental financial commitments.

  5. Local deposition of high-purity Pt nanostructures by combining electron beam induced deposition and atomic layer deposition

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mackus, A.J.M.; Mulders, J.J.L.; Sanden, van de M.C.M.; Kessels, W.M.M.

    2010-01-01

    An approach for direct-write fabrication of high-purity platinum nanostructures has been developed by combining nanoscale lateral patterning by electron beam induced deposition (EBID) with area-selective deposition of high quality material by atomic layer deposition (ALD). Because virtually pure,

  6. Pele Plume Deposit on Io

    Science.gov (United States)

    1997-01-01

    The varied effects of Ionian volcanism can be seen in this false color infrared composite image of Io's trailing hemisphere. Low resolution color data from Galileo's first orbit (June, 1996) have been combined with a higher resolution clear filter picture taken on the third orbit (November, 1996) of the spacecraft around Jupiter.A diffuse ring of bright red material encircles Pele, the site of an ongoing, high velocity volcanic eruption. Pele's plume is nearly invisible, except in back-lit photographs, but its deposits indicate energetic ejection of sulfurous materials out to distances more than 600 kilometers from the central vent. Another bright red deposit lies adjacent to Marduk, also a currently active ediface. High temperature hot spots have been detected at both these locations, due to the eruption of molten material in lava flows or lava lakes. Bright red deposits on Io darken and disappear within years or decades of deposition, so the presence of bright red materials marks the sites of recent volcanism.This composite was created from data obtained by the Solid State Imaging (CCD) system aboard NASA's Galileo spacecraft. The region imaged is centered on 15 degrees South, 224 degrees West, and is almost 2400 kilometers across. The finest details that can be discerned in this picture are about 3 kilometers across. North is towards the top of the picture and the sun illuminates the surface from the west.The Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, CA manages the mission for NASA's Office of Space Science, Washington, DC.This image and other images and data received from Galileo are posted on the World Wide Web, on the Galileo mission home page at URL http://galileo.jpl.nasa.gov. Background information and educational context for the images can be found at URL http://www.jpl.nasa.gov/galileo/sepo

  7. Complexing and hydrothermal ore deposition

    CERN Document Server

    Helgeson, Harold C

    1964-01-01

    Complexing and Hydrothermal Ore Deposition provides a synthesis of fact, theory, and interpretative speculation on hydrothermal ore-forming solutions. This book summarizes information and theory of the internal chemistry of aqueous electrolyte solutions accumulated in previous years. The scope of the discussion is limited to those aspects of particular interest to the geologist working on the problem of hydrothermal ore genesis. Wherever feasible, fundamental principles are reviewed. Portions of this text are devoted to calculations of specific hydrothermal equilibriums in multicompone

  8. Native gold from the Inagli Pt-Au placer deposit (the Aldan Shield, Russia): geochemical characteristics and implications for possible bedrock sources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Svetlitskaya, Tatyana V.; Nevolko, Peter A.; Kolpakov, Vladislav V.; Tolstykh, Nadezhda D.

    2018-03-01

    The Inagli alluvial Pt-Au placer deposit in the Republic of Sakha (Yakutia), Russia, is linked to the Inagli massif, one of the several Uralian-Alaskan-type alkaline-ultrabasic complexes in the Aldan Shield. Gold from the placer is heterogeneous in composition and is represented by three types. Type 1 gold is the most abundant and is characterized by simple Au-Ag alloys with 4-34 wt% Ag, low Cu (up to 0.08 wt%) and negligible Hg, Pt, and Pd contents, and silver-tellurium sulfosalts (Ag-Cu-Te-S-As compounds) in the inclusion suite. Silicate inclusions are biotite, K-feldspar, Fe-Mg amphibole, chlorite, plagioclase, Fe-Mg pyroxene, zircon, and titanite. Distinctive features of this gold type are most similar to those derived from low-sulfidation systems linked to iron oxide copper-gold or iron skarn types of mineralization. The bedrock source of type 1 gold could be related with monzonite to syenite intrusions surrounding the Inagli massif. Distinctive features of type 2 gold include a wide discontinuous range of Ag content (1-18 wt%), elevated Cu (up to 0.5 wt%), and occasional Pd (up to 0.3 wt%) levels, non-detectable Pt and Hg contents, and rare inclusions of simple sulfides (digenite, pyrrhotite) and Na amphibole. Type 3 gold is distinguished by a narrow range in Ag content (5-8 wt%), elevated Hg (0.5-1 wt%) contents, negligible Cu, Pt and Pd levels, and Au-Pb compounds + K-feldspar inclusions. Microchemical characteristics of type 2 and type 3 gold are interpreted as suggestive of an alkaline-magmatic-related fluid. Based on the grain morphology and microchemical signatures, potential bedrock sources for both gold types could be related to the numerous alkaline veins and potassic alteration zones within the dunite core. A comparison of the Inagli and the Kondyor placer gold allows to generate distinctive generic signatures for gold from Uralian-Alaskan-type alkaline-ultrabasic complexes in the Aldan Shield.

  9. Uranium deposits obtention for fission chambers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Artacho Saviron, E.

    1972-01-01

    The obtention of uranium deposits of the required quality for small cylindrical fission chambers presents some difficulties. With the method of electroplating here described the uniformity, reproducibility and adherence of the obtained deposits were satisfactory. (Author) 6 refs

  10. Federal Deposit Insurance Corporation (FDIC) Insured Banks

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Homeland Security — The Summary of Deposits (SOD) is the annual survey of branch office deposits for all FDIC-insured institutions including insured U.S. branches of foreign banks. Data...

  11. Beverley project: draft environmental impact statement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1982-07-01

    The Beverley deposit is located on the northern Lake Frome Plains, South Australia, 520km north of Adelaide. It is proposed to mine the deposit by in-situ leaching and to process the solution on the surface to produce an estimated 11,600t of yellowcake from about 6 million tonnes of 0.27% ore over approximately 23 years. The draft environmental impact statement is intended to cover all stages of the development from the pilot plant to final rehabilitation. Sections include the existing environment (geology, climate and meteorology, soils, hydrology, ecology, radionuclide base levels, land use, population and sites of Aboriginal and archaeological significance), the proposed development (solution mining, waste management, water management and mining and processing options), rehabilitation, environmental impact and environmental management and monitoring

  12. Environmental Fundamentals. Environmental Education Curriculum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Topeka Public Schools, KS.

    This unit presents materials to develop some of the basic knowledge necessary for grasping the complex processes associated with environmental relationships. It is divided into five topics: (1) Basic Needs for Life--the biological necessities of plants and animals; (2) Food Web--the interactions between organisms; (3) Observational Skills--ways…

  13. Environmental Management System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goals Recycling Green Purchasing Pollution Prevention Reusing Water Resources Environmental Management Stewardship » Environmental Protection » Environmental Management System Environmental Management System An Environmental Management System is a systematic method for assessing mission activities, determining the

  14. Environmental issues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grove-White, Robin

    1985-01-01

    There is still very little official acceptance that environmental factors will impose major constraints on the development of energy supply options in the United Kingdom in the future. This paper argues that such an acceptance is needed urgently and should begin to affect governmental policies immediately. UK energy policy ought to be to intensify energy efficiency and conservation throughout the economy and hence reduce the need to expand new supply sources. The general energy requirements in the UK are first considered. Problems of energy supply expansion, particularly nuclear power and coal are considered. Resolution of the problems identified in the UK political and administrative context is discussed. Then the environmental aspects are considered. A comment on the paper follows and raises two questions about market-based energy policy; does it preclude intervention to promote economic efficiency in the use of energy and, does it lead to economic efficiency. (U.K.)

  15. Environmental controls

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brown, S.

    1996-01-01

    Members of the public are exposed to environmental radiations from a variety of sources. In terms of average dose received the major component is from natural sources of radiation for which there is little or no scope to reduce exposure. Where such opportunities do exist, in those homes with high radon concentrations, the householders tend to ignore the risks despite the availability of comparatively straightforward and inexpensive remediation measures. By comparison there is significant public concern about radioactive waste management and the disposal and discharge of radioactivity to the environment despite strict environmental controls. This paper describes the controls and the wider policy context for radioactive waste management following a major review of policy last year. (author)

  16. Environmental products

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-12-01

    This volume in the series of directories of Quebec organizations doing research and development involving biomass-based products or processes focused on environmental products and services. The objective of this, and other directories in the series, was to stimulate interaction, and hence more aggressive development, of products and processes capable of being commercialized, to facilitate interaction between those who possess and those who could utilize biomass resources, and in general, to encourage the development of biomass-based industries. A total of 83 organizations were included in standardized format, describing areas of research interest, principal areas of technological expertise, major equipment, personnel and name and address of contact person. In this volume fields of research interest included environmental audits, waste treatment, biodegradation, composting, oxidation, photodegradation, disinfection and combustion. tabs

  17. Environmental pollution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Odzuck, W.

    1982-01-01

    The volume of the anthropogenic pollution of the environment (incl. radioactivity) is of great economical importance and has also a meaning to the health and happiness of people. The pocket book introduces into the whole problem by giving exact information and data. After a general survey, the pollutions of urban-industrial, and aquatic ecosystems are dealt with. The book closes with indications as to general principles, specific dangers, and the fature development of the environmental pollution. (orig.) [de

  18. Environmental physiology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1979-01-01

    Summaries of research projects conducted during 1978 and 1979 are presented. Subject areas include: the effects of environmental pollutants on homeostasis of the hematopoietic system; pollutant effects on steroid metabolism; pollutant effects on pulmonary macrophages; effects of toxic gases on lung cells; the development of immunological methods for assessing lung damage at the cellular level; the response of erythropoietin concentration to various physiological changes; and the study of actinide metabolism in monkey skeletons

  19. Environmental Business

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-02-01

    This book introduces business strategy to save the earth, which are foundation of system in the company, collection of disposable camera, resort which don't destroy environment, core strategy of item project, cutback of Freon gas, production of plastic which is degraded, export of pollution prevention technology, increasing waste and changing waste, rule on construction waste, responsibility of business and waste problems, recycling of aluminum can and responsibility on environmental problems.

  20. Environmental instrumentation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fritschen, L.J.; Gay, L.W.

    1979-01-01

    This book is designed to be used as a text for advanced students and a guide or manual for researchers in the field. The purpose is to present the basic theory of environmental variables and transducers, to report experiences with methodology and use, and to provide certain essential tables. Attention is given to measurements of temperature, soil heat flux, radiation, humidity and moisture, wind speed and direction, and pressure. Data acquisition concepts are summarized

  1. Environmental History

    OpenAIRE

    Kearns, Gerard

    2004-01-01

    There was a time when almost all Western geography could be termed environmental history. In the late nineteenth century, physical geographers explained landscapes by describing how they had evolved. Likewise, human geographers saw society as shaped by the directing hands of the environment. By the 1960s this had very much changed. Process studies shortened the temporal framework in geographical explanation and cut the cord between nature and society. Now, physical and human...

  2. Development of the Alligator Rivers uranium deposits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bath, L.J.; Farthing, J.W.; Warner, R.K.

    1980-01-01

    The Alligator Rivers Uranium Province in the Northern Territory of Australia has proven uranium deposits at Jabiluka, Ranger, Koongarra and Nabarlek which contain more than 80% of the country's low-cost reasonably assured uranium resources estimated to be 290,000 t U. Following the Government's decision in 1977 to proceed with the further development of Australia's uranium resources, the region is destined to become a major producer of U 3 O 8 for export. At the time of the decision provision was made for strict controls to protect the environment, the granting of Aboriginal land rights and the creation of a major national park. The paper describes the progress made to achieve these objectives. The open-cut mining methods to be used at Ranger, Koongarra and Nabarlek are described, as well as the underground mining operations proposed for Jabiluka. Each of the treatment plants will use the conventional acid leach, solvent extraction purification process for uranium recovery. The characteristics of the treatment operations are outlined. The water-management schemes, tailings disposal methods and procedures for environment protection are also discussed. The proposed initial production capacities of the operations are: Jabiluka 2540 (expanding to 7630 in the fifth year of production); Ranger 2540 (expanding to 5080 when commercially practicable); Koongarra 850; and Nabarlek 920 t U/a. Both Nabarlek and Ranger have been granted Government development approval and construction is proceeding at each site with the expectation that normal commercial production will commence towards the end of 1980 and 1981, respectively. Planning for the Jabiluka and Koongarra projects has reached an advanced stage; each are undergoing environmental procedures and will have to reach agreement with the Aboriginals on environmental and other matters before site work can commence. (author)

  3. Acidic deposition and global climate change

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nikolaidis, N.P.; Ecsedy, C.; Olem, H.; Nikolaidis, V.S.

    1990-01-01

    A literature is presented which examines the research published on understanding ecosystem acidification and the effects of acidic deposition on freshwaters. Topics of discussion include the following: acidic deposition; regional assessments; atmospheric deposition and transport; aquatic effects; mathematical modeling; liming acidic waters; global climate change; atmospheric changes; climate feedbacks; and aquatic effects

  4. 42 CFR 422.388 - Deposits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... to CMS. (2) The deposit must at all times have a fair market value of an amount that is 120 percent... is made; (2) The fair market value exceeds the amount of the required deposit; or (3) The required... PROGRAM MEDICARE ADVANTAGE PROGRAM Provider-Sponsored Organizations § 422.388 Deposits. (a) Insolvency...

  5. 19 CFR 210.28 - Depositions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Depositions. 210.28 Section 210.28 Customs Duties UNITED STATES INTERNATIONAL TRADE COMMISSION INVESTIGATIONS OF UNFAIR PRACTICES IN IMPORT TRADE ADJUDICATION AND ENFORCEMENT Discovery and Compulsory Process § 210.28 Depositions. (a) When depositions may be...

  6. 47 CFR 32.4040 - Customers' deposits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Customers' deposits. 32.4040 Section 32.4040... FOR TELECOMMUNICATIONS COMPANIES Instructions for Balance Sheet Accounts § 32.4040 Customers' deposits. (a) This account shall include the amount of cash deposited with the company by customers as security...

  7. Dry deposition of particles to ocean surfaces

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Larsen, S.E.; Edson, J.B.; Hummelshoj, P.; Jensen, N.O.; Leeuw, G. de; Mestayer, P.G.

    1995-01-01

    Dry deposition of atmospheric particles mainly depends on wind speed and particle diameter. The dry deposition velocity, Vd, is found to vary by a factor of 100-1,000 with diameter in a likely diameter range, adding uncertainty to deposition estimates, because the diameter distribution for many

  8. European wet deposition maps based on measurements

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Leeuwen EP van; Erisman JW; Draaijers GPJ; Potma CJM; Pul WAJ van; LLO

    1995-01-01

    To date, wet deposition maps on a European scale have been based on long-range transport model results. For most components wet deposition maps based on measurements are only available on national scales. Wet deposition maps of acidifying components and base cations based on measurements are needed

  9. The Role of Deposition in Limiting the Hazard Extent of Dense-Gas Plumes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dillon, M B

    2008-05-11

    Accidents that involve large (multi-ton) releases of toxic industrial chemicals and form dense-gas clouds often yield far fewer fatalities, casualties and environmental effects than standard assessment and emergency response models predict. This modeling study, which considers both dense-gas turbulence suppression and deposition to environmental objects (e.g. buildings), demonstrates that dry deposition to environmental objects may play a significant role in reducing the distance at which adverse impacts occur - particularly under low-wind, stable atmospheric conditions which are often considered to be the worst-case scenario for these types of releases. The degree to which the released chemical sticks to (or reacts with) environmental surfaces is likely a key parameter controlling hazard extents. In all modeled cases, the deposition to vertical surfaces of environmental objects (e.g. building walls) was more efficient in reducing atmospheric chemical concentrations than deposition to the earth's surface. This study suggests that (1) hazard extents may vary widely by release environment (e.g. grasslands vs. suburbia) and release conditions (e.g. sunlight or humidity may change the rate at which chemicals react with a surface) and (2) greenbelts (or similar structures) may dramatically reduce the impacts of large-scale releases. While these results are demonstrated to be qualitatively consistent with the downwind extent of vegetation damage in two chlorine releases, critical knowledge gaps exist and this study provides recommendations for additional experimental studies.

  10. Global Tsunami Database: Adding Geologic Deposits, Proxies, and Tools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brocko, V. R.; Varner, J.

    2007-12-01

    A result of collaboration between NOAA's National Geophysical Data Center (NGDC) and the Cooperative Institute for Research in the Environmental Sciences (CIRES), the Global Tsunami Database includes instrumental records, human observations, and now, information inferred from the geologic record. Deep Ocean Assessment and Reporting of Tsunamis (DART) data, historical reports, and information gleaned from published tsunami deposit research build a multi-faceted view of tsunami hazards and their history around the world. Tsunami history provides clues to what might happen in the future, including frequency of occurrence and maximum wave heights. However, instrumental and written records commonly span too little time to reveal the full range of a region's tsunami hazard. The sedimentary deposits of tsunamis, identified with the aid of modern analogs, increasingly complement instrumental and human observations. By adding the component of tsunamis inferred from the geologic record, the Global Tsunami Database extends the record of tsunamis backward in time. Deposit locations, their estimated age and descriptions of the deposits themselves fill in the tsunami record. Tsunamis inferred from proxies, such as evidence for coseismic subsidence, are included to estimate recurrence intervals, but are flagged to highlight the absence of a physical deposit. Authors may submit their own descriptions and upload digital versions of publications. Users may sort by any populated field, including event, location, region, age of deposit, author, publication type (extract information from peer reviewed publications only, if you wish), grain size, composition, presence/absence of plant material. Users may find tsunami deposit references for a given location, event or author; search for particular properties of tsunami deposits; and even identify potential collaborators. Users may also download public-domain documents. Data and information may be viewed using tools designed to extract and

  11. An analysis of the dust deposition on solar photovoltaic modules.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Styszko, Katarzyna; Jaszczur, Marek; Teneta, Janusz; Hassan, Qusay; Burzyńska, Paulina; Marcinek, Ewelina; Łopian, Natalia; Samek, Lucyna

    2018-03-29

    Solid particles impair the performance of the photovoltaic (PV) modules. This results in power losses which lower the efficiency of the system as well as the increases of temperature which additionally decreases the performance and lifetime. The deposited dust chemical composition, concentration and formation of a dust layer on the PV surface differ significantly in reference to time and location. In this study, an evaluation of dust deposition on the PV front cover glass during the non-heating season in one of the most polluted European cities, Kraków, was performed. The time-dependent particle deposition and its correlation to the air pollution with particulate matter were analysed. Dust deposited on several identical PV modules during variable exposure periods (from 1 day up to 1 week) and the samples of total suspended particles (TSP) on quartz fibre filters using a low volume sampler were collected during the non-heating season in the period of 5 weeks. The concentration of TSP in the study period ranged between 12.5 and 60.05 μg m -3 while the concentration of PM10 observed in the Voivodeship Inspectorate of Environmental Protection traffic station, located 1.2 km from the TSP sampler, ranged from 14 to 47 μg m -3 . It was revealed that dust deposition density on a PV surface ranged from 7.5 to 42.1 mg m -2 for exposure periods of 1 day while the measured weekly dust deposition densities ranged from 25.8 to 277.0 mg m -2 . The precipitation volume and its intensity as well as humidity significantly influence the deposited dust. The rate of dust accumulation reaches approximately 40 mg m -2 day -1 in the no-precipitation period and it was at least two times higher than fluxes calculated on the basis of PM10 and TSP concentrations which suggest that additional forces such as electrostatic forces significantly influence dust deposition.

  12. Environmental pollution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hanif, J.; Hanif, M.I.

    1997-01-01

    The third proceedings of National Symposium on Modern Trends in Contemporary Chemistry was held in Islamabad, Pakistan from February 24-26, 1997. In this symposium more than 220 scientists, engineers and technologist were registered from 11 universities, 17 research organisations and 8 non-governmental organisation including some commercial establishments. The symposium was divided into five technical sessions on hydro spheric pollution, atmospheric pollution, bio spheric pollution, lithospheric pollution and impact assessment and environmental education. Environmental and ecology are so interdependent that any change in the balance due to natural and man made cause may result in a disaster, flood, fire, earthquake, epidemic, population explosion etc. are the natural ways of unbalancing our ecosystem. The scope of this symposium includes: 1) Review the chemistry and the chemical techniques like polarography, coulometry, HPLC, GC-MS, NAA, XRF, AAS, AES etc. involved in the assessment monitoring and control of various pollutions. 2) Propose sampling, transportation, measurement and standardization procedures. 3) Collaboration in scientific data collection. 4) Mutual consultation for management of the pollution problem in a cost effective manner. 5) sharing knowledge and experience with various environmental protection groups both in public and private sector. (A.B.)

  13. Preliminary results on adhesion improvement using Ion Beam Sputtering Deposition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Yonggi; Kim, Bomsok; Lee, Jaesang [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2013-05-15

    Sputtering is an established technique for depositing films with smooth surfaces and interfaces and good thick control. Ejection of articles from a condensed matter due to impingement of high energy particles, termed as sputtering was observed as early as in 1852, however, it is only recently that the complex process of sputtering system. Coating adhesion and environmental stability of the ion beam sputtering deposition coatings performed very well. High-energy high-current ion beam thin film synthesis of adhesion problems can be solved by using. Enhancement of adhesion in thin film synthesis, using high energy and high current ion beam, of mobile phones, car parts and other possible applications in the related industry Alternative technology of wet chrome plating, considering environment and unit cost, for car parts and esthetic improvement on surface of domestic appliances.

  14. Preliminary results on adhesion improvement using Ion Beam Sputtering Deposition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Yonggi; Kim, Bomsok; Lee, Jaesang

    2013-01-01

    Sputtering is an established technique for depositing films with smooth surfaces and interfaces and good thick control. Ejection of articles from a condensed matter due to impingement of high energy particles, termed as sputtering was observed as early as in 1852, however, it is only recently that the complex process of sputtering system. Coating adhesion and environmental stability of the ion beam sputtering deposition coatings performed very well. High-energy high-current ion beam thin film synthesis of adhesion problems can be solved by using. Enhancement of adhesion in thin film synthesis, using high energy and high current ion beam, of mobile phones, car parts and other possible applications in the related industry Alternative technology of wet chrome plating, considering environment and unit cost, for car parts and esthetic improvement on surface of domestic appliances

  15. Environmental monitoring in emergency situations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1966-01-01

    This manual gives technical guidance on emergency monitoring procedures to those who would have to assess the situation after an accident leading to the uncontrolled release of radioactive substances to the environment. Its aim is to draw attention to the important factors that should be considered in formulating emergency plans. The seven annexes contain inventories of fission products and possible releases; dispersion, deposition and dose-exposure relationships for airborne releases; α-, β- and γ-radiation surveys; information on sample collection and field evaluation; and brief descriptions of the environmental monitoring procedures adopted in previous emergencies (Windscale 1957, AERE Harwell 1961 and NRTS Idaho 1961).

  16. Recent trends of plutonium deposition observed in Japan: comparison with naturallithogenic radionuclides, thorium isotopes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hirose, K.; Igarashi, Y.; Aoyama, M.

    2005-01-01

    Plutonium in monthly deposition samples from 2000 to end of 2003 collected to Tsukuba (the Meteorological Research Institute), Japan is reported, together with monthly thorium deposition. The annual deposition of 239,240 Pri during the past 18 years. ranged from 1.7 to 7.8 mBq m -2 y -1 shows no systematic inter-annual variation. However, a maximum annual 239,240 Pu deposition (7.8 mBq m -2 y -1 ) was observed in 2002. On the other hand, monthly 239,240 Pu depositions show a typical seasonal variation with a maximum in spring season (March to April), which corresponds to the seasonal cycle of generation of dust storms in the East Asian arid area. Thorium, which is a typical lithogenic radionuclide, reflects soil-derived particles in the atmospheric dust. The monthly Th deposition showed a typical seasonal trend with a maximum in spring and minimum in summer. The 230 Th/ 232 Th activity ratios in the deposition samples significantly differed from that in surface soils collected in Tsukuba area, which means that a significant part of thorium in deposition samples is not derived from suspension of local soil particles. The result reveals that the resent 239,240 Pu deposition observed in Japan are attributed to resuspension of deposited plutonium; resuspended plutonium originates from the East Asian continent desert and arid areas. These findings suggest that a significant amount of soil dust observed in Tsukuba is attributable to the long-range transport of continental dust from the East Asian arid areas. Plutonium in deposition samples as does thorium would become a proxy of the environmental change in the Asian continent.

  17. Stomatal and Non-Stomatal Turbulent Deposition Flux of Ozone to a Managed Peatland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tarek S. El-Madany

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Ozone is a key trace gas in the troposphere; because it is a greenhouse gas, it is very reactive, and it is potentially toxic to humans, fauna, and vegetation. The main sink processes for ozone are chemical reactions and the turbulent deposition flux to the earth’s surface. The deposition process itself is rather complex: The interactions between co-varying drivers such as the tropospheric ozone concentration, turbulence, and chemical reactions are not well understood. In the case of ozone deposition to vegetation, another aspect that must be studied is the role of stomatal regulation for a wide range of conditions. Therefore, we measured turbulent deposition fluxes of ozone with the eddy covariance technique during the peak of the growing season in 2014 over a managed, rewetted peatland in NW Germany. The deposition flux was large during the day (up to −15 nmol m−2 s−1 and relatively small during the night (between −1 and −2 nmol m−2 s−1. Flux partitioning by applying the surface resistance analogy and further analysis showed that the stomatal uptake was smaller than non-stomatal deposition. The correction of stomatal conductance with the gross primary production (GPP improved the estimation of day- and nighttime stomatal deposition fluxes. Statistical analysis confirmed that the friction velocity (u* was the single most important driver of non-stomatal ozone deposition and that relationships with other environmental drivers are not linear and highly variable. Further research is needed to develop a better process understanding of non-stomatal ozone deposition, to quantify the role of surface deposition to the ozone budget of the atmospheric boundary layer, and to estimate uncertainties associated with the partitioning of ozone deposition into stomatal and non-stomatal fluxes.

  18. Low-pressure chemical vapor deposition as a tool for deposition of thin film battery materials

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oudenhoven, J.F.M.; Dongen, van T.; Niessen, R.A.H.; Croon, de M.H.J.M.; Notten, P.H.L.

    2009-01-01

    Low Pressure Chemical Vapor Deposition was utilized for the deposition of LiCoO2 cathode materials for all-solid-state thin-film micro-batteries. To obtain insight in the deposition process, the most important process parameters were optimized for the deposition of crystalline electrode films on

  19. Dual Nitrate Isotopes in Dry Deposition: Utility for Partitioning Nox Source Contributions to Landscape Nitrogen Deposition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dry deposition is a major component of total nitrogen deposition and thus an important source of bioavailable nitrogen to ecosystems. However, relative to wet deposition, less is known regarding the sources and spatial variability of dry deposition. This is in part due to diffi...

  20. Towards a genetic classification of uranium deposits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cuney, M.

    2009-01-01

    As the IAEA's uranium deposit classification is based on the deposit nature and morphology, some deposits which have been formed by very different genetic processes and located in very different geological environments, are grouped according to this classification. In order to build up a reliable genetic classification based on the mechanism at the origin of the formation of the deposit, the author presents the five main categories according to which uranium deposits can be classified: magmatic, hydrothermal, evapotranspiration, syn-sedimentary, and infiltration of meteoric water

  1. Environmental ethics and environmental policy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hoehn, H.J.

    1994-01-01

    In a difficult economic situation where the problems of many companies to adapt to changed economic conditions threaten to supersede ecological interests the Council of Experts appointed by the Federal Environment Minister submitted its 1994 environmental expertise. This scientific political counseling document would deserve little attention if it was limited to the appeal of considering pollution control as an integrated part of all political activities or if it only contained a catalog of measures for the ecological repair of technico-industrial faults and failures. The structural change of economy and the necessity of ecological modernization, however, are taken into account by representing an ecological-economic model which contributes to a long-term conceptional orientation of environmental policy and which is elaborate enough to be suited for the development of solutions to concrete problems. The main points of the expertise are discussed. (orig./UA) [de

  2. Minerals deposited as thin films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vazquez, Cristina; Leyt, D.V. de; Custo, Graciela

    1987-01-01

    Free matrix effects are due to thin film deposits. Thus, it was decided to investigate this technique as a possibility to use pure oxide of the desired element, extrapolating its concentration from analytical curves made with avoiding, at the same time, mathematical corrections. The proposed method was employed to determine iron and titanium concentrations in geological samples. The range studied was 0.1-5%m/m for titanium and 5-20%m/m for iron. For both elements the reproducibility was about 7% and differences between this method and other chemical determinations were 15% for titanium and 7% for iron. (Author) [es

  3. Hinkler Well - Centipede uranium deposits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Crabb, D.; Dudley, R.; Mann, A.W.

    1984-01-01

    The Hinkler Well - Centipede deposits are near the northeastern margin of the Archean Yilgarn Block on a drainage system entering Lake Way. Basement rocks are granitoids and greenstones. The rocks are deeply weathered and overlain by alluvism. Granitoids, the probable uranium source, currently contain up to 25 ppm uranium, in spite of the weathering. The host calcrete body is 33 km long and 2 km wide. Uranium up to 1000 ppm occurs in carnotite over a 15 km by 2.5 km area. (author)

  4. Surficial uranium deposits: summary and conclusions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Otton, J.K.

    1984-01-01

    Uranium occurs in a variety of surficial environments in calcretes, gypcretes, silcretes, dolocretes and in organic sediments. Groundwater moving on low gradients generates these formations and, under favourable circumstances, uranium deposits. A variety of geomorphic settings can be involved. Most surficial deposits are formed in desert, temperate wetland, tropical, or transitional environments. The largest deposits known are in sedimentary environments in arid lands. The deposits form largely by the interaction of ground or surface waters on the geomorphic surface in favourable geologic terrains and climates. The deposits are commonly in the condition of being formed or reconstituted, or being destroyed. Carnotite is common in desert deposits while in wetland deposits no uranium minerals may be seen. Radioactive disequilibrium is common, particularly in wetland deposits. Granites and related rocks are major source rocks and most large deposits are in regions with enriched uranium contents, i.e. significantly greater than 5 ppm uranium. Uranium dissolution and transport is usually under oxidizing conditions. Transport in desert conditions is usually as a bicarbonate. A variety of fixation mechanisms operate to extract the uranium and form the deposits. Physical barriers to groundwater flow may initiate ore deposition. Mining costs are likely to be low because of the near surface occurrence, but there may be processing difficulties as clay may be present and the saline or carbonate content may be high. (author)

  5. Wire-mesh capped deposition sensors: Novel passive tool for coarse fraction flux estimation of radon thoron progeny in indoor environments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mayya, Y.S.; Mishra, Rosaline; Prajith, Rama; Sapra, B.K.; Kushwaha, H.S.

    2010-01-01

    Deposition-based 222 Rn and 220 Rn progeny sensors act as unique, passive tools for determining the long time-averaged progeny deposition fluxes in the environment. The use of these deposition sensors as progeny concentration monitors was demonstrated in typical indoor environments as conceptually superior alternatives to gas-based indirect monitoring methods. In the present work, the dependency of these deposition monitors on various environmental parameters is minimized by capping the deposition sensor with a suitable wire mesh. These wire-mesh capped deposition sensors measure the coarse fraction deposition flux, which is less dependent on the change in environmental parameters like ventilation rate and turbulence. The calibration of these wire-mesh capped coarse fraction progeny sensors was carried out by laboratory controlled experiments. These sensors were deployed both in indoor and in occupational environments having widely different ventilation rates. The obtained coarse fraction deposition velocities were fairly constant in these environments, which further confirmed that the signal on the wire-mesh capped sensors show the least dependency on the change in environmental parameters. This technique has the potential to serve as a passive particle sizer in the general context of nanoparticles using progeny species as surrogates. On the whole, there exists a strong case for developing a passive system that responds only to coarse fraction for providing alternative tools for dosimetry and environmental fine particle research. - Research highlights: → Wire-mesh capped deposition sensor measures the coarse fraction deposition flux → Coarse fraction deposition flux less dependent on environmental conditions → Wire-mesh capped deposition sensor as passive particle sizer

  6. The deposition of radioiodine onto rice plant from atmosphere

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Uchida, Shigeo; Muramatsu, Yasuyuki; Yoshida, Satoshi; Sumiya, Misako; Ohmomo, Yoichiro.

    1994-01-01

    Radiation dose estimations are usually made with the aid of assessment models in which model parameters such as the transfer factors of radionuclides from one environmental compartment to another are involved. In simple models the parameters are often described as the concentration ratio of a radionuclide between two compartments, when the system is under equilibrium condition. In this paper, the authors introduce the values of the parameters of radioiodine obtained by tracer experiments. Laboratory experiments on the transfer parameters of radionuclides from the atmosphere to rice plant were carried out in the atmosphere-to-crops system (deposition pathway). It is known that the typical chemical species of gaseous iodine in the atmosphere are elemental iodine (I 2 ) and methyliodide (CH 3 I). The deposition characteristics of both chemical species of gaseous iodine to rice grains were obtained. Mass normalized deposition velocity (V D ) and grain number normalized deposition velocity (V S ) of gaseous elemental iodine (I 2 ) and also methyliodide (CH 3 I) on unhulled rice were measured. Both V D and V S of methyliodide were about one percent of those of elemental iodine. Distribution pattern of methyliodide between unhulled rice and brown rice was significantly lower than that of elemental one. For wet deposition, we investigated the retention of radioiodines (iodide [I - ] and iodate [IO 3 - ] on rice grains and their translocation from the surface of the grains to brown rice. Though the ears were dipped into the solution containing 125 I - or 125 IO 3 - more than 15 min., both iodine species in the solutions were hardly taken up to the rice grains. The transfer rates of iodide and iodate, which are defined as 'the amount of the iodine in brown rice' divided by 'the amount of iodide in unhulled rice' were about 0.015 and 0.04, respectively. The rates were not changed with time after the radioiodine application. (author)

  7. Carbon deposition and hydrogen retention in tokamak

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tanabe, Tetsuo

    2006-01-01

    The results of measurements on co-deposition of hydrogen isotopes and wall materials, hydrogen retention, redeposition of carbon and deposition of hydrogen on PMI of JT-60U are described. From above results, selection of plasma facing material and ability of carbon wall is discussed. Selection of plasma facing materials in fusion reactor, characteristics of carbon materials as the plasma facing materials, erosion, transport and deposition of carbon impurity, deposition of tritium in JET, results of PMI in JT-60, application of carbon materials to PFM of ITER, and future problems are stated. Tritium co-deposition in ITER, erosion and transport of carbon in tokamak, distribution of tritium deposition on graphite tile used as bumper limiter of TFTR, and measurement results of deposition of tritium on the Mark-IIA divertor tile and comparison between them are described. (S.Y.)

  8. Electrostatic Deposition of Large-Surface Graphene

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Charles Trudeau

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available This work describes a method for electrostatic deposition of graphene over a large area using controlled electrostatic exfoliation from a Highly Ordered Pyrolytic Graphite (HOPG block. Deposition over 130 × 130 µm2 with 96% coverage is achieved, which contrasts with sporadic micro-scale depositions of graphene with little control from previous works on electrostatic deposition. The deposition results are studied by Raman micro-spectroscopy and hyperspectral analysis using large fields of view to allow for the characterization of the whole deposition area. Results confirm that laser pre-patterning of the HOPG block prior to cleaving generates anchor points favoring a more homogeneous and defect-free HOPG surface, yielding larger and more uniform graphene depositions. We also demonstrate that a second patterning of the HOPG block just before exfoliation can yield features with precisely controlled geometries.

  9. Remediation of spent block in Uvanas deposit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nurgaziev, M.A.; Iskakov, M.M.

    2012-01-01

    In 2007 by 'Kazatomprom' and 'Mining company' board decision, the branch of 'Mining company', 'Steppe ore management body' is reorganized in structure subdivision, the basic activity of which is organization and carrying out remediation works on spent blocks of PSV uranium deposit. In 2002 works are completed on OVOS for operating deposits Uvanas, Kanjugan, Northern Karamurun and Eastern Minkuduk. The results of present work were reported in IAEA conference. The working project 'Remediation of spent blocks of PSV uranium deposit PV-17 polygon of Steppe ore management body' approved in 2005 was developed for carrying out the remediation works. Works funding were carried out from liquidation fund of the current deposit established in accordance with the Republic of Kazakhstan law 'About interior and interior use'. Deposits remediation is the part of deposit operation life cycle which obliges to operate deposits with minimum expenditures for remediation.

  10. Environmental Pollution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Won, Jong IK

    1990-03-01

    This book tells US that what nature is, which gives descriptions of the world of living things like the role of plant, order of the vegetable kingdom, the world of plant, destruction of the natural world, and the world of bugs, nature and human with man's survive and change of nature, environment and human, and in creasing population and environment, philosophy of conservation of nature on meaning, destroy and management, and direction, air pollution spot, water pollution, soil pollution conservation of nature and industry case of foreign country and view of environment and environmental assimilating capacity.

  11. ENVIRONMENTAL POLLUTION

    OpenAIRE

    Reyna Ramos, julio

    2014-01-01

    The article shows the complexity of the problem of environmental pollution and what can be the possible solutions to the problem. Also, how the Industrial Engineering can contribute to the prevention and control of pollution. El artículo muestra la complejidad del problema de la contaminación ambiental y cuáles pueden ser las propuestas de solución al problema. Así mismo, cómo la Ingeniería Industrial puede contribuir a la prevención y control de la contaminación.

  12. Impact of environmental auditing on environmental pollution ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Impact of environmental auditing on environmental pollution, sustainable development and healthy environment of some organizations in Port Harcourt, Nigeria. ... Journal of Applied Sciences and Environmental Management. Journal Home ...

  13. Environmental Policy Law

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Sang Don

    1985-03-01

    This book tell US environmental problems and environmental conservation, theory with present situation of the problems, influence of environmental aggravation, and cause of environmental problems, environmental policy influencing environment such as the national environmental policy act in America, and the role of court and environmental policy act, jurisdiction investigation about administrative action which influence on environment, and standard of jurisdiction investigation in environmental problems and legislation of environmental rights.

  14. Environmental ethics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pautassi G, Jorge

    1994-01-01

    When the Homo Faber; to the beginning of the humanization, overcame the instinct that established a relationship balanced in the ecosphere between the animal and the nature, an interference it began in the relationship man-nature; since that was not adapted this but rather it began its transformation adapting the environment to its necessities. During miles of years the development of this production technique of the Homo Faber could be considered like a progressive and innocuous exploitation of the natural resources. At the present time, kind of a dialectical transformation of the quantity in a new quality characterizes the critical stadium of the new phase of the evolution inaugurated by the Homo Faber. We arrive this way today to that the production force, by means of the science and the technique, outlines us the problem of if for a bigger development in the productivity is necessary a progressive destruction of the ecosphere. That is to say, so that there is progress and will civilization be necessary a progressive interference of the natural balance, with the consequent setting in danger of the life? Moreover this article treats topics about their location and focuses, environmental ethics framed in the talkative ethics and virtues of the environmental ethics, among other topics

  15. Atmosfærisk deposition

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ellermann, T.; Hertel, O.; Kemp, K.

    Kvælstofdepositionen til danske havområder, fjorde, vige og bugte er for 2001 blevet beregnet til 118 ktons N, hvilket er ca. 20 % lavere end i 2000. Tilsvarende er depositionen til landområderne beregnet til 87 ktons N, hvilket svarer til deposition i 2000. Den primære årsag til den højere...... deposition for 1999-2001, i forhold til tidligere år, er ændringer i beregningsmetoden. Den samlede kvælstofdeposition til farvandene er faldet svagt i perioden 1989-2001. Depositionen til landoverflader skønnes ikke ændret betydeligt. Depositionen af svovlforbindelser til danske landområder er for 2001...... estimeret til ca. 20 ktons S. Baseret på store og signifikante fald i koncentrationer og våddeposition af svovl vurderes, at den samlede svovldeposition er faldet med ca. 50% siden 1989. For fosfor vurderes, at der ikke er sket betydelige ændringer i koncentrationer og depositioner. Depositioner og...

  16. Legal Deposit of Digital Materials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erik Oltmans

    2003-09-01

    Full Text Available Digital publishing is causing a real paradigm shift for research institutions and publishers, as well as for libraries. As a consequence these institutions have to develop new policies, new business models and new infrastructures and techniques. A major problem is that, at the same rate at which our world is becoming digital, the digital information is threatened. New types of hardware, computer applications and file formats supersede each other, making our recorded digital information inaccessible in the long-term. In the past years libraries and archives have undertaken several actions and studies on digital preservation issues. For instance the Koninklijke Bibliotheek (KB has jointly with IBM developed a standard-based deposit system: Digital Information Archiving System ( DIAS. Using DIAS the KB realised in 2002 an electronic deposit (the e-Depot and signed archiving agreements with major science publishers for permanent keeping of their digital materials. In this paper I will discuss the fully operational e-Depot at the KB. I will focus on the data flow of processing the digital publications, and I will address the issue of digital preservation in detail.

  17. Electronics Environmental Benefits Calculator

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — The Electronics Environmental Benefits Calculator (EEBC) was developed to assist organizations in estimating the environmental benefits of greening their purchase,...

  18. Development of atmospheric acid deposition in China from the 1990s to the 2010s

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yu, Haili; He, Nianpeng; Wang, Qiufeng; Zhu, Jianxing; Gao, Yang; Zhang, Yunhai; Jia, Yanlong; Yu, Guirui

    2017-01-01

    Atmospheric acid deposition is a global environmental issue. China has been experiencing serious acid deposition, which is anticipated to become more severe with the country's economic development and increasing consumption of fossil fuels in recent decades. We explored the spatiotemporal variations of acid deposition (wet acid deposition) and its influencing factors by collecting nationwide data on pH and concentrations of sulfate (SO 4 2− ) and nitrate (NO 3 − ) in precipitation between 1980 and 2014 in China. Our results showed that average precipitation pH values were 4.59 and 4.70 in the 1990s and 2010s, respectively, suggesting that precipitation acid deposition in China has not seriously worsened. Average SO 4 2− deposition declined from 40.54 to 34.87 kg S ha −1 yr −1 but average NO 3 − deposition increased from 4.44 to 7.73 kg N ha −1 yr −1 . Specifically, the area of severe precipitation acid deposition in southern China has shrunk to some extent as a result of controlling the pollutant emissions; but the area of moderate precipitation acid deposition has expanded in northern China, associated with rapid industrial and transportation development. Furthermore, we found significant positive correlations between precipitation acid deposition, energy consumption, and rainfall. Our findings provide a relatively comprehensive evaluation of the spatiotemporal dynamics of precipitation acid deposition in China over past three decades, and confirm the idea that strategies implemented to save energy and control pollutant emissions in China have been effective in alleviating precipitation acid deposition. These findings might be used to demonstrate how developing countries could achieve economic development and environmental protection through the implementation of advanced technologies to reduce pollutant emissions. - Highlights: • Explore spatial and temporal dynamics of wet acid deposition during three decades in China. • Acid

  19. Aerosol Deposition in Health and Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    Abstract The success of inhalation therapy is not only dependent upon the pharmacology of the drugs being inhaled but also upon the site and extent of deposition in the respiratory tract. This article reviews the main mechanisms affecting the transport and deposition of inhaled aerosol in the human lung. Aerosol deposition in both the healthy and diseased lung is described mainly based on the results of human studies using nonimaging techniques. This is followed by a discussion of the effect of flow regime on aerosol deposition. Finally, the link between therapeutic effects of inhaled drugs and their deposition pattern is briefly addressed. Data show that total lung deposition is a poor predictor of clinical outcome, and that regional deposition needs to be assessed to predict therapeutic effectiveness. Indeed, spatial distribution of deposited particles and, as a consequence, drug efficiency is strongly affected by particle size. Large particles (>6 μm) tend to mainly deposit in the upper airway, limiting the amount of drugs that can be delivered to the lung. Small particles (<2 μm) deposit mainly in the alveolar region and are probably the most apt to act systemically, whereas the particle in the size range 2–6 μm are be best suited to treat the central and small airways. PMID:22686623

  20. Post-depositional formation of vivianite-type minerals alters sediment phosphorus records

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    DIjkstra, Nikki; Hagens, Mathilde; Egger, Matthias; Slomp, Caroline P.

    2018-01-01

    Phosphorus (P) concentrations in sediments are frequently used to reconstruct past environmental conditions in freshwater and marine systems, with high values thought to be indicative of a high biological productivity. Recent studies suggest that the post-depositional formation of vivianite, an

  1. Climate change and the loss of organic archaeological deposits in the Arctic

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hollesen, Jørgen; Matthiesen, Henning; Møller, Anders Bjørn

    2016-01-01

    The Arctic is warming twice as fast as the global average with overlooked consequences for the preservation of the rich cultural and environmental records that have been stored for millennia in archaeological deposits. In this article, we investigate the oxic degradation of different types...

  2. Distribution of soil selenium in China is potentially controlled by deposition and volatilization?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Guo-Xin; Meharg, Andrew A.; Li, Gang; Chen, Zheng; Yang, Lei; Chen, Song-Can; Zhu, Yong-Guan

    2016-02-01

    Elucidating the environmental drivers of selenium (Se) spatial distribution in soils at a continental scale is essential to better understand it’s biogeochemical cycling to improve Se transfer into diets. Through modelling Se biogeochemistry in China we found that deposition and volatilization are key factors controlling distribution in surface soil, rather than bedrock-derived Se (balance in other terrestrial environments worldwide.

  3. DIRECT-DEPOSITION INFRARED SPECTROMETRY WITH GAS AND SUPERCRITICAL FLUID CHROMATOGRAPHY

    Science.gov (United States)

    A direct-deposition Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) system has been evaluated for applicability to gas chromatography (GC) and supercritical fluid chromatography (SFC) of environmental analytes. A 100-um i.d. fused-silica transfer line was used for GC, and a 50-um transfer lin...

  4. Environmental scan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1988-01-01

    Trends in current affairs and public policy that emerged in 1988 are analyzed to provide a tool for Atomic Energy of Canada's decision makers. This issue provides a general overview of the economic and energy environments; and international review of nuclear policies, equipment orders, and trends that will position Canada and AECL within the global nuclear community; a precis of Canadian public opinion polls on economic, environmental and energy issues; a summary of major trends identifies by Canadian opinion leaders from the public and private sectors; a review of opinions and recommendations of influential Canadian policy institutes; a report on government policies and actions that affect AECL directly or indirectly; an analysis of new coverage by print and electronic media; a review of anti-nuclear organizations; and conclusions and recommendations

  5. Environmental sampling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Puckett, J.M.

    1998-01-01

    Environmental Sampling (ES) is a technology option that can have application in transparency in nuclear nonproliferation. The basic process is to take a sample from the environment, e.g., soil, water, vegetation, or dust and debris from a surface, and through very careful sample preparation and analysis, determine the types, elemental concentration, and isotopic composition of actinides in the sample. The sample is prepared and the analysis performed in a clean chemistry laboratory (CCL). This ES capability is part of the IAEA Strengthened Safeguards System. Such a Laboratory is planned to be built by JAERI at Tokai and will give Japan an intrinsic ES capability. This paper presents options for the use of ES as a transparency measure for nuclear nonproliferation

  6. Environmentally profound

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Rushu [China Yangzte Three Gorges Project Development Corp., Yichang Hubei (China)

    1999-09-01

    The Three Gorges dam project on the Yangtze river will have a profound effect on the people, the environment and cultural heritage sites. The dam will be the world's biggest and will provide almost 85 BkWh of hydro power per annum. A noticeable benefit will be a greatly reduced incidence of flooding in the Jingjiang reaches of the river. Additional benefits will be improved local navigation, climate and enhanced water quality. The main unwelcome impacts were loss of farmland and resettlement of people but here the government have been particularly careful to provide the relocated people with a reasonable standard of new accommodation and farmland. The loss of natural vegetation will be small but there are endangered species of birds and animals living in the region. A number of negative environmental affects (dust noise, incidence of certain diseases) and how they are to be mitigated are mentioned. (UK)

  7. Environmental studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1976-01-01

    The utility of high-resolution liquid chromatography for separating organophosphorus compounds from natural waters and effluents from coal processing plants was investigated. The procedures were optimized for the separation of phenol-type compounds from aqueous effluents from coal liquefaction processes. Preliminary results are reported from applications for the analysis of marine waters from estuaries and municipal drinking water. An automated analytical system, using a bifurcated, fiber-optic fluorometer, was developed for the isolation and identification of trace polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons for the continuous monitoring of coal liquefaction and coal gasification liquid effluents. The practice of chlorinating cooling waters was evaluated with respect to the formation of toxic chlorinated organic compounds of environmental importance

  8. Rare Earth Elements (REE Deposits Associated with Great Plain Margin Deposits (Alkaline-Related, Southwestern United States and Eastern Mexico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Virginia T. McLemore

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available W.G. Lindgren in 1933 first noted that a belt of alkaline-igneous rocks extends along the eastern edge of the Rocky Mountains and Basin and Range provinces from Alaska and British Columbia southward into New Mexico, Trans-Pecos Texas, and eastern Mexico and that these rocks contain relatively large quantities of important commodities such as, gold, fluorine, zirconium, rare earth elements (REE, tellurium, gallium, and other critical elements. In New Mexico, these deposits were called Great Plain Margin (GPM deposits, because this north-south belt of alkaline-igneous rocks roughly coincides with crustal thickening along the margin between the Great Plains physiographic province with the Basin and Range (including the Rio Grande rift and Rocky Mountains physiographic provinces, which extends into Trans-Pecos Texas and eastern Mexico. Since 1996, only minor exploration and development of these deposits in New Mexico, Texas, and eastern Mexico has occurred because of low commodity prices, permitting issues, and environmental concerns. However, as the current demand for gold and critical elements, such as REE and tellurium has increased, new exploration programs have encouraged additional research on the geology of these deposits. The lack of abundant quartz in these systems results in these deposits being less resistant to erosion, being covered, and not as well exposed as other types of quartz-rich deposits, therefore additional undiscovered alkaline-related gold and REE deposits are likely in these areas. Deposits of Th-REE-fluorite (±U, Nb epithermal veins and breccias are found in the several GPM districts, but typically do not contain significant gold, although trace amounts of gold are found in most GPM districts. Gold-rich deposits in these districts tend to have moderate to low REE and anomalously high tungsten and sporadic amounts of tellurium. Carbonatites are only found in New Mexico and Mexico. The diversity of igneous rocks, including

  9. A deposit model for magmatic iron-titanium-oxide deposits related to Proterozoic massif anorthosite plutonic suites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woodruff, Laurel G.; Nicholson, Suzanne W.; Fey, David L.

    2013-01-01

    This descriptive model for magmatic iron-titanium-oxide (Fe-Ti-oxide) deposits hosted by Proterozoic age massif-type anorthosite and related rock types presents their geological, mineralogical, geochemical, and geoenvironmental attributes. Although these Proterozoic rocks are found worldwide, the majority of known deposits are found within exposed rocks of the Grenville Province, stretching from southwestern United States through eastern Canada; its extension into Norway is termed the Rogaland Anorthosite Province. This type of Fe-Ti-oxide deposit dominated by ilmenite rarely contains more than 300 million tons of ore, with between 10- to 45-percent titanium dioxide (TiO2), 32- to 45-percent iron oxide (FeO), and less than 0.2-percent vanadium (V). The origin of these typically discordant ore deposits remains as enigmatic as the magmatic evolution of their host rocks. The deposits clearly have a magmatic origin, hosted by an age-constrained unique suite of rocks that likely are the consequence of a particular combination of tectonic circumstances, rather than any a priori temporal control. Principal ore minerals are ilmenite and hemo-ilmenite (ilmenite with extensive hematite exsolution lamellae); occurrences of titanomagnetite, magnetite, and apatite that are related to this deposit type are currently of less economic importance. Ore-mineral paragenesis is somewhat obscured by complicated solid solution and oxidation behavior within the Fe-Ti-oxide system. Anorthosite suites hosting these deposits require an extensive history of voluminous plagioclase crystallization to develop plagioclase-melt diapirs with entrained Fe-Ti-rich melt rising from the base of the lithosphere to mid- and upper-crustal levels. Timing and style of oxide mineralization are related to magmatic and dynamic evolution of these diapiric systems and to development and movement of oxide cumulates and related melts. Active mines have developed large open pits with extensive waste-rock piles, but

  10. Ammonia-free chemical bath method for deposition of microcrystalline cadmium selenide films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lokhande, C.D.; Lee, Eun-Ho; Jung, Kwang-Deog; Joo, Oh-Shim

    2005-01-01

    Chemical deposition of cadmium selenide (CdSe) films has been carried out from alkaline aqueous solution containing Cd 2+ and Se 2- ions. In general, the alkaline pH of the CdSe deposition bath has been adjusted by addition of liquid ammonia. However, the use of ammonia in large-scale chemical deposition method represents an environmental problem due to its volatility and toxicity. The volatility of ammonia changes the pH of deposition bath and results into irreproducible film properties. In the present paper, ammonia-free and weak alkaline (pH < 9.0) chemical method for cadmium selenide film has been developed. The cadmium selenide films are microcrystalline (grain size 0.5-0.7 μm) with hexagonal crystal structure. These films are photoactive and therefore, useful in photo conversion of light into electrical power

  11. One-step microwave plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition (MW-PECVD) for transparent superhydrophobic surface

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thongrom, Sukrit; Tirawanichakul, Yutthana; Munsit, Nantakan; Deangngam, Chalongrat

    2018-02-01

    We demonstrate a rapid and environmental friendly fabrication technique to produce optically clear superhydrophobic surfaces using poly (dimethylsiloxane) (PDMS) as a sole coating material. The inert PDMS chain is transformed into a 3-D irregular solid network through microwave plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition (MW-PECVD) process. Thanks to high electron density in the microwave-activated plasma, coating can be done in just a single step with rapid deposition rate, typically much shorter than 10 s. Deposited layers show excellent superhydrophobic properties with water contact angles of ∼170° and roll-off angles as small as ∼3°. The plasma-deposited films can be ultrathin with thicknesses under 400 nm, greatly diminishing the optical loss. Moreover, with appropriate coating conditions, the coating layer can even enhance the transmission over the entire visible spectrum due to a partial anti-reflection effect.

  12. Changes in the Optical Properties of Simulated Shuttle Waste Water Deposits- Urine Darkening

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albyn, Keith; Edwards, David; Alred, John

    2004-01-01

    Manned spacecraft have historically dumped the crew generated waste waster overboard, into the environment in which the spacecraft operates, sometimes depositing the waste water on the external spacecraft surfaces. The change in optical properties of wastewater deposited on spacecraft external surfaces, from exposure to space environmental effects, is not well understood. This study used nonvolatile residue (NVR) from Human Urine to simulate wastewater deposits and documents the changes in the optical properties of the NVR deposits after exposure to ultra violet (UV) radiation. Twenty NVR samples of, 0-angstromes/sq cm to 1000-angstromes/sq cm, and one sample contaminated with 1 to 2-mg/sq cm were exposed to UV radiation over the course of approximately 6151 equivalent sun hours (ESH). Random changes in sample mass, NVR, solar absorbance, and infrared emission were observed during the study. Significant changes in the UV transmittance were observed for one sample contaminated at the mg/sq cm level.

  13. Changes in the Optical Properties of Simulated Shuttle Waste Water Deposits: Urine Darkening

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albyn, Keith; Edwards, David; Alred, John

    2003-01-01

    Manned spacecraft have historically dumped the crew generated waste water overboard, into the environment in which the spacecraft operates, sometimes depositing the waste water on the external spacecraft surfaces. The change in optical properties of wastewater deposited on spacecraft external surfaces, from exposure to space environmental effects, is not well understood. This study used nonvolatile residue (NVR) from Human Urine to simulate wastewater deposits and documents the changes in the optical properties of the NVR deposits after exposure to ultra violet(UV)radiation. Twenty four NVR samples of, 0-angstromes/sq cm to 1000-angstromes/sq cm, and one sample contaminated with 1 to 2-mg/sq cm were exposed to UV radiation over the course of approximately 6151 equivalent sun hours (ESH). Random changes in sample mass, NVR, solar absorbance, and infrared emission were observed during the study. Significant changes in the UV transmittance were observed for one sample contaminated at the mg/sq cm level.

  14. Gastric cancer in New Mexico counties with significant deposits of uranium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wilkinson, G.S.

    1985-01-01

    Several counties in northern New Mexico display high rates of mortality from gastric cancer. Significant differences in sex-specific, age-adjusted, average annual stomach cancer mortality rates among whites from 1970-1979 were found between counties with significant deposits of uranium compared to those without significant deposits. These results remained unchanged when either socioeconomic status or Hispanic ethnicity were considered. Additional research needs to consider individual characteristics and competing risk factors for individuals with gastric cancer in these counties. A working hypothesis is that residents of counties with significant deposits of uranium are exposed to higher-than-average environmental levels of radionuclides such as radon and radon daughters, or to trace elements such as arsenic, cadmium, selenium, and lead which are commonly found in areas with uranium deposits

  15. Elemental concentrations in deposited dust on leaves along an urbanization gradient

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Simon, Edina, E-mail: edina.simon@gmail.com [Department of Ecology, University of Debrecen, H-4010 Debrecen, P.O. Box 71 (Hungary); Baranyai, Edina [Department of Inorganic and Analytical Chemistry, University of Debrecen, H-4010 Debrecen, P.O. Box 21 (Hungary); Agilent Atomic Spectroscopy Partner Laboratory, University of Debrecen, Egyetem tér 1, H-4032 Debrecen (Hungary); Braun, Mihály [Institute of Nuclear Research of the Hungarian Academy of Sciences, Herteleni Laboratory of Environmental Studies, 4026 Debrecen, Bem tér 18/C (Hungary); Cserháti, Csaba [Department of Solid State Physics, University of Debrecen, H-4010 Debrecen, P.O. Box 2 (Hungary); Fábián, István [Department of Inorganic and Analytical Chemistry, University of Debrecen, H-4010 Debrecen, P.O. Box 21 (Hungary); Tóthmérész, Béla [HAS-UD Biodiversity and Ecosystem Services Research Group, H-4010 Debrecen, P.O. Box 71 (Hungary)

    2014-08-15

    Environmental health is an essential component of the quality of life in modern societies. Monitoring of environmental quality and the assessment of environmental risks are often species based on the elemental concentration of deposited dust. Our result suggested that stomata size and distribution were the most important factors influencing the accumulation of air contaminants in leaves. We found that the leaves' surfaces of Acer negundo and Celtis occidentalis were covered by a large number of trichomes, and these species have proven to be suitable biomonitors for atmospheric pollution difficult; these can be overcome using bioindicator species. Leaves of Padus serotina, Acer campestre, A. negundo, Quercus robur and C. occidentalis were used to assess the amount of deposited dust and the concentration of contaminants in deposited dust in and around the city of Debrecen, Hungary. Samples were collected from an urban, suburban and rural area along an urbanization gradient. The concentrations of Ba, Cu, Fe, Mn, Ni, Pb, S, Sr and Zn were determined in deposited dust using ICP–OES. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) was used to explore the morphological structure and dust absorbing capacity of leaves. We found significant differences in dust deposition among species, and dust deposition correlated with trichomes' density. Principal component analysis (PCA) also showed a total separation of tree. - Highlights: • Dust is used as indicators of the accumulation of inorganic pollutants. • Scanning EM was used to explore the morphological structure of leaves. • Amount of dust deposited of leaves correlated with trichomes' density. • A. negundo, C. occidentalis and Q. robur are suitable to indicate air contaminants. • A. negundo and C. occidentalis are suitable to decrease the amount of dust in air.

  16. Elemental concentrations in deposited dust on leaves along an urbanization gradient

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Simon, Edina; Baranyai, Edina; Braun, Mihály; Cserháti, Csaba; Fábián, István; Tóthmérész, Béla

    2014-01-01

    Environmental health is an essential component of the quality of life in modern societies. Monitoring of environmental quality and the assessment of environmental risks are often species based on the elemental concentration of deposited dust. Our result suggested that stomata size and distribution were the most important factors influencing the accumulation of air contaminants in leaves. We found that the leaves' surfaces of Acer negundo and Celtis occidentalis were covered by a large number of trichomes, and these species have proven to be suitable biomonitors for atmospheric pollution difficult; these can be overcome using bioindicator species. Leaves of Padus serotina, Acer campestre, A. negundo, Quercus robur and C. occidentalis were used to assess the amount of deposited dust and the concentration of contaminants in deposited dust in and around the city of Debrecen, Hungary. Samples were collected from an urban, suburban and rural area along an urbanization gradient. The concentrations of Ba, Cu, Fe, Mn, Ni, Pb, S, Sr and Zn were determined in deposited dust using ICP–OES. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) was used to explore the morphological structure and dust absorbing capacity of leaves. We found significant differences in dust deposition among species, and dust deposition correlated with trichomes' density. Principal component analysis (PCA) also showed a total separation of tree. - Highlights: • Dust is used as indicators of the accumulation of inorganic pollutants. • Scanning EM was used to explore the morphological structure of leaves. • Amount of dust deposited of leaves correlated with trichomes' density. • A. negundo, C. occidentalis and Q. robur are suitable to indicate air contaminants. • A. negundo and C. occidentalis are suitable to decrease the amount of dust in air

  17. Surficial uranium deposits in Somalia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Briot, P.

    1984-01-01

    Surficial uranium deposits in Somalia are of the valley-fill calcrete type and occur in the arid Mudugh Province of the Dusa Mareb-El Bur region. They are located in a belt about 240 km in length which is orientated parallel to the north-south regional tectonic framework. The uranium resources of the region amount to about 5,000 t U 3 O 8 at an average grade of 0.1% U 3 O 8 . Basement rocks constitute a 7,000 m thick succession of Jurassic to Quaternary sediments of the Somalian Basin. Uranium mineralization in the form of carnotite occurs in the uppermost Mercia Series. The origin of the uranium and vanadium is unclear due to a shortage of the favourable source rocks. (author)

  18. Carbonaceous deposits on naptha reforming catalysts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Redwan, D.S.

    1999-01-01

    Carbonaceous deposits on naphtha reforming catalysts play a decisive role in limiting process performance. The deposits negatively after catalyst activity, selectivity and the production cycle of a semi regenerative reformer. The magnitude of negative effect of those deposits is directly proportional to their amounts and complexity. Investigations on used reforming catalysts samples reveal that the amount and type (complexity of the chemical nature) of carbonaceous deposits are directly proportional to the catalysts life on stream and the severity of operating conditions. In addition, the combustibility behavior of carbonaceous deposits on the catalyst samples taken from different reformers are found to be different. Optimal carbon removal, for in situ catalyst regeneration, requires the specific conditions be developed, based on the results of well designed and properly performed investigations of the amount and type of carbonaceous deposits. (author)

  19. Deposition of aerosol particles in bent pipe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matsui, Hiroshi; Ohhata, Tsutomu

    1989-01-01

    An equation to estimate deposition fraction of aerosol particles in a bent pipe is derived and the validity is verified experimentally. The equation is obtained by assuming that the resultant acceleration of the gravity and the centrifugal force induced in the bend acts on the aerosol particles, and is found to give a relatively accurate estimation of the deposition fraction if a certain correction factor is introduced to the equation. The deposition fraction has a minimum against Reynold number, and the deposition due to centrifugal force dominates at greater Reynolds number than that at the minimum deposition fraction. On the other hand, the smaller the radius of curvature of the bend is, the larger the deposition fraction due to the centrifugal force is. (author)

  20. Annual Site Environmental Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Holden, Gene

    1999-09-23

    This report provides information about environmental programs and compliance with environmental regulations in calendar year 1998 (CY98) at the Stanford Linear Accelerator Center (SLAC). The most significant information in this report is summarized in the following sections: (1) Environmental Compliance--Section 2 contains the complete Environmental Compliance information; (2) Environmental Non-Radiological Program--Section 3 contains the complete Environmental Non-Radiological information; and (3) Environmental Radiological Program--Section 4 contains the complete Environmental Radiological information.

  1. UFOMOD - atmospheric dispersion and deposition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Panitz, H.J.; Matzerath, C.; Paesler-Sauer, J.

    1989-10-01

    The report gives an introduction into the modelling of atmospheric dispersion and deposition which has been implemented in the new program system UFOMOD for assessing the consequences after nuclear accidents. According to the new structure of UFOMOD, different trajectory models with ranges of validity near to the site and at far distances are applied. Emphasis is laid on the description of the segmented plume model MUSEMET and its affilated submodels, being the removal of activity from the cloud by dry and wet deposition, and special effects like plume rise and the behaviour of plumes released into building wakes. In addition, the evaluation of γ-dose correction factors to take account of the finite extent of the radioactive plume in the near range (up to about 20 km) are described. Only brief introductions are given into the principles of the other models available: the puff model RIMPUFF, the long-range puff model MESOS, and the special straight-line Gaussian model ISOLA which are used if low-level long-duration releases are considered. To define starting times of weather sequences and the probabilities of occurrence of these sequences, it is convenient to perform stratified sampling. Therefore, the preprocessing program package METSAM has been developed to perform for generic ACAs a random sampling of weather sequences out off a population of classified weather conditions. The sampling procedure and a detailed input/output (I/O) description is presented and an additional appendix, respectively. A general overview on the I/O structure of MUSEMET as well as a brief user guide to run the KfK version of the MESOS code are also given in the appendix. (orig.) [de

  2. Laboratory Deposition Apparatus to Study the Effects of Wax Deposition on Pipe Magnetic Field Leakage Signals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karim Mohd Fauzi Abd

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Accurate technique for wax deposition detection and severity measurement on cold pipe wall is important for pipeline cleaning program. Usually these techniques are validated by conventional techniques on laboratory scale wax deposition flow loop. However conventional techniques inherent limitations and it is difficult to reproduce a predetermine wax deposit profile and hardness at designated location in flow loop. An alternative wax deposition system which integrates modified pour casting method and cold finger method is presented. This system is suitable to reproduce high volume of medium hard wax deposit in pipe with better control of wax deposit profile and hardness.

  3. Environmental Education and Small Business Environmental Activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Redmond, Janice; Walker, Beth

    2011-01-01

    Environmental education is seen as a key driver of small business environmental management, yet little is known about the activities small business owner-managers are undertaking to reduce their environmental impact or in what areas they may need education. Therefore, research that can identify environmental management activities being undertaken…

  4. Atmospheric Nitrogen Deposition at Two Sites in an Arid Environment of Central Asia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Kaihui; Liu, Xuejun; Song, Wei; Chang, Yunhua; Hu, Yukun; Tian, Changyan

    2013-01-01

    Arid areas play a significant role in the global nitrogen cycle. Dry and wet deposition of inorganic nitrogen (N) species were monitored at one urban (SDS) and one suburban (TFS) site at Urumqi in a semi-arid region of central Asia. Atmospheric concentrations of NH3, NO2, HNO3, particulate ammonium and nitrate (pNH4 (+) and pNO3 (-)) concentrations and NH4-N and NO3-N concentrations in precipitation showed large monthly variations and averaged 7.1, 26.6, 2.4, 6.6, 2.7 µg N m(-3) and 1.3, 1.0 mg N L(-1) at both SDS and TFS. Nitrogen dry deposition fluxes were 40.7 and 36.0 kg N ha(-1) yr(-1) while wet deposition of N fluxes were 6.0 and 8.8 kg N ha(-1) yr(-1) at SDS and TFS, respectively. Total N deposition averaged 45.8 kg N ha(-1) yr(-1)at both sites. Our results indicate that N dry deposition has been a major part of total N deposition (83.8% on average) in an arid region of central Asia. Such high N deposition implies heavy environmental pollution and an important nutrient resource in arid regions.

  5. Liquid phase deposition of silica: Thin films, colloids and fullerenes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitsitt, Elizabeth A.

    Little research has been done to explore liquid phase deposition (LPD) of silica on non-planar substrates. This thesis proves that the seeded growth of silica colloids from fullerene and surfactant micelles is possible via LPD, as is the coating of individual single walled carbon nanotubes (SWNTs) and carbon fibers. Working on the premise that a molecular growth mechanism (versus colloidal/gel deposition) is valid for LPD, nanostructured substrates and specific chemical functional groups should act as "seeds," or templates, for silica growth. Seeded growth is confirmed by reactions of the growth solution with a range of surfactants and with materials with distinctive surface moieties. LPD promises lower production costs and environmental impact as compared to present methods of coating technology, because it is an inherently simple process, using low temperatures and inexpensive air-stable reactants. Silica is ubiquitous in materials science. Its applications range from thixotropic additives for paint to gate dielectrics in the semiconductor industry. Nano-structured coatings and thin films are integral in today's electronics industry and will become more vital as the size of electronics shrinks. With the incorporation of nanoparticles in future devices, the ability to deposit quality coatings with finely tuned properties becomes paramount. The methods developed herein have applications in fabricating insulators for use in the future molecular scale electronics industry. Additionally, these silica nanoparticles have applications as templates for use in photonics and fuel cell membrane production and lend strength and durability to composites.

  6. Air concentration and ground deposition following radioactive airborne releases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brofferio, C.; Cagnetti, P.; Ferrara, V.

    1985-01-01

    The fundamental aim of this report is to provide the mathematical and physical operational basis for the evaluation of air concentration and ground deposition, following radioactive airborne releases from a nuclear power plant, both during normal operations and in accidental conditions. As far as accidental releases are concerned, the basical assumptions on meteorological and diffusive situation are considered from a safety point of view: namely those pessimistic but realistically representative situation are taken into account which lead to maximum air concentration and ground deposition values, even if characterized by low recurrence probability. Those elements are the inputs for many environmental transfer models of maximum consequence evaluations up to man. As far as routine releases are concerned, it is shown, together with the usual models based on long term averaged meteorological conditions, also models studied to estimate atmospheric diffusion and deposition in low wind situations and in fog conditions, being those latter very frequent in the Po valley. Finally, the main operations and modalities of collecting and elaborating meteorological data for for radioprotection evaluations are also shown. It is to be pointed out that the methods and the models developed and considered in this work are of a more general validity, and can be also used for applications concerning non-radioactive releases, as it is the case when dealing with conventional power plants

  7. Ion vapor deposition and its application

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bollinger, H.; Schulze, D.; Wilberg, R.

    1981-01-01

    Proceeding from the fundamentals of ion vapor deposition the characteristic properties of ion-plated coatings are briefly discussed. Examples are presented of successful applications of ion-plated coatings such as coatings with special electrical and dielectric properties, coatings for corrosion prevention, and coatings for improving the surface properties. It is concluded that ion vapor deposition is an advantageous procedure in addition to vapor deposition. (author)

  8. Surface Finish after Laser Metal Deposition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rombouts, M.; Maes, G.; Hendrix, W.; Delarbre, E.; Motmans, F.

    Laser metal deposition (LMD) is an additive manufacturing technology for the fabrication of metal parts through layerwise deposition and laser induced melting of metal powder. The poor surface finish presents a major limitation in LMD. This study focuses on the effects of surface inclination angle and strategies to improve the surface finish of LMD components. A substantial improvement in surface quality of both the side and top surfaces has been obtained by laser remelting after powder deposition.

  9. Information problems and deposit constraints at banks

    OpenAIRE

    Jith Jayaratne; Donald Morgan

    1997-01-01

    Following the investment-cash flow literature, we test whether bank lending is constrained by the availability of insured deposits--a necessary condition for the existence of bank lending channel of monetary policy. We treat insured deposits as a type of "internal fund," similar to cash flows. We use a simple model to sort out the possible identification issues in interpreting a lending-deposit correlation, including reverse causality and omitted variable bias. To minimize the latter, we spli...

  10. Restoration of uranium solution mining deposits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    DeVries, F.W.; Lawes, B.C.

    1981-01-01

    Ammonium carbonates are commonly used as the lixiviant for in-situ leaching of uranium ores. However this leads to the deposition of ammonium ions in the uranium ore formation and the problem of ammonia contamination of ground water which may find its way into the drinking water supply. The ammonia contamination of the ore deposit may be reduced by injecting an aqueous solution of a potassium salt (carbonate, bicarbonate, halide, sulfate, bisulfate, persulfate, or monopersulfate) into the deposit after mining has ceased

  11. A Hierarchical Agency Model of Deposit Insurance

    OpenAIRE

    Jonathan Carroll; Shino Takayama

    2010-01-01

    This paper develops a hierarchical agency model of deposit insurance. The main purpose is to undertake a game theoretic analysis of the consequences of deposit insurance schemes and their effects on monitoring incentives for banks. Using this simple framework, we analyze both risk- independent and risk-dependent premium schemes along with reserve requirement constraints. The results provide policymakers with not only a better understanding of the effects of deposit insurance on welfare and th...

  12. Small-sized test of gravity separation and preliminary assessment of technology and economics in Guangshigou granite pegmatite type uranium deposit

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhifu, Sun; Mingyue, Feng; Jiashu, Rong; Ziyang, Xu [Beijing Research Inst. of Uranium Geology (China)

    1994-11-01

    The small-sized test of gravity separation in Guangshigou granite pegmatite type uranium deposit has found a new avenue for the industrial utilization of ores from such uranium deposit, especially those low grade ones. The test has proved that the gravity separation is superior to hydrometallurgy in the aspect of uranium recovery from ores of the granite pegmatite type uranium deposit, by-product recovery and protection against environmental pollution.

  13. Small-sized test of gravity separation and preliminary assessment of technology and economics in Guangshigou granite pegmatite type uranium deposit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sun Zhifu; Feng Mingyue; Rong Jiashu; Xu Ziyang

    1994-01-01

    The small-sized test of gravity separation in Guangshigou granite pegmatite type uranium deposit has found a new avenue for the industrial utilization of ores from such uranium deposit, especially those low grade ones. The test has proved that the gravity separation is superior to hydrometallurgy in the aspect of uranium recovery from ores of the granite pegmatite type uranium deposit, by-product recovery and protection against environmental pollution

  14. Modelling the impact of climate change and atmospheric N deposition on French forests biodiversity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rizzetto, Simon; Belyazid, Salim; Gégout, Jean-Claude; Nicolas, Manuel; Alard, Didier; Corcket, Emmanuel; Gaudio, Noémie; Sverdrup, Harald; Probst, Anne

    2016-01-01

    A dynamic coupled biogeochemical–ecological model was used to simulate the effects of nitrogen deposition and climate change on plant communities at three forest sites in France. The three sites had different forest covers (sessile oak, Norway spruce and silver fir), three nitrogen loads ranging from relatively low to high, different climatic regions and different soil types. Both the availability of vegetation time series and the environmental niches of the understory species allowed to evaluate the model for predicting the composition of the three plant communities. The calibration of the environmental niches was successful, with a model performance consistently reasonably high throughout the three sites. The model simulations of two climatic and two deposition scenarios showed that climate change may entirely compromise the eventual recovery from eutrophication of the simulated plant communities in response to the reductions in nitrogen deposition. The interplay between climate and deposition was strongly governed by site characteristics and histories in the long term, while forest management remained the main driver of change in the short term. - Highlights: • The effects of N atmospheric deposition and climate change on vegetation were simulated. • The model ForSAFE-Veg was calibrated and validated carefully for three forests in France. • Climate has a greater influence on vegetation than N deposition in conifer forests. • N-poor ecosystems are, however, more sensitive to N deposition than to climate change. - Compared to nitrogen atmospheric deposition, climate appears to be the main driver of change in forest plant biodiversity on a century scale, except in N-poor ecosystems.

  15. Environmental protection economically viable

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dartsch, B.; Hildebrandt, T.

    1994-01-01

    The Environmental Technology Forum for Industry and Research (Utech) was held for the fifth time this year at the International Congress Centre in Berlin. The main themes of this year's Utech were additive environmental protection, production-integrated environmental protection, management and economic aspects of environmental protection, research and development in environmental protection as well as environmental information legislation. (orig.) [de

  16. Environmental performance data in environmental report 2012

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suzuki, Yurina; Tatebe, Kazuaki; Ohtake, Masaki; Shirato, Seiichi

    2013-03-01

    In September, 2012 Japan Atomic Energy Agency published the Environmental Report 2012 concerning the activities of FY 2011 under 'Law Concerning the Promotion of Business Activities with Environmental Consideration by Specified Corporations, etc, by Facilitating Access to Environmental Information, and Other Measures'. This report has been edited to show detailed environmental performance data in FY 2011 as the base of the Environmental Report 2012. This report would not only ensure traceability of the data in order to enhance the reliability of the environmental report, but also make useful measures for promoting activities of environmental considerations in JAEA. (author)

  17. Environmental performance data in environmental report 2015

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suzuki, Yurina; Kanai, Katsuta; Sato, Sadayuki; Tatebe, Kazuaki

    2016-03-01

    In September, 2015 Japan Atomic Energy Agency (JAEA) published the Environmental Report 2015 concerning the activities of FY 2014 under 'Law Concerning the Promotion of Business Activities with Environmental Consideration by Specified Corporations, etc., by Facilitating Access to Environmental Information, and Other Measures'. This report has been edited to show detailed environmental performance data in FY 2014 as the base of the Environmental Report 2015. This report would not only ensure traceability of the data in order to enhance the reliability of the environmental report, but also make useful measures for promoting activities of environmental considerations in JAEA. (author)

  18. Environmental performance data in environmental report 2009

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sato, Yoshinori; Noritake, Kazumitsu; Kawasaki, Takanori; Suzuki, Yurina; Nemoto, Asako

    2010-02-01

    In July, 2009 Japan Atomic Energy Agency published the Environmental Report 2009 concerning the activities of FY 2008 under 'Law Concerning the Promotion of Business Activities with Environmental Consideration by Specified Corporations, etc, by Facilitating Access to Environmental Information, and Other Measures'. This report has been edited to show detailed environmental performance data in FY 2008 as the base of the Environmental Report 2009. This report would not only ensure traceability of the data in order to enhance the reliability of the environmental report, but also make useful measures for promoting activities of environmental considerations in JAEA. (author)

  19. Environmental performance data in environmental report 2013

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suzuki, Yurina; Ohtake, Masaki; Shirato, Seiichi; Tatebe, Kazuaki

    2014-03-01

    In September, 2013 Japan Atomic Energy Agency published the Environmental Report 2013 concerning the activities of FY 2012 under 'Law Concerning the Promotion of Business Activities with Environmental Consideration by Specified Corporations, etc, by Facilitating Access to Environmental Information, and Other Measures'. This report has been edited to show detailed environmental performance data in FY 2012 as the base of the Environmental Report 2013. This report would not only ensure traceability of the data in order to enhance the reliability of the environmental report, but also make useful measures for promoting activities of environmental considerations in JAEA. (author)

  20. Triple oxygen isotopes indicate urbanization affects sources of nitrate in wet and dry atmospheric deposition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelson, David M.; Tsunogai, Urumu; Ding, Dong; Ohyama, Takuya; Komatsu, Daisuke D.; Nakagawa, Fumiko; Noguchi, Izumi; Yamaguchi, Takashi

    2018-05-01

    Atmospheric nitrate deposition resulting from anthropogenic activities negatively affects human and environmental health. Identifying deposited nitrate that is produced locally vs. that originating from long-distance transport would help inform efforts to mitigate such impacts. However, distinguishing the relative transport distances of atmospheric nitrate in urban areas remains a major challenge since it may be produced locally and/or be transported from upwind regions. To address this uncertainty we assessed spatiotemporal variation in monthly weighted-average Δ17O and δ15N values of wet and dry nitrate deposition during one year at urban and rural sites along the western coast of the northern Japanese island of Hokkaido, downwind of the East Asian continent. Δ17O values of nitrate in wet deposition at the urban site mirrored those of wet and dry deposition at the rural site, ranging between ˜ +23 and +31 ‰ with higher values during winter and lower values in summer, which suggests the greater relative importance of oxidation of NO2 by O3 during winter and OH during summer. In contrast, Δ17O values of nitrate in dry deposition at the urban site were lower (+19 - +25 ‰) and displayed less distinct seasonal variation. Furthermore, the difference between δ15N values of nitrate in wet and dry nitrate deposition was, on average, 3 ‰ greater at the urban than rural site, and Δ17O and δ15N values were correlated for both forms of deposition at both sites with the exception of dry deposition at the urban site. These results suggest that, relative to nitrate in wet and dry deposition in rural environments and wet deposition in urban environments, nitrate in dry deposition in urban environments forms from relatively greater oxidation of NO by peroxy radicals and/or oxidation of NO2 by OH. Given greater concentrations of peroxy radicals and OH in cities, these results imply that dry nitrate deposition results from local NOx emissions more so than wet