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  1. Nanometer size wear debris generated from ultra high molecular weight polyethylene in vivo

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Lapčíková, Monika; Šlouf, Miroslav; Dybal, Jiří; Zolotarevova, E.; Entlicher, G.; Pokorný, D.; Gallo, J.; Sosna, A.

    2009-01-01

    Roč. 266, 1-2 (2009), s. 349-355 ISSN 0043-1648 R&D Projects: GA MŠk 2B06096 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40500505 Keywords : ultra high molecular weight polyethylene * nanometer size wear debris * morphology of wear particles Subject RIV: CD - Macromolecular Chemistry Impact factor: 1.771, year: 2009

  2. Gig economy, rating, labour relationship

    OpenAIRE

    Gemma Pacella

    2017-01-01

    In the era of gig economy, the job performance is now influenced by the customer rating system. A new London’s Employment Tribunal judgment approaches the Uber London issue focusing also on customer feedback. Since drivers are qualified as workers, not self-employed, as the English Court ruled on, this article tooks a position about on-line feedback incidence on job relationship. Referring to customer’s opinion, the employer exercises control on services performed by each worker, whereas Ital...

  3. Gig economy, rating, labour relationship

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gemma Pacella

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available In the era of gig economy, the job performance is now influenced by the customer rating system. A new London’s Employment Tribunal judgment approaches the Uber London issue focusing also on customer feedback. Since drivers are qualified as workers, not self-employed, as the English Court ruled on, this article tooks a position about on-line feedback incidence on job relationship. Referring to customer’s opinion, the employer exercises control on services performed by each worker, whereas Italian Legal System bounds it, within the meaning of article 4 of Worker’s Statutory. On the other hand, the customer rating can be considered as a type of control on the business organization, in observance of limits established by the same article.Moreover, the paper’s purpose is to inquire about the feedback positive impact on workers: customer satisfaction could provide business bonus, or it could become an evidence against employer in a court case.

  4. The relationship between phase and heart rate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Underwood, S.R.; Walton, S.; Brown, N.J.G.; Laming, P.J.; Ell, P.J.; Emanuel, R.W.; Swanton, R.H.

    1984-01-01

    The Fourier phase image is used in rest and stress radionuclide angiocardiography to assess the timing of ventricular wall motion in a regional fashion, and areas of high phase are taken to reprensent areas of delayed contraction. However, phase increases with heart rate and this can make interpretation difficult. This study investigates the relationship between phase and heart rate. A heterogenous group of 43 subjects was studied by ECG-gated equilibrium radionuclide angiocardiography, all of the subjects having normal extent of left ventricular wall motion as judged by normal ejection fraction and normal amplitude image. Mean left ventricular phase correlated well with mean time of end systole (r=0.92), but there was no correlation with time of end diastole.Thus phase reflects the time of end systole as a proportion of cycle length and should be linearly related to heart rate provided the duration of systole is unchanged. In 28 normal subjects mean left ventricular phase correlated linearly with resting rate (r=0.91), and when exercised the relationship was maintained up to 90 beats per minute. Above this rate the increases were less marked as the duration of systole shortened. The same was true in 4 subjects paced at different rates. Mean resting heart rate in the normal subjects was 70 beats per minute and correcting phase linearly to rate 70 did not change mean left ventricular phase but did decrease the standard deviation from 18 degree to 12 degree. It is concluded that correcting phase for heart rate below 90 beats per minute will increase the sensitivity of the phase image to abnormalities of the timing of ventricular contraction. This correction should be appropriate in resting, isometric exercise, and cold pressor studies but because of the higher heart rates involved will not be appropriate for bicycle exercise. (Author)

  5. ON THE RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN DUTCH AND GERMAN INTEREST-RATES

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    DEHAAN, J; PILAT, DJ; ZELHORST, D

    1991-01-01

    In this paper the relationship between Dutch and German short-term and long-term interest rates is examined. Using cointegration techniques, it is found that the covered interest parity hypothesis holds for short-term interest rates. This evidence supports the recent shift of emphasis of Dutch

  6. Individual differences in memory span: relationship between rate of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Individual differences in memory span: relationship between rate of item identification and rate of reading. AM Sunmola, CC Ukachi, JI Osu. Abstract. No Abstract Available African Journal for the Psychological Study of Social Issues Vol.4(1) 1999: 74-78. Full Text: EMAIL FULL TEXT EMAIL FULL TEXT · DOWNLOAD FULL ...

  7. Relationship of suicide rates to economic variables in Europe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fountoulakis, Konstantinos N; Kawohl, Wolfram; Theodorakis, Pavlos N

    2014-01-01

    European countries and included the number of deaths by suicide in men and women, the unemployment rate, the gross domestic product (GDP) per capita, the annual economic growth rate and inflation. RESULTS: There was a strong correlation between suicide rates and all economic indices except GPD per capita...... in men but only a correlation with unemployment in women. However, the increase in suicide rates occurred several months before the economic crisis emerged. CONCLUSIONS: Overall, this study confirms a general relationship between the economic environment and suicide rates; however, it does not support...

  8. Interest Rates and Exchange Rate Relationship in BRIC-T Countries

    OpenAIRE

    Selim KAYHAN; Tayfur BAYAT; Ahmet UGUR

    2013-01-01

    This study examines the dynamic relationships between the real exchange rate and the real interest rate in the BRIC-T (Brazil, Russia, India, China and Turkey) countries by employing monthly data from the beginning of flexible exchange rate regime to July 2011. For this aim, non-linear causality test and frequency domain causality test approaches are used. According to frequency domain causality test results, interest rate affects exchange rate in only China and this effect exist only in the ...

  9. CAUSAL RELATIONSHIPS BETWEEN GRAIN, MEAT PRICES AND EXCHANGE RATES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naveen Musunuru

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Understanding agricultural commodity price relationships are important as they help producers improve their awareness regarding production costs and ultimately aid in income determination. The present paper empirically examines the dynamic interrelationships among grain, meat prices and the U.S. dollar exchange rate. Johansen cointegration tests reveal no cointegrating relationships among the study variables. Majority of the commodities studied in the paper exhibited unidirectional causality except for corn and lean hogs. The vector autoregression (VAR model results indicate that the grain and meat prices are influenced by their own past prices. The role of exchange rates is found to be limited in linking the agricultural commodities.

  10. Relationship between chest compression rates and outcomes from cardiac arrest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Idris, Ahamed H; Guffey, Danielle; Aufderheide, Tom P; Brown, Siobhan; Morrison, Laurie J; Nichols, Patrick; Powell, Judy; Daya, Mohamud; Bigham, Blair L; Atkins, Dianne L; Berg, Robert; Davis, Dan; Stiell, Ian; Sopko, George; Nichol, Graham

    2012-06-19

    Guidelines for cardiopulmonary resuscitation recommend a chest compression rate of at least 100 compressions per minute. Animal and human studies have reported that blood flow is greatest with chest compression rates near 120/min, but few have reported rates used during out-of-hospital (OOH) cardiopulmonary resuscitation or the relationship between rate and outcome. The purpose of this study was to describe chest compression rates used by emergency medical services providers to resuscitate patients with OOH cardiac arrest and to determine the relationship between chest compression rate and outcome. Included were patients aged ≥ 20 years with OOH cardiac arrest treated by emergency medical services providers participating in the Resuscitation Outcomes Consortium. Data were abstracted from monitor-defibrillator recordings during cardiopulmonary resuscitation. Multiple logistic regression analysis assessed the association between chest compression rate and outcome. From December 2005 to May 2007, 3098 patients with OOH cardiac arrest were included in this study. Mean age was 67 ± 16 years, and 8.6% survived to hospital discharge. Mean compression rate was 112 ± 19/min. A curvilinear association between chest compression rate and return of spontaneous circulation was found in cubic spline models after multivariable adjustment (P=0.012). Return of spontaneous circulation rates peaked at a compression rate of ≈ 125/min and then declined. Chest compression rate was not significantly associated with survival to hospital discharge in multivariable categorical or cubic spline models. Chest compression rate was associated with return of spontaneous circulation but not with survival to hospital discharge in OOH cardiac arrest.

  11. The empirical relationship between energy futures prices and exchange rates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sadorsky, P.

    2000-01-01

    This paper investigates the interaction between energy futures prices and exchange rates. Results are presented to show that futures prices for crude oil, heating oil and unleaded gasoline are co-integrated with a trade-weighted index of exchange rates. This is important because it means that there exists a long-run equilibrium relationship between these four variables. Granger causality results for both the long- and short-run are presented. Evidence is also presented that suggests exchange rates transmit exogenous shocks to energy futures prices. 22 refs

  12. Relationship between lunar cycle and haemorrhagic complication rate in surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raposio, Edoardo; Caruana, Giorgia; Santi, Pierluigi; Cafiero, Ferdinando

    2017-08-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate a possible relationship between lunar cycles and haemorrhagic complication rate in surgery. The possible relationship between moon phases and surgical outcome was tested by evaluating the haemorrhagic complication rate for 18,760 patients who underwent surgery between January 2001 and December 2008 at the National Institute for Cancer Research in Genoa. A total of 103 lunar phases were considered using Chi-square (χ 2 ) test analysis, and patients were allocated a surgery date. One hundred and sixty-seven haemorrhagic complications were observed. Three hundred and nine new moon phase days were analysed and 12 incidences of complications detected, with a 3.9% complication rate per day. In the waxing moon phase, 1184.5 d were analysed with 68 incidences of complications at a daily rate of 5.7%. In the full moon phase there was a 4.9% complication rate per day (15 incidences in 309 d), whereas in the waning moon phase, the 6% percentage rate per day resulted from 72 incidences in 1184.5 d. No statistically significant correlations were found between moon cycles and postoperative haemorrhagic complications (p = .50).

  13. Relationship between exercise heart rate and music tempo preference

    OpenAIRE

    Karageorghis, CI; Jones, L; Low, DC

    2006-01-01

    The present study examined the predicted positive and linear relationship (Iwanaga, 1995a,1995b) between exercise heart rate and music tempo preference. Initially, 128 undergraduates (M 3 age = 20.0 years, SD = 0.9 years) were surveyed to establish their three favorite music artists of all time. A separate experimental group of 29 undergraduates (M age = 20.3 years, SD = 1.2 years) selected the music of a single artist from a choice of the three highest-rated artists from the earlier survey. ...

  14. Exchange Rate – Relative Price Nonlinear Cointegration Relationship in Malaysia

    OpenAIRE

    Venus Khim-Sen Liew; Chee-Keong Choong; Evan Lau; Kian-Ping Lim

    2005-01-01

    The finding of exchange rate–relative price nonlinear cointegration relationship in Malaysia, among others, suggests that nonlinear Purchasing Power Parity (PPP) equilibrium may be regarded as reference point in judging the short run misalignment of the Ringgit currency and thereby deducing effective policy actions. Moreover, economists who wish to extend the simple PPP exchange rate model into the more complicated monetary exchange models may do so comfortably, at least in the text of Malays...

  15. Relationship among reaction rate, release rate and efficiency of nanomachine-based targeted drug delivery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Qingying; Li, Min; Luo, Jun

    2017-12-04

    In nanomachine applications towards targeted drug delivery, drug molecules released by nanomachines propagate and chemically react with tumor cells in aqueous environment. If the nanomachines release drug molecules faster than the tumor cells react, it will result in loss and waste of drug molecules. It is a potential issue associated with the relationship among reaction rate, release rate and efficiency. This paper aims to investigate the relationship among reaction rate, release rate and efficiency based on two drug reception models. We expect to pave a way for designing a control method of drug release. We adopted two analytical methods that one is drug reception process based on collision with tumors and another is based on Michaelis Menten enzymatic kinetics. To evaluate the analytical formulations, we used the well-known simulation framework N3Sim to establish simulations. The analytical results of the relationship among reaction rate, release rate and efficiency is obtained, which match well with the numerical simulation results in a 3-D environment. Based upon two drug reception models, the results of this paper would be beneficial for designing a control method of nanomahine-based drug release.

  16. Relationship between exercise heart rate and music tempo preference.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karageorghis, Costas I; Jones, Leighton; Low, Daniel C

    2006-06-01

    The present study examined the predicted positive and linear relationship (Iwanaga, 1995a, 1995b) between exercise heart rate and music tempo preference. Initially, 128 undergraduate students (M age = 20.0 years, SD = 0.9) were surveyed to establish their three favorite music artists. A separate experimental group of 29 undergraduates (M age = 20.3 years, SD = 1.2) selected the music of a single artist from the three highest-rated artists from the earlier survey. They reported their preference for slow, medium, and fast tempo selections from each artist for three treadmill walking conditions at 40%, 60%, and 75% maximal heart rate reserve. A mixed-model 3 x 3 x 2 (Exercise Intensity x Music Tempo x Gender) analysis of variance was used to analyze the data. Results indicated there was no three-way interaction for music preference. There was, however, a significant (p Music Tempo (partial eta2 = .09) and a significant (p effect for music tempo, with large differences evident between preference for medium versus slow tempo and fast versus slow tempo music at all exercise intensities (partial eta2 = .78). Participants reported a preference for both medium and fast tempo music at low and moderate exercise intensities and for fast tempo music at high intensity. Only partial support was found for the expected linear relationship between exercise intensity and music tempo preference.

  17. Relationship between heart rate and preference for tempo of music.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iwanaga, M

    1995-10-01

    People prefer music with tempi ranging from 70 to 100 cycles per minute similar to that of adults' heart rate within normal daily situations. Previous studies of the relation between preferred tempi and heart rates using a pure tone also have indicated that subjects tended to prefer tempi similar to their heart rates. The present study examined this relationship using a musical piece (the theme of "It's a small world") as a stimulus. 14 undergraduate women were subjects who searched for their favorite tempi by controlling the musical tempo by themselves. The most preferred tempo was close to their cycle of heart beats, however, tempi that were one and a half and twice as fast as the heart rate were less preferred in the present study than in a previous study using a tone. Subjects preferred faster tempi in the descending series of stimuli than in the ascending one, and hence were influenced by the initial value of the tempo in the trial sequence. The effects due to the differences of the meaning of the stimuli are considered.

  18. Relationship of milking rate to somatic cell count.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, C A; Rischette, S J; Schultz, L H

    1986-03-01

    Information on milking rate, monthly bucket somatic cell counts, mastitis treatment, and milk production was obtained from 284 lactations of Holstein cows separated into three lactation groups. Significant correlations between somatic cell count (linear score) and other parameters included production in lactation 1 (-.185), production in lactation 2 (-.267), and percent 2-min milk in lactation 2 (.251). Somatic cell count tended to increase with maximum milking rate in all lactations, but correlations were not statistically significant. Twenty-nine percent of cows with milking rate measurements were treated for clinical mastitis. Treated cows in each lactation group produced less milk than untreated cows. In the second and third lactation groups, treated cows had a shorter total milking time and a higher percent 2-min milk than untreated cows, but differences were not statistically significant. Overall, the data support the concept that faster milking cows tend to have higher cell counts and more mastitis treatments, particularly beyond first lactation. However, the magnitude of the relationship was small.

  19. The relationship of motor unit size, firing rate and force.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conwit, R A; Stashuk, D; Tracy, B; McHugh, M; Brown, W F; Metter, E J

    1999-07-01

    Using a clinical electromyographic (EMG) protocol, motor units were sampled from the quadriceps femoris during isometric contractions at fixed force levels to examine how average motor unit size and firing rate relate to force generation. Mean firing rates (mFRs) and sizes (mean surface-detected motor unit action potential (mS-MUAP) area) of samples of active motor units were assessed at various force levels in 79 subjects. MS-MUAP size increased linearly with increased force generation, while mFR remained relatively constant up to 30% of a maximal force and increased appreciably only at higher force levels. A relationship was found between muscle force and mS-MUAP area (r2 = 0.67), mFR (r2 = 0.38), and the product of mS-MUAP area and mFR (mS-MUAP x mFR) (r2 = 0.70). The results support the hypothesis that motor units are recruited in an orderly manner during forceful contractions, and that in large muscles only at higher levels of contraction ( > 30% MVC) do mFRs increase appreciably. MS-MUAP and mFR can be assessed using clinical EMG techniques and they may provide a physiological basis for analyzing the role of motor units during muscle force generation.

  20. The Relationship between Tax Rate, Penalty Rate, Tax Fairness and Excise Duty Non-compliance.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sinnasamy Perabavathi

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The rise of indirect tax non-compliance by taxpayers became the main concern of most of the tax authorities around the globe. In Malaysia, non complaince such as smuggling and illegal trade activities by importers involving cigarettes, liquor and imported vehicles bound under Excise Act 1976 have caused revenue losses in monetary and non-monetary aspects. Therefore, the objective of this study is to examine the relationship of tax rate, penalty rate and tax fairness of excise duty non-compliance. This study uses the Deterrence Theory as a basis theory to investigate the phenomenon of excise duty non complaince. A total of 500 excise duty offenders throughout Malaysia responded to the survey. The model was empirically tested by using Partial Least Squares (PLS with disproportionate stratified random sampling technique. The results indicated that the perception of tax rate and penalty rate are positively related while tax fairness is negatively related to excise duty non-compliance among importers.

  1. Relationship between indoor radon concentrations and air exchange rate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Jingshu; Liu Yuyu; Yao Xiaohua; Meng Jianfeng; Zhang Yongyi; Wang Xiaohe; Yu Xiufen.

    1995-01-01

    The indoor concentration of radon and the air exchange rate were simultaneously measured in four empty rooms, made of brick and cement, which were located in different floors of dwelling houses in Taiyuan, Shanxi, China. SF 6 tracer gas decay method was used to measure the air exchange rate. Indoor radon was collected with the dimembrane method. When the ventilation rate increased, the concentration of radon dropped rapidly. Regression analysis indicated that the indoor concentration of radon was equal to the outdoor level of radon when the air exchange rate was greater than 3-4. SF 6 decay method was an effective and convenient method for measuring the air exchange rate. There was no marked difference in measurements obtained in different locations of a room. (N.K.)

  2. The relationship between temperature and standard rate of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    teleost) fishes, while largely unknown, is essential to an understanding of the effects of temperature on fish energetics. This study quantifies the effect of temperature on the standard rate of metabolism in the African lungfish, Protopterus aethiopicus.

  3. Relationship of Physical Attractiveness to Students' Ratings of Teaching Effectiveness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Reilly, Maria T.

    1987-01-01

    A study found that the physical attractiveness of a dental school teacher affected the student's opinion of teaching effectiveness, regardless of the student's sex, with effectiveness ratings correlating with pleasing appearance. (MSE)

  4. Relationship between the stuttering severity index and speech rate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudia Regina Furquim de Andrade

    Full Text Available CONTEXT: The speech rate is one of the parameters considered when investigating speech fluency and is an important variable in the assessment of individuals with communication complaints. OBJECTIVE: To correlate the stuttering severity index with one of the indices used for assessing fluency/speech rate. DESIGN: Cross-sectional study. SETTING: Fluency and Fluency Disorders Investigation Laboratory, Faculdade de Medicina da Universidade de São Paulo. PARTICIPANTS: Seventy adults with stuttering diagnosis. MAIN MEASUREMENTS: A speech sample from each participant containing at least 200 fluent syllables was videotaped and analyzed according to a stuttering severity index test and speech rate parameters. RESULTS: The results obtained in this study indicate that the stuttering severity and the speech rate present significant variation, i.e., the more severe the stuttering is, the lower the speech rate in words and syllables per minute. DISCUSSION AND CONCLUSION: The results suggest that speech rate is an important indicator of fluency levels and should be incorporated in the assessment and treatment of stuttering. This study represents a first attempt to identify the possible subtypes of developmental stuttering. DEFINITION: Objective tests that quantify diseases are important in their diagnosis, treatment and prognosis.

  5. The daily weight gain, growth rate and length-weight relationships of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The daily weight gain, growth rate and length-weight relationships of Clarias gariepinus, Heterobranchus longifilis and their reciprocal hybrids (Pisces: Clariidae) reared under ambient environmental conditions.

  6. Relationship between salivary flow rates and Candida albicans counts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Navazesh, M; Wood, G J; Brightman, V J

    1995-09-01

    Seventy-one persons (48 women, 23 men; mean age, 51.76 years) were evaluated for salivary flow rates and Candida albicans counts. Each person was seen on three different occasions. Samples of unstimulated whole, chewing-stimulated whole, acid-stimulated parotid, and candy-stimulated parotid saliva were collected under standardized conditions. An oral rinse was also obtained and evaluated for Candida albicans counts. Unstimulated and chewing-stimulated whole flow rates were negatively and significantly (p Candida counts. Unstimulated whole saliva significantly (p Candida counts of 0 versus or = 500 count. Differences in stimulated parotid flow rates were not significant among different levels of Candida counts. The results of this study reveal that whole saliva is a better predictor than parotid saliva in identification of persons with high Candida albicans counts.

  7. Instructor Reputation: An Expectancy Relationship Involving Student Ratings and Achievement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perry, Raymond P.

    1979-01-01

    Instructor expressiveness and lecture content were combined with instructor reputation in a 2 X 2 X 2 factorial design to assess interaction effects. Results indicated that reputation interacted with expressiveness but not content, in which students rated positive, high-expressive instructors more favorably than negative, high-expressive…

  8. The Relationship between Monetary Policy Rate (MPR) and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Government in a bid to regulate the affairs of the economy would always use MPR as one of its instruments; which is an interest rate at which CBN lends to commercial banks and other clients. The execution of one of these instruments at time causes others to response either positively or negatively. In order to find out some ...

  9. The relationship between resettlement and birth rates: The case of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: This study aims to examine the possible impacts of resettlement on birth rates by using the length of stay variable in the 2000 Demographic and Health Survey (DHS). Methods: Data in all three rounds of Gambella Administrative Region's Demographic and Health Surveys (DHS) are analyzed. The neighboring ...

  10. Relationship between efficiency and pedal rate in cycling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, E A; Sjøgaard, G

    2007-01-01

    Cycling was performed to test the following two hypotheses: (1) muscular efficiency is unrelated to pedal rate (61, 88, and 115 r.p.m.) for a group of subjects with a wide range of slow twitch (ST) fibers in spite of decreasing whole-body efficiency and (2) muscular efficiency correlates positively...... with % ST muscle fibers, and this correlation is more pronounced at low pedal rates than at high pedal rates. Whole-body gross efficiency decreased from 20-22% at 61 r.p.m. to 15-18% at 115 r.p.m. Mean muscular efficiency for all subjects (n=16) was approximately 26%, with delta efficiency being constant...... and muscular efficiency (taking internal power into account) slightly increasing with pedal rate. Muscular efficiency correlated positively (R(2)=0.25) with % ST fibers (21-97% ST in m. vastus lateralis) at 115 r.p.m. while not at 61 and 88 r.p.m. In conclusion, the decrease in whole-body gross efficiency...

  11. Net reclassification index at event rate: properties and relationships.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pencina, Michael J; Steyerberg, Ewout W; D'Agostino, Ralph B

    2017-12-10

    The net reclassification improvement (NRI) is an attractively simple summary measure quantifying improvement in performance because of addition of new risk marker(s) to a prediction model. Originally proposed for settings with well-established classification thresholds, it quickly extended into applications with no thresholds in common use. Here we aim to explore properties of the NRI at event rate. We express this NRI as a difference in performance measures for the new versus old model and show that the quantity underlying this difference is related to several global as well as decision analytic measures of model performance. It maximizes the relative utility (standardized net benefit) across all classification thresholds and can be viewed as the Kolmogorov-Smirnov distance between the distributions of risk among events and non-events. It can be expressed as a special case of the continuous NRI, measuring reclassification from the 'null' model with no predictors. It is also a criterion based on the value of information and quantifies the reduction in expected regret for a given regret function, casting the NRI at event rate as a measure of incremental reduction in expected regret. More generally, we find it informative to present plots of standardized net benefit/relative utility for the new versus old model across the domain of classification thresholds. Then, these plots can be summarized with their maximum values, and the increment in model performance can be described by the NRI at event rate. We provide theoretical examples and a clinical application on the evaluation of prognostic biomarkers for atrial fibrillation. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  12. Observing relationships in Finnish adoptive families: Oulu Family Rating Scale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tienari, Pekka; Wynne, Lyman C; Sorri, Anneli; Lahti, Ilpo; Moring, Juha; Nieminen, Pentti; Joukamaa, Matti; Naarala, Mikko; Seitamaa, Markku; Wahlberg, Karl-Erik; Miettunen, Jouko

    2005-01-01

    Adoption studies were intended to separate genetic from environmental "causal" factors. In earlier adoption studies, psychiatric diagnostic labels for the adoptive parents were used as a proxy for the multiple dimensions of the family rearing environment. In the Finnish Adoption Study, research design provided the opportunity to study directly the adoptive family rearing environment. For this purpose 33 sub-scales were selected creating what we call Oulu Family Rating Scale (OPAS, Oulun PerheArviointiSkaala). In this paper, the manual for scoring of these sub-scales is presented.

  13. Relationship between microbial sulfate reduction rates and sulfur isotopic fractionation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsu'Ura, F.

    2009-12-01

    Sulfate reduction is one of the common processes to obtain energy for certain types of microorganisms.They use hydrogen gas or organic substrates as electron donor and sulfates as electron acceptor, and reduce sulfates to sulfides. Sulfate reducing microbes extend across domains Archea and Bacteria, and are believed to be one of the earliest forms of terrestrial life (Shen 2004). The origin of 34S-depleted (light) sulfide sulfur, especially δ34S vials, which contain 40ml of liquid culture media slightly modified from DSMZ #63 medium.Excess amount of Fe (II) is added to the DSMZ#63 medium to precipitate sulfide as iron sulfide. The vials were incubated at 25°C, 30°C, and 37°C, respectively. 21 vials were used for one temperature and sulfide and sulfate was collected from each three glass vials at every 12 hours from 72 hours to 144 hours after start of incubation. The sulfide was precipitated as iron sulfide and the sulfate was precipitated as barite. Sulfur isotope compositions of sulfate and sulfide were measured by standard method using Delta Plus mass-spectrometer. [Results and Discussion] The fractionation between sulfide and sulfate ranged from 2.7 to 11.0. The fractionation values varied among the different incubation temperature and growth phase of D. desulfuricans. The maximum fractionation values of three incubation temperatures were 9.9, 11.0, and 9.7, for 25 °C, 30°C, and 37°C, respectively. These results were different from standard model and Canfield et al. (2006). I could not find the clear correlation between ∂34S values and incubation temperatures in this experiment. The measured fractionation values during the incubation varied with incubation stage. The fractionation values clearly increased with incubation time at every temperature, and at 25°C ∂34S value was 3.6 at the 72h and it increased to 7.9 at 144 hours. This indicated the difference of sulfate reduction rate due to the growth phase of SRB. In the early logarithmic growth phase

  14. The Relationship between Self-rated Health and Hospital Records

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Torben Heien

    hospital records. I use both measures separately to control for health in a regression of mortality on wealth. Using only historical and current hospitalization controls for health yields the common result, that SRH is a stronger predictor of mortality than objective health measures. The addition of future...... hospitalizations as controls shows that the estimated gradient on wealth is similar to one in which SRH is the control. The results suggest that SRH is able to capture diseases at prodromal stages and that with a sufficiently long time series of individual records, objective health measures can predict mortality......This paper investigates whether self-rated health (SRH) co-varies with individual hospital records. By linking the Danish Longitudinal Survey on Aging with individual hospital records covering all hospital admissions from 1995-2006, I show that SRH is correlated to historical, current, and future...

  15. The Relationship between Self-Rated Health and Hospital Records

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Torben Heien

    2013-01-01

    hospital records. I use both measures separately to control for health in a regression of mortality on wealth. Using only historical and current hospitalization controls for health yields the common result, that SRH is a stronger predictor of mortality than objective health measures. The addition of future...... hospitalizations as controls shows that the estimated gradient on wealth is similar to one in which SRH is the control. The results suggest that SRH is able to capture diseases at prodromal stages and that with a sufficiently long time series ofindividual records, objective health measures can predict mortality......This paper investigates whether self-rated health (SRH) co-varies with individual hospital records. By linking the Danish Longitudinal Survey on Aging with individual hospital records covering all hospital admissions from 1995-2006, I show that SRH is correlated to historical, current, and future...

  16. The Relationship between Self-rated Health and Hospital Records

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Torben Heien

    2016-01-01

    , and future hospital records. I use both measures separately to control for health in a regression of mortality on wealth. Using only historical and current hospitalization controls for health yields the common result that SRH is a stronger predictor of mortality than objective health measures. The addition...... of future hospitalizations as controls shows that the estimated gradient on wealth is similar to one in which SRH is the control. The results suggest that with a sufficiently long time series of individual records, objective health measures can predict mortality to the same extent as global self......This paper investigates whether self-rated health (SRH) covaries with individual hospital records. By linking the Danish Longitudinal Survey on Ageing with individual hospital records covering all hospital admissions from 1995 to 2006, I show that SRH is correlated to historical, current...

  17. A causal relationship between stock indices and exchange rates in india

    OpenAIRE

    Amalendu Bhunia

    2011-01-01

    This paper examines the causal relationship between stock prices and exchange rates, using data from 2 April 2001 to 31 March 2011 about India. Macroeconomic variables are of crucial importance for determining the effects on stock prices and investment decisions. There are many empirical studies to disclose the relationship between macroeconomic variables such as interest rate, inflation, exchange rates, money supply etc. and stock indexes. However, the direction of causality still remains un...

  18. Relationship of Employee Attitudes and Supervisor-Controller Ratio to En Route Operational Error Rates

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Broach, Dana

    2002-01-01

    ...; Rodgers, Mogford, Mogford, 1998). In this study, the relationship of organizational factors to en route OE rates was investigated, based on an adaptation of the Human Factors Analysis and Classification System (HFACS; Shappell & Wiegmann 2000...

  19. The relationship between elderly suicide rates and different components of education: a cross-national study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ajit Shah

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Two recent studies reported a curvilinear (U-shaped between elderly suicide rates and educational attainment measured by the United Nation’s Education Index. A study examining the curvilinear (U-shaped relationship between elderly suicide rates and the individual components of the Education Index (adult literacy rate, percentage of children of relevant age group enrolled in primary schools and percentage of children of relevant age group enrolled for secondary schools and one other measure of educational attainment (youth literacy rate was undertaken to partial out the effects of the individual components of Education Index on elderly suicides. METHODS: A cross-national study examining the relationship between elderly suicide rates (Y-axis and different measures of educational attainment (X-axis was undertaken using data from the World Health Organization and the United Nations data banks using Curve estimation regression models. RESULTS: The relationship between elderly suicide rates with the adult literacy rate, the percentage of children of relevant age group enrolled for secondary schools and the youth literacy rate was curvilinear (U-shaped curve. This relationship was absent with the percentage of children of relevant age group enrolled in primary schools. CONCLUSIONS: Given the cross-sectional study design, a causal relationship between elderly suicide rates and measures of educational attainment, including the adult literacy rate, the percentage of children of relevant age group enrolled for secondary schools and the youth literacy rate, cannot be assumed. However, the findings suggest that future studies of elderly suicide rates and educational attainment should focus on the adult literacy rate, the percentage of children of relevant age group enrolled for secondary schools and the youth literacy rate as measures of educational attainment.

  20. The relationship between basal metabolic rate and daily energy expenditure in birds and mammals

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ricklefs, RE; Konarzewski, M; Daan, S

    We examined the relationship between daily energy expenditure (DEE) and basal metabolic rate (BMR) in birds and mammals. Two models of the relationship between DEE and BMR were distinguished: a ''shared pathways'' model in which DEE replaces BMR in the active organism and a ''partitioned pathways''

  1. Relationships between Medicare Advantage contract characteristics and quality-of-care ratings: an observational analysis of Medicare Advantage star ratings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Peng; Burgess, James F; Cabral, Howard; Soria-Saucedo, Rene; Kazis, Lewis E

    2015-03-03

    The Centers for Medicare & Medicaid Services (CMS) publishes star ratings on Medicare Advantage (MA) contracts to measure plan quality of care with implications for reimbursement and bonuses. To investigate whether MA contract characteristics are associated with quality of care through the Medicare plan star ratings. Retrospective study of MA star ratings in 2010. Unadjusted and adjusted multivariable linear regression models assessed the relationship between 5-star rating summary scores and plan characteristics. CMS MA contracts nationally. 409 (71%) of a total of 575 MA contracts, covering 10.56 million Medicare beneficiaries (90% of the MA population) in the United States in 2010. The MA quality ratings summary score (stars range from 1 to 5) is a quality measure based on 36 indicators related to processes of care, health outcomes, access to care, and beneficiary satisfaction. Nonprofit, larger, and older MA contracts were more likely to receive higher star ratings. Star ratings ranged from 2 to 5. Nonprofit contracts received an average 0.55 (95% CI, 0.42 to 0.67) higher star ratings than for-profit contracts (P  star ratings than for-profit contracts. When comparing health plans in the future, the CMS should give increasing attention to for-profit plans with lower quality ratings and consider developing programs to assist newer and smaller plans in improving their care for Medicare beneficiaries. None.

  2. EXPLORING THE RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN ENTREPRENEURSHIP AND UNEMPLOYMENT RATE IN INDUSTRIAL SECTOR OF AZARBAYJAN-E-SHARGI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Hasan Kheiravar

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Employment is one of the core requirements of society, and unemployment is the origin of many economic, social, and cultural anomalies. Therefore, the necessity of investigating the current status of unemployment in Azarbayjan-e-Shargi province as well as the heavy responsibility of the central government and local officials to generate employment and alleviate unemployment, come into prominence. Accordingly, entrepreneurship as a key tool for creating jobs and reducing unemployment rate takes on an increasing importance among the country's experts and policymakers. A great deal of uncertainty surrounding the kind of relationship between entrepreneurship and unemployment exists in developing countries. Some experts argue that there is a positive relationship between these two economic variables, i.e., as unemployment rate rises after a few-year interval, entrepreneurship rate also increases. In contrast, some experts indicate an inverse relationship between entrepreneurship and employment, i.e., promotion of entrepreneurial activities decreases the rate of unemployment. This study investigates the relationship between entrepreneurship and unemployment rate in the industry of Azarbayjan-e-Shargi Province in Iran. Vector auto-regression (VAR econometrics was employed in examining this relationship. The findings indicated that an inverse relationship exist between entrepreneurship and unemployment rate in industrial sector of Azarbayjan-e-Shargi.

  3. The relationship between obesity and elderly suicide rates: a cross-national study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ajit Shah

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: An inverse relationship between obesity and suicide has been observed in younger adults, but this has not been examined in the elderly. METHODS: A cross-national ecological study examined the independent relationship between the prevalence of obesity and elderly suicide rates, by controlling for potentially confounding variables, using data from the World Health Organization and the United Nations. RESULTS: Elderly suicide rates in females were independently associated with the prevalence of obesity. CONCLUSIONS: Caution should be exercised in attributing a causal relationship from this cross-sectional ecological study due to ecological fallacy and requires confirmation in individual-level case-control or cohort studies.

  4. Rating Emotion Communication: Display and Concealment as Effects of Culture, Gender, Emotion Type, and Relationship

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arne Vikan

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Students from a collectivistic (Brazilian, n= 401 and an individualistic (Norwegian, n= 418culture rated their ability to display and conceal anger, sadness, and anxiety in relation to immediate family, partner, friends, and "other persons." Norwegians showed higher display ratings for anger and sadness, and higher concealment ratings for anger and anxiety. Display ratings were much higher, and concealment ratings much lower in relation to close persons than in relation to "other persons." A culture x relationship interaction was that Brazilian' ratings suggested more emotional openness to friends than to family and partner, whereas Norwegians showed the inverse patterns. Gender differences supported previous research by showing higher display and lower concealment ratings, and less differentiation between relationships by females.

  5. Relationships between vital rates and ecological traits in an avian community.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bellier, Edwige; Kéry, Marc; Schaub, Michael

    2018-03-30

    Comparative studies about the relationships between vital rates and ecological traits at the community level are conspicuously lacking for most taxa because estimating vital rates requires detailed demographic data. Identifying relationships between vital rates and ecological traits could help to better understand ecological and evolutionary demographic mechanisms that lead to interspecific differences in vital rates. We use novel dynamic N-mixture models for counts to achieve this for a whole avian community comprising 53 passerine species, while simultaneously accounting for density dependence and environmental stochasticity in recruitment and survival and, importantly, correcting our inferences for imperfect detection. Demographic stochasticity is taken into account in the form of the binomial and Poisson distributions describing survival events and number of recruits. We then explore relationships between estimated demographic parameters (i.e., vital rates) and ecological traits related to migration patterns, diet, habitat and nesting location of each species. The relative importance of recruitment and adult survival as contributors to population growth varied greatly among species, and interspecific differences in vital rates partly reflected differences in ecological traits. Migratory mode was associated with interspecific differences in population growth and density dependence. Resident species had higher population growth rates than long- and short-distance migrants. We found no relationships between diet and population growth rate. Habitat differences were associated with different growth rates: alpine, wetland and farmland species had lower population growth rates than forest species. Differences in population growth rates among nesting locations showed that breeding habitat is essential for population dynamics. Our study reveals relationships between ecological traits and contributions of vital rates to population growth and suggests ways in which

  6. Causality Relationship Between Import, Export and Growth Rate in Developing Countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Serhat YUKSEL

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we tried to determine the relationship between imports, exports and growth rate in developing countries. Within this scope, 6 developing countries (Argentina, Brazil, China, Malaysia, Mexico and Turkey were analyzed in this study. In order to achieve this purpose, annual data for the periods between 1961 and 2014 was tested by using Engle Granger co-integration analysis, Vector Error Correction Model and Toda Yamamoto causality analysis. According to the result of the analysis, it was determined that there is not any relationship among three variables in Brazil and Mexico. On the other hand, we defined that increase in export causes higher growth rate in Argentina. Moreover, it was concluded that there is a causal relationship from import to export in China and Turkey. Furthermore, it was determined that export causes higher import in Malaysia. Therefore, it can be concluded that the relationship between import, export and growth rate is not same for all developing countries..

  7. Relationship between soil erodibility and modeled infiltration rate in different soils

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Guoqiang; Fang, Qingqing; Wu, Binbin; Yang, Huicai; Xu, Zongxue

    2015-09-01

    The relationship between soil erodibility, which is hard to measure, and modeled infiltration rate were rarely researched. Here, the soil erodibility factors (K and Ke in the USLE, Ki and K1 in the WEPP) were calculated and the infiltration rates were modeled based on the designed laboratory simulation experiments and proposed infiltration model, in order to build their relationship. The impacts of compost amendment on the soil erosion characteristics and relationship were also studied. Two contrasting agricultural soils (bare and cultivated fluvo-aquic soils) were used, and different poultry compost contents (control, low and high) were applied to both soils. The results indicated that the runoff rate, sediment yield rate and soil erodibility of the bare soil treatments were generally higher than those of the corresponding cultivated soil treatments. The application of composts generally decreased sediment yield and soil erodibility but did not always decrease runoff. The comparison of measured and modeled infiltration rates indicated that the model represented the infiltration processes well with an N-S coefficient of 0.84 for overall treatments. Significant negative logarithmic correlations have been found between final infiltration rate (FIR) and the four soil erodibility factors, and the relationship between USLE-K and FIR demonstrated the best correlation. The application of poultry composts would not influence the logarithmic relationship between FIR and soil erodibility. Our study provided a useful tool to estimate soil erodibility.

  8. Effective Exchange Rates in Central and Eastern European Countries: Cyclicality and Relationship with Macroeconomic Fundamentals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stavárek Daniel

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper examines the evolution of effective exchange rates in nine Central and Eastern European countries in terms of development trends, volatility and cyclicality. Consequently, it provides direct empirical evidence on the nature of the relationship between effective exchange rates and selected macroeconomic fundamentals, addressing a key precondition of numerous exchange rate determination models and theories that attempt to explain the role of exchange rates in the economy. The results suggest that flexible exchange rate arrangements are reflected in both nominal and real effective exchange rates having higher volatility and variability. Furthermore, the results provide mixed evidence in terms of intensity, direction and cyclicality, but show a weak correlation between exchange rates and fundamentals. Sufficiently high coefficients are found only for money supply. Consequently, using fundamentals for the determination of exchange rates and using the exchange rate to explain economic development may be of limited use for the countries analyzed.

  9. Relationship between interaction parent-child with addictability rate and heterosexual orientation in students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abbas Ali Hosseinkhanzadeh

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Objective: the purpose of this study was to study relationship between interaction parent-child with addictability rate and heterosexual orientation in students. Method: The statistical population consisted of all students of Guilan University in 2012-2013 academic year, which among them a sample of 200 students were selected by random cluster sampling method and they completed preparation to addiction scale relationship between parent–child scale and attitude and heterosexual orientation before marriage. Findings: Correlation analysis indicated a significant negative correlation between addictability in female students and male students with relationship with father, and positive affect, interlace and communication subscales. The relationship between female students’ addictability with relationship with mother and positive affect, hurt and confusion and communication subscales was observed significant negative correlation, also there is a significant negative relationship between male students’ addictability with the relationship with mother. There is significant negative relationship between heterosexual orientations in male students with relation with father, positive affects and interlace. Results of regression analysis showed that relationship with father and relationship with mother can anticipate addict ability in female and male students. Conclusion: If parents cannot establish an appropriate and constructive interaction with their child cause child face with affection and emotional deprivation and this poor emotional and affection deprivation may cause he or she bring to the addict ability and heterosexual orientation.

  10. The Relationship of Error Rate and Comprehension in Second and Third Grade Oral Reading Fluency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abbott, Mary; Wills, Howard; Miller, Angela; Kaufman, Journ

    2012-01-01

    This study explored the relationships of oral reading speed and error rate on comprehension with second and third grade students with identified reading risk. The study included 920 2nd graders and 974 3rd graders. Participants were assessed using Dynamic Indicators of Basic Early Literacy Skills (DIBELS) and the Woodcock Reading Mastery Test (WRMT) Passage Comprehension subtest. Results from this study further illuminate the significant relationships between error rate, oral reading fluency, and reading comprehension performance, and grade-specific guidelines for appropriate error rate levels. Low oral reading fluency and high error rates predict the level of passage comprehension performance. For second grade students below benchmark, a fall assessment error rate of 28% predicts that student comprehension performance will be below average. For third grade students below benchmark, the fall assessment cut point is 14%. Instructional implications of the findings are discussed.

  11. Effects of fatigue on motor unit firing rate versus recruitment threshold relationships.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stock, Matt S; Beck, Travis W; Defreitas, Jason M

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the influence of fatigue on the average firing rate versus recruitment threshold relationships for the vastus lateralis (VL) and vastus medialis. Nineteen subjects performed ten maximum voluntary contractions of the dominant leg extensors. Before and after this fatiguing protocol, the subjects performed a trapezoid isometric muscle action of the leg extensors, and bipolar surface electromyographic signals were detected from both muscles. These signals were then decomposed into individual motor unit action potential trains. For each subject and muscle, the relationship between average firing rate and recruitment threshold was examined using linear regression analyses. For the VL, the linear slope coefficients and y-intercepts for these relationships increased and decreased, respectively, after fatigue. For both muscles, many of the motor units decreased their firing rates. With fatigue, recruitment of higher threshold motor units resulted in an increase in slope for the VL. Copyright © 2011 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  12. Workplace relationships impact self-rated health: A survey of Swedish municipal health care employees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Persson, Sophie Schön; Lindström, Petra Nilsson; Pettersson, Pär; Andersson, Ingemar

    2018-05-22

    The impact of positive social relationships on the health of municipal employees in the elder care sector in Sweden needs further examination. To explore the association between health and relationships among elderly care employees using a salutogenic perspective. Survey of all employees (n = 997) in special housing, home care and Disabled Support and Services in a Swedish municipality. The questionnaire, which had a salutogenic perspective, included information on self-rated health from the previously validated SHIS (Salutogenic Health Indicator Scale), psychosocial work environment and experiences, social climate, and health-promoting workplace relationships. The response rate was 69% . Results of a multivariable linear regression model showed four significant predictors of health: general work experiences, colleague belongingness and positive relationships with managers and care recipients. In another model, colleague belongingness was significantly related to satisfaction with care recipients, work, length of employment as well as general work experiences and relationships with managers. Strengthening of positive work relationships, not only between workmates but also with managers and care recipients, seems to be an essential area for employee health promotion. Colleague belongingness may be deepened by development of a positive work climate, including satisfactory work experiences, positive manager relationships and a stable work force.

  13. Establishment of the relationship between 137Cs loss and soil erosion rates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Phan Son Hai

    2003-01-01

    The key stages involved in the use of 137 Cs in soil erosion assessment is presented. The method have been successfully applied in pilot scale. These main stages can be summarized as follows: 1/ selection of reference sites next to the study site and establishment of a reference fallout inventory for the study site; 2/measurement of the current spatial distribution of 137 Cs inventory; 3/ evaluation of the pattern of 137 Cs redistribution at the study site; 4/ development of a calibration relationship between 137 CS loss and gain and rate of soil erosion; 5/ estimation of soil redistribution rates using the calibration relationship. (PSH)

  14. Investigating the asymmetric relationship between inflation-output growth exchange rate changes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chu, Jenq Fei; Sek, Siok Kun

    2017-08-01

    The relationship between inflation-output growth or output variation has long been studied. In this study, we extend the investigation under two exchange rate flexibility/regime in four Asian countries (Indonesia, Korea, Philippines and Thailand) that have experienced drastic exchange rate regime changes aftermath the financial crisis of 1997. These countries have switched from fixed/rigid exchange rate regime to flexible exchange rate and inflation targeting (IT) regime after the crisis. Our main objective is to compare the inflation-output trade-off relationship in the pre-IT and post-IT periods as a tool to evaluate the efficiency of monetary policy. A nonlinear autoregressive distributed lags (NARDL) model is applied to capture the asymmetric effects of exchange rate changes (increases and decreases). The data ranging from 1981M1 onwards till 2016M3. Our results show that exchange rate has asymmetric effect on inflation both short-run and long-run with larger impact in the post-IT period under flexible regime. Depreciation of exchange rate has leads to higher inflation. Furthermore, we find evidences on the relationship between inflation and growth in both short-run and long-run, but the trade-off only detected in the short run both in the pre- and post-IT periods.

  15. Exchange Rate – Relative Price Nonlinear Cointegration Relationship in Malaysia

    OpenAIRE

    Venus Khim-Sen Liew; Chee-Keong Choong; Evan Lau; Kian-Ping Lim

    2005-01-01

    The finding of exchange rate–relative price nonlinear cointegration relationship in Malaysia, among others, suggests that nonlinear Purchasing Power Parity (PPP) equilibrium may be regarded as reference point in judging the short run misalignment of the Ringgit currency and thereby deducing effective policy actions. Moreover, economists who wish to extend the simple PPP exchange rate model into the more complicated monetary exchange models may do so comfortably, at least in the text of Mala...

  16. The relationship between heart rate and rate of oxygen consumption in Galapagos marine iguanas (Amblyrhynchus cristatus) at two different temperatures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butler, Patrick J; Frappell, Peter B; Wang, Tobias; Wikelski, Martin

    2002-07-01

    To enable the use of heart rate (fH) for estimating field metabolic rate (FMR) in free-ranging Galapagos marine iguanas Amblyrhynchus cristatus, we determined the relationships between fH and mass-specific rate of oxygen consumption (sVO2) in seven iguanas before and during exercise on a treadmill and during the post-exercise period. The experiments were conducted at 27 and 35 degrees C, which are the temperatures that represent the lowest and highest average body temperatures of these animals in the field during summer. There were linear and significant relationships between fH and sVO2 at both temperatures (r(2)=0.86 and 0.91 at 27 degrees C and 36 degrees C, respectively). The slopes of the two regression lines did not differ, but there were significant differences in their intercepts. Thus, while heart rate can be used to predict FMR, the effects of temperature on the intercept of the regression must be taken into account when converting fH to sVO2. On the basis of our data, this can be achieved by applying the following formula: sVO2=0.0113fH-0.2983Q(10)((T(b)-27)/10). The increase in sVO2 with elevated body temperature results from an increase in fH, with no significant change in mass-specific oxygen pulse (sO(2) pulse; cardiac stroke volume times the difference in oxygen content between arterial and mixed venous blood). However, during exercise at both temperatures, increases in fH are insufficient to provide all of the additional O(2) required and there are also significant increases in the sO(2) pulses. This creates the situation whereby the same fH at the two temperatures can represent different values of sVO2.

  17. An Analysis of Florida's School Districts' Attendance Policies and their Relationship to High School Attendance Rates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reardon, Ryan Turner

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of this non-experimental correlational study was to determine the relationship between the type of attendance policies in the high schools of the 67 Florida school districts, the size of the school district (number of high school students), the socioeconomic status SES) of the school district, and the average daily attendance rate of…

  18. Amotivation in Physical Education: Relationships with Physical Self-Concept and Teacher Ratings of Attainment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackson-Kersey, Rachel; Spray, Christopher

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the reliability and validity of the Amotivation Inventory in Physical Education (AI-PE). In addition, the study sought to identify the relationships between students' amotivation, physical self-concept, and teacher ratings of National Curriculum attainment levels in PE. Students ("N" = 510) from a…

  19. Raindrop size distribution and radar reflectivity-rain rate relationships for radar hydrology

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Uijlenhoet, R.

    2001-01-01

    The conversion of the radar reflectivity factor Z (mm6m-3) to rain rate R (mm h-1) is a crucial step in the hydrological application of weather radar measurements. It has been common practice for over 50 years now to take for this conversion a simple power law relationship between Z and R. It is the

  20. Relationship between medication event rates and the Leapfrog computerized physician order entry evaluation tool.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leung, Alexander A; Keohane, Carol; Lipsitz, Stuart; Zimlichman, Eyal; Amato, Mary; Simon, Steven R; Coffey, Michael; Kaufman, Nathan; Cadet, Bismarck; Schiff, Gordon; Seger, Diane L; Bates, David W

    2013-06-01

    The Leapfrog CPOE evaluation tool has been promoted as a means of monitoring computerized physician order entry (CPOE). We sought to determine the relationship between Leapfrog scores and the rates of preventable adverse drug events (ADE) and potential ADE. A cross-sectional study of 1000 adult admissions in five community hospitals from October 1, 2008 to September 30, 2010 was performed. Observed rates of preventable ADE and potential ADE were compared with scores reported by the Leapfrog CPOE evaluation tool. The primary outcome was the rate of preventable ADE and the secondary outcome was the composite rate of preventable ADE and potential ADE. Leapfrog performance scores were highly related to the primary outcome. A 43% relative reduction in the rate of preventable ADE was predicted for every 5% increase in Leapfrog scores (rate ratio 0.57; 95% CI 0.37 to 0.88). In absolute terms, four fewer preventable ADE per 100 admissions were predicted for every 5% increase in overall Leapfrog scores (rate difference -4.2; 95% CI -7.4 to -1.1). A statistically significant relationship between Leapfrog scores and the secondary outcome, however, was not detected. Our findings support the use of the Leapfrog tool as a means of evaluating and monitoring CPOE performance after implementation, as addressed by current certification standards. Scores from the Leapfrog CPOE evaluation tool closely relate to actual rates of preventable ADE. Leapfrog testing may alert providers to potential vulnerabilities and highlight areas for further improvement.

  1. Relationships betwen mitotic delay and the dose rate of X radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yi, P.N.; Rha, C.K.; Evans, H.H.; Beer, J.Z.

    1994-01-01

    Upon exposure of cells to radiation delivered at a continuous low dose rate, cell proliferation may be sustained with the cells exhibiting a constant doubling time that is independent of the total dose. The doubling time or mitotic delay under these conditions has been shown to depend on the dose rate in HeLa, V79 and P388F cells. Reanalysis of the data for these particular cell lines shows that there is a threshold dose rate for mitotic delay, and that above the threshold there is a linear relationship between the length of mitotic delay and the logarithm of the dose rate which is referred to as the dose-rate response. We have observed the same relationships for L5178Y (LY)-R and LY-S cells exposed to low-dose-rate radiation. The threshold dose rates for LY-R, LY-S and P388F cells are similar (0.01-0.02 Gy/h) and are much lower than for V79 and HeLa cells. The slope of the dose-rate response curve is the greatest for HeLa cells, followed in order by LY-S, V79 and P388F cells, and finally by LY-R cells. The slopes for HeLa and LY-R cells differ by a factor of 35. 20 refs., 3 figs., 1 tab

  2. Short communication: relationship of call rate and accuracy of single nucleotide polymorphism genotypes in dairy cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooper, T A; Wiggans, G R; VanRaden, P M

    2013-05-01

    Call rates on both a single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) basis and an animal basis are used as measures of data quality and as screening tools for genomic studies and evaluations of dairy cattle. To investigate the relationship of SNP call rate and genotype accuracy for individual SNP, the correlation between percentages of missing genotypes and parent-progeny conflicts for each SNP was calculated for 103,313 Holsteins. Correlations ranged from 0.14 to 0.38 for the BovineSNP50 and BovineLD (Illumina Inc., San Diego, CA) and GeneSeek Genomic Profiler (Neogen Corp., Lincoln, NE) chips, with lower correlations for newer chips. For US genomic evaluations, genotypes are excluded for animals with a call rate of call rate for 220,175 Holstein, Jersey, and Brown Swiss genotypes was 99.6%. Animal genotypes with a call rate of ≤99% were examined from the US Department of Agriculture genotype database to determine how genotype call rate is related to accuracy of calls on an animal basis. Animal call rate was determined from SNP used in genomic evaluation and is the number of called autosomal and X-specific SNP genotypes divided by the number of SNP from that type of chip. To investigate the relationship of animal call rate and parentage validation, conflicts between a genotyped animal and its sire or dam were determined through a duo test (opposite homozygous SNP genotypes between sire and progeny; 1,374 animal genotypes) and a trio test (also including conflicts with dam and heterozygous SNP genotype for the animal when both parents are the same homozygote; 482 animal genotypes). When animal call rate was ≤ 80%, parentage validation was no longer reliable with the duo test. With the trio test, parentage validation was no longer reliable when animal call rate was ≤ 90%. To investigate how animal call rate was related to genotyping accuracy for animals with multiple genotypes, concordance between genotypes for 1,216 animals that had a genotype with a call rate of ≤ 99

  3. Relationship between manual dexterity and the unified parkinson's disease rating scale-motor exam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hwang, Sujin; Song, Chiang-Soon

    2016-12-01

    [Purpose] The purpose of this study was to examine the relationships between manual dexterity and the Unified Parkinson's Disease Rating Scale-Motor Exam as a clinical tool for quantifying upper extremity function in persons with Parkinson's disease. [Subjects and Methods] Thirty-two persons with idiopathic Parkinson's disease participated in this study. This study measured two clinical outcomes, the box-and-block test and the Unified Parkinson's Disease Rating Scale-Motor Exam, to investigate the relationships between manual dexterity and the Unified Parkinson's Disease Rating Scale-Motor Exam. [Results] The box-and-block test on the more affected side was positive relationship with the box-and-block test on the less affected side. The Unified Parkinson's Disease Rating Scale-motor exam score had a negative correlation with the box-and-block test results for both sides. [Conclusion] A positive association was noted between manual dexterity and motor function in patients with idiopathic Parkinson disease. The results of this study suggest that the box-and-block test and the Unified Parkinson's Disease Rating Scale-Motor Exam are good clinical measures that quantify upper extremity function and are necessary for the accurate evaluation of patients and to plan intervention strategies.

  4. Testing the Relationship between Interest Rates Volatility and Market Capitalization: the case of Mauritius

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edesiri Godsday Okoro

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper tests the relationship between interest rates volatility and market capitalization in Mauritius. Using annual time series data sourced from the Financial Services Commission Annual Statistical Bulletin of Mauritius during the period 2006 through 2010, data of interest rates volatility and market capitalization were estimated in a non-linear model using the Vector Auto-regression technique. The study found that interest rates volatility has significant effect on the level of market capitalization although a negative effect. This implies a negative relationship between interest rates volatility and market capitalization. Thus, if market capitalization is affected by interest rates, then the economy becomes highly susceptible to volatile external distress. This indicates some dangers for the economic survival of Mauritius. It was on this note that we recommended an effective policy aimed at stabilizing macroeconomic variable like interest rates, focusing at the same time on alternative measures of promoting market capitalization if aggregate economic growth must be harnessed. Policymakers should design the optimal policy mix that would help the nation cope efficiently with the economic and social costs of the external distress accompanying higher and dwindling interest rates in Mauritius.

  5. The relationship among gene expression, the evolution of gene dosage, and the rate of protein evolution.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jean-François Gout

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available The understanding of selective constraints affecting genes is a major issue in biology. It is well established that gene expression level is a major determinant of the rate of protein evolution, but the reasons for this relationship remain highly debated. Here we demonstrate that gene expression is also a major determinant of the evolution of gene dosage: the rate of gene losses after whole genome duplications in the Paramecium lineage is negatively correlated to the level of gene expression, and this relationship is not a byproduct of other factors known to affect the fate of gene duplicates. This indicates that changes in gene dosage are generally more deleterious for highly expressed genes. This rule also holds for other taxa: in yeast, we find a clear relationship between gene expression level and the fitness impact of reduction in gene dosage. To explain these observations, we propose a model based on the fact that the optimal expression level of a gene corresponds to a trade-off between the benefit and cost of its expression. This COSTEX model predicts that selective pressure against mutations changing gene expression level or affecting the encoded protein should on average be stronger in highly expressed genes and hence that both the frequency of gene loss and the rate of protein evolution should correlate negatively with gene expression. Thus, the COSTEX model provides a simple and common explanation for the general relationship observed between the level of gene expression and the different facets of gene evolution.

  6. Relationships between nutrient enrichment, pleurocerid snail density and trematode infection rate in streams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ciparis, Serena; Iwanowicz, Deborah D.; Voshell, J. Reese

    2013-01-01

    Summary 1. Nutrient enrichment is a widespread environmental problem in freshwater ecosystems. Eutrophic conditions caused by nutrient enrichment may result in a higher prevalence of infection by trematode parasites in host populations, due to greater resource availability for the molluscan first intermediate hosts. 2. This study examined relationships among land use, environmental variables indicating eutrophication, population density of the pleurocerid snail, Leptoxis carinata, and trematode infections. Fifteen study sites were located in streams within the Shenandoah River catchment (Virginia, U.S.A.), where widespread nutrient enrichment has occurred. 3. Snail population density had a weak positive relationship with stream water nutrient concentration. Snail population density also increased as human activities within stream catchments increased, but density did not continue to increase in catchments where anthropogenic disturbance was greatest. 4. Cercariae from five families of trematodes were identified in L. carinata, and infection rate was generally low (<10%). Neither total infection rate nor the infection rate of individual trematode types showed a positive relationship with snail population density, nutrients or land use. 5. There were statistically significant but weak relationships between the prevalence of infection by two trematode families and physical and biological variables. The prevalence of Notocotylidae was positively related to water depth, which may be related to habitat use by definitive hosts. Prevalence of Opecoelidae had a negative relationship with orthophosphate concentration and a polynomial relationship with chlorophyll a concentration. Transmission of Opecoelid trematodes between hosts may be inhibited by eutrophic conditions. 6. Leptoxis carinata appears to be a useful species for monitoring the biological effects of eutrophication and investigating trematode transmission dynamics in lotic systems.

  7. Evaluation of the relationship between motion sickness symptomatology and blood pressure, heart rate, and body temperature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graybiel, A.; Lackner, J. R.

    1980-01-01

    This study investigated the relationship between the development of symptoms of motion sickness and changes in blood pressure, heart rate, and body temperature. Twelve subjects were each evaluated four times using the vestibular-visual interaction test (Graybiel and Lackner, 1980). The results were analyzed both within and across individual subjects. Neither a systematic group nor consistent individual relationship was found between the physiological parameters and the appearance of symptoms of motion sickness. These findings suggest that biofeedback control of the physiological variables studied is not likely to prevent the expression of motion sickness symptomatology.

  8. The relationship between elderly suicide rates and the internet: a cross-national study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shah, Ajit

    2010-05-01

    Suicide rates generally increase with age. Internet websites and chat rooms have been reported both to promote suicides and to have a positive beneficial effect on suicidal individuals. The role of the internet in elderly suicides has not been studied. The relationship between elderly suicide rates and the prevalence of internet users was examined in a cross-national study using data from the World Health Organization and the United Nations website. The prevalence of internet users was significantly and positively correlated with suicide rates in both genders in the age bands 65-74 years and 75+ years. On multiple regression analysis the prevalence of internet users was independently associated with suicide rates in both genders in both age bands. Caution should be exercised in the attribution of a causal relationship and the direction of this relationship because of the cross-sectional and ecological study design whereby the findings are subject to ecological fallacy. However, the findings identify and support a need for further research.

  9. Relationship between xerostomia and salivary flow rates in HIV-infected individuals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nittayananta, Wipawee; Chanowanna, Nilnara; Pruphetkaew, Nannapat; Nauntofte, Birgitte

    2013-08-01

    The aim of the present study was to determine the relationship between self-reported xerostomia and salivary flow rates among HIV-infected individuals. A cross-sectional study was performed on 173 individuals (81 HIV-infected individuals, mean age: 32 years, and 92 non-HIV controls, mean age: 30 years). Subjective complaints of dry mouth, based on a self-report of xerostomia questions, and dry mouth, based on a visual analogue scale (VAS), were recorded along with measurements of salivary flow rate of both unstimulated and wax-stimulated whole saliva. The relationship between subjective responses to the xerostomia questions, the VAS of dry mouth, and objective measurements of salivary flow rates were analyzed. Responses to the questions--Do you carry water or a saliva substitute? and Have you had taste disturbance?--were significantly different between HIV-infected and non-HIV individuals (P flow rate. A significant correlation between the VAS of dry mouth and salivary flow rates was observed (P = 0.023). Responses to self-reported xerostomia questions reflects low unstimulated salivary flow rates. Thus, questions concerning dry mouth might be useful tools to identify HIV-infected individuals with hyposalivation, especially at a resting stage. © 2013 Wiley Publishing Asia Pty Ltd.

  10. The relationship between body mass and field metabolic rate among individual birds and mammals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hudson, Lawrence N; Isaac, Nick J B; Reuman, Daniel C

    2013-09-01

    1. The power-law dependence of metabolic rate on body mass has major implications at every level of ecological organization. However, the overwhelming majority of studies examining this relationship have used basal or resting metabolic rates, and/or have used data consisting of species-averaged masses and metabolic rates. Field metabolic rates are more ecologically relevant and are probably more directly subject to natural selection than basal rates. Individual rates might be more important than species-average rates in determining the outcome of ecological interactions, and hence selection. 2. We here provide the first comprehensive database of published field metabolic rates and body masses of individual birds and mammals, containing measurements of 1498 animals of 133 species in 28 orders. We used linear mixed-effects models to answer questions about the body mass scaling of metabolic rate and its taxonomic universality/heterogeneity that have become classic areas of controversy. Our statistical approach allows mean scaling exponents and taxonomic heterogeneity in scaling to be analysed in a unified way while simultaneously accounting for nonindependence in the data due to shared evolutionary history of related species. 3. The mean power-law scaling exponents of metabolic rate vs. body mass relationships were 0.71 [95% confidence intervals (CI) 0.625-0.795] for birds and 0.64 (95% CI 0.564-0.716) for mammals. However, these central tendencies obscured meaningful taxonomic heterogeneity in scaling exponents. The primary taxonomic level at which heterogeneity occurred was the order level. Substantial heterogeneity also occurred at the species level, a fact that cannot be revealed by species-averaged data sets used in prior work. Variability in scaling exponents at both order and species levels was comparable to or exceeded the differences 3/4-2/3 = 1/12 and 0.71-0.64. 4. Results are interpreted in the light of a variety of existing theories. In particular, results

  11. The relationship between body temperature, heart rate, breathing rate, and rate of oxygen consumption, in the tegu lizard (Tupinambis merianae) at various levels of activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piercy, Joanna; Rogers, Kip; Reichert, Michelle; Andrade, Denis V; Abe, Augusto S; Tattersall, Glenn J; Milsom, William K

    2015-12-01

    The present study determined whether EEG and/or EMG recordings could be used to reliably define activity states in the Brazilian black and white tegu lizard (Tupinambis merianae) and then examined the interactive effects of temperature and activity states on strategies for matching O2 supply and demand. In a first series of experiments, the rate of oxygen consumption (VO2), breathing frequency (fR), heart rate (fH), and EEG and EMG (neck muscle) activity were measured in different sleep/wake states (sleeping, awake but quiet, alert, or moving). In general, metabolic and cardio-respiratory changes were better indictors of the transition from sleep to wake than were changes in the EEG and EMG. In a second series of experiments, the interactive effects of temperature (17, 27 and 37 °C) and activity states on fR, tidal volume (VT), the fraction of oxygen extracted from the lung per breath (FIO2-FEO2), fH, and the cardiac O2 pulse were quantified to determine the relative roles of each of these variables in accommodating changes in VO2. The increases in oxygen supply to meet temperature- and activity-induced increases in oxygen demand were produced almost exclusively by increases in fH and fR. Regression analysis showed that the effects of temperature and activity state on the relationships between fH, fR and VO2 was to extend a common relationship along a single curve, rather than separate relationships for each metabolic state. For these lizards, the predictive powers of fR and fH were maximized when the effects of changes in temperature, digestive state and activity were pooled. However, the best r(2) values obtained were 0.63 and 0.74 using fR and fH as predictors of metabolic rate, respectively.

  12. Observational study of the relationship between entrainment rate and relative dispersion in deep convective clouds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Xiaohao; Lu, Chunsong; Zhao, Tianliang; Liu, Yangang; Zhang, Guang Jun; Luo, Shi

    2018-01-01

    This study investigates the influence of entrainment rate (λ) on relative dispersion (ε) of cloud droplet size distributions (CDSD) in the 99 growing precipitating deep convective clouds during TOGA-COARE. The results show that entrainment suppresses ε, which is opposite to the traditional understanding that entrainment-mixing broadens CDSD. To examine how the relationship between ε and λ is affected by droplets with different sizes, CDSDs are divided into three portions with droplet radius processes is developed to illustrate the possible scenarios entailing different relationships between ε and λ. The number concentration of small droplets and the degree of evaporation of small droplets are found to be key factors that shift the sign (i.e., positive or negative) of the ε-λ relationship.

  13. Racial differences in the relationship between rate of nicotine metabolism and nicotine intake from cigarette smoking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ross, Kathryn C; Gubner, Noah R; Tyndale, Rachel F; Hawk, Larry W; Lerman, Caryn; George, Tony P; Cinciripini, Paul; Schnoll, Robert A; Benowitz, Neal L

    2016-09-01

    Rate of nicotine metabolism has been identified as an important factor influencing nicotine intake and can be estimated using the nicotine metabolite ratio (NMR), a validated biomarker of CYP2A6 enzyme activity. Individuals who metabolize nicotine faster (higher NMR) may alter their smoking behavior to titrate their nicotine intake in order to maintain similar levels of nicotine in the body compared to slower nicotine metabolizers. There are known racial differences in the rate of nicotine metabolism with African Americans on average having a slower rate of nicotine metabolism compared to Whites. The goal of this study was to determine if there are racial differences in the relationship between rate of nicotine metabolism and measures of nicotine intake assessed using multiple biomarkers of nicotine and tobacco smoke exposure. Using secondary analyses of the screening data collected in a recently completed clinical trial, treatment-seeking African American and White daily smokers (10 or more cigarettes per day) were grouped into NMR quartiles so that the races could be compared at the same NMR, even though the distribution of NMR within race differed. The results indicated that rate of nicotine metabolism was a more important factor influencing nicotine intake in White smokers. Specifically, Whites were more likely to titrate their nicotine intake based on the rate at which they metabolize nicotine. However, this relationship was not found in African Americans. Overall there was a greater step-down, linear type relationship between NMR groups and cotinine or cotinine/cigarette in African Americans, which is consistent with the idea that differences in blood cotinine levels between the African American NMR groups were primarily due to differences in CYP2A6 enzyme activity without titration of nicotine intake among faster nicotine metabolizers. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Relationship between stuttering severity in children and their mothers’ speaking rate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Dehqan

    Full Text Available CONTEXT AND OBJECTIVE: Stuttering is a complex disease that influences occupational, social, academic and emotional achievements. The aim of this study was to correlate the stuttering severity index with speaking rates of mothers and children. DESIGN AND SETTING: Cross-sectional study, at the child rehabilitation clinics of Tehran city. METHODS: 35 pairs of mothers and their children who stuttered were studied. There were 29 boys and six girls, of mean age 8.5 years (range: 5.1-12.0. Speech samples from the mother-child pairs were audiotaped for approximately 15 minutes, until a reciprocal verbal interaction had been obtained. This sample was then analyzed in accordance with a stuttering severity index test and speaking rate parameters. RESULTS: The research results outlined a significant relationship between the mothers’ speaking rate and their children’s stuttering severity. CONCLUSION: The results suggest that the mothers’ speaking rate should be incorporated in the assessment and treatment of stuttering.

  15. Relationship Between the Number of Clinical Sites in Radiography Programs and Job Placement Rates of Graduates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harrell, Angela; Matthews, Eric

    2016-07-01

    To determine whether a relationship exists between the number of clinical sites available in radiography programs accredited by the Joint Review Committee on Education in Radiologic Technology and the job placement rates of graduates. We performed a secondary analysis of data on job placement rates and the number of clinical sites available in 438 degree-granting radiography programs from January 2015 to March 2015. A weak, negative, nonsignificant correlation existed between the number of clinical sites and the job placement rate (Spearman's rho = -.113, n = 438, P = .018). The coefficient of determination was 1.28%.Discussion Research evaluating factors contributing to graduate employability is limited but indicates no need for radiography program administrators to adjust clinical site numbers solely on the basis of improving graduate employability. The number of clinical sites available in a radiography program is not related to the job placement rate of its graduates. ©2016 American Society of Radiologic Technologists.

  16. Relationship Between Serum Adiponectin and Urinary Albumin Excretion Rate in Patients with Diabetes Nephropathy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Duan Yongqiang; Yu Hui; Wang Zuobing

    2010-01-01

    To explore the relationship between the levels of serum adiponectin and urinary albumin excretion rate in patients with type 2 diabetes nephropathy, the serum levels of adiponectin and the levels of urinary albumin excretion rate in diabetes patients before and after treatment with pioglitazone were tested by ELISA and automatic biochemical analyzer respectively. The results showed that the serum levels of adiponectin in DM and DN group were lower than that of normal controls(P<0.01), but they gradually increased with progression (P<0.01). The serum adiponectin level was positively correlated with urinary albumin excretion rate (r= 0.284, P<0.05). The urinary albumin level decreased (P<0.01) and the serum levels of adiponectin increased after treatment with pioglitazone in DN group. The serum levels of adiponectin and urinary albumin excretion rate may play important role in the indication of treatment of diabetes. (authors)

  17. Relationship Between Exercise Heart Rate and Music\\ud Tempo Preference

    OpenAIRE

    Karageorghis, C. I; Jones, Leighton; Low, D. C

    2006-01-01

    The present study examined the predicted positive and linear relationship (Iwanaga, 1995a, 1995b) between exercise heart rate and music tempo preference. Initially, 128 undergraduate students (M age = 20.0 years, SD = 0.9) were surveyed to establish their three favorite music artists. A separate experimental group of 29 undergraduates (M age = 20.3 years, SD = 1.2) selected the music of a single artist from the three highest-rated artists from the earlier survey. They reported their\\ud prefer...

  18. Relationship between terrestrial gamma ray dose rates and geology of Awaji Island in Hyogo Prefecture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shibayama, Motohiko; Hiraoka, Yoshitsugu; Ikeda, Tadashi; Terado, Shin

    2004-01-01

    In order to clarify the relationship between terrestrial gamma ray dose rates and surface geology, measurements were carried out for the entire part f Awaji Island in Hyogo Prefecture. The results of analysis were summarized as follows. (1) The mean value for each geology was nearly the same as that in the whole of Japan. (2) The granitic rocks can be divided into three groups, based on their stages of intrusion (Tainsyo, 1985). the dose rate levels for granitic rocks increased from fast stage over third stage. (author)

  19. Towards inflation targeting in Egypt: the relationship between exchange rate and inflation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aliaa Khodeir

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Since the Egyptian economy has recently moved towards inflation targeting, it became very important to know whether exchange rate movements have serious inflationary implications or not. To investigate this subject, the study aims to analyse the relevance of inflation with the exchange rate by using the Granger-causality test. Two indicators of inflation will be used, the consumer price index (CPI and wholesale price index (WPI. In general, the results show a strong relationship between the two variables in a way that may give support to the application of ‘flexible inflation targeting regime instead of strict inflation targeting regime’.

  20. Caries prevalence in chronic alcoholics and the relationship to salivary flow rate and pH.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dukić, Walter; Dobrijević, Tanja Trivanović; Katunarić, Marina; Lesić, Stjepanka

    2013-03-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the dental status of alcoholics; to evaluate the relationship of unstimulated and stimulated saliva pH on their decayed/missing/filled teeth (DMFT); and to evaluate the relationship of unstimulated and stimulated salivary flow rate on their DMFT. A cross-sectional study was conducted in patients treated for alcohol dependency (n = 70; mean age 41.7 years) and a control group of non-alcoholics (n = 70; mean age 39.1 years). Examinations for dental caries were conducted using the World Health Organization (WHO) criteria and questionnaires. The correlation between nominal variables was determined using chi2 test (alpha = 0.05). The correlation between interval variables was determined using Pearson's correlation coefficient. The mean DMFT was similar in alcoholics (14.40) and the control group (13.44) (p > 0.05). There was a statistically significant correlation between alcoholism and unstimulated salivary flow rate (p salivary flow rate (p > 0.05) or stimulated salivary flow on DMFT (p > 0.05). There was a statistically significant correlation between alcoholism and the pH value of stimulated saliva (p 0.05). No major differences were found with respect to overall DMFT in alcoholics compared to the control group. Alcoholism and stimulated salivary flow rate showed no correlation. Unstimulated salivary flow rate as well as the pH values of both unstimulated and stimulated saliva, were lower in the alcoholic group.

  1. Relationship between dynamic infrared thermal images and blood perfusion rate of the tongue in anaemia patients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Haiwei; Zhang, Yan

    2018-03-01

    The relationship between dynamic infrared (IR) thermal images and blood perfusion rate of the tongues of anaemia patients was investigated. Blood perfusion rates at multiple locations on the tongues of 62 anaemia patients and 70 control subjects were measured. For both groups of subjects, dynamic IR thermal images were also recorded within 16 s after the mouth opened. The results showed that the blood perfusion rates at different sites (apex, middle, left side and right side) on the tongues in anaemia patients (3.49, 3.71, 3.85 and 3.77 kg/s m-3) were significantly lower than those at the corresponding sites in control subjects (4.45, 4.66, 4.81 and 4.70 kg/s m-3). After the mouth opened, the tongue temperature decreased more rapidly in anaemia patients than in control subjects. To analyse the heat transfer mechanism, a transient heat transfer model of the tongue was developed. The tongue temperatures in anaemia patients and control subjects were calculated using this model and compared to the tongue temperatures measured by the IR thermal imager. The relationship between the tongue surface temperature and the tongue blood perfusion rate was analysed. The simulation results indicated that the low blood perfusion rate and the correlated changes in anaemia patients can cause faster temperature decreases of the tongue surface.

  2. A relationship between salivary flow rates and Candida counts in patients with xerostomia

    OpenAIRE

    Nadig, Suchetha Devendrappa; Ashwathappa, Deepak Timmasandra; Manjunath, Muniraju; Krishna, Sowmya; Annaji, Araleri Gopalkrishna; Shivaprakash, Praveen Kunigal

    2017-01-01

    Context: Most of the adult population is colonized by Candida in their oral cavity. The process of colonization depends on several factors, including the interaction between Candida and salivary proteins. Therefore, salivary gland hypofunction may alter the oral microbiota and increase the risk for opportunistic infections, such as candidiasis. Hence, it is necessary to evaluate the relationship between salivary flow rates (SFRs) and Candida colony counts in the saliva of patients with xerost...

  3. Relationship Between Physician Assistant Program Length and Physician Assistant National Certifying Examination Pass Rates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colletti, Thomas P; Salisbury, Helen; Hertelendy, Attila J; Tseng, Tina

    2016-03-01

    This study was conducted to examine the relationship between physician assistant (PA) educational program length and PA programs' 5-year average Physician Assistant National Certifying Examination (PANCE) first-time pass rates. This was a retrospective correlational study that analyzed previously collected data from a nonprobability purposive sample of accredited PA program Web sites. Master's level PA programs (n = 108) in the United States with published average PANCE scores for 5 consecutive classes were included. Provisional and probationary programs were excluded (n = 4). Study data were not normally distributed per the Kolmogorov-Smirnov test, P = .00. There was no relationship between program length and PANCE pass rates, ρ (108) = -0.04, P = .68. Further analyses examining a possible relationship between program phase length (didactic and clinical) and PANCE pass rates also demonstrated no differences (ρ [107] = -0.05, P = .60 and ρ [107] = 0.02, P = .80, respectively). The results of this study suggest that shorter length PA programs perform similarly to longer programs in preparing students to pass the PANCE. In light of rapid expansion of PA educational programs, educators may want to consider these findings when planning the length of study for new and established programs.

  4. Relationship between internal medicine program board examination pass rates, accreditation standards, and program size.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Falcone, John L; Gonzalo, Jed D

    2014-01-19

    To determine Internal Medicine residency program compliance with the Accreditation Council for Graduate Medical Education 80% pass-rate standard and the correlation between residency program size and performance on the American Board of Internal Medicine Certifying Examination. Using a cross-sectional study design from 2010-2012 American Board of Internal Medicine Certifying Examination data of all Internal Medicine residency pro-grams, comparisons were made between program pass rates to the Accreditation Council for Graduate Medical Education pass-rate standard. To assess the correlation between program size and performance, a Spearman's rho was calculated. To evaluate program size and its relationship to the pass-rate standard, receiver operative characteristic curves were calculated. Of 372 Internal Medicine residency programs, 276 programs (74%) achieved a pass rate of =80%, surpassing the Accreditation Council for Graduate Medical Education minimum standard. A weak correlation was found between residency program size and pass rate for the three-year period (p=0.19, pInternal Medicine residency programs complied with Accreditation Council for Graduate Medical Education pass-rate standards, a quarter of the programs failed to meet this requirement. Program size is positively but weakly associated with American Board of Internal Medicine Certifying Examination performance, suggesting other unidentified variables significantly contribute to program performance.

  5. Relationships between heart rate and age, bodyweight and breed in 10,849 dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hezzell, M J; Dennis, S G; Humm, K; Agee, L; Boswood, A

    2013-06-01

    To evaluate relationships between heart rate and clinical variables in healthy dogs and dogs examined at a referral hospital. Clinical data were extracted from the electronic patient records of a first opinion group (5000 healthy dogs) and a referral hospital (5849 dogs). Univariable and multi-variable general linear models were used to assess associations between heart rate and clinical characteristics. Separate multi-variable models were constructed for first opinion and referral populations. In healthy dogs, heart rate was negatively associated with bodyweight (PChihuahuas. The mean difference in heart rate between a 5 and 55 kg dog was 10.5 beats per minute. In dogs presenting to a referral hospital, heart rate was negatively associated with bodyweight (P<0.001) and the following breeds; border collie, golden retriever, Labrador retriever, springer spaniel and West Highland white terrier and positively associated with age, admitting service (emergency and critical care, emergency first opinion and cardiology) and the following breeds; Cavalier King Charles spaniel, Staffordshire bull terrier and Yorkshire terrier. Bodyweight, age, breed and disease status all influence heart rate in dogs, although these factors account for a relatively small proportion of the overall variability in heart rate. © 2013 British Small Animal Veterinary Association.

  6. The Relationship Between Gun Ownership and Firearm Homicide Rates in the United States, 1981–2010

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ross, Craig S.

    2013-01-01

    Objectives. We examined the relationship between levels of household firearm ownership, as measured directly and by a proxy—the percentage of suicides committed with a firearm—and age-adjusted firearm homicide rates at the state level. Methods. We conducted a negative binomial regression analysis of panel data from the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention’s Web-Based Injury Statistics Query and Reporting Systems database on gun ownership and firearm homicide rates across all 50 states during 1981 to 2010. We determined fixed effects for year, accounted for clustering within states with generalized estimating equations, and controlled for potential state-level confounders. Results. Gun ownership was a significant predictor of firearm homicide rates (incidence rate ratio = 1.009; 95% confidence interval = 1.004, 1.014). This model indicated that for each percentage point increase in gun ownership, the firearm homicide rate increased by 0.9%. Conclusions. We observed a robust correlation between higher levels of gun ownership and higher firearm homicide rates. Although we could not determine causation, we found that states with higher rates of gun ownership had disproportionately large numbers of deaths from firearm-related homicides. PMID:24028252

  7. Regional processes in mangrove ecosystems: Spatial scaling relationships, biomass, and turnover rates following catastrophic disturbance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ward, G.A.; Smith, T. J.; Whelan, K.R.T.; Doyle, T.W.

    2006-01-01

    Physiological processes and local-scale structural dynamics of mangroves are relatively well studied. Regional-scale processes, however, are not as well understood. Here we provide long-term data on trends in structure and forest turnover at a large scale, following hurricane damage in mangrove ecosystems of South Florida, U.S.A. Twelve mangrove vegetation plots were monitored at periodic intervals, between October 1992 and March 2005. Mangrove forests of this region are defined by a -1.5 scaling relationship between mean stem diameter and stem density, mirroring self-thinning theory for mono-specific stands. This relationship is reflected in tree size frequency scaling exponents which, through time, have exhibited trends toward a community average that is indicative of full spatial resource utilization. These trends, together with an asymptotic standing biomass accumulation, indicate that coastal mangrove ecosystems do adhere to size-structured organizing principles as described for upland tree communities. Regenerative dynamics are different between areas inside and outside of the primary wind-path of Hurricane Andrew which occurred in 1992. Forest dynamic turnover rates, however, are steady through time. This suggests that ecological, more-so than structural factors, control forest productivity. In agreement, the relative mean rate of biomass growth exhibits an inverse relationship with the seasonal range of porewater salinities. The ecosystem average in forest scaling relationships may provide a useful investigative tool of mangrove community biomass relationships, as well as offer a robust indicator of general ecosystem health for use in mangrove forest ecosystem management and restoration. ?? Springer 2006.

  8. Relationship between recycling rate and air pollution: Waste management in the state of Massachusetts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Giovanis, Eleftherios

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • This study examines the relationship between recycling rate of solid waste and air pollution. • Fixed effects Stochastic Frontier Analysis model with panel data are employed. • The case study is a waste municipality survey in the state of Massachusetts during 2009–2012. • The findings support that a negative relationship between air pollution and recycling. - Abstract: This study examines the relationship between recycling rate of solid waste and air pollution using data from a waste municipality survey in the state of Massachusetts during the period 2009–2012. Two econometric approaches are applied. The first approach is a fixed effects model, while the second is a Stochastic Frontier Analysis (SFA) with fixed effects model. The advantage of the first approach is the ability of controlling for stable time invariant characteristics of the municipalities, thereby eliminating potentially large sources of bias. The second approach is applied in order to estimate the technical efficiency and rank of each municipality accordingly. The regressions control for various demographic, economic and recycling services, such as income per capita, population density, unemployment, trash services, Pay-as-you-throw (PAYT) program and meteorological data. The findings support that a negative relationship between particulate particles in the air 2.5 μm or less in size (PM 2.5 ) and recycling rate is presented. In addition, the pollution is increased with increases on income per capita up to $23,000–$26,000, while after this point income contributes positively on air quality. Finally, based on the efficiency derived by the Stochastic Frontier Analysis (SFA) model, the municipalities which provide both drop off and curbside services for trash, food and yard waste and the PAYT program present better performance regarding the air quality

  9. Examining the Relationships between Outsourcing and Downsizing to Mishap Rates at NASA (FYs 1985-2011)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charles, Sterlin Neil

    Outsourcing and downsizing practices within American businesses have been topics of investigation over the past four decades. With the intention of saving diminishing resources, many North American aerospace and governmental organizations have embraced both practices. During the 1990s the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) increased contractor outsourcing and reduced the civil servant population in response to mandated federal budget cuts. Major human capital adjustments were made within NASA as management elected to place the shuttle's operations under a single contract. The problem addressed is increased outsourcing and downsizing has been associated with reduced safety outcomes. The purpose of this quantitative archival study was to examine the relationships of outsourcing and downsizing to mishaps rates at NASA between fiscal year (FY) 1985 and FY 2011. Twenty-seven samples of outsourcing and downsizing data were examined to determine the relationships with high-severity mishaps (HSMs), moderate-severity mishaps (MSMs), and low-severity mishaps (LSMs). A quantitative design utilizing weighted least squares (WLS) regression analysis measured the relationships between predictor and outcome variables. Neither outsourcing nor downsizing predicted HSM rates, adjusted R2 = .32, F (3, 23) = 5.01, p = .53 (outsourcing); adjusted R2 = .49, F (3, 23) = 9.34, p = .41 (downsizing). Both outsourcing and downsizing predicted MSM rates, adjusted R2 = .21, F (3, 23) = 3.24, p = .006 (outsourcing); adjusted R2 = .49, F (3, 23) = 9.55, p = outsourcing); adjusted R2 = .89, F (3, 23) = 68.99, p = outsourcing and downsizing variables, and additional covariates. The added variables would offer a more convincing model for analyzing the impact of outsourcing and downsizing on mishaps. All-in-all, the efficacy of outsourcing and downsizing as a combined practice and its relationship to safety needs.

  10. Relationship between recycling rate and air pollution: Waste management in the state of Massachusetts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Giovanis, Eleftherios, E-mail: giovanis95@gmail.com

    2015-06-15

    Highlights: • This study examines the relationship between recycling rate of solid waste and air pollution. • Fixed effects Stochastic Frontier Analysis model with panel data are employed. • The case study is a waste municipality survey in the state of Massachusetts during 2009–2012. • The findings support that a negative relationship between air pollution and recycling. - Abstract: This study examines the relationship between recycling rate of solid waste and air pollution using data from a waste municipality survey in the state of Massachusetts during the period 2009–2012. Two econometric approaches are applied. The first approach is a fixed effects model, while the second is a Stochastic Frontier Analysis (SFA) with fixed effects model. The advantage of the first approach is the ability of controlling for stable time invariant characteristics of the municipalities, thereby eliminating potentially large sources of bias. The second approach is applied in order to estimate the technical efficiency and rank of each municipality accordingly. The regressions control for various demographic, economic and recycling services, such as income per capita, population density, unemployment, trash services, Pay-as-you-throw (PAYT) program and meteorological data. The findings support that a negative relationship between particulate particles in the air 2.5 μm or less in size (PM{sub 2.5}) and recycling rate is presented. In addition, the pollution is increased with increases on income per capita up to $23,000–$26,000, while after this point income contributes positively on air quality. Finally, based on the efficiency derived by the Stochastic Frontier Analysis (SFA) model, the municipalities which provide both drop off and curbside services for trash, food and yard waste and the PAYT program present better performance regarding the air quality.

  11. On-rate based optimization of structure-kinetic relationship--surfing the kinetic map.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schoop, Andreas; Dey, Fabian

    2015-10-01

    In the lead discovery process residence time has become an important parameter for the identification and characterization of the most efficacious compounds in vivo. To enable the success of compound optimization by medicinal chemistry toward a desired residence time the understanding of structure-kinetic relationship (SKR) is essential. This article reviews various approaches to monitor SKR and suggests using the on-rate as the key monitoring parameter. The literature is reviewed and examples of compound series with low variability as well as with significant changes in on-rates are highlighted. Furthermore, findings of kinetic on-rate changes are presented and potential underlying rationales are discussed. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. The relationship of sleep with temperature and metabolic rate in a hibernating primate.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew D Krystal

    Full Text Available STUDY OBJECTIVES: It has long been suspected that sleep is important for regulating body temperature and metabolic-rate. Hibernation, a state of acute hypothermia and reduced metabolic-rate, offers a promising system for investigating those relationships. Prior studies in hibernating ground squirrels report that, although sleep occurs during hibernation, it manifests only as non-REM sleep, and only at relatively high temperatures. In our study, we report data on sleep during hibernation in a lemuriform primate, Cheirogaleus medius. As the only primate known to experience prolonged periods of hibernation and as an inhabitant of more temperate climates than ground squirrels, this animal serves as an alternative model for exploring sleep temperature/metabolism relationships that may be uniquely relevant to understanding human physiology. MEASUREMENTS AND RESULTS: We find that during hibernation, non-REM sleep is absent in Cheirogaleus. Rather, periods of REM sleep occur during periods of relatively high ambient temperature, a pattern opposite of that observed in ground squirrels. Like ground squirrels, however, EEG is marked by ultra-low voltage activity at relatively low metabolic-rates. CONCLUSIONS: These findings confirm a sleep-temperature/metabolism link, though they also suggest that the relationship of sleep stage with temperature/metabolism is flexible and may differ across species or mammalian orders. The absence of non-REM sleep suggests that during hibernation in Cheirogaleus, like in the ground squirrel, the otherwise universal non-REM sleep homeostatic response is greatly curtailed or absent. Lastly, ultra-low voltage EEG appears to be a cross-species marker for extremely low metabolic-rate, and, as such, may be an attractive target for research on hibernation induction.

  13. Relationship of distraction rate with inferior alveolar nerve degeneration-regeneration shift

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ying-hua Zhao

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Distraction osteogenesis is an important technique for the treatment of maxillofacial abnormities and defects. However, distraction osteogenesis may cause the injury of the inferior alveolar nerve. The relationship between distraction rate and nerve degeneration-regeneration shift remains poorly understood. In this study, 24 rabbits were randomly divided into four groups. To establish the rabbit mandibular distraction osteogenesis model, the mandibles of rabbits in distraction osteogenesis groups were subjected to continuous osteogenesis distraction at a rate of 1.0, 1.5 and 2.0 mm/d, respectively, by controlling rounds of screwing each day in the distractors. In the sham group, mandible osteotomy was performed without distraction. Pin-prick test with a 10 g blunt pin on the labium, histological and histomorphometric analyses with methylene blue staining, Bodian's silver staining, transmission electron microscopy and myelinated fiber density of inferior alveolar nerve cross-sections were performed to assess inferior alveolar nerve conditions. At 28 days after model establishment, in the pin-prick test, the inferior alveolar nerve showed no response in the labium to a pin pricks in the 2 mm/d group, indicating a severe dysfunction. Histological and histomorphometric analyses indicated that the inferior alveolar nerve suffered more degeneration and injuries at a high distraction rate (2 mm/d. Importantly, the nerve regeneration, indicated by newborn Schwann cells and axons, was more abundant in 1.0 and 1.5 mm/d groups than in 2.0 mm/d group. We concluded that the distraction rate was strongly associated with the inferior alveolar nerve function, and the distraction rates of 1.0 and 1.5 mm/d had regenerative effects on the inferior alveolar nerve. This study provides an experimental basis for the relationship between distraction rate and nerve degeneration-regeneration shift during distraction osteogenesis, and may facilitate reducing nerve

  14. Relationship between heart rate and quiescent interval of the cardiac cycle in children using MRI

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Wei [Texas Children' s Hospital, E. B. Singleton Department of Pediatric Radiology, Houston, TX (United States); Bogale, Saivivek [Baylor University Medical Center, Department of Radiology, Dallas, TX (United States); Golriz, Farahnaz [Baylor College of Medicine, Department of Radiology, Houston, TX (United States); Krishnamurthy, Rajesh [Nationwide Children' s Hospital, Department of Diagnostic Radiology, Columbus, OH (United States)

    2017-11-15

    Imaging the heart in children comes with the challenge of constant cardiac motion. A prospective electrocardiography-triggered CT scan allows for scanning during a predetermined phase of the cardiac cycle with least motion. This technique requires knowing the optimal quiescent intervals of cardiac cycles in a pediatric population. To evaluate high-temporal-resolution cine MRI of the heart in children to determine the relationship of heart rate to the optimal quiescent interval within the cardiac cycle. We included a total of 225 consecutive patients ages 0-18 years who had high-temporal-resolution cine steady-state free-precession sequence performed as part of a magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) or magnetic resonance angiography study of the heart. We determined the location and duration of the quiescent interval in systole and diastole for heart rates ranging 40-178 beats per minute (bpm). We performed the Wilcoxon signed rank test to compare the duration of quiescent interval in systole and diastole for each heart rate group. The duration of the quiescent interval at heart rates <80 bpm and >90 bpm was significantly longer in diastole and systole, respectively (P<.0001 for all ranges, except for 90-99 bpm [P=.02]). For heart rates 80-89 bpm, diastolic interval was longer than systolic interval, but the difference was not statistically significant (P=.06). We created a chart depicting optimal quiescent intervals across a range of heart rates that could be applied for prospective electrocardiography-triggered CT imaging of the heart. The optimal quiescent interval at heart rates <80 bpm is in diastole and at heart rates ≥90 bpm is in systole. The period of quiescence at heart rates 80-89 bpm is uniformly short in systole and diastole. (orig.)

  15. Relationship between salivary flow rates and Candida counts in subjects with xerostomia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torres, Sandra R; Peixoto, Camila Bernardo; Caldas, Daniele Manhães; Silva, Eline Barboza; Akiti, Tiyomi; Nucci, Márcio; de Uzeda, Milton

    2002-02-01

    This study evaluated the relationship between salivary flow and Candida colony counts in the saliva of patients with xerostomia. Sialometry and Candida colony-forming unit (CFU) counts were taken from 112 subjects who reported xerostomia in a questionnaire. Chewing-stimulated whole saliva was collected and streaked in Candida plates and counted in 72 hours. Species identification was accomplished under standard methods. There was a significant inverse relationship between salivary flow and Candida CFU counts (P =.007) when subjects with high colony counts were analyzed (cutoff point of 400 or greater CFU/mL). In addition, the median sialometry of men was significantly greater than that of women (P =.003), even after controlling for confounding variables like underlying disease and medications. Sjögren's syndrome was associated with low salivary flow rate (P =.007). There was no relationship between the median Candida CFU counts and gender or age. There was a high frequency (28%) of mixed colonization. Candida albicans was the most frequent species, followed by C parapsilosis, C tropicalis, and C krusei. In subjects with high Candida CFU counts there was an inverse relationship between salivary flow and Candida CFU counts.

  16. FURTHER INVESTIGATION INTO THE RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN QUIT RATES AND THE WAGE-TENURE PROFILE IN JAPANESE MANUFACTURING

    OpenAIRE

    太田, 聰一; OHKUSA, Yasushi

    1996-01-01

    We examine the relationship between actual quit rates and the slope of wage-tenure profile. The results obtained clarify that there is a negative relationship between these series when we use the definition with monetary units. Conversely, the slope defined in terms of growth is found to be positively correlated with the quit rate. As the theory predicts a negative relationship between these variables, it seems reasonable to conclude from the results that the definition of the slope in moneta...

  17. Investigation of relationship between mental workload and information flow rate of accident diagnosis tasks in NPPs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ha, Chang Hoon

    2005-02-01

    The objective of this study is to investigate experimentally the relationship between an operator's mental workload and the information flow rate of accident diagnosis tasks and further to propose the information flow rate as an analytic method for measuring the mental workload. There are two types of mental workload in the advanced MCR of NPPs: the information processing workload, which is the processing that the human operator must actually perform in order to complete the diagnosis task, and emotional stress workload experienced by the operator. In this study, the focus is on the former. Three kinds of methods are used to measure the operator's workload: information flow rate, subjective methods, and physiological measures. Information flows for eight accident diagnosis tasks are modeled qualitatively using a stage model and are quantified using Conant's model. The eight accident cases are considered here are: Loss Of Coolant Accident (LOCA), Steam Generator Tube Rupture (SGTR), Steam Line Break (SLB), Feedwater Line Break (FLB), Pressurizer (PZR) spray and heater failure, Reactor Coolant Pump (RCP) trip, Main Steam Isolation Valve (MSIV) failure, and PZR spray failure. The information flow rate is obtained for each diagnosis task by imposing time limit restrictions for the tasks. Subjective methods require the operators to respond to questionnaires to rate their level of mental effort. NASA-TLX and MCH scale are selected as subjective methods. NASA-TLX is a subjective method used in the various fields including the aviation, automobile, and nuclear industries. It has a multi-dimensional rating technique and provides an overall workload score based on a weighted average on six subscales using pair-wise comparison tests. MCH, on the other hand, is one-dimensional and uses a 10- point rating technique. As with NASA-TLX, the higher the score is, the higher the subjective workload is. For the physiological measurements, an eye tracking system analyzes eye movements

  18. Investigation of relationship between mental workload and information flow rate of accident diagnosis tasks in NPPs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ha, Chang Hoon

    2005-02-15

    The objective of this study is to investigate experimentally the relationship between an operator's mental workload and the information flow rate of accident diagnosis tasks and further to propose the information flow rate as an analytic method for measuring the mental workload. There are two types of mental workload in the advanced MCR of NPPs: the information processing workload, which is the processing that the human operator must actually perform in order to complete the diagnosis task, and emotional stress workload experienced by the operator. In this study, the focus is on the former. Three kinds of methods are used to measure the operator's workload: information flow rate, subjective methods, and physiological measures. Information flows for eight accident diagnosis tasks are modeled qualitatively using a stage model and are quantified using Conant's model. The eight accident cases are considered here are: Loss Of Coolant Accident (LOCA), Steam Generator Tube Rupture (SGTR), Steam Line Break (SLB), Feedwater Line Break (FLB), Pressurizer (PZR) spray and heater failure, Reactor Coolant Pump (RCP) trip, Main Steam Isolation Valve (MSIV) failure, and PZR spray failure. The information flow rate is obtained for each diagnosis task by imposing time limit restrictions for the tasks. Subjective methods require the operators to respond to questionnaires to rate their level of mental effort. NASA-TLX and MCH scale are selected as subjective methods. NASA-TLX is a subjective method used in the various fields including the aviation, automobile, and nuclear industries. It has a multi-dimensional rating technique and provides an overall workload score based on a weighted average on six subscales using pair-wise comparison tests. MCH, on the other hand, is one-dimensional and uses a 10- point rating technique. As with NASA-TLX, the higher the score is, the higher the subjective workload is. For the physiological measurements, an eye tracking system analyzes

  19. Predicting the temporal relationship between soil cesium-137 and erosion rate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kachanoski, R.G.; De Jong, E.

    1984-01-01

    A model was developed that predicts the amount of 137 Cs remaining in soil as a function of time and erosion rate. The model accounts for atmospheric deposition, radioactive decay, tillage dilution, and erosion transport of 137 Cs, as well as seasonal differences in 137 Cs deposition and erosion rates. The model was used to estimate minimum resolution of erosion estimates based on detection limits and accuracy of 137 Cs measurement by gamma spectroscopy, as a function of time and erosion rate. The analysis showed that under Saskatchewan conditions, changes in 137 Cs at a given site can be used to estimate erosion rates between 0.5 and 10 kg m -2 yr -1 with reasonable precision, provided the sampling interval is at least 15 yr. The relationship of fraction of 137 Cs lost vs. erosion as predicted by the model was compared with other methods being used. The model was used to estimate erosion from selected Saskatchewan soils where 137 Cs levels were measured in 1966 and again in 1981. Erosion rates calculated with the model varied from 1 kg m -2 yr -1 for a sandy loam soil in continuous forage to 19 kg m -2 yr -1 for a similar soil in a crop-fallow rotation. Erosion estimates using the model were higher than those calculated by assuming that soil loss was directly proportional to 137 Cs loss, especially when 137 Cs loss was high

  20. Measurement of cerebral blood flow rate and its relationship with brain function using optical coherence tomography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Jian; Wang, Yi; Zhao, Yuqian; Dou, Shidan; Ma, Yushu; Ma, Zhenhe

    2016-03-01

    Activity of brain neurons will lead to changes in local blood flow rate (BFR). Thus, it is important to measure the local BFR of cerebral cortex on research of neuron activity in vivo, such as rehabilitation evaluation after stroke, etc. Currently, laser Doppler flowmetry is commonly used for blood flow measurement, however, relatively low resolution limits its application. Optical coherence tomography (OCT) is a powerful noninvasive 3D imaging modality with high temporal and spatial resolutions. Furthermore, OCT can provide flow distribution image by calculating Doppler frequency shift which makes it possible for blood flow rate measurement. In this paper, we applied OCT to measure the blood flow rate of the primary motor cortex in rats. The animal was immobilized and anesthetized with isoflurane, an incision was made along the sagittal suture, and bone was exposed. A skull window was opened on the primary motor cortex. Then, blood flow rate changes in the primary motor cortex were monitored by our homemade spectral domain OCT with a stimulation of the passive movement of the front legs. Finally, we established the relationship between blood flow rate and the test design. The aim is to demonstrate the potential of OCT in the evaluation of cerebral cortex function.

  1. Overnight weight loss: relationship with sleep structure and heart rate variability

    OpenAIRE

    Walter Moraes; Dalva Poyares; Christian Guilleminault; Agostinho Rosa; Marco Tulio Mello; Adriana Rueda; Sergio Tufik

    2008-01-01

    Background: Weight loss can be caused by a loss of body mass due to metabolism and by water loss as unsensible water loss, sweating, or excretion in feces and urine. Although weight loss during sleep is a well-known phenomenon, it has not yet been studied in relation to sleep structure or autonomic tonus during sleep. Our study is proposed to be a first step in assessing the relationship between overnight weight loss, sleep structure, and HRV (heart rate variability) parameters.Methods: Twent...

  2. The relationship of self-rated function and self-rated health to concurrent functional ability, functional decline, and mortality: findings from the Nun Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greiner, P A; Snowdon, D A; Greiner, L H

    1996-09-01

    We investigated the relationship of self-rated function (i.e., the ability to take care of oneself) and self-rated health to concurrent functional ability, functional decline, and mortality in participants in the Nun Study, a longitudinal study of aging and Alzheimer's disease. A total of 629 of the 678 study participants self-rated their function and health and completed an initial functional assessment in 1991-93. Survivors completed a second assessment in 1993-94. Overall, self-rated function had a stronger relationship to functional ability at the first assessment and to functional decline between the first and second assessments than did self-rated health. Self-rated function also had a stronger relationship to mortality than did self-rated health. Self-rated function may be a better marker of global function than is self-rated health and may be a useful addition to clinical assessment and scientific investigation of the relationships among function, health, and disease.

  3. Timing and rate of spheno-occipital synchondrosis closure and its relationship to puberty

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vargas, Eduardo; Palomo, J. Martin; Hans, Mark; Latimer, Bruce; Simpson, Scott

    2017-01-01

    Objectives This study examines the relationship between spheno-occipital synchondrosis (SOS) closure and puberty onset in a modern American population. It also investigates the timing and the rate of SOS closure in males and females. Materials and methods The sample includes cross-sectional and longitudinal 3D Cone Beam Computed Tomography (CBCT) scans of 741 individuals (361 males and 380 females) aged 6–20 years. Each CBCT scan is visualized in the mid-sagittal plane, and the spheno-occipital synchondrosis (SOS) is scored as completely open, partially fused, mostly fused, and completely fused. The Menarche commencement is used as an indicator of puberty onset in females. Results Mean ages of open, partially-fused, mostly-fused, and completely fused SOS were 11.07, 12.95, 14.44, and 16.41 years in males, and 9.75, 11.67, 13.25, and 15.25 in females, respectively. The results show there is a significant association between the SOS closure stage and the commencement of menarche (Fisher's Exact Test p < 0.001). It was found that females had a higher SOS closure rate (38.60%) per year than males at the age of 10 years. The closure rate in males appears slower than females at age 10, but it lasts a longer time, ranging between 22 and 26% per year from age 11 to 14 years. Conclusion There is a significant relationship between puberty onset and SOS closure, suggesting its closure is at least partially affected by systemic, hormonal changes in the growing adolescent. Also, SOS closure occurs at a faster rate and at an earlier age in females compared to males. PMID:28827837

  4. Relationship between the entomologic inoculation rate and the force of infection for Plasmodium falciparum malaria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Thomas; Maire, Nicolas; Dietz, Klaus; Killeen, Gerry F; Vounatsou, Penelope; Molineaux, Louis; Tanner, Marcel

    2006-08-01

    We propose a stochastic model for the relationship between the entomologic inoculation rate (EIR) for Plasmodium falciparum malaria and the force of infection in endemic areas. The model incorporates effects of increased exposure to mosquito bites as a result of the growth in body surface area with the age of the host, naturally acquired pre-erythrocytic immunity, and the reduction in the proportion of entomologically assessed inoculations leading to infection, as the EIR increases. It is fitted to multiple datasets from field studies of the relationship between malaria infection and the EIR. We propose that this model can account for non-monotonic relationships between the age of the host and the parasite prevalence and incidence of disease. It provides a parsimonious explanation for the faster acquisition of natural immunity in adults than in children exposed to high EIRs. This forms one component of a new stochastic model for the entire transmission cycle of P. falciparum that we have derived to estimate the potential epidemiologic impact of malaria vaccines and other malaria control interventions.

  5. Revisiting the relationship between exercise heart rate and music tempo preference.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karageorghis, Costas I; Jones, Leighton; Priest, David-Lee; Akers, Rose I; Clarke, Adam; Perry, Jennifer M; Reddick, Benjamin T; Bishop, Daniel T; Lim, Harry B T

    2011-06-01

    In the present study, we investigated a hypothesized quartic relationship (meaning three inflection points) between exercise heart rate (HR) and preferred music tempo. Initial theoretical predictions suggested a positive linear relationship (Iwanaga, 1995a, 1995b); however, recent experimental work has shown that as exercise HR increases, step changes and plateaus that punctuate the profile of music tempo preference may occur (Karageorghis, Jones, & Stuart, 2008). Tempi bands consisted of slow (95-100 bpm), medium (115-120 bpm), fast (135-140 bpm), and very fast (155-160 bpm) music. Twenty-eight active undergraduate students cycled at exercise intensities representing 40, 50, 60, 70, 80, and 90% of their maximal HR reserve while their music preference was assessed using a 10-point scale. The Exercise Intensity x Music Tempo interaction was significant, F(6.16, 160.05) = 7.08, p music-tempo relationship (p music was not preferred at any exercise intensity, preference for fast tempo increased, relative to medium and very fast tempo music, as exercise intensity increased. The implications for the prescription of music in exercise and physical activity contexts are discussed.

  6. A relationship between salivary flow rates and Candida counts in patients with xerostomia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nadig, Suchetha Devendrappa; Ashwathappa, Deepak Timmasandra; Manjunath, Muniraju; Krishna, Sowmya; Annaji, Araleri Gopalkrishna; Shivaprakash, Praveen Kunigal

    2017-01-01

    Most of the adult population is colonized by Candida in their oral cavity. The process of colonization depends on several factors, including the interaction between Candida and salivary proteins. Therefore, salivary gland hypofunction may alter the oral microbiota and increase the risk for opportunistic infections, such as candidiasis. Hence, it is necessary to evaluate the relationship between salivary flow rates (SFRs) and Candida colony counts in the saliva of patients with xerostomia. This study aims to determine and evaluate the relationship between SFRs and Candida colony forming units (CFUs) in patients with xerostomia. This study was a descriptive study. The study participants were taken from the patients attending outpatient department in a private dental college. Fifty patients, who reported xerostomia in a questionnaire of the symptoms of xerostomia, were selected. Chewing stimulated whole saliva samples were collected from them and their SFRs were assessed. Saliva samples were inoculated in the Sabouraud dextrose agar culture media for 24-48 h, and Candida CFUs were counted. Chi-squared test was used to analyze the data. There was a significant inverse relationship between salivary flow and candida CFUs count when patients with high colony counts were analyzed (cutoff point of 400 or greater CFU/mL). Females had less SFR than males. Most of the patients who had hyposalivation were taking medication for the underlying systemic diseases. Candida albicans was the most frequent species. There was a significantly negative correlation between SFRs and Candida CFUs in the patients with xerostomia.

  7. Determination of relationship between sensory viscosity rating and instrumental flow behaviour of soluble dietary fibers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arora, Simran Kaur; Patel, A A; Kumar, Naveen; Chauhan, O P

    2016-04-01

    The shear-thinning low, medium and high-viscosity fiber preparations (0.15-1.05 % psyllium husk, 0.07-0.6 % guar gum, 0.15-1.20 % gum tragacanth, 0.1-0.8 % gum karaya, 0.15-1.05 % high-viscosity Carboxy Methyl Cellulose and 0.1-0.7 % xanthan gum) showed that the consistency coefficient (k) was a function of concentration, the relationship being exponential (R(2), 0.87-0.96; P flow behaviour index (n) (except for gum karaya and CMC) was exponentially related to concentration (R(2), 0.61-0.98). The relationship between k and sensory viscosity rating (SVR) was essentially linear in nearly all cases. The SVR could be predicted from the consistency coefficient using the regression equations developed. Also, the relationship of k with fiber concentration would make it possible to identify the concentration of a particular gum required to have desired consistency in terms of SVR.

  8. Conflicts at work--the relationship with workplace factors, work characteristics and self-rated health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oxenstierna, Gabriel; Magnusson Hanson, Linda L; Widmark, Maria; Finnholm, Kristina; Stenfors, Cecilia; Elofsson, Stig; Theorell, Töres

    2011-01-01

    Few studies have considered the work environment in relation to workplace conflicts and those who have been published have included relatively few psychosocial work environment factors. Little research has been published on the consequences of workplace conflicts in terms of employee health. In this study, the statistical relationships between work and workplace characteristics on one hand and conflicts on the other hand are examined. In addition, the relationship between conflicts at work and self-rated health are described. The study population was derived from the Swedish Longitudinal Occupational Survey of Health (SLOSH) 2006; n=5,141. Among employees at workplaces with more than 20 employees (n=3,341), 1,126 (33.7%) responded that they had been involved in some type of conflict during the two years preceding the survey. Among the work and workplace characteristics studied, the following factors were independently associated with increased likelihood of ongoing conflicts: Conflicting demands, emotional demands, risk of transfer or dismissal, poor promotion prospects, high level of employee influence and good freedom of expression. Factors that decreased the likelihood of ongoing conflicts were: Good resources, good relations with management, good confidence in management, good procedural justice (fairness of decisions) and good social support. After adjustment for socioeconomic conditions the odds ratio for low self-rated health associated with ongoing conflict at work was 2.09 (1.60-2.74). The results provide a good starting point for intervention and prevention work.

  9. Relationship between recycling rate and air pollution: Waste management in the state of Massachusetts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giovanis, Eleftherios

    2015-06-01

    This study examines the relationship between recycling rate of solid waste and air pollution using data from a waste municipality survey in the state of Massachusetts during the period 2009-2012. Two econometric approaches are applied. The first approach is a fixed effects model, while the second is a Stochastic Frontier Analysis (SFA) with fixed effects model. The advantage of the first approach is the ability of controlling for stable time invariant characteristics of the municipalities, thereby eliminating potentially large sources of bias. The second approach is applied in order to estimate the technical efficiency and rank of each municipality accordingly. The regressions control for various demographic, economic and recycling services, such as income per capita, population density, unemployment, trash services, Pay-as-you-throw (PAYT) program and meteorological data. The findings support that a negative relationship between particulate particles in the air 2.5 μm or less in size (PM2.5) and recycling rate is presented. In addition, the pollution is increased with increases on income per capita up to $23,000-$26,000, while after this point income contributes positively on air quality. Finally, based on the efficiency derived by the Stochastic Frontier Analysis (SFA) model, the municipalities which provide both drop off and curbside services for trash, food and yard waste and the PAYT program present better performance regarding the air quality. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. The Relationship between Market Sentiment Index and Stock Rates of Return: a Panel Data Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudia Emiko Yoshinaga

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available This article analyzes the relationship between market sentiment and future stock rates of return. We used amethodology based on principal component analysis to create a sentiment index for the Brazilian market withdata from 1999 to 2008. The sample consisted of companies listed on BM&FBOVESPA which were groupedinto quintiles, each representing a portfolio, according to the magnitude of the following characteristics: marketvalue, total annualized risk and listing time on BM&FBOVESPA. Next, we calculated the average return of eachportfolio for every quarter. The data for the first and last quintiles were analyzed via two-factor ANOVA, usingsentiment index of the previous period (positive or negative as the main factor and each characteristic ascontrolling factors. Finally, the sentiment index was included in a panel data pricing model. The results indicatea significant and negative relationship between the market sentiment index and the future rates of return. Thesefindings suggest the existence of a reversion pattern in stock returns, meaning that after a positive sentimentperiod, the impact on subsequent stock returns is negative, and vice-versa.

  11. The Relationship Between Child Mortality Rates and Prevalence of Celiac Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biagi, Federico; Raiteri, Alberto; Schiepatti, Annalisa; Klersy, Catherine; Corazza, Gino R

    2018-02-01

    Some evidence suggests that prevalence of celiac disease in the general population is increasing over time. Because the prognosis of celiac disease was a dismal one before discovering the role of gluten, our aim was to investigate a possible relationship between children under-5 mortality rates and prevalence rates of celiac disease. Thanks to a literature review, we found 27 studies performed in 17 different countries describing the prevalence of celiac disease in schoolchildren; between 1995 and 2011, 4 studies were performed in Italy. A meta-analysis of prevalence rates was performed. Prevalence was compared between specific country under-5 mortality groups, publication year, and age. In the last decades, under-5 mortality rates have been decreasing all over the world. This reduction is paralleled by an increase of the prevalence of celiac disease. The Spearman correlation coefficient was -63%, 95% confidence interval -82% to -33% (P celiac disease in the general population. In the near future, the number of patients with celiac disease will increase, thanks to the better environmental conditions that nowadays allow a better survival of children with celiac disease.

  12. Study on Rail Profile Optimization Based on the Nonlinear Relationship between Profile and Wear Rate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jianxi Wang

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper proposes a rail profile optimization method that takes account of wear rate within design cycle so as to minimize rail wear at the curve in heavy haul railway and extend the service life of rail. Taking rail wear rate as the object function, the vertical coordinate of rail profile at range optimization as independent variable, and the geometric characteristics and grinding depth of rail profile as constraint conditions, the support vector machine regression theory was used to fit the nonlinear relationship between rail profile and its wear rate. Then, the profile optimization model was built. Based on the optimization principle of genetic algorithm, the profile optimization model was solved to achieve the optimal rail profile. A multibody dynamics model was used to check the dynamic performance of carriage running on optimal rail profile. The result showed that the average relative error of support vector machine regression model remained less than 10% after a number of training processes. The dynamic performance of carriage running on optimized rail profile met the requirements on safety index and stability. The wear rate of optimized profile was lower than that of standard profile by 5.8%; the allowable carrying gross weight increased by 12.7%.

  13. Relationships between stocking rate, livestock production systems and Alpine grasslands management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Enrico Sturaro

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available This study was conducted in order to identify the relationships between stocking rate, management system, topographic conditions and weed encroachment of summer pastures in “Lessinia”, a pre-Alpine area in the Veneto region (North-Eastern Italy. Using the data from a field survey on 46 summer pastures (30 with dairy cows and 16 with other bovine categories, various ANOVA/ANCOVA models were used to test the effects on stocking rate of livestock category, supplementary concentrate feeding, and pasture weed encroachment, slope and elevation. Stocking rate was higher in summer pastures with dairy cows than in those with other bovine categories, and in pastures with moderate slopes than in those with higher ones, but was unaffected by supplementary concentrate feeding, altitude and weed encroachment. This indicates that in the considered areas stocking rate is not constrained by pasture productivity and is kept at sub-optimal levels. Future research is needed to make more clear the effects that the present management status may have on the evolution of pastures productivity and biodiversity value.

  14. The relationship between sales of SSRI, TCA and suicide rates in the Nordic countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zahl, Per-Henrik; De Leo, Diego; Ekeberg, Øivind; Hjelmeland, Heidi; Dieserud, Gudrun

    2010-08-06

    In the period 1990-2006, strong and almost equivalent increases in sales figures of selective serotonin re-uptake inhibitors (SSRIs) were observed in all Nordic countries. The sales figures of tricyclic antidepressants (TCAs) dropped in Norway and Sweden in the nineties. After 2000, sales figures of TCAs have been almost constant in all Nordic countries. The potentially toxic effect of TCAs in overdose was an important reason for replacing TCAs with SSRIs when treating depression. We studied whether the rapid increase in sales of SSRIs and the corresponding decline in TCAs in the period 1990-98 were associated with a decline in suicide rates. Aggregated suicide rates for the period 1975-2006 in four Nordic countries (Denmark, Finland, Norway and Sweden) were obtained from the national causes-of-death registries. The sales figures of antidepressants were provided from the wholesale registers in each of the Nordic countries. Data were analysed using Fisher's exact test and Pearson's correlation coefficient. There was no statistical association (P = 1.0) between the increase of sales figures of SSRIs and the decline in suicide rates. There was no statistical association (P = 1.0) between the decrease in the sale figures of TCAs and change in suicide rates either. We found no evidence for the rapid increase in use of SSRIs and the corresponding decline in sales of TCAs being associated with a decline in the suicide rates in the Nordic countries in the period 1990-98. We did not find any inverse relationship between the increase in sales of SSRIs and declining suicide rates in four Nordic countries.

  15. The relationship between mitotic rate and depth of invasion in biopsies of malignant melanoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ghasemi Basir HR

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Hamid Reza Ghasemi Basir,1,2 Pedram Alirezaei,2 Sara Ahovan,3 Abbas Moradi3 1Department of Pathology, School of Medicine, Hamadan University of Medical Sciences, Hamadan, Iran; 2Psoriasis Research Center, Hamadan University of Medical Sciences, Hamadan, Iran; 3School of Medicine, Hamadan University of Medical Sciences, Hamadan, Iran Background: Malignant melanoma of the skin is a potentially lethal neoplasm that generally originates from atypical melanocytes in the dermal–epidermal junction. When the neoplasm penetrates into the dermis, several variables can affect the extent of its spread, among which depth of invasion has the most important prognostic value. Mitotic rate is another prognostic factor that reflects the biological behavior of the neoplasm.Objective: This study was designed to evaluate the probable relationship between the depth of invasion of malignant melanoma and its mitotic rate.Materials and methods: This study was performed on 50 excisional biopsy specimens that had received the diagnosis of malignant melanoma histopathologically. Tumor characteristics including Breslow thickness, Clark level, T-stage, and tumor mitotic rate were recorded.Results: We observed that at higher Clark levels and higher T-stages, and the mean mitotic rate was significantly increased. Moreover, there was a positive and significant correlation between Breslow thickness and mitotic rate. We demonstrated that one unit increase in mitotic rate was correlated with 0.8 mm increase in Breslow thickness of the tumor.Conclusion: In malignant melanoma, mitotic activity may probably indicate the depth of tumor invasion. Therefore, in incisional biopsies where depth of invasion cannot be accurately determined, the mitotic activity may be used to estimate Breslow thickness, which is necessary for planning surgical management. Keywords: melanoma, mitosis, Breslow, invasion, thickness, proliferation

  16. The relationship between sales of SSRI, TCA and suicide rates in the Nordic countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zahl Per-Henrik

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In the period 1990-2006, strong and almost equivalent increases in sales figures of selective serotonin re-uptake inhibitors (SSRIs were observed in all Nordic countries. The sales figures of tricyclic antidepressants (TCAs dropped in Norway and Sweden in the nineties. After 2000, sales figures of TCAs have been almost constant in all Nordic countries. The potentially toxic effect of TCAs in overdose was an important reason for replacing TCAs with SSRIs when treating depression. We studied whether the rapid increase in sales of SSRIs and the corresponding decline in TCAs in the period 1990-98 were associated with a decline in suicide rates. Methods Aggregated suicide rates for the period 1975-2006 in four Nordic countries (Denmark, Finland, Norway and Sweden were obtained from the national causes-of-death registries. The sales figures of antidepressants were provided from the wholesale registers in each of the Nordic countries. Data were analysed using Fisher's exact test and Pearson's correlation coefficient. Results There was no statistical association (P = 1.0 between the increase of sales figures of SSRIs and the decline in suicide rates. There was no statistical association (P = 1.0 between the decrease in the sale figures of TCAs and change in suicide rates either. Conclusions We found no evidence for the rapid increase in use of SSRIs and the corresponding decline in sales of TCAs being associated with a decline in the suicide rates in the Nordic countries in the period 1990-98. We did not find any inverse relationship between the increase in sales of SSRIs and declining suicide rates in four Nordic countries.

  17. The non-random clustering of non-synonymous substitutions and its relationship to evolutionary rate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stone Eric A

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Protein sequences are subject to a mosaic of constraint. Changes to functional domains and buried residues, for example, are more apt to disrupt protein structure and function than are changes to residues participating in loops or exposed to solvent. Regions of constraint on the tertiary structure of a protein often result in loose segmentation of its primary structure into stretches of slowly- and rapidly-evolving amino acids. This clustering can be exploited, and existing methods have done so by relying on local sequence conservation as a signature of selection to help identify functionally important regions within proteins. We invert this paradigm by leveraging the regional nature of protein structure and function to both illuminate and make use of genome-wide patterns of local sequence conservation. Results Our hypothesis is that the regional nature of structural and functional constraints will assert a positive autocorrelation on the evolutionary rates of neighboring sites, which, in a pairwise comparison of orthologous proteins, will manifest itself as the clustering of non-synonymous changes across the amino acid sequence. We introduce a dispersion ratio statistic to test this and related hypotheses. Using genome-wide interspecific comparisons of orthologous protein pairs, we reveal a strong log-linear relationship between the degree of clustering and the intensity of constraint. We further demonstrate how this relationship varies with the evolutionary distance between the species being compared. We provide some evidence that proteins with a history of positive selection deviate from genome-wide trends. Conclusions We find a significant association between the evolutionary rate of a protein and the degree to which non-synonymous changes cluster along its primary sequence. We show that clustering is a non-redundant predictor of evolutionary rate, and we speculate that conflicting signals of clustering and constraint may

  18. THE RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN MACROECONOMIC VARIABLES AND ROMANIAN CORPORATE DEFAULT RATES BETWEEN 2002-2008

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suveg Orsolya

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available During its 20 year history of market economy, Romania experienced the most severe downturn in 2009, which resulted in many cost, mainly because of the output loss. These conditions forced several firms to declare bankruptcy and to stop their activity. The aim of this research is to assess the relationship between the corporate default rates and the macroeconomic processes in the case of Romania for the period comprised between 2002Q1-2008Q4. For this, based on the relevant literature, we ranked the potential explanatory variables of the default rates into seven groups: cyclical indicators, household indicators, corporate indicators, external sector indicators, price stability indicators and interest rates, loans to private sector and finally the capital market indicators. Some studies base their results only on accounting data, others only on market data. Our study focuses on both, since this seems to be an adequate approach in capturing most of the processes. Similar to the banks loan portfolio structure, we conducted analysis for five sectors: industry, construction, agriculture, services and the overall economy. For each sector the average default probability at time t is modeled as a logistic function of many general and sector-specific macroeconomic variables. The use of logistic regression was motivated by its ability to account for fractional data between 0 and 1. We found that at least one variable from each group has a significant explanatory power regarding the evolution of the default rates in all five sectors analyzed. In some cases the sign of the variables was the opposite of what the economic theory would have suggested, but it has to be taken into account that Romania posted the picture of an overheated economy during the analyzed period. Another important conclusion was that many variables were significant through their lagged value, which indicates an even better supervision of the evolution of the specific variables. From all

  19. Relationship between ash content and R{sub 70} self-heating rate of Callide Coal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beamish, B. Basil; Blazak, Darren G. [School of Engineering, The University of Queensland, St Lucia, Qld 4072 (Australia)

    2005-10-17

    Borecore samples from the Trap Gully pit at Callide have been assessed using the R{sub 70} self-heating test. The highest R{sub 70} self-heating rate value was 16.22 {sup o}C/h, which is consistent with the subbituminous rank of the coal. R{sub 70} decreases significantly with increasing mineral matter content, as defined by the ash content of the coal. This effect is due to the mineral matter in the coal acting as a heat sink. A trendline equation has been fitted to the borecore data from the Trap Gully pit: R{sub 70}=0.0029xash{sup 2}-0.4889xash+20.644, where all parameters are on a dry-basis. This relationship can be used to model the self-heating hazard of the pit, both vertically and laterally. (author)

  20. Experimental study of relationship between average isotopic fractionation factor and evaporation rate

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    Tao Wang

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Isotopic fractionation is the basis of tracing the water cycle using hydrogen and oxygen isotopes. Isotopic fractionation factors in water evaporating from free water bodies are mainly affected by temperature and relative humidity, and vary significantly with these atmospheric factors over the course of a day. The evaporation rate (E can reveal the effects of atmospheric factors. Therefore, there should be a certain functional relationship between isotopic fractionation factors and E. An average isotopic fractionation factor (α* was defined to describe isotopic differences between vapor and liquid phases in evaporation with time intervals of days. The relationship between α* and E based on the isotopic mass balance was investigated through an evaporation pan experiment with no inflow. The experimental results showed that the isotopic compositions of residual water were more enriched with time; α* was affected by air temperature, relative humidity, and other atmospheric factors, and had a strong functional relation with E. The values of α* can be easily calculated with the known values of E, the initial volume of water in the pan, and isotopic compositions of residual water.

  1. My eyes, your eyes--the relationship between CMS five-star rating of nursing homes and family rating of experience of care in Maryland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Çalıkoğlu, Şule; Christmyer, Carol S; Kozlowski, Bruce U

    2012-01-01

    In 2008, the Centers for Medicaid and Medicare Services (CMS) launched the Five-Star Quality Rating System to help consumers compare nursing homes. The quality rating system consists of three domains: nursing home inspection results, staffing, and quality measures (QMs) and an overall rating calculated from the three domains. The Five-Star System has both advocates and detractors. One source of criticism about the rating system is its lack of input from consumer surveys. Although different dimensions of quality have been recognized as important by the experts and studied in the literature, how these dimensions are linked with each other is largely unknown. This article describes an analysis of the relationship between overall experience of care ratings from a family survey and ratings obtained on the CMS Five-Star Quality Rating for Maryland nursing homes. The results indicated a strong positive correlation between family experience of care score and two five-star domains, namely health inspections and nurse staffing, and no relationship with the quality domain. The lack of relationship between the quality domain and the family score may be due to inadequate risk adjustment or that each rating system measures different aspects of quality. © 2011 National Association for Healthcare Quality.

  2. On the relationship between tumour growth rate and survival in non-small cell lung cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hitesh B. Mistry

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available A recurrent question within oncology drug development is predicting phase III outcome for a new treatment using early clinical data. One approach to tackle this problem has been to derive metrics from mathematical models that describe tumour size dynamics termed re-growth rate and time to tumour re-growth. They have shown to be strong predictors of overall survival in numerous studies but there is debate about how these metrics are derived and if they are more predictive than empirical end-points. This work explores the issues raised in using model-derived metric as predictors for survival analyses. Re-growth rate and time to tumour re-growth were calculated for three large clinical studies by forward and reverse alignment. The latter involves re-aligning patients to their time of progression. Hence, it accounts for the time taken to estimate re-growth rate and time to tumour re-growth but also assesses if these predictors correlate to survival from the time of progression. I found that neither re-growth rate nor time to tumour re-growth correlated to survival using reverse alignment. This suggests that the dynamics of tumours up until disease progression has no relationship to survival post progression. For prediction of a phase III trial I found the metrics performed no better than empirical end-points. These results highlight that care must be taken when relating dynamics of tumour imaging to survival and that bench-marking new approaches to existing ones is essential.

  3. Relationship between Self-Rated Health and Lifestyle and Food Habits in Japanese High School Students

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    Tomoko Osera

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Self-rated health (SRH, a subjective assessment of health status, is extensively used in the field of public health. It is an important and valid measure that is strongly related to morbidity, mortality, longevity and health status. Adolescence is a crucial period for the formation of health status, because health-risk behaviours (e.g., skipping breakfast are often established during this period. In this study, we investigated the relationship of SRH with lifestyle and eating habits in Japanese high school students. In this study, 1296 students aged 16–18 years from 11 high schools in Japan participated. A questionnaire was administered to these participants that included a question on SRH, five questions on demographic characteristics, six questions on lifestyle items (e.g., wake-up time, five questions on miscellaneous health issues (e.g., anorexia, and 25 questions on food habits and attitudes towards food. We examined the differences between self-rated healthy and unhealthy groups using logistic regression analysis adjusted for gender and age. A dichotomy regression analysis was performed using a stepwise elimination method. Of the 1296 respondents, 16.7% reported feeling unhealthy, 57.7% of whom were females. The self-rated healthy group had a higher frequency of eating breakfast (odds ratio (OR: 2.13; confidence interval (CI: 1.07–4.24 and liked home meals to a greater extent (OR: 3.12; CI: 1.27–7.65 than the self-rated unhealthy group. The two groups did not differ significantly in terms of other lifestyle factors or unidentified complaints. Our results suggest that liking home meals during adolescence may lead to the development of good eating habits, i.e., eating breakfast, and better SRH.

  4. Relationship between Self-Rated Health and Lifestyle and Food Habits in Japanese High School Students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osera, Tomoko; Awai, Mitsuyo; Kobayashi, Misako; Tsutie, Setsuko; Kurihara, Nobutaka

    2017-10-18

    Self-rated health (SRH), a subjective assessment of health status, is extensively used in the field of public health. It is an important and valid measure that is strongly related to morbidity, mortality, longevity and health status. Adolescence is a crucial period for the formation of health status, because health-risk behaviours (e.g., skipping breakfast) are often established during this period. In this study, we investigated the relationship of SRH with lifestyle and eating habits in Japanese high school students. In this study, 1296 students aged 16-18 years from 11 high schools in Japan participated. A questionnaire was administered to these participants that included a question on SRH, five questions on demographic characteristics, six questions on lifestyle items (e.g., wake-up time), five questions on miscellaneous health issues (e.g., anorexia), and 25 questions on food habits and attitudes towards food. We examined the differences between self-rated healthy and unhealthy groups using logistic regression analysis adjusted for gender and age. A dichotomy regression analysis was performed using a stepwise elimination method. Of the 1296 respondents, 16.7% reported feeling unhealthy, 57.7% of whom were females. The self-rated healthy group had a higher frequency of eating breakfast (odds ratio (OR): 2.13; confidence interval (CI): 1.07-4.24) and liked home meals to a greater extent (OR: 3.12; CI: 1.27-7.65) than the self-rated unhealthy group. The two groups did not differ significantly in terms of other lifestyle factors or unidentified complaints. Our results suggest that liking home meals during adolescence may lead to the development of good eating habits, i.e., eating breakfast, and better SRH.

  5. Analysis of changes in the relationship between exchange rates, interest rates, and capital flows before and after the economic crisis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seung-Ho Lee

    1999-09-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this paper is to investigate the interrelationships among KRW/USD exchange rate, interest rate, and foreigner’s portfolio investment to Korea before and after the crisis. Our finding is that interest rate and the exchange rate move closely with positive relation after the crisis, which was not the case before the crisis. We also examine cross dependencies among three variables using a multivariate GARCH model and find that all of restricted models such as uni-directional spillovers are firmly rejected over both periods.

  6. Mediation of Sensation Seeking and Behavioral Inhibition on the Relationship between Heart Rate and Antisocial Behavior: The TRAILS Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sijtsema, Jelle J.; Veenstra, Rene; Lindenberg, Siegwart; van Roon, Arie M.; Verhulst, Frank C.; Ormel, Johan; Riese, Harriette

    2010-01-01

    Objective: Why is low resting heart rate (HR) associated with antisocial behavior (ASB), i.e., aggression and rule breaking, in adolescence? Theory suggests that personality traits mediate this relationship but differently with age. In the present study this age-effect hypothesis is tested; we expected that the relationship between HR and…

  7. Examining the Relationship Between Past Orientation and US Suicide Rates: An Analysis Using Big Data-Driven Google Search Queries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Donghyun; Lee, Hojun; Choi, Munkee

    2016-02-11

    Internet search query data reflect the attitudes of the users, using which we can measure the past orientation to commit suicide. Examinations of past orientation often highlight certain predispositions of attitude, many of which can be suicide risk factors. To investigate the relationship between past orientation and suicide rate by examining Google search queries. We measured the past orientation using Google search query data by comparing the search volumes of the past year and those of the future year, across the 50 US states and the District of Columbia during the period from 2004 to 2012. We constructed a panel dataset with independent variables as control variables; we then undertook an analysis using multiple ordinary least squares regression and methods that leverage the Akaike information criterion and the Bayesian information criterion. It was found that past orientation had a positive relationship with the suicide rate (P ≤ .001) and that it improves the goodness-of-fit of the model regarding the suicide rate. Unemployment rate (P ≤ .001 in Models 3 and 4), Gini coefficient (P ≤ .001), and population growth rate (P ≤ .001) had a positive relationship with the suicide rate, whereas the gross state product (P ≤ .001) showed a negative relationship with the suicide rate. We empirically identified the positive relationship between the suicide rate and past orientation, which was measured by big data-driven Google search query.

  8. Is there a relationship between insect metabolic rate and mortality of mealworms Tenebrio molitor L. after insecticide exposure?

    OpenAIRE

    MALISZEWSKA, Justyna; TĘGOWSKA, Eugenia

    2016-01-01

    Pesticides are known to affect insects metabolic rate and CO2 release patterns. In the presented paper metabolic rate and mortality of mealworms Tenebrio molitor L. exposed to four different insecticides was evaluated, to find out whether there is a relationship between mealworms sensitivity to pesticides and their metabolic rate. Tenebrio molitor mortality was determined after intoxication with pyrethroid, oxadiazine, neonicotinoid and organophosphate. Metabolic rate before and after intoxic...

  9. RELATIONSHIPS BETWEEN HEART RATE AND PHYSIOLOGICAL PARAMETERS OF PERFORMANCE IN TOP-LEVEL WATER POLO PLAYERS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. Galy

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to measure the heart rate (HR response of eight elite water polo players during the four 7-min quarters of the game and to check for relationships with the physiological parameters of performance ( ·VO2max, Th1vent, Th2vent. Each athlete performed a ·VO2max treadmill test and played a water polo game wearing a heart rate monitor. The game fatigue index was calculated as the ratio of the fourth-quarter HR to the first-quarter HR: HR4/HR1. The results showed a slight decrease in fourth-quarter HR compared with the first quarter, with the mean four-quarter HR equal to 79.9 ± 4.2% of HRmax. Stepwise multiple regression analysis showed ·VO2max to be the main explanatory factor of game intensity, i.e. game HR expressed in %HRreserve (R=0.88, P<0.01. We observed that higher aerobic capacity resulted in higher game intensity. We also observed a decrease in the playing intensity in the fourth quarter compared with the first, likely due to very high game involvement. We concluded that high aerobic capacity seems necessary to ensure high game intensity in water polo. This suggests that coaches should encourage their athletes to reach a minimum level of ·VO2max and that HR monitoring could be of great interest in the control of water polo training sessions.

  10. Structure-Activity Relationships for Rates of Aromatic Amine Oxidation by Manganese Dioxide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salter-Blanc, Alexandra J; Bylaska, Eric J; Lyon, Molly A; Ness, Stuart C; Tratnyek, Paul G

    2016-05-17

    New energetic compounds are designed to minimize their potential environmental impacts, which includes their transformation and the fate and effects of their transformation products. The nitro groups of energetic compounds are readily reduced to amines, and the resulting aromatic amines are subject to oxidation and coupling reactions. Manganese dioxide (MnO2) is a common environmental oxidant and model system for kinetic studies of aromatic amine oxidation. In this study, a training set of new and previously reported kinetic data for the oxidation of model and energetic-derived aromatic amines was assembled and subjected to correlation analysis against descriptor variables that ranged from general purpose [Hammett σ constants (σ(-)), pKas of the amines, and energies of the highest occupied molecular orbital (EHOMO)] to specific for the likely rate-limiting step [one-electron oxidation potentials (Eox)]. The selection of calculated descriptors (pKa, EHOMO, and Eox) was based on validation with experimental data. All of the correlations gave satisfactory quantitative structure-activity relationships (QSARs), but they improved with the specificity of the descriptor. The scope of correlation analysis was extended beyond MnO2 to include literature data on aromatic amine oxidation by other environmentally relevant oxidants (ozone, chlorine dioxide, and phosphate and carbonate radicals) by correlating relative rate constants (normalized to 4-chloroaniline) to EHOMO (calculated with a modest level of theory).

  11. Structure-Activity Relationships for Rates of Aromatic Amine Oxidation by Manganese Dioxide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Salter-Blanc, Alexandra J.; Lyon, Molly A.; Science University, Portland, OR; Ness, Stuart C.; Science University, Portland, OR; Tratnyek, Paul G.; Science University, Portland, OR

    2016-01-01

    New energetic compounds are designed to minimize their potential environmental impacts, which includes their transformation and the fate and effects of their transformation products. The nitro groups of energetic compounds are readily reduced to amines, and the resulting aromatic amines are subject to oxidation and coupling reactions. Manganese dioxide (MnO 2 ) is a common environmental oxidant and model system for kinetic studies of aromatic amine oxidation. Here in this study, a training set of new and previously reported kinetic data for the oxidation of model and energetic-derived aromatic amines was assembled and subjected to correlation analysis against descriptor variables that ranged from general purpose [Hammett σ constants (σ − ), pK a s of the amines, and energies of the highest occupied molecular orbital (E HOMO )] to specific for the likely rate-limiting step [one-electron oxidation potentials (E ox )]. The selection of calculated descriptors (pK a ), E HOMO , and E ox ) was based on validation with experimental data. All of the correlations gave satisfactory quantitative structure-activity relationships (QSARs), but they improved with the specificity of the descriptor. The scope of correlation analysis was extended beyond MnO 2 to include literature data on aromatic amine oxidation by other environmentally relevant oxidants (ozone, chlorine dioxide, and phosphate and carbonate radicals) by correlating relative rate constants (normalized to 4-chloroaniline) to E HOMO (calculated with a modest level of theory).

  12. An explanation of the relationship between mass, metabolic rate and characteristic length for placental mammals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frasier, Charles C

    2015-01-01

    The Mass, Metabolism and Length Explanation (MMLE) was advanced in 1984 to explain the relationship between metabolic rate and body mass for birds and mammals. This paper reports on a modernized version of MMLE. MMLE deterministically computes the absolute value of Basal Metabolic Rate (BMR) and body mass for individual animals. MMLE is thus distinct from other examinations of these topics that use species-averaged data to estimate the parameters in a statistically best fit power law relationship such as BMR = a(bodymass) (b) . Beginning with the proposition that BMR is proportional to the number of mitochondria in an animal, two primary equations are derived that compute BMR and body mass as functions of an individual animal's characteristic length and sturdiness factor. The characteristic length is a measureable skeletal length associated with an animal's means of propulsion. The sturdiness factor expresses how sturdy or gracile an animal is. Eight other parameters occur in the equations that vary little among animals in the same phylogenetic group. The present paper modernizes MMLE by explicitly treating Froude and Strouhal dynamic similarity of mammals' skeletal musculature, revising the treatment of BMR and using new data to estimate numerical values for the parameters that occur in the equations. A mass and length data set with 575 entries from the orders Rodentia, Chiroptera, Artiodactyla, Carnivora, Perissodactyla and Proboscidea is used. A BMR and mass data set with 436 entries from the orders Rodentia, Chiroptera, Artiodactyla and Carnivora is also used. With the estimated parameter values MMLE can calculate characteristic length and sturdiness factor values so that every BMR and mass datum from the BMR and mass data set can be computed exactly. Furthermore MMLE can calculate characteristic length and sturdiness factor values so that every body mass and length datum from the mass and length data set can be computed exactly. Whether or not MMLE can

  13. An explanation of the relationship between mass, metabolic rate and characteristic length for placental mammals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Charles C. Frasier

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The Mass, Metabolism and Length Explanation (MMLE was advanced in 1984 to explain the relationship between metabolic rate and body mass for birds and mammals. This paper reports on a modernized version of MMLE. MMLE deterministically computes the absolute value of Basal Metabolic Rate (BMR and body mass for individual animals. MMLE is thus distinct from other examinations of these topics that use species-averaged data to estimate the parameters in a statistically best fit power law relationship such as BMR = a(bodymassb. Beginning with the proposition that BMR is proportional to the number of mitochondria in an animal, two primary equations are derived that compute BMR and body mass as functions of an individual animal’s characteristic length and sturdiness factor. The characteristic length is a measureable skeletal length associated with an animal’s means of propulsion. The sturdiness factor expresses how sturdy or gracile an animal is. Eight other parameters occur in the equations that vary little among animals in the same phylogenetic group. The present paper modernizes MMLE by explicitly treating Froude and Strouhal dynamic similarity of mammals’ skeletal musculature, revising the treatment of BMR and using new data to estimate numerical values for the parameters that occur in the equations. A mass and length data set with 575 entries from the orders Rodentia, Chiroptera, Artiodactyla, Carnivora, Perissodactyla and Proboscidea is used. A BMR and mass data set with 436 entries from the orders Rodentia, Chiroptera, Artiodactyla and Carnivora is also used. With the estimated parameter values MMLE can calculate characteristic length and sturdiness factor values so that every BMR and mass datum from the BMR and mass data set can be computed exactly. Furthermore MMLE can calculate characteristic length and sturdiness factor values so that every body mass and length datum from the mass and length data set can be computed exactly. Whether or

  14. Relationship between Resting Heart Rate, Blood Pressure and Pulse Pressure in Adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christofaro, Diego Giulliano Destro; Casonatto, Juliano; Vanderlei, Luiz Carlos Marques; Cucato, Gabriel Grizzo; Dias, Raphael Mendes Ritti

    2017-05-01

    High resting heart rate is considered an important factor for increasing mortality chance in adults. However, it remains unclear whether the observed associations would remain after adjustment for confounders in adolescents. To analyze the relationship between resting heart rate, blood pressure and pulse pressure in adolescents of both sexes. A cross-sectional study with 1231 adolescents (716 girls and 515 boys) aged 14-17 years. Heart rate, blood pressure and pulse pressure were evaluated using an oscillometric blood pressure device, validated for this population. Weight and height were measured with an electronic scale and a stadiometer, respectively, and waist circumference with a non-elastic tape. Multivariate analysis using linear regression investigated the relationship between resting heart rate and blood pressure and pulse pressure in boys and girls, controlling for general and abdominal obesity. Higher resting heart rate values were observed in girls (80.1 ± 11.0 beats/min) compared to boys (75.9 ± 12.7 beats/min) (p ≤ 0.001). Resting heart rate was associated with systolic blood pressure in boys (Beta = 0.15 [0.04; 0.26]) and girls (Beta = 0.24 [0.16; 0.33]), with diastolic blood pressure in boys (Beta = 0.50 [0.37; 0.64]) and girls (Beta = 0.41 [0.30; 0.53]), and with pulse pressure in boys (Beta = -0.16 [-0.27; -0.04]). This study demonstrated a relationship between elevated resting heart rate and increased systolic and diastolic blood pressure in both sexes and pulse pressure in boys even after controlling for potential confounders, such as general and abdominal obesity. A frequência cardíaca de repouso é considerada um importante fator de aumento de mortalidade em adultos. Entretanto, ainda é incerto se as associações observadas permanecem após ajuste para fatores de confusão em adolescentes. Analisar a relação entre frequência cardíaca de repouso, pressão arterial e pressão de pulso em adolescentes dos dois sexos. Estudo transversal

  15. The long-run dynamic relationship between exchange rate and its attention index: Based on DCCA and TOP method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xuan; Guo, Kun; Lu, Xiaolin

    2016-07-01

    The behavior information of financial market plays a more and more important role in modern economic system. The behavior information reflected in INTERNET search data has already been used in short-term prediction for exchange rate, stock market return, house price and so on. However, the long-run relationship between behavior information and financial market fluctuation has not been studied systematically. Further, most traditional statistic methods and econometric models could not catch the dynamic and non-linear relationship. An attention index of CNY/USD exchange rate is constructed based on search data from 360 search engine of China in this paper. Then the DCCA and Thermal Optimal Path methods are used to explore the long-run dynamic relationship between CNY/USD exchange rate and the corresponding attention index. The results show that the significant interdependency exists and the change of exchange rate is 1-2 days lag behind the attention index.

  16. Basic study on relationship between estimated rate constants and noise in FDG kinetic analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kimura, Yuichi; Toyama, Hinako; Senda, Michio.

    1996-01-01

    For accurate estimation of the rate constants in 18 F-FDG dynamic study, the shape of the estimation function (Φ) is crucial. In this investigation, the relationship between the noise level in tissue time activity curve and the shape of the least squared estimation function which is the sum of squared error between a function of model parameters and a measured data is calculated in 3 parameter model of 18 F-FDG. In the first simulation, by using actual plasma time activity curve, the true tissue curve was generated from known sets of rate constants ranging 0.05≤k 1 ≤0.15, 0.1≤k 2 ≤0.2 and 0.01≤k 3 ≤0.1 in 0.01 step. This procedure was repeated under various noise levels in the tissue time activity curve from 1 to 8% of the maximum value in the tissue activity. In the second simulation, plasma and tissue time activity curves from clinical 18 F-FDG dynamic study were used to calculate the Φ. In the noise-free case, because the global minima is separated from neighboring local minimums, it was easy to find out the optimum point. However, with increasing noise level, the optimum point was buried in many neighboring local minima. Making it difficult to find out the optimum point. The optimum point was found within 20% of the convergence point by standard non-linear optimization method. The shape of Φ for the clinical data was similar to that with the noise level of 3 or 5% in the first simulation. Therefore direct search within the area extending 20% from the result of usual non-linear curve fitting procedure is recommended for accurate estimation of the constants. (author)

  17. Investigating the Relationship between Ethnic Consciousness, Racial Discrimination and Self-Rated Health in New Zealand

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, Ricci; Cormack, Donna; Stanley, James; Rameka, Ruruhira

    2015-01-01

    In this study, we examine race/ethnic consciousness and its associations with experiences of racial discrimination and health in New Zealand. Racism is an important determinant of health and cause of ethnic inequities. However, conceptualising the mechanisms by which racism impacts on health requires racism to be contextualised within the broader social environment. Race/ethnic consciousness (how often people think about their race or ethnicity) is understood as part of a broader assessment of the ‘racial climate’. Higher race/ethnic consciousness has been demonstrated among non-dominant racial/ethnic groups and linked to adverse health outcomes in a limited number of studies. We analysed data from the 2006/07 New Zealand Health Survey, a national population-based survey of New Zealand adults, to examine the distribution of ethnic consciousness by ethnicity, and its association with individual experiences of racial discrimination and self-rated health. Findings showed that European respondents were least likely to report thinking about their ethnicity, with people from non-European ethnic groupings all reporting relatively higher ethnic consciousness. Higher ethnic consciousness was associated with an increased likelihood of reporting experience of racial discrimination for all ethnic groupings and was also associated with fair/poor self-rated health after adjusting for age, sex and ethnicity. However, this difference in health was no longer evident after further adjustment for socioeconomic position and individual experience of racial discrimination. Our study suggests different experiences of racialised social environments by ethnicity in New Zealand and that, at an individual level, ethnic consciousness is related to experiences of racial discrimination. However, the relationship with health is less clear and needs further investigation with research to better understand the racialised social relations that create and maintain ethnic inequities in health in

  18. Relationship between work rate and oxygen uptake in mitochondrial myopathy during ramp-incremental exercise

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.C. Gimenes

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available We determined the response characteristics and functional correlates of the dynamic relationship between the rate (Δ of oxygen consumption ( O2 and the applied power output (work rate = WR during ramp-incremental exercise in patients with mitochondrial myopathy (MM. Fourteen patients (7 males, age 35.4 ± 10.8 years with biopsy-proven MM and 10 sedentary controls (6 males, age 29.0 ± 7.8 years took a ramp-incremental cycle ergometer test for the determination of the O2 on-exercise mean response time (MRT and the gas exchange threshold (GET. The ΔO2/ΔWR slope was calculated up to GET (S1, above GET (S2 and over the entire linear portion of the response (S T. Knee muscle endurance was measured by isokinetic dynamometry. As expected, peak O2 and muscle performance were lower in patients than controls (P O2/ΔWR than controls, especially the S2 component (6.8 ± 1.5 vs 10.3 ± 0.6 mL·min-1·W-1, respectively; P O2/ΔWR (S T and muscle endurance, MRT-O2, GET and peak O2 in MM patients (P O2/ΔWR below 8 mL·min-1·W-1 had severely reduced peak O2 values (O2 had lower ΔO2/ΔWR (P O2/ΔWR is typically reduced in patients with MM, being related to increased functional impairment and higher cardiopulmonary stress.

  19. Relationship between Perceived and Actual Frequency Represented by Common Rating Scale Labels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woltz, Dan J.; Gardner, Michael K.; Kircher, John C.; Burrow-Sanchez, Jason J.

    2012-01-01

    Two experiments investigated the relationship between subjective interpretation of frequency terms and corresponding objective values. Evidence supported the existence of a nonlinear relationship that is well described by a logarithmic function. The general form of this relationship was consistent across different methods of eliciting subjective…

  20. Study on Relationship between Seasonal Temperatures and Municipal Wastewater Pollutant Concentration and Removal Rate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuan Shaoxiong

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In this study, the temperatures, pollutant concentrations and other indicators of municipal wastewater influent and effluent were tested for 7 months in 6 constructed wetland microcosms; the hydraulic retention time is 2 days. The results indicated that for both influent and effluent, there was a highly significant negative correlation (P<0.01 between the temperature and the pollutant concentrations, there was a significant difference (P<0.05 between seasonal temperatures, and the pollutant concentrations in summer and autumn were significantly different from those in winter (P<0.05. Furthermore, a regression analysis of pollutant concentration (y based on changes in water temperature (x in different seasons was performed. The analysis revealed that the relationship has the form ‘y = a -bx + cx2’, that under certain circumstances, pollutant concentrations can be calculated based on the temperature, and that the concentrations of NH4-N, Total Phosphorus (TP and Soluble Reactive Phosphorus (SRP had a significantly negative correlation with their removal rate (P < 0.01. However, seasonal temperature clearly did not have a direct impact on the pollutant concentration, and some studies have indicated that the different manners in which urban residents use water as the temperature changes may be the real reason that the pollutant concentrations of municipal wastewater vary with seasonal temperature. Furthermore, when designing and operating constructed wetlands, the impact of the changes in pollutant concentrations generated by seasonal temperature should be fully considered, dilution and other means should be taken to ensure purification.

  1. Observations and simulations of snowpack cold content and its relationship to snowmelt timing and rate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jennings, K. S.; Molotch, N. P.

    2017-12-01

    deficits. Overall, this work shows that meteorological and energy balance processes that increase cold content (e.g., snowfall, longwave emission, and sublimation) delay snowmelt onset and damp snowmelt rate, a relationship that will likely be impacted by climate warming with resultant effects on water resource availability.

  2. Assessing a relationship between bone microstructure and growth rate: a fluorescent labelling study in the king penguin chick (Aptenodytes patagonicus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Margerie, E; Robin, J-P; Verrier, D; Cubo, J; Groscolas, R; Castanet, J

    2004-02-01

    Microstructure-function relationships remain poorly understood in primary bone tissues. The relationship between bone growth rate and bone tissue type, although documented in some species by previous works, remains somewhat unclear and controversial. We assessed this relationship in a species with extreme adaptations, the king penguin (Aptenodytes patagonicus). These birds have a peculiar growth, interrupted 3 months after hatching by the austral winter. Before this interruption, chicks undergo extremely rapid statural and ponderal growth. We recorded experimentally (by means of fluorescent labelling) the growth rate of bone tissue in four long bones (humerus, radius, femur and tibiotarsus) of four king penguin chicks during their fastest phase of growth (3-5 weeks after hatching) and identified the associated bone tissue types ('laminar', 'longitudinal', 'reticular' or 'radial' fibro-lamellar bone tissue). We found the highest bone tissue growth rate known to date, up to 171 microm day(-1) (mean 55 microm day(-1)). There was a highly significant relationship between bone tissue type and growth rate (P<10(-6)). Highest rates were obtained with the radial microarchitecture of fibro-lamellar bone, where cavities in the woven network are aligned radially. This result supports the heuristic value of a relationship between growth rate and bone primary microstructure. However, we also found that growth rates of bone tissue types vary according to the long bone considered (P<10(-5)) (e.g. growth rates were 38% lower in the radius than in the other long bones), a result that puts some restriction on the applicability of absolute growth rate values (e.g. to fossil species). The biomechanical disadvantages of accelerated bone growth are discussed in relation to the locomotor behaviour of the chicks during their first month of life.

  3. FINANCIAL DEEPENING AND INTEREST RATE RELATIONSHIP IN FACING THE ASEAN ECONOMIC COMMUNITY 2015: VECM AND PANEL DATA APPROACH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lukman Hakim

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The relationship of the financial deepening to the interest rate has become an important study for the Southeast Asia countries, especially preparation for entering the ASEAN Economic Community (AEC in 2015. This study will explore the effect of interest rates on deposits and credit to the financial deepening in ASEAN 5. By using VECM showed that Indonesia, the Philippines and Singapore possessed a similar pattern where lending rates negatively affect financial deepening, while the deposit rate positive effect. In contrast to Malaysia and Thailand, deposit rates had a negative impact on financial depth, while the loan interest rate was positive. Meanwhile, using panel data for the ASEAN 5 showed that the effect of interest rates on loans to the depth of the financial sector is negative, whereas the effect of deposit rate was positive

  4. Contribution of social relationships to self-rated health among Japanese community-dwelling elderly.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawasaki, Ryoko; Nakao, Rieko; Ohnishi, Mayumi

    2018-05-01

    Objective: Participation in social activities is associated with physical and psychological health in the community-dwelling elderly population. We examined the two factors of social relations and community health resources, associated with higher self-rated health levels in the community-dwelling elderly. Methods: A total of 145 community-dwelling elderly people ≥ 65 years old from two neighborhood associations in Nagasaki City were recruited for this study, representing 85% of the officially registered ≥ 65-year-old population in the target area. Face-to-face interviews using a structured questionnaire were conducted by trained interviewers in August 2009, with questions related to sociodemographic characteristics, social relationships, and self-rated health (SRH). Community health resources (type and walking distance from home) were evaluated by one of the authors as a community assessment. Results: Seventy-eight community-dwelling elderly people (25 men and 53 women) participated in the study. Elderly people who reported going out every day were more likely to show higher SRH scores (excellent/good) than those going out less often (OR: 3.7; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.0, 14.2; P = 0.056). The numbers of interactions with friends in higher and lower SRH groups were 6.5 ± 8.4 (mean ± standard deviation) and 2.4 ± 1.1 ( P = 0.01, Mann-Whitney U test), respectively. The numbers of relatives talking on the phone in higher and lower SRH groups were 2.9 ± 1.3 and 2.2 ± 1.2 ( P = 0.031, Mann-Whitney U test), respectively. Meeting scores with friends in higher and lower SRH groups were 7.8 ± 5.8 and 4.5 ± 3.6 ( P = 0.068), respectively. The scores of community health resources among higher and lower SRH groups were 21.2 ± 1.5 and 20.9 ± 1.4 ( P = 0.547), respectively. The scores of community association/activities in higher and lower SRH groups were 3.9 ± 1.0 and 3.6 ± 0.9 ( P = 0.227), respectively. Conclusion: This study indicated the importance

  5. The relationship between aggression rates and drugs abuse among posttraumatic stress disorder patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Faezeh Tatari

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Background: Posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD is a stress disorder, whose prevalence was 2-15%. PTSD is associated with mood, anxiety, personality and substance use disorders (SUD. The substance user patients with PTSD have more problems, and severity of symptoms is more than non-substance users with PTSD patients. These patients may be nervous, aggressive, and restless and their function will be affected in many aspects. The aim of this study was to determine the relationship between aggression levels and substances use among PTSD patients. Methods: Among patients with PTSD referred to Kermanshah Farabi Hospital in 2011,182 cases were selected and their aggression levels were assessed by Buss & Perry Aggression Questionnaire. The aggression levels in PTSD patients with and without SUD were compared. Result: The highest frequencies were in middle-aged (81.1%, males (91.8%, married (77.5% and poor economic status (63.2% patients. Substances using was higher among married patients and the most abused substances was opium. Substances consumption was higher among patients with lower socioeconomic status and opium and amphetamines were the most abused substance. Most PTSD types were related to after-war events (70.3%. Mean of total aggression was higher in SUD. Rate of total aggression was higher in patients using opium. Conclusion: Compared to those without PTSD, individuals with this disorder are more likely to have aggression. Patients with concurrent PTSD and SUD suffer from more severe complaints and show worse treatment outcomes compared with patients with either disorder alone.

  6. The relationship of serum and urinary laminin and glomerular filtration rate in diabetes mellitus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Jianlin

    2002-01-01

    Objective: To observe the relationship of serum and urinary laminin and glomerular filtration rate (GFR) in diabetes mellitus. Methods: The level of serum and urinary laminin was measured by radioimmunoassay, GFR acquired by 99m Tc diethylenetriamine pentaacetic acid ( 99m Tc-DTPA), renal dynamic imaging in 75 diabetes mellitus and 42 normal subjects. Results: (1) The level of serum LN (136.30 ± 11.20 ng/ml) and urinary LN (31.76 ± 5.77 ng/ml) in diabetic nephropathy was significantly higher than that in diabetes without nephrosis group (P<0.05) and control group (P<0.01), the level of serum LN (126.54 ± 6.98 ng/ml) and urinary LN (26.27 ± 3.81 ng/ml) in diabetes without nephrosis group was significantly higher than that in control group (P<0.05); the GFR of diabetic nephropathy (78.84 ± 10.79 ng/ml) was significantly lower than that in diabetes without nephrosis group (P<0.05) and control group (P<0.01); the level of serum (131.49 ± 10.74 ng/ml) and urinary LN (29.05 ± 5.60 ng/ml) in diabetes mellitus was significantly higher than that in control group (P<0.05), but GFR was significantly lower than that in control group (P<0.05). (2) The value of GFR in diabetes mellitus lasted less than 1 year was higher than that of control group (P<0.05), but inverse in diabetes mellitus more than 10 years (P<0.05). (3) The level of serum and urinary LN had significantly negative correlation with GFR (P<0.01). Conclusion: LN may accelerates the alteration of GFR and causes microangiopathy of diabetic nephropathy. It may be an important indicator in the diagnosis of the early diabetic nephropathy

  7. [Relationships between decomposition rate of leaf litter and initial quality across the alpine timberline ecotone in Western Sichuan, China].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Lin; Deng, Chang-chun; Chen Ya-mei; He, Run-lian; Zhang, Jian; Liu, Yang

    2015-12-01

    The relationships between litter decomposition rate and their initial quality of 14 representative plants in the alpine forest ecotone of western Sichuan were investigated in this paper. The decomposition rate k of the litter ranged from 0.16 to 1.70. Woody leaf litter and moss litter decomposed much slower, and shrubby litter decomposed a little faster. Then, herbaceous litters decomposed fastest among all plant forms. There were significant linear regression relationships between the litter decomposition rate and the N content, lignin content, phenolics content, C/N, C/P and lignin/N. Lignin/N and hemicellulose content could explain 78.4% variation of the litter decomposition rate (k) by path analysis. The lignin/N could explain 69.5% variation of k alone, and the direct path coefficient of lignin/N on k was -0.913. Principal component analysis (PCA) showed that the contribution rate of the first sort axis to k and the decomposition time (t) reached 99.2%. Significant positive correlations existed between lignin/N, lignin content, C/N, C/P and the first sort axis, and the closest relationship existed between lignin/N and the first sort axis (r = 0.923). Lignin/N was the key quality factor affecting plant litter decomposition rate across the alpine timberline ecotone, with the higher the initial lignin/N, the lower the decomposition rate of leaf litter.

  8. Relationship between obesity, negative affect and basal heart rate in predicting heart rate reactivity to psychological stress among adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Andres E; Huynh, Pauline; Schell, Anne M; Baker, Laura A

    2015-08-01

    Reduced cardiovascular responses to psychological stressors have been found to be associated with both obesity and negative affect in adults, but have been less well studied in children and adolescent populations. These findings have most often been interpreted as reflecting reduced sympathetic nervous system response, perhaps associated with heightened baseline sympathetic activation among the obese and those manifesting negative affect. However, obesity and negative affect may themselves be correlated, raising the question of whether they both independently affect cardiovascular reactivity. The present study thus examined the separate effects of obesity and negative affect on both cardiovascular and skin conductance responses to stress (e.g., during a serial subtraction math task) in adolescents, while controlling for baseline levels of autonomic activity during rest. Both obesity and negative affect had independent and negative associations with cardiovascular reactivity, such that reduced stress responses were apparent for obese adolescents and those with high levels of negative affect. In contrast, neither obesity nor negative affect was related to skin conductance responses to stress, implicating specifically noradrenergic mechanisms rather than sympathetic mechanisms generally as being deficient. Moreover, baseline heart rate was unrelated to obesity in this sample, which suggests that heightened baseline of sympathetic activity is not necessary for the reduced cardiovascular reactivity to stress. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. The Effect of Exchange Rate and Inflation on Foreign Direct Investment and Its Relationship with Economic Growth in Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alex Ehimare OMANKHANLEN

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available This study is on the effect of exchange rate and inflation on foreign direct investment and its relationship with economic growth. Its main objective is to find the effect of inflation and exchange rate and the bidirectional influences between FDI and economic growth in Nigeria. A thirty year period was studied. A linear regression analysis was used on the thirty year data to determine the relationship between inflation, exchange rate, FDI inflows and economic growth. The study reveals that FDI follow economic growth occasioned by trade openness which saw the entry of some major companies especially the telecommunication companies, while Inflation has no effect on FDI. However exchange rate has effect on FDI.

  10. Psychometric Properties of the Orgasm Rating Scale in Context of Sexual Relationship in a Spanish Sample.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arcos-Romero, Ana Isabel; Moyano, Nieves; Sierra, Juan Carlos

    2018-05-01

    dysfunction. The ORS is an appropriate measure for its use for both research and clinical purposes. As limitations, quota sampling implies that the extent to which the results can be generalized is modest. Measurement invariance did not reach the level of weak invariance, and it was not tested across sexual orientation because most individuals identified themselves as heterosexual. The ORS is a multidimensional measure of the subjective experience of orgasm which has adequate psychometric properties; it is a reliable and valid scale. Arcos-Romero AI, Moyano N, Sierra JC. Psychometric Properties of the Orgasm Rating Scale in Context of Sexual Relationship in a Spanish Sample. J Sex Med 2018;15:741-749. Copyright © 2018 International Society for Sexual Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Relationship between Cardiometabolic Parameters and Elevated Resting and Effort Heart Rate in Schoolchildren.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, Cristiane Fernanda da; Burgos, Miria Suzana; Silva, Priscila Tatiana da; Burgos, Leandro Tibiriçá; Welser, Letícia; Sehn, Ana Paula; Horta, Jorge André; Mello, Elza Daniel de; Reuter, Cézane Priscila

    2017-09-01

    Little has been studied on heart rate and its relationship with metabolic disorders. To identify possible association between heart rate (HR) and metabolic disorders in children and adolescents. This cross-sectional study evaluated 2.098 subjects, aged between 7 and 17 years. The variables evaluated were: HR, systolic (SBP) and diastolic blood pressure (DBP), pulse pressure (PP), double-product (DP), myocardial oxygen consumption (mVO2), lipids, glucose and uric acid levels, body mass index (BMI) and waist circumference (WC). The values of HR at rest and effort were divided into quartiles. The association between continuous values of HR and cardiometabolic indicators was tested by linear regression. LDL cholesterol presented a significantly higher mean (p = 0.003) in schoolchildren with resting HR greater or equal to 91 bpm, compared to students with less than 75 bpm. Compared with the quartiles of effort HR, SBP, DBP, glucose and uric acid presented high values when HR was greater or equal than 185 bpm. SBP, glucose and HDL cholesterol demonstrated a significant association with resting HR. Uric acid was observed as a predictor of increased effort HR. Schoolchildren with a higher resting HR have higher mean of LDL cholesterol. For effort HR, there was an increase in blood pressure, glucose and uric acid levels. Uric acid has been shown to be a predictor of elevated effort HR. Pouco se tem estudado sobre frequência cardíaca e suas relações com alterações metabólicas. Verificar se existe associação entre frequência cardíaca e disfunções metabólicas em crianças e adolescentes. Estudo transversal com 2.098 escolares, com idade entre 7 e 17 anos. As variáveis avaliadas foram: frequência cardíaca (FC), pressão arterial sistólica (PAS), diastólica (PAD) e de pulso (PP), duplo-produto (DP), consumo de oxigênio pelo miocárdio (mVO2), perfil lipídico e glicêmico, níveis de ácido úrico, índice de massa corporal (IMC) e circunferência da cintura

  12. The Influence of Unemployment and Divorce Rate on Child Help-Seeking Behavior about Violence, Relationships, and Other Issues

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Dolen, Willemijn M.; Weinberg, Charles B.; Ma, Leiming

    2013-01-01

    Objective: This study examined the influence of community unemployment and divorce rate on child help-seeking behavior about violence and relationships via a telephone and Internet helpline. Methods: Time series analysis was conducted on monthly call volumes to a child helpline ("De Kindertelefoon") in the Netherlands from 2003 to 2008…

  13. THE RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN THE EXCHANGE RATE AND THE INFLATION: EMPIRICAL SURVEY FOR ROMANIA

    OpenAIRE

    Catalina Adriana Handoreanu

    2008-01-01

    The influence on price level of changes in exchange rate comeback in the last period in the attention of economists and policy makers. The price level movement due to the changes in the exchange rate is named exchange rate pass-through and is important for the monetary policy and for the exchange rate choice. A reduced passthrough makes the monetary policy more independent and more easily implementation of inflation targeting. This working paper analyzed this phenomenon through a recursive eq...

  14. The exchange rate arrangements-government finance relationship and the impact on debt management

    OpenAIRE

    Silvia Trifonova; Milena Kovachevich

    2016-01-01

    The choice of exchange rate regime can have a significant impact on the development of the national economy, which affects the main economic indicators. Traditionally, researchers consider the effects of certain types of exchange rate regimes on economic indicators such as gross domestic product, inflation, current account, real exchange rate and investments, but is it possible that the exchange rate regime can also reflect the country's government finance and thus influence the management of...

  15. The exchange rate arrangements-government finance relationship and the impact on debt management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvia Trifonova

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The choice of exchange rate regime can have a significant impact on the development of the national economy, which affects the main economic indicators. Traditionally, researchers consider the effects of certain types of exchange rate regimes on economic indicators such as gross domestic product, inflation, current account, real exchange rate and investments, but is it possible that the exchange rate regime can also reflect the country's government finance and thus influence the management of public debt?

  16. The relationship between gun ownership and stranger and nonstranger firearm homicide rates in the United States, 1981-2010.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siegel, Michael; Negussie, Yamrot; Vanture, Sarah; Pleskunas, Jane; Ross, Craig S; King, Charles

    2014-10-01

    We examined the relationship between gun ownership and stranger versus nonstranger homicide rates. Using data from the Supplemental Homicide Reports of the Federal Bureau of Investigation's Uniform Crime Reports for all 50 states for 1981 to 2010, we modeled stranger and nonstranger homicide rates as a function of state-level gun ownership, measured by a proxy, controlling for potential confounders. We used a negative binomial regression model with fixed effects for year, accounting for clustering of observations among states by using generalized estimating equations. We found no robust, statistically significant correlation between gun ownership and stranger firearm homicide rates. However, we found a positive and significant association between gun ownership and nonstranger firearm homicide rates. The incidence rate ratio for nonstranger firearm homicide rate associated with gun ownership was 1.014 (95% confidence interval=1.009, 1.019). Our findings challenge the argument that gun ownership deters violent crime, in particular, homicides.

  17. Relationships between rating-of-perceived-exertion- and heart-rate-derived internal training load in professional soccer players: a comparison of on-field integrated training sessions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campos-Vazquez, Miguel Angel; Mendez-Villanueva, Alberto; Gonzalez-Jurado, Jose Antonio; León-Prados, Juan Antonio; Santalla, Alfredo; Suarez-Arrones, Luis

    2015-07-01

    To describe the internal training load (ITL) of common training sessions performed during a typical week and to determine the relationships between different indicators of ITL commonly employed in professional football (soccer). Session-rating-of-perceived-exertion TL (sRPE-TL) and heart-rate- (HR) derived measurements of ITL as Edwards TL and Stagno training impulses (TRIMPMOD) were used in 9 players during 3 periods of the season. The relationships between them were analyzed in different training sessions during a typical week: skill drills/circuit training + small-sided games (SCT+SSGs), ball-possession games+technical-tactical exercises (BPG+TTE), tactical training (TT), and prematch activation (PMa). HR values obtained during SCT+SSGs and BPG+TTE were substantially greater than those in the other 2 sessions, all the ITL markers and session duration were substantially greater in SCT+SSGs than in any other session, and all ITL measures in BPG+TTE were substantially greater than in TT and PMa sessions. Large relationships were found between HR>80% HRmax and HR>90% HRmax vs sRPE-TL during BPG+TTE and TT sessions (r=.61-.68). Very large relationships were found between Edwards TL and sRPE-TL and between TRIMPMOD and sRPE-TL in sessions with BPG+TTE and TT (r=.73-.87). Correlations between the different HR-based methods were always extremely large (r=.92-.98), and unclear correlations were observed for other relationships between variables. sRPE-TL provided variable-magnitude within-individual correlations with HR-derived measures of training intensity and load during different types of training sessions typically performed during a week in professional soccer. Caution should be applied when using RPE- or HR-derived measures of exercise intensity/load in soccer training interchangeably.

  18. Is there a relationship between insect metabolic rate and mortality of mealworms Tenebrio molitor L. after insecticide exposure?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Justyna MALISZEWSKA

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Pesticides are known to affect insects metabolic rate and CO2 release patterns. In the presented paper metabolic rate and mortality of mealworms Tenebrio molitor L. exposed to four different insecticides was evaluated, to find out whether there is a relationship between mealworms sensitivity to pesticides and their metabolic rate. Tenebrio molitor mortality was determined after intoxication with pyrethroid, oxadiazine, neonicotinoid and organophosphate. Metabolic rate before and after intoxication with insecticides was also determined. The highest CO2 production and mortality rate was observed after mealworms exposition to neonicotinoid insecticide. The results suggest that high CO2 release after intoxication is adequate to the intensity of the non-specific action of the xenobiotic (e.g. hyperactivity of neuromuscular system, rather than the intensity of detoxification processes, and it is correlated with mealworms mortality.

  19. Relationship of dose rate and total dose to responses of continuously irradiated beagles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fritz, T.E.; Norris, W.P.; Tolle, D.V.; Seed, T.M.; Poole, C.M.; Lombard, L.S.; Doyle, D.E.

    1978-01-01

    Young-adult beagles were exposed continuously (22 hours/day) to 60 Co γ rays in a specially constructed facility. The exposure rates were either 5, 10, 17, or 35 R/day, and the exposures were terminated at either 600, 1400, 2000, or 4000 R. A total of 354 dogs were irradiated; 221 are still alive as long-term survivors, some after more than 2000 days. The data on survival of these dogs, coupled with data from similar preliminary experiments, allow an estimate of the LD 50 for γ-ray exposures given at a number of exposure rates. They also allow comparison of the relative importance of dose rate and total dose, and the interaction of these two variables, in the early and late effects after protracted irradiation. The LD 50 for the beagle increases from 258 rad delivered at 15 R/minute to approximately 3000 rad at 10 R/day. Over this entire range, the LD 50 is dependent upon hematopoietic damage. At 5 R/day and less, no meaningful LD 50 can be determined; there is nearly normal continued hematopoietic function, survival is prolonged, and the dogs manifest varied individual responses in other organ systems. Although the experiment is not complete, interim data allow several important conclusions. Terminated exposures, while not as effective as radiation continued until death, can produce myelogenous leukemia at the same exposure rate, 10 R/day. More importantly, at the same total accumulated dose, lower exposure rates are more damaging than higher rates on the basis of the rate and degree of hematological recovery that occurs after termination of irradiation. Thus, the rate of hematologic depression, the nadir of the depression, and the rate of recovery are dependent upon exposure rate; the latter is inversely related and the former two are directly related to exposure rate

  20. Relationship of dose rate and total dose to responses of continuously irradiated beagles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fritz, T.E.; Norris, W.P.; Tolle, D.V.; Seed, T.M.; Poole, C.M.; Lombard, L.S.; Doyle, D.E.

    1978-01-01

    Young-adult beagles were exposed continuously (22 hours/day) to 60 Co gamma rays in a specially constructed facility. The exposure rates were 5, 19, 17 or 35 R/day, and the exposures were terminated at 600, 1400, 2000 or 4000 R. A total of 354 dogs were irradiated; 221 are still alive as long-term survivors, some after more than 2000 days. The data on survival of these dogs, coupled with data from similar preliminary experiments, allow an estimate of the LD 50 for gamma-ray exposures given at a number of exposure rates. They also allow comparison of the relativeimportance of dose rate and total dose, and the interaction of these two variables, in the early and late effects after protracted irradiation. The LD 50 for the beagle increases from 344 R (258 rads) delivered at 15 R/minute to approximately 4000 R (approximately 3000 rads) at 10 R/day. Over this entire range, the LD 50 is dependent upon haematopoietic damage. At 5 R/day and less, no definitive LD 50 can be determined; there is nearly normal continued haematopoietic function, survival is prolonged, and the dogs manifest varied individual responses in the organ systems. Although the experiment is not complete, interim data allow serveral important conclusions. Terminated exposures, while not as effective as irradiation continued until death, can produce myelogenous leukaemia at the same exposure rate, 10 R/day. More importantly, at the same total accumulated dose, lower exposure rates appear more damaging than higher rates on the basis of the rate and degree of haematological recovery that occurs after termination of irradiation. Thus, the rate of haematologic depression, the nadir of the depression and the rate of recovery are dependent upon exposure rate; the latter is inversely related and the first two are directly related to exposure rate. ( author)

  1. Exploring the relationship between a multidimensional and multifaceted burnout concept and self-rated performance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Demerouti, E.; Verbeke, W.J.M.I.; Bakker, A.B.

    2005-01-01

    This study examines the relationship between burnout and performance among three samples of account managers. Using a multidimensional and multifaceted burnout instrument, the authors tried to uncover meaningful configurations based on the basic symptoms of burnout and the role members to whom these

  2. Differential Relationships between RAN Performance, Behaviour Ratings, and Executive Function Measures: Searching for a Double Dissociation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stringer, Ronald W.; Toplak, Maggie E.; Stanovich, Keith E.

    2004-01-01

    In this study, we investigated the relationships between rapid naming of letters, digits and colours, and reading ability and executive function. We gave fifty-six grade three and four children rapid automatised naming tasks using letters and digits as stimuli, executive function measures including the Stroop task, a working memory task and the…

  3. Students' Ideas about Reaction Rate and Its Relationship with Concentration or Pressure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cakmakci, Gultekin; Leach, John; Donnelly, James

    2006-01-01

    This cross-sectional study identifies key conceptual difficulties experienced by upper secondary school and pre-service chemistry teachers (N = 191) in the area of reaction rates. Students' ideas about reaction rates were elicited through a series of written tasks and individual interviews. In this paper, students' ideas related to reaction rate…

  4. Relationship between neighborhood poverty rate and bloodstream infections in the critically ill.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mendu, Mallika L; Zager, Sam; Gibbons, Fiona K; Christopher, Kenneth B

    2012-05-01

    Poverty is associated with increased risk of chronic illness, but its contribution to bloodstream infections is not well-defined. We performed a multicenter observational study of 14,657 patients, aged 18 yrs or older, who received critical care and had blood cultures drawn between 1997 and 2007 in two hospitals in Boston, Massachusetts. Data sources included 1990 U.S. Census and hospital administrative data. Census tracts were used as the geographic units of analysis. The exposure of interest was neighborhood poverty rate categorized as 40%. Neighborhood poverty rate is the percentage of residents with income below the federal poverty line. The primary end point was bloodstream infection occurring 48 hrs before critical care initiation to 48 hrs after. Associations between neighborhood poverty rate and bloodstream infection were estimated by logistic regression models. Adjusted odds ratios were estimated by multivariable logistic regression models. Two thousand four-hundred thirty-five patients had bloodstream infections. Neighborhood poverty rate was a strong predictor of risk of bloodstream infection, with a significant risk gradient across neighborhood poverty rate quintiles. After multivariable analysis, neighborhood poverty rate in the highest quintiles (20%-40% and >40%) were associated with a 26% and 49% increase in bloodstream infection risk, respectively, relative to patients with neighborhood poverty rate of poverty rate, a proxy for decreased socioeconomic status, appears to be associated with risk of bloodstream infection among patients who receive critical care.

  5. Relationship of suicide rates to economic variables in Europe: 2000-2011

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fountoulakis, K.N.; Kawohl, W.; Theodorakis, P.N.; Kerkhof, A.J.F.M.; Navickas, A.; Hoshl, C.; Lecic-Tosevski, D.; Sorel, E.; Rancans, E.; Palova, E.; Juckel, G.; Isacsson, G.; Korosec Jagodic, H.; Botezat-Antonescu, I.; Warmke, I.; Rybakowski, J.; Azorin, J.M.; Cookson, J.; Waddington, J.; Pregelj, P.; Demyttenaere, K.; Hranov, L.G.; Stevovic, L.I.; Pezawas, L.; Adida, M.; Figuera, M.L.; Pompili, M.; Jakovljevic, M.; Vichi, M.; Perugi, G.; Andreasen, O.; Vukovic, O.; Mavrogiorgou, P.; Vamik, P.; Bech, P.; Dome, P.; Winkler, P.; Salokangas, R.K.R.; From, T.; Danileviciute, V.; Gonda, X; Rihmer, Z.; Benhalima, J.F.; Grady, A.; Kloster Leadholm, A.K.; Soendergaard, S.; Nordt, C.; Lopez-Ibor, J.

    2014-01-01

    Background: It is unclear whether there is a direct link between economic crises and changes in suicide rates. Aims: The Lopez-Ibor Foundation launched an initiative to study the possible impact of the economic crisis on European suicide rates. Method: Data was gathered and analysed from 29 European

  6. Relationships among red-cockaded woodpecker group density, nestling provisioning rates, and habitat

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richard N. Conner; D. Craig Rudolph; Richard R. Schaefer; Daniel Saenz; Clifford E. Shackelford

    1999-01-01

    We examined Red-cockaded Woodpecker (Picoides borealis) food provisioning rates of nestlings during the 1992 and 1993 breeding seasons on the Vernon Ranger District of the Kisatchie National Forest in Louisiana. Provisioning rates were monitored at nest trees in moderate (9.8 groups/2 km radius, n=10) and low (5.9 groups/2 km radius, n=10) density...

  7. [Relationship between performance rating and risk of low back pain in manufacturing line workers].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Higuchi, Yoshiyuki; Funahashi, Atsushi; Izumi, Hiroyuki; Kumashinro, Masaharu

    2012-03-01

    It is possible that the performance rating of line workers is affected by the risk factors for musculoskeletal disorders that are included in their work more so than by the actual takt time. To investigate whether performance rating relates to the risk factors for musculoskeletal disorders, we analyzed a dataset obtained from a self-administered questionnaire answered by assembly line workers (n=1579). As a result, performance rating had a significant association with unsuitable work environments, poor working postures and handling of heavy loads. The workers who reported the fastest rating had a higher exposure than others to the risk factors for occupational low back pain. The results of our study support the effectiveness of performance rating as an index of work burden.

  8. Relationship of suicide rates with climate and economic variables in Europe during 2000-2012

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fountoulakis, Konstantinos N; Chatzikosta, Isaia; Pastiadis, Konstantinos

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: It is well known that suicidal rates vary considerably among European countries and the reasons for this are unknown, although several theories have been proposed. The effect of economic variables has been extensively studied but not that of climate. METHODS: Data from 29 European...... countries covering the years 2000-2012 and concerning male and female standardized suicidal rates (according to WHO), economic variables (according World Bank) and climate variables were gathered. The statistical analysis included cluster and principal component analysis and categorical regression. RESULTS......: The derived models explained 62.4 % of the variability of male suicidal rates. Economic variables alone explained 26.9 % and climate variables 37.6 %. For females, the respective figures were 41.7, 11.5 and 28.1 %. Male suicides correlated with high unemployment rate in the frame of high growth rate and high...

  9. Age class, longevity and growth rate relationships: protracted growth increases in old trees in the eastern United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Sarah E; Abrams, Marc D

    2009-11-01

    This study uses data from the International Tree-Ring Data Bank website and tree cores collected in the field to explore growth rate (basal area increment, BAI) relationships across age classes (from young to old) for eight tree species in the eastern US. These species represent a variety of ecological traits and include those in the genera Populus, Quercus, Pinus, Tsuga and Nyssa. We found that most trees in all age classes and species exhibit an increasing BAI throughout their lives. This is particularly unusual for trees in the older age classes that we expected to have declining growth in the later years, as predicted by physiological growth models. There exists an inverse relationship between growth rate and increasing age class. The oldest trees within each species have consistently slow growth throughout their lives, implying an inverse relationship between growth rate and longevity. Younger trees (trees when they are of the same age resulting from a higher proportion of fast-growing trees in these young age classes. Slow, but increasing, BAI in the oldest trees in recent decades is a continuation of their growth pattern established in previous centuries. The fact that they have not shown a decreasing growth rate in their old age contradicts physiological growth models and may be related to the stimulatory effects of global change phenomenon (climate and land-use history).

  10. From unemployment to disability? Relationship between unemployment rate and new disability pensions in Iceland 1992-2007.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thorlacius, Sigurður; Ólafsson, Stefán

    2012-02-01

    The study was carried out in order to examine the effect of unemployment on the incidence of disability pension in Iceland by examining changes in this relationship from 1992 to 2007. The annual incidence of disability pension for the period 1992-2007 was calculated. Correlations and significance tests for the relationship between unemployment rates and disability pension incidence rates were calculated. The relationship was examined for different disease groups. Two big fluctuations occurred in the unemployment rate during the study period with an upswing in unemployment from 1993 to 1995 and in 2002 and 2003. In both cases, there were corresponding increases in the incidence of disability pension. The incidence of disability pension declined again when the level of unemployment went down, even though not to the same extent. Health and mental and physical capability determine the overall incidence of disability pension, but marginal fluctuations over time seem to be related to environmental conditions in the labour market, especially the unemployment rate. The observed disability pension incidence pattern in the two unemployment cycles of the study period indicates mainly that people with impaired health are forced out of the labour market in times of increasing unemployment rather than pointing towards a negative effect of unemployment on health. Our findings indicate that there is a need to strengthen the vocational rehabilitation system in Iceland as well as the support system for employment and social participation.

  11. Dynamic relationship between Japanese Yen exchange rates and market anxiety: A new perspective based on MF-DCCA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Xinsheng; Sun, Xinxin; Ge, Jintian

    2017-05-01

    This paper investigates the dynamic relationship between Japanese Yen exchange rates and market anxiety during the period from January 5, 1998 to April 18, 2016. A quantitative technique of multifractal detrended cross-correlation analysis (MF-DCCA) is used to explore the multifractal features of the cross-correlations between USD/JPY, AUD/JPY exchange rates and the market anxiety gauge VIX. The investigation shows that the causal relationship between Japanese Yen exchange rates and VIX are bidirectional in general, and the cross-correlations between the two sets of time series are multifractal. Strong evidence suggests that the cross-correlation exponents tend to exhibit different volatility patterns in response to diverse external shocks such as financial distress and widening in interest rate spread, suggesting that the cross-correlated behavior between Japanese Yen exchange rates and VIX are susceptible to economic uncertainties and risks. In addition, the performances of two market anxiety gauges, the VIX and the TED spread, are compared and the sources of multifractality are also traced. Thus, this paper contributes to the literature by shedding light on the unique driving forces of the Yen exchange rate fluctuations in the international foreign exchange market.

  12. Analysis of Changes in the Relationship between the KRW/USD Exchange rate and JPY/USD Exchange Rate Before and After the Economic Crisis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chae-Shick Chung

    2000-03-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this paper is to investigate the relationship between KRW/USD and JPY/USD exchange rates dividing the sample period into thress sub-periods: pre-crisis, and post-crisis. During the pre-crisis period, JPY/USD affects KRW/USD asymmetrically: the latter moved very closely with the former's depreciation but opposite is not the case. However, we cannot find such asymmetric relation during other periods. We also estimate KRW/USD volatilities using various GARCH models and find that economic hypothesis of JPY/USD affects volatilities of KRW/USD are firmly reject over all periods.

  13. A replication of the relationship between elderly suicides rates and elderly dependency ratios: a cross-national study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shah, Ajit

    2010-01-01

    A positive correlation between elderly dependency ratios and elderly suicide rates has been observed using one-year cross-sectional data on elderly suicide rates. A cross-national study designed to replicate this positive correlation between elderly dependency ratios and elderly suicide rates was undertaken by: (i) using one-year average of five years data on suicide rates; and (ii) using more recent data on both elderly suicide rates and elderly dependency ratios. Data on elderly suicide rates, and the total number of elderly and young people was ascertained from the World Health Organization website. The main findings were of significant positive correlations between elderly dependency ratios and suicide rates in both sexes in both the elderly age-bands (65-74 years and 75+ years). The replication of the positive correlations between elderly dependency ratios and elderly suicide rates by using one-year average of five years data on suicide rates suggests that this relationship is robust and accurate. ‎

  14. A replication of the relationship between elderly suicides rates and elderly dependency ratios: cross-national study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shah, Ajit

    2010-01-01

    Abstract: Background: A positive correlation between elderly dependency ratios and elderly suicide rates has been observed using one-year cross-sectional data on elderly suicide rates. Methods: A cross-national study designed to replicate this positive correlation between elderly dependency ratios and elderly suicide rates was undertaken by: (i) using one-year average of five years data on suicide rates; and (ii) using more recent data on both elderly suicide rates and elderly dependency ratios. Data on elderly suicide rates, and the total number of elderly and young people was ascertained from the World Health Organization website. Results: The main findings were of significant positive correlations between elderly dependency ratios and suicide rates in both sexes in both the elderly age-bands (65-74 years and 75+ years). Conclusions: The replication of the positive correlations between elderly dependency ratios and elderly suicide rates by using one-year average of five years data on suicide rates suggests that this relationship is robust and accurate. PMID:21483194

  15. Relationship between oxygen concentration, respiration and filtration rate in blue mussel Mytilus edulis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Baojun; Riisgård, Hans Ulrik

    2018-03-01

    The large water-pumping and particle-capturing gills of the filter-feeding blue mussel Mytilus edulis are oversized for respiratory purposes. Consequently, the oxygen uptake rate of the mussel has been suggested to be rather insensitive to decreasing oxygen concentrations in the ambient water, since the diffusion rate of oxygen from water flowing through the mussel determines oxygen uptake. We tested this hypothesis by measuring the oxygen uptake in mussels exposed to various oxygen concentrations. These concentrations were established via N2-bubbling of the water in a respiration chamber with mussels fed algal cells to stimulate fully opening of the valves. It was found that mussels exposed to oxygen concentrations decreasing from 9 to 2 mg O2/L resulted in a slow but significant reduction in the respiration rate, while the filtration rate remained high and constant. Thus, a decrease of oxygen concentration by 78% only resulted in a 25% decrease in respiration rate. However, at oxygen concentrations below 2 mg O2/L M. edulis responded by gradually closing its valves, resulting in a rapid decrease of filtration rate, concurrent with a rapid reduction of respiration rate. These observations indicated that M. edulis is no longer able to maintain its normal aerobic metabolism at oxygen concentration below 2 mg O2/L, and there seems to be an energy-saving mechanism in bivalve molluscs to strongly reduce their activity when exposed to low oxygen conditions.

  16. Transfer rates of 19 typical pesticides and the relationship with their physicochemical property.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Hongping; Pan, Meiling; Pan, Rong; Zhang, Minglu; Liu, Xin; Lu, Chengyin

    2015-01-21

    Determining the transfer rate of pesticides during tea brewing is important to identify the potential exposure risks from pesticide residues in tea. In this study, the transfer rates of 19 typical pesticides from tea to brewing were investigated using gas chromatography tandem mass and ultraperformance liquid chromatography tandem mass. The leaching rates of five pesticides (isocarbophos, triazophos, fenvalerate, buprofezin, and pyridaben) during tea brewing were first reported. The pesticides exhibited different transfer rates; however, this result was not related to residual concentrations and tea types. Pesticides with low octanol-water partition coefficients (Logkow) and high water solubility demonstrated high transfer rates. The transfer rates of pesticides with water solubility > 29 mg L(-1) (or 25% (or 2.48) were >65% (or <35%). This result indicates that water solubility at approximately 20 mg L(-1) and LogKow at approximately 2.0 could be the demarcation lines of transfer rate. The results of this study can be used as a guide in the application of pesticides to tea trees and establishment of maximum residue limits of pesticides in tea to reduce pesticide exposure in humans.

  17. The relationship between sap-flow rate and sap volume in dormant sugar maples

    Science.gov (United States)

    William J. Gabriel; Russell S. Walters; Donald W. Seegrist

    1972-01-01

    Sap-flow rate is closely correlated with the sap volume produced by dormant sugar maple trees (Acer saccharum Marsh.) and could be used in making phenotypic selections of trees for superior sap production.

  18. Discrepancies between self and observer ratings of depression. The relationship to demographic, clinical and personality variables.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Enns, M W; Larsen, D K; Cox, B J

    2000-10-01

    The observer-rated Hamilton depression scale (HamD) and the self-report Beck Depression Inventory (BDI) are among the most commonly used rating scales for depression, and both have well demonstrated reliability and validity. However, many depressed subjects have discrepant scores on these two assessment methods. The present study evaluated the ability of demographic, clinical and personality factors to account for the discrepancies observed between BDI and HamD ratings. The study group consisted of 94 SCID-diagnosed outpatients with a current major depressive disorder. Subjects were rated with the 21-item HamD and completed the BDI and the NEO-Five Factor Inventory. Younger age, higher educational attainment, and depressive subtype (atypical, non-melancholic) were predictive of higher BDI scores relative to HamD observer ratings. In addition, high neuroticism, low extraversion and low agreeableness were associated with higher endorsement of depressive symptoms on the BDI relative to the HamD. In general, these predictive variables showed a greater ability to explain discrepancies between self and observer ratings of psychological symptoms of depression compared to somatic symptoms of depression. The study does not determine which aspects of neuroticism and extraversion contribute to the observed BDI/HamD discrepancies. Depression ratings obtained with the BDI and HamD are frequently discordant and a number of patient characteristics robustly predict the discrepancy between these two rating methods. The value of multi-modal assessment in the conduct of research on depressive disorders is re-affirmed.

  19. The relationship of high school graduation exams to graduation rates and SAT scores.

    OpenAIRE

    Gregory J. Marchant; Sharon E. Paulson

    2005-01-01

    The current study examined the effect of high school graduation exams on states' graduation rates, states' aggregated SAT scores, and individual students' SAT scores. Three data sources were used: One source identified states requiring a standardized test for graduation; the NCES provided state aggregated data on graduation rates for the class of 2002; and the College Board provided its 2001 SAT database for all test-takers. After controlling for students' demographic characteristics (e.g., r...

  20. Relationship between the shear viscosity and heating rate in metallic glasses below the glass transition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khonik, Vitaly A.; Kobelev, N. P.

    2008-01-01

    It has been shown that first-order irreversible structural relaxation with distributed activation energies must lead to a linear decrease of the logarithm of Newtonian shear viscosity with the logarithm of heating rate upon linear heating of glass. Such a behavior is indeed observed in the experiments on metallic glasses. Structural relaxation-induced viscous flow leads to infra-low-frequency Maxwell viscoelastic internal friction, which is predicted to increase with the heating rate

  1. Discrepancies in Leader and Follower Ratings of Transformational Leadership: Relationship with Organizational Culture in Mental Health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aarons, Gregory A; Ehrhart, Mark G; Farahnak, Lauren R; Sklar, Marisa; Horowitz, Jonathan

    2017-07-01

    The role of leadership in the management and delivery of health and allied health services is often discussed but lacks empirical research. Discrepancies are often found between leaders' self-ratings and followers' ratings of the leader. To our knowledge no research has examined leader-follower discrepancies and their association with organizational culture in mental health clinics. The current study examines congruence, discrepancy, and directionality of discrepancy in relation to organizational culture in 38 mental health teams (N = 276). Supervisors and providers completed surveys including ratings of the supervisor transformational leadership and organizational culture. Polynomial regression and response surface analysis models were computed examining the associations of leadership discrepancy and defensive organizational culture and its subscales. Discrepancies between supervisor and provider reports of transformational leadership were associated with a more negative organizational culture. Culture suffered more where supervisors rated themselves more positively than providers, in contrast to supervisors rating themselves lower than the provider ratings of the supervisor. Leadership and leader discrepancy should be a consideration in improving organizational culture and for strategic initiatives such as quality of care and the implementation and sustainment of evidence-based practice.

  2. Examining the Relationship Between Perceived Quality of Care and Actual Quality of Care as Measured by 30-Day Readmission Rates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salinas, Stanley R

    To test the relationship between patient experience, as measured by the Hospital Consumer Assessment of Healthcare Providers and Systems (HCAHPS), and actual quality of care, as measured by 30-day readmission rates. Both HCAHPS data and outcome data reported to the Centers of Medicare & Medicaid Services (CMS). This secondary, nationwide (N = 4060), hospital-level study focused only on acute care hospitals. HCAHPS question 22 "Would you recommend this hospital to your friends and family?" was used to determine level of overall satisfaction, and 30-day readmission rates, as reported to the CMS, was used as a proxy for actual quality of care. A statistically significant relationship was found between patient experience and actual quality outcomes. The results of this study reinforce the inclusion of patient experience in Medicare's Value Based Purchasing program as a matter of good public policy.

  3. Phase transitions in tumor growth: IV relationship between metabolic rate and fractal dimension of human tumor cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Betancourt-Mar, J. A.; Llanos-Pérez, J. A.; Cocho, G.; Mansilla, R.; Martin, R. R.; Montero, S.; Nieto-Villar, J. M.

    2017-05-01

    By the use of thermodynamics formalism of irreversible processes, complex systems theory and systems biology, it is derived a relationship between the production of entropy per unit time, the fractal dimension and the tumor growth rate for human tumors cells. The thermodynamics framework developed demonstrates that, the dissipation function is a Landau potential and also the Lyapunov function of the dynamical behavior of tumor growth, which indicate the directional character, stability and robustness of the phenomenon. The entropy production rate may be used as a quantitative index of the metastatic potential of tumors. The current theoretical framework will hopefully provide a better understanding of cancer and contribute to improvements in cancer treatment.

  4. The Relationship between Shadow Economy and Unemployment Rate. A Ardl Causality Analysis for the Case Of Romania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adriana AnaMaria DAVIDESCU

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The paper aims to investigate the nature of the relationship between the shadow economy (SE and unemployment rates (both registered and ILO for the case of Romania using Pesaran et al.(2001 bounds tests approach for cointegration. The study uses quarterly data covering the period 2000-2010. The size of Romanian shadow economy is estimated using the currency demand approach based on VECM models, stating that its size is decreasing over the analyzed period, from 36.5% at the end of 2000 to about 31.5% of real GDP at the middle of 2010. To investigate the long-run causal linkages and short-run dynamics between shadow economy and unemployment rate, ARDL cointegration approach is applied. Cointegration test results shows that in short-run both ILO and registered unemployment rate has a negative and statistically significant effect on the size of the shadow economy, while in the long-run the unemployment rates have a positive effect on shadow economy. The ARDL causality results revealed the existence of a long-run unidirectional causality that runs from unemployment rates (registered or ILO to shadow economy. In addition, the CUSUM and CUSUMSQ tests confirm the stability of the both causal relationships.

  5. Relationship between interplanetary parameters and the magnetopause reconnection rate quantified from observations of the expanding polar cap

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milan, S. E.; Gosling, J. S.; Hubert, B.

    2012-03-01

    Many studies have attempted to quantify the coupling of energy from the solar wind into the magnetosphere. In this paper we parameterize the dependence of the magnetopause reconnection rate on interplanetary parameters from the OMNI data set. The reconnection rate is measured as the rate of expansion of the polar cap during periods when the nightside reconnection rate is thought to be low, determined from observations by the Imager for Magnetopause-to-Aurora Global Exploration (IMAGE) Far Ultraviolet (FUV) imager. Our fitting suggests that the reconnection rate is determined by the magnetic flux transport in the solar wind across a channel approximately 4 RE in width, with a small correction dependent on the solar wind speed, and a clock angle dependence. The reconnection rate is not found to be significantly dependent on the solar wind density. Comparison of the modeled reconnection rate with SuperDARN measurements of the cross-polar cap potential provides broad support for the magnitude of the predictions. In the course of the paper we discuss the relationship between the dayside reconnection rate and the cross-polar cap potential.

  6. Relationship between heart rate recovery and inflammatory markers in patients with polycystic ovary syndrome: a cross-sectional study

    OpenAIRE

    Giallauria Francesco; Orio Francesco; Lombardi Gaetano; Colao Annamaria; Vigorito Carlo; Tafuri Maria; Palomba Stefano

    2009-01-01

    Abstract Background Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is an endocrine disease closely related to several risk factors for cardiovascular disease. An abnormal heart rate recovery (HRR), an easily-obtained measure derived from exercise stress test and closely related to an increased risk for cardiovascular mortality, has been recently described in PCOS women. A subclinical increase of the inflammation markers has been also observed in the PCOS. This study was designed to study the relationships ...

  7. The Relationship between High Flow Nasal Cannula Flow Rate and Effort of Breathing in Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weiler, Thomas; Kamerkar, Asavari; Hotz, Justin; Ross, Patrick A; Newth, Christopher J L; Khemani, Robinder G

    2017-10-01

    To use an objective metric of effort of breathing to determine optimal high flow nasal cannula (HFNC) flow rates in children flow rates of 0.5, 1.0, 1.5, and 2.0 L/kg/minute. For a subgroup of patients, 2 different HFNC delivery systems (Fisher & Paykel [Auckland, New Zealand] and Vapotherm [Exeter, New Hampshire]) were compared. Twenty-one patients (49 titration episodes) were studied. The most common diagnoses were bronchiolitis and pneumonia. Overall, there was a significant difference in the percent change in PRP from baseline (of 0.5 L/kg/minute) with increasing flow rates for the entire cohort (P flow rates were increased (P = .001) than patients >8 kg. The optimal HFNC flow rate to reduce effort of breathing in infants and young children is approximately 1.5-2.0 L/kg/minute with more benefit seen in children ≤8 kg. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Reciprocal Relationships between Teacher Ratings of Internalizing and Externalizing Behaviors in Adolescents with Different Levels of Cognitive Abilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morin, Alexandre J S; Arens, A Katrin; Maïano, Christophe; Ciarrochi, Joseph; Tracey, Danielle; Parker, Philip D; Craven, Rhonda G

    2017-04-01

    Are internalizing and externalizing behavior problems interrelated via mutually reinforcing relationships (with each behavior leading to increases over time in levels of the other behavior) or mutually suppressing relationships (with each behavior leading to decreases over time in levels of the other behavior)? Past research on the directionality of these relationships has led to ambiguous results, particularly in adolescence. Furthermore, the extent to which prior results will generalize to adolescents with low levels of cognitive abilities remains unknown. This second limit is particularly important, given that these adolescents are known to present higher levels of externalizing and internalizing behaviors than their peers with average-to-high levels of cognitive abilities, and that the mechanisms involved in the reciprocal relationships between these two types of behaviors may differ across both populations. This study examines the directionality of the longitudinal relationships between externalizing and internalizing behavior problems as rated by teachers across three measurement waves (corresponding to Grades 8-10) in matched samples of 138 adolescents (34.78 % girls) with low levels of cognitive abilities and 556 adolescents (44.88 % girls) with average-to-high levels of cognitive abilities. The results showed that the measurement structure was fully equivalent across time periods and groups of adolescents, revealing high levels of developmental stability in both types of problems, and moderately high levels of cross-sectional associations. Levels of both internalizing and externalizing behaviors were higher among adolescents with low levels of cognitive abilities relative to those with average-to-high levels of cognitive abilities. Finally, the predictive analyses revealed negative reciprocal longitudinal relationships (i.e., mutually suppressing relationships) between externalizing and internalizing problems, a result that was replicated within

  9. The relationship of high school graduation exams to graduation rates and SAT scores.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gregory J. Marchant

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available The current study examined the effect of high school graduation exams on states' graduation rates, states' aggregated SAT scores, and individual students' SAT scores. Three data sources were used: One source identified states requiring a standardized test for graduation; the NCES provided state aggregated data on graduation rates for the class of 2002; and the College Board provided its 2001 SAT database for all test-takers. After controlling for students' demographic characteristics (e.g., race, family education and income, GPA and class rank, regression analyses revealed that states requiring graduation exams had lower graduation rates and lower SAT scores. Individually, students from states requiring a graduation exam performed more poorly on the SAT than did students from states not requiring an exam. The impact of high stakes tests' on students' motivation to stay in school and on the teaching of critical thinking skills (tested by the SAT are discussed.

  10. The relationship between respiratory sinus arrhythmia and heart rate during anesthesia in rat

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Moldovan, M; Spulber, S; Saravan, V

    2004-01-01

    rats, slowing of HR is associated with an increase in HF. The aim of this study was to investigate whether this relationship between HF and HR is preserved during anesthesia in rat. A 15 minutes long ECG signal was recorded from rats (N=15) under moderate chloral hydrate (CHL) anesthesia. Recordings......) the decrease in HR that occurs during CHL anesthesia in rat correlates with an increase in RSA; (2) atropine reduces RSA and the time-dependent decrease in HR; (3) the time-dependent increase in RSA is preserved after atropine. We conclude that the correlation between RSA and HR reflects the cardio...

  11. Intrapartum caesarean rates differ significantly between ethnic groups--relationship to induction.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Ismail, Khadijah I

    2012-01-31

    OBJECTIVE: Given international variation in obstetric practices and outcomes, comparison of labour outcomes in different ethnic groups could provide important information regarding the underlying reasons for rising caesarean delivery rates. Increasing numbers of women from Eastern European countries are now delivering in Irish maternity hospitals. We compared labour outcomes between Irish and Eastern European (EE) women in a large tertiary referral center. STUDY DESIGN: This was a prospective consecutive cohort study encompassing a single calendar year. The cohort comprised 5550 Irish and 867 EE women delivered in a single institution in 2009. Women who had multiple pregnancies, breech presentation, and elective or pre-labour caesarean sections (CS) were excluded. Data obtained from birth registers included maternal age, nationality, parity, gestation, onset of labour, mode of delivery and birth weight. RESULTS: The overall intrapartum CS rate was 11.4% and was significantly higher in Irish compared to EE women (11.8% vs. 8.8%; p=0.008). The proportion of primiparas was lower in Irish compared to EE women (44.8% vs. 63.6%; p<0.0001). The intrapartum CS rate was almost doubled in Irish compared to EE primiparas (20.7% vs. 11.0%; p<0.0001). Analysis of primiparas according to labour onset revealed a higher intrapartum CS rate in Irish primiparas in both spontaneous (13.5% vs. 7.2%; p<0.0001) and induced labour (29.5% vs. 19.3%; p=0.005). Irish women were older with 19.7% of primiparas aged more than 35, compared to 1.6% of EE women (p<0.0001). The primigravid CS rate in Irish women was significantly higher in women aged 35 years or older compared women aged less than 35 (30.6% vs. 18.3%; p<0.0001) consistent in both spontaneous and induced labour. The primiparous induction rate was 45.4% in Irish women compared to 32% in EE women, and more Irish women were induced before 41 weeks gestation. CONCLUSION: The results highlight that primigravid intrapartum CS rates were

  12. The Nonlinear Dynamic Relationship of Exchange Rates: Parametric and Nonparametric Causality testing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bekiros, S.D.; Diks, C.

    2007-01-01

    The present study investigates the long-term linear and nonlinear causal linkages among six currencies, namely EUR/USD, GBP/USD, USD/JPY, USD/CHF, AUD/USD and USD/CAD. The prime motivation for choosing these exchange rates comes from the fact that they are the most liquid and widely traded, covering

  13. Orchestra Festival Evaluations: Interjudge Agreement and Relationships between Performance Categories and Final Ratings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garman, Barry R.; And Others

    1991-01-01

    Band, orchestra, and choir festival evaluations are a regular part of many secondary school music programs, and most such festivals engage adjudicators who rate each group's performance. Because music ensemble performance is complex and multi-dimensional, it does not lend itself readily to precise measurement; generally, musical performances are…

  14. The Relationships among the Fine Arts, School Culture, and High School Graduation Rates in Georgia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lovett, Andrew, Jr.

    2014-01-01

    High school graduation is the single largest hurdle that students must achieve to prepare for college and career (National Governor's Association, 2011). Fleischman & Heppen (2009) agree that American high schools must address the problem of declining graduation rate. Approximately 1.28 million students drop out of high school annually (Amos,…

  15. relationship of thyroid and adrenal function to growth rate in bos ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    of thyroid function, lower energy turnover and therefore thermal stability of B. indicus breeds (Fuller, 1969). The significant negative correlations between growth rates and plasma cortisol levels agree with the finding that cattle with low levels of glucocorticoid activity tend to grow more rapidly (Purchas, 1970; Hafs et ai. 1971) ...

  16. The relationship between thyroxine secretion rate and egg production in chicken

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sri Asminah; Soewarsono, M.; Djojosoebagio, S.

    1976-01-01

    An experiment was carried out in 24 female White Leghorn Chickens by using 131 I as tracer. The chickens were initially and intraperitoneally injected with 10μCi of 131 I and then counted by means of a Gamma Well Type Scintillation Counter every 48 hours. A dose of 0,3 μg of thyroxine per 100 gr body weight was given as the first administration. After every two administrations of similar dose, the dose of the thyroxine was increased by 0,1 μg/100g body weight until the thyroxine secretion rate was reached. The injections were given in the neck region subcutaneously. The thyroxine secretion rate was found to be within the range from 0,5μg to 0,8μg per 100 g body weight. It also showed that the higher the thyroxine secretion rate, the higher the egg production became. This phenomenon occured both with the 7 and 9 months old chickens. However there was neither ralationship between the thyroxine secretion rate and the weight of eggs produced nor with the body weight of the chickens themselves. (author)

  17. Spatial variation in the relationship between performance and metabolic rate in wild juvenile Atlantic salmon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grethe Robertsen; John D. Armstrong; Keith H. Nislow; Ivar Herfindal; Simon McKelvey; Sigurd Einum; Martin. Genner

    2014-01-01

    Maintenance of metabolic rate (MR, the energy cost of self-maintenance) is linked to behavioural traits and fitness and varies substantially within populations. Despite having received much attention, the causes and consequences of this variation remain obscure. Theoretically, such within-population variation in fitness-related traits can be maintained by environmental...

  18. Relationship between Parenting Stress and Ratings of Executive Functioning in Children with ADHD

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joyner, Krystle B.; Silver, Cheryl H.; Stavinoha, Peter L.

    2009-01-01

    Executive functioning is important to assess in children with attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Parent report is used to obtain information about a child's executive functioning; however, parent report can be influenced by many factors. This study's hypothesis was that higher ratings of children's executive dysfunction are…

  19. Relationship of host recurrence in fungi to rates of tropical leaf decomposition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mirna E. Santanaa; JeanD. Lodgeb; Patricia Lebowc

    2004-01-01

    Here we explore the significance of fungal diversity on ecosystem processes by testing whether microfungal ‘preferences’ for (i.e., host recurrence) different tropical leaf species increases the rate of decomposition. We used pairwise combinations of girradiated litter of five tree species with cultures of two dominant microfungi derived from each plant in a microcosm...

  20. The Relationship Between Method of Viewing Lectures, Course Ratings, and Course Timing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burton, William B; Ma, Terence P; Grayson, Martha S

    2017-01-01

    In recent years, medical schools have provided students access to video recordings of course lectures, but few studies have investigated the impact of this on ratings of courses and teachers. This study investigated whether the method of viewing lectures was related to student ratings of the course and its components and whether the method used changed over time. Preclinical medical students indicated whether ratings of course lectures were based primarily on lecture attendance, video capture, or both. Students were categorized into Lecture, Video, or Both groups based on their responses to this question. The data consisted of 7584 student evaluations collected over 2 years. Students who attended live lectures rated the course and its components higher than students who only viewed the video or used both methods, although these differences were very small. Students increasingly watched lectures exclusively by video over time: in comparison with first-year students, second-year students were more likely to watch lectures exclusively by video; in comparison with students in the first half of the academic year, students in the second half of the academic year were more likely to watch lectures exclusively by video. With the increase in use of lecture video recordings across medical schools, attention must be paid to student attitudes regarding these methods.

  1. Relationship between gender role attitude and fertility rate in women referring to health centers in Mashhad in 2013.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Golmakani, Nahid; Fazeli, Elham; Taghipour, Ali; Shakeri, Mohammad Taghi

    2015-01-01

    Fertility rate apparently is a non-interventional behavior, but in practice, it is influenced by social values and norms in which culture and traditional beliefs play a significant role. In this regard, some studies have shown that gender roles can be associated with reproductive behaviors. With regard to the importance of annual reduction of population growth rate and its outcomes, the present study was performed to determine the relationship between gender role attitude and fertility rate in women referring to Mashhad health centers in 2013. The present study is an analytical cross-sectional and multistage sampling study performed on 712 women. Data were collected by a questionnaire consisting of two sections: Personal information and gender role attitude questionnaire that contained two dimensions, i.e. gender stereotypes and gender egalitarianism. Its validity was determined by content validity and its reliability by internal consistency (r = 0.77). Data were analyzed by SPSS software version 16. Initial analysis of the data indicated that there was a significant relationship between acceptance of gender stereotypes (P = 0.008) and gender egalitarianism (P role attitude and fertility. Paying attention to women's attitude is very important for successful planning in the improvement of fertility rate and population policy.

  2. Relationship between increased radiation dose rate in air and rainfall, 3

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suzuki, Osamu

    1985-01-01

    The influence of snow on dose rate in air (DRA) was analyzed. Attenuatin ratio of DRA due to snow depends on the amount of water per surface area. When snow reaches one m, DRA does not seem to be influenced by radioactivity from the ground, but seems to be only influenced by natural radioactivity of buildings. A method was examined to estimate background radiation doses during the snow season with counting rates of peak areas of 1.765 MeV for Bi-214 and 2.614 MeV for Tl-208. In serial measurements of environmental gamma rays, the method of measuring spectra is far superior to other methods in view of the collection of much more information. (Namekawa, K.)

  3. Relationship between oil prices, interest rate, and unemployment. Evidence from an emerging market

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dogrul, H. Guensel; Soytas, Ugur

    2010-01-01

    While the interrelation between oil price changes, economic activity and employment is an important issue that has been studied mainly for developed countries, little attention has been devoted to inquiries on fluctuations in the price of crude oil and its impact on employment for small open economies. Adopting an efficiency wage model for equilibrium employment that does not require any assumptions regarding labor supply, this paper contributes to the literature by investigating the causality between unemployment and two input prices, namely energy (crude oil) and capital (real interest rate) in an emerging market, Turkey for the period 2005:01-2009:08. Applying a relatively new technique, the Toda-Yamamoto procedure, we find that the real price of oil and interest rate improve the forecasts of unemployment in the long run. This finding supports the hypothesis that labor is a substitute factor of production for capital and energy. (author)

  4. Relationship between reaction layer thickness and leach rate for nuclear waste glasses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chick, L.A.; Pederson, L.R.

    1984-02-01

    Three leaching tests, devised to distinguish among several proposed nuclear waste glass leaching mechanisms, were carried out for four different waste glasses. In the first test, the influence of a pre-formed reaction layer on elemental release was evaluated. In the second test, glass specimens were replaced with fresh samples halfway through the leaching experiment, to evaluate the influence of the concentration of glass components in leaching. Finally, regular replacement of the leachant at fixed time intervals essentially removed the variable changing solution concentration, and allowed an assessment of the influence of reaction layer thickness on the leaching rate. Results for all glasses tested indicated that the reaction layer presented little or no barrier to leaching, and that most of the retardation on leaching rates generally observed are attributable to saturation effects. 20 references, 6 figures, 1 table

  5. Relationship between adiposity and heart rate recovery following an exercise stress test in obese older women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristiane Rocha da Silva

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the present study was to compare differences in heart rate (HR response during and following exercise in obese older women with different percent body fat levels. Ninety older, obese women aged 60-87 years participated in the study, were categorized, and enrolled to one of two groups based on a lower percent body fat (LPBF ≤ 41.10 % or higher percent body fat (HPBF > 41.10 % as measured by dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry. The peak HR during exercise and in the first and second minutes of recovery period were compared between groups. The HPBF group presented a lower peak HR during exercise (p = 0.001 and an impaired HR recovery (p = 0.001 when compared to LPBF group. The present study demonstrated that older women who were in exceedingly obese level have an impaired heart rate response during exercise and in the recovery period, indicating possible autonomic dysfunction.

  6. Relationship of nonreturn rates of dairy bulls to binding affinity of heparin to sperm

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marks, J.L.; Ax, R.L.

    1985-01-01

    The binding of the glycosaminoglycan [ 3 H] heparin to bull spermatozoa was compared with nonreturn rates of dairy bulls. Semen samples from five bulls above and five below an average 71% nonreturn rate were used. Samples consisted of first and second ejaculates on a single day collected 1 d/wk for up to 5 consecutive wk. Saturation binding assays using [ 3 H] heparin were performed to quantitate the binding characteristics of each sample. Scatchard plot analyses indicated a significant difference in the binding affinity for [ 3 H] heparin between bulls of high and low fertility. Dissociation constants were 69.0 and 119.3 pmol for bulls of high and low fertility, respectively. In contrast, the number of binding sites for [ 3 H] heparin did not differ significantly among bulls. Differences in binding affinity of [ 3 H] heparin to bull sperm might be used to predict relative fertility of dairy bulls

  7. Objective Ratings of Relationship Skills across Multiple Domains as Predictors of Marital Satisfaction Trajectories

    OpenAIRE

    Lawrence, Erika; Pederson, Ashley; Bunde, Mali; Barry, Robin A.; Brock, Rebecca L.; Fazio, Emily; Mulryan, Lorin; Hunt, Sara; Madsen, Lisa; Dzankovic, Sandra

    2008-01-01

    Expanding upon social-learning and vulnerability-stress-adaptation approaches to marriage, the impact of multiple dyadic behaviors on marital satisfaction trajectories was examined in 101 couples. Semi-structured interviews were administered separately to husbands and wives at 3 months of marriage. Interviewers generated objective ratings for five domains: emotional closeness/intimacy, sexual intimacy/sensuality, interspousal support, decision-making/relational control, and communication/conf...

  8. Indoor Levels of Formaldehyde and Other Pollutants and Relationship to Air Exchange Rates and Human Activities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huangfu, Y.; O'Keeffe, P.; Kirk, M.; Walden, V. P.; Lamb, B. K.; Jobson, B. T.

    2017-12-01

    This paper reports results on an indoor air quality study conducted on six homes in summer and winter, contrasting indoor and outdoor concentrations of O3, CO, CO2, NOx, PM2.5, and selected volatile organic hydrocarbons measured by PTR-MS. Data were collected as 1 minute averages. Air exchange rates of the homes were determined by CO2 tracer release. Smart home sensors, recording human activity level in various places in the home, and window and doors openings, were utilized to better understand the link between human activity and indoor air pollution. From our study, averaged air exchange rates of the homes ranged from 0.2 to 1.2 hour-1 and were greatly affected by the ventilation system type and window and door openings. In general, a negative correlation between air exchange rate and indoor VOCs levels was observed, with large variation of pollutant levels between the homes. For most of the VOCs measured in the house, including formaldehyde and acetaldehyde, summer levels were much higher than winter levels. In some homes formaldehyde levels displayed a time of day variation that was linked to changes in indoor temperature. During a wildfire period in the summer of 2015, outdoor levels of PM2.5, formaldehyde, and benzene dramatically increased, significantly impacting indoor levels due to infiltration. Human activities, such as cooking, can significantly change the levels of most of the compounds measured in the house and the levels can be significantly elevated for short periods of time, with peak levels can be several orders higher compared with typical levels. The data suggest that an outcome of state energy codes that require new homes to be energy efficient, and as a consequence built with lower air exchange rates, will be unacceptable levels of air toxics, notably formaldehyde.

  9. The relationship of cancer mortality to life span and food supply rate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Totter, J.R.; Adler, H.I.; Storer, J.B.

    1985-01-01

    Survival curves for men and women dying from cardiovascular disease and similar curves for those dying from cancer in 47 countries were compared with the 1970-1974 per capita incomes of the inhabitants. The data were taken chiefly from 1964 life tables. The steepest survival curves were found in countries with the highest incomes. Comparison of the survival curves in different countries and comparison of cardiovascular survival with cancer survival curves indicate that both groups of diseases are probably diseases of senescence. The differences in survival slopes are interpreted as homeostatic responses in the population to rate of food intake. The response protects the population against long-term effects of changes in food supply by promoting differential reproduction of offspring best suited to the food supply rate fro the environment. The response to food supply rate complicates calculation of the effects of protracted exposure to low-level ionizing radiation because the radiation exposure appears to mimic the effec of extra food

  10. Demographic trade-offs in a neutral model explain death-rate--abundance-rank relationship.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Kui; Zhang, Da-Yong; He, Fangliang

    2009-01-01

    The neutral theory of biodiversity has been criticized for its neglect of species differences. Yet it is much less heeded that S. P. Hubbell's definition of neutrality allows species to differ in their birth and death rates as long as they have an equal per capita fitness. Using the lottery model of competition we find that fitness equalization through birth-death trade-offs can make species coexist longer than expected for demographically identical species, whereas the probability of monodominance for a species under zero-sum neutral dynamics is equal to its initial relative abundance. Furthermore, if newly arising species in a community survive preferentially they are more likely to slip through the quagmire of rareness, thus creating a strong selective bias favoring their community membership. On the other hand, high-mortality species, once having gained a footing in the community, are more likely to become abundant due to their compensatory high birth rates. This unexpected result explains why a positive association between species abundance and per capita death rate can be seen in tropical-forest communities. An explicit incorporation of interspecific trade-offs between birth and death into the neutral theory increases the theory's realism as well as its predictive power.

  11. The Relationship Between Gun Ownership and Stranger and Nonstranger Firearm Homicide Rates in the United States, 1981–2010

    Science.gov (United States)

    Negussie, Yamrot; Vanture, Sarah; Pleskunas, Jane; Ross, Craig S.; King, Charles

    2014-01-01

    Objectives. We examined the relationship between gun ownership and stranger versus nonstranger homicide rates. Methods. Using data from the Supplemental Homicide Reports of the Federal Bureau of Investigation’s Uniform Crime Reports for all 50 states for 1981 to 2010, we modeled stranger and nonstranger homicide rates as a function of state-level gun ownership, measured by a proxy, controlling for potential confounders. We used a negative binomial regression model with fixed effects for year, accounting for clustering of observations among states by using generalized estimating equations. Results. We found no robust, statistically significant correlation between gun ownership and stranger firearm homicide rates. However, we found a positive and significant association between gun ownership and nonstranger firearm homicide rates. The incidence rate ratio for nonstranger firearm homicide rate associated with gun ownership was 1.014 (95% confidence interval = 1.009, 1.019). Conclusions. Our findings challenge the argument that gun ownership deters violent crime, in particular, homicides. PMID:25121817

  12. Relationship of vitamin A utilization rate to vitamin A status in the rat

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lewis, K.C.; Green, J.B.; Green, M.H.

    1986-01-01

    Weanling male rats were fed diets providing either 45 μg retinal equivalents (REq)/d for 4 wks, then 12 μg/d for 11 wks (HI; n = 9); or 0 μg/d for 7 wks, then 2 μg/d for 6 wks (LO; n = 8); or 0 μg/d for 7 wks, then 2 μg REq + 240 μg retinoic acid/d for 6 wks (RA; n = 6). At this time, plasma retinol (ROH) concentrations averaged 48.9 +/- 7.2, 10.3 +/- 1.7 and 8.5 +/- 0.9 μg/dl, respectively; and liver retinoid levels were 984.9 +/- 146.2, 3 H-ROH in its physiological transport complex. Vitamin A utilization rates (disposal rates, DR) were estimated from the inverse of the area under the tracer disappearance curve obtained by nonlinear, least-squares regression. Group average DR were 12.2 (HI), 1.8 (LO), and 1.2 (RA) μg REq/d. Since in similar studies the DR was 6.9 μg/d in rats consuming approx. 9 μg REq/d, and with liver stores of approx. 73 μg, the authors data suggest that vitamin A utilization rate adjusts to stores and/or dietary input, and that rats with virtually no liver vitamin A reserves and chronically fed marginal levels of vitamin A, are able to adapt by decreasing vitamin A utilization

  13. Relationship between the evaporation rate and vapor pressure of moderately and highly volatile chemicals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Wesenbeeck, Ian; Driver, Jeffrey; Ross, John

    2008-04-01

    Volatilization of chemicals can be an important form of dissipation in the environment. Rates of evaporative losses from plant and soil surfaces are useful for estimating the potential for food-related dietary residues and operator and bystander exposure, and can be used as source functions for screening models that predict off-site movement of volatile materials. A regression of evaporation on vapor pressure from three datasets containing 82 pesticidal active ingredients and co-formulants, ranging in vapor pressure from 0.0001 to >30,000 Pa was developed for this purpose with a regression correlation coefficient of 0.98.

  14. An Ecological Study on the Spatially Varying Relationship between County-Level Suicide Rates and Altitude in the United States

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hoehun Ha

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Suicide is a serious but preventable public health issue. Several previous studies have revealed a positive association between altitude and suicide rates at the county level in the contiguous United States. We assessed the association between suicide rates and altitude using a cross-county ecological study design. Data on suicide rates were obtained from a Web-based Injury Statistics Query and Reporting System (WISQARS, maintained by the U.S. National Center for Injury Prevention and Control (NCIPC. Altitude data were collected from the United States Geological Survey (USGS. We employed an ordinary least square (OLS regression to model the association between altitude and suicide rates in 3064 counties in the contiguous U.S. We conducted a geographically weighted regression (GWR to examine the spatially varying relationship between suicide rates and altitude after controlling for several well-established covariates. A significant positive association between altitude and suicide rates (average county rates between 2008 and 2014 was found in the dataset in the OLS model (R2 = 0.483, p < 0.001. Our GWR model fitted the data better, as indicated by an improved R2 (average: 0.62; range: 0.21–0.64 and a lower Akaike Information Criteria (AIC value (13,593.68 vs. 14,432.14 in the OLS model. The GWR model also significantly reduced the spatial autocorrelation, as indicated by Moran’s I test statistic (Moran’s I = 0.171; z = 33.656; p < 0.001 vs. Moran’s I = 0.323; z = 63.526; p < 0.001 in the OLS model. In addition, a stronger positive relationship was detected in areas of the northern regions, northern plain regions, and southeastern regions in the U.S. Our study confirmed a varying overall positive relationship between altitude and suicide. Future research may consider controlling more predictor variables in regression models, such as firearm ownership, religion, and access to mental health services.

  15. Photosynthetic rate, dry matter accumulation and yield inter-relationships jn genotypes of rice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Devendra, R.; Udaya Kumar, M.; Krishna Sastry, K.S.

    1980-01-01

    The relationship between photosynthetic efficiency, dry matter accumulation and yield in five genotypes of paddy derived from a single cross between Jaya X Halubbalu was studied. Photosynthetic efficiency of younger leaves, on the main tiller was higher than in the older leaves. A significant positive correlation between RuDPcase activity and photosynthetic efficiency was observed in these genotypes. Also a similar positive correlation between dry matter production and photosynthetic efficiency during vegetative period but not during post-anthesis period was observed. Genotypes with high photosynthetic efficiency and also the genotypes with high LAD produced higher dry matter. A reduction in LAD or in photosynthetic efficiency during the post-anthesis period and thus a reduction in source capacity which occurred specially in late types resulted in a lesser ratio between productive and total tillers and also higher percent sterility. Differences in yield amongst the genotypes were not significant, since in the late types MR. 333 and MR. 335, the post-anthesis dry matter production was low due to lesser source capacity. But in the early types, though the total dry matter was less, the post-anthesis source capacity was high. The importance of post-anthesis leaf area of photo-synthetic efficiency in productivity in genotypes of rice is highlighted. (author)

  16. [Seasonality of rotavirus infection in Venezuela: relationship between monthly rotavirus incidence and rainfall rates].

    Science.gov (United States)

    González Chávez, Rosabel

    2015-09-01

    In general, it has been reported that rotavirus infection was detected year round in tropical countries. However, studies in Venezuela and Brazil suggest a seasonal behavior of the infection. On the other hand, some studies link infection with climatic variables such as rainfall. This study analyzes the pattern of behavior of the rotavirus infection in Carabobo-Venezuela (2001-2005), associates the seasonality of the infection with rainfall, and according to the seasonal pattern, estimates the age of greatest risk for infection. The analysis of the rotavirus temporal series and accumulated precipitation was performed with the software SPSS. The infection showed two periods: high incidence (November-April) and low incidence (May-October). Accumulated precipitation presents an opposite behavior. The highest frequency of events (73.8% 573/779) for those born in the period with a low incidence of the virus was recorded at an earlier age (mean age 6.5 +/- 2.0 months) when compared with those born in the station of high incidence (63.5% 568/870, mean age 11.7 +/- 2.2 months). Seasonality of the infection and the inverse relationship between virus incidence and rainfall was demonstrated. In addition, it was found that the period of birth determines the age and risk of infection. This information generated during the preaccine period will be helpful to measure the impact of the vaccine against the rotavirus.

  17. The Relationship between Resettlement and Birth Rates: The Case of Gambella, Ethiopia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adugna, Aynalem; Kloos, Helmut

    2016-07-01

    This study aims to examine the possible impacts of resettlement on birth rates by using the length of stay variable in the 2000 Demographic and Health Survey (DHS). Data in all three rounds of Gambella Administrative Region's Demographic and Health Surveys (DHS) are analyzed. The neighboring administrative region of Benishangul-Gumuz is used as a control. The multivariate analysis of variance (MANOVA) is applied with duration of residence as a categorical independent variable. The statistical software SAS is used. In a univariate analysis of Gambella's DHS 2000, duration of residence has a significant effect on mothers' age at first birth (p Resettlement had a disruptive effect on birth rates among females who were just coming into marriageable ages in places of origin but were resettled to Gambella. Although the disruptive effects waned over time, the initial shortfall resulted in reduced overall lifetime births for settler women who were not past the midpoint of their reproductive years at arrival. Based on the reproductive history of female settlers with different duration of residence in the resettlement schemes, we recommend the reinstatement of the length of residence question in future DHS surveys in Ethiopia to allow a longitudinal tracking of demographic trends among nonnative populations.

  18. The relationship between areca nut usage and heart rate in lactating Bangladeshis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vinoy, S; Mascie-Taylor, C G N; Rosetta, L

    2002-01-01

    The betel-nut quid, a piece of areca nut chewed alone or mixed with tobacco and slaked lime wrapped in betel vine leaf, is widely used in Asian populations as a stimulant (due to the cholinergic agent, arecoline) or as a relaxant (due to arecaidine and guvacine). This study, which formed part of a larger project assessing the effect of energy expenditure on the duration of post-partum amenorrhoea, provided the opportunity to assess the role of chronic areca nut usage on heart rate and oxygen consumption during resting periods and during graded stepping tests. The mothers (n = 47), all of whom were lactating, were aged between 19 and 39, of low nutritional status and anaemic and they all chewed betel quid daily. Moderate users of betel quid (defined as more than 3 times a day) were found, on average, to have a significantly lower heart rate at rest and during exercise than low betel quid users (less than 3 times a day) but there was no modification in oxygen consumption. Chronic betel quid use does not seem to affect the assessment of 24h energy expenditure provided that subjects are denied access to betel nut usage before and during calibration.

  19. Precision comparison of the erosion rates derived from 137Cs measurements models with predictions based on empirical relationship

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang Mingyi; Liu Puling; Li Liqing

    2004-01-01

    The soil samples were collected in 6 cultivated runoff plots with grid sampling method, and the soil erosion rates derived from 137 Cs measurements were calculated. The models precision of Zhang Xinbao, Zhou Weizhi, Yang Hao and Walling were compared with predictions based on empirical relationship, data showed that the precision of 4 models is high within 50m slope length except for the slope with low slope angle and short length. Relatively, the precision of Walling's model is better than that of Zhang Xinbao, Zhou Weizhi and Yang Hao. In addition, the relationship between parameter Γ in Walling's improved model and slope angle was analyzed, the ralation is: Y=0.0109 X 1.0072 . (authors)

  20. Examining the relationship between relative age, competition level, and dropout rates in male youth ice-hockey players.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lemez, S; Baker, J; Horton, S; Wattie, N; Weir, P

    2014-12-01

    The relative age effect suggests that athletes born in the first two quartiles of a given selection year experience a selection advantage and therefore a greater opportunity for success. We describe two studies examining the relationship between relative age, competition level, and dropout rates of Ontario Minor Hockey Association male ice-hockey players from ages 10 to 15 years (n = 14 325). In Study 1, dropout was highest among players born in quartiles three and four [χ(2) (3) = 16.32, P < 0.05; w = 0.06], while Study 2 found dropped out players to have less movement between competition levels compared to retained players. This study confirms a relationship between relative age and dropout from ice-hockey and adds further depth to our understanding of this persistent phenomenon. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  1. Students' motivational processes and their relationship to teacher ratings in school physical education: a self-determination theory approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Standage, Martyn; Duda, Joan L; Ntoumanis, Nikos

    2006-03-01

    In the present study, we used a model of motivation grounded in self-determination theory (Deci & Ryan, 1985, 1991; Ryan & Deci, 2000a, 2000b, 2002) to examine the relationship between physical education (PE) students' motivational processes and ratings of their effort and persistence as provided by their PE teacher. Data were obtained from 394 British secondary school students (204 boys, 189 girls, 1 gender not specified; M age = 11.97 years; SD = .89; range = 11-14 years) who responded to a multisection inventory (tapping autonomy-support, autonomy, competence, relatedness, and self-determined motivation). The students' respective PE teachers subsequently provided ratings reflecting the effort and persistence each student exhibited in their PE classes. The hypothesized relationships among the study variables were examined via structural equation modeling analysis using latent factors. Results of maximum likelihood analysis using the bootstrapping method revealed the proposed model demonstrated a good fit to the data, chi-squared (292) = 632.68, p self-determination. Student-reported levels of self-determined motivation positively predicted teacher ratings of effort and persistence in PE. The findings are discussed with regard to enhancing student motivation in PE settings.

  2. Relationship between the rate of hepatic sterol synthesis and the incorporation of [3H]water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pullinger, C.R.; Gibbons, G.F.

    1983-01-01

    The true rate of sterol synthesis in liver cells was determined by measurement of the weight of desmosterol produced over a given time period during incubations in the presence of triparanol. The simultaneous presence of tritiated water ( 3 H 2 O) during the incubations permitted a direct observation of the weight of tritium incorporated into a given mass of newly synthesized sterol. The incorporation of tritium per atom of sterol carbon (H/C ratio) was lower than some previously reported values and suggests that a sizeable proportion of the reducing equivalents (NADPH) required for sterol synthesis arises via the pentose phosphate pathway. The H/C ratio changed significantly with length of the incubation period. The value of the ratio was also dependent upon whether the acetyl-CoA units utilized for sterol synthesis were derived predominantly from a carbohydrate or a fatty acid source

  3. A framework for establishing predictive relationships between specific bacterial 16S rRNA sequence abundances and biotransformation rates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Helbling, Damian E; Johnson, David R; Lee, Tae Kwon; Scheidegger, Andreas; Fenner, Kathrin

    2015-03-01

    The rates at which wastewater treatment plant (WWTP) microbial communities biotransform specific substrates can differ by orders of magnitude among WWTP communities. Differences in taxonomic compositions among WWTP communities may predict differences in the rates of some types of biotransformations. In this work, we present a novel framework for establishing predictive relationships between specific bacterial 16S rRNA sequence abundances and biotransformation rates. We selected ten WWTPs with substantial variation in their environmental and operational metrics and measured the in situ ammonia biotransformation rate constants in nine of them. We isolated total RNA from samples from each WWTP and analyzed 16S rRNA sequence reads. We then developed multivariate models between the measured abundances of specific bacterial 16S rRNA sequence reads and the ammonia biotransformation rate constants. We constructed model scenarios that systematically explored the effects of model regularization, model linearity and non-linearity, and aggregation of 16S rRNA sequences into operational taxonomic units (OTUs) as a function of sequence dissimilarity threshold (SDT). A large percentage (greater than 80%) of model scenarios resulted in well-performing and significant models at intermediate SDTs of 0.13-0.14 and 0.26. The 16S rRNA sequences consistently selected into the well-performing and significant models at those SDTs were classified as Nitrosomonas and Nitrospira groups. We then extend the framework by applying it to the biotransformation rate constants of ten micropollutants measured in batch reactors seeded with the ten WWTP communities. We identified phylogenetic groups that were robustly selected into all well-performing and significant models constructed with biotransformation rates of isoproturon, propachlor, ranitidine, and venlafaxine. These phylogenetic groups can be used as predictive biomarkers of WWTP microbial community activity towards these specific

  4. Relationship among perceived stress, xerostomia, and salivary flow rate in patients visiting a saliva clinic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bulthuis, Marjolein S; Jan Jager, Derk H; Brand, Henk S

    2018-03-09

    This aimed to assess the potential role of chronic stress in saliva secretion, xerostomia, and oral health in a population attending a saliva clinic. Data of 114 patients who met the inclusion criteria and completed all questionnaires were analyzed in this study. Participants completed several validated questionnaires, including the Perceived Stress Scale, the Oral Health Impact Profile (OHIP-14), Xerostomia Inventory (XI), and Bother xerostomia Index (BI). Subsequently, the unstimulated, chewing-stimulated, and citric acid-stimulated saliva secretion rates were determined gravimetrically. Data were evaluated using Spearman's correlation analysis and the Mann-Whitney U test. A significant correlation was observed between perceived stress and XI score (r = 0.312, p = 0.001), as well as between perceived stress and BI score (r = 0.334, p = 0.001). Stress levels also were significantly associated with OHIP-14 scores (r = 0.420, p stress and salivary flow rate could not be established. In this population, perceived chronic stress seems to be related to several aspects of dry mouth, including the perception of dry mouth, suffering from dry mouth, and the impact on quality of life. These effects were independent of the use of psychotropic medication. No actual reduction in salivary flow was found. Further studies to explore the causal linkage of stress with xerostomia seem warranted. Perceived chronic stress seems to be related with several aspects of dry mouth. This finding might be relevant in future prevention and treatment of xerostomia.

  5. Investigating the relationship between self-rated health and social capital in South Africa: a multilevel panel data analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lau, Yan Kwan; Ataguba, John E

    2015-03-19

    The relationship between social capital and self-rated health has been documented in many developed compared to developing countries. Because social capital and health play important roles in development, it may be valuable to study their relationship in the context of a developing country with poorer health status. Further, the role of social capital research for health policy has not received much attention. This paper therefore examines the relationship between social capital and health in South Africa, a country with the history of colonialism and apartheid that has contributed to the social disintegration and destruction of social capital. This study uses data from the National Income Dynamics Study (NIDS), the first nationally representative panel study in South Africa. Two waves of the NIDS were used in this paper--Wave 1 (2008) and Wave 2 (2010). Self-rated health, social capital (individual- and contextual-level), and other covariates related to the social determinants of health (SDH) were obtained from the NIDS. Individual-level social capital included group participation, personalised trust and generalised trust while contextual-level or neighbourhood-level social capital was obtained by aggregating from the individual-level and household-level social capital variables to the neighbourhood. Mixed effects models were fitted to predict self-rated health in Wave 2, using lagged covariates (from Wave 1). Individual personalised trust, individual community service group membership and neighbourhood personalised trust were beneficial to self-rated health. Reciprocity, associational activity and other types of group memberships were not found to be significantly associated with self-rated health in South Africa. Results indicate that both individual- and contextual-level social capital are associated with self-rated health. Policy makers may want to consider policies that impact socioeconomic conditions as well as social capital. Some of these policies are

  6. The Relationship Between Serum Interleukin-1α and Asymptomatic Infrarenal Abdominal Aortic Aneurysm Size, Morphology, and Growth Rates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmad, Mehtab; Kuravi, Sahithi; Hodson, James; Rainger, G Ed; Nash, Gerard B; Vohra, Rajiv K; Bradbury, Andrew W

    2018-02-16

    In a pilot study, a relationship between abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA) diameter and serum interleukin (IL)-1α levels was reported, and that endothelial cell (EC) activation in vitro in response to serum from patients with AAA was blocked by anti-IL-1α antibodies. The aim of the present study was to further investigate the relationship between serum IL-1α and asymptomatic infrarenal AAA size, morphology, and growth rates. Serum IL-1α was measured using enzyme linked immunosorbent assay in 101 patients with asymptomatic, infrarenal AAA and related to aneurysm size, morphology, and growth rates. IL-1α was measured in 101 patients. There was no statistically significant difference in mean age between men and women. IL-1α was detectable in 62.4% of patients; median IL-1α titre was 3.26 pg/mL. There was no statistically significant relationship between IL-1α and maximum AAA antero-posterior diameter as measured by ultrasound (p = .649), AAA morphology (aortic length [p = .394], sac [p = .369], and thrombus volume [p = .629]) as measured on computed tomography, absolute increase in AAA diameter (p = .214), or AAA growth rate (p = .230). IL-1α is detectable in the majority of patients with infrarenal AAA, but the cause and clinical significance of this novel observation remains unknown. Copyright © 2018 European Society for Vascular Surgery. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. The relationship between the parameters (Heart rate, Ejection fraction and BMI) and the maximum enhancement time of ascending aorta

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jang, Young Ill; June, Woon Kwan; Dong, Kyeong Rae

    2007-01-01

    In this study, Bolus Tracking method was used to investigate the parameters affecting the time when contrast media is reached at 100 HU (T 100 ) and studied the relationship between parameters and T 100 because the time which is reached at aorta through antecubital vein after injecting contrast media is different from person to person. Using 64 MDCT, Cadiac CT, the data were obtained from 100 patients (male: 50, female: 50, age distribution: 21⁓81, average age: 57.5) during July and September, 2007 by injecting the contrast media at 4 ml∙sec -1 through their antecubital vein except having difficulties in stopping their breath and having arrhythmia. Using Somatom Sensation Cardiac 64 Siemens, patients’ height and weight were measured to know their mean Heart rate and BMI. Ejection Fraction was measured using Argus Program at Wizard Workstation. Variances of each parameter were analyzed depending on T 100 ’s variation with multiple comparison and the correlation of Heart rate, Ejection Fraction and BMI were analyzed, as well. According to T 100 ’s variation caused by Heart rate, Ejection Fraction and BMI variations, the higher patients’ Heart Rate and Ejection Fraction were, the faster T 100 ’s variations caused by Heart Rate and Ejection Fraction were. The lower their Heart Rate and Ejection Fraction were, the slower T 100 ’s variations were, but T 100 ’s variations caused by BMI were not affected. In the correlation between T 100 and parameters, Heart Rate (p⁄0.01) and Ejection Fraction (p⁄0.05) were significant, but BMI was not significant (p¤0.05). In the Heart Rate, Ejection Fraction and BMI depending on Fast (17 sec and less), Medium (18⁓21 sec), Slow (22 sec and over) Heart Rate was significant at Fast and Slow and Ejection Fraction was significant Fast and Slow as well as Medium and Slow (p⁄0.05), but BMI was not statistically significant. Of the parameters (Heart Rate, Ejection Fraction and BMI) which would affect T 100 , Heart

  8. Linear free energy relationships between aqueous phase hydroxyl radical reaction rate constants and free energy of activation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minakata, Daisuke; Crittenden, John

    2011-04-15

    The hydroxyl radical (HO(•)) is a strong oxidant that reacts with electron-rich sites on organic compounds and initiates complex radical chain reactions in aqueous phase advanced oxidation processes (AOPs). Computer based kinetic modeling requires a reaction pathway generator and predictions of associated reaction rate constants. Previously, we reported a reaction pathway generator that can enumerate the most important elementary reactions for aliphatic compounds. For the reaction rate constant predictor, we develop linear free energy relationships (LFERs) between aqueous phase literature-reported HO(•) reaction rate constants and theoretically calculated free energies of activation for H-atom abstraction from a C-H bond and HO(•) addition to alkenes. The theoretical method uses ab initio quantum mechanical calculations, Gaussian 1-3, for gas phase reactions and a solvation method, COSMO-RS theory, to estimate the impact of water. Theoretically calculated free energies of activation are found to be within approximately ±3 kcal/mol of experimental values. Considering errors that arise from quantum mechanical calculations and experiments, this should be within the acceptable errors. The established LFERs are used to predict the HO(•) reaction rate constants within a factor of 5 from the experimental values. This approach may be applied to other reaction mechanisms to establish a library of rate constant predictions for kinetic modeling of AOPs.

  9. Relationship Between Elderly Body Composition Indices and Static and Dynamic Balance in Relation to Their Rate of Falling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elham Azimzadeh

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: The purpose of this study was to investigate relationship between body composition indices with static and dynamic balance and rate of falling in active elderly people. Methods & Materials: This research was a correlation study. Active elderly women volunteered for participation in this research (n=45. Body composition indices (body fat mass, fat free mass, body mass index, waist to hip ratio measured with the body composition analyzer. Static and dynamic balance measured by Biodex, with postural stability and fall risk tests, respectively. Also, the rate of falling in the previous 1- year asked for subjects. Statically analyses performed with the Pearson correlation test, significant level was set at P≤0.05. SPSS software was used. Results: The results of this study showed all of body composition indices have significant correlation with static and dynamic balance and rate of falling (P≤0.05. Conclusion: The finding of this research showed that all of body composition indices have significant correlation with static and dynamic balance and rate of falling in active elderly people. Therefore, it seems physical activity through improvement of body composition indices in active elderly people, causes improvement of static and dynamic balance and lowering the rate of falling.

  10. Adolescent sexual assault victims and the legal system: building community relationships to improve prosecution rates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell, Rebecca; Greeson, Megan R; Bybee, Deborah; Fehler-Cabral, Giannina

    2012-09-01

    Adolescents are at high risk for sexual assault, but few of these crimes are reported to the police and prosecuted by the criminal justice system. To address this problem, communities throughout the United States have implemented multidisciplinary interventions to improve post-assault care for victims and increase prosecution rates. The two most commonly implemented interventions are Sexual Assault Nurse Examiner (SANE) Programs and Sexual Assault Response Teams (SARTs). The purpose of this study was to determine whether community-level context (i.e., stakeholder engagement and collaboration) was predictive of adolescent legal case outcomes, after accounting for "standard" factors that affect prosecution success (i.e., victim, assault, and evidence characteristics). Overall, 40% of the adolescent cases from these two SANE-SART programs (over a 10-year period) were successfully prosecuted. Cases were more likely to be prosecuted for younger victims, those with disabilities, those who knew their offenders, and instances in which the rape evidence collection kit was submitted by police for analysis. After accounting for these influences, multi-level modeling results revealed that in one site decreased allocation of community resources to adolescent sexual assault cases had a significant negative effect on prosecution case outcomes. Results are explained in terms of Wolff's (Am J Community Psychol 29:173-191, 2001) concept of "over-coalitioned" communities and Kelly's (1968) ecological principles.

  11. Inflation environment and lower exchange rate pass-through in Brazil: is there a relationship?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reginaldo Pinto Nogueira Junior

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Recent studies have suggested that the shift from a high to a low inflation environment induces a decline in the degree of exchange rate pass-through (ERPT into prices. In this paper we present empirical evidence on this matter for Brazil, applying a smooth transition regression model and testing lagged inflation as a potential transition variable. The results presented in this paper go in line with the literature, and suggest that the lower ERPT largely documented for Brazil in recent years may also be a corollary of low and stable inflation.A literatura recente sugere que a transição de um regime de alta para baixa inflação induz uma redução no pass-through cambial (ERPT. Neste artigo apresentamos evidência empírica sobre essa questão, utilizando um modelo não-linear com smooth transition, e testando defasagens da taxa de inflação como variável de transição. Os resultados encontrados corroboram com a literatura sobre o tema, sugerindo que a redução de ERPT amplamente documentada para o Brasil em períodos recentes pode ser também uma conseqüência de taxas mais baixas e estáveis de inflação.

  12. Relationship of residency program characteristics with pass rate of the American Board of Internal Medicine certifying exam

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amporn Atsawarungruangkit

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: To evaluate the relationship between the pass rate of the American Board of Internal Medicine (ABIM certifying exam and the characteristics of residency programs. Methods: The study used a retrospective, cross-sectional design with publicly available data from the ABIM and the Fellowship and Residency Electronic Interactive Database. All categorical residency programs with reported pass rates were included. Using univariate and multivariate, linear regression analyses, I analyzed how 69 factors (e.g., location, general information, number of faculty and trainees, work schedule, educational environment are related to the pass rate. Results: Of 371 programs, only one region had a significantly different pass rate from the other regions; however, as no other characteristics were reported in this region, I excluded program location from further analysis. In the multivariate analysis, pass rate was significantly associated with four program characteristics: ratio of full-time equivalent paid faculty to positions, percentage of osteopathic doctors, formal mentoring program, and on-site child care (OCC. Numerous factors were not associated at all, including minimum exam scores, salary, vacation days, and average hours per week. Conclusions: As shown through the ratio of full-time equivalent paid faculty to positions and whether there was a formal mentoring program, a highly supervised training experience was strongly associated with the pass rate. In contrast, percentage of osteopathic doctors was inversely related to the pass rate. Programs with OCC significantly outperformed programs without OCC. This study suggested that enhancing supervision of training programs and offering parental support may help attract and produce competitive residents.

  13. Relationship between Autonomic Markers of Heart Rate and Subjective Indicators of Recovery Status in Male, Elite Badminton Players

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christo A. Bisschoff, Ben Coetzee, Michael R. Esco

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The primary aim of the study was to determine if heart rate variability (HRV, and heart rate recovery (HRR are related to several subjective indicators of recovery status (muscle soreness, hydration status, sleep quality and quantity as well as pre-competition mood states for different match periods in male, elite, African, singles badminton players. HRV and HRR were measured in twenty-two badminton players before (pre-match, during (in-match, after (post-match and during rest periods (in-match rest of 46 national and international matches. Muscle soreness, hydration status, and sleep quality and quantity were measured on a daily basis whereas mood states were measured just before each match via questionnaires. Prior to each match warm-up, players were fitted with a Fix Polar Heart Rate Transmitter Belt to record heart rate every second during each match and HRR during service breaks and after matches. Kubios HRV software was used for final HRV analyses from the series of R-R-intervals. A strong, significant canonical correlation (Rc = 0.96, p = 0.014 was found between HRV, HRR and subjective indicators of recovery status for the in-match period, but only strong, non-significant relationships were observed for pre-match (Rc = 0.98, p = 0.626 and post-match periods (Rc = 0.98, p = 0.085 and a low non-significant relationship (Rc = 0.69, p = 0.258 for the in-match rest period. Canonical functions accounted for between 47.89% and 96.43% of the total variation between the two canonical variants. Results further revealed that Ln-HFnu, the energy index and vigour were the most prominent variables in the relationship between the autonomic markers of heart rate and recovery-related variables. In conclusion, this study proved that subjective indicators of recovery status influence HRV and HRR measures obtained in a competitive badminton environment and should therefore be incorporated in protocols that evaluate these ANS-related parameters.

  14. Relationship between Autonomic Markers of Heart Rate and Subjective Indicators of Recovery Status in Male, Elite Badminton Players.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bisschoff, Christo A; Coetzee, Ben; Esco, Michael R

    2016-12-01

    The primary aim of the study was to determine if heart rate variability (HRV), and heart rate recovery (HRR) are related to several subjective indicators of recovery status (muscle soreness, hydration status, sleep quality and quantity as well as pre-competition mood states) for different match periods in male, elite, African, singles badminton players. HRV and HRR were measured in twenty-two badminton players before (pre-match), during (in-match), after (post-match) and during rest periods (in-match rest) of 46 national and international matches. Muscle soreness, hydration status, and sleep quality and quantity were measured on a daily basis whereas mood states were measured just before each match via questionnaires. Prior to each match warm-up, players were fitted with a Fix Polar Heart Rate Transmitter Belt to record heart rate every second during each match and HRR during service breaks and after matches. Kubios HRV software was used for final HRV analyses from the series of R-R-intervals. A strong, significant canonical correlation (Rc = 0.96, p = 0.014) was found between HRV, HRR and subjective indicators of recovery status for the in-match period, but only strong, non-significant relationships were observed for pre-match (Rc = 0.98, p = 0.626) and post-match periods (Rc = 0.98, p = 0.085) and a low non-significant relationship (Rc = 0.69, p = 0.258) for the in-match rest period. Canonical functions accounted for between 47.89% and 96.43% of the total variation between the two canonical variants. Results further revealed that Ln-HFnu, the energy index and vigour were the most prominent variables in the relationship between the autonomic markers of heart rate and recovery-related variables. In conclusion, this study proved that subjective indicators of recovery status influence HRV and HRR measures obtained in a competitive badminton environment and should therefore be incorporated in protocols that evaluate these ANS-related parameters.

  15. Grandparent-grandchild family capital and self-rated health of older rural Chinese adults: the role of the grandparent-parent relationship.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lou, Vivian W Q; Lu, Nan; Xu, Ling; Chi, Iris

    2013-07-01

    This study tested the relationship between grandparent-grandchild family capital and self-rated health of older rural Chinese adults and the mediating role of the grandparent-parent relationship in terms of grandparent-grandchild family capital and self-rated health. Data were derived from a random sample of 1,027 adults aged 60 and older who were interviewed in the rural Chaohu region in 2009. Structural equation modeling was used to examine the direct effect of grandparent-grandchild family capital in terms of relations with the first child's family on self-rated health among respondents, as well as the mediating effect of the grandparent-parent relationship. The results showed the direct effect of grandparent-grandchild family capital on self-rated health of older rural Chinese adults. The grandparent-parent relationship had a partial mediation effect on the relationship between grandparent-grandchild family capital and self-rated health of respondents. Grandparent-grandchild family capital had a unique direct effect on the self-rated health of older rural Chinese adults, enriching our theoretical understanding of sources of family capital and their impacts in a collectivist cultural context that emphasizes intergenerational interaction and exchange. The findings also highlighted the mediation effects of grandparent-parent relationships on the relationship between grandparent-grandchild family capital and self-rated health of older rural Chinese adults, supporting the "grandchild-as-linkage" hypothesis in understanding the social determination of self-rated health in China.

  16. Modeled dosage-response relationship on the net photosynthetic rate for the sensitivity to acid rain of 21 plant species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, Shihuai; Gou, Shuzhen; Sun, Baiye; Lv, Wenlin; Li, Yuanwei; Peng, Hong; Xiao, Hong; Yang, Gang; Wang, Yingjun

    2012-08-01

    This study investigated the sensitivity of plant species to acid rain based on the modeled dosage-response relationship on the net photosynthetic rate (P (N)) of 21 types of plant species, subjected to the exposure of simulated acid rain (SAR) for 5 times during a period of 50 days. Variable responses of P (N) to SAR occurred depending on the type of plant. A majority (13 species) of the dosage-response relationship could be described by an S-shaped curve and be fitted with the Boltzmann model. Model fitting allowed quantitative evaluation of the dosage-response relationship and an accurate estimation of the EC(10), termed as the pH of the acid rain resulting in a P (N) 10 % lower than the reference value. The top 9 species (Camellia sasanqua, Cinnamomum camphora, etc. EC(10) ≤ 3.0) are highly endurable to very acid rain. The rare, relict plant Metasequoia glyptostroboides was the most sensitive species (EC(10) = 5.1) recommended for protection.

  17. Heart rate variability and short duration spaceflight: relationship to post-flight orthostatic intolerance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Blaber Andrew P

    2004-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Upon return from space many astronauts experience symptoms of orthostatic intolerance. Research has implicated altered autonomic cardiovascular regulation due to spaceflight with further evidence to suggest that there might be pre-flight autonomic indicators of post-flight orthostatic intolerance. We used heart rate variability (HRV to determine whether autonomic regulation of the heart in astronauts who did or did not experience post-flight orthostatic intolerance was different pre-flight and/or was differentially affected by short duration (8 – 16 days spaceflight. HRV data from ten-minute stand tests collected from the 29 astronauts 10 days pre-flight, on landing day and three days post-flight were analysed using coarse graining spectral analysis. From the total power (PTOT, the harmonic component was extracted and divided into high (PHI: >0.15 Hz and low (PLO: = 0.15 Hz frequency power regions. Given the distribution of autonomic nervous system activity with frequency at the sinus node, PHI/PTOT was used as an indicator of parasympathetic activity; PLO/PTOT as an indicator of sympathetic activity; and, PLO/PHI as an estimate of sympathovagal balance. Results Twenty-one astronauts were classified as finishers, and eight as non-finishers, based on their ability to remain standing for 10 minutes on landing day. Pre-flight, non-finishers had a higher supine PHI/PTOT than finishers. Supine PHI/PTOT was the same pre-flight and on landing day in the finishers; whereas, in the non-finishers it was reduced. The ratio PLO/PHI was lower in non-finishers compared to finishers and was unaffected by spaceflight. Pre-flight, both finishers and non-finishers had similar supine values of PLO/PTOT, which increased from supine to stand. Following spaceflight, only the finishers had an increase in PLO/PTOT from supine to stand. Conclusions Both finishers and non-finishers had an increase in sympathetic activity with stand on pre

  18. The relationship between experimental geometry, heat rate, and ultrasound wave speed measurement while observing phase changes in highly attenuative materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, David G.; Stair, Sarah L.; Jack, David A.

    2018-04-01

    Ultrasound techniques are capable of monitoring changes in the time-of-flight as a material is exposed to different thermal environments. The focus of the present study is to identify the phase of a material via ultrasound compression wave measurements in a through transmission experimental setup as the material is heated from a solid to a liquid and then allowed to re-solidify. The present work seeks to expand upon the authors' previous research, which proved this through transmission phase monitoring technique was possible, by considering different experimental geometries. The relationship between geometry, the measured speed of sound, and the temperature profile is presented. The use of different volumes helps in establishing a baseline understanding of which aspects of the experiment are geometry dependent and which are independent. The present study also investigates the relationship between the heating rate observed in the experiment and the measured speed of sound. The trends identified between the experimental geometry, heat rate and ultrasound wave speed measurement assist in providing a baseline understanding of the applicability of this technique to various industries, including the polymer industry and the oil industry.

  19. Evaluating a nursing communication skills training course: The relationships between self-rated ability, satisfaction, and actual performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mullan, Barbara A; Kothe, Emily J

    2010-11-01

    Effective communication is a vital component of nursing care, however, nurses often lack the skills to communicate with patients, carers and other health care professionals. Communication skills training programs are frequently used to develop these skills. However, there is a paucity of data on how best to evaluate such courses. The aim of the current study was to evaluate the relationship between student self rating of their own ability and their satisfaction with a nurse training course as compared with an objective measure of communication skills. 209 first year nursing students completed a communication skills program. Both qualitative and quantitative data were collected and associations between measures were investigated. Paired samples t-tests showed significant improvement in self-rated ability over the course of the program. Students generally were very satisfied with the course which was reflected in both qualitative and quantitative measures. However, neither self-rated ability nor satisfaction was significantly correlated with the objective measure of performance, but self-rated ability and satisfaction were highly correlated with one another. The importance of these findings is discussed and implications for nurse education are proposed. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. A study of energy-size relationship and wear rate in a lab-scale high pressure grinding rolls unit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rashidi Dashtbayaz, Samira

    This study is focused on two independent topics of energy-size relationship and wear-rate measurements on a lab-scale high pressure grinding rolls (HPGR). The first part of this study has been aimed to investigate the influence of the operating parameters and the feed characteristics on the particle-bed breakage using four different ore samples in a 200 mm x 100 mm lab-scale HPGR. Additionally, multistage grinding, scale-up from a lab-scale HPGR, and prediction of the particle size distributions have been studied in detail. The results obtained from energy-size relationship studies help with better understanding of the factors contributing to more energy-efficient grinding. It will be shown that the energy efficiency of the two configurations of locked-cycle and open multipass is completely dependent on the ore properties. A test procedure to produce the scale-up data is presented. The comparison of the scale-up factors between the data obtained on the University of Utah lab-scale HPGR and the industrial machine at the Newmont Boddington plant confirmed the applicability of lab-scale machines for trade-off studies. The population balance model for the simulation of product size distributions has shown to work well with the breakage function estimated through tests performed on the HPGR at high rotational speed. Selection function has been estimated by back calculation of population balance model with the help of the experimental data. This is considered to be a major step towards advancing current research on the simulation of particle size distribution by using the HPGR machine for determining the breakage function. Developing a technique/setup to measure the wear rate of the HPGR rolls' surface is the objective of the second topic of this dissertation. A mockup was initially designed to assess the application of the linear displacement sensors for measuring the rolls' weight loss. Upon the analysis of that technique and considering the corresponding sources of

  1. The relationship between relative deprivation and self-rated health among Palestinian women in refugee camps in Lebanon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nisreen Salti

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Relative deprivation (RD has been advanced as a theory to explain the relationship between income inequality and health in high-income countries. In this study, we tested the theory in a low-income protracted refugee setting in a middle-income country. Methods: Using data from the 2010 Socioeconomic Survey of Palestine Refugees in Lebanon, we examined the relationship between RD and health among a representative sample of Palestinian refugee women (N=1047. Data were gathered utilizing a household questionnaire with information on socio-demographics and an individual-level questionnaire with information on the health of each respondent. We examined self-rated health (SRH as the main health measure but also checked the sensitivity of our results using self-reported chronic conditions. We used two measures for absolute SES: total household monthly expenditures on non-food goods and services and total household monthly expenditures on non-health goods and services. With refugee camp as a reference group, we measured a household’s RD as a household’s rank of absolute SES within the reference group, multiplied by the distance between its absolute SES and the average absolute SES of all households ranked above it. We investigated the robustness of the RD–SRH relationship using these two alternative measures of absolute SES. Results: Our findings show that, controlling for absolute SES and other possible confounders, women report significantly poorer health when they live in households with a higher score on our RD measure (because of either lower relative rank or lower relative SES compared to households better off in the reference group which we take to be the refugee camp. While RD is always significant as a determinant of SRH under a variety of specifications, absolute SES is not consistently significant. These findings persist when we use self-reported chronic conditions as our measure of health instead of SRH, suggesting that the

  2. The Relationship between Temporal Measures of Oral Fluency and Ratings of Fluency: A Case of Iranian Advanced EFL Learners

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    Ali Akbar Farahani

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Objective fluency judgment has always been a formidable task in language testing. Nonetheless, temporal fluency is the type of fluency which can be measured and quantified. Given that, temporal fluency is also known as temporal measures of fluency (Luoma, 2004. Furthermore, it has aroused considerable interest in analyzing speech of language learners in terms of quantitative measures (Kormos & Denes, 2004; Freed, 1995; Riggenbach, 1991; Lennon, 1990. They suggested that certain measures of fluency can more objectively specify fluency level and that perceptual understanding of fluency to a high extent correlate with these measures. Following these studies, the present study was an endeavor to relate quantitative measures of fluency and assessment of fluency in oral speech of L2 learners. To do so 30 advanced EFL learners whose speaking score on TOEFL iBT scale was between 19 to 22, i.e. B2 on CEFR scale, were selected. Then, they were given a picture strip as the elicitation task and asked to make up a story based on that. Their voice was recorded, transcribed and further analyzed by voice analysis software called PRAAT to calculate seven measures of fluency. Meanwhile, two trained listeners were required to rate the recordings, scoring them from 1 to 9. Finally, the relationship between these variables was calculated. The results showed that judge listeners’ ratings of fluency were highly correlated with speech rate, phonation time ratio, and mean length of runs. Moreover, among the measures of temporal fluency speech rate proved significantly correlated with articulation rate, phonation time ratio, and mean length of runs.

  3. The Relationship of Practice Exposure and Injury Rate on Game Performance and Season Success in Professional Male Basketball

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    Toni Caparrós, Eduard Alentorn-Geli, Gregory D. Myer, Lluís Capdevila, Kristian Samuelsson, Bruce Hamilton, Gil Rodas

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The objectives of this study were to determine the relationship among game performance, injury rate, and practice exposure in a professional male basketball team. A retroospective analysis of prospective collected data was conducted over seven consecutive seasons (2007/2008 to 2013/2014. Data collection included sports performance during competition (statistical evaluation, injury rate, and total exposure (games and practices. Over the surveillance period, 162 injuries (91 practice; 71 matches occurred over 32,668 hours of exposure (556 games and 2005 practices. There was a strong positive correlation between: 1 exposure (total number of practices and hours of exposure and the total number of injuries (r = 0.77; p = 0.04; 2 exposure (total hours of exposure and total hours of practice exposure and performance (total team ranking (r = 0.77 and p = 0.04, and r = 0.8 and p = 0.03, respectively; and 3 total number of injuries and performance (total team ranking (r = 0.84; p = 0.02. While increasing practice and competition time is related to greater team performance, it also increases the number of injuries. However, higher injury rates were not associated with worse overall team performance. Efforts to reduce high-risk activity during practice, optimally replaced with injury prevention training, might help to reduce injury risk.

  4. An empirical study on the relationship between customers' credit rating and their financial transcripts for loan assignment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hassan Najafi

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available One of the most important issues on revenue management in banking industries is the assignment of loan to customers. In fact, a big portion of banks' revenue is from loan assignment and choosing appropriate customers for loan assignment not only reduces the financial risk but also it can increase the revenue. In this study, we perform an empirical study to find out whether customers' financial statements could provide enough information about customers for loan assignment. The other objective of this study is to find out whether banks' officials could understand about the details of customers' financial statements. Finally, we want to find out whether there is any relationship between unpaid loans and customers' credit rating. The present study is executed on an Iranian bank by distributing a questionnaire analyzing the results. The results indicate that there are some strong evidence that financial statement could help bank official determine customers' credit rating. The survey also concludes that highly education and experienced employees are the best people for devoting best credit rating for customers.

  5. Relationship between heart rate recovery and inflammatory markers in patients with polycystic ovary syndrome: a cross-sectional study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giallauria Francesco

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS is an endocrine disease closely related to several risk factors for cardiovascular disease. An abnormal heart rate recovery (HRR, an easily-obtained measure derived from exercise stress test and closely related to an increased risk for cardiovascular mortality, has been recently described in PCOS women. A subclinical increase of the inflammation markers has been also observed in the PCOS. This study was designed to study the relationships between HRR and inflammatory markers in PCOS women. Methods Two-hundred forty-three young PCOS patients without known risk factors for cardiovascular risk were enrolled. All patients underwent hormonal and metabolic profile, white blood cells (WBCs count and C-reactive protein (CRP. HRR was calculated as the difference between heart rate at peak exercise and heart rate at first minute of the cool-down period. Abnormal HRR was defined as ≤18 beats/min for standard exercise testing. Results Eighty-nine out of 243 patients presented abnormal HRR. Serum CRP (1.8 ± 0.7 vs. 1.1 ± 0.4 mg/dl, p 9 cells/l, p versus normal HRR. HRR was significantly associated with both CRP (r = -0.33, p p Conclusion Abnormal HRR and inflammatory markers are closely associated in PCOS women acting probably in concert to increase the cardiovascular risk profile of these patients.

  6. Relationship between heart rate recovery and inflammatory markers in patients with polycystic ovary syndrome: a cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giallauria, Francesco; Orio, Francesco; Lombardi, Gaetano; Colao, Annamaria; Vigorito, Carlo; Tafuri, Maria Giovanna; Palomba, Stefano

    2009-02-02

    Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is an endocrine disease closely related to several risk factors for cardiovascular disease. An abnormal heart rate recovery (HRR), an easily-obtained measure derived from exercise stress test and closely related to an increased risk for cardiovascular mortality, has been recently described in PCOS women. A subclinical increase of the inflammation markers has been also observed in the PCOS. This study was designed to study the relationships between HRR and inflammatory markers in PCOS women. Two-hundred forty-three young PCOS patients without known risk factors for cardiovascular risk were enrolled. All patients underwent hormonal and metabolic profile, white blood cells (WBCs) count and C-reactive protein (CRP). HRR was calculated as the difference between heart rate at peak exercise and heart rate at first minute of the cool-down period. Abnormal HRR was defined as PCOS patients with abnormal versus normal HRR. HRR was significantly associated with both CRP (r = -0.33, p PCOS women acting probably in concert to increase the cardiovascular risk profile of these patients.

  7. Link Between RI-ISI and Inspection Qualification: Relationship between Defect Detection Rate and Margin of Detection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shepherd, Barrie; Goujon, Sophie; Whittle, John

    2007-01-01

    Quantitative risk-informed in-service inspection (RI-ISI) requires a quantitative measurement of inspection effectiveness if the risk change associated with an inspection is to be determined. Knowing the probability of detection (POD) as a function of defect depth (through wall dimension) would provide ideal information. However the main in-service inspection method for nuclear plant is ultrasonics, for which defect detection capability depends on a wide variety of parameters besides defect depth, such as defect orientation, roughness, location, shape etc. In recognition of this the European approach to inspection qualification is generally based on some combination of technical justification, and practical trials on a relatively limited number of defects. This inspection qualification process involves demonstrating that defects of concern will generate responses in excess of the specified recording level or noise, depending on the inspection. It is not currently designed to quantify the probability with which defects will be detected. The work described in this report has been performed in order to help address the problem of how the information generated during inspection qualification can be used as an input for RI-ISI. The approach adopted has been to recognise that as the defect response increases above the recording or noise level, the probability of detecting defects is likely to increase. The work therefore involved an investigation of the relationship between POD (strictly speaking defect detection rate) and margin of detection. It involved blind manual and automated ultrasonic trials on artificial defects in test plates designed to generate a range of signal responses. The detection rate for defects which provided signals at a particular level above noise or above a recording level was then measured. A relationship between defect detection rate and margin of detection has been established based on these trials. In addition to establishing a stronger link

  8. Defining the relationship between Plasmodium falciparum parasite rate and clinical disease: statistical models for disease burden estimation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Snow Robert W

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Clinical malaria has proven an elusive burden to enumerate. Many cases go undetected by routine disease recording systems. Epidemiologists have, therefore, frequently defaulted to actively measuring malaria in population cohorts through time. Measuring the clinical incidence of malaria longitudinally is labour-intensive and impossible to undertake universally. There is a need, therefore, to define a relationship between clinical incidence and the easier and more commonly measured index of infection prevalence: the "parasite rate". This relationship can help provide an informed basis to define malaria burdens in areas where health statistics are inadequate. Methods Formal literature searches were conducted for Plasmodium falciparum malaria incidence surveys undertaken prospectively through active case detection at least every 14 days. The data were abstracted, standardized and geo-referenced. Incidence surveys were time-space matched with modelled estimates of infection prevalence derived from a larger database of parasite prevalence surveys and modelling procedures developed for a global malaria endemicity map. Several potential relationships between clinical incidence and infection prevalence were then specified in a non-parametric Gaussian process model with minimal, biologically informed, prior constraints. Bayesian inference was then used to choose between the candidate models. Results The suggested relationships with credible intervals are shown for the Africa and a combined America and Central and South East Asia regions. In both regions clinical incidence increased slowly and smoothly as a function of infection prevalence. In Africa, when infection prevalence exceeded 40%, clinical incidence reached a plateau of 500 cases per thousand of the population per annum. In the combined America and Central and South East Asia regions, this plateau was reached at 250 cases per thousand of the population per annum. A temporal

  9. Relationship Between Pretraining Subjective Wellness Measures, Player Load, and Rating-of-Perceived-Exertion Training Load in American College Football.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Govus, Andrew D; Coutts, Aaron; Duffield, Rob; Murray, Andrew; Fullagar, Hugh

    2018-01-01

    The relationship between pretraining subjective wellness and external and internal training load in American college football is unclear. To examine the relationship of pretraining subjective wellness (sleep quality, muscle soreness, energy, wellness Z score) with player load and session rating of perceived exertion (s-RPE-TL) in American college football players. Subjective wellness (measured using 5-point, Likert-scale questionnaires), external load (derived from GPS and accelerometry), and s-RPE-TL were collected during 3 typical training sessions per week for the second half of an American college football season (8 wk). The relationship of pretraining subjective wellness with player load and s-RPE training load was analyzed using linear mixed models with a random intercept for athlete and a random slope for training session. Standardized mean differences (SMDs) denote the effect magnitude. A 1-unit increase in wellness Z score and energy was associated with trivial 2.3% (90% confidence interval [CI] 0.5, 4.2; SMD 0.12) and 2.6% (90% CI 0.1, 5.2; SMD 0.13) increases in player load, respectively. A 1-unit increase in muscle soreness (players felt less sore) corresponded to a trivial 4.4% (90% CI -8.4, -0.3; SMD -0.05) decrease in s-RPE training load. Measuring pretraining subjective wellness may provide information about players' capacity to perform in a training session and could be a key determinant of their response to the imposed training demands American college football. Hence, monitoring subjective wellness may aid in the individualization of training prescription in American college football players.

  10. Exploring relationships among social integration, social isolation, self-rated health, and demographics among Latino day laborers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steel, Kenneth C; Fernandez-Esquer, Maria Eugenia; Atkinson, John S; Taylor, Wendell C

    2018-05-01

    Research indicates social integration and social isolation are related to health, and Latino day laborers (LDLs) tend to be socially isolated and, thus, at high risk for adverse health consequences. relationships among social isolation, social integration, self-rated health (SRH), and demographics were examined in a sample of LDLs to contribute to the literature on social networks and health in this and other migrant populations. We analyzed data from 324 LDLs who participated in Proyecto SHILOS (Salud del Hombre Inmigrante Latino), a Houston-based survey of Latino immigrant men's health. Based on the literature, we hypothesized SRH would be (1) positively associated with social integration and (2) negatively associated with social isolation. All proposed measures were first entered into a correlation matrix to identify significant bivariate relationships (p ≤ .05, two-tailed). Associations between variables that were directly correlated with SRH and variables that were, in turn, proximally associated with these variables were then used to develop a structural equation path model of SRH. Individual paths in the model were measured for significance, and goodness of fit was assessed by the model chi-square, the Comparative Fit Index, and the Root Mean Square Error of Approximation. Inconsistent with the first hypothesis, SRH was negatively associated with social integration, as measured by the number of trusted friends. Consistent with the second hypothesis, SRH was negatively associated with social isolation, as measured by needing someone to talk to. More frequent contact with family was also negatively associated with social isolation. Our findings suggest social integration may not always protect and promote health. Therefore, assessing the quality of LDLs' different relationships, not just the quantity, is vital. Future studies should further analyze the effects that social resources have on perceptions of social isolation and health in LDLs and other

  11. Physical mechanism or evolutionary trade-off? Factors dictating the relationship between metabolic rate and ambient temperature in carabid beetles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gudowska, Agnieszka; Schramm, Bartosz W; Czarnoleski, Marcin; Kozłowski, Jan; Bauchinger, Ulf

    2017-08-01

    The tight association between ambient temperature (T) and metabolic rate (MR) is a common occurrence in ectotherms, but the determinants of this association are not fully understood. This study examined whether the relationship between MR and T is the same among individuals, as predicted by the Universal Temperature Dependence hypothesis, or whether this relationship differs between them. We used flow-through respirometry to measure standard MR and to determine gas exchange patterns for 111 individuals of three Carabidae species which differ in size (Abax ovalis, Carabus linnei and C. coriaceus), exposed to four different temperatures (ten individuals of each species measured at 6, 11, 16 and 21°C). We found a significant interaction between ln body mass and the inverse of temperature, indicating that in a given species, the effect of temperature on MR was weaker in larger individuals than in smaller individuals. Overall, this finding shows that the thermal dependence of MR is not body mass invariant. We observed three types of gas exchange patterns among beetles: discontinuous, cyclic and continuous. Additionally, the appearance of these patterns was associated with MR and T. Evolution in diverse terrestrial environments could affect diverse ventilation patterns, which accommodate changes in metabolism in response to temperature variation. In conclusion, explaining the variance in metabolism only through fundamental physical laws of thermodynamics, as predicted by the Universal Temperature Dependence hypothesis, appears to oversimplify the complexity of nature, ignoring evolutionary trade-offs that should be taken into account in the temperature - metabolism relationship. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Sensory experience ratings (SERs) for 1,659 French words: Relationships with other psycholinguistic variables and visual word recognition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonin, Patrick; Méot, Alain; Ferrand, Ludovic; Bugaïska, Aurélia

    2015-09-01

    We collected sensory experience ratings (SERs) for 1,659 French words in adults. Sensory experience for words is a recently introduced variable that corresponds to the degree to which words elicit sensory and perceptual experiences (Juhasz & Yap Behavior Research Methods, 45, 160-168, 2013; Juhasz, Yap, Dicke, Taylor, & Gullick Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology, 64, 1683-1691, 2011). The relationships of the sensory experience norms with other psycholinguistic variables (e.g., imageability and age of acquisition) were analyzed. We also investigated the degree to which SER predicted performance in visual word recognition tasks (lexical decision, word naming, and progressive demasking). The analyses indicated that SER reliably predicted response times in lexical decision, but not in word naming or progressive demasking. The findings are discussed in relation to the status of SER, the role of semantic code activation in visual word recognition, and the embodied view of cognition.

  13. Relationships between root respiration rate and root morphology, chemistry and anatomy in Larix gmelinii and Fraxinus mandshurica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jia, Shuxia; McLaughlin, Neil B; Gu, Jiacun; Li, Xingpeng; Wang, Zhengquan

    2013-06-01

    Tree roots are highly heterogeneous in form and function. Previous studies revealed that fine root respiration was related to root morphology, tissue nitrogen (N) concentration and temperature, and varied with both soil depth and season. The underlying mechanisms governing the relationship between root respiration and root morphology, chemistry and anatomy along the root branch order have not been addressed. Here, we examined these relationships of the first- to fifth-order roots for near surface roots (0-10 cm) of 22-year-old larch (Larix gmelinii L.) and ash (Fraxinus mandshurica L.) plantations. Root respiration rate at 18 °C was measured by gas phase O2 electrodes across the first five branching order roots (the distal roots numbered as first order) at three times of the year. Root parameters of root diameter, specific root length (SRL), tissue N concentration, total non-structural carbohydrates (starch and soluble sugar) concentration (TNC), cortical thickness and stele diameter were also measured concurrently. With increasing root order, root diameter, TNC and the ratio of root TNC to tissue N concentration increased, while the SRL, tissue N concentration and cortical proportion decreased. Root respiration rate also monotonically decreased with increasing root order in both species. Cortical tissue (including exodermis, cortical parenchyma and endodermis) was present in the first three order roots, and cross sections of the cortex for the first-order root accounted for 68% (larch) and 86% (ash) of the total cross section of the root. Root respiration was closely related to root traits such as diameter, SRL, tissue N concentration, root TNC : tissue N ratio and stele-to-root diameter proportion among the first five orders, which explained up to 81-94% of variation in the rate of root respiration for larch and up to 83-93% for ash. These results suggest that the systematic variations of root respiration rate within tree fine root system are possibly due to the

  14. Relationship between dysfunctional breathing patterns and ability to achieve target heart rate variability with features of "coherence" during biofeedback.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Courtney, Rosalba; Cohen, Marc; van Dixhoorn, Jan

    2011-01-01

    Heart rate variability (HRV) biofeedback is a self-regulation strategy used to improve conditions including asthma, stress, hypertension, and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. Respiratory muscle function affects hemodynamic influences on respiratory sinus arrhythmia (RSA), and HRV and HRV-biofeedback protocols often include slow abdominal breathing to achieve physiologically optimal patterns of HRV with power spectral distribution concentrated around the 0.1-Hz frequency and large amplitude. It is likely that optimal balanced breathing patterns and ability to entrain heart rhythms to breathing reflect physiological efficiency and resilience and that individuals with dysfunctional breathing patterns may have difficulty voluntarily modulating HRV and RSA. The relationship between breathing movement patterns and HRV, however, has not been investigated. This study examines how individuals' habitual breathing patterns correspond with their ability to optimize HRV and RSA. Breathing pattern was assessed using the Manual Assessment of Respiratory Motion (MARM) and the Hi Lo manual palpation techniques in 83 people with possible dysfunctional breathing before they attempted HRV biofeedback. Mean respiratory rate was also assessed. Subsequently, participants applied a brief 5-minute biofeedback protocol, involving breathing and positive emotional focus, to achieve HRV patterns proposed to reflect physiological "coherence" and entrainment of heart rhythm oscillations to other oscillating body systems. Thoracic-dominant breathing was associated with decreased coherence of HRV (r = -.463, P = .0001). Individuals with paradoxical breathing had the lowest HRV coherence (t(8) = 10.7, P = .001), and the negative relationship between coherence of HRV and extent of thoracic breathing was strongest in this group (r = -.768, P = .03). Dysfunctional breathing patterns are associated with decreased ability to achieve HRV patterns that reflect cardiorespiratory efficiency and

  15. Mothers' and Fathers' Ratings of Family Relationship Quality: Associations with Preadolescent and Adolescent Anxiety and Depressive Symptoms in a Clinical Sample

    Science.gov (United States)

    Queen, Alexander H.; Stewart, Lindsay M.; Ehrenreich-May, Jill; Pincus, Donna B.

    2013-01-01

    This study examined the independent associations among three family relationship quality factors--cohesion, expressiveness, and conflict--with youth self-reported depressive and anxiety symptoms in a clinical sample of anxious and depressed youth. Ratings of family relationship quality were obtained through both mother and father report. The…

  16. The Relationship Between Intradialytic Nutrition and Gastrointestinal Symptoms Using a Modified Version of the Gastrointestinal Symptom Rating Scale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kistler, Brandon M; Biruete, Annabel; Chapman-Novakofski, Karen; Wilund, Kenneth R

    2018-03-01

    Intradialytic nutrition has been shown to improve nutritional status in maintenance hemodialysis (HD) patients but remains controversial due in part to concerns over hemodynamic stability and gastrointestinal (GI) distress. There are limited data on the relationship between intradialytic nutrition and GI symptoms, possibly due to the lack of a validated tool. Therefore, we intended to validate a questionnaire to measure GI symptoms associated with a single HD treatment and determine the relationship between intradialytic nutrition and GI symptoms. Cross-sectional study. Forty-eight maintenance HD patients. GI symptoms and dietary intake during HD treatment. In general, we found acceptable internal consistency (Cronbach's alpha >0.5, exception reflux domain) and repeatability in all 5 domains of a modified version of the Gastrointestinal Symptom Rating Scale. The prevalence of GI symptoms associated with a single HD treatment (generalized score greater than 1) was 54.2, 43.7, 6.2, 41.7, and 45.8% for the abdominal pain, indigestion, reflux, diarrhea, and constipation domains, respectively. More than two-thirds of patients chose to eat during treatment (168.6 ± 165.6 kcal) with the most commonly consumed items being candy, oral supplements, and cookies. There was no difference in GI symptoms among patients who did or did not eat (P > .05). However, the amount of total dietary fat and fiber consumed during treatment was associated with greater indigestion (P < .05) prior to accounting for outliers or multiple comparisons. In this sample, the modified version of the Gastrointestinal Symptom Rating Scale was a generally valid tool for measuring GI symptoms associated with a single HD treatment. Patients who ate during treatment did not experience greater GI symptoms than those who did not; however, high amounts of fat and fiber may be associated with greater GI symptoms. Prospective trials should examine the relationship between GI symptoms and dietary intake

  17. The relationship between relative deprivation and self-rated health among Palestinian women in refugee camps in Lebanon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salti, Nisreen; Abdulrahim, Sawsan

    2016-12-01

    Relative deprivation (RD) has been advanced as a theory to explain the relationship between income inequality and health in high-income countries. In this study, we tested the theory in a low-income protracted refugee setting in a middle-income country. Using data from the 2010 Socioeconomic Survey of Palestine Refugees in Lebanon, we examined the relationship between RD and health among a representative sample of Palestinian refugee women ( N =1047). Data were gathered utilizing a household questionnaire with information on socio-demographics and an individual-level questionnaire with information on the health of each respondent. We examined self-rated health (SRH) as the main health measure but also checked the sensitivity of our results using self-reported chronic conditions. We used two measures for absolute SES: total household monthly expenditures on non-food goods and services and total household monthly expenditures on non-health goods and services. With refugee camp as a reference group, we measured a household's RD as a household's rank of absolute SES within the reference group, multiplied by the distance between its absolute SES and the average absolute SES of all households ranked above it. We investigated the robustness of the RD-SRH relationship using these two alternative measures of absolute SES. Our findings show that, controlling for absolute SES and other possible confounders, women report significantly poorer health when they live in households with a higher score on our RD measure (because of either lower relative rank or lower relative SES compared to households better off in the reference group which we take to be the refugee camp). While RD is always significant as a determinant of SRH under a variety of specifications, absolute SES is not consistently significant. These findings persist when we use self-reported chronic conditions as our measure of health instead of SRH, suggesting that the relationship between health and RD may be

  18. Acute effects of dynamic exercises on the relationship between the motor unit firing rate and the recruitment threshold.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ye, Xin; Beck, Travis W; DeFreitas, Jason M; Wages, Nathan P

    2015-04-01

    The aim of this study was to compare the acute effects of concentric versus eccentric exercise on motor control strategies. Fifteen men performed six sets of 10 repetitions of maximal concentric exercises or eccentric isokinetic exercises with their dominant elbow flexors on separate experimental visits. Before and after the exercise, maximal strength testing and submaximal trapezoid isometric contractions (40% of the maximal force) were performed. Both exercise conditions caused significant strength loss in the elbow flexors, but the loss was greater following the eccentric exercise (t=2.401, P=.031). The surface electromyographic signals obtained from the submaximal trapezoid isometric contractions were decomposed into individual motor unit action potential trains. For each submaximal trapezoid isometric contraction, the relationship between the average motor unit firing rate and the recruitment threshold was examined using linear regression analysis. In contrast to the concentric exercise, which did not cause significant changes in the mean linear slope coefficient and y-intercept of the linear regression line, the eccentric exercise resulted in a lower mean linear slope and an increased mean y-intercept, thereby indicating that increasing the firing rates of low-threshold motor units may be more important than recruiting high-threshold motor units to compensate for eccentric exercise-induced strength loss. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Heart rate variability and the relationship between trauma exposure age, and psychopathology in a post-conflict setting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liddell, Belinda J; Kemp, Andrew H; Steel, Zachary; Nickerson, Angela; Bryant, Richard A; Tam, Natalino; Tay, Alvin Kuowei; Silove, Derrick

    2016-05-10

    Cumulative exposure to potentially traumatic events (PTEs) increases risk for mental distress in conflict-affected settings, but the psychophysiological mechanisms that mediate this dose-response relationship are unknown. We investigated diminished heart rate variability (HRV) - an index of vagus nerve function and a robust predictor of emotion regulation capacity - as a vulnerability marker that potentially mediates the association between PTE exposure, age and symptoms of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), psychological distress and aggressive behavior, in a community sample from Timor-Leste - a post-conflict country with a history of mass violence. Resting state heart rate data was recorded from 45 cases of PTSD, depression and intermittent explosive disorder (IED); and 29 non-case controls. Resting HRV was significantly reduced in the combined case group compared with non-cases (p = .021; Cohen's d = 0.5). A significant mediation effect was also observed, whereby a sequence of increased age, reduced HRV and elevated PTSD symptoms mediated the association between PTE exposure and distress (B = .06, SE = .05, 95% CI = [.00-.217]) and aggression (B = .02, SE = .02, 95% CI = [.0003-.069])). The findings demonstrate an association between diminished resting HRV and psychopathology. Moreover, age-related HRV reductions emerged as a potential psychophysiological mechanism that underlies enhanced vulnerability to distress and aggression following cumulative PTE exposure.

  20. RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN CLIMATE VARIABLES, TRUNK GROWTH RATE AND WOOD DENSITY OF Eucalyptus grandis W. Mill ex Maiden TREES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Roberto Sette Jr

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Climatic conditions stimulates the cambial activity of plants, and cause significant changes in trunk diameter growth and wood characteristics. The objective of this study was to evaluate the influence of climate variables in the diameter growth rate of the stem and the wood density of Eucalyptus grandis trees in different classes of the basal area. A total of 25 Eucalyptus trees at 22 months of age were selected according to the basal area distribution. Dendrometer bands were installed at the height of 1.30 meters (DBH to monitor the diameter growth every 14 days, for 26 months. After measuring growth, the trees were felled and wood discs were removed at the DBH level to determine the radial density profile through x-ray microdensitometry and then re-scale the average values every 14 days. Climatic variables for the monitoring period were obtained and grouped every 14 days. The effect of the climate variables was determined by maximum and minimum growth periods in assessing trunk growth. These growth periods were related with precipitation, average temperature and relative air humidity. The re-scaled wood density values, calculated using the radial growth of the tree trunks measured accurately with steel dendrometers, enabled the determination of the relationship of small changes in wood density and the effect of the climatic variations and growth rate of eucalyptus tree trunks. A high sensitivity of the wood density to variation in precipitation levels was found.

  1. Relationship among salivary carbonic anhydrase VI activity and flow rate, biofilm pH and caries in primary dentition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frasseto, F; Parisotto, T M; Peres, R C R; Marques, M R; Line, S R P; Nobre Dos Santos, M

    2012-01-01

    This study aimed to determine the activity of carbonic anhydrase isoenzyme VI (CAVI) in the saliva of preschool children with caries and to investigate the relationship between caries and salivary CAVI activity, salivary flow rate and biofilm pH before and after a 20% sucrose rinse. Thirty preschool children aged 45.3-80.3 months were divided into two groups: a caries-free group and a caries group. Clinical examinations were conducted by one examiner (κ = 0.95) according to WHO criteria (dmfs) and early caries lesions. From each subject, CAVI activity, salivary flow rate and plaque pH were determined before and after a sucrose rinse. The results were submitted to Wilcoxon, Mann-Whitney and Spearman correlation tests (α = 0.05). The results showed that prerinse CAVI activity and its variation were higher in the saliva from caries children than from caries-free children. No difference was found between the two groups in postrinse salivary CAVI activity. After rinsing, biofilm pH differences were lower in both groups (p = 0.0012 and p = 0.0037 for the caries and caries-free groups, respectively). Also, after the sucrose rinse, salivary flow rate significantly increased in caries and caries-free groups (p = 0.0003, p = 0.0037). The variation of salivary CAVI activity was negatively correlated with caries (r = -0.501, p = 0.005). Child's age showed a positive correlation with caries (r = 0.456, p = 0.011). These results suggest that variation of salivary CAVI activity and child's age are associated with dental caries in preschool children. Copyright © 2012 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  2. Assessment of isometric muscle strength and rate of torque development with hand-held dynamometry: Test-retest reliability and relationship with gait velocity after stroke.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mentiplay, Benjamin F; Tan, Dawn; Williams, Gavin; Adair, Brooke; Pua, Yong-Hao; Bower, Kelly J; Clark, Ross A

    2018-04-27

    Isometric rate of torque development examines how quickly force can be exerted and may resemble everyday task demands more closely than isometric strength. Rate of torque development may provide further insight into the relationship between muscle function and gait following stroke. Aims of this study were to examine the test-retest reliability of hand-held dynamometry to measure isometric rate of torque development following stroke, to examine associations between strength and rate of torque development, and to compare the relationships of strength and rate of torque development to gait velocity. Sixty-three post-stroke adults participated (60 years, 34 male). Gait velocity was assessed using the fast-paced 10 m walk test. Isometric strength and rate of torque development of seven lower-limb muscle groups were assessed with hand-held dynamometry. Intraclass correlation coefficients were calculated for reliability and Spearman's rho correlations were calculated for associations. Regression analyses using partial F-tests were used to compare strength and rate of torque development in their relationship with gait velocity. Good to excellent reliability was shown for strength and rate of torque development (0.82-0.97). Strong associations were found between strength and rate of torque development (0.71-0.94). Despite high correlations between strength and rate of torque development, rate of torque development failed to provide significant value to regression models that already contained strength. Assessment of isometric rate of torque development with hand-held dynamometry is reliable following stroke, however isometric strength demonstrated greater relationships with gait velocity. Further research should examine the relationship between dynamic measures of muscle strength/torque and gait after stroke. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. The relationship between thermal sensation and the rate of hospital admissions for cardiovascular disease in Kermanshah, Iran

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohammadi, Bakhtiyar; Karimi, Shilan

    2017-11-01

    Climate and weather conditions are the most important factors that influence activities and human health. Bioclimatology/biometeorology are concerned with the study of weather effects on living creatures, including humans, plants, and animals. This research was prepared in order to understand the bioclimatic condition of Kermanshah and its relation to the level of hospital admissions of cardiovascular patients in this city. In addition to the climatic variables, the statistics on the number of daily admissions of cardiovascular patients in Kermanshah during March 27, 2009 to April 30, 2015 was prepared. First, Kermanshah's bioclimatic conditions were identified on a daily basis. Then, the relationship between each of the thermal sensations with the level of hospital admissions of cardiovascular patients in Kermanshah using Levene's test, univariate analysis of variance (ANOVA), Scheffe and Games-Howell post hoc tests was investigated. The results of this study showed that in each index, only very few bioclimatic conditions have had an impact on the increase of hospital admissions of cardiovascular diseases. For example, based on the equivalent temperature index (Tek or EqT), there is a significant relationship between extreme conditions and the rate of cardiovascular admissions. But, however, in the effective temperature index (TE), a significant correlation between warm/hot conditions and an increase in the number of cardiovascular admissions was seen. Based on the predicted mean vote (PMV) and physiological equivalent temperature (PET) indices, cool and cold conditions more than warm and comfort conditions have an effect on the number of hospital admissions of cardiovascular patients. Overall, the obtained results showed that the extreme climatic conditions were directly related to an increase in cardiovascular disease in Kermanshah.

  4. Trends in child overweight rates and energy intake in France from 1999 to 2007: relationships with socioeconomic status.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lioret, Sandrine; Touvier, M; Dubuisson, C; Dufour, A; Calamassi-Tran, G; Lafay, L; Volatier, J-L; Maire, B

    2009-05-01

    Our objectives were (i) to assess the current prevalence of childhood overweight (including obesity) (OWOB) in France and its relationship with comprehensive socioeconomic status (SES) indicators and (ii) to examine trends in OWOB prevalence and changes in energy intake (EI) and sedentary behavior (SED) based on the previous INCA 1 (Individuelle Nationale des Consommations Alimentaires) data (1998-1999). A representative sample of children aged 3-14 (n = 1,030) was taken from the 2006-2007 cross-sectional INCA 2 food consumption survey. Weight and height were measured. The prevalence of OWOB was estimated according to the IOTF (International Obesity Task Force) definition. Average daily EI was evaluated using a 7-day food record. SED (screen time) and SES were reported by answering questionnaires. SES indicators included the occupation and level of education of the head of the household (HH), and variables describing household wealth. Composite indices of SES were computed by correspondence analysis, and relationships with OWOB were explored by logistic regression analysis. In total, 14.5% (95% CI: 12.1-17.0) of the children were OWOB. All SES indicators were inversely correlated to OWOB. Average EI was equal to 1,739 kcal/day. Daily, children spent 113.5 min watching television, and 38.5 min playing video games or using a computer. Compared to the INCA 1 study, OWOB prevalence was not significantly different, EI was lower, and SED was higher. These trends were the same across all occupational categories of heads of household. Although overall rates of childhood OWOB are currently stabilizing, no change was observed in the strong inverse socioeconomic gradient of OWOB between the two studies.

  5. Functional evaluation of hydronephrosis by diffusion-weighted MR imaging: Relationship between apparent diffusion coefficient and split glomerular filtration rate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Toyoshima, S.; Noguchi, K.; Seto, H.; Shimizu, M.; Watanabe, N.

    2000-01-01

    To determine the relationship between apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) values measured by diffusion-weighted MR imaging and split renal function determined by renal scintigraphy in patients with hydronephrosis. Material and Methods: Diffusion-weighted imaging on a 1.5 T MR unit and renal scintigraphy were performed in 36 patients with hydronephrosis (45 hydronephrotic kidneys, 21 non-hydronephrotic kidneys). ADC values of the individual kidneys were measured by diffusion-weighted MR imaging. Split renal function (glomerular filtration rate (GFR)) was determined by renal scintigraphy using 99m Tc-DTPA. The relationship between ADC values and split GFR was examined in 66 kidneys. The hydronephrotic kidneys were further classified into three groups (severe renal dysfunction, GFR 25 ml/min, n=28), and mean values for ADCs were calculated. Results: In hydronephrotic kidneys, there was a moderate positive correlation between ADC values and split GFR (R2=0.56). On the other hand, in non-hydronephrotic kidneys, poor correlation between ADC values and split GFR was observed (R2=0.08). The mean values for ADCs of the dysfunctioning hydronephrotic kidneys (severe renal dysfunction, 1.32x10 -3 ±0.18x10 -3 mm 2 /s; moderate renal dysfunction, 1.38x10 -3 ±0.10x10 -3 mm2/s) were significantly lower than that of the normal functioning hydronephrotic kidneys (1.63x10 -3 ±0.12±10 -3 mm 2 /s). Conclusion: These results indicated that measurement of ADC values by diffusion-weighted MR imaging has a potential value in the evaluation of the functional status of hydronephrotic kidneys

  6. Examining the Relationship between Heart Rate and Problem Behavior: A Case Study of Severe Skin Picking in Prader-Willi Syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, Scott S.; Hammond, Jennifer L.; Hustyi, Kristin M.

    2013-01-01

    Few studies have examined the relationship between heart rate and self-injurious behavior (SIB) shown by individuals with IDD (intellectual and developmental disabilities). In this single-case study, we simultaneously monitored heart rate and activity levels during a functional analysis of severe skin picking behavior exhibited by a young man with…

  7. High Rates of Psychiatric Disorders and Below Normal Mental Capacity Associated With Spastic Peroneal Flatfoot: A New Relationship.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kılıçoğlu, Önder İsmet; Salduz, Ahmet; Birişik, Fevzi; Bilgili, Fuat; Polat, Gökhan; Kaya, İlyas; Süleyman, Funda; Coşkun, Murat

    Spastic peroneal flatfoot (SPFF) is a rare hindfoot pathology usually seen in the adolescent age group that is characterized by painful spasms in the peroneal muscles. We have clinically observed that patients with SPFF also have some behavioral and emotional difficulties and problems in their academic achievements. Because of these observations, we investigated the prevalence and patterns of psychiatric disorders and intellectual disability among young subjects with SPFF. Our cohort consisted of 16 patients with SPFF. Their mean age at presentation was 21 (range 13 to 31) years. Only 6 patients had a tarsal coalition as an underlying condition. The psychometric evaluation was conducted using validated instruments (Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children-revised form, Stanford Binet intelligence quotient [IQ] test, and Cattell IQ test). Psychiatric disorders were assessed using a semistructured diagnostic instrument (Schedule for Affective Disorders and Schizophrenia for School Age Children Present and Lifetime Version). The testers and psychiatrists were unaware of the orthopedic condition and the preliminary psychiatric diagnoses. The ethical committee approved the study protocol. The mean follow-up period was 41 (range 12 to 97) months. The mean IQ score of the patients was 75.1 ± 17.9 (range 52 to 107). Compared with the general population, the rate of intellectual disability was significantly greater (p = .0001) and the rate of normal intelligence significantly lower (p = .0015) in our patient group. Furthermore, according to the community schooling ratio, our cohort also had lower junior high and secondary education rates compared with the general population. The rate of most psychiatric disorders diagnosed in the SPFF patients was greater than that in the normal population. The most commonly identified psychiatric disorders were social phobia and attention deficit and hyperactivity disorder (75%). Timely interventions of the psychosocial and

  8. The Relationship Between Traumatic Brain Injury and Rates of Chronic Symptomatic Illness in 202 Gulf War Veterans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chao, Linda L

    2018-05-18

    Although not a "signature injury" of Operation Desert Shield/Desert Storm (i.e., Gulf War, GW), some GW veterans have a history traumatic brain injury (TBI). For example, a previous study found that 12.2% of the GW veterans from the Fort Devens Cohort Study had self-reported TBIs. The present study sought to build upon this finding by examining the relationship between TBI and chronic symptomatic illness in a different sample of GW veterans. Participants were 202 GW veterans recruited from 2014 to 2018 at the San Francisco Veterans Affairs Medical Center as part of a VA-funded study on the effects of predicted exposure to low levels of sarin and cyclosarin on brain structure and function. The Ohio State University TBI identification method was used to determine lifetime history of TBI. The Kansas Gulf War Military History and Health Questionnaire was used to assess symptoms and to determine cases of Kansas Gulf War Illness (GWI) and Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) Chronic Multisymptom Illness (CMI). Nearly half (47%) the sample had a history of TBI, but only 7% of the TBIs were sustained in injuries that occurred during the GW. Most of the TBIs were sustained in injuries that occurred prior to (73%) or after (34%) the GW. History of TBI was not associated with higher rates of symptomatic illness when it was narrowly defined (i.e., Kansas GWI cases or cases of severe CMI). History of TBI was only associated with higher rates of symptomatic illness when it is broadly defined (i.e., CDC CMI or mild-moderate CMI). There was suggestive evidence that veterans who sustained TBIs during the GW (only seven in the present sample) have poorer functional outcomes compared with GW veterans with non-GW related TBIs. While TBIs were uncommon during the GW, many GW veterans sustained TBIs prior or after the GW. Because TBI and GWI/CMI share some overlapping symptoms, history of TBI may appear to be associated with increased rates of chronic symptomatic illness in

  9. Relationships of feedlot feed efficiency, performance, and feeding behavior with metabolic rate, methane production, and energy partitioning in beef cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nkrumah, J D; Okine, E K; Mathison, G W; Schmid, K; Li, C; Basarab, J A; Price, M A; Wang, Z; Moore, S S

    2006-01-01

    Residual feed intake (RFI) is the difference between the actual and expected feed intake of an animal based on its BW and growth rate over a specified period. The biological mechanisms underlying the variation in feed efficiency in animals with similar BW and growth rate are not well understood. This study determined the relationship of feedlot feed efficiency, performance, and feeding behavior with digestion and energy partitioning of 27 steers. The steers were selected from a total of 306 animals based on their RFI following feedlot tests at the University of Alberta Kinsella Research Station. Selected steers were ranked into high RFI (RFI > 0.5 SD above the mean, n = 11), medium RFI (RFI +/- 0.5 SD above and below the mean, n = 8), and low RFI (RFI 0.10). Residual feed intake was correlated with daily methane production and energy lost as methane (r = 0.44; P < 0.05). Methane production was 28 and 24% less in low-RFI animals compared with high- and medium-RFI animals, respectively. Residual feed intake tended to be associated (P < 0.10) with apparent digestibilities of DM (r = -0.33) and CP (r = -0.34). The RFI of steers was correlated with DE (r = -0.41; P < 0.05), ME (r = -0.44; P < 0.05), heat production (HP; r = 0.68; P < 0.001), and retained energy (RE; r = -0.67; P < 0.001; energy values are expressed in kcal/kg of BW(0.75)). Feedlot partial efficiency of growth was correlated (P < 0.01) with methane production (r = -0.55), DE (r = 0.46), ME (r = 0.49), HP (r = -0.50), and RE (r = 0.62). With the exception of HP (r = 0.37; P < 0.05), feed conversion ratio was unrelated to the traits considered in the study. Feeding duration was correlated (P < 0.01) with apparent digestibility of DM (r = -0.55), CP (r = -0.47), methane production (r = 0.51), DE (r = -0.52), ME (r = -0.55), and RE (r = -0.60). These results have practical implications for the selection of animals that eat less at a similar BW and growth rate and for the environmental sustainability of beef

  10. Understanding causal associations between self-rated health and personal relationships in older adults: A review of evidence from longitudinal studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Craigs, Cheryl L; Twiddy, Maureen; Parker, Stuart G; West, Robert M

    2014-01-01

    As we age we experience many life changes in our health, personal relationships, work, or home life which can impact on other aspects of our life. There is compelling evidence that how we feel about our health influences, or is influenced by, the personal relationships we experience with friends and relatives. Currently the direction this association takes is unclear. To assess the level of published evidence available on causal links between self-rated health and personal relationships in older adults. MEDLINE, CINAHL, and PsycINFO searches from inception to June 2012 and hand searches of publication lists, reference lists and citations were used to identify primary studies utilizing longitudinal data to investigate self-rated health and personal relationships in older adults. Thirty-one articles were identified. Only three articles employed methods suitable to explore causal associations between changes in self-rated health and changes in personal relationships. Two of these articles suggested that widowhood leads to a reduction in self-rated health in the short term, while the remaining article suggested a causal relationship between self-rated health and negative emotional support from family or friends, but this was complex and mediated by self-esteem and sense of control. While there is an abundance of longitudinal aging cohorts available which can be used to investigate self-rated health and personal relationships over time the potential for these databases to be used to investigate causal associations is currently not being recognized. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Relationship between leukotriene-modifying agent prescriptions dispensed and rate of suicide deaths by county in the US

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Schumock GT

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Glen T Schumock1, Robert D Gibbons2, Todd A Lee1,3,4,6, Min J Joo4, Robert J Valuck5, Leslie T Stayner61Center for Pharmacoeconomic Research, and Department of Pharmacy Practice, College of Pharmacy, University of Illinois at Chicago, Chicago, IL, USA; 2Center for Health Statistics, and Departments of Medicine and Health Studies, Pritzker School of Medicine, University of Chicago, Chicago, IL, USA; 3Center for Management of Complex Chronic Care, Hines VA Hospital, Hines, IL, USA; 4Section of Pulmonary, Critical Care, Sleep and Allergy, Department of Medicine, College of Medicine, University of Illinois at Chicago, Chicago, IL, USA; 5Department of Clinical Pharmacy, School of Pharmacy, University of Colorado, Aurora, CO, USA; 6Division of Epidemiology and Biostatistics, School of Public Health, University of Illinois at Chicago, Chicago, IL, USABackground: The US Food and Drug Administration has issued warnings about a potential link between leukotriene receptor-modifying agents (LTMA and suicide. These warnings are based on case reports and there is controversy about the association. While spontaneous reporting of suicide-related events attributed to LTMA has risen dramatically, these data may be biased by the warnings. The objective of this study was to explore the relationship between LTMA and suicide deaths using event data preceding the Food and Drug Administration warnings.Methods: We conducted a mixed-effects Poisson regression analysis of the association between LTMA prescriptions dispensed and suicide deaths at the county level. Counts of suicide deaths in each US county, stratified by race, age group, gender, and year were obtained from the National Center for Health Statistics for the period January 1, 1999 to December 31, 2006. Counts of LTMA prescriptions dispensed in each US county were obtained from IMS Health Incorporated. The model estimated the overall suicide rate conditional on LTMA use, adjusted for age, gender, race, year

  12. Relationship between turnover rate and oxidation rate of alanine in the post-absorptive state and during parenteral nutrition before and after surgery

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sauerwein, H. P.; Michels, R. P.; Cejka, V.

    1985-01-01

    The influence of total parenteral nutrition and stomach resection on alanine turnover rate and alanine oxidation rate was measured in ten patients after single injection of U-14 C-alanine. Sequential studies were done in three patients. During parenteral nutrition alanine turnover was significantly

  13. The relationship between physical activity level and completion rate of small bowel examination in patients undergoing capsule endoscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shibuya, Tomoyoshi; Mori, Hiroki; Takeda, Tsutomu; Konishi, Masae; Fukuo, Yuka; Matsumoto, Kenshi; Beppu, Kazuko; Sakamoto, Naoto; Osada, Taro; Nagahara, Akihito; Otaka, Michiro; Ogihara, Tatsuo; Watanabe, Sumio

    2012-01-01

    Capsule endoscopy (CE) allows direct examination of the small bowel in a safe, noninvasive and well-tolerated manner. Nonetheless, experience indicates failure to reach the cecum in 20-30% of patients within the 8 hour battery life. Attempts to improve the completion rate (CR) as defined by reaching the cecum have been unsuccessful. This study was to investigate the relationship between patients' physical activity and CR. Between January 2009 and January 2010, 76 patients (44 men, 32 women; median age 64.5 yr) underwent CE for the diagnosis of small intestinal disorders. Indications for CE were obscure gastrointestinal bleeding/anemia (62 cases), others (14 cases). Patients were divided into an outpatient group (n=23), mild bed rest group (n=35) and strict bed rest group (n=18). For all patients, the average gastric transit time was 65.5 minutes, small bowel transit time was 301.4 minutes and the CR was 86.8%. However, the CR was 100% (23/23) in the outpatient group, an 85.7% (30/35) in the mild bed rest group, and 72.2% (13/18) in the strict bed rest group. The CR increased with physical activity of patients by Cochran-Armitage Trend Test (p=0.009). In multivariate logistic regression analyses, low physical activity was a significant risk factor for failure to reach the cecum during CE examination; adjusted OR: 3.39, 95% CI: 1.01-11.42 (p=0.048). Our observations suggested that increasing physical activity would increase the likelihood of a complete bowel examination by CE. Further, for CE, inconvenient bowel preparations like the use of polyethylene glycol may be avoided.

  14. Assessment of terrestrial gamma radiation dose rate (TGRD) of Kelantan State, Malaysia. Relationship between the geological formation and soil type to radiation dose rate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garba, N.N.; Gabdo, H.T.; Federal College of Education, Yola

    2014-01-01

    Terrestrial gamma radiation dose rates (TGRD) of Kelantan State were measured in situ using a portable [NaI(TI)] micro roentgen (μR) survey meter. The TGRD rates ranged between 44 and 500 nGy h -1 with a mean value of 209 ± 8 nGy h -1 . The distribution of these measurements in various districts of the state shows the statistically the influence of geology and soil types on the dose rate values. The data obtained could be used in formulating safety standard and radiological guidelines. (author)

  15. Whole body irradiation in paediatrics: in vivo dose heterogeneity and relationship with survival and the complications rate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Paoli, J.B.; Pignon, T.; Porcheron, D.; Juin, P.; Coze, C.; Bernard, J.L.

    2000-01-01

    No relationship has been found between the in vivo measured dose and the survival, neither relationship between the measured dose and the toxicity. The only organ for which an inter patients heterogeneity has been found was the lung. The reduction of the lung radiation dose allows to avoid any interstitial pneumopathy, but is significantly associated to a shortening of the survival. (N.C.)

  16. Mothers' and fathers' ratings of family relationship quality: associations with preadolescent and adolescent anxiety and depressive symptoms in a clinical sample.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Queen, Alexander H; Stewart, Lindsay M; Ehrenreich-May, Jill; Pincus, Donna B

    2013-06-01

    This study examined the independent associations among three family relationship quality factors--cohesion, expressiveness, and conflict--with youth self-reported depressive and anxiety symptoms in a clinical sample of anxious and depressed youth. Ratings of family relationship quality were obtained through both mother and father report. The sample included families of 147 preadolescents and adolescents (56.6 % female; 89.8 % Caucasian), 11-18 years old (M = 13.64, SD = 1.98) assigned a principal diagnosis of an anxiety or depressive disorder. When controlling for age and concurrent anxiety symptoms, regression analyses revealed that for boys, both father- and mother-rated family cohesion predicted depressive symptoms. For girls, mother-rated family expressiveness and conflict predicted depressive symptoms. Youth anxiety symptoms were not significantly associated with any family relationship variables, controlling for concurrent depressive symptoms. Findings suggest that parent-rated family relationship factors may be more related to youth depressive than anxiety symptoms in this clinical sample. In addition, family cohesion, as perceived by parents, may be more related to boys' depression, whereas expressiveness and conflict (as rated by mothers) may be more related to girls' depression. Clinical implications and recommendations for future research are discussed.

  17. The relationship between the forward– and the realized spot exchange rate in South Africa / Petrus Marthinus Stephanus van Heerden

    OpenAIRE

    Van Heerden, Petrus Marthinus Stephanus

    2010-01-01

    The inability to effectively hedge against unfavourable exchange rate movements, using the current forward exchange rate as the only guideline, is a key inhibiting factor of international trade. Market participants use the current forward exchange rate quoted in the market to make decisions regarding future exchange rate changes. However, the current forward exchange rate is not solely determined by the interaction of demand and supply, but is also a mechanistic estimation, whi...

  18. Dose response relationship for unstable-type chromosome aberration rate of spleen cells from mice continuously exposed to low-dose-rate gamma-rays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tanaka, Kimio; Khoda, Atsushi; Ichinohe, Kazuaki; Oghiso, Yoichi

    2007-01-01

    It has been reported that people who are chronically exposed to radiation such as nuclear facility workers and medical radiologists have slightly higher incidences of chromosome aberrations than non-exposed people. However, chronological changes of chromosome aberration rates related to accumulated doses and dose-rates for low dose-rate radiation exposures have not been well studied. Precise analyses of human populations are quite limited because confounding factors influence the results. For this reason, animal experiments are important for analyses. Mice were continuously exposed to gamma-rays at 400 mGy/22 hr/day for 10 days, 20 mGy/22 hr/day for about 400 days, and 1 mGy/22 hr/day for about 615 days under SPF conditions. Chronological changes of unstable-type chromosome aberration rates of spleen cells were observed along with accumulated doses at the middle dose rate and the two low-dose rates by conventional Giemsa-staining method. Aberrations such as dicentric chromosome, ring chromosome and fragment increased in a two-phase manner within 0-1.2 Gy and 2-8 Gy at 20 mGy/22 hr/day. They slightly increased up to 0.5 Gy at 1 mGy/22 hr/day. Aberration rates for 1, 2, 8 Gy at the 20 mGy/22 hr/day and for 0.5 Gy at 1 mGy/22 hr/day were 5.1, 9.6, 13.9 and 2.2 times higher than those of age-matched, non-irradiated control mice, respectively. Chromosome aberration rates at 400 mGy/22 hr/day were 2.7 times higher than that of 20 mGy/22 hr/day for the same total dose of 1.2 Gy. The results that unstable-type chromosome aberrations increased with accumulated dose of the low-dose rate radiation will be important to establish biological dosimetry for people who are chronically exposed to radiation. (author)

  19. Variable food absorption by Antarctic krill: Relationships between diet, egestion rate and the composition and sinking rates of their fecal pellets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atkinson, A.; Schmidt, K.; Fielding, S.; Kawaguchi, S.; Geissler, P. A.

    2012-01-01

    The kinetics of food processing by zooplankton affects both their energy budgets and the biogeochemical fate of their fecal pellets. We sampled 40 schools of krill across the Scotia Sea during spring, summer and autumn and found that in all 3 seasons, every aspect of their absorption and defecation varied greatly. The C content of fecal pellets varied from 0.85% to 29% of their dry mass (median 9.8%) and C egestion rates varied 75-fold. C:N mass ratios of pellets ranged from 4.9 to 13.2 (median 7.8), higher than values of 3.9 in the krill and 5.4 in their food, pointing to enhanced uptake of N. Pellet sinking rates equated to 27-1218 m d -1 (median 304 m d -1), being governed mainly by pellet diameter (80-600 μm, mean 183 μm) and density (1.038-1.391 g cm -3, mean 1.121 g cm -3). Pellets showed little loss of C or N in filtered seawater over the first 2 days and were physically robust. When feeding rates were low, slow gut passage time and high absorption efficiency resulted in low egestion rates of pellets that were low in C and N content. These pellets were compact, dense and fast-sinking. Conversely, in good feeding conditions much food tended to pass quickly through the gut and was not efficiently absorbed, producing C and N-rich, slow-sinking pellets. Such "superfluous feeding" probably maximises the absolute rates of nutrient absorption. Food composition was also important: diatom-rich diets depressed the C content of the pellets but increased their sinking rates, likely due to silica ballasting. So depending on how krill process food, their pellets could represent both vehicles for rapid export and slow sinking, C and N-rich food sources for pelagic scavengers. C egestion rates by krill averaged 3.4% of summer primary production (and ingestion rates would be 2-10-fold higher than this) so whatever the fate of the pellets, krill are an important re-packager within the food web. While salp pellets tend to sink faster than those of krill, it is the latter

  20. Exploring the relationship between analgesic event rate and pain intensity in kidney stone surgery: A Repeated Time to Event Pilot Study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Juul, Rasmus Vestergaard; Pedersen, Katja Venborg; Christrup, Lona Louring

    III-60 Rasmus Juul Exploring the relationship between analgesic event rate and pain intensity in kidney stone surgery: A Repeated Time to Event Pilot Study RV Juul(1), KV Pedersen(2, 4), LL Christrup(1), AE Olesen(1, 3), AM Drewes(3), PJS Osther(4), TM Lund(1) 1) Department of Drug Design...... a relationship with pain intensity has not yet been established. The aim of this pilot study was to discuss how best to investigate the relationship between RTTE hazard of analgesic events and pain intensity in postoperative pain. Methods: Data was available from 44 patients undergoing kidney stone surgery......). Gompertz and exponential distribution models were evaluated. Post-hoc linear mixed effect modelling was performed between estimated RTTE hazard and observed NRS using the lme4 package in R (3). Results: A Gompertz distribution model adequately described data, with a baseline event rate of 0.64h-1 (RSE 25...

  1. The relationship between rate of administration of an intubating dose of rocuronium and time to 50% and 90% block at the adductor pollicis muscle

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    De Haes, A; Eleveld, DJ; Wierda, JMKH

    2000-01-01

    Objective. To determine the relationship between the rate of rocuronium injection and the onset time of neuromuscular block. Methods.After intravenous induction, 60 female patients (ASA I-II) were assigned randomly into 3 groups for rocuronium administration within 1-15, 15-30 or 30-60 seconds.

  2. An Analysis of the Relationship between Implementation of School-Wide Positive Behavior Interventions and Supports and High School Dropout Rates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freeman, Jennifer; Simonsen, Brandi; McCoach, D. Betsy; Sugai, George; Lombardi, Allison; Horner, Rob

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to explore the direct and indirect effects of SWPBIS on high school dropout rates. We used structural equation modeling methods to analyze the web of relationships among important high school level outcomes and SWPBIS in a large sample of high schools from 37 states. Results suggest that SWPBIS has statistically…

  3. The relationship between motor performance and parent-rated executive functioning in 3- to 5-year-old children: What is the role of confounding variables?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Houwen, Suzanne; van der Veer, Gerda; Visser, Jan; Cantell, Marja

    It is generally agreed that motor performance and executive functioning (EF) are intertwined. As the literature on this issue concerning preschool children is scarce, we examined the relationship between motor performance and parent-rated EF in a sample of 3- to 5-year-old children with different

  4. Weekly therapist ratings of the therapeutic relationship and patient introject during the course of dialectical behavioral therapy for the treatment of borderline personality disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bedics, Jamie D; Atkins, David C; Comtois, Katherine Anne; Linehan, Marsha M

    2012-06-01

    The purpose of the present study was to examine theory-driven hypotheses of the therapeutic relationship and patient introject in dialectical behavior therapy (DBT; Linehan, 1993) for the treatment of borderline personality disorder. A total of 14 DBT therapists provided weekly ratings of the therapeutic relationship and patient introject (N=41) during the course of a randomized controlled trial of DBT for the treatment of borderline personality disorder. Using hierarchical linear modeling (Raudenbush & Bryk, 2002), we tested four hypotheses of the therapeutic relationship as predicted by DBT and behavioral theory. Results supported three of our four predicted hypotheses of the therapeutic relationship, including the effective use of balancing autonomy and control in the therapeutic relationship, the importance of therapists' maintaining a nonpejorative stance toward the patient, and the use of therapist warmth and autonomy as a contingency for improved intrapsychic outcome. Results did not support a modeling hypothesis of the therapeutic relationship. The study supported a DBT and behavioral model of the therapeutic relationship from the perspective of the treating clinician. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved.

  5. A relationship between leach rate of nuclear waste glass and residual amount of sodium on the glass surface

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kamizono, Hiroshi; Banba, Tsunetaka

    1984-12-01

    Leach tests of simulated high-level waste glass were carried out in order to examine the quantitative relationship between the amount of elements on the sample surface and that in the leachate. An experimental equation was obtained expressing the relationship between the amount of Na on the sample surface and that in the leachate. This shows that it is possible in some cases to estimate the amount of Na in the leachate by measuring the amount of Na on the sample surface. One example of such an estimation was observed with the simulated high-level waste glass leached at 100 0 C in the presence of a backfill material. (author)

  6. Sense of coherence does not moderate the relationship between the perceived impact of stress on health and self-rated health in adults with congenital heart disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Apers, Silke; Sevenants, Lien; Budts, Werner; Luyckx, Koen; Moons, Philip

    2016-12-01

    Adults with congenital heart disease seem to be more distressed than their healthy counterparts, which might render them even more susceptible to developing detrimental health outcomes. Previous research has confirmed the relationship between the perceived impact of stress on health and self-rated health. However, it remains unknown whether sense of coherence, a person's capacity to cope with stressors, moderates this relationship. This cross-sectional study aims to explore: the relationship between demographic and clinical characteristics, sense of coherence, and the perceived impact of stress on health; the relationship between the perceived impact of stress on health and self-rated health; and the moderating effect of sense of coherence in a sample of adults with congenital heart disease. Patients were recruited from the database of congenital and structural cardiology of a university hospital. The analytic sample included 255 patients (median age 35 years; 50% men). Data were obtained using self-report questionnaires and through medical record view. Univariate analyses and multiple regression analysis were conducted. The perceived impact of stress on health was negatively associated with sense of coherence (Pstress on health and self-rated health were negatively associated (Prelationship. Our findings support the need for further research on the perceived impact of stress on health. Such insights can be valuable for developing interventions aimed at reducing the negative health consequences of stress in patients with congenital heart disease. © The European Society of Cardiology 2015.

  7. Relationship between salivary immunoglobulin a, lactoferrin and lysozyme flow rates and lifestyle factors in Japanese children: a cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ide, Momo; Saruta, Juri; To, Masahiro; Yamamoto, Yuko; Sugimoto, Masahiro; Fuchida, Shinya; Yokoyama, Mina; Kimoto, Shigenari; Tsukinoki, Keiichi

    2016-10-01

    The antimicrobial substances in saliva contribute to the maintenance of both oral health and overall health of the body. Therefore, the associations among immunoglobulin A (IgA), lactoferrin and lysozyme flow rates in the saliva of children, and their relationships with the physical attributes and lifestyle factors of children, were examined. Saliva was collected from 90 children who visited the Kanagawa Dental University Hospital Pediatric Dentistry, and questionnaires were completed by guardians. IgA, lactoferrin and lysozyme concentrations were measured in the saliva samples using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISAs). The IgA flow rate in saliva increased as age, height and weight increased. A correlation was found between lactoferrin and lysozyme flow rates. When the antimicrobial substance flow rates in the saliva were divided into two groups of 22 children each based on the highest and lowest quartiles, children with either a low or high IgA flow rate also had a high or low lactoferrin flow rate, respectively. The same pattern was observed for lactoferrin and lysozyme flow rates. There is a high probability that the IgA flow rate in the saliva of children reflects and corresponds to the developmental status of immune function as the child ages and increases in height and weight. The flow rates of lactoferrin and lysozyme were correlated in children. In addition, regarding lifestyle factors, the duration of sleep and lactoferrin flow rate were also related.

  8. Relationship of Total Motile Sperm Count and Percentage Motile Sperm to Successful Pregnancy Rates Following Intrauterine Insemination

    OpenAIRE

    Pasqualotto, Eleonora B.; Daitch, James A.; Hendin, Benjamin N.; Falcone, Tommaso; Thomas, Anthony J.; Nelson, David R.; Agarwal, Ashok

    1999-01-01

    Purpose:This study sought (i) to investigate the relationship between postwash total motile sperm count and postwash percentage motile sperm in predicting successful intrauterine insemination and (ii) to determine the minimal postwash total motile sperm count required to achieve pregnancy with intrauterine insemination.

  9. The Relationships among Teachers' Perceptions of Student Behaviour, Teachers' Characteristics, and Ratings of Students' Emotional and Behavioural Problems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liljequist, Laura; Renk, Kimberly

    2007-01-01

    This study examined the relationships among teachers' perceptions of students' behavioural problems and their own efficacy and psychological symptoms. Findings suggested that teachers were more bothered by externalising (i.e., acting out) than internalising (i.e., withdrawal, depression) behavioural problems in their students, and believed that…

  10. Relationship between rumen protozoal growth, intake of DM, TDN, N, DOM and VFA production rate in buffalo calves

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Verma, D.N.; Singh, U.B.

    1981-01-01

    Relationships between in vivo rumen protozoal growth and intakes of dry matter (DM), nitrogen, digestible organic matter (DOM), total digestible nutrients (TDN) and volatile fatty acid (VFA) production have been studied. Isotope dilution technique and 14 C-labelled rumen protozoa were used in the studies. (author)

  11. Evaluation of the relationship and postoperative glomerular filtration rate between the living donor and the recipients in kidney transplantation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guang-Heng Chen

    2017-12-01

    Conclusion: This study shows that the relationship of the donor to their recipient resulted in significant differences in the postoperative GFR and graft loss of the recipients. Recipients' kidneys donated from the spouse had the worst GFR compared to other groups.

  12. Leaf area index, biomass carbon and growth rate of radiata pine genetic types and relationships with LiDAR

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peter N. Beets; Stephen Reutebuch; Mark O. Kimberley; Graeme R. Oliver; Stephen H. Pearce; Robert J. McGaughey

    2011-01-01

    Relationships between discrete-return light detection and ranging (LiDAR) data and radiata pine leaf area index (LAI), stem volume, above ground carbon, and carbon sequestration were developed using 10 plots with directly measured biomass and leaf area data, and 36 plots with modelled carbon data. The plots included a range of genetic types established on north- and...

  13. Relationship between Credit Recovery Programs and Graduation Rates for At-Risk Students on the Navajo Indian Reservation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fahey, John M.

    2010-01-01

    Low graduation rates of high school students are a problem for the Native American community. One possible solution for low graduation rates is a credit recovery program that may assist Native American students to recover credit not earned in their early high school years. The purpose of this study was to examine the effectiveness of a credit…

  14. RELATIONSHIPS BETWEEN PLANT-DENSITY, OUTCROSSING RATES AND SEED SET IN NATURAL AND EXPERIMENTAL POPULATIONS OF SCABIOSA-COLUMBARIA

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    VANTREUREN, R; BIJLSMA, R; OUBORG, NJ; KWAK, MM

    Outcrossing rates were estimated in both natural and experimental populations of Scabiosa columbaria, a self-compatible, entomophilous, gynodioecious, protandrous perennial. In natural populations, estimates of the outcrossing rate in hermaphrodites were near to one and ranged from 0.84 +/- 0.07 to

  15. Nuclear reactor component populations, reliability data bases, and their relationship to failure rate estimation and uncertainty analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martz, H.F.; Beckman, R.J.

    1981-12-01

    Probabilistic risk analyses are used to assess the risks inherent in the operation of existing and proposed nuclear power reactors. In performing such risk analyses the failure rates of various components which are used in a variety of reactor systems must be estimated. These failure rate estimates serve as input to fault trees and event trees used in the analyses. Component failure rate estimation is often based on relevant field failure data from different reliability data sources such as LERs, NPRDS, and the In-Plant Data Program. Various statistical data analysis and estimation methods have been proposed over the years to provide the required estimates of the component failure rates. This report discusses the basis and extent to which statistical methods can be used to obtain component failure rate estimates. The report is expository in nature and focuses on the general philosophical basis for such statistical methods. Various terms and concepts are defined and illustrated by means of numerous simple examples

  16. Relationships between high-stakes clinical skills exam scores and program director global competency ratings of first-year pediatric residents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erik E. Langenau

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Responding to mandates from the Accreditation Council for Graduate Medical Education (ACGME and American Osteopathic Association (AOA, residency programs have developed competency-based assessment tools. One such tool is the American College of Osteopathic Pediatricians (ACOP program directors’ annual report. High-stakes clinical skills licensing examinations, such as the Comprehensive Osteopathic Medical Licensing Examination Level 2-Performance Evaluation (COMLEX-USA Level 2-PE, also assess competency in several clinical domains.The purpose of this study is to investigate the relationships between program director competency ratings of first-year osteopathic residents in pediatrics and COMLEX-USA Level 2-PE scores from 2005 to 2009.The sample included all 94 pediatric first-year residents who took COMLEX-USA Level 2-PE and whose training was reviewed by the ACOP for approval of training between 2005 and 2009. Program director competency ratings and COMLEX-USA Level 2-PE scores (domain and component were merged and analyzed for relationships.Biomedical/biomechanical domain scores were positively correlated with overall program director competency ratings. Humanistic domain scores were not significantly correlated with overall program director competency ratings, but did show moderate correlation with ratings for interpersonal and communication skills. The six ACGME or seven AOA competencies assessed empirically by the ACOP program directors’ annual report could not be recovered by principal component analysis; instead, three factors were identified, accounting for 86% of the variance between competency ratings.A few significant correlations were noted between COMLEX-USA Level 2-PE scores and program director competency ratings. Exploring relationships between different clinical skills assessments is inherently difficult because of the heterogeneity of tools used and overlap of constructs within the AOA and ACGME core competencies.

  17. Relationships between high-stakes clinical skills exam scores and program director global competency ratings of first-year pediatric residents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Langenau, Erik E.; Pugliano, Gina; Roberts, William L.

    2011-01-01

    Background Responding to mandates from the Accreditation Council for Graduate Medical Education (ACGME) and American Osteopathic Association (AOA), residency programs have developed competency-based assessment tools. One such tool is the American College of Osteopathic Pediatricians (ACOP) program directors’ annual report. High-stakes clinical skills licensing examinations, such as the Comprehensive Osteopathic Medical Licensing Examination Level 2-Performance Evaluation (COMLEX-USA Level 2-PE), also assess competency in several clinical domains. Objective The purpose of this study is to investigate the relationships between program director competency ratings of first-year osteopathic residents in pediatrics and COMLEX-USA Level 2-PE scores from 2005 to 2009. Methods The sample included all 94 pediatric first-year residents who took COMLEX-USA Level 2-PE and whose training was reviewed by the ACOP for approval of training between 2005 and 2009. Program director competency ratings and COMLEX-USA Level 2-PE scores (domain and component) were merged and analyzed for relationships. Results Biomedical/biomechanical domain scores were positively correlated with overall program director competency ratings. Humanistic domain scores were not significantly correlated with overall program director competency ratings, but did show moderate correlation with ratings for interpersonal and communication skills. The six ACGME or seven AOA competencies assessed empirically by the ACOP program directors’ annual report could not be recovered by principal component analysis; instead, three factors were identified, accounting for 86% of the variance between competency ratings. Discussion A few significant correlations were noted between COMLEX-USA Level 2-PE scores and program director competency ratings. Exploring relationships between different clinical skills assessments is inherently difficult because of the heterogeneity of tools used and overlap of constructs within the AOA

  18. Barrios, ghettos, and residential racial composition: Examining the racial makeup of neighborhood profiles and their relationship to self-rated health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Booth, Jaime M; Teixeira, Samantha; Zuberi, Anita; Wallace, John M

    2018-01-01

    Racial/ethnic disparities in self-rated health persist and according to the social determinants of health framework, may be partially explained by residential context. The relationship between neighborhood factors and self-rated health has been examined in isolation but a more holistic approach is needed to understand how these factors may cluster together and how these neighborhood typologies relate to health. To address this gap, we conducted a latent profile analysis using data from the Chicago Community Adult Health Study (CCAHS; N = 2969 respondents in 342 neighborhood clusters) to identify neighborhood profiles, examined differences in neighborhood characteristics among the identified typologies and tested their relationship to self-rated health. Results indicated four distinct classes of neighborhoods that vary significantly on most neighborhood-level social determinants of health and can be defined by racial/ethnic composition and class. Residents in Hispanic, majority black disadvantaged, and majority black non-poor neighborhoods all had significantly poorer self-rated health when compared to majority white neighborhoods. The difference between black non-poor and white neighborhoods in self-rated health was not significant when controlling for individual race/ethnicity. The results indicate that neighborhood factors do cluster by race and class of the neighborhood and that this clustering is related to poorer self-rated health. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  19. Real-time relationship between PKA biochemical signal network dynamics and increased action potential firing rate in heart pacemaker cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yaniv, Yael; Ganesan, Ambhighainath; Yang, Dongmei; Ziman, Bruce D.; Lyashkov, Alexey E.; Levchenko, Andre; Zhang, Jin; Lakatta, Edward G.

    2015-01-01

    cAMP-PKA protein kinase is a key nodal signaling pathway that regulates a wide range of heart pacemaker cell functions. These functions are predicted to be involved in regulation of spontaneous action potential (AP) generation of these cells. Here we investigate if the kinetics and stoichiometry of increase in PKA activity match the increase in AP firing rate in response to β-adrenergic receptor (β-AR) stimulation or phosphodiesterase (PDE) inhibition, that alter the AP firing rate of heart sinoatrial pacemaker cells. In cultured adult rabbit pacemaker cells infected with an adenovirous expressing the FRET sensor AKAR3, the EC50 in response to graded increases in the intensity of β-AR stimulation (by Isoproterenol) the magnitude of the increases in PKA activity and the spontaneous AP firing rate were similar (0.4±0.1nM vs. 0.6±0.15nM, respectively). Moreover, the kinetics (t1/2) of the increases in PKA activity and spontaneous AP firing rate in response to β-AR stimulation or PDE inhibition were tightly linked. We characterized the system rate-limiting biochemical reactions by integrating these experimentally derived data into mechanistic-computational model. Model simulations predicted that phospholamban phosphorylation is a potent target of the increase in PKA activity that links to increase in spontaneous AP firing rate. In summary, the kinetics and stoichiometry of increases in PKA activity in response to a physiological (β-AR stimulation) or pharmacological (PDE inhibitor) stimuli match those of changes in the AP firing rate. Thus Ca2+-cAMP/PKA-dependent phosphorylation limits the rate and magnitude of increase in spontaneous AP firing rate. PMID:26241846

  20. Dose rate effect from the relationship between ICRU rectal dose and local control rate in intracavitary radiotherapy for carcinoma of the uterine cervix. Six fraction HDR and three-fraction LDR in three weeks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jingu, Kenichi; Akita, Yuzou; Ohmagari, Jyunichi

    2001-01-01

    The dose rate effect, low dose rate radiotherapy (LDR)/high dose rate radiotherapy (HDR), was calculated using the isoeffect ICRU rectal dose by intracavitary radiotherapy (ICRT) for uterine cervix cancer. The subjects analyzed consisted of 78 LDR and 74 HDR patients whose ICRU rectal dose could be calculated and whose local control as stage II/III cases could be evaluated. The point A dose in ICRT was 45-55 Gy/3 fractions/3 weeks for LDR and 30 Gy/6 fractions/3 weeks for HDR. The dose effect relationships associated with local control at each whole pelvis external radiation dose were calculated using the double integration method and Probit analysis, and the 50% and 90% local control ICRU rectal doses were calculated from this relationship. Finally, the dose rate effect LDR/HDR was determined from 50% and 90% local control doses. The dose rate effect calculated from the 50% local control dose was 1.24 and that from the 90% local control dose was 1.14. (author)

  1. Relationships demand-supply of water and the rate of water shortage as tools for evaluating water resources in Colombia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dominguez Calle, Efrain Antonio; Gonzalo Rivera, Hebert; Vanegas, Sarmiento Raquel; Moreno, Pedro

    2008-01-01

    This paper shows updated results about Colombian water resources and their requirements by the economic sectors. Water demand water availability relationship is used as a pressure index on water resources. This relationship is expressed through the water scarcity index, which applies constraints over water availability; due to the runoff temporal variability and to the low levels of water during the dry season each year and for each geographic region to characterize average and low runoff years. Different water availability scenarios were building. One for modal runoff values and another for 95 percents for 2025 also were prepared. To the results call our attention to problems caused by the concentration of high density settlements and the presence of economics sectors in regions with low water availability. The infrastructure lag for management of a scarce high variable and over pressured resources emerges as a key factor to avoid a looming crisis in the process of water management

  2. The relationship between facial skeletal class and expert-rated interpersonal skill: an epidemiological survey on young Italian adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tremolizzo Lucio

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The facial region plays a major role in determining physical attractiveness, so we assessed the hypothesis that the capability of successfully managing interpersonal relationships in young adults might be related to the facial skeletal class. Methods 1,014 young subjects applying to the Military Academy of Pozzuoli, Italy, were enrolled and the cephalometric evaluation was performed by calculating the angular relationships between skeletal points localized by the lateral cephalogram of the face, sorting the subjects in three groups corresponding to each major facial skeletal class. Concurrently, the subjects were evaluated by a team of psychiatrists administering the MMPI-2 test followed by a brief colloquium with each candidate, in order to identify those subjects characterized by low skills for managing interpersonal relationships. Results According to the psychiatric evaluation about 20% of the subjects were considered potentially unable to manage successfully interpersonal relationships (NS. Males displayed an about two-fold increased risk of being NS. No differences were shown in the distribution of the NS male subjects among the three different facial skeletal classes. On the other hand, NS females displayed a different distribution among the three facial skeletal classes, with a trend of about two-fold and four-fold, respectively, for those subjects belonging to classes II and III, respect to those belonging to class I. Conclusion Females may be more sensitive to physical factors determining beauty, such as the facial morphology certainly is. This finding appears to be interesting especially when thinking about possible orthodontic interventions, although further study is certainly needed to confirm these results.

  3. The relationship between facial skeletal class and expert-rated interpersonal skill: an epidemiological survey on young Italian adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Senna, Andrea; Abbenante, Domenico; Tremolizzo, Lucio; Campus, Guglielmo; Strohmenger, Laura

    2006-10-10

    The facial region plays a major role in determining physical attractiveness, so we assessed the hypothesis that the capability of successfully managing interpersonal relationships in young adults might be related to the facial skeletal class. 1,014 young subjects applying to the Military Academy of Pozzuoli, Italy, were enrolled and the cephalometric evaluation was performed by calculating the angular relationships between skeletal points localized by the lateral cephalogram of the face, sorting the subjects in three groups corresponding to each major facial skeletal class. Concurrently, the subjects were evaluated by a team of psychiatrists administering the MMPI-2 test followed by a brief colloquium with each candidate, in order to identify those subjects characterized by low skills for managing interpersonal relationships. According to the psychiatric evaluation about 20% of the subjects were considered potentially unable to manage successfully interpersonal relationships (NS). Males displayed an about two-fold increased risk of being NS. No differences were shown in the distribution of the NS male subjects among the three different facial skeletal classes. On the other hand, NS females displayed a different distribution among the three facial skeletal classes, with a trend of about two-fold and four-fold, respectively, for those subjects belonging to classes II and III, respect to those belonging to class I. Females may be more sensitive to physical factors determining beauty, such as the facial morphology certainly is. This finding appears to be interesting especially when thinking about possible orthodontic interventions, although further study is certainly needed to confirm these results.

  4. Work-related psychopathology: rates in different work activities and relationship between subjective perception of work distress and psychiatric disturbances.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nolfe, Giovanni; Mancini, Paola; Mancusi, Riccardo; Zontini, Gemma; Nolfe, Giuseppe

    2014-01-01

    The link between work distress and negative mental health outcome is an emergent topic in the scientific literature. The studies that evaluated the risk of work-related psychopathologies in the different job sectors have obtained so far controversial and inconclusive results. The identification, by means of standardized evaluation tools, of the work activities at higher risk of poor mental health is a relevant target for the occupational psychiatry and medicine. To evaluate the relationship between the psychosocial work conditions and work related psychiatric disturbances and to verify the relationship between the higher pathogenic effect of work and specific job activities. A six-month diagnostic trial was conducted on 234 patients (35.4% women and 64.6% men). Psychiatric diagnoses were according to DSM-IV criteria; anxious and depressive dimensions were studied by means of Hamilton-Anxiety-Scale and Hamilton Scale for Depression; psychosocial work environments and bio-psycho-social features were measured by Naples-Questionnaire of Work Distress. Groups with higher and lower work-related pathogenesis were compared and their distribution among specific job activities was evaluated. Mood disorders were strongly linked to negative work environment. Patients with severe bullying obtained higher scores on Hamilton-Anxiety-Scale and Hamilton Scale for Depression than those with lower work-pathogenesis. The highest scores on Naples-Questionnaire of Work Distress were related to mood disorders, to poorer bio-psycho-social functioning and to higher work etiology. No significant relationship between work activities and work-related psychopathologies was found. Workplace bullying is predictive of work-related psychiatric disturbances with more severe clinical features and bio-psycho-social consequences. No significant differences were found about the relationship between work-related psychopathologies and work activities.

  5. True Relationship Between Female Labor Force Participation and Total Fertility Rate: An Analysis of OECD Countries (Japanese)

    OpenAIRE

    YAMAGUCHI Kazuo

    2005-01-01

    Case studies on startups and preceding studies in Japan and abroad on entrepreneurs have frequently noted that entrepreneurs suffer financial constraints when they start a business. Based on these research findings, this paper analyzes exactly what kinds of entrepreneurs actually suffer particularly severe liquidity constraints. First I clarify the relationship between the amount of capital and the entrepreneur's attributes at the time of startup. This analysis illustrates that when controlle...

  6. On the relationship between visual magnitudes and gas and dust production rates in target comets to space missions

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Almeida, A. A.; Sanzovo, G. C.; Singh, P. D.; Misra, A.; Miguel Torres, R.; Boice, D. C.; Huebner, W. F.

    In this paper, we report the results of a cometary research, developed during the last 10 years by us, involving a criterious analysis of gas and dust production rates in comets directly associated to recent space missions. For the determination of the water release rates we use the framework of the semi-empirical model of observed visual magnitudes [Newburn Jr., R.L. A semi-empirical photometric theory of cometary gas and dust production. Application to P/Halley's production rates, ESA-SP 174, 3, 1981; de Almeida, A.A., Singh, P.D., Huebner, W.F. Water release rates, active areas, and minimum nuclear radius derived from visual magnitudes of comets - an application to Comet 46P/Wirtanen, Planet. Space Sci. 45, 681-692, 1997; Sanzovo, G.C., de Almeida, A.A., Misra, A. et al. Mass-loss rates, dust particle sizes, nuclear active areas and minimum nuclear radii of target comets for missions STARDUST and CONTOUR, MNRAS 326, 852-868, 2001.], which once obtained, were directly converted into gas production rates. In turn, the dust release rates were obtained using the photometric model for dust particles [Newburn Jr., R.L., Spinrad, H. Spectrophotometry of seventeen comets. II - the continuum, AJ 90, 2591-2608, 1985; de Freitas Pacheco, J.A., Landaberry, S.J.C., Singh, P.D. Spectrophotometric observations of the Comet Halley during the 1985-86 apparition, MNRAS 235, 457-464, 1988; Sanzovo, G.C., Singh, P.D., Huebner, W.F. Dust colors, dust release rates, and dust-to-gas ratios in the comae of six comets, A&AS 120, 301-311, 1996.]. We applied these models to seven target comets, chosen for space missions of "fly-by"/impact and rendezvous/landing.

  7. Self-rated health of primary care house officers and its relationship to psychological and spiritual well-being

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mueller Caroline V

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available Background The stress associated with residency training may place house officers at risk for poorer health. We sought to determine the level of self-reported health among resident physicians and to ascertain factors that are associated with their reported health. Methods A questionnaire was administered to house officers in 4 residency programs at a large Midwestern medical center. Self-rated health was determined by using a health rating scale (ranging from 0 = death to 100 = perfect health and a Likert scale (ranging from "poor" health to "excellent" health. Independent variables included demographics, residency program type, post-graduate year level, current rotation, depressive symptoms, religious affiliation, religiosity, religious coping, and spirituality. Results We collected data from 227 subjects (92% response rate. The overall mean (SD health rating score was 87 (10; range, 40–100, with only 4 (2% subjects reporting a score of 100; on the Likert scale, only 88 (39% reported excellent health. Lower health rating scores were significantly associated (P Conclusion Residents' self-rated health was poorer than might be expected in a cohort of relatively young physicians and was related to program type, depressive symptoms, and spiritual well-being. Future studies should examine whether treating depressive symptoms and attending to spiritual needs can improve the overall health and well-being of primary care house officers.

  8. Establishment and comparison of four constitutive relationships of PC/ABS from low to high uniaxial strain rates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Haitao; Zhang, Yun; Huang, Zhigao; Tang, Zhongbin; Wang, Yanpei; Zhou, Huamin

    2017-10-01

    The objective of this paper is to accurately predict the rate/temperature-dependent deformation of a polycarbonate (PC) and acrylonitrile-butadiene-styrene (ABS) blend at low, moderate, and high strain rates for various temperatures. Four constitutive models have been employed to predict stress-strain responses of PC/ABS under these conditions, including the DSGZ model, the original Mulliken-Boyce (M-B) model, the modified M-B model, and an adiabatic model named the Wang model. To more accurately capture the large deformation of PC/ABS under the high strain rate loading, the original M-B model is modified by allowing for the evolution of the internal shear strength. All of the four constitutive models above have been implemented in the finite element software ABAQUS/Explicit. A comparison of prediction accuracies of the four constitutive models over a wide range of strain rates and temperatures has been presented. The modified M-B model is observed to be more accurate in predicting the deformation of PC/ABS at high strain rates for various temperatures than the original M-B model, and the Wang model is demonstrated to be the most accurate in simulating the deformation of PC/ABS at low, moderate, and high strain rates for various temperatures.

  9. Relationship Between the Urine Flow Rate and Risk of Contrast-Induced Nephropathy After Emergent Percutaneous Coronary Intervention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yong; Lin, Lixia; Li, Yun; Li, Hualong; Wu, Deng-Xuan; Zhao, Jian-bin; Lian, Dan; Zhou, Yingling; Liu, Yuanhui; Ye, Piao; Ran, Peng; Duan, Chongyang; Chen, Shiqun; Chen, Pingyan; Xian, Ying; Chen, Jiyan; Tan, Ning

    2015-12-01

    A low urine flow rate is a marker of acute kidney injury. However, it is unclear whether a high urine flow rate is associated with a reduced risk of contrast-induced nephropathy (CIN) in high-risk patients. We conducted this study to evaluate the predictive value of the urine flow rate for the risk of CIN following emergent percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI). We prospectively examined 308 patients undergoing emergent PCI who provided consent. The predictive value of the 24-hour postprocedural urine flow rate, adjusted by weight (UR/W, mL/kg/h) and divided into quartiles, for the risk of CIN was assessed using multivariate logistic regression analysis. The cumulative incidence of CIN was 24.4%. In particular, CIN was observed in 29.5%, 19.5%, 16.7%, and 32.0% of cases in the UR/W quartile (Q)-1 (≤0.94  mL/kg/h), Q2 (0.94-1.30  mL/kg/h), Q3 (1.30-1.71  mL/kg/h), and Q4 (≥1.71  mL/kg/h), respectively. Moreover, in-hospital death was noted in 7.7%, 3.9%, 5.1%, and 5.3% of patients in Q1, Q2, Q3, and Q4, respectively. After adjusting for potential confounding predictors, multivariate analysis indicated that compared with the moderate urine flow rate quartiles (Q2 + Q3), a high urine flow rate (Q4) (odds ratio [OR], 2.69; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.27-5.68; P = 0.010) and low urine flow rate (Q1) (OR, 2.23; 95% CI, 1.03-4.82; P = 0.041) were significantly associated with an increased risk of CIN. Moreover, a moderate urine flow rate (0.94-1.71  mL/kg/h) was significantly associated with a decreased risk of mortality. Our data suggest that higher and lower urine flow rates were significantly associated with an increased risk of CIN after emergent PCI, and a moderate urine flow rate (0.94-1.71  mL/kg/h) may be associated with a decreased risk of CIN with a good long-term prognosis after emergent PCI.

  10. Relationship between pedestrian headform tests and injury and fatality rates in vehicle-to-pedestrian crashes in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mueller, Becky; Farmer, Charles; Jermakian, Jessica; Zuby, David

    2013-11-01

    Pedestrian protection evaluations have been developed to encourage vehicle front-end designs that mitigate the consequences of vehicle-to-pedestrian crashes. The European New Car Assessment Program (Euro NCAP) evaluates pedestrian head protection with impacts against vehicle hood, windshield, and A-pillars. The Global Technical Regulation No. 9 (GTR 9), being evaluated for U.S. regulation, limits head protection evaluations to impacts against vehicle hoods. The objective of this study was to compare results from pedestrian head impact testing to the real-world rates of fatal and incapacitating injuries in U.S. pedestrian crashes. Data from police reported pedestrian crashes in 14 states were used to calculate real-world fatal and in- capacitating injury rates for seven 2002-07 small cars. Rates were 2.17-4.04 per 100 pedestrians struck for fatal injuries and 10.45-15.35 for incapacitating injuries. Euro NCAP style pedestrian headform tests were conducted against windshield, A-pillar, and hoods of the study vehicles. When compared with pedestrian injury rates, the vehicles' Euro NCAP scores, ranging 5-10 points, showed strong negative correlations (-0.6) to injury rates, though none were statistically significant. Data from the headform impacts for each of the study vehicles were used to calculate that vehicle's predicted serious injury risk. The predicted risks from both the Euro NCAP and GTR 9 test zones showed high positive correlations with the pedestrian fatal and incapacitating injury rates, though few were statistically significant. Whether vehicle stiffness is evaluated on all components of vehicle front ends (Euro NCAP) or is limited to hoods (GTR 9), softer vehicle components correspond to a lower risk of fatality.

  11. Relationship of detection rate of PET cancer screening examinees and risk factors. Analysis of background of examinees

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shibata, Koji; Uno, Kimiichi; Arai, Masami; Matsuura, Masaaki; Yoshida, Teruhiko; Momose, Toshimitsu; Ohtomo, Kuni

    2011-01-01

    Positron emission tomography (PET) cancer screening is performed widely in Japan as opportunistic screening, but no study has focused on the correlation with various cancer risk factors and the seeking bias of examinees and cancer detection rate. Analyzing our large series of PET cancer screening data, correlations with cancer detection rates according to general cancer risk factors and PET detection survey were reviewed, and the selection bias of the medical examinees was determined. 19189 examinees who underwent PET cancer screening were enrolled. Using logistic-regression analysis, we analyzed correlations between smoking history/drinking history/cancer family history and detection rates of thyroid cancer/breast cancer/colorectal cancer/lung cancer, which are the main malignancies detected in PET cancer screening. In addition, we evaluated seeking bias of examinees, analyzing correlations between the presence of cancer risk factors and prior screening checkups at other institutions to our PET cancer screening using a matched case-control study. Cancer detection rates by FDG-PET were 1.17% (224/19189), being much higher than those of standard cancer mass screenings. In males, statistically significant correlations were seen between lung cancer and smoking, and between prostate cancer and a family history of prostate cancer, but not between the detection rates of three other types of cancer (thyroid cancer/lung cancer/colorectal cancer) and other cancer risk factors. In females, detection rates of four types of cancer (thyroid cancer/lung cancer/colorectal cancer/breast cancer) were significantly higher in the examinees without cancer risks, and subgroup analysis according to types of cancer did not indicate significant correlations either. The matched case-control study evaluating seeking bias indicated that a significant proportion of the examinees with cancer risks had undergone prior cancer screening at other institutions. Our study indicated that there was

  12. Cristal size distribution in metamorphic rocks: an example for the relationship between nucleation and growth rates with overstepping

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Homan, S. M.

    2003-01-01

    Crystal size distribution in metamorphic rocks provide fundamental information about crystal nucleation and growth rate, growth time and the degree of overstepping. Crystal size distribution data for garnet, saluretil, keynote, and and alusite crystals from the aureole demonstrate that the earliest formed of this minerals, garnet, has the highest population density and the shortest growth time. The last formed mineral, and alusite, has the lowest population density and longest growth time. keynote and saluretil have the similar population density and growth times intermediate between those of overstepping on the nucleation and growth rates of minerals during metamorphism

  13. Relationship between suicide rate and economic growth and stock market in the People’s Republic of China: 2004–2013

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yin, Honglei; Xu, Lin; Shao, Yechang; Li, Liping; Wan, Chengsong

    2016-01-01

    Objectives The objective of this study was to estimate the features of suicide rate and its association with economic development and stock market during the past decade in the People’s Republic of China. Methods Official data were gathered and analyzed in the People’s Republic of China during the period 2004–2013. Nationwide suicide rate was stratified by four year age-groups, sex, urban/rural areas, and regions (East, Central, and West). Annual economic indexes including gross domestic product (GDP) per capita and rural and urban income per capita were all adjusted for inflation. Variation coefficient of market index (VCMI) was also included as an economic index to measure the fluctuation of the stock market. Negative binomial regression was performed to examine the time trend of region-level suicide rates and effects of sex, age, urban/rural area, region, and economic index on the suicide rates. Results Suicide rates of each age-group, sex, urban/rural area, and region were generally decreased from 2004 to 2013, while annual GDP per capita and rural and urban income per capita were generally increased by year. VCMI fluctuated largely, which peaked around 2009 and decreased after that time. Negative binomial regression showed that the decreased suicide rate in East and Central rural areas was the main cause of the decrease in suicide rate in the People’s Republic of China. Suicide rate in the People’s Republic of China for the study period increased with age and was higher in rural than in urban area, higher in males than in females, and the highest in the Central region. When GDP per capita increased by 2,787 RMB, the suicide rate decreased by 0.498 times. VCMI showed no significant relationship with suicide rate in the negative binomial regression. Conclusion Suicide rate decreased in 2004–2013; varied among different age-groups, sex, urban/rural areas, and regions; and was negatively associated with the economic growth in the People’s Republic of

  14. Relationship between staff-reported culture change and occupancy rate and organizational commitment among nursing homes in South Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Minhong; Choi, Jae-Sung; Lim, Jinseop; Kim, Young Sun

    2013-04-01

    This study aims to examine culture change in nursing homes in South Korea and to identify the outcomes of culture change implementation. Data were taken from survey responses from 223 top- or mid-level staff among nursing homes in South Korea that were selected through a proportionate random-stratified sampling method from four regions nationwide. Culture change in nursing homes was operationalized by five person-directed care (PDC) constructs and three organizational environment constructs, and outcome quality was indicated by changes to occupancy rate and organizational commitment. After controlling for facility characteristics, the effect of staff-reported culture change on occupancy rate and organizational commitment was analyzed through the multiple-regression method. Consistent with previous research, this study revealed positive effects of culture change for nursing homes in South Korea. The study found that staff-reported culture change correlated with occupancy rate and organizational commitment. Given that culture change variables were significantly related to occupancy rate and organizational commitment, the findings of the study provide a persuasive argument that policies and/or programs to support culture change in nursing homes should be enhanced. Management-level workers in these facilities should have the skills and knowledge to foster more PDC and a more person-directed environment.

  15. A Study of the Relationship between Gender, Salary, and Student Ratings of Instruction at a Research University

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magel, Rhonda C.; Doetkott, Curt; Cao, Li

    2017-01-01

    Salary studies in the United States and some other countries show a gap between male and female faculty salaries in higher education that widens over time. The present study examines one possible explanation, particularly at research universities, by examining changes in faculty salaries in relation to student ratings of instruction. Student…

  16. The Relationship between Toxics Release Inventory Discharges and Mortality Rates in Rural and Urban Areas of the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hendryx, Michael; Fedorko, Evan

    2011-01-01

    Background: Potential environmental exposures from chemical manufacturing or industrial sites have not been well studied for rural populations. The current study examines whether chemical releases from facilities monitored through the Toxics Release Inventory (TRI) program are associated with population mortality rates for both rural and urban…

  17. Magma production rate along the Ninetyeast Ridge and its relationship to Indian plate motion and Kerguelen hot spot activity

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Sreejith, K.M.; Krishna, K.S.

    production rate along the Walvis Ridge in the Atlantic Ocean. The present study suggests that variations in the Indian plate motion and frequent ridge jumps have a major role in controlling the magma production, particularly on long-period cycles (~16 Myr...

  18. The Relationship between the Risk of a Change of the Interest Rate and the Age of Entrepreneurs among Slovak SMEs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sobeková Majková Monika

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Young entrepreneurs and start-up founders are considered to be a drivers of innovation which is an important element of knowledge economy and competitiveness of each country. But their early age could be perceived as a factor causing the increasing impact of the credit risk because young entrepreneurs usually have a short company history, weak capital power and a lack of the guarantees. The main objective of this paper is to bring scientific evidence that the age of the entrepreneur should be considered as a factor with the significant impact on one part of the credit risk of a company– the risk of a change of the interest rate. The research was carried out among 438 Slovak companies in 2016. Based on Pearson´s chi-square analysis of the results of our research, we bring statistical evidence that age has a significant impact on the ability of the company to protect the firm against the change of the interest rate. We also found out that there is dependence between the age of the owner and the opinion that SMEs in the other EU countries have better loan conditions, especially lower interest rates, than Slovak SMEs. Research findings indicate that young entrepreneurs have problems with obtaining capital and increasing interest rates and collaterals because of their higher risk profile. But effective state support of young and innovative companies through venture financing can lead to increasing global competitiveness of the Slovak Republic.

  19. Retrograde shear rate in formerly preeclamptic and healthy women before and after exercise training: relationship with endothelial function.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Scholten, R.R.; Spaanderman, M.E.A.; Green, D.J.; Hopman, M.T.E.; Thijssen, D.H.J.

    2014-01-01

    Blood flow patterns in conduit arteries characterized by high levels of retrograde shear stress can be detrimental for vascular health. In this study we examined whether retrograde shear rate and endothelial function are related in healthy and formerly preeclamptic (PE) women and whether this

  20. Initial ratings of different types of e-cigarettes and relationships between product appeal and nicotine delivery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hajek, Peter; Przulj, Dunja; Phillips-Waller, Anna; Anderson, Rebecca; McRobbie, Hayden

    2018-04-01

    Little is known about features of e-cigarettes (EC) that facilitate or hinder the switch from smoking to vaping. We tested eight brands of EC to determine how nicotine delivery and other product characteristics influence user's initial reactions. Fifteen vapers tested each product after overnight abstinence from both smoking and vaping. At each session, participant's vaped ad lib for 5 min. Blood samples were taken at baseline and at 2, 4, 6, 8, 10 and 30 min after starting vaping. Participants rated the products on a range of characteristics. The products tested included six 'cig-a-like' and two refillable products, one with variable voltage. We also tested participants' own EC. All products significantly reduced urges to smoke. Refillable products delivered more nicotine and received generally superior ratings in terms of craving relief, subjective nicotine delivery, throat hit and vapour production but in overall ratings, they were joined by a cig-a-like, Blu. Participants puffed more on low nicotine delivery products. Participants' estimates of nicotine delivery from different EC were closely linked to 'throat hit'. Nicotine delivery was less important in the initial product ratings than draw resistance, mouthpiece comfort and effects on reducing urge to smoke. All EC products reduced urges to smoke. Refillable products received generally more favourable ratings than 'cig-a-likes' with similar nicotine content. Perception of nicotine delivery was guided by throat sensations. Lower nicotine delivery was associated with more frequent puffing. The first impressions of EC products are guided less by nicotine delivery than by sensory signals.

  1. The relationship between working conditions and self-rated health among medical doctors: evidence from seven waves of the Medicine In Australia Balancing Employment and Life (Mabel) survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milner, Allison; Witt, Katrina; Spittal, Matthew J; Bismark, Marie; Graham, Melissa; LaMontagne, Anthony D

    2017-08-29

    Psychosocial job stressors, such as low control and high demands, have been found to influence the health and wellbeing of doctors. However, past research in this area has relied on cross-sectional data, which limits causal inferences about the influence of psychosocial job stressors on health. In this study, we examine this relationship longitudinally while also assessing whether the relationship between psychosocial job stressors and health is modified by gender. The data source was seven annual waves of the Medicine in Australia: Balancing Employment and Life (MABEL) survey. The outcome was self-rated health (measured using the SF-12), and key exposures reflected job control, job demands, work-life balance variables, employment arrangements, and aggression experienced at work. We used longitudinal fixed and random effects regression models to assess within and between-person changes in health. Excessive job demands, low job control, feelings of not being rewarded at work, and work-life imbalance were associated with higher within-person odds of poorer self-rated health. Gender differences were apparent. For female doctors, work arrangements and work-life imbalance were associated with poorer self-rated health whilst task-based job stressors were associated with poorer self-rated health in male doctors. These results suggest the importance of addressing adverse working environments among doctors. Not applicable.

  2. Establishing empirical relationships to predict porosity level and corrosion rate of atmospheric plasma-sprayed alumina coatings on AZ31B magnesium alloy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Thirumalaikumarasamy

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Plasma sprayed ceramic coatings are successfully used in many industrial applications, where high wear and corrosion resistance with thermal insulation are required. In this work, empirical relationships were developed to predict the porosity and corrosion rate of alumina coatings by incorporating independently controllable atmospheric plasma spray operational parameters (input power, stand-off distance and powder feed rate using response surface methodology (RSM. A central composite rotatable design with three factors and five levels was chosen to minimize the number of experimental conditions. Within the scope of the design space, the input power and the stand-off distance appeared to be the most significant two parameters affecting the responses among the three investigated process parameters. A linear regression relationship was also established between porosity and corrosion rate of the alumina coatings. Further, sensitivity analysis was carried out and compared with the relative impact of three process parameters on porosity level and corrosion rate to verify the measurement errors on the values of the uncertainty in estimated parameters.

  3. Variability of sea ice deformation rates in the Arctic and their relationship with basin-scale wind forcing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Herman

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The temporal variability of the moments of probability distribution functions (pdfs of total sea ice deformation rates in the Arctic is analyzed in the context of the basin-scale wind forcing acting on the ice. The pdfs are estimated for 594 satellite-derived sea ice deformation maps from 11 winter seasons between 1996/1997 and 2007/2008, provided by the RADARSAT Geophysical Processor System. The temporal scale analyzed equals 3 days. The moments of the pdfs, calculated for a range of spatial scales (12.5–900 km, have two dominating components of variability: a seasonal cycle, with deformation rates decreasing throughout winter towards a minimum in March; and a short-term, synoptic variability, strongly correlated with the area-averaged magnitude of the wind stress over the Arctic, estimated based on the NCEP-DOE Reanalysis-2 data (correlation coefficient of 0.71 for the mean deformation rate. Due to scaling properties of the moments, logarithms of higher moments are strongly correlated with the wind stress as well. Exceptions are observed only at small spatial scales, as a result of extreme deformation events, not directly associated with large-scale wind forcing. By repeating the analysis within regions of different sizes and locations, we show that the wind–ice deformation correlation is largest at the basin scale and decreases with decreasing size of the area of study. Finally, we suggest that a positive trend in seasonally averaged correlation between sea ice deformation rates and the wind forcing, present in the analyzed data, may be related to an observed decrease in the multi-year ice area in the Arctic, indicating possibly even stronger correlations in the future.

  4. Evaluation of relationships between growth rate, tree size, lignocellulose composition and enzymatic saccharification in interspecific Corymbia hybrids and parental taxa.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adam L Healey

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available In order for a lignocellulosic bioenergy feedstock to be considered sustainable, it must possess a high rate of growth to supply biomass for conversion. Despite the desirability of a fast growth rate for industrial application, it is unclear what effect growth rate has on biomass composition or saccharification. We characterized Klason lignin, glucan, and xylan content with response to growth in Corymbia interspecific F1 hybrid families (HF and parental species C. torelliana (CT and C. citriodora subspecies variegata (CCV and measured the effects on enzymatic hydrolysis from hydrothermally pretreated biomass. Analysis of biomass composition within Corymbia populations found similar amounts of Klason lignin content (19.7-21.3% among parental and hybrid populations, whereas glucan content was clearly distinguished within CCV (52% and HF148 (60% as compared to other populations (28-38%. Multiple linear regression indicates that biomass composition is significantly impacted by tree size measured at the same age, with Klason lignin content increasing with diameter breast height (DBH (+0.12% per cm DBH increase, and glucan and xylan typically decreasing per DBH cm increase (-0.7% and -0.3%, respectively. Polysaccharide content within CCV and HF-148 were not significantly affected by tree size. High-throughput enzymatic saccharification of hydrothermally pretreated biomass found significant differences among Corymbia populations for total glucose production from biomass, with parental CT and hybrids HF-148 and HF-51 generating the highest amounts of glucose (~180 mg/g biomass, respectively, with HF-51 undergoing the most efficient glucan-to-glucose conversion (74%. Based on growth rate, biomass composition, and further optimization of enzymatic saccharification yield, high production Corymbia hybrid trees are potentially suitable for fast-rotation bioenergy or biomaterial production.

  5. Evaluation of Relationships between Growth Rate, Tree Size, Lignocellulose Composition, and Enzymatic Saccharification in Interspecific Corymbia Hybrids and Parental Taxa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Healey, Adam L; Lee, David J; Lupoi, Jason S; Papa, Gabriella; Guenther, Joel M; Corno, Luca; Adani, Fabrizio; Singh, Seema; Simmons, Blake A; Henry, Robert J

    2016-01-01

    In order for a lignocellulosic bioenergy feedstock to be considered sustainable, it must possess a high rate of growth to supply biomass for conversion. Despite the desirability of a fast growth rate for industrial application, it is unclear what effect growth rate has on biomass composition or saccharification. We characterized Klason lignin, glucan, and xylan content with response to growth in Corymbia interspecific F1 hybrid families (HF) and parental species Corymbia torelliana and C. citriodora subspecies variegata and measured the effects on enzymatic hydrolysis from hydrothermally pretreated biomass. Analysis of biomass composition within Corymbia populations found similar amounts of Klason lignin content (19.7-21.3%) among parental and hybrid populations, whereas glucan content was clearly distinguished within C. citriodora subspecies variegata (52%) and HF148 (60%) as compared to other populations (28-38%). Multiple linear regression indicates that biomass composition is significantly impacted by tree size measured at the same age, with Klason lignin content increasing with diameter breast height (DBH) (+0.12% per cm DBH increase), and glucan and xylan typically decreasing per DBH cm increase (-0.7 and -0.3%, respectively). Polysaccharide content within C. citriodora subspecies variegata and HF-148 were not significantly affected by tree size. High-throughput enzymatic saccharification of hydrothermally pretreated biomass found significant differences among Corymbia populations for total glucose production from biomass, with parental Corymbia torelliana and hybrids HF-148 and HF-51 generating the highest amounts of glucose (~180 mg/g biomass, respectively), with HF-51 undergoing the most efficient glucan-to-glucose conversion (74%). Based on growth rate, biomass composition, and further optimization of enzymatic saccharification yield, high production Corymbia hybrid trees are potentially suitable for fast-rotation bioenergy or biomaterial production.

  6. Heart Rate Variability is a Moderating Factor in the Workload-Injury Relationship of Competitive CrossFit™ Athletes

    OpenAIRE

    Williams, Sean; Booton, Thomas; Watson, Matthew; Rowland, Daniel; Altini, Marco

    2017-01-01

    Heart rate variability (HRV) is a popular tool for monitoring training adaptation and readiness in athletes, but it also has the potential to indicate early signs of somatic tissue overload prior to the onset of pain or fully developed injury. Therefore, the aim of this study was to investigate the interaction between HRV, workloads, and risk of overuse problems in competitive CrossFit™ athletes. Daily resting HRV and workloads (duration × session-RPE) were recorded in six competitive CrossFi...

  7. Relationship Between the DSM-5 Anxious Distress Specifier and the Hamilton Depression Rating Scale Anxiety/Somatization Factor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zimmerman, Mark; Clark, Heather; McGonigal, Patrick; Harris, Lauren; Guzman Holst, Carolina; Martin, Jacob

    2018-02-01

    We examined the association between the Hamilton Depression Scale (HAMD) approach to classifying depressed patients into anxious and nonanxious subgroups and the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, 5th Edition (DSM-5) anxious distress specifier subtyping. Two hundred two depressed patients were interviewed with semistructured diagnostic interviews. Patients were rated on the 17-item HAMD and the Hamilton Anxiety Rating Scale and completed the Clinically Useful Anxiety Outcome Scale. Both approaches toward identifying anxiety in depressed patients resulted in most of the patients meeting the anxiety subtype. Both subtyping methods were significantly correlated with clinician-rated and self-report measures of anxiety, and scores on the anxiety scales were higher in the patients who met the anxious subtype. However, DSM-5 anxious distress subtyping was only marginally associated with the HAMD anxiety/somatization factor subtyping approach (k = 0.21), and dimensional scores were only moderately correlated (r = 0.50). These findings indicate that the DSM-5 and HAMD approaches toward identifying an anxious subtype of depression are not interchangeable.

  8. Relationship between oxygen uptake slow component and surface EMG during heavy exercise in humans: influence of pedal rate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vercruyssen, Fabrice; Missenard, Olivier; Brisswalter, Jeanick

    2009-08-01

    The aim of this study was to test the hypothesis that extreme pedal rates contributed to the slow component of oxygen uptake (VO(2) SC) in association with changes in surface electromyographic (sEMG) during heavy-cycle exercise. Eight male trained cyclists performed two square-wave transitions at 50 and 110 rpm at a work rate that would elicit a VO(2) corresponding to 50% of the difference between peak VO(2) and the ventilatory threshold. Pulmonary gas exchange was measured breath-by-breath and sEMG was obtained from the vastus lateralis and medialis muscles. Integrated EMG flow (QiEMG) and mean power frequency (MPF) were computed. The relative amplitude of the VO(2) SC was significantly higher during the 110-rpm bout (556+/-186 ml min(-1), Pexercise only during the 110-rpm bout and were associated with the greater amplitude of the VO(2) SC observed for this condition (Pmotor units recruitment pattern, muscle energy turnover and muscle temperature have been suggested to explain the different VO(2) SC to heavy pedal rate bouts.

  9. Relationships between the conception rate of estrus synchronization using estradiol benzoate and CIDR (progesterone) and other parameters in holstein lactating dairy cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miura, Hiroshi; Kotani, Satoko; Kohiruimaki, Masayuki; Ohtsuka, Hiromichi; Kikuchi, Motohiro; Ohnami, Yoji

    2008-06-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the relationships between conception rate and other parameters before estrus synchronization with a Controlled Internal Drug Release Device (CIDR) and estradiol benzoate (EB). In the estrus synchronization program, animals were injected with 2 mg EB and then received a CIDR. Seven days later, the CIDR was removed and the animals were given an injection of Prostaglandin F(2alpha). Twenty-four hours later, they received an injection of 1 mg EB, and they were artificially inseminated 24 h after that. This program was applied to 258 Holstein cows in Tohoku-machi (Aomori, Japan). Blood was collected at the beginning of the program, and the conception rate was determined about 40 days after insemination. The relationships among conception rate, blood biochemical values, age, body condition score and days in milk were statistically analyzed to determine better conditions for cow conception. The conception rate of the cows in the high progesterone group (more than 1 ng/ml, P(4)+) was significantly higher than that of the low progesterone group (less than 1 ng/ml, P(4)-; 47.9% vs. 28.6% Pconception group than in the non-conception group, and the same tendency was seen in the P(4)+ groups. Blood urea nitrogen (BUN), albumin (Alb), and total cholesterol (TChol) were significantly higher in the conception group compared with the non-conception group, but no with P(4) was observed. We concluded that 1) the conception rate of the P(4)- group was remarkably low, that 2) the low conception rate and low P(4) level was related to a low PL level and that 3) BUN, Alb and TChol were higher in the conception group, although no relation with P(4) was found.

  10. Understanding the relationship between the Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services' Hospital Compare star rating, surgical case volume, and short-term outcomes after major cancer surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaye, Deborah R; Norton, Edward C; Ellimoottil, Chad; Ye, Zaojun; Dupree, James M; Herrel, Lindsey A; Miller, David C

    2017-11-01

    Both the Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services' (CMS) Hospital Compare star rating and surgical case volume have been publicized as metrics that can help patients to identify high-quality hospitals for complex care such as cancer surgery. The current study evaluates the relationship between the CMS' star rating, surgical volume, and short-term outcomes after major cancer surgery. National Medicare data were used to evaluate the relationship between hospital star ratings and cancer surgery volume quintiles. Then, multilevel logistic regression models were fit to examine the association between cancer surgery outcomes and both star rankings and surgical volumes. Lastly, a graphical approach was used to compare how well star ratings and surgical volume predicted cancer surgery outcomes. This study identified 365,752 patients undergoing major cancer surgery for 1 of 9 cancer types at 2,550 hospitals. Star rating was not associated with surgical volume (P cancer surgery outcomes (mortality, complication rate, readmissions, and prolonged length of stay). The adjusted predicted probabilities for 5- and 1-star hospitals were 2.3% and 4.5% for mortality, 39% and 48% for complications, 10% and 15% for readmissions, and 8% and 16% for a prolonged length of stay, respectively. The adjusted predicted probabilities for hospitals with the highest and lowest quintile cancer surgery volumes were 2.7% and 5.8% for mortality, 41% and 55% for complications, 12.2% and 11.6% for readmissions, and 9.4% and 13% for a prolonged length of stay, respectively. Furthermore, surgical volume and the star rating were similarly associated with mortality and complications, whereas the star rating was more highly associated with readmissions and prolonged length of stay. In the absence of other information, these findings suggest that the star rating may be useful to patients when they are selecting a hospital for major cancer surgery. However, more research is needed before these ratings can

  11. Application of Overall Dynamic Body Acceleration as a Proxy for Estimating the Energy Expenditure of Grazing Farm Animals: Relationship with Heart Rate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miwa, Masafumi; Oishi, Kazato; Nakagawa, Yasuhiro; Maeno, Hiromichi; Anzai, Hiroki; Kumagai, Hajime; Okano, Kanji; Tobioka, Hisaya; Hirooka, Hiroyuki

    2015-01-01

    Estimating the energy expenditure of farm animals at pasture is important for efficient animal management. In recent years, an alternative technique for estimating energy expenditure by measuring body acceleration has been widely performed in wildlife and human studies, but the availability of the technique in farm animals has not yet been examined. In the present study, we tested the potential use of an acceleration index, overall dynamic body acceleration (ODBA), as a new proxy for estimating the energy expenditure of grazing farm animals (cattle, goats and sheep) at pasture with the simultaneous evaluation of a conventional proxy, heart rate. Body accelerations in three axes and heart rate for cows (n = 8, two breeds), goats (n = 6) and sheep (n = 5) were recorded, and the effect of ODBA calculated from the body accelerations on heart rate was analyzed. In addition, the effects of the two other activity indices, the number of steps and vectorial dynamic body acceleration (VeDBA), on heart rate were also investigated. The results of the comparison among three activity indices indicated that ODBA was the best predictor for heart rate. Although the relationship between ODBA and heart rate was different between the groups of species and breeds and between individuals (Panimals, and the results indicated that ODBA is a good proxy for estimating the energy expenditure of grazing farm animals across species and breeds. The utility and simplicity of the procedure with acceleration loggers could make the accelerometry technique a worthwhile option in field research and commercial farm use. PMID:26030931

  12. Observations of white-light flares in NOAA active region 11515: high occurrence rate and relationship with magnetic transients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Y. L.; Tian, H.; Zhang, M.; Ding, M. D.

    2018-06-01

    Aims: There are two goals in this study. One is to investigate how frequently white-light flares (WLFs) occur in a flare-productive active region (NOAA active region 11515). The other is to investigate the relationship between WLFs and magnetic transients (MTs). Methods: We used the high-cadence (45 s) full-disk continuum filtergrams and line-of-sight magnetograms taken by the Helioseismic and Magnetic Imager (HMI) on board the Solar Dynamics Observatory (SDO) to identify WLFs and MTs, respectively. Images taken by the Atmospheric Imaging Assembly (AIA) on board SDO were also used to show the flare morphology in the upper atmosphere. Results: We found at least 20 WLFs out of a total of 70 flares above C class (28.6%) in NOAA active region 11515 during its passage across the solar disk (E45°-W45°). Each of these WLFs occurred in a small region, with a short duration of about 5 min. The enhancement of the white-light continuum intensity is usually small, with an average enhancement of 8.1%. The 20 WLFs we observed were found along an unusual configuration of the magnetic field that was characterized by a narrow ribbon of negative field. Furthermore, the WLFs were found to be accompanied by MTs, with radical changes in magnetic field strength (or even a sign reversal) observed during the flare. In contrast, there is no obvious signature of MTs in the 50 flares without white-light enhancements. Conclusions: Our results suggest that WLFs occur much more frequently than previously thought, with most WLFs being fairly weak enhancements. This may explain why WLFs are reported rarely. Our observations also suggest that MTs and WLFs are closely related and appear cospatial and cotemporal, when considering HMI data. A greater enhancement of WL emission is often accompanied by a greater change in the line-of-sight component of the unsigned magnetic field. Considering the close relationship between MTs and WLFs, many previously reported flares with MTs may be WLFs. The movie

  13. Fetal heart rate patterns in neonatal hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy: relationship with early cerebral activity and neurodevelopmental outcome.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Murray, Deirdre M

    2009-09-01

    Despite widespread use of fetal heart rate monitoring, the timing of injury in hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy (HIE) remains unclear. Our aim was to examine fetal heart rate patterns during labor in infants with clinical and electroencephalographic (EEG) evidence of HIE and to relate these findings to neurodevelopmental outcome. Timing of onset of pathological cardiotocographs (CTGs) was determined in each case by two blinded reviewers and related to EEG grade at birth and neurological outcome at 24 months. CTGs were available in 35 infants with HIE (17 mild, 12 moderate, 6 severe on EEG). Admission CTGs were normal in 24\\/35 (69%), suspicious in 8\\/35 (23%), and pathological in 3\\/35 (8%). All CTGs developed nonreassuring features prior to delivery. Three patterns of fetal heart rate abnormalities were seen: group 1, abnormal CTGs on admission in 11\\/35 (31%); group 2, normal CTGs on admission with gradual deterioration to pathological in 20\\/35 cases (57%); and group 3, normal CTGs on admission with acute sentinel events in 4\\/35 (11.5%). The median (interquartile range) duration between the development of pathological CTGs and delivery was 145 (81, 221) minutes in group 2 and 22 (12, 28) minutes in group 3. There was no correlation between duration of pathological CTG trace and grade of encephalopathy (R = 0.09, P = 0.63) or neurological outcome (P = 0.75). However, the grade of encephalopathy was significantly worse in group 3 (P = 0.001), with a trend to worse outcomes. The majority of infants with HIE have normal CTG traces on admission but develop pathological CTG patterns within hours of delivery. More severe encephalopathy was associated with normal admission CTG and acute sentinel events shortly before delivery.

  14. Fetal heart rate patterns in neonatal hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy: relationship with early cerebral activity and neurodevelopmental outcome.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Murray, Deirdre M

    2012-01-31

    Despite widespread use of fetal heart rate monitoring, the timing of injury in hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy (HIE) remains unclear. Our aim was to examine fetal heart rate patterns during labor in infants with clinical and electroencephalographic (EEG) evidence of HIE and to relate these findings to neurodevelopmental outcome. Timing of onset of pathological cardiotocographs (CTGs) was determined in each case by two blinded reviewers and related to EEG grade at birth and neurological outcome at 24 months. CTGs were available in 35 infants with HIE (17 mild, 12 moderate, 6 severe on EEG). Admission CTGs were normal in 24\\/35 (69%), suspicious in 8\\/35 (23%), and pathological in 3\\/35 (8%). All CTGs developed nonreassuring features prior to delivery. Three patterns of fetal heart rate abnormalities were seen: group 1, abnormal CTGs on admission in 11\\/35 (31%); group 2, normal CTGs on admission with gradual deterioration to pathological in 20\\/35 cases (57%); and group 3, normal CTGs on admission with acute sentinel events in 4\\/35 (11.5%). The median (interquartile range) duration between the development of pathological CTGs and delivery was 145 (81, 221) minutes in group 2 and 22 (12, 28) minutes in group 3. There was no correlation between duration of pathological CTG trace and grade of encephalopathy (R = 0.09, P = 0.63) or neurological outcome (P = 0.75). However, the grade of encephalopathy was significantly worse in group 3 (P = 0.001), with a trend to worse outcomes. The majority of infants with HIE have normal CTG traces on admission but develop pathological CTG patterns within hours of delivery. More severe encephalopathy was associated with normal admission CTG and acute sentinel events shortly before delivery.

  15. The reciprocal relationship between participation in leisure activities and cognitive functioning: the moderating effect of self-rated literacy level.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lifshitz-Vahav, Hefziba; Shrira, Amit; Bodner, Ehud

    2017-05-01

    Participation in leisure activities is beneficial for cognitive functioning of older adults, but it is less known whether it is also beneficial for those with low basic cognitive level. This study examined the reciprocal relationship between participating in leisure activities and cognitive functioning among low and higher literacy level older adults. Respondents aged 60 years and older who participated in both first waves (2005-2006 and 2009-2010) of the Israeli component of the Survey of Health, Ageing and Retirement in Europe (SHARE-Israel) were divided into low (n = 139) and higher literacy level respondents (n = 714). They reported participation in leisure activities and completed measures of cognitive functioning at both waves. Cross-lagged models showed that participation in leisure activities predicted higher cognitive functioning four years later only among older adults with low literacy level. On the other hand, cognitive functioning predicted more participation in leisure activities four years later only among higher literacy level older adults. Participating in leisure activities may be especially beneficial to cognitive functioning among older adults with low literacy level, as their initial low cognitive level allows more room for cognitive improvement than among higher literacy level older adults. Public efforts aimed at increasing participation in leisure activities may therefore target particularly older adults with low basic cognitive level.

  16. The relationship between sleep time and self-rated health: an analysis based on Italian survey data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guido Citoni

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: a growing and broadly discussed literature has shown that the relationship between sleep duration and health is not linear. Not only are insomnia and insufficient sleep harmful to one’s health, but excessive sleep too is also not beneficial. This study tests the association between selfrated state of health and the duration and pattern of sleep: we discuss the losses and costs in terms of quality of life deriving from excessive sleep time.Methods: we use an ordered probit specification, applied to the Italian Survey on the Use of Time (sample of Italians aged fifteen and over who keep a diary for a working day.Results: we show that greater sleep duration is negatively correlated both with self-reported state of health and with self-reported health satisfaction, while respondents’ subjective perceptions of too much and too little sleep are associated with health conditions in the usual u-shaped way.Conclusions: the negative impact of long sleep on self-reported health is confirmed. However, the effect of short sleep on health conditions is positive, while a measure of decreasing sleep quality - comprising number of interruptions of sleep, insomnia and napping - is correlated to some extent with decreasing health. The public health consequences are still to be explored: the potential gains from sleep restriction are substantial, but little is known about the causal link or the risks. Further research is needed before taking policy decisions.

  17. An Empirical Study of the Fisher Effect and the Dynamic Relationship between Inflation and Interest Rate in Sri Lanka

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Navoda Dhananjika Edirisinghe

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Maintaining price stability is one of the primary objectives of monetary policy in any economy as price instability, particularly high inflation, will cause to reduce economic growth by reducing investments and productivity growth. Therefore, investigating the existence of Fisher Effect and Price Puzzle is a necessary requirement in order to understand the nature, extent and dynamics of effective monetary policies in Sri Lanka. The main objective of this study is to investigate the existence of short run and long run Fisher Effect and Price Puzzle in Sri Lanka. The results from co-integration technique, Error Correction Model (ECM which employed in the study suggest that in Sri Lanka, nominal interest rates fully adjust for expected inflation in long-run. But in short-run, a significant positive association between nominal interest rates and expected inflation is there with absence of full Fisher Effect. Moreover the analysis has been extended and identified the existence of the Price Puzzle both in a short run and long run. Therefore, changes in monetary instruments do not appear to be completely effective in meeting the goal of low inflation. In order to solve this problem what we can recommend is, Sri Lanka should move towards inflation-targeting monetary policy system.

  18. Skeletal blood flow, iliac histomorphometry, and strontium kinetics in osteoporosis: a relationship between blood flow and corrected apposition rate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reeve, J.; Arlot, M.; Wootton, R.; Edouard, C.; Tellez, M.; Hesp, R.; Green, J.R.; Meunier, P.J.

    1988-01-01

    In 20 untreated patients with idiopathic or postmenopausal osteoporosis, kinetic studies of skeletal blood flow (using 18 F) and bone turnover (using 85 Sr) were combined with dynamic histomorphometry performed on transiliac biopsies taken within 6 weeks of each other. In 8 patients the combined studies were repeated after treatment. A further 5 patients were studied only while receiving treatment. As expected, skeletal blood flow measured by 18 F correlated with an index of 85 Sr uptake into the exchangeable pools of bone. Additionally and independently, skeletal blood flow correlated with an index of the work rate of the osteoblasts in each multicellular unit of bone (the corrected apposition rate of Parfitt). These correlations were statistically significant in both the untreated patients (P less than 0.05) and the whole group (P less than 0.001). Further indices related to bone turnover at the level of the skeleton as a whole were significantly associated with skeletal blood flow only in the combined group

  19. Comorbid visual and cognitive impairment: relationship with disability status and self-rated health among older Singaporeans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitson, Heather E; Malhotra, Rahul; Chan, Angelique; Matchar, David B; Østbye, Truls

    2014-05-01

    The objective of this study was to examine the prevalence and consequences of coexisting vision and cognitive impairments in an Asian population. Data were collected from 4508 community-dwelling Singaporeans aged 60 years and older. Cognition was assessed by the Short Portable Mental Status Questionnaire whereas vision, disability, and self-rated health (SRH) were determined by self-report. Vision impairment was present in 902 (18.5%) participants and cognitive impairment in 835 (13.6%), with 232 (3.5%) participants experiencing both impairments. Persons with the comorbidity experienced higher odds of disability than persons with either single impairment. The association of vision impairment with SRH was stronger among women (odds ratio [OR] = 6.79, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 4.64-9.92) than among men (OR = 1.71, 95% CI = 1.21-2.41). Concurrent cognitive and vision impairment is prevalent in older Singaporeans and is associated with high rates of disability. Gender differences in vision-dependent roles may affect the patient-perceived impact of this comorbidity. © 2012 APJPH.

  20. Estimating radar reflectivity - snowfall rate relationships and their uncertainties over Antarctica by combining disdrometer and radar observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Souverijns, Niels; Gossart, Alexandra; Lhermitte, Stef; Gorodetskaya, Irina; Kneifel, Stefan; Maahn, Maximilian; Bliven, Francis; van Lipzig, Nicole

    2017-04-01

    The Antarctic Ice Sheet (AIS) is the largest ice body on earth, having a volume equivalent to 58.3 m global mean sea level rise. Precipitation is the dominant source term in the surface mass balance of the AIS. However, this quantity is not well constrained in both models and observations. Direct observations over the AIS are also not coherent, as they are sparse in space and time and acquisition techniques differ. As a result, precipitation observations stay mostly limited to continent-wide averages based on satellite radar observations. Snowfall rate (SR) at high temporal resolution can be derived from the ground-based radar effective reflectivity factor (Z) using information about snow particle size and shape. Here we present reflectivity snowfall rate relations (Z = aSRb) for the East Antarctic escarpment region using the measurements at the Princess Elisabeth (PE) station and an overview of their uncertainties. A novel technique is developed by combining an optical disdrometer (NASA's Precipitation Imaging Package; PIP) and a vertically pointing 24 GHz FMCW micro rain radar (Metek's MRR) in order to reduce the uncertainty in SR estimates. PIP is used to obtain information about snow particle characteristics and to get an estimate of Z, SR and the Z-SR relation. For PE, located 173 km inland, the relation equals Z = 18SR1.1. The prefactor (a) of the relation is sensitive to the median diameter of the particles. Larger particles, found closer to the coast, lead to an increase of the value of the prefactor. More inland locations, where smaller snow particles are found, obtain lower values for the prefactor. The exponent of the Z-SR relation (b) is insensitive to the median diameter of the snow particles. This dependence of the prefactor of the Z-SR relation to the particle size needs to be taken into account when converting radar reflectivities to snowfall rates over Antarctica. The uncertainty on the Z-SR relations is quantified using a bootstrapping approach

  1. Exploring the relationships among performance-based functional ability, self-rated disability, perceived instrumental support, and depression: a structural equation model analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weil, Joyce; Hutchinson, Susan R; Traxler, Karen

    2014-11-01

    Data from the Women's Health and Aging Study were used to test a model of factors explaining depressive symptomology. The primary purpose of the study was to explore the association between performance-based measures of functional ability and depression and to examine the role of self-rated physical difficulties and perceived instrumental support in mediating the relationship between performance-based functioning and depression. The inclusion of performance-based measures allows for the testing of functional ability as a clinical precursor to disability and depression: a critical, but rarely examined, association in the disablement process. Structural equation modeling supported the overall fit of the model and found an indirect relationship between performance-based functioning and depression, with perceived physical difficulties serving as a significant mediator. Our results highlight the complementary nature of performance-based and self-rated measures and the importance of including perception of self-rated physical difficulties when examining depression in older persons. © The Author(s) 2014.

  2. The relationship between dynamic and average flow rates of the coolant in the channels of complex shape

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fedoseev, V. N.; Pisarevsky, M. I.; Balberkina, Y. N.

    2018-01-01

    This paper presents interconnection of dynamic and average flow rates of the coolant in a channel of complex geometry that is a basis for a generalization model of experimental data on heat transfer in various porous structures. Formulas for calculation of heat transfer of fuel rods in transversal fluid flow are acquired with the use of the abovementioned model. It is shown that the model describes a marginal case of separated flows in twisting channels where coolant constantly changes its flow direction and mixes in the communicating channels with large intensity. Dynamic speed is suggested to be identified by power for pumping. The coefficient of proportionality in general case depends on the geometry of the channel and the Reynolds number (Re). A calculation formula of the coefficient of proportionality for the narrow line rod packages is provided. The paper presents a comparison of experimental data and calculated values, which shows usability of the suggested models and calculation formulas.

  3. Relationship between hospital ward design and healthcare-associated infection rates: a systematic review and meta-analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea Stiller

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The influence of the hospital’s infrastructure on healthcare-associated colonization and infection rates has thus far infrequently been examined. In this review we examine whether healthcare facility design is a contributing factor to multifaceted infection control strategies. Methods We searched PubMed/MEDLINE, EMBASE and Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL from 1990 to December 31st, 2015, with language restriction to English, Spanish, German and French. Results We identified three studies investigating accessibility of the location of the antiseptic hand rub dispenser. Each of them showed a significant improvement of hand hygiene compliance or agent consumption with the implementation of accessible dispensers near the patient bed. Nine eligible studies evaluated the impact of single-patient rooms on the acquisition of healthcare-associated colonization and infections in comparison to multi-bedrooms or an open ward design. Six of these studies showed a significant benefit of single-patient bedrooms in reducing the healthcare-associated colonization and infection rate, whereas three studies found that single-patient rooms are neither a protective nor risk factor. In meta-analyses, the overall risk ratio for acquisition of healthcare-associated colonization and infection was 0.55 (95% CI: 0.41 to 0.74, for healthcare-associated colonization 0.52 (95% CI: 0.32 to 0.85 and for bacteremia 0.64 (95% CI: 0.53 to 0.76, all in favor of patient care in single-patient bedrooms. Conclusion Implementation of single-patient rooms and easily accessible hand rub dispensers located near the patient’s bed are beneficial for infection control and are useful parts of a multifaceted strategy for reducing healthcare-associated colonization and infections.

  4. Relationships Between Base-Catalyzed Hydrolysis Rates or Glutathione Reactivity for Acrylates and Methacrylates and Their NMR Spectra or Heat of Formation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yoshinori Kadoma

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available The NMR chemical shift, i.e., the π-electron density of the double bond, of acrylates and methacrylates is related to the reactivity of their monomers. We investigated quantitative structure-property relationships (QSPRs between the base-catalyzed hydrolysis rate constants (k1 or the rate constant with glutathione (GSH (log kGSH for acrylates and methacrylates and the 13C NMR chemical shifts of their α,β-unsaturated carbonyl groups (δCα and δCβ or heat of formation (Hf calculated by the semi-empirical MO method. Reported data for the independent variables were employed. A significant linear relationship between k1 and δCβ, but not δCα, was obtained for methacrylates (r2 = 0.93, but not for acrylates. Also, a significant relationship between k1 and Hf was obtained for both acrylates and methacrylates (r2 = 0.89. By contrast, log kGSH for acrylates and methacrylates was linearly related to their δCβ (r2 = 0.99, but not to Hf. These findings indicate that the 13C NMR chemical shifts and calculated Hf values for acrylates and methacrylates could be valuable for estimating the hydrolysis rate constants and GSH reactivity of these compounds. Also, these data for monomers may be an important tool for examining mechanisms of reactivity.

  5. Relationship of long-term highly active antiretroviral therapy on salivary flow rate and CD4 Count among HIV-infected patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, J Vijay; Baghirath, P Venkat; Naishadham, P Parameswar; Suneetha, Sujai; Suneetha, Lavanya; Sreedevi, P

    2015-01-01

    To determine if long-term highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) therapy alters salivary flow rate and also to compare its relation of CD4 count with unstimulated and stimulated whole saliva. A cross-sectional study was performed on 150 individuals divided into three groups. Group I (50 human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) seropositive patients, but not on HAART therapy), Group II (50 HIV-infected subjects and on HAART for less than 3 years called short-term HAART), Group III (50 HIV-infected subjects and on HAART for more than or equal to 3 years called long-term HAART). Spitting method proposed by Navazesh and Kumar was used for the measurement of unstimulated and stimulated salivary flow rate. Chi-square test and analysis of variance (ANOVA) were used for statistical analysis. The mean CD4 count was 424.78 ± 187.03, 497.82 ± 206.11 and 537.6 ± 264.00 in the respective groups. Majority of the patients in all the groups had a CD4 count between 401 and 600. Both unstimulated and stimulated whole salivary (UWS and SWS) flow rates in Group I was found to be significantly higher than in Group II (P flow rate between Group II and III subjects were also found to be statistically significant (P relationship in Group II (P flow rates of HIV-infected individuals who are on long-term HAART.

  6. Relationship between linear and nonlinear dynamics of heart rate and impairment of lung function in COPD patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mazzuco A

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Adriana Mazzuco,1 Wladimir Musetti Medeiros,2 Milena Pelosi Rizk Sperling,1 Aline Soares de Souza,2 Maria Clara Noman Alencar,2 Flávio Ferlin Arbex,2 José Alberto Neder,2,3 Ross Arena,4 Audrey Borghi-Silva1 1Cardiopulmonary Physiotherapy Laboratory, Federal University of São Carlos, São Carlos, 2Pulmonary Function and Clinical Exercise Physiology Unit, Respiratory Division, Department of Medicine, Federal University of São Paulo, São Paulo, Brazil; 3Laboratory of Clinical Exercise Physiology, Division of Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine, Department of Medicine, Queen’s University, Kingston, ON, Canada; 4Department of Physical Therapy and Integrative Physiology Laboratory, College of Applied Health Sciences, University of Illinois Chicago, Chicago, IL, USA Background: In chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD, functional and structural impairment of lung function can negatively impact heart rate variability (HRV; however, it is unknown if static lung volumes and lung diffusion capacity negatively impacts HRV responses. We investigated whether impairment of static lung volumes and lung diffusion capacity could be related to HRV indices in patients with moderate to severe COPD. Methods: Sixteen sedentary males with COPD were enrolled in this study. Resting blood gases, static lung volumes, and lung diffusion capacity for carbon monoxide (DLCO were measured. The RR interval (RRi was registered in the supine, standing, and seated positions (10 minutes each and during 4 minutes of a respiratory sinus arrhythmia maneuver (M-RSA. Delta changes (Δsupine-standing and Δsupine-M-RSA of the standard deviation of normal RRi, low frequency (LF, normalized units [nu] and high frequency (HF [nu], SD1, SD2, alpha1, alpha2, and approximate entropy (ApEn indices were calculated. Results: HF, LF, SD1, SD2, and alpha1 deltas significantly correlated with forced expiratory volume in 1 second, DLCO, airway resistance, residual volume, inspiratory

  7. Evaluation of Relationships between Drilling Rate Index and Physical and Strength Properties of Selected Rock Units of Pakistan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shafique, U.; Abu Bakar, M. Z.

    2015-01-01

    Fifteen selected rock types collected from different formations of Pakistan were subjected to Drilling Rate Index (DRI) tests and various physical and strength properties tests including, porosity (n), density, primary wave velocity (V/sub p/), uniaxial compressive strength (sigma/sub c/), Brazilian tensile strength (sigma/sub t/) and Schmidt hammer rebound number (R/sub n/),. Prior knowledge of the drill ability of rocks and their physico-mechanical properties plays a decisive role in planning and design of rock drilling and excavation processes. DRI tests developed by NTNU/SINTEF are in use by the industry since 1960s and have proved very successful in estimation of the boreability of rocks, but no such work has been reported for Pakistani rocks to date. Reasonable correlations were found between the DRI and the properties of the tested rocks. The trends shown in this paper are of interest for the machine manufacturers and operators working on various projects involving the use of drilling machines and other mechanical excavators. (author)

  8. Early growth rates and their relationships to mortalities of five breeds of chickens following exposure to acute gamma radiation stress

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Latimer, B.E.; Brisbin, I.L. Jr.

    1987-01-01

    Growth and mortality responses were recorded for 541 chicks, representing five different breeds of chickens, following acute exposures to gamma radiation stress at two days of age. Although there were no statistically significant differences in the LD50/30 of the five breeds studied, Cobb broilers showed the highest (1580R) and White Leghorn bantams the lowest (980R) levels, respectively. Other breeds studied included the standard White Leghorn, Athens Randombreds and a strain of feral bantam. Growth rates of body weights were proportionately more depressed by radiation stress than were body sizes, as measured by the lengths of the culmen, tarsus, middle toe and longest primary wing feather of all 32 day-old survivors. Among these structures, the length of the culmen seemed to be the least affected by radiation stress in all of the breeds studied. Feral bantams were able to tolerate the greatest depression in weight gain before exhibiting mortality at exposures below their LD50/30' while Cobb broilers tolerated the greatest depression of weight gain at higher exposure levels. There was a suggestion that those characteristics which were strongly selected for in the course of a particular breed's development were those which experienced the greatest proportional depressions following exposure to gamma radiation stress

  9. Improving graduation rates for African Americans in drug court: Importance of human relationships and barriers to gaining and sustaining employment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallagher, John Robert; Nordberg, Anne; Dibley, Alyssa R

    2017-11-16

    Drug courts have been an important part of the criminal justice system since 1989. They continue to expand throughout the United States because nearly three decades of research has shown that they are more effective than other interventions, such as traditional probation. There is a pattern, though, in some drug courts where African Americans are less likely to graduate than their Caucasian counterparts. This qualitative study explores this phenomenon by asking African American participants (n = 31) their views on the most helpful aspects of drug court and how drug court could be more helpful in supporting them in graduating the program. Participants felt that the respect and compassion they received from the drug court judge and their case managers, as well as the camaraderie they developed with other participants, was an aspect of drug court that supported them in graduating the program. Next, participants felt that graduation rates would improve if drug court better supported them in gaining employment or sustaining the employment they already had. Implications for drug court practice are discussed.

  10. Sex differences in relative foot length and perceived attractiveness of female feet: relationships among anthropometry, physique, and preference ratings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voracek, Martin; Fisher, Maryanne L; Rupp, Barbara; Lucas, Deanna; Fessler, Daniel M T

    2007-06-01

    Foot size proportionate to stature is smaller in women than in men, and small feet apparently contribute to perceived physical attractiveness of females. This exploratory study investigated the sex difference in relative foot length and interrelations among foot length, physique, and foot preference ratings in samples from Austria and Canada, each comprised of 75 men and 75 women. The findings included the following lines of evidence: the sex difference in relative foot length replicated in both data sets; the magnitude of this sex effect was large. Relative foot length was smaller in young, nulliparous, and slim women. Pointed-toe and high-heel shoes were more likely worn by smaller, lighter, and slimmer women. Men reported liking women's feet in general more than vice versa. A vast majority of both men and women favored small feet in women, but large feet in men. One's own foot size appeared to correspond to evaluations of attractiveness; particularly, women with small feet preferred small feet in women in general. The preference for small feet in women was convergent across different methods of evaluating attractiveness. Directions for investigations in this emerging field of research on physical attractiveness are discussed.

  11. Application of overall dynamic body acceleration as a proxy for estimating the energy expenditure of grazing farm animals: relationship with heart rate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miwa, Masafumi; Oishi, Kazato; Nakagawa, Yasuhiro; Maeno, Hiromichi; Anzai, Hiroki; Kumagai, Hajime; Okano, Kanji; Tobioka, Hisaya; Hirooka, Hiroyuki

    2015-01-01

    Estimating the energy expenditure of farm animals at pasture is important for efficient animal management. In recent years, an alternative technique for estimating energy expenditure by measuring body acceleration has been widely performed in wildlife and human studies, but the availability of the technique in farm animals has not yet been examined. In the present study, we tested the potential use of an acceleration index, overall dynamic body acceleration (ODBA), as a new proxy for estimating the energy expenditure of grazing farm animals (cattle, goats and sheep) at pasture with the simultaneous evaluation of a conventional proxy, heart rate. Body accelerations in three axes and heart rate for cows (n = 8, two breeds), goats (n = 6) and sheep (n = 5) were recorded, and the effect of ODBA calculated from the body accelerations on heart rate was analyzed. In addition, the effects of the two other activity indices, the number of steps and vectorial dynamic body acceleration (VeDBA), on heart rate were also investigated. The results of the comparison among three activity indices indicated that ODBA was the best predictor for heart rate. Although the relationship between ODBA and heart rate was different between the groups of species and breeds and between individuals (Pheart rate (beats/min) = 147.263∙M-0.141 + 889.640∙M-0.179∙ODBA (g). Combining this equation with the previously reported energy expenditure per heartbeat, we estimated the energy expenditure of the tested animals, and the results indicated that ODBA is a good proxy for estimating the energy expenditure of grazing farm animals across species and breeds. The utility and simplicity of the procedure with acceleration loggers could make the accelerometry technique a worthwhile option in field research and commercial farm use.

  12. Investigation of the relationship between anxiety and heart rate variability in fibromyalgia: A new quantitative approach to evaluate anxiety level in fibromyalgia syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bilgin, Suleyman; Arslan, Evren; Elmas, Onur; Yildiz, Sedat; Colak, Omer H; Bilgin, Gurkan; Koyuncuoglu, Hasan Rifat; Akkus, Selami; Comlekci, Selcuk; Koklukaya, Etem

    2015-12-01

    Fibromyalgia syndrome (FMS) is identified by widespread musculoskeletal pain, sleep disturbance, nonrestorative sleep, fatigue, morning stiffness and anxiety. Anxiety is very common in Fibromyalgia and generally leads to a misdiagnosis. Self-rated Beck Anxiety Inventory (BAI) and doctor-rated Hamilton Anxiety Inventory (HAM-A) are frequently used by specialists to determine anxiety that accompanies fibromyalgia. However, these semi-quantitative anxiety tests are still subjective as the tests are scored using doctor-rated or self-rated scales. In this study, we investigated the relationship between heart rate variability (HRV) frequency subbands and anxiety tests. The study was conducted with 56 FMS patients and 34 healthy controls. BAI and HAM-A test scores were determined for each participant. ECG signals were then recruited and 71 HRV subbands were obtained from these ECG signals using Wavelet Packet Transform (WPT). The subbands and anxiety tests scores were analyzed and compared using multilayer perceptron neural networks (MLPNN). The results show that a HRV high frequency (HF) subband in the range of 0.15235Hz to 0.40235Hz, is correlated with BAI scores and another HRV HF subband, frequency range of 0.15235Hz to 0.28907Hz is correlated with HAM-A scores. The overall accuracy is 91.11% for HAM-A and 90% for BAI with MLPNN analysis. Doctor-rated or self-rated anxiety tests should be supported with quantitative and more objective methods. Our results show that the HRV parameters will be able to support the anxiety tests in the clinical evaluation of fibromyalgia. In other words, HRV parameters can potentially be used as an auxiliary diagnostic method in conjunction with anxiety tests. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Heart Rate Variability is a Moderating Factor in the Workload-Injury Relationship of Competitive CrossFit™ Athletes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sean Williams, Thomas Booton, Matthew Watson, Daniel Rowland, Marco Altini

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Heart rate variability (HRV is a popular tool for monitoring training adaptation and readiness in athletes, but it also has the potential to indicate early signs of somatic tissue overload prior to the onset of pain or fully developed injury. Therefore, the aim of this study was to investigate the interaction between HRV, workloads, and risk of overuse problems in competitive CrossFit™ athletes. Daily resting HRV and workloads (duration × session-RPE were recorded in six competitive CrossFit™ athletes across a 16 week period. The Oslo Sports Trauma Research Center Overuse Injury Questionnaire was distributed weekly by e-mail. Acute-to-chronic workload ratios (ACWR and the rolling 7-day average of the natural logarithm of the square root of the mean sum of the squared differences between R–R intervals (Ln rMSSDweek were parsed into tertiles (low, moderate/normal, and high based on within-individual z-scores. The interaction between Ln rMSSDweek and ACWR on overuse injury risk in the subsequent week was assessed using a generalized linear mixed-effects model and magnitude-based inferences. The risk of overuse problems was substantially increased when a ‘low’ Ln rMSSDweek was seen in combination with a ‘high’ ACWR (relative risk [RR]: 2.61, 90% CI: 1.38 – 4.93. In contrast, high ACWRs were well-tolerated when Ln rMSSDweek remained ‘normal’ or was ‘high’. Monitoring HRV trends alongside workloads may provide useful information on an athlete’s emerging global pattern to loading. HRV monitoring may therefore be used by practitioners to adjust and individualise training load prescriptions, in order to minimise overuse injury risk.

  14. Resting heart rate and its relationship with general and abdominal obesity in young male Saudi university students

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yar, T.

    2010-01-01

    An elevated resting heart rate (Rhr) has been linked with adverse cardiovascular outcomes. Obese people have altered autonomic balance that could lead to elevated Rhr and altered responses to postural changes. As no comparative data are available on Rhr in young normal weight (NW) and obese (OB) adults in Saudi Arabia, the present study was aimed at finding out the effect of adiposity on RHR and RHR response to change in posture. Methods: Second-year male students (n=231; age:19-20 years), were recruited from the Dammam University, Dammam, Saudi Arabia, during the period September 2008 to October 2009. Anthropometric measures were obtained and indices of obesity (body mass index [EMI], waist circumference [WC], waist-to-hip ratio [WHR], waist-to-stature ratio [WSR]) were calculated. RHR in standing and supine positions were obtained from radial pulse. Pearson's correlation (r) between obesity indices and RHR as well as the differences between RHR in NW and OB groups were calculated. Results: General obesity (BMI greater or equal to 25.0 kg/m1 was found in 45.5% students. Central obesity (WC>85 cm or WSR>50.0) was found in 36.8% students. RHR was significantly correlated with BMI, WC and WSR (r=O.305, 0.300, 0.299 respectively, p< O.01) . Subjects above the obesity indices cut-off points had significantly higher values of RHR in both standing and supine positions compared to NW individuals (p<0.05). There was a greater reduction in RHR on changing the posture to supine state in OB group. Conclusion: A significantly higher RHR and a greater change in RHR on changing the posture point towards an altered autonomic balance in OB group of young adolescent males. This underscores the need to implement health education program to combat obesity at school and college levels. (author)

  15. Relationship between visual prostate score (VPSS and maximum flow rate (Qmax in men with urinary tract symptoms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mazhar A. Memon

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Objective: To evaluate correlation between visual prostate score (VPSS and maximum flow rate (Qmax in men with lower urinary tract symptoms. Material and Methods: This is a cross sectional study conducted at a university Hospital. Sixty-seven adult male patients>50 years of age were enrolled in the study after signing an informed consent. Qmax and voided volume recorded at uroflowmetry graph and at the same time VPSS were assessed. The education level was assessed in various defined groups. Pearson correlation coefficient was computed for VPSS and Qmax. Results: Mean age was 66.1±10.1 years (median 68. The mean voided volume on uroflowmetry was 268±160mL (median 208 and the mean Qmax was 9.6±4.96mLs/sec (median 9.0. The mean VPSS score was 11.4±2.72 (11.0. In the univariate linear regression analysis there was strong negative (Pearson's correlation between VPSS and Qmax (r=848, p<0.001. In the multiple linear regression analyses there was a significant correlation between VPSS and Qmax (β-http://www.blogapaixonadosporviagens.com.br/p/caribe.html after adjusting the effect of age, voided volume (V.V and level of education. Multiple linear regression analysis done for independent variables and results showed that there was no significant correlation between the VPSS and independent factors including age (p=0.27, LOE (p=0.941 and V.V (p=0.082. Conclusion: There is a significant negative correlation between VPSS and Qmax. The VPSS can be used in lieu of IPSS score. Men even with limited educational background can complete VPSS without assistance.

  16. Impact toughness and microstructure relationship in niobium- and vanadium-microalloyed steels processed with varied cooling rates to similar yield strength

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shanmugam, S. [Center for Structural and Functional Materials and Department of Chemical Engineering, University of Louisiana at Lafayette, LA 70504-4130 (United States); Misra, R.D.K. [Center for Structural and Functional Materials and Department of Chemical Engineering, University of Louisiana at Lafayette, LA 70504-4130 (United States)]. E-mail: dmisra@louisiana.edu; Mannering, T. [Nucor-Yamato Steel, P.O. Box 1228, 5929 East State Highway 18, Blytheville, AR 72316 (United States); Panda, D. [Nucor-Yamato Steel, P.O. Box 1228, 5929 East State Highway 18, Blytheville, AR 72316 (United States); Jansto, S.G. [Reference Metals, 1000 Old Pond Road, Bridgeville, PA 15017 (United States)

    2006-11-15

    We describe here the relationship between microstructure and impact toughness behavior as a function of cooling rate for industrially processed Nb- and V-microalloyed steels of almost similar yield strength ({approx}60 ksi). Both Nb- and V-microalloyed steels exhibited increase in toughness with increase in cooling rates during processing. However, Nb-microalloyed steels were characterized by relatively higher toughness than the V-microalloyed steels under identical processing conditions. The microstructure of Nb- and V-microalloyed steels processed at conventional cooling rate, primarily consisted of polygonal ferrite-pearlite microconstituents, while Nb-microalloyed steels besides polygonal ferrite and pearlite contained significant fraction of degenerated pearlite. The microstructure of Nb- and V-microalloyed steels processed at relatively higher cooling rate contained degenerated pearlite and lath-type (acicular) ferrite in addition to the primary ferrite-pearlite constituents. The fraction of degenerated pearlite was higher in Nb-microalloyed steels than in the V-microalloyed steels. In both Nb- and V-microalloyed steels the precipitation characteristics were similar with precipitation occurring at grain boundaries, dislocations, and in the ferrite matrix. Fine-scale ({approx}5-10 nm) precipitation was observed in the ferrite matrix of both the steels. The selected area diffraction (SAD) pattern analysis revealed that these fine precipitates were MC type of niobium and vanadium carbides in the respective steels and followed Baker-Nutting orientation relationship with the ferrite matrix. The microstructural studies suggest that the increase in toughness of Nb-microalloyed steels is attributed to higher fraction of degenerated pearlite in the steel.

  17. Impact toughness and microstructure relationship in niobium- and vanadium-microalloyed steels processed with varied cooling rates to similar yield strength

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shanmugam, S.; Misra, R.D.K.; Mannering, T.; Panda, D.; Jansto, S.G.

    2006-01-01

    We describe here the relationship between microstructure and impact toughness behavior as a function of cooling rate for industrially processed Nb- and V-microalloyed steels of almost similar yield strength (∼60 ksi). Both Nb- and V-microalloyed steels exhibited increase in toughness with increase in cooling rates during processing. However, Nb-microalloyed steels were characterized by relatively higher toughness than the V-microalloyed steels under identical processing conditions. The microstructure of Nb- and V-microalloyed steels processed at conventional cooling rate, primarily consisted of polygonal ferrite-pearlite microconstituents, while Nb-microalloyed steels besides polygonal ferrite and pearlite contained significant fraction of degenerated pearlite. The microstructure of Nb- and V-microalloyed steels processed at relatively higher cooling rate contained degenerated pearlite and lath-type (acicular) ferrite in addition to the primary ferrite-pearlite constituents. The fraction of degenerated pearlite was higher in Nb-microalloyed steels than in the V-microalloyed steels. In both Nb- and V-microalloyed steels the precipitation characteristics were similar with precipitation occurring at grain boundaries, dislocations, and in the ferrite matrix. Fine-scale (∼5-10 nm) precipitation was observed in the ferrite matrix of both the steels. The selected area diffraction (SAD) pattern analysis revealed that these fine precipitates were MC type of niobium and vanadium carbides in the respective steels and followed Baker-Nutting orientation relationship with the ferrite matrix. The microstructural studies suggest that the increase in toughness of Nb-microalloyed steels is attributed to higher fraction of degenerated pearlite in the steel

  18. Heart Rate Variability is a Moderating Factor in the Workload-Injury Relationship of Competitive CrossFit™ Athletes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Sean; Booton, Thomas; Watson, Matthew; Rowland, Daniel; Altini, Marco

    2017-01-01

    Heart rate variability (HRV) is a popular tool for monitoring training adaptation and readiness in athletes, but it also has the potential to indicate early signs of somatic tissue overload prior to the onset of pain or fully developed injury. Therefore, the aim of this study was to investigate the interaction between HRV, workloads, and risk of overuse problems in competitive CrossFit™ athletes. Daily resting HRV and workloads (duration × session-RPE) were recorded in six competitive CrossFit™ athletes across a 16 week period. The Oslo Sports Trauma Research Center Overuse Injury Questionnaire was distributed weekly by e-mail. Acute-to-chronic workload ratios (ACWR) and the rolling 7-day average of the natural logarithm of the square root of the mean sum of the squared differences between R–R intervals (Ln rMSSDweek) were parsed into tertiles (low, moderate/normal, and high) based on within-individual z-scores. The interaction between Ln rMSSDweek and ACWR on overuse injury risk in the subsequent week was assessed using a generalized linear mixed-effects model and magnitude-based inferences. The risk of overuse problems was substantially increased when a ‘low’ Ln rMSSDweek was seen in combination with a ‘high’ ACWR (relative risk [RR]: 2.61, 90% CI: 1.38 – 4.93). In contrast, high ACWRs were well-tolerated when Ln rMSSDweek remained ‘normal’ or was ‘high’. Monitoring HRV trends alongside workloads may provide useful information on an athlete’s emerging global pattern to loading. HRV monitoring may therefore be used by practitioners to adjust and individualise training load prescriptions, in order to minimise overuse injury risk. Key points Reductions in HRV concurrent with workload spikes were associated with an increased risk of developing overuse problems. High workloads were well-tolerated when HRV trends remained ‘normal’ or ‘high’. HRV monitoring may therefore be used by practitioners to adjust and individualise training

  19. The relationship of temperature rise to specific absorption rate and current in the human leg for exposure to electromagnetic radiation in the high frequency band

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wainwright, P R

    2003-01-01

    Of the biological effects of human exposure to radiofrequency and microwave radiation, the best-established are those due to elevation of tissue temperature. To prevent harmful levels of heating, restrictions have been proposed on the specific absorption rate (SAR). However, the relationship between SAR and temperature rise is not an invariant, since not only the heat capacity but also the efficiency of heat dissipation varies between different tissues and exposure scenarios. For small enough SAR, the relationship is linear and may be characterized by a 'heating factor'. Under whole-body irradiation the SAR may be particularly high in the ankles due to the concentration of current flowing through a relatively small cross-sectional area. In a previous paper, the author has presented calculations of the SAR distribution in a human leg in the high frequency (HF) band. In this paper, the heating factor for this situation is derived using a finite element approximation of the Pennes bio-heat equation. The sensitivity of the results to different blood perfusion rates is investigated, and a simple local thermoregulatory model is applied. Both time-dependent and steady-state solutions are considered. Results confirm the appropriateness of the ICNIRP reference level of 100 mA on current through the leg, but suggest that at higher currents significant thermoregulatory adjustments to muscle blood flow will occur

  20. Examining the relationship between the prevalence of guns and homicide rates in the USA using a new and improved state-level gun ownership proxy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siegel, Michael; Ross, Craig S; King, Charles

    2014-12-01

    Determining the relationship between gun ownership levels and firearm homicide rates is critical to inform public health policy. Previous research has shown that state-level gun ownership, as measured by a widely used proxy, is positively associated with firearm homicide rates. A newly developed proxy measure that incorporates the hunting license rate in addition to the proportion of firearm suicides correlates more highly with state-level gun ownership. To corroborate previous research, we used this new proxy to estimate the association of state-level gun ownership with total, firearm, and non-firearm homicides. Using state-specific data for the years 1981-2010, we modelled these rates as a function of gun ownership level, controlling for potential confounding factors. We used a negative binomial regression model and accounted for clustering of observations among states. We found that state-level gun ownership as measured by the new proxy, is significantly associated with firearm and total homicides but not with non-firearm homicides. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

  1. Determining the Relationship between U.S. County-Level Adult Obesity Rate and Multiple Risk Factors by PLS Regression and SVM Modeling Approaches

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chau-Kuang Chen

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Data from the Center for Disease Control (CDC has shown that the obesity rate doubled among adults within the past two decades. This upsurge was the result of changes in human behavior and environment. Partial least squares (PLS regression and support vector machine (SVM models were conducted to determine the relationship between U.S. county-level adult obesity rate and multiple risk factors. The outcome variable was the adult obesity rate. The 23 risk factors were categorized into four domains of the social ecological model including biological/behavioral factor, socioeconomic status, food environment, and physical environment. Of the 23 risk factors related to adult obesity, the top eight significant risk factors with high normalized importance were identified including physical inactivity, natural amenity, percent of households receiving SNAP benefits, and percent of all restaurants being fast food. The study results were consistent with those in the literature. The study showed that adult obesity rate was influenced by biological/behavioral factor, socioeconomic status, food environment, and physical environment embedded in the social ecological theory. By analyzing multiple risk factors of obesity in the communities, may lead to the proposal of more comprehensive and integrated policies and intervention programs to solve the population-based problem.

  2. Oxygen and SO2 Consumption Rates in White and Rosé Wines: Relationship with and Effects on Wine Chemical Composition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carrascón, Vanesa; Bueno, Mónica; Fernandez-Zurbano, Purificación; Ferreira, Vicente

    2017-11-01

    This Article addresses the study of O 2 and SO 2 consumption rates of white and rosé wines, their relationship to the initial chemical composition, and their effects on the chemical changes experienced by wine during oxidation. Eight wines were subjected to five consecutive air-saturation cycles. O 2 was monitored periodically; SO 2 , color, and antioxidant indexes were determined after each cycle, and the initial and final compositions of the wines were thoroughly determined. Wines consumed oxygen at progressively decreasing rates. In the last cycles, after a strong decrease, consistent increases of oxygen levels were seen. Oxygen consumption rates were satisfactorily modeled, being proportional to wine copper, quercetin, and kaempherol contents and negatively proportional to cinnamic acids. SO 2 consumption rates were highly diverse between wines and were positively related to free SO 2 , Mn, and pH, among others. In the last saturations, SO 2 consumption took place regardless of O 2 consumption, implying that SO 2 should reduce chemical species oxidized in previous saturations. Some volatile phenols seem to be the end point of radical-mediated oxidation of polyphenols taking place preferably in the first saturation.

  3. A multi-group path analysis of the relationship between perceived racial discrimination and self-rated stress: how does it vary across racial/ethnic groups?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Tse-Chuan; Chen, Danhong

    2018-04-01

    The objective of this study was to answer three questions: (1) Is perceived discrimination adversely related to self-rated stress via the social capital and health care system distrust pathways? (2) Does the relationship between perceived discrimination and self-rated stress vary across race/ethnicity groups? and (3) Do the two pathways differ by one's race/ethnicity background? Using the Philadelphia Health Management Corporation's Southeastern Pennsylvania Household Survey, we classified 9831 respondents into 4 race/ethnicity groups: non-Hispanic White (n = 6621), non-Hispanic Black (n = 2359), Hispanic (n = 505), and non-Hispanic other races (n = 346). Structural equation modeling was employed to simultaneously estimate five sets of equations, including the confirmatory factor analysis for both social capital and health care distrust and both direct and indirect effects from perceived discrimination to self-rated stress. The key findings drawn from the analysis include the following: (1) in general, people who experienced racial discrimination have higher distrust and weaker social capital than those without perceived discrimination and both distrust and social capital are ultimately related to self-rated stress. (2) The direct relationship between perceived discrimination and self-rated stress is found for all race/ethnicity groups (except non-Hispanic other races) and it does not vary across groups. (3) The two pathways can be applied to non-Hispanic White and Black, but for Hispanic and non-Hispanic other races, we found little evidence for the social capital pathway. For non-Hispanic White, non-Hispanic Black, and Hispanic, perceived discrimination is negatively related to self-rated stress. This finding highlights the importance of reducing interpersonal discriminatory behavior even for non-Hispanic White. The health care system distrust pathway can be used to address the racial health disparity in stress as it holds true for all four race

  4. Pharmacometric Analysis of the Relationship Between Absolute Lymphocyte Count and Expanded Disability Status Scale and Relapse Rate, Efficacy End Points, in Multiple Sclerosis Trials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Novakovic, A M; Thorsted, A; Schindler, E; Jönsson, S; Munafo, A; Karlsson, M O

    2018-05-10

    The aim of this work was to assess the relationship between the absolute lymphocyte count (ALC), and disability (as measured by the Expanded Disability Status Scale [EDSS]) and occurrence of relapses, 2 efficacy endpoints, respectively, in patients with remitting-relasping multiple sclerosis. Data for ALC, EDSS, and relapse rate were available from 1319 patients receiving placebo and/or cladribine tablets. Pharmacodynamic models were developed to characterize the time course of the endpoints. ALC-related measures were then evaluated as predictors of the efficacy endpoints. EDSS data were best fitted by a model where the logit-linear disease progression is affected by the dynamics of ALC change from baseline. Relapse rate data were best described by the Weibull hazard function, and the ALC change from baseline was also found to be a significant predictor of time to relapse. Presented models have shown that once cladribine exposure driven ALC-derived measures are included in the model, the need for drug effect components is of less importance (EDSS) or disappears (relapse rate). This simplifies the models and theoretically makes them mechanism specific rather than drug specific. Having a reliable mechanism-specific model would allow leveraging historical data across compounds, to support decision making in drug development and possibly shorten the time to market. © 2018, The American College of Clinical Pharmacology.

  5. Health effects of low doses at low dose rates: dose-response relationship modeling in a cohort of workers of the nuclear industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Metz-Flamant, Camille

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this thesis is to contribute to a better understanding of the health effects of chronic external low doses of ionising radiation. This work is based on the French cohort of CEA-AREVA NC nuclear workers. The mains stages of this thesis were (1) conducting a review of epidemiological studies on nuclear workers, (2) completing the database and performing a descriptive analysis of the cohort, (3) quantifying risk by different statistical methods and (4) modelling the exposure-time-risk relationship. The cohort includes monitored workers employed more than one year between 1950 and 1994 at CEA or AREVA NC companies. Individual annual external exposure, history of work, vital status and causes of death were reconstructed for each worker. Standardized mortality ratios using French national mortality rates as external reference were computed. Exposure-risk analysis was conducted in the cohort using the linear excess relative risk model, based on both Poisson regression and Cox model. Time dependent modifying factors were investigated by adding an interaction term in the model or by using exposure time windows. The cohort includes 36, 769 workers, followed-up until age 60 in average. During the 1968- 2004 period, 5, 443 deaths, 2, 213 cancers, 62 leukemia and 1, 314 cardiovascular diseases were recorded. Among the 57% exposed workers, the mean cumulative dose was 21.5 milli-sieverts (mSv). A strong Healthy Worker Effect is observed in the cohort. Significant elevated risks of pleura cancer and melanoma deaths were observed in the cohort but not associated with dose. No significant association was observed with solid cancers, lung cancer and cardiovascular diseases. A significant dose-response relationship was observed for leukemia excluding chronic lymphatic leukemia, mainly for doses received less than 15 years before and for yearly dose rates higher than 10 mSv. This PhD work contributes to the evaluation of risks associated to chronic external radiation

  6. Microstructure/processing relationships in high-energy high-rate consolidated powder composites of Nb-stabilized Ti3Al+TiAl

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Persad, C.; Lee, B.; Hou, C.; Eliezer, Z.; Marcus, H.L.

    1989-01-01

    A new approach to powder processing is employed in forming titanium aluminide composites. The processing consists of internal heating of a customized powder blend by a fast electrical discharge of a homopolar generator. The high-energy high-rate '1MJ in 1s' pulse permits rapid heating of an electrically conducting powder mixture in a cold wall die. This short time at temperature approach offers the opportunity to control phase transformations and the degree of microstructural coarsening not readily possible with standard powder-processing approaches. This paper describes the consolidation results of titanium aluminide-based powder-composite materials. The focus of this study was the definition of microstructure/processing relationships for each of the composite constituents, first as monoliths and then in composite forms. Non-equilibrium phases present in rapidly solidified TiAl powders are transformed to metastable intermediates en route to the equilibrium gamma phase.

  7. The relationship between employment status and self-rated health among wage workers in South Korea: the moderating role of household income.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, Hyejin; Kimm, Heejin; Song, In Han

    2015-02-01

    The purpose of the study reported in this article was to investigate the relationship between employment status and self-rated health (SRH) and the moderating effect of household income among wage workers in South Korea. This research analyzed the Korean Labor and Income Panel Study, 2005 to 2008. Of the 10,494 respondents participating in the survey during the period, a total of 1,548 people whose employment status had remained either precarious or nonprecarious were selected. A moderated multiple regression model was used to examine the main effect of employment status on SRH and the moderating effect of total household income on the relationship between employment status and SRH. Among 343 precarious workers and 1,205 nonprecarious workers, after controlling for gender, age, education, smoking, and drinking, employment status was associated with SRH of wage workers, and household income was found to have a moderating effect on SRH in that higher income buffers the link between unstable employment status and low SRH. Unstable employment, combined with low income, was significantly related to precarious wage workers' perceived health. To promote public health, efforts may be needed to secure not only people's employment, but also their income.

  8. Relationship between relative cerebral blood flow, relative cerebral blood volume, and relative cerebral metabolic rate of oxygen in the preterm neonatal brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nourhashemi, Mina; Kongolo, Guy; Mahmoudzadeh, Mahdi; Goudjil, Sabrina; Wallois, Fabrice

    2017-04-01

    The mechanisms responsible for coupling between relative cerebral blood flow (rCBF), relative cerebral blood volume (rCBV), and relative cerebral metabolic rate of oxygen ([Formula: see text]), an important function of the microcirculation in preterm infants, remain unclear. Identification of a causal relationship between rCBF-rCBV and [Formula: see text] in preterms may, therefore, help to elucidate the principles of cortical hemodynamics during development. We simultaneously recorded rCBF and rCBV and estimated [Formula: see text] by two independent acquisition systems: diffuse correlation spectroscopy and near-infrared spectroscopy, respectively, in 10 preterms aged between 28 and 35 weeks of gestational age. Transfer entropy was calculated in order to determine the directionality between rCBF-rCBV and [Formula: see text]. The surrogate method was applied to determine statistical significance. The results show that rCBV and [Formula: see text] have a predominant driving influence on rCBF at the resting state in the preterm neonatal brain. Statistical analysis robustly detected the correct directionality of rCBV on rCBF and [Formula: see text] on rCBF. This study helps to clarify the early organization of the rCBV-rCBF and [Formula: see text] inter-relationship in the immature cortex.

  9. Investigation of the Relationship Between Gross Tumor Volume Location and Pneumonitis Rates Using a Large Clinical Database of Non-Small-Cell Lung Cancer Patients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vinogradskiy, Yevgeniy; Tucker, Susan L.; Liao Zhongxing; Martel, Mary K.

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: Studies have suggested that function may vary throughout the lung, and that patients who have tumors located in the base of the lung are more susceptible to radiation pneumonitis. The purpose of our study was to investigate the relationship between gross tumor volume (GTV) location and pneumonitis rates using a large clinical database of 547 patients with non–small-cell lung cancer. Methods and Materials: The GTV centroids of all patients were mapped onto one common coordinate system, in which the boundaries of the coordinate system were defined by the extreme points of each individual patient lung. The data were qualitatively analyzed by graphing all centroids and displaying the data according to the presence of severe pneumonitis, tumor stage, and smoking status. The centroids were grouped according to superior–inferior segments, and the pneumonitis rates were analyzed. In addition, we incorporated the GTV centroid information into a Lyman–Kutcher–Burman normal tissue complication probability model and tested whether adding spatial information significantly improved the fit of the model. Results: Of the 547 patients analyzed, 111 (20.3%) experienced severe radiation pneumonitis. The pneumonitis incidence rates were 16%, 23%, and 21% for the superior, middle, and inferior thirds of the lung, respectively. Qualitatively, the GTV centroids of nonsmokers were notably absent from the superior portion of the lung. In addition, the GTV centroids of patients who had Stage III and IV clinical staging were concentrated toward the medial edge of the lung. The comparison between the GTV centroid model and the conventional dose–volume model did not yield a statistically significant difference in model fit. Conclusions: Lower pneumonitis rates were noted for the superior portion of the lung; however the differences were not statistically significant. For our patient cohort, incorporating GTV centroid information did not lead to a statistically significant

  10. Investigation of the relationship between gross tumor volume location and pneumonitis rates using a large clinical database of non-small-cell lung cancer patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vinogradskiy, Yevgeniy; Tucker, Susan L; Liao, Zhongxing; Martel, Mary K

    2012-04-01

    Studies have suggested that function may vary throughout the lung, and that patients who have tumors located in the base of the lung are more susceptible to radiation pneumonitis. The purpose of our study was to investigate the relationship between gross tumor volume (GTV) location and pneumonitis rates using a large clinical database of 547 patients with non-small-cell lung cancer. The GTV centroids of all patients were mapped onto one common coordinate system, in which the boundaries of the coordinate system were defined by the extreme points of each individual patient lung. The data were qualitatively analyzed by graphing all centroids and displaying the data according to the presence of severe pneumonitis, tumor stage, and smoking status. The centroids were grouped according to superior-inferior segments, and the pneumonitis rates were analyzed. In addition, we incorporated the GTV centroid information into a Lyman-Kutcher-Burman normal tissue complication probability model and tested whether adding spatial information significantly improved the fit of the model. Of the 547 patients analyzed, 111 (20.3%) experienced severe radiation pneumonitis. The pneumonitis incidence rates were 16%, 23%, and 21% for the superior, middle, and inferior thirds of the lung, respectively. Qualitatively, the GTV centroids of nonsmokers were notably absent from the superior portion of the lung. In addition, the GTV centroids of patients who had Stage III and IV clinical staging were concentrated toward the medial edge of the lung. The comparison between the GTV centroid model and the conventional dose-volume model did not yield a statistically significant difference in model fit. Lower pneumonitis rates were noted for the superior portion of the lung; however the differences were not statistically significant. For our patient cohort, incorporating GTV centroid information did not lead to a statistically significant improvement in the fit of the pneumonitis model. Copyright

  11. The relationship between impaired driving crashes and beliefs about impaired driving: do residents in high crash rate counties have greater concerns about impaired driving?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beck, Kenneth H; Yan, Alice F; Wang, Min Qi; Kerns, Timothy J; Burch, Cynthia A

    2009-04-01

    The purpose of this investigation was to examine the relationship between impaired driving crashes and public beliefs and concerns about impaired driving across each of Maryland's twenty-four counties (including Baltimore City). It was hypothesized that residents of counties that experience higher impaired driving crashes would express more concerns about impaired driving and perceive more risks about driving impaired than residents of counties that have lower rates of impaired driving. Data for alcohol impaired driving crashes were obtained for the years 2004-2006. These data were compared to public opinion data that was obtained annually by random-digit-dial telephone surveys from 2004 to 2007. Concerns about drunk driving as well as perceptions of the likelihood of being stopped by the police if one were to drive after having too much to drink were related to counties with higher serious impaired driving crash rates, as were perceptions that the police and the legal system were too lenient. Perceptions about the likelihood of being stopped by the police were higher in those counties with more impaired driving enforcement activity. Perceptions of concern appear to be shaped more by crash exposure than enforcement activity. Campaigns that address impaired driving prevention should substantially increase enforcement, strengthen the adjudication process of impaired drivers, and emphasize the potential seriousness of drinking-driving crashes in their promotional activities.

  12. Relationship between interval from surgery to radiotherapy and local recurrence rate in patients with endometrioid-type endometrial cancer: a retrospective mono-institutional Italian study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fabrini, Maria Grazia; Gadducci, Angiolo; Perrone, Franco; La Liscia, Concetta; Cosio, Stefania; Moda, Stefano; Guerrieri, Maria Elena; Grandinetti, Antonella; Greco, Carlo

    2012-01-01

    To assess the relationship between the timing of radiotherapy and the risk of local failure in patients with endometrioid-type endometrial cancer who had undergone surgery and adjuvant external pelvic radiotherapy (with or without brachytherapy), but not chemotherapy. One hundred and seventy seven patients were analyzed in this study. The median follow-up of the survivors was 72 months. Radiotherapy was delivered after a median time of 14.6 weeks from surgery and the median overall treatment time was 6.4 weeks. The tumor relapsed in 32 (18.1%) patients after a median time of 21 months. The local recurrence (vaginal or central pelvic) occurred in 11 patients. The local recurrence rate was associated with tumor grade (p=0.02), myometrial invasion (p=0.046), FIGO stage (p=0.003), pathological node status (p=0.037) and time interval from surgery to radiotherapy using 9 weeks as the cut-off value (p=0.046), but not with the overall treatment time. All the local relapses occurred in patients who received adjuvant irradiation after an interval from surgery >9 weeks. The time interval from surgery to radiotherapy might affect the local recurrence rate in patients not receiving chemotherapy. Every possible effort should be made to start radiotherapy within 9 weeks, when radiotherapy only is deemed necessary as adjuvant treatment.

  13. Close relationship between fMRI signals and transient heart rate changes accompanying K-complex. Simultaneous EEG/fMRI study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kan, Shigeyuki; Koike, Takahiko; Miyauchi, Satoru; Misaki, Masaya

    2009-01-01

    Combining functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) and electroencephalography (EEG) allows the investigation of spontaneous activities in the human brain. Recently, by using this technique, increases in fMRI signal accompanying transient EEG activities such as sleep spindles and slow waves were reported. Although these fMRI signal increases appear to arise as a result of the neural activities being reflected in the EEG, when the influence of physiological activities upon fMRI signals are taken into consideration, it is highly controversial that fMRI signal increases accompanying transient EEG activities reflect actual neural activities. In the present study, we conducted simultaneous fMRI and polysomnograph recording of 18 normal adults, to study the effect of transient heart rate changes after a K-complex on fMRI signals. Significant fMRI signal increase was observed in the cerebellum, the ventral thalamus, the dorsal part of the brainstem, the periventricular white matter and the ventricle (quadrigeminal cistern). On the other hand, significant fMRI signal decrease was observed only in the right insula. Moreover, intensities of fMRI signal increase that was accompanied by a K-complex correlated positively with the magnitude of heart rate changes after a K-complex. Previous studies have reported that K-complex is closely related with sympathetic nervous activity and that the attributes of perfusion regulation in the brain differ during wakefulness and sleep. By taking these findings into consideration, our present results indicate that a close relationship exists between a K-complex and the changes in cardio- and neurovascular regulations that are mediated by the autonomic nervous system during sleep; further, these results indicate that transient heart rate changes after a K-complex can affect the fMRI signal generated in certain brain regions. (author)

  14. Is It Enough to Be an Extrovert to Be Liked? Emotional Competence Moderates the Relationship Between Extraversion and Peer-Rated Likeability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dorota Szczygiel

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Likeability represents one of the aspects of social status in a peer group and refers to the extent to which one is accepted, preferred by others, and perceived as a likeable companion. Previous research has demonstrated that likeability is partly determined by dispositional factors. One body of research shows that variance in likeability across individuals can be traced to personality traits, mainly extraversion and agreeableness. Another expanding body of research demonstrates that success in achieving peer acceptance is determined, in some part, by the emotional competencies (ECs of an individual. In an attempt to combine these two approaches and to clarify some inconsistencies in the results concerning the personality–likeability relationships, this study was designed to examine the interactive effect of adolescents’ personality traits (i.e., extraversion and agreeableness and ECs on peer-rated likeability in adolescence. A sample of 230 adolescents (47% female from two comprehensive secondary schools in Poland completed measures of personality traits and ECs, as well as a sociometric assessment of likeability in their classrooms. The results demonstrated that interpersonal EC acts as a moderator in the relationship between extraversion and peer-rated likeability. Specifically, extraversion predicted greater likeability among adolescents with high interpersonal EC but not among adolescents with low interpersonal EC. The study yielded new insights into the determinants of likeability, as it demonstrates that adolescents need to be both extrovert and possess high interpersonal EC in order to be judged highly likeable by their peers. It also bears practical implications for the improvement of adolescents’ position and acceptance within their peer group. The results suggest that encouraging “rejected” adolescents to reach out to others in an extrovert fashion is necessary but insufficient to increase their likeability. Improving their

  15. The clustering of health behaviours in Ireland and their relationship with mental health, self-rated health and quality of life

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ward Mark

    2011-09-01

    vitality, lower levels of psychological distress, better self-rated health and better quality of life. In contrast, those in the Multiple Risk Factor cluster had the lowest levels of energy and vitality and the highest levels of psychological distress. Identification of these discernible patterns because of their relationship with mortality, morbidity and longevity is important for identifying national and international health behaviour patterns.

  16. Trophic Relationships between the Parasitic Plant Species Phelipanche ramosa (L.) and Different Hosts Depending on Host Phenological Stage and Host Growth Rate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreau, Delphine; Gibot-Leclerc, Stéphanie; Girardin, Annette; Pointurier, Olivia; Reibel, Carole; Strbik, Florence; Fernández-Aparicio, Mónica; Colbach, Nathalie

    2016-01-01

    Phelipanche ramosa (L.) Pomel (branched broomrape) is a holoparasitic plant that reproduces on crops and also on weeds, which contributes to increase the parasite seed bank in fields. This parasite extracts all its nutrients at the host’s expense so that host–parasite trophic relationships are crucial to determine host and parasite growth. This study quantified the intensity with which P. ramosa draws assimilates from its host and analyzed whether it varied with host species, host phenological stage and host growth rate. A greenhouse experiment was conducted on three host species: the crop species Brassica napus (L.) (oilseed rape) and two weed species, Capsella bursa-pastoris (L.) Medik. and Geranium dissectum (L.). Plants were grown with or without P. ramosa and under three light levels to modulate host growth rate. The proportion of host biomass loss due to parasitism by P. ramosa differed between host species (at host fructification, biomass loss ranged from 34 to 84%). B. napus and C. bursa-pastoris displayed a similar response to P. ramosa, probably because they belong to the same botanical family. The sensitivity to P. ramosa in each host species could be related to the precocity of P. ramosa development on them. Host compartments could be ranked as a function of their sensitivity to parasitism, with the reproductive compartment being the most severely affected, followed by stems and roots. The proportion of biomass allocated to leaves was not reduced by parasitism. The proportion of pathosystem biomass allocated to the parasite depended on host species. It generally increased with host stage progression but was constant across light induced-host growth rate, showing that P. ramosa adapts its growth to host biomass production. The rank order of host species in terms of sink strength differed from that in terms of host sensitivity. Finally, for B. napus, the biomass of individual parasite shoots decreased with increasing their number per host plant

  17. The Clustering of Health Behaviours in Ireland and their Relationship with Mental Health, Self-Rated Health and Quality of Life

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Conry, Mary C

    2011-09-06

    levels of psychological distress, better self-rated health and better quality of life. In contrast, those in the Multiple Risk Factor cluster had the lowest levels of energy and vitality and the highest levels of psychological distress. Identification of these discernible patterns because of their relationship with mortality, morbidity and longevity is important for identifying national and international health behaviour patterns.

  18. Trophic relationships between the parasitic plant species Phelipanche ramosa (L. and different hosts depending on host phenological stage and host growth rate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Delphine Moreau

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Phelipanche ramosa (L. Pomel (branched broomrape is a holoparasitic plant that reproduces on crops and also on weeds, which contributes to increase the parasite seed bank in fields. This parasite extracts all its nutrients at the host's expense so that host-parasite trophic relationships are crucial to determine host and parasite growth. This study quantified the intensity with which P. ramosa draws assimilates from its host and analyzed whether it varied with host species, host phenological stage and host growth rate. A greenhouse experiment was conducted on three host species: the crop species Brassica napus (L. (oilseed rape and two weed species, Capsella bursa-pastoris (L. Medik. and Geranium dissectum (L.. Plants were grown with or without P. ramosa and under three light levels to modulate host growth rate. The proportion of host biomass loss due to parasitism by P. ramosa differed between host species (at host fructification, biomass loss ranged from 34% to 84%. Brassica napus and C. bursa-pastoris displayed a similar response to P. ramosa, probably because they belong to the same botanical family. The sensitivity to P. ramosa in each host species could be related to the precocity of P. ramosa development on them. Host compartments could be ranked as a function of their sensitivity to parasitism, with the reproductive compartment being the most severely affected, followed by stems and roots. The proportion of biomass allocated to leaves was not reduced by parasitism. The proportion of pathosystem biomass allocated to the parasite depended on host species. It generally increased with host stage progression but was constant across light induced-host growth rate, showing that P. ramosa adapts its growth to host biomass production. The rank order of host species in terms of sink strength differed from that in terms of host sensitivity. Finally, for B. napus, the biomass of individual parasite shoots decreased with increasing their number per

  19. Prevalence of diabetic retinopathy and its relationship with glomerular filtration rate and other risk factors in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus in Spain. DM2 HOPE study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    López, Maribel; Cos, Francesc Xavier; Álvarez-Guisasola, Fernando; Fuster, Eva

    2017-09-01

    Diabetic retinopathy (DR) is the leading cause of blindness in working age population in developed countries. Albuminuria and estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) have been considered biomarkers for DR. This study aimed to investigate the prevalence of DR and its relationship with eGFR and other risk factors in type 2 diabetic patients (T2DM) in Spain. A cross-sectional and descriptive study has been performed in 14,266 patients. Clinical records were reviewed. Demographic data, clinical diagnoses, clinical variables, and results from laboratory tests were recorded. Prevalence rates of DR were calculated. Logistic regression analysis was applied to assess predictors of the DR presence/absence. DR prevalence was 14.9%, being more prevalent in women (p = 0.0087) and in older patients (p < 0.0001). Duration of disease (OR = 5.3, IC95% = 3.8-7.4; p < 0.0001), eGFR < 60 ml/min/1.73 m 2 (OR = 2.0, IC95% 1.6-2.4; p < 0.0001), levels of HbA1c ≥ 7% (OR = 1.9, IC95% = 1.5-2.3; p < 0.0001) and high blood pressure (OR = 1.6, IC95% = 1.2-2.1; p = 0.0032) were associated with higher risk of DR. DR was also more frequent in patients taking insulin (32,6% vs. 10,2%; p < 0.0001). Around one in seven patients with T2DM has DR after nine years since diagnosis. Time since diagnosis, insulin therapy, cardiovascular profile, and renal dysfunction are associated with DR in patients with T2DM in Spain.

  20. Functional competency and cognitive ability in mild Alzheimer's disease: relationship between ADL assessed by a relative/ carer-rated scale and neuropsychological performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsuda, Osamu; Saito, Masahiko

    2005-06-01

    Alzheimer's disease (AD) is characterized by multiple cognitive deficits and affects functional competency to perform daily activities (ADL). As this may contribute to the patient's overall disability, it is important to identify factors that compromise competency. The relationship between different cognitive domains and functional activities in AD was studied. The functional competency of 73 Japanese AD patients, most with mild dementia, was assessed using a 27-item relative/carer-rating scale covering 7 ADL: managing finances, using transportation, taking precautions, self-care, housekeeping, communication and taking medicine. Cognitive assessment used 16 neuropsychological tests from the Japanese version of the WAIS-R and COGNISTAT, covering 9 cognitive domains: orientation, attention, episodic memory, semantic memory, language, visuoperceptual and construction abilities, computational ability, abstract thinking, and psychomotor speed. Multiple regression analysis by the stepwise method indicated that functional competency could, for the most part, be predicted from test scores for orientation, abstract thinking and psychomotor speed. The results of this study suggest that impairment of these three cognitive domains plays an important role in the functional deterioration of AD.

  1. Construct validity of tests that measure kick performance for young soccer players based on cluster analysis: exploring the relationship between coaches rating and actual measures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palucci Vieira, Luiz H; de Andrade, Vitor L; Aquino, Rodrigo L; Moraes, Renato; Barbieri, Fabio A; Cunha, Sérgio A; Bedo, Bruno L; Santiago, Paulo R

    2017-12-01

    The main aim of this study was to verify the relationship between the classification of coaches and actual performance in field tests that measure the kicking performance in young soccer players, using the K-means clustering technique. Twenty-three U-14 players performed 8 tests to measure their kicking performance. Four experienced coaches provided a rating for each player as follows: 1: poor; 2: below average; 3: average; 4: very good; 5: excellent as related to three parameters (i.e. accuracy, power and ability to put spin on the ball). The scores interval established from k-means cluster metric was useful to originating five groups of performance level, since ANOVA revealed significant differences between clusters generated (Pperformance. The Wall Volley Test seems to be a good predictor of other tests. Five tests showed reasonable construct validity and can be used to predict the accuracy (penalty kick, free kick, kicking a rolling ball and Wall Volley Test) and ability to put spin on the ball (free kick and corner kick tests) when kicking in soccer. In contrast, the goal kick, kicking the ball when airborne and the vertical kick tests exhibited low power of discrimination and using them should be viewed with caution.

  2. Identifying developmental coordination disorder: MOQ-T validity as a fast screening instrument based on teachers' ratings and its relationship with praxic and visuospatial working memory deficits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giofrè, David; Cornoldi, Cesare; Schoemaker, Marina M

    2014-12-01

    The present study was devoted to test the validity of the Italian adaptation of the Motor Observation Questionnaire for Teachers (MOQ-T, Schoemaker, Flapper, Reinders-Messelink, & De Kloet, 2008) as a fast screening instrument, based on teachers' ratings, for detecting developmental coordination disorders symptoms and to study its relationship with praxic and visuospatial working memory deficits. In a first study on a large sample of children, we assessed the reliability and structure of the Italian adaptation of the MOQ-T. Results showed a good reliability of the questionnaire and a hierarchical structure with two first-order factors (reflecting motor and handwriting skills), which are influenced by a second-order factor (general motor function) at the top. In a second study, we looked at the external validity of the MOQ-T and found that children with symptoms of Developmental Coordination Disorder (children with high scores on the MOQ-T) also had difficulty reproducing gestures, either imitating others or in response to verbal prompts. Our results also showed that children with high MOQ-T scores had visuospatial WM impairments. The theoretical and clinical implications of these findings are discussed. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. The Role of Stress Management in the Relationship between Purpose in Life and Self-Rated Health in Teachers: A Mediation Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Fei; Chen, Jieyu; Yu, Lin; Jing, Yuan; Jiang, Pingping; Fu, Xiuqiong; Wu, Shengwei; Sun, Xiaomin; Luo, Ren; Kwan, Hiuyee; Zhao, Xiaoshan; Liu, Yanyan

    2016-07-16

    To examine whether stress management mediates the relationship between purpose in life and self-rated health status (SRH). A cross-sectional survey was conducted among 6840 teachers in 2013 in Guangzhou, China. Purpose in life was assessed through the Purpose in Life Subscale of the Psychological Well-being Scale. Stress management was assessed using the eight-item questionnaire adapted from the Health-promoting Lifestyle Profile II. SRH was assessed by the Suboptimal Health Measurement Scale Version 1.0. The mediation hypothesis was tested by the structural equation model for path analysis. It was found that purpose in life had direct and indirect effects on SRH. The path analysis showed the total effect (β = 0.563) of purpose in life on SRH was comprised of a direct effect (β = 0.319) and an indirect effect (β = 0.244), which was mediated by stress management. By supporting the mediation hypothesis, our results indicate that stress management mediated the effect of purpose in life on SRH. Enhancement of teachers' purpose in life and improvement of training skills of stress management should be incorporated in the strategy of improving teachers' health.

  4. Relationship between non-genital tender point tenderness and intra-vaginal muscle pain intensity: Ratings in women with provoked vestibulodynia and implications for treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    PHILLIPS, Nancy; BROWN, Candace; BACHMANN, Gloria; WAN, Jim; WOOD, Ronald; ULRICH, Dagny; BACHOUR, Candi; FOSTER, David

    2016-01-01

    level was at P pain ratings on the non-genital tender point tenderness exam and algometer testing on the iliococcygeus region (r = 0.44, p pain (6.14 ± 2.07 vs. 3.74 ± 2.22, p = 0.0001), and posterior vaginal wall pain (5.67 ± 2.10 vs. 3.07 ± 2.16, p pain with nongenital tender point palpation also experience more deep vaginal pain on pelvic exam. Those who fulfill the diagnosis of fibromyalgia show significantly more intense deep vaginal pain to palpation of iliococcygeus muscles and posterior vaginal wall. Further research using a more precise definition of fibromyalgia is necessary to confirm this relationship, but findings suggest that women with provoked vestibulodynia coexisting with fibromyalgia have greater risk of superimposed vaginal muscle pain and may be candidates for early adjunctive pelvic floor physical therapy. These findings need to be explored in women with generalized, non-provoked vulvodynia. PMID:27377821

  5. The Relationship between Patient Satisfaction with Service Quality and Survival in Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer - Is Self-Rated Health a Potential Confounder?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christopher G Lis

    Full Text Available Previously we reported that higher patient satisfaction (PS with service quality is associated with favorable survival outcomes in a variety of cancers. However, we cautioned the readers that patients with greater satisfaction might be the ones with better self-rated health (SRH, a well-established prognosticator of cancer survival. In other words, SRH could potentially confound the PS and survival relationship. We investigated this hypothesis in non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC.778 NSCLC patients (327 males and 451 females; mean age 58.8 years treated at 4 Cancer Treatment Centers of America hospitals between July 2011 and March 2013. PS was measured on a 7-point scale ranging from "completely dissatisfied" to "completely satisfied". SRH was measured on a 7-point scale ranging from "very poor" to "excellent". Both were dichotomized into 2 categories: top box response (7 versus all others (1-6. Patient survival was the primary end point. Cox regression was used to evaluate the association between PS and survival controlling for covariates.74, 70, 232 and 391 patients had stage I, II, III and IV disease respectively. 631 (81.1% patients were "completely satisfied". 184 (23.7% patients had "excellent" SRH. There was a weak but significant correlation between overall PS and SRH (Kendall's tau b = 0.19; p<0.001. On univariate analysis, "completely satisfied" patients had a significantly lower risk of mortality (HR = 0.75; 95% CI: 0.57 to 0.99; p = 0.04. Similarly, patients with "excellent" SRH had a significantly lower risk of mortality (HR = 0.61; 95% CI: 0.46 to 0.81; p = 0.001. On multivariate analysis controlling for stage at diagnosis, treatment history and gender, SRH was found to be a significant predictor of survival (HR = 0.67; 95% CI: 0.50 to 0.89; p = 0.007 while PS was not (HR = 0.86; 95% CI: 0.64 to 1.2; p = 0.32. Among the individual PS items, the only significant independent predictor of survival was "teams communicating with each

  6. The Relationship between Patient Satisfaction with Service Quality and Survival in Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer - Is Self-Rated Health a Potential Confounder?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lis, Christopher G; Patel, Kamal; Gupta, Digant

    2015-01-01

    Previously we reported that higher patient satisfaction (PS) with service quality is associated with favorable survival outcomes in a variety of cancers. However, we cautioned the readers that patients with greater satisfaction might be the ones with better self-rated health (SRH), a well-established prognosticator of cancer survival. In other words, SRH could potentially confound the PS and survival relationship. We investigated this hypothesis in non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). 778 NSCLC patients (327 males and 451 females; mean age 58.8 years) treated at 4 Cancer Treatment Centers of America hospitals between July 2011 and March 2013. PS was measured on a 7-point scale ranging from "completely dissatisfied" to "completely satisfied". SRH was measured on a 7-point scale ranging from "very poor" to "excellent". Both were dichotomized into 2 categories: top box response (7) versus all others (1-6). Patient survival was the primary end point. Cox regression was used to evaluate the association between PS and survival controlling for covariates. 74, 70, 232 and 391 patients had stage I, II, III and IV disease respectively. 631 (81.1%) patients were "completely satisfied". 184 (23.7%) patients had "excellent" SRH. There was a weak but significant correlation between overall PS and SRH (Kendall's tau b = 0.19; p<0.001). On univariate analysis, "completely satisfied" patients had a significantly lower risk of mortality (HR = 0.75; 95% CI: 0.57 to 0.99; p = 0.04). Similarly, patients with "excellent" SRH had a significantly lower risk of mortality (HR = 0.61; 95% CI: 0.46 to 0.81; p = 0.001). On multivariate analysis controlling for stage at diagnosis, treatment history and gender, SRH was found to be a significant predictor of survival (HR = 0.67; 95% CI: 0.50 to 0.89; p = 0.007) while PS was not (HR = 0.86; 95% CI: 0.64 to 1.2; p = 0.32). Among the individual PS items, the only significant independent predictor of survival was "teams communicating with each other

  7. Relationship between nongenital tender point tenderness and intravaginal muscle pain intensity: ratings in women with provoked vestibulodynia and implications for treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phillips, Nancy; Brown, Candace; Bachmann, Gloria; Wan, Jim; Wood, Ronald; Ulrich, Dagny; Bachour, Candi; Foster, David

    2016-12-01

    Vulvodynia is a chronic vulvar pain disorder and fibromyalgia is a chronic widespread musculoskeletal pain disorder, both of unknown etiology. Association of these conditions is well documented. Intravaginal algometer measurement of tenderness to pressure applied to the pelvic floor muscles helps define vulvodynia associated with musculoskeletal factors. Women with both vulvodynia and fibromyalgia might have increased pelvic muscle pain compared to women with vulvodynia alone, defining the possible link of these 2 conditions. We sought to: (1) correlate pain intensity during the nongenital tender point tenderness examination to pain intensity with the vaginal algometer in women with provoked vestibulodynia, and (2) determine whether subjects with provoked vestibulodynia and fibromyalgia had higher pain intensity scores with the vaginal algometer than those without fibromyalgia. In all, 92 subjects referred for vulvar pain were confirmed to have provoked vestibulodynia using the cotton swab test. A diagnosis of fibromyalgia was made if pain was present (numeric rating scale >1) in at least 11 sites of the 18-point nongenital tender point tenderness exam. Vaginal pain sensitivity was measured using an intravaginal pressure algometer, where 0.1, 0.3, and 0.5 kg/cm 2 forces were applied digitally in random assignment by force and location to the right and left iliococcygeus muscle regions and the posterior vaginal wall. Both tender point tenderness and algometer pain intensity were reported on a 0 (no pain) to 10 (worse pain) numeric rating scale. Correlations were computed between the composite pain intensity (total of rating scale from each pressure threshold at specified site) of nongenital and those of iliococcygeus regions and the posterior vaginal wall. Independent t tests were used to determine differences in iliococcygeus regions and the posterior vaginal algometer pain ratings and presence or absence of fibromyalgia. The significance level was at P pain

  8. Pre-breeding ovaro-uterine ultrasonography and its relationship with first service pregnancy rate in seasonal-calving dairy herds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mee, J F; Buckley, F; Ryan, D; Dillon, P

    2009-04-01

    The objectives of the study were to characterize an ultrasound reproductive tract scoring (URTS) system to assess suitability for breeding in dairy cows, to describe the prevalence of these scores in commercial dairy herds and to examine their relationship with subsequent fertility. Ultrasound examinations (7797) were performed on 5751 Holstein-Friesian cows prior to breeding in 62 seasonally calving herds over 2 years. Data recorded from images of both ovaries and the uterus were combined into a six point scoring system and the prevalence of cows with cystic ovarian follicles and uterine abscesses and adhesions was recorded separately. The prevalence of ovulatory cows which had completed uterine involution (score 1), or had mild (2) or moderate endometritis (3) was 62.5%, 21.7% and 2.2%, respectively. The prevalence of anovulatory cows with moderate endometritis (4), ovulatory cows with pyometra (5) and anovulatory cows which had completed uterine involution (6) was 3.3%, 2.2% and 8.1%, respectively. The interval between calving and examination differed between cows with each of the scores 1, 2, 5 and 6 (61, 46, 53 and 50 days, respectively, p scores 3 and 4 (37 and 35 days, respectively). Ovulatory cows which had completed uterine involution (score 1) had a higher likelihood of pregnancy to first service than ovulatory or anovulatory cows which had not completed uterine involution (p reproductive tract was 3.9% and 1.2%, respectively. In conclusion, 29% and 11% of cows in seasonally calving and breeding dairy herds had not completed uterine involution or were anovulatory prior to the mating start date, respectively. Both conditions, detected using a URTS system, significantly reduced first service pregnancy rate in these pasture-based dairy herds.

  9. Effects of understory vegetation and litter on plant nitrogen (N, phosphorus (P, N:P ratio and their relationships with growth rate of indigenous seedlings in subtropical plantations.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jun Wang

    Full Text Available Establishing seedlings in subtropical plantations is very important for forest health, succession and management. Information on seedling nutrient concentrations is essential for both the selection of suitable indigenous tree species to accelerate succession of the established plantation and sustainable forest management. In this study, we investigated the concentrations of nitrogen ([N], phosphorus ([P], and N:P ratio in leaves, stems and roots of seedlings of three indigenous tree species (Castanopsis chinensis, Michelia chapensis and Psychotria rubra transplanted with removing or retaining understory vegetation and litter at two typical subtropical forest plantations (Eucalyptus plantation and native species plantation. We also measured the relative growth rate (RGR of seedling height, and developed the relationships between RGR and leaf [N], [P] and N:P ratio. Results showed that treatments of understory vegetation and associated litter (i.e. removal or retained generally had no significant effects on leaf [N], [P], N:P ratio and RGR of the transplanted tree seedlings for the experimental period. But among different species, there were significant differences in nutrient concentrations. M. chapensis and P. rubra had higher [N] and [P] compared to C. chinensis. [N] and [P] also varied among different plant tissues with much higher values in leaves than in roots for all indigenous species. RGR of indigenous tree seedlings was mostly positively correlated with leaf [N] and [P], but negatively correlated with leaf N:P ratio. Considering the low [P] and high N:P ratio observed in the introduced indigenous tree seedlings, we propose that the current experimental plantations might be P limited for plant growth.

  10. On airborne nano/micro-sized wear particles released from low-metallic automotive brakes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kukutschova, Jana; Moravec, Pavel; Tomasek, Vladimir; Matejka, Vlastimil; Smolik, Jiri; Schwarz, Jaroslav; Seidlerova, Jana; Safarova, Klara; Filip, Peter

    2011-01-01

    The paper addresses the wear particles released from commercially available 'low-metallic' automotive brake pads subjected to brake dynamometer tests. Particle size distribution was measured in situ and the generated particles were collected. The collected fractions and the original bulk material were analyzed using several chemical and microscopic techniques. The experiments demonstrated that airborne wear particles with sizes between 10 nm and 20 μm were released into the air. The numbers of nanoparticles (<100 nm) were by three orders of magnitude larger when compared to the microparticles. A significant release of nanoparticles was measured when the average temperature of the rotor reached 300 deg. C, the combustion initiation temperature of organics present in brakes. In contrast to particle size distribution data, the microscopic analysis revealed the presence of nanoparticles, mostly in the form of agglomerates, in all captured fractions. The majority of elements present in the bulk material were also detected in the ultra-fine fraction of the wear particles. - Research highlights: → Wear of low-metallic friction composite produces airborne nano-sized particles. → Nano-sized particles contain carbon black and metallic compounds. → Carbon black nano-sized particles are related to resin degradation. → Number of nanoparticles higher by three orders of magnitude than microparticles. - Braking of automobiles may contribute to nano-particulate air pollution caused by friction processes associated with wear of low-metallic brake pads.

  11. Epidemiological studies on disturbances of human fetal development in areas with various doses of natural background radiation. I. Relationship between incidences of Down's syndrome or visible malformation and gonad dose equivalent rate of natural background radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ujeno, Y.

    1985-01-01

    The relationship between environmental radiation to the gonads and incidences of Down's syndrome and visible malformation was analyzed using Kendall's rank correlation method. The subjects, studied during a 3-yr period (1979-1981), were inhabitants of 46 prefectures in Japan that had various dose rates of natural background ionizing radiation. Results showed that the natural background very low-dose radiation rate was not a predominant factor responsible for inducing Down's syndrome or other visible malformations

  12. The relationship between working conditions and self-rated health among medical doctors: evidence from seven waves of the Medicine In Australia Balancing Employment and Life (Mabel) survey

    OpenAIRE

    Milner, Allison; Witt, Katrina; Spittal, Matthew J.; Bismark, Marie; Graham, Melissa; LaMontagne, Anthony D.

    2017-01-01

    Background Psychosocial job stressors, such as low control and high demands, have been found to influence the health and wellbeing of doctors. However, past research in this area has relied on cross-sectional data, which limits causal inferences about the influence of psychosocial job stressors on health. In this study, we examine this relationship longitudinally while also assessing whether the relationship between psychosocial job stressors and health is modified by gender. Methods The data...

  13. A RESEARCH ON RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN CORPORATE GOVERNANCE RATINGS OF BANKS LISTED IN ISTANBUL STOCK EXCHANGE (BIST) CORPORATE GOVERNANCE INDEX AND SOME OF THEIR CHARACTERISTICS

    OpenAIRE

    Ozlem I. Koc

    2014-01-01

    Capital Markets Board of Turkey principles of corporate governance consist of four categories: Shareholders, Public Disclosure and Transparency, Stakeholders, Board of Directors. The corporate governance rating is determined by the rating institutions incorporated by Capital Markets Board of Turkey in its list of rating agencies as a result of their assessment of the company's compliance with the corporate governance principles. Publicly held corporations are listed in BIST Corporate Governan...

  14. An Investigation of the Relationship between Counselor's Ratings of Their Principal's Leadership Style and Counselor Burnout in the Public-School System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lozano-Chapa, Maria Mayte

    2017-01-01

    This study examined the relationship between principals and counselor burnout in the public-school system. There were 109 elementary, middle school, and high school counselors from the Region One Area in the Rio Grande Valley who took part in this study. Participants completed a Demographic Questionnaire to obtain information on the school…

  15. Space and panic : The application of space syntax to understand the relationship between mortality rates and spatial configuration in Banda Aceh during the tsunami 2004

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fakhrurrazi, F.; Van Nes, A.

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to reveal the correlation between mortality rates from the tsunami of 2004 and the spatial structure of Banda Aceh’s street net. Structurally, the city is divided up in several small villages, which consists of a couple of urban blocks. The mortality rates for each of these

  16. The Relationship between the "Childhood Autism Rating Scale: Second Edition" and Clinical Diagnosis Utilizing the DSM-IV-TR and the DSM-5

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dawkins, Tamara; Meyer, Allison T.; Van Bourgondien, Mary E.

    2016-01-01

    "The Childhood Autism Rating Scale, Second Edition" (CARS2; 2010) includes two rating scales; the CARS2-Standard Version (CARS2-ST) and the newly developed CARS2-High Functioning Version (CARS2-HF). To assess the diagnostic agreement between the CARS2 and DSM-IV-TR versus DSM-5 criteria for Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD), clinicians at…

  17. The Economic Relationships Between China and the USA Through the Exchange Rate: A Look at the Yuan RMB-US$ Controversy from an European Perspective

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Guido Ferrari

    2013-01-01

    In this paper,the debate on Yuan RMB & US$ exchange rate is analyzed from the financial-political point of view,supported with statistical-economic evidence in order to verify whether or not it is artificially kept undervalued,as claimed by the USA government and economists and therefore the cause of ChinaUSA strong trade imbalance which in turn affects the rate of unemployment in the USA.After discussing the different points of view in the subject,the paper stresses the strong re-valuation operated by the China 's government through the People's Bank of China,and after putting in evidence that the exchange rate cannot be imputed of being the main source of trade imbalance,concludes that the still existing undervaluation as compared to the purchasing power parity is "physiological",represents quite wellthe economic exchange rate and cannot be considered the cause of the unemployment rate in the USA.

  18. Real-time relationship between PKA biochemical signal network dynamics and increased action potential firing rate in heart pacemaker cells: Kinetics of PKA activation in heart pacemaker cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yaniv, Yael; Ganesan, Ambhighainath; Yang, Dongmei; Ziman, Bruce D; Lyashkov, Alexey E; Levchenko, Andre; Zhang, Jin; Lakatta, Edward G

    2015-09-01

    cAMP-PKA protein kinase is a key nodal signaling pathway that regulates a wide range of heart pacemaker cell functions. These functions are predicted to be involved in regulation of spontaneous action potential (AP) generation of these cells. Here we investigate if the kinetics and stoichiometry of increase in PKA activity match the increase in AP firing rate in response to β-adrenergic receptor (β-AR) stimulation or phosphodiesterase (PDE) inhibition, that alters the AP firing rate of heart sinoatrial pacemaker cells. In cultured adult rabbit pacemaker cells infected with an adenovirus expressing the FRET sensor AKAR3, the EC50 in response to graded increases in the intensity of β-AR stimulation (by Isoproterenol) the magnitude of the increases in PKA activity and the spontaneous AP firing rate were similar (0.4±0.1nM vs. 0.6±0.15nM, respectively). Moreover, the kinetics (t1/2) of the increases in PKA activity and spontaneous AP firing rate in response to β-AR stimulation or PDE inhibition were tightly linked. We characterized the system rate-limiting biochemical reactions by integrating these experimentally derived data into a mechanistic-computational model. Model simulations predicted that phospholamban phosphorylation is a potent target of the increase in PKA activity that links to increase in spontaneous AP firing rate. In summary, the kinetics and stoichiometry of increases in PKA activity in response to a physiological (β-AR stimulation) or pharmacological (PDE inhibitor) stimuli match those of changes in the AP firing rate. Thus Ca(2+)-cAMP/PKA-dependent phosphorylation limits the rate and magnitude of increase in spontaneous AP firing rate. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. The relationship of work stress and family stress to the self-rated health of women employed in the industrial sector in Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Gwang Suk; Cho, Won Jung; Lee, Chung Yul; Marion, Lucy N; Kim, Mi Ja

    2005-01-01

    To identify the relationship of work stress and family stress to the health of women in Korea. Cross-sectional study. Three hundred and thirty-one married women working in 14 manufacturing companies in Korea. Subjects responded to a questionnaire that included items on work stress, family stress, social support, and general characteristics. Perceived health status (PHS) was assessed with the Short Form-36. There was a significant positive relationship between social support and PHS, but significant negative relationships were found between PHS and work stress as well as family stress. Hierarchical multiple regression analysis explained the health status of married working women by four categories: personal, work related, family related, and social support, and accounted for 45.4% of the variance. When family-related factors were added to the model, the power of explanation was increased by 17.9% compared with the explained variance. Family stress was a major variable not only for explaining the variance but also for correlating with health status. Both work stress and family stress should be considered together when addressing the health of working women in the industrial sector in Korea.

  20. Blinded by the light: on the relationship between CO first overtone emission and mass accretion rate in massive young stellar objects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ilee, J. D.; Oudmaijer, R. D.; Wheelwright, H. E.; Pomohaci, R.

    2018-04-01

    To date, there is no explanation as to why disc-tracing CO first overtone (or `bandhead') emission is not a ubiquitous feature in low- to medium-resolution spectra of massive young stellar objects, but instead is only detected toward approximately 25 per cent of their spectra. In this paper, we investigate the hypothesis that only certain mass accretion rates result in detectable bandhead emission in the near infrared spectra of MYSOs. Using an analytic disc model combined with an LTE model of the CO emission, we find that high accretion rates (≳ 10-4 M⊙yr-1) result in large dust sublimation radii, a larger contribution to the K-band continuum from hot dust at the dust sublimation radius, and therefore correspondingly lower CO emission with respect to the continuum. On the other hand, low accretion rates (≲ 10-6 M⊙yr-1) result in smaller dust sublimation radii, a correspondingly smaller emitting area of CO, and thus also lower CO emission with respect to the continuum. In general, moderate accretion rates produce the most prominent, and therefore detectable, CO first overtone emission. We compare our findings to a recent near-infrared spectroscopic survey of MYSOs, finding results consistent with our hypothesis. We conclude that the detection rate of CO bandhead emission in the spectra of MYSOs could be the result of MYSOs exhibiting a range of mass accretion rates, perhaps due to the variable accretion suggested by recent multi-epoch observations of these objects.

  1. Evaluation of flow accelerated corrosion by coupled analysis of corrosion and flow dynamics. Relationship of oxide film thickness, hematite/magnetite ratio, ECP and wall thinning rate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Uchida, Shunsuke; Naitoh, Masanori; Okada, Hidetoshi; Uehara, Yasushi; Koshizuka, Seiichi

    2011-01-01

    Systematic approaches to evaluate flow accelerated corrosion (FAC) are desired before discussing application of countermeasures for FAC. First, future FAC occurrence should be evaluated to identify locations where a higher possibility of FAC occurrence exists, and then, wall thinning rate at the identified FAC occurrence zone is evaluated to obtain the preparation time for applying countermeasures. Wall thinning rates were calculated with two coupled models: 1.static electrochemical analysis and 2.dynamic oxide layer growth analysis. The anodic current density and the electrochemical corrosion potential (ECP) were calculated with the static electrochemistry model based on an Evans diagram. The ferrous ion release rate, determined by the anodic current density, was applied as input for the dynamic double oxide layer model. Some of the dissolved ferrous ion was removed to the bulk water and others precipitated on the surface as magnetite particles. The thickness of oxide layer was calculated with the dynamic oxide layer growth model and then its value was used as input in the electrochemistry model. It was confirmed that the calculated results (corrosion rate and ECP) based on the coupled models were in good agreement with the measured ones. Higher ECP was essential for preventing FAC rate. Moderated conditions due to lower mass transfer coefficients resulted in thicker oxide layer thickness and then higher ECP, while moderated corrosion conditions due to higher oxidant concentrations resulted in larger hematite/magnetite rate and then higher ECP.

  2. Cognitive tests predict real-world errors: the relationship between drug name confusion rates in laboratory-based memory and perception tests and corresponding error rates in large pharmacy chains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schroeder, Scott R; Salomon, Meghan M; Galanter, William L; Schiff, Gordon D; Vaida, Allen J; Gaunt, Michael J; Bryson, Michelle L; Rash, Christine; Falck, Suzanne; Lambert, Bruce L

    2017-05-01

    Drug name confusion is a common type of medication error and a persistent threat to patient safety. In the USA, roughly one per thousand prescriptions results in the wrong drug being filled, and most of these errors involve drug names that look or sound alike. Prior to approval, drug names undergo a variety of tests to assess their potential for confusability, but none of these preapproval tests has been shown to predict real-world error rates. We conducted a study to assess the association between error rates in laboratory-based tests of drug name memory and perception and real-world drug name confusion error rates. Eighty participants, comprising doctors, nurses, pharmacists, technicians and lay people, completed a battery of laboratory tests assessing visual perception, auditory perception and short-term memory of look-alike and sound-alike drug name pairs (eg, hydroxyzine/hydralazine). Laboratory test error rates (and other metrics) significantly predicted real-world error rates obtained from a large, outpatient pharmacy chain, with the best-fitting model accounting for 37% of the variance in real-world error rates. Cross-validation analyses confirmed these results, showing that the laboratory tests also predicted errors from a second pharmacy chain, with 45% of the variance being explained by the laboratory test data. Across two distinct pharmacy chains, there is a strong and significant association between drug name confusion error rates observed in the real world and those observed in laboratory-based tests of memory and perception. Regulators and drug companies seeking a validated preapproval method for identifying confusing drug names ought to consider using these simple tests. By using a standard battery of memory and perception tests, it should be possible to reduce the number of confusing look-alike and sound-alike drug name pairs that reach the market, which will help protect patients from potentially harmful medication errors. Published by the BMJ

  3. Evaluation of flow accelerated corrosion by coupled analysis of corrosion and flow dynamics (3), relationship of oxide film thickness, hematite/magnetite ratio, ECP and wall thinning rate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Uchida, Shunsuke; Naitoh, Masanori; Okada, Hidetoshi; Uehara, Yasushi; Koshizuka, Seiichi

    2009-01-01

    Systematic approaches for evaluating flow accelerated corrosion (FAC) are desired before discussing application of countermeasures for FAC. Firstly, future FAC occurrence should be evaluated to identify locations where a higher possibility of FAC occurrence exists, and then, wall thinning rate at the identified FAC occurrence zone is evaluated to obtain the preparation time for applying countermeasures. Wall thinning rates were calculated with the coupled models of static electrochemical analysis and dynamic double oxide layer analysis. Anodic current density and electrochemical corrosion potential (ECP) were calculated with the static electrochemistry model based on an Evans diagram and ferrous ion release rate determined by the anodic current density was applied as input for the dynamic double oxide layer model. Some of the dissolved ferrous ion was removed to the bulk water and others precipitated on the surface as magnetite particles. The thickness of oxide layer was calculated with the dynamic double oxide layer model and then was applied as input for the electrochemistry model. It was confirmed that the calculated results based on the coupled models resulted good agreement with the measured ones. Higher ECP was essential for preventing FAC rate. Moderated conditions due to lower mass transfer coefficients resulted in thicker oxide layer thickness and then higher ECP, while moderated corrosion conditions due to higher oxidant concentrations resulted in larger hematite/magnetite rate and then higher ECP. (author)

  4. The effect of prolapse repair on urinary flow rates and the relationship to changes in the ultrasound appearance of the bladder neck.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duckett, Jonathan; Chakani, Dorothy

    2013-12-01

    To assess whether specific changes in bladder neck morphology, caused by an anterior repair operation, are associated with resolution of overactive bladder and improved urinary flow rates. Sixty-four women with urgency documented on the urgency perception scale (UPS) underwent an anterior repair. Their preoperative flow studies were compared to those 8 weeks postoperatively. Flow rates were compared in those women who reported improved or cured urgency to those who reported no effect. Resolution of urgency was correlated with the change in bladder neck angulation (posterior urethrovesical angle-PUA). 55% (35/64) women reported no urgency after the anterior repair. A further 19% (12/64) were improved and 26% (17/64) were no better. Patients who were cured or improved showed a significant increase in their flow rates after surgery (mean flow=15 before and 17.6 ml/s after) (Mann-Whitney p=0.04). There was a significant change (increase in the PUA angle/straightening of the angle between the bladder and urethra) from a mean value of 123 degrees (SD 49.3) preoperatively to a mean value of 146.8 (SD 29.2) post operatively (pflow rate centile (p=0.45, r=0.10). An anterior repair results in increased maximum urinary flow rates but this does not correlate to changes in the appearance of the bladder neck. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. The relationship between heart rate and mortality of patients with acute coronary syndromes in the coronary intervention era: Meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Tan; Zhan, Youqin; Xiong, Jianping; Lu, Nan; He, Zhuoqiao; Su, Xi; Tan, Xuerui

    2016-11-01

    Most of acute coronary syndromes (ACS) were receiving intervention treatment a high overall rate of coronary angiography in the modern medical practice.Consequently, we conduct a review to determine the heart rate (HR) on the prognosis of ACS in the coronary intervention era. PubMed, EMBASE, MEDLINE, and the Cochrane Library was systematically searched up to May 2016 using the search terms "heart rate," "acute coronary syndrome," "acute myocardial infarction," "ST elevation myocardial infarction," "non-ST-segment elevation." The outcome of interest was all-cause mortality. All analyses were performed using Review Manager. Database searches retrieved 2324 citations. Eleven studies enrolling 156,374 patients were included. In-hospital mortality was significantly higher in the elevated HR group compared to the lower HR group (pooled RR 2.04, 95%CI 1.80-2.30, P coronary intervention era.

  6. The Relationship Between the Childhood Autism Rating Scale: Second Edition and Clinical Diagnosis Utilizing the DSM-IV-TR and the DSM-5.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dawkins, Tamara; Meyer, Allison T; Van Bourgondien, Mary E

    2016-10-01

    The Childhood Autism Rating Scale, Second Edition (CARS2; 2010) includes two rating scales; the CARS2-Standard Version (CARS2-ST) and the newly developed CARS2-High Functioning Version (CARS2-HF). To assess the diagnostic agreement between the CARS2 and DSM-IV-TR versus DSM-5 criteria for Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD), clinicians at community based centers of the University of North Carolina TEACCH Autism Program rated participants seen for a diagnostic evaluation on symptoms of autism using both the DSM-IV-TR and DSM-5 criteria and either the CARS2-HF or the CARS2-ST. Findings suggest that overall, the diagnostic agreement of the CARS2 remains high across DSM-IV and DSM-5 criteria for autism.

  7. Relationship between accuracy and number of samples on statistical quantity and contour map of environmental gamma-ray dose rate. Example of random sampling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matsuda, Hideharu; Minato, Susumu

    2002-01-01

    The accuracy of statistical quantity like the mean value and contour map obtained by measurement of the environmental gamma-ray dose rate was evaluated by random sampling of 5 different model distribution maps made by the mean slope, -1.3, of power spectra calculated from the actually measured values. The values were derived from 58 natural gamma dose rate data reported worldwide ranging in the means of 10-100 Gy/h rates and 10 -3 -10 7 km 2 areas. The accuracy of the mean value was found around ±7% even for 60 or 80 samplings (the most frequent number) and the standard deviation had the accuracy less than 1/4-1/3 of the means. The correlation coefficient of the frequency distribution was found 0.860 or more for 200-400 samplings (the most frequent number) but of the contour map, 0.502-0.770. (K.H.)

  8. The relationship between emotion regulation capacity, heart rate variability, and quality of life in individuals with alcohol-related brain damage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Steinmetz JP

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Jean-Paul Steinmetz,1,2 Claus Vögele,3,4 Christiane Theisen-Flies,5 Carine Federspiel,1,2 Stefan Sütterlin6,7 1Department of Research and Development, ZithaSenior, 2Centre for Memory and Mobility, ZithaSenior, 3Institute for Health and Behaviour, Integrative Research Unit on Social and Individual Development (INSIDE, University of Luxembourg, Luxembourg; 4Research Group Health Psychology, University of Leuven, Leuven, Belgium; 5Home St Joseph, ZithaSenior, Luxembourg; 6Department of Psychology, Lillehammer University College, Lillehammer, 7Division of Surgery and Clinical Neuroscience, Department of Psychosomatic Medicine, Oslo University Hospital – Rikshospitalet, Oslo, Norway Abstract: The reliable measurement of quality of life (QoL presents a challenge in individuals with alcohol-related brain damage. This study investigated vagally mediated heart rate variability (vmHRV as a physiological predictor of QoL. Self- and proxy ratings of QoL and dysexecutive symptoms were collected once, while vmHRV was repeatedly assessed over a 3-week period at weekly intervals in a sample of nine alcohol-related brain damaged patients. We provide robustness checks, bootstrapped correlations with confidence intervals, and standard errors for mean scores. We observed low to very low heart rate variability scores in our patients in comparison to norm values found in healthy populations. Proxy ratings of the QoL scale “subjective physical and mental performance” and everyday executive dysfunctions were strongly related to vmHRV. Better proxy-rated QoL and fewer dysexecutive symptoms were observed in those patients with higher vmHRV. Overall, patients showed low parasympathetic activation favoring the occurrence of dysfunctional emotion regulation strategies. Keywords: heart rate variability, emotion regulation, alcohol-related brain damage, quality of life

  9. Declining rates of sterilization procedures in Western Australian women from 1990 to 2008: the relationship with age, hospital type, and government policy changes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jama-Alol, Khadra A; Bremner, Alexandra P; Stewart, Louise M; Kemp-Casey, Anna; Malacova, Eva; Moorin, Rachael; Shirangi, Adeleh; Preen, David B

    2016-09-01

    To describe trends in age-specific incidence rates of female sterilization (FS) procedures in Western Australia and to evaluate the effects of the introduction of government-subsidized contraceptive methods and the implementation of the Australian government's baby bonus policy on FS rates. Population-based retrospective descriptive study. Not applicable. All women ages 15-49 undergoing an FS procedure during the period January 1, 1990, to December 31, 2008 (n = 47,360 procedures). Records from statutory statewide data collections of hospitals separations and births were extracted and linked. Trends in FS procedures and the influence on these trends of the introduction of government policies: subsidization of long-acting reversible contraceptives (Implanon and Mirena) and the Australian baby bonus initiative. The annual incidence rate of FS procedures declined from 756.9 per 100,000 women in 1990 to 155.2 per 100,000 women in 2008. Compared with the period 1990-1994, women ages 30-39 years were 47% less likely (rate ratio [RR] = 0.53; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.39-0.72) to undergo sterilization during the period 2005-2008. Adjusting for overall trend, there were significant decreases in FS rates after government subsidization of Implanon (RR = 0.89; 95% CI, 0.82-0.97) and Mirena (RR = 0.81; 95% CI, 0.73-0.91) and the introduction of the baby bonus (RR = 0.70; 95% CI, 0.61-0.81). Rates of female sterilization procedures in Western Australia have declined substantially across all age groups in the last two decades. Women's decisions to undergo sterilization procedures may be influenced by government interventions that increase access to long-term reversible contraceptives or encourage childbirth. Copyright © 2016 American Society for Reproductive Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Providing prenatal care to pregnant women with overweight or obesity: Differences in provider communication and ratings of the patient-provider relationship by patient body weight.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Washington Cole, Katie O; Gudzune, Kimberly A; Bleich, Sara N; Cheskin, Lawrence J; Bennett, Wendy L; Cooper, Lisa A; Roter, Debra L

    2017-06-01

    To examine the association of women's body weight with provider communication during prenatal care. We coded audio recordings of prenatal visits between 22 providers and 117 of their patients using the Roter Interaction Analysis System. Multivariate, multilevel Poisson models were used to examine the relationship between patient pre-pregnancy body mass index and provider communication. Compared to women with normal weight, providers asked fewer lifestyle questions (IRR 0.66, 95% CI 0.44-0.99, p=0.04) and gave less lifestyle information (IRR 0.51, 95% CI 0.32-0.82, p=0.01) to women with overweight and obesity, respectively. Providers used fewer approval (IRR 0.68, 95% CI 0.51-0.91, p=0.01) and concern statements (IRR 0.68, 95% CI 0.53-0.86, p=0.002) when caring for women with overweight and fewer self-disclosure statements caring for women with obesity (IRR 0.40, 95% CI 0.19-0.84 p=0.02). Less lifestyle and rapport building communication for women with obesity may weaken patient-provider relationship during routine prenatal care. Interventions to increase use of patient-centered communication - especially for women with overweight and obesity - may improve prenatal care quality. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. The relationship between dose rate and transformation induction in C3H/10T1/2 cells by TRIGA reactor fission neutrons at 0.3 Gy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Balcer-Kubiczek, E.K.; Harrison, G.H.

    1989-01-01

    The authors present their own and other data showing dose-effect relations for cell survival and the induction of transformations in C3H/IOT 1/2 cells in exponential or stationary cultures after a range of high dose-rate irradiations with X-rays or AFRRI neutrons. (UK)

  12. Declining rates of sterilisation reversal procedures in western Australian women from 1990 to 2008: the relationship with age, hospital type and government policy changes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jama-Alol, Khadra A; Bremner, Alexandra P; Pereira, Gavin; Stewart, Louise M; Malacova, Eva; Moorin, Rachael; Preen, David B

    2017-11-25

    Female sterilisation is usually performed on an elective basis at perceived family completion, however, around 1-3% of women who have undergone sterilisation elect to undergo sterilisation reversal (SR) at a later stage. The trends in SR rates in Western Australia (WA), proportions of SR procedures between hospital types (public and private), and the effects of Federal Government policies on these trends are unknown. Using records from statutory state-wide data collections of hospital separations and births, we conducted a retrospective descriptive study of all women aged 15-49 years who underwent a SR procedure during the period 1st January 1990 to 31st December 2008 (n = 1868 procedures). From 1991 to 2007 the annual incidence rate of SR procedures per 10,000 women declined from 47.0 to 3.6. Logistic regression modelling showed that from 1997 to 2001 the odds of women undergoing SR in a private hospital as opposed to all other hospitals were 1.39 times higher (95% CI 1.07-1.81) and 7.51 times higher (95% CI 5.46-10.31) from 2002 to 2008. There were significant decreases in SR rates overall and among different age groups after the Federal Government interventions. Rates of SR procedures in WA have declined from 1990 to 2008, particularly following policy changes such as the introduction of private health insurance (PHI) policies. This suggests decisions to undergo SR may be influenced by Federal Government interventions.

  13. The inter-relationship between dietary and environmental properties and tooth wear: comparisons of mesowear, molar wear rate, and hypsodonty index of extant Sika deer populations.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mugino Ozaki Kubo

    Full Text Available In reference to the evolutionary trend of increasing cheek tooth height in herbivorous ungulates, the causes of dental abrasion have long been debated. Interspecific comparisons of extant ungulates have revealed that both phytoliths in grass and external abrasive matter may play important roles. Using analysis of extant sika deer living in various environments and showing continuous latitudinal variation in food habits from northern grazing to southern browsing, we quantitatively evaluated the influence of dietary and environmental properties on three dental variables: mesowear score (MS, molar wear rate, and M3 hypsodonty index. We used 547 skulls and 740 mandibles from 16 populations of sika deer to obtain the dental measurements. We found that only graminoid proportion in diet correlated with MS and the molar wear rate, implying that phytoliths in grass abrade dental tissues. In contrast, annual precipitation in habitat was not correlated with any of the dental variables. We also found a significant correlation between the molar wear rate (selective pressure for high-crowned molars and the M3 hypsodonty index of extant sika deer, implying an evolutionary increment in molar height corresponding to the molar wear rate. Our intraspecific comparative analyses provide further support for use of mesowear analysis as a paleodiet estimation method; it not only reveals staple food types (graminoids or dicots but also implies regional or seasonal variation in the diet of the species.

  14. Identifying developmental coordination disorder : MOQ-T validity as a fast screening instrument based on teachers' ratings and its relationship with praxic and visuospatial working memory deficits

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Giofre, David; Cornoldi, Cesare; Schoemaker, Marina M.

    2014-01-01

    The present study was devoted to test the validity, of the Italian adaptation of the Motor Observation Questionnaire for Teachers (MOQ-T, Schoemaker, Flapper, Reinders-Messelink, & De Kloet, 2008) as a fast screening instrument, based on teachers' ratings, for detecting developmental coordination

  15. Satisfied doctors ... satisfied patients?: the relationship between patient-, GP-and practice characteristics and the quality of care ratings of patients.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sixma, H.J.; Spreeuwenberg, P.

    2004-01-01

    Background: Quality of care from the patients’ perspective can be seen as a key element of health care policy and the management of health care services. Aim: The aims of this paper are twofold. 1) To look at differences in the quality of care ratings of GP patients. 2) To explore the

  16. Relationship Between Hepatic Albumin and Sulphate Synthesis and its Use in Measurement of the Absolute Rate of Synthesis of Liver-Produced Plasma Proteins

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Awwad, H. K.; Sheraki, A. S. [Department of Radiology and Radiological Sciences, Cancer Institute, University of Cairo, Cairo (Egypt); Radioisotope Unit, Medical Research Institute, Alexandria (Egypt)

    1971-02-15

    A model is proposed whereby serum albumin synthesis is expressed in terms of production of inorganic sulphate in the liver and the entire organism, following the administration of {sup 35}S-L-cystine. The basis assumption involved is that the precursor amino acid pool for albumin synthesis in the liver is either identical with that of inorganic sulphate synthesis or that the two pools concerned are in rapid equilibrium with each other so that they can be treated as a single pool. The feasibility of the proposed model was tested by comparing the synthesis rate of rat serum albumin with the catabolic rate of the radioiodinated protein measured in the same animal. A good agreement between the two rates was noted in a group of adult rats, whereas an excess of anabolism was noted in young growing animals. In rats fed low-protein diet, the synthesis rate exceeded the catabolic rate; both being subnormal. The equilibrium between hepatic and plasma radiosulphate concentration was complete within four hours following the injection of {sup 35}S-cystine. The total radiosulphate production could then be evaluated after such an interval from the urinary excretion and serum concentration multiplied by the volume of the sulphate space. Lack of significant re-utilization was demonstrated following the injection of radiosulphate. This is a decided advantage of the proposed method. However, extensive re-utilization of selenate selenium in the synthesis of the seleno-analogues of sulphur-amino acids was shown. This could explain the poor yield of radioselenate following the injection of {sup 75}Se-selenocystine and precludes the use of the latter agent as a tracer for measurement of synthesis of plasma proteins. (author)

  17. [Studies on the relationship between beta-adrenergic receptor density on cell wall lymphocytes, total serum catecholamine level and heart rate in patients with hyperthyroidism].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gajek, J; Zieba, I; Zyśko, D

    2000-08-01

    Hyperthyreosis mimics the hyperadrenergic state and its symptoms were though to be dependent on increased level of catecholamines. Another reason for the symptoms could be the increased density or affinity of beta-adrenergic receptors to catecholamines. The aim of the study was to examine the elements of sympathetic nervous system, thyroid hormones level and their influence on heart rate control in patients with hyperthyreosis. The study was carried out in 18 women, mean age 48.9 +/- 8.7 yrs and 6 men, mean age 54.2 +/- 8.7 yrs. The control group consisted of 30 healthy persons matched for age and sex. We examined the density of beta-adrenergic receptors using radioligand labelling method with 125I-cyanopindolol, serum total catecholamines level with radioenzymatic assay kit, the levels of free thyroid hormones using radioimmunoassays and thyreotropine level with immunoradiometric assay. Maximal, minimal and mean heart rate were studied using Holter monitoring system. The density of beta-adrenergic receptors in hyperthyreosis was 37.3 +/- 21.7 vs 37.2 +/- 18.1 fmol/mg in the control group (p = NS). Total catecholamines level was significantly decreased in hyperthyreosis group: 1.5 +/- 0.89 vs 1.9 +/- 0.73 pmol/ml (p < 0.05). There was significantly higher minimal, maximal and mean heart rate in hyperthyreosis group (p < 0.0001, p < 0.0001 and p < 0.05 respectively). There was a weak inverse correlation between minimum heart rate and triiodothyronine level (r = -0.38, p < 0.05). An inverse correlation between triiodothyronine and catecholamines level (r = -0.49, p < 0.05) was observed. Beta-adrenergic receptors density is unchanged and catecholamines level is decreased in hyperthyreosis when compared to normal subjects. There is no correlation between minimal heart rate and adrenergic receptors density or catecholamines level in hyperthyreosis.

  18. Relationships between coastal bacterioplankton growth rates and biomass production: comparison of leucine and thymidine uptake with single-cell physiological characteristics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franco-Vidal, Leticia; Morán, Xosé Anxelu G

    2011-02-01

    Specific growth rates of heterotrophic bacterioplankton have been frequently estimated from in situ bacterial production (BP) to biomass (BB) ratios, using a series of assumptions that may result in serious discrepancies with values obtained from predator-free cultures. Here, we used both types of approaches together with a comprehensive assessment of single-cell physiological characteristics (membrane integrity, nucleic acid content, and active respiration) of coastal bacterioplankton during a complete annual cycle (February 2007-January 2008) in the southern Bay of Biscay off Xixón, Spain. Both leucine and thymidine incorporation rates were used in conjunction with empirical tracer to carbon or cells conversion factors (eCFs) to accurately derive BP. Leu and TdR incorporation rates covaried year-round, as did the corresponding eCFs at 0 and 50 m depth. eCFs peaked in autumn, with mean annual values close to the theoretical ones (3.4 kg C mol Leu(-1) and 2.0 × 10(18) cells mol TdR(-1)). Bacterial abundance (0.2-1.5 × 10(6) cells L(-1)) showed a bimodal distribution with maxima in May and October and minima in March. Live (membrane-intact) cells dominated year-round (79-97%), with high nucleic acid cells (42-88%) and actively respiring bacteria (CTC+, 1-16%) showing distinct surface maxima in April and July, respectively. BB (557-1,558 mg C m(-2)) and BP (7-139 mg C m(-2) day(-1)) presented two distinct peaks in spring and autumn, both of similar size due to a strong upwelling event observed in September. Specific growth rates (0.35-3.8 day(-1)) were one order of magnitude higher in predator-free incubations than bacterial turnover rates derived from integrated BP:BB ratios (0.01-0.16 and 0.01-0.09 day(-1), for Leu and TdR, respectively) and were not correlated, probably due to a significant contribution of low activity cells to total standing stocks. The Leu:TdR molar ratio averaged for the water column (6.6-25.5) decreased significantly with higher integrated

  19. Constant post-irradiation repopulation rates and linear relationship between cellular blood response and number of transplanted bone marrow cells in inbread mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Petersen, B.H.

    1977-01-01

    Graded doses of syngeneic bone marrow cells were transplanted into lethally irradiated mice. Repopulation curves of peripheral blood granulocytes and platelets were apparently exponential and parallel after doses larger than 5 x 10 5 cells. The blood platelet sub(d) was reduced from 111 h to 53-57 h, and granulocyte Tsub(d) from 57 to 40 h in transplanted groups. The mean blood cell counts were reproducible to be used as a biological assay of the amount of bone marrow cells transplanted. Linear relationship between increment of blood cells up to day 16 and number of bone marrow cells transplanted on day 1 was demonstrated (1,200 granulocytes and 14,300 platelets/μl blood per 10 5 bone marrow cells). The linearity suggested a mean Tsub(d) < 22.5 h of proliferating bone marrow cells, and allowed a rough estimation of mouse bone marrow stem cell radiosensitivity (Dsub(o) 76 rad). (author)

  20. Longitudinal investigation of the relationship between family history of psychosis and affective disorders and Child Behavior Checklist ratings in clinical high-risk adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simeonova, Diana I; Lee, Frances J; Walker, Elaine F

    2015-08-01

    This is the first study to investigate whether positive family history (FH) of psychosis and affective disorders moderates the relationship between child diagnostic status and parent-reported social and behavioral problems on the Child Behavior Checklist (CBCL) in clinical high-risk adolescents. This longitudinal investigation assessed 122 participants (mean age=14.25±1.8years) from three groups (at-risk, other personality disorders, non-psychiatric controls) at baseline and one year follow-up. As predicted, there was a main effect of FH for a number of CBCL scales indicating higher scores for adolescents with positive FH. The findings also demonstrate a significant Diagnostic Status×Family History interaction for several behavioral scales providing support for FH as a concurrent and longitudinal moderator of the relationship between diagnostic status and CBCL scales. The moderating effect is present for areas of functioning associated with depression, anxiety, social adjustment, thought problems, attention problems, and aggressive behavior. The findings also indicate that both positive and negative symptoms are related to the genetic vulnerability for developing psychosis in clinical high-risk individuals, particularly those symptoms reflective of emotional, attentional, and interpersonal functioning. The present findings are novel and have significant clinical and research implications. This investigation provides a platform for future studies to clarify further the role of FH in clinical high-risk individuals and contributes to integration of this knowledge in the development of early intervention and prevention approaches in at-risk populations for the emergence of severe mental illness. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Examining the relationship between pre- and postimplant geometry in prostate low-dose-rate brachytherapy and its correlation with dosimetric quality using the similarity concept.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Todor, Dorin A; Anscher, Mitchell S; Karlin, Jeremy D; Hagan, Michael P

    2014-01-01

    This is a retrospective study in which we define multiple metrics for similarity and then inquire on the relationship between similarity and currently used dosimetric quantities describing preimplant and postimplant plans. We analyzed a unique cohort of 94 consecutively performed prostate seed implant patients, associated with excellent dosimetric and clinical outcomes. For each patient, an ultrasound (US) preimplant and two CT postimplant (Day 0 and Day 30) studies were available. Measures for similarity were created and computed using feature vectors based on two classes of moments: first, invariant to rotation and translation, and the second polar-radius moments invariant to rotation, translation, and scaling. Both similarity measures were calibrated using controlled perturbations (random and systematic) of seed positions and contours in different size implants, thus producing meaningful numerical threshold values used in the clinical analysis. An important finding is that similarity, for both seed distributions and contours, improves significantly when scaling invariance is added to translation and rotation. No correlation between seed and contours similarity was found. In the setting of preplanned prostate seed implants using preloaded needles, based on our data, similarity between preimplant and postimplant plans does not correlate with either minimum dose to 90% of the volume of the prostate or analogous similarity metrics for prostate contours. We have developed novel tools and metrics, which will allow practitioners to better understand the relationship between preimplant and postimplant plans. Geometrical similarity between a preplan and an actual implant, although useful, does not seem to be necessary to achieve minimum dose to 90% of the volume of the prostate-good dosimetric implants. Copyright © 2014 American Brachytherapy Society. All rights reserved.

  2. [Recovery and light microscopic evaluation of follicular oocytes of swine and relationship between the degeneration rate of oocytes and the estrus phase].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schnurrbusch, U; Schmette, C; Elze, K

    1990-10-01

    Cumulus-oocyte complexes were recovered from 25 gilts by aspiration of follicular fluid or cutting of follicles from all Graafian follicles of greater than or equal to 3 mm in diameter during diestrus, proestrus or estrus. In 5 gilts the oocytes were collected post ovulation by flushing of oviducts. The recovery rate of follicular oocytes differed between 75.5% during the late diestrus (days 13-17) and 43.5% during the proestrus (days 18-21). During the proestrus and on day 1 of the estrus the recovery of oocytes was more difficult as a result of the higher viscosity of follicular fluid and the mucification of cumulus-oocyte complexes. The degeneration rate of oocytes was high during the diestrus with a peak at the time of regression of corpora lutea. From diestrus to the estrus the degeneration rate decreased. Following degeneration rates were found in the oocytes during the cycle: days 7-12: 38.8%, days 13-17: 50.0%, days 18-21: 29.6%, day 1 of the estrus: 10.8%, day 2 of the estrus ante ovulation: 11.8%, day 2 of the estrus post ovulation: 6.2%. Signs of degeneration were: Loss of cumulus cells (during diestrus and proestrus), damaged zona pellucida, enlargement of perivitelline space, deformation of oocyte, alteration of structure of the ooplasm, diameter of vitellus less than 100 microns. It was concluded that the selection of dominant follicles takes place in pigs during a long time of the cycle, especially during the diestrus. There were not any indications of a 2-wave hypothesis of follicular growth during the cycle in pig.

  3. The Relationship of a Combination of Human Adipose Tissue-Derived Stem Cells and Frozen Fat with the Survival Rate of Transplanted Fat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ki-Young Ha

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available BackgroundThe survival rate of grafted fat is difficult to predict, and repeated procedures are frequently required. In this study, the effects of the freezing period of harvested adipose tissue and the addition of human adipose tissue-derived stem cells (ASCs on the process of fat absorption were studied.MethodsAdipose tissue was obtained from patients who underwent a lipoaspirated fat graft. The fat tissue was cryopreserved at -20℃ in a domestic refrigerator. A total of 40 nude mice were used. The mice in the experimental group received three different subcutaneous injections in the back: an injection of fresh fat and ASCs, an injection of fat that had been frozen for one month and ASCs, and an injection of fat that had been frozen for two months and ASCs. The control mice received fat grafts without ASCs. The mice were sacrificed at four or eight weeks after the procedure, and the grafted fat tissues were harvested. The extracted fat was evaluated using photographic analysis, volume measurements, and histological examination.ResultsIn the control group, the fat resorption rates four weeks after transplantation in the grafts of fresh fat, fat that had been frozen for one month, and fat that had been frozen for two months were 21.14%, 22.46%, and 42.56%, respectively. In the experimental group, the corresponding resorption rates were 6.68%, 13.0%, and 33.9%, respectively.ConclusionsASCs can increase the fat graft survival rate. The use of ASCs in fat grafting can reduce the need for repeated fat grafts and provide good long term results.

  4. Consumer Health Information Websites with High Visual Design Ratings Likely to Be also Highly Rated for Perceived Credibility. A Review of: Robins, D., Holmes, J., & Stansbury, M. (2010. Consumer health information on the web: The relationship of visual design and perceptions of credibility. Journal of the American Society for Information Science and Technology, 61(1, 13-19.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kate Kelly

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Objective – To answer two research questions: 1 What is the relationship between the visual design of a consumer health information web site and perceptions of the credibility of information found on it? 2 Is there a relationship between brand recognition, visual design preference, and credibility judgments?Design – Qualitative (correlation of rating of response to stimulus and quantitative (credibility coding of participant commentsSetting – Not stated; assumed to be academic institutions in the United States.Subjects – Thirty-four participants over the age of 35 (34 for statistical power and age over 35 on the hypothesis that this age group is most likely to seek health information on the Internet.Methods – Screen shots of 31 consumer health information sites chosen from the results of a Google search using the term “consumer health information” were converted to slide format and shown to participants. The 31 sites included 12 of the top ranked consumer health information sites derived from three sources: the Consumer and Patient Health Information Section (CAPHIS of the Medical Library Association (MLA, the MLA itself, and Consumer Reports. Participants were read and shown a script explaining the process prior to being asked to view and rate the 31 sites. Participants were first shown a blank slide with a crosshair to focus attention. Then a stimulus slide was shown for 2.8 seconds. A blank black screen was shown while they determined their rating. Participants were first asked to rate the visual design and aesthetics of the 31 web sites using a rating scale of -4 to -1 for negative judgments and +1 to +4 for positive judgments. Then they were asked to remember why they had made positive or negative ratings and why some web sites were preferred to others. The process was repeated with the slides re-ordered, and participants were asked to rate the credibility of the sites using the same rating scales. Upon completion

  5. Rectal Bleeding After High-Dose-Rate Brachytherapy Combined With Hypofractionated External-Beam Radiotherapy for Localized Prostate Cancer: The Relationship Between Dose-Volume Histogram Parameters and the Occurrence Rate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Okamoto, Masahiko; Ishikawa, Hitoshi; Ebara, Takeshi; Kato, Hiroyuki; Tamaki, Tomoaki; Akimoto, Tetsuo; Ito, Kazuto; Miyakubo, Mai; Yamamoto, Takumi; Suzuki, Kazuhiro; Takahashi, Takeo; Nakano, Takashi

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: To determine the predictive risk factors for Grade 2 or worse rectal bleeding after high-dose-rate brachytherapy (HDR-BT) combined with hypofractionated external-beam radiotherapy (EBRT) for prostate cancer using dose–volume histogram analysis. Methods and Materials: The records of 216 patients treated with HDR-BT combined with EBRT were analyzed. The treatment protocols for HDR-BT were 5 Gy × five times in 3 days or 7 Gy × three, 10.5 Gy × two, or 9 Gy × two in 2 days. The EBRT doses ranged from 45 to 51 Gy with a fractional dose of 3 Gy. Results: In 20 patients Grade 2 or worse rectal bleeding developed, and the cumulative incidence rate was 9% at 5 years. By converting the HDR-BT and EBRT radiation doses into biologic effective doses (BED), the BED 3 at rectal volumes of 5% and 10% in the patients who experienced bleeding were significantly higher than those in the remaining 196 patients. Univariate analysis showed that a higher rectal BED 3–5% and the use of fewer needles in brachytherapy were correlated with the incidence of bleeding, but BED 3–5% was found to be the only significant factor on multivariate analysis. Conclusions: The radiation dose delivered to small rectal lesions as 5% is important for predicting Grade 2 or worse rectal bleeding after HDR-BT combined with EBRT for prostate cancer.

  6. The Relationship between Place of Residence and Hospitalization Rate in the Biggest Referral Hospital of the Northwest according to Hospitalization Wards

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amin Talebpour

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available ​ Background and objectives: In accordance with the global pattern, the urban population in Iran is higher than the rural population. But, are the statistics of using hospitalization services in public hospitals in these two categories similar to this pattern? This study seeks to determine the effect of place of residence on hospitalization rate by examining annual hospitalization statistics of the country’s biggest referral hospital in the northwest. Material and Methods: The method used in this study is cross-sectional and all cases of hospitalization in Imam Reza Hospital as the northwest’s biggest referral hospital were picked by available sampling method. The cases of 30260 hospitalized patients were examined through direct observation and items extracted from their files were recorded in the checklist. In order to determine the relations between the variables, K2 test was applied and the P-value was considered less than 0.05 The obtained data were analyzed by SPSS.16 software. Results: Results indicated that the frequency distribution of patients in terms of their urban or rural residence did not yield any significant difference (P>0/05. Results also showed that the highest hospitalization rate for urban patients was 16.1% (3305 individuals in surgery ward while it was 14.2% (1384 individuals for rural patients in orthopedic ward. The least significant statistical difference between urban and rural hospitalization rates was observed in renal ward with 72.9% (1162 individual urban patients and 27.1% (432 individuals rural patients of total patients hospitalized in this ward. The most significant statistical difference between urban and rural hospitalization rates was observed in ICU with 44.9% (297 individuals urban patients and 55.1% (365 individuals rural patients of the total patients hospitalized in this ward. Conclusion: A relative comparison among illnesses in urban and rural populations, aside from illnesses caused by trauma

  7. Relationship between Receipt of a Social Protection Grant for a Child and Second Pregnancy Rates among South African Women: A Cohort Study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Molly Rosenberg

    Full Text Available Social protection programs issuing cash grants to caregivers of young children may influence fertility. Grant-related income could foster economic independence and/or increase access to job prospects, education, and health services, resulting in lower pregnancy rates. In the other direction, these programs may motivate family expansion in order to receive larger grants. Here, we estimate the net effect of these countervailing mechanisms among rural South African women.We constructed a retrospective cohort of 4845 women who first became eligible for the Child Support Grant with the birth of their first child between 1998 and 2008, with data originally collected by the Agincourt Health and Socio-Demographic Surveillance System in Mpumalanga province, South Africa. We fit Cox regression models to estimate the hazard of second pregnancy in women who reported grant receipt after birth of first child, relative to non-recipients. As a secondary analysis to explore the potential for grant loss to incentivize second pregnancy, we exploited a natural experiment created by a 2003 expansion of the program's age eligibility criterion from age seven to nine. We compared second pregnancy rates between (i women with children age seven or eight in 2002 (recently aged out of grant eligibility to (ii women with children age seven or eight in 2003 (remained grant-eligible.The adjusted hazard ratio for the association between grant exposure and second pregnancy was 0.66 (95% CI: 0.58, 0.75. Women with first children who aged out of grant eligibility in 2002 had similar second pregnancy rates to women with first children who remained grant-eligible in 2003 [IRR (95% CI: 0.9 (0.5, 1.4].Across both primary and secondary analyses, we found no evidence that the Child Support Grant incentivizes pregnancy. In harmony with South African population policy, receipt of the Child Support Grant may result in longer spacing between pregnancies.

  8. Antibiotic policies in acute English NHS trusts: implementation of 'Start Smart-Then Focus' and relationship with Clostridium difficile infection rates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Llewelyn, Martin J; Hand, Kieran; Hopkins, Susan; Walker, A Sarah

    2015-04-01

    The objective of this study was to establish how antibiotic prescribing policies at National Health Service (NHS) hospitals match the England Department of Health 'Start Smart-Then Focus' recommendations and relate to Clostridium difficile infection (CDI) rates. Antibiotic pharmacists were surveyed regarding recommendations for empirical treatment of common syndromes ('Start Smart') and antimicrobial prescription reviews ('Focus') at their hospital trusts. If no response was provided, policy data were sought from trust websites and the MicroGuide app (Horizon Strategic Partners, UK). Empirical treatment recommendations were categorized as broad spectrum (a β-lactam penicillin/β-lactamase inhibitor, cephalosporin, quinolone or carbapenem) or narrow spectrum. CDI rates were gathered from the national mandatory surveillance system. Data were obtained for 105/145 English acute hospital trusts (72%). β-Lactam/β-lactamase inhibitor combinations were recommended extensively. Only for severe community-acquired pneumonia and pyelonephritis were narrow-spectrum agents recommended first line at a substantial number of trusts [42/105 (40%) and 50/105 (48%), respectively]. Policies commonly recommended dual therapy with aminoglycosides and β-lactams for abdominal sepsis [40/93 trusts (43%)] and undifferentiated severe sepsis [54/94 trusts (57%)]. Most policies recommended treating for ≥ 7 days for most indications. Nearly all policies [100/105 trusts (95%)] recommended antimicrobial prescription reviews, but only 46/96 respondents (48%) reported monitoring compliance. Independent predictors of higher CDI rates were recommending a broad-spectrum regimen for community-acquired pneumonia (P=0.06) and, counterintuitively, a recommended treatment duration of Smart' by recommending broad-spectrum antibiotics for empirical therapy, but this may have the unintended potential to increase the use of broad-spectrum antibiotics and risk of CDI unless better mechanisms are in place

  9. Ventilation rates and health

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sundell, Jan; Levin, H; Nazaroff, W W

    2011-01-01

    and health effects to inform the relationship. Consistency was found across multiple investigations and different epidemiologic designs for different populations. Multiple health endpoints show similar relationships with ventilation rate. There is biological plausibility for an association of health outcomes...... studies of the relationship between ventilation rates and health, especially in diverse climates, in locations with polluted outdoor air and in buildings other than offices. PRACTICAL IMPLICATIONS: Ventilation with outdoor air plays an important role influencing human exposures to indoor pollutants...

  10. Relationship of flow rate, uric acid, peroxidase, and superoxide dismutase activity levels with complications in diabetic patients: can saliva be used to diagnose diabetes?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zloczower, Moshe; Reznick, Abraham Z; Zouby, Rula Obeid; Nagler, Rafael M

    2007-06-01

    Can salivary free radicals and antioxidant parameters be useful in general diagnosis and evaluation of diabetes mellitus Type II (DM)? Serum and salivary redox state of 40 diabetes mellitus patients were examined and compared with 20 controls. The involvement of salivary gland in diabetes mellitus has been suggested based on salivary flow rate and compositional alterations. In addition, the redox state of saliva of diabetes mellitus patients is different than that of normoglycemic control human subjects. This observation unveils the opportunity to use noninvasive saliva-based diagnostics for diabetes mellitus patients.

  11. Segmental Aortic Stiffness in Children and Young Adults With Connective Tissue Disorders: Relationships With Age, Aortic Size, Rate of Dilation, and Surgical Root Replacement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prakash, Ashwin; Adlakha, Himanshu; Rabideau, Nicole; Hass, Cara J; Morris, Shaine A; Geva, Tal; Gauvreau, Kimberlee; Singh, Michael N; Lacro, Ronald V

    2015-08-18

    Aortic diameter is an imperfect predictor of aortic complications in connective tissue disorders (CTDs). Novel indicators of vascular phenotype severity such as aortic stiffness and vertebral tortuosity index have been proposed. We assessed the relation between aortic stiffness by cardiac MRI, surgical root replacement, and rates of aortic root dilation in children and young adults with CTDs. Retrospective analysis of cardiac MRI data on children and young adults with a CTD was performed to derive aortic stiffness measures (strain, distensibility, and β-stiffness index) at the aortic root, ascending aorta, and descending aorta. Vertebral tortuosity index was calculated as previously described. Rate of aortic root dilation before cardiac MRI was calculated as change in echocardiographic aortic root diameter z score per year. In 83 CTD patients (median age, 24 years; range, 1-55; 17% age; 60% male), ascending aorta distensibility was reduced in comparison with published normative values: median z score, -1.93 (range, -8.7 to 1.3; Pyoung adults with CTDs. © 2015 American Heart Association, Inc.

  12. Examining the relationship between free recall and immediate serial recall: Similar patterns of rehearsal and similar effects of word length, presentation rate, and articulatory suppression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhatarah, Parveen; Ward, Geoff; Smith, Jessica; Hayes, Louise

    2009-07-01

    In five experiments, rehearsal and recall phenomena were examined using the free recall and immediate serial recall (ISR) tasks. In Experiment 1, participants were presented with lists of eight words, were precued or postcued to respond using free recall or ISR, and rehearsed out loud during presentation. The patterns of rehearsal were similar in all the conditions, and there was little difference between recall in the precued and postcued conditions. In Experiment 2, both free recall and ISR were sensitive to word length and presentation rate and showed similar patterns of rehearsal. In Experiment 3, both tasks were sensitive to word length and articulatory suppression. The word length effects generalized to 6-item (Experiment 4) and 12-item (Experiment 5) lists. These findings suggest that the two tasks are underpinned by highly similar rehearsal and recall processes.

  13. The Effect of a Rapid Heating Rate, Mechanical Vibration and Surfactant Chemistry on the Structure–Property Relationships of Epoxy/Clay Nanocomposites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kevin Magniez

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available The role of processing conditions and intercalant chemistry in montmorillonite clays on the dispersion, morphology and mechanical properties of two epoxy/clay nanocomposite systems was investigated in this paper. This work highlights the importance of employing complementary techniques (X-ray diffraction, small angle X-ray scattering, optical microscopy and transmission electron microscopy to correlate nanomorphology to macroscale properties. Materials were prepared using an out of autoclave manufacturing process equipped to generate rapid heating rates and mechanical vibration. The results suggested that the quaternary ammonium surfactant on C30B clay reacted with the epoxy during cure, while the primary ammonium surfactant (I.30E catalysed the polymerisation reaction. These effects led to important differences in nanocomposite clay morphologies. The use of mechanical vibration at 4 Hz prior to matrix gelation was found to facilitate clay dispersion and to reduce the area fraction of I.30E clay agglomerates in addition to increasing flexural strength by over 40%.

  14. The Effect of a Rapid Heating Rate, Mechanical Vibration and Surfactant Chemistry on the Structure–Property Relationships of Epoxy/Clay Nanocomposites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nuhiji, Betime; Attard, Darren; Thorogood, Gordon; Hanley, Tracey; Magniez, Kevin; Bungur, Jenny; Fox, Bronwyn

    2013-01-01

    The role of processing conditions and intercalant chemistry in montmorillonite clays on the dispersion, morphology and mechanical properties of two epoxy/clay nanocomposite systems was investigated in this paper. This work highlights the importance of employing complementary techniques (X-ray diffraction, small angle X-ray scattering, optical microscopy and transmission electron microscopy) to correlate nanomorphology to macroscale properties. Materials were prepared using an out of autoclave manufacturing process equipped to generate rapid heating rates and mechanical vibration. The results suggested that the quaternary ammonium surfactant on C30B clay reacted with the epoxy during cure, while the primary ammonium surfactant (I.30E) catalysed the polymerisation reaction. These effects led to important differences in nanocomposite clay morphologies. The use of mechanical vibration at 4 Hz prior to matrix gelation was found to facilitate clay dispersion and to reduce the area fraction of I.30E clay agglomerates in addition to increasing flexural strength by over 40%. PMID:28811457

  15. Poor comprehenders in the classroom: teacher ratings of behavior in children with poor reading comprehension and its relationship with individual differences in working memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pimperton, Hannah; Nation, Kate

    2014-01-01

    Differing etiological explanations have been proposed to account for poor comprehenders' difficulties with reading comprehension, with some researchers emphasizing working memory deficits and others arguing for oral language weaknesses playing a key causal role. The authors contrasted these two theoretical accounts using data obtained from direct measures of working memory and from teacher ratings of poor comprehenders' behavior in the classroom. At the group level, poor comprehenders showed weaknesses on verbal but not nonverbal working memory tasks, in keeping with the "language account." However, they also showed evidence of elevated levels of problem behaviors specifically associated with working memory deficits. Further analysis revealed that these group differences in working-memory-related problem behaviors were carried by a small subgroup of poor comprehenders who also displayed domain-general (verbal and nonverbal) working memory problems, argued to be reflective of "genuine" underlying working memory deficits.

  16. Density functional theory study on aqueous aluminum-fluoride complexes: exploration of the intrinsic relationship between water-exchange rate constants and structural parameters for monomer aluminum complexes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Xiaoyan; Qian, Zhaosheng; Lu, Bangmei; Yang, Wenjing; Bi, Shuping

    2011-01-01

    Density functional theory (DFT) calculation is carried out to investigate the structures, (19)F and (27)Al NMR chemical shifts of aqueous Al-F complexes and their water-exchange reactions. The following investigations are performed in this paper: (1) the microscopic properties of typical aqueous Al-F complexes are obtained at the level of B3LYP/6-311+G**. Al-OH(2) bond lengths increase with F(-) replacing inner-sphere H(2)O progressively, indicating labilizing effect of F(-) ligand. The Al-OH(2) distance trans to fluoride is longer than other Al-OH(2) distance, accounting for trans effect of F(-) ligand. (19)F and (27)Al NMR chemical shifts are calculated using GIAO method at the HF/6-311+G** level relative to F(H(2)O)(6)(-) and Al(H(2)O)(6)(3+) references, respectively. The results are consistent with available experimental values; (2) the dissociative (D) activated mechanism is observed by modeling water-exchange reaction for [Al(H(2)O)(6-i)F(i)]((3-i)+) (i = 1-4). The activation energy barriers are found to decrease with increasing F(-) substitution, which is in line with experimental rate constants (k(ex)). The log k(ex) of AlF(3)(H(2)O)(3)(0) and AlF(4)(H(2)O)(2)(-) are predicted by three ways. The results indicate that the correlation between log k(ex) and Al-O bond length as well as the given transmission coefficient allows experimental rate constants to be predicted, whereas the correlation between log k(ex) and activation free energy is poor; (3) the environmental significance of this work is elucidated by the extension toward three fields, that is, polyaluminum system, monomer Al-organic system and other metal ions system with high charge-to-radius ratio.

  17. Relationship between PSA kinetics and [{sup 18}F]fluorocholine PET/CT detection rates of recurrence in patients with prostate cancer after total prostatectomy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Graute, Vera; Jansen, Nathalie; Uebleis, Christopher; Cumming, Paul; Klanke, Katharina; Tiling, Reinhold; Bartenstein, Peter; Hacker, Marcus [University of Munich, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Munich (Germany); Seitz, Michael [University of Munich, Department of Urology, Munich (Germany); Hartenbach, Markus [Bundeswehrkrankenhaus Ulm, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Ulm (Germany); Scherr, Michael Karl; Thieme, Sven [University of Munich, Institute of Clinical Radiology, Munich (Germany)

    2012-02-15

    The aim of the present study was to identify prostate-specific antigen (PSA) threshold levels, as well as PSA velocity, progression rate and doubling time in relation to the detectability and localization of recurrent lesions with [{sup 18}F]fluorocholine (FC) PET/CT in patients after radical prostatectomy. The study group comprised 82 consecutive patients with biochemical relapse after radical prostatectomy. PSA levels measured at the time of imaging were correlated with the FC PET/CT detection rates in the entire group with PSA velocity (in 48 patients), with PSA doubling time (in 47 patients) and with PSA progression (in 29 patients). FC PET/CT detected recurrent lesions in 51 of the 82 patients (62%). The median PSA value was significantly higher in PET-positive than in PET-negative patients (4.3 ng/ml vs. 1.0 ng/ml; p < 0.01). The optimal PSA threshold from ROC analysis for the detection of recurrent prostate cancer lesions was 1.74 ng/ml (AUC 0.818, 82% sensitivity, 74% specificity). Significant differences between PET-positive and PET-negative patients were found for median PSA velocity (6.4 vs. 1.1 ng/ml per year; p < 0.01) and PSA progression (5.0 vs. 0.3 ng/ml per year, p < 0.01) with corresponding optimal thresholds of 1.27 ng/ml per year and 1.28 ng/ml per year, respectively. The PSA doubling time suggested a threshold of 3.2 months, but this just failed to reach statistical significance (p = 0.071). In a study cohort of patients with biochemical recurrence of prostate cancer after radical prostatectomy there emerged clear PSA thresholds for the presence of FC PET/CT-detectable lesions. (orig.)

  18. Schistosoma mansoni; relationship between membrane turnover rates and susceptibility to immune damage. Part of a coordinated programme on preparation of irradiated vaccines against some human diseases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pereira Tavares, C.A.

    1983-11-01

    It is known that the schistosomulum of Schistosoma mansoni become refractory to damage by antibody and complement in vitro in the presence of serum, or Concanavalin A (Con A), or after contact with host tissues, presumably due to intrinsic changes in the surface membrane. This project studied the effect of dialysed fetal calf serum (DFCS) and Con A on the synthesis and turnover of individual proteins in the surface membrane using the incorporation of 14 C- and 3 H-labelled Arginine and the separation of the membrane proteins in SDS-PAGE. The results indicate that during the period in which schistosomules become resistant to immune attack, no qualitative alterations in electrophoretic patterns of surface proteins were observed. There was, however, a marked heterogeneity in synthesis and degradation among constituent proteins. In addition, Con A which had been shown to be effective in stimulating loss of susceptibility to immune attack, caused a slight decrease in the synthesis and turnover rate of high molecular weight proteins, whilst DFCS increased synthesis and turnover of low molecular weight proteins. This suggests that at least two processes occur in the membrane which may be related to the development of protection against immune attack. Serum might stimulate the loss of crucial antigens by accelerating their turnover making antibody attachment difficult, and Con A could be stabilizing the membrane by crosslinking large macromolecules. It is possible that in vivo both mechanisms occur to make the schistosomule surface refractory to damage

  19. Spatial variation in the degradation rate of the pesticides isoproturon, azoxystrobin and diflufenican in soil and its relationship with chemical and microbial properties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bending, Gary D.; Lincoln, Suzanne D.; Edmondson, Rodney N.

    2006-01-01

    The extent of within field variability in the degradation rate of the pesticides isoproturon, azoxystrobin and diflufenican, and the role of intrinsic soil factors and technical errors in contributing to the variability, was investigated in sites on sandy-loam and clay-loam. At each site, 40 topsoil samples were taken from a 160x60 m area, and pesticides applied in the laboratory. Time to 25% dissipation (DT25) ranged between 13 and 61 weeks for diflufenican, 5.6 and 17.2 weeks for azoxystrobin, and 0.3 and 12.5 weeks for isoproturon. Variability in DT25 was higher in the sandy-loam in which there was also greatest variability in soil chemical and microbial properties. Technical error associated with pesticide extraction, analysis and lack of model fit during derivation of DT25 accounted for between 5.3 and 25.8% of the variability for isoproturon and azoxystrobin, but could account for almost all the variability for diflufenican. Azoxystrobin DT25, sorption and pH were significantly correlated. - Spatial variation determines risk assessment for pesticides in soil

  20. Spatial variation in the degradation rate of the pesticides isoproturon, azoxystrobin and diflufenican in soil and its relationship with chemical and microbial properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bending, Gary D; Lincoln, Suzanne D; Edmondson, Rodney N

    2006-01-01

    The extent of within field variability in the degradation rate of the pesticides isoproturon, azoxystrobin and diflufenican, and the role of intrinsic soil factors and technical errors in contributing to the variability, was investigated in sites on sandy-loam and clay-loam. At each site, 40 topsoil samples were taken from a 160 x 60 m area, and pesticides applied in the laboratory. Time to 25% dissipation (DT25) ranged between 13 and 61 weeks for diflufenican, 5.6 and 17.2 weeks for azoxystrobin, and 0.3 and 12.5 weeks for isoproturon. Variability in DT25 was higher in the sandy-loam in which there was also greatest variability in soil chemical and microbial properties. Technical error associated with pesticide extraction, analysis and lack of model fit during derivation of DT25 accounted for between 5.3 and 25.8% of the variability for isoproturon and azoxystrobin, but could account for almost all the variability for diflufenican. Azoxystrobin DT25, sorption and pH were significantly correlated.

  1. Spatial variation in the degradation rate of the pesticides isoproturon, azoxystrobin and diflufenican in soil and its relationship with chemical and microbial properties

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bending, Gary D. [Warwick HRI, University of Warwick, Wellesbourne, Warwick CV35 9EF (United Kingdom)]. E-mail: gary.bending@warwick.ac.uk; Lincoln, Suzanne D. [Warwick HRI, University of Warwick, Wellesbourne, Warwick CV35 9EF (United Kingdom); Edmondson, Rodney N. [Warwick HRI, University of Warwick, Wellesbourne, Warwick CV35 9EF (United Kingdom)

    2006-01-15

    The extent of within field variability in the degradation rate of the pesticides isoproturon, azoxystrobin and diflufenican, and the role of intrinsic soil factors and technical errors in contributing to the variability, was investigated in sites on sandy-loam and clay-loam. At each site, 40 topsoil samples were taken from a 160x60 m area, and pesticides applied in the laboratory. Time to 25% dissipation (DT25) ranged between 13 and 61 weeks for diflufenican, 5.6 and 17.2 weeks for azoxystrobin, and 0.3 and 12.5 weeks for isoproturon. Variability in DT25 was higher in the sandy-loam in which there was also greatest variability in soil chemical and microbial properties. Technical error associated with pesticide extraction, analysis and lack of model fit during derivation of DT25 accounted for between 5.3 and 25.8% of the variability for isoproturon and azoxystrobin, but could account for almost all the variability for diflufenican. Azoxystrobin DT25, sorption and pH were significantly correlated. - Spatial variation determines risk assessment for pesticides in soil.

  2. The relationship between the Early Childhood Environment Rating Scale and its revised form and child outcomes: A systematic review and meta-analysis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ashley Brunsek

    Full Text Available The Early Childhood Environment Rating Scale (ECERS and its revised version (ECERS-R were designed as global measures of quality that assess structural and process aspects of Early Childhood Education and Care (ECEC programs. Despite frequent use of the ECERS/ECERS-R in research and applied settings, associations between it and child outcomes have not been systematically reviewed. The objective of this research was to evaluate the association between the ECERS/ECERS-R and children's wellbeing. Searches of Medline, PsycINFO, ERIC, websites of large datasets and reference sections of all retrieved articles were completed up to July 3, 2015. Eligible studies provided a statistical link between the ECERS/ECERS-R and child outcomes for preschool-aged children in ECEC programs. Of the 823 studies selected for full review, 73 were included in the systematic review and 16 were meta-analyzed. The combined sample across all eligible studies consisted of 33, 318 preschool-aged children. Qualitative systematic review results revealed that ECERS/ECERS-R total scores were more generally associated with positive outcomes than subscales or factors. Seventeen separate meta-analyses were conducted to assess the strength of association between the ECERS/ECERS-R and measures that assessed children's language, math and social-emotional outcomes. Meta-analyses revealed a small number of weak effects (in the expected direction between the ECERS/ECERS-R total score and children's language and positive behavior outcomes. The Language-Reasoning subscale was weakly related to a language outcome. The enormous heterogeneity in how studies operationalized the ECERS/ECERS-R, the outcomes measured and statistics reported limited our ability to meta-analyze many studies. Greater consistency in study methodology is needed in this area of research. Despite these methodological challenges, the ECERS/ECERS-R does appear to capture aspects of quality that are important for children

  3. Archaeal abundance across a pH gradient in an arable soil and its relationship to bacterial and fungal growth rates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bengtson, Per; Sterngren, Anna E; Rousk, Johannes

    2012-08-01

    Soil pH is one of the most influential factors for the composition of bacterial and fungal communities, but the influence of soil pH on the distribution and composition of soil archaeal communities has yet to be systematically addressed. The primary aim of this study was to determine how total archaeal abundance (quantitative PCR [qPCR]-based estimates of 16S rRNA gene copy numbers) is related to soil pH across a pH gradient (pH 4.0 to 8.3). Secondarily, we wanted to assess how archaeal abundance related to bacterial and fungal growth rates across the same pH gradient. We identified two distinct and opposite effects of pH on the archaeal abundance. In the lowest pH range (pH 4.0 to 4.7), the abundance of archaea did not seem to correspond to pH. Above this pH range, there was a sharp, almost 4-fold decrease in archaeal abundance, reaching a minimum at pH 5.1 to 5.2. The low abundance of archaeal 16S rRNA gene copy numbers at this pH range then sharply increased almost 150-fold with pH, resulting in an increase in the ratio between archaeal and bacterial copy numbers from a minimum of 0.002 to more than 0.07 at pH 8. The nonuniform archaeal response to pH could reflect variation in the archaeal community composition along the gradient, with some archaea adapted to acidic conditions and others to neutral to slightly alkaline conditions. This suggestion is reinforced by observations of contrasting outcomes of the (competitive) interactions between archaea, bacteria, and fungi toward the lower and higher ends of the examined pH gradient.

  4. Metal-Poor, Strongly Star-Forming Galaxies in the DEEP2 Survey: The Relationship Between Stellar Mass, Temperature-Based Metallicity, and Star Formation Rate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ly, Chun; Rigby, Jane R.; Cooper, Michael; Yan, Renbin

    2015-01-01

    We report on the discovery of 28 redshift (z) approximately equal to 0.8 metal-poor galaxies in DEEP2. These galaxies were selected for their detection of the weak [O (sub III)] lambda 4363 emission line, which provides a "direct" measure of the gas-phase metallicity. A primary goal for identifying these rare galaxies is to examine whether the fundamental metallicity relation (FMR) between stellar mass, gas metallicity, and star formation rate (SFR) holds for low stellar mass and high SFR galaxies. The FMR suggests that higher SFR galaxies have lower metallicity (at fixed stellar mass). To test this trend, we combine spectroscopic measurements of metallicity and dust-corrected SFR with stellar mass estimates from modeling the optical photometry. We find that these galaxies are 1.05 plus or minus 0.61 dex above the redshift (z) approximately 1 stellar mass-SFR relation and 0.23 plus or minus 0.23 dex below the local mass-metallicity relation. Relative to the FMR, the latter offset is reduced to 0.01 dex, but significant dispersion remains dex with 0.16 dex due to measurement uncertainties). This dispersion suggests that gas accretion, star formation, and chemical enrichment have not reached equilibrium in these galaxies. This is evident by their short stellar mass doubling timescale of approximately equal to 100 (sup plus 310) (sub minus 75) million years which suggests stochastic star formation. Combining our sample with other redshift (z) of approximately 1 metal-poor galaxies, we find a weak positive SFR-metallicity dependence (at fixed stellar mass) that is significant at 94.4 percent confidence. We interpret this positive correlation as recent star formation that has enriched the gas but has not had time to drive the metal-enriched gas out with feedback mechanisms.

  5. The relationship between the Early Childhood Environment Rating Scale and its revised form and child outcomes: A systematic review and meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brunsek, Ashley; Perlman, Michal; Falenchuk, Olesya; McMullen, Evelyn; Fletcher, Brooke; Shah, Prakesh S

    2017-01-01

    The Early Childhood Environment Rating Scale (ECERS) and its revised version (ECERS-R) were designed as global measures of quality that assess structural and process aspects of Early Childhood Education and Care (ECEC) programs. Despite frequent use of the ECERS/ECERS-R in research and applied settings, associations between it and child outcomes have not been systematically reviewed. The objective of this research was to evaluate the association between the ECERS/ECERS-R and children's wellbeing. Searches of Medline, PsycINFO, ERIC, websites of large datasets and reference sections of all retrieved articles were completed up to July 3, 2015. Eligible studies provided a statistical link between the ECERS/ECERS-R and child outcomes for preschool-aged children in ECEC programs. Of the 823 studies selected for full review, 73 were included in the systematic review and 16 were meta-analyzed. The combined sample across all eligible studies consisted of 33, 318 preschool-aged children. Qualitative systematic review results revealed that ECERS/ECERS-R total scores were more generally associated with positive outcomes than subscales or factors. Seventeen separate meta-analyses were conducted to assess the strength of association between the ECERS/ECERS-R and measures that assessed children's language, math and social-emotional outcomes. Meta-analyses revealed a small number of weak effects (in the expected direction) between the ECERS/ECERS-R total score and children's language and positive behavior outcomes. The Language-Reasoning subscale was weakly related to a language outcome. The enormous heterogeneity in how studies operationalized the ECERS/ECERS-R, the outcomes measured and statistics reported limited our ability to meta-analyze many studies. Greater consistency in study methodology is needed in this area of research. Despite these methodological challenges, the ECERS/ECERS-R does appear to capture aspects of quality that are important for children's wellbeing

  6. Correlation of improved erectile function and rate of successful intercourse with improved emotional well-being assessed with the Self-Esteem And Relationship questionnaire in men treated with sildenafil for erectile dysfunction and stratified by age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steidle, Christopher P; Stecher, Vera J; Pace, Cindy; Tseng, Li-Jung

    2006-05-01

    The quality of life consequences of erectile dysfunction (ED) include depression, anxiety, and loss of self-esteem. The Self-Esteem And Relationship (SEAR) questionnaire is a validated, patient-administered, psychometric instrument specific to ED. To determine correlations between erectile function (EF), intercourse success, and emotional well-being measured with the SEAR questionnaire in men treated with sildenafil citrate for ED and stratified by age ( 65 years). This was an open-label, flexible-dose trial of sildenafil (25, 50 and 100 mg) administered for 10 weeks to 382 men with ED (mean +/- SD age, 55 +/- 13 years; mean ED duration, 4 years), which was conducted at 62 centers in the United States. Analysis (by intent-to-treat, n = 368) of the change from baseline to the week-10 endpoint in the SEAR questionnaire Self-Esteem subscale, the intercourse success rate (percent of occasions at which an erection that lasted long enough for successful intercourse was achieved), and their correlation. For the overall population, there was mean +/- SD improvement (p Erectile Function; event log frequency of erection hard enough for sexual intercourse and of ejaculation/orgasm) also improved (p 65 years, and six were positive in men aged erectile function and an increased intercourse success rate, which correlated positively with improvement in SEAR measures of self-esteem and sexual relationship.

  7. Volumetric Single-Beat Coronary Computed Tomography Angiography: Relationship of Image Quality, Heart Rate, and Body Mass Index. Initial Patient Experience With a New Computed Tomography Scanner.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Latif, Muhammad Aamir; Sanchez, Frank W; Sayegh, Karl; Veledar, Emir; Aziz, Muhammad; Malik, Rehan; Haider, Imran; Agatston, Arthur S; Batlle, Juan C; Janowitz, Warren; Peña, Constantino; Ziffer, Jack A; Nasir, Khurram; Cury, Ricardo C

    2016-01-01

    Cardiac computed tomography (CT) image quality (IQ) is very important for accurate diagnosis. We propose to evaluate IQ expressed as Likert scale, signal-to-noise ratio (SNR), and contrast-to-noise ratio (CNR) from coronary CT angiography images acquired with a new volumetric single-beat CT scanner on consecutive patients and assess the IQ dependence on heart rate (HR) and body mass index (BMI). We retrospectively analyzed the data of the first 439 consecutive patients (mean age, 55.13 [SD, 12.1] years; 51.47% male), who underwent noninvasive coronary CT angiography in a new single-beat volumetric CT scanner (Revolution CT) to evaluate chest pain at West Kendall Baptist Hospital. Based on patient BMI (mean, 29.43 [SD, 5.81] kg/m), the kVp (kilovolt potential) value and tube current were adjusted within a range of 80 to 140 kVp and 122 to 720 mA, respectively. Each scan was performed in a single-beat acquisition within 1 cardiac cycle, regardless of the HR. Motion correction software (SnapShot Freeze) was used for correcting motion artifacts in patients with higher HRs. Autogating was used to automatically acquire systolic and diastolic phases for higher HRs with electrocardiographic milliampere dose modulation. Image quality was assessed qualitatively by Likert scale and quantitatively by SNR and CNR for the 4 major vessels right coronary, left main, left anterior descending, and left circumflex arteries on axial and multiplanar reformatted images. Values for Likert scale were as follows: 1, nondiagnostic; 2, poor; 3, good; 4, very good; and 5, excellent. Signal-to-noise ratio and CNR were calculated from the average 2 CT attenuation values within regions of interest placed in the proximal left main and proximal right coronary artery. For contrast comparison, a region of interest was selected from left ventricular wall at midcavity level using a dedicated workstation. We divided patients in 2 groups related to the HR: less than or equal to 70 beats/min (bpm) and

  8. Relationship between low tube voltage (70 kV and the iodine delivery rate (IDR in CT angiography: An experimental in-vivo study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael M Lell

    Full Text Available Very short acquisition times and the use of low-kV protocols in CTA demand modifications in the contrast media (CM injection regimen. The aim of this study was to optimize the use of CM delivery parameters in thoraco-abdominal CTA in a porcine model.Six pigs (55-68 kg were examined with a dynamic CTA protocol (454 mm scan length, 2.5 s temporal resolution, 70 s total acquisition time. Four CM injection protocols were applied in a randomized order. 120 kV CTA protocol: (A 300 mg iodine/kg bodyweight (bw, IDR = 1.5 g/s (flow = 5 mL/s, injection time (ti 12 s (60 kg bw. 70 kV CTA protocols: 150 mg iodine/kg bw: (B IDR = 0.75 g/s (flow = 2.5 mL/s, ti = 12 s (60 kg bw; (C IDR = 1.5 g/s (flow = 5 mL/s, ti = 12 s (60 kg bw; (D IDR = 3.0 g/s (flow = 10 mL/s, ti = 3 s (60 kg bw. The complete CM bolus shape was monitored by creating time attenuation curves (TAC in different vascular territories. Based on the TAC, the time to peak (TTP and the peak enhancement were determined. The diagnostic window (relative enhancement > 300 HU, was calculated and compared to visual inspection of the corresponding CTA data sets.The average relative arterial peak enhancements after baseline correction were 358.6 HU (A, 356.6 HU (B, 464.0 HU (C, and 477.6 HU (D. The TTP decreased with increasing IDR and decreasing ti, protocols A and B did not differ significantly (systemic arteries, p = 0.843; pulmonary arteries, p = 0.183. The delay time for bolus tracking (trigger level 100 HU; target enhancement 300 HU for single-phase CTA was comparable for protocol A and B (3.9, 4.3 s and C and D (2.4, 2.0 s. The scan window time frame was comparable for the different protocols by visual inspection of the different CTA data sets and by analyzing the TAC.All protocols provided sufficient arterial enhancement. The use of a 70 kV CTA protocol is recommended because of a 50% reduction of total CM volume and a 50% reduced flow rate while maintaining the bolus profile. In contrast to

  9. The relationship between specific absorption rate and temperature elevation in anatomically based human body models for plane wave exposure from 30 MHz to 6 GHz.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirata, Akimasa; Laakso, Ilkka; Oizumi, Takuya; Hanatani, Ryuto; Chan, Kwok Hung; Wiart, Joe

    2013-02-21

    According to the international safety guidelines/standard, the whole-body-averaged specific absorption rate (Poljak et al 2003 IEEE Trans. Electromagn. Compat. 45 141-5) and the peak spatial average SAR are used as metrics for human protection from whole-body and localized exposures, respectively. The IEEE standard (IEEE 2006 IEEE C95.1) indicates that the upper boundary frequency, over which the whole-body-averaged SAR is deemed to be the basic restriction, has been reduced from 6 to 3 GHz, because radio-wave energy is absorbed around the body surface when the frequency is increased. However, no quantitative discussion has been provided to support this description especially from the standpoint of temperature elevation. It is of interest to investigate the maximum temperature elevation in addition to the core temperature even for a whole-body exposure. In the present study, using anatomically based human models, we computed the SAR and the temperature elevation for a plane-wave exposure from 30 MHz to 6 GHz, taking into account the thermoregulatory response. As the primary result, we found that the ratio of the core temperature elevation to the whole-body-averaged SAR is almost frequency independent for frequencies below a few gigahertz; the ratio decreases above this frequency. At frequencies higher than a few gigahertz, core temperature elevation for the same whole-body averaged SAR becomes lower due to heat convection from the skin to air. This lower core temperature elevation is attributable to skin temperature elevation caused by the power absorption around the body surface. Then, core temperature elevation even for whole-body averaged SAR of 4 W kg(-1) with the duration of 1 h was at most 0.8 °C, which is smaller than a threshold considered in the safety guidelines/standard. Further, the peak 10 g averaged SAR is correlated with the maximum body temperature elevations without extremities and pinna over the frequencies considered. These findings

  10. Abusive Relationships

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Safe Videos for Educators Search English Español Abusive Relationships KidsHealth / For Teens / Abusive Relationships Print en español Relaciones de maltrato Healthy Relationships = Respect & Trust Healthy relationships involve respect, trust, and ...

  11. Insulin induces a positive relationship between the rates of ATP and glycogen changes in isolated rat liver in presence of glucose; a 31P and 13C NMR study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gin Henri

    2005-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background There is an emerging theory suggesting that insulin, which is known to be the predominant postprandial anabolic hormone, is also a major regulator of mitochondrial oxidative phosphorylation in human skeletal muscle. However, little is known about its effects in the liver. Since there is a theoretical relationship between glycogen metabolism and energy status, a simultaneous and continuous investigation of hepatic ATP and glycogen content was performed in intact and isolated perfused liver by 31P and 13C nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR The hepatic rates of ATP and glycogen changes were evaluated with different concentrations of insulin and glucose during continuous and short-term supply. Results Liver from rats fed ad libitum were perfused with Krebs-Henseleit Buffer (KHB(controls or KHB containing 6 mM glucose, 30 mM glucose, insulin alone, insulin + 6 mM glucose, insulin + 30 mM glucose. In the control, glycogenolysis occurred at a rate of -0.53 ± 0.021 %·min-1 and ATP content decreased at a rate of -0.28 ± 0.029 %·min-1. In the absence of insulin, there was a close proportional relationship between the glycogen flux and the glucose concentration, whereas ATP rates never varied. With insulin + glucose, both glycogen and ATP rates were strongly related to the glucose concentration; the magnitude of net glycogen flux was linearly correlated to the magnitude of net ATP flux: fluxglycogen = 72.543(fluxATP + 172.08, R2 = 0.98. Conclusion Only the co-infusion of 30 mM glucose and insulin led to (i a net glycogen synthesis, (ii the maintenance of the hepatic ATP content, and a strong positive correlation between their net fluxes. This has never previously been reported. The specific effect of insulin on ATP change is likely related to a rapid stimulation of the hepatic mitochondrial oxidative phosphorylation. We propose that variations in the correlation between rates of ATP and glycogen changes could be a probe for insulin

  12. Insulin induces a positive relationship between the rates of ATP and glycogen changes in isolated rat liver in presence of glucose; a 31P and 13C NMR study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baillet-Blanco, Laurence; Beauvieux, Marie-Christine; Gin, Henri; Rigalleau, Vincent; Gallis, Jean-Louis

    2005-11-21

    There is an emerging theory suggesting that insulin, which is known to be the predominant postprandial anabolic hormone, is also a major regulator of mitochondrial oxidative phosphorylation in human skeletal muscle. However, little is known about its effects in the liver. Since there is a theoretical relationship between glycogen metabolism and energy status, a simultaneous and continuous investigation of hepatic ATP and glycogen content was performed in intact and isolated perfused liver by 31P and 13C nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) The hepatic rates of ATP and glycogen changes were evaluated with different concentrations of insulin and glucose during continuous and short-term supply. Liver from rats fed ad libitum were perfused with Krebs-Henseleit Buffer (KHB)(controls) or KHB containing 6 mM glucose, 30 mM glucose, insulin alone, insulin + 6 mM glucose, insulin + 30 mM glucose. In the control, glycogenolysis occurred at a rate of -0.53 +/- 0.021 % x min(-1) and ATP content decreased at a rate of -0.28 +/- 0.029 % x min(-1). In the absence of insulin, there was a close proportional relationship between the glycogen flux and the glucose concentration, whereas ATP rates never varied. With insulin + glucose, both glycogen and ATP rates were strongly related to the glucose concentration; the magnitude of net glycogen flux was linearly correlated to the magnitude of net ATP flux: flux(glycogen) = 72.543(fluxATP) + 172.08, R2 = 0.98. Only the co-infusion of 30 mM glucose and insulin led to (i) a net glycogen synthesis, (ii) the maintenance of the hepatic ATP content, and a strong positive correlation between their net fluxes. This has never previously been reported. The specific effect of insulin on ATP change is likely related to a rapid stimulation of the hepatic mitochondrial oxidative phosphorylation. We propose that variations in the correlation between rates of ATP and glycogen changes could be a probe for insulin resistance due to the action of substrates

  13. The relationship between attendance at birth and maternal mortality rates: an exploration of United Nations' data sets including the ratios of physicians and nurses to population, GNP per capita and female literacy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson, J J; Wharrad, H

    2001-05-01

    The relationship between attendance at birth and maternal mortality rates: an exploration of United Nations' data sets including the ratios of physicians and nurses to population, GNP per capita and female literacy. This is the third and final paper drawing on data taken from United Nations (UN) data sets. The first paper examined the global distribution of health professionals (as measured by ratios of physicians and nurses to population), and its relationship to gross national product per capita (GNP) (Wharrad & Robinson 1999). The second paper explored the relationships between the global distribution of physicians and nurses, GNP, female literacy and the health outcome indicators of infant and under five mortality rates (IMR and u5MR) (Robinson & Wharrad 2000). In the present paper, the global distribution of health professionals is explored in relation to maternal mortality rates (MMRs). The proportion of births attended by medical and nonmedical staff defined as "attendance at birth by trained personnel" (physicians, nurses, midwives or primary health care workers trained in midwifery skills), is included as an additional independent variable in the regression analyses, together with the ratio of physicians and nurses to population, female literacy and GNP. To extend our earlier analyses by considering the relationships between the global distribution of health professionals (ratios of physicians and nurses to population, and the proportion of births attended by trained health personnel), GNP, female literacy and MMR. countries, regression analyses were performed using numbers of physicians, and numbers of nurses, per 1000 population, the proportion of births attended by trained health personnel, GNP per capita and female literacy as independent variables and MMRs as the dependent variable. Linear regression analyses show positive associations for MMRs and the ratios of physicians to population (73%, n=136), ratios of nurses to population (56%, n=137), and

  14. Gender differences in brain activity and the relationship between brain activity and differences in prevalence rates between male and female major depressive disorder patients: a resting-state fMRI study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yao, Zhijian; Yan, Rui; Wei, Maobin; Tang, Hao; Qin, Jiaolong; Lu, Qing

    2014-11-01

    We examined the gender-difference effect on abnormal spontaneous neuronal activity of male and female major depressive disorder (MDD) patients using the amplitude of low-frequency fluctuation (ALFF) and the further clarified the relationship between the abnormal ALFF and differences in MDD prevalence rates between male and female patients. Fourteen male MDD patients, 13 female MDD patients and 15 male and 15 female well matched healthy controls (HCs) completed this study. The ALFF approach was used, and Pearson correlation was conducted to observe a possible clinical relevance. There were widespread differences in ALFF values between female and male MDD patients, including some important parts of the frontoparietal network, auditory network, attention network and cerebellum network. In female MDD patients, there was a positive correlation between average ALFF values of the left postcentral gyrus and the severity of weight loss symptom. The gender-difference effect leading to abnormal brain activity is an important underlying pathomechanism for different somatic symptoms in MDD patients of different genders and is likely suggestive of higher MDD prevalence rates in females. The abnormal ALFF resulting from the gender-difference effect might improve our understanding of the differences in prevalence rates between male and female MDD patients from another perspective. Copyright © 2014 International Federation of Clinical Neurophysiology. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Resettlement and Birth Rates

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    GB

    The Relationship between Resettlement and Birth Rates: The Case of ... statistical software. SAS is used. RESULTS: In a univariate analysis of Gambella's ..... World Bank Conference on Land And. Poverty. Washington DC, World Bank, April.

  16. Interest Rates and Inflation

    OpenAIRE

    Coopersmith, Michael; Gambardella, Pascal J.

    2016-01-01

    This article is an extension of the work of one of us (Coopersmith, 2011) in deriving the relationship between certain interest rates and the inflation rate of a two component economic system. We use the well-known Fisher relation between the difference of the nominal interest rate and its inflation adjusted value to eliminate the inflation rate and obtain a delay differential equation. We provide computer simulated solutions for this equation over regimes of interest. This paper could be of ...

  17. Enflasyon ve Nominal Faiz Oranı İlişkisi: Türkiye Örneği (2004-2013 ( Relationship Between The Inflation And Nominal Interest Rate: The Case Of Turkey (2004-2013

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Musa ATGÜR

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper examines the relationship between the inflation and interest rate in Turkey for the period 2004-2013. The results obtained in this study have pointed to the existence of Fisher Effect in Turkey during the period 2004-2013. According to the Johansen, Lütkepohl-Saikkonen Cointegration Tests and Dynamic Least Squares (DOLSmethod the results applied in the study, a long-run relationship has been found between the inflation(ENF and nominal interest rate (NFO variables. In this context, the developments is related to each other about the inflation and nominal interest rates in Turkey for during the period 2004-2013. Therefore, the Central Bank of the Republic of Turkey should conduct to implement monetary policy taking into account the long-run relation for the next period. Bu çalışmada, Türkiye'de enflasyon ve nominal faiz oranı ilişkisi, 2004-2013 dönemi için incelenmiştir. Çalışmada elde edilen sonuçlar, 2004-2013 döneminde Türkiye'de Fisher Etkisinin varlığına işaret etmiştir. Çalışmada uygulanan Johansen, Lütkepohl-Saikkonen Eşbütünleşme Testleri ve Dinamik En Küçük Kareler (DOLS Yöntemi sonuçlarına göre, enflasyon (ENF ve nominal faiz oranı (NFO değişkenleri arasında uzun dönemli bir ilişki bulunmuştur. Bu kapsamda 2004-2013 döneminde Türkiye'de enflasyon ve nominal faiz oranındaki gelişmeler birbiri ile yakından ilgilidir. Bu sebeple, Türkiye Cumhuriyet Merkez Bankasının önümüzdeki dönemde de uygulayacağı para politikalarını bu uzun dönemli ilişkiyi dikkate alarak yürütmesi önem arzetmektedir.

  18. Revisiting Okun's Relationship

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dixon, R.; Lim, G.C.; van Ours, Jan

    2016-01-01

    Our paper revisits Okun's relationship between observed unemployment rates and output gaps. We include in the relationship the effect of labour market institutions as well as age and gender effects. Our empirical analysis is based on 20 OECD countries over the period 1985-2013. We find that the

  19. Revisiting the Okun relationship

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dixon, R. (Robert); Lim, G.C.; J.C. van Ours (Jan)

    2017-01-01

    textabstractOur article revisits the Okun relationship between observed unemployment rates and output gaps. We include in the relationship the effect of labour market institutions as well as age and gender effects. Our empirical analysis is based on 20 OECD countries over the period 1985–2013. We

  20. Extended rate equations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shore, B.W.

    1981-01-01

    The equations of motion are discussed which describe time dependent population flows in an N-level system, reviewing the relationship between incoherent (rate) equations, coherent (Schrodinger) equations, and more general partially coherent (Bloch) equations. Approximations are discussed which replace the elaborate Bloch equations by simpler rate equations whose coefficients incorporate long-time consequences of coherence

  1. Rate of spontaneous voiding recovery after acute urinary retention due to bed rest in the hospital setting in a non-urological population clinical study of the relationship between lower limbs and bladder function

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulo Rodrigues

    Full Text Available Abstract Objectives To understand the clinical relationship between lower limbs functions and the recovery of spontaneous voiding after an acute urinary retention (AUR in older patients admitted to hospitals for non-urological causes using clinical parameters. Materials and Methods 56 adult patients (32 men; mean age: 77.9 ± 8.3 and 24 women; mean age 82.1 ± 4.6 with AUR were prospectively followed with validated Physical Performance Mobility Exam (PPME instrument to evaluate the relationship between the recovery of mobility capacity and spontaneous voiding. After a short period of permanent bladder drainage patients started CIC along evaluation by PPME during hospitalization and at 7, 15, 30 60, 90, and 180 days of discharge. Mann-Whitney U, chi-square test and ANOVA tests were used. Results All patients were hospitalized for at least 15 days (Median 26.3 ± 4.1 days. Progressive improvement on mobility scale measured by PPME was observed after leaving ICU and along the initial 7 days of hospitalization but with a deterioration if hospitalization extends beyond 15 days (p<0.03. Prolonged hospital stay impairs mobility in all domains (p<0.05 except step-up and transfer skills (p<0.02 although a recovery rate on spontaneous voiding persistented. Restoration of spontaneous voiding was accompanied by improvement on mobility scale (p<0.02. Recovery of spontaneous voiding was markedly observed after discharging the hospital. All patients recovered spontaneous voiding until 6 months of follow-up. Conclusions Recovery to spontaneous voiding after acute urinary retention in the hospital setting may be anticipated by evaluation of lower limbs function measured by validated instruments.

  2. Interactions between mammalian cells and nano- or micro-sized wear particles: physico-chemical views against biological approaches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prokopovich, Polina

    2014-11-01

    Total joint arthroplasty (TJA) is a more and more frequent approach for the treatment of end-stage osteoarthritis in young and active adults; it successfully relieves joint pain and improves function significantly enhancing the health-related quality of life. Aseptic loosening and other wear-related complications are some of the most recurrent reasons for revision of TJA. This review focuses on current understanding of the biological reactions to prosthetic wear debris comparing in vivo and in vitro results. Mechanisms of interactions of various types of cells with metal, polymeric and ceramic wear particles are summarised. Alternative views based on multidisciplinary approaches are proposed to consider physico-chemical, surface parameters of wear particles (such as: particle size, geometry and charge) and material (particle chemical composition and its nature) with biological effects (cellular responses). Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Lobular breast cancers lack the inverse relationship between ER/PR status and cell growth rate characteristic of ductal cancers in two independent patient cohorts: implications for tumor biology and adjuvant therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Hilda; Lau, Silvia; Cheung, Polly; Wong, Ting Ting; Parker, Andrew; Yau, Thomas; Epstein, Richard J

    2014-11-10

    Although invasive lobular carcinoma (ILC) of the breast differs from invasive ductal carcinoma (IDC) in numerous respects - including its genetics, clinical phenotype, metastatic pattern, and chemosensitivity - most experts continue to manage ILC and IDC identically in the adjuvant setting. Here we address this discrepancy by comparing early-stage ILC and IDC in two breast cancer patient cohorts of differing nationality and ethnicity. The clinicopathologic features of 2029 consecutive breast cancer patients diagnosed in Hong Kong (HK) and Australia (AUS) were compared. Interrelationships between tumor histology and other clinicopathologic variables, including ER/PR and Ki67, were analysed. Two hundred thirty-nine patients were identified with ILC (11.8%) and 1790 patients with IDC. AUS patients were older (p patients. As expected, ILC tumors were lower in grade and proliferative rate, and more often ER-positive and HER2-negative, than IDC (p 0.7). Moreover, whereas IDC tumors exhibited a strongly negative relationship between ER/PR and Ki67 status (p 0.6). These data imply that the primary adhesion defect in ILC underlies a secondary stromal-epithelial disconnect between hormonal signaling and tumor growth, suggesting in turn that this peritumoral feedback defect could reduce both the antimetastatic (adjuvant) and tumorilytic (palliative) efficacy of cytotoxic therapies for such tumors. Hence, we caution against assuming similar adjuvant chemotherapeutic survival benefits for ILC and IDC tumors with similar ER and Ki67, whether based on immunohistochemical or gene expression assays.

  4. Relationship among RR interval, optimal reconstruction phase, temporal resolution, and image quality of end-systolic reconstruction of coronary CT angiography in patients with high heart rates. In search of the optimal acquisition protocol

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sano, Tomonari; Matsutani, Hideyuki; Kondo, Takeshi; Fujimoto, Shinichiro; Sekine, Takako; Arai, Takehiro; Morita, Hitomi; Takase, Shinichi

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to elucidate the relationship among RR interval (RR), the optimal reconstruction phase, and adequate temporal resolution (TR) to obtain coronary CT angiography images of acceptable quality using 64-multi detector-row CT (MDCT) (Aquilion 64) of end-systolic reconstruction in 407 patients with high heart rates. Image quality was classified into 3 groups [rank A (excellent): 161, rank B (acceptable): 207, and rank C (unacceptable): 39 patients]. The optimal absolute phase (OAP) significantly correlated with RR [OAP (ms)=119-0.286 RR (ms), r=0.832, p<0.0001], and the optimal relative phase (ORP) also significantly correlated with RR [ORP (%)=62-0.023 RR (ms), r=0.656, p<0.0001], and the correlation coefficient of OAP was significantly (p<0.0001) higher than that of ORP. The OAP range (±2 standard deviation (SD)) in which it is highly possible to get a static image was from [119-0.286 RR (ms)-46] to [119-0.286 RR (ms)+46]. The TR was significantly different among ranks A (97±22 ms), B (111±31 ms) and C (135±34 ms). The TR significantly correlated with RR in ranks A (TR=-16+0.149 RR, r=0.767, p<0.0001), B (TR=-15+0.166 RR, r=0.646, p<0.0001), and C (TR=52+0.117 RR, r=0.425, p=0.0069). Rank C was distinguished from ranks A or B by linear discriminate analysis (TR=-46+0.21 RR), and the discriminate rate was 82.6%. In conclusion, both the OAP and adequate TR depend on RR, and the OAP range (±2 SD) can be calculated using the formula [119-0.286 RR (ms)-46] to [119-0.286 RR (ms) +46], and an adequate TR value would be less than (-46+0.21 RR). (author)

  5. Relaciones de la condición física y la composición corporal con la autopercepción de salud. [Relationship of physical fitness and body composition with self-rated health].

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Alberto Becerra

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available El propósito de este trabajo fue analizar las relaciones existentes entre diferentes variables de la condición física y el porcentaje de masa grasa con la percepción de salud. Los participantes en el estudio fueron 264 adolescentes de la ciudad de Málaga (España, en edades comprendidas entre los 14 y 16 años (M=15.05; DT=0.78. Se midió el porcentaje de masa grasa corporal, mediante bioimpedancia eléctrica, y el consumo de oxígeno máximo, de forma indirecta, a través del test de Course Navette. Además, se estimó el tiempo en recorrer 50 metros lisos y la distancia alcanzada mediante salto horizontal. Por otro lado, se utilizó el General Health Questionaire (GHQ-28, para evaluar la percepción de salud. Los análisis de correlación y regresión lineal efectuados pusieron de manifiesto relaciones entre las variables de condición física y el porcentaje de masa grasa con las medidas del GHQ-28, salvo en el factor depresión grave. En concreto, el consumo máximo de oxígeno predijo negativamente los factores síntomas somáticos y ansiedad e insomnio. A su vez, el porcentaje de grasa corporal predijo positivamente estos dos factores.AbstractThe aim of this study was to analyse the relationship between several variables of physical fitness, as well as the body fat percentage, and self-rated health. The participants in the study were 264 teenagers from the city of Malaga (Spain, whose age ranged between 14 and 16 years old (M=15.05; SD=0.78. The body fat percentage was measured by means of a bioelectrical impedance analysis and the Course-Navette test was used to assess the maximal oxygen consumption. Moreover, other measured variables were the time to run 50 metres and the distance jumped horizontally. The General Health Questionaire (GHQ-28 was used to evaluate the self-rated health. The linear regression and correlation analysis highlighting that the variables physical fitness and body fat percentage were associated with GHQ-28

  6. Rapid-rate nonsustained ventricular tachycardia found on implantable cardioverter-defibrillator interrogation: relationship to outcomes in the SCD-HeFT (Sudden Cardiac Death in Heart Failure Trial).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Jay; Johnson, George; Hellkamp, Anne S; Anderson, Jill; Mark, Daniel B; Lee, Kerry L; Bardy, Gust H; Poole, Jeanne E

    2013-05-28

    The aim of this study was to examine rapid-rate nonsustained ventricular tachycardia (RR-NSVT) during routine implantable cardioverter-defibrillator (ICD) evaluation in patients with heart failure and its relationship to outcomes. The clinical implications of RR-NSVT identified during routine ICD interrogation are unclear. In this study, the occurrence of RR-NSVT and its association with ICD shocks and mortality in SCD-HeFT (Sudden Cardiac Death in Heart Failure Trial) were examined. The 811 patients who received ICDs in SCD-HeFT constituted the study population. The occurrence of RR-NSVT and its association with ICD shocks and mortality in SCD-HeFT were examined. RR-NSVT was documented on ICD interrogation in 186 of 811 patients (22.9%). The mean duration of RR-NSVT was 26.4 ± 9.1 beats (7.5 ± 2.6 s), with a mean cycle length of 259 ± 32 ms. Polymorphic RR-NSVT accounted for 56% of episodes. Compared with patients without RR-NSVT, those with RR-NSVT were less likely to be taking beta-blockers, statins, or aspirin at enrollment. After adjusting for other known predictors of mortality in SCD-HeFT, RR-NSVT was independently associated with appropriate ICD shocks (hazard ratio: 4.25; 95% confidence interval: 2.94 to 6.14; p interrogation should be considered an important clinical event. RR-NSVT during ICD interrogation is associated with appropriate ICD shocks and all-cause mortality. The clinical evaluation of patients with RR-NSVT should include intensification of medical therapy, particularly beta-blockers, or other appropriate clinical interventions. (Sudden Cardiac Death in Heart Failure Trial [SCD-HeFT]; NCT00000609). Copyright © 2013 American College of Cardiology Foundation. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Valuation relationships under growth

    OpenAIRE

    Benavides Franco, Julián

    2003-01-01

    One of the most important topics on valuation is the appropriate relationships between cash flows and rate of returns. I review those relationships under the premise, by Myers (1974), of the cost of debt as the right discount for the tax shield. Different hypotheses have been advanced for the tax shield risk, each one producing different valuation results, especially when growth is present. The consequences of some common mistakes on valuation are explored. One difference between the results ...

  8. Determination of the semi-empiric relationship among the physical density, the concentration and rate between hydrogen and manganese atoms, and a manganese sulfate solution; Determinacao da relacao semi-empirica entre a densidade fisica, concentracao e razao entre atomos de hidrogenio e manganes em uma solucao de sulfato de manganes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bittencourt, Guilherme Rodrigues [Comissao Nacional de Energia Nuclear (CNEN), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). PIBIC; Castro, Leonardo Curvello de; Pereira, Walsan W.; Patrao, Karla C. de Souza; Fonseca, Evaldo S. da; Dantas, Maria Leticia [Instituto de Radioprotecao e Dosimetria (IRD/CNEN-RJ), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Lab. Nacional de Metrologia das Radiacoes Ionizantes (LNMRI). Lab. de Neutrons

    2009-07-01

    The bath of a manganese sulfate (BMS) is a system for absolute standardization of the neutron sources. This work establishes a functional relationship based on semi-empirical methods for the theoretical prediction of physical density values, concentration and rate between the hydrogen and manganese atoms presents in the solution of the BMS

  9. Dose-response relationship between probability of pathologic tumor control and glucose metabolic rate measured with FDG PET after preoperative chemoradiotherapy in locally advanced non-small-cell lung cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Choi, Noah C.; Fischman, Alan J.; Niemierko, Andrzej; Ryu, Jin-Sook; Lynch, Thomas; Wain, John; Wright, Cameron; Fidias, Panos; Mathisen, Douglas

    2002-01-01

    Purpose: To determine the dose-response relationship between the probability of tumor control on the basis of pathologic tumor response (pTCP) and the residual metabolic rate of glucose (MRglc) in response to preoperative chemoradiotherapy in locally advanced non-small-cell lung cancer and to define the level of residual MRglc that corresponds to pTCP 50% and pTCP ≥95%. Methods and Materials: Quantitative dynamic 18F-2-fluoro-2-deoxy-D-glucose (18F-FDG) positron emission tomography was performed to measure regional MRglc at the primary lesion before and 2 weeks after preoperative chemoradiotherapy in an initial group of 13 patients with locally advanced NSCLC. A simplified kinetic method was developed subsequently from the initial dynamic study and used in the subsequent 16 patients. The preoperative radiotherapy programs consisted of (1) a split course of 42 Gy in 28 fractions within a period of 28 days using a twice-daily treatment schedule for Stage IIIA(N2) NSCLC (n=18) and (2) standard once-daily radiation schedule of 45-63 Gy in 25-35 fractions during a 5-7-week period (n=11). The preoperative chemotherapy regimens included two cycles of cisplatin, vinblastine, and 5-fluorouracil (n=24), cisplatin and etoposide (n=2), and cisplatin, Taxol, and 5-fluorouracil (n=3). Patients free of tumor progression after preoperative chemoradiotherapy underwent surgery. The degree of residual MRglc measured 2 weeks after preoperative chemoradiotherapy and 2 weeks before surgery was correlated with the pathologic tumor response. The relationship between MRglc and pTCP was modeled using logistic regression. Results: Of 32 patients entered into the study, 29 (16 men and 13 women; 30 lesions) were evaluated for the correlation between residual MRglc and pathologic tumor response. Three patients did not participate in the second study because of a steady decline in general condition. The median age was 60 years (range 42-78). One of the 29 patients had two separate lesions, and

  10. Ratings Revisited

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lai, Signe Sophus

    2015-01-01

    tværs af medier og platforme, forskudt i tid og on-demand. This article focuses on audience ratings, which have functioned as the central ‘currency’ informing the media trade. It discusses changes to the production and accuracy of audience ratings at a time when established standards are being...

  11. Estimating diversification rates for higher taxa: BAMM can give problematic estimates of rates and rate shifts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyer, Andreas L S; Wiens, John J

    2018-01-01

    Estimates of diversification rates are invaluable for many macroevolutionary studies. Recently, an approach called BAMM (Bayesian Analysis of Macro-evolutionary Mixtures) has become widely used for estimating diversification rates and rate shifts. At the same time, several articles have concluded that estimates of net diversification rates from the method-of-moments (MS) estimators are inaccurate. Yet, no studies have compared the ability of these two methods to accurately estimate clade diversification rates. Here, we use simulations to compare their performance. We found that BAMM yielded relatively weak relationships between true and estimated diversification rates. This occurred because BAMM underestimated the number of rates shifts across each tree, and assigned high rates to small clades with low rates. Errors in both speciation and extinction rates contributed to these errors, showing that using BAMM to estimate only speciation rates is also problematic. In contrast, the MS estimators (particularly using stem group ages), yielded stronger relationships between true and estimated diversification rates, by roughly twofold. Furthermore, the MS approach remained relatively accurate when diversification rates were heterogeneous within clades, despite the widespread assumption that it requires constant rates within clades. Overall, we caution that BAMM may be problematic for estimating diversification rates and rate shifts. © 2017 The Author(s). Evolution © 2017 The Society for the Study of Evolution.

  12. Relationships matter

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nyanja, Tabitha Alexandria Njeri; Tulinius, Charlotte

    2017-01-01

    -depth interviews and focus group discussions with 37 sexually active HIV-positive women aged between 20 and 44 years, attending three health facilities within Dar-es-Salaam. The theoretical framework was a patient centred model. Four barriers were identified: the influence of the women’s spousal relationships...... women experienced conflicts, violence, abandonment and rejection. The loss in negotiating power for the women was in relation to their intimate partners, but also in the patient–healthcare provider relationship. The role of the male partner as a barrier to contraceptive use cannot be understated...

  13. Female literacy rate is a better predictor of birth rate and infant mortality rate in India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suman Saurabh

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Educated women are known to take informed reproductive and healthcare decisions. These result in population stabilization and better infant care reflected by lower birth rates and infant mortality rates (IMRs, respectively. Materials and Methods: Our objective was to study the relationship of male and female literacy rates with crude birth rates (CBRs and IMRs of the states and union territories (UTs of India. The data were analyzed using linear regression. CBR and IMR were taken as the dependent variables; while the overall literacy rates, male, and female literacy rates were the independent variables. Results: CBRs were inversely related to literacy rates (slope parameter = -0.402, P < 0.001. On multiple linear regression with male and female literacy rates, a significant inverse relationship emerged between female literacy rate and CBR (slope = -0.363, P < 0.001, while male literacy rate was not significantly related to CBR (P = 0.674. IMR of the states were also inversely related to their literacy rates (slope = -1.254, P < 0.001. Multiple linear regression revealed a significant inverse relationship between IMR and female literacy (slope = -0.816, P = 0.031, whereas male literacy rate was not significantly related (P = 0.630. Conclusion: Female literacy is relatively highly important for both population stabilization and better infant health.

  14. Long-term Relationships

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hémous, David; Olsen, Morten

    2017-01-01

    In the 1980s the Japanese “keiretsu” system of interconnected business groups was praised as a model to emulate, but since then Japan has often been criticized for being less innovative than the United States. In this paper we connect the two views and argue that tight business relationships can...... suppliers and start cooperation immediately with new suppliers. We first consider broad innovations: every period, one supplier has the opportunity to create a higher quality input that can be used by all producers. Since relationships are harder to break in the cooperative equilibrium the market size...... for potential innovators is smaller and the rate of innovation might be lower than in the noncooperative equilibrium. We contrast this with a setting with relationship-specific innovations that we show are encouraged by the establishment of relational contracts. We illustrate the predictions of the model using...

  15. Streamflow ratings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holmes, Robert R.; Singh, Vijay P.

    2016-01-01

    Autonomous direct determination of a continuous time series of streamflow is not economically feasible at present (2014). As such, surrogates are used to derive a continuous time series of streamflow. The derivation process entails developing a streamflow rating, which can range from a simple, single-valued relation between stage and streamflow to a fully dynamic one-dimensional model based on hydraulics of the flow.

  16. The Relationship between Retail Merchandising in the Content Area and Its Effect on Comprehension and Reading Rate as Measured by Retail Merchandising Reading Tests Given to Selected Secondary School Students in Metropolitan Toronto.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Best, Jane

    A total of 99 students from a Toronto secondary vocational school participated in a study to determine whether students who studied retail merchandising differed significantly in comprehension and reading rate from students who did not study retail merchandising. An experimental group composed of 50 merchandising students and a control group of 49…

  17. Relationships between Participants' International Prostate Symptom Score and BPH Impact Index Changes and Global Ratings of C