WorldWideScience

Sample records for size factor consideration

  1. Challenges and Considerations for Innovative Small and Medium Sized Reactors

    Kuznetsov, V.

    2008-01-01

    There is an ongoing interest in Member States in the development and application of small and medium sized reactors (SMRs). In the near term, most new NPPs are likely to be evolutionary water cooled reactor designs building on proven systems while incorporating technological advances and often the economics of scale, resulting from the reactor outputs of up to 1600 MW(e). For a longer term, the focus is on innovative designs aiming to provide increased benefits in the areas of safety and security, non-proliferation, waste management, resource utilization and economy, as well as to offer a variety of energy products and flexibility in design, siting and fuel cycle options. Many innovative designs are reactors within the SMR range, having an equivalent electric power less than 700 MW(e) or even less than 300 MW(e). It is important that small or medium sized reactor does not necessarily mean small or medium sized nuclear power plant. The majority of innovative SMR concepts and designs provide for power station configurations with several units at a site or for NPP configurations with 2 or more reactor modules. In most cases, the units or modules could be added incrementally. Innovative SMRs are in many cases intended for markets different from those in which large nuclear power plants operate, i.e., markets that value more distributed electrical supplies, a better match between supply increments and investment capability or demand growth, more flexible siting or greater product variety. SMRs cannot compete with larger capacity plants on an economy of scale basis. However, they could be competitive via employing alternative design strategies, taking advantage of smaller reactor size resulting in a less complex design and operation and maintenance or in an increased overall energy conversion efficiency, and by relying on alternative deployment strategies, taking advantage of multiple unit factors and learning curve, and shorter construction schedule and 'exact' unit

  2. Simple and multiple linear regression: sample size considerations.

    Hanley, James A

    2016-11-01

    The suggested "two subjects per variable" (2SPV) rule of thumb in the Austin and Steyerberg article is a chance to bring out some long-established and quite intuitive sample size considerations for both simple and multiple linear regression. This article distinguishes two of the major uses of regression models that imply very different sample size considerations, neither served well by the 2SPV rule. The first is etiological research, which contrasts mean Y levels at differing "exposure" (X) values and thus tends to focus on a single regression coefficient, possibly adjusted for confounders. The second research genre guides clinical practice. It addresses Y levels for individuals with different covariate patterns or "profiles." It focuses on the profile-specific (mean) Y levels themselves, estimating them via linear compounds of regression coefficients and covariates. By drawing on long-established closed-form variance formulae that lie beneath the standard errors in multiple regression, and by rearranging them for heuristic purposes, one arrives at quite intuitive sample size considerations for both research genres. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Considerations on the time factor in radiobiology

    Rossi, H.H.

    1981-01-01

    Although extension of the time period during which a given dose of radiation is administered commonly reduces effectiveness, there are well established instances where the reverse is true. Theoretical considerations are presented which relate reduction or enhancement to the shape of the dose-effect curve. While in many instances these changes of sensitivity may be due to intracellular processes it appears that in the case of carcinogenesis by low doses of neutrons, time dependent intercellular action must be involved. (orig.) [de

  4. Cesium ion exchange using actual waste: Column size considerations

    Brooks, K.P.

    1996-04-01

    It is presently planned to remove cesium from Hanford tank waste supernates and sludge wash solutions using ion exchange. To support the development of a cesium ion exchange process, laboratory experiments produced column breakthrough curves using wastes simulants in 200 mL columns. To verify the validity of the simulant tests, column runs with actual supernatants are being planned. The purpose of these actual waste tests is two-fold. First, the tests will verify that use of the simulant accurately reflects the equilibrium and rate behavior of the resin compared to actual wastes. Batch tests and column tests will be used to compare equilibrium behaviors and rate behaviors, respectively. Second, the tests will assist in clarifying the negative interactions between the actual waste and the ion exchange resin, which cannot be effectively tested with simulant. Such interactions include organic fouling of the resin and salt precipitation in the column. These effects may affect the shape of the column breakthrough curve. The reduction in column size also may change the shape of the curve, making the individual effects even more difficult to sort out. To simplify the evaluation, the changes due to column size must be either understood or eliminated. This report describes the determination of the column size for actual waste testing that best minimizes the effect of scale-down. This evaluation will provide a theoretical basis for the dimensions of the column. Experimental testing is still required before the final decision can be made. This evaluation will be confined to the study of CS-100 and R-F resins with NCAW simulant and to a limited extent DSSF waste simulant. Only the cesium loading phase has been considered

  5. Human factors considerations for reliability and safety

    Carnino, A.

    1985-01-01

    Human factors in many industries have become an important issue, since the last few years. They should be considered during the whole life time of a plant: design, fabrication and construction, licensing, operation. Improvements have been performed in the field of man-machine interface such as procedures, control room lay-out, operator aids, training. In order to meet the needs of reliability and probabilistic risk studies, quantification of human errors has been developed but needs still improvements in the field of cognitive behaviour, diagnosis and representation errors. Data banks to support these quantifications are still in a development stage. This applies to nuclear power plants and several examples are given to illustrate the above ideas. In conclusion, human factors field is in a very quickly evolving process but the tendency is still to adapt the man to the machines whilst the reverse would be desirable

  6. Statistical considerations for grain-size analyses of tills

    Jacobs, A.M.

    1971-01-01

    Relative percentages of sand, silt, and clay from samples of the same till unit are not identical because of different lithologies in the source areas, sorting in transport, random variation, and experimental error. Random variation and experimental error can be isolated from the other two as follows. For each particle-size class of each till unit, a standard population is determined by using a normally distributed, representative group of data. New measurements are compared with the standard population and, if they compare satisfactorily, the experimental error is not significant and random variation is within the expected range for the population. The outcome of the comparison depends on numerical criteria derived from a graphical method rather than on a more commonly used one-way analysis of variance with two treatments. If the number of samples and the standard deviation of the standard population are substituted in a t-test equation, a family of hyperbolas is generated, each of which corresponds to a specific number of subsamples taken from each new sample. The axes of the graphs of the hyperbolas are the standard deviation of new measurements (horizontal axis) and the difference between the means of the new measurements and the standard population (vertical axis). The area between the two branches of each hyperbola corresponds to a satisfactory comparison between the new measurements and the standard population. Measurements from a new sample can be tested by plotting their standard deviation vs. difference in means on axes containing a hyperbola corresponding to the specific number of subsamples used. If the point lies between the branches of the hyperbola, the measurements are considered reliable. But if the point lies outside this region, the measurements are repeated. Because the critical segment of the hyperbola is approximately a straight line parallel to the horizontal axis, the test is simplified to a comparison between the means of the standard

  7. The reconstruction of choice value in the brain: a look into the size of consideration sets and their affective consequences.

    Kim, Hye-Young; Shin, Yeonsoon; Han, Sanghoon

    2014-04-01

    It has been proposed that choice utility exhibits an inverted U-shape as a function of the number of options in the choice set. However, most researchers have so far only focused on the "physically extant" number of options in the set while disregarding the more important psychological factor, the "subjective" number of options worth considering to choose-that is, the size of the consideration set. To explore this previously ignored aspect, we examined how variations in the size of a consideration set can produce different affective consequences after making choices and investigated the underlying neural mechanism using fMRI. After rating their preferences for art posters, participants made a choice from a presented set and then reported on their level of satisfaction with their choice and the level of difficulty experienced in choosing it. Our behavioral results demonstrated that enlarged assortment set can lead to greater choice satisfaction only when increases in both consideration set size and preference contrast are involved. Moreover, choice difficulty is determined based on the size of an individual's consideration set rather than on the size of the assortment set, and it decreases linearly as a function of the level of contrast among alternatives. The neuroimaging analysis of choice-making revealed that subjective consideration set size was encoded in the striatum, the dACC, and the insula. In addition, the striatum also represented variations in choice satisfaction resulting from alterations in the size of consideration sets, whereas a common neural specificity for choice difficulty and consideration set size was shown in the dACC. These results have theoretical and practical importance in that it is one of the first studies investigating the influence of the psychological attributes of choice sets on the value-based decision-making process.

  8. Consideration of the usefulness of a size-specific dose estimate in pediatric CT examination.

    Tsujiguchi, Takakiyo; Obara, Hideki; Ono, Shuichi; Saito, Yoko; Kashiwakura, Ikuo

    2018-04-05

    Computed tomography (CT) has recently been utilized in various medical settings, and technological advances have resulted in its widespread use. However, medical radiation exposure associated with CT scans accounts for the largest share of examinations using radiation; thus, it is important to understand the organ dose and effective dose in detail. The CT dose index and dose-length product are used to evaluate the organ dose. However, evaluations using these indicators fail to consider the age and body type of patients. In this study, we evaluated the effective dose based on the CT examination data of 753 patients examined at our hospital using the size-specific dose estimate (SSDE) method, which can calculate the exposure dose with consideration of the physique of a patient. The results showed a large correlation between the SSDE conversion factor and physique, with a larger exposure dose in patients with a small physique when a single scan is considered. Especially for children, the SSDE conversion factor was found to be 2 or more. In addition, the patient exposed to the largest dose in this study was a 10-year-old, who received 40.4 mSv (five series/examination). In the future, for estimating exposure using the SSDE method and in cohort studies, the diagnostic reference level of SSDE should be determined and a low-exposure imaging protocol should be developed to predict the risk of CT exposure and to maintain the quality of diagnosis with better radiation protection of patients.

  9. Determinants of Awareness, Consideration, and Choice Set Size in University Choice.

    Dawes, Philip L.; Brown, Jennifer

    2002-01-01

    Developed and tested a model of students' university "brand" choice using five individual-level variables (ethnic group, age, gender, number of parents going to university, and academic ability) and one situational variable (duration of search) to explain variation in the sizes of awareness, consideration, and choice decision sets. (EV)

  10. Combining the role of convenience and consideration set size in explaining fish consumption in Norway.

    Rortveit, Asbjorn Warvik; Olsen, Svein Ottar

    2009-04-01

    The purpose of this study is to explore how convenience orientation, perceived product inconvenience and consideration set size are related to attitudes towards fish and fish consumption. The authors present a structural equation model (SEM) based on the integration of two previous studies. The results of a SEM analysis using Lisrel 8.72 on data from a Norwegian consumer survey (n=1630) suggest that convenience orientation and perceived product inconvenience have a negative effect on both consideration set size and consumption frequency. Attitude towards fish has the greatest impact on consumption frequency. The results also indicate that perceived product inconvenience is a key variable since it has a significant impact on attitude, and on consideration set size and consumption frequency. Further, the analyses confirm earlier findings suggesting that the effect of convenience orientation on consumption is partially mediated through perceived product inconvenience. The study also confirms earlier findings suggesting that the consideration set size affects consumption frequency. Practical implications drawn from this research are that the seafood industry would benefit from developing and positioning products that change beliefs about fish as an inconvenient product. Future research for other food categories should be done to enhance the external validity.

  11. RF system considerations for large high-duty-factor linacs

    Lynch, M.T.; Ziomek, C.D.; Tallerico, P.J.; Regan, A.H.; Eaton, L.; Lawrence, G.

    1994-01-01

    RF systems are often a major cost item for linacs, but this is especially true for large high-duty-factor linacs (up to and including CW) such as the Accelerator for Production of Tritium (APT) or the Accelerator for Transmutation of nuclear Waste (ATW). In addition, the high energy and high average beam current of these machines (approximately 1 GeV, 100--200 mA) leads to a need for excellent control of the accelerating fields in order to minimize the possibility of beam loss in the accelerator and the resulting activation. This paper will address the key considerations and limitations in the design of the RF system. These considerations impact the design of both the high power RF components and the RF controls. As might be expected, the two concerns sometimes lead to conflicting design requirements. For example minimum RF operating costs lead to a desire for operation near saturation of the high power RF generators in order to maximize the operating efficiency. Optimal control of the RF fields leads to a desire for maximum overdrive capability in those same generators in order to respond quickly to disturbances of the accelerator fields

  12. Environmental, biological and anthropogenic effects on grizzly bear body size: temporal and spatial considerations.

    Nielsen, Scott E; Cattet, Marc R L; Boulanger, John; Cranston, Jerome; McDermid, Greg J; Shafer, Aaron B A; Stenhouse, Gordon B

    2013-09-08

    Individual body growth is controlled in large part by the spatial and temporal heterogeneity of, and competition for, resources. Grizzly bears (Ursus arctos L.) are an excellent species for studying the effects of resource heterogeneity and maternal effects (i.e. silver spoon) on life history traits such as body size because their habitats are highly variable in space and time. Here, we evaluated influences on body size of grizzly bears in Alberta, Canada by testing six factors that accounted for spatial and temporal heterogeneity in environments during maternal, natal and 'capture' (recent) environments. After accounting for intrinsic biological factors (age, sex), we examined how body size, measured in mass, length and body condition, was influenced by: (a) population density; (b) regional habitat productivity; (c) inter-annual variability in productivity (including silver spoon effects); (d) local habitat quality; (e) human footprint (disturbances); and (f) landscape change. We found sex and age explained the most variance in body mass, condition and length (R(2) from 0.48-0.64). Inter-annual variability in climate the year before and of birth (silver spoon effects) had detectable effects on the three-body size metrics (R(2) from 0.04-0.07); both maternal (year before birth) and natal (year of birth) effects of precipitation and temperature were related with body size. Local heterogeneity in habitat quality also explained variance in body mass and condition (R(2) from 0.01-0.08), while annual rate of landscape change explained additional variance in body length (R(2) of 0.03). Human footprint and population density had no observed effect on body size. These results illustrated that body size patterns of grizzly bears, while largely affected by basic biological characteristics (age and sex), were also influenced by regional environmental gradients the year before, and of, the individual's birth thus illustrating silver spoon effects. The magnitude of the silver

  13. Some Human Factors Considerations for Designing Mixed Reality Interfaces

    Milgram, Paul

    2006-01-01

    ...), as well as the case of Augmented Virtuality (AV). In designing human-machine interfaces for mixed reality applications, a number of considerations are discussed which may potentially impact the effectiveness of the design...

  14. A Broad Consideration of Risk Factors in Pediatric Chronic Pain: Where to Go from Here?

    McKillop, Hannah N; Banez, Gerard A

    2016-11-30

    Pediatric chronic pain is a significant problem associated with substantial functional impairment. A variety of risk factors have been found to be associated with chronic pain in youth. The greatest amount of evidence appears to support that temperament, anxiety, depression, subjective experience of stress, passive coping strategies, sleep problems, other somatic-related problems, and parent and/or family factors are important variables. However, a great deal of this research focuses on a single risk factor or on multiple risk factors in isolation. Much of the literature utilizes older diagnostic criteria and would benefit from replication, larger sample sizes, and comparison across pain disorders. Problems also exist with disagreement across definitions, resulting in inconsistency or unclear use of terms. Furthermore, recent consideration has suggested that outcome measures should include functional disability in addition to pain. A second generation of research is needed to shed light on the complex interactions that likely play a role in the transition from acute to chronic pain. Building on recent calls for changes in research in this area, we propose the next steps for this research, which involve consideration of both biopsychosocial and developmental contexts.

  15. Consideration of Factors Affecting Strip Effluent PH and Sodium Content

    Peters, T. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States)

    2015-07-29

    A number of factors were investigated to determine possible reasons for why the Strip Effluent (SE) can sometimes have higher than expected pH values and/or sodium content, both of which have prescribed limits. All of the factors likely have some impact on the pH values and Na content.

  16. phMRI: methodological considerations for mitigating potential confounding factors

    Julius H Bourke

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Pharmacological Magnetic Resonance Imaging (phMRI is a variant of conventional MRI that adds pharmacological manipulations in order to study the effects of drugs, or uses pharmacological probes to investigate basic or applied (e.g. clinical neuroscience questions. Issues that may confound the interpretation of results from various types of phMRI studies are briefly discussed, and a set of methodological strategies that can mitigate these problems are described. These include strategies that can be employed at every stage of investigation, from study design to interpretation of resulting data, and additional techniques suited for use with clinical populations are also featured. Pharmacological MRI is a challenging area of research that has both significant advantages and formidable difficulties, however with due consideration and use of these strategies many of the key obstacles can be overcome.

  17. Cloud Computing Adoption Business Model Factors: Does Enterprise Size Matter?

    Bogataj Habjan, Kristina; Pucihar, Andreja

    2017-01-01

    This paper presents the results of research investigating the impact of business model factors on cloud computing adoption. The introduced research model consists of 40 cloud computing business model factors, grouped into eight factor groups. Their impact and importance for cloud computing adoption were investigated among enterpirses in Slovenia. Furthermore, differences in opinion according to enterprise size were investigated. Research results show no statistically significant impacts of in...

  18. Clinical trials in "emerging markets": regulatory considerations and other factors.

    Singh, Romi; Wang, Ouhong

    2013-11-01

    Clinical studies are being placed in emerging markets as part of global drug development programs to access large pool of eligible patients and to benefit from a cost effective structure. However, over the last few years, the definition of "emerging markets" is being revisited, especially from a regulatory perspective. For purposes of this article, countries outside US, EU and the traditional "western countries" are discussed. Multiple factors are considered for placement of clinical studies such as adherence to Good Clinical Practice (GCP), medical infrastructure & standard of care, number of eligible patients, etc. This article also discusses other quantitative factors such as country's GDP, patent applications, healthcare expenditure, healthcare infrastructure, corruption, innovation, etc. These different factors and indexes are correlated to the number of clinical studies ongoing in the "emerging markets". R&D, healthcare expenditure, technology infrastructure, transparency, and level of innovation, show a significant correlation with the number of clinical trials being conducted in these countries. This is the first analysis of its kind to evaluate and correlate the various other factors to the number of clinical studies in a country. © 2013.

  19. Quality correction factors of composite IMRT beam deliveries: Theoretical considerations

    Bouchard, Hugo

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: In the scope of intensity modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) dosimetry using ionization chambers, quality correction factors of plan-class-specific reference (PCSR) fields are theoretically investigated. The symmetry of the problem is studied to provide recommendable criteria for composite beam deliveries where correction factors are minimal and also to establish a theoretical limit for PCSR delivery k Q factors. Methods: The concept of virtual symmetric collapsed (VSC) beam, being associated to a given modulated composite delivery, is defined in the scope of this investigation. Under symmetrical measurement conditions, any composite delivery has the property of having a k Q factor identical to its associated VSC beam. Using this concept of VSC, a fundamental property of IMRT k Q factors is demonstrated in the form of a theorem. The sensitivity to the conditions required by the theorem is thoroughly examined. Results: The theorem states that if a composite modulated beam delivery produces a uniform dose distribution in a volume V cyl which is symmetric with the cylindrical delivery and all beams fulfills two conditions in V cyl : (1) the dose modulation function is unchanged along the beam axis, and (2) the dose gradient in the beam direction is constant for a given lateral position; then its associated VSC beam produces no lateral dose gradient in V cyl , no matter what beam modulation or gantry angles are being used. The examination of the conditions required by the theorem lead to the following results. The effect of the depth-dose gradient not being perfectly constant with depth on the VSC beam lateral dose gradient is found negligible. The effect of the dose modulation function being degraded with depth on the VSC beam lateral dose gradient is found to be only related to scatter and beam hardening, as the theorem holds also for diverging beams. Conclusions: The use of the symmetry of the problem in the present paper leads to a valuable theorem showing

  20. Spatial variation in egg size of a top predator: Interplay of body size and environmental factors?

    Louzao, Maite; Igual, José M.; Genovart, Meritxell; Forero, Manuela G.; Hobson, Keith A.; Oro, Daniel

    2008-09-01

    It is expected that nearby populations are constrained by the same ecological features shaping in turn similarity in their ecological traits. Here, we studied the spatio-temporal variability in egg size among local populations of the critically endangered Balearic shearwater Puffinus mauretanicus, a top marine predator endemic to the western Mediterranean region. Specifically we assessed whether this trait was influenced by maternal body size, as an indicator of a genetic component, and feeding ecology (through stable-carbon and nitrogen-isotope measurements), as an indicator of environmental factors. We found that egg size varied among local populations, an unexpected result at such a small spatial scale. Body size differences at the local population level only partially explained such differences. Blood isotope measurements also differed among local populations. Values of δ 15N suggested inter-population differences in trophic level, showing a similar general pattern with egg size, and suggesting a nutritional link between them whereby egg size was affected by differences in feeding resources and/or behaviour. Values of δ 13C suggested that local populations did not differ in foraging habits with respect to benthic- vs. pelagic-based food-webs. Egg size did not vary among years as did breeding performance, suggesting that a differential temporal window could affect both breeding parameters in relation to food availability. The absence of a relationship between breeding performance and egg size suggested that larger eggs might only confer an advantage during harsh conditions. Alternatively parental quality could greatly affect breeding performance. We showed that inter-population differences in egg size could be influenced by both body size and environmental factors.

  1. A practical and theoretical definition of very small field size for radiotherapy output factor measurements.

    Charles, P H; Cranmer-Sargison, G; Thwaites, D I; Crowe, S B; Kairn, T; Knight, R T; Kenny, J; Langton, C M; Trapp, J V

    2014-04-01

    careful experimental methodology including the measurement of dosimetric field size at the same time as output factor measurement for each field size setting and also very precise detector alignment is required at field sizes at least ≤ 12 mm and more conservatively ≤ 15 mm for 6 MV beams. These recommendations should be applied in addition to all the usual considerations for small field dosimetry, including careful detector selection. © 2014 American Association of Physicists in Medicine.

  2. The role of consumer satisfaction, consideration set size, variety seeking and convenience orientation in explaining seafood consumption in Vietnam

    Ninh, Thi Kim Anh

    2010-01-01

    The study examines the relationship betweens convenience food and seafood consumption in Vietnam through a replication and an extension of studies of Rortveit and Olsen (2007; 2009). The main purpose of this study is to give an understanding of the role of consumers’ satisfaction, consideration set size, variety seeking, and convenience in explaining seafood consumption behavior in Vietnam.

  3. Human factors considerations for expert systems in the nuclear industry

    Nelson, W.R.

    1988-01-01

    This paper discusses the general human factors issues relative to the development and implementation of expert systems for the nuclear industry. It summarizes the relevant research that addresses these issues, and identifies those areas that need the most effort for success. Since much of the prominent work for the application of expert systems has focused on computerized aids for decision making in emergencies, this paper draws from this area for its examples. This area tends to highlight the issues because of the safety-critical nature of the application. The same issues, however, are relevant to other applications of expert systems in the nuclear industry as well, even though the consequences of failure may not be as dramatic

  4. Some considerations on the key economic factors of ISER development

    Wakabayashi, Hiroaki

    1987-01-01

    In Sweden and the U.S., experiments are being made for testing and verification of the basic PIUS principle and the stability of interfaces at high temperature and high pressure. Japan's Ministry of International Trade and Industry envisaged, in its 1986 future planning of nuclear power, a nuclear capacity of 87 GWe in 2010 and 137 GWe in 2030. Before contemplating an actual siting of ISER near or in an city, ISER experimental reactor must pass severe tests. Required tests for ISER, however, are simple and limited, because the probable frequency and characteristics of major abnormal situations can be well identified and defined in the course of conceptual design and detailed safety analyses. Economy of LWRs in general, and PIUS-ISER in particular, rests on many factors including the services for the front end, uranium supply-enrichment and the back end of its fuel cycle; spent fuel storage and low level waste management; and the safety and availability of the reactor. PIUS-ISER has several unique features that are not available in existing LWRs. These features are related with control rod, control room, reliance on natural circulation cooling, source term, containment, BOP and emergency AC power. Technological development work for ISER should cover interface design, steam generator, antiseismic design, and pool water cooling measures. (Nogami, K.)

  5. Human factors consideration in clinical applications of virtual reality.

    Lewis, C H; Griffin, M J

    1997-01-01

    Virtual reality environments have many potential applications in medicine, including surgical training, tele-operated robotic surgery, assessment and rehabilitation of behavioural and neurological disorders and diagnosis, therapy and rehabilitation of physical disabilities. Although there is much potential for the use of immersive virtual reality environments in clinical applications, there are problems which could limit their ultimate usability. Some users have experienced side-effects during and after exposure to virtual reality environments. The symptoms include ocular problems, disorientation and balance disturbances, and nausea. Susceptibility to side-effects can be affected by age, ethnicity, experience, gender and physical fitness, as well as the characteristics of the display, the virtual environment and the tasks. The characteristics of the virtual reality system have also been shown to affect the ability of users to perform tasks in a virtual environment. Many of these effects can be attributed to delays between the sampling of head and limb positions and the presentation of an appropriate image on the display. The introduction of patients to virtual reality environments, for assessment, therapy or rehabilitation, raises particular safety and ethical issues. Patients exposed to virtual reality environments for assessment and rehabilitation may have disabilities which increase their susceptibility to certain side-effects. Special precautions therefore need to be taken to ensure the safety and effectiveness of such virtual reality applications. These precautions include minimisation of possible side-effects at the design stage. Factors are identified which are likely to affect the incidence of side-effects during and after exposures, and which need to be understood in order to minimise undesirable consequences. There is also a need for the establishment of protocols for monitoring and controlling exposures of patients to virtual reality environments. Issues

  6. Human Factors Considerations in New Nuclear Power Plants: Detailed Analysis.

    OHara,J.; Higgins, J.; Brown, W.; Fink, R.

    2008-02-14

    This Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) sponsored study has identified human-performance issues in new and advanced nuclear power plants. To identify the issues, current industry developments and trends were evaluated in the areas of reactor technology, instrumentation and control technology, human-system integration technology, and human factors engineering (HFE) methods and tools. The issues were organized into seven high-level HFE topic areas: Role of Personnel and Automation, Staffing and Training, Normal Operations Management, Disturbance and Emergency Management, Maintenance and Change Management, Plant Design and Construction, and HFE Methods and Tools. The issues where then prioritized into four categories using a 'Phenomena Identification and Ranking Table' methodology based on evaluations provided by 14 independent subject matter experts. The subject matter experts were knowledgeable in a variety of disciplines. Vendors, utilities, research organizations and regulators all participated. Twenty issues were categorized into the top priority category. This Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL) technical report provides the detailed methodology, issue analysis, and results. A summary of the results of this study can be found in NUREG/CR-6947. The research performed for this project has identified a large number of human-performance issues for new control stations and new nuclear power plant designs. The information gathered in this project can serve as input to the development of a long-term strategy and plan for addressing human performance in these areas through regulatory research. Addressing human-performance issues will provide the technical basis from which regulatory review guidance can be developed to meet these challenges. The availability of this review guidance will help set clear expectations for how the NRC staff will evaluate new designs, reduce regulatory uncertainty, and provide a well-defined path to new nuclear power plant

  7. Genetic and environmental factors affecting birth size variation

    Yokoyama, Yoshie; Jelenkovic, Aline; Hur, Yoon-Mi

    2018-01-01

    Background: The genetic architecture of birth size may differ geographically and over time. We examined differences in the genetic and environmental contributions to birthweight, length and ponderal index (PI) across geographical-cultural regions (Europe, North America and Australia, and East Asia......) and across birth cohorts, and how gestational age modifies these effects. Methods: Data from 26 twin cohorts in 16 countries including 57 613 monozygotic and dizygotic twin pairs were pooled. Genetic and environmental variations of birth size were estimated using genetic structural equation modelling....... Results: The variance of birthweight and length was predominantly explained by shared environmental factors, whereas the variance of PI was explained both by shared and unique environmental factors. Genetic variance contributing to birth size was small. Adjusting for gestational age decreased...

  8. Specimen size effect considerations for irradiation studies of SiC/SiC

    Youngblood, G.E.; Henager, C.H. Jr.; Jones, R.H. [Pacific Northwest National Lab., Richland, WA (United States)

    1996-10-01

    For characterization of the irradiation performance of SiC/SiC, limited available irradiation volume generally dictates that tests be conducted on a small number of relatively small specimens. Flexure testing of two groups of bars with different sizes cut from the same SiC/SiC plate suggested the following lower limits for flexure specimen number and size: Six samples at a minimum for each condition and a minimum bar size of 30 x 6.0 x 2.0 mm{sup 3}.

  9. Economic considerations in the optimal size and number of reserve sites

    Groeneveld, R.A.

    2005-01-01

    The debate among ecologists on the optimal number of reserve sites under a fixed maximum total reserve area-the single large or several small (SLOSS) problem-has so far neglected the economic aspects of the problem. This paper argues that economic considerations can affect the optimal number and

  10. Effects of Social Support Network Size on Mortality Risk: Considerations by Diabetes Status.

    Loprinzi, Paul D; Ford, M Allison

    2018-05-01

    Previous work demonstrates that social support is inversely associated with mortality risk. Less research, however, has examined the effects of the size of the social support network on mortality risk among those with and without diabetes, which was the purpose of this study. Data from the 1999-2008 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey were used, with participants followed through 2011. This study included 1,412 older adults (≥60 years of age) with diabetes and 5,872 older adults without diabetes. The size of the social support network was assessed via self-report and reported as the number of participants' close friends. Among those without diabetes, various levels of social support network size were inversely associated with mortality risk. However, among those with diabetes, only those with a high social support network size (i.e., at least six close friends) had a reduced risk of all-cause mortality. That is, compared to those with zero close friends, those with diabetes who had six or more close friends had a 49% reduced risk of all-cause mortality (hazard ratio 0.51, 95% CI 0.27-0.94). To mitigate mortality risk, a greater social support network size may be needed for those with diabetes.

  11. Sizing Hydrogen Energy Storage in Consideration of Demand Response in Highly Renewable Generation Power Systems

    Mubbashir Ali

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available From an environment perspective, the increased penetration of wind and solar generation in power systems is remarkable. However, as the intermittent renewable generation briskly grows, electrical grids are experiencing significant discrepancies between supply and demand as a result of limited system flexibility. This paper investigates the optimal sizing and control of the hydrogen energy storage system for increased utilization of renewable generation. Using a Finnish case study, a mathematical model is presented to investigate the optimal storage capacity in a renewable power system. In addition, the impact of demand response for domestic storage space heating in terms of the optimal sizing of energy storage is discussed. Finally, sensitivity analyses are conducted to observe the impact of a small share of controllable baseload production as well as the oversizing of renewable generation in terms of required hydrogen storage size.

  12. Heuristic considerations pertaining to hailstone size distributions in the plain of Friuli-Venezia Giulia

    Giaiotti, Dario; Gianesini, Elena; Stel, Fulvio

    In this work, the hailstone size distributions at the ground in the plain of Friuli-Venezia Giulia are presented, as revealed through a network of polystyrene pads (hailpads), managed by volunteers, which has been active since 1988. The aim of this work is to highlight possible differences in the diurnal and seasonal behavior of hail at the ground, both from Friuli-Venezia Giulia and other countries, in order to improve the knowledge of this meteorological phenomenon. In the comparison between different countries, differences are found between the yearly size distributions of Friuli-Venezia Giulia and those of North-East Colorado, measured during the National Hail Research Experiment (NHRE). The size distributions obtained in South West France and in Friuli-Venezia Giulia are quite similar and they are slightly different from those of the Grossversuch experiment. In the comparison between different periods of the year, relevant differences are found between April and May and the other months. In particular, thunderstorms are less efficient in producing big hailstones during the former months. The most prolific month in producing hailstones is June, followed by September. This feature is interpreted as due to a form of synergy between the frequency of the synoptic forcing of storms and the amount of available energy at the ground. Analyzing the size distributions at different times of the day, the greatest differences are found in the intervals [00-06] and [06-12] in local time (respectively, [22-04] and [04-10] in UTC). These differences cannot be ascribed to the melting of the hailstones during their fall.

  13. Investigating power factor compensation capacity calculation in medium sized industry

    Chudhry, M.A.; Hanif, A.

    2008-01-01

    There are a variety of techniques developed in order to improve the efficiency of electrical systems and reduce cost of providing electricity to the consumer. This paper presents a new technique for power-factor capacity calculation in medium-sized industrial/ commercial setups. Various loads of similar nominal power-factor are categorized and demand-factor of loads is so selected that it has engineering justifications. The developed system works on the principle of low-voltage power-factor correction, which substantially reduces electricity bill and increases loading-capacity of the electrical system. It allows commercial and industrial consumers to save on their power cost appreciably. This work utilizes software, which takes few inputs and produces numerous useful results. Adoption of this system can help the user in computing compensation-capacity, system KVA (size of transformer) and cost of compensation. A feature of this system is prediction of low PF penalty. Moreover, it also suggests the tentative payback period. (author)

  14. Size and temperature consideration in the liquid layer growth from nanovoids and the melting model construction

    Li, H.; Liang, X.H.; Li, M.

    2014-01-01

    A new model for the solid melting point T m (D) from nanovoids is proposed through considering the liquid layer growth behavior. This model, which does not have any adjustable parameter, introduces the classical thermodynamic treatment, i.e., the liquid nucleation and growth theory, for nanoparticle melting. With increased void diameter D, T m (D) approaches to T m0 . Moreover, T m (D) > T m0 for a small void (T m0 is the bulk melting point). In other words, the solid can be significantly superheated especially when D decreases, even if the difference of interface energy is larger than zero. This finding can be expected from the negatively curved surface of the void. The model predictions are consistent with the molecular dynamic (MD) simulation results for argon solids. Moreover, the growth of liquid layer from void surface relies on both size and temperature, which directly determine liquid layer thickness, and only when liquid layer thickness reaches to a critical value, can void become instable. - Highlights: • A united model for the crystal melting point from nanovoids is established. • Melting point increases with decreased void size. • The result is expected from the negatively curved surface of the void. • The prediction is agreed well with the MD simulation results

  15. Factors affecting coke size and fissuring during cokemaking part 2

    Merrick Mahoney; Jeff Keating; Susan Woodhouse [BHP Billiton Newcastle Technology Centre (Australia)

    2007-12-15

    This work addressed the mechanism of fissuring during metallurgical cokemaking and extends on a previous ACARP project. Considerable progress has been made in understanding the mechanism by an integrated modelling work; experimental program. The work points to opportunities for controlling the carbonisation process to achieve required outcomes in terms of coke lump size and distribution. Key outcomes of the work included: A methodology for determination of the minimum spacing between fissures, and the time at which period doublings (i.e. every second fissure stopping) occur, has been developed and implemented. Implementation of the methodology allows the determination of the complete fissure pattern (at least those perpendicular to the oven walls) for a given coke oven/charge configuration. A plausible mechanistic explanation of the formation of lateral fissures (those that are parallel to the oven walls) has been developed. Knowledge of the fissure pattern, combined with the lateral fissuring explanation, enables the determination of typical size and shape of lumps after stabilisation of the coke.

  16. Considerations for Sample Preparation Using Size-Exclusion Chromatography for Home and Synchrotron Sources.

    Rambo, Robert P

    2017-01-01

    The success of a SAXS experiment for structural investigations depends on two precise measurements, the sample and the buffer background. Buffer matching between the sample and background can be achieved using dialysis methods but in biological SAXS of monodisperse systems, sample preparation is routinely being performed with size exclusion chromatography (SEC). SEC is the most reliable method for SAXS sample preparation as the method not only purifies the sample for SAXS but also almost guarantees ideal buffer matching. Here, I will highlight the use of SEC for SAXS sample preparation and demonstrate using example proteins that SEC purification does not always provide for ideal samples. Scrutiny of the SEC elution peak using quasi-elastic and multi-angle light scattering techniques can reveal hidden features (heterogeneity) of the sample that should be considered during SAXS data analysis. In some cases, sample heterogeneity can be controlled using a small molecule additive and I outline a simple additive screening method for sample preparation.

  17. IN SITU NON-INVASIVE SOIL CARBON ANALYSIS: SAMPLE SIZE AND GEOSTATISTICAL CONSIDERATIONS.

    WIELOPOLSKI, L.

    2005-04-01

    I discuss a new approach for quantitative carbon analysis in soil based on INS. Although this INS method is not simple, it offers critical advantages not available with other newly emerging modalities. The key advantages of the INS system include the following: (1) It is a non-destructive method, i.e., no samples of any kind are taken. A neutron generator placed above the ground irradiates the soil, stimulating carbon characteristic gamma-ray emission that is counted by a detection system also placed above the ground. (2) The INS system can undertake multielemental analysis, so expanding its usefulness. (3) It can be used either in static or scanning modes. (4) The volume sampled by the INS method is large with a large footprint; when operating in a scanning mode, the sampled volume is continuous. (5) Except for a moderate initial cost of about $100,000 for the system, no additional expenses are required for its operation over two to three years after which a NG has to be replenished with a new tube at an approximate cost of $10,000, this regardless of the number of sites analyzed. In light of these characteristics, the INS system appears invaluable for monitoring changes in the carbon content in the field. For this purpose no calibration is required; by establishing a carbon index, changes in carbon yield can be followed with time in exactly the same location, thus giving a percent change. On the other hand, with calibration, it can be used to determine the carbon stock in the ground, thus estimating the soil's carbon inventory. However, this requires revising the standard practices for deciding upon the number of sites required to attain a given confidence level, in particular for the purposes of upward scaling. Then, geostatistical considerations should be incorporated in considering properly the averaging effects of the large volumes sampled by the INS system that would require revising standard practices in the field for determining the number of spots to

  18. Practical Consideration Factors to Design Array Configuration of Direction Finding System for Airborne Signal Intelligence

    Jong-Hwan Lee

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Airborne signal intelligence (SIGINT systems must be capable of locating radio signal sources. Direction finding (DF to support this capability is an important factor. There are some practical considerations to be taken when designing the array configuration of a DF system for airborne SIGINT systems. This paper summarizes the practical factors when designing the array configuration of the DF system for airborne SIGINT. In particular, it focuses on four areas: antenna consideration factors when installing the DF system for airborne SIGINT from a practical point of view, array configuration methods for airborne communications intelligence and electronic intelligence, and a numerical analysis to select the optimum antenna position for airborne SIGINT.

  19. Determining the composition of gold nanoparticles: a compilation of shapes, sizes, and calculations using geometric considerations

    Mori, Taizo; Hegmann, Torsten

    2016-01-01

    Size, shape, overall composition, and surface functionality largely determine the properties and applications of metal nanoparticles. Aside from well-defined metal clusters, their composition is often estimated assuming a quasi-spherical shape of the nanoparticle core. With decreasing diameter of the assumed circumscribed sphere, particularly in the range of only a few nanometers, the estimated nanoparticle composition increasingly deviates from the real composition, leading to significant discrepancies between anticipated and experimentally observed composition, properties, and characteristics. We here assembled a compendium of tables, models, and equations for thiol-protected gold nanoparticles that will allow experimental scientists to more accurately estimate the composition of their gold nanoparticles using TEM image analysis data. The estimates obtained from following the routines described here will then serve as a guide for further analytical characterization of as-synthesized gold nanoparticles by other bulk (thermal, structural, chemical, and compositional) and surface characterization techniques. While the tables, models, and equations are dedicated to gold nanoparticles, the composition of other metal nanoparticle cores with face-centered cubic lattices can easily be estimated simply by substituting the value for the radius of the metal atom of interest.Graphical abstract

  20. Determining the composition of gold nanoparticles: a compilation of shapes, sizes, and calculations using geometric considerations

    Mori, Taizo, E-mail: MORI.Taizo@nims.go.jp; Hegmann, Torsten, E-mail: thegmann@kent.edu [Kent State University, Chemical Physics Interdisciplinary Program, Liquid Crystal Institute (United States)

    2016-10-15

    Size, shape, overall composition, and surface functionality largely determine the properties and applications of metal nanoparticles. Aside from well-defined metal clusters, their composition is often estimated assuming a quasi-spherical shape of the nanoparticle core. With decreasing diameter of the assumed circumscribed sphere, particularly in the range of only a few nanometers, the estimated nanoparticle composition increasingly deviates from the real composition, leading to significant discrepancies between anticipated and experimentally observed composition, properties, and characteristics. We here assembled a compendium of tables, models, and equations for thiol-protected gold nanoparticles that will allow experimental scientists to more accurately estimate the composition of their gold nanoparticles using TEM image analysis data. The estimates obtained from following the routines described here will then serve as a guide for further analytical characterization of as-synthesized gold nanoparticles by other bulk (thermal, structural, chemical, and compositional) and surface characterization techniques. While the tables, models, and equations are dedicated to gold nanoparticles, the composition of other metal nanoparticle cores with face-centered cubic lattices can easily be estimated simply by substituting the value for the radius of the metal atom of interest.Graphical abstract.

  1. LIQHYSMES-size, loss and cost considerations for the SMES-a conceptual analysis

    Sander, Michael; Neumann, Holger

    2011-01-01

    A new energy storage concept for variable renewable energy, LIQHYSMES, has been proposed which combines the use of liquid hydrogen (LH 2 ) with superconducting magnetic energy storage (SMES). LH 2 with its high volumetric energy density and, compared with compressed hydrogen, increased operational safety is the prime energy carrier for large scale stationary energy storage. But balancing load or supply fluctuations with hydrogen alone is unrealistic due to the response times of the flow control. To operate the hydrogen part more steadily, additional short-term electrical energy storage is needed. For this purpose a SMES based on coated conductors or magnesium diboride MgB 2 operated in the LH 2 bath, is proposed. Different solenoidal and toroidal SMES designs for the 10 GJ range are compared in terms of size and ramping losses. Cost targets for different power levels and supply periods are addressed, taking into account current developments in competing short-term storage devices like super-capacitors, batteries and flywheels.

  2. LIQHYSMES—size, loss and cost considerations for the SMES—a conceptual analysis

    Sander, Michael; Neumann, Holger

    2011-10-01

    A new energy storage concept for variable renewable energy, LIQHYSMES, has been proposed which combines the use of liquid hydrogen (LH2) with superconducting magnetic energy storage (SMES). LH2 with its high volumetric energy density and, compared with compressed hydrogen, increased operational safety is the prime energy carrier for large scale stationary energy storage. But balancing load or supply fluctuations with hydrogen alone is unrealistic due to the response times of the flow control. To operate the hydrogen part more steadily, additional short-term electrical energy storage is needed. For this purpose a SMES based on coated conductors or magnesium diboride MgB2 operated in the LH2 bath, is proposed. Different solenoidal and toroidal SMES designs for the 10 GJ range are compared in terms of size and ramping losses. Cost targets for different power levels and supply periods are addressed, taking into account current developments in competing short-term storage devices like super-capacitors, batteries and flywheels.

  3. Size-resolved particle emission factors for individual ships

    Jonsson, Åsa M.; Westerlund, Jonathan; Hallquist, Mattias

    2011-07-01

    In these experiments size-resolved emission factors for particle number (EFPN) and mass (EFPM) have been determined for 734 individual ship passages for real-world dilution. The method used is an extractive sampling method of the passing ship plumes where particle number/mass and CO2 were measured with high time resolution (1 Hz). The measurements were conducted on a small island located in the entrance to the port of Gothenburg (N57.6849, E11.838), the largest harbor in Scandinavia. This is an emission control area (ECA) and in close vicinity to populated areas. The average EFPN and EFPM were 2.55 ± 0.11 × 1016 (kg fuel)-1 and 2050 ± 110 mg (kg fuel)-1, respectively. The determined EF for ships with multiple passages showed a great reproducibility. Size-resolved EFPN were peaking at small particle sizes ˜35 nm. Smaller particle sizes and hence less mass were observed by a gas turbine equipped ship compared to diesel engine equipped ships. On average 36 to 46% of the emitted particles by number were non-volatile and 24% by mass (EFPN 1.16 ± 0.19 × 1016 [kg fuel]-1 and EFPM 488 ± 73 mg [kg fuel]-1, respectively). This study shows a great potential to gain large data-sets regarding ship emission determining parameters that can improve current dispersion modeling for health assessments on local and regional scales. The global contributions of total and non-volatile particle mass from shipping using this extensive data-set from an ECA were estimated to be at least 0.80 Tgy-1 and 0.19 Tgy-1.

  4. Factors affecting ground-water exchange and catchment size for Florida lakes in mantled karst terrain

    Lee, Terrie Mackin

    2002-01-01

    In the mantled karst terrain of Florida, the size of the catchment delivering ground-water inflow to lakes is often considerably smaller than the topographically defined drainage basin. The size is determined by a balance of factors that act individually to enhance or diminish the hydraulic connection between the lake and the adjacent surficial aquifer, as well as the hydraulic connection between the surficial aquifer and the deeper limestone aquifer. Factors affecting ground-water exchange and the size of the ground-water catchment for lakes in mantled karst terrain were examined by: (1) reviewing the physical and hydrogeological characteristics of 14 Florida lake basins with available ground-water inflow estimates, and (2) simulating ground-water flow in hypothetical lake basins. Variably-saturated flow modeling was used to simulate a range of physical and hydrogeologic factors observed at the 14 lake basins. These factors included: recharge rate to the surficial aquifer, thickness of the unsaturated zone, size of the topographically defined basin, depth of the lake, thickness of the surficial aquifer, hydraulic conductivity of the geologic units, the location and size of karst subsidence features beneath and onshore of the lake, and the head in the Upper Floridan aquifer. Catchment size and the magnitude of ground-water inflow increased with increases in recharge rate to the surficial aquifer, the size of the topographically defined basin, hydraulic conductivity in the surficial aquifer, the degree of confinement of the deeper Upper Floridan aquifer, and the head in the Upper Floridan aquifer. The catchment size and magnitude of ground-water inflow increased with decreases in the number and size of karst subsidence features in the basin, and the thickness of the unsaturated zone near the lake. Model results, although qualitative, provided insights into: (1) the types of lake basins in mantled karst terrain that have the potential to generate small and large

  5. A review of factors influencing litter size in Irish sows

    Lawlor Peadar G

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Many factors influence litter size. These include genetics, gilt management, lactation length, parity distribution, disease, stress and boar fertility. In the past 20 years, litter size in Irish sows has increased by only one pig. Born alive figures now average at 11.2 pigs per litter. In this regard, Ireland is falling behind our European competitors who have made significant advances over this time. Denmark, for example, has an average figure of 12.7 pigs born alive per litter and France an average of 12.5. The single area that could be improved immediately is sow feeding. It is important that sows are fed correctly throughout pregnancy. If over-fed during pregnancy, sows will have depressed appetite during lactation. If underfed in pregnancy, sows will be too thin at farrowing. The correct way to feed a pregnant sow is to match her feed allocation to her requirement for maintenance, body growth and growth of her developing foetuses. During lactation, sows should be given as much feed as they can eat to prevent excessive loss of body condition. Liquid-feed curves should be such that lactating sows are provided with a minimum mean daily feed supply of 6.2 kg. A small proportion of sows will eat more and this could be given as supplementary dry feed. Where dry feeding is practised in the farrowing house, it is difficult to hand-feed sows to match their appetite. Ideally ad libitum wet/dry feeders should be used. From weaning to service, sows should once again be fed ad libitum. If liquid feeding, this means giving at least 60 MJ DE (digestible energy per day during this period. If dry feeding, at least 4 kg of lactation diet should be fed daily. The effort spent perfecting sow feeding management on units should yield high dividends in the form of increased pigs born alive per litter.

  6. Nodules size: An important factor in nodule mining?

    Valsangkar, A.B.

    A study of about 850 different sized nodules from 234 sites in the Central Indian Basin (CIB) showed a clear inverse relationship between size and grade of nodules. Among the different sized nodules, only the small (less than 2 cm) and medium (2...

  7. Nintendo Wii Fit as an adjunct to physiotherapy following lower limb fractures: preliminary feasibility, safety and sample size considerations.

    McPhail, S M; O'Hara, M; Gane, E; Tonks, P; Bullock-Saxton, J; Kuys, S S

    2016-06-01

    The Nintendo Wii Fit integrates virtual gaming with body movement, and may be suitable as an adjunct to conventional physiotherapy following lower limb fractures. This study examined the feasibility and safety of using the Wii Fit as an adjunct to outpatient physiotherapy following lower limb fractures, and reports sample size considerations for an appropriately powered randomised trial. Ambulatory patients receiving physiotherapy following a lower limb fracture participated in this study (n=18). All participants received usual care (individual physiotherapy). The first nine participants also used the Wii Fit under the supervision of their treating clinician as an adjunct to usual care. Adverse events, fracture malunion or exacerbation of symptoms were recorded. Pain, balance and patient-reported function were assessed at baseline and discharge from physiotherapy. No adverse events were attributed to either the usual care physiotherapy or Wii Fit intervention for any patient. Overall, 15 (83%) participants completed both assessments and interventions as scheduled. For 80% power in a clinical trial, the number of complete datasets required in each group to detect a small, medium or large effect of the Wii Fit at a post-intervention assessment was calculated at 175, 63 and 25, respectively. The Nintendo Wii Fit was safe and feasible as an adjunct to ambulatory physiotherapy in this sample. When considering a likely small effect size and the 17% dropout rate observed in this study, 211 participants would be required in each clinical trial group. A larger effect size or multiple repeated measures design would require fewer participants. Copyright © 2015 Chartered Society of Physiotherapy. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Consideration for solar system exploration - A system to Mars. [biomedical, environmental, and psychological factors

    Nicogossian, Arnauld E.; Garshnek, Victoria

    1989-01-01

    Biomedical issues related to a manned mission to Mars are reviewed. Consideration is given to cardiovascular deconditioning, hematological and immunological changes, bone and muscle changes, nutritional issues, and the development of physiological countermeasures. Environmental issues are discussed, including radiation hazards, toxic chemical exposure, and the cabin environment. Also, human factors, performance and behavior, medical screening of the crew, disease prediction, and health maintenance are examined.

  9. Factors associated with tumor size of hepatocellular carcinoma

    Siregar, G. A.; Buulolo, B. A.

    2018-03-01

    Determining the association of age and laboratory parameters with tumor size of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). The study was at Adam Malik Hospital Medan from June- December 2016. 100 HCC patients were enrolled; those with excluding liver metastatic. Baseline characteristics of gender, age, obtaining etiology of HCC. Liver function tests, viral marker, and INR were done. Based on tumor size from abdomen CT, patients were three groups: tumor size below 3 cm, 3-5 cm, and above 5 cm size. Patients were also divided based on Child-Pugh class. Correlation of age and laboratory results with tumor size of HCC patients were analyzed. Age have negative correlation with tumor size in HCC patients (r=-0.297, p=0.032) while AFP have positive correlation with tumor size (r0.446, p=<0.001). Total bilirubin, AST, and ALT have negative correlation but non-significant (r=-0.045, -0.078, - 0.126 respectively). Albumin and INR have positive correlation but non-significant (r=0.021, 0.112 respectively). Our study suggests that older age correlates with smaller tumor size, while AFP level has a significant correlation with tumor size in HCC patients. AFP level may be a useful marker for determining the prognosis of HCC patients.

  10. What factors control the size of an eruption?

    Gudmundsson, Agust

    2017-04-01

    For human society, eruption sizes (eruptive volumes or masses) are of the greatest concern. In particular, the largest eruptions, producing volumes of the order of hundreds or thousands of cubic kilometres, provide, together with meteoritic impacts, the greatest natural threats to mankind. Eruptive volumes tend to follow power laws so that most eruptions are comparatively small whereas a few are very large. It follows that a while during most ruptures of the source chambers a small fraction of the magma leaves the chamber, in some ruptures a very large fraction of the magma leaves the chamber. Most explosive eruptions larger than about 25 km3 are associated with caldera collapse. In the standard 'underpressure' ('lack of magmatic support') model, however, the collapse is the consequence, not the cause, of the large eruption. For poroelastic models, typically less than 4% of the magma in a felsic chamber and less than 0.1% of the magma in a mafic chamber leaves the chamber during rupture (and eventual eruption). In some caldera models, however, 20-70% of the magma is supposed to leave the chamber before the ring-fault forms and the caldera block begins to subside. In these models any amount of magma can flow out of the chamber following its rupture and there is apparently no way to forecast either the volume of magma injected from the chamber (hence the potential size of an eventual eruption) or the conditions for caldera collapse. An alternative model is proposed here. In this model normal (small) eruptions are controlled by standard poroelastity behaviour of the chamber, whereas large eruptions are controlled by chamber-volume reduction or shrinkage primarily through caldera/graben block subsidence into the chamber. Volcanotectonic stresses are then a major cause of ring-fault/graben boundary-fault formation. When large slips occur on these faults, the subsiding crustal block reduces the volume of the underlying chamber/reservoir, thereby maintaining its excess

  11. Summary of PRA assessment of transient accident risks, human factors considerations, and PRA methods and applications

    Carnino, A.

    1984-01-01

    This chapter reviews the progress made in the probabilistic risk assessment (PRA) area to help in solving operational transient problems and to integrate human factors considerations, as discussed at the American Nuclear Society Topical Meeting on Anticipated and Abnormal Plant Transients in Light Water Reactors. Topics considered include core-melt frequency, external events (e.g., fires, floods), diagnostic errors, and operator aids. It is concluded that confidence in PRA results, predictions and uses for decisions in both the safety of the plants and their availability will improve

  12. Human factors considerations for the use of color in display systems

    Demars, S. A.

    1975-01-01

    Identified and assessed are those human factor considerations impacting an operator's ability to perform when information is displayed in color as contrasted to monochrome (black and white only). The findings provide valuable guidelines for the assessment of the advantages (and disadvantages) of using a color display system. The use of color provides an additional sensory channel (color perception) which is not available with black and white. The degree to which one can exploit the use of this channel is highly dependent on available display technology, mission information display requirements, and acceptable operational modes.

  13. Influence of bioregion and environmental factors on the growth, size ...

    The influence of bioregion and important environmental factors in South Africa ... the production efficiency of cows through the implementation of management ... genetic component was not separated from the environmental components.

  14. Particle size - An important factor in environmental consequence modeling

    Yuan, Y.C.; MacFarlane, D.

    1991-01-01

    Most available environmental transport and dosimetry codes for radiological consequence analysis are designed primarily for estimating dose and health consequences to specific off-site individuals as well as the population as a whole from nuclear facilities operating under either normal or accident conditions. Models developed for these types of analyses are generally based on assumptions that the receptors are at great distances (several kilometers), and the releases are prolonged and filtered. This allows the use of simplified approaches such as averaged meteorological conditions and the use of a single (small) particle size for atmospheric transport and dosimetry analysis. Source depletion from particle settling, settle-out, and deposition is often ignored. This paper estimates the effects of large particles on the resulting dose consequences from an atmospheric release. The computer program AI-RISK has been developed to perform multiparticle-sized atmospheric transport, dose, and pathway analyses for estimating potential human health consequences from the accidental release of radioactive materials. The program was originally developed to facilitate comprehensive analyses of health consequences, ground contamination, and cleanup associated with possible energetic chemical reactions in high-level radioactive waste (HLW) tanks at a US Department of Energy site

  15. Influence of bioregion and environmental factors on the growth, size ...

    2017-06-28

    Jun 28, 2017 ... factors on the productivity of beef cows is vital in the pursuit of improving ..... by bioregion differed from 10% for early life traits such as BW and ... et al., 2005), which may result in a negative energy balance (Bernabuccil ..... The authors declare that they have no conflicts of interest with regard to this work.

  16. Consideration of Environmental Factors in Planning and Development of Urban Areas

    Kustysheva, I.

    2017-11-01

    Environmental factors, in varying degrees, always have a direct influence on the urban environment formation and the provision of favorable and safe conditions for the life of the population. Their role in the planning and development of urban areas remains an integral part of the management of such areas. Management should be aimed at improving the efficiency of use of the territories and ecological environment improvement. Planning must be done with the consideration of identified ecological processes in cities on the basis of the information about their occurrence in the past and present. Currently, cities face a multitude of problems that require urgent and immediate solutions. One of the most important issues is the poor state of the urban environment, so the environmental factors remain one of the most critical problems that should be considered by the authorities while implementing the urban areas’ development plans. The article discusses the role of environmental factors in the management and planning of urban territories by the example of the city of Tobolsk.

  17. Human factors and ergonomics in home care: Current concerns and future considerations for health information technology

    Or, Calvin K.L.; Valdez, Rupa S.; Casper, Gail R.; Carayon, Pascale; Burke, Laura J.; Brennan, Patricia Flatley; Karsh, Ben-Tzion

    2010-01-01

    Sicker patients with greater care needs are being discharged to their homes to assume responsibility for their own care with fewer nurses available to aid them. This situation brings with it a host of human factors and ergonomic (HFE) concerns, both for the home care nurse and the home dwelling patient, that can affect quality of care and patient safety. Many of these concerns are related to the critical home care tasks of information access, communication, and patient self-monitoring and self-management. Currently, a variety of health information technologies (HITs) are being promoted as possible solutions to those problems, but those same technologies bring with them a new set of HFE concerns. This paper reviews the HFE considerations for information access, communication, and patients self-monitoring and self-management, discusses how HIT can potentially mitigate current problems, and explains how the design and implementation of HIT itself requires careful HFE attention. PMID:19713630

  18. On Using a Pilot Sample Variance for Sample Size Determination in the Detection of Differences between Two Means: Power Consideration

    Shieh, Gwowen

    2013-01-01

    The a priori determination of a proper sample size necessary to achieve some specified power is an important problem encountered frequently in practical studies. To establish the needed sample size for a two-sample "t" test, researchers may conduct the power analysis by specifying scientifically important values as the underlying population means…

  19. Factors supporting an adequate sizing of internal audit departments in the public sector

    Elena Doina DASCĂLU

    2016-06-01

    By identifying the factors considered critical for the sizing of the internal audit departments, which have no equivalent (counterpart in the factors provided for in the current normative framework in Romania, the article contributes to the clarification of issues related to sizing models and procedures in the field.

  20. Design considerations for identifying breast cancer risk factors in a population-based study in Africa.

    Brinton, Louise A; Awuah, Baffour; Nat Clegg-Lamptey, Joe; Wiafe-Addai, Beatrice; Ansong, Daniel; Nyarko, Kofi M; Wiafe, Seth; Yarney, Joel; Biritwum, Richard; Brotzman, Michelle; Adjei, Andrew A; Adjei, Ernest; Aitpillah, Francis; Edusei, Lawrence; Dedey, Florence; Nyante, Sarah J; Oppong, Joseph; Osei-Bonsu, Ernest; Titiloye, Nicholas; Vanderpuye, Verna; Brew Abaidoo, Emma; Arhin, Bernard; Boakye, Isaac; Frempong, Margaret; Ohene Oti, Naomi; Okyne, Victoria; Figueroa, Jonine D

    2017-06-15

    Although breast cancer is becoming more prevalent in Africa, few epidemiologic studies have been undertaken and appropriate methodologic approaches remain uncertain. We therefore conducted a population-based case-control study in Accra and Kumasi, Ghana, enrolling 2,202 women with lesions suspicious for breast cancer and 2,161 population controls. Biopsy tissue for cases prior to neoadjuvant therapy (if given), blood, saliva and fecal samples were sought for study subjects. Response rates, risk factor prevalences and odds ratios for established breast cancer risk factors were calculated. A total of 54.5% of the recruited cases were diagnosed with malignancies, 36.0% with benign conditions and 9.5% with indeterminate diagnoses. Response rates to interviews were 99.2% in cases and 91.9% in controls, with the vast majority of interviewed subjects providing saliva (97.9% in cases vs. 98.8% in controls) and blood (91.8% vs. 82.5%) samples; lower proportions (58.1% vs. 46.1%) provided fecal samples. While risk factor prevalences were unique as compared to women in other countries (e.g., less education, higher parity), cancer risk factors resembled patterns identified elsewhere (elevated risks associated with higher levels of education, familial histories of breast cancer, low parity and larger body sizes). Subjects with benign conditions were younger and exhibited higher socioeconomic profiles (e.g., higher education and lower parity) than those with malignancies, suggesting selective referral influences. While further defining breast cancer risk factors in Africa, this study showed that successful population-based interdisciplinary studies of cancer in Africa are possible but require close attention to diagnostic referral biases and standardized and documented approaches for high-quality data collection, including biospecimens. © 2017 UICC.

  1. Sebum output as a factor contributing to the size of facial pores.

    Roh, M; Han, M; Kim, D; Chung, K

    2006-11-01

    Many endogenous and exogenous factors are known to cause enlarged pilosebaceous pores. Such factors include sex, genetic predisposition, ageing, chronic ultraviolet light exposure, comedogenic xenobiotics, acne and seborrhoea. This study was an attempt to determine the factors related to enlarged pores. To assess the relationship of sebum output, age, sex, hormonal factors and severity of acne with pore size. A prospective, randomized, controlled study was designed. A total of 60 volunteers, 30 males and 30 females, were recruited for this study. Magnified images of pores were taken using a dermoscopic video camera and measured using an image analysis program. The sebum output level was measured with a Sebumeter. Using multiple linear regression analysis, increased pore size was significantly associated with increased sebum output level, sex and age. Among the variables, sebum output level correlated most with the pore size followed by male sex. In comparing male and female participants, males had higher correlation between the sebum output level and the pore size (male: r = 0.47, female: r = 0.38). Thus, additional factors seem to influence pore size in females. Pore size was significantly increased during the ovulation phase (P = 0.008), but severity of acne was not significantly associated with the pore size. Enlarged pore sizes are associated with increased sebum output level, age and male sex. In female patients, additional hormonal factors, such as those of the menstrual cycle, affect the pore size.

  2. The Transition from Spacecraft Development Ot Flight Operation: Human Factor Considerations

    Basilio, Ralph R.

    2000-01-01

    In the field of aeronautics and astronautics, a paradigm shift has been witnessed by those in academia, research and development, and private industry. Long development life cycles and the budgets to support such programs and projects has given way to aggressive task schedules and leaner resources to draw from all the while challenging assigned individuals to create and produce improved products of processes. however, this "faster, better, cheaper" concept cannot merely be applied to the design, development, and test of complex systems such as earth-orbiting of interplanetary robotic spacecraft. Full advantage is not possible without due consideration and application to mission operations planning and flight operations, Equally as important as the flight system, the mission operations system consisting of qualified personnel, ground hardware and software tools, and verified and validated operational processes, should also be regarded as a complex system requiring personnel to draw upon formal education, training, related experiences, and heuristic reasoning in engineering an effective and efficient system. Unquestionably, qualified personnel are the most important elements of a mission operations system. This paper examines the experiences of the Deep Space I Project, the first in a series of new technology in-flight validation missions sponsored by the United States National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA), specifically, in developing a subsystems analysis and technology validation team comprised of former spacecraft development personnel. Human factor considerations are investigated from initial concept/vision formulation; through operational process development; personnel test and training; to initial uplink product development and test support. Emphasis has been placed on challenges and applied or recommended solutions, so as to provide opportunities for future programs and projects to address and disposition potential issues and concerns as early

  3. Quality control considerations for size exclusion chromatography with online ICP-MS: a powerful tool for evaluating the size dependence of metal-organic matter complexation.

    McKenzie, Erica R; Young, Thomas M

    2013-01-01

    Size exclusion chromatography (SEC), which separates molecules based on molecular volume, can be coupled with online inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) to explore size-dependent metal-natural organic matter (NOM) complexation. To make effective use of this analytical dual detector system, the operator should be mindful of quality control measures. Al, Cr, Fe, Se, and Sn all exhibited columnless attenuation, which indicated unintended interactions with system components. Based on signal-to-noise ratio and peak reproducibility between duplicate analyses of environmental samples, consistent peak time and height were observed for Mg, Cl, Mn, Cu, Br, and Pb. Al, V, Fe, Co, Ni, Zn, Se, Cd, Sn, and Sb were less consistent overall, but produced consistent measurements in select samples. Ultrafiltering and centrifuging produced similar peak distributions, but glass fiber filtration produced more high molecular weight (MW) peaks. Storage in glass also produced more high MW peaks than did plastic bottles.

  4. Considerable Variation of Antibacterial Activity of Cu Nanoparticles Suspensions Depending on the Storage Time, Dispersive Medium, and Particle Sizes

    Olga V. Zakharova

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Suspensions of Cu nanoparticles are promising for creating the new class of alternative antimicrobial products. In this study we examined copper nanoparticles of various sizes obtained by the method of wire electric explosion: nanopowder average size 50 nm (Cu 50 and 100 nm (Cu 100. The paper presents the complex study of the influence of physicochemical properties such as particle size and concentration of the freshly prepared and 24-hour suspensions of Cu nanoparticles in distilled water and physiological solution upon their toxicity to bacteria E. coli M-17. Ionic solution of Cu2+ and sodium dichloroisocyanurate was used for comparison study. It has been shown that decrease in the nanoparticle size leads to changes in the correlation between toxicity and concentration as toxicity peaks are observed at low concentrations (0.0001⋯0.01 mg/L. It has been observed that antibacterial properties of Cu 50 nanoparticle suspensions are ceased after 24-hour storage, while for Cu 100 suspensions no correlation between antibacterial properties and storage time has been noted. Cu 100 nanoparticle suspensions at 10 mg/L concentration display higher toxicity at substituting physiological solution for water than Cu 50 suspensions. Dependence of the toxicity on the mean particle aggregates size in suspension was not revealed.

  5. Direct hyperpolarization of micro- and nanodiamonds for bioimaging applications - Considerations on particle size, functionalization and polarization loss

    Kwiatkowski, Grzegorz; Jähnig, Fabian; Steinhauser, Jonas; Wespi, Patrick; Ernst, Matthias; Kozerke, Sebastian

    2018-01-01

    Due to the inherently long relaxation time of 13C spins in diamond, the nuclear polarization enhancement obtained with dynamic nuclear polarization can be preserved for a time on the order of about one hour, opening up an opportunity to use diamonds as a new class of long-lived contrast agents. The present communication explores the feasibility of using 13C spins in directly hyperpolarized diamonds for MR imaging including considerations for potential in vivo applications.

  6. Parental Factors Associated with Child Post-traumatic Stress Following Injury: A Consideration of Intervention Targets

    Anna E. Wise

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD symptoms are relatively common following pediatric traumatic injury and are related to poor long-term child outcomes. However, due to concerns regarding the efficacy of early child preventive interventions, and difficulty intervening with injured and medicated children soon after the event, it is not feasible to provide early psychological interventions to children exposed to traumatic injury. Parental PTSD symptoms and reactions to the child’s traumatic injury impact child outcomes and provide potential targets for early intervention to reduce child symptom development without involving the child. The authors conducted a review of the literature using Psycinfo and Pubmed research databases (publication years = 1990–2017 and identified 65 published studies relevant to the topic of the review. The present review considers parent factors [parenting styles, parental post-traumatic pathology (PTS, adaptive and maladaptive coping strategies, and communication regarding the traumatic injury] and their impact on child PTS. We focus specifically on factors amenable to intervention. We further review moderators of these relationships (e.g., child age and gender, parent gender and conclude that it is unlikely that a one-size-fits-all approach to treatment will be successful. Rather, it is necessary to consider the age and gender of parent child dyads in designing and providing targeted interventions to families following the traumatic injury of a child.

  7. Robust Variance Estimation with Dependent Effect Sizes: Practical Considerations Including a Software Tutorial in Stata and SPSS

    Tanner-Smith, Emily E.; Tipton, Elizabeth

    2014-01-01

    Methodologists have recently proposed robust variance estimation as one way to handle dependent effect sizes in meta-analysis. Software macros for robust variance estimation in meta-analysis are currently available for Stata (StataCorp LP, College Station, TX, USA) and SPSS (IBM, Armonk, NY, USA), yet there is little guidance for authors regarding…

  8. Direct hyperpolarization of micro- and nanodiamonds for bioimaging applications - Considerations on particle size, functionalization and polarization loss.

    Kwiatkowski, Grzegorz; Jähnig, Fabian; Steinhauser, Jonas; Wespi, Patrick; Ernst, Matthias; Kozerke, Sebastian

    2018-01-01

    Due to the inherently long relaxation time of 13 C spins in diamond, the nuclear polarization enhancement obtained with dynamic nuclear polarization can be preserved for a time on the order of about one hour, opening up an opportunity to use diamonds as a new class of long-lived contrast agents. The present communication explores the feasibility of using 13 C spins in directly hyperpolarized diamonds for MR imaging including considerations for potential in vivo applications. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Size, Value, and Momentum in Polish Equity Returns: Local or International Factors?

    Zaremba Adam

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper tests the performance of the Capital Asset Pricing Model (CAPM and the Fama-French three-factor and Carhart four-factor models on the Polish market. We use stock level data from April 2001 to January 2014 and find strong evidence for value and momentum effects, but only weak evidence for size premium. We formed portfolios double-sorted on size and book-to-market ratios, as well as on size and momentum, and we explain their returns with the above-mentioned asset pricing models. The CAPM is rejected and the three-factor and four-factor models perform well for the size and B/M sorted portfolios, but fail to explain returns on the size and momentum sorted portfolios. With the exception of the momentum factor, local Polish factors are not correlated with their European and global counterparts, suggesting market segmentation. Finally, the international value, size and momentum factors perform poorly in explaining cross-sectional variation in stock returns on the Polish market.

  10. Electrostatic potential in a bent piezoelectric nanowire with consideration of size-dependent piezoelectricity and semiconducting characterization.

    Wang, Kaifa; Wang, Baolin

    2018-03-26

    Determining the electric potential in a bent piezoelectric nanowire (NW) is a fundamental issue of nanogenerators and nanopiezotronics. The combined influence of the flexoelectric effect, the semiconducting performance and the angle of atomic force microscope (AFM) tip has never been studied previously and will be investigated in this paper. The exact solution for the electric potential of a bent piezoelectric semiconductor NW is derived. The electric potential of the present model with consideration of flexoelectric effect varies along the length of the NW and is different from that of the classical piezoelectric model. Flexoelectric effect enhances but the semiconducting performance reduces the electric potential of the NW. In addition, it is found that if the angle of the AFM tip reaches 30 degrees, the error of the electric potential obtained from the model ignored the effect of the angle of the AFM tip is almost 16%, which is unacceptable. © 2018 IOP Publishing Ltd.

  11. Electrostatic potential in a bent piezoelectric nanowire with consideration of size-dependent piezoelectricity and semiconducting characterization

    Wang, K. F.; Wang, B. L.

    2018-06-01

    Determining the electric potential in a bent piezoelectric nanowire (NW) is a fundamental issue of nanogenerators and nanopiezotronics. The combined influence of the flexoelectric effect, the semiconducting performance and the angle of atomic force microscope (AFM) tip has never been studied previously and will be investigated in this paper. The exact solution for the electric potential of a bent piezoelectric semiconductor NW is derived. The electric potential of the present model with consideration of flexoelectric effect varies along the length of the NW and is different from that of the classical piezoelectric model. Flexoelectric effect enhances but the semiconducting performance reduces the electric potential of the NW. In addition, it is found that if the angle of the AFM tip reaches 30°, the error of the electric potential obtained from the model ignored the effect of the angle of the AFM tip is almost 16%, which is unacceptable.

  12. Military suicide: factors that need to be taken into consideration to understand the phenomena.

    Rodríguez, José R; Quiñones-Maldonado, Randy; Alvarado-Pomales, Awilda

    2009-01-01

    Soldier suicide rates, unfortunately, continue to rise in our military services. It is well known that military personnel are highly vulnerable to multiple psychopathologies due to a lack of social support system, traumatizing life events and deprived sense of control. Serious psychopathologies such as post-traumatic stress disorders, other anxiety disorders (i.e., generalized anxiety disorder) and depression may increase the risk of suicide. In addition, malingering may be a serious problem that can affect valid treatment due to an intentional production of false or grossly exaggerated physical or psychological symptoms, motivated by external incentive such as avoiding military duty or obtaining financial compensation. Moreover, Hispanic soldiers may be at a higher risk for such psychopathologies due to extreme marginalization conditions by military peers, lack of bilingual language management and discrimination that can severely affect their quality of life. Thus, it is important to recognize those problems in order to prevent them. Literature demonstrate that Primary Preventive Interventions (PPI) can help to reduce the incidence of psychiatric disorders due to an early identification of the mental conditions associate to serious outcome, such as suicide. Taking the previous factors into consideration, the relevant literature pertaining suicidality in service members and the mental disorders associated with it is reviewed. Furthermore, emphasis is made in the importance to develop and validate a battery of screening instruments that address the previous conditions in the military personnel, especially in the Hispanic/Latino soldier and/or veteran as future plans of interventions. This implies the creation, adaptation and administration of a Psychological Battery that will be culturally sensitive for Hispanic/Latino soldiers in which the screening of the previously mentioned pathologies and conditions can be identified. This may help to prevent serious

  13. Robust variance estimation with dependent effect sizes: practical considerations including a software tutorial in Stata and spss.

    Tanner-Smith, Emily E; Tipton, Elizabeth

    2014-03-01

    Methodologists have recently proposed robust variance estimation as one way to handle dependent effect sizes in meta-analysis. Software macros for robust variance estimation in meta-analysis are currently available for Stata (StataCorp LP, College Station, TX, USA) and spss (IBM, Armonk, NY, USA), yet there is little guidance for authors regarding the practical application and implementation of those macros. This paper provides a brief tutorial on the implementation of the Stata and spss macros and discusses practical issues meta-analysts should consider when estimating meta-regression models with robust variance estimates. Two example databases are used in the tutorial to illustrate the use of meta-analysis with robust variance estimates. Copyright © 2013 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  14. Design considerations regarding the development of an interdisciplinary engineering innovation course involving collaboration with small and micro-sized companies

    Christiansen, Nynne Budtz; Ashworth, David; Ulrich, Mai-Mai

    2014-01-01

    This paper discusses some of the issues and dilemmas that have come up when designing courses aimed at teaching innovation competencies to engineering students through means of authentic industry collaboration with small and medium sized enterprises (SME). The paper is focused around the phase...... of designing the course SME Innovation and Intrapreneurship where the aim has been to create a match between the company need for short, result oriented innovation projects and the structured professional and interdisciplinary learning goals for a coming bachelor of engineering. The main dilemmas...... in the development have evolved around the concept of bridging real-life with a university learning context, the question of how to change teaching and exam structure to support new and different learning objectives, as well as the challenges of handling interdisciplinary teams. The 13 week, 10 ECTS credit course...

  15. Sampling considerations when analyzing micrometric-sized particles in a liquid jet using laser induced breakdown spectroscopy

    Faye, C.B.; Amodeo, T.; Fréjafon, E. [Institut National de l' Environnement Industriel et des Risques (INERIS/DRC/CARA/NOVA), Parc Technologique Alata, BP 2, 60550 Verneuil-En-Halatte (France); Delepine-Gilon, N. [Institut des Sciences Analytiques, 5 rue de la Doua, 69100 Villeurbanne (France); Dutouquet, C., E-mail: christophe.dutouquet@ineris.fr [Institut National de l' Environnement Industriel et des Risques (INERIS/DRC/CARA/NOVA), Parc Technologique Alata, BP 2, 60550 Verneuil-En-Halatte (France)

    2014-01-01

    Pollution of water is a matter of concern all over the earth. Particles are known to play an important role in the transportation of pollutants in this medium. In addition, the emergence of new materials such as NOAA (Nano-Objects, their Aggregates and their Agglomerates) emphasizes the need to develop adapted instruments for their detection. Surveillance of pollutants in particulate form in waste waters in industries involved in nanoparticle manufacturing and processing is a telling example of possible applications of such instrumental development. The LIBS (laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy) technique coupled with the liquid jet as sampling mode for suspensions was deemed as a potential candidate for on-line and real time monitoring. With the final aim in view to obtain the best detection limits, the interaction of nanosecond laser pulses with the liquid jet was examined. The evolution of the volume sampled by laser pulses was estimated as a function of the laser energy applying conditional analysis when analyzing a suspension of micrometric-sized particles of borosilicate glass. An estimation of the sampled depth was made. Along with the estimation of the sampled volume, the evolution of the SNR (signal to noise ratio) as a function of the laser energy was investigated as well. Eventually, the laser energy and the corresponding fluence optimizing both the sampling volume and the SNR were determined. The obtained results highlight intrinsic limitations of the liquid jet sampling mode when using 532 nm nanosecond laser pulses with suspensions. - Highlights: • Micrometric-sized particles in suspensions are analyzed using LIBS and a liquid jet. • The evolution of the sampling volume is estimated as a function of laser energy. • The sampling volume happens to saturate beyond a certain laser fluence. • Its value was found much lower than the beam diameter times the jet thickness. • Particles proved not to be entirely vaporized.

  16. Field size dependence of wedge factor: miniphantom vs full phantom measurements

    Allen Li, X.; Szanto, J.; Soubra, M.; Gerig, L. H.

    1995-01-01

    It is empirically known that the transmission factor for wedge in a high-energy photon beam is dependent upon field size and depth of measurement. The field-size dependence of wedge factors may be attributed to changes in (i) head scatter, (ii) phantom scatter, and (iii) backscatter from the wedge into the linac monitor chamber. In this work we present the results of studies designed to examine each of these factors in isolation. The wedge factors for wedges with nominal wedge angles of 15 deg. , 30 deg. , 45 deg. and 60 deg. were measured with a 3-g/cm 2 -diameter narrow cylindrical phantom (miniphantom), a brass cap with 1.5-g/cm 2 side-wall thickness and a full water phantom for 6-, 10- and 18-MV photon beams. The measurements were performed with and without flattening filter in place. The wedge factors measured with the miniphantom and the brass cap exclude the phantom scatter contribution. It has been found that the field-size behaviour of wedge factor measured with full water phantom is similar to that measured with the miniphantom and cap. This indicates that the head scatter radiation is the major contributor to the field size dependence of wedge factors. Wedge factors measured with water phantom are up to 5.0% smaller than those measured with miniphantom. This difference increases with wedge angle. When Measured with the flattening filter removed, the field size dependence of the wedge factor is reduced. This justify that the flattening filter is one of the major contributors to head scatters. The measurement results made with the brass cap agree well with those made by using the miniphantom. By measuring the monitor chamber output, it is found that the backscatters from the wedge into the linac ion chamber have little effect on the field size dependence of the wedge factor

  17. SOCIO-DEMOGRAPHIC FACTORS INFLUENCING FAMILY SIZE AMONG RURAL POPULATION OF DISTRICT NAINITAL, UTTARAKHAND

    Sanjay Pandey

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: India is the second most populous country in the world. A decline in its population growth rate has been shown amounting to during the last decades. The decline in the family size is important step towards population stabilization for our country. The status of family size is related to various demographic, socio-economic, cultural factors and attitude towards use of family planning methods. Objective: To assess the relationship of family size with socio-economic factors and effect of contraceptive use. Methodology: A cross sectional house to house survey to know the family size and socio-demographic was conducted in the adopted villages of field practice area. The study subjects are the married women of reproductive age group (15-49 years. Results: About half (44.9% of respondents were aged more than 35 years and only (0.9% were < 19 years. The family size in our study was 2.55. About 54.5% of respondents have family size d" 2. About two-third of families (65% with size less than or equals to two were of nuclear type. Education level of family has significant relationship with small family size. About 90% of the respondents and their spouse of family size two or less were literate. A significant association was found between occupation of the spouse and family size. The spouses of the respondents with family size more than two were mainly engaged in agriculture (29.7% and as labourer (38.5%. Among the families with family size of more than two, majority were from middle (81% and lower (14.9% class. There is no significant effect of use of contraceptives on the family size.

  18. SOCIO-DEMOGRAPHIC FACTORS INFLUENCING FAMILY SIZE AMONG RURAL POPULATION OF DISTRICT NAINITAL, UTTARAKHAND

    Sanjay Pandey

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: India is the second most populous country in the world. A decline in its population growth rate has been shown amounting to during the last decades. The decline in the family size is important step towards population stabilization for our country. The status of family size is related to various demographic, socio-economic, cultural factors and attitude towards use of family planning methods. Objective: To assess the relationship of family size with socio-economic factors and effect of contraceptive use. Methodology: A cross sectional house to house survey to know the family size and socio-demographic was conducted in the adopted villages of field practice area. The study subjects are the married women of reproductive age group (15-49 years. Results: About half (44.9% of respondents were aged more than 35 years and only (0.9% were < 19 years. The family size in our study was 2.55. About 54.5% of respondents have family size d" 2. About two-third of families (65% with size less than or equals to two were of nuclear type. Education level of family has significant relationship with small family size. About 90% of the respondents and their spouse of family size two or less were literate. A significant association was found between occupation of the spouse and family size. The spouses of the respondents with family size more than two were mainly engaged in agriculture (29.7% and as labourer (38.5%. Among the families with family size of more than two, majority were from middle (81% and lower (14.9% class. There is no significant effect of use of contraceptives on the family size.

  19. A Review on the Regulatory Strategy of Human Factors Engineering Consideration in Pakistan Nuclear Facilities

    Sohail, Sabir [Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Choi, Seong Nam [Korea Institute of Nuclear Safety, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2013-10-15

    In this paper, the legal and regulatory infrastructure available in Pakistan for HFE requirements is assessed, and the methodology for strengthening of legal infrastructure is presented. The regulatory strategy on evaluation of HFE consideration should provide reviewers with guidance on review process. Therefore, the suggested methodology is based on preparation of guidance documents such as checklist, working procedures, S and Gs etc.; incorporation of PRM elements in regulatory system; and finally the development of PRM implementation criteria. Altogether, the scheme provide the enhancement in regulatory infrastructure and also the effective and efficient review process. The Three Mile Island (TMI) accident brought the general consensus among the nuclear community on the integration of human factors engineering (HFE) principles in all phases of nuclear power. This notion has further strengthened after the recent Fukushima nuclear accident. Much effort has been put over to incorporate the lesson learned and continuous technical evolution on HFE to device different standards. The total of 174 ergonomics standards are alone identified by Dul et al. (2004) published by International Organization for Standardization (ISO) and the European Committee for Standardization (CEN) and number of standards and HFE guidelines (S and Gs) are also published by organizations like Institute for Electrical and Electronics Engineering (IEEE), International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC), International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA), United States Nuclear Regulatory Commission (USNRC), etc. The ambition of effective review on HFE integration in nuclear facility might be accomplished through the development of methodology for systematic implementation of S and Gs. Such kind of methodology would also be beneficial for strengthening the regulatory framework and practices for countries new in the nuclear arena and with small scale nuclear program. The objective of paper is to review the

  20. Comparing cluster-level dynamic treatment regimens using sequential, multiple assignment, randomized trials: Regression estimation and sample size considerations.

    NeCamp, Timothy; Kilbourne, Amy; Almirall, Daniel

    2017-08-01

    Cluster-level dynamic treatment regimens can be used to guide sequential treatment decision-making at the cluster level in order to improve outcomes at the individual or patient-level. In a cluster-level dynamic treatment regimen, the treatment is potentially adapted and re-adapted over time based on changes in the cluster that could be impacted by prior intervention, including aggregate measures of the individuals or patients that compose it. Cluster-randomized sequential multiple assignment randomized trials can be used to answer multiple open questions preventing scientists from developing high-quality cluster-level dynamic treatment regimens. In a cluster-randomized sequential multiple assignment randomized trial, sequential randomizations occur at the cluster level and outcomes are observed at the individual level. This manuscript makes two contributions to the design and analysis of cluster-randomized sequential multiple assignment randomized trials. First, a weighted least squares regression approach is proposed for comparing the mean of a patient-level outcome between the cluster-level dynamic treatment regimens embedded in a sequential multiple assignment randomized trial. The regression approach facilitates the use of baseline covariates which is often critical in the analysis of cluster-level trials. Second, sample size calculators are derived for two common cluster-randomized sequential multiple assignment randomized trial designs for use when the primary aim is a between-dynamic treatment regimen comparison of the mean of a continuous patient-level outcome. The methods are motivated by the Adaptive Implementation of Effective Programs Trial which is, to our knowledge, the first-ever cluster-randomized sequential multiple assignment randomized trial in psychiatry.

  1. The N-Pact Factor: Evaluating the Quality of Empirical Journals with Respect to Sample Size and Statistical Power

    Fraley, R. Chris; Vazire, Simine

    2014-01-01

    The authors evaluate the quality of research reported in major journals in social-personality psychology by ranking those journals with respect to their N-pact Factors (NF)—the statistical power of the empirical studies they publish to detect typical effect sizes. Power is a particularly important attribute for evaluating research quality because, relative to studies that have low power, studies that have high power are more likely to (a) to provide accurate estimates of effects, (b) to produce literatures with low false positive rates, and (c) to lead to replicable findings. The authors show that the average sample size in social-personality research is 104 and that the power to detect the typical effect size in the field is approximately 50%. Moreover, they show that there is considerable variation among journals in sample sizes and power of the studies they publish, with some journals consistently publishing higher power studies than others. The authors hope that these rankings will be of use to authors who are choosing where to submit their best work, provide hiring and promotion committees with a superior way of quantifying journal quality, and encourage competition among journals to improve their NF rankings. PMID:25296159

  2. Human factors considerations in the design and evaluation of flight deck displays and controls

    2013-11-01

    The objective of this effort is to have a single source document for human factors regulatory and guidance material for flight deck displays and controls, in the interest of improving aviation safety. This document identifies guidance on human factor...

  3. Factors determining the average body size of geographically separated Arctodiaptomus salinus (Daday, 1885) populations

    Anufriieva, Elena V.; Shadrin, Nickolai V.

    2014-01-01

    Arctodiaptomus salinus inhabits water bodies across Eurasia and North Africa. Based on our own data and that from the literature, we analyzed the influences of several factors on the intra- and inter-population variability of this species. A strong negative linear correlation between temperature and average body size in the Crimean and African populations was found, in which the parameters might be influenced by salinity. Meanwhile, asignificant negative correlation between female body size a...

  4. Determining size-specific emission factors for environmental tobacco smoke particles

    Klepeis, Neil E.; Apte, Michael G.; Gundel, Lara A.; Sextro, Richard G.; Nazaroff, William W.

    2002-07-07

    Because size is a major controlling factor for indoor airborne particle behavior, human particle exposure assessments will benefit from improved knowledge of size-specific particle emissions. We report a method of inferring size-specific mass emission factors for indoor sources that makes use of an indoor aerosol dynamics model, measured particle concentration time series data, and an optimization routine. This approach provides--in addition to estimates of the emissions size distribution and integrated emission factors--estimates of deposition rate, an enhanced understanding of particle dynamics, and information about model performance. We applied the method to size-specific environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) particle concentrations measured every minute with an 8-channel optical particle counter (PMS-LASAIR; 0.1-2+ micrometer diameters) and every 10 or 30 min with a 34-channel differential mobility particle sizer (TSI-DMPS; 0.01-1+ micrometer diameters) after a single cigarette or cigar was machine-smoked inside a low air-exchange-rate 20 m{sup 3} chamber. The aerosol dynamics model provided good fits to observed concentrations when using optimized values of mass emission rate and deposition rate for each particle size range as input. Small discrepancies observed in the first 1-2 hours after smoking are likely due to the effect of particle evaporation, a process neglected by the model. Size-specific ETS particle emission factors were fit with log-normal distributions, yielding an average mass median diameter of 0.2 micrometers and an average geometric standard deviation of 2.3 with no systematic differences between cigars and cigarettes. The equivalent total particle emission rate, obtained integrating each size distribution, was 0.2-0.7 mg/min for cigars and 0.7-0.9 mg/min for cigarettes.

  5. Factors determining the average body size of geographically separated Arctodiaptomus salinus (Daday, 1885) populations.

    Anufriieva, Elena V; Shadrin, Nickolai V

    2014-03-01

    Arctodiaptomus salinus inhabits water bodies across Eurasia and North Africa. Based on our own data and that from the literature, we analyzed the influences of several factors on the intra- and inter-population variability of this species. A strong negative linear correlation between temperature and average body size in the Crimean and African populations was found, in which the parameters might be influenced by salinity. Meanwhile, a significant negative correlation between female body size and the altitude of habitats was found by comparing body size in populations from different regions. Individuals from environments with highly varying abiotic parameters, e.g. temporary reservoirs, had a larger body size than individuals from permanent water bodies. The changes in average body mass in populations were at 11.4 times, whereas, those in individual metabolic activities were at 6.2 times. Moreover, two size groups of A. salinus in the Crimean and the Siberian lakes were observed. The ratio of female length to male length fluctuated between 1.02 and 1.30. The average size of A. salinus in populations and its variations were determined by both genetic and environmental factors. However, the parities of these factors were unequal in either spatial or temporal scales.

  6. Influence Factors of Sports Bra Evaluation and Design Based on Large Size

    Zhang Lingxi

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this paper was to find the main influence factors of sports bra evaluation by the subjective assessment of different styles commercial sports bra, and to summarize the design elements of sports bra for large size. 10 women in large size (>C80 were chosen to evaluate 9 different sports bras. The main influence factors were extracted by factor analysis and all the product samples were classified by Q-cluster analysis. The conclusions show that breast stability, wearing comfort and bust modelling are the three key factors for sports bra evaluation. And a classification-positioning model of sports bra products was established. The findings can provide theoretical basis and guidance for the research and design of sports bras both for academic and sports or underwear enterprises, and also provide reference value for women customers.

  7. Towards the Development of a Model for Hardware Standards in Information Technology Procurement: Factors for Consideration

    Ryan, David L.

    2010-01-01

    While research in academic and professional information technology (IT) journals address the need for strategic alignment and defined IT processes, there is little research about what factors should be considered when implementing specific IT hardware standards in an organization. The purpose of this study was to develop a set of factors for…

  8. Consideration of factors affecting strip effluent pH and sodium content

    Peters, T. B. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL)

    2015-07-29

    A number of factors were investigated to determine possible reasons for why the Strip Effluent (SE) can sometimes have higher than expected pH values and/or sodium content, both of which have prescribed limits. All of the factors likely have some impact on the pH values and Na content.

  9. Human Health/Human Factors Considerations in Trans-Lunar Space

    Moore, E. Cherice; Howard, Robert; Mendeck, Gavin

    2014-01-01

    The human factors insights of how they are incorporated into the vehicle are crucial towards designing and planning the internal designs necessary for future spacecraft and missions. The adjusted mission concept of supporting the Asteroid Redirect Crewed Mission will drive some human factors changes on how the Orion will be used and will be reassessed so as to best contribute to missions success. Recognizing what the human factors and health functional needs are early in the design process and how to integrate them will improve this and future generations of space vehicles to achieve mission success and continue to minimize risks.

  10. Effects of Aperture Size on Q factor and Shielding Effectiveness of a Cubic Resonator

    S. Parr

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available The EMC properties of a cubic metallic shield are highly affected by its resonances. At the resonant frequencies, the shielding effectiveness (SE collapses, which results in high field strengths inside the cavity. This can cause failure or even breakdown of electronic devices inside the shield. The resonant behaviour is mainly determined by the quality or Q factor of the shield. In this paper, the effects of the aperture size on the Q factor and the SE of an electrically large, cubic shield are analysed. At first, a method is developed in order to determine the Q factor based on the resonance behaviour of the shield in time domain. Only the first resonance of the shield is considered therefore. The results are evaluated for different aperture diameters and compared with theory for the Q factor. The dominant coupling mechanism of electromagnetic energy into the shield is thus identified. Then the effect of aperture size on the SE is analysed. The excitation of resonances is very probable if the interfering signal is an ultrawideband (UWB pulse, which constitutes a typical intentional electromagnetic interference (IEMI scenario. Therefore, the relation between aperture size and SE is analysed using the theory of the transient SE for a broadband signal with a constant spectral density distribution. The results show, that a worst case aperture size exists, where the SE has its minimum.

  11. Light propagation in optical crystal powders: effects of particle size and volume filling factor

    GarcIa-Ramiro, B; Illarramendi, M A; Aramburu, I; Fernandez, J; Balda, R; Al-Saleh, M

    2007-01-01

    In this work, we analyse the light propagation in some laser and nonlinear crystal powders. In particular, we study the dependence of the diffusive absorption lengths and the transport lengths on particle size and volume filling factor. The theoretical calculations have been made by assuming a diffusive propagation of light in these materials

  12. Evaluation of Decontamination Factor of Aerosol in Pool Scrubber according to Bubble Shape and Size

    Jo, Hyun Joung; Ha, Kwang Soon; Jang, Dong Soon [KAERI, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-05-15

    The scrubbing pool could play an important role in the wet type FCVS because a large amount of aerosol is captured in the water pool. The pool scrubbing phenomena have been modelled and embedded in several computer codes, such as SPARC (Suppression Pool Aerosol Removal Code), BUSCA (BUbble Scrubbing Algorithm) and SUPRA (Suppression Pool Retention Analysis). These codes aim at simulating the pool scrubbing process and estimating the decontamination factors (DFs) of the radioactive aerosol and iodine gas in the water pool, which is defined as the ratio of initial mass of the specific radioactive material to final massy after passing through the water pool. The pool scrubbing models were reviewed and an aerosol scrubbing code has been prepared to calculate decontamination factor through the pool. The developed code has been verified using the experimental results and parametric studies the decontamination factor according to bubble shape and size. To evaluate the decontamination factor more accurate whole pool scrubber phenomena, the code was improved to consider the variety shape and size of bubbles. The decontamination factor were largely evaluated in ellipsoid bubble rather than in sphere bubble. The pool scrubbing models will be enhanced to apply more various model such as aerosol condensation of hygroscopic. And, it is need to experiment to measure to bubble shape and size distribution in pool to improve bubble model.

  13. Daughter-specific transcription factors regulate cell size control in budding yeast.

    Di Talia, Stefano; Wang, Hongyin; Skotheim, Jan M; Rosebrock, Adam P; Futcher, Bruce; Cross, Frederick R

    2009-10-01

    In budding yeast, asymmetric cell division yields a larger mother and a smaller daughter cell, which transcribe different genes due to the daughter-specific transcription factors Ace2 and Ash1. Cell size control at the Start checkpoint has long been considered to be a main regulator of the length of the G1 phase of the cell cycle, resulting in longer G1 in the smaller daughter cells. Our recent data confirmed this concept using quantitative time-lapse microscopy. However, it has been proposed that daughter-specific, Ace2-dependent repression of expression of the G1 cyclin CLN3 had a dominant role in delaying daughters in G1. We wanted to reconcile these two divergent perspectives on the origin of long daughter G1 times. We quantified size control using single-cell time-lapse imaging of fluorescently labeled budding yeast, in the presence or absence of the daughter-specific transcriptional regulators Ace2 and Ash1. Ace2 and Ash1 are not required for efficient size control, but they shift the domain of efficient size control to larger cell size, thus increasing cell size requirement for Start in daughters. Microarray and chromatin immunoprecipitation experiments show that Ace2 and Ash1 are direct transcriptional regulators of the G1 cyclin gene CLN3. Quantification of cell size control in cells expressing titrated levels of Cln3 from ectopic promoters, and from cells with mutated Ace2 and Ash1 sites in the CLN3 promoter, showed that regulation of CLN3 expression by Ace2 and Ash1 can account for the differential regulation of Start in response to cell size in mothers and daughters. We show how daughter-specific transcriptional programs can interact with intrinsic cell size control to differentially regulate Start in mother and daughter cells. This work demonstrates mechanistically how asymmetric localization of cell fate determinants results in cell-type-specific regulation of the cell cycle.

  14. Daughter-Specific Transcription Factors Regulate Cell Size Control in Budding Yeast

    Di Talia, Stefano; Wang, Hongyin; Skotheim, Jan M.; Rosebrock, Adam P.; Futcher, Bruce; Cross, Frederick R.

    2009-01-01

    In budding yeast, asymmetric cell division yields a larger mother and a smaller daughter cell, which transcribe different genes due to the daughter-specific transcription factors Ace2 and Ash1. Cell size control at the Start checkpoint has long been considered to be a main regulator of the length of the G1 phase of the cell cycle, resulting in longer G1 in the smaller daughter cells. Our recent data confirmed this concept using quantitative time-lapse microscopy. However, it has been proposed that daughter-specific, Ace2-dependent repression of expression of the G1 cyclin CLN3 had a dominant role in delaying daughters in G1. We wanted to reconcile these two divergent perspectives on the origin of long daughter G1 times. We quantified size control using single-cell time-lapse imaging of fluorescently labeled budding yeast, in the presence or absence of the daughter-specific transcriptional regulators Ace2 and Ash1. Ace2 and Ash1 are not required for efficient size control, but they shift the domain of efficient size control to larger cell size, thus increasing cell size requirement for Start in daughters. Microarray and chromatin immunoprecipitation experiments show that Ace2 and Ash1 are direct transcriptional regulators of the G1 cyclin gene CLN3. Quantification of cell size control in cells expressing titrated levels of Cln3 from ectopic promoters, and from cells with mutated Ace2 and Ash1 sites in the CLN3 promoter, showed that regulation of CLN3 expression by Ace2 and Ash1 can account for the differential regulation of Start in response to cell size in mothers and daughters. We show how daughter-specific transcriptional programs can interact with intrinsic cell size control to differentially regulate Start in mother and daughter cells. This work demonstrates mechanistically how asymmetric localization of cell fate determinants results in cell-type-specific regulation of the cell cycle. PMID:19841732

  15. Daughter-specific transcription factors regulate cell size control in budding yeast.

    Stefano Di Talia

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available In budding yeast, asymmetric cell division yields a larger mother and a smaller daughter cell, which transcribe different genes due to the daughter-specific transcription factors Ace2 and Ash1. Cell size control at the Start checkpoint has long been considered to be a main regulator of the length of the G1 phase of the cell cycle, resulting in longer G1 in the smaller daughter cells. Our recent data confirmed this concept using quantitative time-lapse microscopy. However, it has been proposed that daughter-specific, Ace2-dependent repression of expression of the G1 cyclin CLN3 had a dominant role in delaying daughters in G1. We wanted to reconcile these two divergent perspectives on the origin of long daughter G1 times. We quantified size control using single-cell time-lapse imaging of fluorescently labeled budding yeast, in the presence or absence of the daughter-specific transcriptional regulators Ace2 and Ash1. Ace2 and Ash1 are not required for efficient size control, but they shift the domain of efficient size control to larger cell size, thus increasing cell size requirement for Start in daughters. Microarray and chromatin immunoprecipitation experiments show that Ace2 and Ash1 are direct transcriptional regulators of the G1 cyclin gene CLN3. Quantification of cell size control in cells expressing titrated levels of Cln3 from ectopic promoters, and from cells with mutated Ace2 and Ash1 sites in the CLN3 promoter, showed that regulation of CLN3 expression by Ace2 and Ash1 can account for the differential regulation of Start in response to cell size in mothers and daughters. We show how daughter-specific transcriptional programs can interact with intrinsic cell size control to differentially regulate Start in mother and daughter cells. This work demonstrates mechanistically how asymmetric localization of cell fate determinants results in cell-type-specific regulation of the cell cycle.

  16. Considerations of Human Factors in the Design and Operation of Research Reactors

    Shokr, A.M.

    2015-01-01

    The feedback from the severe accidents occurred at nuclear power plants showed that safety of nuclear installations does not depend only on technical matters but also on human performance. Human errors can initiate an event or can make , by intervention, the event consequences worse. Human factors are of a particular importance for research reactors since the status of these facilities change frequently and the operators have an easy access to the reactor core and to the associated experimental facilities. This paper discusses the experience with human factors and their impact on the safety of research reactors and application of technical and administrative provisions to address these factors in the design and operation phases of research reactors for continuous improvements in safety and performance of these facilities

  17. Locational Factors and Foreign Market-entry Considerations for Malaysian Contractors

    A.R Abdul_Aziz

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Past studies on contractor internationalisation adopt a unimodelapproach. Taking up the call of a few scholars, a study isconducted, this time by integrating several extant models of fi rminternationalisation. Malaysian international contractors are usedto test this approach. Due to space limitation, this paper is focusedonly on locational factors. It begins by justifying the inclusion oflocational factors in a multi-model approach. Then it posits thatlocational disadvantage is a more intellectually appealing conceptthan locational advantages. Empirically, it shows that the surveyedcontractors evaluate a wide range of factors before making thego/no go decision to enter foreign markets. It also shows thatpsychic distance was not their major concern. Finally, the locationaldisadvantages create a market space for international contractorswith the tenacity to overcome them, which the sampled populationpossessed.

  18. [Debating disease: the risk factor concept in political economic and scientific consideration, 1968 to 1986].

    Madarász, Jeannette

    2009-01-01

    The risk factor concept was developed in American epidemiological studies ongoing since the 1940s researching the causes of chronic cardiovascular diseases. By looking at the depiction of this model in a variety of media in Germany between 1968 and 1986 we can put its close interaction with contemporary socio-political debates under scrutiny. Thereby, a strong connection between the various agents' political and economic interests on the one hand and the incorporation of the risk factor concept into their specific agendas will become apparent. The risk factor concept was not fundamentally changed in the process but it was adapted to contemporary conditions and political constellations. Thereby, so it will be argued, the medical uses of the model, especially regarding the prevention of chronic cardiovascular disease, were forced into the background of public debates.

  19. Consideration of Real World Factors Influencing Greenhouse Gas Emissions in ALPHA

    Discuss a variety of factors that influence the simulated fuel economy and GHG emissions that are often overlooked and updates made to ALPHA based on actual benchmarking data observed across a range of vehicles and transmissions. ALPHA model calibration is also examined, focusin...

  20. Pedagogical Factors that Influence EFL Teaching: Some Considerations for Teachers’ Professional Development

    Abad José Vicente

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available In this article we present the results of a qualitative research study on the pedagogical factors that influence English teaching in four public schools of Medellín, Colombia. Twelve teachers were interviewed regarding three linguistic principles: communicative competence, native language effect, and interlanguage. The data analysis led to the identification of various factors, such as teachers’ linguistic ego, view of their teaching role, and attitude towards English, which shape English teaching and are tied to teachers’ education. It was concluded that teachers’ professional development must tap into these factors so teachers can effectively revise their beliefs and adjust their practices to ensure a high qualityin their teaching.En este artículo se presentan los resultados de una investigación cualitativa acerca de los factorespedagógicos que influyen en la enseñanza del inglés en cuatro escuelas públicas de Medellín (Colombia. Doce maestros fueron entrevistados sobre tres principios lingüísticos: competencia comunicativa, efecto de la lengua nativa e interlenguaje. A partir del análisis se concluyó que factores como el ego lingüístico, la percepción del papel del docente y la actitud frente al inglés son determinantes en laenseñanza de esta lengua. Se concluye que dichos factores deben ser incorporados en los programas de desarrollo profesional para que los maestros puedan revisar sus creencias y ajustar sus prácticas efectivamente y así asegurar la calidad de su enseñanza.

  1. Number and size of acquired melanocytic nevi and affecting risk factors in cases admitted to the dermatology clinic

    Ayşegül Yalçınkaya İyidal

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The size and number of acquired melanocytic nevi (AMN and presence of dysplastic nevi are the leading risk factors that should be recognized in the development of malignant melanoma. Aim: To evaluate AMN and risk factors in the development of AMN in all age groups admitted to a dermatology outpatient clinic. Material and methods : Four hundred and twelve patients who were admitted to the dermatology outpatient clinic for any dermatological symptom and who accepted to participate in the study were randomly included in the study. For each case, background-family history and dermatological findings were recorded. All AMN observed in the patients were dermatoscopically examined. Results : The presence of more than 50 nevi was significantly higher in males, in individuals who had a history of sunburn and smokers. The number of nevi that were 5 mm and below was found to be higher in individuals who regularly sunbathed their face/body, in individuals using sunscreen, in individuals who had a history of sunburn, smokers and alcohol users. The number of nevi that were above 5 mm was higher in smokers. The total dermatoscopy score between 4.75 and 5.45 was found to be higher in individuals who had more than 50 nevi, in individuals exposed to more than one chemical substance and in alcohol users. Conclusions : When determining the patient’s risk factors, factors such as the patient’s sunbathing habits and chemical substance exposure features should be taken into consideration besides the number and size of nevi.

  2. Enhancing the NCSU PULSTAR reactor control room with human factors considerations

    Glover, B.L.; Pupons, D.E.; Perez, P.B.

    1993-01-01

    The North Carolina PULSTAR research reactor was constructed to support teaching, training, and research. The training provided is not limited to academic students but encompasses plant operators, managers, engineers, designers, and supporting organizations in the nuclear industry. Our facility is under-going design changes to maximize teaching effectiveness and continued safe operation by providing current technology in the control room. The opportunity for the enhancements is a result of the generosity of neighboring utilities and the US Department of Energy instrumentation upgrade funds. Our objective, to provide a control room environment that conforms to selected industry practices, required human factors input. A human factors course, offered jointly between the industrial engineering and the psychology departments, included the PULSTAR control room enhancement as a case study

  3. Probabilistic safety assessment model in consideration of human factors based on object-oriented bayesian networks

    Zhou Zhongbao; Zhou Jinglun; Sun Quan

    2007-01-01

    Effect of Human factors on system safety is increasingly serious, which is often ignored in traditional probabilistic safety assessment methods however. A new probabilistic safety assessment model based on object-oriented Bayesian networks is proposed in this paper. Human factors are integrated into the existed event sequence diagrams. Then the classes of the object-oriented Bayesian networks are constructed which are converted to latent Bayesian networks for inference. Finally, the inference results are integrated into event sequence diagrams for probabilistic safety assessment. The new method is applied to the accident of loss of coolant in a nuclear power plant. the results show that the model is not only applicable to real-time situation assessment, but also applicable to situation assessment based certain amount of information. The modeling complexity is kept down and the new method is appropriate to large complex systems due to the thoughts of object-oriented. (authors)

  4. A broader consideration of human factor to enhance sustainable building design.

    Attaianese, Erminia

    2012-01-01

    The link between ergonomic/human factor and sustainability seems to be clearly evidenced mainly in relation to social dimension of sustainability, in order to contribute to assure corporate social responsibility and global value creation. But the will to establish an equilibrated connection among used resources in human activities, supported by the sustainability perspective, evidences that the contribution of ergonomics/human factors can be effectively enlarged to other aspects, especially in relation to building design. In fact a sustainable building is meant to be a building that contributes, through its characteristics and attribute, to a sustainable development by assuring, in the same time, a decrease of resources use and environmental impact and an increase of health, safety and comfort of the occupants. The purpose of this paper is to analyze in a broader sense the contribution of ergonomic/human factor to design of sustainable building, focusing how ergonomics principles, methodology and techniques can improve building design, enhancing its sustainability performance during all phases of building lifecycle.

  5. The consideration of the humane factor is essential in safety systems

    Parisot, F.

    2010-01-01

    In most risk analysis we consider that the staff fit perfectly the tasks to do in terms of training and competence but in fact a lot of factors intervene like the level of stress of the operator, the time available to identify the trouble or to take a decision, the relevance of the procedures, or the level of coordination and communication between the members of the staff. Different methods exist to assess the human factor, most have been designed to be used in the nuclear sector for instance: THERP (Technique for Human Error Rate Prediction) or OATS (Operation Action Tree) or SHARP (Systematic Human Action Reliability Procedure). These methods apply as early as the design stage of the engineered safety systems. Virtual reality has entered these methods because it allows operators to learn by making errors since errors in virtual reality have no consequences. Learning by making errors is an efficient method to get the operator used to accidental situations and as a consequence to reduce his level of stress. Some methods incorporate human elements into system safety analysis through the definition of performance shaping factors that describe the behaviour of operators in terms of physical and psychological abilities. (A.C.)

  6. Implementation of ANN on CCHP system to predict trigeneration performance with consideration of various operative factors

    Anvari, Simin; Taghavifar, Hadi; Saray, Rahim Khoshbakhti; Khalilarya, Shahram; Jafarmadar, Samad

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • ANN modeling tool was implemented on the CCHP system. • The best ANN topology was detected 10–8–9 with Levenberg–Marquadt algorithm. • The system is more sensitive of CC outlet temperature and turbine isentropic efficiency. • The lowest RMSE = 3.13e−5 and the best R 2 = 0.999 is related to lambda and second law efficiency terms, respectively. - Abstract: A detailed investigation was aimed based on numerical thermodynamic survey and artificial neural network (ANN) modeling of the trigeneration system. The results are presented in two pivotal frameworks namely the sensitivity analysis and ANN prediction capability of proposed modeling. The underlying operative parameters were chosen as input parameters from different cycles and components, while the exergy efficiency, exergy loss, coefficient of performance, heating load exergy, lambda, gas turbine power, exergy destruction, actual outlet air compressor temperature, and heat recovery gas steam generator (HRSG) outlet temperature were taken as objective output parameters for the modeling purpose. Up to now, no significant step was taken to investigate the compound power plant with thermodynamic analyses and network predictability hybrid in such a detailed oriented approach. It follows that multilayer perceptron neural network with back propagation algorithm deployed with 10–8–9 configuration results in the modeling reliability ranged within R 2 = 0.995–0.999. When dataset treated with trainlm learning algorithm and diversified neurons, the mean square error (MSE) is obtained equal to 0.2175. This denotes a powerful modeling achievement in both scientific and industrial scale to save considerable computational cost on combined cooling, heating, and power system in accomplishment of boosting the energy efficiency and system maintenance

  7. Interface design and human factors considerations for model-based tight glycemic control in critical care.

    Ward, Logan; Steel, James; Le Compte, Aaron; Evans, Alicia; Tan, Chia-Siong; Penning, Sophie; Shaw, Geoffrey M; Desaive, Thomas; Chase, J Geoffrey

    2012-01-01

    Tight glycemic control (TGC) has shown benefits but has been difficult to implement. Model-based methods and computerized protocols offer the opportunity to improve TGC quality and compliance. This research presents an interface design to maximize compliance, minimize real and perceived clinical effort, and minimize error based on simple human factors and end user input. The graphical user interface (GUI) design is presented by construction based on a series of simple, short design criteria based on fundamental human factors engineering and includes the use of user feedback and focus groups comprising nursing staff at Christchurch Hospital. The overall design maximizes ease of use and minimizes (unnecessary) interaction and use. It is coupled to a protocol that allows nurse staff to select measurement intervals and thus self-manage workload. The overall GUI design is presented and requires only one data entry point per intervention cycle. The design and main interface are heavily focused on the nurse end users who are the predominant users, while additional detailed and longitudinal data, which are of interest to doctors guiding overall patient care, are available via tabs. This dichotomy of needs and interests based on the end user's immediate focus and goals shows how interfaces must adapt to offer different information to multiple types of users. The interface is designed to minimize real and perceived clinical effort, and ongoing pilot trials have reported high levels of acceptance. The overall design principles, approach, and testing methods are based on fundamental human factors principles designed to reduce user effort and error and are readily generalizable. © 2012 Diabetes Technology Society.

  8. Effect of particle size on hydroxyapatite crystal-induced tumor necrosis factor alpha secretion by macrophages.

    Nadra, Imad; Boccaccini, Aldo R; Philippidis, Pandelis; Whelan, Linda C; McCarthy, Geraldine M; Haskard, Dorian O; Landis, R Clive

    2008-01-01

    Macrophages may promote a vicious cycle of inflammation and calcification in the vessel wall by ingesting neointimal calcific deposits (predominantly hydroxyapatite) and secreting tumor necrosis factor (TNF)alpha, itself a vascular calcifying agent. Here we have investigated whether particle size affects the proinflammatory potential of hydroxyapatite crystals in vitro and whether the nuclear factor (NF)-kappaB pathway plays a role in the macrophage TNFalpha response. The particle size and nano-topography of nine different crystal preparations was analyzed by X-ray diffraction, Raman spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy and gas sorbtion analysis. Macrophage TNFalpha secretion was inversely related to hydroxyapatite particle size (P=0.011, Spearman rank correlation test) and surface pore size (P=0.014). A necessary role for the NF-kappaB pathway was demonstrated by time-dependent I kappaB alpha degradation and sensitivity to inhibitors of I kappaB alpha degradation. To test whether smaller particles were intrinsically more bioactive, their mitogenic activity on fibroblast proliferation was examined. This showed close correlation between TNFalpha secretion and crystal-induced fibroblast proliferation (P=0.007). In conclusion, the ability of hydroxyapatite crystals to stimulate macrophage TNFalpha secretion depends on NF-kappaB activation and is inversely related to particle and pore size, with crystals of 1-2 microm diameter and pore size of 10-50 A the most bioactive. Microscopic calcific deposits in early stages of atherosclerosis may therefore pose a greater inflammatory risk to the plaque than macroscopically or radiologically visible deposits in more advanced lesions.

  9. Factors driving territory size and breeding success in a threatened migratory songbird, the Canada Warbler

    D. T. Tyler Flockhart

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Successful conservation of migratory birds demands we understand how habitat factors on the breeding grounds influences breeding success. Multiple factors are known to directly influence breeding success in territorial songbirds. For example, greater food availability and fewer predators can have direct effects on breeding success. However, many of these same habitat factors can also result in higher conspecific density that may ultimately reduce breeding success through density dependence. In this case, there is a negative indirect effect of habitat on breeding success through its effects on conspecific density and territory size. Therefore, a key uncertainty facing land managers is whether important habitat attributes directly influence breeding success or indirectly influence breeding success through territory size. We used radio-telemetry, point-counts, vegetation sampling, predator observations, and insect sampling over two years to provide data on habitat selection of a steeply declining songbird species, the Canada Warbler (Cardellina canadensis. These data were then applied in a hierarchical path modeling framework and an AIC model selection approach to determine the habitat attributes that best predict breeding success. Canada Warblers had smaller territories in areas with high shrub cover, in the presence of red squirrels (Tamiasciurus hudsonicus, at shoreline sites relative to forest-interior sites and as conspecific density increased. Breeding success was lower for birds with smaller territories, which suggests competition for limited food resources, but there was no direct evidence that food availability influenced territory size or breeding success. The negative relationship between shrub cover and territory size in our study may arise because these specific habitat conditions are spatially heterogeneous, whereby individuals pack into patches of preferred breeding habitat scattered throughout the landscape, resulting in reduced

  10. Effect of fuel particles' size variations on multiplication factor in pebble-bed nuclear reactor

    Snoj, L.; Ravnik, M.

    2005-01-01

    The pebble-bed reactor (Pbr) spherical fuel element consists of two radial zones: the inner zone, in which the fissile material in form of the so-called TRISO particles is uniformly dispersed in graphite matrix and the outer zone, a shell of pure graphite. A TRISO particle is composed of a fissile kernel (UO 2 ) and several layers of carbon composites. The effect of TRISO particles' size variations and distance between them on PBR multiplication factor is studied using MCNP code. Fuel element is modelled in approximation of a cubical unit cell with periodic boundary condition. The multiplication factor of the fuel element depends on the size of the TRISO particles due to resonance self-shielding effect and on the inter-particle distance due to inter-kernel shadowing. (author)

  11. Human factors considerations in control room modernization: Trends and personnel performance issues

    O'Hara, J.; Stubler, B.; Kramer, J.

    1997-01-01

    Advanced human-system interface (HSI) technology is being integrated into existing nuclear plants as part of plant modifications and upgrades. The result of this trend is that hybrid HSIs are created, i.e., HSIs containing a mixture of conventional (analog) and advanced (digital) technology. The purpose of the present research is to define the potential effects of hybrid HSIs on personnel performance and plant safety and to develop human factors guidance for safety reviews of them where necessary. In support of this objective, human factors topics associated with hybrid HSIs were identified. A human performance topic is an aspect of hybrid HSIs, such as a design or implementation feature, for which human performance concerns were identified. The topics were then evaluated for their potential significance to plant safety. Twelve topics were identified as potentially safety significant issues, i.e., their human performance concerns have the potential to compromise plant safety. The issues were then prioritized and a subset was selected for design review guidance development. 6 refs

  12. Consideration of hot channel factors in design for providing operating margins on coolant channel outlet temperature

    Sharma, V.K.; Surendar, C.; Bapat, C.N.

    1994-01-01

    The Indian Pressurized Heavy Water Reactors (IPHWR) are horizontal pressure tube reactors using natural uranium oxide fuel in the form of short (495 mm) clusters. The fuel clusters in the Zr-Nb pressure tubes are cooled by high pressure, high temperature and subcooled circulating heavy water. Coolant flow distribution to individual channels is designed to match the power distribution so as to obtain uniform coolant outlet temperature. However, during operation, the coolant outlet temperature in individual channels deviate from their nominal value due to: tolerances in process design; effects of grid frequency on the pump speed; deviation in channel powers from the nominal values due to on-power fuelling and movement of reactivity devices, and so on. Thus an operating margin, between the highest permissible and nominal coolant outlet temperatures, is required taking into account various hot channel factors that contribute to higher coolant outlet temperatures. The paper discusses the methodology adopted to assess various hot channel factors which would provide optimum operating margins while ensuring sub-cooling. (author)

  13. Manipulation of Auxin Response Factor 19 affects seed size in the woody perennial Jatropha curcas

    Sun, Yanwei; Wang, Chunming; Wang, Ning; Jiang, Xiyuan; Mao, Huizhu; Zhu, Changxiang; Wen, Fujiang; Wang, Xianghua; Lu, Zhijun; Yue, Genhua; Xu, Zengfu; Ye, Jian

    2017-01-01

    Seed size is a major determinant of seed yield but few is known about the genetics controlling of seed size in plants. Phytohormones cytokinin and brassinosteroid were known to be involved in the regulation of herbaceous plant seed development. Here we identified a homolog of Auxin Response Factor 19 (JcARF19) from a woody plant Jatropha curcas and genetically demonstrated its functions in controlling seed size and seed yield. Through Virus Induced Gene Silencing (VIGS), we found that JcARF19 was a positive upstream modulator in auxin signaling and may control plant organ size in J. curcas. Importantly, transgenic overexpression of JcARF19 significantly increased seed size and seed yield in plants Arabidopsis thaliana and J. curcas, indicating the importance of auxin pathway in seed yield controlling in dicot plants. Transcripts analysis indicated that ectopic expression of JcARF19 in J. curcas upregulated auxin responsive genes encoding essential regulators in cell differentiation and cytoskeletal dynamics of seed development. Our data suggested the potential of improving seed traits by precisely engineering auxin signaling in woody perennial plants. PMID:28102350

  14. Prognostic Factors Affecting Rotator Cuff Healing After Arthroscopic Repair in Small to Medium-sized Tears.

    Park, Ji Soon; Park, Hyung Jun; Kim, Sae Hoon; Oh, Joo Han

    2015-10-01

    Small and medium-sized rotator cuff tears usually have good clinical and anatomic outcomes. However, healing failure still occurs in some cases. To evaluate prognostic factors for rotator cuff healing in patients with only small to medium-sized rotator cuff tears. Case-control study; Level of evidence, 3. Data were prospectively collected from 339 patients with small to medium-sized rotator cuff tears who underwent arthroscopic repair by a single surgeon between March 2004 and August 2012 and who underwent magnetic resonance imaging or computed tomographic arthrography at least 1 year after surgery. The mean age of the patients was 59.8 years (range, 39-80 years), and the mean follow-up time was 20.8 months (range, 12-66 months). The functional evaluation included the visual analog scale (VAS) for pain, American Shoulder and Elbow Surgeons score, Constant-Murley score, and Simple Shoulder Test. Postoperative VAS for pain and functional scores improved significantly compared with preoperative values (P rotator cuff healing (P 2 cm in size (34.2%) compared with patients with a tear ≤2 cm (10.6%) (P rotator cuff tears, grade II fatty degeneration of the infraspinatus muscle according to the Goutallier classification could be a reference point for successful healing, and anatomic outcomes might be better if repair is performed before the patient is 69 years old and the tear size exceeds 2 cm. © 2015 The Author(s).

  15. Conceptual and Operational Considerations in Identifying Socioenvironmental Factors Associated with Disability among Community-Dwelling Adults

    Mathieu Philibert

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Disability is conceived as a person–context interaction. Physical and social environments are identified as intervention targets for improving social participation and independence. In comparison to the body of research on place and health, relatively few reports have been published on residential environments and disability in the health sciences literature. We reviewed studies evaluating the socioenvironmental correlates of disability. Searches were conducted in Medline, Embase and CINAHL databases for peer-reviewed articles published between 1997 and 2014. We found many environmental factors to be associated with disability, particularly area-level socioeconomic status and rurality. However, diversity in conceptual and methodological approaches to such research yields a limited basis for comparing studies. Conceptual inconsistencies in operational measures of disability and conceptual disagreement between studies potentially affect understanding of socioenvironmental influences. Similarly, greater precision in socioenvironmental measures and in study designs are likely to improve inference. Consistent and generalisable support for socioenvironmental influences on disability in the general adult population is scarce.

  16. Assessing Joint Service Opportunities through a Consideration of the Motivating and Constraining Factors

    Mark Borman

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available In a wide range of industries services are increasingly being developed, or evolving, to support groups of organisations. Not all such joint service initiatives though have been successful. The paper aims to highlight potential issues that need to be addressed when investigating the introduction of a joint service by identifying the motivators and constraints. The approach outlined draws upon network externality theory to provide the motivation for a joint service, and resource based and dependency theories to highlight the constraining factors. Three instances of joint services – in the Banking, Telecommunications and Travel sectors – are subsequently examined. It is concluded that as well as providing externality benefits joint service initiatives can also improve the terms of access to a service – in particular through realising economies of scale. Furthermore it would appear that organisations will have to think carefully about the best way to create, structure and manage a joint service initiative – including who to partner with – given their own particular circumstances, as multiple alternative approaches, with potentially differing ramifications, are available.

  17. A consideration of cognitive factors in the learning and education of older adults

    Fry, Prem S.

    1992-07-01

    The purpose of this paper is to consider the unique cognitive and intellectual factors that influence the learning and education of older adults. With this objective in mind, the paper reviews the empirical literature on patterns of intellectual and cognitive aging, and ends by discussing the implications and applications of these patterns for the practical and effective education of our elderly citizenry. When we consider the aging of intellectual abilities we are concerned with studying the development of fluid, crystallized and practical intelligence and variations in these abilities from adulthood into advanced old age. We are also concerned with looking at changes in cognitive functions such as attention, memory, information retrieval and tolerance for interference in learning capacity. Much recent work has been successful in showing that intellectual and cognitive decline in old age is not necessarily irreversible. While many elderly persons are very able learners, are highly self-directed, and have ample educational and intellectual resources available, others may benefit from assistance or suggestions about how to compensate for some of the cognitive declines in old age. With this objective the implications are discussed for educators and practitioners who must formulate cognitive training programs for older adults.

  18. Introducing Meta-Partition, a Useful Methodology to Explore Factors That Influence Ecological Effect Sizes.

    Zaida Ortega

    Full Text Available The study of the heterogeneity of effect sizes is a key aspect of ecological meta-analyses. Here we propose a meta-analytic methodology to study the influence of moderators in effect sizes by splitting heterogeneity: meta-partition. To introduce this methodology, we performed a meta-partition of published data about the traits that influence species sensitivity to habitat loss, that have been previously analyzed through meta-regression. Thus, here we aim to introduce meta-partition and to make an initial comparison with meta-regression. Meta-partition algorithm consists of three steps. Step 1 is to study the heterogeneity of effect sizes under the assumption of fixed effect model. If heterogeneity is found, we perform step 2, that is, to partition the heterogeneity by the moderator that minimizes heterogeneity within a subset while maximizing heterogeneity between subsets. Then, if effect sizes of the subset are still heterogeneous, we repeat step 1 and 2 until we reach final subsets. Finally, step 3 is to integrate effect sizes of final subsets, with fixed effect model if there is homogeneity, and with random effects model if there is heterogeneity. Results show that meta-partition is valuable to assess the importance of moderators in explaining heterogeneity of effect sizes, as well as to assess the directions of these relations and to detect possible interactions between moderators. With meta-partition we have been able to evaluate the importance of moderators in a more objective way than with meta-regression, and to visualize the complex relations that may exist between them. As ecological issues are often influenced by several factors interacting in complex ways, ranking the importance of possible moderators and detecting possible interactions would make meta-partition a useful exploration tool for ecological meta-analyses.

  19. Patient size and x-ray technique factors in head computed tomography examinations. I. Radiation doses

    Huda, Walter; Lieberman, Kristin A.; Chang, Jack; Roskopf, Marsha L.

    2004-01-01

    We investigated how patient age, size and composition, together with the choice of x-ray technique factors, affect radiation doses in head computed tomography (CT) examinations. Head size dimensions, cross-sectional areas, and mean Hounsfield unit (HU) values were obtained from head CT images of 127 patients. For radiation dosimetry purposes patients were modeled as uniform cylinders of water. Dose computations were performed for 18x7 mm sections, scanned at a constant 340 mAs, for x-ray tube voltages ranging from 80 to 140 kV. Values of mean section dose, energy imparted, and effective dose were computed for patients ranging from the newborn to adults. There was a rapid growth of head size over the first two years, followed by a more modest increase of head size until the age of 18 or so. Newborns have a mean HU value of about 50 that monotonically increases with age over the first two decades of life. Average adult A-P and lateral dimensions were 186±8 mm and 147±8 mm, respectively, with an average HU value of 209±40. An infant head was found to be equivalent to a water cylinder with a radius of ∼60 mm, whereas an adult head had an equivalent radius 50% greater. Adult males head dimensions are about 5% larger than for females, and their average x-ray attenuation is ∼20 HU greater. For adult examinations performed at 120 kV, typical values were 32 mGy for the mean section dose, 105 mJ for the total energy imparted, and 0.64 mSv for the effective dose. Increasing the x-ray tube voltage from 80 to 140 kV increases patient doses by about a factor of 5. For the same technique factors, mean section doses in infants are 35% higher than in adults. Energy imparted for adults is 50% higher than for infants, but infant effective doses are four times higher than for adults. CT doses need to take into account patient age, head size, and composition as well as the selected x-ray technique factors

  20. Entrapment of ovalbumin into liposomes--factors affecting entrapment efficiency, liposome size, and zeta potential.

    Brgles, Marija; Jurasin, Darija; Sikirić, Maja Dutour; Frkanec, Ruza; Tomasić, Jelka

    2008-01-01

    Various amounts of Ovalbumin (OVA) were encapsulated into positively and negatively charged multilamellar liposomes, with the aim to investigate the entrapment efficiency in different buffers and to study their effects on the liposome size and zeta potential. Results showed that the entrapment efficiency of OVA in anionic liposomes was the same in 10 mM Phosphate Buffer (PB) as in Phosphate-Buffered Saline (PBS; PB + 0.15 M NaCl). Also, liposome size was approximately 1200 nm for all anionic liposomes incorporating OVA. The entrapment efficiency of OVA in cationic liposomes was highly dependent on ionic strength. The size of cationic liposomes was approximately 1200 nm in PBS, regardless of protein content, but increased with the amount of the incorporated protein in PB. Aggregation of cationic liposomes in PB was observed when the mass of the protein was 2.5 mg or greater. The zeta potential of anionic liposomes was negative and of cationic liposomes positive in the whole range of protein mass tested. These results show how different compositions of lipid and aqueous phases can be used to vary the entrapment efficiency, liposome size, and zeta potential--the factors that are of great importance for the use of liposomes as drug carriers.

  1. Towards understanding addiction factors of mobile devices: An eye tracking study on effect of screen size.

    Wibirama, Sunu; Nugroho, Hanung A

    2017-07-01

    Mobile devices addiction has been an important research topic in cognitive science, mental health, and human-machine interaction. Previous works observed mobile device addiction by logging mobile devices activity. Although immersion has been linked as a significant predictor of video game addiction, investigation on addiction factors of mobile device with behavioral measurement has never been done before. In this research, we demonstrated the usage of eye tracking to observe effect of screen size on experience of immersion. We compared subjective judgment with eye movements analysis. Non-parametric analysis on immersion score shows that screen size affects experience of immersion (pmobile devices addiction. Our experimental results are also useful to develop a guideline as well as intervention strategy to deal with smartphone addiction.

  2. Which factors influence MRI-pathology concordance of tumour size measurements in breast cancer?

    Rominger, M.; Frauenfelder, T. [University Hospital Zurich, Institute of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology, Zurich (Switzerland); Berg, D. [Urbankrankenhaus Berlin, Anesthesiology, Berlin (Germany); Ramaswamy, A. [University Hospital Marburg, Pathology, Marburg (Germany); Timmesfeld, N. [Philipps University Marburg, Institute for Medical Biometry and Epidemiology, Marburg (Germany)

    2016-05-15

    To assess MRI-pathology concordance and factors influencing tumour size measurement in breast cancer. MRI tumour size (greatest diameter in anatomical planes (MRI-In-Plane) and greatest diameter along main tumour axis (MRI-MPR)) of 115 consecutive breast lesions (59 invasive lobular carcinoma, 46 invasive ductal carcinoma, and 10 ductal carcinoma in situ) was retrospectively compared to size measured at histopathology (pT size (Path-TNM) and greatest tumour diameter as relevant for excision (Path-Diameter; reference standard)). Histopathological tumour types, preoperative palpability, surgical management, additional high-risk lesions, and BI-RADS lesion type (mass versus non-mass enhancements) were assessed as possible influencing factors. Systematic errors were most pronounced between MRI-MPR and Path-TNM (7.1 mm, limits of agreement (LoA) [-21.7; 35.9]), and were lowest between MRI-In-Plane and Path-Diameter (0.2 mm, LoA [-19.7; 20.1]). Concordance rate of MRI-In-Plane with Path-Diameter was 86 % (97/113), overestimation 9 % (10/113) and underestimation 5 % (6/113); BI-RADS mass lesions were overestimated in 7 % (6/81) versus 41 % (13/32) for non-mass enhancements. On multivariate analysis only BI-RADS lesion type significantly influenced MRI-pathology concordance (p < 0.001). 2/59 (3 %) ILC did not enhance. Concordance rate varies according to the execution of MRI and histopathological measurements. Beyond this only non-mass enhancement significantly predicted discordance. (orig.)

  3. Relationship between category size and journals' impact factor: implications for emergency medicine journals and researchers.

    Miró, Òscar; Brown, Anthony F T; Graham, Colin A; Ducharme, James; Martin-Sanchez, Francisco J; Cone, David C

    2015-10-01

    We assessed the relationship between the size of the 39 Journal Citation Reports (JCR) medical categories and impact factor (IF) of journals in these categories, and the implications that it might have for emergency medicine (EM) journals. Using the 2010 JCR database, we calculated the mean IF, 5-year IF (5y-IF), Eigenfactor (EF), and Article Influence (AI) scores including all journals for each category. We also calculated a 'weighted IF' for all journals by dividing each journal IF by the mean IF of its category. We ranked EM journals according to IF and 'weighted IF' into all the journals included in the 39 categories. We assessed the relationship between category size and bibliometric scores by linear regression. Category size varied from 252 journals (Pharmacology and Pharmacy) to 14 (Primary Healthcare), EM category occupying the 36th position (23 journals). The mean IF of EM category ranked in 34th position, 5-yIF in 32nd, EF in 34th, and AI in 34th position. Category size had a direct and significant association with mean IF, 5y-IF, and AI but not with mean EF. When the EM journals were ranked among all the journals according to their IF, only two (9%) were placed into the first quartile and raised up to eight (35%) when 'weighted IF' was considered. There is a negative relationship between JCR size category and IF achieved by the journals. This places EM journals at a clear disadvantage because they represent one of the smallest clinical medical research disciplines.

  4. Patient size and x-ray technique factors in head computed tomography examinations. II. Image quality

    Huda, Walter; Lieberman, Kristin A.; Chang, Jack; Roskopf, Marsha L.

    2004-01-01

    We investigated how patient head characteristics, as well as the choice of x-ray technique factors, affect lesion contrast and noise values in computed tomography (CT) images. Head sizes and mean Hounsfield unit (HU) values were obtained from head CT images for five classes of patients ranging from the newborn to adults. X-ray spectra with tube voltages ranging from 80 to 140 kV were used to compute the average photon energy, and energy fluence, transmitted through the heads of patients of varying size. Image contrast, and the corresponding contrast to noise ratios (CNRs), were determined for lesions of fat, muscle, and iodine relative to a uniform water background. Maintaining a constant image CNR for each lesion, the patient energy imparted was also computed to identify the x-ray tube voltage that minimized the radiation dose. For adults, increasing the tube voltage from 80 to 140 kV changed the iodine HU from 2.62x10 5 to 1.27x10 5 , the fat HU from -138 to -108, and the muscle HU from 37.1 to 33.0. Increasing the x-ray tube voltage from 80 to 140 kV increased the percentage energy fluence transmission by up to a factor of 2. For a fixed x-ray tube voltage, the percentage transmitted energy fluence in adults was more than a factor of 4 lower than for newborns. For adults, increasing the x-ray tube voltage from 80 to 140 kV improved the CNR for muscle lesions by 130%, for fat lesions by a factor of 2, and for iodine lesions by 25%. As the size of the patient increased from newborn to adults, lesion CNR was reduced by about a factor of 2. The mAs value can be reduced by 80% when scanning newborns while maintaining the same lesion CNR as for adults. Maintaining the CNR of an iodine lesion at a constant level, use of 140 kV increases the energy imparted to an adult patient by nearly a factor of 3.5 in comparison to 80 kV. For fat and muscle lesions, raising the x-ray tube voltage from 80 to 140 kV at a constant CNR increased the patient dose by 37% and 7

  5. Factors preceding CRM readiness in small- and medium-sized tourism enterprises

    Dinesh Vallabh

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Orientation: Customer relationship management (CRM is important to organisations striving for competitive advantage through building relationships with their customers. Research purpose: This study identified the factors preceding CRM and assessed selected South African small- and medium-sized tourism enterprises’ (SMTEs readiness for CRM. Motivation: CRM is likely to enhance SMTEs’ competitiveness. However, successful adoption and implementation of CRM is unlikely unless the organisation is ready for it. Research design, approach and method: A quantitative research approach and survey questionnaire yielded primary data from 332 respondent organisations selected by systematic sampling. Exploratory factor analysis was used to identify the latent factors preceding CRM readiness. Organisational CRM readiness was assessed based on CRM maturity in terms of data collection, use and sharing throughout the organisation. Main findings: Respondent-organisations performed well on the four factors preceding CRM readiness − business strategy, customer strategy, touch points and competencies, skills and technology and also on data collections and use, but not on data sharing. Practical/Managerial implications: CRM practice is believed to assist organisations in tailoring products and services to customers’ needs, providing customer satisfaction, enhancing customer retention and ultimately improving the organisation’s competitiveness and profitability. CRM might fail if SMTEs do not have CRM-enabling conditions in place and a CRM readiness audit should therefore be performed. Contribution: The study contributes to a largely under-researched area concerning CRM in SMTEs by providing an improved understanding of the factors that will enable SMTEs to engage in CRM activities.

  6. Zipf's law and influential factors of the Pareto exponent of the city size distribution: Evidence from China

    GAO Hongying; WU Kangping

    2007-01-01

    This paper estimates the Pareto exponent of the city size (population size and economy size) distribution, all provinces, and three regions in China in 1997, 2000 and 2003 by OLS, comparatively analyzes the Pareto exponent cross section and times, and empirically analyzes the factors which impacts on the Pareto exponents of provinces. Our analyses show that the size distributions of cities in China follow the Pareto distribution and are of structural features. Variations in the value of the P...

  7. Low-temperature thermoelectric power factor enhancement by controlling nanoparticle size distribution.

    Zebarjadi, Mona; Esfarjani, Keivan; Bian, Zhixi; Shakouri, Ali

    2011-01-12

    Coherent potential approximation is used to study the effect of adding doped spherical nanoparticles inside a host matrix on the thermoelectric properties. This takes into account electron multiple scatterings that are important in samples with relatively high volume fraction of nanoparticles (>1%). We show that with large fraction of uniform small size nanoparticles (∼1 nm), the power factor can be enhanced significantly. The improvement could be large (up to 450% for GaAs) especially at low temperatures when the mobility is limited by impurity or nanoparticle scattering. The advantage of doping via embedded nanoparticles compared to the conventional shallow impurities is quantified. At the optimum thermoelectric power factor, the electrical conductivity of the nanoparticle-doped material is larger than that of impurity-doped one at the studied temperature range (50-500 K) whereas the Seebeck coefficient of the nanoparticle doped material is enhanced only at low temperatures (∼50 K).

  8. Word length, set size, and lexical factors: Re-examining what causes the word length effect.

    Guitard, Dominic; Gabel, Andrew J; Saint-Aubin, Jean; Surprenant, Aimée M; Neath, Ian

    2018-04-19

    The word length effect, better recall of lists of short (fewer syllables) than long (more syllables) words has been termed a benchmark effect of working memory. Despite this, experiments on the word length effect can yield quite different results depending on set size and stimulus properties. Seven experiments are reported that address these 2 issues. Experiment 1 replicated the finding of a preserved word length effect under concurrent articulation for large stimulus sets, which contrasts with the abolition of the word length effect by concurrent articulation for small stimulus sets. Experiment 2, however, demonstrated that when the short and long words are equated on more dimensions, concurrent articulation abolishes the word length effect for large stimulus sets. Experiment 3 shows a standard word length effect when output time is equated, but Experiments 4-6 show no word length effect when short and long words are equated on increasingly more dimensions that previous demonstrations have overlooked. Finally, Experiment 7 compared recall of a small and large neighborhood words that were equated on all the dimensions used in Experiment 6 (except for those directly related to neighborhood size) and a neighborhood size effect was still observed. We conclude that lexical factors, rather than word length per se, are better predictors of when the word length effect will occur. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2018 APA, all rights reserved).

  9. The impact of economic factors on migration considerations among Icelandic specialist doctors: a cross-sectional study.

    Solberg, Ingunn Bjarnadóttir; Tómasson, Kristinn; Aasland, Olaf; Tyssen, Reidar

    2013-12-18

    Globalization has facilitated the employability of doctors almost anywhere in the world. In recent years, the migration of doctors seems to have increased. However, we lack studies on doctors' migration from developed countries. Because the economic recession experienced by many countries might have affected the migration of doctors, research on this topic is important for the retention of doctors. Iceland was hit hard by the economic recession in 2008. Therefore, we want to explore how many specialist doctors in Iceland have considered migrating and whether economic factors at work and in private life, such as extensive cost-containment initiatives at work and worries about personal finances, are related to doctors' migration considerations. In 2010, all doctors in Iceland registered with the Icelandic Medical Association were sent an electronic cross-sectional survey by email. The 467 specialists who participated in this study represent 55% of all specialist doctors working in Iceland. Information on doctors' contemplation of migration was available from responses to the question: "Have you considered moving and working abroad?" The predictor variables in our logistic regression model are perceived cost-containment initiatives at work, stress related to personal finances, experience of working abroad during vacations, job dissatisfaction, job position, age, and gender. Sixty-three per cent of Iceland's specialist doctors had considered relocation abroad, 4% were moving in the next year or two, and 33% had not considered relocating. Logistic regression analysis shows that, controlling for age, gender, job position, job satisfaction, and experience of working abroad during vacations, doctors' migration considerations were significantly affected by their experiences of cost-containment initiatives at work (odds ratio (OR) = 2.0, p Economic factors affect whether specialist doctors in Iceland consider migration. More studies on the effect of economic recession

  10. [The relationship between adolescent body size and health promoting behavior and biochemical indicator factors].

    Chen, Hsiu-Chih; Chen, Hsing-Mei; Chen, Min-Li; Chiang, Chih-Ming; Chen, Mei-Yen

    2012-06-01

    Tainan City has the third highest prevalence of junior high school student obesity of all administrative districts in Taiwan. School nurses play an important role in promoting student health. Understanding the factors that significantly impact student weight is critical to designing effective student health promotion programs. This study explored the relationships between health promotion behavior and serum biomarker variables and body size. Researchers used a cross-sectional descriptive study design and stratified cluster random sampling. Subjects were 7th graders who received an in-school health checkup with blood test at 41 public junior high schools in Tainan City between July 2010 and May 2011. Research instruments included the adolescent health promotion (AHP) scale, serum biochemical profile and BMI (body mass index). Obtained data were analyzed using descriptive and inferential statistics. Of the 726 students who participated in this study, 22.2% were underweight and 23.8% were overweight or obese. Higher AHP scores correlated with better biomarkers and body size. Multivariate analysis found factors that increased the risk of being overweight included: being male, having a father with a relatively low level of education, playing video games frequently, and doing little or no exercise (odds ratio = 1.93, 1.75, 1.07, 1.04, respectively). Participants with relatively healthy behaviors had better biomarkers and a lower risk of being overweight. Findings can support the development of evidence-based school programs to promote student health.

  11. A Study of Factors Affecting Measurement of Kidney Size in Ultrasonography

    Yoon, Seok Hwan [Dept. of Radiological Technology, Dongnam Health College, Suwon (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Yun Min [Dept. of Diagnostic Radiology, Samsung Medical Center, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Choi, Jun Gu [Dept. of Radiological Science, Far East University, Eumseong (Korea, Republic of)

    2008-06-15

    Since measuring the size of kidney with sonography becomes an important index for diagnosis, treatment, and prognostic prediction in kidney disease, the accurate measurement and evaluation on this are clinically very important. Accordingly, the purpose of this study was to increase reproducibility and objectivity in measuring the size of kidney by enumerating factors that have an impact for measurement. It targeted 44 adults in Korea at the age of 21-27. It measured in order for both kidneys to be seen most largely while changing a subject-examiner's position in a state of fasting for 8 hours and a transducer's approaching direction. It compared a size of kidney by measuring, respectively, with the same method in 30 minutes and in 1 hour after drinking water in 700-1,000 cc. In case of the lateral approach scan in decubitus position, the average length of the kidney both to the right and the left and the deviation of measurement to be the largest. In NPO(None Per Oral) state, the average length in the right kidney was 10.19cm, and the average length in the left kidney was 10.33 cm. In 60 minutes after taking moisture, the average length in the right kidney was 10.94 cm, and the average length in the left kidney was 11.13 cm. In comparing the average length of the kidney in NPO state and its average length in 60 minutes after taking moisture, the size swelled by 7.3% for the length in the right kidney and by 7.7% in the left, thereby having been indicated to be statistically significant(P<0.003). The measurement in a size of kidney by using ultrasound may be measured differently depending on a patient's state of taking moisture and a transducer's approaching direction. It is thought that when the measurement in a size of kidney is especially important clinically, the intake and intake time in moisture need to be considered and that measuring with the posterior approach in prone position is a good method aiming to increase reproducibility in

  12. A Study of Factors Affecting Measurement of Kidney Size in Ultrasonography

    Yoon, Seok Hwan; Kim, Yun Min; Choi, Jun Gu

    2008-01-01

    Since measuring the size of kidney with sonography becomes an important index for diagnosis, treatment, and prognostic prediction in kidney disease, the accurate measurement and evaluation on this are clinically very important. Accordingly, the purpose of this study was to increase reproducibility and objectivity in measuring the size of kidney by enumerating factors that have an impact for measurement. It targeted 44 adults in Korea at the age of 21-27. It measured in order for both kidneys to be seen most largely while changing a subject-examiner's position in a state of fasting for 8 hours and a transducer's approaching direction. It compared a size of kidney by measuring, respectively, with the same method in 30 minutes and in 1 hour after drinking water in 700-1,000 cc. In case of the lateral approach scan in decubitus position, the average length of the kidney both to the right and the left and the deviation of measurement to be the largest. In NPO(None Per Oral) state, the average length in the right kidney was 10.19cm, and the average length in the left kidney was 10.33 cm. In 60 minutes after taking moisture, the average length in the right kidney was 10.94 cm, and the average length in the left kidney was 11.13 cm. In comparing the average length of the kidney in NPO state and its average length in 60 minutes after taking moisture, the size swelled by 7.3% for the length in the right kidney and by 7.7% in the left, thereby having been indicated to be statistically significant(P<0.003). The measurement in a size of kidney by using ultrasound may be measured differently depending on a patient's state of taking moisture and a transducer's approaching direction. It is thought that when the measurement in a size of kidney is especially important clinically, the intake and intake time in moisture need to be considered and that measuring with the posterior approach in prone position is a good method aiming to increase reproducibility in measuring length of the

  13. [The distribution of cardiovascular risk factors in employees from small- and medium-sized enterprises in Germany].

    Kaifie, Andrea; Kraus, Thomas

    2018-02-01

    The German Prevention Act, the main parts of which came into force on 25 July 2015, encourages health promotion and prevention programs for people in their living environment. Through this act, preventive measures could reach employees at work that hardly seek medical services. This is of importance since employees with a low occupational position often show risk factors that increase morbidity and mortality. In this study, clinical data from n = 2280 employees from small and medium sized enterprises (SME) were analyzed for economic sector, sex, socioeconomic position (SEP), economic sector cardiovascular risk factors, musculoskeletal and psychological diseases. The socioeconomic position was categorized using the European Socioeconomic Classification into an intermediate/high and a low SEP category. Male employees showed a significantly higher occurrence of risk factors, such as smoking, diabetes or hypertension in comparison to female employees. In the manufacturing industry, male employees with a low SEP showed a higher prevalence of diabetes (2.3 vs. 5.9%), smoking (27.4 vs. 46.5%), and physical inactivity (sports: 55.0 vs. 37.1%) in comparison to employees with an intermediate/high SEP. Male employees with a low SEP from health and social services reported psychiatric disorders more frequently in comparison to those with an intermediate/high SEP (0.7 vs. 5.9%). Male employees with a low SEP should be given special consideration in the implementation of preventive measures at work within the framework of the Prevention Act.

  14. Risk factors associated with cluster size of Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb) of different RFLP lineages in Brazil.

    Peres, Renata Lyrio; Vinhas, Solange Alves; Ribeiro, Fabíola Karla Correa; Palaci, Moisés; do Prado, Thiago Nascimento; Reis-Santos, Bárbara; Zandonade, Eliana; Suffys, Philip Noel; Golub, Jonathan E; Riley, Lee W; Maciel, Ethel Leonor

    2018-02-08

    Tuberculosis (TB) transmission is influenced by patient-related risk, environment and bacteriological factors. We determined the risk factors associated with cluster size of IS6110 RFLP based genotypes of Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb) isolates from Vitoria, Espirito Santo, Brazil. Cross-sectional study of new TB cases identified in the metropolitan area of Vitoria, Brazil between 2000 and 2010. Mtb isolates were genotyped by the IS6110 RFLP, spoligotyping and RD Rio . The isolates were classified according to genotype cluster sizes by three genotyping methods and associated patient epidemiologic characteristics. Regression Model was performed to identify factors associated with cluster size. Among 959 Mtb isolates, 461 (48%) cases had an isolate that belonged to an RFLP cluster, and six clusters with ten or more isolates were identified. Of the isolates spoligotyped, 448 (52%) were classified as LAM and 412 (48%) as non-LAM. Our regression model found that 6-9 isolates/RFLP cluster were more likely belong to the LAM family, having the RD Rio genotype and to be smear-positive (adjusted OR = 1.17, 95% CI 1.08-1.26; adjusted OR = 1.25, 95% CI 1.14-1.37; crude OR = 2.68, 95% IC 1.13-6.34; respectively) and living in a Serra city neighborhood decrease the risk of being in the 6-9 isolates/RFLP cluster (adjusted OR = 0.29, 95% CI, 0.10-0.84), than in the others groups. Individuals aged 21 to 30, 31 to 40 and > 50 years were less likely of belonging the 2-5 isolates/RFLP cluster than unique patterns compared to individuals cluster group (adjustment OR = 0.45, 95% CI 0.24-0.85) than unique patterns. We found that a large proportion of new TB infections in Vitoria is caused by prevalent Mtb genotypes belonging to the LAM family and RD Rio genotypes. Such information demonstrates that some genotypes are more likely to cause recent transmission. Targeting interventions such as screening in specific areas and social risk groups, should be a priority

  15. Factors Determining the Size of Sealing Clearance in Hydraulic Legs of Powered Supports

    Buyalich Gennady

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The factors that directly influence the formation of a sealing clearance between the piston and the working cylinder in hydraulic legs of powered supports are considered in this article, the size thereof has a direct effect on the tightness of the legs and, as a result, on the safety of work at the production face. A detailed description of these factors is given, which is supported by the dependencies obtained from the results of finite element modeling of various types of legs under various strength and geometric parameters, external load types and locations in the support section. The problems of formation of radial deformations of a working cylinder loaded with working fluid pressure are considered, and their dependence on the level of this pressure and extension. Based on the simulation results, the mechanisms for the formation of additional clearances due to rod and cylinder misalignments are described, and the conditions and causes of the resonant phenomena development are given. The classification of these factors according to the degree of generalization and the functional interaction between each other is proposed.

  16. Family size and perinatal circumstances, as mental health risk factors in a Scottish birth cohort.

    Riordan, Daniel Vincent; Morris, Carole; Hattie, Joanne; Stark, Cameron

    2012-06-01

    Higher maternal parity and younger maternal age have each been observed to be associated with subsequent offspring suicidal behaviour. This study aimed to establish if these, and other variables from the perinatal period, together with family size, are also associated with other psychiatric morbidity. Linked datasets of the Scottish Morbidity Record and Scottish death records were used to follow up, into young adulthood, a birth cohort of 897,685. In addition to the index maternity records, mothers' subsequent pregnancy records were identified, allowing family size to be estimated. Three independent outcomes were studied: suicide, self-harm, and psychiatric hospital admission. Data were analysed using Cox regression. Younger maternal age and higher maternal parity were independently associated with increased risk in offspring of suicide, of self-harm and of psychiatric admission. Risk of psychiatric admission was higher amongst those from families of three or more, but, compared with only children, those with two or three siblings had a lower risk of self harm. Perinatal and family composition factors have a broad influence on mental health outcomes. These data suggest that the existence of younger, as well as elder siblings may be important.

  17. Effects of molecular size and chemical factor on plasma gene transfection

    Ikeda, Yoshihisa; Motomura, Hideki; Kido, Yugo; Satoh, Susumu; Jinno, Masafumi

    2016-07-01

    In order to clarify the mechanism of plasma gene transfection, the relationship between transfection efficiency and transferred molecular size was investigated. Molecules with low molecular mass (less than 50 kDa; dye or dye-labeled oligonucleotide) and high molecular mass (more than 1 MDa; plasmid DNA or fragment of plasmid DNA) were transferred to L-929 cells. It was found that the transfection efficiency decreases with increasing in transferred molecular size and also depends on the tertiary structure of transferred molecules. Moreover, it was suggested the transfection mechanism is different between the molecules with low (less than 50 kDa) and high molecular mass (higher than 1 MDa). For the amount of gene transfection after plasma irradiation, which is comparable to that during plasma irradiation, it is shown that H2O2 molecules are the main contributor. The transfection efficiency decreased to 0.40 ± 0.22 upon scavenging the H2O2 generated by plasma irradiation using the catalase. On the other hand, when the H2O2 solution is dropped into the cell suspension without plasma irradiation, the transfection efficiency is almost 0%. In these results, it is also suggested that there is a synergetic effect of H2O2 with electrical factors or other reactive species generated by plasma irradiation.

  18. Factors that influence planning for physical activity among workers in small- and medium-sized enterprises

    Sawako Kawahara

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available Physical activity (PA is necessary for improving the health of workers in small- to medium-sized enterprises (SMEs. However, behavioral changes conducive to PA are often difficult to achieve despite intentions. Because intention to perform PA does not always translate to action, proper planning may be critical for achieving PA. In this study, we aimed to identify factors related to planning for PA among workers in SMEs because this is one population that has been identified as being at higher risk for lifestyle-related diseases in Japan. Participants completed a series of validated questionnaires. Of 353 valid responses, 226 individuals (149 men; aged 47.5 ± 8.7 years stated their intention to perform PA. Multiple regression analysis indicated that a higher PA planning score was significantly associated with higher self-efficacy for PA (p < 0.001, higher risk perception regarding inactivity (p = 0.012, and greater knowledge of information about PA community services (p = 0.019. Therefore, we recommend that self-efficacy, risk perception, and information regarding PA community services are enhanced in the daily working lives of workers at their workplaces. In this manner, they can promote their planning of health behavioral changes in a supportive environment, drawing upon available services, supports, and other resources. Keywords: Workers, Planning, Intention, Physical activity, Small- and medium-sized enterprises

  19. Does size matter? : An empirical study modifying Fama & French's three factor model to detect size-effect based on turnover in the Swedish markets

    Boros, Daniel; Eriksson, Claes

    2014-01-01

    This thesis investigates whether the estimation of the cost of equity (or the expected return) in the Swedish market should incorporate an adjustment for a company’s size. This is what is commonly known as the size-effect, first presented by Banz (1980) and has later been a part of models for estimating cost of equity, such as Fama & French’s three factor model (1992). The Fama & French model was developed based on empirical research. Since the model was developed, the research on the...

  20. Factors affecting the size of ovulatory follicles and conception rate in high-yielding dairy cows.

    Mokhtari, A; Kafi, M; Zamiri, M J; Akbari, R

    2016-03-01

    Two studies were designed to determine (1) the effects of Heatsynch and Ovsynch protocols versus spontaneous ovulation and (2) the effects of calving problems, clinical uterine infections, and clinical mastitis on the size of the ovulatory follicle, conception rate, and embryonic/fetal (E/F) death in high-yielding dairy cows. In study 1, cows without the history of calving problems, clinical uterine infections, and clinical mastitis were randomly allocated to either an Ovsynch (n = 45) or Heatsynch (n = 39) ovulation synchronization protocol or spontaneous ovulation (n = 43) groups. Blood samples were collected on the day of artificial insemination (AI) to measure progesterone (P4), estradiol-17β, and insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF-1) and 7 days later to measure P4. Study 2 consisted of cows (n = 351) with or without the history of calving problems, clinical uterine infections, and clinical mastitis which were artificially inseminated after a 55-day voluntary waiting period. Transrectal ultrasonography was performed at the time of AI to measure the ovulatory follicle size and on Days 30 and 68 after AI to diagnose pregnancy in both studies. In study 1, the mean (±standard error of the mean) diameter of the ovulatory follicle was greater (P = 0.0005) and E/F mortality was lower (P = 0.007) for the spontaneous ovulation group compared with Ovsynch and Heatsynch groups. Serum concentration of P4 on Day 7 after AI was correlated with the size of the ovulatory follicle (P = 0.007). Conception rate at Days 30 and 68 was not significantly different between the three experimental groups in study 1. Cows with serum IGF-1 concentrations greater than 55 ng/mL at AI had significantly higher Day 68 conception rate (50% vs. 24%) and lower E/F death (16.6% vs. 40%) compared to cows with serum IGF-1 concentrations lower than 56 ng/mL at AI. The conception rate on Days 30 and 68 for follicles of 10 to 14 mm in diameter (34% and 21.8%) was significantly lower than follicles of

  1. Tumour type and size are high risk factors for the syndrome of "cerebellar" mutism and subsequent dysarthria

    C.E. Catsman-Berrevoets (Coriene); H.R. van Dongen (Hugo); D. Paz y Geuze (Daniel); P.F. Paquier; M.H. Lequin (Maarten); P.G.H. Mulder (Paul)

    1999-01-01

    textabstractOBJECTIVE: "Cerebellar mutis" and subsequent dysarthria (MSD) is a documented complication of posterior fossa surgery in children. In this prospective study the following risk factors for MSD were assessed: type, size and site of the tumour; hydrocephalus at

  2. Factors influencing casein micelle size in milk of individual cows: Genetic variants and glycosylation of k-casein

    Bijl, E.; Vries, de R.F.M.; Valenberg, van H.J.F.; Huppertz, T.; Hooijdonk, van A.C.M.

    2014-01-01

    The average casein micelle size varies widely between milk samples of individual cows. The factors that cause this variation in size are not known but could provide more insight into casein micelle structure and into the physiology of casein micelle formation. The objective of this research was

  3. Recent population size, trends, and limiting factors for the double-crested Cormorant in Western North America

    Adkins, Jessica Y.; Roby, Daniel D.; Lyons, Donald E.; Courtot, Karen N.; Collis, Ken; Carter, Harry R.; Shuford, W. David; Capitolo, Phillip J.

    2014-01-01

    colonies by bald eagles (Haliaeetus leucocephalus) and humans are likely limiting factors on the growth of the western population at present. Because of differences in biology and management, the western population of double-crested cormorants warrants consideration as a separate management unit from the population east of the Continental Divide.

  4. CRITICAL FACTORS IN OUTSOURCING OF ACCOUNTING FUNCTIONS IN MALAYSIAN SMALL MEDIUM-SIZED ENTERPRISES (SMEs

    Magiswary Dorasamy

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The challenges that business face in sustaining competitive advantage in the corporate world have become a major concern. Businesses are adopting cutting-edge technologies and best practices to cope with rapid, global changes. Various business functions are being reengineered for this purpose. Accounting functions play an important role in helping businesses to maintain competitive advantage. However, some small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs face problems handling fundamental accounting functions. This is predominantly because of their lack of expertise; accounting functions require not only knowledge of generally accepted accounting rules or tax regulations but also the expertise needed to apply the rules in a given business environment (Everaert, Sarens and Rommel, 2006. This paper offers some insight on the outsourcing of accounting functions as there is paucity of data in this area in the context of Malaysia. Essentially, it presents empirical evidence regarding Malaysian SMEs' accounting outsourcing practices. A survey of SMEs was conducted to identify the overall outsourcing landscape as it relates to accounting and third-party organisations. The factors that contribute to the decision to outsource accounting functions are analysed. The study reveals a significant relationship between outsourcing accounting functions and two contributing factors, risks and operation management.

  5. ENVIRONMENTAL FACTORS INFLUENCING THE VEGETATION IN MIDDLE-SIZED STREAMS IN LATVIA

    L. GRINBERGA

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available In this study the species diversity and distribution of macrophytes in 131 surveyed sites of middle-sized streams of Latvia were investigated. The aim of the study was to determine the composition of macrophyte vegetation in Latvian streams in relation to the environmental factors (stream width, water depth, substrate type, shading and flow velocity. On the basis of these factors, five major groups of streams were distinguished representing mutually different typical macrophyte communities – (1 fast flowing streams on gravelly and stony substrate, (2 slow flowing streams on gravelly and stony substrate, (3 fast flowing streams on sandy substrate, (4 slow flowing streams on sandy substrate, and (5 streams with soft, silty substrate. Totally, 47 macrophyte taxa were found in the streams. The most common macrophyte species were Nuphar lutea found in 65% of all sites, followed by Sparganium emersum (64%, S. erectum s.l. (48%, Phalaris arundinacea (50%, Alisma plantago-aquatica (54% and Lemna minor (41%. The highest species richness (22 was found in slow flowing streams with gravelly substrate. Species-poor macrophyte communities were characteristic for fast flowing streams on sandy substrate.

  6. ENVIRONMENTAL FACTORS INFLUENCING THE VEGETATION IN MIDDLE-SIZED STREAMS IN LATVIA

    L. GRINBERGA

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available In this study the species diversity and distribution of macrophytes in 131 surveyed sites of middle-sized streams of Latvia were investigated. The aim of the study was to determine the composition of macrophyte vegetation in Latvian streams in relation to the environmental factors (stream width, water depth, substrate type, shading and flow velocity. On the basis of these factors, five major groups of streams were distinguished representing mutually different typical macrophyte communities – (1 fast flowing streams on gravelly and stony substrate, (2 slow flowing streams on gravelly and stony substrate, (3 fast flowing streams on sandy substrate, (4 slow flowing streams on sandy substrate, and (5 streams with soft, silty substrate. Totally, 47 macrophyte taxa were found in the streams. The most common macrophyte species were Nuphar lutea found in 65% of all sites, followed by Sparganium emersum (64%, S. erectum s.l. (48%, Phalaris arundinacea (50%, Alisma plantago-aquatica (54% and Lemna minor (41%. The highest species richness (22 was found in slow flowing streams with gravelly substrate. Species-poor macrophyte communities were characteristic for fast flowing streams on sandy substrate.

  7. Risk Factors for Motorcycle-related Severe Injuries in a Medium-sized City in China

    Xiong, Lili; Zhu, Yao; Li, Liping

    2016-01-01

    Background Motorcycle vehicles are frequent in China, especially in the small and medium sized cities. Road traffic collisions involving motorcycles often result in severe injuries. We aimed to identify risk factors for severe injuries in inpatients sustaining motorcycle collisions. Methods Patients with road traffic injuries involving motorcycles who presented to the neurosurgery and orthopedic departments of three major comprehensive hospitals in Shantou city were reviewed from October 2012 to June 2013. Data from 349 patients was investigated. Crash and injury characteristics were documented by interviewing patients, their family members, and their doctors. Binary logistic regression was used to determine risk factors for severe injuries. Results There were 253 males (72.49%) and 96 females (27.51%), with a male to female ratio of 2.64:1. The mean age was 38.21±17.32 years. One-hundred and fifty patients were in the severe injury group with a mean injury severity score (ISS) of 15.34±9.13. The simple and multiple logistic model showed that males, lack of safeguards, morning and night hours, non-urban areas, collision of a motorcycle with a cycle, ambulance transportation to hospital, admission to a neurosurgery department, lack of traffic control, unobstructed traffic, and poor visibility were all the risk factors. Conclusions This research highlights some problems: less helmet wearing in motorcyclists and cyclists, rural injuries being more serious than urban ones, and head injuries being the main diagnosis in severe injuries. The result of this research is predictable. If the safety equipment is required to be used, such as helmets, and the traffic environment is improved, such as traffic flow, medical resources to injuries and deaths is seasonable, then traffic safety will be improved and accidents will be reduced. PMID:29546203

  8. Nontraditional risk factors for cardiovascular disease and visceral adiposity index among different body size phenotypes.

    Du, T; Zhang, J; Yuan, G; Zhang, M; Zhou, X; Liu, Z; Sun, X; Yu, X

    2015-01-01

    Increased cardiovascular disease and mortality risk in metabolically healthy obese (MHO) individuals remain highly controversial. Several studies suggested risk while others do not. The traditional cardiovascular risk factors may be insufficient to demonstrate the complete range of metabolic abnormalities in MHO individuals. Hence, we aimed to compare the prevalence of elevated lipoprotein (a), apolipoprotein B, and uric acid (UA) levels, apolipoprotein B/apolipoprotein A1 ratio, and visceral adiposity index (VAI) scores, and low apolipoprotein A1 levels among 6 body size phenotypes (normal weight with and without metabolic abnormalities, overweight with and without metabolic abnormalities, and obese with or without metabolic abnormalities). We conducted a cross-sectional analysis of 7765 Chinese adults using data from the nationwide China Health and Nutrition Survey 2009. MHO persons had intermediate prevalence of elevated apolipoprotein B and UA levels, apolipoprotein B/apolipoprotein A1 ratio and VAI scores, and low apolipoprotein A1 levels between metabolically healthy normal-weight (MHNW) and metabolically abnormal obese individuals (P < 0.001 for all comparisons). Elevated apolipoprotein B and UA concentrations, apolipoprotein B/apolipoprotein A1 ratio, and VAI scores were all strongly associated with the MHO phenotype (all P < 0.01). Prevalence of elevated apolipoprotein B and UA levels, apolipoprotein B/apolipoprotein A1 ratio and VAI scores, and low levels of apolipoprotein A1 was higher among MHO persons than among MHNW individuals. The elevated levels of the nontraditional risk factors and VAI scores in MHO persons could contribute to the increased cardiovascular disease risk observed in long-term studies. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Effects of particle size and confining pressure on breakage factor of rockfill materials using medium triaxial test

    Ashok Kumar Gupta

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Rockfill dams are mostly constructed using blasted rockfill materials obtained by blasting rocks or alluvial rockfill materials collected from the riverbeds. Behaviors of rockfill materials and their characterization significantly depend on breakage factor observed during triaxial loading. In this paper, two modeled rockfill materials are investigated by using medium triaxial cell. Drained triaxial tests are conducted on various sizes of modeled rockfill materials used in the two dams, and test data are analyzed accordingly. Breakage factor of rockfill material is studied and the effects of particle size and confining pressure on breakage factor are investigated using medium triaxial cell as many researchers have already conducted investigation using large triaxial cell.

  10. Contrasting food web factor and body size relationships with Hg and Se concentrations in marine biota.

    Roxanne Karimi

    Full Text Available Marine fish and shellfish are primary sources of human exposure to mercury, a potentially toxic metal, and selenium, an essential element that may protect against mercury bioaccumulation and toxicity. Yet we lack a thorough understanding of Hg and Se patterns in common marine taxa, particularly those that are commercially important, and how food web and body size factors differ in their influence on Hg and Se patterns. We compared Hg and Se content among marine fish and invertebrate taxa collected from Long Island, NY, and examined associations between Hg, Se, body length, trophic level (measured by δ(15N and degree of pelagic feeding (measured by δ(13C. Finfish, particularly shark, had high Hg content whereas bivalves generally had high Se content. Both taxonomic differences and variability were larger for Hg than Se, and Hg content explained most of the variation in Hg:Se molar ratios among taxa. Finally, Hg was more strongly associated with length and trophic level across taxa than Se, consistent with a greater degree of Hg bioaccumulation in the body over time, and biomagnification through the food web, respectively. Overall, our findings indicate distinct taxonomic and ecological Hg and Se patterns in commercially important marine biota, and these patterns have nutritional and toxicological implications for seafood-consuming wildlife and humans.

  11. Contrasting Food Web Factor and Body Size Relationships with Hg and Se Concentrations in Marine Biota

    Karimi, Roxanne; Frisk, Michael; Fisher, Nicholas S.

    2013-01-01

    Marine fish and shellfish are primary sources of human exposure to mercury, a potentially toxic metal, and selenium, an essential element that may protect against mercury bioaccumulation and toxicity. Yet we lack a thorough understanding of Hg and Se patterns in common marine taxa, particularly those that are commercially important, and how food web and body size factors differ in their influence on Hg and Se patterns. We compared Hg and Se content among marine fish and invertebrate taxa collected from Long Island, NY, and examined associations between Hg, Se, body length, trophic level (measured by δ15N) and degree of pelagic feeding (measured by δ13C). Finfish, particularly shark, had high Hg content whereas bivalves generally had high Se content. Both taxonomic differences and variability were larger for Hg than Se, and Hg content explained most of the variation in Hg:Se molar ratios among taxa. Finally, Hg was more strongly associated with length and trophic level across taxa than Se, consistent with a greater degree of Hg bioaccumulation in the body over time, and biomagnification through the food web, respectively. Overall, our findings indicate distinct taxonomic and ecological Hg and Se patterns in commercially important marine biota, and these patterns have nutritional and toxicological implications for seafood-consuming wildlife and humans. PMID:24019976

  12. Biogas energy from family-sized digesters in Uganda: Critical factors and policy implications

    Walekhwa, Peter N.; Mugisha, Johnny; Drake, Lars

    2009-01-01

    Dependence on fossil energy sources is increasingly becoming unsustainable due to ecological and environmental problems and rapid depletion. Biogas energy could augment these conventional energy sources but despite its advantages and favourable conditions for its production, biogas energy use in Uganda remains low due to technical, economic and socio-cultural impediments. Based on primary data on households in Central and Eastern Uganda and the use of logistic regression, this study analyses factors affecting the adoption of biogas energy in Uganda. The empirical results suggest that the probability of a household adopting biogas technology increases with decreasing age of head of household, increasing household income, increasing number of cattle owned, increasing household size, male head of household and increasing cost of traditional fuels. In contrast, the likelihood of adoption decreases with increasing remoteness of household location and increasing household land area. Policy options and recommendations including educational and awareness campaigns on biogas benefits and successes, the provision of financial and non-financial incentives to households and establishment of an institutional framework could bolster wider biogas energy acceptance in Uganda.

  13. Factors that influence planning for physical activity among workers in small- and medium-sized enterprises.

    Kawahara, Sawako; Tadaka, Etsuko; Okochi, Ayako

    2018-06-01

    Physical activity (PA) is necessary for improving the health of workers in small- to medium-sized enterprises (SMEs). However, behavioral changes conducive to PA are often difficult to achieve despite intentions. Because intention to perform PA does not always translate to action, proper planning may be critical for achieving PA. In this study, we aimed to identify factors related to planning for PA among workers in SMEs because this is one population that has been identified as being at higher risk for lifestyle-related diseases in Japan. Participants completed a series of validated questionnaires. Of 353 valid responses, 226 individuals (149 men; aged 47.5 ± 8.7 years) stated their intention to perform PA. Multiple regression analysis indicated that a higher PA planning score was significantly associated with higher self-efficacy for PA ( p  < 0.001), higher risk perception regarding inactivity ( p  = 0.012), and greater knowledge of information about PA community services ( p  = 0.019). Therefore, we recommend that self-efficacy, risk perception, and information regarding PA community services are enhanced in the daily working lives of workers at their workplaces. In this manner, they can promote their planning of health behavioral changes in a supportive environment, drawing upon available services, supports, and other resources.

  14. Achieving definitive results in long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acid supplementation trials of term infants: factors for consideration.

    Meldrum, Suzanne J; Smith, Michael A; Prescott, Susan L; Hird, Kathryn; Simmer, Karen

    2011-04-01

    Numerous randomized controlled trials (RCTs) have been undertaken to determine whether supplementation with long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (LCPUFAs) in infancy would improve the developmental outcomes of term infants. The results of such trials have been thoroughly reviewed with no definitive conclusion as to the efficacy of LCPUFA supplementation. A number of reasons for the lack of conclusive findings in this area have been proposed. This review examines such factors with the aim of determining whether an optimal method of investigation for RCTs of LCPUFA supplementation in term infants can be ascertained from previous research. While more research is required to completely inform a method that is likely to achieve definitive results, the findings of this literature review indicate future trials should investigate the effects of sex, genetic polymorphisms, the specific effects of LCPUFAs, and the optimal tests for neurodevelopmental assessment. The current literature indicates a docosahexaenoic acid dose of 0.32%, supplementation from birth to 12 months, and a total sample size of at least 286 (143 per group) should be included in the methodology of future trials. © 2011 International Life Sciences Institute.

  15. Two to five repeated measurements per patient reduced the required sample size considerably in a randomized clinical trial for patients with inflammatory rheumatic diseases

    Smedslund Geir

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Patient reported outcomes are accepted as important outcome measures in rheumatology. The fluctuating symptoms in patients with rheumatic diseases have serious implications for sample size in clinical trials. We estimated the effects of measuring the outcome 1-5 times on the sample size required in a two-armed trial. Findings In a randomized controlled trial that evaluated the effects of a mindfulness-based group intervention for patients with inflammatory arthritis (n=71, the outcome variables Numerical Rating Scales (NRS (pain, fatigue, disease activity, self-care ability, and emotional wellbeing and General Health Questionnaire (GHQ-20 were measured five times before and after the intervention. For each variable we calculated the necessary sample sizes for obtaining 80% power (α=.05 for one up to five measurements. Two, three, and four measures reduced the required sample sizes by 15%, 21%, and 24%, respectively. With three (and five measures, the required sample size per group was reduced from 56 to 39 (32 for the GHQ-20, from 71 to 60 (55 for pain, 96 to 71 (73 for fatigue, 57 to 51 (48 for disease activity, 59 to 44 (45 for self-care, and 47 to 37 (33 for emotional wellbeing. Conclusions Measuring the outcomes five times rather than once reduced the necessary sample size by an average of 27%. When planning a study, researchers should carefully compare the advantages and disadvantages of increasing sample size versus employing three to five repeated measurements in order to obtain the required statistical power.

  16. Demographic Factors and Hospital Size Predict Patient Satisfaction Variance- Implications for Hospital Value-Based Purchasing

    McFarland, Daniel C.; Ornstein, Katherine; Holcombe, Randall F.

    2016-01-01

    Background Hospital Value-Based Purchasing (HVBP) incentivizes quality performance based healthcare by linking payments directly to patient satisfaction scores obtained from Hospital Consumer Assessment of Healthcare Providers and Systems (HCAHPS) surveys. Lower HCAHPS scores appear to cluster in heterogeneous population dense areas and could bias CMS reimbursement. Objective Assess nonrandom variation in patient satisfaction as determined by HCAHPS. Design Multivariate regression modeling was performed for individual dimensions of HCAHPS and aggregate scores. Standardized partial regression coefficients assessed strengths of predictors. Weighted Individual (hospital) Patient Satisfaction Adjusted Score (WIPSAS) utilized four highly predictive variables and hospitals were re-ranked accordingly. Setting 3,907 HVBP-participating hospitals. Patients 934,800 patient surveys, by most conservative estimate. Measurements 3,144 county demographics (U.S. Census), and HCAHPS. Results Hospital size and primary language (‘non-English speaking’) most strongly predicted unfavorable HCAHPS scores while education and white ethnicity most strongly predicted favorable HCAHPS scores. The average adjusted patient satisfaction scores calculated by WIPSAS approximated the national average of HCAHPS scores. However, WIPSAS changed hospital rankings by variable amounts depending on the strength of the predictive variables in the hospitals’ locations. Structural and demographic characteristics that predict lower scores were accounted for by WIPSAS that also improved rankings of many safety-net hospitals and academic medical centers in diverse areas. Conclusions Demographic and structural factors (e.g., hospital beds) predict patient satisfaction scores even after CMS adjustments. CMS should consider WIPSAS or a similar adjustment to account for the severity of patient satisfaction inequities that hospitals could strive to correct. PMID:25940305

  17. Promotion orientation explains why future-oriented people exercise and eat healthy: Evidence from the two-factor consideration of future consequences-14 scale

    Joireman, J.; Shaffer, M. J.; Balliet, D.P.; Strathman, A.

    2012-01-01

    The authors extended research linking individual differences in consideration of future consequences (CFC) with health behaviors by (a) testing whether individual differences in regulatory focus would mediate that link and (b) highlighting the value of a revised, two-factor CFC-14 scale with

  18. The association between price, competition, and demand factors on private sector anti-malarial stocking and sales in western Kenya: considerations for the AMFm subsidy

    2013-01-01

    Background Households in sub-Saharan Africa are highly reliant on the retail sector for obtaining treatment for malaria fevers and other illnesses. As donors and governments seek to promote the use of artemisinin combination therapy in malaria-endemic areas through subsidized anti-malarials offered in the retail sector, understanding the stocking and pricing decisions of retail outlets is vital. Methods A survey of all medicine retailers serving Bungoma East District in western Kenya was conducted three months after the launch of the AMFm subsidy in Kenya. The survey obtained information on each anti-malarial in stock: brand name, price, sales volume, outlet characteristics and GPS co-ordinates. These data were matched to household-level data from the Webuye Health and Demographic Surveillance System, from which population density and fever prevalence near each shop were determined. Regression analysis was used to identify the factors associated with retailers’ likelihood of stocking subsidized artemether lumefantrine (AL) and the association between price and sales for AL, quinine and sulphadoxine-pyrimethamine (SP). Results Ninety-seven retail outlets in the study area were surveyed; 11% of outlets stocked subsidized AL. Size of the outlet and having a pharmacist on staff were associated with greater likelihood of stocking subsidized AL. In the multivariable model, total volume of anti-malarial sales was associated with greater likelihood of stocking subsidized AL and competition was important; likelihood of stocking subsidized AL was considerably higher if the nearest neighbour stocked subsidized AL. Price was a significant predictor of sales volume for all three types of anti-malarials but the relationship varied, with the largest price sensitivity found for SP drugs. Conclusion The results suggest that helping small outlets overcome the constraints to stocking subsidized AL should be a priority. Competition between retailers and prices can play an important

  19. Size, Value and Business Cycle Variables. The Three-Factor Model and Future Economic Growth: Evidence from an Emerging Market

    Fahad Ali

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available The paper empirically investigates three different methods to construct factors and identifies some pitfalls that arise in the application of Fama-French’s three-factor model to the Pakistani stock returns. We find that the special features in Pakistan significantly affect size and value factors and also influence the explanatory power of the three-factor model. Additionally, the paper examines the ability of the three factors to predict the future growth of Pakistan’s economy. Using monthly data of both financial and non-financial companies between 2002 and 2016, the article empirically investigates and finds that: (1 size and book-to-market factors exist in the Pakistani stock market, two mimic portfolios SMB and HML generate a return of 9.15% and 12.27% per annum, respectively; (2 adding SMB and HML factors into the model meaningfully increases the explanatory power of the model; and (3 the model’s factors, except for value factor, predict future gross domestic product (GDP growth of Pakistan and remain robust. Our results are robust across sub-periods, risk regimes, and under three different methods of constructing the factors.

  20. Factors affecting the precision of lesion sizing with contrast-enhanced spectral mammography.

    Travieso-Aja, M Del Mar; Naranjo-Santana, P; Fernández-Ruiz, C; Severino-Rondón, W; Maldonado-Saluzzi, D; Rodríguez Rodríguez, M; Vega-Benítez, V; Luzardo, O P

    2018-03-01

    To evaluate the precision of the pre-surgical measurement of the size of breast cancer by contrast-enhanced spectral mammography (CESM). This was a retrospective study of 204 breast cancers. Variables related to tumour biology and anthropometric variables were recorded and considered when evaluating the efficacy of CESM in predicting tumour size. Microscopic measurement of the largest diameter of the tumour at pathology was chosen as the reference standard. The mean size of tumours at pathology was 20.7±15.8 mm, while at CESM it was 23.6±16.7 mm (Bland-Altman 2.9 mm overestimation, 2.9 mm; 95% confidence interval [CI]: -10.3-16.2 mm). Spearman's correlation coefficient was 0.83 (p<0.0001). The concordance analysis indicated that 37.8% of the measurements were concordant, 47% were overestimated, and 15.2% were underestimated. Tumour size, nodal involvement, breast density, and breast size significantly modified the sizing accuracy. Quality of tumour size prediction with CESM is good, and this appears to be a promising imaging technique in the surgical planning of breast cancer. Biological tumour features, and anthropological characteristics of the patients do, however, affect the diagnostic precision and should be taken into account. Copyright © 2017 The Royal College of Radiologists. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Canonical correlation analysis of infant's size at birth and maternal factors: a study in rural northwest Bangladesh.

    Kabir, Alamgir; Merrill, Rebecca D; Shamim, Abu Ahmed; Klemn, Rolf D W; Labrique, Alain B; Christian, Parul; West, Keith P; Nasser, Mohammed

    2014-01-01

    This analysis was conducted to explore the association between 5 birth size measurements (weight, length and head, chest and mid-upper arm [MUAC] circumferences) as dependent variables and 10 maternal factors as independent variables using canonical correlation analysis (CCA). CCA considers simultaneously sets of dependent and independent variables and, thus, generates a substantially reduced type 1 error. Data were from women delivering a singleton live birth (n = 14,506) while participating in a double-masked, cluster-randomized, placebo-controlled maternal vitamin A or β-carotene supplementation trial in rural Bangladesh. The first canonical correlation was 0.42 (P<0.001), demonstrating a moderate positive correlation mainly between the 5 birth size measurements and 5 maternal factors (preterm delivery, early pregnancy MUAC, infant sex, age and parity). A significant interaction between infant sex and preterm delivery on birth size was also revealed from the score plot. Thirteen percent of birth size variability was explained by the composite score of the maternal factors (Redundancy, RY/X = 0.131). Given an ability to accommodate numerous relationships and reduce complexities of multiple comparisons, CCA identified the 5 maternal variables able to predict birth size in this rural Bangladesh setting. CCA may offer an efficient, practical and inclusive approach to assessing the association between two sets of variables, addressing the innate complexity of interactions.

  2. Canonical correlation analysis of infant's size at birth and maternal factors: a study in rural northwest Bangladesh.

    Alamgir Kabir

    Full Text Available This analysis was conducted to explore the association between 5 birth size measurements (weight, length and head, chest and mid-upper arm [MUAC] circumferences as dependent variables and 10 maternal factors as independent variables using canonical correlation analysis (CCA. CCA considers simultaneously sets of dependent and independent variables and, thus, generates a substantially reduced type 1 error. Data were from women delivering a singleton live birth (n = 14,506 while participating in a double-masked, cluster-randomized, placebo-controlled maternal vitamin A or β-carotene supplementation trial in rural Bangladesh. The first canonical correlation was 0.42 (P<0.001, demonstrating a moderate positive correlation mainly between the 5 birth size measurements and 5 maternal factors (preterm delivery, early pregnancy MUAC, infant sex, age and parity. A significant interaction between infant sex and preterm delivery on birth size was also revealed from the score plot. Thirteen percent of birth size variability was explained by the composite score of the maternal factors (Redundancy, RY/X = 0.131. Given an ability to accommodate numerous relationships and reduce complexities of multiple comparisons, CCA identified the 5 maternal variables able to predict birth size in this rural Bangladesh setting. CCA may offer an efficient, practical and inclusive approach to assessing the association between two sets of variables, addressing the innate complexity of interactions.

  3. Diagram Size vs. Layout Flaws: Understanding Quality Factors of UML Diagrams

    Störrle, Harald

    2016-01-01

    , though, is our third goal of extending our analysis aspects of diagram quality. Method: We improve our definition of diagram size and add a (provisional) definition of diagram quality as the number of topographic layout flaws. We apply these metrics on 60 diagrams of the five most commonly used types...... of UML diagram. We carefully analyze the structure of our diagram samples to ensure representativeness. We correlate diagram size and layout quality with modeler performance data obtained in previous experiments. The data set is the largest of its kind (n-156). Results: We replicate earlier findings......, and extend them to two new diagram types. We provide an improved definition of diagram size, and provide a definition of topographic layout quality, which is one more step towards a comprehensive definition of diagram quality as such. Both metrics are shown to be objectively applicable. We quantify...

  4. Skeletal dosimetry for external exposures to photons based on {mu}CT images of spongiosa: Consideration of voxel resolution, cluster size, and medullary bone surfaces

    Kramer, R.; Khoury, H. J.; Vieira, J. W.; Brown, K. A. Robson [Departamento de Energia Nuclear, Universidade Federal de Pernambuco, Avenida Professor Luiz Freire 1000, Cidade Universitaria, CEP 50740-540, Recife, Pernambuco (Brazil); Centro Federal de Educacao Tecnologica de Pernambuco, Avenida Professor Luiz Freire 500, CEP 50740-540, Recife, Pernambuco, Brazil and Escola Politecnica, UPE, Rua Benfica 455, CEP 50751-460, Recife, Pernambuco (Brazil); Imaging Laboratory, Department of Archaeology and Anthropology, University of Bristol, 43 Woodland Road, Bristol BS8 1UU (United Kingdom)

    2009-11-15

    Skeletal dosimetry based on {mu}CT images of trabecular bone has recently been introduced to calculate the red bone marrow (RBM) and the bone surface cell (BSC) equivalent doses in human phantoms for external exposure to photons. In order to use the {mu}CT images for skeletal dosimetry, spongiosa voxels in the skeletons were replaced at run time by so-called micromatrices, which have exactly the size of a spongiosa voxel and contain segmented trabecular bone and marrow microvoxels. A cluster (=parallelepiped) of 2x2x2=8 micromatrices was used systematically and periodically throughout the spongiosa volume during the radiation transport calculation. Systematic means that when a particle leaves a spongiosa voxel to enter into a neighboring spongiosa voxel, then the next micromatrix in the cluster will be used. Periodical means that if the particle travels through more than two spongiosa voxels in a row, then the cluster will be repeated. Based on the bone samples available at the time, clusters of up to 3x3x3=27 micromatrices were studied. While for a given trabecular bone volume fraction the whole-body RBM equivalent dose showed converging results for cluster sizes between 8 and 27 micromatrices, this was not the case for the BSC equivalent dose. The BSC equivalent dose seemed to be very sensitive to the number, form, and thickness of the trabeculae. In addition, the cluster size and/or the microvoxel resolution were considered to be possible causes for the differences observed. In order to resolve this problem, this study used a bone sample large enough to extract clusters containing up to 8x8x8=512 micromatrices and which was scanned with two different voxel resolutions. Taking into account a recent proposal, this investigation also calculated the BSC equivalent dose on medullary surfaces of cortical bone in the arm and leg bones. The results showed (1) that different voxel resolutions have no effect on the RBM equivalent dose but do influence the BSC equivalent

  5. Evidence of market-driven size-selective fishing and the mediating effects of biological and institutional factors.

    Reddy, Sheila M W; Wentz, Allison; Aburto-Oropeza, Octavio; Maxey, Martin; Nagavarapu, Sriniketh; Leslie, Heather M

    2013-06-01

    Market demand is often ignored or assumed to lead uniformly to the decline of resources. Yet little is known about how market demand influences natural resources in particular contexts, or the mediating effects of biological or institutional factors. Here, we investigate this problem by examining the Pacific red snapper (Lutjanus peru) fishery around La Paz, Mexico, where medium or "plate-sized" fish are sold to restaurants at a premium price. If higher demand for plate-sized fish increases the relative abundance of the smallest (recruit size class) and largest (most fecund) fish, this may be a market mechanism to increase stocks and fishermen's revenues. We tested this hypothesis by estimating the effect of prices on the distribution of catch across size classes using daily records of prices and catch. We linked predictions from this economic choice model to a staged-based model of the fishery to estimate the effects on the stock and revenues from harvest. We found that the supply of plate-sized fish increased by 6%, while the supply of large fish decreased by 4% as a result of a 13% price premium for plate-sized fish. This market-driven size selection increased revenues (14%) but decreased total fish biomass (-3%). However, when market-driven size selection was combined with limited institutional constraints, both fish biomass (28%) and fishermen's revenue (22%) increased. These results show that the direction and magnitude of the effects of market demand on biological populations and human behavior can depend on both biological attributes and institutional constraints. Fisheries management may capitalize on these conditional effects by implementing size-based regulations when economic and institutional incentives will enhance compliance, as in the case we describe here, or by creating compliance enhancing conditions for existing regulations.

  6. Measurements of humidified particle number size distributions in a Finnish boreal forest: derivation of hygroscopic particle growth factors

    Birmili, W.; Schwirn, K.; Nowak, A.; Rose, D.; Wiedensohler, A. (Leibniz Institute for Tropospheric Research, Leipzig (Germany)); Petaejae, T.; Haemeri, K.; Aalto, P.; Kulmala, M.; Boy, M. (Dept. of Physics, Univ. of Helsinki (Finland)); Joutsensaari, J. (Univ. of Kuopio, Dept. of Physics (Finland))

    2009-07-01

    Dry and humidified size distributions of atmospheric particles were characterised at the atmospheric research station SMEAR 2, Finland between May and July 2004. Particles were classified in a size range between 3 and 800 nm at controlled relative humidities up to 90% by two instruments complementary in size range (HDMPS; Nano-HDMPS). Using the summation method, descriptive hygroscopic growth factors (DHGF) were derived for particle diameters between 70 and 300 nm by comparing dry and humidified size distributions. At 90% relative humidity, DHGF showed mean values between 1.25 and 1.45 in the accumulation mode, between 1.20 and 1.25 in the Aitken mode, and between 1.15 and 1.20 in the nucleation mode. Due to the high size resolution of the method, the transition in DHGF between the Aitken and accumulation modes, which reflects differences in the soluble fraction, could be pinpointed efficiently. For the accumulation mode, experimental DHGFs were compared to those calculated from a simplistic growth model initialised by in-situ chemical composition measurements, and yielded maximum deviations around 0.1. The variation in DHGF could only imperfectly be linked to meteorological factors. A pragmatic parameterisation of DHGF as a function of particle diameter and relative humidity was derived, and subsequently used to study the sensitivity of the condensational sink parameter (CS) as a function of height in a well-mixed boundary layer. (orig.)

  7. Battery condenser system particulate emission factors for cotton gins: Particle size distribution characteristics

    This report is part of a project to characterize cotton gin emissions from the standpoint of total particulate stack sampling and particle size analyses. In 2013, the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) published a more stringent standard for particulate matter with nominal diameter less than or e...

  8. An Analysis of Business Intelligence Maturity, Enterprise Size, and Environmental Factors

    Walker, Karen M.

    2017-01-01

    Business intelligence (BI) maturity for small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs) is significantly behind larger companies that utilize BI solutions. Successful data oriented business environments require knowledge and insight to understand organizational capabilities. This quantitative correlational study assessed the relationship between…

  9. Factors affecting capsule size and production by lactic acid bacteria used as dairy starter cultures.

    Hassan, A N; Frank, J F; Shalabi, S I

    2001-02-28

    The effects of sugar substrates on capsule size and production by some capsule-forming nonropy and ropy dairy starter cultures were studied. Test sugars (glucose, lactose, galactose, or sucrose) were used as a sole carbohydrate source and the presence of a capsule and its size were determined by using confocal scanning laser microscopy. Nonropy strains produced maximum capsule size when grown in milk. Strains that did not produce capsules in milk did not produce them in any other growth medium. Specific sugars required for capsule production were strain-dependent. Increasing lactose content of Elliker broth from 0.5 to 5% or adding whey protein or casein digest produced larger capsules. Whey protein concentrate stimulated production of larger capsules than did casamino acids or casitone. Some Streptococcus thermophilus strains produced capsules when grown on galactose only. Nonropy strains of Lactobacillus delbrueckii subsp. bulgaricus produced capsules on lactose, but not on glucose. A ropy strain of Lactobacillus delbrueckii subsp. bulgaricus produced a constant capsule size regardless of the growth medium. The ability of some strains of Streptococcus thermophilus to use galactose in capsule production could reduce browning of mozzarella cheese during baking by removing a source of reducing sugar. Media that do not support capsule production may improve cell harvesting.

  10. Factors Affecting Pathogen Survival in Finished Dairy Compost with Different Particle Sizes Under Greenhouse Conditions.

    Diao, Junshu; Chen, Zhao; Gong, Chao; Jiang, Xiuping

    2015-09-01

    This study investigated the survival of Escherichia coli O157:H7 and Salmonella Typhimurium in finished dairy compost with different particle sizes during storage as affected by moisture content and temperature under greenhouse conditions. The mixture of E. coli O157:H7 and S. Typhimurium strains was inoculated into the finished composts with moisture contents of 20, 30, and 40%, separately. The finished compost samples were then sieved into 3 different particle sizes (>1000, 500-1000, and 500 μm) and stored under greenhouse conditions. For compost samples with moisture contents of 20 and 30%, the average Salmonella reductions in compost samples with particle sizes of >1000, 500-1000, and 500 μm were 2.15, 2.27, and 2.47 log colony-forming units (CFU) g(-1) within 5 days of storage in summer, respectively, as compared with 1.60, 2.03, and 2.26 log CFU g(-1) in late fall, respectively, and 2.61, 3.33, and 3.67 log CFU g(-1) in winter, respectively. The average E. coli O157:H7 reductions in compost samples with particle sizes of >1000, 500-1000, and 500 μm were 1.98, 2.30, and 2.54 log CFU g(-1) within 5 days of storage in summer, respectively, as compared with 1.70, 2.56, and 2.90 log CFU g(-1) in winter, respectively. Our results revealed that both Salmonella and E. coli O157:H7 in compost samples with larger particle size survived better than those with smaller particle sizes, and the initial rapid moisture loss in compost may contribute to the fast inactivation of pathogens in the finished compost. For the same season, the pathogens in the compost samples with the same particle size survived much better at the initial moisture content of 20% compared to 40%.

  11. Factors which influence the cardiac surgeon's decision not to operate on patients referred for consideration of surgery

    Sivaprakasam Rajesh

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The aim of this study was to document what proportion of patients referred for consideration of cardiac surgery are turned down, the reasons given for not operating and also to evaluate what happens to those patients who do not undergo surgery. Methods 382 elective patients referred for consideration of cardiac surgery to one of six consultant cardiac surgeons at Wythenshawe Hospital during a one year period from were included in the study. Data for those patients who underwent an operation were collected prospectively in a cardiac surgery database. The case notes of those patients who did not undergo an operation were reviewed to establish reasons given by surgeons for not operating. Patients were followed up to determine vital status at the end of the study period. Results 333 (87.2% patients underwent an operation and 49 (12.8% did not. 68% of patients turned down were thought to be too high-risk. 14% of patients did not fulfill symptomatic or prognostic criteria for surgery and in 8% of patients coronary artery surgery was thought ineffective due to poor distal vessels. 6% of patients declined an operation and 4% were thought to be more suitable for coronary angioplasty. Patients turned down for surgery had more renal dysfunction (p = 0.017, respiratory disease (p Conclusion 12.8% of patients referred for consideration of cardiac surgery did not undergo an operation. Two thirds of patients not accepted for surgery were thought too high risk. Those patients who did not undergo an operation had a significantly worse mortality.

  12. Runoff controlling factors in various sized catchments in a semi-arid Mediterranean environment in Spain

    Wit, A.M.W. de

    2001-01-01

    Understanding land degradation in a semi-arid Mediterranean environment is very difficult because of the contributing factors: precipitation, infiltration vegetation cover and discontinuity of flow and the temporal and spatial levels of resolution at which these factors are acting. Therefore it

  13. Factors exercizing a technical inluence to be taken into consideration in the establishment and execution of a quality assurance programme for pressure vessels

    Anon.

    1979-01-01

    This document shows in tabular form the technical factors to be taken into consideration during the various stages of the fabrication of pressure vessels. A system of symbols makes it possible to determine at each stage, that is to say, from the checking of the design up to going into service, as a function of the materials used, the conditions of service, thicknesses, heat treatment etc., the mechanical and non-destructive tests most appropriate to the detection of any defects [fr

  14. Factor contribution to fire occurrence, size, and burn probability in a subtropical coniferous forest in East China.

    Ye, Tao; Wang, Yao; Guo, Zhixing; Li, Yijia

    2017-01-01

    The contribution of factors including fuel type, fire-weather conditions, topography and human activity to fire regime attributes (e.g. fire occurrence, size distribution and severity) has been intensively discussed. The relative importance of those factors in explaining the burn probability (BP), which is critical in terms of fire risk management, has been insufficiently addressed. Focusing on a subtropical coniferous forest with strong human disturbance in East China, our main objective was to evaluate and compare the relative importance of fuel composition, topography, and human activity for fire occurrence, size and BP. Local BP distribution was derived with stochastic fire simulation approach using detailed historical fire data (1990-2010) and forest-resource survey results, based on which our factor contribution analysis was carried out. Our results indicated that fuel composition had the greatest relative importance in explaining fire occurrence and size, but human activity explained most of the variance in BP. This implies that the influence of human activity is amplified through the process of overlapping repeated ignition and spreading events. This result emphasizes the status of strong human disturbance in local fire processes. It further confirms the need for a holistic perspective on factor contribution to fire likelihood, rather than focusing on individual fire regime attributes, for the purpose of fire risk management.

  15. Evidence of market-driven size-selective fishing and the mediating effects of biological and institutional factors

    Reddy, Sheila M. W.; Wentz, Allison; Aburto-Oropeza, Octavio; Maxey, Martin; Nagavarapu, Sriniketh; Leslie, Heather M.

    2014-01-01

    Market demand is often ignored or assumed to lead uniformly to the decline of resources. Yet little is known about how market demand influences natural resources in particular contexts, or the mediating effects of biological or institutional factors. Here, we investigate this problem by examining the Pacific red snapper (Lutjanus peru) fishery around La Paz, Mexico, where medium or “plate-sized” fish are sold to restaurants at a premium price. If higher demand for plate-sized fish increases the relative abundance of the smallest (recruit size class) and largest (most fecund) fish, this may be a market mechanism to increase stocks and fishermen’s revenues. We tested this hypothesis by estimating the effect of prices on the distribution of catch across size classes using daily records of prices and catch. We linked predictions from this economic choice model to a staged-based model of the fishery to estimate the effects on the stock and revenues from harvest. We found that the supply of plate-sized fish increased by 6%, while the supply of large fish decreased by 4% as a result of a 13% price premium for plate-sized fish. This market-driven size selection increased revenues (14%) but decreased total fish biomass (−3%). However, when market-driven size selection was combined with limited institutional constraints, both fish biomass (28%) and fishermen’s revenue (22%) increased. These results show that the direction and magnitude of the effects of market demand on biological populations and human behavior can depend on both biological attributes and institutional constraints. Fisheries management may capitalize on these conditional effects by implementing size-based regulations when economic and institutional incentives will enhance compliance, as in the case we describe here, or by creating compliance enhancing conditions for existing regulations. PMID:23865225

  16. Factors influencing the cytotoxicity of zinc oxide nanoparticles: particle size and surface charge

    Baek, M; Kim, M K; Cho, H J; Lee, J A; Yu, J; Chung, H E; Choi, S J

    2011-01-01

    Zinc oxide (ZnO) nanoparticle is one of the most important materials in diverse applications, since it has UV light absorption, antimicrobial, catalytic, semi-conducting, and magnetic properties. However, there is little information about the toxicological effects of ZnO nanoparticles with respect to physicochemical properties. The aim of this study was, therefore, to evaluate the relationships between cytotoxicity and physicochemical properties of ZnO nanoparticle such as particle size and surface charge in human lung cells. Two different sizes of ZnO nanoparticles (20 and 70 nm) were prepared with positive (+) or negative (-) charge, and then, cytotoxicity of different ZnO nanoparticles was evaluated by measuring cell proliferation in short-term and long-term, membrane integrity, and generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS). The results demonstrated that smaller particles exhibited high cytotoxic effects compared to larger particles in terms of inhibition of cell proliferation, membrane damage, and ROS generation. In addition, positively charged ZnO showed greater ROS production than ZnO with negative charge. These findings suggest that the cytoxicity of ZnO nanoparticles are strongly affected by their particle size and surface charge, highlighting the role of the physicochemical properties of nanoparticles to understand and predict their potential adverse effects on human.

  17. Factors influencing the cytotoxicity of zinc oxide nanoparticles: particle size and surface charge

    Baek, M; Kim, M K; Cho, H J; Lee, J A; Yu, J; Chung, H E; Choi, S J, E-mail: sjchoi@swu.ac.kr [Department of Food Science and Technology, Seoul Women' s University, 126 Gongneung 2-dong, Nowon-gu, Seoul 139-774 (Korea, Republic of)

    2011-07-06

    Zinc oxide (ZnO) nanoparticle is one of the most important materials in diverse applications, since it has UV light absorption, antimicrobial, catalytic, semi-conducting, and magnetic properties. However, there is little information about the toxicological effects of ZnO nanoparticles with respect to physicochemical properties. The aim of this study was, therefore, to evaluate the relationships between cytotoxicity and physicochemical properties of ZnO nanoparticle such as particle size and surface charge in human lung cells. Two different sizes of ZnO nanoparticles (20 and 70 nm) were prepared with positive (+) or negative (-) charge, and then, cytotoxicity of different ZnO nanoparticles was evaluated by measuring cell proliferation in short-term and long-term, membrane integrity, and generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS). The results demonstrated that smaller particles exhibited high cytotoxic effects compared to larger particles in terms of inhibition of cell proliferation, membrane damage, and ROS generation. In addition, positively charged ZnO showed greater ROS production than ZnO with negative charge. These findings suggest that the cytoxicity of ZnO nanoparticles are strongly affected by their particle size and surface charge, highlighting the role of the physicochemical properties of nanoparticles to understand and predict their potential adverse effects on human.

  18. Factors Affecting Acoustics and Speech Intelligibility in the Operating Room: Size Matters.

    McNeer, Richard R; Bennett, Christopher L; Horn, Danielle Bodzin; Dudaryk, Roman

    2017-06-01

    Noise in health care settings has increased since 1960 and represents a significant source of dissatisfaction among staff and patients and risk to patient safety. Operating rooms (ORs) in which effective communication is crucial are particularly noisy. Speech intelligibility is impacted by noise, room architecture, and acoustics. For example, sound reverberation time (RT60) increases with room size, which can negatively impact intelligibility, while room objects are hypothesized to have the opposite effect. We explored these relationships by investigating room construction and acoustics of the surgical suites at our institution. We studied our ORs during times of nonuse. Room dimensions were measured to calculate room volumes (VR). Room content was assessed by estimating size and assigning items into 5 volume categories to arrive at an adjusted room content volume (VC) metric. Psychoacoustic analyses were performed by playing sweep tones from a speaker and recording the impulse responses (ie, resulting sound fields) from 3 locations in each room. The recordings were used to calculate 6 psychoacoustic indices of intelligibility. Multiple linear regression was performed using VR and VC as predictor variables and each intelligibility index as an outcome variable. A total of 40 ORs were studied. The surgical suites were characterized by a large degree of construction and surface finish heterogeneity and varied in size from 71.2 to 196.4 m (average VR = 131.1 [34.2] m). An insignificant correlation was observed between VR and VC (Pearson correlation = 0.223, P = .166). Multiple linear regression model fits and β coefficients for VR were highly significant for each of the intelligibility indices and were best for RT60 (R = 0.666, F(2, 37) = 39.9, P the size and contents of an OR can predict a range of psychoacoustic indices of speech intelligibility. Specifically, increasing OR size correlated with worse speech intelligibility, while increasing amounts of OR contents

  19. Human factors considerations in the design and evaluation of flight deck displays and controls : version 2.0

    2016-12-01

    The objective of this effort is to have a single source reference document for human factors regulatory and guidance material for flight deck displays and controls, in the interest of improving aviation safety. This document identifies guidance on hu...

  20. Influence of seed size and ecological factors on the germination and emergence of field bindweed (Convolvulus arvensis)

    Tanveer,A; Tasneem,M; Khaliq,A; Javaid,M.M; Chaudhry,M.N

    2013-01-01

    An understanding of seed germination ecology of weeds can assist in predicting their potential distribution and developing effective management strategies. Influence of environmental factors and seed size on germination and seedling emergence of Convolvulus arvensis (field bindweed) was studied in laboratory and greenhouse conditions. Germination occurred over a wide range of constant temperatures, between 15 and 40 ºC, with optimum germination between 20 and 25 ºC. Time to start germination,...

  1. DETERMINATION OF THE INFLUENCING FACTORS TO MENU PLANNING IN BIG SIZED FOOD&BEVERAGE FIRMS (SAMPLE OF TURKEY)

    SARIOĞLAN, Mehmet

    2016-01-01

    AbstractIndividuals who spend their time in destinations far away from their home because of the facts such as business, education, health, vacation and meeting has brought about eating habit in locations (outdoors). Since that increasing rate of eating habits outdoors of the individuals day by day, bigsized Food&Beverage firms has been showed up. Big sized Food&Beverage firms become influential as a supportive role on producing factors of the public, private or corporate ente...

  2. Factors Influencing Sustainable Entrepreneurship in Small and Medium-Sized Enterprises in Iran: A Case Study of Food Industry

    Gholamhossein Hosseininia

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available This study sought to establish the social and environmental factors that influence sustainable entrepreneurship (SE in Small- and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs. It also attempted to identify whether the demographic background of the entrepreneur influences the SE in SMEs of the Iranian food industry. A mixed method approach, employing the use of questionnaires and interviews from a sample size of approximately 130 participants and 12 owner-managers of SMEs in food industry, was used to collect data. Data were analyzed using descriptive statistics and several inferential analyses. Findings showed that certain characteristics of the entrepreneur, including work experience and education, have a significant impact on SE. Furthermore, out of the eight identified factors, according to the participants’ perception, the most important factors towards sustainable performance of SMEs in food industry are social factors, including customer orientation, as well as human resources and environmental factors, including recycling and the future of Earth. This research paper concludes that considering the social and environmental aspects of sustainability and employing experienced staff would majorly contribute to the pursuit of SE in SMEs of food industry.

  3. Methodological considerations for the 3D measurement of the X-factor and lower trunk movement in golf.

    Joyce, Christopher; Burnett, Angus; Ball, Kevin

    2010-09-01

    It is believed that increasing the X-factor (movement of the shoulders relative to the hips) during the golf swing can increase ball velocity at impact. Increasing the X-factor may also increase the risk of low back pain. The aim of this study was to provide recommendations for the three-dimensional (3D) measurement of the X-factor and lower trunk movement during the golf swing. This three-part validation study involved; (1) developing and validating models and related algorithms (2) comparing 3D data obtained during static positions representative of the golf swing to visual estimates and (3) comparing 3D data obtained during dynamic golf swings to images gained from high-speed video. Of particular interest were issues related to sequence dependency. After models and algorithms were validated, results from parts two and three of the study supported the conclusion that a lateral bending/flexion-extension/axial rotation (ZYX) order of rotation was deemed to be the most suitable Cardanic sequence to use in the assessment of the X-factor and lower trunk movement in the golf swing. The findings of this study have relevance for further research examining the X-factor its relationship to club head speed and lower trunk movement and low back pain in golf.

  4. Particle size: a missing factor in risk assessment of human exposure to toxic chemicals in settled indoor dust.

    Cao, Zhi-Guo; Yu, Gang; Chen, Yong-Shan; Cao, Qi-Ming; Fiedler, Heidelore; Deng, Shu-Bo; Huang, Jun; Wang, Bin

    2012-11-15

    For researches on toxic chemicals in settled indoor dust, selection of dust fraction is a critical influencing factor to the accuracy of human exposure risk assessment results. However, analysis of the selection of dust fraction in recent studies revealed that there is no consensus. This study classified and presented researches on distribution of toxic chemicals according to dust particle size and on relationship between dust particle size and human exposure possibility. According to the literature, beyond the fact that there were no consistent conclusions on particle size distribution of adherent fraction, dust with particle size less than 100 μm should be paid more attention and that larger than 250 μm is neither adherent nor proper for human exposure risk assessment. Calculation results based on literature data show that with different selections of dust fractions, analytical results of toxic chemicals would vary up to 10-fold, which means that selecting dust fractions arbitrarily will lead to large errors in risk assessment of human exposure to toxic chemicals in settled dust. Taking into account the influence of dust particle size on risk assessment of human exposure to toxic chemicals, a new methodology for risk assessment of human exposure to toxic chemicals in settled indoor dust is proposed and human exposure parameter systems to settled indoor dust are advised to be established at national and regional scales all over the world. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Size-resolved source apportionment of ambient particles by positive matrix factorization at Gosan background site in East Asia

    J. S. Han

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Size- and time-resolved aerosol samples were collected using an eight-stage Davis rotating unit for monitoring (DRUM sampler from 29 March to 29 May in 2002 at Gosan, Jeju Island, Korea, which is one of the representative background sites in East Asia. These samples were analyzed using synchrotron X-ray fluorescence for 3-h average concentrations of 19 elements consisting of S, Si, Al, Fe, Ca, Cl, Cu, Zn, Ti, K, Mn, Pb, Ni, V, Se, As, Rb, Cr, Br. The size-resolved data sets were then analyzed using the positive matrix factorization (PMF technique in order to identify possible sources and estimate their contribution to particulate matter mass. PMF analysis uses the uncertainty of the measured data to provide an optimal weighting. Fifteen sources were resolved in eight size ranges (0.07~12 μm and included continental soil, local soil, sea salt, biomass/biofuel burning, coal combustion, oil heating furnace, residual oil fired boiler, municipal incineration, nonferrous metal source, ferrous metal source, gasoline vehicle, diesel vehicle, copper smelter and volcanic emission. PMF analysis of size-resolved source contributions showed that natural sources represented by local soil, sea salt and continental soil contributed about 79% to the predicted primary particulate matter (PM mass in the coarse size range (1.15~12 μm. On the other hand, anthropogenic sources such as coal combustion and biomass/biofuel burning contributed about 60% in the fine size range (0.56~2.5 μm. The diesel vehicle source contributed the most in the ultra-fine size range (0.07~0.56 μm and was responsible for about 52% of the primary PM mass.

  6. The thrombospondin-1 N700S polymorphism is associated with early myocardial infarction without altering von Willebrand factor multimer size.

    Zwicker, Jeffrey I; Peyvandi, Flora; Palla, Roberta; Lombardi, Rossana; Canciani, Maria Teresa; Cairo, Andrea; Ardissino, Diego; Bernardinelli, Luisa; Bauer, Kenneth A; Lawler, Jack; Mannucci, Pier

    2006-08-15

    The N700S polymorphism of thrombospondin-1 (TSP-1) has been identified as a potential genetic risk factor for myocardial infarction (MI). In a large case-control study of 1425 individuals who survived a myocardial infarction prior to age 45, the N700S polymorphism was a significant risk factor for myocardial infarction in both homozygous (odds ratio [OR] 1.9, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.1-3.3, P = .01) and heterozygous carriers of the S700 allele (OR 1.4, 95% CI 1.1-3.3, P = .01). TSP-1 has been shown to reduce von Willebrand factor (VWF) multimer size, and the domain responsible for VWF-reducing activity has been localized to the calcium-binding C-terminal sequence. As the N700S polymorphism was previously shown to alter the function of this domain, we investigated whether the altered VWF-reducing activity of TSP-1 underlies the observed prothrombotic phenotype. The TSP1 N700S polymorphism did not influence VWF multimer size in patients homozygous for either allele nor was there a significant reduction of VWF multimer size following incubation with recombinant N700S fragments or platelet-derived TSP-1.

  7. Stochastic seasonality and nonlinear density-dependent factors regulate population size in an African rodent

    Leirs, Herwig; Steneth, Nils Chr.; Nichols, James D.

    1997-01-01

    , but clear examples of both processes acting in the same population are rare(7,8). Key-factor analysis (regression of population changes on possible causal factors) and time-series analysis are often used to investigate the presence of density dependence, but such approaches may be biased and provide...... no information on actual demographic rates(9,10). Here we report on both density-dependent and density-independent effects in a murid rodent pest species, the multimammute rat Mastomys natalensis (Smith, 1834), using statistical capture-recapture models, Both effects occur simultaneously, but we also demonstrate...

  8. β-lactoglobulin stabilized nanemulsions--Formulation and process factors affecting droplet size and nanoemulsion stability.

    Ali, Ali; Mekhloufi, Ghozlene; Huang, Nicolas; Agnely, Florence

    2016-03-16

    To avoid the toxicological concerns associated to synthetic surfactants, proteins might be an alternative for the stabilization of pharmaceutical nanoemulsions. The present study investigates the use of β-lactoglobulin (β-lg) to stabilize oil in water biocompatible nanoemulsions intended for a pharmaceutical use and prepared by high pressure homogenization (HPH). The effects of composition (nature and weight fraction of oil, β-lg concentration) and of process parameters (pressure and number of cycles) on the droplet size and on the stability of nanoemulsions were thoroughly assessed. The nanoemulsions prepared with β-lg at 1 wt% and with 5 wt% Miglyol 812 (the oil with the lowest viscosity) displayed a relatively small particle size (about 200 nm) and a low polydispersity when a homogenization pressure of 100 MPa was applied for 4 cycles. These nanoemulsions were the most stable formulations over 30 days at least. Emulsification efficiency of β-lg was reduced at higher homogenization pressures (200 MPa and 300 MPa). The effect of HPH process on the interfacial properties of β-lg was evaluated by drop shape analysis. This treatment had an effect neither on the interfacial tension nor on the interfacial dilatational rheology of β-lg at the Miglyol 812/water interface. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. SU-F-T-686: Considerations About Dose Protraction Factor in TCP Calculations for Prostate VMAT Treatments

    Clemente, F; Perez-Vara, C; Clavo, M [Herranz Hospital Central de la Defensa “Gomez Ulla”, Madrid (Spain)

    2016-06-15

    Purpose: Dose protraction factor should be considered in order to model the TCP calculations. Nevertheless, this study describes a brief discussion showing that the lack of its inclusion should not invalidate these calculations for prostate VMAT treatments. Methods: Dose protraction factor (G) modifies the quadratic term of the linear-quadratic expression in order to take into account the sublethal damage repair of protracting the dose delivery. If the delivery takes a short time (instantaneous), G = 1. For any other dose delivery pattern, G < 1. The Lea-Catcheside dose protraction factor for external beam radiotherapy contains terms depending of on the tissue specific repair parameter (λ) and the irradiation time (T). Expanding the exponential term using a Taylor’s series and neglecting terms of order (λT){sup 3}, the approximation leads to G = 1. The described situation occurs for 3DCRT techniques, where treatment times are about few minutes. For IMRT techniques, fraction times are prolonged compared to 3DCRT times. Wang et al. (2003) and Fowler et al. (2004) investigated the protraction effect with respect to IMRT treatments, reporting clinically significant loss in biological effect associated with IMRT delivery times. Results: Treatment times are noticeably reduced for prostate treatments using VMAT techniques. These times are comparable to 3DCRT times, leading to consider the previous approximation. Conclusion: Dose protraction factor can be approximated by G = 1 in TCP calculations for prostate treatments using VMAT techniques.

  10. Family size preference and factors affecting the fertility rate in Hyogo, Japan.

    Matsumoto, Yasuyo; Yamabe, Shingo

    2013-01-30

    Japan has consistently shown a low fertility rate, which has been lower than the replacement level since 1974, and represents one of the least fertile countries in the world. This study was designed to determine the family size preference of and its effect on Japanese women. We conducted a questionnaire survey among women who visited the obstetrics and gynecology department of 18 hospitals and clinics in the Hyogo Prefecture, Japan, between October 2011 and February 2012. All the women were categorized according to age group and area of residence, and the survey results were statistically analyzed using a t test. A total of 1616 women were included in this study. There was no significant difference between the mean desired and actual marital ages (26.70 and 26.67 years, respectively). The mean desired number of children was 2.55, which was significantly more than the mean actual number of children (1.77) in all generations. The mean desired and actual numbers of children were more in the rural areas (2.73 and 2.09, respectively) than in the urban (2.54 and 1.70, respectively) and semi-urban areas (2.49 and 1.60, respectively). The mean number of family members was significantly greater in the rural areas (3.84) than in the urban (3.25) and semi-urban areas (3.05).The most important concern among women who had never delivered a baby was childbearing itself, followed by the expenses related to pregnancy and childbearing. The family size preference of the women in our study was higher than the actual numbers of children. The fertility intentions were low among the younger women but high among those living in rural areas with larger families.

  11. Factors influencing on the bioaccessibility of polybrominated diphenyl ethers in size-specific dust from air conditioner filters.

    Yu, Yingxin; Yang, Dan; Wang, Xinxin; Huang, Ningbao; Zhang, Xinyu; Zhang, Dongping; Fu, Jiamo

    2013-11-01

    Size-specific concentrations and bioaccessibility of polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) in dust from air conditioner filters were measured, and the factors influencing the PBDE bioaccessibility were determined. Generally, the PBDE concentrations increased with decreasing dust particle size, and BDE209 (deca-BDE) was generally the predominant congener. The bioaccessibility ranged from 20.3% to 50.8% for tri- to hepta-BDEs, and from 5.1% to 13.9% for BDE209 in dust fractions of varied particle size. The bioaccessibility of most PBDE congeners decreased with increasing dust particle size. The way of being of PBDE (adsorbed to dust surface or incorporated into polymers) in dust significantly influenced the bioaccessibility. There was a significant negative correlation between the tri- to hepta-BDE bioaccessibility and organic matter (OM) contents in dust. Furthermore, tri- to hepta-BDE bioaccessibility increased with increasing polarity of OMs, while with decreasing aromaticity of OMs. The tri- to hepta-BDE bioaccessibility significantly positively correlated with the surface areas and pore volumes of dust. Using multiple linear regression analysis, it was found that the OM contents and pore volumes of dust were the most important factors to influence the tri- to hepta-BDE bioaccessibility and they could be used to estimate the bioaccessibility of tri- to hepta-BDEs according to the following equation: bioaccessibility (%)=45.05-0.49 × OM%+1.79 × pore volume. However, BDE209 bioaccessibility did not correlate to any of these factors. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. INFORMATION SECURITY MANAGEMENT: FACTORS THAT INFLUENCE ITS ADOPTION IN SMALL AND MID-SIZED BUSINESSES

    Abner da Silva Netto

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available The objectives of this study were verify in what measure the small and medium companies accomplish the management security information and identify which factors influence the small and medium companies to adopt measures of management security information. The source research was exploratory-descriptive and the design used was the survey. The sample was compound of 43 metal production industries located in ABC region. According to management information security literature and Brazilian norm of information security were identified the tools or techniques of management security information and classified it into three layers: physic, logic and human. The study identified that the human layer is the one that presents the major shortage of cares in the companies followed by the logical one. The companies get used to have the antivirus as the main security tool/technique according to the researched companies to guarantee the safety of information. Besides that, the research showed that 59% of the companies have a safety satisfactory level and the main motivator factor to adopt the management security information is "to avoid possible financial loss”. On the other hand, all the inhibitors factors showed important to the researched companies like: lack of knowledge, investments value, organization culture and difficulty to measure cost/benefit.

  13. Introduction of risk size in the determination of uncertainty factor UFL in risk assessment

    Xue Jinling; Lu Yun; Velasquez, Natalia; Hu Hongying; Yu Ruozhen; Liu Zhengtao; Meng Wei

    2012-01-01

    The methodology for using uncertainty factors in health risk assessment has been developed for several decades. A default value is usually applied for the uncertainty factor UF L , which is used to extrapolate from LOAEL (lowest observed adverse effect level) to NAEL (no adverse effect level). Here, we have developed a new method that establishes a linear relationship between UF L and the additional risk level at LOAEL based on the dose–response information, which represents a very important factor that should be carefully considered. This linear formula makes it possible to select UF L properly in the additional risk range from 5.3% to 16.2%. Also the results remind us that the default value 10 may not be conservative enough when the additional risk level at LOAEL exceeds 16.2%. Furthermore, this novel method not only provides a flexible UF L instead of the traditional default value, but also can ensure a conservative estimation of the UF L with fewer errors, and avoid the benchmark response selection involved in the benchmark dose method. These advantages can improve the estimation of the extrapolation starting point in the risk assessment. (letter)

  14. Key factors of project success in family small and medium-sized companies: the theoretical review

    Sinisa Arsic

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available The paper proposes a systematization of the key success factors of projects, through the theoretical review of family-owned companies operating in the EU market. It is the small and medium companies that in their own way contribute to the overall success of the national economy in terms of economic activity, increased employment, development activities and defining better business environment. The theoretical review observed numerous studies of family businesses, and the contribution of this work is in the systematization of the results of previous research – over three horizons, i.e., over the role of managers in the creation of successful projects (or owner if it is a family enterprise, institutional support for companies in Serbia and the EU, specific industries and the parent (regional markets where a family company operates. Project management, as a general representation of the concept of implementation of strategic and operational endeavors, contains many specifics in terms of critical success factors of projects depending on the environment in which they are implemented. The goal of the paper is reflected in the identification and presentation of critical success factors of projects implemented in family companies. The paper concludes with a discussion of the research results in relation to the existing, similar research studies, as well as with the announcement of future research, which will examine the conclusions drawn on a real sample.

  15. An Optimal Domestic Electric Vehicle Charging Strategy for Reducing Network Transmission Loss While Taking Seasonal Factors into Consideration

    Yuancheng Zhao

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available With the rapid growth of domestic electric vehicle charging loads, the peak-valley gap and power fluctuation rate of power systems increase sharply, which can lead to the increase of network losses and energy efficiency reduction. This paper tries to regulate network loads and reduce power system transmission loss by optimizing domestic electric vehicle charging loads. In this paper, a domestic electric vehicle charging loads model is first developed by analyzing the key factors that can affect users’ charging behavior. Subsequently, the Monte Carlo method is proposed to simulate the power consumption of a cluster of domestic electric vehicles. After that, an optimal electric vehicle charging strategy based on the 0-1 integer programming is presented to regulate network daily loads. Finally, by taking the IEEE33 distributed power system as an example, this paper tries to verify the efficacy of the proposed optimal charging strategy and the necessity for considering seasonal factors when scheduling electric vehicle charging loads. Simulation results show that the proposed 0-1 integer programming method does have good performance in reducing the network peak-valley gap, voltage fluctuation rate, and transmission loss. Moreover, it has some potential to further reduce power system transmission loss when seasonal factors are considered.

  16. Study of Thermal Properties, Turbidity, Effective Factors on Particle Size and Oscillatory Rheology of Pectin-Caseinate Biopolymer Nanocomplexes

    Sajedeh Bahrani

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available The biopolymer-based nanocomplexes are a group of nanocapsules that are used for encapsulation and control delivery of nutraceuticals. They are formed by binding of proteins and polysaccharides. In this study, complex formation between pectin and sodium caseinate was taken place by addition of pectin solutions(0.2, 0.45 and 0.7 % w/v into the caseinate solutions (0.5, 1 and 1.5 % w/v and adjusted their pH below isoelecteric point of sodium caseinate. The effect of various factors such as biopolymer concentration, salt concentration, temperature and time of ultrasound on the properties of pectin-casein nanocomplexes was investigated. Differential scanning calorimetry (DSC and particle size analyzer were used for study of complex formation and particle size determination, respectively. The results of DSC and turbidimetry showed complex formation between the pectin and casein at pH below 5 and the results of particle size showed formation of stable dispersion with a minimum size of 86 nm at pH 4.1, caseinate of 1 % w/v and pectin 0.45 % w/v concentration. The ultrasound for more than 1 min reduced particle size and addition of salt at high and low concentrations had different effects on the stability of the colloidal system. The lowering of temperature from 21 to 4°C resulted in smaller particle size of nanocomplexes. The oscillatory rheological results showed that with increasing pectin concentration, viscoelastic moduli were increased and loss moduli were higher than storage modulus.

  17. The effect of lexical factors on recall from working memory: Generalizing the neighborhood size effect.

    Derraugh, Lesley S; Neath, Ian; Surprenant, Aimée M; Beaudry, Olivia; Saint-Aubin, Jean

    2017-03-01

    The word-length effect, the finding that lists of short words are better recalled than lists of long words, is 1 of the 4 benchmark phenomena that guided development of the phonological loop component of working memory. However, previous work has noted a confound in word-length studies: The short words used had more orthographic neighbors (valid words that can be made by changing a single letter in the target word) than long words. The confound is that words with more neighbors are better recalled than otherwise comparable words with fewer neighbors. Two experiments are reported that address criticisms of the neighborhood-size account of the word-length effect by (1) testing 2 new stimulus sets, (2) using open rather than closed pools of words, and (3) using stimuli from a language other than English. In both experiments, words from large neighborhoods were better recalled than words from small neighborhoods. The results add to the growing number of studies demonstrating the substantial contribution of long-term memory to what have traditionally been identified as working memory tasks. The data are more easily explained by models incorporating the concept of redintegration rather than by frameworks such as the phonological loop that posit decay offset by rehearsal. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).

  18. Combustion aerosols: factors governing their size and composition and implications to human health

    Lighty, J.S.; Veranth, J.M.; Sarofim, A.F. [University of Utah, Salt Lake City, UT (USA). Dept. of Chemical and Fuels Engineering

    2000-09-01

    Particulate matter (PM) emissions from stationary combustion sources burning coal, fuel oil, biomass, and waste, and PM from internal combustion (IC) engines burning gasoline and diesel, are a significant source of primary particles smaller than 2.5 {mu}m (PM{sub 2.5}) in urban areas. Combustion-generated particles are generally smaller than geologically produced dust and have unique chemical composition and morphology. The fundamental processes affecting formation of combustion PM and the emission characteristics of important applications are reviewed. Particles containing transition metals, ultrafine particles, and soot are emphasized because these types of particles have been studied extensively, and their emissions are controlled by the fuel composition and the oxidant-temperature-mixing history from the flame to the stack. There is a need for better integration of the combustion, air pollution control, atmospheric chemistry, and inhalation health research communities. Epidemiology has demonstrated that susceptible individuals are being harmed by ambient PM. Particle surface area, number of ultrafine particles, bioavailable transition metals, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH), and other particle-bound organic compounds are suspected to be more important than particle mass in determining the effects of air pollution. Time and size-resolved PM measurements are needed for testing mechanistic toxicological hypotheses, for characterizing the relationship between combustion operating conditions and transient emissions, and for source apportionment studies to develop air quality plans. Citations are provided to more specialized reviews, and the concluding comments make suggestions for further research. 464 refs., 22 figs., 10 tabs.

  19. Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder among Cardiac Patients: Prevalence, Risk Factors, and Considerations for Assessment and Treatment

    Heather Tulloch

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available There is increasing awareness of the impact of post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD on physical health, particularly cardiovascular disease. We review the literature on the role of trauma in the development of cardiovascular risk factors and disease, aftermath of a cardiac event, and risk for recurrence in cardiac patients. We explore possible mechanisms to explain these relationships, as well as appropriate assessment and treatment strategies for this population. Our main conclusion is that screening and referral for appropriate treatments are important given the high prevalence rates of PTSD in cardiac populations and the associated impact on morbidity and mortality.

  20. The realistic consideration of human factors in model based simulation tools for the air traffic control domain.

    Duca, Gabriella; Attaianese, Erminia

    2012-01-01

    Advanced Air Traffic Management (ATM) concepts related to automation, airspace organization and operational procedures are driven by the overall goal to increase ATM system performance. Independently on the nature and/or impact of envisaged changes (e.g. from a short term procedure adjustment to a very long term operational concept or aid tools completion), the preliminary assessment of possible gains in airspace/airport capacity, safety and cost-effectiveness is done by running Model Based Simulations (MBSs, also known as Fast Time Simulations - FTS). Being a not human-in-the-loop technique, the reliability of a MBS results depend on the accuracy and significance of modeled human factors. Despite that, it can be observed in the practice that modeling tools commonly assume a generalized standardization of human behaviors and tasks and consider a very few range of work environment factors that, in the reality, affect the actual human-system performance. The present paper is aimed at opening a discussion about the possibility to keep task description and related weight at a high/general level, suitable for an efficient use of MBSs and, at the same time, increasing simulations reliability adopting some adjustment coming from the elaboration of further variables related to the human aspects of controllers workload.

  1. Insulin/IGF-regulated size scaling of neuroendocrine cells expressing the bHLH transcription factor Dimmed in Drosophila.

    Jiangnan Luo

    Full Text Available Neurons and other cells display a large variation in size in an organism. Thus, a fundamental question is how growth of individual cells and their organelles is regulated. Is size scaling of individual neurons regulated post-mitotically, independent of growth of the entire CNS? Although the role of insulin/IGF-signaling (IIS in growth of tissues and whole organisms is well established, it is not known whether it regulates the size of individual neurons. We therefore studied the role of IIS in the size scaling of neurons in the Drosophila CNS. By targeted genetic manipulations of insulin receptor (dInR expression in a variety of neuron types we demonstrate that the cell size is affected only in neuroendocrine cells specified by the bHLH transcription factor DIMMED (DIMM. Several populations of DIMM-positive neurons tested displayed enlarged cell bodies after overexpression of the dInR, as well as PI3 kinase and Akt1 (protein kinase B, whereas DIMM-negative neurons did not respond to dInR manipulations. Knockdown of these components produce the opposite phenotype. Increased growth can also be induced by targeted overexpression of nutrient-dependent TOR (target of rapamycin signaling components, such as Rheb (small GTPase, TOR and S6K (S6 kinase. After Dimm-knockdown in neuroendocrine cells manipulations of dInR expression have significantly less effects on cell size. We also show that dInR expression in neuroendocrine cells can be altered by up or down-regulation of Dimm. This novel dInR-regulated size scaling is seen during postembryonic development, continues in the aging adult and is diet dependent. The increase in cell size includes cell body, axon terminations, nucleus and Golgi apparatus. We suggest that the dInR-mediated scaling of neuroendocrine cells is part of a plasticity that adapts the secretory capacity to changing physiological conditions and nutrient-dependent organismal growth.

  2. Consideration of the FQPA Safety Factor and Other Uncertainty Factors in Cumulative Risk Assessment of Chemicals Sharing a Common Mechanism of Toxicity

    This guidance document provides OPP's current thinking on application of the provision in FFDCA about an additional safety factor for the protection of infants and children in the context of cumulative risk assessments.

  3. INTERACTIONS BETWEEN ORGANIZATIONAL SIZE AND SOME IT FACTORS IN THE CONTEXT OF ERP SUCCESS ASSESSMENT: AN EXPLORATORY INVESTIGATION

    EDUARD EDELHAUSER

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The study set sights on Romanian organizations which implemented a SIVECO ERP and BI software. The methodology used is both quantitative and qualitative. The research results were obtained with the use of a questionnaire, and our purpose was to demonstrate some hypothesis concerning the size of the organisation, the management method and the IT&C based decision. The questionnaire was operated with SPSS 17, through a linear regression analysis. The research has revealed how the organizational size and the IT factors interaction in the 2010 Romanian organizations. The research has a high level of originality, such a study has been never conducted before for computer based advanced management methods implementation.

  4. Differential optical absorption spectroscopy (DOAS and air mass factor concept for a multiply scattering vertically inhomogeneous medium: theoretical consideration

    V. V. Rozanov

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available The Differential Optical Absorption Spectroscopy (DOAS technique is widely used to retrieve amounts of atmospheric species from measurements of the direct solar light transmitted through the Earth's atmosphere as well as of the solar light scattered in the atmosphere or reflected from the Earth's surface. For the transmitted direct solar light the theoretical basis of the DOAS technique represented by the Beer-Lambert law is well studied. In contrast, scarcely investigated is the theoretical basis and validity range of the DOAS method for those cases where the contribution of the multiple scattering processes is not negligible. Our study is intended to fill this gap by means of a theoretical investigation of the applicability of the DOAS technique for the retrieval of amounts of atmospheric species from observations of the scattered solar light with a non-negligible contribution of the multiple scattering.

    Starting from the expansion of the intensity logarithm in the functional Taylor series we formulate the general form of the DOAS equation. The thereby introduced variational derivative of the intensity logarithm with respect to the variation of the gaseous absorption coefficient, which is often referred to as the weighting function, is demonstrated to be closely related to the air mass factor. Employing some approximations we show that the general DOAS equation can be rewritten in the form of the weighting function (WFDOAS, the modified (MDOAS, and the standard DOAS equations. For each of these forms a specific equation for the air mass factor follows which, in general, is not suitable for other forms of the DOAS equation. Furthermore, the validity range of the standard DOAS equation is quantitatively investigated using a suggested criterion of a weak absorption.

    The results presented in this study are intended to provide a basis for a better understanding of the applicability range of different forms of the DOAS equation as

  5. Protection set-points lines for the reactor core and considerations about power distribution and peak factors

    Furieri, E.B.

    1981-01-01

    In order to assure the reactor core integrity during the slow operational transients (power excursion above the nominal value and the high coolant temperature), the formation of a steam film (DNB-Departure from Nucleate Boiling) in the control rods must be avoided. The protection set points lines presents the points where DNBR (relation between critical heat flux-q sub(DNB) and the local heat flux-q' sub(local) is equal to 1.30, corrected by peak factors and uncertainty in function of ΔTr and T sub(R), respectively coolant elevation and medium coolant temperature in reactor pressure vessel. The curve set-points were determined using a new version of COBRA-IIIF (CUPRO) computer code, implemented with new subroutines and linearized convergence scheme. Pratical results for Angra-1 core were obtained and its were compared with the results from the fabricator. (E.G.) [pt

  6. An Interpretation of the Laminar-Turbulent Transition Startup against the Consideration of the Transverse Viscosity Factor

    Kolodezhnov, V. N.

    2018-03-01

    This paper proposes a rheological model of a fluid having the Newtonian model applicability limit and a potential for further “addition” of the transverse viscosity factor. The dynamic equations for a fluid that has such rheological model are discussed, the analysis of which demonstrates the possibility of “generating” the cross stream velocity components. The transition to the dimensionless notation introduces four dimensionless complexes of local characterization for the transition conditions in the neighborhood of the flow region point in question. Based on such dimensionless complexes and using the known experimental data, the empiric conditions of “generating” the cross stream velocity components and starting the laminar-turbulent transition are proposed.

  7. Factors for Consideration in an Open-Flame Test for Assessing Fire Blocking Performance of Barrier Fabrics

    Shonali Nazaré

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The main objective of the work reported here is to assess factors that could affect the outcome of a proposed open flame test for barrier fabrics (BF-open flame test. The BF-open flame test characterizes barrier effectiveness by monitoring the ignition of a flexible polyurethane foam (FPUF layer placed in contact with the upper side of the barrier fabric, exposed to a burner flame from below. Particular attention is given to the factors that influence the ignitibility of the FPUF, including thermal resistance, permeability, and structural integrity of the barrier fabrics (BFs. A number of barrier fabrics, displaying a wide range of the properties, are tested with the BF-open flame test. Visual observations of the FPUF burning behavior and BF char patterns, in addition to heat flux measurements on the unexposed side of the barrier fabrics, are used to assess the protective performance of the BF specimen under the open flame test conditions. The temperature and heat transfer measurements on the unexposed side of the BF and subsequent ranking of BFs for their thermal protective performance suggest that the BF-open flame test does not differentiate barrier fabrics based on their heat transfer properties. A similar conclusion is reached with regard to BF permeability characterized at room temperature. However, the outcome of this BF-open flame test is found to be heavily influenced by the structural integrity of thermally degraded BF. The BF-open flame test, in its current form, only ignited FPUF when structural failure of the barrier was observed.

  8. An empirical study on the critical success factors of small to medium sized projects in a South African mining company

    Du Randt, Francois Jean

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Projects that fail, for whatever reason, can impact negatively on society, organisations, and other stakeholders. A number of researchers have identified various critical success factors (CSFs that can influence the outcome and success of a project. This research therefore aims to determine the CSFs that influence various success measures of small- to medium-sized projects at a South African mining company, Exxaro Resources’ Grootegeluk Coal Mine. Other objectives of this research include determining the extent of the impacts of these CSFs on the different success measures of a project. The investigation suggests that there are correlations among CSFs, and that certain factors impact the outcome of projects far more than others. This research finds that the single most important CSF for small- to medium-sized projects is the selection of a competent project manager. The competent project manager is characterised by a group of interrelated CSF factors: good leadership, commitment, and learning from past experiences. Based on the research results, other CSFs are discussed and explored in order for recommendations to be made on how this mining company, and possibly other organisations, can achieve greater project success.

  9. Coordination of I and C design with the obligatory consideration of human factors. A project management approach

    Sanz, Silvia; Ciriello, Antonio; Krause, Wolfgang; Eisinger, Asriel

    2015-01-01

    Human Factors Engineering (HFE), like other engineering disciplines involved in plant design, cannot be considered retroactively. The engineering principles and methods derived from deep knowledge of the cognitive and perceptual capabilities and limitations of the plant's 'human element' are applied instead throughout plant design. Focusing HFE efforts on the plant's I and C, the plant's HMI is designed to ensure effective and error-free performance of the monitoring, control, and administrative tasks allocated to the control room crew. Generally speaking, a project's HFE program prescribes three main steps: (1) the analyses of plant monitoring and control functions in order to identify those to be performed manually (all others are performed automatically while still manually monitored) and determine in turn the HMI inventory of information displays, controls, alarms, and operating procedures required to support their performance, (2) the guided design of the plant's HMI, ensuring its compliance with HFE principles and the completeness and correctness of the task support it provides, and (3) the subsequent evaluation of operators performance, trained to follow the operating procedures and use the HMI referred to. The I and C systems designed to monitor and control the plant processes and implement, among other functions, the plant's HMI, are likely validated, governed by I and C norms and the project's V and V guidelines. Past experience shows that the three following obligatory steps pose challenges to project execution: (1) the acquisition and analysis of the multidisciplinary functional requirements (related to plant monitoring and control); (2) the likely interdisciplinary analysis whether and how fulfillment of these requirements shall be allocated to I and C automation systems or operators (or both), and (3) the HFE-guided HMI design and validation. A timely and cost-effective application of HFE to I and C engineering can be achieved by adequate planning and

  10. Report on the CSNI workshop on nuclear power plant transition from operation into decommissioning: human factors and organisation considerations

    2000-01-01

    The Senior Expert Group of the Committee on the Safety of Nuclear Installations (CSNI) proposed to Principal Working Group 1 (PWG1) of CSNI that a workshop be held to identify and discuss issues related to the impact of human factors and organisational aspects on decommissioning. This workshop was held in May 1999 in conjunction with the Joint NEA/IAEA/EC workshop on The Regulatory Aspects of Decommissioning. The workshop goals, as stated in the NEA Research Strategies for Human Performance, were 'to convene an information exchange meeting with interested Member countries in order to discuss areas of concern in this respect and identify possible areas that merit further research and their priorities'. The workshop highlighted a comparative lack of developed work in this area concerning the way in which organisational weaknesses can manifest themselves and how best to prevent or mitigate their effects. Eight key issues were identified and discussed by the participants. For each of the eight issues discussed by working groups, the potential risks of failing to address the Issue were identified. These potential risks formed a focal point for generating discussion about current experience and for drawing out gaps in current knowledge and understanding. From this base, participants then focused on specific types of information and questions that need further research in order to improve understanding and successful implementation of the transition from operations to decommissioning. The eight issues and suggested high priority needs are: - Creating a system to share international experience: Establish improved methods for obtaining and sharing information and experience on a regular basis in order to identify organisational and human factors issues, good practices and lessons learned as regulators and utilities deal with decommissioning. - Organisational memory and competence: Identify effective approaches to retain expertise during the transition from operations to

  11. The influence of family-related factors on the succession process in small and medium-sized family businesses

    E Venter

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available In this study family-related factors that can influence the succession process in small and medium-sized family businesses are empirically investigated.  The dependent variable in this study is measured by two underlying dimensions, namely satisfaction with the process and continued profitability of the business.  The empirical results indicate that the family-related factors that influence both the aforementioned dimensions are the mutual acceptance of roles, the relationship between the owner-manager and successor, and family harmony.  The continued profitability of the business is also influenced by the agreement to continue the business. The existence of family harmony in itself influences the relationship between the owner-manager and successor, the agreement to continue the business, as well as the mutual acceptance of roles.  The managerial implications of these empirical findings are discussed and recommendations offered.

  12. Assessment of the human factor in the quantification of technical system reliability taking into consideration cognitive-causal aspects. Partial project 2. Modeling of the human behavior for reliability considerations. Final report

    Jennerich, Marco; Imbsweiler, Jonas; Straeter, Oliver; Arenius, Marcus

    2015-03-01

    This report presents the findings of the project for the consideration of human factor in the quantification of the reliability of technical systems, taking into account cognitive-causal aspects concerning the modeling of human behavior of reliability issues (funded by the Federal Ministry of Economics and Technology; grant number 15014328). This project is part of a joint project with the University of Applied Sciences Zittau / Goerlitz for assessing the human factor in the quantification of the reliability of technical systems. The concern of the University of Applied Sciences Zittau / Goerlitz is the mathematical modeling of human reliability by means of a fuzzy set approach (grant number 1501432A). The part of the project presented here provides the necessary data basis for the evaluation of the mathematical modeling using fuzzy set approach. At the appropriate places in this report, the interfaces and data bases between the two projects are outlined accordingly. HRA-methods (Human Reliability Analysis) are an essential component to analyze the reliability of socio-technical systems. Various methods have been established and are used in different areas of application. The established HRA methods have been checked on their congruence. In particular the underlying models and their parameters such as performance-influencing factors and situational influences have been investigated. The elaborated parameters were combined into a hierarchical class structure. Cross-domain incidents were studied. The specific performance-influencing factors have been worked out and have been integrated into a cross-domain database. The dominant (critical) situational factors and their interactions within the event data were identified using the CAHR method (connectionism Assessment of Human Reliability). Task dependent cognitive load profiles have been defined. Within these profiles qualitative and quantitative data of the possibility of emergence of errors have been acquired. This

  13. Influences of body size and environmental factors on autumn downstream migration of bull trout in the Boise River, Idaho

    Monnot, L.; Dunham, J.B.; Hoem, T.; Koetsier, P.

    2008-01-01

    Many fishes migrate extensively through stream networks, yet patterns are commonly described only in terms of the origin and destination of migration (e.g., between natal and feeding habitats). To better understand patterns of migration in bull trout,Salvelinus confluentus we studied the influences of body size (total length [TL]) and environmental factors (stream temperature and discharge) on migrations in the Boise River basin, Idaho. During the autumns of 2001-2003, we tracked the downstream migrations of 174 radio-tagged bull trout ranging in size from 21 to 73 cm TL. The results indicated that large bull trout (>30 cm) were more likely than small fish to migrate rapidly downstream after spawning in headwater streams in early autumn. Large bull trout also had a higher probability of arriving at the current terminus of migration in the system, Arrowrock Reservoir. The rate of migration by small bull trout was more variable and individuals were less likely to move into Arrowrock Reservoir. The rate of downstream migration by all fish was slower when stream discharge was greater. Temperature was not associated with the rate of migration. These findings indicate that fish size and environmentally related changes in behavior have important influences on patterns of migration. In a broader context, these results and other recent work suggest, at least in some cases, that commonly used classifications of migratory behavior may not accurately reflect the full range of behaviors and variability among individuals (or life stages) and environmental conditions. ?? Copyright by the American Fisheries Society 2008.

  14. Size-resolved particle number emission patterns under real-world driving conditions using positive matrix factorization.

    Domínguez-Sáez, Aida; Viana, Mar; Barrios, Carmen C; Rubio, Jose R; Amato, Fulvio; Pujadas, Manuel; Querol, Xavier

    2012-10-16

    A novel on-board system was tested to characterize size-resolved particle number emission patterns under real-world driving conditions, running in a EURO4 diesel vehicle and in a typical urban circuit in Madrid (Spain). Emission profiles were determined as a function of driving conditions. Source apportionment by Positive Matrix Factorization (PMF) was carried out to interpret the real-world driving conditions. Three emission patterns were identified: (F1) cruise conditions, with medium-high speeds, contributing in this circuit with 60% of total particle number and a particle size distribution dominated by particles >52 nm and around 60 nm; (F2) transient conditions, stop-and-go conditions at medium-high speed, contributing with 25% of the particle number and mainly emitting particles in the nucleation mode; and (F3) creep-idle conditions, representing traffic congestion and frequent idling periods, contributing with 14% to the total particle number and with particles in the nucleation mode (emissions depending on particle size and driving conditions. Differences between real-world emission patterns and regulatory cycles (NEDC) are also presented, which evidence that detecting particle number emissions real-world driving conditions.

  15. Aerosol and NOx emission factors and submicron particle number size distributions in two road tunnels with different traffic regimes

    D. Imhof

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Measurements of aerosol particle number size distributions (18–700 nm, mass concentrations (PM2.5 and PM10 and NOx were performed in the Plabutsch tunnel, Austria, and in the Kingsway tunnel, United Kingdom. These two tunnels show different characteristics regarding the roadway gradient, the composition of the vehicle fleet and the traffic frequency. The submicron particle size distributions contained a soot mode in the diameter range D=80–100 nm and a nucleation mode in the range of D=20–40 nm. In the Kingsway tunnel with a significantly lower particle number and volume concentration level than in the Plabutsch tunnel, a clear diurnal variation of nucleation and soot mode particles correlated to the traffic density was observed. In the Plabutsch tunnel, soot mode particles also revealed a diurnal variation, whereas no substantial variation was found for the nucleation mode particles. During the night a higher number concentration of nucleation mode particles were measured than soot mode particles and vice versa during the day. In this tunnel with very high soot emissions during daytime due to the heavy-duty vehicle (HDV share of 18% and another 40% of diesel driven light-duty vehicles (LDV semivolatile species condense on the pre-existing soot surface area rather than forming new particles by homogeneous nucleation. With the low concentration of soot mode particles in the Kingsway tunnel, also the nucleation mode particles exhibit a diurnal variation. From the measured parameters real-world traffic emission factors were estimated for the whole vehicle fleet as well as differentiated into the two categories LDV and HDV. In the particle size range D=18–700 nm, each vehicle of the mixed fleet emits (1.50±0.08×1014 particles km-1 (Plabutsch and (1.26±0.10×1014 particles km-1 (Kingsway, while particle volume emission factors of 0.209±0.008 cm3 km-1 and 0.036±0.004 cm3 km-1, respectively, were obtained. PM1 emission factors of 104±4 mg

  16. Promotion orientation explains why future-oriented people exercise and eat healthy: evidence from the two-factor consideration of future consequences-14 scale.

    Joireman, Jeff; Shaffer, Monte J; Balliet, Daniel; Strathman, Alan

    2012-10-01

    The authors extended research linking individual differences in consideration of future consequences (CFC) with health behaviors by (a) testing whether individual differences in regulatory focus would mediate that link and (b) highlighting the value of a revised, two-factor CFC-14 scale with subscales assessing concern with future consequences (CFC-Future) and concern with immediate consequences (CFC-Immediate) proper. Exploratory and confirmatory factor analyses of the revised CFC-14 scale supported the presence of two highly reliable factors (CFC-Future and CFC-Immediate; αs from .80 to .84). Moreover, structural equation modeling showed that those high in CFC-Future engage in exercise and healthy eating because they adopt a promotion orientation. Future use of the two-factor CFC-14 scale is encouraged to shed additional light on how concern with future and concern with immediate consequences (proper) differentially impact the way people resolve a host of intertemporal dilemmas (e.g., health, financial, and environmental behavior).

  17. Latitude modifies the effect size of factors related to recurrent wheeze in the first year of life.

    Garcia-Marcos, Luis; Mallol, Javier; Solé, Dirceu; Brand, Paul L P; Sanchez-Bahillo, Maria; Sanchez-Solis, Manuel

    2013-05-01

    Although the association between latitude and asthma prevalence has been studied to a certain extent, its influence on the magnitude of the association of risk/protective factors with recurrent wheeze in infants has never been reported. The adjusted odd ratios (aOR) of various risk/protective factors for recurrent wheeze from 31,920 infants from 19 centres of the "Estudio Internacional de Sibilacias en Lactantes" (EISL) in very different parts of the world were used to build a meta-regression using the strength of the aOR of each factor as dependent variable and centre latitude as explanatory variable. The meta-regression was further adjusted for continent. There was a positive significant correlation between latitude and the magnitude of the aOR between recurrent wheeze and having cold(s) during the first three months of life (p = 0.004); attending a nursery school (p = 0.011); and having additional siblings (p = 0.003). Furthermore, there was a negative correlation for having been breastfed for at least three months (p = 0.044). Heterogeneity (as measured by I2) of the magnitude of aORs between centres was quite high except for breast feeding: 73.1% for colds; 66.9% for nursery school; 52.6% for additional siblings; and 18.1% for breast feeding. Latitude explained a considerable amount of that heterogeneity: 63.8% for colds; 52.8% for nursery school; 86.6% for additional siblings; and 100% for breast feeding, probably as a consequence of its low heterogeneity. The magnitude in which some risk/protective factors are associated to recurrent wheeze during the first year of life varies significantly with latitude. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Determination of the growth restriction factor and grain size for aluminum alloys by a quasi-binary equivalent method

    Mitrašinović, A.M.; Robles Hernández, F.C.

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► A new method to determine the growth restricting factor. (Q) is proposed ► The proposed method is highly accurate (R 2 = 0.99) and simple. ► A major novelty of this method is the determination of Q for non-dilute samples. ► The method proposed herein is based on quasi-binary phase diagrams and composition. ► This method can be easily implemented industrially or as a research tool. - Abstract: In the present research paper is suggested a new methodology to determine the growth restricting factor (Q) and grain size (GS) for various Al-alloys. The present method combines a thermodynamical component based on the liquidus behavior of each alloying element that is later incorporated into the well known growth restricting models for multi-component alloys. This approach that can be used to determine Q and/or GS based on the chemical composition and the slope of the liquidus temperature of any Al-alloy solidified in close to equilibrium conditions. This method can be modified further in order to assess the effect of cooling rate or thermomechanical processing on growth restricting factor and grain size. In the present paper is proposed a highly accurate (R 2 = 0.99) and validated model for Al–Si alloys, but it can be modified for any other Al–X alloying system. The present method can be used for alloys with relatively high solute content and due to the use of the thermodynamics of liquidus this system considers the poisoning effects of single and multi-component alloying elements.

  19. Baseline Tumor Size Is an Independent Prognostic Factor for Overall Survival in Patients With Melanoma Treated With Pembrolizumab.

    Joseph, Richard W; Elassaiss-Schaap, Jeroen; Kefford, Richard F; Hwu, Wen-Jen; Wolchok, Jedd D; Joshua, Anthony Michael; Ribas, Antoni; Hodi, F Stephen; Hamid, Omid; Robert, Caroline; Daud, Adil I; Dronca, Roxana S; Hersey, Peter; Weber, Jeffrey S; Patnaik, Amita; de Alwis, Dinesh P; Perrone, Andrea M; Zhang, Jin; Kang, Soonmo Peter; Ebbinghaus, Scot W; Anderson, Keaven M; Gangadhar, Tara

    2018-04-23

    To assess the association of baseline tumor size (BTS) with other baseline clinical factors and outcomes in pembrolizumab-treated patients with advanced melanoma in KEYNOTE-001 (NCT01295827). BTS was quantified by adding the sum of the longest dimensions of all measurable baseline target lesions. BTS as a dichotomous and continuous variable was evaluated with other baseline factors using logistic regression for objective response rate (ORR) and Cox regression for overall survival (OS). Nominal P values with no multiplicity adjustment describe the strength of observed associations. Per central review by RECIST v1.1, 583 of 655 patients had baseline measurable disease and were included in this post hoc analysis. Median BTS was 10.2 cm (range, 1-89.5). Larger median BTS was associated with Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group performance status 1, elevated lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), stage M1c disease, and liver metastases (with or without any other sites) (all P ≤ 0.001). In univariate analyses, BTS below the median was associated with higher ORR (44% vs 23%; P BTS below the median remained an independent prognostic marker of OS (P BTS below the median and PD-L1-positive tumors were independently associated with higher ORR and longer OS. BTS is associated with many other baseline clinical factors but is also independently prognostic of survival in pembrolizumab-treated patients with advanced melanoma. Copyright ©2018, American Association for Cancer Research.

  20. The Vulnerabilities of Orphaned Children Participating in Research: A Critical Review and Factors for Consideration for Participation in Biomedical and Behavioral Research

    Thompson, Rachel T.; Meslin, Eric M.; Braitstein, Paula K. A.; Nyandiko, Winstone M.; Ayaya, Samuel O.; Vreeman, Rachel C.

    2013-01-01

    Orphans are a subpopulation with a unique set of additional vulnerabilities. Increasing focus on children’s rights, pediatric global health, and pediatric research makes it imperative to recognize and address unique vulnerabilities of orphaned children. This paper describes the unique vulnerabilities of the orphaned pediatric population and offers a structured set of factors that require consideration when including orphans in biomedical research. Pediatric orphans are particularly vulnerable due to decreased economic resources, psychosocial instability, increased risk of abuse, and delayed/decreased access to healthcare. These vulnerabilities are significant. By carefully considering each issue in a population in a culturally specific and study-specific manner, researchers can make valuable contributions to the overall health and well-being of this uniquely vulnerable population. PMID:23086048

  1. Effects of Abiotic Factors on the Geographic Distribution of Body Size Variation and Chromosomal Polymorphisms in Two Neotropical Grasshopper Species (Dichroplus: Melanoplinae: Acrididae

    Claudio J. Bidau

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available We review the effects of abiotic factors on body size in two grasshopper species with large geographical distributions: Dichroplus pratensis and D. vittatus, inhabiting Argentina in diverse natural habitats. Geographical spans for both species provide an opportunity to study the effects of changes in abiotic factors on body size. The analyses of body size distribution in both species revealed a converse Bergmannian pattern: body size is positively correlated with latitude, altitude, and seasonality that influences time available for development and growth. Allen’s rule is also inverted. Morphological variability increases towards the ends of the Bergmannian clines and, in D. pratensis, is related with a central-marginal distribution of chromosomal variants that influence recombination. The converse Bergmannian patterns influence sexual size dimorphism in both species but in different fashions. Body size variation at a microspatial scale in D. pratensis is extremely sensitive to microclimatic clines. We finally compare our results with those for other Orthopteran species.

  2. A laboratory comparison of emission factors, number size distributions and morphology of ultrafine particles from eleven different household cookstove-fuel systems

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — This dataset includes all data used to generate figures in the manuscript and supporting information for the publication entitled "Emission factors, number size...

  3. Analysis Fukushima 11032011 -- Extended analysis of the Fukushima accident on 11 March 2011 under special consideration of human and organisational factors

    2011-08-01

    After the reactor accident in Fukushima Dai-ichi on 11 March 2011, the Swiss Federal Nuclear Safety Inspectorate (ENSI) launched an extended analysis of the accident with the following goals: a) a comprehensive understanding of the accident unrolling and of the contributing factors; b) the identification of resulting short-, mean- and long-term requirements for the operators of Swiss nuclear power plants; c) considerations on the own surveillance activity; d) the verification of the reports delivered by the Swiss plant operators, who have to check their own plant after each incident declared as of INES 2 level or higher, whichever the location in the whole world. Undoubtedly, the design of the nuclear power plants at Fukushima Dai-ichi was inappropriate in what regards the tsunami induced by the earthquake, and that this was a key factor that led to the accident. The questions here are rather how it came to this clear design insufficiency and why the accident developed in the way it did. According to ENSI, answers to these questions require both technical as well as human and organisational considerations. ENSI had no direct access to information sources and, therefore, had to check the reliability of information obtained from public sources, especially from authorities, plant operators, expert organisations and, last but not least, media reports. The understanding gained in this way should enable a better evaluation of the situation in Switzerland and lead to the definition of the most urgent measures to be implemented. Since the principal cause of the Fukushima accident is a failure in the plant design, it is necessary to critically reconsider the design of the Swiss reactors to make sure that no such mistake has been done here. Another question is why this evident design failure was not identified earlier in the course of the decades of operation, and why no improvement has been made. In this context, human and organisational factors seem to play an important

  4. Fusion facility siting considerations

    Bussell, G.T.

    1985-01-01

    Inherent in the fusion program's transition from hydrogen devices to commercial power machines is a general increase in the size and scope of succeeding projects. This growth will lead to increased emphasis on safety, environmental impact, and the external effects of fusion in general, and of each new device in particular. A critically important consideration in this regard is site selection. The purpose of this paper is to examine major siting issues that may affect the economics, safety, and environmental impact of fusion

  5. Factors influencing formation of highly dispersed BaTiO3 nanospheres with uniform sizes in static hydrothermal synthesis

    Gao, Jiabing; Shi, Haiyue; Dong, Huina; Zhang, Rui; Chen, Deliang

    2015-01-01

    Highly dispersed BaTiO 3 nanospheres with uniform sizes have important applications in micro/nanoscale functional devices. To achieve well-dispersed spherical BaTiO 3 nanocrystals, we carried out as reported in this paper the systematic investigation on the factors that influence the formation of BaTiO 3 nanospheres by the static hydrothermal process, including the NaOH concentrations [NaOH], molar Ba/Ti ratios (R Ba/Ti ), hydrothermal temperatures, and durations, with an emphasis on understanding the related mechanisms. Barium nitrate and TiO 2 sols derived from tetrabutyl titanate were used as the starting materials. The as-synthesized BaTiO 3 samples were characterized by X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy, energy-dispersive X-ray analysis, thermogravimetry, differential thermal analysis, and FT-IR spectra. The highly dispersed BaTiO 3 nanospheres (76 ± 13 nm) were achieved under the optimum hydrothermal conditions at 200 °C for 10 h: [NaOH] = 2.0 mol L −1 and R Ba/Ti  = 1.5. Higher NaOH concentrations, higher Ba/Ti ratios, higher hydrothermal temperatures, and longer hydrothermal durations are favorable in forming BaTiO 3 nanospheres with larger fractions of tetragonal phase and higher yields; but too long hydrothermal durations resulted in abnormal growth and reduced the uniformity in particle sizes. The possible formation mechanisms for BaTiO 3 nanocrystals under the static hydrothermal conditions were investigated

  6. The effect of journal impact factor, reporting conflicts, and reporting funding sources, on standardized effect sizes in back pain trials: a systematic review and meta-regression.

    Froud, Robert; Bjørkli, Tom; Bright, Philip; Rajendran, Dévan; Buchbinder, Rachelle; Underwood, Martin; Evans, David; Eldridge, Sandra

    2015-11-30

    Low back pain is a common and costly health complaint for which there are several moderately effective treatments. In some fields there is evidence that funder and financial conflicts are associated with trial outcomes. It is not clear whether effect sizes in back pain trials relate to journal impact factor, reporting conflicts of interest, or reporting funding. We performed a systematic review of English-language papers reporting randomised controlled trials of treatments for non-specific low back pain, published between 2006-2012. We modelled the relationship using 5-year journal impact factor, and categories of reported of conflicts of interest, and categories of reported funding (reported none and reported some, compared to not reporting these) using meta-regression, adjusting for sample size, and publication year. We also considered whether impact factor could be predicted by the direction of outcome, or trial sample size. We could abstract data to calculate effect size in 99 of 146 trials that met our inclusion criteria. Effect size is not associated with impact factor, reporting of funding source, or reporting of conflicts of interest. However, explicitly reporting 'no trial funding' is strongly associated with larger absolute values of effect size (adjusted β=1.02 (95 % CI 0.44 to 1.59), P=0.001). Impact factor increases by 0.008 (0.004 to 0.012) per unit increase in trial sample size (Psources of funding, and conflicts of interest reflects positively on research and publisher conduct in the field. Strong evidence of a large association between absolute magnitude of effect size and explicit reporting of 'no funding' suggests authors of unfunded trials are likely to report larger effect sizes, notwithstanding direction. This could relate in part to quality, resources, and/or how pragmatic a trial is.

  7. Equipment considerations

    Anon.

    1992-01-01

    Trace or ultratrace analyses require that the HPLC equipment used, including the detector, be optimal for such determinations. HPLC detectors are discussed at length in Chapter 4; discussion here is limited to the rest of the equipment. In general, commercial equipment is adequate for trace analysis; however, as the authors approach ultratrace analysis, it becomes very important to examine the equipment thoroughly and optimize it, where possible. For this reason they will review the equipment commonly used in HPLC and discuss the optimization steps. Detectability in HPLC is influenced by two factors (1): (a) baseline noise or other interferences that lead to errors in assigning the baseline absorbance; (b) peak width. 87 refs

  8. Lymph node size as a simple prognostic factor in node negative colon cancer and an alternative thesis to stage migration.

    Märkl, Bruno; Schaller, Tina; Kokot, Yuriy; Endhardt, Katharina; Kretsinger, Hallie; Hirschbühl, Klaus; Aumann, Georg; Schenkirsch, Gerhard

    2016-10-01

    Stage migration is an accepted explanation for the association between lymph node (LN) yield and outcome in colon cancer. To investigate whether the alternative thesis of immune response is more likely, we performed a retrospective study. We enrolled 239 cases of node negative cancers, which were categorized according to the number of LNs with diameters larger than 5 mm (LN5) into the groups LN5-very low (0 to 1 LN5), LN5-low (2 to 5 LN5), and LN5-high (≥6 LN5). Significant differences were found in pT3/4 cancers with median survival times of 40, 57, and 71 months (P = .022) in the LN5-very low, LN5-low, and LN5-high groups, respectively. Multivariable analysis revealed that LN5 number and infiltration type were independent prognostic factors. LN size is prognostic in node negative colon cancer. The correct explanation for outcome differences associated with LN harvest is probably the activation status of LNs. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Magna-field irradiation: physical considerations

    Van Dyk, J.

    1983-12-01

    Magna-field radiotherapy in the form of total body, half body and total nodal irradiation is becoming increasingly prominent and involves dosimetric problems that are much more pronounced than they are for conventional field sizes. In this review of the physical considerations of magna-field irradiation, a number of possible alternate methods of producing large radiation fields are outlined, the basic beam dosimetry is reviewed and the factors producing dose variation in the patient are considered. Since the lung contains large regions of low density tissues and has a lower tolerance to radiaiton than most other tissues, special consideration is given to methods of dose determination and dose reduction to this organ. The question of accuracy in dose delivery is briefly discussed and the concept of delivering a radiation dose 'as precisely as readily achievable (APARA), technological and biological factors being taken into account' is introduced.

  10. Some considerations on the restoration of Galilei invariance in the nuclear many-body problem. Pt. I. Mathematical tools, spectral functions and spectroscopic factors of simple bound states

    Schmid, K.W.

    2001-01-01

    The mathematical tools to restore Galilei invariance in the nuclear many-body problem with the help of projection techniques are presented. For simple oscillator configurations recursion relations for the various elementary contractions are derived. The method is then applied to simple configurations for the ground states of 4 He, 16 O and 40 Ca as well as to the corresponding one-hole and one-particle states. As a first application the spectral functions and spectroscopic factors for the above-mentioned doubly even nuclei are investigated. It turns out that the conventional picture of an uncorrelated system underestimates the single-particle strengths of the hole states from the last occupied shell while that of the higher excited hole states is overestimated considerably. These results are in complete agreement with those derived by Dieperink and de Forest using different methods. Similar effects are seen for the particle states which have not been studied before. All the calculations presented here are performed analytically and thus can be checked explicitly by the interested reader. (orig.)

  11. Climate considerations

    Hutchinson, I.P.G.; Ellison, R.D.

    1992-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to investigate the conditions under which rainfall and snowmelt result in infiltration, percolation, and leachate formation, and to develop guidelines for incorporating these processes into the mine waste disposal regulations. This is important because in mine waste, and under certain circumstances, these processes can result in conditions which pose a threat to surface and ground water quality. This paper provides a general overview of infiltration, percolation, and leachate formation. It incorporates a discussion of the methods that can be used to quantify infiltration and the climatic and physical site and waste conditions under which percolation and leachate formation occur. Reference is made to case histories on infiltration, ground water recharge, and analytical procedures for calculating infiltration. An approach to infiltration prediction is outlined, and the paper concludes with a discussion on how climatic factors and prediction of infiltration could be incorporated into the regulations

  12. Do socio-economic factors, elderly population size and service development factors influence the development of specialist mental health programs for older people?

    Shah, Ajit

    2008-12-01

    Despite the increase in the proportion of older people in the population, little is known about factors that facilitate the development of specialist mental health services for older people. The relationship between the presence of specialist mental health programs for older people and elderly population size, proportion of older people in the population, gross national domestic product (GDP), and various parameters of health funding, mental health funding and mental health service provision was examined in an ecological study using data from the World Health Organization. The presence of specialist mental health programs for older people was significantly associated with higher GDP, higher expenditure on healthcare and mental healthcare, the presence of a national mental health policy and a national mental health program, the availability of mental health care in primary care and the community, and higher density of psychiatric beds, psychiatrists, psychiatric nurses, psychologists and social workers. The challenge will be to persuade policy-makers in low and medium income countries, where the increase in the elderly population is most rapid, to develop specialist mental health services for older people.

  13. The influence of some factors on the electrical conductivity and particle size of core/shell polystyrene/polyaniline composites

    GORDANA D. NESTOROVIC

    2005-11-01

    Full Text Available The electrically conductive, micron-sized, core/shell polystyrene (PS/polyaniline (PANI composite particles were synthesized by chemical oxidative polymerization of aniline in the presence of micron-sized PS particles in 1 M HCl. The conditions of the dispersion polymerization of styrene were optimized. The influence of the initiator type employed for the chemical oxidative polymerization of aniline and the aniline (ANI concentration on the PS/PANI particle size and size distribution and their conductivity was investigated. The obtained results show that the conductivity of the samples increased with increasing ANI concentration. The conductivity of the PS/PANI composite particles obtained with the highest ANI concentration was of the same order of magnitude as that for PANI powder. The particle size did not depend on the concentration of ANI, while the particle size distribution was narrower at higher concentrations of ANI.

  14. A Bayesian approach for incorporating economic factors in sample size design for clinical trials of individual drugs and portfolios of drugs.

    Patel, Nitin R; Ankolekar, Suresh

    2007-11-30

    Classical approaches to clinical trial design ignore economic factors that determine economic viability of a new drug. We address the choice of sample size in Phase III trials as a decision theory problem using a hybrid approach that takes a Bayesian view from the perspective of a drug company and a classical Neyman-Pearson view from the perspective of regulatory authorities. We incorporate relevant economic factors in the analysis to determine the optimal sample size to maximize the expected profit for the company. We extend the analysis to account for risk by using a 'satisficing' objective function that maximizes the chance of meeting a management-specified target level of profit. We extend the models for single drugs to a portfolio of clinical trials and optimize the sample sizes to maximize the expected profit subject to budget constraints. Further, we address the portfolio risk and optimize the sample sizes to maximize the probability of achieving a given target of expected profit.

  15. Demographic factors and hospital size predict patient satisfaction variance--implications for hospital value-based purchasing.

    McFarland, Daniel C; Ornstein, Katherine A; Holcombe, Randall F

    2015-08-01

    Hospital Value-Based Purchasing (HVBP) incentivizes quality performance-based healthcare by linking payments directly to patient satisfaction scores obtained from Hospital Consumer Assessment of Healthcare Providers and Systems (HCAHPS) surveys. Lower HCAHPS scores appear to cluster in heterogeneous population-dense areas and could bias Centers for Medicare & Medicaid Services (CMS) reimbursement. Assess nonrandom variation in patient satisfaction as determined by HCAHPS. Multivariate regression modeling was performed for individual dimensions of HCAHPS and aggregate scores. Standardized partial regression coefficients assessed strengths of predictors. Weighted Individual (hospital) Patient Satisfaction Adjusted Score (WIPSAS) utilized 4 highly predictive variables, and hospitals were reranked accordingly. A total of 3907 HVBP-participating hospitals. There were 934,800 patient surveys by the most conservative estimate. A total of 3144 county demographics (US Census) and HCAHPS surveys. Hospital size and primary language (non-English speaking) most strongly predicted unfavorable HCAHPS scores, whereas education and white ethnicity most strongly predicted favorable HCAHPS scores. The average adjusted patient satisfaction scores calculated by WIPSAS approximated the national average of HCAHPS scores. However, WIPSAS changed hospital rankings by variable amounts depending on the strength of the predictive variables in the hospitals' locations. Structural and demographic characteristics that predict lower scores were accounted for by WIPSAS that also improved rankings of many safety-net hospitals and academic medical centers in diverse areas. Demographic and structural factors (eg, hospital beds) predict patient satisfaction scores even after CMS adjustments. CMS should consider WIPSAS or a similar adjustment to account for the severity of patient satisfaction inequities that hospitals could strive to correct. © 2015 Society of Hospital Medicine.

  16. Lifestyle factors and adolescent depressive symptomatology: Associations and effect sizes of diet, physical activity and sedentary behaviour.

    Hayward, Joshua; Jacka, Felice N; Skouteris, Helen; Millar, Lynne; Strugnell, Claudia; Swinburn, Boyd A; Allender, Steven

    2016-11-01

    Depression affects many Australian adolescents. Research points to the potential of lifestyle improvement for the population-level prevention of mental disorders. However, most studies examine single relationships without considering the combined contribution of lifestyle factors to variance in depression. This study examined associations between adolescent diet, physical activity and screen time behaviours and depressive symptomatology. A cross-sectional sample of year 8 and 10 students was recruited from 23 participating schools in 18 Victorian communities. Students were recruited using opt-out consent, resulting in 3295 participants from 4680 registered school enrolments (Participation Rate: 70.4%). Participants completed a supervised self-report questionnaire comprising Moods and Feelings Questionnaire-Short Form, an assessment of physical activity and sedentary behaviours during and outside school, and weekly food intake. Surveyed covariates included hours of sleep per night, age, socio-economic status and measured anthropometry. A hierarchical regression stratified by gender was conducted, with dichotomised Moods and Feelings Questionnaire-Short Form score as the outcome, and screen time, physical activity and dietary patterns as predictors. Nested regression analyses were then conducted to ascertain the variance in Moods and Feelings Questionnaire-Short Form score attributable to each significant predictor from the initial regression. Increased scores on an unhealthy dietary pattern (odds ratio = 1.18; 95% confidence interval = [1.07, 1.32]) and physical activity guideline attainment (0.91; [0.85, 0.97]) were associated with depressive symptomatology in males, while screen time guideline attainment (0.95; [0.91, 0.98]) was associated with depression in females. No association was observed between healthy diet pattern and Moods and Feelings Questionnaire-Short Form. Overall, effect sizes were generally small, and the regression model accounted for 5.22% of

  17. The correlation between tonsil size and academic performance is not a direct one, but the results of various factors

    Kargoshaie, AA; Najafi, M; Akhlaghi, M; Khazraie, HR; Hekmatdoost, A

    2009-01-01

    Chronic upper airway obstruction most often occurs when both tonsils and adenoid are enlarged but may occur when either is enlarged. Obstructive sleep syndrome in young children has been reported to be associated with an adverse effect on learning and academic performance. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of relative size of the tonsil on academic performance in 4th grade school children. In 320 children, physical examination to determine the size of tonsils was performed by t...

  18. Dissection of Genetic Factors underlying Wheat Kernel Shape and Size in an Elite × Nonadapted Cross using a High Density SNP Linkage Map

    Ajay Kumar

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Wheat kernel shape and size has been under selection since early domestication. Kernel morphology is a major consideration in wheat breeding, as it impacts grain yield and quality. A population of 160 recombinant inbred lines (RIL, developed using an elite (ND 705 and a nonadapted genotype (PI 414566, was extensively phenotyped in replicated field trials and genotyped using Infinium iSelect 90K assay to gain insight into the genetic architecture of kernel shape and size. A high density genetic map consisting of 10,172 single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP markers, with an average marker density of 0.39 cM/marker, identified a total of 29 genomic regions associated with six grain shape and size traits; ∼80% of these regions were associated with multiple traits. The analyses showed that kernel length (KL and width (KW are genetically independent, while a large number (∼59% of the quantitative trait loci (QTL for kernel shape traits were in common with genomic regions associated with kernel size traits. The most significant QTL was identified on chromosome 4B, and could be an ortholog of major rice grain size and shape gene or . Major and stable loci also were identified on the homeologous regions of Group 5 chromosomes, and in the regions of (6A and (7A genes. Both parental genotypes contributed equivalent positive QTL alleles, suggesting that the nonadapted germplasm has a great potential for enhancing the gene pool for grain shape and size. This study provides new knowledge on the genetic dissection of kernel morphology, with a much higher resolution, which may aid further improvement in wheat yield and quality using genomic tools.

  19. Dissection of Genetic Factors underlying Wheat Kernel Shape and Size in an Elite × Nonadapted Cross using a High Density SNP Linkage Map.

    Kumar, Ajay; Mantovani, E E; Seetan, R; Soltani, A; Echeverry-Solarte, M; Jain, S; Simsek, S; Doehlert, D; Alamri, M S; Elias, E M; Kianian, S F; Mergoum, M

    2016-03-01

    Wheat kernel shape and size has been under selection since early domestication. Kernel morphology is a major consideration in wheat breeding, as it impacts grain yield and quality. A population of 160 recombinant inbred lines (RIL), developed using an elite (ND 705) and a nonadapted genotype (PI 414566), was extensively phenotyped in replicated field trials and genotyped using Infinium iSelect 90K assay to gain insight into the genetic architecture of kernel shape and size. A high density genetic map consisting of 10,172 single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) markers, with an average marker density of 0.39 cM/marker, identified a total of 29 genomic regions associated with six grain shape and size traits; ∼80% of these regions were associated with multiple traits. The analyses showed that kernel length (KL) and width (KW) are genetically independent, while a large number (∼59%) of the quantitative trait loci (QTL) for kernel shape traits were in common with genomic regions associated with kernel size traits. The most significant QTL was identified on chromosome 4B, and could be an ortholog of major rice grain size and shape gene or . Major and stable loci also were identified on the homeologous regions of Group 5 chromosomes, and in the regions of (6A) and (7A) genes. Both parental genotypes contributed equivalent positive QTL alleles, suggesting that the nonadapted germplasm has a great potential for enhancing the gene pool for grain shape and size. This study provides new knowledge on the genetic dissection of kernel morphology, with a much higher resolution, which may aid further improvement in wheat yield and quality using genomic tools. Copyright © 2016 Crop Science Society of America.

  20. Elevated insulin and reduced insulin like growth factor binding protein-3/prostate specific antigen ratio with increase in prostate size in Benign Prostatic Hyperplasia.

    Sreenivasulu, Karli; Nandeesha, Hanumanthappa; Dorairajan, Lalgudi Narayanan; Rajappa, Medha; Vinayagam, Vickneshwaran

    2017-06-01

    Insulin and insulin like growth factor-1 (IGF-1) have growth promoting effects, while insulin like growth factor binding protein-3 (IGFBP-3) has growth inhibitory effects. The present study was designed to assess the concentrations of insulin, IGF-1, IGFBP-3 and their association with prostate size in patients with BPH. Ninety 90 BPH cases and 90 controls were enrolled in the study. Insulin, IGF-1, IGFBP-3, PSA, testosterone and estradiol were estimated in both the groups. Insulin, IGF-1 and estradiol were increased and IGFBP-3/PSA was decreased in BPH cases when compared with controls. Insulin (r=0.64, p=0.001) and IGF-1 (r=0.22, p=0.03) were positively correlated and IGFBP-3/PSA (r=-0.316, p=0.002) were negatively correlated with prostate size in BPH. Multivariate analysis showed that insulin (p=0.001) and IGFBP-3/PSA (p=0.004) predicts the prostate size in patients with BPH. Insulin was increased and IGFBP-3/PSA was reduced in BPH patients with increased prostate size. At a cutoff concentration of 527.52, IGFBP-3/PSA ratio was found to differentiate benign growth of prostate from normal prostate with 96% sensitivity and 96% specificity. Insulin is elevated and IGFBP-3/PSA is reduced with increase prostate size in BPH cases. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Influencing factors on the size uniformity of self-assembled SiGe quantum rings grown by molecular beam epitaxy.

    Cui, J; Lv, Y; Yang, X J; Fan, Y L; Zhong, Z; Jiang, Z M

    2011-03-25

    The size uniformity of self-assembled SiGe quantum rings, which are formed by capping SiGe quantum dots with a thin Si layer, is found to be greatly influenced by the growth temperature and the areal density of SiGe quantum dots. Higher growth temperature benefits the size uniformity of quantum dots, but results in low Ge concentration as well as asymmetric Ge distribution in the dots, which induces the subsequently formed quantum rings to be asymmetric in shape or even broken somewhere in the ridge of rings. Low growth temperature degrades the size uniformity of quantum dots, and thus that of quantum rings. A high areal density results in the expansion and coalescence of neighboring quantum dots to form a chain, rather than quantum rings. Uniform quantum rings with a size dispersion of 4.6% and an areal density of 7.8×10(8) cm(-2) are obtained at the optimized growth temperature of 640°C.

  2. Size-resolved particle number emission patterns under real-world driving conditions using positive matrix factorization

    Domínguez-Sáez, A.; Viana, M.; Barrios, C.C.; Rubio, J.R.; Amato, F.; Pujadas, M.; Querol, X.

    2012-01-01

    A novel on-board system was tested to characterize size-resolved particle number emission patterns under real-world driving conditions, running in a EURO4 diesel vehicle and in a typical urban circuit in Madrid (Spain). Emission profiles were determined as a function of driving conditions. Source

  3. An Artificial Neural Network Based Analysis of Factors Controlling Particle Size in a Virgin Coconut Oil-Based Nanoemulsion System Containing Copper Peptide.

    Samson, Shazwani; Basri, Mahiran; Fard Masoumi, Hamid Reza; Abdul Malek, Emilia; Abedi Karjiban, Roghayeh

    2016-01-01

    A predictive model of a virgin coconut oil (VCO) nanoemulsion system for the topical delivery of copper peptide (an anti-aging compound) was developed using an artificial neural network (ANN) to investigate the factors that influence particle size. Four independent variables including the amount of VCO, Tween 80: Pluronic F68 (T80:PF68), xanthan gum and water were the inputs whereas particle size was taken as the response for the trained network. Genetic algorithms (GA) were used to model the data which were divided into training sets, testing sets and validation sets. The model obtained indicated the high quality performance of the neural network and its capability to identify the critical composition factors for the VCO nanoemulsion. The main factor controlling the particle size was found out to be xanthan gum (28.56%) followed by T80:PF68 (26.9%), VCO (22.8%) and water (21.74%). The formulation containing copper peptide was then successfully prepared using optimum conditions and particle sizes of 120.7 nm were obtained. The final formulation exhibited a zeta potential lower than -25 mV and showed good physical stability towards centrifugation test, freeze-thaw cycle test and storage at temperature 25°C and 45°C.

  4. An Artificial Neural Network Based Analysis of Factors Controlling Particle Size in a Virgin Coconut Oil-Based Nanoemulsion System Containing Copper Peptide.

    Shazwani Samson

    Full Text Available A predictive model of a virgin coconut oil (VCO nanoemulsion system for the topical delivery of copper peptide (an anti-aging compound was developed using an artificial neural network (ANN to investigate the factors that influence particle size. Four independent variables including the amount of VCO, Tween 80: Pluronic F68 (T80:PF68, xanthan gum and water were the inputs whereas particle size was taken as the response for the trained network. Genetic algorithms (GA were used to model the data which were divided into training sets, testing sets and validation sets. The model obtained indicated the high quality performance of the neural network and its capability to identify the critical composition factors for the VCO nanoemulsion. The main factor controlling the particle size was found out to be xanthan gum (28.56% followed by T80:PF68 (26.9%, VCO (22.8% and water (21.74%. The formulation containing copper peptide was then successfully prepared using optimum conditions and particle sizes of 120.7 nm were obtained. The final formulation exhibited a zeta potential lower than -25 mV and showed good physical stability towards centrifugation test, freeze-thaw cycle test and storage at temperature 25°C and 45°C.

  5. An Artificial Neural Network Based Analysis of Factors Controlling Particle Size in a Virgin Coconut Oil-Based Nanoemulsion System Containing Copper Peptide

    Samson, Shazwani; Basri, Mahiran; Fard Masoumi, Hamid Reza; Abdul Malek, Emilia; Abedi Karjiban, Roghayeh

    2016-01-01

    A predictive model of a virgin coconut oil (VCO) nanoemulsion system for the topical delivery of copper peptide (an anti-aging compound) was developed using an artificial neural network (ANN) to investigate the factors that influence particle size. Four independent variables including the amount of VCO, Tween 80: Pluronic F68 (T80:PF68), xanthan gum and water were the inputs whereas particle size was taken as the response for the trained network. Genetic algorithms (GA) were used to model the data which were divided into training sets, testing sets and validation sets. The model obtained indicated the high quality performance of the neural network and its capability to identify the critical composition factors for the VCO nanoemulsion. The main factor controlling the particle size was found out to be xanthan gum (28.56%) followed by T80:PF68 (26.9%), VCO (22.8%) and water (21.74%). The formulation containing copper peptide was then successfully prepared using optimum conditions and particle sizes of 120.7 nm were obtained. The final formulation exhibited a zeta potential lower than -25 mV and showed good physical stability towards centrifugation test, freeze-thaw cycle test and storage at temperature 25°C and 45°C. PMID:27383135

  6. Plant size and abiotic factors determine the intra-specific variation in the multi-stemmed architecture of Prunus lusitanica in the Northeast limit of its global distribution

    A. Muñoz Costa

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Aim of study: The present work provides novel insights on factors (either intrinsic or extrinsic that trigger sprouting in woody species living at range margins. We aim to explain the inter-individual variability in the multi-stemmed architecture of Prunus lusitanica L., an Iberian evergreen relict tree related to the Tertiary flora.Area of study: Northeastern Mediterranean mountains of the Iberian Peninsula, the Northeast limit of the global distribution of the species.Material and Methods: We gathered data on two modes of vegetative reproduction, basal and layering sprouts, in 288 clumps of Prunus lusitanica from four populations. We modeled and analyzed the effect of environmental factors (topography, canopy cover, soil moisture and disturbances and plant size (diameter at breast height on sprouting by means of Generalized Linear Model and other statistical approaches.Main results: Plant size arises as the principal factor to explain the variability of the numbers of both types of sprouts yet it is not a trigger factor. Natural and anthropogenic disturbances promote basal and layering shoots, while tree canopy is mainly relevant for basal shoots, and slope and soil moisture are significant factors for layering shoots.Research highlights: The multi-stemmed architecture of P. lusitanica at the Northeastern limit of its worldwide distribution is triggered by local environmental factors and disturbances. Each external factor shows different levels of influence on the variability and type of vegetative reproduction yet the intensity of the response is driven by the size of the largest trunk of each clump.Key words: vegetative reproduction; sprouting; disturbances; woody plants; relict tree; subtropical; Iberian Peninsula.

  7. Changes in lymphocytes size under chronic exposure of the organism to factors of radiation and chemical origin

    Ivanov, V.V.

    1990-01-01

    Results of the analysis of changes in peripheral blood lymphocytes size under chronic exposure to external gamma radiation and pesticide chlorofoz in combination and separately are presented. It has been found out that under exposure of animals to radiation or the pesticide it is small and big lymphocytes respectively which most significantly suffer quantitatively. Under the joint radiational-chemical exposure of the organism the number of both types of cells is reduced simultaneously

  8. Part 8. Deployment considerations

    Dance, K.D.; Chang, Y.I.; Daly, T.A.

    1980-01-01

    This report addresses considerations of fast breeder reactor development and deployment from a national perspective. Nations vary greatly in their expertise and interest relative to nuclear power, and hence a single set of steps to be taken by a nation in decision-making on breeder development and deployment cannot be presented. The approach taken in this report is to present discussions on key factors influencing the breeder development and deployment decisions, especially in non-breeder nations, by drawing upon historical perspectives of the Light Water Reactor for comparison

  9. Factors Affecting Choice in A Multi-Stage Model: The Influence of Saliency and Similarity on Retrieval Set and the Implication of Context Effect on Consideration Set

    Eric Santosa

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available While it is considered a new paradigm in consumer research, the multi-stage model of consumer decision-making remains unclear as to whether brands are easily retrieved. Likewise, the process of consideration, after particular brands are successfully retrieved, is still in question. This study purports to investigate the effects of saliency and similarity on the ease of retrieval. In addition, referring to some studies of context effect, the effects of attraction, compromise, and assimilation are examined to observe whether they contribute to consideration. A within-subject design is employed in this study. Previously, three preliminary studies are arranged to determine the dominants, new entrants, attributes, and other criteria nominated in the experimental study. The results turn out to be supporting the hypotheses.

  10. Large breast size as a risk factor for late adverse effects of breast radiotherapy: Is residual dose inhomogeneity, despite 3D treatment planning and delivery, the main explanation?

    Goldsmith, Christy; Haviland, Joanne; Tsang, Yat; Sydenham, Mark; Yarnold, John

    2011-01-01

    Background and Purpose: Large breast size is associated with an increased risk of late adverse effects after breast conservation surgery and radiotherapy, even when 3D dosimetry is used. The purpose of this study is to test the hypothesis that residual dose inhomogeneity is sufficient to explain the association. Methods: Patients previously treated after breast conservation surgery with whole breast radiotherapy using 3D dosimetry and followed up in the UK FAST hypofractionation trial were selected for this analysis. The residual level of dose inhomogeneity across the whole breast treatment volume was used to test for association between residual dosimetry and post-treatment change in breast appearance at 2 years post-radiotherapy. Results: At 2 years, 201/279 (72%) of women had no change in photographic breast appearance, 61 (22%) had mild change and 17 (6%) had marked change. Breast size and dosimetry were both significantly associated with late effects in univariate analyses, but only breast size remained an independent significant risk factor for change in breast appearance when included in a multiple regression model together with other prognostic factors (p = 0.006 for trend). Conclusion: Large-breasted women are more likely to suffer change in breast size and shape after whole breast radiotherapy delivered using 3D dosimetry, but residual dose inhomogeneity is insufficient to explain the association.

  11. Sustainable Sizing.

    Robinette, Kathleen M; Veitch, Daisy

    2016-08-01

    To provide a review of sustainable sizing practices that reduce waste, increase sales, and simultaneously produce safer, better fitting, accommodating products. Sustainable sizing involves a set of methods good for both the environment (sustainable environment) and business (sustainable business). Sustainable sizing methods reduce (1) materials used, (2) the number of sizes or adjustments, and (3) the amount of product unsold or marked down for sale. This reduces waste and cost. The methods can also increase sales by fitting more people in the target market and produce happier, loyal customers with better fitting products. This is a mini-review of methods that result in more sustainable sizing practices. It also reviews and contrasts current statistical and modeling practices that lead to poor fit and sizing. Fit-mapping and the use of cases are two excellent methods suited for creating sustainable sizing, when real people (vs. virtual people) are used. These methods are described and reviewed. Evidence presented supports the view that virtual fitting with simulated people and products is not yet effective. Fit-mapping and cases with real people and actual products result in good design and products that are fit for person, fit for purpose, with good accommodation and comfortable, optimized sizing. While virtual models have been shown to be ineffective for predicting or representing fit, there is an opportunity to improve them by adding fit-mapping data to the models. This will require saving fit data, product data, anthropometry, and demographics in a standardized manner. For this success to extend to the wider design community, the development of a standardized method of data collection for fit-mapping with a globally shared fit-map database is needed. It will enable the world community to build knowledge of fit and accommodation and generate effective virtual fitting for the future. A standardized method of data collection that tests products' fit methodically

  12. ASSESSMENT OF HEALTH RELATED QUALITY OF LIFE IN POLY CYSTIC OVARIAN SYNDROME PATIENTS AND FACTORS AFFECTING OVARIAN FOLLICULAR SIZE

    S.Prathyusha , Syed Umar Farooq , Dr.A.Narsimha Reddy , Dr.D.Sudheer kumar , Dr.P.Kishore*

    2017-01-01

    Polycystic ovarian syndrome (PCOS) is defined as the presence of hyperandrogenism (clinically and/or biochemically) chronic anovulation in the absence of specific adrenal pituitary gland abnormality. The clinical features of PCOS are Hyperandrogens, Hirsutism, Acne, Obesity, Insulin resistance. The impact of these symptoms on a woman quality of life may be profound and can results in psychological distress that threatens her feminine identity. The study shows factors impacting quality of life...

  13. Factors controlling the population size of microbes in groundwater from AECL's Underground Research Laboratory

    Stroes-Gascoyne, S.; Hamon, C. [Atomic Energy of Canada Limited, Whiteshell Labs., Pinawa, Manitoba (Canada); Mills, K. [University of Saskatoon, Saskatoon, SK (Canada); Rana, S.; Vaidyanathan, S. [Deep River Science Academy, Whiteshell Campus Summer 1997, Pinawa, Manitoba (Canada)

    2001-01-01

    Microbial populations in groundwaters from AECL's Underground Research Laboratory (URL) range from 10{sup 3} to 10{sup 5} cells/mL. Based on the total dissolved organic carbon (DOC), nitrate and phosphate content of these waters, populations of about 10{sup 5} to 10{sup 7} cells/mL should be possible. Upon storage of groundwater samples, total cell counts generally increase and viable cell counts always increase. A study was undertaken to determine what controls the in situ microbial population size in groundwater and what causes this population to grow upon sampling. Fresh URL groundwater was filter-sterilized, inoculated with small quantities of the unaltered water and incubated in the absence and presence of added nutrients (nitrate, phosphate and glucose). Unfiltered groundwater and R2A growth medium inoculated with unaltered groundwater, were also incubated. Microbial changes over time were followed by total and viable (on R2A medium) cell counts. Results showed that in the absence of any nutrient addition, populations grew to between 5 x 10{sup 5} to 4 x 10{sup 6} cells/mL, regardless of the initial size of the population ({approx}10{sup 1} to 10{sup 4} cells/mL), suggesting that nutrients for growth were available in the unamended groundwater. It was hypothesized that the original groundwater population was in 'equilibrium' with the underground environment, which likely included a large population of sessile cells in biofilms on fracture surfaces. Sampling of the groundwater removed the large demand on nutrient supplies by the sessile population which subsequently allowed the planktonic population to grow to a new 'equilibrium' with the available nutrients in the sample bottles. Addition of single nutrients (C, N or P) did not increase cell numbers, suggesting that more than one nutrient is limiting growth. Glucose was used very efficiently aerobically in the presence of both added N and P, but somewhat less under anaerobic

  14. Organizational-level interventions in small and medium-sized enterprises: Enabling and inhibiting factors in the PoWRS program

    Ipsen, Christine; Gish, Liv; Poulsen, Signe

    2015-01-01

    Work-related stress in small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs) is an increasing problem. However, knowledge regarding organizational-level interventions in SMEs is limited, and SMEs often lack professional facilitator resources to assist in change processes. An intervention program developed...... for large corporations, the PoWRS (Prevention of Work-Related Stress) program, has been modified to fit the conditions in SMEs, i.e., appointing employees as in-house facilitators. The aim of this paper is to examine the enablers and inhibiting factors of the PoWRS program when applied in four Danish SMEs....... Three out of four of the case companies succeeded in implementing the program. The enablers and inhibiting factors related to three themes: persons and roles, program components, and organizational context. Findings show that the primary enabling factors were the in-house employee facilitators...

  15. Development of LRFD procedures for bridge pile foundations in Iowa - volume III : recommended resistance factors with consideration of construction control and setup.

    2012-02-01

    The Federal Highway Administration (FHWA) mandated utilizing the Load and Resistance Factor Design (LRFD) approach for all new bridges initiated in the United States after October 1, 2007. As a result, there has been a progressive move among state De...

  16. Human factors considerations for the integration of unmanned aerial vehicles in the National Airspace System : an analysis of reports submitted to the Aviation Safety Reporting System (ASRS)

    2017-06-06

    Successful integration of Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (UAV) operations into the National Airspace System requires the identification and mitigation of operational risks. This report reviews human factors issues that have been identified in operational as...

  17. Particle size distribution, chemical composition and meteorological factor analysis: A case study during wintertime snow cover in Zhengzhou, China

    Yu, Fei; Wang, Qun; Yan, Qishe; Jiang, Nan; Wei, Junhua; Wei, Zhiyuan; Yin, Shasha

    2018-04-01

    There was a significant snowfall event in North China from November 23 to 25 in 2015. Considering that most of the bare surface and road dust were covered by snow, the effect of dust and soil could be ignored. Atmospheric particle samples were collected in Zhengzhou, China during a haze event from November 28 to December 4, 2015. To better understand the formation and evolution of this hazy event, the size distribution, particle number, composition of particles and meteorological parameters were measured and analyzed. Results show that the meteorological conditions played an important role in the occurrence and elimination of this event. The hourly fine particle matter (PM2.5) concentration was positively correlated with relative humidity (r = 0.84, p NH4+) on hazy days was higher than that on clean days. The higher NH4+ concentration in this case may be contributed by traffic and coal-power emission. Crustal matter accounted for 2.4% in PM2.5 on hazy days, and it confirmed that the contribution of dust emission source was negligible during this event. The ratios of NO3-/SO42 - ranging from 0.41 to 0.67 indicated the relative importance of stationary combustion. The ratios of OC/EC varied from 2.73 to 3.42 and indicated the presence of secondary organic carbon. Effective haze mitigation should enforce pollutant control measures for primary emission (dust) and secondary aerosol gaseous precursor (NH3, NO2 and SO2).

  18. Laboratory investigation of the factors impact on bubble size, pore blocking and enhanced oil recovery with aqueous Colloidal Gas Aphron.

    Shi, Shenglong; Wang, Yefei; Li, Zhongpeng; Chen, Qingguo; Zhao, Zenghao

    Colloidal Gas Aphron as a mobility control in enhanced oil recovery is becoming attractive; it is also designed to block porous media with micro-bubbles. In this paper, the effects of surfactant concentration, polymer concentration, temperature and salinity on the bubble size of the Colloidal Gas Aphron were studied. Effects of injection rates, Colloidal Gas Aphron fluid composition, heterogeneity of reservoir on the resistance to the flow of Colloidal Gas Aphron fluid through porous media were investigated. Effects of Colloidal Gas Aphron fluid composition and temperature on residual oil recovery were also studied. The results showed that bubble growth rate decreased with increasing surfactant concentration, polymer concentration, and decreasing temperature, while it decreased and then increased slightly with increasing salinity. The obvious increase of injection pressure was observed as more Colloidal Gas Aphron fluid was injected, indicating that Colloidal Gas Aphron could block the pore media effectively. The effectiveness of the best blend obtained through homogeneous sandpack flood tests was modestly improved in the heterogeneous sandpack. The tertiary oil recovery increased 26.8 % by Colloidal Gas Aphron fluid as compared to 20.3 % by XG solution when chemical solution of 1 PV was injected into the sandpack. The maximum injected pressure of Colloidal Gas Aphron fluid was about three times that of the XG solution. As the temperature increased, the Colloidal Gas Aphron fluid became less stable; the maximum injection pressure and tertiary oil recovery of Colloidal Gas Aphron fluid decreased.

  19. Prevalence and associated risk factors of dyslexic children in a middle-sized city of China: a cross-sectional study.

    Sun, Zhao; Zou, Li; Zhang, Jiajia; Mo, Shengnan; Shao, Shanshan; Zhong, Rong; Ke, Juntao; Lu, Xuzai; Miao, Xiaoping; Song, Ranran

    2013-01-01

    There are many discussions about dyslexia based on studies conducted in western countries, and some risk factors to dyslexia, such as gender and home literacy environment, have been widely accepted based on these studies. However, to our knowledge, there are few studies focusing on the risk factors of dyslexia in China. Therefore, the aim of our study was to investigate the prevalence of dyslexia and its potential risk factors. A cross-sectional study was conducted in Qianjiang, a city in Hubei province, China. Two stages sampling strategy was applied to randomly selected 5 districts and 9 primary schools in Qianjiang. In total, 6,350 students participated in this study and there were 5,063 valid student questionnaires obtained for the final analyses. Additional questionnaires (such as Dyslexia Checklist for Chinese Children and Pupil Rating Scale) were used to identify dyslexic children. The chi-square test and multivariate logistic regression were employed to reveal the potential risk factors to dyslexia. Our study revealed that the prevalence of dyslexia was 3.9% in Qianjiang city, which is a middle-sized city in China. Among dyslexic children, the gender ratio (boys to girls) was nearly 3∶1. According to the P-value in the multivariate logistic regression, the gender (Pdyslexia. The prevalence rate of dyslexic children in middle-sized cities is 3.9%. The potential risk factors of dyslexic children revealed in this study will have a great impact on detecting and treating dyslexic children in China as early as possible, although more studies are still needed to further investigate the risk factors of dyslexic children in China.

  20. Impact of Social and Built Environment Factors on Body Size among Breast Cancer Survivors: The Pathways Study.

    Shariff-Marco, Salma; Von Behren, Julie; Reynolds, Peggy; Keegan, Theresa H M; Hertz, Andrew; Kwan, Marilyn L; Roh, Janise M; Thomsen, Catherine; Kroenke, Candyce H; Ambrosone, Christine; Kushi, Lawrence H; Gomez, Scarlett Lin

    2017-04-01

    Background: As social and built environment factors have been shown to be associated with physical activity, dietary patterns, and obesity in the general population, they likely also influence these health behaviors among cancer survivors and thereby impact survivorship outcomes. Methods: Enhancing the rich, individual-level survey and medical record data from 4,505 breast cancer survivors in the Pathways Study, a prospective cohort drawn from Kaiser Permanente Northern California, we geocoded baseline residential addresses and appended social and built environment data. With multinomial logistic models, we examined associations between neighborhood characteristics and body mass index and whether neighborhood factors explained racial/ethnic/nativity disparities in overweight/obesity. Results: Low neighborhood socioeconomic status, high minority composition, high traffic density, high prevalence of commuting by car, and a higher number of fast food restaurants were independently associated with higher odds of overweight or obesity. The higher odds of overweight among African Americans, U.S.-born Asian Americans/Pacific Islanders, and foreign-born Hispanics and the higher odds of obesity among African Americans and U.S.-born Hispanics, compared with non-Hispanic whites, remained significant, although somewhat attenuated, when accounting for social and built environment features. Conclusions: Addressing aspects of neighborhood environments may help breast cancer survivors maintain a healthy body weight. Impact: Further research in this area, such as incorporating data on individuals' perceptions and use of their neighborhood environments, is needed to ultimately inform multilevel interventions that would ameliorate such disparities and improve outcomes for breast cancer survivors, regardless of their social status (e.g., race/ethnicity, socioeconomic status, nativity). Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev; 26(4); 505-15. ©2017 AACR See all the articles in this CEBP Focus

  1. Influence of Maternal Undernutrition and Overfeeding on Cardiac Ciliary Neurotrophic Factor Receptor and Ventricular Size in Fetal Sheep

    Dong, Feng; Ford, Stephen P.; Nijland, Mark J.; Nathanielsz, Peter W.; Ren, Jun

    2008-01-01

    Intrauterine nutrition status is reported to correlate with risk of cardiovascular diseases in adulthood. Either under- or over-nutrition during early to mid gestation contributes to altered fetal growth and ventricular geometry. This study was designed to examine myocardial expression of ciliary neurotrophic factor receptor α (CTNFRα) and its down-stream mediator signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (STAT3) on maternal under- or over-nutrition-induced changes in fetal heart weight. Multiparous ewes were fed with 50% (nutrient-restricted, NR), 100% (control) or 150% (overfed, OF) of NRC requirements from 28 to 78 days of gestation (dG; Term 148 dG). Ewes were euthanized on day 78, and the gravid uteri and fetuses recovered. Ventricular protein expression of CTNFRα, STAT3, phosphorylated STAT3, insulin-like growth factor I receptor (IGF-1R) and IGF binding protein 3 (IGFBP3) were quantitated using western blot. Plasma cortisol levels were higher in both NR and OF fetuses whereas plasma IGF-1 levels were lower and higher, in NR and OF fetuses. Fetal weights were reduced by 29.9% in NR ewes and were increased by 22.2% in fetuses from OF ewes compared to control group. Nutrient restriction did not affect fetal heart or ventricular weights whereas overfeeding increased heart and ventricular weights. Protein expression of CTNFRα in fetal ventricular tissue was reduced in OF group whereas STAT3 and pSTAT3 levels were reduced in both NR and OF groups. Expression of IGF-1R and IGFBP3 was unaffected in either NR or OF group. These data suggested that compared with maternal undernutrition, intrauterine overfeeding during early to mid gestation is associated with increases fetal blood concentrations of cortisol and IGF-1 in association with ventricular hypertrophy where reduced expression of CNTFRα and STAT3 may play a role. PMID:17869083

  2. Fast matrix factorization algorithm for DOSY based on the eigenvalue decomposition and the difference approximation focusing on the size of observed matrix

    Tanaka, Yuho; Uruma, Kazunori; Furukawa, Toshihiro; Nakao, Tomoki; Izumi, Kenya; Utsumi, Hiroaki

    2017-01-01

    This paper deals with an analysis problem for diffusion-ordered NMR spectroscopy (DOSY). DOSY is formulated as a matrix factorization problem of a given observed matrix. In order to solve this problem, a direct exponential curve resolution algorithm (DECRA) is well known. DECRA is based on singular value decomposition; the advantage of this algorithm is that the initial value is not required. However, DECRA requires a long calculating time, depending on the size of the given observed matrix due to the singular value decomposition, and this is a serious problem in practical use. Thus, this paper proposes a new analysis algorithm for DOSY to achieve a short calculating time. In order to solve matrix factorization for DOSY without using singular value decomposition, this paper focuses on the size of the given observed matrix. The observed matrix in DOSY is also a rectangular matrix with more columns than rows, due to limitation of the measuring time; thus, the proposed algorithm transforms the given observed matrix into a small observed matrix. The proposed algorithm applies the eigenvalue decomposition and the difference approximation to the small observed matrix, and the matrix factorization problem for DOSY is solved. The simulation and a data analysis show that the proposed algorithm achieves a lower calculating time than DECRA as well as similar analysis result results to DECRA. (author)

  3. Burnout in intensive care units - a consideration of the possible prevalence and frequency of new risk factors: a descriptive correlational multicentre study.

    Teixeira, Carla; Ribeiro, Orquídea; Fonseca, António Manuel; Carvalho, Ana Sofia

    2013-10-31

    The provision of Intensive Care (IC) can lead to a health care provider's physical, psychological and emotional exhaustion, which may develop into burnout. We notice the absence of specific studies regarding this syndrome in Portuguese Intensive Care Units (ICUs). Our main objective is to study the incidence and risk factors of burnout in Portuguese ICUs. A self-fulfilment questionnaire containing 3 items: (i) socio-demographic data of the study population; (ii) experiences in the workplace; (iii) Maslach Burnout Inventory (MBI) - was applied to evaluate the influence of distinct factors on the prevalence of burnout among physicians and nurses working in ICUs. Three hundred professionals (82 physicians and 218 nurses) from ten ICUs were included in the study, out of a total of 445 who were eligible. There was a high rate of burnout among professionals working in Portuguese ICUs, with 31% having a high level of burnout. However, when burnout levels among nurses and physicians were compared, no significant difference was found. Using multivariate analysis, we identified gender as being a risk factor, where female status increases the risk of burnout. In addition, higher levels of burnout were associated with conflicts and ethical decision making regarding withdrawing treatments. Having a temporary work contract was also identified as a risk factor. Conversely, working for another service of the same health care institution acts as a protective factor. A high rate of burnout was identified among professionals working in Portuguese ICUs. This study highlights some new risk factors for burnout (ethical decision making, temporary work contracts), and also protective ones (maintaining activity in other settings outside the ICU) that were not previously reported. Preventive and interventive programmes to avoid and reduce burnout syndrome are of paramount importance in the future organization of ICUs and should take the above results into account.

  4. Burnout in intensive care units - a consideration of the possible prevalence and frequency of new risk factors: a descriptive correlational multicentre study

    2013-01-01

    Background The provision of Intensive Care (IC) can lead to a health care provider’s physical, psychological and emotional exhaustion, which may develop into burnout. We notice the absence of specific studies regarding this syndrome in Portuguese Intensive Care Units (ICUs). Our main objective is to study the incidence and risk factors of burnout in Portuguese ICUs. Methods A self-fulfilment questionnaire containing 3 items: (i) socio-demographic data of the study population; (ii) experiences in the workplace; (iii) Maslach Burnout Inventory (MBI) - was applied to evaluate the influence of distinct factors on the prevalence of burnout among physicians and nurses working in ICUs. Results Three hundred professionals (82 physicians and 218 nurses) from ten ICUs were included in the study, out of a total of 445 who were eligible. There was a high rate of burnout among professionals working in Portuguese ICUs, with 31% having a high level of burnout. However, when burnout levels among nurses and physicians were compared, no significant difference was found. Using multivariate analysis, we identified gender as being a risk factor, where female status increases the risk of burnout. In addition, higher levels of burnout were associated with conflicts and ethical decision making regarding withdrawing treatments. Having a temporary work contract was also identified as a risk factor. Conversely, working for another service of the same health care institution acts as a protective factor. Conclusions A high rate of burnout was identified among professionals working in Portuguese ICUs. This study highlights some new risk factors for burnout (ethical decision making, temporary work contracts), and also protective ones (maintaining activity in other settings outside the ICU) that were not previously reported. Preventive and interventive programmes to avoid and reduce burnout syndrome are of paramount importance in the future organization of ICUs and should take the above results

  5. Molecular size is important for the safety and selective inhibition of intrinsic factor Xase for fucosylated chondroitin sulfate.

    Yan, Lufeng; Li, Junhui; Wang, Danli; Ding, Tian; Hu, Yaqin; Ye, Xingqian; Linhardt, Robert J; Chen, Shiguo

    2017-12-15

    Fucosylated chondroitin sulfate from sea cucumber Isostichopus badionotus (FCS-Ib) showed potent anticoagulant activities without selectivity. The present study focused on developing safe FCS-Ib oligomers showing selective inhibition of intrinsic factor Xase (anti-FXase) prepared through partial N-deacetylation-deaminative cleavage. The N-deacetylation degree was regulated by reaction time, controlling the resulting oligomer distribution. Structure analysis confirmed the selectivity of degradation, and 12 high purity fractions with trisaccharide-repeating units were separated. In vitro anticoagulant assays indicated a decrease in molecular weight (Mw) dramatically reduced activated partial thromboplastin time (APTT), thrombin time (TT), AT-dependent anti-FIIa and anti-FXa activities, while the oligomers retained potent anti-FXase activity until they fell below 3kDa. Meanwhile, human FXII activation and platelet aggregation were markedly reduced with decreasing Mw and were moderate when under 12.0kDa. Thus, fragments of 3-12.0kDa should be safe and effective as selective inhibitors of intrinsic tenase complex for application as clinical anticoagulants. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Can vascular risk factors influence number and size of cerebral metastases? A 3D-MRI study in patients with different tumor entities.

    Nagel, Sandra; Berk, Benjamin-Andreas; Kortmann, Rolf-Dieter; Hoffmann, Karl-Titus; Seidel, Clemens

    2018-02-01

    There is increasing evidence that cerebral microangiopathy reduces number of brain metastases. Aim of this study was to analyse if vascular risk factors (arterial hypertension, diabetes mellitus, smoking, and hypercholesterolemia) or the presence of peripheral arterial occlusive disease (PAOD) can have an impact on number or size of brain metastases. 200 patients with pre-therapeutic 3D-brain MRI and available clinical data were analyzed retrospectively. Mean number of metastases (NoM) and mean diameter of metastases (mDM) were compared between patients with/without vascular risk factors (vasRF). No general correlation of vascular risk factors with brain metastases was found in this monocentric analysis of a patient cohort with several tumor types. Arterial hypertension, diabetes mellitus, hypercholesterolemia and smoking did not show an effect in uni- and multivariate analysis. In patients with PAOD the number of BM was lower than without PAOD. This was the case independent from cerebral microangiopathy but did not persist in multivariate analysis. From this first screening approach vascular risk factors do not appear to strongly influence brain metastasation. However, larger prospective multi-centric studies with better characterized severity of vascular risk are needed to more accurately detect effects of individual factors. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. mHealth Series: Factors influencing sample size calculations for mHealth–based studies – A mixed methods study in rural China

    van Velthoven, Michelle Helena; Li, Ye; Wang, Wei; Du, Xiaozhen; Chen, Li; Wu, Qiong; Majeed, Azeem; Zhang, Yanfeng; Car, Josip

    2013-01-01

    Background An important issue for mHealth evaluation is the lack of information for sample size calculations. Objective To explore factors that influence sample size calculations for mHealth–based studies and to suggest strategies for increasing the participation rate. Methods We explored factors influencing recruitment and follow–up of participants (caregivers of children) in an mHealth text messaging data collection cross–over study. With help of village doctors, we recruited 1026 (25%) caregivers of children under five out of the 4170 registered. To explore factors influencing recruitment and provide recommendations for improving recruitment, we conducted semi–structured interviews with village doctors. Of the 1014 included participants, 662 (65%) responded to the first question about willingness to participate, 538 (53%) responded to the first survey question and 356 (35%) completed the text message survey. To explore factors influencing follow–up and provide recommendations for improving follow–up, we conducted interviews with participants. We added views from the researchers who were involved in the study to contextualize the findings. Results We found several factors influencing recruitment related to the following themes: experiences with recruitment, village doctors’ work, village doctors’ motivations, caregivers’ characteristics, caregivers’ motivations. Village doctors gave several recommendations for ways to recruit more caregivers and we added our views to these. We found the following factors influencing follow–up: mobile phone usage, ability to use mobile phone, problems with mobile phone, checking mobile phone, available time, paying back text message costs, study incentives, subjective norm, culture, trust, perceived usefulness of process, perceived usefulness of outcome, perceived ease of use, attitude, behavioural intention to use, and actual use. From our perspective, factors influencing follow–up were: different

  8. Relative importance of social factors, conspecific density, and forest structure on space use by the endangered Red-cockaded Woodpecker: A new consideration for habitat restoration

    Garabedian, James E. [Fisheries, Wildlife, and Conservation Biology Program, North Carolina State University, Raleigh, North Carolina, USA; Moorman, Christopher E. [Fisheries, Wildlife, and Conservation Biology Program, North Carolina State University, Raleigh, North Carolina, USA; Peterson, M. Nils [Fisheries, Wildlife, and Conservation Biology Program, North Carolina State University, Raleigh, North Carolina, USA; Kilgo, John C. [Southern Research Station, USDA Forest Service, Savannah River, New Ellenton, South Carolina, USA

    2018-03-14

    Understanding how the interplay between social behaviors and habitat structure influences space use is important for conservation of birds in restored habitat. We integrated fine-grained LiDAR-derived habitat data, spatial distribution of cavity trees, and spatially explicit behavioral observations in a multi-scale model to determine the relative importance of conspecific density, intraspecific interactions, and the distribution of cavities on space use by Red-cockaded Woodpeckers (Picoides borealis) on 2 sites in South Carolina, USA. We evaluated candidate models using information theoretic methods. Top scale-specific models included effects of conspecific density and number of cavity tree starts within 200 m of Red-cockaded Woodpecker foraging locations, and effects of the number of intraspecific interactions within 400 m of Red-cockaded Woodpecker foraging locations. The top multi-scale model for 22 of 34 Red-cockaded Woodpecker groups included covariates for the number of groups within 200 m of foraging locations and LiDARderived habitat with moderate densities of large pines (Pinus spp.) and minimal hardwood overstory. These results indicate distribution of neighboring groups was the most important predictor of space use once a minimal set of structural habitat thresholds was reached, and that placing recruitment clusters as little as 400 m from foraging partitions of neighboring groups may promote establishment of new breeding groups in unoccupied habitat. The presence of neighboring groups likely provides cues to foraging Red-cockaded Woodpeckers that facilitate prospecting prior to juvenile dispersal and, to a lesser extent, indicates high-quality forage resources. Careful consideration of local distribution of neighboring groups in potential habitat may improve managers’ ability to increase Red-cockaded Woodpecker density on restored landscapes and mitigate isolation of Red-cockaded Woodpecker groups, a problem that negatively affects fitness across the

  9. A comparative study of factors influencing decisions on desired family size among married men and women in Bokkos, a rural local government area in Plateau state.

    Kahansim, Makshwar L; Hadejia, Idris S; Sambo, Mohammed N

    2013-03-01

    The total fertility rate of Nigerian women has remained high at 5.7. This is even higher for women in rural areas. Men and women in rural areas desire more children than those in urban areas. This study was aimed at describing and comparing the factors that influence family size decisions among men and women in Bokkos, a rural Local Government Area in Plateau state, Nigeria. A cross sectional descriptive comparative study was used. Data was collected using structured interviewer administered questionnaires. Seventy two percent of women and 83.6% of men who desire to have 1-4 children had at least a secondary school education. Close to seventy percent of both men and women would have fewer children if they are certain of their survival to adulthood. Over 50% of the respondents believe that the husbands should have the final say on family size decisions. Preference for male children influences decisions on family size among men and women in the study population.

  10. Results of a survey to determine demographic and business management factors associated with size and growth rate of rural mixed-animal veterinary practices.

    Brusk, Amy M; White, Brad J; Goehl, Dan R; Dhuyvetter, Kevin C

    2010-12-15

    To determine potential associations between demographic and business management factors and practice size and growth rate in rural mixed-animal veterinary practices. Cross-sectional survey. 54 mixed-animal practitioners. A cross-sectional survey (96 questions) was electronically disseminated. Responses were collected, and outcomes (number of veterinarians [NV], growth in number of veterinarians [NVG], gross practice income [GPI], growth in gross practice income [GPIG], gross practice income per veterinarian [GPIV], and growth in gross practice income per veterinarian [GPIVG]) were calculated. Bivariate analyses were performed and multivariable models created to determine associations between survey responses and outcomes of interest. Survey respondents were from mixed-animal practices, and most (46/54 [85.2%]) practiced in small communities (business manager. Typically, practices had positive mean growth in NVG (4.4%), GPIG (8.5%), and GPIVG (8.1%), but growth rate was highly variable among practices. Factors associated with growth rate included main species interest, frequency for adjusting prices, use of a marketing plan, service fee structure, and sending a client newsletter. Mixed-animal practices had a large range in size and growth rate. Economic indices were impacted by common business management practices.

  11. Identifying and Overcoming Barriers to Effective Consideration of Human and Organisational Factors in Event Analysis and Root Cause Analysis. Workshop Proceedings, September 21-22, 2009, Paris, France

    2011-01-01

    Nuclear licensees must have effective processes for learning from operating experience in order to manage safety, secure continuous improvement and defend against the potential for repeat events. These processes include root cause analysis (RCA) to identify the underlying causes of events and mechanisms to learn from these analyses and to implement improvements. Correctly identifying and correcting the causes of events will allow lessons to be learned and shared with others in the industry. The treatment of Human and Organisational Factors (HOF) in RCA is of special interest to WGHOF. It is estimated that approximately 60-80% of events in the nuclear industry can be attributed to human and organisational factors. Although the importance of correctly identifying the HOF causes is understood, there is still a tendency for the analysis to focus solely on the technical issues of the event. The history of prominent events across the major hazards sector shows that HOF lessons often fail to be learned. A NEA/CSNI special experts meeting entitled 'Identification of Barriers to Analyzing and Identifying Human and Organisational Factors in Root Cause Analysis' was held at the NEA Headquarters in Paris, France on September 21-22, 2009. A total of 17 participants from 10 countries representing licensee organisations, regulators, international organisations and an independent consultant attended the meeting. The meeting was structured to allow for small group discussions during which a number of themes were explored, followed by plenary discussion. There were also four papers presented which complemented the discussion themes. As set out in the objectives of this work, the participants identified barriers to the effective treatment of HOF in RCA and recommendations to mitigate the effects of these barriers. Many of the barriers and recommendations identified relate to the RCA process in general, not specifically to the treatment of HOF in the RCA process. This is logical, for

  12. Considerations in Spinal Fusion Surgery for Chronic Lumbar Pain: Psychosocial Factors, Rating Scales, and Perioperative Patient Education-A Review of the Literature.

    Gaudin, Daniel; Krafcik, Brianna M; Mansour, Tarek R; Alnemari, Ahmed

    2017-02-01

    Despite widespread use of lumbar spinal fusion as a treatment for back pain, outcomes remain variable. Optimizing patient selection can help to reduce adverse outcomes. This literature review was conducted to better understand factors associated with optimal postoperative results after lumbar spinal fusion for chronic back pain and current tools used for evaluation. The PubMed database was searched for clinical trials related to psychosocial determinants of outcome after lumbar spinal fusion surgery; evaluation of commonly used patient subjective outcome measures; and perioperative cognitive, behavioral, and educational therapies. Reference lists of included studies were also searched by hand for additional studies meeting inclusion and exclusion criteria. Patients' perception of good health before surgery and low cardiovascular comorbidity predict improved postoperative physical functional capacity and greater patient satisfaction. Depression, tobacco use, and litigation predict poorer outcomes after lumbar fusion. Incorporation of cognitive-behavioral therapy perioperatively can address these psychosocial risk factors and improve outcomes. The 36-Item Short Form Health Survey, European Quality of Life five dimensions questionnaire, visual analog pain scale, brief pain inventory, and Oswestry Disability Index can provide specific feedback to track patient progress and are important to understand when evaluating the current literature. This review summarizes current information and explains commonly used assessment tools to guide clinicians in decision making when caring for patients with lower back pain. When determining a treatment algorithm, physicians must consider predictive psychosocial factors. Use of perioperative cognitive-behavioral therapy and patient education can improve outcomes after lumbar spinal fusion. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Consideration of the ICRP 2006 revised tissue weighting factors on age-dependent values of the effective dose for external photons

    Lee, Choonsik; Lee, Choonik; Han, Eun Young; Bolch, Wesley E.

    2007-01-01

    The effective dose recommended by the International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP) is the sum of organ equivalent doses weighted by corresponding tissue weighting factors, wT. ICRP is in the process of revising its 1990 recommendations on the effective dose where new values of organs and tissue weighting factors have been proposed and published in draft form for consultation by the radiological protection community. In its 5 June 2006 draft recommendations, new organs and tissues have been introduced in the effective dose which do not exist within the 1987 Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) phantom series (e.g., salivary glands). Recently, the investigators at University of Florida have updated the series of ORNL phantoms by implementing new organ models and adopting organ-specific elemental composition and densities. In this study, the effective dose changes caused by the transition from the current recommendation of ICRP Publication 60 to the 2006 draft recommendations were investigated for external photon irradiation across the range of ICRP reference ages (newborn, 1-year, 5-year, 10-year, 15-year and adult) and for six idealized irradiation geometries: anterior-posterior (AP), posterior-anterior (PA), left-lateral (LLAT), right-lateral (RLAT), rotational (ROT) and isotropic (ISO). Organ-absorbed doses were calculated by implementing the revised ORNL phantoms in the Monte Carlo radiation transport code, MCNPX2.5, after which effective doses were calculated under the 1990 and draft 2006 evaluation schemes of the ICRP. Effective doses calculated under the 2006 draft scheme were slightly higher than estimated under ICRP Publication 60 methods for all irradiation geometries exclusive of the AP geometry where an opposite trend was observed. The effective doses of the adult phantom were more greatly affected by the change in tissue weighting factors than that seen within the paediatric members of the phantom series. Additionally, dose conversion

  14. Dependence of some transmission factors on field size and treatment depth in external beam radiation therapy (EBRT) using the theratron equinox 100 cobalt 60 machine

    Odonkor, P.

    2015-07-01

    The use of beam modifiers in today’s radiotherapy is very important as it attenuates the beam and reduces the dose to the patient; therefore the need to know the amount of attenuation (in terms of a transmission factor) they provide during treatment. The purpose of this research work is to evaluate the variation (or dependence) of the transmission factors (TFs) of block tray and physical wedges (of different angles) as a function of treatment depth and field size using both iso-centric setups, SAD and SSD; and thus compare the results from the two setup techniques. Wedge and tray TF measurements were performed in a full scatter, large water phantom using a 0.04cc ionization chamber and an average photon energy of 1.25MV from a cobalt-60 unit at an SAD/SSD of 100cm at various depths and field sizes with gantry and collimator angles fixed at 0°. From the measurements carried out, the wedge TF of the 15°, 30°, 45°, and 60°, wedges were found to be 0.775±0.005, 0.650±0.010, 0.505±0.015, and 0.280±0.015 respectively; and the tray TF was found to be 0.960±0.003. Also, the results obtained showed that both the wedge TF and the tray TF has a strong linear dependence on treatment depth; however, the variation of the 15°, wedge TF and the tray TF with depth is less significant (less than 2%). Maximum percentage variation for the 15°, wedge for the SAD setup was 1.1% and 1.59% for the SSD setup; and that for the tray was 0.60% for the SAD setup and 0.12% for the SSD setup. Also, the variation of the 15°, 30°, and 45°, wedge TF with field size was less significant (less than 2%); and a weaker dependence was observed with field size as compared to the treatment depth. However, the 60°, wedge showed a significant variation (maximum of 2.22% and 2.88% for the SAD and SSD setups respectively) as an increase in field size was accompanied by an increase in its wedge TF. Also though the tray TF graphically showed a strong linear dependence on field size the

  15. The Size of the Family – A Factor Influencing Alimentation and, Implicitly, the Growth and Development Processes in Teen-Agers

    Angela Simalcsik

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Viewed as a phenomenon with multi-factorial determination, the growth and development of the human organism depend equally on the hereditary patrimony and on the environmental conditions, the socio-economic ones, especially. As a critical transition period from childhood to adult age, adolescence is characterized by increased nutritional needs. The main factor responsible for the variations manifested in human physical development is alimentation – a factor correlated with the socio-economic variations. Similarly with the case of other countries affected by transitions, the difficult economic transformations occurring in the Republic of Moldova have been accompanied by the installation of poverty – a phenomenon affecting especially the families formed of more than 5 members. The teen-agers of the Republic of Moldova register a deficit in the consumption of proteins, especially of animal origin, known as playing a critical role in the period of accelerated growing of the organism. Alimentation and family size are closely correlated with the socio-economic status of the family from which the child comes, while the attention and care given to the child by the family plays an essential part in the growth and development of the teen-ager. Child’s development as a function of such an element is directly related to environmental factors, as follows: alimentation is poorer in more numerous families, as the monthly income per member of family is more reduced, which is immediately reflected in a scarce alimentary consumption; hygiene is insufficient; mother’s care for the child is also reduced, etc. The study was performed on 1,525 subjects (boys and girls with ages between 10 and 16 years, all from the city of Kishinev. The main parameters considered were: stature, weight and average puberal age. The results obtained show that family size influences both the average stature of the teenagers and their weight, over the 10-16 years interval, the

  16. Teardrop bladder: additional considerations

    Wechsler, R.J.; Brennan, R.E.

    1982-01-01

    Nine cases of teardrop bladder (TDB) seen at excretory urography are presented. In some of these patients, the iliopsoas muscles were at the upper limit of normal in size, and additional evaluation of the perivesical structures with computed tomography (CT) was necessary. CT demonstrated only hypertrophied muscles with or without perivesical fat. The psoas muscles and pelvic width were measured in 8 patients and compared with the measurements of a control group of males without TDB. Patients with TDB had large iliopsoas muscles and narrow pelves compared with the control group. The psoas muscle width/pelvic width ratio was significantly greater (p < 0.0005) in patients with TDB than in the control group, with values of 1.04 + 0.05 and 0.82 + 0.09, respectively. It is concluded that TDB is not an uncommon normal variant in black males. Both iliopsoas muscle hypertrophy and a narrow pelvis are factors that predispose a patient to TDB

  17. Photovoltaics: systems considerations

    Haq, A M

    1982-08-01

    Photovoltaics applications to date and the potential uses and growth of this alternative energy source for the future are examined in the light of present world economic conditions. In addition, a more detailed description is given, illustrating the method by which system sizing and design are calculated and mentioning such factors as local solar radiation and insolation levels, humidity, wind loading and altitude, all of which affect the optimal system size. The role of computer programming in these calculations is also outlined, illustrating the way in which deterioration, battery losses, poor weather etc. can be accounted and compensated for in the systems design process. The elements of the actual systems are also described, including details of the solar cells and arrays, the electronic controls incorporated in the systems and the characteristics of the batteries used. A resume of projected costs and current technological advances in silicon processing techniques is given together with an analysis of present and future growth trends in the photovoltaics industry.

  18. A social–contextual investigation of smoking among rural women: multi-level factors associated with smoking status and considerations for cessation.

    Nemeth, Julianna M; Thomson, Tiffany L; Lu, Bo; Peng, Juan; Krebs, Valdis; Doogan, Nathan J; Ferketich, Amy K; Post, Douglas M; Browning, Christopher R; Paskett, Electra D; Wewers, Mary E

    2018-03-01

    The social-contextual model of tobacco control and the potential mechanisms of the maintenance or cessation of smoking behavior among disadvantaged women, including rural residents, have yet to be comprehensively studied. The purpose of this study was to determine the association between selected individual, interpersonal, workplace, and neighborhood characteristics and smoking status among women in Appalachia, a US region whose residents experience a disproportionate prevalence of tobacco-related health disparities. These findings may assist in efforts to design and test scientifically valid tobacco control interventions for this and other disadvantaged populations. Women, 18 years of age and older, residing in three rural Ohio Appalachian counties, were recruited using a two-phase address-based sampling methodology for a cross-sectional interview-administered survey between August 2012 and October 2013 (N=408). Multinomial logistic regression was employed to determine associations between select multilevel factors (independent variables) and smoking status (dependent variable). The sample included 82 (20.1%) current smokers, 92 (22.5%) former smokers, and 234 (57.4%) women reporting never smoking (mean age 51.7 years). In the final multivariable multinomial logistic regression model, controlling for all other significant associations, constructs at multiple social-contextual levels were associated with current versus either former or never smoking. At the individual level, for every additional year in age, the odds of being a former or never smoker increased by 7% and 6% (odds ratio (OR) (95% confidence interval(CI)): 1.07 (1.0-1.11) and 1.06 (1.02-1.09)), respectively, as compared to the odds of being a current smoker. With regard to depression, for each one unit increase in the Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale score, the odds of being a former or never smoker were 5% and 7% lower (OR(95%CI): 0.95(0.91-0.999) and 0.93(0.88-0.98)), respectively

  19. Change in proportional protein intake in a 10-week energy-restricted low- or high-fat diet, in relation to changes in body size and metabolic factors

    Stocks, Tanja; Taylor, Moira A; Ängquist, Lars

    2013-01-01

    Objective: To investigate in a secondary analysis of a randomised trial the effects of a low-/high-fat diet and reported change from baseline in energy% from protein (prot%), in relation to changes in body size and metabolic factors. Methods: Obese adults (n = 771) were randomised to a 600 kcal...... while not considering prot% change. The high-fat group reduced plasma triglycerides more than the low-fat group, but not compared to those in the low-fat group with >2 units prot% increase (p fat-protein interaction = 0.01). Conclusions: Under energy restriction, participants on a low-fat diet who had...... increased the percentage energy intake from protein showed the greatest reduction in weight and cholesterol, and a triglyceride reduction equally large to that of participants on a high-fat diet. Copyright © 2013 S. Karger GmbH, Freiburg....

  20. The effect of Fe, Mn, Ni and Pb Load on Soil and its enrichment factor ratios in different soil grain size fractions as an Indicator for soil pollution

    Rabie, F.H.; Abdel-Sabour, M.F.

    2000-01-01

    An industrial area north of greater Cairo was selected to investigate the impact of intensive industrial activities on soil characteristics and Fe, Mn, Ni and Pb total content. The studied area was divided to six sectors according to its source of irrigation water and/or probability of pollution. Sixteen soil profiles were dug and soil samples were taken, air dried, fractionated to different grain size fractions, then total heavy metals (Fe, Mn, Ni and Pb) were determined using ICP technique. The enrichment factor for each metal for each soil fraction/soil layer was estimated and discussed. The highest EF ratios in the clay fraction was mainly with Pb which indicated the industrial impact on the soil. In case of sand fraction, Mn was the highest always compared to other studied metals. Concerning silt fraction, a varied accumulation of Fe, Mn, and Pb was observed with soil depth and different soil profiles

  1. Acceleration of bone union after structural bone grafts with a collagen-binding basic fibroblast growth factor anchored-collagen sheet for critical-size bone defects

    Ueno, Masaki; Uchida, Kentaro; Saito, Wataru; Inoue, Gen; Takahira, Naonobu; Takaso, Masashi; Matsushita, Osamu; Yogoro, Mizuki; Nishi, Nozomu; Ogura, Takayuki; Hattori, Shunji; Tanaka, Keisuke

    2014-01-01

    Bone allografts are commonly used for the repair of critical-size bone defects. However, the loss of cellular activity in processed grafts markedly reduces their healing potential compared with autografts. To overcome this obstacle, we developed a healing system for critical-size bone defects that consists of overlaying an implanted bone graft with a collagen sheet (CS) loaded with basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF) fused to the collagen-binding domain derived from a Clostridium histolyticum collagenase (CB-bFGF). In a murine femoral defect model, defect sites treated with CS/CB-bFGF had a significantly larger callus volume than those treated with CS/native bFGF. In addition, treatment with CS/CB-bFGF resulted in the rapid formation of a hard callus bridge and a larger total callus volume at the host–graft junction than treatment with CS/bFGF. Our results suggest that the combined use of CS and CB-bFGF helps accelerate the union of allogenic bone grafts. (paper)

  2. Effects of varying doses of β-nerve growth factor on the timing of ovulation, plasma progesterone concentration and corpus luteum size in female alpacas (Vicugna pacos).

    Stuart, C C; Vaughan, J L; Kershaw-Young, C M; Wilkinson, J; Bathgate, R; de Graaf, S P

    2015-11-01

    Ovulation in camelids is induced by the seminal plasma protein ovulation-inducing factor (OIF), recently identified as β-nerve growth factor (β-NGF). The present study measured the total protein concentration in alpaca seminal plasma using a bicinchoninic acid (BCA) protein quantification assay and found it to be 22.2±2.0mgmL(-1). To measure the effects of varying doses of β-NGF on the incidence and timing of ovulation, corpus luteum (CL) size and plasma progesterone concentration, 24 female alpacas were synchronised and treated with either: (1) 1mL 0.9% saline (n=5); (2) 4µg buserelin (n=5); (3) 1mg β-NGF protein (n=5); (4) 0.1mg β-NGF (n=5); or (5) 0.01mg β-NGF (n=4). Females were examined by transrectal ultrasonography at 1-2-h intervals between 20 and 45h after treatment or until ovulation occurred, as well as on Day 8 to observe the size of the CL, at which time blood was collected to measure plasma progesterone concentrations. Ovulation was detected in 0/5, 5/5, 5/5, 3/5 and 0/4 female alpacas treated with saline, buserelin, 1, 0.1 and 0.01mg β-NGF, respectively. Mean ovulation interval (P=0.76), CL diameter (P=0.96) and plasma progesterone concentration (P=0.96) did not differ between treatments. Mean ovulation interval overall was 26.2±1.0h. In conclusion, buserelin and 1mg β-NGF are equally effective at inducing ovulation in female alpacas, but at doses ≤0.1mg, β-NGF is not a reliable method for the induction of ovulation.

  3. Study of factors controlling exposure dose and image quality of C-arm in operation room according to detector size of it (Mainly L-Spine AP study)

    Chui, Sung Hyun; Jo, Hwang Woo [Dept. of Radiology, Kyung Hee University Hospital at Gangdong, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Chun, Woon Kwan; Song, Ha Jin [Dept. of Nuclear Engineering, Chosun University, Gwangju (Korea, Republic of); Dong, Kyung Rae [Dept. of Radiological Technology, Gwangju Health University, Gwangju (Korea, Republic of); Choi, Eun Jin [Dept. of Public Health and Medicine, Dongshin University, Naju (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-02-15

    Time of operation has been reduced and accuracy of operation has been improved since C-arm, which offer real-time image of patient, was introduced in operation room. However, because of the contamination of patient, C-arm could not be used more appropriately. Therefore, this study is to know factors of controlling exposure dose, image quality and the exposed dose of health professional in operation room. Height of Wilson frame (bed for operation) was fixed at 130 cm. Then, Model 76-2 Phantom, which was set by assembling manual of Fluke Company, was set on the bed. Head/Spine Fluoroscopy AEC mode was set for exposure condition. According to detector size of C-arm, the absorbed dose per min was measured in the 7 steps OFD (cm) from 10 cm to 40 cm (10, 15, 20, 25, 30, 35, 40 cm). In each step of OFD, the absorbed dose per min of same diameter of collimation was measured. Moreover, using Nero MAX Model 8000, exposure dose per min was measured according to 3 step of distance from detector (20 cm, 60 cm, 100 cm). Finally, resolution was measured by CDRH Disc Phantom and magnification of each OFD was measured by aluminum stick bar. According to detector size of C-arm, difference of absorbed dose shows that the dose of 20 cm OFD is 1.750 times higher than the dose of 40 cm OFD. It means that the C-arm, which has smaller size of detector, shows the bigger difference of absorbed dose per min (p<0.05). In the difference of absorbed dose in the same step of OFD (from 20 cm to 40 cm), the absorbed dose of 9 inch detect or C-arm was 1.370 times higher than 12 inch' s (p<0.05). When OFD was set to 20 cm OFD, the absorbed dose of non-collimation case was approximately 0.816 times lower than the absorbed dose of collimation cases (p<0.05). When the distance was 20 cm from detector, exposed does includes first-ray and scatter-ray. When the distance was 60 cm and 100 cm from detector, exposed does includes just scatter-ray. So, there was the 2.200 times difference of absorbed

  4. Successive ion layer adsorption and reaction (SILAR) technique synthesis of Al(III)-8-hydroxy-5-nitrosoquinolate nano-sized thin films: characterization and factors optimization.

    Haggag, Sawsan M S; Farag, A A M; Abdel Refea, M

    2013-02-01

    Nano Al(III)-8-hydroxy-5-nitrosoquinolate [Al(III)-(HNOQ)(3)] thin films were synthesized by the rapid, direct, simple and efficient successive ion layer adsorption and reaction (SILAR) technique. Thin film formation optimized factors were evaluated. Stoichiometry and structure were confirmed by elemental analysis and FT-IR. The particle size (27-71 nm) was determined using scanning electron microscope (SEM). Thermal stability and thermal parameters were determined by thermal gravimetric analysis (TGA). Optical properties were investigated using spectrophotometric measurements of transmittance and reflectance at normal incidence. Refractive index, n, and absorption index, k, were determined. Spectral behavior of the absorption coefficient in the intrinsic absorption region revealed a direct allowed transition with 2.45 eV band gap. The current-voltage (I-V) characteristics of [Al(III)-(HNOQ)(3)]/p-Si heterojunction was measured at room temperature. The forward and reverse I-V characteristics were analyzed. The calculated zero-bias barrier height (Φ(b)) and ideality factor (n) showed strong bias dependence. Energy distribution of interface states (N(ss)) was obtained. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Confirmatory Factor Analysis of Sizing Me Up: Validation of an Obesity-Specific Health-Related Quality of Life Measure in Latino Youth.

    Tripicchio, Gina L; Borner, Kelsey B; Odar Stough, Cathleen; Poppert Cordts, Katrina; Dreyer Gillette, Meredith; Davis, Ann M

    2017-05-01

    This study aims to validate an obesity-specific health-related quality of life (HRQOL) measure, Sizing Me Up (SMU), in treatment-seeking Latino youth. Pediatric obesity has been associated with reduced HRQOL; therefore, valid measures are important for use in diverse populations that may be at increased risk for obesity and related comorbidities. Structural equation modeling tested the fit of the 5-subscale, 22-item SMU measure in Latino youth, 5-13 years of age, with obesity ( N = 204). Invariance testing was conducted to examine equivalence between Latino and non-Latino groups ( N = 250). SMU achieved acceptable fit in a Latino population [χ 2 = 428.33, df = 199, p Squared Error of Approximation = 0.072 (0.062-0.082), Comparative Fit Index = 0.915, Tucker-Lewis Index = 0.901, Weighted Root Mean Square Residual = 1.2230]. Additionally, factor structure and factor loadings were invariant across Latino and non-Latino groups, but thresholds were not invariant. SMU is a valid measure of obesity-specific HRQOL in treatment-seeking Latino youth with obesity. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society of Pediatric Psychology. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com

  6. Exposure to rosiglitazone, a PPAR-γ agonist, in late gestation reduces the abundance of factors regulating cardiac metabolism and cardiomyocyte size in the sheep fetus.

    Lie, Shervi; Hui, Melisa; McMillen, I Caroline; Muhlhausler, Beverly S; Posterino, Giuseppe S; Dunn, Stacey L; Wang, Kimberley C; Botting, Kimberley J; Morrison, Janna L

    2014-03-15

    It is unknown whether cardiomyocyte hypertrophy and the transition to fatty acid oxidation as the main source of energy after birth is dependent on the maturation of the cardiomyocytes' metabolic system, or on the limitation of substrate availability before birth. This study aimed to investigate whether intrafetal administration of a peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-γ (PPAR-γ) agonist, rosiglitazone, during late gestation can stimulate the expression of factors regulating cardiac growth and metabolism in preparation for birth, and the consequences of cardiac contractility in the fetal sheep at ∼140 days gestation. The mRNA expression and protein abundance of key factors regulating growth and metabolism were quantified using quantitative RT-PCR and Western blot analysis, respectively. Cardiac contractility was determined by measuring the Ca(2+) sensitivity and maximum Ca(2+)-activated force of skinned cardiomyocyte bundles. Rosiglitazone-treated fetuses had a lower cardiac abundance of insulin-signaling molecules, including insulin receptor-β, insulin receptor substrate-1 (IRS-1), phospho-IRS-1 (Tyr-895), phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K) regulatory subunit p85, PI3K catalytic subunit p110α, phospho-3-phosphoinositide-dependent protein kinase 1 (Ser-241), protein kinase B (Akt-1), phospho-Akt (Ser-273), PKCζ, phospho-PKCζ(Thr-410), Akt substrate 160 kDa (AS160), phospho-AS160 (Thr-642), and glucose transporter type-4. Additionally, cardiac abundance of regulators of fatty acid β-oxidation, including adiponectin receptor 1, AMPKα, phospho-AMPKα (Thr-172), phospho-acetyl CoA carboxylase (Ser-79), carnitine palmitoyltransferase-1, and PGC-1α was lower in the rosiglitazone-treated group. Rosiglitazone administration also resulted in a decrease in cardiomyocyte size. Rosiglitazone administration in the late-gestation sheep fetus resulted in a decreased abundance of factors regulating cardiac glucose uptake, fatty acid β-oxidation, and

  7. Large lymph node size harvested as prognostic factor in gastric cancer? ¿Es el diámetro ganglionar mayor un factor pronóstico en cáncer gástrico?

    F. Espín

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Objective: knowledge regarding prognostic factors in gastric cancer is essential to decide on single patient management. We aim to establish the value of large lymph node size in order to improve perioperative approach. Material and methods: charts of one hundred and twenty-eight consecutive patients undergoing gastrectomy for resectable gastric cancer were reviewed between January 1996 and December 2005. Patients were split in two groups according to large lymph node size harvested, group I, lymph node size ≤ 10 mm and group II, lymph node size > 10 mm. Overall five-year survival related to cancer were analyzed as a main endpoint. Prognostic factors as TNM classification and degree of differentiation have been considered. Results: there were no differences regarding age and gender (67.4 vs. 64; p = 0.34 and 66,1 vs. 68,1%; p = 0.27, respectively. Nevertheless, a significant difference has been found according to T1-T2 of TNM stage (78.1 vs. 39.1% p = Objetivo: valorar el interés del diámetro del ganglio mayor extirpado como factor pronóstico en los pacientes intervenidos por cáncer gástrico, para determinar si su detección puede ser un factor de interés en el periodo preoperatorio, para indicar tratamiento neoadyuvante. Material y métodos: se analiza un registro de 128 casos consecutivos de pacientes afectos de adenocarcinoma gástrico resecable, durante un periodo de 10 años en los que en el estudio anatomopatológico se determinó el diámetro del ganglio mayor aislado. Se estudia la relación del mismo con factores pronósticos universalmente aceptados, el grado de penetración, la presencia y extensión de metástasis ganglionares y el estadio TNM, y con la supervivencia a 5 años, estudiándose dos grupos, el grupo I compuesto por aquellos enfermos con diámetro menor o igual a 10 mm, y el grupo II con diámetros superiores a 10 mm. Resultados: no se han detectado diferencias estadísticas respecto a edad y sexo (67,4 vs. 64; p

  8. Effect of size heterogeneity on community identification in complex networks

    Danon, L.; Diaz-Guilera, A.; Arenas, A.

    2008-01-01

    Identifying community structure can be a potent tool in the analysis and understanding of the structure of complex networks. Up to now, methods for evaluating the performance of identification algorithms use ad-hoc networks with communities of equal size. We show that inhomogeneities in community sizes can and do affect the performance of algorithms considerably, and propose an alternative method which takes these factors into account. Furthermore, we propose a simple modification of the algorithm proposed by Newman for community detection (Phys. Rev. E 69 066133) which treats communities of different sizes on an equal footing, and show that it outperforms the original algorithm while retaining its speed.

  9. Human Factors Considerations of Undergrounds in Insurgencies

    1966-09-01

    probably was located in Albania or Rumania.25 Latin-American subversive groups such as the Dominican Liberation Movement, the Peruvian Anti-Imperialist...Nazi jokes in a cinema hall showing German films, or of little jokes made in public about Nazi repression policies, like the Danish streetcar

  10. Considerations on impact factors and institutional arrangements

    1979-04-01

    The Delegation makes three comments on the work of the Group. First, the Group should consider the development of international safety standards governing occupational and environmental protection. Non-proliferation measures should not override these standards. Second, safeguards for reprocessing and plutonium recycle must be improved. The Japanese INFCE/DEP./WG-4/122 and French INFCE/DEP./WG-4/58 proposals are valuable contributions to this objective but the Group as a whole should make a broad assessment of safeguards. Lastly, the Delegation supports the development of new institutional arrangements for the fuel cycle which balance the rights and obligations of both suppliers and customers. In particular, the establishment of International Plutonium Storage is supported

  11. Sizing of intergranular stress corrosion cracking using low frequency ultrasound

    Fuller, M.D.; Avioli, M.J.; Rose, J.L.

    1985-01-01

    Based upon the work thus far accomplished on low frequency sizing, the following conclusions can be drawn: the potential of low frequency ultrasound for the sizing of IGSCC seams encouraging as demonstrated in this work. If minimal walking is expected, larger values of crack height/wavelength ratios should not affect the reliability of estimates; notch data points out the validity of signal amplitude for sizing. With care in frequency consideration, the technique can be extended to cracks; when wavelength is greater than flaw size, importance of orientation and reflector shape diminishes although less so for deeper cracks; when beam profile is larger than the defect size, echo amplitude is proportional to defect area when using shear wave probes and corner reflectors; other factors, in addition to crack size, affect signal amplitude. Reference data to compensate for depth and material (HAZ) is a must; additional crack samples should be studied in order to further develop and characterize the use of low frequency ultrasonics

  12. Combining glial cell line-derived neurotrophic factor gene delivery (AdGDNF) with L-arginine decreases contusion size but not behavioral deficits after traumatic brain injury.

    Degeorge, M L; Marlowe, D; Werner, E; Soderstrom, K E; Stock, M; Mueller, A; Bohn, M C; Kozlowski, D A

    2011-07-27

    Our laboratory has previously demonstrated that viral administration of glial cell line-derived neurotrophic factor (AdGDNF), one week prior to a controlled cortical impact (CCI) over the forelimb sensorimotor cortex of the rat (FL-SMC) is neuroprotective, but does not significantly enhance recovery of sensorimotor function. One possible explanation for this discrepancy is that although protected, neurons may not have been functional due to enduring metabolic deficiencies. Additionally, metabolic events following TBI may interfere with expression of therapeutic proteins administered to the injured brain via gene therapy. The current study focused on enhancing the metabolic function of the brain by increasing cerebral blood flow (CBF) with l-arginine in conjunction with administration of AdGDNF immediately following CCI. An adenoviral vector harboring human GDNF was injected unilaterally into FL-SMC of the rat immediately following a unilateral CCI over the FL-SMC. Within 30min of the CCI and AdGDNF injections, some animals were injected with l-arginine (i.v.). Tests of forelimb function and asymmetry were administered for 4weeks post-injury. Animals were sacrificed and contusion size and GDNF protein expression measured. This study demonstrated that rats treated with AdGDNF and l-arginine post-CCI had a significantly smaller contusion than injured rats who did not receive any treatment, or injured rats treated with either AdGDNF or l-arginine alone. Nevertheless, no amelioration of behavioral deficits was seen. These findings suggest that AdGDNF alone following a CCI was not therapeutic and although combining it with l-arginine decreased contusion size, it did not enhance behavioral recovery. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. [Differential diagnostic considerations using ICD-10 in chronic back pain with special regard to persistent somatoform pain disorder with somatic and psychological factors (ICD-10 F45.41)].

    Wolff, D

    2016-06-01

    It is often difficult to pass an expert opinion in cases of chronic back pain. This article analyses the differential diagnostic considerations related to coding various causes in line with ICD-10. It emphasises the I importance of making a careful distinction between orthopoedic and psychiatric conditions and disorders. Simultaneous coding of orthopoedic and psychiatric illnesses and disorders based on a distinct cluster of symptoms necessitates an interdisciplinary approach that consistently applies the ICD-10 definitions of mental an behavioural disorders in order to clearly identify the main reason for a functional impairment in the insurance and sociomedical context. Persistant somatoform pain disorder with somatic and psychological factors (ICD-10 F45.41) should be regarded as related to the underlying disease and be used primarily as an additional and descriptive diagnosis.

  14. General considerations of the choice of dose limits, averaging areas and weighting factors for the skin in the light of revised skin cancer risk figures and experimental data on non-stochastic effects

    Charles, M.W.

    1990-01-01

    Recent biological data from man and pig on the non-stochastic effects following exposure with a range of β-emitters are combined with recent epidemiological analyses of skin cancer risks in man to form a basis for suggested improved protection criteria following whole- or partial-body skin exposures. Specific consideration is given to the choice of an organ weighting factor for evaluation of effective dose-equivalent. Since stochastic and non-stochastic end-points involve different cell types at different depths in the skin, the design of an ideal physical dosemeter may depend on the proportion of the body skin exposed and the radiation penetrating power. Possible choices of design parameters for skin dosemeters are discussed. Limitation of skin exposure from small radioactive sources ('hot particles') is addressed using animal data. (author)

  15. Direct measurement of aerosol shape factors

    Zeller, W.

    1983-12-01

    The dynamic shape factor whereas the coagulation shape factor is an average over the total examined size range. The experiments have shown that the results of experiments with a certain aerosol system cannot be transferred to other aerosol systems without further consideration. The outer shape of particles of a certain size depends on the specific properties of the material as well as on the experimental conditions during the aerosol generation. For both aerosol systems examined the mean dynamic shape factor, averaged over the total examined size range, agrees roughly with the coagulation shape factor. (Description of aerosol centrifuge and of differential mobility analyzer). (orig./HP) [de

  16. Risk factors for failure in newly established small, micro and medium-sized enterprises in the tourism sector of Gauteng Province, South Africa

    Zeleke Worku

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The annual report issued for the financial year 2013/2014 by the South African Chamber of Commerce and Industry (2015 shows that the business confidence index of South Africa was equal to 89.3% in January 2015. According to the South African National Department of Tourism (2015, the tourism sector contributed 93 Billion Rand (3% to the South African GDP in the year 2012. The contribution of the tourism sector was equal to 189.4 Billion Rand in the year 2009. This figure is projected to grow to 499 Billion Rand by the year 2020. According to the South African Small Enterprise Development Agency (2015, newly established and emerging business enterprises conducting business in the tourism sector of Gauteng Province are less viable and efficient in comparison with well-established tourism enterprises. The objective of this study was to identify and quantify risk factors for underperformance and bankruptcy in the tourism sector of Gauteng Province in South Africa. The study was based on data collected from a stratified random sample of size 311 tourism enterprises that operate in Gauteng Province, South Africa. Data was collected on a large number of socio-economic factors that adversely affect entrepreneurial activities in the tourism sector of Gauteng Province. A combination of quantitative and qualitative methods of data collection and analyses was used in the study. Examples of variables on which data was gathered was level of entrepreneurial skills, level of formal education, location of business, duration of experience, amount of capital, number of employees, ability to network with other tourist operators, degree of competition from rival operators, geographical location, category of business, category of entrepreneurial skills, average number of visitors per month, net profit, size of business, market share, access to finance, and degree of support from Government agencies. Results obtained from the study showed that the long-term survival

  17. Dependence of radiotherapeutic results on tumor size in patients with cervix uteri carcinoma

    Gabelov, A.A.; Zharinov, G.M.

    1981-01-01

    A method is suggested that permits specifying the primary tumor size on the basis of clinical examination of patients with cervix uteri carcinoma. The values of tumor size have been correlated with long-term results of concomitant radiotherapy in 1358 patients with cervix uteri carcinoma. The data obtained have shown that the primary tumor size is a factor that determines to a large extent radiotherapeutic results in patients with cervix uteri carcinoma. The specification of tumor size values makes it possible to considerably lessen prognostic uncertainty of present-day staging classifications. The structure of radiotherapeutic failures also turned out to be closely associated with the primary tumor size

  18. DOE handbook: Design considerations

    1999-04-01

    The Design Considerations Handbook includes information and suggestions for the design of systems typical to nuclear facilities, information specific to various types of special facilities, and information useful to various design disciplines. The handbook is presented in two parts. Part 1, which addresses design considerations, includes two sections. The first addresses the design of systems typically used in nuclear facilities to control radiation or radioactive materials. Specifically, this part addresses the design of confinement systems and radiation protection and effluent monitoring systems. The second section of Part 1 addresses the design of special facilities (i.e., specific types of nonreactor nuclear facilities). The specific design considerations provided in this section were developed from review of DOE 6430.1A and are supplemented with specific suggestions and considerations from designers with experience designing and operating such facilities. Part 2 of the Design Considerations Handbook describes good practices and design principles that should be considered in specific design disciplines, such as mechanical systems and electrical systems. These good practices are based on specific experiences in the design of nuclear facilities by design engineers with related experience. This part of the Design Considerations Handbook contains five sections, each of which applies to a particular engineering discipline

  19. DOE handbook: Design considerations

    NONE

    1999-04-01

    The Design Considerations Handbook includes information and suggestions for the design of systems typical to nuclear facilities, information specific to various types of special facilities, and information useful to various design disciplines. The handbook is presented in two parts. Part 1, which addresses design considerations, includes two sections. The first addresses the design of systems typically used in nuclear facilities to control radiation or radioactive materials. Specifically, this part addresses the design of confinement systems and radiation protection and effluent monitoring systems. The second section of Part 1 addresses the design of special facilities (i.e., specific types of nonreactor nuclear facilities). The specific design considerations provided in this section were developed from review of DOE 6430.1A and are supplemented with specific suggestions and considerations from designers with experience designing and operating such facilities. Part 2 of the Design Considerations Handbook describes good practices and design principles that should be considered in specific design disciplines, such as mechanical systems and electrical systems. These good practices are based on specific experiences in the design of nuclear facilities by design engineers with related experience. This part of the Design Considerations Handbook contains five sections, each of which applies to a particular engineering discipline.

  20. Special Experts Meeting: Identifying and Overcoming Barriers to the Effective Consideration of Human and Organizational Factors in Event Analysis and Root Cause Analysis. Nuclear Energy Agency / Working Group on Human and Organizational Factors

    2011-01-01

    The main mission of the Nuclear Energy Agency (NEA) Working Group on Human and Organisational Factors (WGHOF) is to improve the understanding and treatment of human and organisational factors (HOF) within the nuclear industry in order to support the continued safety performance of nuclear installations and improve the effectiveness of regulatory practices in member countries. WGHOF developed a CSNI (Committee on the Safety of Nuclear Installations) Activity Proposal Sheet (CAPS) outlining the work and milestones necessary towards achieving the following objectives: - Identify barriers to analyzing and correctly identifying the Human and Organisational Factors (HOF) causes of events; - Identify barriers to implementing lessons learned from these analyses; and - Develop recommendations for overcoming these barriers to: improve the identification of HOF causes of events and support the successful implementation of appropriate corrective actions The CAPS can be found in Appendix A. The first activity under the plan was the development of a questionnaire. This was distributed to WGHOF members and their counterparts from the Working Group on Operating Experience (WGOE). The questionnaire was comprised of 20 questions based on the objectives of the CSNI Activity Proposed Sheet. The intended survey participants were licensees with previous experience conducting root cause analyses. Responses were received from 26 respondents from 11 different countries. The results of the questionnaire were analyzed to identify themes for further discussion during a specialist meeting planned for September 2009. The following themes were presented during the WGHOF meeting in March of 2009 and endorsed for further work: - Roles and Influence of Senior Management, - Skills and Knowledge of the Investigators, - Qualitative Nature of HOF, - Influence of the Regulator, - Systematic Approach to Investigation. A summary of the questionnaire responses is provided in Appendix B

  1. Practice status of specialized agencies for occupational health management of small- to medium-size enterprises and the factors improving their performance: a cross-sectional survey study.

    Lee, Saerom; Myong, Jun-Pyo; Kim, Eun-A; Eom, Huisu; Choi, Bowha; Kang, Young Joong

    2017-01-01

    We examined the current status of specialized agencies for occupational health management (SAs) and their workforce. Furthermore, we aimed to clarify the current practice status of SA healthcare professionals and factors that influence their performance. To examine the current SA workforce, we analyzed data from the 2014 Survey of Current Status of SA and their Workforce from the Ministry of Employment and Labor (MOEL). Furthermore, we mailed out an original questionnaire to SA professionals to determine their current health management status and factors that affect their performance. Data from the respondents ( N  = 384) were analyzed. In 2014, the workforce performing health management in SAs comprised 232 physicians, 507 nurses, and 312 occupational hygienists, with no significant regional differences in the distribution of physicians and nurses. According to the findings of the questionnaire, the average daily number of worker consultations by physicians and nurses was 22.8, while the average time taken for health management ranged from 74.3 to 104.3 min, depending on the size of the firm. Most of the respondents (41.5%) answered that they were following-up on more than 80% of individuals with illnesses. Among health management tasks, performance scores of "consultations for general diseases" and "consultations for lifestyle habits" were relatively high, whereas health promotion activities at workplaces were relatively low. There was a significant correlation between the utilization of general and special health examination results and task performance. Among health management tasks, follow-up management of individuals with illnesses and consultations for disease/lifestyle habits were relatively well performed, whereas health promotion activities at workplaces were not performed well. Among factors that positively influenced SA performance at workplaces, only the utilization of health examination results had significant effects. Therefore, to accomplish

  2. Relativistic distances, sizes, lengths

    Strel'tsov, V.N.

    1992-01-01

    Such notion as light or retarded distance, field size, formation way, visible size of a body, relativistic or radar length and wave length of light from a moving atom are considered. The relation between these notions is cleared up, their classification is given. It is stressed that the formation way is defined by the field size of a moving particle. In the case of the electromagnetic field, longitudinal sizes increase proportionally γ 2 with growing charge velocity (γ is the Lorentz-factor). 18 refs

  3. Portion size

    ... of cards One 3-ounce (84 grams) serving of fish is a checkbook One-half cup (40 grams) ... for the smallest size. By eating a small hamburger instead of a large, you will save about 150 calories. ...

  4. Monte Carlo modeling of small photon fields: Quantifying the impact of focal spot size on source occlusion and output factors, and exploring miniphantom design for small-field measurements

    Scott, Alison J. D.; Nahum, Alan E.; Fenwick, John D.

    2009-01-01

    The accuracy with which Monte Carlo models of photon beams generated by linear accelerators (linacs) can describe small-field dose distributions depends on the modeled width of the electron beam profile incident on the linac target. It is known that the electron focal spot width affects penumbra and cross-field profiles; here, the authors explore the extent to which source occlusion reduces linac output for smaller fields and larger spot sizes. A BEAMnrc Monte Carlo linac model has been used to investigate the variation in penumbra widths and small-field output factors with electron spot size. A formalism is developed separating head scatter factors into source occlusion and flattening filter factors. Differences between head scatter factors defined in terms of in-air energy fluence, collision kerma, and terma are explored using Monte Carlo calculations. Estimates of changes in kerma-based source occlusion and flattening filter factors with field size and focal spot width are obtained by calculating doses deposited in a narrow 2 mm wide virtual ''milliphantom'' geometry. The impact of focal spot size on phantom scatter is also explored. Modeled electron spot sizes of 0.4-0.7 mm FWHM generate acceptable matches to measured penumbra widths. However the 0.5 cm field output factor is quite sensitive to electron spot width, the measured output only being matched by calculations for a 0.7 mm spot width. Because the spectra of the unscattered primary (Ψ Π ) and head-scattered (Ψ Σ ) photon energy fluences differ, miniphantom-based collision kerma measurements do not scale precisely with total in-air energy fluence Ψ=(Ψ Π +Ψ Σ ) but with (Ψ Π +1.2Ψ Σ ). For most field sizes, on-axis collision kerma is independent of the focal spot size; but for a 0.5 cm field size and 1.0 mm spot width, it is reduced by around 7% mostly due to source occlusion. The phantom scatter factor of the 0.5 cm field also shows some spot size dependence, decreasing by 6% (relative) as

  5. Loose Panicle1 encoding a novel WRKY transcription factor, regulates panicle development, stem elongation, and seed size in foxtail millet [Setaria italica (L. P. Beauv.].

    Jishan Xiang

    Full Text Available Panicle development is an important agronomic trait that aids in determining crop productivity. Foxtail millet and its wild ancestor green foxtail have recently been used as model systems to dissect gene functions. Here, we characterized a recessive mutant of foxtail millet, loose-panicle 1 (lp1, which showed pleiotropic phenotypes, such as a lax primary branching pattern, aberrant branch morphology, semi-dwarfism, and enlarged seed size. The loose panicle phenotype was attributed to increased panicle lengths and decreased primary branch numbers. Map-based cloning, combined with high-throughput sequencing, revealed that LP1, which encodes a novel WRKY transcription factor, is responsible for the mutant phenotype. A phylogenetic analysis revealed that LP1 belongs to the Group I WRKY subfamily, which possesses two WRKY domains (WRKY I and II. A single G-to-A transition in the fifth intron of LP1 resulted in three disorganized splicing events in mutant plants. For each of these aberrant splice variants, the normal C2H2 motif in the WRKY II domain was completely disrupted, resulting in a loss-of-function mutation. LP1 mRNA was expressed in all of the tissues examined, with higher expression levels observed in inflorescences, roots, and seeds at the grain-filling stage. A subcellular localization analysis showed that LP1 predominantly accumulated in the nucleus, which confirmed its role as a transcriptional regulator. This study provides novel insights into the roles of WRKY proteins in regulating reproductive organ development in plants and may help to develop molecular markers associated with crop yields.

  6. Loose Panicle1 encoding a novel WRKY transcription factor, regulates panicle development, stem elongation, and seed size in foxtail millet [Setaria italica (L.) P. Beauv.].

    Xiang, Jishan; Tang, Sha; Zhi, Hui; Jia, Guanqing; Wang, Huajun; Diao, Xianmin

    2017-01-01

    Panicle development is an important agronomic trait that aids in determining crop productivity. Foxtail millet and its wild ancestor green foxtail have recently been used as model systems to dissect gene functions. Here, we characterized a recessive mutant of foxtail millet, loose-panicle 1 (lp1), which showed pleiotropic phenotypes, such as a lax primary branching pattern, aberrant branch morphology, semi-dwarfism, and enlarged seed size. The loose panicle phenotype was attributed to increased panicle lengths and decreased primary branch numbers. Map-based cloning, combined with high-throughput sequencing, revealed that LP1, which encodes a novel WRKY transcription factor, is responsible for the mutant phenotype. A phylogenetic analysis revealed that LP1 belongs to the Group I WRKY subfamily, which possesses two WRKY domains (WRKY I and II). A single G-to-A transition in the fifth intron of LP1 resulted in three disorganized splicing events in mutant plants. For each of these aberrant splice variants, the normal C2H2 motif in the WRKY II domain was completely disrupted, resulting in a loss-of-function mutation. LP1 mRNA was expressed in all of the tissues examined, with higher expression levels observed in inflorescences, roots, and seeds at the grain-filling stage. A subcellular localization analysis showed that LP1 predominantly accumulated in the nucleus, which confirmed its role as a transcriptional regulator. This study provides novel insights into the roles of WRKY proteins in regulating reproductive organ development in plants and may help to develop molecular markers associated with crop yields.

  7. Medium-size nuclear plants

    Vogelweith, L.; Lavergne, J.C.; Martinot, G.; Weiss, A.

    1977-01-01

    CEA (TECHNICATOME) has developed a range of pressurized water reactors of the type ''CAS compact'' which are adapted to civil ship propulsion, or to electric power production, combined possibly with heat production, up to outputs equivalent to 125 MWe. Nuclear plants equipped with these reactors are suitable to medium-size electric networks. Among the possible realizations, two types of plants are mentioned as examples: 1) Floating electron-nuclear plants; and 2) Combined electric power and desalting plants. The report describes the design characteristics of the different parts of a 125 MWe unit floating electro-nuclear plant: nuclear steam system CAS 3 G, power generating plant, floating platform for the whole plant. The report gives attention to the different possibilities according to site conditions (the plant can be kept floating, in a natural or artificial basin, it can be put aground, ...) and to safety and environment factors. Such unit can be used in places where there is a growing demand in electric power and fresh water. The report describes how the reactor, the power generating plant and multiflash distillation units of an electric power-desalting plant can be combined: choice of the ratio water output/electric power output, thermal cycle combination, choice of the gain ratio, according to economic considerations, and to desired goal of water output. The report analyses also some technical options, such as: choice of the extraction point of steam used as heat supply of the desalting station (bleeding a condensation turbine, or recovering steam at the exhaust of a backpressure turbine), design making the system safe. Lastly, economic considerations are dealt with: combining the production of fresh water and electric power provides usually a much better energy balance and a lower cost for both products. Examples are given of some types of installations which combine medium-size reactors with fresh water stations yielding from 10000 to 120000 m 3 per day

  8. Stress and food allergy: mechanistic considerations

    Schreier, Hannah M.C.; Wright, Rosalind J.

    2013-01-01

    Recent years have seen a marked increase in food allergy prevalence among children, particularly in Western countries, that cannot be explained by genetic factors alone. This has resulted in an increased effort to identify environmental risk factors underlying food allergies and to understand how these factors may be modified through interventions. Food allergy is an immune-mediated adverse reaction to food. Consequently, considerations of candidate risk factors have begun to focus on environ...

  9. Lesion Size Is Exacerbated in Hypoxic Rats Whereas Hypoxia-Inducible Factor-1 Alpha and Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor Increase in Injured Normoxic Rats: A Prospective Cohort Study of Secondary Hypoxia in Focal Traumatic Brain Injury.

    Thelin, Eric Peter; Frostell, Arvid; Mulder, Jan; Mitsios, Nicholas; Damberg, Peter; Aski, Sahar Nikkhou; Risling, Mårten; Svensson, Mikael; Morganti-Kossmann, Maria Cristina; Bellander, Bo-Michael

    2016-01-01

    Hypoxia following traumatic brain injury (TBI) is a severe insult shown to exacerbate the pathophysiology, resulting in worse outcome. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of a hypoxic insult in a focal TBI model by monitoring brain edema, lesion volume, serum biomarker levels, immune cell infiltration, as well as the expression of hypoxia-inducible factor-1 alpha (HIF-1α) and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF). Female Sprague-Dawley rats (n = 73, including sham and naive) were used. The rats were intubated and mechanically ventilated. A controlled cortical impact device created a 3-mm deep lesion in the right parietal hemisphere. Post-injury, rats inhaled either normoxic (22% O2) or hypoxic (11% O2) mixtures for 30 min. The rats were sacrificed at 1, 3, 7, 14, and 28 days post-injury. Serum was collected for S100B measurements using ELISA. Ex vivo magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) was performed to determine lesion size and edema volume. Immunofluorescence was employed to analyze neuronal death, changes in cerebral macrophage- and neutrophil infiltration, microglia proliferation, apoptosis, complement activation (C5b9), IgG extravasation, HIF-1α, and VEGF. The hypoxic group had significantly increased blood levels of lactate and decreased pO2 (p hypoxic animals (p hypoxic group at 1 day after trauma (p = 0.0868). No differences were observed between the groups in cytotoxic and vascular edema, IgG extravasation, neutrophils and macrophage aggregation, microglia proliferation, or C5b-9 expression. Hypoxia following focal TBI exacerbated the lesion size and neuronal loss. Moreover, there was a tendency to higher levels of S100B in the hypoxic group early after injury, indicating a potential validity as a biomarker of injury severity. In the normoxic group, the expression of HIF-1α and VEGF was found elevated, possibly indicative of neuro-protective responses occurring in this less severely injured group. Further studies are

  10. Size matter!

    Hansen, Pelle Guldborg; Jespersen, Andreas Maaløe; Skov, Laurits Rhoden

    2015-01-01

    trash bags according to size of plates and weighed in bulk. Results Those eating from smaller plates (n=145) left significantly less food to waste (aver. 14,8g) than participants eating from standard plates (n=75) (aver. 20g) amounting to a reduction of 25,8%. Conclusions Our field experiment tests...... the hypothesis that a decrease in the size of food plates may lead to significant reductions in food waste from buffets. It supports and extends the set of circumstances in which a recent experiment found that reduced dinner plates in a hotel chain lead to reduced quantities of leftovers....

  11. Aerosol particle mixing state, refractory particle number size distributions and emission factors in a polluted urban environment: Case study of Metro Manila, Philippines

    Kecorius, Simonas; Madueño, Leizel; Vallar, Edgar; Alas, Honey; Betito, Grace; Birmili, Wolfram; Cambaliza, Maria Obiminda; Catipay, Grethyl; Gonzaga-Cayetano, Mylene; Galvez, Maria Cecilia; Lorenzo, Genie; Müller, Thomas; Simpas, James B.; Tamayo, Everlyn Gayle; Wiedensohler, Alfred

    2017-12-01

    studies reported such high number concentration of ultrafine refractory particles under ambient conditions. Inverse modeling of emission factors of refractory particle number size distributions revealed that diesel-fed public utility Jeepneys, commonly used for public transportation, are responsible for 94% of total roadside emitted refractory particle mass. The observed results showed that the majority of urban pollution in Metro Manila is dominated by carbonaceous aerosol. This suggests that PM10 or PM2.5 metrics do not fully describe possible health related effects in this kind of urban environments. Extremely high concentrations of ultrafine particles have been and will continue to induce adverse health related effects, because of their potential toxicity. We imply that in megacities, where the major fraction of particulates originates from the transport sector, PM10 or PM2.5 mass concentration should be complemented by legislative measurements of equivalent black carbon mass concentration.

  12. Exploring Size.

    Brand, Judith, Ed.

    1995-01-01

    "Exploring" is a magazine of science, art, and human perception that communicates ideas museum exhibits cannot demonstrate easily by using experiments and activities for the classroom. This issue concentrates on size, examining it from a variety of viewpoints. The focus allows students to investigate and discuss interconnections among…

  13. Commercial considerations in tissue engineering.

    Mansbridge, Jonathan

    2006-10-01

    Tissue engineering is a field with immense promise. Using the example of an early tissue-engineered skin implant, Dermagraft, factors involved in the successful commercial development of devices of this type are explored. Tissue engineering has to strike a balance between tissue culture, which is a resource-intensive activity, and business considerations that are concerned with minimizing cost and maximizing customer convenience. Bioreactor design takes place in a highly regulated environment, so factors to be incorporated into the concept include not only tissue culture considerations but also matters related to asepsis, scaleup, automation and ease of use by the final customer. Dermagraft is an allogeneic tissue. Stasis preservation, in this case cryopreservation, is essential in allogeneic tissue engineering, allowing sterility testing, inventory control and, in the case of Dermagraft, a cellular stress that may be important for hormesis following implantation. Although the use of allogeneic cells provides advantages in manufacturing under suitable conditions, it raises the spectre of immunological rejection. Such rejection has not been experienced with Dermagraft. Possible reasons for this and the vision of further application of allogeneic tissues are important considerations in future tissue-engineered cellular devices. This review illustrates approaches that indicate some of the criteria that may provide a basis for further developments. Marketing is a further requirement for success, which entails understanding of the mechanism of action of the procedure, and is illustrated for Dermagraft. The success of a tissue-engineered product is dependent on many interacting operations, some discussed here, each of which must be performed simultaneously and well.

  14. Entrepreneurship: Some Considerations

    V. Martinho

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available In this work it is presented some considerations about entrepreneurship. Most of these questions are linked with Portuguese context. Portugal has some particularities, namely because the asymmetries between the littoral and the interior. This situation carried out some problems that complicate and prevent the appearance of new innovated business. In a situation of crisis like that we have today this context can become a really problem to solve some questions.

  15. Storage array reflection considerations

    Haire, M.J.; Jordan, W.C.; Taylor, R.G.

    1997-01-01

    The assumptions used for reflection conditions of single containers are fairly well established and consistently applied throughout the industry in nuclear criticality safety evaluations. Containers are usually considered to be either fully water reflected (i.e., surrounded by 6 to 12 in. of water) for safety calculations or reflected by 1 in. of water for nominal (structural material and air) conditions. Tables and figures are usually available for performing comparative evaluations of containers under various loading conditions. Reflection considerations used for evaluating the safety of storage arrays of fissile material are not as well established. When evaluating arrays, it has become more common for analysts to use calculations to demonstrate the safety of the array configuration. In performing these calculations, the analyst has considerable freedom concerning the assumptions made for modeling the reflection of the array. Considerations are given for the physical layout of the array with little or no discussion (or demonstration) of what conditions are bounded by the assumed reflection conditions. For example, an array may be generically evaluated by placing it in a corner of a room in which the opposing walls are far away. Typically, it is believed that complete flooding of the room is incredible, so the array is evaluated for various levels of water mist interspersed among array containers. This paper discusses some assumptions that are made regarding storage array reflection

  16. Size matters

    Forst, Michael

    2012-11-01

    The shakeout in the solar cell and module industry is in full swing. While the number of companies and production locations shutting down in the Western world is increasing, the capacity expansion in the Far East seems to be unbroken. Size in combination with a good sales network has become the key to success for surviving in the current storm. The trade war with China already looming on the horizon is adding to the uncertainties. (orig.)

  17. Class size versus class composition

    Jones, Sam

    Raising schooling quality in low-income countries is a pressing challenge. Substantial research has considered the impact of cutting class sizes on skills acquisition. Considerably less attention has been given to the extent to which peer effects, which refer to class composition, also may affect...... bias from omitted variables, the preferred IV results indicate considerable negative effects due to larger class sizes and larger numbers of overage-for-grade peers. The latter, driven by the highly prevalent practices of grade repetition and academic redshirting, should be considered an important...

  18. Geophysical considerations of geothermics

    Hayakawa, M

    1967-01-01

    The development and utilization of geothermal energy is described from the standpoint of geophysics. The internal temperature of the Earth and the history and composition of magmas are described. Methods of exploration such as gravity, magnetic, thermal and electrical surveys are discussed, as are geochemical and infrared photogrammetric techniques. Examples are provided of how these techniques have been used in Italy and at the Matsukawa geothermal field in Japan. Drilling considerations such as muds, casings and cementing materials are discussed. Solutions are proposed for problems of environmental pollution and plant expansion.

  19. Storage array reflection considerations

    Haire, M.J.; Jordan, W.C.; Taylor, R.G.

    1997-01-01

    The assumptions used for reflection conditions of single containers are fairly well established and consistently applied throughout the industry in nuclear criticality safety evaluations. Containers are usually considered to be either fully water-reflected (i.e. surrounded by 6 to 12 in. of water) for safety calculations or reflected by 1 in. of water for nominal (structural material and air) conditions. Tables and figures are usually available for performing comparative evaluations of containers under various loading conditions. Reflection considerations used for evaluating the safety of storage arrays of fissile material are not as well established

  20. Application of particle size distributions to total particulate stack samples to estimate PM2.5 and PM10 emission factors for agricultural sources

    Particle size distributions (PSD) have long been used to more accurately estimate the PM10 fraction of total particulate matter (PM) stack samples taken from agricultural sources. These PSD analyses were typically conducted using a Coulter Counter with 50 micrometer aperture tube. With recent increa...

  1. Factors Influencing the Usage of an Electronic Book Collection: Size of the E-Book Collection, the Student Population, and the Faculty Population

    Lamothe, Alain R.

    2013-01-01

    This paper presents the results of a quantitative and systematic investigation exploring online e-book usage at the J.N. Desmarais Library of Laurentian University over a 9-year period. The size of an e-book collection was determined to show evidence of an extremely strong relationship with the level of usage e-books experienced. Of all factors…

  2. Rhizosphere size

    Kuzyakov, Yakov; Razavi, Bahar

    2017-04-01

    Estimation of the soil volume affected by roots - the rhizosphere - is crucial to assess the effects of plants on properties and processes in soils and dynamics of nutrients, water, microorganisms and soil organic matter. The challenges to assess the rhizosphere size are: 1) the continuum of properties between the root surface and root-free soil, 2) differences in the distributions of various properties (carbon, microorganisms and their activities, various nutrients, enzymes, etc.) along and across the roots, 3) temporal changes of properties and processes. Thus, to describe the rhizosphere size and root effects, a holistic approach is necessary. We collected literature and own data on the rhizosphere gradients of a broad range of physico-chemical and biological properties: pH, CO2, oxygen, redox potential, water uptake, various nutrients (C, N, P, K, Ca, Mg, Mn and Fe), organic compounds (glucose, carboxylic acids, amino acids), activities of enzymes of C, N, P and S cycles. The collected data were obtained based on the destructive approaches (thin layer slicing), rhizotron studies and in situ visualization techniques: optodes, zymography, sensitive gels, 14C and neutron imaging. The root effects were pronounced from less than 0.5 mm (nutrients with slow diffusion) up to more than 50 mm (for gases). However, the most common effects were between 1 - 10 mm. Sharp gradients (e.g. for P, carboxylic acids, enzyme activities) allowed to calculate clear rhizosphere boundaries and so, the soil volume affected by roots. The first analyses were done to assess the effects of soil texture and moisture as well as root system and age on these gradients. The most properties can be described by two curve types: exponential saturation and S curve, each with increasing and decreasing concentration profiles from the root surface. The gradient based distribution functions were calculated and used to extrapolate on the whole soil depending on the root density and rooting intensity. We

  3. MARKETING CONSIDERATIONS ON BRAND COMMUNITIES

    A.-C. Budac

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Most consumers spend an important part of their free time looking for online information about the brands before taking a decision to purchase. The Internet is the main factor which has led to a considerable increase of the time allotted by consumers for search and comparing information about brands, as a step preceding the decision to purchase and also one of the most important factors that influence the interaction between the brand and the consumer. Although the general trend is that the public to become more active and more involved in the choice of the brand, consumer's responses to its messages obviously depend on cultural, social or economic factors. The work has the purpose to clarify what brand community means and how it appeared - if it was really built from scratch or it has already existed in a latent way and it must only be recognized - the characteristics of successful communities, which of the objectives of the brands can be achieved by means of these groups, what is the role of social media in the development of these communities, what kind of types of mem¬bers are likely to be encountered inside of the online communities and what is their proportion for each and which are the research methodologies that can give support to companies in monitoring these groups.

  4. Sodium concrete reaction - Structural considerations

    Ferskakis, G.N.

    1984-01-01

    An overview of the sodium concrete reaction phenomenon, with emphasis on structural considerations, is presented. Available test results for limestone, basalt, and magnetite concrete with various test article configurations are reviewed. Generally, tests indicate reaction is self limiting before all sodium is used. Uncertainties, however, concerning the mechanism for penetration of sodium into concrete have resulted in different theories about a reaction model. Structural behavior may be significant in the progression of the reaction due to thermal-structuralchemical interactions involving tensile cracking, compressive crushing, or general deterioration of concrete and the exposure of fresh concrete surfaces to react with sodium. Structural behavior of test articles and potential factors that could enhance the progression of the reaction are discussed

  5. Size did not matter: An evolutionary account of the variation in penis size and size anxiety

    Menelaos Apostolou

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The human penis exhibits considerable variation in size, while a substantial proportion of the adult male population experiences size anxiety. This paper employs an evolutionary framework in order to understand this variation, as well as the concern men exhibit about the adequacy of the size of their penis. It is argued that female choice has been one important sexual selection force, responsible for shaping the size of the penis. However, this force has been relatively weak, because women do not consider the size of their partners’ penis to be the most important determinant of their sexual satisfaction. Also, in ancestral human societies, sexual satisfaction was a secondary concern, while women had limited space to exercise mate choice. The mismatch between ancestral and modern conditions, with female choice being stronger in the present than in the past, causes anxiety in men about their ability to satisfy their partners, which is also manifested in their concerns about size.

  6. Methodological considerations for disentangling a risk factor's influence on disease incidence versus postdiagnosis survival: The example of obesity and breast and colorectal cancer mortality in the Women's Health Initiative.

    Cespedes Feliciano, Elizabeth M; Prentice, Ross L; Aragaki, Aaron K; Neuhouser, Marian L; Banack, Hailey R; Kroenke, Candyce H; Ho, Gloria Y F; Zaslavsky, Oleg; Strickler, Howard D; Cheng, Ting-Yuan David; Chlebowski, Rowan T; Saquib, Nazmus; Nassir, Rami; Anderson, Garnet; Caan, Bette J

    2017-12-01

    Often, studies modeling an exposure's influence on time to disease-specific death from study enrollment are incorrectly interpreted as if based on time to death from disease diagnosis. We studied 151,996 postmenopausal women without breast or colorectal cancer in the Women's Health Initiative with weight and height measured at enrollment (1993-1998). Using Cox regression models, we contrast hazard ratios (HR) from two time-scales and corresponding study subpopulations: time to cancer death after enrollment among all women and time to cancer death after diagnosis among only cancer survivors. Median follow-up from enrollment to diagnosis/censoring was 13 years for both breast (7,633 cases) and colorectal cancer (2,290 cases). Median follow-up from diagnosis to death/censoring was 7 years for breast and 5 years for colorectal cancer. In analyses of time from enrollment to death, body mass index (BMI) ≥ 35 kg/m 2 versus 18.5-cancer mortality: HR = 1.99; 95% CI: 1.54, 2.56 for breast cancer (p trend colorectal cancer (p trend = 0.05). However, in analyses of time from diagnosis to cancer death, trends indicated no significant association (for BMI ≥ 35 kg/m 2 , HR = 1.25; 95% CI: 0.94, 1.67 for breast [p trend = 0.33] and HR = 1.18; 95% CI: 0.84, 1.86 for colorectal cancer [p trend = 0.39]). We conclude that a risk factor that increases disease incidence will increase disease-specific mortality. Yet, its influence on postdiagnosis survival can vary, and requires consideration of additional design and analysis issues such as selection bias. Quantitative tools allow joint modeling to compare an exposure's influence on time from enrollment to disease incidence and time from diagnosis to death. © 2017 UICC.

  7. The Effects of Non-Genetic Factors on The Birth Weight, Litter Size and Pre-Weaning Survive Ability of Etawah Cross-Breed Goats in The Breeding Village Center in Ampelgading District

    Tri Eko Susilorini

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available A total of 106 late gestation goats (age 4-5 months of pregnancy records each of Etawah Crosbred goats kept on small farmer over a period of 10 years were assessed to determine the effects of environmental factors on them. Body Condition Score is non-genetic factor and in dairy goats to predicted milk production, fertility, and general health of the animal because BCS is visualisasi from feeding manajement. The objective of this study was to investigated the relationship between Body Condition Score (BCS of late gestation with litter size and birth weight on etawah crossbred goats. The results showed that the average of litter size and birth weight (kg were 1.89±0.66 and 3.84±0.73 respectively. The relationship between BCS with litter size were 0.13 (very low and the relationship between BCS with birth weight were 0.11 (very low. The conclusion of this research is BCS of late gestation had positive correlation on litter size and birth weight, however this was low and birth weight as first indicator of future growth rate.

  8. Plasma methoxytyramine: a novel biomarker of metastatic pheochromocytoma and paraganglioma in relation to established risk factors of tumour size, location and SDHB mutation status.

    Eisenhofer, Graeme; Lenders, Jacques W M; Siegert, Gabriele; Bornstein, Stefan R; Friberg, Peter; Milosevic, Dragana; Mannelli, Massimo; Linehan, W Marston; Adams, Karen; Timmers, Henri J; Pacak, Karel

    2012-07-01

    There are currently no reliable biomarkers for malignant pheochromocytomas and paragangliomas (PPGLs). This study examined whether measurements of catecholamines and their metabolites might offer utility for this purpose. Subjects included 365 patients with PPGLs, including 105 with metastases, and a reference population of 846 without the tumour. Eighteen catecholamine-related analytes were examined in relation to tumour location, size and mutations of succinate dehydrogenase subunit B (SDHB). Receiver-operating characteristic curves indicated that plasma methoxytyramine, the O-methylated metabolite of dopamine, provided the most accurate biomarker for discriminating patients with and without metastases. Plasma methoxytyramine was 4.7-fold higher in patients with than without metastases, a difference independent of tumour burden and the associated 1.6- to 1.8-fold higher concentrations of norepinephrine and normetanephrine. Increased plasma methoxytyramine was associated with SDHB mutations and extra-adrenal disease, but was also present in patients with metastases without SDHB mutations or those with metastases secondary to adrenal tumours. High risk of malignancy associated with SDHB mutations reflected large size and extra-adrenal locations of tumours, both independent predictors of metastatic disease. A plasma methoxytyramine above 0.2nmol/L or a tumour diameter above 5cm indicated increased likelihood of metastatic spread, particularly when associated with an extra-adrenal location. Plasma methoxytyramine is a novel biomarker for metastatic PPGLs that together with SDHB mutation status, tumour size and location provide useful information to assess the likelihood of malignancy and manage affected patients. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Plasma methoxytyramine: A novel biomarker of metastatic pheochromocytoma and paraganglioma in relation to established risk factors of tumor size, location and SDHB mutation status

    Eisenhofer, Graeme; Lenders, Jacques W.M.; Siegert, Gabriele; Bornstein, Stefan R.; Friberg, Peter; Milosevic, Dragana; Mannelli, Massimo; Linehan, W. Marston; Adams, Karen; Timmers, Henri J.; Pacak, Karel

    2012-01-01

    Summary Background There are currently no reliable biomarkers for malignant pheochromocytomas and paragangliomas (PPGLs). This study examined whether measurements of catecholamines and their metabolites might offer utility for this purpose. Methods Subjects included 365 patients with PPGLs, including 105 with metastases, and a reference population of 846 without the tumor. Eighteen catecholamine-related analytes were examined in relation to tumor location, size and mutations of succinate dehydrogenase subunit B (SDHB). Results Receiver-operating characteristic curves indicated that plasma methoxytyramine, the O-methylated metabolite of dopamine, provided the most accurate biomarker for discriminating patients with and without metastases. Plasma methoxytyramine was 4.7-fold higher in patients with than without metastases, a difference independent of tumor burden and the associated 1.6- to 1.8-fold higher concentrations of norepinephrine and normetanephrine. Increased plasma methoxytyramine was associated with SDHB mutations and extra-adrenal disease, but was also present in patients without SDHB mutations and metastases or those with metastases secondary to adrenal tumors. High risk of malignancy associated with SDHB mutations reflected large size and extra-adrenal locations of tumors, both independent predictors of metastatic disease. A plasma methoxytyramine above 0.2 nmol/L or a tumor diameter above 5 cm indicated increased likelihood of metastatic spread, particularly when associated with an extra-adrenal location. Interpretation Plasma methoxytyramine is a novel biomarker for metastatic PPGLs that together with SDHB mutation status, tumor size and location provide useful information to assess the likelihood of malignancy and manage affected patients. PMID:22036874

  10. CUSTOMER LOYALTY IN THE SMALL MEDIUM SIZED RETAIL JEWELLERY FIRMS WHAT EXTENT DOES LOYALTY SCHEMES HAVE AN IMPACT ON REPEAT PATRONAGE? WHAT OTHER FACTORS CAUSE REPEAT PATRONAGE?: A DYADIC EXPLORATION

    DALAL, AVANI

    2006-01-01

    ABSTRACT This study looks at the post-purchase evaluation stage of consumers and what causes loyalty. The industry under investigation is Small Medium Sized Jewellery Retailers. The purpose of this study is to develop a deeper understanding of how customer loyalty is developed. To reach this aim the study focuses on the impact of loyalty schemes on repeat patronage. This paper aims to contribute to the existing literature on repeat patronage and factors that lead to customer loyalty. A wi...

  11. General safety considerations

    NONE

    2001-09-01

    This document presents the full filling of the Brazilian obligations under the Convention on Nuclear Safety. The Chapter 4 of the document contains some details about the priority to safety, financial and human resources, human factors, quality assurance, safety assessment and verification, radiation protection and emergency preparedness.

  12. General safety considerations

    NONE

    1998-09-01

    This document presents the full filling of the Brazilian obligations under the Convention on Nuclear Safety. The Chapter 4 of the document contains some details about the priority to safety, financial and human resources, human factors, quality assurance, safety assessment and verification, radiation protection and emergency preparedness.

  13. General safety considerations

    2001-01-01

    This document presents the full filling of the Brazilian obligations under the Convention on Nuclear Safety. The Chapter 4 of the document contains some details about the priority to safety, financial and human resources, human factors, quality assurance, safety assessment and verification, radiation protection and emergency preparedness

  14. General safety considerations

    1998-01-01

    This document presents the full filling of the Brazilian obligations under the Convention on Nuclear Safety. The Chapter 4 of the document contains some details about the priority to safety, financial and human resources, human factors, quality assurance, safety assessment and verification, radiation protection and emergency preparedness

  15. Epigenetic considerations in aquaculture

    Mackenzie R. Gavery

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Epigenetics has attracted considerable attention with respect to its potential value in many areas of agricultural production, particularly under conditions where the environment can be manipulated or natural variation exists. Here we introduce key concepts and definitions of epigenetic mechanisms, including DNA methylation, histone modifications and non-coding RNA, review the current understanding of epigenetics in both fish and shellfish, and propose key areas of aquaculture where epigenetics could be applied. The first key area is environmental manipulation, where the intention is to induce an ‘epigenetic memory’ either within or between generations to produce a desired phenotype. The second key area is epigenetic selection, which, alone or combined with genetic selection, may increase the reliability of producing animals with desired phenotypes. Based on aspects of life history and husbandry practices in aquaculture species, the application of epigenetic knowledge could significantly affect the productivity and sustainability of aquaculture practices. Conversely, clarifying the role of epigenetic mechanisms in aquaculture species may upend traditional assumptions about selection practices. Ultimately, there are still many unanswered questions regarding how epigenetic mechanisms might be leveraged in aquaculture.

  16. Large Payload Ground Transportation and Test Considerations

    Rucker, Michelle A.

    2016-01-01

    Many spacecraft concepts under consideration by the National Aeronautics and Space Administration’s (NASA’s) Evolvable Mars Campaign take advantage of a Space Launch System payload shroud that may be 8 to 10 meters in diameter. Large payloads can theoretically save cost by reducing the number of launches needed--but only if it is possible to build, test, and transport a large payload to the launch site in the first place. Analysis performed previously for the Altair project identified several transportation and test issues with an 8.973 meters diameter payload. Although the entire Constellation Program—including Altair—has since been canceled, these issues serve as important lessons learned for spacecraft designers and program managers considering large payloads for future programs. A transportation feasibility study found that, even broken up into an Ascent and Descent Module, the Altair spacecraft would not fit inside available aircraft. Ground transportation of such large payloads over extended distances is not generally permitted, so overland transportation alone would not be an option. Limited ground transportation to the nearest waterway may be possible, but water transportation could take as long as 67 days per production unit, depending on point of origin and acceptance test facility; transportation from the western United States would require transit through the Panama Canal to access the Kennedy Space Center launch site. Large payloads also pose acceptance test and ground processing challenges. Although propulsion, mechanical vibration, and reverberant acoustic test facilities at NASA’s Plum Brook Station have been designed to accommodate large spacecraft, special handling and test work-arounds may be necessary, which could increase cost, schedule, and technical risk. Once at the launch site, there are no facilities currently capable of accommodating the combination of large payload size and hazardous processing such as hypergolic fuels

  17. The relationship of polyethylene wear to particle size, distribution, and number: A possible factor explaining the risk of osteolysis after hip arthroplasty

    Gallo, J.; Šlouf, Miroslav; Goodman, S. B.

    94B, č. 1 (2010), s. 171-177 ISSN 1552-4973 R&D Projects: GA MŠk 2B06096 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40500505 Keywords : wear debris * polyethylene (UHMWPE) * periprosthetic osteolysis Subject RIV: CD - Macromolecular Chemistry Impact factor: 2.220, year: 2010

  18. Can Religious Beliefs be a Protective Factor for Suicidal Behavior? A Decision Tree Analysis in a Mid-Sized City in Iran, 2013.

    Baneshi, Mohammad Reza; Haghdoost, Ali Akbar; Zolala, Farzaneh; Nakhaee, Nouzar; Jalali, Maryam; Tabrizi, Reza; Akbari, Maryam

    2017-04-01

    This study aimed to assess using tree-based models the impact of different dimensions of religion and other risk factors on suicide attempts in the Islamic Republic of Iran. Three hundred patients who attempted suicide and 300 age- and sex-matched patient attendants with other types of disease who referred to Kerman Afzalipour Hospital were recruited for this study following a convenience sampling. Religiosity was assessed by the Duke University Religion Index. A tree-based model was constructed using the Gini Index as the homogeneity criterion. A complementary discrimination analysis was also applied. Variables contributing to the construction of the tree were stressful life events, mental disorder, family support, and religious belief. Strong religious belief was a protective factor for those with a low number of stressful life events and those with a high mental disorder score; 72 % of those who formed these two groups had not attempted suicide. Moreover, 63 % of those with a high number of stressful life events, strong family support, strong problem-solving skills, and a low mental disorder score were less likely to attempt suicide. The significance of four other variables, GHQ, problem-coping skills, friend support, and neuroticism, was revealed in the discrimination analysis. Religious beliefs seem to be an independent factor that can predict risk for suicidal behavior. Based on the decision tree, religious beliefs among people with a high number of stressful life events might not be a dissuading factor. Such subjects need more family support and problem-solving skills.

  19. Alcohol consumption as an incremental factor in health care costs for traffic accident victims: evidence in a medium sized Colombian city.

    Gómez-Restrepo, Carlos; Gómez-García, María Juliana; Naranjo, Salomé; Rondón, Martín Alonso; Acosta-Hernández, Andrés Leonardo

    2014-12-01

    Identify the possibility that alcohol consumption represents an incremental factor in healthcare costs of patients involved in traffic accidents. Data of people admitted into three major health institutions from an intermediate city in Colombia was collected. Socio-demographic characteristics, health care costs and alcohol consumption levels by breath alcohol concentration (BrAC) methodology were identified. Generalized linear models were applied to investigate whether alcohol consumption acts as an incremental factor for healthcare costs. The average cost of healthcare was 878 USD. In general, there are differences between health care costs for patients with positive blood alcohol level compared with those who had negative levels. Univariate analysis shows that the average cost of care can be 2.26 times higher (95% CI: 1.20-4.23), and after controlling for patient characteristics, alcohol consumption represents an incremental factor of almost 1.66 times (95% CI: 1.05-2.62). Alcohol is identified as a possible factor associated with the increased use of direct health care resources. The estimates show the need to implement and enhance prevention programs against alcohol consumption among citizens, in order to mitigate the impact that traffic accidents have on their health status. The law enforcement to help reduce driving under the influence of alcoholic beverages could help to diminish the economic and social impacts of this problem. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Pediatric interventional radiography equipment: safety considerations

    Strauss, Keith J.

    2006-01-01

    This paper discusses pediatric image quality and radiation dose considerations in state-of-the-art fluoroscopic imaging equipment. Although most fluoroscopes are capable of automatically providing good image quality on infants, toddlers, and small children, excessive radiation dose levels can result from design deficiencies of the imaging device or inappropriate configuration of the equipment's capabilities when imaging small body parts. Important design features and setup choices at installation and during the clinical use of the imaging device can improve image quality and reduce radiation exposure levels in pediatric patients. Pediatric radiologists and cardiologists, with the help of medical physicists, need to understand the issues involved in creating good image quality at reasonable pediatric patient doses. The control of radiographic technique factors by the generator of the imaging device must provide a large dynamic range of mAs values per exposure pulse during both fluoroscopy and image recording as a function of patient girth, which is the thickness of the patient in the posterior-anterior projection at the umbilicus (less than 10 cm to greater than 30 cm). The range of pulse widths must be limited to less than 10 ms in children to properly freeze patient motion. Variable rate pulsed fluoroscopy can be leveraged to reduce radiation dose to the patient and improve image quality. Three focal spots with nominal sizes of 0.3 mm to 1 mm are necessary on the pediatric unit. A second, lateral imaging plane might be necessary because of the child's limited tolerance of contrast medium. Spectral and spatial beam shaping can improve image quality while reducing the radiation dose. Finally, the level of entrance exposure to the image receptor of the fluoroscope as a function of operator choices, of added filter thickness, of selected pulse rate, of the selected field-of-view and of the patient girth all must be addressed at installation. (orig.)

  1. CONSIDERATIONS ON CONSUMER PERCEIVED RISK

    Laura Catalina Timiras

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available In this article we identified a number of factors influencing the consumers’ perceived risk. In the first part we conducted a review of the main issues that define the perceived risk by the consumer at the time of purchase, some of the lines of action of the organizations to diminish this risk perception and a number of influencing factors presented in the literature, with significant impact on the intensity with which risk is perceived by consumers. The second part of the article is based on the statistical information regarding e-commerce market, market in which the perceived risk plays an important role in the purchasing decision. Thus, based on available official statistics provided by Eurostat we have revealed the existence of certain links between electronic commerce and orientation towards risk and income levels, age and consumer educational level. The review is not intended to be exhaustive, the study taking into consideration only those links that can be identified from using official statistical data.

  2. The transcription factor Swi4 is target for PKA regulation of cell size at the G1 to S transition in Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    Amigoni, Loredana; Colombo, Sonia; Belotti, Fiorella; Alberghina, Lilia; Martegani, Enzo

    2015-08-03

    To investigate the specific target of PKA in the regulation of cell cycle progression and cell size we developed a new approach using the yeast strain GG104 bearing a deletion in adenylate cyclase gene and permeable to cAMP ( cyr1Δ, pde2Δ, msn2Δ, msn4Δ). In this strain the PKA activity is absent and can be activated by addition of cAMP in the medium, without any other change of the growth conditions. In the present work we show that the activation of PKA by exogenous cAMP in the GG104 strain exponentially growing in glucose medium caused a marked increase of cell size and perturbation of cell cycle with a transient arrest of cells in G1, followed by an accumulation of cells in G2/M phase with a minimal change in the growth rate. Deletion of CLN1 gene, but not of CLN2, abolished the transient G1 phase arrest. Consistently we found that PKA activation caused a transcriptional repression of CLN1 gene. Transcription of CLN1 is controlled by SBF and MBF dual-regulated promoter. We found that also the deletion of SWI4 gene abolished the transient G1 arrest suggesting that Swi4 is a target responsible for PKA modulation of G1/S phase transition. We generated a SWI4 allele mutated in the consensus site for PKA (Swi4(S159A)) and we found that expression of Swi4(S159A) protein in the GG104-Swi4Δ strain did not restore the transient G1 arrest induced by PKA activation, suggesting that Swi4 phosphorylation by PKA regulates CLN1 gene expression and G1/S phase transition.

  3. Results from an exploratory study to identify the factors that contribute to success for UK medical device small- and medium-sized enterprises.

    Hourd, P C; Williams, D J

    2008-07-01

    This paper reports the results from an exploratory study that sets out to identify and compare the strategic approaches and patterns of business practice employed by 14 UK small- and medium-sized enterprises to achieve success in the medical device sector of the health-care industry. An interview-based survey was used to construct individual case studies of the medical device technology (MDT) companies. A cross-case analysis was performed to search for patterns and themes that cut across these individual cases. Exploratory results revealed the heterogeneity of MDT companies and the distinctive features of the MDT innovation process that emphasize the importance of a strategic approach for achieving milestones in the product development and exploitation process and for creating value for the company and its stakeholders. Recognizing the heterogeneity of MDT companies, these exploratory findings call for further investigation to understand better the influence of components of the MDT innovation process on the commercialization life cycle and value trajectory. This is required to assist start-up or spin-out MDT companies in the UK and worldwide to navigate the critical transitions that determine access to financial and consumer markets and enhance the potential to build a successful business. This will be important not only for bioscience-based companies but also for engineering-based companies aiming to convert their activities into medical devices and the health- and social-care market.

  4. [Effects of grain-sized moxibustion from 7 am to 9 am on circadian rhythm of inflammatory factor IL-6 in rats with rheumatoid arthritis].

    Ma, Wenbin; Liu, Xuguang; Qin, Yong; Zhou, Haiyan; Yang, Xin

    2016-04-01

    To explore the rhythm regulatory mechanism of interleukin-6 (IL-6) in the process of moxibustion for rheumatoid arthritis (RA). A total of 144 Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats were randomly divided into a blank group, a model group, a moxibustion group, a sham operation group, an operation group, an operation+moxibustion group, 24 rats in each one. Each group was divided into 4 time points (0:00 am, 6:00' am, 12:00 am, 6:00 pm), 6 rats in each time point. The Light-Dark 12 : 12 was given in all rats for light-dark cycle. Except the blank group, rats in the remaining groups were treated with intracutaneous injection of freund's complete adjuvant at right-side foot to establish the model of RA. After the model establishment, bilateral adrenal, glands were removed in the operation group and operation + moxibustion group, while those in the sham operation group were not removed with identical operation procedure. Rats in the moxibustion group and operation + moxibustion group were treated with grain-sized moxibustion from 7:00 am to 9:00 am at "Shenshu" (BL 23) and "Zusanli" (ST 36) once everyday, 6 times were taken as one session and 3 sessions were required tatclly, while rats in the remaining groups received identical fixation without moxibustion. The general health state and foot volume of rats were measured before model establishment, after establishment and after treatment. After treatment, rats were sacrificed at each time point to collect the blood sample and measure the content of IL-6 by using enzymne-immunoassay method. Compared with the blank group, the foot swelling in the model group was obviously increased (Pcircadian rhythm (Pcircadian. rhythm (Pcircadian rhythm (P circadian rhythm in RA rats; with the complete hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis, moxibustion is likely to regulate the circadian rhythm of IL-6 to play an important role of anti-inflammatory effect in RA rats.

  5. A prospective study of calf factors affecting age, body size, and body condition score at first calving of holstein dairy heifers.

    Heinrichs, A J; Heinrichs, B S; Harel, O; Rogers, G W; Place, N T

    2005-08-01

    Data were collected prospectively on parameters related to first calving on 18 farms located in Northeastern Pennsylvania. This project was designed to study possible residual effects of calf management practices and events occurring during the first 16 wk of life on age, BW, skeletal growth, and body condition score at first calving. Multiple imputation method for handling missing data was incorporated in these analyses. This method has the advantage over ad hoc single imputations because the appropriate error structure is maintained. Much similarity was found between the multiple imputation method and a traditional mixed model analysis, except that some estimates from the multiple imputation method seemed more logical in their effects on the parameter measured. Factors related to increased age at first calving were increased difficulty of delivery, antibiotic treatment of sick calves, increased amount of milk or milk replacer fed before weaning, reduced quality of forage fed to weaned calves, maximum humidity, mean daily temperature, and maximum ammonia levels in calf housing areas. Body weight at calving tended to increase with parity of the dam, increased amount of grain fed to calves, increased ammonia levels, and increased mean temperature of the calf housing area. Body condition score at calving tended to be positively influenced by delivery score at first calving, dam parity, and milk or milk replacer dry matter intake. Withers height at calving was positively affected by treatment of animals with antibiotics and increased mean temperature in the calf area. This study demonstrated that nutrition, housing, and management factors that affect health and growth of calves have long-term effects on the animal at least through first calving.

  6. TRIGA reactor health physics considerations

    Johnson, A.G.

    1970-01-01

    The factors influencing the complexity of a TRIGA health physics program are discussed in details in order to serve as a basis for later consideration of various specific aspects of a typical TRIGA health physics program. The health physics program must be able to provide adequate assistance, control, and safety for individuals ranging from the inexperienced student to the experienced postgraduate researcher. Some of the major aspects discussed are: effluent release and control; reactor area air monitoring; area monitoring; adjacent facilities monitoring; portable instrumentation, personnel monitoring. TRIGA reactors have not been associated with many significant occurrences in the area of health physics, although some operational occurrences have had health physics implications. One specific occurrence at OSU is described involving the detection of non-fission-product radioactive particulates by the continuous air monitor on the reactor top. The studies of this particular situation indicate that most of the particulate activity is coming from the rotating rack and exhausting to the reactor top through the rotating rack loading tube

  7. Factors affecting color strength of printing on film-coated tablets by UV laser irradiation: TiO2 particle size, crystal structure, or concentration in the film, and the irradiated UV laser power.

    Hosokawa, Akihiro; Kato, Yoshiteru

    2011-08-01

    The purpose of this article is to study factors affecting color strength of printing on film-coated tablets by ultraviolet (UV) laser irradiation: particle size, crystal structure, or concentration of titanium dioxide (TiO2) in film, and irradiated UV laser power. Hydroxypropylmethylcellulose films containing 4.0% of TiO2, of which BET particle sizes were ranging from 126.1 to 219.8 nm, were irradiated 3.14W of UV laser at a wavelength 355 nm to study effects of TiO2 particle size and crystal structure on the printing. The films containing TiO2 concentration ranging from 1.0 to 7.7% were irradiated 3.14 or 5.39W of the UV laser to study effect of TiO2 concentration on the printing. The film containing 4.0% of TiO2, was irradiated the UV laser up to 6.42W to study effect of the UV laser power on the printing. The color strength of the printed films was estimated by a spectrophotometer as total color difference (dE). Particle size, crystal structure, and concentration of TiO2 in the films did not affect the printing. In the relationship between the irradiated UV laser power and dE, there found an inflection point (1.6W). When the UV laser power was below 1.6W, the films were not printed. When it was beyond the point, total color difference increased linearly in proportion with the irradiated laser power. The color strength of the printing on film was not changed by TiO2 particle size, crystal structure, and concentration, but could be controlled by regulating the irradiated UV laser power beyond the inflection point.

  8. Advanced LBB methodology and considerations

    Olson, R.; Rahman, S.; Scott, P.

    1997-01-01

    LBB applications have existed in many industries and more recently have been applied in the nuclear industry under limited circumstances. Research over the past 10 years has evolved the technology so that more advanced consideration of LBB can now be given. Some of the advanced considerations for nuclear plants subjected to seismic loading evaluations are summarized in this paper

  9. Revealed preference with limited consideration

    Demuynck, T.; Seel, C.

    2014-01-01

    We derive revealed preference tests for models where individuals use consideration sets to simplify their consumption problem. Our basic test provides necessary and sufficient conditions for consistency of observed choices with the existence of consideration set restrictions. The same conditions can

  10. Ethical Considerations in Technology Transfer.

    Froehlich, Thomas J.

    1991-01-01

    Examines ethical considerations involved in the transfer of appropriate information technology to less developed countries. Approaches to technology are considered; two philosophical frameworks for studying ethical considerations are discussed, i.e., the Kantian approach and the utilitarian perspective by John Stuart Mill; and integration of the…

  11. Advanced LBB methodology and considerations

    Olson, R.; Rahman, S.; Scott, P. [Battelle, Columbus, OH (United States)] [and others

    1997-04-01

    LBB applications have existed in many industries and more recently have been applied in the nuclear industry under limited circumstances. Research over the past 10 years has evolved the technology so that more advanced consideration of LBB can now be given. Some of the advanced considerations for nuclear plants subjected to seismic loading evaluations are summarized in this paper.

  12. Noise Considerations for V/STOL Transports

    Kenyon, George C.

    1968-01-01

    Noise consideration may well be as important a factor in future aircraft concept selection as such economic factors as operating cost and profitability. The impact of noise on some of the design and operational aspects of future V/STOL transports is examined in detail, including consideration of configuration, attitude-control system, lift system, and terminal flight pattern. Extended vertical rise of VTOL aircraft as a method of limiting the intense noise exposure to the terminal area is shown to be only partially effective as well as costly. Comparisons are made of noise contours for conceptual V/STOL transports for several PNdB criteria. The variation in extent of affected area with configuration and criterion emphasizes the importance of establishing an "acceptable" noise level for "city-center" operation.

  13. The influence pattern of key factors affecting the purpose of organizational excellence consulting on the efficiency of businesses consulting services (A case study of small and medium-size food enterprises in Tehran province

    Mansour Ezati Jivan

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Consulting helps managers or other people find appropriate solutions for challenges they face in their businesses. Most of the losses incurred by the people and the society could be prevented using appropriate consultation. Consultation, also, refers to people's participation in decision making. Despite dramatic development in management consulting industry in the world during the last three decades, consulting industry in Iran has faced numerous challenges. This study aims to examine the factors affecting the efficiency of management consulting services in small and medium-sized businesses and it focuses on food industries in Tehran as a real-world case study. The necessary suggestions regarding the hiring of a consultant and increasing the efficiency of management consulting services in business have been offered in this study. Some recommendations deal with the way that management consultants should respond to the managers' needs, act as a reliable and efficient adviser in public or private businesses and find their position in the Iranian market. The conceptual model of this study shows the influence of key factors affecting the purpose of consulting on the efficiency of management consulting services. To do the research, 90 people are selected as the sample size in a descriptive study with random sampling of the managers of aforementioned companies using a questionnaire. Cronbach’s alpha method was used to assess the reliability of the questionnaire. For assessing the validity of the questionnaire, we use standard questionnaire, which has already been used.

  14. Psychological Considerations in the Assessment and Treatment of Pain in Neurorehabilitation and Psychological Factors Predictive of Therapeutic Response: Evidence and Recommendations from the Italian Consensus Conference on Pain in Neurorehabilitation.

    Castelnuovo, Gianluca; Giusti, Emanuele M; Manzoni, Gian Mauro; Saviola, Donatella; Gatti, Arianna; Gabrielli, Samantha; Lacerenza, Marco; Pietrabissa, Giada; Cattivelli, Roberto; Spatola, Chiara A M; Corti, Stefania; Novelli, Margherita; Villa, Valentina; Cottini, Andrea; Lai, Carlo; Pagnini, Francesco; Castelli, Lorys; Tavola, Mario; Torta, Riccardo; Arreghini, Marco; Zanini, Loredana; Brunani, Amelia; Capodaglio, Paolo; D'Aniello, Guido E; Scarpina, Federica; Brioschi, Andrea; Priano, Lorenzo; Mauro, Alessandro; Riva, Giuseppe; Repetto, Claudia; Regalia, Camillo; Molinari, Enrico; Notaro, Paolo; Paolucci, Stefano; Sandrini, Giorgio; Simpson, Susan G; Wiederhold, Brenda; Tamburin, Stefano

    2016-01-01

    In order to provide effective care to patients suffering from chronic pain secondary to neurological diseases, health professionals must appraise the role of the psychosocial factors in the genesis and maintenance of this condition whilst considering how emotions and cognitions influence the course of treatment. Furthermore, it is important not only to recognize the psychological reactions to pain that are common to the various conditions, but also to evaluate how these syndromes differ with regards to the psychological factors that may be involved. As an extensive evaluation of these factors is still lacking, the Italian Consensus Conference on Pain in Neurorehabilitation (ICCPN) aimed to collate the evidence available across these topics. To determine the psychological factors which are associated with or predictive of pain secondary to neurological conditions and to assess the influence of these aspects on the outcome of neurorehabilitation. Two reviews were performed. In the first, a PUBMED search of the studies assessing the association between psychological factors and pain or the predictive value of these aspects with respect to chronic pain was conducted. The included papers were then rated with regards to their methodological quality and recommendations were made accordingly. In the second study, the same methodology was used to collect the available evidence on the predictive role of psychological factors on the therapeutic response to pain treatments in the setting of neurorehabilitation. The first literature search identified 1170 results and the final database included 189 articles. Factors such as depression, anxiety, pain catastrophizing, coping strategies, and cognitive functions were found to be associated with pain across the various conditions. However, there are differences between chronic musculoskeletal pain, migraine, neuropathy, and conditions associated with complex disability with regards to the psychological aspects that are involved. The

  15. Theoretical considerations in solid bowl centrifugation

    Hamilton, R.T.

    1979-01-01

    A combination of literature survey and independent analysis determined three relationships for the prediction of the critical (or minimum recoverable) particle size in a solid bowl centrifuge. The relationships were derived based on three different theories of fluid behavior within the centrifuge; (1) laminar film flow (laminar film model), (2) plug flow (Sharples Model), and parabolic flow (modified Sharples Model). The critical particle size for the centrifuge used in Cs-PTA recovery in the CAW process predicted by the three relationships range from 0.19 to 0.34 μm (1 μm = 10 -6 m). The laminar film model gives the most conservative estimate of critical particle size (0.34 μm) and the resulting relationship is recommended for use to predict solid bowl centrifuge performance. Three correction factors are incorporated into the predictive equations to account for the effects of fluid turbulence near the centrifuge feed point, fluid lag and hindered settling. Of these factors, turbulence near the feed point (which is accounted for by using an effective centrifuge length) has the greatest impact, increasing the predicted critical particle size by 15%, while the combination of fluid lag and hindered settling factors increase the recoverable particle size by 4%. The overall effect of the correction factors is an approximately 20% decrease in centrifuge effectivity. The fraction of solids smaller than the critical size range has not been reliably determined for laboratory or plant prepared Cs-PTA. In addition, the density of Cs-PTA crystals is reported to vary from 3.2 to 12 grams per cubic centimeter

  16. Psychological considerations in the assessment and treatment of pain in neurorehabilitation and psychological factors predictive of therapeutic response: evidence and recommendations from the Italian Consensus Conference on Pain in Neurorehabilitation.

    Gianluca eCastelnuovo

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available BackgroundIn order to provide effective care to patients suffering from chronic pain secondary to neurological diseases, health professionals must appraise the role of the psychosocial factors in the genesis and maintenance of this condition whilst considering how emotions and cognitions influence the course of treatment. Furthermore, it is important not only to recognize the psychological reactions to pain that are common to the various conditions, but also to evaluate how these syndromes differ with regards to the psychological factors that may be involved. As an extensive evaluation of these factors is still lacking, the Italian Consensus Conference on Pain in Neurorehabilitation aimed to collate the evidence available across these topics. ObjectivesTo determine the psychological factors which are associated with or predictive of pain secondary to neurological conditions and to assess the influence of these aspects on the outcome of neurorehabilitation. MethodsTwo reviews were performed. In the first, a PUBMED search of the studies assessing the association between psychological factors and pain or the predictive value of these aspects with respect to chronic pain was conducted. The included papers were then rated with regards to their methodological quality and recommendations were made accordingly. In the second study, the same methodology was used to collect the available evidence on the predictive role of psychological factors on the therapeutic response to pain treatments in the setting of neurorehabilitation.ResultsThe first literature search identified 1170 results and the final database included 189 articles. Factors such as depression, anxiety, pain catastrophizing, coping strategies and cognitive functions were found to be associated with pain across the various conditions. However, there are differences between chronic musculoskeletal pain, migraine, neuropathy and conditions associated with complex disability with regards to the

  17. Factors affecting potential market penetration of laser fusion power plants

    Deonigi, D.E.; Fraley, D.W.

    1979-08-01

    A mini-model has been constructed to estimate the optimal size of laser fusion power plants and to estimate the allowable cost of the first such plant in relation to the next best alternative. In estimating the costs of laser fusion, the mini-model incorporates such factors as market penetration, learning, economies of scale, system size, transmission costs, reserve requirements, development and licensing costs and site costs. The results of the mini-model simulations indicate that the optimal laser fusion plant size is approximately 3 GWe; risk considerations unincorporated in the mini-model suggest an optimal size closer to 2.5 GWe

  18. Design Considerations | Efficient Windows Collaborative

    Foundry Foundry New Construction Windows Window Selection Tool Selection Process Design Guidance Installation Replacement Windows Window Selection Tool Assessing Options Selection Process Design Guidance Installation Understanding Windows Benefits Design Considerations Measuring Performance Performance Standards

  19. State/Federal Regulatory Considerations

    This page contains presentations from the Brown to Green: Make the Connection to Renewable Energy workshop held in Santa Fe, New Mexico, during December 10-11, 2008, regarding State/Federal Regulatory Considerations.

  20. Factors affecting litter size in Texel sheep

    Sharafeldin, M.A.

    1960-01-01

    The effect of age of ewes and of different lambing years on fertility expressed as number of lambs born and surviving to 2 months per lambing has been studied in field data collected by the herdbook for Texel sheep in North Holland. The fertility of ewes was compared when first bred at about 8

  1. Crop Damage: The Hail Size Factor.

    Sánchez, J. L.; Fraile, R.; de La Madrid, J. L.; de La Fuente, M. T.; Rodríguez, P.; Castro, A.

    1996-09-01

    Between 1986 and 1992 a research project was developed and carried out on hail climatology and the economic repercussions of hail on agriculture in León (northwestern Spain). A target area with an extent of 6825 km2 was defined, within which a network of meteorological observers was established at an average density of 1 per 17 km2. A network of 250 hailpads installed in a grid formation was also laid out over an area of 1000 km2 inside the target area. The frequent occurrence of hailfalls—122 hail days over seven consecutive summers—provided a detailed database and allowed several climatological studies to be made. Crop damage was also closely monitored and quantified. Barley and wheat were selected as crops on which to base an analysis of the relationship between hailfall characteristics and crop damage. As the resistance of plants to hailstones is held to vary according to their physiological state, four different stages of plant growth were defined, beginning with the formation of grain heads.An important conclusion was drawn: the dispersion of percentages of damage always covers the possible variations in resistance caused by the physiological state of the plants. As a result, using only minimal information about hailfall characteristics—namely, the initial reports of observers regarding hailstone size—a working statistical model has successfully been constructed to predict losses to barley and wheat, using data provided by the León hail project.

  2. SIZE AND SHAPE FACTOR EXTREMES OF SPHEROIDS

    Daniel Hlubinka

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available In the paper we consider random prolate (oblate spheroids and their random profiles. The limiting distribution of the extremal characteristics of the spheroids is related to the limiting distribution of the corresponding extremal characteristics of the profiles. The difference between the analysis of the prolate and oblate spheroids is discussed. We propose the possible application of the theoretical results.

  3. Patterns of natural and human-caused mortality factors of a rare forest carnivore, the fisher (Pekania pennanti) in California

    Mourad W. Gabriel; Leslie W. Woods; Greta M. Wengert; Nicole Stephenson; J. Mark Higley; Craig Thompson; Sean M. Matthews; Rick A. Sweitzer; Kathryn Purcell; Reginald H. Barrett; Stefan M. Keller; Patricia Gaffney; Megan Jones; Robert Poppenga; Janet E. Foley; Richard N. Brown; Deana L. Clifford; Benjamin N. Sacks

    2015-01-01

    Wildlife populations of conservation concern are limited in distribution, population size and persistence by various factors, including mortality. The fisher (Pekania pennanti), a North American mid-sized carnivore whose range in the western Pacific United States has retracted considerably in the past century, was proposed for threatened status...

  4. Energy intake and obesity: ingestive frequency outweighs portion size.

    Mattes, Richard

    2014-07-01

    Energy intake is a function of the quantity of energy consumed per ingestive event and the number of these events. The marked increase of energy intake and body weight over the past 35 years indicates that there has been poor precision in the reciprocity of these two facets of intake. With recent study of the associations between gut "satiation" peptides and energy intake, there has been an emphasis on the contribution of portion size to positive energy balance. However, this orientation may not appropriately weight the contribution of ingestive frequency. Gut peptides are not purely satiation factors and metabolic and environmental cues may more strongly guide the onset and number of ingestive events. Evidence is presented that while both portion size and ingestive frequency have increased in the population, the latter may be more problematic for weight gain. The magnitude and time course of increments in ingestive frequency map better onto energy intake and BMI trends than changes of portion size. This may occur, in part, because dietary compensation and thermogenic effects are weaker for increases in ingestive frequency than portion size. Though not to the exclusion of consideration of portion size effects, improved weight management may be achieved with greater attention to the drivers of eating and drinking frequency. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Unit size limitations in smaller power systems

    McConnach, J.S.

    1975-01-01

    The developing nations have generally found it an economic necessity to accept the minimum commercial size limit of 600 MWe. Smaller reactor sizes tendered as 'one off' specials carry high specific cost penalties which considerably weaken the competitiveness of nuclear versus conventional thermal plants. The revised IAEA market survey for nuclear power in developing countries (1974 edition) which takes account of the recent heavy escalation in oil prices, indicates a reasonable market for smaller size reactors in the range 150 MWe to 400 MWe, but until this market is approached seriously by manufacturers, the commercial availability and economic viability of smaller size reactors remains uncertain. (orig.) [de

  6. Statistical considerations on safety analysis

    Pal, L.; Makai, M.

    2004-01-01

    The authors have investigated the statistical methods applied to safety analysis of nuclear reactors and arrived at alarming conclusions: a series of calculations with the generally appreciated safety code ATHLET were carried out to ascertain the stability of the results against input uncertainties in a simple experimental situation. Scrutinizing those calculations, we came to the conclusion that the ATHLET results may exhibit chaotic behavior. A further conclusion is that the technological limits are incorrectly set when the output variables are correlated. Another formerly unnoticed conclusion of the previous ATHLET calculations that certain innocent looking parameters (like wall roughness factor, the number of bubbles per unit volume, the number of droplets per unit volume) can influence considerably such output parameters as water levels. The authors are concerned with the statistical foundation of present day safety analysis practices and can only hope that their own misjudgment will be dispelled. Until then, the authors suggest applying correct statistical methods in safety analysis even if it makes the analysis more expensive. It would be desirable to continue exploring the role of internal parameters (wall roughness factor, steam-water surface in thermal hydraulics codes, homogenization methods in neutronics codes) in system safety codes and to study their effects on the analysis. In the validation and verification process of a code one carries out a series of computations. The input data are not precisely determined because measured data have an error, calculated data are often obtained from a more or less accurate model. Some users of large codes are content with comparing the nominal output obtained from the nominal input, whereas all the possible inputs should be taken into account when judging safety. At the same time, any statement concerning safety must be aleatory, and its merit can be judged only when the probability is known with which the

  7. Size of quorum sensing communities

    Ferkinghoff-Borg, Jesper; Sams, Thomas

    2014-01-01

    Ensembles of bacteria are able to coordinate their phenotypic behavior in accordance with the size, density, and growth state of the ensemble. This is achieved through production and exchange of diffusible signal molecules in a cell–cell regulatory system termed quorum sensing. In the generic....... For a disk-shaped biofilm the geometric factor is the horizontal dimension multiplied by the height, and the square of the height of the biofilm if there is significant flow above the biofilm. A remarkably simple factorized expression for the size is obtained, which separates the all-or-none ignition caused...

  8. Design considerations for mechanical snubbers

    Severud, L.K.; Summers, G.D.

    1980-03-01

    The use of mechanical snubbers to restrain piping during an earthquake event is becoming more common in design of nuclear power plants. The design considerations and qualification procedures for mechanical snubbers used on the Fast Flux Test Facility will be presented. Design precautions and requirements for both normal operation and seismic operation are necessary. Effects of environmental vibration (nonseismic) induced through the piping by pump shaft imbalance and fluid flow oscillations will be addressed. Also, the snubber dynamic characteristics of interest to design and snubber design application considerations will be discussed

  9. Elimination of chromatographic and mass spectrometric problems in GC-MS analysis of Lavender essential oil by multivariate curve resolution techniques: Improving the peak purity assessment by variable size moving window-evolving factor analysis.

    Jalali-Heravi, Mehdi; Moazeni-Pourasil, Roudabeh Sadat; Sereshti, Hassan

    2015-03-01

    In analysis of complex natural matrices by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS), many disturbing factors such as baseline drift, spectral background, homoscedastic and heteroscedastic noise, peak shape deformation (non-Gaussian peaks), low S/N ratio and co-elution (overlapped and/or embedded peaks) lead the researchers to handle them to serve time, money and experimental efforts. This study aimed to improve the GC-MS analysis of complex natural matrices utilizing multivariate curve resolution (MCR) methods. In addition, to assess the peak purity of the two-dimensional data, a method called variable size moving window-evolving factor analysis (VSMW-EFA) is introduced and examined. The proposed methodology was applied to the GC-MS analysis of Iranian Lavender essential oil, which resulted in extending the number of identified constituents from 56 to 143 components. It was found that the most abundant constituents of the Iranian Lavender essential oil are α-pinene (16.51%), camphor (10.20%), 1,8-cineole (9.50%), bornyl acetate (8.11%) and camphene (6.50%). This indicates that the Iranian type Lavender contains a relatively high percentage of α-pinene. Comparison of different types of Lavender essential oils showed the composition similarity between Iranian and Italian (Sardinia Island) Lavenders. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  10. Trade-offs in size, quantity and reliability of generalized nuclear power plants: a preliminary assessment

    Hill, D.

    1985-04-01

    An approximate method is used to estimate the effects of system reliability on optimal nuclear plant size, taking into account also scale factors and manufacturing learning curve slopes. The method is used to estimate the additional effective capability gained by adding units of different sizes to an existing electrical system. The number of additional units proves to be sensitive to forced outrage rate, estimated here from trends in US light-water reactors from 1971 to 1980. The relative cost of added units ranging in size from 200 to 800 MW is determined as a function of the parameters: scale factor and learning curve slope. The results generally corrobate the trends found in an earlier study in which the effect of reliability on required installed capacity was not explicitly considered. Optimal plant size decreases with weaker scale effects and stronger learning curve effects. Reliability considerations further reduce the optimal plant size, but the relative reduction is apparently not as great with steeper learning curves. This is a plausible finding inasmuch as the reduction in numbers of additional units due to reliability considerations will affect cost most where the learning curve is steepest. 9 refs., 4 figs., 3 tabs

  11. Liquid metal corrosion considerations in alloy development

    Tortorelli, P.F.; DeVan, J.H.

    1984-01-01

    Liquid metal corrosion can be an important consideration in developing alloys for fusion and fast breeder reactors and other applications. Because of the many different forms of liquid metal corrosion (dissolution, alloying, carbon transfer, etc.), alloy optimization based on corrosion resistance depends on a number of factors such as the application temperatures, the particular liquid metal, and the level and nature of impurities in the liquid and solid metals. The present paper reviews the various forms of corrosion by lithium, lead, and sodium and indicates how such corrosion reactions can influence the alloy development process

  12. Nuclear energy applications - ethical considerations

    Hoermann, K.

    1980-01-01

    Following an Austrian referendum in 1978 which showed a small majority against operation of nuclear power stations, the economic penalties involved by this decision are qualitatively discussed, with emphasis on reduced standards of living. Religious considerations are examined and the difficulty of obtaining informed public opinion is stressed. Alternative sources of energy, including nuclear fusion, are briefly referred to. (G.M.E.)

  13. LABORATORY DESIGN CONSIDERATIONS FOR SAFETY.

    National Safety Council, Chicago, IL. Campus Safety Association.

    THIS SET OF CONSIDERATIONS HAS BEEN PREPARED TO PROVIDE PERSONS WORKING ON THE DESIGN OF NEW OR REMODELED LABORATORY FACILITIES WITH A SUITABLE REFERENCE GUIDE TO DESIGN SAFETY. THERE IS NO DISTINCTION BETWEEN TYPES OF LABORATORY AND THE EMPHASIS IS ON GIVING GUIDES AND ALTERNATIVES RATHER THAN DETAILED SPECIFICATIONS. AREAS COVERED INCLUDE--(1)…

  14. General B factory design considerations

    Zisman, M.S.

    1992-12-01

    We describe the general considerations that go into the design of an asymmetric B factory collider. Justification is given for the typical parameters of such a facility, and the physics and technology challenges that arise from these parameter choices are discussed. Cost and schedule issues for a B factory are discussed briefly. A summary of existing proposals is presented, noting their similarities and differences

  15. Practical considerations for effective microendoscopy

    Papaioannou, Thanassis; Papazoglou, Theodore G.; Daykhovsky, Leon; Gershman, Alex; Segalowitz, Jacob; Reznik, G.; Beeder, Clain; Chandra, Mudjianto; Grundfest, Warren S.

    1991-07-01

    This paper reports on the application of angioscopic technology to the endoscopy of previously inaccessible body cavities. Necessary instruments including endoscopes, light sources, cameras, video recorders, monitors, and other accessories are described. Practical considerations for effective instrumentation are discussed. An overview of our clinical microendoscopic applications in more than 630 patients is presented.

  16. Limitations of ZAF correction factors in the determination of calcium/phosphorus ratios: Important forensic science considerations relevant to the analysis of bone fragments using scanning electron microscopy and energy-dispersive x-ray microanalysis

    Payne, C.M.; Cromey, D.W.

    1990-01-01

    A series of calcium phosphate standards having calcium/phosphorus (Ca/P) molar ratios of 0.50, 1.00, 1.50, and 1.67, respectively, was prepared for bulk specimen analysis using scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and energy-dispersive X-ray microanalysis (EDXA). The standards were mounted on carbon planchettes as either pure crystals or crystals embedded in epoxy resin. Ten different samples of each embedded and non-embedded standard were analyzed in a JEOL 100 CX electron microscope interfaced with a Kevex 8000 EDXA system using a lithium-drifted silicon detector and a multichannel analyzer. The Ca/P ratios were determined by calculating both net peak intensities without matrix corrections and atomic kappa-ratios using the MAGIC V computer program with ZAF correction factors for quantitative analysis. There was such extensive absorption of phosphorus X-rays in standards embedded in an epoxy matrix that the observed Ca/P ratios were statistically compatible with four different standards ranging in theoretical Ca/P ratios from 1.0 to 1.67. Although the non-embedded crystals showed a greater separation in the Ca/P ratios, both methods of preparation produced serious flaws in analysis. Direct application of the discovery of this caveat to the identification of suspected bone fragments for forensic science purposes is discussed

  17. Engineering considerations for the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant

    Scully, L.W.

    1978-01-01

    The WIPP, located at Los Medanos in New Mexico, is to be used for DOE transuranic and high-level defense wastes. On the surface, there are contact-handled and remote-handled waste facilities. Package size, delivery rates, shipping, shielding and thermal considerations, underground transport and emplacement, retrievability, ventilation, and hoist conveyence safety are discussed

  18. What Are the Safety Considerations for Insulin Control for Athletes?

    McDaniel, Larry W.; Olson, Sara; Gaudet, Laura; Jackson, Allen

    2010-01-01

    Athletes diagnosed with diabetes may have difficulty with their blood sugar levels fluctuating during intense exercise. Considerations for athletes with insulin concerns may range anywhere from exercise rehabilitation to the use of an automatic insulin pump. The automatic insulin pump is a small battery-operated device about the size of a pager.…

  19. On the size of sports fields

    Texier, Baptiste Darbois; Cohen, Caroline; Clanet, Christophe; Dupeux, Guillaume; Quéré, David

    2014-01-01

    The size of sports fields considerably varies from a few meters for table tennis to hundreds of meters for golf. We first show that this size is mainly fixed by the range of the projectile, that is, by the aerodynamic properties of the ball (mass, surface, drag coefficient) and its maximal velocity in the game. This allows us to propose general classifications for sports played with a ball. (paper)

  20. Design considerations for ITER toroidal field coils

    Kalsi, S.S.; Lousteau, D.C.; Miller, J.R.

    1987-01-01

    The International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor (ITER) is a new tokamak design project with joint participation from Europe, Japan, the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics (U.S.S.R.), and the United States. This paper describes a magnetic and mechanical design methodology for toroidal field (TF) coils that employs Nb 3 Sn superconductor technology. Coil winding is sized by using conductor concepts developed for the U.S. TIBER concept. Manifold concepts are presented for the complete cooling system. Also included are concepts for the coil structural arrangement. The effects of in-plane and out-of-plane loads are included in the design considerations for the windings and case. Concepts are presented for reacting these loads with a minimum amount of additional structural material. Concepts discussed in this paper could be considered for the ITER TF coils

  1. Practical design considerations for photovoltaic power station

    Swanson, T. D.

    Aspects of photovoltaic (PV) technology are discussed along with generic PV design considerations, taking into account the resource sunlight, PV modules and their reliability, questions of PV system design, the support structure subsystem, and a power conditioning unit subsystem. A description is presented of two recent projects which demonstrate the translation of an idea into actual working PV systems. A privately financed project in Denton, Maryland, went on line in early December, 1982, and began providing power to the local utility grid. It represents the first intermediate size, grid-connected, privately financed power station in the U.S. Based on firm quotes, the actual cost of this system is about $13/W peak. The other project, called the PV Breeder, is an energy independent facility which utilizes solar power to make new solar cells. It is also the first large industrial structure completely powered by the sun.

  2. Reprocessing considerations for a developing country

    This paper describes some of the alternatives for dealing with spent fuel that face a developing country. It then discusses the considerations that affect decisions on the size and siting of reprocessing plants, and shows how small plants may be suitable in countries without the means to transport spent fuel easily. The paper also outlines the reasons for reprocessing in India, and describes the development of India's reprocessing capability. It shows how the economic conditions in India, such as low skilled labour costs, make reprocessing plants of 100 to 200 tonnes U/yr capacity economic, and includes a table giving technical data on a 100 t U/yr national plant for inclusion in the reference cases used by INFCE Working Group 4

  3. Compulsion in family planning: the fundamental considerations.

    Pethe, V P

    1979-03-01

    Focus is on some of the basic issues and considerations involved in the question of compulsion in family planning, which in terms of current contraceptive technology, only means compulsory sterilization. Pressures have been increasing to implement more stringent measures to control population growth in most of the developing countries throughout the world. During the Emergency in India (1975-1977) the government at that time, along with some individuals and groups, deemed it necessary to adopt the drastic measure of compulsory sterilization. The six sections of the discussion deal with the following: 1) compulsory family planning as rational or ethical choice basic issues; 2) neo-Malthusian thesis on compulsion - fallacies, dangers and inadequacies; 3) ethical and philosophical problems - premise of irresponsible procreation; 4) individual rights versus societal interests; 5) elitism in social policy and cost benefit considerations; and 6) international consensus against compulsion. All forums, under the auspices of the United Nations, of which India is a member, have rejected coercion and reiterated repeatedly that every individual has a basic human right to decide how many children to have and at what intervals. The most recent forum to endorse the human right to family size was the World Population Conference held at Bucharest in 1974. The 14 conditions spelled out by the United Nations Fund for Population Activity for effecting a free and responsible choice in family size may form a sound basis for a comprehensive policy concerning family planning in India. The coercive measures adopted during the Emergency are responsible for a backlash in India and retarding the progress of the family planning movement.

  4. CONSIDERATIONS ON TRANSACTIONS OF FOREIGN TRADE

    Paliu-Popa Lucia

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available In the complex connection process of national economies to global economy flows, an important role has the foreign trade, which in recent decades has become, in the market economy conditions, one of the factors determining for economic growth. Foreign trade, as a separate branch of the national economy is an important factor of economic growth, caused by the internationalization of business and determining for the process of globalization. For Romania, a country still in transition and recent member of the European Union is particularly important to enhance the participation to international trade in goods and services, but also attracting foreign investments in the economy as the main possibilities for the re-industry and restructuring the national economy in order to creation and maintenance of sustainable competitive advantages. Starting from these considerations, in this article I addressed/aproached the theoretical aspects of foreign trade, without omitting intracomunity purchases and deliveries of goods.

  5. Patient Dose Considerations in Interventional Cardiology

    Ciraj-Bjelac, O.; Rafajlovic, S.; Arandjic, D.; Kosutic, D.

    2011-01-01

    Interventional cardiology procedures are classified as high-dose procedures, owing to increased risk for radiation skin injuries and stochastic effects, such as cancer. European MED Directive 97/43 requires special consideration and dose evaluation for this kind of procedures . Dose received by a patient, in general, depends on the radiological equipment, examination protocol, the way it is implemented, the patient's body weight and nature of disease. Long-term fluoroscopy of certain parts of the body, a significant body mass, high-value dose intensity, continuous rather than pulsed fluoroscopy, small focus-skin distance and repeated procedure on the same patient, are among the factors that can lead to radiation skin injuries. A particular challenge is the fact that the radiation damage of the skin is difficult to detect and connect to the previously conducted cardiologic procedures. The fact that such injuries do not have immediate manifestation is very often reason that many of them remain undetected. The purpose of this work is to assess the level of radiation dose to patients in percutaneous coronary interventions (PCI) and to investigate possibility for setting of a practical trigger value if dose quantities exceed certain levels in terms of dose descriptors available at display of interventional cardiology unit. Two dedicated interventional cardiology units in a large teaching cardiac centre (Clinical Centre of Serbia, Belgrade, Serbia) were included in the survey. Both rooms (D and F) were equipped with X-ray units of the identical model: Siemens Axiom Artis (Siemens, Erlangen, Germany) with the flat panel detector and integrated ionization chamber to measure air kerma-area product (P K A) and air kerma in international reference point (K I RP). Patient doses were assessed in terms of P K A, K I RP and maximum-skin dose (MSD). P K A and K I RP were assessed using a built-in, in situ calibrated dosimeters, while MSD was estimated using radiochromic films

  6. Concepts in sample size determination

    Umadevi K Rao

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Investigators involved in clinical, epidemiological or translational research, have the drive to publish their results so that they can extrapolate their findings to the population. This begins with the preliminary step of deciding the topic to be studied, the subjects and the type of study design. In this context, the researcher must determine how many subjects would be required for the proposed study. Thus, the number of individuals to be included in the study, i.e., the sample size is an important consideration in the design of many clinical studies. The sample size determination should be based on the difference in the outcome between the two groups studied as in an analytical study, as well as on the accepted p value for statistical significance and the required statistical power to test a hypothesis. The accepted risk of type I error or alpha value, which by convention is set at the 0.05 level in biomedical research defines the cutoff point at which the p value obtained in the study is judged as significant or not. The power in clinical research is the likelihood of finding a statistically significant result when it exists and is typically set to >80%. This is necessary since the most rigorously executed studies may fail to answer the research question if the sample size is too small. Alternatively, a study with too large a sample size will be difficult and will result in waste of time and resources. Thus, the goal of sample size planning is to estimate an appropriate number of subjects for a given study design. This article describes the concepts in estimating the sample size.

  7. Macroscopic sizes of field of superrelativistic charges

    Strel'tsov, V.N.

    1995-01-01

    Based on the equation of Lienard-Wiechert equipotentials, it is shown that the field of superrelativistic charges reaches macroscopic sizes (e.g., R || = 2 m at E e = 50 GeV). This phenomenon serves an initial cause of the known considerable growth of formation length at high energies. 3 refs., 1 tab

  8. High-voltage, high-power architecture considerations

    Moser, R.L.

    1985-01-01

    Three basic EPS architectures, direct energy transfer, peak-power tracking, and a potential EPS architecture for a nuclear reactor are described and compared. Considerations for the power source and energy storage are discussed. Factors to be considered in selecting the operating voltage are pointed out. Other EPS architecture considerations are autonomy, solar array degrees of freedom, and EPS modularity. It was concluded that selection of the power source and energy storage has major impacts on the spacecraft architecture and mass

  9. Ethical considerations for field research on fishes

    Rhett H. Bennett

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Collection of data from animals for research purposes can negatively impact target or by-catch species if suitable animal ethics practices are not followed. This study aimed to assess the ethical requirements of peer-reviewed scientific journals that publish primary literature on fishes, and review the ethical considerations and animal care guidelines of national and international documents on the ethical treatment of animals for research, to provide an overview of the general ethical considerations for field research on fishes. A review of 250 peer-reviewed, ISI-rated journals publishing primary research on fishes revealed that nearly half (46% had no mention of ethics, treatment of animals or ethical requirements for publication in their author guidelines or publication policies. However, 18% of the journals reviewed identify a specific set of ethical guidelines to be followed before publishing research involving animals. Ethical considerations for investigators undertaking field research on fishes, common to most animal care policies, legislation and guiding documents, include adhering to relevant legislation, minimising sample sizes, reducing or mitigating pain and distress, employing the most appropriate and least invasive techniques and accurately reporting methods and findings. This information will provide potential investigators with a useful starting point for designing and conducting ethical field research. Application of ethical best practices in field sampling studies will improve the welfare of study animals and the conservation of rare and endangered species. Conservation implications: This article provides a list of ethical considerations for designing and conducting field research on fishes. By reviewing sampling techniques and processes that are frequently used in field research on fishes and by highlighting the potential negative impacts of these sampling techniques, this article is intended to assist researchers in planning

  10. Nanocoatings size effect in nanostructured films

    Aliofkhazraei, Mahmood

    2014-01-01

    Size effect in structures has been taken into consideration over the last years. In comparison with coatings with micrometer-ranged thickness, nanostructured coatings usually enjoy better and appropriate properties, such as strength and resistance. These coatings enjoy unique magnetic properties and are used with the aim of producing surfaces resistant against erosion, lubricant system, cutting tools, manufacturing hardened sporadic alloys, being resistant against oxidation and corrosion. This book reviews researches on fabrication and classification of nanostructured coatings with focus on size effect in nanometric scale. Size effect on electrochemical, mechanical and physical properties of nanocoatings are presented.

  11. Stress and food allergy: mechanistic considerations.

    Schreier, Hannah M C; Wright, Rosalind J

    2014-04-01

    Recent years have seen a marked increase in food allergy prevalence among children, particularly in Western countries, that cannot be explained by genetic factors alone. This has resulted in an increased effort to identify environmental risk factors underlying food allergies and to understand how these factors may be modified through interventions. Food allergy is an immune-mediated adverse reaction to food. Consequently, considerations of candidate risk factors have begun to focus on environmental influences that perturb the healthy development of the emerging immune system during critical periods of development (eg, prenatally and during early childhood), particularly in the gut. Given that psychosocial stress is known to play an important role in other allergic and inflammatory diseases, such as asthma, its potential role in food allergy is a growing area of research. However, research to date has largely focused on animal studies. This review synthesizes relevant animal research and epidemiological data, providing proof of concept for moderating influences of psychological stress on food allergy outcomes in humans. Pathways that may underlie associations between psychosocial stress and the expression of food allergy are discussed. Copyright © 2014 American College of Allergy, Asthma & Immunology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Considerations Regarding Students’ Social Protection

    Iuliana Cenar

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper entitled “Considerations Regarding Students’ Social Protection” addresses the main forms of support offered to students and their families, divided in relation to the aim pursued, which may be relate to stimulating students’ performance and discipline, material and financial support (social assistance, supplementing family income. For these components there were taken into account: the circumstances in which it acquires to status of beneficiary, evolutionary dimensions in terms of beneficiary numbers, the amounts awarded, the need to ensure the complementarities with the informal side of social protection.

  13. Preliminary considerations concerning actinide solubilities

    Newton, T.W.; Bayhurst, B.P.; Daniels, W.R.; Erdal, B.R.; Ogard, A.E.

    1980-01-01

    Work at the Los Alamos Scientific Laboratory on the fundamental solution chemistry of the actinides has thus far been confined to preliminary considerations of the problems involved in developing an understanding of the precipitation and dissolution behavior of actinide compounds under environmental conditions. Attempts have been made to calculate solubility as a function of Eh and pH using the appropriate thermodynamic data; results have been presented in terms of contour maps showing lines of constant solubility as a function of Eh and pH. Possible methods of control of the redox potential of rock-groundwater systems by the use of Eh buffers (redox couples) is presented

  14. Community Size Effects on Epidemic Spreading in Multiplex Social Networks.

    Ting Liu

    Full Text Available The dynamical process of epidemic spreading has drawn much attention of the complex network community. In the network paradigm, diseases spread from one person to another through the social ties amongst the population. There are a variety of factors that govern the processes of disease spreading on the networks. A common but not negligible factor is people's reaction to the outbreak of epidemics. Such reaction can be related information dissemination or self-protection. In this work, we explore the interactions between disease spreading and population response in terms of information diffusion and individuals' alertness. We model the system by mapping multiplex networks into two-layer networks and incorporating individuals' risk awareness, on the assumption that their response to the disease spreading depends on the size of the community they belong to. By comparing the final incidence of diseases in multiplex networks, we find that there is considerable mitigation of diseases spreading for full phase of spreading speed when individuals' protection responses are introduced. Interestingly, the degree of community overlap between the two layers is found to be critical factor that affects the final incidence. We also analyze the consequences of the epidemic incidence in communities with different sizes and the impacts of community overlap between two layers. Specifically, as the diseases information makes individuals alert and take measures to prevent the diseases, the effective protection is more striking in small community. These phenomena can be explained by the multiplexity of the networked system and the competition between two spreading processes.

  15. Community Size Effects on Epidemic Spreading in Multiplex Social Networks.

    Liu, Ting; Li, Ping; Chen, Yan; Zhang, Jie

    2016-01-01

    The dynamical process of epidemic spreading has drawn much attention of the complex network community. In the network paradigm, diseases spread from one person to another through the social ties amongst the population. There are a variety of factors that govern the processes of disease spreading on the networks. A common but not negligible factor is people's reaction to the outbreak of epidemics. Such reaction can be related information dissemination or self-protection. In this work, we explore the interactions between disease spreading and population response in terms of information diffusion and individuals' alertness. We model the system by mapping multiplex networks into two-layer networks and incorporating individuals' risk awareness, on the assumption that their response to the disease spreading depends on the size of the community they belong to. By comparing the final incidence of diseases in multiplex networks, we find that there is considerable mitigation of diseases spreading for full phase of spreading speed when individuals' protection responses are introduced. Interestingly, the degree of community overlap between the two layers is found to be critical factor that affects the final incidence. We also analyze the consequences of the epidemic incidence in communities with different sizes and the impacts of community overlap between two layers. Specifically, as the diseases information makes individuals alert and take measures to prevent the diseases, the effective protection is more striking in small community. These phenomena can be explained by the multiplexity of the networked system and the competition between two spreading processes.

  16. Consideration of the 15 Factors in the Metropolitan Planning Process

    1995-01-01

    This synthesis will be of immediate interest to land luse and transportation : planning officials, with special interest to state, regional, and local planners : and administrators who must repond to the requirements of the Intermodal Surface : Trans...

  17. The pertinence of status factors in consumers' consideration of major ...

    Household appliances are important for their functional utility and have become very important time- and labour-saving devices in modern households. However, through branding, design and incorporation of sophisticated technology they have also become semiotic markers of fortune. This exploratory study was designed ...

  18. Human Factors Consideration for the Design of Collaborative Machine Assistants

    Park, Sung; Fisk, Arthur D.; Rogers, Wendy A.

    Recent improvements in technology have facilitated the use of robots and virtual humans not only in entertainment and engineering but also in the military (Hill et al., 2003), healthcare (Pollack et al., 2002), and education domains (Johnson, Rickel, & Lester, 2000). As active partners of humans, such machine assistants can take the form of a robot or a graphical representation and serve the role of a financial assistant, a health manager, or even a social partner. As a result, interactive technologies are becoming an integral component of people's everyday lives.

  19. On-farm demonstrations: consideration factors for their success and ...

    Journal Home > Vol 32 (2003) > ... long been a key hallmark of program delivery and teaching in extension work. ... This study resulted in the development of both the Advantages and Disadvantages associated with on-farm demonstrations ...

  20. 28 CFR 51.34 - Expedited consideration.

    2010-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Expedited consideration. 51.34 Section 51... consideration. (a) When a submitting authority is required under State law or local ordinance or otherwise finds... the submission be given expedited consideration. The submission should explain why such consideration...

  1. 46 CFR 114.550 - Special consideration.

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Special consideration. 114.550 Section 114.550 Shipping... consideration. In applying the provisions of this subchapter, the OCMI may give special consideration to... vessel operates must approve any special consideration granted to the vessel. ...

  2. Poverty and household size

    Lanjouw, P.; Ravallion, M.

    1995-01-01

    The widely held view that larger families tend to be poorer in developing countries has influenced research and policy. The scope for size economies in consumption cautions against this view. The authors find that the correlation between poverty and size vanishes in Pakistan when the size elasticity

  3. Mid-size urbanism

    Zwart, de B.A.M.

    2013-01-01

    To speak of the project for the mid-size city is to speculate about the possibility of mid-size urbanity as a design category. An urbanism not necessarily defined by the scale of the intervention or the size of the city undergoing transformation, but by the framing of the issues at hand and the

  4. Orientation dependent size effects in single crystalline anisotropic nanoplates with regard to surface energy

    Assadi, Abbas; Salehi, Manouchehr; Akhlaghi, Mehdi

    2015-01-01

    In this work, size dependent behavior of single crystalline normal and auxetic anisotropic nanoplates is discussed with consideration of material surface stresses via a generalized model. Bending of pressurized nanoplates and their fundamental resonant frequency are discussed for different crystallographic directions and anisotropy degrees. It is explained that the orientation effects are considerable when the nanoplates' edges are pinned but for clamped nanoplates, the anisotropy effect may be ignored. The size effects are the highest when the simply supported nanoplates are parallel to [110] direction but as the anisotropy gets higher, the size effects are reduced. The orientation effect is also discussed for possibility of self-instability occurrence in nanoplates. The results in simpler cases are compared with previous experiments for nanowires but with a correction factor. There are still some open questions for future studies. - Highlights: • Size effects in single crystalline anisotropic nanoplates are discussed. • A generalized model is established containing some physical assumptions. • Orientation dependent size effects due to material anisotropy are explained. • Bending, instability and frequencies are studied at normal/auxetic domain

  5. Chefs' opinions of restaurant portion sizes.

    Condrasky, Marge; Ledikwe, Jenny H; Flood, Julie E; Rolls, Barbara J

    2007-08-01

    The objectives were to determine who establishes restaurant portion sizes and factors that influence these decisions, and to examine chefs' opinions regarding portion size, nutrition information, and weight management. A survey was distributed to chefs to obtain information about who is responsible for determining restaurant portion sizes, factors influencing restaurant portion sizes, what food portion sizes are being served in restaurants, and chefs' opinions regarding nutrition information, health, and body weight. The final sample consisted of 300 chefs attending various culinary meetings. Executive chefs were identified as being primarily responsible for establishing portion sizes served in restaurants. Factors reported to have a strong influence on restaurant portion sizes included presentation of foods, food cost, and customer expectations. While 76% of chefs thought that they served "regular" portions, the actual portions of steak and pasta they reported serving were 2 to 4 times larger than serving sizes recommended by the U.S government. Chefs indicated that they believe that the amount of food served influences how much patrons consume and that large portions are a problem for weight control, but their opinions were mixed regarding whether it is the customer's responsibility to eat an appropriate amount when served a large portion of food. Portion size is a key determinant of energy intake, and the results from this study suggest that cultural norms and economic value strongly influence the determination of restaurant portion sizes. Strategies are needed to encourage chefs to provide and promote portions that are appropriate for customers' energy requirements.

  6. Shaft and tunnel sealing considerations

    Kelsall, P.C.; Shukla, D.K.

    1980-01-01

    Much of the emphasis of previous repository sealing research has been placed on plugging small diameter boreholes. It is increasingly evident that equal emphasis should now be given to shafts and tunnels which constitute more significant pathways between a repository and the biosphere. The paper discusses differences in requirements for sealing shafts and tunnels as compared with boreholes and the implications for seal design. Consideration is given to a design approach for shaft and tunnel seals based on a multiple component design concept, taking into account the requirements for retrievability of the waste. A work plan is developed for the future studies required to advance shaft and tunnel sealing technology to a level comparable with the existing technology for borehole sealing

  7. Biosimilars: Considerations for Oncology Nurses
.

    Vizgirda, Vida; Jacobs, Ira

    2017-04-01

    Biosimilars are developed to be highly similar to and treat the same conditions as licensed biologics. As they are approved and their use becomes more widespread, oncology nurses should be aware of their development and unique considerations. This article reviews properties of biosimilars; their regulation and approval process; the ways in which their quality, safety, and efficacy are evaluated; their postmarketing safety monitoring; and their significance to oncology nurses and oncology nursing.
. A search of PubMed and regulatory agency websites was conducted for references related to the development and use of biosimilars in oncology. 
. Because biologics are large, structurally complex molecules, biosimilars cannot be considered generic equivalents to licensed biologic products. Consequently, regulatory approval for biosimilars is different from approval for small-molecule generics. Oncology nurses are in a unique position to educate themselves, other clinicians, and patients and their families about biosimilars to ensure accurate understanding, as well as optimal and safe use, of biosimilars.

  8. Psychosocial considerations about children and radiological events

    Lemyre, L.; Corneil, W.; Johnson, C.; Boutette, P.

    2010-01-01

    Children are identified as a vulnerable population in the case of radiological events because of their increased physical sensitivity to radiation and its impact on critical development stages. Using a comprehensive integrated risk framework, psychosocial risk protective factors are discussed in a social ecology paradigm. Children have been shown to be both vulnerable and resilient; they are both easily impressionable and also quick to adapt and learn. Psychosocial interventions during, after and most efficiently before an event can improve outcome, especially if they involve parents and schools, media and work organisations. Public education through children should be encouraged to increase knowledge of radiation and strategies to minimise exposure and irradiation. Children can become vectors of prevention, preparedness and mitigation through information and behavioural rehearsal. Special consideration must therefore be given to education, school programmes, practice rehearsal and media exposure. (authors)

  9. Lyme Disease: Emergency Department Considerations.

    Applegren, Nathan D; Kraus, Chadd K

    2017-06-01

    Lyme disease (LD) is the most common vector-borne illness in North America. Reported cases of LD have increased from approximately 10,000 cases annually in 1991 to >25,000 cases in 2014. Greater recognition, enhanced surveillance, and public education have contributed to the increased prevalence, as have geographic expansion and the number of infected ticks. Cases are reported primarily in the Northeastern United States, Wisconsin, and Minnesota, with children having the highest incidence of LD among all age groups. The increased incidence and prevalence of LD in the United States makes it increasingly more common for patients to present to the emergency department (ED) for tick bites and LD-related chief complaints, such as the characteristic erythema migrans skin manifestation. We sought to review the etiology of LD, describe its clinical presentations and sequela, and provide a practical classification and approach to ED management of patients with LD-related presentations. In this review, ED considerations for LD are presented and clinical presentations and management of the disease at different stages is discussed. Delayed sequelae that have significant morbidity, including Lyme carditis and Lyme neuroborreliosis, are discussed. Diagnostic tests and management are described in detail. The increasing prevalence and growing geographic reach of Lyme disease makes it critically important for emergency physicians to consider the diagnosis in patients presenting with symptoms suggestive of LD and to initiate appropriate treatment to minimize the potential of delayed sequelae. Special consideration should be made for the epidemiology of LD and a high clinical suspicion should be present for patients in endemic areas or with known exposures to ticks. Emergency physicians can play a critical role in the recognition, diagnosis, and treatment of LD. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Effect size and statistical power in the rodent fear conditioning literature - A systematic review.

    Carneiro, Clarissa F D; Moulin, Thiago C; Macleod, Malcolm R; Amaral, Olavo B

    2018-01-01

    Proposals to increase research reproducibility frequently call for focusing on effect sizes instead of p values, as well as for increasing the statistical power of experiments. However, it is unclear to what extent these two concepts are indeed taken into account in basic biomedical science. To study this in a real-case scenario, we performed a systematic review of effect sizes and statistical power in studies on learning of rodent fear conditioning, a widely used behavioral task to evaluate memory. Our search criteria yielded 410 experiments comparing control and treated groups in 122 articles. Interventions had a mean effect size of 29.5%, and amnesia caused by memory-impairing interventions was nearly always partial. Mean statistical power to detect the average effect size observed in well-powered experiments with significant differences (37.2%) was 65%, and was lower among studies with non-significant results. Only one article reported a sample size calculation, and our estimated sample size to achieve 80% power considering typical effect sizes and variances (15 animals per group) was reached in only 12.2% of experiments. Actual effect sizes correlated with effect size inferences made by readers on the basis of textual descriptions of results only when findings were non-significant, and neither effect size nor power correlated with study quality indicators, number of citations or impact factor of the publishing journal. In summary, effect sizes and statistical power have a wide distribution in the rodent fear conditioning literature, but do not seem to have a large influence on how results are described or cited. Failure to take these concepts into consideration might limit attempts to improve reproducibility in this field of science.

  11. Effect size and statistical power in the rodent fear conditioning literature – A systematic review

    Macleod, Malcolm R.

    2018-01-01

    Proposals to increase research reproducibility frequently call for focusing on effect sizes instead of p values, as well as for increasing the statistical power of experiments. However, it is unclear to what extent these two concepts are indeed taken into account in basic biomedical science. To study this in a real-case scenario, we performed a systematic review of effect sizes and statistical power in studies on learning of rodent fear conditioning, a widely used behavioral task to evaluate memory. Our search criteria yielded 410 experiments comparing control and treated groups in 122 articles. Interventions had a mean effect size of 29.5%, and amnesia caused by memory-impairing interventions was nearly always partial. Mean statistical power to detect the average effect size observed in well-powered experiments with significant differences (37.2%) was 65%, and was lower among studies with non-significant results. Only one article reported a sample size calculation, and our estimated sample size to achieve 80% power considering typical effect sizes and variances (15 animals per group) was reached in only 12.2% of experiments. Actual effect sizes correlated with effect size inferences made by readers on the basis of textual descriptions of results only when findings were non-significant, and neither effect size nor power correlated with study quality indicators, number of citations or impact factor of the publishing journal. In summary, effect sizes and statistical power have a wide distribution in the rodent fear conditioning literature, but do not seem to have a large influence on how results are described or cited. Failure to take these concepts into consideration might limit attempts to improve reproducibility in this field of science. PMID:29698451

  12. Effects of High-School Size on Student Outcomes:Response to Howley and Howley

    Valerie E. Lee

    2004-09-01

    Full Text Available I take issue with several points in the Howleys' reanalysis (Vol. 12 No. 52 of this journal of "High School Size: Which Works Best and for Whom?" (Lee & Smith, 1997. That the original sample of NELS schools might have underrepresented small rural public schools would not bias results, as they claim. Their assertion that our conclusions about an ideal high-school size privileged excellence over equity ignores the fact that our multilevel analyses explored the two outcomes simultaneously. Neither do I agree that our claim about "ideal size" (600-900 was too narrow, as our paper was clear that our focus was on achievement and its equitable distribution. Perhaps the most important area of disagreement concerns non-linear relationships between school size and achievement gains. Ignoring the skewed distribution of school size, without either transforming or categorizing the variable produces findings that spuriously favor the smallest schools. Our recent involvement as expert witnesses on opposite sides in a court case may have motivated the Howleys' attempt to discredit our work. Finally, I argue that research attempting to establish a direct link between school size and student outcomes may be misguided. Rather, school size influences student outcomes only indirectly, through the academic and social organization of schools. Considerable evidence links these organizational factors to student outcomes (especially learning and its equitable distribution.

  13. Space Tourism: Orbital Debris Considerations

    Mahmoudian, N.; Shajiee, S.; Moghani, T.; Bahrami, M.

    2002-01-01

    Space activities after a phase of research and development, political competition and national prestige have entered an era of real commercialization. Remote sensing, earth observation, and communication are among the areas in which this growing industry is facing competition and declining government money. A project like International Space Station, which draws from public money, has not only opened a window of real multinational cooperation, but also changed space travel from a mere fantasy into a real world activity. Besides research activities for sending man to moon and Mars and other outer planets, space travel has attracted a considerable attention in recent years in the form of space tourism. Four countries from space fairing nations are actively involved in the development of space tourism. Even, nations which are either in early stages of space technology development or just beginning their space activities, have high ambitions in this area. This is worth noting considering their limited resources. At present, trips to space are available, but limited and expensive. To move beyond this point to generally available trips to orbit and week long stays in LEO, in orbital hotels, some of the required basic transportations, living requirements, and technological developments required for long stay in orbit are already underway. For tourism to develop to a real everyday business, not only the price has to come down to meaningful levels, but also safety considerations should be fully developed to attract travelers' trust. A serious hazard to space activities in general and space tourism in particular is space debris in earth orbit. Orbiting debris are man-made objects left over by space operations, hazardous to space missions. Since the higher density of debris population occurs in low earth orbit, which is also the same orbit of interest to space tourism, a careful attention should be paid to the effect of debris on tourism activities. In this study, after a

  14. [Should a doctor take into consideration the influence of climatic factors? Deliberations on the occasion of the publication of a new monograph (the book of essays of arid medicine by Z.R. Zununov, I.H. Nurov, and S.Z. Zununova)].

    Povazhnaya, E L

    2018-04-09

    The authors analyze the monograph of the Uzbek scientists professor Z.R. Zununov, I.H. Nurov, and S.Z. Zununova «Essays of arid medicine» (Tashkent: «KAMALAK-PRESS» publishing house, 2016;540). The book presents the results of the comprehensive bioclimatic assessment of the arid zones of Uzbekistan, their extreme climatic conditions (such as high intensity and solar radiation and the considerable duration of its period, dry air and summer heat, sandstorms (the so-called «Afghans»), and the great variety of the natural health-improving factors including mineral waters, microclimate of the speleotherapeutic cave, the desert dune sand, etc. The work is based on the authors' conceptual theory of «arid/meteorological stress syndrome», underlain by the hypothesis of the predominant role of hyperthermal weather hypoxia. A wide range of issues id discussed related to weather and climate adaptation of the healthy subjects (both indigenous and non-indigenous residents) and the patients suffering from ischemic heart disease, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, and rheumatoid arthritis. Of special interest are the methods proposed for the correction of dysadaptive changes including the application of the natural balneotherapeutic factors existing in the arid zone (hydrogen sulphide and iodine-bromine balneotherapy, climatic therapy, speleotherapy, and psammotherapy (arenation). An important definitive conclusion at which the authors arrive is the necessity of the experimental observations in agreement with the requirements of the medico-biological ethics.

  15. Size and support ratings of US banks

    Poghosyan, Tigran; Werger, Charlotte; de Haan, Jakob

    We examine whether Fitch support ratings of US banks depend on bank size. Using quarterly data for the period 2004:Q4 to 2012:Q4 and controlling for several factors that make large and small banks different, we find that bank size is positively related to support ratings. However, the effect is

  16. Rules and Acts of Considerateness

    Beran, Ondřej

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 22, č. 3 (2015), s. 395-418 ISSN 1370-0049 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA13-20785S Institutional support: RVO:67985955 Keywords : normativity, moral rules * Wittgensteinian ethics * particularity Subject RIV: AA - Philosophy ; Religion Impact factor: 0.250, year: 2015

  17. Library Hospitality: Some Preliminary Considerations

    Johnson, Eric D. M.; Kazmer, Michelle M.

    2011-01-01

    Library scholars and practitioners have frequently reflected on the various factors that in combination make up a hospitable library, but there has been little theoretical synthesis of the notion of the library as a place of hospitality. The hospitality industry provides a rich vein of theoretical material from which to draw definitions of…

  18. Hypochondriasis: considerations for ICD-11

    Odile A. van den Heuvel

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The World Health Organization (WHO is currently revisiting the ICD. In the 10th version of the ICD, approved in 1990, hypochondriacal symptoms are described in the context of both the primary condition hypochondriacal disorder and as secondary symptoms within a range of other mental disorders. Expansion of the research base since 1990 makes a critical evaluation and revision of both the definition and classification of hypochondriacal disorder timely. This article addresses the considerations reviewed by members of the WHO ICD-11 Working Group on the Classification of Obsessive-Compulsive and Related Disorders in their proposal for the description and classification of hypochondriasis. The proposed revision emphasizes the phenomenological overlap with both anxiety disorders (e.g., fear, hypervigilance to bodily symptoms, and avoidance and obsessive-compulsive and related disorders (e.g., preoccupation and repetitive behaviors and the distinction from the somatoform disorders (presence of somatic symptom is not a critical characteristic. This revision aims to improve clinical utility by enabling better recognition and treatment of patients with hypochondriasis within the broad range of global health care settings.

  19. Ethical Considerations of Preclinical Testing

    Allen Goldenthal

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The numbers of animal tests being conducted are on a sharp incline.  Much of this increase is directly due to our ability to generate transgenic models and knock-outs, thereby increasing the validity of the animal model but not necessarily correlating directly with any translational medical benefits to the human counterpart.  In spite of our best efforts, there still exist species differences that prevent the application directly from animal to human, and in some examples having a completely different and adverse effect from that seen in the animal model. There are several ways in which we can improve the opportunity for a positive test outcome and at the same time reduce the animal usage which is associated with our current animal testing practices. The benefit of the 3R’s is that they encourage us not only to avoid wastage of life but that they require us to provide considerable foresight and extrapolated thought before directly engaging in the preclinical testing phase.

  20. Considerations regarding dosimetry in children

    Gilday, D.L.

    1986-01-01

    The most important consideration when deciding whether or not to perform a nuclear medicine procedure in a child is whether the benefit of the information obtained exceeds the potential risk. In most circumstances the potential benefits are well define. No patient should be studied unless the question to be answered is clearly understood and there is a reasonable change to answer it. To properly perform procedures in children one must not only have a schedule to scale the radiopharmaceutical dose to be administered to the child's body surface area but also one must have an established minimum dose for small babies and infants. There is no point in under-dosing the patient as then the information will not be obtained from the nuclear medicine society. The value of nuclear medicine in the pediatric population cannot be underestimated. It is often the single most important test that can be performed diagnostically. For these reasons it is very important to understand the proper relationship of an adequate study versus the minimization of radiation. 3 references

  1. Enabling fast charging - Vehicle considerations

    Meintz, Andrew; Zhang, Jiucai; Vijayagopal, Ram; Kreutzer, Cory; Ahmed, Shabbir; Bloom, Ira; Burnham, Andrew; Carlson, Richard B.; Dias, Fernando; Dufek, Eric J.; Francfort, James; Hardy, Keith; Jansen, Andrew N.; Keyser, Matthew; Markel, Anthony; Michelbacher, Christopher; Mohanpurkar, Manish; Pesaran, Ahmad; Scoffield, Don; Shirk, Matthew; Stephens, Thomas; Tanim, Tanvir

    2017-11-01

    To achieve a successful increase in the plug-in battery electric vehicle (BEV) market, it is anticipated that a significant improvement in battery performance is required to increase the range that BEVs can travel and the rate at which they can be recharged. While the range that BEVs can travel on a single recharge is improving, the recharge rate is still much slower than the refueling rate of conventional internal combustion engine vehicles. To achieve comparable recharge times, we explore the vehicle considerations of charge rates of at least 400 kW. Faster recharge is expected to significantly mitigate the perceived deficiencies for long-distance transportation, to provide alternative charging in densely populated areas where overnight charging at home may not be possible, and to reduce range anxiety for travel within a city when unplanned charging may be required. This substantial increase in charging rate is expected to create technical issues in the design of the battery system and the vehicle's electrical architecture that must be resolved. This work focuses on vehicle system design and total recharge time to meet the goals of implementing improved charge rates and the impacts of these expected increases on system voltage and vehicle components.

  2. Development Considerations for Nanocrystal Drug Products.

    Chen, Mei-Ling; John, Mathew; Lee, Sau L; Tyner, Katherine M

    2017-05-01

    Nanocrystal technology has emerged as a valuable tool for facilitating the delivery of poorly water-soluble active pharmaceutical ingredients (APIs) and enhancing API bioavailability. To date, the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) has received over 80 applications for drug products containing nanocrystals. These products can be delivered by different routes of administration and are used in a variety of therapeutic areas. To aid in identifying key developmental considerations for these products, a retrospective analysis was performed on the submissions received by the FDA to date. Over 60% of the submissions were for the oral route of administration. Based on the Biopharmaceutics Classification System (BCS), most nanocrystal drugs submitted to the FDA are class II compounds that possess low aqueous solubility and high intestinal permeability. Impact of food on drug bioavailability was reduced for most nanocrystal formulations as compared with their micronized counterparts. For all routes of administration, dose proportionality was observed for some, but not all, nanocrystal products. Particular emphasis in the development of nanocrystal products was placed on the in-process tests and controls at critical manufacturing steps (such as milling process), mitigation and control of process-related impurities, and the stability of APIs or polymorphic form (s) during manufacturing and upon storage. This emphasis resulted in identifying challenges to the development of these products including accurate determination of particle size (distribution) of drug substance and/or nanocrystal colloidal dispersion, identification of polymorphic form (s), and establishment of drug substance/product specifications.

  3. Interaction between carbon fibers and polymer sizing: Influence of fiber surface chemistry and sizing reactivity

    Moosburger-Will, Judith; Bauer, Matthias; Laukmanis, Eva; Horny, Robert; Wetjen, Denise; Manske, Tamara; Schmidt-Stein, Felix; Töpker, Jochen; Horn, Siegfried

    2018-05-01

    Different aspects of the interaction of carbon fibers and epoxy-based polymer sizings are investigated, e.g. the wetting behavior, the strength of adhesion between fiber and sizing, and the thermal stability of the sizing layer. The influence of carbon fiber surface chemistry and sizing reactivity is investigated using fibers of different degree of anodic oxidation and sizings with different number of reactive epoxy groups per molecule. Wetting of the carbon fibers by the sizing dispersion is found to be specified by both, the degree of fiber activation and the sizing reactivity. In contrast, adhesion strength between fibers and sizing is dominated by the surface chemistry of the carbon fibers. Here, the number of surface oxygen groups seems to be the limiting factor. We also find that the sizing and the additional functionalities induced by anodic oxidation are removed by thermal treatment at 600 °C, leaving the carbon fiber in its original state after carbonization.

  4. Preliminary notes concerning the uranium-gold ratio and the gradient of heavy-mineral size distribution as factors of transport distance down the paleoslope of the Proterozoic Steyn Reef placer deposit, Orange Free State Goldfield, Witwatersrand, South Africa

    Minter, W.E.L.

    1981-01-01

    The size decrease of quartz pebbles, pyrite nodules, and zircon grains, evident from samples of Steyn Reef taken from various positions down a paleoslope indicated by crossbedding data, confirms their detrital origin. An increase in the ratio of uranium to gold, which appears to be related to their original size-frequency distribution, also indicates the paleoslope direction and effectively distinguishes between blanket and carbon-seam reefs

  5. Geometric considerations in magnetron sputtering

    Thornton, J.A.

    1982-01-01

    The recent development of high performance magnetron type discharge sources has greatly enhaced the range of coating applications where sputtering is a viable deposition process. Magnetron sources can provide high current densities and sputtering rates, even at low pressures. They have much reduced substrate heating rates and can be scaled to large sizes. Magnetron sputter coating apparatuses can have a variety of geometric and plasma configurations. The target geometry affects the emission directions of both the sputtered atoms and the energetic ions which are neutralized and reflected at the cathode. This fact, coupled with the long mean free particle paths which are prevalent at low pressures, can make the coating properties very dependent on the apparatus geometry. This paper reviews the physics of magnetron operation and discusses the influences of apparatus geometry on the use of magnetrons for rf sputtering and reactive sputtering, as well as on the microstructure and internal stresses in sputtered metallic coatings. (author) [pt

  6. Thermodynamic limits on the size and size distribution of nucleic acids synthesized in vitro: the role of pyrophosphate hydrolysis.

    Peller, L

    1977-02-08

    The free-energy change of phosphodiester bond formation from nucleoside triphosphates is more favorable than with nucleoside diphosphates as substrates. Base-stacking interactions can make significant contributions to both delta G degrees ' values. Pyrophosphate hydrolysis when it accompanies the former reaction dominates all thermodynamic considerations. Three experimental situations are discussed in which high-molecular-weight polynucleotides are synthesized without a strong driving force for covalent bond formation. For one of these, a kinetic scheme is presented which encompasses an early narrow Poisson distribution of chain lengths with ultimate passage to a disperse equilibrium population of chain sizes. Hydrolytic removal of pyrophosphate expands the time scale for this undesirable process by a factor of 10(9), while it enormously elevates the thermodynamic ceiling for the average degrees of polymerization in the other two examples. The electron micrographically revealed broad size population from an early study of partial replication of a T7 DNA template is found to adhere (fortuitously) to a disperse most probable representation. Some possible origins are examined for the branched structures in this product, as well as in a later investigation of replication of this nucleic acid. The achievement of both very high molecular weights and sharply peaked size distributions in polynucleotides synthesized in vitro will require coupling to inorganic pyrophosphatase action as in vivo.

  7. Game theoretic considerations for Kenyan health governance ...

    Game theoretic considerations for Kenyan health governance. ... theoretic considerations in their practice in order to achieve market-driven competition ... Key words: Game theory, social capital, good governance, health policy, health systems.

  8. Research design considerations for chronic pain prevention clinical trials

    Gewandter, Jennifer S; Dworkin, Robert H; Turk, Dennis C

    2015-01-01

    Although certain risk factors can identify individuals who are most likely to develop chronic pain, few interventions to prevent chronic pain have been identified. To facilitate the identification of preventive interventions, an IMMPACT meeting was convened to discuss research design considerations...

  9. Clinical implementation of x-ray phase-contrast imaging: Theoretical foundations and design considerations

    Wu Xizeng; Liu Hong

    2003-01-01

    Theoretical foundation and design considerations of a clinical feasible x-ray phase contrast imaging technique were presented in this paper. Different from the analysis of imaging phase object with weak absorption in literature, we proposed a new formalism for in-line phase-contrast imaging to analyze the effects of four clinically important factors on the phase contrast. These are the body parts attenuation, the spatial coherence of spherical waves from a finite-size focal spot, and polychromatic x-ray and radiation doses to patients for clinical applications. The theory presented in this paper can be applied widely in diagnostic x-ray imaging procedures. As an example, computer simulations were conducted and optimal design parameters were derived for clinical mammography. The results of phantom experiments were also presented which validated the theoretical analysis and computer simulations

  10. Man-machine considerations in nuclear power plant control room design

    Tennant, D.V.

    1987-01-01

    Although human factors is a subject that has been around for a number of years, this area of design has only recently become known to the power industry. As power plants have grown in size and complexity, the instrumentation required to control and monitor plant processes has increased tremendously. This has been especially true in nuclear power facilities. Although operators are better trained and qualified, very little consideration has been devoted to man-machine interface and the limitations of human operators. This paper explores the historic aspects and design philosophy associated with nuclear plant control rooms. Current problems and solutions are explored along with the components of a control room review. Finally, a survey of future advances in control room design are offered. This paper is concerned with instrumentation, controls, and displays

  11. 32 CFR 643.74 - Consideration.

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 4 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Consideration. 643.74 Section 643.74 National... Licenses § 643.74 Consideration. When a license is granted under the authority of an easement or leasing statute, the same rules will apply in regard to consideration as is applicable to the granting of an...

  12. 5 CFR 330.206 - Job consideration.

    2010-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Job consideration. 330.206 Section 330..., SELECTION, AND PLACEMENT (GENERAL) Reemployment Priority List (RPL) § 330.206 Job consideration. (a)(1) An eligible employee under § 330.203 is entitled to consideration for positions in the commuting area for...

  13. 32 CFR 643.53 - Consideration.

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 4 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Consideration. 643.53 Section 643.53 National... Leases § 643.53 Consideration. (a) Unless otherwise authorized by this regulation or directed by the SA, the consideration for a lease of real estate will be the appraised fair market rental value. However...

  14. 15 CFR 2301.5 - Special consideration.

    2010-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Special consideration. 2301.5 Section... PROGRAM Application Requirements § 2301.5 Special consideration. In accordance with section 392(f) of the Act, the Agency will give special consideration to applications that foster ownership of, operation of...

  15. 46 CFR 169.112 - Special consideration.

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Special consideration. 169.112 Section 169.112 Shipping... Provisions § 169.112 Special consideration. In applying the provisions of this part, the Officer in Charge, Marine Inspection, may give special consideration to departures from the specific requirements when...

  16. 49 CFR 260.7 - Priority consideration.

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Priority consideration. 260.7 Section 260.7... REHABILITATION AND IMPROVEMENT FINANCING PROGRAM Overview § 260.7 Priority consideration. When evaluating applications, the Administrator will give priority consideration (but not necessarily in the following order...

  17. 46 CFR 175.550 - Special consideration.

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Special consideration. 175.550 Section 175.550 Shipping...) GENERAL PROVISIONS § 175.550 Special consideration. In applying the provisions of this subchapter, the OCMI may give special consideration to authorizing departures from the specific requirements when...

  18. Materials considerations in accelerator targets

    Peacock, H. B. Jr.; Iyer, N. C.; Louthan, M. R. Jr.

    1995-01-01

    Future nuclear materials production and/or the burn-up of long lived radioisotopes may be accomplished through the capture of spallation produced neutrons in accelerators. Aluminum clad-lead and/or lead alloys has been proposed as a spallation target. Aluminum was the cladding choice because of the low neutron absorption cross section, fast radioactivity decay, high thermal conductivity, and excellent fabricability. Metallic lead and lead oxide powders were considered for the target core with the fabrication options being casting or powder metallurgy (PM). Scoping tests to evaluate gravity casting, squeeze casting, and casting and swaging processes showed that, based on fabricability and heat transfer considerations, squeeze casting was the preferred option for manufacture of targets with initial core cladding contact. Thousands of aluminum clad aluminum-lithium alloy core targets and control rods for tritium production have been fabricated by coextrusion processes and successfully irradiated in the SRS reactors. Tritium retention in, and release from, the coextruded product was modeled from experimental and operational data. The model assumed that tritium atoms, formed by the 6Li(n,a)3He reaction, were produced in solid solution in the Al-Li alloy. Because of the low solubility of hydrogen isotopes in aluminum alloys, the irradiated Al-Li rapidly became supersaturated in tritium. Newly produced tritium atoms were trapped by lithium atoms to form a lithium tritide. The effective tritium pressure required for trap or tritide stability was the equilibrium decomposition pressure of tritium over a lithium tritide-aluminum mixture. The temperature dependence of tritium release was determined by the permeability of the cladding to tritium and the local equilibrium at the trap sites. The model can be used to calculate tritium release from aluminum clad, aluminum-lithium alloy targets during postulated accelerator operational and accident conditions. This paper describes

  19. Materials considerations in accelerator targets

    Peacock, H.B. Jr.; Iyer, N.C.; Louthan, M.R. Jr.

    1994-01-01

    Future nuclear materials production and/or the burn-up of long lived radioisotopes may be accomplished through the capture of spallation produced neutrons in accelerators. Aluminum clad-lead and/or lead alloys has been proposed as a spallation target. Aluminum was the cladding choice because of the low neutron absorption cross section, fast radioactivity decay, high thermal conductivity, and excellent fabricability. Metallic lead and lead oxide powders were considered for the target core with the fabrication options being casting or powder metallurgy (PM). Scoping tests to evaluate gravity casting, squeeze casting, and casting and swaging processes showed that, based on fabricability and heat transfer considerations, squeeze casting was the preferred option for manufacture of targets with initial core cladding contact. Thousands of aluminum clad aluminum-lithium alloy core targets and control rods for tritium production have been fabricated by coextrusion processes and successfully irradiated in the SRS reactors. Tritium retention in, and release from the coextruded product was modeled from experimental and operational data. Newly produced tritium atoms were trapped by lithium atoms to form a lithium tritide. The effective tritium pressure required for trap or tritide stability was the equilibrium decomposition pressure of tritium over a lithium tritide-aluminum mixture. The temperature dependence of tritium release was determined by the permeability of the cladding to tritium and the local equilibrium at the trap sites. The model can be used to calculate tritium release from aluminum clad, aluminum-lithium alloy targets during postulated accelerator operational and accident conditions. This paper describes the manufacturing technologies evaluated and presents the model for tritium retention in aluminum clad, aluminum-lithium alloy tritium production targets

  20. Orthodontic treatment considerations in Down syndrome patients

    Sianiwati Goenharto

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: Down syndrome is an easily recognized congenital disease anomaly, a common autosomal chromosomal anomaly with high prevalence of malocclusion. Orthodontic treatment demand should be high but it seems difficult to be done because of specific condition of disability. Purpose: The purpose of this literature review was to discribe the orthodontic problems found in Down syndrome patients and several consideration that shoud be done to treat them. Reviews: Many studies report the high prevalence of malocclusion among people with Down syndrome. There is a greater frequency of clas III relationship, crossbite, crowding and also open bite. Several problems might appear in the treatment because of dental, medical, mental, and behavioural factor. Conclusion: It is concluded that orthodonic treatment can be performed in Down syndrome patient, although several difficulties may appear. Good consideration in mental, behavior, medical and also dental condition will influence whether the treatment will success or not. Special care and facilities will support the orthodontic treatment.Latar belakang: Sindroma Down adalah suatu kelainan congenital yang mudah dikenali, merupakan kelaian kromosom autosomal yang cukup banyak terjadi, dengan prevalensi maloklusi cukup tinggi. Seharusnya permintaan akan perawatan ortodonti juga tinggi meskipun tampaknya sulit dilakukan karena adanya kondisi ketidakmampuan/cacat yang spesifik. Tujuan: Tujuan studi pustaka ini adalah untuk menggambarkan problem perawatan ortodonti pada penderita sindroma Down dan pertimbangan apa yang sebaiknya diambil untuk mengatasi masalah tersebut. Tinjauan pustaka: Banyak penelitian melaporkan tentang prevalensi maloklusi yang tinggi pada penderita sindroma Down. Maloklusi yang sering dijumpai adalah relasi klas III, gigitan silang, berdesakan dan juga gigitan terbuka. Problem dapat terjadi saat perawatan ortodonti karena adanya faktor dental, medis, mental dan tingkah laku penderita

  1. Pedagogical Factors That Influence EFL Teaching: Some Considerations for Teachers' Professional Development (Factores pedagógicos que influyen en la enseñanza del inglés como lengua extranjera: algunas consideraciones para el desarrollo profesional de docentes)

    Abad, José Vicente

    2013-01-01

    In this article we present the results of a qualitative research study on the pedagogical factors that influence English teaching in four public schools of Medellín, Colombia. Twelve teachers were interviewed regarding three linguistic principles: communicative competence, native language effect, and interlanguage. The data analysis led to the…

  2. Group-size effect on scanning behaviour of Maasai Ostrich Struthio ...

    Group-size effect on scanning behaviour of Maasai Ostrich Struthio camelus ... minute) among different group sizes in late 2006 in Serengeti National Park, ... be influenced by factors other than group size, such as body size and habitat type.

  3. General Considerations on fiscal evasion

    Pripoaie Silviu

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Analysis of performance of any economy involves the measurement and correlation of three basic elements: the rate of economic growth,the rate of inflation and unemployment rate. When the rate of growth (rate of real GDP is high, the production of goods and services is growing andtherefore increasing the number of jobs, decrease unemployment and raise living standards. If the economy is in recession phase, increasing fiscalpressure to ensure the necessary budgetary funds triggers complex economic mechanisms. Rules more strictly is that those who are not able tooperate in the normal economy to slide towards the underground economy, and this not because he wants to tax evasion, but because they simplycannot cope with new regulations. It is widely accepted in economic theory and practice the idea that reliability scale macroeconomic indicators of acountry is affected by size of underground economy and the various tests made so far on this subject, focusing either on the social aspect or theeconomic or moral, or emphasizes the illegal or the edge of legality. This has led to various studies in this area do not provide comparable data orprovide data to the contrary. Worldwide were put in place, however, some calculation methods provided that applied the same country and sameperiod, the results are rarely consistent, sometimes even in fundamentally different.

  4. Impact of maternal education, employment and family size on nutritional status of children.

    Iftikhar, Aisha; Bari, Attia; Bano, Iqbal; Masood, Qaisar

    2017-01-01

    To determine the impact of maternal education, employment, and family size on nutritional status of children. It was case control study conducted at OPD of children Hospital Lahore, from September 2015 to April 2017. Total 340 children (170 cases and 170 controls) with age range of six months to five years along with their mothers were included. Anthropometric measurements were plotted against WHO growth Charts. 170 wasted (Maternal education, employment and family size were compared between the cases and control. Confounding variables noted and dichotomized. Univariate analysis was carried out for factors under consideration i.e.; Maternal Education, employment and family size to study the association of each factor. Logistic regression analysis was applied to study the independent association. Maternal education had significant association with growth parameters; OR of 1.32 with confidence interval of (CI= 1.1 to 1.623). Employment status of mothers had OR of 1.132 with insignificant confidence interval of (CI=0.725 to 1.768). Family size had OR of one with insignificant confidence interval (CI=0.8 -1.21). Association remained same after applying bivariate logistic regression analysis. Maternal education has definite and significant effect on nutritional status of children. This is the key factor to be addressed for prevention or improvement of childhood malnutrition. For this it is imperative to launch sustainable programs at national and regional level to uplift women educational status to combat this ever increasing burden of malnutrition.

  5. Basic consideration of diffusion/perfusion imaging

    Tamagawa, Yoichi; Kimura, Hirohiko; Matsuda, Tsuyoshi; Kawamura, Yasutaka; Nakatsugawa, Shigekazu; Ishii, Yasushi; Sakuma, Hajime; Tsukamoto, Tetsuji.

    1990-01-01

    In magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), microscopic motion of biological system such as molecular diffusion of water and microcirculation of blood in the capillary network (perfusion) has been proposed to cause signal attenuation as an intravoxel incoherent motion (IVIM). Quantitative imaging of the IVIM phenomenon was attempted to generate from a set of spin-echo (SE) sequences with or without sensitization by motion probing gradient (MPG). The IVIM imaging is characterized by a parameter, apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC), which is an integration of both the diffusion and the perfusion factor on voxel-by-voxel basis. Hard ware was adjusted to avoid image artifact mainly produced by eddy current. Feasibility of the method was tested using bottle phantom filled with water at different temperature and acetone, and the calculated ADC values of these media corresponded well with accepted values of diffusion. The method was then applied to biological system to investigate mutual participation of diffusion/perfusion on the ADC value. The result of tumor model born on nude mouse suggested considerable participation of perfusion factor which immediately disappeared after sacrificing the animal. Meanwhile, lower value of sacrificed tissue without microcirculation was suggested to have some restriction of diffusion factor by biological tissue. To substantiate the restriction effect on the diffusion, a series of observation have made on a fiber phantom, stalk of celory with botanical fibers and human brain with nerve fibers, in applying unidirectional MPG along the course of these banch of fiber system. The directional restriction effect of diffusion along the course of fiber (diffusion anisotrophy) was clearly visualized as directional change of ADC value. The present method for tissue characterization by diffusion/perfusion on microscopic level will provide a new insight for evaluation of functional derangement in human brain and other organs. (author)

  6. The Roles of Size and Size Difference in Australian and Chinese Inter-firm Collaborations

    Yu Zhang

    Full Text Available There has been considerable debate on the contribution and significance of firm size to the establishment, operation and success of business collaboration. One important source of this debate arises from differing definitions of firm size used in previous research. This paper uses firm size categories and size differences between collaborating firms to examine their contribution to the formation and performance of inter-firmcollaboration in Australia and China. Both qualitative case study and quantitative data analyses are adopted in this paper. Results from both the qualitative case study and quantitative study in Australia and China show that size plays a significant positive role in the formation and performance of business collaboration. Firmsprefer collaborating with larger partners. Bigger firms are more likely to achieve success collaborations. However, size difference plays a negative role in business collaboration. Collaborating with a bigger partner makes it harder to succeed. On the other hand, size and size difference play very different roles in performanceand outcomes of business collaboration in different countries.This paper compares the roles of firm size and size difference in Australian and Chinese inter-firm collaboration. The results provide important strategic implications for business managers, industry regulators, and policy decision makers regarding international business collaboration.

  7. Sample size methodology

    Desu, M M

    2012-01-01

    One of the most important problems in designing an experiment or a survey is sample size determination and this book presents the currently available methodology. It includes both random sampling from standard probability distributions and from finite populations. Also discussed is sample size determination for estimating parameters in a Bayesian setting by considering the posterior distribution of the parameter and specifying the necessary requirements. The determination of the sample size is considered for ranking and selection problems as well as for the design of clinical trials. Appropria

  8. Sizing up countability

    De Belder, Marijke

    2008-01-01

    SIZING UP COUNTABILITY: TOWARDS A MORE FINE-GRAINED MASS-COUNT DISTINCTION MARIJKE DE BELDER CRISSP/CATHOLIC UNIVERSITY OF BRUSSELS/FACULTÉS UNIVERSITAIRES SAINT-LOUIS 1. Summary Borer (2005) argues that the presence of the functional projection DivP, which divides stuff into units, yields count readings in the NP and that its absence yields mass readings. I claim, however, that countability requires not only DivP (which creates units) but also SizeP (which assigns size). The head ...

  9. Squamate hatchling size and the evolutionary causes of negative offspring size allometry.

    Meiri, S; Feldman, A; Kratochvíl, L

    2015-02-01

    Although fecundity selection is ubiquitous, in an overwhelming majority of animal lineages, small species produce smaller number of offspring per clutch. In this context, egg, hatchling and neonate sizes are absolutely larger, but smaller relative to adult body size in larger species. The evolutionary causes of this widespread phenomenon are not fully explored. The negative offspring size allometry can result from processes limiting maximal egg/offspring size forcing larger species to produce relatively smaller offspring ('upper limit'), or from a limit on minimal egg/offspring size forcing smaller species to produce relatively larger offspring ('lower limit'). Several reptile lineages have invariant clutch sizes, where females always lay either one or two eggs per clutch. These lineages offer an interesting perspective on the general evolutionary forces driving negative offspring size allometry, because an important selective factor, fecundity selection in a single clutch, is eliminated here. Under the upper limit hypotheses, large offspring should be selected against in lineages with invariant clutch sizes as well, and these lineages should therefore exhibit the same, or shallower, offspring size allometry as lineages with variable clutch size. On the other hand, the lower limit hypotheses would allow lineages with invariant clutch sizes to have steeper offspring size allometries. Using an extensive data set on the hatchling and female sizes of > 1800 species of squamates, we document that negative offspring size allometry is widespread in lizards and snakes with variable clutch sizes and that some lineages with invariant clutch sizes have unusually steep offspring size allometries. These findings suggest that the negative offspring size allometry is driven by a constraint on minimal offspring size, which scales with a negative allometry. © 2014 European Society For Evolutionary Biology. Journal of Evolutionary Biology © 2014 European Society For Evolutionary

  10. Design Considerations in Capacitively Coupled Plasmas

    Song, Sang-Heon; Ventzek, Peter; Ranjan, Alok

    2015-11-01

    Microelectronics industry has driven transistor feature size scaling from 10-6 m to 10-9 m during the past 50 years, which is often referred to as Moore's law. It cannot be overstated that today's information technology would not have been so successful without plasma material processing. One of the major plasma sources for the microelectronics fabrication is capacitively coupled plasmas (CCPs). The CCP reactor has been intensively studied and developed for the deposition and etching of different films on the silicon wafer. As the feature size gets to around 10 nm, the requirement for the process uniformity is less than 1-2 nm across the wafer (300 mm). In order to achieve the desired uniformity, the hardware design should be as precise as possible before the fine tuning of process condition is applied to make it even better. In doing this procedure, the computer simulation can save a significant amount of resources such as time and money which are critical in the semiconductor business. In this presentation, we compare plasma properties using a 2-dimensional plasma hydrodynamics model for different kinds of design factors that can affect the plasma uniformity. The parameters studied in this presentation include chamber accessing port, pumping port, focus ring around wafer substrate, and the geometry of electrodes of CCP.

  11. Determination of the optimal sample size for a clinical trial accounting for the population size.

    Stallard, Nigel; Miller, Frank; Day, Simon; Hee, Siew Wan; Madan, Jason; Zohar, Sarah; Posch, Martin

    2017-07-01

    The problem of choosing a sample size for a clinical trial is a very common one. In some settings, such as rare diseases or other small populations, the large sample sizes usually associated with the standard frequentist approach may be infeasible, suggesting that the sample size chosen should reflect the size of the population under consideration. Incorporation of the population size is possible in a decision-theoretic approach either explicitly by assuming that the population size is fixed and known, or implicitly through geometric discounting of the gain from future patients reflecting the expected population size. This paper develops such approaches. Building on previous work, an asymptotic expression is derived for the sample size for single and two-arm clinical trials in the general case of a clinical trial with a primary endpoint with a distribution of one parameter exponential family form that optimizes a utility function that quantifies the cost and gain per patient as a continuous function of this parameter. It is shown that as the size of the population, N, or expected size, N∗ in the case of geometric discounting, becomes large, the optimal trial size is O(N1/2) or O(N∗1/2). The sample size obtained from the asymptotic expression is also compared with the exact optimal sample size in examples with responses with Bernoulli and Poisson distributions, showing that the asymptotic approximations can also be reasonable in relatively small sample sizes. © 2016 The Author. Biometrical Journal published by WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  12. Perception while watching movies: Effects of physical screen size and scene type.

    Troscianko, Tom; Meese, Timothy S; Hinde, Stephen

    2012-01-01

    Over the last decade, television screens and display monitors have increased in size considerably, but has this improved our televisual experience? Our working hypothesis was that the audiences adopt a general strategy that "bigger is better." However, as our visual perceptions do not tap directly into basic retinal image properties such as retinal image size (C. A. Burbeck, 1987), we wondered whether object size itself might be an important factor. To test this, we needed a task that would tap into the subjective experiences of participants watching a movie on different-sized displays with the same retinal subtense. Our participants used a line bisection task to self-report their level of "presence" (i.e., their involvement with the movie) at several target locations that were probed in a 45-min section of the movie "The Good, The Bad, and The Ugly." Measures of pupil dilation and reaction time to the probes were also obtained. In Experiment 1, we found that subjective ratings of presence increased with physical screen size, supporting our hypothesis. Face scenes also produced higher presence scores than landscape scenes for both screen sizes. In Experiment 2, reaction time and pupil dilation results showed the same trends as the presence ratings and pupil dilation correlated with presence ratings, providing some validation of the method. Overall, the results suggest that real-time measures of subjective presence might be a valuable tool for measuring audience experience for different types of (i) display and (ii) audiovisual material.

  13. Cost-benefit considerations in regulatory decision-making

    Harvie, J.D.

    1996-01-01

    The Atomic Energy Control Board is investigating the feasibility of developing methods for factoring cost-benefit considerations into its regulatory decision-making. This initiative results, in part, from the federal government policy requiring cost-benefit considerations to be taken into account in regulatory processes, and from the recommendations of an Advisory Panel on Regulatory Review in 1993, submitted to the Minister of Natural Resources Canada. One of these recommendations stated: 'that mechanisms be developed to examine cost-benefit issues and work towards some consensus of opinion among stakeholders; a task force on the subject could be an appropriate starting point'. (author)

  14. Parameterizing Size Distribution in Ice Clouds

    DeSlover, Daniel; Mitchell, David L.

    2009-09-25

    PARAMETERIZING SIZE DISTRIBUTIONS IN ICE CLOUDS David L. Mitchell and Daniel H. DeSlover ABSTRACT An outstanding problem that contributes considerable uncertainty to Global Climate Model (GCM) predictions of future climate is the characterization of ice particle sizes in cirrus clouds. Recent parameterizations of ice cloud effective diameter differ by a factor of three, which, for overcast conditions, often translate to changes in outgoing longwave radiation (OLR) of 55 W m-2 or more. Much of this uncertainty in cirrus particle sizes is related to the problem of ice particle shattering during in situ sampling of the ice particle size distribution (PSD). Ice particles often shatter into many smaller ice fragments upon collision with the rim of the probe inlet tube. These small ice artifacts are counted as real ice crystals, resulting in anomalously high concentrations of small ice crystals (D < 100 µm) and underestimates of the mean and effective size of the PSD. Half of the cirrus cloud optical depth calculated from these in situ measurements can be due to this shattering phenomenon. Another challenge is the determination of ice and liquid water amounts in mixed phase clouds. Mixed phase clouds in the Arctic contain mostly liquid water, and the presence of ice is important for determining their lifecycle. Colder high clouds between -20 and -36 oC may also be mixed phase but in this case their condensate is mostly ice with low levels of liquid water. Rather than affecting their lifecycle, the presence of liquid dramatically affects the cloud optical properties, which affects cloud-climate feedback processes in GCMs. This project has made advancements in solving both of these problems. Regarding the first problem, PSD in ice clouds are uncertain due to the inability to reliably measure the concentrations of the smallest crystals (D < 100 µm), known as the “small mode”. Rather than using in situ probe measurements aboard aircraft, we employed a treatment of ice

  15. Mechanical considerations in cw linacs

    King, J.D.

    1985-01-01

    An 80-MHz radio-frequency quadrupole (RFQ) linac has been designed, fabricated and operated at 100% duty factor (cw) for the Fusion Materials Irradiation Test (FMIT) project at Los Alamos. This paper describes the design features, fabrication techniques, and operational problems of the device. The RFQ is an assembly of heavy steel, copper-plated weldments. It measures about 15 ft (4.5 m) long by 5 ft (1.5 m) in diameter and weighs over 12 t. Major components are two pair of diametrically orthogonal vanes mounted in a core cylinder. The core is assembled into a manifold cylinder that couples rf power into the vane quadrants. The design features discussed include assembly of hollow wall, flood-cooled components; high-conductivity rf seals; removable and adjustable vanes; and tuning devices. Fabrication challenges such as close-tolerance weldments, vane-tip-contour machining and large-component plating requirements are covered

  16. Emittance damping considerations for TESLA

    Floettmann, K.; Rossbach, J.

    1993-03-01

    Two schemes are considered to avoid very large damping rings for TESLA. The first (by K.F.) makes use of the linac tunnel to accomodate most of the damping 'ring' structure, which is, in fact, not a ring any more but a long linear structure with two small bends at each of its ends ('dog-bone'). The other scheme (by J.R.) is based on a positron (or electron, respectively) recycling scheme. It makes use of the specific TESLA property, that the full bunch train is much longer (240 km) than the linac length. The spent beams are recycled seven times after interaction, thus reducing the number of bunches to be stored in the damping ring by a factor of eight. Ultimately, this scheme can be used to operate TESLA in a storage ring mode ('storage linac'), with no damping ring at all. Finally, a combination of both schemes is considered. (orig.)

  17. Compressors selection and sizing

    Brown, Royce N

    2005-01-01

    This practical reference provides in-depth information required to understand and properly estimate compressor capabilities and to select the proper designs. Engineers and students will gain a thorough understanding of compression principles, equipment, applications, selection, sizing, installation, and maintenance. The many examples clearly illustrate key aspects to help readers understand the ""real world"" of compressor technology.Compressors: Selection and Sizing, third edition is completely updated with new API standards. Additions requested by readers include a new section on di

  18. Firm size and taxes

    Chongvilaivan, Aekapol; Jinjarak, Yothin

    2010-01-01

    The scale dependence in firm growth (smaller firms grow faster) is systematically reflected in the size distribution. This paper studies whether taxes affect the equilibrium firm size distribution in a cross-country context. The main finding is that the empirical association between firm growth and corporate tax (VAT) is positive (negative), with notable differences in the response of manufacturing firms and that of the others. We draw implications for recent debate on the impact of taxes and...

  19. Determining optimal selling price and lot size with process reliability and partial backlogging considerations

    Hsieh, Tsu-Pang; Cheng, Mei-Chuan; Dye, Chung-Yuan; Ouyang, Liang-Yuh

    2011-01-01

    In this article, we extend the classical economic production quantity (EPQ) model by proposing imperfect production processes and quality-dependent unit production cost. The demand rate is described by any convex decreasing function of the selling price. In addition, we allow for shortages and a time-proportional backlogging rate. For any given selling price, we first prove that the optimal production schedule not only exists but also is unique. Next, we show that the total profit per unit time is a concave function of price when the production schedule is given. We then provide a simple algorithm to find the optimal selling price and production schedule for the proposed model. Finally, we use a couple of numerical examples to illustrate the algorithm and conclude this article with suggestions for possible future research.

  20. RNA Profiling for Biomarker Discovery: Practical Considerations for Limiting Sample Sizes

    Danny J. Kelly

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available We have compared microarray data generated on Affymetrix™ chips from standard (8 micrograms or low (100 nanograms amounts of total RNA. We evaluated the gene signals and gene fold-change estimates obtained from the two methods and validated a subset of the results by real time, polymerase chain reaction assays. The correlation of low RNA derived gene signals to gene signals obtained from standard RNA was poor for less to moderately abundant genes. Genes with high abundance showed better correlation in signals between the two methods. The signal correlation between the low RNA and standard RNA methods was improved by including a reference sample in the microarray analysis. In contrast, the fold-change estimates for genes were better correlated between the two methods regardless of the magnitude of gene signals. A reference sample based method is suggested for studies that would end up comparing gene signal data from a combination of low and standard RNA templates; no such referencing appears to be necessary when comparing fold-changes of gene expression between standard and low template reactions.

  1. A statistical physics consideration about the strength of small size metallic glass pillars

    Chen, Changqiang; Pei, Yutao; De Hosson, Jeff Th. M.; Skrotzki, W; Oertel, CG; Biermann, H; Heilmaier, M

    2010-01-01

    We have fabricated micro-/nano-pillars of a Zr-based metallic glass, Zr(50)Ti(16.5)Cu(15)Ni(18.5), with pillar tip diameters ranging from similar to 750 nm to similar to 110 nm. These pillars were mechanically tested quantitatively in-situ in a Transmission Electron Microscope (TEM). Due to a slight

  2. Estimating Search Engine Index Size Variability

    Van den Bosch, Antal; Bogers, Toine; De Kunder, Maurice

    2016-01-01

    One of the determining factors of the quality of Web search engines is the size of their index. In addition to its influence on search result quality, the size of the indexed Web can also tell us something about which parts of the WWW are directly accessible to the everyday user. We propose a novel...... method of estimating the size of a Web search engine’s index by extrapolating from document frequencies of words observed in a large static corpus of Web pages. In addition, we provide a unique longitudinal perspective on the size of Google and Bing’s indices over a nine-year period, from March 2006...... until January 2015. We find that index size estimates of these two search engines tend to vary dramatically over time, with Google generally possessing a larger index than Bing. This result raises doubts about the reliability of previous one-off estimates of the size of the indexed Web. We find...

  3. Size matters: relationships between body size and body mass of common coastal, aquatic invertebrates in the Baltic Sea

    Johan Eklöf

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Background Organism biomass is one of the most important variables in ecological studies, making biomass estimations one of the most common laboratory tasks. Biomass of small macroinvertebrates is usually estimated as dry mass or ash-free dry mass (hereafter ‘DM’ vs. ‘AFDM’ per sample; a laborious and time consuming process, that often can be speeded up using easily measured and reliable proxy variables like body size or wet (fresh mass. Another common way of estimating AFDM (one of the most accurate but also time-consuming estimates of biologically active tissue mass is the use of AFDM/DM ratios as conversion factors. So far, however, these ratios typically ignore the possibility that the relative mass of biologically active vs. non-active support tissue (e.g., protective exoskeleton or shell—and therefore, also AFDM/DM ratios—may change with body size, as previously shown for taxa like spiders, vertebrates and trees. Methods We collected aquatic, epibenthic macroinvertebrates (>1 mm in 32 shallow bays along a 360 km stretch of the Swedish coast along the Baltic Sea; one of the largest brackish water bodies on Earth. We then estimated statistical relationships between the body size (length or height in mm, body dry mass and ash-free dry mass for 14 of the most common taxa; five gastropods, three bivalves, three crustaceans and three insect larvae. Finally, we statistically estimated the potential influence of body size on the AFDM/DM ratio per taxon. Results For most taxa, non-linear regression models describing the power relationship between body size and (i DM and (ii AFDM fit the data well (as indicated by low SE and high R2. Moreover, for more than half of the taxa studied (including the vast majority of the shelled molluscs, body size had a negative influence on organism AFDM/DM ratios. Discussion The good fit of the modelled power relationships suggests that the constants reported here can be used to quickly estimate

  4. General considerations for neutron capture therapy at a reactor facility

    Binney, S.E.

    2001-01-01

    In addition to neutron beam intensity and quality, there are also a number of other significant criteria related to a nuclear reactor that contribute to a successful neutron capture therapy (NCT) facility. These criteria are classified into four main categories: Nuclear design factors, facility management and operations factors, facility resources, and non-technical factors. Important factors to consider are given for each of these categories. In addition to an adequate neutron beam intensity and quality, key requirements for a successful neutron capture therapy facility include necessary finances to construct or convert a facility for NCT, a capable medical staff to perform the NCT, and the administrative support for the facility. The absence of any one of these four factors seriously jeopardizes the overall probability of success of the facility. Thus nuclear reactor facility management considering becoming involved in neutron capture therapy, should it be proven clinically successful, should take all these factors into consideration. (author)

  5. Comparative assessment of nanomaterial definitions and safety evaluation considerations.

    Boverhof, Darrell R; Bramante, Christina M; Butala, John H; Clancy, Shaun F; Lafranconi, Mark; West, Jay; Gordon, Steve C

    2015-10-01

    Nanomaterials continue to bring promising advances to science and technology. In concert have come calls for increased regulatory oversight to ensure their appropriate identification and evaluation, which has led to extensive discussions about nanomaterial definitions. Numerous nanomaterial definitions have been proposed by government, industry, and standards organizations. We conducted a comprehensive comparative assessment of existing nanomaterial definitions put forward by governments to highlight their similarities and differences. We found that the size limits used in different definitions were inconsistent, as were considerations of other elements, including agglomerates and aggregates, distributional thresholds, novel properties, and solubility. Other important differences included consideration of number size distributions versus weight distributions and natural versus intentionally-manufactured materials. Overall, the definitions we compared were not in alignment, which may lead to inconsistent identification and evaluation of nanomaterials and could have adverse impacts on commerce and public perceptions of nanotechnology. We recommend a set of considerations that future discussions of nanomaterial definitions should consider for describing materials and assessing their potential for health and environmental impacts using risk-based approaches within existing assessment frameworks. Our intent is to initiate a dialogue aimed at achieving greater clarity in identifying those nanomaterials that may require additional evaluation, not to propose a formal definition. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Hidden inventory and safety considerations

    Anderson, A.R.; James, R.H.; Morgan, F.

    1976-01-01

    Preliminary results are described of the evaluation of residual plutonium in a process line used for the production of experimental fast reactor fuel. Initial attention has been focussed on a selection of work boxes used for processing powders and solutions. Amounts of material measured as ''hidden inventory'' are generally less than 0.1 percent of throughput but in one box containing very complex equipment the amount was exceptionally about 0.5 percent. The total surface area of the box and the installed equipment appears to be the most significant factor in determining the amount of plutonium held-up as ''hidden inventory,'' representing an average of about 4 x 10 -4 g cm -2 . Present results are based on gamma spectrometer measurements but neutron techniques are being developed to overcome some of the inherent uncertainties in the gamma method. It is suggested that the routine use of sample plates of known surface area would be valuable in monitoring the deposition of plutonium in work boxes

  7. Parameters and design considerations for tomographic transmission scanners

    Pentlow, K.S.; Beattie, J.W.; Laughlin, J.S.

    1976-01-01

    The design of transverse axial transmission scanners for reconstruction tomography involves many interrelated parameters and conflicting requirements. We have investigated some of those parameters and their interactions and, where appropriate, attempted to optimize them. It is convenient to group the considerations under four headings: (1) Geometrical factors (basic configurations, rectilinear and fan geometry, moving detectors or static arrays, spatial response variations and field uniformity, and collimation); (2) Radiation energy and sources (Considerations here include transmission versus sensitivity, detector efficiency, collimator penetration, scattered radiation, patient dose, monochromatic versus polychromatic radiation and X-ray tubes versus radionuclide sources); (3) Detection systems (types of detector, detection modes and the rejection of scatter); and (4) Reconstruction mathematics and quantum noise. As a result of such considerations we have proposed a particular design which should have advantages in certain applications

  8. Radiobiological considerations in magna-field irradiation

    Evans, R.G.

    1983-01-01

    Radiobiological considerations are described for total body irradiation (TBI) as given to patients undergoing bone marrow transplantation (BMT). Although much progress has been made in the use of BMT for refractory leukemias, many patients still die from interstitial pneumonia and relapse. Fractionated TBI has been introduced in order to improve leukemic cell kill, while increasing the degree of normal tissue tolerance. Traditionally, bone marrow stem cells, leukemic cells and immunocytes have been considered as having a limited ability to repair radiation damage while cells of lung tissue and intestinal epithelial cells have a greater capacity. During fractionated radiation therapy or continuous low-dose rate exposure, repair of sublethal damage between fractions allows greater recovery in the cells of lung tissue to those in the bone marrow. Clinically, the potential benefit of six fractions over one fraction or low dose-rate TBI has yet to be proved, although there is suggestive evidence for a reduced incidence of interstitial pneumonitis. However, other extraneous factors such as doses to the lung, differences in conditioning regimens, effect of increased delay in BMT for patients receiving fractionated TBI, and the unmeasurable differences between institutions make definite conclusions impossible. Despite this, a consensus for dose fractionation has developed and most centers are moving away from the use of large single dose TBI

  9. Criteria Considerations for Establishment of Hems Operations

    Borivoj Galović

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available The importance of the "golden hour"; for optimal efficiencyof helicopter operations in emergency medical service (HEMSto meet the "golden hour" requirement the unconditional requirementis to establish a net of operational units to cover theentire area of the Republic of Croatia, capable to operate withinwide integrated area (international services. It is additionalback-up, not a competition to road and sea EMS vehicles. Therequired standards; HEMS operation, following complementarytraffic policy, i. e. complementary policy in line of trafficsystem integration within wider region, with reference to standards,must entirely comply with globally accepted standards.Republic of Croatia 's obvious objectives are traffic integrationinto EU (European Union traffic system. Cost analyses; It isstressed that coherent traffic policy can by certain instrumentsreduce traffic assigned external cost in national budget. Significanttraffic external cost includes cost of traffic accidents, environmentimpacts and traffic jams, and could be reduced byestablishmentof multi-purpose helicopter operations. SWOTanalyses should be made as for any other strategy or project.Technical-technological criteria and other considerations;Considering technical-technological criteria for relief of criticalsituations in traffic, it is obvious that one helicopter type cannotcomply to all multi-purpose requirements that traffic sets beforeus - EMS on open roads, sea, mountains and urban trafficcongested area, and search and rescue operations. However,common factor for all types is compliance to global standardsand regulations. In the paper, some examples of HEMS operationsin the EU States are mentioned.

  10. Determination of a novel size proxy in comparative morphometrics

    Andrew Gallagher

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Absolute size is a critical determinant of organismal biology, yet there exists no real consensus as to what particular metric of ‘size’ is empirically valid in assessments of extinct mammalian taxa. The methodological approach of JE Mosimann has found extensive favour in ‘size correction’ in comparative morphometrics, but not ‘size prediction’ in palaeontology and palaeobiology. Analyses of five distinct mammalian data sets confirm that a novel size variate (GMSize derived from k=8 dimensions of the postcranial skeleton effectively satisfies all expectations of the Jolicoeur–Mosimann theorem of univariate and multivariate size. On the basis of strong parametric correlations between the k=8 variates and between scores derived from the first principal component and geometric mean size (GMSize in all series, this novel size variable has considerable utility in comparative vertebrate morphometrics and palaeobiology as an appropriate descriptor of individual size in extant and extinct taxa.

  11. ACCOUNTING FOR CONTINGENT CONSIDERATIONS IN BUSINESS COMBINATIONS

    Gurgen KALASHYAN

    2017-01-01

    According to IFRS 3 Business Combinations contingent considerations must be included in the total consideration given for the acquired entity along with cash, other assets, ordinary or preference equity instruments, options, warrants. The contingent consideration is the determined amount which acquiring entity has to pay to acquired entity provided, that certain conditions will be fulfilled in the future. In case the provisions are not satisfied, we will get the situation when the amount of c...

  12. [General considerations on psychiatric interconsultation].

    Carpinacci, J A

    1975-03-01

    This paper attempts to follow the evolution of some general ideas on Psychiatric Interconsulting. It is the result of six years' work at Ramos Mejía Hospital, Buenos Aires. Progressive transformations were imposed by daily practice on our team's theoretical and technical conceptions. We started with an individualistic-phenomenical approach, and we were forced to switch to a dynamical-situational one. The general working model we use at present is briefly summarized, emphasizing the important role played by Psychiatric Interconsulting in the change of the medical cultural patterns prevailing at present in our milieu. Two main factors for the role of privilege played by the Interconsulting team are set forth: one is conceptual, the other is pragmatic. From a conceptual standpoint, the theoretical basis of Psychiatric Interconsulting is much broader than those of other specialities, like clinical practice or surgery, for it includes, besides Biology, the Psychological and Socio-Historical determinants of the disturbance the diseases man suffers. From a pragmatic standpoint, the boundaries of human and physical fields within which Psychiatric Interconsulting is operating, go beyond the scope of daily medical practice. Their place could be located in between formal traditional wefts, relating to institutional structures as well as to specific medical practice. Professionals working at Interconsulting are usually required at general wards, at consulting offices, at emergency wards, in corridors, or even at the bar. They are interested not only in specific medical problems; they encompass the whole range of personal and institutional framework, and consider the whole situation in a comprehensive approach. Knowledge acquired in this widened professional field, together with actual experience in dealing with people in distress, are the main sources for theoretical conceptualization of new activities, as well as for building pragmatic tools to modify the official medical

  13. Design Considerations of a Transverse Flux Machine for Direct-Drive Wind Turbine Applications: Preprint

    Husain, Tausif; Hasan, Iftekhar; Sozer, Yilmaz; Husain, Iqbal; Muljadi, Eduard

    2017-01-01

    This paper presents the design considerations of a double-sided transverse flux machine (TFM) for direct-drive wind turbine applications. The TFM has a modular structure with quasi-U stator cores and ring windings. The rotor is constructed with ferrite magnets in a flux-concentrating arrangement to achieve high air gap flux density. The design considerations for this TFM with respect to initial sizing, pole number selection, key design ratios, and pole shaping are presented in this paper. Pole number selection is critical in the design process of a TFM because it affects both the torque density and power factor under fixed magnetic and changing electrical loading. Several key design ratios are introduced to facilitate the design procedure. The effect of pole shaping on back-emf and inductance is also analyzed. These investigations provide guidance toward the required design of a TFM for direct-drive applications. The analyses are carried out using analytical and three-dimensional finite element analysis. A prototype is under construction for experimental verification.

  14. Reducing costs by reducing size

    Hayns, M.R.; Shepherd, J.

    1991-01-01

    The present paper discusses briefly the many factors, including capital cost, which have to be taken into account in determining whether a series of power stations based on a small nuclear plant can be competitive with a series based on traditional large unit sizes giving the guaranteed level of supply. The 320 MWe UK/US Safe Integral Reactor is described as a good example of how the factors discussed can be beneficially incorporated into a design using proven technology. Finally it goes on to illustrate how the overall costs of a generating system can indeed by reduced by use of the 320 MWe Safe Integral Reactor rather than conventional units of around 1200 MWe. (author). 9 figs

  15. Raman Lidar Measurements of Aerosol Extinction and Backscattering. Report 2; Derivation of Aerosol Real Refractive Index, Single-Scattering Albedo, and Humidification Factor using Raman Lidar and Aircraft Size Distribution

    Ferrare, R. A.; Melfi, S. H.; Whiteman, D. N.; Evans, K. D.; Poellot, M.; Kaufman, Y. J.

    1998-01-01

    Aerosol backscattering and extinction profiles measured by the NASA Goddard Space Flight Center Scanning Raman Lidar (SRL) during the remote cloud sensing (RCS) intensive operations period (IOP) at the Department of Energy Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) southern Great Plains (SGP) site during two nights in April 1994 are discussed. These profiles are shown to be consistent with the simultaneous aerosol size distribution measurements made by a PCASP (Passive Cavity Aerosol Spectrometer Probe) optical particle counter flown on the University of North Dakota Citation aircraft. We describe a technique which uses both lidar and PCASP measurements to derive the dependence of particle size on relative humidity, the aerosol real refractive index n, and estimate the effective single-scattering albedo Omega(sub 0). Values of n ranged between 1.4-1.5 (dry) and 1.37-1.47 (wet); Omega(sub 0) varied between 0.7 and 1.0. The single-scattering albedo derived from this technique is sensitive to the manner in which absorbing particles are represented in the aerosol mixture; representing the absorbing particles as an internal mixture rather than the external mixture assumed here results in generally higher values of Omega(sub 0). The lidar measurements indicate that the change in particle size with relative humidity as measured by the PCASP can be represented in the form discussed by Hattel with the exponent gamma = 0.3 + or - 0.05. The variations in aerosol optical and physical characteristics captured in the lidar and aircraft size distribution measurements are discussed in the context of the meteorological conditions observed during the experiment.

  16. Women and substance abuse: gender, age, and cultural considerations.

    Stevens, Sally J; Andrade, Rosi A C; Ruiz, Bridget S

    2009-01-01

    Historically, data has shown that a smaller percentage of women use alcohol and illicit substances compared to men, and that frequency of use has been lower among women compared to use among men. Although this data on usage may be true, researchers also acknowledge that substance use among women has been a hidden issue, one not realistically acknowledged by society, especially prior to the mid-1960s. Along with this, more recent data indicates that rates of substance use among women are increasing. Factors contributing to this increase in substance abuse have begun to receive considerable attention, and recent research suggests that many issues exist that are unique to substance use among women. The purpose of this article is to discuss gender specific considerations in women's substance abuse by examining the history of substance use among women; analyzing gender-specific factors, including physiological factors, trauma-related factors, mental health issues, and cultural considerations that impact on women's substance use; articulating treatment approaches for working with substance abusing women and girls; and providing recommendations for further research in this area.

  17. Fluctuations in email size

    Matsubara, Yoshitsugu; Musashi, Yasuo

    2017-12-01

    The purpose of this study is to explain fluctuations in email size. We have previously investigated the long-term correlations between email send requests and data flow in the system log of the primary staff email server at a university campus, finding that email size frequency follows a power-law distribution with two inflection points, and that the power-law property weakens the correlation of the data flow. However, the mechanism underlying this fluctuation is not completely understood. We collected new log data from both staff and students over six academic years and analyzed the frequency distribution thereof, focusing on the type of content contained in the emails. Furthermore, we obtained permission to collect "Content-Type" log data from the email headers. We therefore collected the staff log data from May 1, 2015 to July 31, 2015, creating two subdistributions. In this paper, we propose a model to explain these subdistributions, which follow log-normal-like distributions. In the log-normal-like model, email senders -consciously or unconsciously- regulate the size of new email sentences according to a normal distribution. The fitting of the model is acceptable for these subdistributions, and the model demonstrates power-law properties for large email sizes. An analysis of the length of new email sentences would be required for further discussion of our model; however, to protect user privacy at the participating organization, we left this analysis for future work. This study provides new knowledge on the properties of email sizes, and our model is expected to contribute to the decision on whether to establish upper size limits in the design of email services.

  18. Drought effect on weaning weight and efficiency relative to cow size in semiarid rangeland.

    Scasta, J D; Henderson, L; Smith, T

    2015-12-01

    Cow size has been suggested to be an important consideration for selecting cattle to match their production environment. Over the last several decades, the trend in genetic selection for maximum growth has led to gradual increases in beef cow size. An unrelated trend during this same period in the western United States has been an increase in temperature, drought frequency, and drought severity. Due to the potential influence of the increasing cow size trend on nutritional maintenance costs and production, we assessed the effect of cow size on weaning weight and efficiency in relation to drought on a semiarid high-elevation ranch in Wyoming. This study addresses a lack of empirical studies on the interaction between cow size and drought. We measured calf weaning weights of 80 Angus × Gelbvieh cows from 2011 to 2014 and assessed how drought affected weaning weights, efficiency (considered as calf weight relative to cow weight), intake requirements, and potential herd sizes relative to cow size. We stratified cows into 5 weight classes (453, 498, 544, 589, and 634 kg) as a proxy for cow size and adjusted weaning weights to a 210-d calf sex adjusted value. Cow size was a significant factor every year, with different cow sizes having advantages or disadvantages different years relative to weaning weight. However, efficiency for the smallest cows (453 kg) was always greater than efficiency for largest cows (634 kg; cows was greater in the driest year (0.41 ± 0.02) than efficiency of the largest cows in the wettest years (0.37 ± 0.01). The change in efficiency (ΔE) between wet and dry years was 0.18 for the smallest cow size and 0.02 for the largest cow size, and ΔE decreased as cow size increased. This is an indication of the ability of smaller cows to lower maintenance requirements in response to changes in the production environment but with optimal upside potential when conditions are favorable. These results indicate large cows (589 to 634 kg) do not maximize

  19. Design considerations for the commercial production of wood acrylics

    Witt, A.E.; Bosco, L.R.

    1978-01-01

    The major application of wood acrylics is for flooring, more specifically in high traffic area. The most important property is its abrasion resistance. As for the decisions in facility design, the following considerations must be made: irradiation or heat-catalyst to polymerize, machine irradiation or isotope irradiation, and wet or dry irradiation. Then, processing considerations are made on wood type, monomer selection, dye selection, fire retardant, dose conditions and crosslinker usage. In ''PermaGrain'' production, for example, the facility has the yearly production capacity of over 4,000,000 kilograms of wood acrylic. The starting wood form is small slats or fingers. After pressure cycle, the impregnant wet wood is lowered into an irradiation pool and the product canister passes around a cobalt 60 source. After irradiation, the product is taken out of the pool and allowed to cool. Then, final sizing and finishing are carried out. (Mori, K.)

  20. Design considerations: gas turbines for electric power generation

    Moon, D.M.

    1979-01-01

    The gas turbine represents one of the most sophisticated designs from the standpoint of time dependent deformation behavior. The large size of the equipment, which limits the amount of full scale testing, together with the demanding performance requirements and high level of reliability desired places a high degree of emphasis on the high temperature deformation design process. As an example of the various design considerations used in this equipment, a brief overview of the turbine will be given, highlighting the materials, stress, temperatures, and load history experienced by the major components. Particular attention will then be focused on the vane segment design considerations. This component is not only structurally complicated, but experiences steep temperature gradients imposed by internal cooling and large temperature transients during cyclic duty operation which have to be addressed in the design procedure. Based on this discussion the limitations of the current design procedures will be highlighted and the areas requiring additional research inputs will be discussed

  1. The relationship between UT reported size and actual size of the defects in rotor forgings

    Seong, Un Hak; Kim, Jeong Tae; Park, Yun Sik

    2003-01-01

    In order to evaluate the reliability of rotor forgings, it is very important to know the actual size of the defects in the rotor forgings. The determination of the defect size requires the accurate non-destructive measurement. However, there may be some differences between the reported size with the ultrasonic non-destructive testing method and the actual size of defects. These differences may be a severe cause of errors in evaluation of rotor forgings. So, the calculated size with 'Master Curve' considering safety factor, which is usually larger than the reported size, has been used in evaluation of rotor forgings. The relation between the EFBH (Equivalent Flat Bottom Hole) size measured by non-destructive method and the actual size by destructive method in many rotors manufactured at Doosan was investigated. In this investigation 'Master Curve' compensating the differences between UT reported size and actual size of defects in our rotor forgings was obtainable. The applicability of this 'Master Curve' as a way of calculating the actual defect size was also investigated. For the evaluation of rotor forgings, it is expected that this 'Master Curve' may be used to determine the accurate actual size of defects.

  2. The relationship between UT reported size and actual size of the defects in rotor forgings

    Seong, Un Hak; Kim, Jeong Tae; Park, Yun Sik

    2003-01-01

    In order to evaluate the reliability of rotor forgings, it is very important to know the actual size of the defects in the rotor forgings. The determination of the defect size requires the accurate non-destructive measurement. However, there may be some difference between the reported size with ultrasonic non-destructive testing method and the actual size of defects. These differences may be a severe cause of errors in evaluation of rotor forgings. So, the calculated size with 'Master Curve' considering safety factor, which is usually larger than the reported size, has been used in evaluation of rotor forgings. The relation between the EFBH (Equivalent Flat Bottom Hole) size measured by non-destructive method and the actual size by destructive method in many rotors manufactured at Doosan was investigated. In this investigation, 'Master Curve' compensating the differences between UT reported size and actual size of defects in our rotor forgings was obtainable. The applicability of this 'Master Curve' as a way of calculating the actual defect size was also investigated. For the evaluation of rotor forgings, it is expected that this 'Master Curve' may be used to determine the accurate actual size of defects.

  3. Vessel size measurements in angiograms: Manual measurements

    Hoffmann, Kenneth R.; Dmochowski, Jacek; Nazareth, Daryl P.; Miskolczi, Laszlo; Nemes, Balazs; Gopal, Anant; Wang Zhou; Rudin, Stephen; Bednarek, Daniel R.

    2003-01-01

    Vessel size measurement is perhaps the most often performed quantitative analysis in diagnostic and interventional angiography. Although automated vessel sizing techniques are generally considered to have good accuracy and precision, we have observed that clinicians rarely use these techniques in standard clinical practice, choosing to indicate the edges of vessels and catheters to determine sizes and calibrate magnifications, i.e., manual measurements. Thus, we undertook an investigation of the accuracy and precision of vessel sizes calculated from manually indicated edges of vessels. Manual measurements were performed by three neuroradiologists and three physicists. Vessel sizes ranged from 0.1-3.0 mm in simulation studies and 0.3-6.4 mm in phantom studies. Simulation resolution functions had full-widths-at-half-maximum (FWHM) ranging from 0.0 to 0.5 mm. Phantom studies were performed with 4.5 in., 6 in., 9 in., and 12 in. image intensifier modes, magnification factor = 1, with and without zooming. The accuracy and reproducibility of the measurements ranged from 0.1 to 0.2 mm, depending on vessel size, resolution, and pixel size, and zoom. These results indicate that manual measurements may have accuracies comparable to automated techniques for vessels with sizes greater than 1 mm, but that automated techniques which take into account the resolution function should be used for vessels with sizes smaller than 1 mm

  4. Particle size determination

    Burr, K.J.

    1979-01-01

    A specification is given for an apparatus to provide a completely automatic testing cycle to determine the proportion of particles of less than a predetermined size in one of a number of fluid suspensions. Monitoring of the particle concentration during part of the process can be carried out by an x-ray source and detector. (U.K.)

  5. Size-dependent thermoelasticity

    Ali R. Hadjesfandiari

    Full Text Available In this paper a consistent theory is developed for size-dependent thermoelasticity in heterogeneous anisotropic solids. This theory shows that the temperature change can create not only thermal strains, but also thermal mean curvatures in the solids. This formulation is based on the consistent size-dependent continuum mechanics in which the couple-stress tensor is skew-symmetric. Here by including scale-dependent measures in the energy and entropy equations, the general expressions for force- and couple-stresses, as well as entropy density, are obtained. Next, for the linear material the constitutive relations and governing coupled size-dependent thermoelasticity equations are developed. For linear material, one can see that the thermal properties are characterized by the classical symmetric thermal expansion tensor and the new size-dependent skew-symmetric thermal flexion tensor. Thus, for the most general anisotropic case, there are nine independent thermoelastic constants. Interestingly, for isotropic and cubic materials the thermal flexion tensor vanishes, which shows there is no thermal mean curvature

  6. Calculating Optimal Inventory Size

    Ruby Perez

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of the project is to find the optimal value for the Economic Order Quantity Model and then use a lean manufacturing Kanban equation to find a numeric value that will minimize the total cost and the inventory size.

  7. Size makes a difference

    Matthiessen, Jeppe; Fagt, Sisse; Biltoft-Jensen, Anja Pia

    2003-01-01

    Objective: To elucidate status and trends in portion size of foods rich in fat and/or added sugars during the past decades, and to bring portion size into perspective in its role in obesity and dietary guidelines in Denmark. Data sources: Information about portion sizes of low-fat and full-fat food...... nation-wide dietary surveys and official sales statistics (Study 3). Results: Study 1: Subjects ate and drank significantly more when they chose low-fat food and meal items (milk used as a drink, sauce and sliced cold meat), compared with their counterparts who chose food and meal items with a higher fat...... content. As a result, almost the same amounts of energy and fat were consumed both ways, with the exception of sliced cold meat (energy and fat) and milk (fat). Study 2: Portion sizes of commercial energy-dense foods and beverages, and fast food meals rich in fat and/or added sugars, seem to have...

  8. Size and Reputation

    Jakobsen, Peter Viggo; Ringsmose, Jens

    2015-01-01

    American public gratitude than the UK. While London has been accused of losing Basra and Musa Qaleh, Copenhagen has been showered with praise and top-posts in NATO. This article explains why demonstrating how the differences in size and reputation gave rise to different expectations of the special...

  9. Green Lot-Sizing

    M. Retel Helmrich (Mathijn Jan)

    2013-01-01

    textabstractThe lot-sizing problem concerns a manufacturer that needs to solve a production planning problem. The producer must decide at which points in time to set up a production process, and when he/she does, how much to produce. There is a trade-off between inventory costs and costs associated

  10. 32 CFR 643.104 - Consideration.

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 4 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Consideration. 643.104 Section 643.104 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY (CONTINUED) REAL PROPERTY REAL ESTATE Permits § 643.104 Consideration. (a) Permits are usually granted on a rent-free basis. (b) The Army is...

  11. Technical specification improvement through safety margin considerations

    Howard, R.C.; Jansen, R.L.

    1986-01-01

    Westinghouse has developed an approach for utilizing safety analysis margin considerations to improve plant operability through technical specification revision. This approach relies on the identification and use of parameter interrelations and sensitivities to identify acceptable operating envelopes. This paper summarizes technical specification activities to date and presents the use of safety margin considerations as another viable method to obtain technical specification improvement

  12. 29 CFR 1614.305 - Consideration procedures.

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 4 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Consideration procedures. 1614.305 Section 1614.305 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) EQUAL EMPLOYMENT OPPORTUNITY COMMISSION FEDERAL SECTOR EQUAL EMPLOYMENT OPPORTUNITY Related Processes § 1614.305 Consideration procedures. (a) Once a petition is filed...

  13. 48 CFR 226.7104 - Other considerations.

    2010-10-01

    ... Businesses 226.7104 Other considerations. When planning for contracts for services related to base closure activities at a military installation affected by a closure or realignment under a base closure law... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Other considerations. 226...

  14. Insurance considerations associated with radiation processing

    Boylan, F.X.

    1979-01-01

    Comments are made on nuclear insurance experience in the United States. The subject is discussed in more detail under the headings: direct physical damage insurance; workers' compensation insurance; third party liability (premises and operations considerations; products considerations); possible alternatives to the existing arrangement. (U.K.)

  15. 7 CFR 1735.92 - Accounting considerations.

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 11 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Accounting considerations. 1735.92 Section 1735.92... All Acquisitions and Mergers § 1735.92 Accounting considerations. (a) Proper accounting shall be... in the absence of such a commission, as required by RUS based on Generally Accepted Accounting...

  16. ACCOUNTING FOR CONTINGENT CONSIDERATIONS IN BUSINESS COMBINATIONS

    Gurgen KALASHYAN

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available According to IFRS 3 Business Combinations contingent considerations must be included in the total consideration given for the acquired entity along with cash, other assets, ordinary or preference equity instruments, options, warrants. The contingent consideration is the determined amount which acquiring entity has to pay to acquired entity provided, that certain conditions will be fulfilled in the future. In case the provisions are not satisfied, we will get the situation when the amount of contingent consideration has been included in the total consideration given in the business combination, but in fact, the acquirer has not paid that amount. In its turn, the acquired entity will recognize the contingent consideration as a financial asset according to IFRS 9 Financial Instruments. In that case, it would be appropriately to recognize the contingent consideration as a contingent asset applying IAS 37. In the Article the author will explore the challenges of contingent consideration accounting and suggest the ways of solving the above mentioned problems.

  17. The Size and Structure of Government

    Michael, Bryane; Popov, Maja

    2015-01-01

    Does government size and structure adapt to changes in government’s organisational environment (particularly to uncertainty and complexity) as predicted by organisational theory? We find – using a range of statistical analyses – support for each of the major theories of organisation adaptation (the contingency-based view, resource-based view, and rational choice view). We find that both government size and structure change – holding other factors constant – for changes in the uncertaint...

  18. Expression of TGF-beta superfamily growth factors, their receptors, the associated SMADs and antagonists in five isolated size-matched populations of pre-antral follicles from normal human ovaries

    Kristensen, Stine Gry; Andersen, Kasper; Clement, Christian Alexandro

    2014-01-01

    In mammals, members of the transforming growth factor-beta (TGF-β) superfamily are known to have key roles in the regulation of follicular growth and development. The aim of the study was to evaluate the expression of TGF-β superfamily growth factors, their receptors, downstream SMAD signalling m...... growth. Moreover, the presence of multiple TGF-β/BMP antagonists imply that certain growth factors are subjected to local regulation on different levels which address another important level of intraovarian regulation of follicle development in humans.......In mammals, members of the transforming growth factor-beta (TGF-β) superfamily are known to have key roles in the regulation of follicular growth and development. The aim of the study was to evaluate the expression of TGF-β superfamily growth factors, their receptors, downstream SMAD signalling...... molecules and TGF- β/BMP antagonists during early human folliculogenesis.Human preantral follicles were enzymatically isolated from surplus ovarian tissue obtained from women having ovarian cortical tissue frozen for fertility preservation. A total of 348 human preantral follicles, ranging from 40 to 200 µm...

  19. The Influence of Portion Size and Timing of Meals on Weight Balance and Obesity.

    Berg, Christina; Forslund, Heléne Bertéus

    2015-03-01

    This review focuses on the influence of portion size and temporal distribution of food intake on weight balance and obesity in adults. The inconsistency of definitions in the area of meal patterns is also discussed. The conclusion is that regular eating habits might facilitate weight balance, while unplanned snacking as well as consuming the major part of the energy intake at the end of the day seem to be unfavourable. Altogether, the research suggests that large portions promote over-consumption and, therefore, limiting portion size of energy dense foods and drinks with added sugar could be recommended. Even if more research is needed, these factors should be taken into consideration in recommendations for obesity prevention.

  20. Disruption effects on the beam size measurement

    Raimondi, P.; Decker, F.J.; Chen, P.

    1995-01-01

    At the SLC Final Focus with higher currents and smaller beam sizes, the disruption parameter D y is close to one and so the pinch effect should produce a luminosity enhancement. Since a flat beam-beam function is fit to deflection scan data to measure the beam size, disruption can affect the measurement. Here the authors discuss the quantitative effects of disruption for typical SLC beam parameters. With 3.5 10 10 particles per pulse, bunch length of 0.8 mm and beam sizes of 2.1 μm horizontally and 0.55 μm vertically, the measured vertical size can be as much as 25% bigger than the real one. Furthermore during the collision the spot size actually decrease, producing an enhancement factor H D of about 1.25. This would yield to a true luminosity which is 1.6 times that which is estimated from the beam-beam deflection fit