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Sample records for situ ha synthesis

  1. Biomimetic composite microspheres of collagen/chitosan/nano-hydroxyapatite: In-situ synthesis and characterization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teng, Shu-Hua; Liang, Mian-Hui; Wang, Peng; Luo, Yong

    2016-01-01

    The collagen/chitosan/hydroxyapatite (COL/CS/HA) composite microspheres with a good spherical form and a high dispersity were successfully obtained using an in-situ synthesis method. The FT-IR and XRD results revealed that the inorganic phase in the microspheres was crystalline HA containing carbonate ions. The morphology of the composite microspheres was dependent on the HA content, and a more desirable morphology was achieved when 20 wt.% HA was contained. The composite microspheres exhibited a narrow particle distribution, most of which ranged from 5 to 10 μm. In addition, the needle-like HA nano-particles were uniformly distributed in the composite microspheres, and their crystallinity and crystal size decreased with the HA content. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Zonation of heme synthesis enzymes in mouse liver and their regulation by β-catenin and Ha-ras.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braeuning, Albert; Schwarz, Michael

    2010-11-01

    Cytochrome P450 (CYP) hemoproteins play an important role in hepatic biotransformation. Recently, β-catenin and Ha-ras signaling have been identified as players controlling transcription of various CYP genes in mouse liver. The aim of the present study was to analyze the role of β-catenin and Ha-ras in the regulation of heme synthesis. Heme synthesis-related gene expression was analyzed in normal liver, in transgenic mice expressing activated β-catenin or Ha-ras, and in hepatomas. Regulation of the aminolevulinate dehydratase promoter was studied in vitro. Elevated expression of mRNAs and proteins involved in heme biosynthesis was linked to β-catenin activation in perivenous hepatocytes, in transgenic hepatocytes, and in hepatocellular tumors. Stimulation of the aminolevulinate dehydratase promoter by β-catenin was independent of the β-catenin/T-cell-specific transcription factor dimer. By contrast, activation of Ha-ras repressed heme synthesis-related gene expression. The present data suggest that β-catenin enhances the expression of both CYPs and heme synthesis-related genes, thus coordinating the availability of CYP apoprotein and its prosthetic group heme. The reciprocal regulation of heme synthesis by β-catenin and Ha-ras-dependent signaling supports our previous hypothesis that antagonistic action of these pathways plays a major role in the control of zonal gene expression in healthy mouse liver and aberrant expression patterns in hepatocellular tumors.

  3. A bio-inspired approach for in situ synthesis of tunable adhesive

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sun, Leming; Yi, Sijia; Wang, Yongzhong; Pan, Kang; Zhong, Qixin; Zhang, Mingjun

    2014-01-01

    Inspired by the strong adhesive produced by English ivy, this paper proposes an in situ synthesis approach for fabricating tunable nanoparticle enhanced adhesives. Special attention was given to tunable features of the adhesive produced by the biological process. Parameters that may be used to tune properties of the adhesive will be proposed. To illustrate and validate the proposed approach, an experimental platform was presented for fabricating tunable chitosan adhesive enhanced by Au nanoparticles synthesized in situ. This study contributes to a bio-inspired approach for in situ synthesis of tunable nanocomposite adhesives by mimicking the natural biological processes of ivy adhesive synthesis. (paper)

  4. Hydrothermal Synthesis of Disulfide-Containing Uranyl Compounds. In Situ Ligand Synthesis versus Direct Assembly

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rowland, Clare E. [George Washington Univ., Washington, DC (United States); Belai, Nebebech [George Washington Univ., Washington, DC (United States); Knope, Karah E. [George Washington Univ., Washington, DC (United States); Cahill, Christopher L. [George Washington Univ., Washington, DC (United States)

    2010-01-29

    Three disulfide-containing uranyl compounds, [UO2(C7H4O2S)3]·H2O (1), [UO2(C7H4O2S)2(C7H5O2S)] (2), and [UO2(C7H4O2S)4] (3) have been hydrothermally synthesized. Both in situ disulfide bond formation from 3- and 4-mercaptobenzoic acid (C7H5O2S, MBA) to yield 3,3'- and 4,4'-dithiobisbenzoic acid (C14H8O4S2, DTBA) and direct assembly with the presynthesized dimeric ligands have been explored. While the starting materials 4-MBA and 4,4'-DTBA both yield 2 via in situ ligand synthesis and direct assembly, respectively, we observe the formation of 1 from the starting material 3-MBA via in situ ligand synthesis and of 3 from the direct assembly of the uranyl cation with 3,3'-DTBA. Concurrently with the synthesis of 1 and 2, we have observed the in situ formation of the crystalline dimeric organic species, 3,3'-DTBA, [(C7H5O2S)2] (4) and 4,4'-DTBA, [(C7H5O2S)2] (5). Herein we report the synthesis and crystallographic characterization of 1-5, as well as observations regarding the utility of product formation via direct assembly and in situ ligand synthesis.

  5. Facile Synthesis of In–Situ Nitrogenated Graphene Decorated by Few–Layer MoS2 for Hydrogen Evolution Reaction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dai, Xiaoping; Li, Zhanzhao; Du, Kangli; Sun, Hui; Yang, Ying; Zhang, Xin; Ma, Xingyu; Wang, Jie

    2015-01-01

    Graphical abstract: In–situ nitrogenated graphene–few layer MoS 2 composites are fabricated by combinating chemical and hydrothermal reduction. The resulting MoS 2 /N–rGO–HA by N 2 H 4 ·H 2 O and NH 3 ·H 2 O as co-reductant exhibits high activity and remarkable stability for hydrogen evolution reaction (HER). The excellent electro-catalytic performance is ascribed to the synergistic effects, confinement effects and highly dispersed MoS 2 nanosheets on N-doping rGO. Display Omitted -- Highlights: • In–situ nitrogenated graphene–few layer MoS 2 composites are fabricated by combinating chemical and hydrothermal co-reduction. • The resulting MoS 2 /N–rGO–HA exhibits high activity and remarkable stability for HER. • The excellent electro-catalytic performance is ascribed to the synergistic effects, confinement effects and highly dispersed MoS 2 nanosheets on N-doping rGO. -- Abstract: A facile one–step synthetic strategy by combinating chemical and hydrothermal reduction of graphene oxide and Mo precursor is proposed to fabricate in–situ nitrogenated graphene–few layer MoS 2 composite (MoS 2 /N–rGO–HA) for hydrogen evolution reaction (HER). The N–doping graphene nanosheets and highly dispersed MoS 2 nanosheets by ammonia and hydrozine as co–reductant have greatly promoted the N content, concentrations of pyridinic and graphitic N, the electron transport in electrodes, and assure high catalytic efficiency. The MoS 2 /N–rGO–HA composite exhibits extremely high activity in acidic solutions with a small onset potential of 100 mV and Tafel slope of 45 mV/dec, as well as a current density about 32.4 mA cm −2 at overpotential about 0.2 V. Moreover, such MoS 2 /N–rGO–HA electroncatalyst also shows an excellent stability during 1000 cycles with negligible loss of the cathodic current. This facile hydrothermal method could provide a promising strategy for the synthesis of in–situ nitrogen–doping graphene sheets and few

  6. Synthesis and characterization of praseodymium-142 hydroxyapatite (142Pr-HA)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Duyeh Setiawan; Daud Nurhasan

    2015-01-01

    The use of radioisotope of lanthanide group with range of beta energy 0.4 - 2.2 MeV has been renewed interest in nuclear medicine. Praseodymium-142 radioisotope ( 142 Pr, t 1/2 = 19.2 hours, E β = 2.16 MeV) is suitable for applications radiotherapy. Labelled of the hydroxyapatite (Ca 10 (PO 4 )6(OH) 2 ) can be used as carrier of radionuclide after injection in the body injection. This research aim as a preliminary studies to make praseodymium-142 hydroxyapatite ( 142 Pr-HA) as a radiotherapy agent. The optimum condition of praseodymium-142 hydroxyapatite synthesis by controlling several parameters such as the pH and the weight of hydroxyapatite was obtained from process by used the nonradioactive praseodymium. The optimum condition of hydroxyapatite by praseodymium are at pH 5 and weight ratio praseodymium : hydroxyapatite is 1 : 16. The percentage of labeling hydroxyapatite with 142 PrCl 3 was 99.50% and the radiochemical purity of 142 Pr-Ha was 95.20%. (author)

  7. In situ synthesis of hydroxyapatite coating by laser cladding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, D G; Chen, C Z; Ma, J; Zhang, G

    2008-10-15

    HA bioceramic coatings were synthesized on titanium substrate by laser cladding using cheap calcium carbonate and calcium hydrogen phosphate. The thermodynamic condition for synthesizing HA was calculated by software Matlab 5.0, the microstructure and phase analysis of laser clad HA bioceramic coatings were studied by electron probe microanalyser (EPMA), X-ray diffractometer (XRD) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The theoretical results show that the Gibbs free enthalpy for the synthesis of HA phase is satisfied, and the presence of HA phase in the clad coatings was then further verified by XRD and the selected area diffraction patterns. When the laser power is 600W and the scanning speed is 3.5mm/s, the compact HA bioceramic coatings were obtained, which have cellular dendritic structure and consist of the phases of HA, alpha-Ca(2)P(2)O(7), CaO and CaTiO(3).

  8. [Construction of porous hydroxyapatite (HA) block loaded with cultured chondrocytes].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, M; Dang, G

    1999-07-01

    To construct a kind of bone healing enhancing implant with cultured chondrocytes bound to hydroxyapatite (HA). Chondrocytes were obtained from the costicartilage of rat and were cultured on the porous HA blocks, 3 mm x 3 mm x 4 mm size, for three and seven days. Scanning electron micrograph was taken to show whether the cells grew outside and inside the pore of HA block. The cells cultured on tiny glass sheet for 2 days were used to prove where the cells come from by in situ hybridization technique with alpha1 (II) cDNA probe. Scanning electron micrographs showed that the pores of the HA surface and inside of the blocks are filled with cultured cells, especially the longer cultured block. The cells were chondrocytes confirmed by in situ hybridization. The porous HA can be used as cell cultured substrate and chondrocyte can adhere and proliferate inside the porous HA block.

  9. Combustion synthesis of advanced materials. [using in-situ infiltration technique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, J. J.; Feng, H. J.; Perkins, N.; Readey, D. W.

    1992-01-01

    The combustion synthesis of ceramic-metal composites using an in-situ liquid infiltration technique is described. The effect of varying the reactants and their stoichiometry to provide a range of reactant and product species i.e. solids, liquids and gases, with varying physical properties e.g. thermal conductivity, on the microstructure and morphology of synthesized products is also described. Alternatively, conducting the combustion synthesis reaction in a reactive gas environment is also discussed, in which advantages can be gained from the synergistic effects of combustion synthesis and vapor phase transport. In each case, the effect of the presence or absence of gravity (density) driven fluid flow and vapor transport is discussed as is the potential for producing new and perhaps unique materials by conducting these SHS reactions under microgravity conditions.

  10. High-gravity combustion synthesis and in situ melt infiltration: A new method for preparing cemented carbides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, Guanghua; Li, Jiangtao; Yang, Zengchao; Guo, Shibin; Chen, Yixiang

    2013-01-01

    A new method of high-gravity combustion synthesis and in situ melt infiltration is reported for preparing cemented carbides, where hot nickel melt is in situ synthesized from a highly exothermic combustion reaction and then infiltrated into tungsten carbide powder compacts. The as-prepared sample showed a homogeneous microstructure, and its relative density, hardness and flexural strength were 94.4%, 84 HRA and 1.49 GPa, respectively. Compared with conventional powder metallurgy approaches, high-gravity combustion synthesis offers a fast and furnace-free way to produce cemented carbides

  11. Synthesis of polypropylene/graphite nanocomposites by means of in situ polymerization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Montagna, Larissa S.; Basso, Nara R.S.

    2009-01-01

    The nanotechnology presents a large field for research and development of new polymeric materials based in nanocomposites. This work is related to the synthesis of nanocomposites of polypropylene with graphite as filler. The sheets of graphite in nanometer dimensions were made by means of the chemical exfoliation and thermal treatment. The synthesis of the nanocomposites was carried through by means of the in situ polymerization using a metallocene catalyst and with different amounts of inorganic load (0,5; 1 and 2%). The synthesized nanocomposites were characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and X-Ray diffraction (XRD). (author)

  12. In situ synthesis of silver benzene-dithiolate hybrid films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brenier, Roger, E-mail: roger.brenier@univ-lyon1.fr [Institut Lumière Matière, UMR 5306, Université Lyon 1-CNRS, Université de Lyon, Domaine Scientifique de La Doua, Batiment Kastler, 10 rue Ada Byron, 69622 Villeurbanne, Cedex (France); Piednoir, Agnès, E-mail: agnes.piednoir@univ-lyon1.fr [Institut Lumière Matière, UMR 5306, Université Lyon 1-CNRS, Université de Lyon, Domaine Scientifique de La Doua, Batiment Kastler, 10 rue Ada Byron, 69622 Villeurbanne, Cedex (France); Bertorelle, Franck, E-mail: franck.bertorelle@univ-lyon1.fr [Institut Lumière Matière, UMR 5306, Université Lyon 1-CNRS, Université de Lyon, Domaine Scientifique de La Doua, Batiment Kastler, 10 rue Ada Byron, 69622 Villeurbanne, Cedex (France); Penuelas, José, E-mail: jose.penuelas@ec-lyon.fr [Université de Lyon, Institut des Nanotechnologies de Lyon, Ecole Centrale de Lyon, CNRS, UMR 5270, 36 rue Guy de Collongues, F69134 Ecully (France); Grenet, Geneviève, E-mail: genevieve.grenet@ec-lyon.fr [Université de Lyon, Institut des Nanotechnologies de Lyon, Ecole Centrale de Lyon, CNRS, UMR 5270, 36 rue Guy de Collongues, F69134 Ecully (France)

    2016-02-01

    In this article, a method for in situ synthesis of silver benzene-dithiolate hybrid films is presented. Silver nanoparticles, generated on ZrO{sub 2} films, are transformed into silver benzene 1,4-dithiolate or, partially, into silver benzene 1,2-dithiolate after sample immersion in the corresponding thiol solutions. These transformations occur at room temperature owing to the catalytic action of ZrO{sub 2}. It is also shown that TiO{sub 2} in place of ZrO{sub 2} is very efficient, both for the catalytic generation of silver nanoparticles and for their further transformation in benzene 1,4-dithiolate compound. This latter semiconductor has an optical bandgap of about 3 eV and the film is made of touching nanoparticles in an amorphous state. Our work has potential applications in the electronic and photovoltaic fields. - Highlights: • A method for in situ synthesis of silver benzene-dithiolate hybrid semiconductor films is presented. • Silver nanoparticles are, first, generated on ZrO{sub 2} or on TiO{sub 2} coated silica substrates. • The samples are immersed in benzene dithiol solution for two days at room temperature. • During the immersion, the silver nanoparticles are transformed into silver benzene dithiolate. • The silver benzene dithiolate film is made of amorphous nanoparticles with a banbgap of 3 eV.

  13. In situ ETEM synthesis of NiGa alloy nanoparticles from nitrate salt solution

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Damsgaard, Christian Danvad; Duchstein, Linus Daniel Leonhard; Sharafutdinov, Irek

    2014-01-01

    Metallic alloy nanoparticles (NPs) are synthesized in situ in an environmental transmission electron microscope. Atomic level characterization of the formed alloy NPs is carried out at synthesis conditions by use of high-resolution transmission electron microscopy, electron diffraction and electron...

  14. Phase evolution in calcium phosphate coatings obtained by in situ laser cladding

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lv Xiaowei; Lin Xin; Hu Jiang; Gao Bo; Huang Weidong

    2012-01-01

    Calcium phosphate coating was fabricated by in situ laser cladding using mixed powders of CaCO 3 and CaHPO 4 , which presented a complex phase constitution since the reactions between CaCO 3 and CaHPO 4 would produce not only hydroxyapatite (HA) in the coating, but also other phases, such as Ca 4 (PO 4 ) 2 O (TTCP) and α-Ca 3 (PO 4 ) 2 (α-TCP). In order to realize the control of the phase constitution, the effects of the Ca/P molar ratio of mixed powders, laser power, scanning velocity and heat treatment on the phase constitution of the coatings were investigated through X-ray diffraction analysis. It is found that the variation of the Ca/P molar ratio of the mixed powders, laser power and scanning velocity can adjust, to a certain extent, the proportion of HA, α-TCP, and TTCP in the coating. However, the α-TCP and TTCP cannot be eliminated from the coating due to the intrinsic high cooling rate of the laser melt pool during laser cladding. By suitable post heat treatment, the TTCP and α-TCP in the coating can be partially or completely transformed into HA. Therefore, HA coating or coatings with desirable proportion of HA, α-TCP and TTCP can be obtained by in situ laser cladding plus post heat treatment. - Highlights: ► The phase constitution varies with the Ca/P molar ratio of the mixed powders of CaCO 3 and CaHPO 4 . ► High laser powder and scanning velocity are disadvantages for the synthesis of HA. ► Heat treatment with furnace cooling can make α-TCP and TTCP transform into HA.

  15. Imaging of Homeostatic, Neoplastic, and Injured Tissues by HA-Based Probes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veiseh, Mandana; Breadner, Daniel; Ma, Jenny; Akentieva, Natalia; Savani, Rashmin C; Harrison, Rene; Mikilus, David; Collis, Lisa; Gustafson, Stefan; Lee, Ting-Yim; Koropatnick, James; Luyt, Leonard G.; Bissell, Mina J.; Turley, Eva A.

    2013-01-01

    An increase in hyaluronan (HA) synthesis, cellular uptake, and metabolism occurs during the remodeling of tissue microenvironments following injury and during disease processes such as cancer. We hypothesized that multimodality HA-based probes selectively target and detectably accumulate at sites of high HA metabolism, thus providing a flexible imaging strategy for monitoring disease and repair processes. Kinetic analyses confirmed favorable available serum levels of the probe following intravenous (i.v.) or subcutaneous (s.c.) injection. Nuclear (technetium-HA, 99mTc-HA, and iodine-HA, 125I-HA), optical (fluorescent Texas Red-HA, TR-HA), and magnetic resonance (gadolinium-HA, Gd-HA) probes imaged liver (99mTc-HA), breast cancer cells/xenografts (TR-HA, Gd-HA), and vascular injury (125I-HA, TR-HA). Targeting of HA probes to these sites appeared to result from selective HA receptor-dependent localization. Our results suggest that HA-based probes, which do not require polysaccharide backbone modification to achieve favorable half-life and distribution, can detect elevated HA metabolism in homeostatic, injured, and diseased tissues. PMID:22066590

  16. In situ environmental transmission electron microscope investigation of NiGa nanoparticle synthesis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Damsgaard, Christian Danvad; Duchstein, Linus Daniel Leonhard; Elkjær, Christian Fink

    2011-01-01

    . Both Ni and Ga edges are observed in the spectra. Quantification of Ni:Ga ratio is hampered by the presence of the Ni L1 edge. The ETEM experiments have been supported by complementary in situ X-Ray Diffraction (XRD) measurements on synthesis of Ni5Ga3 catalyst on a high surface area silica support...... prepared by wet impregnation [2]. Although the in situ XRD was performed at significantly higher H2 flow (40 Nml/min) and pressure (100 kPa) the complimentary data correlates with the main temperature dependence of phase and structure and shows formation of the Ni5Ga3 phase for temperatures higher than 300...

  17. Solvent-assisted in situ synthesis of cysteamine-capped silver nanoparticles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliva, José M.; Ríos de la Rosa, Julio M.; Sayagués, María J.; Sánchez-Alcázar, José A.; Merkling, Patrick J.; Zaderenko, Ana P.

    2018-03-01

    Silver nanoparticles offer a huge potential for biomedical applications owing to their exceptional properties and small size. Specifically, cysteamine-capped silver nanoparticles could form the basis for new anticancer therapies combining the cytotoxic effect of the silver core with the inherent antitumor activity of cysteamine, which inhibit cancer cell proliferation and suppress invasion and metastasis. In addition, the capability of the cysteamine coating monolayer to couple a variety of active principles and targeting (bio)molecules of interest proves key to the tailoring of this platform in order to exploit the pathophysiology of specific tumor types. Nevertheless, the chain length and conformational flexibility of cysteamine, together with its ability to attach to the surface of silver nanoparticles via both the thiol and the amine group, have made the in situ synthesis of these particles an especially challenging task. Herein we report a solvent-assisted in situ synthesis method that solves this problem. The obtained nanoparticles have been fully characterized by UV-visible absorption spectroscopy, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, transmission electron microscopy, electron diffraction measurement, high resolution transmission electron microscopy, scanning transmission electron microscopy, energy dispersive x-ray spectroscopy nanoanalysis, and dynamic light scattering measurement. Our synthesis method achieves extremely high yield and surface coating ratio, and colloidal stability over a wide range of pH values including physiological pH. Additionally, we have demonstrated that cysteamine-capped nanoparticles obtained by this method can be conjugated to an antibody for active targeting of the epidermal growth factor receptor, which plays an important role in the pathogenesis and progression of a wide variety of tumors, and induce cell death in human squamous carcinoma cells. We believe this method can be readily extended to combinations of noble

  18. In situ synthesis of nanocomposite membranes: comprehensive improvement strategy for direct methanol fuel cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rao, Siyuan; Xiu, Ruijie; Si, Jiangju; Lu, Shanfu; Yang, Meng; Xiang, Yan

    2014-03-01

    In situ synthesis is a powerful approach to control nanoparticle formation and consequently confers extraordinary properties upon composite membranes relative to conventional doping methods. Herein, uniform nanoparticles of cesium hydrogen salts of phosphotungstic acid (CsPW) are controllably synthesized in situ in Nafion to form CsPW–Nafion nanocomposite membranes with both improved proton conductivity and methanol-crossover suppression. A 101.3% increase of maximum power density has been achieved relative to pristine Nafion in a direct methanol fuel cell (DMFC), indicating a potential pathway for large-scale fabrication of DMFC alternative membranes.

  19. In Situ Synthesis of Metal Nanoparticle Embedded Hybrid Soft Nanomaterials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Divya, Kizhmuri P; Miroshnikov, Mikhail; Dutta, Debjit; Vemula, Praveen Kumar; Ajayan, Pulickel M; John, George

    2016-09-20

    The allure of integrating the tunable properties of soft nanomaterials with the unique optical and electronic properties of metal nanoparticles has led to the development of organic-inorganic hybrid nanomaterials. A promising method for the synthesis of such organic-inorganic hybrid nanomaterials is afforded by the in situ generation of metal nanoparticles within a host organic template. Due to their tunable surface morphology and porosity, soft organic materials such as gels, liquid crystals, and polymers that are derived from various synthetic or natural compounds can act as templates for the synthesis of metal nanoparticles of different shapes and sizes. This method provides stabilization to the metal nanoparticles by the organic soft material and advantageously precludes the use of external reducing or capping agents in many instances. In this Account, we exemplify the green chemistry approach for synthesizing these materials, both in the choice of gelators as soft material frameworks and in the reduction mechanisms that generate the metal nanoparticles. Established herein is the core design principle centered on conceiving multifaceted amphiphilic soft materials that possess the ability to self-assemble and reduce metal ions into nanoparticles. Furthermore, these soft materials stabilize the in situ generated metal nanoparticles and retain their self-assembly ability to generate metal nanoparticle embedded homogeneous organic-inorganic hybrid materials. We discuss a remarkable example of vegetable-based drying oils as host templates for metal ions, resulting in the synthesis of novel hybrid nanomaterials. The synthesis of metal nanoparticles via polymers and self-assembled materials fabricated via cardanol (a bioorganic monomer derived from cashew nut shell liquid) are also explored in this Account. The organic-inorganic hybrid structures were characterized by several techniques such as UV-visible spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy (SEM), and

  20. In situ X-ray powder diffraction studies of the synthesis of graphene oxide and formation of reduced graphene oxide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Storm, Mie Møller; Johnsen, Rune E.; Norby, Poul

    2016-01-01

    Graphene oxide (GO) and reduced graphene oxide (rGO) are important materials in a wide range of fields. The modified Hummers methods, for synthesizing GO, and subsequent thermal reduction to rGO, are often employed for production of rGO. However, the mechanism behinds these syntheses methods are still unclear. We present an in situ X-ray diffraction study of the synthesis of GO and thermal reduction of GO. The X-ray diffraction revealed that the Hummers method includes an intercalation state and finally formation of additional crystalline material. The formation of GO is observed during both the intercalation and the crystallization stage. During thermal reduction of GO three stages were observed: GO, a disordered stage, and the rGO stage. The appearance of these stages depends on the heating ramp. The aim of this study is to provide deeper insight into the chemical and physical processes during the syntheses. - Graphical abstract: In situ X-ray diffraction results for of the modified Hummers synthesis and the thermal reduction of graphene oxide, revealing three stages for both syntheses as well as new GO diffraction peaks and unidentified crystalline material for the Hummers synthesis and a disordered stage for the thermal reduction of graphene oxide. Display Omitted - Highlights: • Hummers synthesis consists of three stages: dissolution, intercalation and crystal. • GO is produced early on during the synthesis and display new diffraction peaks. • An unidentified triclinic phase is observed for the Hummers synthesis. • Thermal reduction of GO display three stages: GO, a disordered stage and rGO. • In situ XRD indicate reformation of rGO even for fast heated thermal reduction.

  1. In situ X-ray powder diffraction studies of the synthesis of graphene oxide and formation of reduced graphene oxide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Storm, Mie Møller, E-mail: mmst@dtu.dk; Johnsen, Rune E.; Norby, Poul

    2016-08-15

    Graphene oxide (GO) and reduced graphene oxide (rGO) are important materials in a wide range of fields. The modified Hummers methods, for synthesizing GO, and subsequent thermal reduction to rGO, are often employed for production of rGO. However, the mechanism behinds these syntheses methods are still unclear. We present an in situ X-ray diffraction study of the synthesis of GO and thermal reduction of GO. The X-ray diffraction revealed that the Hummers method includes an intercalation state and finally formation of additional crystalline material. The formation of GO is observed during both the intercalation and the crystallization stage. During thermal reduction of GO three stages were observed: GO, a disordered stage, and the rGO stage. The appearance of these stages depends on the heating ramp. The aim of this study is to provide deeper insight into the chemical and physical processes during the syntheses. - Graphical abstract: In situ X-ray diffraction results for of the modified Hummers synthesis and the thermal reduction of graphene oxide, revealing three stages for both syntheses as well as new GO diffraction peaks and unidentified crystalline material for the Hummers synthesis and a disordered stage for the thermal reduction of graphene oxide. Display Omitted - Highlights: • Hummers synthesis consists of three stages: dissolution, intercalation and crystal. • GO is produced early on during the synthesis and display new diffraction peaks. • An unidentified triclinic phase is observed for the Hummers synthesis. • Thermal reduction of GO display three stages: GO, a disordered stage and rGO. • In situ XRD indicate reformation of rGO even for fast heated thermal reduction.

  2. Mechanism of Particle Formation in Silver/Epoxy Nanocomposites Obtained through a Visible-Light-Assisted in Situ Synthesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    dell'Erba, Ignacio E; Martínez, Francisco D; Hoppe, Cristina E; Eliçabe, Guillermo E; Ceolín, Marcelo; Zucchi, Ileana A; Schroeder, Walter F

    2017-10-03

    A detailed understanding of the processes taking place during the in situ synthesis of metal/polymer nanocomposites is crucial to manipulate the shape and size of nanoparticles (NPs) with a high level of control. In this paper, we report an in-depth time-resolved analysis of the particle formation process in silver/epoxy nanocomposites obtained through a visible-light-assisted in situ synthesis. The selected epoxy monomer was based on diglycidyl ether of bisphenol A, which undergoes relatively slow cationic ring-opening polymerization. This feature allowed us to access a full description of the formation process of silver NPs before this was arrested by the curing of the epoxy matrix. In situ time-resolved small-angle X-ray scattering investigation was carried out to follow the evolution of the number and size of the silver NPs as a function of irradiation time, whereas rheological experiments combined with near-infrared and ultraviolet-visible spectroscopies were performed to interpret how changes in the rheological properties of the matrix affect the nucleation and growth of particles. The analysis of the obtained results allowed us to propose consistent mechanisms for the formation of metal/polymer nanocomposites obtained by light-assisted one-pot synthesis. Finally, the effect of a thermal postcuring treatment of the epoxy matrix on the particle size in the nanocomposite was investigated.

  3. Ex situ synthesis of G/α-Fe2O3 nanocomposite and its catalytic effect ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    2017-07-25

    Jul 25, 2017 ... situ synthesis in the presence of α-Fe2O3 nanoparticles and GO solution. .... tion, washed several times with deionized water and ethanol and then dried at ..... where α is the extent of conversion, T is the temperature,. A is the ...

  4. Capsaicin Synthesis Requires in Situ Phenylalanine and Valine Formation in in Vitro Maintained Placentas from Capsicum chinense

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fray M. Baas-Espinola

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Capsaicinoids (CAP are nitrogenous metabolites formed from valine (Val and phenylalanine (Phe in the placentas of hot Capsicum genotypes. Placentas of Habanero peppers can incorporate inorganic nitrogen into amino acids and have the ability to secure the availability of the required amino acids for CAP biosynthesis. In order to determine the participation of the placental tissue as a supplier of these amino acids, the effects of blocking the synthesis of Val and Phe by using specific enzyme inhibitors were analyzed. Isolated placentas maintained in vitro were used to rule out external sources′ participation. Blocking Phe synthesis, through the inhibition of arogenate dehydratase, significantly decreased CAP accumulation suggesting that at least part of Phe required in this process has to be produced in situ. Chlorsulfuron inhibition of acetolactate synthase, involved in Val synthesis, decreased not only Val accumulation but also that of CAP, pointing out that the requirement for this amino acid can also be fulfilled by this tissue. The presented data demonstrates that CAP accumulation in in vitro maintained placentas can be accomplished through the in situ availability of Val and Phe and suggests that the synthesis of the fatty acid chain moiety may be a limiting factor in the biosynthesis of these alkaloids.

  5. Pepsin-solubilised collagen (PSC) from Red Sea cucumber (Stichopus japonicus) regulates cell cycle and the fibronectin synthesis in HaCaT cell migration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Soo-Yeong; Lim, Hee Kyoung; Lee, Seogjae; Hwang, Hyeong Cheol; Cho, Somi K; Cho, Moonjae

    2012-05-01

    Pepsin-solubilised collagen (PSC) from Red Sea cucumber (Stichopus japonicus) was studied with respect to its wound-healing effects on a human keratinocyte (HaCaT) cell line. Disaggregated collagen fibres were treated with 0.1M NaOH for 24h and digested with pepsin for 72h to reach maximum yield of 26.6%. The results of an in vitro wound-healing test showed that migration of HaCaT cells was 1.5-fold faster on PSC-coated plates than on untreated plates. The migration rate of sea cucumber PSC was similar to that of rat PSC, but five times higher than that of bovine gelatin. HaCaT cells grown on PSC-coated plates revealed increased fibronectin synthesis (6-fold and 3-fold compared to gelatin and rat PSC, respectively). Additionally, sea cucumber PSCs induced HaCaT cell proliferation by decreasing the G1 phase by 5% and maintaining a larger population (8%) of cells in mitosis. Collagen from Red Sea cucumber might be useful as an alternative to mammalian collagen in the nutraceutical and pharmaceutical industries. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. In situ synthesis of fluorescent magnetosomes using an organic membrane as a soft template.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ke, Wenjing; Zhang, Juhua; An, Xueqin; Zhang, Bo

    2017-05-04

    A novel approach was presented for the in situ synthesis of fluorescent magnetosomes by biological mineralization and carbonization processes for the first time. The surface structures, magnetism and fluorescence were studied, and the cytotoxicity tests and fluorescent trace in liposomes were probed. The fluorescent magnetosomes exhibit not only unique fluorescence and ferromagnetic properties but also low toxicity and superior imaging capability.

  7. Diffusion Control in the in Situ Synthesis of Iconic Metal-Organic Frameworks within an Ionic Polymer Matrix.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, Jungho; Lee, Eun Ji; Choi, Jae Sun; Jeong, Nak Cheon

    2018-01-31

    Ionic polymers that possess ion-exchangeable sites have been shown to be a greatly useful platform to fabricate mixed matrices (MMs) where metal-organic frameworks (MOFs) can be in situ synthesized, although the in situ synthesis of MOF has been rarely studied. In this study, alginate (ALG), an anionic green polymer that possesses metal-ion-exchangeable sites, is employed as a platform of MMs for the in situ synthesis of iconic MOFs, HKUST-1, and MOF-74(Zn). We demonstrate for the first time that the sequential order of supplying MOF ingredients (metal ion and deprotonated ligand) into the alginate matrix leads to substantially different results because of a difference in the diffusion of the MOF components. For the examples examined, whereas the infusion of BTC 3- ligand into Cu 2+ -exchanged ALG engendered the eggshell-shaped HKUST-1 layers on the surface of MM spheres, the infusion of Cu 2+ ions into BTC 3- -included alginate engendered the high dispersivity and junction contact of HKUST-1 crystals in the alginate matrix. This fundamental property has been exploited to fabricate a flexible MOF-containing mixed matrix membrane by coincorporating poly(vinyl alcohol). Using two molecular dyes, namely, methylene blue and rhodamine 6G, further, we show that this in situ strategy is suitable for fabricating an MOF-MM that exhibits size-selective molecular uptake.

  8. Hamiltonian Algorithm Sound Synthesis

    OpenAIRE

    大矢, 健一

    2013-01-01

    Hamiltonian Algorithm (HA) is an algorithm for searching solutions is optimization problems. This paper introduces a sound synthesis technique using Hamiltonian Algorithm and shows a simple example. "Hamiltonian Algorithm Sound Synthesis" uses phase transition effect in HA. Because of this transition effect, totally new waveforms are produced.

  9. In situ synthesis of copper nanoparticles on SBA-16 silica spheres

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Asma Tufail Shah

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available A chemical method for in situ synthesis of copper nanoparticles on SBA-16 silica spheres under ambient conditions has been reported. The silica support has been introduced into copper precursor solution before chemical reduction. Metal ions diffuse into mesopores (pore diameter 5–7 nm of silica where in situ reduction by hydrazine leads to formation of nanoparticles. These mesopores act as nanoreactor and their walls prevent metal particle’s agglomeration by providing a physical barrier. The obtained copper nanoparticles have been investigated by electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction, UV–Visible spectroscopy, Fourier transform Infra-red spectroscopy and thermogravimetric analyzer. SEM, TEM and UV–Visible spectroscopic images revealed that nanosized particles have been successfully synthesized by this method. Thermogravimetric investigations revealed that copper nanoparticles impregnated on silica were thermally more stable compared to unsupported nanoparticles. Silica not only helps in maintaining the particle size but also makes nanoparticles stable at high temperatures due to its thick pore walls. Macro sized silica support also makes separation/handling of nanoparticles easy and simple.

  10. Laser-induced incandescence (LII) diagnostic for in situ monitoring of nanoparticle synthesis in a high-pressure arc discharge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yatom, Shurik; Vekselman, Vladislav; Mitrani, James; Stratton, Brentley; Raitses, Yevgeny; LaboratoryPlasma Nanosynthesis Team

    2016-10-01

    A DC arc discharge is commonly used for synthesis of carbon nanoparticles, including buckyballs, carbon nanotubes, and graphene flakes. In this work we show the first results of nanoparticles monitored during the arc discharge. The graphite electrode is vaporized by high current (60 A) in a buffer Helium gas leading to nanoparticle synthesis in a low temperature plasma. The arc was shown to oscillate, which can possibly influence the nano-synthesis. To visualize the nanoparticles in-situ we employ the LII technique. The nanoparticles with radii >50 nm, emerging from the arc area are heated with a short laser pulse and incandesce. The resulting radiation is captured with an ICCD camera, showing the location of the generated nanoparticles. The images of incandescence are studied together with temporally synchronized fast-framing imaging of C2 emission, to connect the dynamics of arc instabilities, C2 molecules concentration and nanoparticles. The time-resolved incandescence signal is analyzed with combination of ex-situ measurements of the synthesized nanoparticles and LII modeling, to provide the size distribution of produced nanoparticles. This work was supported by US Department of Energy, Office of Science, Basic Energy Sciences, Materials Sciences and Engineering Division.

  11. In situ synthesis of bilayered gradient poly(vinyl alcohol)/hydroxyapatite composite hydrogel by directional freezing-thawing and electrophoresis method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Cui; Su, Yunlan; Li, Zhiyong; Haq, Muhammad Abdul; Zhou, Yong; Wang, Dujin

    2017-08-01

    Bilayered poly(vinyl alcohol) (PVA)/hydroxyapatite (HA) composite hydrogels with anisotropic and gradient mechanical properties were prepared by the combination of directional freezing-thawing (DFT) and electrophoresis method. Firstly, PVA hydrogels with aligned channel structure were prepared by the DFT method. Then, HA nanoparticles were in situ synthesized within the PVA hydrogels via electrophoresis. By controlling the time of the electrophoresis process, a bilayered gradient hydrogel containing HA particles in only half of the gel region was obtained. The PVA/HA composite hydrogel exhibited gradient mechanical strength depending on the distance to the cathode. The gradient initial tensile modulus ranging from 0.18MPa to 0.27MPa and the gradient initial compressive modulus from 0.33MPa to 0.51MPa were achieved. The binding strength of the two regions was relatively high and no apparent internal stress or defect was observed at the boundary. The two regions of the bilayered hydrogel also showed different osteoblast cell adhesion properties. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Synthesis and characterization of PMMA/clay nanocomposites prepared by in situ polymerization assisted by sonication

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prado, Bruna R.; Bartoli, Julio R.; Ito, Edson N.

    2015-01-01

    In this work is presented the synthesis of nanocomposites of poly(methyl methacrylate), PMMA, with organically montmorillonite (OMMT) modified clays by in situ polymerization assisted by sonication. A statistically designed experiment was used, central composing design (CCD), to study the effect of synthesis variables on the dispersion of nanoparticles in PMMA matrix. The processing and formulation factors studied were: energy of sonication and Flory-Huggins interaction parameter between PMMA and organoclay. The structural (XRD) and morphological (TEM) characterizations of the PMMA/OMMT nanocomposites are compared with the literature. It was observed significant exfoliation of OMMT modified with hydroxyl groups in the nanocomposites of PMMA, mainly at the low ultrasonic energy level (90 and 105 kJ) studied. (author)

  13. Dihydrotestosterone induces SREBP-1 expression and lipogenesis through the phosphoinositide 3-kinase/Akt pathway in HaCaT cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhou Bing-rong

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects and mechanisms of dihydrotestosterone (DHT-induced expression of sterol regulatory element binding protein-1 (SREBP-1, and the synthesis and secretion of lipids, in HaCaT cells. HaCaT cells were treated with DHT and either the phosphoinositide 3-kinase inhibitor LY294002 or the extracellular-signal-regulated kinase (ERK inhibitor PD98059. Real time-PCR, Western blot, Oil Red staining and flow cytometry were employed to examine the mRNA and protein expressions of SREBP-1, the gene transcription of lipid synthesis, and lipid secretion in HaCaT cells. Findings We found that DHT upregulated mRNA and protein expressions of SREBP-1. DHT also significantly upregulated the transcription of lipid synthesis-related genes and increased lipid secretion, which can be inhibited by the addition of LY294002. Conclusions Collectively, these results indicate that DHT induces SREBP-1 expression and lipogenesis in HaCaT cells via activation of the phosphoinositide 3-kinase/Akt Pathway.

  14. Obtention and characterization of chitosan / hydroxyapatite spheres generated in situ; Obtencao e caracterizacao de esferas de quitosana/hidroxiapatita gerada in situ

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dantas, M.J.L.; Fidelis, T.B.; Carrodeguas, R.G.; Fook, M.V.L., E-mail: jucelia.lima@hotmail.com [Universidade Federal de Campina Grande (UFCG), PB (Brazil). Unidade Academica de Engenharia de Materiais

    2016-07-01

    The objective was to produce spheres of chitosan-hydroxyapatite in situ (CS-HA) HA with different contents and evaluate their properties and behavior in vitro. CS levels were obtained containing different amounts of HA low crystallinity (20, 50 and 70% w / w). The HA was generated in situ within the CS spheres. To this precipitate was dissolved in CS CaHPO4 and the resulting suspension was shaped in the form of spheres by dripping in dissolution Na5P3O10 (TPP) at pH 8-9. The precipitated spheres were kept under constant stirring solution of the TPP and then lyophilized. The characterization was carried out by optical microscopy (OM), X-ray diffraction (XRD), thermal gravimetric analysis (TG) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). From the results it was verified that the methodology was applied it was effective in producing the spheres and be able to generate a phase inorganic HA precursor. (author)

  15. Smart swelling biopolymer microparticles by a microfluidic approach: synthesis, in situ encapsulation and controlled release.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fang, Aiping; Cathala, Bernard

    2011-01-01

    This paper reports a microfluidic synthesis of biopolymer microparticles aiming at smart swelling. Monodisperse aqueous emulsion droplets comprising biopolymer and its cross-linking agent were formed in mineral oil and solidified in the winding microfluidic channels by in situ chaotic mixing, which resulted in internal chemical gelation for hydrogels. The achievement of pectin microparticles from in situ mixing pectin with its cross-linking agent, calcium ions, successfully demonstrates the reliability of this microfluidic synthesis approach. In order to achieve hydrogels with smart swelling, the following parameters and their impacts on the swelling behaviour, stability and morphology of microparticles were investigated: (1) the type of biopolymers (alginate or mixture of alginate and carboxymethylcellulose, A-CMC); (2) rapid mixing; (3) concentration and type of cross-linking agent. Superabsorbent microparticles were obtained from A-CMC mixture by using ferric chloride as an additional external cross-linking agent. The in situ encapsulation of a model protein, bovine serum albumin (BSA), was also carried out. As a potential protein drug-delivery system, the BSA release behaviours of the biopolymer particles were studied in simulated gastric and intestinal fluids. Compared with alginate and A-CMC microparticles cross-linked with calcium ions, A-CMC microparticles cross-linked with both calcium and ferric ions demonstrate a significantly delayed release. The controllable release profile, the facile encapsulation as well as their biocompatibility, biodegradability, mucoadhesiveness render this microfluidic approach promising in achieving biopolymer microparticles as protein drug carrier for site-specific release. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Polyhomologation based on in situ generated Boron-thexyl-silaboracyclic initiating sites: a novel strategy towards the synthesis of polyethylene-based complex architectures

    KAUST Repository

    Zhang, Zhen

    2015-04-10

    A novel strategy, based on the in situ generated Boron-thexyl-silaboracyclic initiating sites for the polyhomologation of dimethylsulfoxonium methylide, has been developed for the synthesis of complex polyethylene-based architectures. As examples, the synthesis of a 4-arm polyethylene star, three (polystyrene)(polyethylene)2 3-miktoarm stars and a PE-branched double graft copolymers are given.

  17. Nanoparticles of the superconductor MgB2: structural characterization and in situ study of synthesis kinetics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cui Chunxiang; Liu Debao; Shen Yutian; Sun Jinbin; Meng Fanbin; Wang Ru; Liu Shuangjin; Greer, A.L.; Chen, S.K.; Glowacki, B.A.

    2004-01-01

    Single-crystal MgB 2 nanoparticles, with diameters in the range 20-100 nm, have been synthesized in situ in the sample chamber of an X-ray diffractometer. The reaction kinetics are analyzed and related to the atomic-level structure of the particles as observed by high-resolution electron microscopy. Synthesis conditions may have a significant influence on microstructure and superconducting properties

  18. Synthesis of nanosized (polymerization in miniemulsion employing in situ surfactant formation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Yi; Zetterlund, Per B

    2011-10-18

    A novel method for synthesis of ultrafine polymeric nanoparticles of diameters less than 20 nm has been developed. The method is based on miniemulsion polymerization exploiting combination of the in situ surfactant generation approach (whereby the surfactant is formed at the oil-water interface by reaction between an organic acid and a base) and ultrasonication. Conventional radical polymerization and nitroxide-mediated radical polymerization of styrene have been conducted in miniemulsion using oleic acid/potassium hydroxide, demonstrating that particles with diameters less than 20 nm can be obtained by this approach at surfactant contents much lower than traditionally required in microemulsion polymerizations. Copyright © 2011 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  19. Synthesis of nano-hydroxyapatite (nHA) from waste mussel shells using a rapid microwave method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shavandi, Amin, E-mail: amin.shavandi@postgrad.otago.ac.nz [Department of Food Sciences, University of Otago, Dunedin (New Zealand); Bekhit, Alaa El-Din A. [Department of Food Sciences, University of Otago, Dunedin (New Zealand); Ali, Azam [Department of Applied Sciences, University of Otago, Dunedin (New Zealand); Sun, Zhifa [Department of Physics, University of Otago, Dunedin (New Zealand)

    2015-01-15

    Nano-crystalline hydroxyapatite (HA, Ca{sub 10}(PO{sub 4}){sub 6}(OH){sub 2}) was produced from waste mussel shells using a rapid microwave irradiation method. Mussel shells were converted to rod like nano-crystalline HA particles of 30–70 nm long using 0.1 M EDTA as a chelating agent for 30 min after an appropriate pre-treatment and an irradiation step in a microwave with a power of 1.1 kW. The produced HA was characterised using X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) coupled with energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), thermo gravimetric analysis (TGA), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR) and inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) to determine the morphology, particle size, crystal phases, elemental composition and thermal behaviour. Furthermore, to benchmark the synthesized HA obtained from mussel shells, it was compared with a commercially pure HA (Sigma–Aldrich). The thermal analysis showed that the synthesized HA has remarkable heat stability at 1000 °C, and the XRD and FTIR results showed a high purity of the synthesized HA powders. Compared to the conventional hydrothermal treatment, microwave-assisted method has the advantages of an increased rate of HA formation. The obtained HA have potential engineering applications as materials for bone-tissues. - Highlights: • Waste mussel shells were successfully converted to nano sized hydroxyapatite. • Microwave-assisted technique accelerated the conversion process. • The physicochemical properties of the produced hydroxyapatite are reported. • The prepared hydroxyapatite has nano sized particles of less than 100 nm.

  20. Formation of nano-hydroxyapatite crystal in situ in chitosan-pectin polyelectrolyte complex network

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Junjie; Zhu Dunwan; Yin Jianwei; Liu Yuxi; Yao Fanglian; Yao Kangde

    2010-01-01

    Hydroxyapatite (HA)/polysaccharide composites have been widely used in bone tissue engineering due to their chemical similarity to natural bone. Polymer matrix-mediated synthesis of nano-hydroxyapatite is one of the simplest models for biomimetic. In this article, the nano-hydroxyapatite/chitosan-pectin (nHCP) composites were prepared through in situ mineralization of hydroxyapatite in chitosan-pectin polyelectrolyte complex (PEC) network. The formation processes of nHCP were investigated by X-ray diffraction (XRD) analysis. The interactions between nHA crystal and chitosan-pectin PEC networks were studied using Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR) and Differential Scanning Calorimetry (DSC). The morphology and structure of nHA crystal were characterized by XRD and Transmission Electron Microscope (TEM). Results suggested that the interfacial interactions between nano-hydroxyapatite crystal and chitosan-pectin PEC network assist the site specific nucleation and growth of nHA nanoparticles. The nHA crystals grow along the c-axis. In this process, pH value is the main factor to control the nucleation and growth of nHA crystal in chitosan-pectin PEC networks, because both the interactions' strength between nHA crystal and chitosan-pectin and diffusion rate of inorganic ions depend on the pH value of the reaction system. Apart from the pH value, the chitosan/pectin ratio and [Ca 2+ ] also take important effects on the formation of nHA crystal. An effective way to control the size of nHA crystal is to adjust the content of pectin and [Ca 2+ ]. It is interesting that the Zeta potential of nHCP composites is about - 30 mV when the chitosan/pectin ratio ≤ 1:1, and the dispersion solution of nHCP composites has higher stability, which provides the possibility to prepare 3D porous scaffolds with nHCP for bone tissue engineering.

  1. Formation of nano-hydroxyapatite crystal in situ in chitosan-pectin polyelectrolyte complex network

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li Junjie [Department of Polymer Science and Key Laboratory of Systems Bioengineering of Ministry of Education, School of Chemical Engineering and Technology, Tianjin University, Tianjin, 300072 (China); Research Institute of Polymeric Materials, Tianjin University, Tianjin, 300072 (China); Zhu Dunwan [Institute of Biomedical Engineering, Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences and Peking Union Medical College, Tianjin, 300072 (China); Yin Jianwei; Liu Yuxi [Department of Polymer Science and Key Laboratory of Systems Bioengineering of Ministry of Education, School of Chemical Engineering and Technology, Tianjin University, Tianjin, 300072 (China); Yao Fanglian, E-mail: yaofanglian@tju.edu.cn [Department of Polymer Science and Key Laboratory of Systems Bioengineering of Ministry of Education, School of Chemical Engineering and Technology, Tianjin University, Tianjin, 300072 (China); Yao Kangde [Research Institute of Polymeric Materials, Tianjin University, Tianjin, 300072 (China)

    2010-07-20

    Hydroxyapatite (HA)/polysaccharide composites have been widely used in bone tissue engineering due to their chemical similarity to natural bone. Polymer matrix-mediated synthesis of nano-hydroxyapatite is one of the simplest models for biomimetic. In this article, the nano-hydroxyapatite/chitosan-pectin (nHCP) composites were prepared through in situ mineralization of hydroxyapatite in chitosan-pectin polyelectrolyte complex (PEC) network. The formation processes of nHCP were investigated by X-ray diffraction (XRD) analysis. The interactions between nHA crystal and chitosan-pectin PEC networks were studied using Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR) and Differential Scanning Calorimetry (DSC). The morphology and structure of nHA crystal were characterized by XRD and Transmission Electron Microscope (TEM). Results suggested that the interfacial interactions between nano-hydroxyapatite crystal and chitosan-pectin PEC network assist the site specific nucleation and growth of nHA nanoparticles. The nHA crystals grow along the c-axis. In this process, pH value is the main factor to control the nucleation and growth of nHA crystal in chitosan-pectin PEC networks, because both the interactions' strength between nHA crystal and chitosan-pectin and diffusion rate of inorganic ions depend on the pH value of the reaction system. Apart from the pH value, the chitosan/pectin ratio and [Ca{sup 2+}] also take important effects on the formation of nHA crystal. An effective way to control the size of nHA crystal is to adjust the content of pectin and [Ca{sup 2+}]. It is interesting that the Zeta potential of nHCP composites is about - 30 mV when the chitosan/pectin ratio {<=} 1:1, and the dispersion solution of nHCP composites has higher stability, which provides the possibility to prepare 3D porous scaffolds with nHCP for bone tissue engineering.

  2. Synthesis-on” and “synthesis-off” modes of carbon arc operation during synthesis of carbon nanotubes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yatom, Shurik; Selinsky, Rachel S.

    2017-01-01

    Arc discharge synthesis of single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWCNTs) remains largely uncontrollable, due to incomplete understanding of the synthetic process itself. Here, we show that synthesis of SWCNTs by a carbon arc may not constitute a single continuous process, but may instead consist of two distinct modes. One of these, a “synthesis-on” mode, produces the majority of the nanomaterials. During the synthesis-on mode, proportionally more carbon nanotubes are collected than in another mode, a “synthesis-off” mode. Both synthesis-on and synthesis-off modes for a typical arc configuration, employing a hollow anode filled with a mixture of powdered metal catalyst and graphite, were characterized by using in situ electrical, imaging, and spectroscopic diagnostics, along with ex situ imaging and spectroscopy. The synthesis-on mode duration is rare compared to the total arc run-time, helping to explain the poor selectivity found in the final collected products, a known inadequacy of arc synthesis. Finally, the rarity of the synthesis on mode occurence may be due to the synthesis off mode being more favorable energetically.

  3. NewIn-situ synthesis method of magnesium matrix composites reinforced with TiC particulates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhang Xiuqing

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Magnesium matrix composites reinforced with TiC particulates was prepared using a new in-situ synthesis method of remelting and dilution technique. And measurements were performed on the composites. The results of x ray diffraction (XRD analysis confirmed that TiC particulates were synthesized during the sintering process, and they retained in magnesium matrix composites after the remelting and dilution processing. From the microstructure characterization and electron probe microanalysis (EPMA, we could see that fine TiC particulates distributed uniformly in the matrix material.

  4. In situ X-ray powder diffraction, synthesis, and magnetic properties of InVO 3

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lundgren, Rylan J.; Cranswick, Lachlan M. D.; Bieringer, Mario

    2006-12-01

    We report the first synthesis and high-temperature in situ X-ray diffraction study of InVO 3. Polycrystalline InVO 3 has been prepared via reduction of InVO 4 using a carbon monoxide/carbon dioxide buffer gas. InVO 3 crystallizes in the bixbyite structure in space group Ia-3 (206) with a=9.80636(31) Å with In 3+/V 3+ disorder on the (8 b) and (24 d) cation sites. In situ powder X-ray diffraction experiments and thermal gravimetric analysis in a CO/CO 2 buffer gas revealed the existence of the metastable phase InVO 3. Bulk samples with 98.5(2)% purity were prepared using low-temperature reduction methods. The preparative methods limited the crystallinity of this new phase to approximately 225(50) Å. Magnetic susceptibility and neutron diffraction experiments suggest a spin-glass ground state for InVO 3.

  5. Synthesis of mesoporous zeolite catalysts by in situ formation of carbon template over nickel nanoparticles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Abildstrøm, Jacob Oskar; Kegnæs, Marina; Hytoft, Glen

    2016-01-01

    A novel synthesis procedure for the preparation of the hierarchical zeolite materials with MFI structure based on the carbon templating method with in situ generated carbon template is presented in this study. Through chemical vapour deposition of coke on nickel nanoparticles supported on silica...... oxide, a carbon-silica composite is obtained and exploited as a combined carbon template/silica source for zeolite synthesis. This approach has several advantages in comparison with conventional carbon templating methods, where relatively complicated preparative strategies involving multistep...... impregnation procedures and rather expensive chemicals are used. Removal of the carbon template by combustion results in zeolite single crystals with intracrystalline pore volumes between 0.28 and 0.48 cm3/g. The prepared zeolites are characterized by XRD, SEM, TEM and physisorption analysis. The isomerization...

  6. In-situ synthesis of hydrogen peroxide in a novel Zn-CNTs-O2 system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gong, Xiao-bo; Yang, Zhao; Peng, Lin; Zhou, An-lan; Liu, Yan-lan; Liu, Yong

    2018-02-01

    A novel strategy of in-situ synthesis of hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) was formulated and evaluated. Oxygen was selectively reduced to H2O2 combined with electrochemical corrosion of zinc in the Zn-CNTs-O2 system. The ratio of zinc and CNTs, heat treatment temperature, and operational parameters such as composite dosage, initial pH, solution temperature, oxygen flow rate were systematically investigated to improve the efficiency of H2O2 generation. The Zn-CNTs composite (weight ratio of 2.5:1) prepared at 500 °C showed the maximum H2O2 accumulation concentration of 293.51 mg L-1 within 60 min at the initial pH value of 3.0, Zn-CNTs dosage of 0.4 g and oxygen flow rate of 400 mL min-1. The oxygen was reduced through two-electron pathway to hydrogen peroxide on CNTs while the zinc was oxidized in the system and the dissolved zinc ions convert to zinc hydroxide and depositing on the surface of CNTs. It was proposed that the increment of direct H2O2 production was caused by the improvement of the formed Zn/CNTs corrosion cell. This provides promising strategy for in-situ synthesis and utilization of hydrogen peroxide in the novel Zn-CNTs-O2 system, which enhances the environmental and economic attractiveness of the use of H2O2 as green oxidant for wastewater treatments.

  7. Polyhomologation based on in situ generated Boron-thexyl-silaboracyclic initiating sites: a novel strategy towards the synthesis of polyethylene-based complex architectures

    KAUST Repository

    Zhang, Zhen; Zhang, Hefeng; Gnanou, Yves; Hadjichristidis, Nikolaos

    2015-01-01

    A novel strategy, based on the in situ generated Boron-thexyl-silaboracyclic initiating sites for the polyhomologation of dimethylsulfoxonium methylide, has been developed for the synthesis of complex polyethylene-based architectures. As examples

  8. Fabrication of hard cermets by in-situ synthesis and infiltration of metal melts into WC powder compacts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guanghua Liu

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Hard carbide cermets are prepared by in-situ synthesis and infiltration of metal melts into WC powder compacts. Ni–W and Ni–W–Cr metal melts are in-situ synthesized from thermite reactions and infiltrated into WC powder compacts under high-gravity. During the infiltration, W in the metal melts reacts with WC to form W2C, and more W2C and W are observed at the upper parts of the cermets than the lower parts. The cermets show a maximum hardness of 15.4 GPa, which is higher than most commercial cemented carbides, although they are not fully dense and have a porosity of 15–20%.

  9. Ultrasound irradiation based in-situ synthesis of star-like Tragacanth gum/zinc oxide nanoparticles on cotton fabric.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghayempour, Soraya; Montazer, Majid

    2017-01-01

    Application of natural biopolymers for green and safe synthesis of zinc oxide nanoparticles on the textiles is a novel and interesting approach. The present study offers the use of natural biopolymer, Tragacanth gum, as the reducing, stabilizing and binding agent for in-situ synthesis of zinc oxide nanoparticles on the cotton fabric. Ultrasonic irradiation leads to clean and easy synthesis of zinc oxide nanoparticles in short-time at low-temperature. FESEM/EDX, XRD, FT-IR spectroscopy, DSC, photocatalytic activities and antimicrobial assay are used to characterize Tragacanth gum/zinc oxide nanoparticles coated cotton fabric. The analysis confirmed synthesis of star-like zinc oxide nanoparticles with hexagonal wurtzite structure on the cotton fabric with the average particle size of 62nm. The finished cotton fabric showed a good photocatalytic activity on degradation of methylene blue and 100% antimicrobial properties with inhibition zone of 3.3±0.1, 3.1±0.1 and 3.0±0.1mm against Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli and Candida albicans. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. New Coll–HA/BT composite materials for hard tissue engineering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zanfir, Andrei Vlad [Department of Science and Engineering of Oxide Materials and Nanomaterials, Faculty of Applied Chemistry and Material Science, “Politehnica” University of Bucharest, 1-7 Gh. Polizu Street, RO-011061 Bucharest (Romania); Voicu, Georgeta, E-mail: getav2001@yahoo.co.uk [Department of Science and Engineering of Oxide Materials and Nanomaterials, Faculty of Applied Chemistry and Material Science, “Politehnica” University of Bucharest, 1-7 Gh. Polizu Street, RO-011061 Bucharest (Romania); Busuioc, Cristina; Jinga, Sorin Ion [Department of Science and Engineering of Oxide Materials and Nanomaterials, Faculty of Applied Chemistry and Material Science, “Politehnica” University of Bucharest, 1-7 Gh. Polizu Street, RO-011061 Bucharest (Romania); Albu, Madalina Georgiana [Department of Collagen, Branch of Leather and Footwear Research, National Institute of Research and Development for Textile and Leather, 93 I. Minulescu Street, RO-031215 Bucharest (Romania); Iordache, Florin [Department of Fetal and Adult Stem Cell Therapy, “Nicolae Simionescu” Institute of Cellular Biology and Pathology of Romanian Academy, 8 B.P. Hasdeu Street, RO-050568 Bucharest (Romania)

    2016-05-01

    The integration of ceramic powders in composite materials for bone scaffolds can improve the osseointegration process. This work was aimed to the synthesis and characterization of new collagen–hydroxyapatite/barium titanate (Coll–HA/BT) composite materials starting from barium titanate (BT) nanopowder, hydroxyapatite (HA) nanopowder and collagen (Coll) gel. BT nanopowder was produced by combining two wet-chemical approaches, sol–gel and hydrothermal methods. The resulting materials were characterized in terms of phase composition and microstructure by X-ray diffraction, Raman spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy and transmission electron microscopy. Moreover, the biocompatibility and bioactivity of the composite materials were assessed by in vitro tests. The synthesized BT particles exhibit an average size of around 35 nm and a spherical morphology, with a pseudo-cubic or tetragonal symmetry. The diffraction spectra of Coll–HA and Coll–HA/BT composite materials indicate a pronounced interaction between Col and the mineral phases, meaning a good mineralization of Col fibres. As well, the in vitro tests highlight excellent osteoinductive properties for all biological samples, especially for Coll–HA/BT composite materials, fact that can be attributed to the ferromagnetic properties of BT. - Highlights: • Collagen–hydroxyapatite/barium titanate composite materials were synthesized. • Barium titanate was produced by combining the sol–gel and hydrothermal methods. • The in vitro tests highlight excellent osteoinductive properties for all samples.

  11. New Coll–HA/BT composite materials for hard tissue engineering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zanfir, Andrei Vlad; Voicu, Georgeta; Busuioc, Cristina; Jinga, Sorin Ion; Albu, Madalina Georgiana; Iordache, Florin

    2016-01-01

    The integration of ceramic powders in composite materials for bone scaffolds can improve the osseointegration process. This work was aimed to the synthesis and characterization of new collagen–hydroxyapatite/barium titanate (Coll–HA/BT) composite materials starting from barium titanate (BT) nanopowder, hydroxyapatite (HA) nanopowder and collagen (Coll) gel. BT nanopowder was produced by combining two wet-chemical approaches, sol–gel and hydrothermal methods. The resulting materials were characterized in terms of phase composition and microstructure by X-ray diffraction, Raman spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy and transmission electron microscopy. Moreover, the biocompatibility and bioactivity of the composite materials were assessed by in vitro tests. The synthesized BT particles exhibit an average size of around 35 nm and a spherical morphology, with a pseudo-cubic or tetragonal symmetry. The diffraction spectra of Coll–HA and Coll–HA/BT composite materials indicate a pronounced interaction between Col and the mineral phases, meaning a good mineralization of Col fibres. As well, the in vitro tests highlight excellent osteoinductive properties for all biological samples, especially for Coll–HA/BT composite materials, fact that can be attributed to the ferromagnetic properties of BT. - Highlights: • Collagen–hydroxyapatite/barium titanate composite materials were synthesized. • Barium titanate was produced by combining the sol–gel and hydrothermal methods. • The in vitro tests highlight excellent osteoinductive properties for all samples.

  12. In Situ Synchrotron X-Ray Diffraction Characterization of the Synthesis of Graphene Oxide and Reduced Graphene Oxide

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Storm, Mie Møller; Johnsen, Rune E.; Norby, Poul

    2015-01-01

    Graphene oxide (GO) and reduced graphene oxide (rGO) synthesised from GO, has a promising future in fields ranging from electronics to energy technologies[1]. GO may be synthesized by the modified Hummer’s method[2], where a mixture of potassium permanganate and concentrated sulfuric acid forms...... by placing a mixture of permanganate and sulphuric acid in a capillary next to graphite. The synthesis was then initiated by gently pushing the fluid mixture into the powder with N2 gas. The in situ XRD of the GO synthesis showed how the oxidation reaction proceeds in three separate stages, as seen in Figure...... 1. The first stage was the dissolution of potassium permanganate, followed by an intercalation stage and subsequent formation of crystalline material. The GO 001 diffraction peak was observed early during the synthesis, in the second stage, and the intensity of the 001 diffraction increased during...

  13. In situ high-resolution transmission electron microscopy synthesis observation of nanostructured carbon coated LiFePO 4

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trudeau, M. L.; Laul, D.; Veillette, R.; Serventi, A. M.; Mauger, A.; Julien, C. M.; Zaghib, K.

    In situ high-resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM) studies of the structural transformations that occur during the synthesis of carbon-coated LiFePO 4 (C-LiFePO 4) and heat treatment to elevated temperatures were conducted in two different electron microscopes. Both microscopes have sample holders that are capable of heating up to 1500 °C, with one working under high vacuum and the other capable of operating with the sample surrounded by a low gaseous environment. The C-LiFePO 4 samples were prepared using three different compositions of precursor materials with Fe(0), Fe(II) or Fe(III), a Li-containing salt and a polyethylene- block-poly(ethylene glycol)-50% ethylene oxide or lactose. The in situ TEM studies suggest that low-cost Fe(0) and a low-cost carbon-containing compound such as lactose are very attractive precursors for mass production of C-LiFePO 4, and that 700 °C is the optimum synthesis temperature. At temperatures higher than 800 °C, LiFePO 4 has a tendency to decompose. The same in situ measurements have been made on particles without carbon coat. The results show that the homogeneous deposit of the carbon deposit at 700 °C is the result of the annealing that cures the disorder of the surface layer of bare LiFePO 4. Electrochemical tests supported the conclusion that the C-LiFePO 4 derived from Fe(0) is the most attractive for mass production.

  14. Wear characterization of nano-hydroxyapatite with addition of titanium (HA-Ti)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosmamuhamadani, R.; Arawi, A. Z. O.; Talari, M. K.; Mahat, M. M.; Bonnia, N. N.; Sabrina; Yahaya, M.; Sulaiman, S.; Ismail, M. I. S.

    2018-04-01

    Hydroxyapatite (Ca10 (PO4)6(OH)2, HA), is an attractive material of an inorganic compound whose chemical composition and crystallographic structures are similar to the composition of the bone. A natural source such as egg shells is composed of 94 wt. % of calcium carbonate (CaCO3), which can be calcined as calcium oxide (CaO) by the calcinations process. The efficient temperature to produce CaO is 900 °C for 2 hours. The synthesis of nano-HA was done by the mixing the diammonium phosphate (DAP) and calcium hydroxide (Ca(OH)2) and subjected into a microwave for 30 minutes at 1100 W irradiation power. Ball milling process was used for 30 minutes to mix the nano-HA with different compositions of titanium. These were pressed to form pallets by hand hydraulic pump (force=2300 psi). The pallets then were sintered at 1200 °C with the heating rate of 3 °C/min for 2 hours. The pallets were tested by several mechanical testing including hardness, compression strength and wear. From the results, HA-25wt. %Ti composite gave the highest hardness, compression and coefficient of friction for wear test values which were 89.6 Hv, 82.5MPa and 0.76μ respectively. It showed that by adding Ti to nano-HA, the mechanical properties of nano-HA could be enhanced. The microstructure analyses by optical micrograph showed that nano-HA-Ti particles displayed shape likes needle morphology. The particles showed the high tendency to form the agglomerations.

  15. In situ microemulsion synthesis of hydroxyapatite-MgFe{sub 2}O{sub 4} nanocomposite as a magnetic drug delivery system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Foroughi, Firoozeh [Young Researchers and Elite Club, Najafabad Branch, Islamic Azad University, Najafabad (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Hassanzadeh-Tabrizi, S.A., E-mail: tabrizi1980@gmail.com [Young Researchers and Elite Club, Najafabad Branch, Islamic Azad University, Najafabad (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Bigham, Ashkan [Advanced Materials Research Center, Department of Materials Engineering, Najafabad Branch, Islamic Azad University, Najafabad (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2016-11-01

    In this study, an innovative synthesis process has been developed to produce hydroxyapatite-magnesium ferrite (HA-MgFe{sub 2}O{sub 4}) nanocomposite. In addition, the effect of calcination temperature on drug delivery behavior of produced samples was investigated. HA-MgFe{sub 2}O{sub 4} nanocomposite was prepared via one-step modified reverse microemulsion synthesis route. The resulting products were characterized by X-ray Diffraction (XRD), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), field emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), vibrating sample magnetometer (VSM), and Brunauer–Emmett–Teller surface area analysis (BET). The calcined samples at 500 and 700 °C demonstrated mesoporous characteristics and large specific surface areas of 88 and 32 m{sup 2}/g, respectively. TEM and VSM results showed that the nanocomposite calcined at 700 °C has core–shell morphology and a maximum saturation magnetization of 9.47 emu g{sup −1}. - Highlights: • A one-step modified reverse microemulsion method has been used to produce hydroxyapatite-magnesium ferrite. • Nanocomposites were loaded with ibuprofen as a magnetic drug delivery system. • The drug release behavior of nanocomposites were studied at different calcination temperature.

  16. In situ synthesis of silver chloride nanoparticles into bacterial cellulose membranes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hu Weili; Chen Shiyan; Li Xin; Shi Shuaike; Shen Wei; Zhang Xiang; Wang Huaping

    2009-01-01

    In situ synthesis of silver chloride (AgCl) nanoparticles was carried out under ambient conditions in nanoporous bacterial cellulose (BC) membranes as nanoreactors. The growth of the nanoparticles was readily obtained by alternating dipping of BC membranes in the solution of silver nitrate or sodium chloride followed by a rinse step. X-ray diffraction (XRD) patterns indicated the existence of AgCl nanoparticles in the BC and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) images showed that the AgCl nanoparticles well dispersed on the surface of BC and penetrated into the BC network. The AgCl nanoparticle-impregnated BC membranes exhibited high hydrophilic ability and strong antimicrobial activity against Escherichia coli (Gram-negative) and Staphylococcus aureus (Gram-positive). The preparative procedure is facile and versatile, and provides a simple route to manufacturing of useful antimicrobial membranes, which would be a good alternative for antimicrobial wound dressing.

  17. Facile Low Temperature Hydrothermal Synthesis of BaTiO3 Nanoparticles Studied by In Situ X-ray Diffraction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ola G. Grendal

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available Ferroelectric materials are crucial for today’s technological society and nanostructured ferroelectric materials are important for the downscaling of devices. Controlled and reproducible synthesis of these materials are, therefore, of immense importance. Hydrothermal synthesis is a well-established synthesis route, with a large parameter space for optimization, but a better understanding of nucleation and growth mechanisms is needed for full utilization and control. Here we use in situ X-ray diffraction to follow the nucleation and growth of BaTiO3 formed by hydrothermal synthesis using two different titanium precursors, an amorphous titania precipitate slurry and a Ti-citric acid complex solution. Sequential Rietveld refinement was used to extract the time dependency of lattice parameters, crystallite size, strain, and atomic displacement parameters. Phase pure BaTiO3 nanoparticles, 10–15 nm in size, were successfully synthesized at different temperatures (100, 125, and 150 °C from both precursors after reaction times, ranging from a few seconds to several hours. The two precursors resulted in phase pure BaTiO3 with similar final crystallite size. Finally, two different growth mechanisms were revealed, where the effect of surfactants present during hydrothermal synthesis is discussed as one of the key parameters.

  18. Preparation and properties of in-situ growth of carbon nanotubes reinforced hydroxyapatite coating for carbon/carbon composites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Shoujie, E-mail: jlliushoujie@126.com; Li, Hejun, E-mail: lihejun@nwpu.edu.cn; Su, Yangyang, E-mail: suyangyang@mail.nwpu.edu.cn; Guo, Qian, E-mail: 1729299905@163.com; Zhang, Leilei, E-mail: zhangleilei@nwpu.edu.cn

    2017-01-01

    Carbon nanotubes (CNTs) possess excellent mechanical properties for their role playing in reinforcement as imparting strength to brittle hydroxyapatite (HA) bioceramic coating. However, there are few reports relating to the in-situ grown carbon nanotubes reinforced hydroxyapatite (CNTs-HA) coating. Here we demonstrate the potential application in reinforcing biomaterials by an attempt to use in-situ grown of CNTs strengthen HA coating, using a combined method composited of injection chemical vapor deposition (ICVD) and pulsed electrodeposition. The microstructure, phases and chemical compositions of CNTs-HA coatings were characterized by various advanced methods. The scanning electron microscopy (SEM) images indicated that CNTs-HA coatings avoided the inhomogeneous dispersion of CNTs inside HA coating. The result show that the interfacial shear strength between CNTs-HA coating and the C/C composite matrix reaches to 12.86 ± 1.43 MPa. Potenitodynamic polarization and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) studies show that the content of CNTs affects the corrosion resistance of CNTs-HA coating. Cell culturing and simulated body fluid test elicit the biocompatibility with living cells and bioactivity of CNTs-HA coatings, respectively. - Highlights: • A novel bioceramic composite coating of hydroxyapatite reinforced with in-situ grown carbon nanotubes was fabricated. • The doping of carbon nanotubes had almost no impact on the biocompatibility of hydroxyapatite coatings. • The doping of carbon nanotubes improved corrosion resistance of hydroxyapatite coatings in simulated human body solution.

  19. Preparation and characterization of NiW-nHA composite catalyst for hydrocracking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Gang; Hou, Yongzhao; Liu, Lei; Liu, Hongru; Liu, Can; Liu, Jing; Qiao, Huiting; Liu, Wenyong; Fan, Yubo; Shen, Shituan; Rong, Long

    2012-11-01

    The synthesis, characterization and catalytic capability of the NiW-nano-hydroxyapatite (NiW-nHA) composite were investigated in this paper. The NiW-nHA catalyst was prepared by a co-precipitation method. Then Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy, transmission electron microscopy (TEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD) and energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDX) were used to analyze this material. In addition, the catalytic capacity of the NiW-nHA composite was also examined by FT-IR and gas chromatography (GC). The results of FT-IR analysis indicated that Ni, W and nHA combined closely. TEM observation revealed that this catalyst was needle shaped and the crystal retained a nanometer size. XRD data also suggested that a new phase of CaWO4 appeared and the lattice parameters of nHA changed in this system. nHA was the carrier of metals. The rates of Ni/W-loading were 73.24% and 65.99% according to the EDX data, respectively. Furthermore, the conversion of 91.88% Jatropha oil was achieved at 360 °C and 3 MPa h-1 over NiW-nHA catalyst. The straight chain alkanes ranging from C15 to C18 were the main components in the production. The yield of C15-C18 alkanes was up to 83.56 wt%. The reaction pathway involved hydrocracking of the C&z.dbd;C bonds of these triglycerides from Jatropha oil. This paper developed a novel non-sulfided catalyst to obtain a ``green biofuel'' from vegetable oil.

  20. Synthesis and characterization of PMMA/clay nanocomposites prepared by in situ polymerization assisted by sonication; Sintese e caracterizacao de nanocompositos de PMMA/MMTO via polimerizacao in situ assistida por ultrassom

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Prado, Bruna R.; Bartoli, Julio R., E-mail: bartoli@unicamp.br [Universidade Estadual de Campinas (UNICAMP), Campinas, SP (Brazil); Ito, Edson N. [Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Norte (UFRN), Natal, RN (Brazil)

    2015-07-01

    In this work is presented the synthesis of nanocomposites of poly(methyl methacrylate), PMMA, with organically montmorillonite (OMMT) modified clays by in situ polymerization assisted by sonication. A statistically designed experiment was used, central composing design (CCD), to study the effect of synthesis variables on the dispersion of nanoparticles in PMMA matrix. The processing and formulation factors studied were: energy of sonication and Flory-Huggins interaction parameter between PMMA and organoclay. The structural (XRD) and morphological (TEM) characterizations of the PMMA/OMMT nanocomposites are compared with the literature. It was observed significant exfoliation of OMMT modified with hydroxyl groups in the nanocomposites of PMMA, mainly at the low ultrasonic energy level (90 and 105 kJ) studied. (author)

  1. In situ Generated Ruthenium Catalyst Systems Bearing Diverse N-Heterocyclic Carbene Precursors for Atom-Economic Amide Synthesis from Alcohols and Amines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Hua; Xiong, Mao-Qian; Cheng, Chuan-Xiang; Wang, Hua-Jing; Lu, Qiang; Liu, Hong-Fu; Yao, Fu-Bin; Chen, Cheng; Verpoort, Francis

    2018-02-16

    The transition-metal-catalyzed direct synthesis of amides from alcohols and amines is herein demonstrated as a highly environmentally benign and atom-economic process. Among various catalyst systems, in situ generated N-heterocyclic carbene (NHC)-based ruthenium (Ru) halide catalyst systems have been proven to be active for this transformation. However, these existing catalyst systems usually require an additional ligand to achieve satisfactory results. In this work, through extensive screening of a diverse variety of NHC precursors, we discovered an active in situ catalyst system for efficient amide synthesis without any additional ligand. Notably, this catalyst system was found to be insensitive to the electronic effects of the substrates, and various electron-deficient substrates, which were not highly reactive with our previous catalyst systems, could be employed to afford the corresponding amides efficiently. Furthermore, mechanistic investigations were performed to provide a rationale for the high activity of the optimized catalyst system. NMR-scale reactions indicated that the rapid formation of a Ru hydride intermediate (signal at δ=-7.8 ppm in the 1 H NMR spectrum) after the addition of the alcohol substrate should be pivotal in establishing the high catalyst activity. Besides, HRMS analysis provided possible structures of the in situ generated catalyst system. © 2018 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  2. Synthesis and luminescence properties of hybrid organic-inorganic transparent titania thin film activated by in-situ formed lanthanide complexes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Yige; Wang Li; Li Huanrong; Liu Peng; Qin Dashan; Liu Binyuan; Zhang Wenjun; Deng Ruiping; Zhang Hongjie

    2008-01-01

    Stable transparent titania thin films were fabricated at room temperature by combining thenoyltrifluoroacetone (TTFA)-modified titanium precursors with amphiphilic triblock poly(ethylene oxide)-poly(propylene oxide)-poly(ethylene oxide) (PEO-PPO-PEO, P123) copolymers. The obtained transparent titania thin films were systematically investigated by IR spectroscopy, PL emission and excitation spectroscopy and transmission electron microscopy. IR spectroscopy indicates that TTFA coordinates the titanium center during the process of hydrolysis and condensation. Luminescence spectroscopy confirms the in-situ formation of lanthanide complexes in the transparent titania thin film. TEM image shows that the in-situ formed lanthanide complexes were homogeneously distributed throughout the whole thin film. The quantum yield and the number of water coordinated to lanthanide metal center have been theoretically determined based on the luminescence data. - Graphical abstract: Novel stable luminescent organic-inorganic hybrid titania thin film with high transparency activated by in-situ formed lanthanide complexes have been obtained at room temperature via a simple one-pot synthesis approach by using TTFA-modified titanium precursor with amphiphilic triblock copolymer P123. The obtained hybrid thin film displays bright red (or green), near-monochromatic luminescence due to the in-situ formed lanthanide complex

  3. Degradation behavior and compatibility of micro, nanoHA/chitosan scaffolds with interconnected spherical macropores.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruixin, Li; Cheng, Xu; Yingjie, Liu; Hao, Li; Caihong, Shi; Weihua, Su; Weining, An; Yinghai, Yuan; Xiaoli, Qin; Yunqiang, Xu; Xizheng, Zhang; Hui, Li

    2017-10-01

    Hydroxyapatite/Chitosan (HA/CS) composite have significant application in biomedical especially for bone replacement. Inorganic particle shape and size of composite affect the scaffold mechanical property, biological property, and degradation. The aim of this study was to fabricate HA/CS scaffold with good pore connectivity and analyze their biological, degradation properties. Microhydroxyapatite/chitosan (mHA/CS) and nanohydroxyapatite/chitosan (nHA/CS) composite scaffolds with interconnected spherical pore architectures were fabricated. Composite scaffolds structure parameters were analyzed using micro CT. Cell proliferation and morphology were tested and compared between two scaffolds using mouse osteoblastic cell line MC3T3-E1. To research the composite degradation in lysozyme PBS solution, degradation rate and reducing sugar content were tested, and scaffolds morphology were observed by SEM. The results showed that microHA and nanoHA were fabricated by being calcined and synthesis methods, and their infrared spectra are very similar. EDAX composition analysis demonstrated that both of microHA and nanoHA were calcium deficiency HA. Micro-CT results demonstrated the scaffolds had interconnected spherical pores, and the structure parameters were similar. Cell viabilities were significant increased with cultured time, but there were no significant difference between microHA/CS and nanoHA/CS scaffolds. Scaffold structure was gradually destroyed and inorganic composition HA particles are more prominent with degradation time. (1) Inorganic particle shape and size of composite affect the scaffold mechanical property, biological property, and degradation. NanoHA/CS and microHA/CS scaffolds with good pore connectivity were fabricated and their biological, degradation properties were studied in this manuscript. (2) The scaffold with interconnected porosity construct provides the necessary support for cells to proliferate and maintain their differentiated function, and

  4. In Situ Synthesis of Reduced Graphene Oxide and Gold Nanocomposites for Nanoelectronics and Biosensing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chen Peng

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract In this study, an in situ chemical synthesis approach has been developed to prepare graphene–Au nanocomposites from chemically reduced graphene oxide (rGO in aqueous media. UV–Vis absorption, atomic force microscopy, scanning electron microscopy, transmission electron microscopy, and Raman spectroscopy were used to demonstrate the successful attachment of Au nanoparticles to graphene sheets. Configured as field-effect transistors (FETs, the as-synthesized single-layered rGO-Au nanocomposites exhibit higher hole mobility and conductance when compared to the rGO sheets, promising its applications in nanoelectronics. Furthermore, we demonstrate that the rGO-Au FETs are able to label-freely detect DNA hybridization with high sensitivity, indicating its potentials in nanoelectronic biosensing.

  5. Synthesis and characterization of polypropylene/graphite nano composite preparation for in situ polymerization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Montagna, L.S.; Fim, F. de C.; Galland, G.B.

    2010-01-01

    This paper presents the synthesis of polypropylene/graphite nanocomposites through in situ polymerization, using the metallocene catalyst C 20 H 16 Cl 2 Zr (dichloro(rac-ethylenebis(indenyl))zircon(IV)). The graphite nanosheets in nano dimensions were added to the polymer matrix in percentages of 0.6;1.0;4.2;4.8 and 6.0% (w/w). The TEM images indicated that the thickness of graphite nanosheets ranged from 4 to 60 nm and by means of XRD analysis it was observed that the physical and chemical treatment did not destroyed the graphite layers. The presence of nanosheets did not decrease the catalytic activity of the nanocomposites. TEM images and XRD analysis of nanocomposites showed a good dispersion of the graphite nanosheets in the polypropylene matrix. (author)

  6. In-situ synthesis of magnetic iron-oxide nanoparticle-nanofibre composites using electrospinning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burke, Luke; Mortimer, Chris J.; Curtis, Daniel J.; Lewis, Aled R.; Williams, Rhodri; Hawkins, Karl; Maffeis, Thierry G.G.; Wright, Chris J.

    2017-01-01

    We demonstrate a facile, one-step process to form polymer scaffolds composed of magnetic iron oxide nanoparticles (MNPs) contained within electrospun nano- and micro-fibres of two biocompatible polymers, Poly(ethylene oxide) (PEO) and Poly(vinyl pyrrolidone) (PVP). This was achieved with both needle and free-surface electrospinning systems demonstrating the scalability of the composite fibre manufacture; a 228 fold increase in fibre fabrication was observed for the free-surface system. In all cases the nanoparticle-nanofibre composite scaffolds displayed morphological properties as good as or better than those previously described and fabricated using complex multi-stage techniques. Fibres produced had an average diameter (Needle-spun: 125 ± 18 nm (PEO) and 1.58 ± 0.28 μm (PVP); Free-surface electrospun: 155 ± 31 nm (PEO)) similar to that reported previously, were smooth with no bead defects. Nanoparticle-nanofibre composites were characterised using scanning electron microscopy (SEM), energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX), dynamic light scattering (DLS) (Nanoparticle average diameter ranging from 8 ± 3 nm to 27 ± 5 nm), XRD (Phase of iron oxide nanoparticles identified as magnetite) and nuclear magnetic resonance relaxation measurements (NMR) (T1/T2: 32.44 for PEO fibres containing MNPs) were used to verify the magnetic behaviour of MNPs. This study represents a significant step forward for production rates of magnetic nanoparticle-nanofibre composite scaffolds by the electrospinning technique. - Graphical abstract: We present a novel facile, one-step process for the in-situ synthesis of magnetic iron oxide nanoparticle-nanofibre composites using both needle and free-surface electrospinning. This is a significant step forward for production rates of magnetic nanoparticle-nanofibre scaffolds both in terms of fibre and nanoparticle production. - Highlights: • We present a novel process for the in-situ synthesis of magnetic iron oxide nanoparticle

  7. In-situ synthesis of magnetic iron-oxide nanoparticle-nanofibre composites using electrospinning

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Burke, Luke; Mortimer, Chris J. [Biomaterials, Biofouling and Biofilms Engineering Laboratory (B3EL), Systems and Process Engineering Centre, College of Engineering, Swansea University, Fabian Way, Swansea SA1 8EN (United Kingdom); Systems and Process Engineering Centre, College of Engineering, Swansea University, Fabian Way, Swansea SA1 8EN (United Kingdom); Curtis, Daniel J.; Lewis, Aled R.; Williams, Rhodri [Systems and Process Engineering Centre, College of Engineering, Swansea University, Fabian Way, Swansea SA1 8EN (United Kingdom); Hawkins, Karl [Centre for NanoHealth (CNH), Swansea University, Singleton Park, Swansea SA2 8PP (United Kingdom); Maffeis, Thierry G.G. [Systems and Process Engineering Centre, College of Engineering, Swansea University, Fabian Way, Swansea SA1 8EN (United Kingdom); Wright, Chris J., E-mail: c.wright@swansea.ac.uk [Biomaterials, Biofouling and Biofilms Engineering Laboratory (B3EL), Systems and Process Engineering Centre, College of Engineering, Swansea University, Fabian Way, Swansea SA1 8EN (United Kingdom); Systems and Process Engineering Centre, College of Engineering, Swansea University, Fabian Way, Swansea SA1 8EN (United Kingdom); Centre for NanoHealth (CNH), Swansea University, Singleton Park, Swansea SA2 8PP (United Kingdom)

    2017-01-01

    We demonstrate a facile, one-step process to form polymer scaffolds composed of magnetic iron oxide nanoparticles (MNPs) contained within electrospun nano- and micro-fibres of two biocompatible polymers, Poly(ethylene oxide) (PEO) and Poly(vinyl pyrrolidone) (PVP). This was achieved with both needle and free-surface electrospinning systems demonstrating the scalability of the composite fibre manufacture; a 228 fold increase in fibre fabrication was observed for the free-surface system. In all cases the nanoparticle-nanofibre composite scaffolds displayed morphological properties as good as or better than those previously described and fabricated using complex multi-stage techniques. Fibres produced had an average diameter (Needle-spun: 125 ± 18 nm (PEO) and 1.58 ± 0.28 μm (PVP); Free-surface electrospun: 155 ± 31 nm (PEO)) similar to that reported previously, were smooth with no bead defects. Nanoparticle-nanofibre composites were characterised using scanning electron microscopy (SEM), energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX), dynamic light scattering (DLS) (Nanoparticle average diameter ranging from 8 ± 3 nm to 27 ± 5 nm), XRD (Phase of iron oxide nanoparticles identified as magnetite) and nuclear magnetic resonance relaxation measurements (NMR) (T1/T2: 32.44 for PEO fibres containing MNPs) were used to verify the magnetic behaviour of MNPs. This study represents a significant step forward for production rates of magnetic nanoparticle-nanofibre composite scaffolds by the electrospinning technique. - Graphical abstract: We present a novel facile, one-step process for the in-situ synthesis of magnetic iron oxide nanoparticle-nanofibre composites using both needle and free-surface electrospinning. This is a significant step forward for production rates of magnetic nanoparticle-nanofibre scaffolds both in terms of fibre and nanoparticle production. - Highlights: • We present a novel process for the in-situ synthesis of magnetic iron oxide nanoparticle

  8. Haïti-Quisqueya: une double insularité

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jean-Marie THÉODAT

    1998-09-01

    Full Text Available Deux pays se partagent une île coupée par une frontière méridienne de plus de 300 km: Haïti à l'ouest, Quisqueya à l'est. Cette coupure est l'héritage du partage colonial de l'île entre la France et l'Espagne, et le résultat de la dynamique spatiale contrastée des deux nations qui y sont nées et qui ont eu recours à des principes d'encadrement distincts.De là un sentiment de double insularité, chaque pays se comportant vis-à-vis de son voisin comme s'ils étaient situés sur deux îles séparées.

  9. Entangled zinc-ditetrazolate frameworks involving in situ ligand synthesis and topological modulation by various secondary N-donor ligands

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Yunwu; Chen Weilin; Wang Yonghui; Li Yangguang; Wang Enbo

    2009-01-01

    The introduction of various secondary N-donor ligands into an in situ ditetrazolate-ligand synthesis system of terephthalonitrile, NaN 3 and ZnCl 2 led to the formation of three new entangled frameworks Zn(pdtz)(4,4'-bipy).3H 2 O (1), [Zn(pdtz)(bpp)] 2 .3H 2 O (2) and Zn(pdtz) 0.5 (N 3 )(2,2'-bipy) (3) (4,4'-bipy=4,4'-bipyridine; bpp=1,3-bis(4-pyridyl)propane; 2,2'-bipy=2,2'-bipyridine; H 2 pdtz=5,5'-1,4-phenylene-ditetrazole). The formation of pdtz 2- ligand involves the Sharpless [2+3] cycloaddition reaction between terephthalonitrile and NaN 3 in the presence of Zn 2+ ion as a Lewis-acid catalyst under hydrothermal conditions. Compound 1 exhibits a fivefold interpenetrating 3D framework based on the diamondoid topology. Compound 2 displays a twofold parallel interpenetrating framework based on the wavelike individual network. Compound 3 possesses a 2D puckered network. These new Zn-ditetrazolate frameworks are highly dependent on the modulation of different secondary N-donor ligands. Their luminescent properties were investigated. - Graphical abstract: Three new entangled frameworks were prepared by an in situ ditetrazolate-ligand synthesis system assisted with various auxiliary N-donor ligands. The entangled structures can be modulated by different secondary ligands.

  10. Probable maximum flood on the Ha Ha River

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Damov, D.; Masse, B.

    1997-01-01

    Results of a probable maximum flood (PMF) study conducted for various locations along the Ha Ha river, a tributary of the Saguenay River, were discussed. The study was undertaken for use in the design and construction of new hydraulic structures for water supply for a pulp and paper facility, following the Saguenay Flood in July 1996. Many different flood scenarios were considered, including combinations of snow-melt with rainfall. Using computer simulations, it was shown that the largest flood flows were generated by summer-fall PMF. 5 refs., 12 figs

  11. Electrochemical synthesis, in situ spectroelectrochemistry of conducting indole-titanium dioxide and zinc oxide polymer nanocomposites for rechargeable batteries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Parvin, Mohammad Hadi; Pirnia, Mahsa; Arjomandi, Jalal

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Two novel hybrid materials-based conducting PIn rechargeable batteries were developed. • The charge-discharging behavior of PIn-nanocomposite batteries were studied. • The characterization of samples has been done by in situ spectroelectrochemical method. • PIn-TiO 2 and ZnO nanocomposites were synthesized electrochemically on Au and ITO. • The PIn-TiO 2 and ZnO nanocomposites resistances were less than PIn. - Abstract: Electrochemical synthesis, in situ spectroelectrochemistry of conducting polyindole (PIn), polyindole-TiO 2 (PIn-TiO 2 ) and polyindole-ZnO (PIn-ZnO) nanocomposites were investigated. The PIn and polymer nanocomposites were tested electrochemically for rechargeable batteries. The films were characterized by means of CVs, in situ UV-visible, FT-IR spectroscopies, in situ resistivity measurements, energy dispersive X-ray (EDX), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The charge-discharging behavior of a Zn/1 M ZnSO 4 /PIn cell with a capacity of around 90 Ah Kg −1 and on open circuit potential of around 1.45 V was compared with Zn/1 M ZnSO 4 /PIn-nanocomposite. The potential differences of redox couples (ΔE) for nanocomposites films show very good reversibility. A positive shift of potential was observed for polymer nanocomposites during redox scan. A significant variability was observed for in situ conductivity of the PIn and polymer nanocomposites. During in situ UV-visible and FT-IR measurements, intermediate spectroscopic behavior and positive shifts of wavelengths were observed for PIn and polymer nanocomposites. The SEM, TEM and EDX of nanocomposite films show the presence of nano particle in PIn.

  12. In situ synthesis of silver nanoparticles on the cotton fabrics modified by plasma induced vapor phase graft polymerization of acrylic acid for durable multifunction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, C.X., E-mail: cxwang@mail.dhu.edu.cn [College of Textiles and Clothing, Yancheng Institute of Technology, Jiangsu, 224003 (China); Collaborative Innovation Center for Ecological Building, Materials and Environmental Protection Equipments, Jiangsu, 224051 (China); Laboratory for Advanced Technology in Environmental Protection, Jiangsu, 224051 (China); School of Textile and Clothing, Nantong University, Jiangsu, 226019 (China); Ren, Y. [School of Textile and Clothing, Nantong University, Jiangsu, 226019 (China); Lv, J.C.; Zhou, Q.Q.; Ma, Z.P.; Qi, Z.M.; Chen, J.Y.; Liu, G.L.; Gao, D.W. [College of Textiles and Clothing, Yancheng Institute of Technology, Jiangsu, 224003 (China); Lu, Z.Q. [College of Textiles and Clothing, Yancheng Institute of Technology, Jiangsu, 224003 (China); Collaborative Innovation Center for Ecological Building, Materials and Environmental Protection Equipments, Jiangsu, 224051 (China); Laboratory for Advanced Technology in Environmental Protection, Jiangsu, 224051 (China); Zhang, W. [College of Textiles and Clothing, Yancheng Institute of Technology, Jiangsu, 224003 (China); Jin, L.M. [Shanghai Institute of Applied Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shanghai, 201204 (China)

    2017-02-28

    Highlights: • A new means for multifunctional cotton fabrics by PIVPGP of AA and AgNPs synthesis. • Surface modification by PIVPGP of AA had a positive effect on AgNPs loading. • Antibacterial, self-cleaning and thermal stability were greatly improved. • AgNP loaded cotton fabric exhibited excellent laundering durability. • Mechanism of AgNPs in situ synthesis on cotton fabrics by PIVPGP of AA was proposed. - Abstract: A practical and ecological method for preparing the multifunctional cotton fabrics with excellent laundering durability was explored. Cotton fabrics were modified by plasma induced vapor phase graft polymerization (PIVPGP) of acrylic acid (AA) and subsequently silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) were in situ synthesized on the treated cotton fabrics. The AgNP loaded cotton fabrics were characterized by scanning electron microscope (SEM), energy dispersive X-ray (EDX), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), X-ray diffraction (XRD), antibacterial activity, self-cleaning activity, thermal stability and laundering durability, respectively. SEM observation and EDX, XPS and XRD analysis demonstrated the much more AgNPs deposition on the cotton fabrics modified by PIVPGP of AA. The AgNP loaded cotton fabrics also exhibited better antibacterial activity, self-cleaning activity, thermal stability and laundering durability. It was concluded that the surface modification of the cotton fabrics by PIVPGP of AA could increase the loading efficiency and binding fastness of AgNPs on the treated cotton fabrics, which could fabricate the cotton fabrics with durable multifunction. In addition, the mechanism of in situ synthesis of AgNPs on the cotton fabrics modified by PIVPGP of AA was proposed.

  13. Hydroxyapatite Fibers: A Review of Synthesis Methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qi, Mei-Li; He, Kun; Huang, Zhen-Nan; Shahbazian-Yassar, Reza; Xiao, Gui-Yong; Lu, Yu-Peng; Shokuhfar, Tolou

    2017-08-01

    Hydroxyapatite (HA) exhibits excellent biocompatibility, bioactivity, osteoconductivity, non-toxicity and so on, making it a perfect candidate for biomedical applications. However, HA is not qualified to be used in load-bearing sites due to its poor flexural strength and fracture toughness. Design, synthesis and application of fibrous HA is a promising strategy to overcome the inherent brittleness. This review provides a brief description of HA and hydroxyapatite fiber (HAF), then introduces different synthesis methods of HAF and highlights the inherent merits and drawbacks involved in each method. Finally, the future perspectives in this active research area are given. The purpose of this review is to acquaint the reader with this promising new field of biomaterials research and with emphasis on recent techniques to obtain continuous, uniform and long HAF.

  14. In situ synthesis of protein arrays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Mingyue; Stoevesandt, Oda; Taussig, Michael J

    2008-02-01

    In situ or on-chip protein array methods use cell free expression systems to produce proteins directly onto an immobilising surface from co-distributed or pre-arrayed DNA or RNA, enabling protein arrays to be created on demand. These methods address three issues in protein array technology: (i) efficient protein expression and availability, (ii) functional protein immobilisation and purification in a single step and (iii) protein on-chip stability over time. By simultaneously expressing and immobilising many proteins in parallel on the chip surface, the laborious and often costly processes of DNA cloning, expression and separate protein purification are avoided. Recently employed methods reviewed are PISA (protein in situ array) and NAPPA (nucleic acid programmable protein array) from DNA and puromycin-mediated immobilisation from mRNA.

  15. Characterization of Three Novel Fatty Acid- and Retinoid-Binding Protein Genes (Ha-far-1, Ha-far-2 and Hf-far-1 from the Cereal Cyst Nematodes Heterodera avenae and H. filipjevi.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fen Qiao

    Full Text Available Heterodera avenae and H. filipjevi are major parasites of wheat, reducing production worldwide. Both are sedentary endoparasitic nematodes, and their development and parasitism depend strongly on nutrients obtained from hosts. Secreted fatty acid- and retinol-binding (FAR proteins are nematode-specific lipid carrier proteins used for nutrient acquisition as well as suppression of plant defenses. In this study, we obtained three novel FAR genes Ha-far-1 (KU877266, Ha-far-2 (KU877267, Hf-far-1 (KU877268. Ha-far-1 and Ha-far-2 were cloned from H. avenae, encoding proteins of 191 and 280 amino acids with molecular masses about 17 and 30 kDa, respectively and sequence identity of 28%. Protein Blast in NCBI revealed that Ha-FAR-1 sequence is 78% similar to the Gp-FAR-1 protein from Globodera pallida, while Ha-FAR-2 is 30% similar to Rs-FAR-1 from Radopholus similis. Only one FAR protein Hf-FAR-1was identified in H. filipjevi; it had 96% sequence identity to Ha-FAR-1. The three proteins are alpha-helix-rich and contain the conserved domain of Gp-FAR-1, but Ha-FAR-2 had a remarkable peptide at the C-terminus which was random-coil-rich. Both Ha-FAR-1 and Hf-FAR-1 had casein kinase II phosphorylation sites, while Ha-FAR-2 had predicted N-glycosylation sites. Phylogenetic analysis showed that the three proteins clustered together, though Ha-FAR-1 and Hf-FAR-1 adjoined each other in a plant-parasitic nematode branch, but Ha-FAR-2 was distinct from the other proteins in the group. Fluorescence-based ligand binding analysis showed the three FAR proteins bound to a fluorescent fatty acid derivative and retinol and with dissociation constants similar to FARs from other species, though Ha-FAR-2 binding ability was weaker than that of the two others. In situ hybridization detected mRNAs of Ha-far-1 and Ha-far-2 in the hypodermis. The qRT-PCR results showed that the Ha-far-1and Ha-far-2 were expressed in all developmental stages; Ha-far-1 expressed 70 times more

  16. Characterization of Three Novel Fatty Acid- and Retinoid-Binding Protein Genes (Ha-far-1, Ha-far-2 and Hf-far-1) from the Cereal Cyst Nematodes Heterodera avenae and H. filipjevi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qiao, Fen; Luo, Lilian; Peng, Huan; Luo, Shujie; Huang, Wenkun; Cui, Jiangkuan; Li, Xin; Kong, Lingan; Jiang, Daohong; Chitwood, David J; Peng, Deliang

    2016-01-01

    Heterodera avenae and H. filipjevi are major parasites of wheat, reducing production worldwide. Both are sedentary endoparasitic nematodes, and their development and parasitism depend strongly on nutrients obtained from hosts. Secreted fatty acid- and retinol-binding (FAR) proteins are nematode-specific lipid carrier proteins used for nutrient acquisition as well as suppression of plant defenses. In this study, we obtained three novel FAR genes Ha-far-1 (KU877266), Ha-far-2 (KU877267), Hf-far-1 (KU877268). Ha-far-1 and Ha-far-2 were cloned from H. avenae, encoding proteins of 191 and 280 amino acids with molecular masses about 17 and 30 kDa, respectively and sequence identity of 28%. Protein Blast in NCBI revealed that Ha-FAR-1 sequence is 78% similar to the Gp-FAR-1 protein from Globodera pallida, while Ha-FAR-2 is 30% similar to Rs-FAR-1 from Radopholus similis. Only one FAR protein Hf-FAR-1was identified in H. filipjevi; it had 96% sequence identity to Ha-FAR-1. The three proteins are alpha-helix-rich and contain the conserved domain of Gp-FAR-1, but Ha-FAR-2 had a remarkable peptide at the C-terminus which was random-coil-rich. Both Ha-FAR-1 and Hf-FAR-1 had casein kinase II phosphorylation sites, while Ha-FAR-2 had predicted N-glycosylation sites. Phylogenetic analysis showed that the three proteins clustered together, though Ha-FAR-1 and Hf-FAR-1 adjoined each other in a plant-parasitic nematode branch, but Ha-FAR-2 was distinct from the other proteins in the group. Fluorescence-based ligand binding analysis showed the three FAR proteins bound to a fluorescent fatty acid derivative and retinol and with dissociation constants similar to FARs from other species, though Ha-FAR-2 binding ability was weaker than that of the two others. In situ hybridization detected mRNAs of Ha-far-1 and Ha-far-2 in the hypodermis. The qRT-PCR results showed that the Ha-far-1and Ha-far-2 were expressed in all developmental stages; Ha-far-1 expressed 70 times more than Ha-far-2 in

  17. Oxidative Stress Posttranslationally Regulates the Expression of Ha-Ras and Ki-Ras in Cultured Astrocytes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samantha Messina

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Addition of hydrogen peroxide to cultured astrocytes induced a rapid and transient increase in the expression of Ha-Ras and Ki-Ras. Pull-down experiments with the GTP-Ras-binding domain of Raf-1 showed that oxidative stress substantially increased the activation of Ha-Ras, whereas a putative farnesylated activated form of Ki-Ras was only slightly increased. The increase in both Ha-Ras and Ki-Ras was insensitive to the protein synthesis inhibitor, cycloheximide, and was occluded by the proteasomal inhibitor, MG-132. In addition, exposure to hydrogen peroxide reduced the levels of ubiquitinated Ras protein, indicating that oxidative stress leads to a reduced degradation of both isoforms through the ubiquitin/proteasome pathway. Indeed, the late reduction in Ha-Ras and Ki-Ras was due to a recovery of proteasomal degradation because it was sensitive to MG-132. The late reduction of Ha-Ras levels was abrogated by compound PD98059, which inhibits the MAP kinase pathway, whereas the late reduction of Ki-Ras was unaffected by PD98059. We conclude that oxidative stress differentially regulates the expression of Ha-Ras and Ki-Ras in cultured astrocytes, and that activation of the MAP kinase pathway by oxidative stress itself or by additional factors may act as a fail-safe mechanism limiting a sustained expression of the potentially detrimental Ha-Ras.

  18. Graphene oxide directed in-situ synthesis of Prussian blue for non-enzymatic sensing of hydrogen peroxide released from macrophages

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Qiu, Weiwei; Zhu, Qionghua; Gao, Fei; Gao, Feng [College of Chemistry and Environment, Fujian Province Key Laboratory of Morden Analytical Science and Separation Technology, Minnan Normal University, Zhangzhou 363000 (China); Huang, Jiafu; Pan, Yutian [College of Biological Science and Technology, Minnan Normal University, Zhangzhou 363000 (China); Wang, Qingxiang, E-mail: axiang236@126.com [College of Chemistry and Environment, Fujian Province Key Laboratory of Morden Analytical Science and Separation Technology, Minnan Normal University, Zhangzhou 363000 (China)

    2017-03-01

    A novel electrochemical non-enzymatic hydrogen peroxide (H{sub 2}O{sub 2}) sensor has been developed based on Prussian blue (PB) and electrochemically reduced graphene oxide (ERGO). The GO was covalently modified on glassy carbon electrode (GCE), and utilized as a directing platform for in-situ synthesis of electroactive PB. Then the GO was electrochemically treated to reduction form to improve the effective surface area and electroactivity of the sensing interface. The fabrication process was characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX) and atomic force microscopy (AFM). The results showed that the rich oxygen containing groups play a crucial role for the successful synthesis of PB, and the obtained PB layer on the covalently immobilized GO has good stability. Electrochemical sensing assay showed that the modified electrode had tremendous electrocatalytic property for the reduction of H{sub 2}O{sub 2}. The steady-state current response increased linearly with H{sub 2}O{sub 2} concentrations from 5 μM to 1 mM with a fast response time (less than 3 s). The detection limit was estimated to be 0.8 μM. When the sensor was applied for determination of H{sub 2}O{sub 2} released from living cells of macrophages, satisfactory results were achieved. - Highlights: • Covalent method was applied for immobilization of GO on glassy carbon electrode. • GO directed in-situ synthesis of electroactive PB. • PB-ERGO composite shows high electrocatalytic activity toward H{sub 2}O{sub 2}. • The modified biosensor is capable of detecting H{sub 2}O{sub 2} released from living macrophages.

  19. In situ investigation of catalysts for alcohol synthesis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Duchstein, Linus Daniel Leonhard; Sharafutdinov, Irek; Wu, Qiongxiao

    consists of three complimentary in situ techniques: (1) Activity measurements based on a reactor connected to a gas chromatograph (GC), (2) In situ x-ray diffractometer (XRD) measurements based on a reactor cell connected to a mass spectrometer (MS), and (3) environmental TEM (ETEM) that allows...... distribution, measured both macroscopically (XRD) and microscopically (ETEM), with the catalytic activity....

  20. HA-Coated Implant

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Daugaard, Henrik; Søballe, Kjeld; Bechtold, Joan E

    2014-01-01

    of improving the fixation of implants. Of these, hydroxyapatite (HA) is the most widely used and most extensively investigated. HA is highly osseoconductive, and the positive effect is well documented in both basic and long-term clinical research [1–6]. This chapter describes experimental and clinical studies...

  1. Morphological Effects of HA on the Cell Compatibility of Electrospun HA/PLGA Composite Nanofiber Scaffolds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adnan Haider

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Tissue engineering is faced with an uphill challenge to design a platform with appropriate topography and suitable surface chemistry, which could encourage desired cellular activities and guide bone tissue regeneration. To develop such scaffolds, composite nanofiber scaffolds of nHA and sHA with PLGA were fabricated using electrospinning technique. nHA was synthesized using precipitation method, whereas sHA was purchased. The nHA and sHA were suspended in PLGA solution separately and electrospun at optimized electrospinning parameters. The composite nanofiber scaffolds were characterized by FE-SEM, EDX analysis, TEM, XRD analysis, FTIR, and X-ray photoelectron. The potential of the HA/PLGA composite nanofiber as bone scaffolds in terms of their bioactivity and biocompatibility was assessed by culturing the osteoblastic cells onto the composite nanofiber scaffolds. The results from in vitro studies revealed that the nHA/PLGA composite nanofiber scaffolds showed higher cellular adhesion, proliferation, and enhanced osteogenesis performance, along with increased Ca+2 ions release compared to the sHA/PLGA composite nanofiber scaffolds and pristine PLGA nanofiber scaffold. The results show that the structural dependent property of HA might affect its potential as bone scaffold and implantable materials in regenerative medicine and clinical tissue engineering.

  2. Effect of aging hardening on in situ synthesis magnesium matrix composites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Xiuqing; Liao Lihua; Ma Naiheng; Wang Haowei

    2006-01-01

    Magnesium matrix composites reinforced with TiC particulates was synthesized using in situ synthesis technique. The result of XRD revealed the presence of TiC in precursor blocks and TiC/AZ91 composites. Effect of aging hardening on the composites was described using Brinell hardness measurements and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The results revealed that the aging hardening peak of TiC/AZ91 composite appeared earlier comparatively with that of AZ91 magnesium alloy. And the appearance of aging hardening peak was earlier under the higher aging temperature such as 200 deg. C. The precipitating behavior of Mg 17 Al 12 phase in AZ91 alloy and TiC/AZ91 composites was described. Little discontinuous was discovered in the composites, and the amount of continuous precipitate in the composite matrix is smaller comparatively to that of AZ91 alloy. These results were analyzed with the fine grain size, much more interface between TiC and magnesium and high-density dislocation in magnesium matrix, which was contributed to the addition of TiC particulates

  3. A combined in situ XAS-XRPD-Raman study of Fischer-Tropsch synthesis over a carbon supported Co catalyst

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tsakoumis, Nikolaos E.; Dehghan, Roya; Johnsen, Rune

    2013-01-01

    A cobalt based Fischer-Tropsch synthesis (FTS) catalyst, supported on a carbon nanofibers/carbon felt composite (Co/CNF/CF) was studied in situ at realistic conditions. The catalyst was monitored by Xray absorption spectroscopy (XAS), high-resolution X-ray powder diffraction (HR-XRPD) and Raman...... spectroscopy, while changes in the gas phase were observed by mass spectrometry (MS). Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) was also applied to characterise the catalyst. The catalyst has a bimodal particle size distribution and exhibits a high deactivation rate. During the in situ study the catalyst appears...... to reduce further at the induction period of FTS, while crystallite growth is been detected in the same period. At steady state FTS the amount of metallic Co is constant. A change in the volumetric flow towards higher conversions did not affect the degree of reduction or the crystallite size of the catalyst...

  4. In situ chemical synthesis of ruthenium oxide/reduced graphene oxide nanocomposites for electrochemical capacitor applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Ji-Young; Kim, Kwang-Heon; Yoon, Seung-Beom; Kim, Hyun-Kyung; Park, Sang-Hoon; Kim, Kwang-Bum

    2013-08-07

    An in situ chemical synthesis approach has been developed to prepare ruthenium oxide/reduced graphene oxide (RGO) nanocomposites. It is found that as the C/O ratio increases, the number density of RuO2 nanoparticles decreases, because the chemical interaction between the Ru ions and the oxygen-containing functional groups provides anchoring sites where the nucleation of particles takes place. For electrochemical capacitor applications, the microwave-hydrothermal process was carried out to improve the conductivity of RGO in RuO2/RGO nanocomposites. The significant improvement in capacitance and high rate capability might result from the RuO2 nanoparticles used as spacers that make the interior layers of the reduced graphene oxide electrode available for electrolyte access.

  5. Design and fabrication of carbon fibers with needle-like nano-HA coating to reinforce granular nano-HA composites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xudong; Zhao, Xueni; Zhang, Li; Wang, Wanying; Zhang, Jing; He, Fuzhen; Yang, Jianjun

    2017-08-01

    Carbon fibers (CFs) with needle-like nano-hydroxyapatite (nHA) coating were first used as reinforcing materials named nHA-CFs to improve the mechanical properties of pure HA. A powder mixture containing nHA-CFs and granular nano-HA (gHA) was directly sintered by hot pressing at appropriate sintering pressure and temperature. A three-phase nHA-CFs/gHA composite was designed, fabricated, and used as an artificial bone. Results show that the bending strengths of the nHA-CFs/gHA composite are approximately 41.1% and 59.2% higher than those of CFs/gHA composite and pure HA, respectively. The possible reinforcing mechanism of nHA-CFs in the composite is also proposed at the end. When nHA-CFs are applied for preparation of nHA-CFs/gHA composites, the internal stress on its phase boundary with gHA matrix generated during cooling of sintered is significantly reduced due to the presence of the nHA coatings. It infers that nHA coatings on CFs might act as a bridge to control the forming of interfacial gaps between the gHA matrix and the CFs effectively. Our work provides additional insights into the feasibility of nHA-CFs/gHA composites as load-bearing implant materials in clinical applications. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. In situ synthesis of oriented NiS nanotube arrays on FTO as high-performance counter electrode for dye-sensitized solar cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Yan, E-mail: liyan-nwnu@163.com [Key Laboratory of Atomic and Molecular Physics & Functional Materials of Gansu Province, College of Physics and Electronic Engineering, Northwest Normal University, Lanzhou, 730070 (China); Chang, Yin [Key Laboratory of Atomic and Molecular Physics & Functional Materials of Gansu Province, College of Physics and Electronic Engineering, Northwest Normal University, Lanzhou, 730070 (China); Zhao, Yun [Laboratory of Clean Energy Chemistry and Materials, Lanzhou Institute of Chemical Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Lanzhou, 730000 (China); Wang, Jian; Wang, Cheng-wei [Key Laboratory of Atomic and Molecular Physics & Functional Materials of Gansu Province, College of Physics and Electronic Engineering, Northwest Normal University, Lanzhou, 730070 (China)

    2016-09-15

    Oriented nickel sulfide (NiS) nanotube arrays were successfully in-situ fabricated on conductive glass substrate and used directly as counter electrode for dye-sensitized solar cells without any post-processing. Compared with Pt counter electrode, for the beneficial effect of electronic transport along the axial direction through the arrays to the substrate, oriented NiS nanotube arrays exhibit both higher electrocatalytic activity for I{sub 3}{sup −} reduction and better electrochemical stability, resulting in a significantly improved power conversion efficiency of 9.8%. Such in-situ grown oriented sulfide semiconductor nanotube arrays is expected to lead a new class structure of composites for highly efficient cathode materials. - Highlights: • In-situ synthesis strategy was proposed to construct oriented NiS nanotube arrays. • Such oriented tube nanostructure benefits the electronic transport along the axial direction of the arrays. • As CE of DSSCs, NiS nanotube arrays exhibit both higher efficiency (9.8%) and electrochemical stability than Pt.

  7. Non-Aqueous Sol-Gel Synthesis of FePt Nanoparticles in the Absence of In Situ Stabilizers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tobias Preller

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available The synthesis of FePt nanocrystals is typically performed in an organic solvent at rather high temperatures, demanding the addition of the in situ stabilizers oleic acid and oleylamine to produce monomodal particles with well-defined morphologies. Replacing frequently-used solvents with organic media bearing functional moieties, the use of the stabilizers can be completely circumvented. In addition, various morphologies and sizes of the nanocrystals can be achieved by the choice of organic solvent. The kinetics of particle growth and the change in the magnetic behavior of the superparamagnetic FePt nanocrystals during the synthesis with a set of different solvents, as well as the resulting morphologies and stoichiometries of the nanoparticles were determined by powder X-ray diffraction (PXRD, small-angle X-ray scattering (SAXS, transmission electron microscopy (TEM, inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectroscopy (ICP-OES/mass spectrometry (ICP-MS, and superconducting quantum interference device (SQUID measurements. Furthermore, annealing of the as-prepared FePt nanoparticles led to the ordered L10 phase and, thus, to hard magnetic materials with varying saturation magnetizations and magnetic coercivities.

  8. Fluorescent in situ folding control for rapid optimization of cell-free membrane protein synthesis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Annika Müller-Lucks

    Full Text Available Cell-free synthesis is an open and powerful tool for high-yield protein production in small reaction volumes predestined for high-throughput structural and functional analysis. Membrane proteins require addition of detergents for solubilization, liposomes, or nanodiscs. Hence, the number of parameters to be tested is significantly higher than with soluble proteins. Optimization is commonly done with respect to protein yield, yet without knowledge of the protein folding status. This approach contains a large inherent risk of ending up with non-functional protein. We show that fluorophore formation in C-terminal fusions with green fluorescent protein (GFP indicates the folding state of a membrane protein in situ, i.e. within the cell-free reaction mixture, as confirmed by circular dichroism (CD, proteoliposome reconstitution and functional assays. Quantification of protein yield and in-gel fluorescence intensity imply suitability of the method for membrane proteins of bacterial, protozoan, plant, and mammalian origin, representing vacuolar and plasma membrane localization, as well as intra- and extracellular positioning of the C-terminus. We conclude that GFP-fusions provide an extension to cell-free protein synthesis systems eliminating the need for experimental folding control and, thus, enabling rapid optimization towards membrane protein quality.

  9. Trichomonas vaginalis Metalloproteinase Induces mTOR Cleavage of SiHa Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quan, Juan-Hua; Choi, In-Wook; Yang, Jung-Bo; Zhou, Wei; Cha, Guang-Ho; Zhou, Yu; Ryu, Jae-Sook

    2014-01-01

    Trichomonas vaginalis secretes a number of proteases which are suspected to be the cause of pathogenesis; however, little is understood how they manipulate host cells. The mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) regulates cell growth, cell proliferation, cell motility, cell survival, protein synthesis, and transcription. We detected various types of metalloproteinases including GP63 protein from T. vaginalis trophozoites, and T. vaginalis GP63 metalloproteinase was confirmed by sequencing and western blot. When SiHa cells were stimulated with live T. vaginalis, T. vaginalis excretory-secretory products (ESP) or T. vaginalis lysate, live T. vaginalis and T. vaginalis ESP induced the mTOR cleavage in both time- and parasite load-dependent manner, but T. vaginalis lysate did not. Pretreatment of T. vaginalis with a metalloproteinase inhibitor, 1,10-phenanthroline, completely disappeared the mTOR cleavage in SiHa cells. Collectively, T. vaginalis metallopeptidase induces host cell mTOR cleavage, which may be related to survival of the parasite. PMID:25548410

  10. Effect of n-HA with different surface-modified on the properties of n-HA/PLGA composite

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jiang Liuyun, E-mail: jlytxg@163.com [Chengdu Institute of Organic Chemistry, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Chengdu 610041 (China); Xiong Chengdong; Chen Dongliang [Chengdu Institute of Organic Chemistry, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Chengdu 610041 (China); Jiang Lixin [Chengdu Institute of Organic Chemistry, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Chengdu 610041 (China); Graduated School of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100039 (China); Pang Xiubing [Zhejiang Apeloa Medical Technology Co. Ltd, Jinhua 322118 (China)

    2012-10-15

    Graphical abstract: The bend strength of n-HA/PLGA composite with the unmodified n-HA becomes lower than that of PLGA. However, when n-HA was modified by different methods, the bend strength of g-n-HA/PLGA composites gets a little increase than PLGA, and the g3-n-HA/PLGA shows the highest bend strength at 3% g3-n-HA loading amount in weight, reached 162 MPa, which was 24.4% higher than that of pure PLGA. Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer A new surface modification method for n-HA of combining stearic acid with surface-grafting L-lactic was adopted. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Three different surface modification methods for n-HA were compared in detail. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The new surface modification method was the most ideal method in this study. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The g3-n-HA/PLGA composite had the highest bending strength, which would be potential to be used as bone fracture internal fixation materials. - Abstract: Three different surface modification methods for nano-hydroxyapatite (n-HA) of stearic acid, grafted with L-lactide, combining stearic acid and surface-grafting L-lactic were adopted, respectively. The surface modification reaction and the effect of different methods were evaluated by Fourier transformation infrared (FTIR), X-ray photoelectron spectra (XPS), thermal gravimetric analysis (TGA), transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The results showed that n-HA surfaces were all successful modified, and the modification method of combining stearic acid and surface-grafting L-lactic had the greatest grafting amount and the best dispersion among the three modification methods. Then, the n-HA with three different surface modification and unmodified n-HA were introduced into PLGA, respectively, and a serials of n-HA/PLGA composites with 3% n-HA amount in weight were prepared by solution mixing, and the properties of n-HA/PLGA composites were also investigated by electromechanical universal tester and scanning electron

  11. Synthesis and Characterization of Novel Polycarbonate Based Polyurethane/Polymer Wrapped Hydroxyapatite Nanocomposites: Mechanical Properties, Osteoconductivity and Biocompatibility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Selvakumar, M; Jaganathan, Saravana Kumar; Nando, Golok B; Chattopadhyay, Santanu

    2015-02-01

    The present investigation reports the preparation of two types of 2D rod-like nano-hydroxyapatite (nHA) (unmodified and Polypropylene glycol (PPG) wrapped) of varying high-aspect ratios, by modified co-precipitation methods, without any templates. These nHA were successfully introduced into novel synthesized Thermoplastic Polyurethane (TPU) matrices based on polycarbonate soft segments, by both in-situ and ex-situ techniques. Physico-mechanical properties of the in-situ prepared TPU/nHA nanocomposites were found to be superior compared to the ex-situ counterparts, and pristine nHA reinforced TPU. Improved biocompatibility of the prepared nanocomposites was confirmed by MTT assays using osteoblast-like MG63 cells. Cell proliferation was evident over an extended period. Osteoconductivity of the nanocomposites was observed by successful formation of an apatite layer on the surface of the samples, after immersion into simulated body fluid (SBF). Prothrombin time (PT) and activated partial thromboplastin time (APTT), as calculated from coagulation assays, displayed an increase in the clotting time, particularly for the PPG-wrapped nHA nanocomposites, prepared through the in-situ technique. Only 0.3% of hemolysis was observed for the in-situ prepared nanocomposites, which establishes the antithrombotic property of the material. The key parameters for enhancing the technical properties and biocompatibility of the nanocomposites are: the interfacial adhesion parameter (B(σy)), the polymer-filler affinity, the aspect ratio of filler and non-covalent modifications, and the state of dispersion. Thus, the novel TPU/polymer wrapped nHA nanocomposites have great potential for biomedical applications, in particular for vascular prostheses, cardiovascular implants, scaffolds, and soft and hard tissues implants.

  12. Combined synthesis and in situ coating of nanoparticles in the gas phase

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Laehde, Anna; Raula, Janne; Kauppinen, Esko I.

    2008-01-01

    Combined gas phase synthesis and coating of sodium chloride (NaCl) and lactose nanoparticles has been developed using an aerosol flow reactor. Nano-sized core particles were produced by the droplet-to-particle method and coated in situ by the physical vapour deposition of L-leucine vapour. The saturation of L-leucine in the reactor determined the resulting particle size and size distribution. In general, particle size increased with the addition of L-leucine and notable narrowing of the core particle size distribution was observed. In addition, homogeneous nucleation of the vapour, i.e. formation of pure L-leucine particles, was observed depending on the saturation conditions of L-leucine as well as the core particle characteristics. The effects of core particle properties, i.e. size and solid-state characteristics, on the coating process were studied by comparing the results for coated NaCl and lactose particles. During deposition, L-leucine formed a uniform coating on the surface of the core particles. The coating stabilised the nanoparticles and prevented the sintering of particles during storage.

  13. Multicomponent Synthesis of Isoindolinone Frameworks via RhIII -Catalysed in situ Directing Group-Assisted Tandem Oxidative Olefination/Michael Addition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Liang; Liu, Xi; Liu, Jian-Biao; Shen, Jun; Chen, Qun; He, Ming-Yang

    2018-04-04

    A Rh III -catalysed three-component synthesis of isoindolinone frameworks via direct assembly of benzoyl chlorides, o-aminophenols and activated alkenes has been developed. The process involves in situ generation of o-aminophenol (OAP)-based bidentate directing group (DG), Rh III -catalysed tandem ortho C-H olefination and subsequent cyclization via aza-Michael addition. This protocol exhibits good chemoselectivity and functional group tolerance. Computational studies showed that the presence of hydroxyl group on the N-aryl ring could enhance the chemoselectivity of the reaction. © 2018 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  14. Synthesis and Characterization of Hydroxyapatite-Collagen-Chitosan (HA/Col/Chi) Composite Coated on Ti6Al4V

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charlena; Bikharudin, Ahmad; Wahyudi, Setyanto Tri

    2018-01-01

    HA-collagen-chitosan (HA/col/chi) composite is developed to increase bioactivity adhesiveness between the metal and the material composite and to improve corrosion resistance. The Ti6Al4V alloy was coated by soaking in HA/col/chi composite at room temperature and then allowed to stand for 5, 6, and 7 days. Diffraction pattern analysis of the coated Ti6Al4V alloy showed that the dominant phase were HA and Ti6Al4V alloy. Corrosion resistance test in media by using 0.9% NaCl showed the corrosion rate at the level of 0.3567 mpy, which was better than that of the uncoated Ti6Al4V alloy (0.4152 mpy). In vitro cytocompatibility assay on endothelial cell of calf pulmonary artery endothelium (CPAE) (ATCC-CCL 209) showed there was no toxicity in the cell culture with the percent inhibition of 33.33% after 72 hours of incubation.

  15. Synthesis of nanocrystalline fluorinated hydroxyapatite

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Fluorinated hydroxyapatite; nanocrystalline; microwave synthesis; dissolution. ... HA by the presence of other ions such as carbonate, magnesium, fluoride, etc. ... Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT–IR) and laser Raman spectroscopy.

  16. A Mathematical Model of Neutral Lipid Content in terms of Initial Nitrogen Concentration and Validation in Coelastrum sp. HA-1 and Application in Chlorella sorokiniana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhenhua Yang

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Microalgae are considered to be a potential major biomass feedstock for biofuel due to their high lipid content. However, no correlation equations as a function of initial nitrogen concentration for lipid accumulation have been developed for simplicity to predict lipid production and optimize the lipid production process. In this study, a lipid accumulation model was developed with simple parameters based on the assumption protein synthesis shift to lipid synthesis by a linear function of nitrogen quota. The model predictions fitted well for the growth, lipid content, and nitrogen consumption of Coelastrum sp. HA-1 under various initial nitrogen concentrations. Then the model was applied successfully in Chlorella sorokiniana to predict the lipid content with different light intensities. The quantitative relationship between initial nitrogen concentrations and the final lipid content with sensitivity analysis of the model were also discussed. Based on the model results, the conversion efficiency from protein synthesis to lipid synthesis is higher and higher in microalgae metabolism process as nitrogen decreases; however, the carbohydrate composition content remains basically unchanged neither in HA-1 nor in C. sorokiniana.

  17. A Mathematical Model of Neutral Lipid Content in terms of Initial Nitrogen Concentration and Validation in Coelastrum sp. HA-1 and Application in Chlorella sorokiniana

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Yue; Liu, Zhiyong; Liu, Chenfeng; Hu, Zhipeng

    2017-01-01

    Microalgae are considered to be a potential major biomass feedstock for biofuel due to their high lipid content. However, no correlation equations as a function of initial nitrogen concentration for lipid accumulation have been developed for simplicity to predict lipid production and optimize the lipid production process. In this study, a lipid accumulation model was developed with simple parameters based on the assumption protein synthesis shift to lipid synthesis by a linear function of nitrogen quota. The model predictions fitted well for the growth, lipid content, and nitrogen consumption of Coelastrum sp. HA-1 under various initial nitrogen concentrations. Then the model was applied successfully in Chlorella sorokiniana to predict the lipid content with different light intensities. The quantitative relationship between initial nitrogen concentrations and the final lipid content with sensitivity analysis of the model were also discussed. Based on the model results, the conversion efficiency from protein synthesis to lipid synthesis is higher and higher in microalgae metabolism process as nitrogen decreases; however, the carbohydrate composition content remains basically unchanged neither in HA-1 nor in C. sorokiniana. PMID:28194424

  18. In situ synthesis of α-MoO3/graphene composites as anode materials for lithium ion battery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, Chun-Ling; Wang, Yan; Zhang, Chen; Li, Xiao-Shan; Dong, Wen-Sheng

    2014-01-01

    The α-MoO 3 /graphene composites (MoO 3 /G) were prepared via an in situ hydrothermal synthesis. The composites were characterized using various characterization techniques including powder X-ray diffraction, transmission electron microscopy, scanning electron microscopy, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, and the electrochemical performance test. The results show that these MoO 3 /G composites exhibit high capacity and good cycle stability when used as the lithium-ion battery anode. Among all the samples, the MoO 3 /G-27 reveals the best electrochemical performance with an initial charge capacity of 977.7 mAh g −1 at a current density of 50 mA g −1 , the first coulombic efficiency of 69.5%. After eighty cycles the electrode still maintains a capacity of 869.2 mAh g −1 , giving high capacity retention of 88.9%. The good electrochemical performance of the composite anode is close related to its structure, in which the MoO 3 nanobelts are not only homogeneously anchored on the surface but also embedded in the interlayer of the graphene sheets; hence the volume change and aggregation of the MoO 3 nanobelts during lithium ion insertion/extraction process can be effectively hindered. On the other hand, graphene itself is an electronic conductor; the graphene and MoO 3 nanobelts connect closely, which offers large electrode/electrolyte contacting area, short path length for Li + transporting during lithium insertion and extraction. - Highlights: • The α-MoO 3 /graphene composites were prepared via an in situ hydrothermal synthesis. • The MoO 3 /G-27 anode delivers an initial reversible capacity of 977.7 mAh g −1 . • After 80 cycles it has a reversible capacity of 869.2 mAh g −1 at 50 mA g −1

  19. Synthesis of 1 nm Pd Nanoparticles in a Microfluidic Reactor: Insights from in Situ X ray Absorption Fine Structure Spectroscopy and Small-Angle X ray Scattering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Karim, Ayman M.; Al Hasan, Naila M.; Ivanov, Sergei A.; Siefert, Soenke; Kelly, Ryan T.; Hallfors, Nicholas G.; Benavidez, Angelica D.; Kovarik, Libor; Jenkins, Aaron; Winans, R. E.; Datye, Abhaya K.

    2015-06-11

    In this paper we show that the temporal separation of nucleation and growth is not a necessary condition for the colloidal synthesis of monodisperse nanoparticles. The synthesis mechanism of Pd nanoparticles was determined by in situ XAFS and SAXS in a microfluidic reactor capable of millisecond up to an hour time resolution. The SAXS results showed two autocatalytic growth phases, a fast growth phase followed by a very slow growth phase. The steady increase in the number of particles throughout the two growth phases indicates the synthesis is limited by slow continuous nucleation. The transition from fast to slow growth was caused by rapid increase in bonding with the capping agent as shown by XAFS. Based on this fundamental understanding of the synthesis mechanism, we show that 1 nm monodisperse Pd nanoparticles can be synthesized at low temperature using a strong binding capping agent such as trioctylphosphine (TOP).

  20. In situ synthesis of CdS/CdWO4/WO3 heterojunction films with enhanced photoelectrochemical properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhan, Faqi; Li, Jie; Li, Wenzhang; Yang, Yahui; Liu, Wenhua; Li, Yaomin

    2016-09-01

    CdS/CdWO4/WO3 heterojunction films on fluorine-doped tin oxide (FTO) substrates are for the first time prepared as an efficient photoanode for photoelectrochemical (PEC) hydrogen generation by an in situ conversion process. The samples are characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), ultraviolet visible spectrometry (UV-vis) and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). The CdS hollow spheres (∼80 nm) sensitized WO3 plate film with a CdWO4 buffer-layer exhibits increased visible light absorption and a significantly improved photoelectrochemical performance. The photocurrent density at 0 V (vs. Ag/AgCl) of the CdS/CdWO4/WO3 anode is ∼3 times higher than that of the CdWO4/WO3 anode, and ∼9 times higher than that of pure WO3 under illumination. The highest incident-photon-to-current-efficiency (IPCE) value increased from 16% to 63% when the ternary heterojunction was formed. This study demonstrates that the synthesis of ternary composite photocatalysts by the in situ conversion process may be a promising approach to achieve high photoelectric conversion efficiency.

  1. Polypropylene/graphite nanocomposites by in situ polymerization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Milani, Marceo A.; Galland, Giselda B.; Quijada, Raul

    2011-01-01

    This work presents the synthesis of nanocomposites of polypropylene/graphite by in situ polymerization using metallocene catalyst and graphene nanosheets. Initially was analyzed which of the metallocene catalysts rac-Et(Ind) 2 ZrCl 2 or rac-Me 2 Si(Ind) 2 ZrCl 2 produces polypropylene with mechanical properties more relevant. Then it were performed the in situ polymerization reactions to obtain the nanocomposites. The polymeric materials were characterized by XRD, DSC, GPC and DMTA. (author)

  2. Synthesis and characterization of polypropylene/graphite nano composite preparation for in situ polymerization; Sintese e caracterizacao de nanocompositos polipropileno/grafite obtidos pela polimerizacao in situ

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Montagna, L.S.; Fim, F. de C.; Galland, G.B. [Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul (UFRGS), Porto Alegre, RS (Brazil). Inst. de Quimica; Basso, N.R.S., E-mail: nrbass@pucrs.b [Pontificia Universidade Catolica do Rio Grande do Sul (PUC-RS), Porto Alegre, RS (Brazil)

    2010-07-01

    This paper presents the synthesis of polypropylene/graphite nanocomposites through in situ polymerization, using the metallocene catalyst C{sub 20}H{sub 16}Cl{sub 2}Zr (dichloro(rac-ethylenebis(indenyl))zircon(IV)). The graphite nanosheets in nano dimensions were added to the polymer matrix in percentages of 0.6;1.0;4.2;4.8 and 6.0% (w/w). The TEM images indicated that the thickness of graphite nanosheets ranged from 4 to 60 nm and by means of XRD analysis it was observed that the physical and chemical treatment did not destroyed the graphite layers. The presence of nanosheets did not decrease the catalytic activity of the nanocomposites. TEM images and XRD analysis of nanocomposites showed a good dispersion of the graphite nanosheets in the polypropylene matrix. (author)

  3. Synthesis and characterization of hydroxyapatite from fish bone waste

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marliana, Ana, E-mail: na-cwith22@yahoo.co.id; Fitriani, Eka; Ramadhan, Fauzan; Suhandono, Steven; Yuliani, Keti; Windarti, Tri [Chemistry Department, Faculty of Science and Mathematics, Diponegoro University, Indonesia, 50 275 (Indonesia)

    2015-12-29

    Waste fish bones is a problem stemming from activities in the field of fisheries and it has not been used optimally. Fish bones contain calcium as natural source that used to synthesize hydroxyapatite (HA). In this research, HA synthesized from waste fish bones as local wisdom in Semarang. The goal are to produce HA with cheaper production costs and to reduce the environmental problems caused by waste bones. The novelty of this study was using of local fish bone as a source of calcium and simple method of synthesis. Synthesis process of HA can be done through a maceration process with firing temperatures of 1000°C or followed by a sol-gel method with firing at 550°C. The results are analyzed using FTIR (Fourier Transform Infrared), XRD (X-Ray Diffraction) and SEM-EDX (Scanning Electron Microscopy-Energy Dispersive X-Ray). FTIR spectra showed absorption of phosphate and OH group belonging to HA as evidenced by the results of XRD. The average grain size by maceration and synthesized results are not significant different, which is about 69 nm. The ratio of Ca/P of HA by maceration result is 0.89, then increase after continued in the sol-gel process to 1.41. Morphology of HA by maceration results are regular and uniform particle growth, while the morphology of HA after the sol-gel process are irregular and agglomerated.

  4. Adhesive strength of hydroxyl apatite(HA coating and biomechanics behavior of HA-coated prosthesis:an experimental study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tian-yang ZHANG

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Objective To explore the influence of adhesive strength of hydroxyapatite(HA coating on the post-implantation stability of HA-coated prosthesis.Methods The adhesive strength and biomechanics behavior of HA coating were studied by histopathological observation,material parameters and biomechanical testing,the titanium(Ti-coated prosthesis was employed as control.Results Scratch test showed that the adhesive strength of HA coating was significantly lower than that of Ti coating(P < 0.01.Histopathological examination and bone morphometry showed that,at the early stage of prosthesis implantation,the bony growth around HA-coated prosthesis was significantly higher than that around Ti-coated prosthesis(P < 0.01,but the ultimate shear strength of HA-coated prosthesis was much lower than that of Ti-coated prosthesis(P < 0.01.After the push-out test with prosthesis,histopathological observation showed that there were accumulations of clump-and strip-like granular residues on the surface of bones that newly grew around the HA-coated prosthesis,and surface energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy(EDX analysis also confirmed that the shear stress induced HA decohesion from the substrate of prosthesis.Conclusions Although HA coating showed a satisfactory effect on early bone formation and prosthetic stability,due to the deficiencies of adhesive strength,the early stability of prosthesis may be gradually destroyed by the shear loads of human body and coating degradation.

  5. Characterization and electrochemical performances of MoO2 modified LiFePO4/C cathode materials synthesized by in situ synthesis method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    He, Jichuan; Wang, Haibin; Gu, Chunlei; Liu, Shuxin

    2014-01-01

    Graphical abstract: The MoO 2 modified LiFePO 4 /C cathode materials were synthesized by in situ synthesis method. MoO 2 can sufficiently coat on the LiFePO 4 /C particles surface and does not alter LiFePO 4 crystal structure, and the adding of MoO 2 decreases the particles size and increases the tap density of cathode materials. The existence of MoO 2 improves electrochemical performance of LiFePO 4 cathode materials in specific capability and lithium ion diffusion and charge transfer resistance of cathode materials. - Highlights: • The MoO 2 modified LiFePO 4 /C cathode materials were synthesized by in situ synthesis method. • The existence of MoO 2 decreases the particles size and increases the tap density of cathode materials. • MoO 2 can sufficiently coat on the surface of LiFePO 4 /C cathode materials. • The existence of MoO 2 enhanced electrochemical performance of LiFePO 4 /C cathode materials. - Abstract: The MoO 2 modified LiFePO 4 /C cathode materials were synthesized by in situ synthesis method. Phase compositions and microstructures of the products were characterized by X-ray powder diffraction (XRD), SEM, TEM and EDS. Results indicate that MoO 2 can sufficiently coat on the LiFePO 4 surface and does not alter LiFePO 4 crystal structure, the existence of MoO 2 decreases the particles size and increases the tap density of cathode materials. The electrochemical behavior of cathode materials was analyzed using galvanostatic measurement, cyclic voltammetry (CV) and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS). The results show that the existence of MoO 2 improves electrochemical performance of LiFePO 4 cathode materials in specific capability and lithium ion diffusion and charge transfer resistance. The initial charge–discharge specific capacity and apparent lithium ion diffusion coefficient increase, the charge transfer resistance decreases with MoO 2 content and maximizes around the MoO 2 content is 5 wt%. It has been had further proved that

  6. Inhibition of hyaluronan synthesis reduces versican and fibronectin levels in trabecular meshwork cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kate E Keller

    Full Text Available Hyaluronan (HA is a major component of the extracellular matrix (ECM and is synthesized by three HA synthases (HAS. Similarities between the HAS2 knockout mouse and the hdf mutant mouse, which has a mutation in the versican gene, suggest that HA and versican expression may be linked. In this study, the relationship between HA synthesis and levels of versican, fibronectin and several other ECM components in trabecular meshwork cells from the anterior segment of the eye was investigated. HA synthesis was inhibited using 4-methylumbelliferone (4MU, or reduced by RNAi silencing of each individual HAS gene. Quantitative RT-PCR and immunoblotting demonstrated a reduction in mRNA and protein levels of versican and fibronectin. Hyaluronidase treatment also reduced versican and fibronectin levels. These effects could not be reversed by addition of excess glucose or glucosamine or exogenous HA to the culture medium. CD44, tenascin C and fibrillin-1 mRNA levels were reduced by 4MU treatment, but SPARC and CSPG6 mRNA levels were unaffected. Immunostaining of trabecular meshwork tissue after exposure to 4MU showed an altered localization pattern of HA-binding protein, versican and fibronectin. Reduction of versican by RNAi silencing did not affect HA concentration as assessed by ELISA. Together, these data imply that HA concentration affects synthesis of certain ECM components. Since precise regulation of the trabecular meshwork ECM composition and organization is required to maintain the aqueous humor outflow resistance and intraocular pressure homeostasis in the eye, coordinated coupling of HA levels and several of its ECM binding partners should facilitate this process.

  7. Characterization of Silver Nanoparticle In Situ Synthesis on Porous Sericin Gel for Antibacterial Application

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gang Tao

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Sericin from Bombyx mori cocoon has good hydrophilicity, reaction activity, biocompatibility, and biodegradability, which has shown great potentials for biomedical materials. Here, an ultraviolet light-assisted in situ synthesis approach is developed to immobilize silver nanoparticles on the surface of sericin gel. The amount of silver nanoparticles immobilized on the surface of sericin gel could be regulated by the irradiation time. The porous structure and property of sericin gel were not affected by the modification of AgNPs, as evidenced by the observation of scanning electron microscopy, X-ray diffractometry, and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy. Differential scanning calorimetry analysis showed that the modification of AgNPs increased the thermal stability of sericin gel. The growth curve of bacteria and inhibition zone assays suggested that the sericin gel modified with AgNPs had good antimicrobial activities against both Gram-negative and Gram-positive bacteria. This novel sericin has shown a great potential for biomedical purpose.

  8. Adhesive strength of hydroxyl apatite(HA) coating and biomechanics behavior of HA-coated prosthesis:an experimental study

    OpenAIRE

    Tian-yang ZHANG; Yong-hong DUAN; Shu ZHU; Jin-yu ZHU; Qing-sheng ZHU

    2011-01-01

    Objective To explore the influence of adhesive strength of hydroxyapatite(HA) coating on the post-implantation stability of HA-coated prosthesis.Methods The adhesive strength and biomechanics behavior of HA coating were studied by histopathological observation,material parameters and biomechanical testing,the titanium(Ti)-coated prosthesis was employed as control.Results Scratch test showed that the adhesive strength of HA coating was significantly lower than that of Ti coating(P < 0.01).Hist...

  9. In situ synthesis of CdS decorated titanate nanosheets with highly efficient visible-light-induced photoactivity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, Zhi; Fang, Pengfei; Liu, Fuwei; Zhang, Yupeng; Liu, Xinzhao; Lu, Dingze; Li, Delong; Wang, Shaojie

    2014-01-01

    Appropriately dispersed CdS nanoparticles were intimately embedded into titanate nanosheets (TNS) through ion-exchange and in situ sulfurization process. The sheet-like intermediates of titanate during the transforming process into nanotubes were firstly used as substrate for the decoration of CdS nanoparticles, and the synthesis route was achieved by ion-exchange process between titanate precursor and Cd 2+ ions solution, and the following sulfuration process by using Na 2 S solutions. The catalytic activity of the photocatalyst was investigated by photodegradation of Rhodamine B under visible light irradiation. With an optimal Cd/Ti molar ratio of 15%, the CdS/TNS composite exhibits the highest photocatalytic performance, which is approximately 5.4 times greater than that of pure TNS. The mechanism of the separation behavior of the photogenerated charges was also discussed.

  10. Polyindole/ carboxylated-multiwall carbon nanotube composites produced by in-situ and interfacial polymerization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Joshi, Leela; Singh, Arun Kumar; Prakash, Rajiv

    2012-01-01

    Composites of polyindole (PIn), a conducting polymer, with carboxylated-multiwalled carbon nanotubes (c-MWCNT/PIn) were synthesized; the synthesis was done using (i) two miscible solvents (in-situ method) and (ii) two immiscible solvents (interfacial method). A tubular composite, with a uniform coating of the polymer over c-MWCNTs, was observed in the case of interfacial synthesis. However, the in-situ synthesis of c-MWCNT/PIn composites exhibited a densely packed spherical morphology, with c-MWCNT incorporated within the polymer spheres. The spherical morphology was probably obtained due to fast polymerization kinetics and the formation of micelles in case of in-situ polymerization, whereas tubular morphology was obtained in case of interfacial polymerization due to the sufficient time provided for the growth of polymer chains over the c-MWCNT surfaces. Nanoscale electrical properties of composites, in a metal/(c-MWCNT/PIn) configuration, were studied using current sensing atomic force microscopy. Interfacial c-MWCNT/PIn composite, on Al metal substrate, exhibited a typical rectifying diode behavior. This composite had manifested enormous potential for electronic applications and fabrication of nanoscale organic devices. Highlights: ► Polyindole/c-MWNT nanocomposites produced by in-situ and interfacial polymerization. ► Densely packed spherical morphology was observed in in-situ polymerization route. ► Tubular core-shell morphology was observed in interfacial polymerization route. ► Interfacial nanocomposite manifested a nano-schottky junction with Al metal.

  11. The HaDREB2 transcription factor enhances basal thermotolerance and longevity of seeds through functional interaction with HaHSFA9

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carranco Raúl

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Transcription factor HaDREB2 was identified in sunflower (Helianthus annuus L. as a drought-responsive element-binding factor 2 (DREB2 with unique properties. HaDREB2 and the sunflower Heat Shock Factor A9 (HaHSFA9 co-activated the Hahsp17.6G1 promoter in sunflower embryos. Both factors could be involved in transcriptional co-activation of additional small heat stress protein (sHSP promoters, and thus contribute to the HaHSFA9-mediated enhancement of longevity and basal thermotolerance of seeds. Results We found that overexpression of HaDREB2 in seeds did not enhance longevity. This was deduced from assays of basal thermotolerance and controlled seed-deterioration, which were performed with transgenic tobacco. Furthermore, the constitutive overexpression of HaDREB2 did not increase thermotolerance in seedlings or result in the accumulation of HSPs at normal growth temperatures. In contrast, when HaDREB2 and HaHSFA9 were conjointly overexpressed in seeds, we observed positive effects on seed longevity, beyond those observed with overexpression of HaHSFA9 alone. Such additional effects are accompanied by a subtle enhancement of the accumulation of subsets of sHSPs belonging to the CI and CII cytosolic classes. Conclusion Our results reveal the functional interdependency of HaDREB2 and HaHSFA9 in seeds. HaDREB2 differs from other previously characterized DREB2 factors in plants in terms of its unique functional interaction with the seed-specific HaHSFA9 factor. No functional interaction between HaDREB2 and HaHSFA9 was observed when both factors were conjointly overexpressed in vegetative tissues. We therefore suggest that additional, seed-specific factors, or protein modifications, could be required for the functional interaction between HaDREB2 and HaHSFA9.

  12. Intermatrix Synthesis as a rapid, inexpensive and reproducible methodology for the in situ functionalization of nanostructured surfaces with quantum dots

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bastos-Arrieta, Julio; Muñoz, Jose; Stenbock-Fermor, Anja; Muñoz, Maria; Muraviev, Dmitri N.; Céspedes, Francisco; Tsarkova, Larisa A.; Baeza, Mireia

    2016-04-01

    Intermatrix Synthesis (IMS) technique has proven to be a valid methodology for the in situ incorporation of quantum dots (QDs) in a wide range of nanostructured surfaces for the preparation of advanced hybrid-nanomaterials. In this sense, this communication reports the recent advances in the application of IMS for the synthesis of CdS-QDs with favourable distribution on sulfonated polyetherether ketone (SPEEK) membrane thin films (TFs), multiwall carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) and nanodiamonds (NDs). The synthetic route takes advantage of the ion exchange functionality of the reactive surfaces for the loading of the QDs precursor and consequent QDs appearance by precipitation. The benefits of such modified nanomaterials were studied using CdS-QDs@MWCNTs hybrid-nanomaterials. CdS-QDs@MWCNTs has been used as conducting filler for the preparation of electrochemical nanocomposite sensors, which present electrocatalytic properties. Finally, the optical properties of the QDs contained on MWCNTs could allow a new procedure for the analytical detection of nanostructured carbon allotropes in water.

  13. Screening of the target genes trans-activated by HLA-HA8 in hepatocytes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qi WANG

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Objective To clone and identify the target genes trans-activated by human minor histocompatibility antigen HLA-HA8 in hepatocytes with suppression subtractive hybridization(SSH and bioinfomatics technique.Methods mRNA was isolated from HepG2 cells transfected by pcDNA3.1(--HLA-HA8 and pcDNA3.1(- empty vector,and then used to synthesize the double-stranded cDNA(marked as Tester and Driver,respectively by reverse transcription.After being digested with restriction enzyme Rsa I,the tester cDNA was divided into two parts and ligated to the specific adaptor 1 and adaptor 2,respectively,and then hybridized with driver cDNA twice and underwent PCR twice.The production was subcloned into pEGM-Teasy plasmid vectors to set up the subtractive library.The library was then amplified by transfection into E.coli strain DH5α.The cDNA was sequenced and analyzed in GenBank with Blast search after PCR amplification.Results The subtractive library of genes trans-activated by HLA-HA8 was constructed successfully.The amplified library contained 101 positive clones.Colony PCR showed that all these clones contained 200-1000bp inserts.Twenty eight clones were selected randomly to analyze the sequences.The result of homologous analysis showed that altogether 16 coding sequences were gotten,of which 4 sequences were with unknown function.Conclusions The obtained sequences trans-activated by HLA-HA8 may code different proteins and play important roles in cell growth and metabolism,energy synthesis and metabolism,material transport and signal transduction.This finding will bring some new clues for the studies not only on the biological functions of HLA-HA8,but also on the HBV infection mechanism.

  14. In-situ solvothermal processing of polycaprolactone/hydroxyapatite nanocomposites with enhanced mechanical and biological performance for bone tissue engineering

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saeed Moeini

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available The interest in biodegradable polymer-matrix nanocomposites with bone regeneration potential has been increasing in recent years. In the present work, a solvothermal process is introduced to prepare hydroxyapatite (HA nanorod-reinforced polycaprolactone in-situ. A non-aqueous polymer solution containing calcium and phosphorous precursors is prepared and processed in a closed autoclave at different temperatures in the range of 60–150 °C. Hydroxyapatite nanorods with varying aspect ratios are formed depending on the processing temperature. X-ray diffraction analysis and field-emission scanning electron microscopy indicate that the HA nanorods are semi-crystalline. Energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy and Fourier transform infrared spectrometry determine that the ratio of calcium to phosphorous increases as the processing temperature increases. To evaluate the effect of in-situ processing on the mechanical properties of the nanocomposites, highly porous scaffolds (>90% containing HA nanorods are prepared by employing freeze drying and salt leaching techniques. It is shown that the elastic modulus and strength of the nanocomposites prepared by the in-situ method is superior (∼15% to those of the ex-situ samples (blended HA nanorods with the polymer solution. The enhanced bone regeneration potential of the nanocomposites is shown via an in vitro bioactivity assay in a saturated simulated body fluid. An improved cell viability and proliferation is also shown by employing (3-(4,5- dimethylthiazol-2-yl-2, 5-diphenyl tetrazolium bromide (MTT assay in human osteosarcoma cell lines. The prepared scaffolds with in vitro regeneration capacity could be potentially useful for orthopaedic applications and maxillofacial surgery.

  15. In situ measurement of conductivity during nanocomposite film deposition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blattmann, Christoph O.; Pratsinis, Sotiris E.

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • Flame-made nanosilver dynamics are elucidated in the gas-phase & on substrates. • The resistance of freshly depositing nanosilver layers is monitored. • Low T g polymers facilitate rapid synthesis of conductive films. • Conductive nanosilver films form on top of or within the polymer depending on MW. - Abstract: Flexible and electrically conductive nanocomposite films are essential for small, portable and even implantable electronic devices. Typically, such film synthesis and conductivity measurement are carried out sequentially. As a result, optimization of filler loading and size/morphology characteristics with respect to film conductivity is rather tedious and costly. Here, freshly-made Ag nanoparticles (nanosilver) are made by scalable flame aerosol technology and directly deposited onto polymeric (polystyrene and poly(methyl methacrylate)) films during which the resistance of the resulting nanocomposite is measured in situ. The formation and gas-phase growth of such flame-made nanosilver, just before incorporation onto the polymer film, is measured by thermophoretic sampling and microscopy. Monitoring the nanocomposite resistance in situ reveals the onset of conductive network formation by the deposited nanosilver growth and sinternecking. The in situ measurement is much faster and more accurate than conventional ex situ four-point resistance measurements since an electrically percolating network is detected upon its formation by the in situ technique. Nevertheless, general resistance trends with respect to filler loading and host polymer composition are consistent for both in situ and ex situ measurements. The time lag for the onset of a conductive network (i.e., percolation) depends linearly on the glass transition temperature (T g ) of the host polymer. This is attributed to the increased nanoparticle-polymer interaction with decreasing T g . Proper selection of the host polymer in combination with in situ resistance monitoring

  16. Synthesis of transparent ZnO/PMMA nanocomposite films through free-radical copolymerization of asymmetric zinc methacrylate acetate and in-situ thermal decomposition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang Lin [Department of Chemistry, Nanchang University, 999 Xuefu Avenue, Nanchang 330031 (China); Institute of Polymers, Nanchang University, 999 Xuefu Avenue, Nanchang 330031 (China); Li Fan, E-mail: lfan@ncu.edu.cn [Institute of Polymers, Nanchang University, 999 Xuefu Avenue, Nanchang 330031 (China); Chen Yiwang, E-mail: ywchen@ncu.edu.cn [Department of Chemistry, Nanchang University, 999 Xuefu Avenue, Nanchang 330031 (China); Institute of Polymers, Nanchang University, 999 Xuefu Avenue, Nanchang 330031 (China); Wang Xiaofeng [Institute of Polymers, Nanchang University, 999 Xuefu Avenue, Nanchang 330031 (China)

    2011-08-15

    In this paper, a new and simple approach for in-situ preparation of transparent ZnO/poly(metyl methacrylate) (ZnO/PMMA) nanocomposite films was developed. Poly(methyl methacrylate)-co-poly(zinc methacrylate acetate) (PMMA-co-PZnMAAc) copolymer was synthesized via free-radical polymerization between methyl methacrylate (MMA) and zinc methacrylate acetate (ZnMAAc), where asymmetric ZnMAAc with only one terminal double bond (C=C) was applied to act as the precursor for ZnO nanocrystals and could avoid cross-link. Subsequently, transparent ZnO/PMMA nanocomposite films were obtained by in-situ thermal decomposition. Scanning electron microscope (SEM) image revealed that ZnO nanocrystals were homogeneously dispersed in PMMA matrix. With thermal decomposition time increasing, the absorption intensity in UV region and photoluminescence intensity of ZnO/PMMA nanocomposite films enhanced. However, the optical properties diminished when the thermal decomposition temperature increased. The TGA measurement displayed ZnO/PMMA nanocomposite films prepared by the in-situ synthesis method possessed better thermal stability compared with those prepared by the physical blending method and pristine PMMA films. - Highlights: > ZnO/PMMA hybrid films were prepared via free-radical polymerization and in-situ thermal decomposition. > ZnO NCs are homogeneously dispersed in the PMMA matrix and these films have good optical properties. > Thermal stability of these films is improved compared with those of physically blending ones.

  17. Synthesis of transparent ZnO/PMMA nanocomposite films through free-radical copolymerization of asymmetric zinc methacrylate acetate and in-situ thermal decomposition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Lin; Li Fan; Chen Yiwang; Wang Xiaofeng

    2011-01-01

    In this paper, a new and simple approach for in-situ preparation of transparent ZnO/poly(metyl methacrylate) (ZnO/PMMA) nanocomposite films was developed. Poly(methyl methacrylate)-co-poly(zinc methacrylate acetate) (PMMA-co-PZnMAAc) copolymer was synthesized via free-radical polymerization between methyl methacrylate (MMA) and zinc methacrylate acetate (ZnMAAc), where asymmetric ZnMAAc with only one terminal double bond (C=C) was applied to act as the precursor for ZnO nanocrystals and could avoid cross-link. Subsequently, transparent ZnO/PMMA nanocomposite films were obtained by in-situ thermal decomposition. Scanning electron microscope (SEM) image revealed that ZnO nanocrystals were homogeneously dispersed in PMMA matrix. With thermal decomposition time increasing, the absorption intensity in UV region and photoluminescence intensity of ZnO/PMMA nanocomposite films enhanced. However, the optical properties diminished when the thermal decomposition temperature increased. The TGA measurement displayed ZnO/PMMA nanocomposite films prepared by the in-situ synthesis method possessed better thermal stability compared with those prepared by the physical blending method and pristine PMMA films. - Highlights: → ZnO/PMMA hybrid films were prepared via free-radical polymerization and in-situ thermal decomposition. → ZnO NCs are homogeneously dispersed in the PMMA matrix and these films have good optical properties. → Thermal stability of these films is improved compared with those of physically blending ones.

  18. Acid-promoted Bicyclization of Diaryl Alkynes: Synthesis of 2H-Indazoles with in situ Generated Diazonium Salt as Nitrogen Source.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Cheng; Chang, Sailan; Dong, Shanliang; Qiu, Lihua; Xu, Xinfang

    2018-06-08

    An unprecedented transition-metal-free tandem bicyclization of diaryl alkynes has been disclosed, which provides a streamlined access to a range of polycyclic 2H-indazoles in high to excellent yields. The salient features of this reaction include readily available starting materials, good functional group compatibility, mild reaction conditions, no column chromatography, high bond-formation efficiency, and ease in further transformations. Notably, this is the first example for the synthesis of 2H-indazoles with in situ generated diazonium salt as the nitrogen source, and a mechanistic rationale involving an acid-promoted tandem diazonium salt formation/bicyclization process is discussed.

  19. Molecular aspects of zygotic embryogenesis in sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.): correlation of positive histone marks with HaWUS expression and putative link HaWUS/HaL1L.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salvini, Mariangela; Fambrini, Marco; Giorgetti, Lucia; Pugliesi, Claudio

    2016-01-01

    The link HaWUS/ HaL1L , the opposite transcriptional behavior, and the decrease/increase in positive histone marks bond to both genes suggest an inhibitory effect of WUS on HaL1L in sunflower zygotic embryos. In Arabidopsis, a group of transcription factors implicated in the earliest events of embryogenesis is the WUSCHEL-RELATED HOMEOBOX (WOX) protein family including WUSCHEL (WUS) and other 14 WOX protein, some of which contain a conserved WUS-box domain in addition to the homeodomain. WUS transcripts appear very early in embryogenesis, at the 16-cell embryo stage, but gradually become restricted to the center of the developing shoot apical meristem (SAM) primordium and continues to be expressed in cells of the niche/organizing center of SAM and floral meristems to maintain stem cell population. Moreover, WUS has decisive roles in the embryonic program presumably promoting the vegetative-to-embryonic transition and/or maintaining the identity of the embryonic stem cells. However, data on the direct interaction between WUS and key genes for seed development (as LEC1 and L1L) are not collected. The novelty of this report consists in the characterization of Helianthus annuus WUS (HaWUS) gene and in its analysis regarding the pattern of the methylated lysine 4 (K4) of the Histone H3 and of the acetylated histone H3 during the zygotic embryo development. Also, a parallel investigation was performed for HaL1L gene since two copies of the WUS-binding site (WUSATA), previously identified on HaL1L nucleotide sequence, were able to be bound by the HaWUS recombinant protein suggesting a not described effect of HaWUS on HaL1L transcription.

  20. In situ NMR studies of reactions on catalysts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haw, James F [Texas A and M Univ., College Station, TX (United States). Dept. of Chemistry

    1994-12-31

    Zeolites are useful in the synthesis of fine chemicals. The systematic understanding of organic chemistry of zeolite catalysis may contribute to: the elucidation of reaction mechanisms of existing catalytic processes; the discovery of new catalytic reactions; the application of zeolite catalysis to the synthesis of fine chemicals. This work presents species of zeolites identified by in situ NMR; reactions of organic chemicals on zeolites and proposes mechanisms as well as reactivity trends 3 refs., 7 tabs.

  1. Biomedical potential of chitosan/HA and chitosan/β-1,3-glucan/HA biomaterials as scaffolds for bone regeneration — A comparative study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Przekora, Agata, E-mail: agata.przekora@umlub.pl [Department of Biochemistry and Biotechnology, Medical University of Lublin, Chodzki 1, 20-093 Lublin (Poland); Palka, Krzysztof [Department of Materials Engineering, Lublin University of Technology, Nadbystrzycka 36, 20-618 Lublin (Poland); Ginalska, Grazyna [Department of Biochemistry and Biotechnology, Medical University of Lublin, Chodzki 1, 20-093 Lublin (Poland)

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this work was to compare biomedical potential of chitosan/hydroxyapatite (chit/HA) and novel chitosan/β-1,3-glucan/hydroxyapatite (chit/glu/HA) materials as scaffolds for bone regeneration via characterization of their biocompatibility, porosity, mechanical properties, and water uptake behaviour. Biocompatibility of the scaffolds was assessed in direct-contact with the materials using normal human foetal osteoblast cell line. Cytotoxicity and osteoblast proliferation rate were evaluated. Porosity was assessed using computed microtomography analysis and mechanical properties were determined by compression testing. Obtained results demonstrated that chit/HA scaffold possessed significantly better mechanical properties (compressive strength: 1.23 MPa, Young's modulus: 0.46 MPa) than chit/glu/HA material (compressive strength: 0.26 MPa, Young's modulus: 0.25 MPa). However, addition of bacterial β-1,3-glucan to the chit/HA scaffold improved its flexibility and porosity. Moreover, chit/glu/HA scaffold revealed significantly higher water uptake capability (52.6% after 24 h of soaking) compared to the chit/HA (30.7%) and thus can serve as a very good drug delivery carrier. Chit/glu/HA scaffold was also more favourable to osteoblast survival (near 100% viability after 24-h culture), proliferation, and spreading compared to the chit/HA (63% viability). The chit/glu/HA possesses better biomedical potential than chit/HA scaffold. Nevertheless, poor mechanical properties of the chit/glu/HA limit its application to non-load bearing implantation area. - Highlights: • Chitosan/HA and chit/β-1,3-glucan/HA scaffolds for bone regeneration were compared. • Chit/HA significantly reduced osteoblast viability to 63% compared to chit/glu/HA. • Unlike chit/HA, chit/glu/HA favoured cell adhesion, spreading, and proliferation. • Chit/HA had better compressive strength and Young's modulus than chit/glu/HA. • Chit/glu/HA revealed significantly higher

  2. An in situ infrared study of dimethyl carbonate synthesis from carbon dioxide and methanol over zirconia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jung, Kyeong Taek; Bell, Alexis T.

    2001-01-01

    The mechanism of dimethyl carbonate (DMC) synthesis from methanol and carbon dioxide over monoclinic zirconia has been investigated using in situ infrared spectroscopy. The dissociative adsorption of methanol occurs more slowly than the adsorption of carbon dioxide, but the species formed from methanol are bound more strongly. Upon adsorption, the oxygen atom of methanol binds to coordinately unsaturated Zr4+ cations present at the catalyst surface. Rapid dissociation of the adsorbed methanol leads to the formation of a methoxide group (Zr-OCH3) and the release of a proton, which reacts with a surface hydroxyl group to produce water. Carbon dioxide inserts in the Zr-O bond of the methoxide to form a mondentate methyl carbonate group (Zr-OC(O)OCH3). This process is facilitated by the interactions of C and O atoms in CO2 with Lewis acid-base pairs of sites (Zr4+O2-) on the surface of the catalyst. Methyl carbonate species can also be produced via the reaction of methanol with carbon dioxide adsorbed in the form of bicarbonate species with methanol, a process that results in the transfer of a methyl group to the carbonate and restores a hydroxyl group to the zirconia surface. The decomposition of DMC on monoclinic zirconia has also been investigated and has been observed to occur via the reverse of the processes described for the synthesis of DMC

  3. Microwave assisted in situ synthesis of Ag–NaCMC films and their reproducible surface-enhanced Raman scattering signals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jiang, Tao; Li, Junpeng; Zhang, Li; Wang, Binbing; Zhou, Jun

    2014-01-01

    Graphical abstract: Two kinds of Ag–NaCMC films for surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) were prepared by conventional heating and microwave assisted in situ reduction methods without any additional capping or reducing agents. A relatively narrow and symmetric surface plasmon resonance band was observed in the absorption spectra of the films fabricated by the microwave assisted in situ reduction method. More uniform silver nanoparticles (NPs) implied by the symmetric absorption spectrum were further confirmed by the scanning electron microscopy images. After the simulation of the E-field intensity distribution around the silver NPs in NaCMC film, the Raman scattering enhancement factors (EFs) of these films were then investigated with 4-mercaptobenzoic acid molecule as a SERS reporter. Improved reproducibility of SERS signal was obtained in the microwave assisted synthesized Ag–NaCMC film, although it maintained an EF as only 1.11 × 10 8 . The reproducible SERS signal of the Ag–NaCMC film is particularly attractive and this microwave assisted in situ reduction method is suitable for the production of excellent substrate for biosensor application. - Highlights: • The synthesis of Ag–NaCMC films was successfully fulfilled by a low-cost microwave method. • More uniform silver nanoparticles were observed in Ag–NaCMC film synthesized by microwave. • Improved reproducibility of SERS signal was obtained in microwave synthesized Ag–NaCMC film. - Abstract: Two kinds of Ag–NaCMC films for surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) were prepared by conventional heating and microwave assisted in situ reduction methods without any additional capping or reducing agents. A relatively narrow and symmetric surface plasmon resonance band was observed in the absorption spectra of the films fabricated by the microwave assisted in situ reduction method. More uniform silver nanoparticles (NPs) implied by the symmetric absorption spectrum were further confirmed by

  4. Electrochemical studies, in-situ and ex-situ characterizations of different manganese compounds electrodeposited in aerated solutions; Etudes electrochimiques, suivis in-situ et caracterisations ex-situ de divers composes de manganese electrodeposes dans des solutions aerees

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peulon, S.; Lacroix, A.; Chausse, A. [Univ. d' Evry-val-d' Essonne, Laboratoire Analyse et Modelisation pour la Biologie et l' Environnement (LAMBE CNRS UMR 8587), 91 - Evry (France); Larabi-Gruet, N. [CEA Saclay, Dept. de Physico-Chimie (DEN/DPC/SECR/L3MR), 91 - Gif sur Yvette (France)

    2007-07-01

    This work deals with the electrodeposition of manganese compounds. A systematic study of the synthesis experimental conditions has been carried out, and the obtained depositions have been characterized by different ex-situ analyses methods (XRD, FTIR, SEM). The in-situ measurements of mass increase with a quartz microbalance during the syntheses have allowed to estimate the growth mechanisms which are in agreement with the ex-situ characterizations. The cation has an important role in the nature of the electrodeposited compounds. In presence of sodium, a mixed lamellar compound Mn(III)/Mn(IV), the birnessite, is deposited, whereas in presence of potassium, bixbyite is formed (Mn{sub 2}O{sub 3}), these two compounds having a main role in the environment. The substrate can also influence the nature of the formed intermediary compounds. Little studied compounds such as feitkneichtite ({beta}-MnOOH) and groutite ({alpha}-MnOOH) have been revealed. (O.M.)

  5. Comparison of in Situ and ex Situ Methods for Synthesis of Two-Photon Polymerization Polymer Nanocomposites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qingchuan Guo

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available This article reports about nanocomposites, which refractive index is tuned by adding TiO2 nanoparticles. We compare in situ/ex situ preparation of nanocomposites. Preparation procedure is described, properties of nanocomposites are compared, and especially we examine the applicability of two-photon polymerization (2PP of synthesized nanocomposites. All prepared samples exhibit suitable optical transparency at specific laser wavelengths. Three-dimensional structures were generated by means of two-photon polymerization effect induced by a femtosecond laser.

  6. In situ synthesis of magnetic CaraPVA IPN nanocomposite hydrogels and controlled drug release

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mahdavinia, Gholam Reza; Etemadi, Hossein

    2014-01-01

    In this work, the magnetic nanocomposite hydrogels that focused on targeted drug delivery were synthesized by incorporation of polyvinyl alcohol (PVA), kappa-carrageenan (Cara), and magnetite Fe 3 O 4 nanoparticles. The magnetic nanoparticles were obtained in situ in the presence of a mixture of polyvinyl alcohol/kappa-carrageenan (CaraPVA). The produced magnetite-polymers were cross-linked with freezing–thawing technique and subsequent with K + solution. The synthesized hydrogels were thoroughly characterized by transmittance electron microscopy (TEM), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD), thermal gravimetric analysis (TGA), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR), and vibrating sample magnetometer (VSM) techniques. The dynamic swelling kinetic models of hydrogels were analyzed according to the first- and second-order kinetic models and were found that the experimental kinetics data followed the second-order model well. Drug loading and release efficiency were evaluated by diclofenac sodium (DS) as the model drug. The in vitro drug release studies from hydrogels exhibited significant behaviors on the subject of physiological simulated pHs and external magnetic fields. Investigation on the antibacterial activity revealed the ability of drug-loaded hydrogels to inactivate the Gram-positive Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus) bacteria. The mucoadhesive properties of the hydrogels were studied and the hydrogels containing kappa-carrageenan showed good mucoadhesiveness in both simulated gastric and intestinal conditions. - Highlights: • In situ synthesis of magnetic kappa-carrageenan/PVA nanocomposite hydrogel. • Low salt sensitivity of magnetic nanocomposite hydrogels was observed. • The release of diclofenac sodium from hydrogels was pH-dependent. • The release of diclofenac sodium from magnetic hydrogels was affected by external magnetic field. • The hydrogels containing carrageenan component showed high mucoadhesiveness

  7. In situ synthesis of magnetic CaraPVA IPN nanocomposite hydrogels and controlled drug release

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mahdavinia, Gholam Reza, E-mail: grmnia@maragheh.ac.ir; Etemadi, Hossein

    2014-12-01

    In this work, the magnetic nanocomposite hydrogels that focused on targeted drug delivery were synthesized by incorporation of polyvinyl alcohol (PVA), kappa-carrageenan (Cara), and magnetite Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4} nanoparticles. The magnetic nanoparticles were obtained in situ in the presence of a mixture of polyvinyl alcohol/kappa-carrageenan (CaraPVA). The produced magnetite-polymers were cross-linked with freezing–thawing technique and subsequent with K{sup +} solution. The synthesized hydrogels were thoroughly characterized by transmittance electron microscopy (TEM), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD), thermal gravimetric analysis (TGA), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR), and vibrating sample magnetometer (VSM) techniques. The dynamic swelling kinetic models of hydrogels were analyzed according to the first- and second-order kinetic models and were found that the experimental kinetics data followed the second-order model well. Drug loading and release efficiency were evaluated by diclofenac sodium (DS) as the model drug. The in vitro drug release studies from hydrogels exhibited significant behaviors on the subject of physiological simulated pHs and external magnetic fields. Investigation on the antibacterial activity revealed the ability of drug-loaded hydrogels to inactivate the Gram-positive Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus) bacteria. The mucoadhesive properties of the hydrogels were studied and the hydrogels containing kappa-carrageenan showed good mucoadhesiveness in both simulated gastric and intestinal conditions. - Highlights: • In situ synthesis of magnetic kappa-carrageenan/PVA nanocomposite hydrogel. • Low salt sensitivity of magnetic nanocomposite hydrogels was observed. • The release of diclofenac sodium from hydrogels was pH-dependent. • The release of diclofenac sodium from magnetic hydrogels was affected by external magnetic field. • The hydrogels containing carrageenan component showed high

  8. Synthesis of CdS nanocrystals in polymeric films studied by in-situ GID and GISAXS

    KAUST Repository

    Di Luccio, Tiziana; Carbone, Dina; Masala, Silvia; Ramachandran, Karthik; Kornfield, Julie

    2015-01-01

    In this work, we describe the synthesis of CdS nanocrystals in thin polymeric films by in-situ Grazing Incidence Diffraction (GID) and Grazing Incidence Small Angle Scattering (GISAXS). The 2D GISAXS patterns indicate how the precursor structure is altered as the temperature is varied from 25°C to 300°C. At 150°C, the CdS nanocrystals start to arrange themselves in a hexagonal lattice with a lattice parameter of 27 A. The diffraction intensity from the hexagonal lattice reaches a maximum at 170"C and decreases steadily upon further heating above 220°C indicating loss of symmetry. Correspondingly, the GID scans at 170°C show strong crystalline peaks from cubic CdS nanocrystals that are about 2 nm size. The results indicate that a temperature of 170°C is sufficient to synthesize CdS nanocrystals without degradation of the polymer matrix (Topas) in thin films (about 30nm). © 2015 Materials Research Society.

  9. Synthesis of CdS nanocrystals in polymeric films studied by in-situ GID and GISAXS

    KAUST Repository

    Di Luccio, Tiziana

    2015-07-07

    In this work, we describe the synthesis of CdS nanocrystals in thin polymeric films by in-situ Grazing Incidence Diffraction (GID) and Grazing Incidence Small Angle Scattering (GISAXS). The 2D GISAXS patterns indicate how the precursor structure is altered as the temperature is varied from 25°C to 300°C. At 150°C, the CdS nanocrystals start to arrange themselves in a hexagonal lattice with a lattice parameter of 27 A. The diffraction intensity from the hexagonal lattice reaches a maximum at 170"C and decreases steadily upon further heating above 220°C indicating loss of symmetry. Correspondingly, the GID scans at 170°C show strong crystalline peaks from cubic CdS nanocrystals that are about 2 nm size. The results indicate that a temperature of 170°C is sufficient to synthesize CdS nanocrystals without degradation of the polymer matrix (Topas) in thin films (about 30nm). © 2015 Materials Research Society.

  10. Synthesis and characterization of nano hydroxyapatite using reverse micro emulsions as nano reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Amin, S.; Siddique, T.

    2015-01-01

    In the present work reverse micro emulsion has been employed as nano reactors to synthesize nano crystalline Hydroxyapatite (HA). Two precursors; calcium and phosphate with different counter ions of each were used for the synthesis of HA at two different temperatures. To maintain the emulsified nano reactor, cyclohexane, TX-100 and 1-butanol including phosphate precursor was the continuous phase while aqueous Ca precursor solution was taken as the dispersed phase. Nano crystalline particles thus produced were evaluated on the basis of synthesis route, counter ions and temperature. It has been shown that emulsified nano reactors control the morphology, particle size and minimize phase transformation of HA. Characterizations of nano powder of HA are carried out using x-ray diffraction (XRD), Fourier transform infra-red spectroscopy (FTIR), and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). HA crystallite size was found to be in the range of 20-25 nm whereas the morphology of nano particles changed from spheres to rods. (author)

  11. Investigations into low pressure methanol synthesis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sharafutdinov, Irek

    The central topic of this work has been synthesis, characterization and optimization of novel Ni-Ga based catalysts for hydrogenation of CO2 to methanol. The overall goal was to search for materials that could be used as a low temperature (and low pressure) methanol synthesis catalyst....... This is required for small scale delocalized methanol production sites, where installation of energy demanding compression units should be avoided. The work was triggered by DFT calculations, which showed that certain bimetallic systems are active towards methanol synthesis from CO2 and H2 at ambient pressure...... containing 5:3 molar ratio of Ni:Ga, the intrinsic activity (methanol production rate per active surface area) is comparable to that of highly optimised Cu/ZnO/Al2O3. Formation of the catalyst was investigated with the aid of in-situ XRD and in-situ XAS techniques. The mechanism of alloying was proposed...

  12. Bamboo resources, utilization and ex-situ conservation in Xishuangbanna, South-eastern China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YANG Qing; DUAN Zhu-biao; WANG Zheng-liang; HE Kai-hong; SUN Qi-xiang; PENG Zhen-hua

    2008-01-01

    This paper describes the geographical distribution, utilization, cultural value and ex-situ conservation of bamboo resources in Xishuangbanna, Yunan Province, China. Sixty species of bamboo in 19 genera are recorded in Xishuangbanna. The area of natural bamboo forest is 14319 ha, accounting for 5.92% of whole area of Xishuangbanna. The abundant resource of bamboo plays an important role in the economics and culture of national minorities in Xishuangbanna. Xishuangbanna Tropic Botanic Garden, Chinese Academy of Sciences (CAS), started to introduce bamboo species in 1961 and established the ex-situ conservation reserve (8 ha) of bamboo in 1981. Up to now, 211 species in 27 genera collected from tropic and sub-tropic of China and South-east Asia have been planted in the bamboo reserve, of which 11 species have bloomed and seeded, and their seeds were cultivated in Xishuangbanna Tropical Botanic Gardens, CAS, China.

  13. Osteoblast interaction with laser cladded HA and SiO2-HA coatings on Ti-6Al-4V

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang Yuling; Serpersu, Kaan; He Wei; Paital, Sameer R.; Dahotre, Narendra B.

    2011-01-01

    In order to improve the bioactivity and biocompatibility of titanium endosseous implants, the morphology and composition of the surfaces were modified. Polished Ti-6Al-4V substrates were coated by a laser cladding process with different precursors: 100 wt.% HA and 25 wt.% SiO 2 -HA. X-ray diffraction of the laser processed samples showed the presence of CaTiO 3 , Ca 3 (PO 4 ) 2 , and Ca 2 SiO 4 phases within the coatings. From in vitro studies, it was observed that compared to the unmodified substrate all laser cladded samples presented improved cellular interactions and bioactivity. The samples processed with 25 wt.% SiO 2 -HA precursor showed a significantly higher HA precipitation after immersion in simulated body fluid than 100 wt.% HA precursor and titanium substrates. The in vitro biocompatibility of the laser cladded coatings and titanium substrate was investigated by culturing of mouse MC3T3-E1 pre-osteoblast cell line and analyzing the cell viability, cell proliferation, and cell morphology. A significantly higher cell attachment and proliferation rate were observed for both laser cladded 100 wt.% HA and 25 wt.% SiO 2 -HA samples. Compared to 100 wt.% HA sample, 25 wt.% SiO 2 -HA samples presented a slightly improved cellular interaction due to the addition of SiO 2 . The staining of the actin filaments showed that the laser cladded samples induced a normal cytoskeleton and well-developed focal adhesion contacts. Scanning electron microscopic image of the cell cultured samples revealed better cell attachment and spreading for 25 wt.% SiO 2 -HA and 100 wt.% HA coatings than titanium substrate. These results suggest that the laser cladding process improves the bioactivity and biocompatibility of titanium. The observed biological improvements are mainly due to the coating induced changes in surface chemistry and surface morphology. Highlights: → Laser cladding of Ti alloys with bioceramics creates new phases. → Laser cladded samples with SiO 2 -doped

  14. Characterization of New PEEK/HA Composites with 3D HA Network Fabricated by Extrusion Freeforming.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaezi, Mohammad; Black, Cameron; Gibbs, David M R; Oreffo, Richard O C; Brady, Mark; Moshrefi-Torbati, Mohamed; Yang, Shoufeng

    2016-05-26

    Addition of bioactive materials such as calcium phosphates or Bioglass, and incorporation of porosity into polyetheretherketone (PEEK) has been identified as an effective approach to improve bone-implant interfaces and osseointegration of PEEK-based devices. In this paper, a novel production technique based on the extrusion freeforming method is proposed that yields a bioactive PEEK/hydroxyapatite (PEEK/HA) composite with a unique configuration in which the bioactive phase (i.e., HA) distribution is computer-controlled within a PEEK matrix. The 100% interconnectivity of the HA network in the biocomposite confers an advantage over alternative forms of other microstructural configurations. Moreover, the technique can be employed to produce porous PEEK structures with controlled pore size and distribution, facilitating greater cellular infiltration and biological integration of PEEK composites within patient tissue. The results of unconfined, uniaxial compressive tests on these new PEEK/HA biocomposites with 40% HA under both static and cyclic mode were promising, showing the composites possess yield and compressive strength within the range of human cortical bone suitable for load bearing applications. In addition, preliminary evidence supporting initial biological safety of the new technique developed is demonstrated in this paper. Sufficient cell attachment, sustained viability in contact with the sample over a seven-day period, evidence of cell bridging and matrix deposition all confirmed excellent biocompatibility.

  15. Characterization of New PEEK/HA Composites with 3D HA Network Fabricated by Extrusion Freeforming

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Vaezi

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Addition of bioactive materials such as calcium phosphates or Bioglass, and incorporation of porosity into polyetheretherketone (PEEK has been identified as an effective approach to improve bone-implant interfaces and osseointegration of PEEK-based devices. In this paper, a novel production technique based on the extrusion freeforming method is proposed that yields a bioactive PEEK/hydroxyapatite (PEEK/HA composite with a unique configuration in which the bioactive phase (i.e., HA distribution is computer-controlled within a PEEK matrix. The 100% interconnectivity of the HA network in the biocomposite confers an advantage over alternative forms of other microstructural configurations. Moreover, the technique can be employed to produce porous PEEK structures with controlled pore size and distribution, facilitating greater cellular infiltration and biological integration of PEEK composites within patient tissue. The results of unconfined, uniaxial compressive tests on these new PEEK/HA biocomposites with 40% HA under both static and cyclic mode were promising, showing the composites possess yield and compressive strength within the range of human cortical bone suitable for load bearing applications. In addition, preliminary evidence supporting initial biological safety of the new technique developed is demonstrated in this paper. Sufficient cell attachment, sustained viability in contact with the sample over a seven-day period, evidence of cell bridging and matrix deposition all confirmed excellent biocompatibility.

  16. Li4Ti5O12 thin-film electrodes by in-situ synthesis of lithium alkoxide for Li-ion microbatteries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mosa, J.; Aparicio, M.; Tadanaga, K.; Hayashi, A.; Tatsumisago, M.

    2014-01-01

    Rechargeable thin-film batteries have recently become the topic of widespread research for use as efficient energy storage devices. Spinel Li 4 Ti 5 O 12 has been considered as one of the most prospective anode materials for Li-ion batteries because of its excellent reversibility and long cycle life. We report here the sol–gel synthesis and coating preparation of spinel thin-film Li 4 Ti 5 O 12 electrodes for Li-ion microbatteries using lithium ethoxide produced in situ that reacts with titanium alkoxide to produce the precursor solution without particle precipitation. This synthesis procedure reduces the thermal treatment to obtain a pure phase at only 700 °C and 15 minutes. The physical and structural characterization of the 300 nm Li 4 Ti 5 O 12 coatings shows a very homogeneous distribution of elements and a pure spinel phase. Galvanostatic discharge-charge tests indicate maximum discharge capacities of 152 mA h g −1 when the material is treated at 700 °C for 15 minutes

  17. Electrochemical studies, in-situ and ex-situ characterizations of different manganese compounds electrodeposited in aerated solutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peulon, S.; Lacroix, A.; Chausse, A.; Larabi-Gruet, N.

    2007-01-01

    This work deals with the electrodeposition of manganese compounds. A systematic study of the synthesis experimental conditions has been carried out, and the obtained depositions have been characterized by different ex-situ analyses methods (XRD, FTIR, SEM). The in-situ measurements of mass increase with a quartz microbalance during the syntheses have allowed to estimate the growth mechanisms which are in agreement with the ex-situ characterizations. The cation has an important role in the nature of the electrodeposited compounds. In presence of sodium, a mixed lamellar compound Mn(III)/Mn(IV), the birnessite, is deposited, whereas in presence of potassium, bixbyite is formed (Mn 2 O 3 ), these two compounds having a main role in the environment. The substrate can also influence the nature of the formed intermediary compounds. Little studied compounds such as feitkneichtite (β-MnOOH) and groutite (α-MnOOH) have been revealed. (O.M.)

  18. Relasphone—Mobile and Participative In Situ Forest Biomass Measurements Supporting Satellite Image Mapping

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthieu Molinier

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Due to the high cost of traditional forest plot measurements, the availability of up-to-date in situ forest inventory data has been a bottleneck for remote sensing image analysis in support of the important global forest biomass mapping. Capitalizing on the proliferation of smartphones, citizen science is a promising approach to increase spatial and temporal coverages of in situ forest observations in a cost-effective way. Digital cameras can be used as a relascope device to measure basal area, a forest density variable that is closely related to biomass. In this paper, we present the Relasphone mobile application with extensive accuracy assessment in two mixed forest sites from different biomes. Basal area measurements in Finland (boreal zone were in good agreement with reference forest inventory plot data on pine ( R 2 = 0 . 75 , R M S E = 5 . 33 m 2 /ha, spruce ( R 2 = 0 . 75 , R M S E = 6 . 73 m 2 /ha and birch ( R 2 = 0 . 71 , R M S E = 4 . 98 m 2 /ha, with total relative R M S E ( % = 29 . 66 % . In Durango, Mexico (temperate zone, Relasphone stem volume measurements were best for pine ( R 2 = 0 . 88 , R M S E = 32 . 46 m 3 /ha and total stem volume ( R 2 = 0 . 87 , R M S E = 35 . 21 m 3 /ha. Relasphone data were then successfully utilized as the only reference data in combination with optical satellite images to produce biomass maps. The Relasphone concept has been validated for future use by citizens in other locations.

  19. The sunflower transcription factor HaHB11 confers tolerance to water deficit and salinity to transgenic Arabidopsis and alfalfa plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cabello, Julieta V; Giacomelli, Jorge I; Gómez, María C; Chan, Raquel L

    2017-09-10

    Homeodomain-leucine zipper (HD-Zip) transcription factors are unique to the plant kingdom; members of subfamily I are known to be involved in abiotic stress responses. HaHB11 belongs to this subfamily and it was previously shown that it is able to confer improved yield and tolerance to flooding via a quiescent strategy. Here we show that HaHB11 expression is induced by ABA, NaCl and water deficit in sunflower seedlings and leaves. Arabidopsis transgenic plants expressing HaHB11, controlled either by its own promoter or by the constitutive 35S CaMV, presented rolled leaves and longer roots than WT when grown under standard conditions. In addition, these plants showed wider stems and more vascular bundles. To deal with drought, HaHB11 transgenic plants closed their stomata faster and lost less water than controls, triggering an enhanced tolerance to such stress condition and also to salinity stress. Concomitantly, ABA-synthesis and sensing related genes were differentially regulated in HaHB11 transgenic plants. Either under long-term salinity stress or mild drought stress, HaHB11 transgenic plants did not exhibit yield penalties. Moreover, alfalfa transgenic plants were generated which also showed enhanced drought tolerance. Altogether, the results indicated that HaHB11 was able to confer drought and salinity tolerance via a complex mechanism which involves morphological, physiological and molecular changes. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. In situ probing of temperature in radio frequency thermal plasma using Yttrium ion emission lines during synthesis of yttria nanoparticles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dhamale, G. D.; Tiwari, N.; Mathe, V. L.; Bhoraskar, S. V.; Ghorui, S.

    2017-07-01

    Particle feeding is used in the most important applications of radio frequency (r.f.) thermal plasmas like synthesis of nanoparticles and particle spheroidization. The study reports an in-situ investigation of radial distribution of temperature in such devices using yttrium ion emission lines under different rates of particle loading during synthesis of yttria nanoparticles. A number of interesting facts about the response of r.f. plasma to the rate of particle loading, hitherto unknown, are revealed. Observed phenomena are supported with experimental data from fast photographic experiments and actual synthesis results. The use of the Abel inversion technique together with simultaneous multi-track acquisition of emission spectra from different spatial locations using a CCD based spectrometer allowed us to extract accurate distribution of temperature inside the plasma in the presence of inherent instabilities. The temperature profiles of this type of plasma have been measured possibly for the first time while particles are being fed into the plasma. Observed changes in the temperature profiles as the particle feed rate increases are very significant. Reaction forces resulting from particle evaporation, and increased skin depth owing to the decrease in electrical conductivity in the edge region are proposed as the two different mechanisms to account for the observed changes in the temperature profile as the powder feed rate is increased. Quantitative analyses supporting the proposed mechanisms are presented.

  1. Optimizing heterosurface adsorbent synthesis for liquid chromatography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bogoslovskii, S. Yu.; Serdan, A. A.

    2016-03-01

    The structural and geometric parameters of a silica matrix (SM) for the synthesis of heterosurface adsorbents (HAs) are optimized. Modification is performed by shielding the external surfaces of alkyl-modified silica (AS) using human serum albumin and its subsequent crosslinking. The structural and geometric characteristics of the SM, AS, and HA are measured via low-temperature nitrogen adsorption. It is found that the structural characteristics of AS pores with diameters D 9 nm reduces significantly due to adsorption of albumin. It is concluded that silica gel with a maximum pore size distribution close to 5 nm and a minimal proportion of pores with D > 9 nm is optimal for HA synthesis; this allows us to achieve the greatest similarity between the chromatographic retention parameters for HA and AS. The suitability of the synthesized adsorbents for analyzing drugs in biological fluids through direct sample injection is confirmed by chromatography. It was found that the percentage of the protein fraction detected at the outlet of the chromatographic column is 98%.

  2. Synthesis and structural characterization of nano-hydroxyapatite biomaterials prepared by microwave processing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramli, Rosmamuhamadani; Arawi, Ainaa Zafirah Omar; Talari, Mahesh Kumar; Mahat, Mohd Muzamir; Jais, Umi Sarah

    2012-07-01

    Synthetic hydroxyapatite, (HA, Ca10(PO4)6(OH)2), is an attractive and widely utilized bio-ceramic material for orthopedic and dental implants because of its close resemblance of native tooth and bone crystal structure. Synthetic HA exhibits excellent osteoconductive properties. Osteoconductivity means the ability to provide the appropriate scaffold or template for bone formation. Calcium phosphate biomaterials [(HA), tri-calcium phosphate (TCP) and biphasic calcium phosphate (HA/TCP)] with appropriate three-dimensional geometry are able to bind and concentrate endogenous bone morphogenetic proteins in circulation, and may become osteoinductive and can be effective carriers of bone cell seeds. This HA can be used in bio-implants as well as drug delivery application due to the unique properties of HA. Biomaterials synthesized from the natural species like mussel shells have additional benefits such as high purity, less expensive and high bio compatibility. In this project, HA-nanoparticles of different crystallite size were prepared by microwave synthesis of precursors. High purity CaO was extracted from the natural mussel shells for the synthesis of nano HA. Dried nano HA powders were analyzed using X-Ray Diffraction (XRD) technique for the determination of crystal structure and impurity content. Scanning Electron Microscopic (SEM) investigation was employed for the morphological investigation of nano HA powders. From the results obtained, it was concluded that by altering the irradiation time, nano HA powders of different crystallite sizes and morphologies could be produced. Crystallite sizes calculated from the XRD patterns are found to be in the range of 10-55 nm depending on the irradiation time.

  3. Size controlled hydroxyapatite and calcium carbonate particles: synthesis and their application as templates for SERS platform.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parakhonskiy, B V; Svenskaya, Yu I; Yashchenok, A М; Fattah, H A; Inozemtseva, O A; Tessarolo, F; Antolini, R; Gorin, D A

    2014-06-01

    An elegant route for hydroxyapatite (HA) particle synthesis via ionic exchange reaction is reported. Calcium carbonate particles (CaCO3) were recrystallized into HA beads in water solution with phosphate ions. The size of initial CaCO3 particles was controlled upon the synthesis by varying the amount of ethylene glycol (EG) in aqueous solution. The average size of HA beads ranged from 0.6±0.1 to 4.3±1.1μm. Silver nanoparticles were deposited on the surface of HA and CaCO3 particles via silver mirror reaction. Surface enhanced Raman scattering of silver functionalized beads was demonstrated by detecting Rhodamine B. CaCO3 and HA particles have a great potential for design of carrier which can provide diagnostic and therapeutic functions. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Gas-phase laser synthesis of aggregation-free, size-controlled hydroxyapatite nanoparticles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bapat, Parimal V.; Kraft, Rebecca; Camata, Renato P.

    2012-01-01

    Nanophase hydroxyapatite (HA) is finding applications in many areas of biomedical research, including bone tissue engineering, drug delivery, and intracellular imaging. Details in chemical composition, crystal phase makeup, size, and shape of HA nanoparticles play important roles in achieving the favorable biological responses required in these applications. Most of the nanophase HA synthesis techniques involve solution-based methods that exhibit substantial aggregation of particles upon precipitation. Typically these methods also have limited control over the particle size and crystal phase composition. In this study, we describe the gas-phase synthesis of aggregation-free, size-controlled HA nanoparticles with mean size in the 20–70 nm range using laser ablation followed by aerosol electrical mobility classification. Nanoparticle deposits with adjustable number concentration were obtained on solid substrates. Particles were characterized by transmission electron microscopy, atomic force microscopy, and X-ray diffraction. Samples are well represented by log-normal size distributions with geometric standard deviation σ g ≈ 1.2. The most suitable conditions for HA nanoparticle formation at a laser fluence of 5 J/cm 2 were found to be a temperature of 800 °C and a partial pressure of water of 160 mbar.

  5. Characterization, Corrosion Resistance, and Cell Response of High-Velocity Flame-Sprayed HA and HA/TiO2 Coatings on 316L SS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Tejinder Pal; Singh, Harpreet; Singh, Hazoor

    2012-09-01

    The main aim of this study is to evaluate corrosion and biocompatibility behavior of thermal spray hydroxyapatite (HA) and hydroxyapatite/titania bond (HA/TiO2)-coated 316L stainless steel (316L SS). In HA/TiO2 coatings, TiO2 was used as a bond coat between HA top coat and 316L SS substrate. The coatings were characterized by x-ray diffraction and scanning electron microscopy/energy dispersive spectroscopy, and corrosion resistance determined for the uncoated substrate and the two coatings. The biological behavior was investigated by the cell culture studies using osteosarcoma cell line KHOS-NP (R-970-5). The corrosion resistance of the steel was found to increase after the deposition of the HA and HA/TiO2 bond coatings. Both HA, as well as, HA/TiO2 coatings exhibit excellent bond strength of 49 and 47 MPa, respectively. The cell culture studies showed that HA-coated 316L SS specimens appeared more biocompatible than the uncoated and HA/TiO2-coated 316L SS specimens.

  6. Osteoblast interaction with laser cladded HA and SiO{sub 2}-HA coatings on Ti-6Al-4V

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang Yuling [Department of Physics, Northeastern University, Shenyang 110004 (China); Department of Materials Science and Engineering, University of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN 37996 (United States); Serpersu, Kaan [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, University of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN 37996 (United States); He Wei, E-mail: whe5@utk.edu [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, University of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN 37996 (United States); Department of Mechanical, Aerospace and Biomedical Engineering, University of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN 37996 (United States); Paital, Sameer R. [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, University of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN 37996 (United States); Dahotre, Narendra B. [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, University of North Texas, Denton, TX 76207 (United States)

    2011-12-01

    In order to improve the bioactivity and biocompatibility of titanium endosseous implants, the morphology and composition of the surfaces were modified. Polished Ti-6Al-4V substrates were coated by a laser cladding process with different precursors: 100 wt.% HA and 25 wt.% SiO{sub 2}-HA. X-ray diffraction of the laser processed samples showed the presence of CaTiO{sub 3}, Ca{sub 3}(PO{sub 4}){sub 2}, and Ca{sub 2}SiO{sub 4} phases within the coatings. From in vitro studies, it was observed that compared to the unmodified substrate all laser cladded samples presented improved cellular interactions and bioactivity. The samples processed with 25 wt.% SiO{sub 2}-HA precursor showed a significantly higher HA precipitation after immersion in simulated body fluid than 100 wt.% HA precursor and titanium substrates. The in vitro biocompatibility of the laser cladded coatings and titanium substrate was investigated by culturing of mouse MC3T3-E1 pre-osteoblast cell line and analyzing the cell viability, cell proliferation, and cell morphology. A significantly higher cell attachment and proliferation rate were observed for both laser cladded 100 wt.% HA and 25 wt.% SiO{sub 2}-HA samples. Compared to 100 wt.% HA sample, 25 wt.% SiO{sub 2}-HA samples presented a slightly improved cellular interaction due to the addition of SiO{sub 2}. The staining of the actin filaments showed that the laser cladded samples induced a normal cytoskeleton and well-developed focal adhesion contacts. Scanning electron microscopic image of the cell cultured samples revealed better cell attachment and spreading for 25 wt.% SiO{sub 2}-HA and 100 wt.% HA coatings than titanium substrate. These results suggest that the laser cladding process improves the bioactivity and biocompatibility of titanium. The observed biological improvements are mainly due to the coating induced changes in surface chemistry and surface morphology. Highlights: {yields} Laser cladding of Ti alloys with bioceramics creates new

  7. Sr, Mg cosubstituted HA porous macro-granules: potentialities as resorbable bone filler with antiosteoporotic functions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Landi, Elena; Uggeri, Jacopo; Medri, Valentina; Guizzardi, Stefano

    2013-09-01

    Porous macro-granules of nanostructured apatite with Ca ions partially cosubstituted with Mg and Sr ions in different ratios (SrMgHAs), were synthesized at 37°C and compared with Mg and/or Sr free apatites (MgHAs and HA). Strontium improved the Mg substitution extent in the apatite and the chemical-physical and thermal stability of the resulting cosubstituted apatite. Porous macro-granules of 400-600 micron with selected composition were tested for the ionic release in synthetic body fluid and the data were related with the results of preliminary cell investigation in vitro. As compared to the corresponding Sr-free granulate, the SrMgHA could be exploited to prolong the beneficial Mg release during the bone regeneration process. In addition the contemporary in situ supply of Sr, an antiosteoporotic and anticarie ion, could influence the quality of new hard tissues. The ionic multirelease created a more favorable environment for human osteoblasts, demonstrated by a proliferative effect for each dose tested in the range 0.1-10 mg/mL. Copyright © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  8. Effect of Water-Glass Coating on HA and HA-TCP Samples for MSCs Adhesion, Proliferation, and Differentiation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Indu Bajpai

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Ca-P and silicon based materials have become very popular as bone tissue engineering materials. In this study, water-glass (also known as sodium silicate glass was coated on sintered hydroxyapatite (HA and HA-TCP (TCP stands for tricalcium phosphate samples and subsequently heat-treated at 600°C for 2 hrs. X-rays diffraction showed the presence of β- and α-TCP phases along with HA in the HA-TCP samples. Samples without coating, with water-glass coating, and heat-treated after water-glass coating were used to observe the adhesion and proliferation response of bone marrow derived-mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs. Cell culture was carried out for 4 hrs, 1 day, and 7 days. Interestingly, all samples showed similar response for cell adhesion and proliferation up to 7-day culture but fibronectin, E-cadherin, and osteogenic differentiation related genes (osteocalcin and osteopontin were significantly induced in heat-treated water-glass coated HA-TCP samples. A water-glass coating on Ca-P samples was not found to influence the cell proliferation response significantly but activated some extracellular matrix genes and induced osteogenic differentiation in the MSCs.

  9. Perspective: Toward "synthesis by design": Exploring atomic correlations during inorganic materials synthesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soderholm, L.; Mitchell, J. F.

    2016-05-01

    Synthesis of inorganic extended solids is a critical starting point from which real-world functional materials and their consequent technologies originate. However, unlike the rich mechanistic foundation of organic synthesis, with its underlying rules of assembly (e.g., functional groups and their reactivities), the synthesis of inorganic materials lacks an underpinning of such robust organizing principles. In the latter case, any such rules must account for the diversity of chemical species and bonding motifs inherent to inorganic materials and the potential impact of mass transport on kinetics, among other considerations. Without such assembly rules, there is less understanding, less predictive power, and ultimately less control of properties. Despite such hurdles, developing a mechanistic understanding for synthesis of inorganic extended solids would dramatically impact the range of new material discoveries and resulting new functionalities, warranting a broad call to explore what is possible. Here we discuss our recent approaches toward a mechanistic framework for the synthesis of bulk inorganic extended solids, in which either embryonic atomic correlations or fully developed phases in solutions or melts can be identified and tracked during product selection and crystallization. The approach hinges on the application of high-energy x-rays, with their penetrating power and large Q-range, to explore reaction pathways in situ. We illustrate this process using two examples: directed assembly of Zr clusters in aqueous solution and total phase awareness during crystallization from K-Cu-S melts. These examples provide a glimpse of what we see as a larger vision, in which large scale simulations, data-driven science, and in situ studies of atomic correlations combine to accelerate materials discovery and synthesis, based on the assembly of well-defined, prenucleated atomic correlations.

  10. Rapid in situ synthesis of spherical microflower Pt/C catalyst via spray-drying for high performance fuel cell application

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Balgis, R.; Ogi, T.; Okuyama, K. [Department of Chemical Engineering, Graduate School of Engineering, Hiroshima University, Higashi Hiroshima, Hiroshima (Japan); Anilkumar, G.M.; Sago, S. [Research and Development Centre, Noritake Co., Ltd., Higashiyama, Miyoshi, Aichi (Japan)

    2012-08-15

    A facile route for the rapid in situ synthesis of platinum nanoparticles on spherical microflower carbon has been developed. An aqueous precursor slurry containing carbon black, polystyrene latex (PSL), polyvinyl alcohol, and platinum salt was spray-dried, followed by calcination to simultaneously reduce platinum salt and to decompose PSL particles. Prepared Pt/C catalyst showed high-performance electrocatalytic activity with excellent durability. The mass activity and specific activity values were 132.26 mA mg{sup -1} Pt and 207.62 {mu}A cm{sup -2} Pt, respectively. This work presents a future direction for the production of high-performance Pt/C catalyst in an industrial scale. (Copyright copyright 2012 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  11. In situ deposition of hydroxyapatite on graphene nanosheets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Neelgund, Gururaj M.; Oki, Aderemi; Luo, Zhiping

    2013-01-01

    Graphical abstract: A facile chemical precipitation method is reported for effective in situ deposition of hydroxyapatite on graphene nanosheets. Prior to grafting of hydroxyapatite, chemically modified graphene nanosheets were obtained by the reduction of graphene oxide in presence of ethylenediamine. Display Omitted Highlights: ► It is a facile and effective method for deposition of HA on GR nanosheets. ► It avoids the use of harmful reducing agents like hydrazine, NaBH 4 etc. ► GR nanosheets were produced using bio-compatible, ethylenediamine. ► The graphitic structure of synthesized GR nanosheets was high ordered. ► The ratio of Ca to P in HA was 1.64, which is close to ratio in natural bone. -- Abstract: Graphene nanosheets were effectively functionalized by in situ deposition of hydroxyapatite through a facile chemical precipitation method. Prior to grafting of hydroxyapatite, chemically modified graphene nanosheets were obtained by the reduction of graphene oxide in presence of ethylenediamine. The resulting hydroxyapatite functionalized graphene nanosheets were characterized by attenuated total reflection IR spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction, field emission scanning electron microscopy, transmission electron microscopy, X-ray energy dispersive spectroscopy, Raman spectroscopy and thermogravimetric analysis. These characterization techniques revealed the successful grafting of hydroxyapatite over well exfoliated graphene nanosheets without destroying their structure.

  12. In situ deposition of hydroxyapatite on graphene nanosheets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Neelgund, Gururaj M. [Department of Chemistry, Prairie View A and M University, Prairie View, TX 77446 (United States); Oki, Aderemi, E-mail: aroki@pvamu.edu [Department of Chemistry, Prairie View A and M University, Prairie View, TX 77446 (United States); Luo, Zhiping [Microscopy and Imaging Center and Materials Science and Engineering Program, Texas A and M University, College Station, TX 77843 (United States)

    2013-02-15

    Graphical abstract: A facile chemical precipitation method is reported for effective in situ deposition of hydroxyapatite on graphene nanosheets. Prior to grafting of hydroxyapatite, chemically modified graphene nanosheets were obtained by the reduction of graphene oxide in presence of ethylenediamine. Display Omitted Highlights: ► It is a facile and effective method for deposition of HA on GR nanosheets. ► It avoids the use of harmful reducing agents like hydrazine, NaBH{sub 4} etc. ► GR nanosheets were produced using bio-compatible, ethylenediamine. ► The graphitic structure of synthesized GR nanosheets was high ordered. ► The ratio of Ca to P in HA was 1.64, which is close to ratio in natural bone. -- Abstract: Graphene nanosheets were effectively functionalized by in situ deposition of hydroxyapatite through a facile chemical precipitation method. Prior to grafting of hydroxyapatite, chemically modified graphene nanosheets were obtained by the reduction of graphene oxide in presence of ethylenediamine. The resulting hydroxyapatite functionalized graphene nanosheets were characterized by attenuated total reflection IR spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction, field emission scanning electron microscopy, transmission electron microscopy, X-ray energy dispersive spectroscopy, Raman spectroscopy and thermogravimetric analysis. These characterization techniques revealed the successful grafting of hydroxyapatite over well exfoliated graphene nanosheets without destroying their structure.

  13. In-Situ Hydrothermal Synthesis of Bi-Bi2O2CO3 Heterojunction Photocatalyst with Enhanced Visible Light Photocatalytic Activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kar, Prasenjit; Maji, Tuhin Kumar; Nandi, Ramesh; Lemmens, Peter; Pal, Samir Kumar

    2017-04-01

    Bismuth containing nanomaterials recently received increasing attention with respect to environmental applications because of their low cost, high stability and nontoxicity. In this work, Bi-Bi2O2CO3 heterojunctions were fabricated by in-situ decoration of Bi nanoparticles on Bi2O2CO3 nanosheets via a simple hydrothermal synthesis approach. X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and high-resolution TEM (HRTEM) were used to confirm the morphology of the nanosheet-like heterostructure of the Bi-Bi2O2CO3 composite. Detailed ultrafast electronic spectroscopy reveals that the in-situ decoration of Bi nanoparticles on Bi2O2CO3 nanosheets exhibit a dramatically enhanced electron-hole pair separation rate, which results in an extraordinarily high photocatalytic activity for the degradation of a model organic dye, methylene blue (MB) under visible light illumination. Cycling experiments revealed a good photochemical stability of the Bi-Bi2O2CO3 heterojunction under repeated irradiation. Photocurrent measurements further indicated that the heterojunction incredibly enhanced the charge generation and suppressed the charge recombination of photogenerated electron-hole pairs.

  14. In situ green synthesis of antimicrobial carboxymethyl chitosan-nanosilver hybrids with controlled silver release.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Siqi; Yu, Zhiming; Zhang, Yang; Qi, Chusheng; Zhang, Shifeng

    2017-01-01

    In order to fabricate antimicrobial carboxymethyl chitosan-nanosilver (CMC-Ag) hybrids with controlled silver release, this study demonstrated comparable formation via three synthetic protocols: 1) carboxymethyl chitosan (CMC) and glucose (adding glucose after AgNO 3 ), 2) CMC and glucose (adding glucose before AgNO 3 ), and 3) CMC only. Under principles of green chemistry, the synthesis was conducted in an aqueous medium exposed to microwave irradiation for 10 minutes with nontoxic chemicals. The structure and formation mechanisms of the three CMC-Ag hybrids were explored using X-ray diffraction, ultraviolet-visible spectroscopy, transmission electron microscopy, and Fourier-transform infrared analyses. Additionally, antimicrobial activity and in vitro silver release of the three synthesized hybrids were investigated in detail. The results revealed that a large number of stable, uniform, and small silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) were synthesized in situ on CMC chains via protocol 1. AgNPs were well dispersed with narrow size distribution in the range of 6-20 nm, with mean diameter only 12.22±2.57 nm. The addition of glucose resulted in greater AgNP synthesis. The order of addition of glucose and AgNO 3 significantly affected particle size and size distribution of AgNPs. Compared to CMC alone and commercially available AgNPs, the antimicrobial activities of three hybrids were significantly improved. Of the three hybrids, CMC-Ag1 synthesized via protocol 1 exhibited better antimicrobial activity than CMC-Ag2 and CMC-Ag3, and showed more effective inhibition of Staphylococcus aureus than Escherichia coli . Due to strong coordination and electrostatic interactions between CMC and silver and good steric protection provided by CMC, CMC-Ag1 displayed stable and continuous silver release and better performance in retaining silver for prolonged periods than CMC-Ag2 and CMC-Ag3.

  15. In situ green synthesis of antimicrobial carboxymethyl chitosan–nanosilver hybrids with controlled silver release

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Siqi; Yu, Zhiming; Zhang, Yang; Qi, Chusheng; Zhang, Shifeng

    2017-01-01

    In order to fabricate antimicrobial carboxymethyl chitosan–nanosilver (CMC-Ag) hybrids with controlled silver release, this study demonstrated comparable formation via three synthetic protocols: 1) carboxymethyl chitosan (CMC) and glucose (adding glucose after AgNO3), 2) CMC and glucose (adding glucose before AgNO3), and 3) CMC only. Under principles of green chemistry, the synthesis was conducted in an aqueous medium exposed to microwave irradiation for 10 minutes with nontoxic chemicals. The structure and formation mechanisms of the three CMC-Ag hybrids were explored using X-ray diffraction, ultraviolet-visible spectroscopy, transmission electron microscopy, and Fourier-transform infrared analyses. Additionally, antimicrobial activity and in vitro silver release of the three synthesized hybrids were investigated in detail. The results revealed that a large number of stable, uniform, and small silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) were synthesized in situ on CMC chains via protocol 1. AgNPs were well dispersed with narrow size distribution in the range of 6–20 nm, with mean diameter only 12.22±2.57 nm. The addition of glucose resulted in greater AgNP synthesis. The order of addition of glucose and AgNO3 significantly affected particle size and size distribution of AgNPs. Compared to CMC alone and commercially available AgNPs, the antimicrobial activities of three hybrids were significantly improved. Of the three hybrids, CMC-Ag1 synthesized via protocol 1 exhibited better antimicrobial activity than CMC-Ag2 and CMC-Ag3, and showed more effective inhibition of Staphylococcus aureus than Escherichia coli. Due to strong coordination and electrostatic interactions between CMC and silver and good steric protection provided by CMC, CMC-Ag1 displayed stable and continuous silver release and better performance in retaining silver for prolonged periods than CMC-Ag2 and CMC-Ag3. PMID:28458539

  16. Histidine as a catalyst in organic synthesis: A facile in situ synthesis ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Unknown

    They are also used in the synthesis of many nitrogen-containing biologically ... addition to hydroxylamine, results in formation of an imine, azoxy compound 15, ... GC-MS, m/z: 211 (M+), 194 (base peak); 13C NMR (DMSO-d6) δ : 31⋅14 ...

  17. ha õhtu seltskonnalaud / Kaire Nurk

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Nurk, Kaire, 1960-

    2005-01-01

    ha õhtusöömaaja teemast kunstis. Saksa kunstiajaloolase Horst Schwebeli poolt Leonardo da Vinci "Püha õhtusöömaaja" XX sajandi "töötlustes" välja toodud poliitilise agitatsiooni ja ühisest probleemist haaratud seltskonna kujutiste suunast. Laua kujutisest kunstis

  18. Electrochemical Performance of LixMn2-yFeyO4-zClz Synthesized Through In-Situ Glycine Nitrate Combustion

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-06-13

    Electrochemical Performance of LixMn2-yFeyO4-zClz Synthesized Through In-Situ Glycine Nitrate Combustion Ashley L. Ruth, Paula C. Latorre, and...sites as well as the formation of Mn3+ ions via the Jahn- Teller effect. The use of the glycine nitrate combustion synthesis produces small particles at...advantage of submicron ceramic synthesis, namely the glycine nitrate combustion process (GNP), we propose the capability for in-situ B-site doping

  19. Impact of high altitude on the hepatic fatty acid oxidation and synthesis in rats

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ni, Qian [Department of General Surgery, Hepatic-biliary-pancreatic Institute, Lanzhou University Second Hospital, Lanzhou (China); Department of Pediatrics, Lanzhou University Second Hospital, Lanzhou (China); Shao, Yuan; Wang, Ying Zhen [Department of General Surgery, Hepatic-biliary-pancreatic Institute, Lanzhou University Second Hospital, Lanzhou (China); Jing, Yu Hong [Institute of Anatomy, School of Basic Medicine, Lanzhou University, Lanzhou (China); Zhang, You Cheng, E-mail: zhangychmd@126.com [Department of General Surgery, Hepatic-biliary-pancreatic Institute, Lanzhou University Second Hospital, Lanzhou (China)

    2014-04-04

    Highlights: • Acute exposure to high altitude (HA) increased hepatic fatty acid (FA) β-oxidation. • Acute exposure of rats to HA increased hepatic FA synthesis. • PPARα and AMPK can regulate the FA metabolism. • FA may be a key energy fuel and a compensation for CHO during acute exposure to HA. • The acute changes of FA metabolism may be a mechanism of acclimatization. - Abstract: High altitude (HA) affects energy metabolism. The impact of acute and chronic HA acclimatization on the major metabolic pathways is still controversial. In this study, we aimed to unveil the impact of HA on the key enzymes involved in the fatty acid (FA) metabolism in liver. Rats were exposed to an altitude of 4300 m for 30 days and the expressions of two key proteins involved in FA β-oxidation (carnitine palmitoyl transferase I, CPT-I; and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor alpha, PPARα), two proteins involved in FA synthesis (acetyl CoA carboxylase-1, ACC-1; and AMP-activated protein kinase, AMPK), as well as the total ketone body in the liver and the plasma FFAs were examined. Rats without HA exposure were used as controls. We observed that the acute exposure of rats to HA (3 days) led to a significant increase in the expressions of CPT-I and PPARα and in the total hepatic ketone body. Longer exposure (15 days) caused a marked decrease in the expression of CPT-I and PPARα. By 30 days after HA exposure, the expression levels of CPT-I and PPARα returned to the control level. The hepatic ACC-1 level showed a significant increase in rats exposed to HA for 1 and 3 days. In contrast, the hepatic level of AMPK showed a significant reduction throughout the experimental period. Plasma FFA concentrations did not show any significant changes following HA exposure. Thus, increased hepatic FA oxidation and synthesis in the early phase of HA exposure may be among the important mechanisms for the rats to respond to the hypoxic stress in order to acclimatize themselves to the

  20. Impact of high altitude on the hepatic fatty acid oxidation and synthesis in rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ni, Qian; Shao, Yuan; Wang, Ying Zhen; Jing, Yu Hong; Zhang, You Cheng

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Acute exposure to high altitude (HA) increased hepatic fatty acid (FA) β-oxidation. • Acute exposure of rats to HA increased hepatic FA synthesis. • PPARα and AMPK can regulate the FA metabolism. • FA may be a key energy fuel and a compensation for CHO during acute exposure to HA. • The acute changes of FA metabolism may be a mechanism of acclimatization. - Abstract: High altitude (HA) affects energy metabolism. The impact of acute and chronic HA acclimatization on the major metabolic pathways is still controversial. In this study, we aimed to unveil the impact of HA on the key enzymes involved in the fatty acid (FA) metabolism in liver. Rats were exposed to an altitude of 4300 m for 30 days and the expressions of two key proteins involved in FA β-oxidation (carnitine palmitoyl transferase I, CPT-I; and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor alpha, PPARα), two proteins involved in FA synthesis (acetyl CoA carboxylase-1, ACC-1; and AMP-activated protein kinase, AMPK), as well as the total ketone body in the liver and the plasma FFAs were examined. Rats without HA exposure were used as controls. We observed that the acute exposure of rats to HA (3 days) led to a significant increase in the expressions of CPT-I and PPARα and in the total hepatic ketone body. Longer exposure (15 days) caused a marked decrease in the expression of CPT-I and PPARα. By 30 days after HA exposure, the expression levels of CPT-I and PPARα returned to the control level. The hepatic ACC-1 level showed a significant increase in rats exposed to HA for 1 and 3 days. In contrast, the hepatic level of AMPK showed a significant reduction throughout the experimental period. Plasma FFA concentrations did not show any significant changes following HA exposure. Thus, increased hepatic FA oxidation and synthesis in the early phase of HA exposure may be among the important mechanisms for the rats to respond to the hypoxic stress in order to acclimatize themselves to the

  1. Using Converter Dust to Produce Low Cost Cementitious Composites by in situ Carbon Nanotube and Nanofiber Synthesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Péter Ludvig

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Carbon nanotubes (CNTs and nanofibers (CNFs were synthesized on clinker and silica fume particles in order to create a low cost cementitious nanostructured material. The synthesis was carried out by an in situ chemical vapor deposition (CVD process using converter dust, an industrial byproduct, as iron precursor. The use of these materials reduces the cost, with the objective of application in large-scale nanostructured cement production. The resulting products were analyzed by scanning electron microscopy (SEM, transmission electron microscopy (TEM and thermogravimetric analysis (TGA and were found to be polydisperse in size and to have defective microstructure. Some enhancement in the mechanical behavior of cement mortars was observed due to the addition of these nano-size materials. The contribution of these CNTs/CNFs to the mechanical strength of mortar specimens is similar to that of high quality CNTs incorporated in mortars by physical mixture.

  2. In situ synthesis of N and Cu functionalized mesoporous FDU-14 resins and carbons for electrochemical hydrogen storage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kong, AiGuo; Wang, WenJuan; Yang, Fan; Ding, HanMing; Shan, YongKui [Department of Chemistry, East China Normal University, ShangHai 200062 (China)

    2010-07-15

    N and Cu cooperatively functionalized mesoporous resin and carbon materials with bicontinuous cubic structure (FDU-14) were obtained by a novel synthesis method. In this method, block copolymers were used as the templates as well as the precursors for the preparation of these modifying mesoporous materials. The CuC{sub 2}O{sub 4} in the channels of mesoporous FDU-14 resins was gotten by in situ oxidation of the templates in a catalytic redox system containing Cu{sup 2+}, Al{sup 3+}, NO{sub 3}{sup -}, PO{sub 4}{sup 3-}, SO{sub 4}{sup 2-} ions. Simultaneously, the phenol-formaldehyde resin frameworks were in situ functionalized by the amine group resulting from the reduction of NO{sub 3}{sup -}, leading to the formation of N and CuC{sub 2}O{sub 4} modified mesoporous FDU-14 resin materials. Its pyrolysis at the different temperatures resulted in the production of N and Cu cooperatively functionalized mesoporous FDU-14 resin and carbon materials. The structure and composition of these materials were characterized by the X-ray power diffraction, transmission electron microscopy, N{sub 2} adsorption-desorption analysis, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, infrared spectroscopy, thermogravimetry analysis, and inductive coupled plasma emission spectroscopy. The electrochemical measurement indicated that N and Cu cooperatively functionalized mesoporous FDU-14 carbon materials possessed the enhanced electrochemical hydrogen storage performance. (author)

  3. In-situ synthesis of SiC particles by the structural evolution of TiCx in Al–Si melt

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nie, Jinfeng; Li, Dakui; Wang, Enzhao; Liu, Xiangfa

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • A facile method to in-situ synthesize SiC was developed utilizing the structural evolution of TiC x in Al–Si melt. • The SiC particles have the size range from 2.5 to 7.5 μm and a block-like morphology. • The SiC particles and (SiC + TiB 2 ) hybrid-particles reinforced Al–18Si composite were prepared. • The wear resistance effect of SiC on the based alloy was investigated. - Abstract: A facile method has been developed to in-situ synthesize SiC particles utilizing the structural instability and evolution of TiC x in Al–Si melt. It is considered that the synthesis of SiC particles occurs via the gradual reaction between TiC x and Si atoms, whilst Si content plays the crucial role in this approach. If the Si content in the melt is above 30%, TiC x directly reacts with Si and Al to form SiC, but the needle-like TiAl x Si y phase formed simultaneously will do harm to the mechanical properties of the composites. Thus, it is proposed to add B element in the melt to transform the TiAl x Si y into TiB 2 particles. Therefore, the SiC and (SiC + TiB 2 ) hybrid-particles reinforced Al–18Si composites were successfully prepared using the method. In the composites, the SiC particles have the size range from 2.5 to 7.5 μm and a block-like morphology. Furthermore, the mechanical properties of base alloy, including the wear resistance and macro-hardness, have been obviously improved by the in-situ SiC particles. Besides, the relevant underlying mechanisms are also discussed

  4. Effect of humic acid (HA) on sulfonamide sorption by biochars

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lian, Fei; Sun, Binbin; Chen, Xi; Zhu, Lingyan; Liu, Zhongqi; Xing, Baoshan

    2015-01-01

    Effect of quantity and fractionation of loaded humic acid (HA) on biochar sorption for sulfonamides was investigated. The HA was applied in two different modes, i.e. pre-coating and co-introduction with sorbate. In pre-coating mode, the polar fractions of HA tended to interact with low-temperature biochars via H-bonding, while the hydrophobic fractions were likely to be adsorbed by high-temperature biochars through hydrophobic and π-π interactions, leading to different composition and structure of the HA adlayers. The influences of HA fractionation on biochar sorption for sulfonamides varied significantly, depending on the nature of interaction between HA fraction and sorbate. Meanwhile, co-introduction of HA with sulfonamides revealed that the effect of HA on sulfonamide sorption was also dependent on HA concentration. These findings suggest that the amount and fractionation of adsorbed HA are tailored by the surface properties of underlying biochars, which differently affect the sorption for organic contaminants. - Highlights: • Effect of quantity and fractionation of coated HA on sorption of sulfonamides by BC was studied. • Fractionation of coated HA is tailored by surface properties of BC. • Roles of HA in BC sorption depend on interaction between HA adlayer and sorbate. • Roles of HA in sulfonamide sorption by BC also depend on HA aqueous concentration. - The quantity and fractionation of adsorbed HA play a major role in sulfonamide sorption by biochars

  5. Intermatrix Synthesis as a rapid, inexpensive and reproducible methodology for the in situ functionalization of nanostructured surfaces with quantum dots

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bastos-Arrieta, Julio, E-mail: julio.bastos@upc.edu [Department of Chemical Engineering, Universitat Politècnica de Catalunya, Av. Diagonal 647, 08028 Barcelona (Spain); Department of Chemistry, Universitat Autònoma de Barcelona, 08193 Barcelona (Spain); Muñoz, Jose, E-mail: josemaria.munoz@uab.cat [Department of Chemistry, Universitat Autònoma de Barcelona, 08193 Barcelona (Spain); Stenbock-Fermor, Anja, E-mail: stenbock@dwi.rwth-aachen.de [DWI – Leibniz-Institut für Interaktive Materialien, Aachen 52056 (Germany); Muñoz, Maria, E-mail: Maria.Munoz@uab.cat [Department of Chemistry, Universitat Autònoma de Barcelona, 08193 Barcelona (Spain); Muraviev, Dmitri N., E-mail: Dimitri.Muraviev@uab.es [Department of Chemistry, Universitat Autònoma de Barcelona, 08193 Barcelona (Spain); Céspedes, Francisco, E-mail: francisco.cespedes@uab.cat [Department of Chemistry, Universitat Autònoma de Barcelona, 08193 Barcelona (Spain); Tsarkova, Larisa A., E-mail: tsarkova@dwi.rwth-aachen.de [DWI – Leibniz-Institut für Interaktive Materialien, Aachen 52056 (Germany); Baeza, Mireia, E-mail: MariaDelMar.Baeza@uab.cat [Department of Chemistry, Universitat Autònoma de Barcelona, 08193 Barcelona (Spain)

    2016-04-15

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • Nanodiamond functionalization with CdS quantum dots. • Approach for carbon nanotube detection in water samples. • Simple functionalization of thin polymeric nanolayers with quantum dots. - Abstract: Intermatrix Synthesis (IMS) technique has proven to be a valid methodology for the in situ incorporation of quantum dots (QDs) in a wide range of nanostructured surfaces for the preparation of advanced hybrid-nanomaterials. In this sense, this communication reports the recent advances in the application of IMS for the synthesis of CdS-QDs with favourable distribution on sulfonated polyetherether ketone (SPEEK) membrane thin films (TFs), multiwall carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) and nanodiamonds (NDs). The synthetic route takes advantage of the ion exchange functionality of the reactive surfaces for the loading of the QDs precursor and consequent QDs appearance by precipitation. The benefits of such modified nanomaterials were studied using CdS-QDs@MWCNTs hybrid-nanomaterials. CdS-QDs@MWCNTs has been used as conducting filler for the preparation of electrochemical nanocomposite sensors, which present electrocatalytic properties. Finally, the optical properties of the QDs contained on MWCNTs could allow a new procedure for the analytical detection of nanostructured carbon allotropes in water.

  6. Intermatrix Synthesis as a rapid, inexpensive and reproducible methodology for the in situ functionalization of nanostructured surfaces with quantum dots

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bastos-Arrieta, Julio; Muñoz, Jose; Stenbock-Fermor, Anja; Muñoz, Maria; Muraviev, Dmitri N.; Céspedes, Francisco; Tsarkova, Larisa A.; Baeza, Mireia

    2016-01-01

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • Nanodiamond functionalization with CdS quantum dots. • Approach for carbon nanotube detection in water samples. • Simple functionalization of thin polymeric nanolayers with quantum dots. - Abstract: Intermatrix Synthesis (IMS) technique has proven to be a valid methodology for the in situ incorporation of quantum dots (QDs) in a wide range of nanostructured surfaces for the preparation of advanced hybrid-nanomaterials. In this sense, this communication reports the recent advances in the application of IMS for the synthesis of CdS-QDs with favourable distribution on sulfonated polyetherether ketone (SPEEK) membrane thin films (TFs), multiwall carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) and nanodiamonds (NDs). The synthetic route takes advantage of the ion exchange functionality of the reactive surfaces for the loading of the QDs precursor and consequent QDs appearance by precipitation. The benefits of such modified nanomaterials were studied using CdS-QDs@MWCNTs hybrid-nanomaterials. CdS-QDs@MWCNTs has been used as conducting filler for the preparation of electrochemical nanocomposite sensors, which present electrocatalytic properties. Finally, the optical properties of the QDs contained on MWCNTs could allow a new procedure for the analytical detection of nanostructured carbon allotropes in water.

  7. In-situ fabrication of hybrid polyoxometalate nanoparticles composite films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lan Yang; Mao Baodong; Wang Enbo; Song Yonghai; Kang Zhenhui; Wang Chunlei; Tian Chungui; Zhang Chao; Xu Lin; Li Zhuang

    2007-01-01

    Inorganic-organic hybrid nanoparticles multilayer films were fabricated by extending the method of nucleation and growth of particles in polymer assemblies. The polyelectrolyte matrix was constructed by layer-by-layer self-assembly method. Synthesis of polyoxometalate nanoparticles was achieved by alternately dipping the precursor polyelectrolyte matrix into AgNO 3 and H 4 SiW 12 O 40 aqueous solutions. Repeating the above synthesis process, Ag 4 SiW 12 O 40 nanoparticles with controllable diameters of 20 to 77 nm were synthesized in the multilayer films in-situ. UV-vis absorption spectra indicate that the nanoparticles grew gradually in the synthesis process. Transmission electron microscopy was used to observe the size and morphology of the nanoparticles

  8. Mitigation of algal organic matter released from Chaetoceros affinis and Hymenomonas by in situ generated ferrate

    KAUST Repository

    Deka, Bhaskar Jyoti

    2018-05-10

    This study demonstrates the application of in situ ferrate (Fe(VI)) for the efficient removal of dissolved algal organic matter (AOM) from seawater. Sodium hypochlorite (NaOCl) and ferric (Fe(III)) were used to produce in situ Fe(VI) by wet chemical oxidation. First, the removal efficiencies of model AOM compounds, humic acid (HA), and sodium alginate (SA) were evaluated in the presence of sodium chloride with an initial influent dissolved organic carbon (DOC) concentration of 5.0 mg C L−1 at different pH levels to establish the optimal doses for in situ Fe(VI) generation. The concentration of Fe(VI) was determined by the 2,2-Azino-bis (3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid) ultraviolet–visible spectrophotometry method. In the case of HA, 72% DOC removal was recorded when applied with 1.5 mg L−1 of Fe(III) and 1.5 mg L−1 of NaOCl (in situ Fe(VI) concentration of 1.46 mg L−1) while 42% DOC removal was observed for SA. Subsequently, the removal of AOM extracted from two bloom-forming algal species, Chaetoceros affinis (CA) and Hymenomonas (Hym), cultivated in seawater from the Red Sea, were tested with in situ generated Fe(VI) at the established optimum condition. In situ Fe(VI) recorded superior performance in removing AOM extracted from CA and Hym, showing 83% and 92% DOC removal when the influent DOC concentrations were 2.48 and 2.63 mg L−1, respectively. A detailed AOM characterization was conducted using liquid chromatography–organic carbon detection.

  9. The role of the mesenchyme in mouse neural fold elevation. II. Patterns of hyaluronate synthesis and distribution in embryos developing in vitro

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morris-Wiman, J.; Brinkley, L.L.

    1990-01-01

    Hyaluronate (HA) distribution patterns were examined in the cranial mesenchyme underlying the mesencephalic neural folds of mouse embryos maintained in roller tube culture. Using standard image-processing techniques, the digitized images of Alcian blue-stained or 3H-glucosamine-labeled sections digested with an enzyme specific for HA, were subtracted from adjacent, undigested sections. The resultant difference picture images (DPI) accurately depicted the distribution of stained or labeled HA within the cranial mesenchyme. 3H-glucosamine-labeled HA was distributed uniformly throughout the cranial mesenchyme as 12, 18, and 24 hr of culture. By contrast, the mesenchyme was uniformly stained with Alcian blue at 12 hr, but stain intensity decreased in the central regions of the mesenchyme at 18 and 24 hr. HA distribution patterns were also examined in the cranial mesenchyme of embryos cultured in the presence of diazo-oxo-norleucine (DON), a glutamine analogue that inhibits glycosaminoglycan and glycoprotein synthesis. In DON-treated mesenchyme, Alcian blue staining of HA was decreased from that in controls at 12, 18, and 24 hr. However, incorporation of 3H-glucosamine into HA was increased. The distribution of labeled HA within treated mesenchyme as 12, 18, and 24 hr resembled that in controls at 12 hr. These results indicate that the distribution of HA within the cranial mesenchyme of normal mouse embryos during neural fold elevation and convergence is not determined solely by regional differences in HA synthesis. We propose that HA distribution patterns result from the expansion of the HA-rich extracellular matrix of the central mesenchyme regions. This expansion may play a major role in fold elevation. These results also suggest that DON treatment reversibly inhibits HA synthesis

  10. MECHANISMS CONTROLLING Ca ION RELEASE FROM SOL-GEL DERIVED IN SITU APATITE-SILICA NANOCOMPOSITE POWDER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seyed Mohsen Latifi

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Ca ion release from bioactive biomaterials could play an important role in their bioactivity and osteoconductivity properties. In order to improve hydroxyapatite (HA dissolution rate, in situ apatite-silica nanocomposite powders with various silica contents were synthesized via sol-gel method and mechanisms controlling the Ca ion release from them were investigated. Obtained powders were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD and transmission electron spectroscopy (TEM techniques, acid dissolution test, and spectroscopy by atomic absorption spectrometer (AAS. Results indicated the possible incorporation of (SiO44- into the HA structure and tendency of amorphous silica to cover the surface of HA particles. However, 20 wt. % silica was the lowest amount that fully covered HA particles. All of the nanocomposite powders showed more Ca ion release compared with pure HA, and HA - 10 wt. % silica had the highest Ca ion release. The crystallinity, the crystallite size, and the content of HA, along with the integrity, thickness, and ion diffusion possibility through the amorphous silica layer on the surface of HA, were factors that varied due to changes in the silica content and were affected the Ca ion release from nanocomposite powders.

  11. Regulation of Hyaluronan Synthesis in Vascular Diseases and Diabetes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paola Moretto

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Cell microenvironment has a critical role determining cell fate and modulating cell responses to injuries. Hyaluronan (HA is a ubiquitous extracellular matrix glycosaminoglycan that can be considered a signaling molecule. In fact, interacting with several cell surface receptors can deeply shape cell behavior. In vascular biology, HA triggers smooth muscle cells (SMCs dedifferentiation which contributes to vessel wall thickening. Furthermore, HA is able to modulate inflammation by altering the adhesive properties of endothelial cells. In hyperglycemic conditions, HA accumulates in vessels and can contribute to the diabetic complications at micro- and macrovasculature. Due to the pivotal role in favoring atherogenesis and neointima formation after injuries, HA could be a new target for cardiovascular pathologies. This review will focus on the recent findings regarding the regulation of HA synthesis in human vascular SMCs. In particular, the effects of the intracellular HA substrates availability, adenosine monophosphate-activated protein kinase (AMPK, and protein O-GlcNAcylation on the main HA synthetic enzyme (i.e., HAS2 will be discussed.

  12. Green synthesis, characterization, and anticancer activity of hyaluronan/zinc oxide nanocomposites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Namvar F

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Farideh Namvar,1,2 Susan Azizi,3 Heshu Sulaiman Rahman,4–6 Rosfarizan Mohamad,1,3 Abdullah Rasedee,4 Mozhgan Soltani,2 Raha Abdul Rahim71Institute of Tropical Forestry and Forest Products (INTROP, Universiti Putra Malaysia, UPM Serdang, Selangor, Malaysia; 2Research Center for Animal Development Applied Biology, Mashhad Branch, Islamic Azad University, Mashhad, Iran; 3Department of Bioprocess Technology, Faculty of Biotechnology and Biomolecular Sciences, 4Department of Veterinary Laboratory Diagnosis, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Universiti Putra Malaysia, UPM Serdang, Selangor, Malaysia; 5Department of Clinic and Internal Medicine, College of Veterinary Medicine, University of Sulaimani, 6Department of Laboratory Medical Sciences, Komar University of Science and Technology, Sulaimani City, Kurdistan Region, Northern Iraq; 7Department of Cell and Molecular Biology, Faculty of Biotechnology and Biomolecular Sciences, Universiti Putra Malaysia, UPM Serdang, Selangor, Malaysia Abstract: The study describes an in situ green biosynthesis of zinc oxide nanocomposite using the seaweed Sargassum muticum water extract and hyaluronan biopolymer. The morphology and optical properties of the hyaluronan/zinc oxide (HA/ZnO nanocomposite were determined by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction, field emission scanning electron microscopy, transmission electron microscopy, and ultraviolet–vis analysis. Electron microscopy and X-ray diffraction analysis showed that the zinc oxide nanoparticles were polydispersed with a mean size of 10.2±1.5 nm. The nanoparticles were mostly hexagonal in crystalline form. The HA/ZnO nanocomposite showed the absorption properties in the ultraviolet zone that is ascribed to the band gap of zinc oxide nanocomposite. In the cytotoxicity study, cancer cells, pancreatic adenocarcinoma (PANC-1, ovarian adenocarcinoma (CaOV-3, colonic adenocarcinoma (COLO205, and acute promyelocytic leukemia (HL-60 cells

  13. Log-pile photonic crystal of CdS-polymer nanocomposites fabricated by combination of two-photon polymerization and in situ synthesis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sun, Z.-B.; Dong, X.-Z.; Chen, W.-Q.; Duan, X.-M.; Nakanishi, S.; Kawata, S.

    2007-01-01

    A log-pile photonic crystal of CdS nanoparticles-polymer nanocomposites was successfully fabricated by a novel method combining the two-photon polymerization technique and in situ synthesis of CdS nanoparticles in a polymer matrix. The photonic band gap of the three-dimensional (3D) log-pile photonic crystal is confirmed and becomes more effective for CdS nanoparticles-polymer nanocomposites than polymer doped with Cd 2+ ions, because the nanocomposites possess a higher refractive index than the polymer. The proposed concept in the new fabrication method for a 3D microstructure of polymer nanocomposites should be of critical importance in providing a general methodology for functionalization of materials via functional nanocomposites used in the field of laser microstructure fabrication. (orig.)

  14. Biomolecule-loaded chitosan nanoparticles induce apoptosis and molecular changes in cancer cell line (SiHa).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sujima Anbu, Anbu; Velmurugan, Palanivel; Lee, Jeong-Ho; Oh, Byung-Taek; Venkatachalam, Perumal

    2016-07-01

    The present study reports on the synthesis of chitosan nanoparticles (CNPs) using methanol extracts of Gymnema sylvestre (GS) leaves and Cinnamomum zeylanicum (CZ) bark. Biomolecule-loaded nanoparticles induced apoptosis in a human cervical cancer (SiHa) cell line, and experiments were carried out to elucidate the underlying molecular mechanisms. FT-IR and XRD showed possible functional groups of the biomolecules and the crystalline nature of CNPs, respectively. Transmission electron microscopy images revealed that synthesized GSCNPs and CZCNPs had a smooth spherical shape with average sizes of about 58-80 and 60-120nm, respectively. Dynamic light scattering studies indicated that both GSCNPs and CZCNs were structurally stable with homogenous and heterogeneous natures, respectively. Furthermore, synthesized GSCNPs and CZCNPs exhibited dose-dependent cytotoxicity against the SiHa cancer cell line, with inhibitory concentration (IC50) values of 102.17μg/ml, 87.75μg/ml, 132.74μg/ml and 90.35μg/ml for GS leaf extract, GSCNPs, CZBE and CZCNPs, respectively. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Microwave-Assisted Hydrothermal Synthesis of Cellulose/Hydroxyapatite Nanocomposites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lian-Hua Fu

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we report a facile, rapid, and green strategy for the synthesis of cellulose/hydroxyapatite (HA nanocomposites using an inorganic phosphorus source (sodium dihydrogen phosphate dihydrate (NaH2PO4·2H2O, or organic phosphorus sources (adenosine 5′-triphosphate disodium salt (ATP, creatine phosphate disodium salt tetrahydrate (CP, or D-fructose 1,6-bisphosphate trisodium salt octahydrate (FBP through the microwave-assisted hydrothermal method. The effects of the phosphorus sources, heating time, and heating temperature on the phase, size, and morphology of the products were systematically investigated. The experimental results revealed that the phosphate sources played a critical role on the phase, size, and morphology of the minerals in the nanocomposites. For example, the pure HA was obtained by using NaH2PO4·2H2O as phosphorus source, while all the ATP, CP, and FBP led to the byproduct, calcite. The HA nanostructures with various morphologies (including nanorods, pseudo-cubic, pseudo-spherical, and nano-spherical particles were obtained by varying the phosphorus sources or adjusting the reaction parameters. In addition, this strategy is surfactant-free, avoiding the post-treatment procedure and cost for the surfactant removal from the product. We believe that this work can be a guidance for the green synthesis of cellulose/HA nanocomposites in the future.

  16. Synthesis of hydroxyapatite nanoparticles onto modified polypropylene surface to be used in bone tissue engineering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cellet, Thelma Sley P.; Pereira, Guilherme M.; Fragal, Elizangela H.; Rubira, Adley F.; Companhoni, Mychelle V.P.; Nakamura, Celso V.; Ueda-Nakamura, Tania

    2015-01-01

    Chemical modification of polypropylene (PP) films can be explored to prepare innovative materials, for instance materials which can be used in tissue engineering application. The maleimide synthesis onto PP films was made for later polymerizes glycidyl methacrylate (GMA) and to grow up hydroxyapatite nanoparticles (n-HA) by biomimetization method (BM) in metastable simulated body fluid (SBF) for 7, 14 and 21 days. The modification steps were proved by infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) and the n-HA synthesis evidenced by X-ray diffractometry (XRD), scanning electronic microscopy (SEM) and energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDS). PP films exposed to SBF for 14 and 21 days showed n-HA on all over the films surface. The interaction of pre-osteoblasts with the films after 48 hours was evaluated by SEM. The results demonstrate that cells on the surface of n-HA films showed spreading, and number of filopodia similar to the control, wherein the films with greater amount of n-HA appear to have higher filopodia connections between the cells and appear to have its surface covered with higher cell density. (author)

  17. Electrochemical synthesis of nanosized hydroxyapatite by pulsed direct current method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nur, Adrian; Rahmawati, Alifah; Ilmi, Noor Izzati; Affandi, Samsudin; Widjaja, Arief [Departement of Chemical Engineering, Faculty of Industrial Technology, Sepuluh Nopember Institute of Technology, Kampus ITS Sukolilo, Surabaya 60111 (Indonesia)

    2014-02-24

    Synthesis of nanosized of hydroxyapatite (HA) by electrochemical pulsed direct current (PDC) method has been studied. The aim of this work is to study the influence of various PDC parameters (pH initial, electrode distance, duty cycle, frequency, and amplitude) on particle surface area of HA powders. The electrochemical synthesis was prepared in solution Ca{sup 2+}/EDTA{sup 4−}/PO{sub 4}{sup 3+} at concentration 0.25/0.25/0.15 M for 24 h. The electrochemical cell was consisted of two carbon rectangular electrodes connected to a function generator to produce PDC. There were two treatments for particles after electrosynthesized, namely without aging and aged for 2 days at 40 °C. For both cases, the particles were filtered and washed by demineralized water to eliminate the impurities and unreacted reactants. Then, the particles were dried at 100 °C for 2 days. The dried particles were characterized by X-ray diffraction, surface area analyzer, scanning electron microscopy (SEM), Fourier transform infrared spectra and thermogravimetric and differential thermal analysis. HA particles can be produced when the initial pH > 6. The aging process has significant effect on the produced HA particles. SEM images of HA particles showed that the powders consisted of agglomerates composed of fine crystallites and have morphology plate-like and sphere. The surface area of HA particles is in the range of 25 – 91 m{sup 2}/g. The largest particle surface area of HA was produced at 4 cm electrode distance, 80% cycle duty, frequency 0.1 Hz, amplitude 9 V and with aging process.

  18. Size-controlled in situ synthesis and photo-responsive properties of silver/poly(methyl methacrylate) nanocomposite films with high silver content

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen Cheng; Li Junguo [State Key Laboratory of Advanced Technology for Materials Synthesis and Processing, Wuhan University of Technology, Wuhan 430070 (China); Luo Guoqiang, E-mail: qhy2013@163.com [State Key Laboratory of Advanced Technology for Materials Synthesis and Processing, Wuhan University of Technology, Wuhan 430070 (China); Xiong Yuanlu; Zhang Qiang; Shen Lianmeng [State Key Laboratory of Advanced Technology for Materials Synthesis and Processing, Wuhan University of Technology, Wuhan 430070 (China)

    2012-10-01

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Ag/PMMA nanocomposite films with high silver content are prepared by in situ synthesis. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The size of Ag nanoparticles can be controlled by reaction time. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The electrical properties of Ag/PMMA nanocomposites films shows enhancement compared with the pure PMMA. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The recycle photo-responsive properties of Ag/PMMA nanocomposite films are proposed. - Abstract: Ag/PMMA nanocomposites have attracted much attention due to its superior mechanical, optical and electrical properties. In this article, Ag/PMMA nanocomposite films with high silver content (20 wt%) have been successfully in situ synthesized. UV-vis analysis, transmission electron microscopy (TEM), current-voltage (I-V) analysis, hall effect measurement system and electrochemical workstation are used to characterize the nanocomposite films. The results reveal that silver nanoparticles (NPs) homogeneously distribute in PMMA films and the particles size of silver NPs which has been controlled from 1.68 to 6.98 nm. Ag/PMMA nanocomposite films show electrical properties due to the conduction paths created by Ag nanoparticles. With the increasing diameter of silver NPs, the current density decreases and resistivity increases, respectively. Photo-responsive properties of Ag/PMMA nanocomposite films indicate that conduction paths could be destroyed by illumination and rebuilt in dark condition.

  19. Size-controlled in situ synthesis and photo-responsive properties of silver/poly(methyl methacrylate) nanocomposite films with high silver content

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen Cheng; Li Junguo; Luo Guoqiang; Xiong Yuanlu; Zhang Qiang; Shen Lianmeng

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► Ag/PMMA nanocomposite films with high silver content are prepared by in situ synthesis. ► The size of Ag nanoparticles can be controlled by reaction time. ► The electrical properties of Ag/PMMA nanocomposites films shows enhancement compared with the pure PMMA. ► The recycle photo-responsive properties of Ag/PMMA nanocomposite films are proposed. - Abstract: Ag/PMMA nanocomposites have attracted much attention due to its superior mechanical, optical and electrical properties. In this article, Ag/PMMA nanocomposite films with high silver content (20 wt%) have been successfully in situ synthesized. UV–vis analysis, transmission electron microscopy (TEM), current–voltage (I–V) analysis, hall effect measurement system and electrochemical workstation are used to characterize the nanocomposite films. The results reveal that silver nanoparticles (NPs) homogeneously distribute in PMMA films and the particles size of silver NPs which has been controlled from 1.68 to 6.98 nm. Ag/PMMA nanocomposite films show electrical properties due to the conduction paths created by Ag nanoparticles. With the increasing diameter of silver NPs, the current density decreases and resistivity increases, respectively. Photo-responsive properties of Ag/PMMA nanocomposite films indicate that conduction paths could be destroyed by illumination and rebuilt in dark condition.

  20. Single Step In Situ Synthesis and Optical Properties of Polyaniline/ZnO Nanocomposites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deepali Sharma

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Polyaniline/ZnO nanocomposites were prepared by in situ oxidative polymerization of aniline monomer in the presence of different weight percentages of ZnO nanostructures. The steric stabilizer added to prevent the agglomeration of nanostructures in the polymer matrix was found to affect the final properties of the nanocomposite. ZnO nanostructures of various morphologies and sizes were prepared in the absence and presence of sodium lauryl sulphate (SLS surfactant under different reaction conditions like in the presence of microwave radiation (microwave oven, under pressure (autoclave, under vacuum (vacuum oven, and at room temperature (ambient condition. The conductivity of these synthesized nanocomposites was evaluated using two-probe method and the effect of concentration of ZnO nanostructures on conductivity was observed. X-ray diffraction (XRD, scanning electron microscopy (SEM, transmission electron microscopy (TEM, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR, and UV-visible (UV-VIS spectroscopy techniques were used to characterize nanocomposites. The optical energy band gap of the nanocomposites was calculated from absorption spectra and ranged between 1.5 and 3.21 eV. The reported values depicted the blue shift in nanocomposites as compared to the band gap energies of synthesized ZnO nanostructures. The present work focuses on the one-step synthesis and potential use of PANI/ZnO nanocomposite in molecular electronics as well as in optical devices.

  1. In situ polymerization of monomers for polyphenylquinoxaline/graphite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serafini, T. T.; Delvigs, P.; Vannucci, R. D.

    1973-01-01

    Methods currently used to prepare fiber reinforced, high temperature resistant polyphenylquinoxaline (PPQ) composites employ extremely viscous, low solids content solutions of high molecular weight PPQ polymers. An improved approach, described in this report, consists of impregnating the fiber with a solution of the appropriate monomers instead of a solution of previously synthesized high molecular weight polymer. Polymerization of the monomers occurs in situ on the fiber during the solvent removal and curing stages. The in situ polymerization approach greatly simplifies the fabrication of PPQ graphite fiber composites. The use of low viscosity monomeric type solutions facilitates fiber wetting, permits a high solids content, and eliminates the need for prior polymer synthesis.

  2. Current status and future directions for in situ transmission electron microscopy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Taheri, Mitra L.; Stach, Eric A.; Arslan, Ilke

    2016-01-01

    This review article discusses the current and future possibilities for the application of in situ transmission electron microscopy to reveal synthesis pathways and functional mechanisms in complex and nanoscale materials. The findings of a group of scientists, representing academia, government labs...

  3. In situ growth of hydroxyapatite within electrospun poly(DL-lactide) fibers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cui, Wenguo; Li, Xiaohong; Zhou, Shaobing; Weng, Jie

    2007-09-15

    Development of nanocomposites of hydroxyapatite (HA) and polylactic acid (PLA) is attractive, as the advantageous properties of the two types of materials can be combined to suit better the mechanical and biological demands for biomedical uses. To solve the problematic issue of agglomeration of HA crystallites in the PLA matrix, a novel method is introduced in the present study to use electrospun nanofibers as the reaction confinement for composite fabrication. Poly(DL-lactide) ultrafine fibers with calcium nitrate entrapment were prepared by electrospinning and then incubated in phosphate solution to form in situ calcium phosphate on the polymer matrix. The formation of nonstoichiometric nanostructured HA and well dispersion of HA particles on the electrospun fibers were observed. Higher crystalline HA phase was indicated in samples after sintering at 1200 degrees C. The formation of the calcium-phosphate phase was dependent upon the precipitation conditions, and the effects of the incubation time, temperature, and the pH values of the incubation medium were investigated on the spontaneous precipitation and amorphous-crystalline transformation of HA in the current study. Considering the biodegradability of matrix polymer and the crystallinity and uniform dispersal of HA, optimal conditions for composite preparation were incubating calcium-containing ultrafine fibers at 37 degrees C in pH 7.4 or at 25 degrees C in pH 9.0 of diammonium hydrogen phosphate solutions for 7 days. Around 25%-34% of mineral contents can be synthesized in the resulting composites, which was higher than the theoretical value due to the nonstoichiometric HA formed in the composite, and the fiber degradation and partial calcium nitrate involved in the HA formation. Copyright 2007 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  4. In situ self-sacrificed template synthesis of vanadium nitride/nitrogen-doped graphene nanocomposites for electrochemical capacitors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Hong-Hui; Zhang, Hong-Ling; Xu, Hong-Bin; Lou, Tai-Ping; Sui, Zhi-Tong; Zhang, Yi

    2018-03-15

    Vanadium nitride and graphene have been widely used as pseudo-capacitive and electric double-layer capacitor electrode materials for electrochemical capacitors, respectively. However, the poor cycling stability of vanadium nitride and the low capacitance of graphene impeded their practical applications. Herein, we demonstrated an in situ self-sacrificed template method for the synthesis of vanadium nitride/nitrogen-doped graphene (VN/NGr) nanocomposites by the pyrolysis of a mixture of dicyandiamide, glucose, and NH 4 VO 3 . Vanadium nitride nanoparticles of the size in the range of 2 to 7 nm were uniformly embedded into the nitrogen-doped graphene skeleton. Furthermore, the VN/NGr nanocomposites with a high specific surface area and pore volume showed a high specific capacitance of 255 F g -1 at 10 mV s -1 , and an excellent cycling stability (94% capacitance retention after 2000 cycles). The excellent capacitive properties were ascribed to the excellent conductivity of nitrogen-doped graphene, high surface area, high pore volume, and the synergistic effect between vanadium nitride and nitrogen-doped graphene.

  5. Synthesis, characterization and biocompatibility evaluation of hydroxyapatite - gelatin polyLactic acid ternary nanocomposite

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Z. Nabipour

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Objective(s: The current study reports the production and biocompatibility evaluation of a ternary nanocomposite consisting of HA, PLA, and gelatin for biomedical application.Materials and Methods: Hydroxyapatite nanopowder (HA: Ca10(PO46(OH2 was produced by burning the bovine cortical bone within the temperature range of 350-450 oC followed by heating in an oven at 800. Synthesis of the ternary nanocomposite was carried out in two steps: synthesis of gelatin-hydroxyapatite binary nanocomposite and addition of poly lactic acid with different percentages to the resulting composition. The crystal structure was determined by X-ray diffraction (XRD, while major elements and impurities of hydroxyapatite were identified by elemental analysis of X-ray fluorescence (XRF. Functional groups were determined by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR. Morphology and size of the nanocomposites were evaluated using field emission scanning electron microscope (FE-SEM.Biocompatibility of nanocomposites was investigated by MTT assay. Results: XRD patterns verified the ideal crystal structure of the hydroxyapatite, which indicated an appropriate synthesis process and absence of disturbing phases. Results of FTIR analysis determined the polymers’ functional groups, specified formation of the polymers on the hydroxyapatite surface, and verified synthesis of nHA/PLA/Gel composite. FESEM images also indicated the homogeneous structure of the composite in the range of 50 nanometers. MTT assay results confirmed the biocompatibility of nanocomposite samples.Conclusion: This study suggested that the ternary nanocomposite of nHA/PLA/Gel can be a good candidate for biomedical application such as drug delivery systems, but for evaluation of its potential in hard tissue replacement, mechanical tests should be performed.

  6. In Situ Tracking Kinetic Pathways of Li+/Na+ Substitution during Ion-Exchange Synthesis of LixNa1.5-xVOPO4F0.5.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Young-Uk; Bai, Jianming; Wang, Liping; Yoon, Gabin; Zhang, Wei; Kim, Hyungsub; Lee, Seongsu; Kim, Sung-Wook; Looney, J Patrick; Kang, Kisuk; Wang, Feng

    2017-09-13

    Ion exchange is a ubiquitous phenomenon central to wide industrial applications, ranging from traditional (bio)chemical separation to the emerging chimie douce synthesis of materials with metastable structure for batteries and other energy applications. The exchange process is complex, involving substitution and transport of different ions under non-equilibrium conditions, and thus difficult to probe, leaving a gap in mechanistic understanding of kinetic exchange pathways toward final products. Herein, we report in situ tracking kinetic pathways of Li + /Na + substitution during solvothermal ion-exchange synthesis of Li x Na 1.5-x VOPO 4 F 0.5 (0 ≤ x ≤ 1.5), a promising multi-Li polyanionic cathode for batteries. The real-time observation, corroborated by first-principles calculations, reveals a selective replacement of Na + by Li + , leading to peculiar Na + /Li + /vacancy orderings in the intermediates. Contradicting the traditional belief of facile topotactic substitution via solid solution reaction, an abrupt two-phase transformation occurs and predominantly governs the kinetics of ion exchange and transport in the 1D polyanionic framework, consequently leading to significant difference of Li stoichiometry and electrochemical properties in the exchanged products. The findings may help to pave the way for rational design of ion exchange synthesis for making new materials.

  7. Electrospun Porous PDLLA Fiber Membrane Coated with nHA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Linhui Qiang

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Porous poly- D, L-lactic acid (PDLLA electrospinning fiber membrane was prepared, and nano-hydroxyapatite (nHA was adsorbed and wrapped into it during the unique shrinking process of the PDLLA fiber membrane to fabricate the PDLLA/nHA composite membrane scaffold for tissue engineering. Compare with the composite fibers prepared by blend electrospinning, most of nHA particles are observed to distribute on the surface of new type composite fibers, which could significantly improve the water wettability and induce the cellular adherence. FTIR analysis indicated that the PDLLA/nHA composite fibrous membrane was formed by physical adsorption. The combination was probed by scanning electron microscope, thermo-gravimetric, water contact angle and mechanical property analysis. It was proved that the nHA particles’ content and distribution, surface wettability, modulus and tensile strength of PDLLA/nHA composite fibrous membrane were influenced by the concentration of nHA dispersion and pores on the PDLLA fiber surface. The 10.6 wt % PDLLA/nHA composite fibrous membrane exhibits a more balanced tensile strength (3.28 MPa and surface wettability (with a water contact angle of 0° of the composite mats. Scanning electron microscope and confocal laser scanning microscopy images of chondrocyte proliferation further showed that the composite scaffold is non-toxic. The adherence and proliferation of chondrocytes on the 10.6 wt % PDLLA/nHA fibrous membrane was significantly improved, compared with PDLLA mat. The 10.6 wt % PDLLA/nHA composite fibrous membrane has potential application value as scaffold material in tissue engineering.

  8. Hierarchically nanostructured hydroxyapatite: hydrothermal synthesis, morphology control, growth mechanism, and biological activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Ming-Guo

    2012-01-01

    Hierarchically nanosized hydroxyapatite (HA) with flower-like structure assembled from nanosheets consisting of nanorod building blocks was successfully synthesized by using CaCl2, NaH2PO4, and potassium sodium tartrate via a hydrothermal method at 200°C for 24 hours. The effects of heating time and heating temperature on the products were investigated. As a chelating ligand and template molecule, the potassium sodium tartrate plays a key role in the formation of hierarchically nanostructured HA. On the basis of experimental results, a possible mechanism based on soft-template and self-assembly was proposed for the formation and growth of the hierarchically nanostructured HA. Cytotoxicity experiments indicated that the hierarchically nanostructured HA had good biocompatibility. It was shown by in-vitro experiments that mesenchymal stem cells could attach to the hierarchically nanostructured HA after being cultured for 48 hours. Objective The purpose of this study was to develop facile and effective methods for the synthesis of novel hydroxyapatite (HA) with hierarchical nanostructures assembled from independent and discrete nanobuilding blocks. Methods A simple hydrothermal approach was applied to synthesize HA by using CaCl2, NaH2PO4, and potassium sodium tartrate at 200°C for 24 hours. The cell cytotoxicity of the hierarchically nanostructured HA was tested by MTT (3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide) assay. Results HA displayed the flower-like structure assembled from nanosheets consisting of nanorod building blocks. The potassium sodium tartrate was used as a chelating ligand, inducing the formation and self-assembly of HA nanorods. The heating time and heating temperature influenced the aggregation and morphology of HA. The cell viability did not decrease with the increasing concentration of hierarchically nanostructured HA added. Conclusion A novel, simple and reliable hydrothermal route had been developed for the synthesis of

  9. Preparation of bioactive porous HA/PCL composite scaffolds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhao, J.; Guo, L.Y.; Yang, X.B. [Key Laboratory of Advanced Technologies of Materials (Ministry of Education), School of Materials Science and Engineering, Southwest Jiaotong University, Chengdu 610031 (China); Weng, J. [Key Laboratory of Advanced Technologies of Materials (Ministry of Education), School of Materials Science and Engineering, Southwest Jiaotong University, Chengdu 610031 (China)], E-mail: jweng@swjtu.cn

    2008-12-30

    Porous hydroxyapatite (HA) bioceramic scaffold has been widely attracted the attention to act as a three-dimensional (3D) template for cell adhesion, proliferation, differentiation and thus promoting bone and cartilage regeneration because of its osteoinduction. However, the porous bioceramic scaffold is fragile so that it is not suitable to be applied in clinic for bone repair or replacement. Therefore, it is significant to improve the mechanical property of porous HA bioceramics while the interconnected structure is maintained for tissue ingrowth in vivo. In the present research, a porous composite scaffold composed of HA scaffold and polycaprolactone (PCL) lining was fabricated by the method of polymer impregnating to produce HA scaffold coated with PCL lining. Subsequently, the composite scaffolds were deposited with biomimetic coating for improving the bioactivity. The HA/PCL composite scaffolds with improved mechanical property and bioactivity is expected to be a promising bone substitute in tissue engineering applications.

  10. Preparation of bioactive porous HA/PCL composite scaffolds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhao, J.; Guo, L.Y.; Yang, X.B.; Weng, J.

    2008-01-01

    Porous hydroxyapatite (HA) bioceramic scaffold has been widely attracted the attention to act as a three-dimensional (3D) template for cell adhesion, proliferation, differentiation and thus promoting bone and cartilage regeneration because of its osteoinduction. However, the porous bioceramic scaffold is fragile so that it is not suitable to be applied in clinic for bone repair or replacement. Therefore, it is significant to improve the mechanical property of porous HA bioceramics while the interconnected structure is maintained for tissue ingrowth in vivo. In the present research, a porous composite scaffold composed of HA scaffold and polycaprolactone (PCL) lining was fabricated by the method of polymer impregnating to produce HA scaffold coated with PCL lining. Subsequently, the composite scaffolds were deposited with biomimetic coating for improving the bioactivity. The HA/PCL composite scaffolds with improved mechanical property and bioactivity is expected to be a promising bone substitute in tissue engineering applications

  11. In situ catalytic synthesis of high-graphitized carbon-coated LiFePO4 nanoplates for superior Li-ion battery cathodes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Zhipeng; Fan, Yuqian; Shao, Guangjie; Wang, Guiling; Song, Jianjun; Liu, Tingting

    2015-02-04

    The low electronic conductivity and one-dimensional diffusion channel along the b axis for Li ions are two major obstacles to achieving high power density of LiFePO4 material. Coating carbon with excellent conductivity on the tailored LiFePO4 nanoparticles therefore plays an important role for efficient charge and mass transport within this material. We report here the in situ catalytic synthesis of high-graphitized carbon-coated LiFePO4 nanoplates with highly oriented (010) facets by introducing ferrocene as a catalyst during thermal treatment. The as-obtained material exhibits superior performances for Li-ion batteries at high rate (100 C) and low temperature (-20 °C), mainly because of fast electron transport through the graphitic carbon layer and efficient Li(+)-ion diffusion through the thin nanoplates.

  12. Prevention of dental erosion of a sports drink by nano-sized hydroxyapatite in situ study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Min, Ji Hyun; Kwon, Ho Keun; Kim, Baek Il

    2015-01-01

    To evaluate the inhibitory effects of the sports drink containing nano-sized hydroxyapatite (nano-HA) on dental erosion in situ. The study had a single-blind, two-treatment crossover design. The two treatment groups were a control group (CG; Powerade only) and an experimental group (EG; 0.25% wt/vol nano-HA was added to Powerade). Ten subjects wore removable palatal appliances containing bovine enamel specimens. The appliances were immersed in each drink for 10 mins, 4 times a day for 10 days. The tooth surface microhardness (SMH) was tested, and the erosion depth and the morphology of the tooth surface were observed. The data were analysed by repeated measures anova and t-test. Between the baseline and the 10th day, SMH was decreased by 80% in the specimens of the CG (P erosion depth of 12.70 ± 4.66 μm and an irregular tooth surface were observed on the 10th day in the specimens of the CG. No dental erosions, however, was observed in the specimens of the EG. The sports drink containing 0.25% nano-HA was effective in preventing dental erosion in situ. © 2014 BSPD, IAPD and John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  13. Photo and biocatalytic activities along with UV protection properties on polyester fabric through green in-situ synthesis of cauliflower-like CuO nanoparticles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rezaie, Ali Bashiri; Montazer, Majid; Rad, Mahnaz Mahmoudi

    2017-11-01

    In this paper, a facile environmentally friendly method is introduced for in-situ synthesis and fabrication of cauliflower-like CuO nanoparticles on the polyester fabric to produce photo and biocatalytic activities with UV protection properties on polyester fabric. The ash of burnt leaves and stems of Seidlitzia rosmarinus plant called Keliab was used as a natural and nontoxic alkaline source for simultaneous synthesis of CuO nanoparticles and surface modification of polyester without using any other compounds. The images of field-emission scanning electron microscopy, patterns of energy-dispersive spectroscopy, UV-visible spectrum and X-ray diffraction confirmed successful synthesis and loading of CuO nanoparticles on the polyester fabric. The treated fabrics showed very good antibacterial activities toward two pathogen bacteria including Staphylococcus aureus as a Gram-positive and Escherichia coli as a Gram-negative bacteria with no adverse effects on human dermal fibroblasts based on MTT test. The treated fabrics confirmed significant photocatalytic activity for degradation of methylene blue under sunlight, self-cleaning properties under UV light and also UV protection properties. Further a colorant effect along with an improvement in the wettability and mechanical properties of the treated fabrics were indicated. Overall, this method can be applied as a clean route for producing photo and bio active textiles protecting against UV irradiation. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Mesoporous MEL, BEA, and FAU zeolite crystals obtained by in situ formation of carbon template over metal nanoparticles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Abildstrøm, Jacob Oskar; Ali, Zahra Nasrudin; Mentzel, Uffe Vie

    2016-01-01

    Here, we report the synthesis and characterization of hierarchical zeolite materials with MEL, BEA and FAU structures. The synthesis is based on the carbon templating method with an in situ-generated carbon template. Through the decomposition of methane and deposition of coke over nickel nanopart......Here, we report the synthesis and characterization of hierarchical zeolite materials with MEL, BEA and FAU structures. The synthesis is based on the carbon templating method with an in situ-generated carbon template. Through the decomposition of methane and deposition of coke over nickel...... nanoparticles supported on silica, a carbon–silica composite is obtained and exploited as a combined carbon template/silica source for the zeolite synthesis. The mesoporous zeolite materials were all prepared by hydrothermal crystallization in alkaline media followed by removal of the carbon template...... by combustion, which results in zeolite single crystals with intracrystalline pore volumes of up to 0.44 cm3 g−1. The prepared zeolite structures are characterized by XRD, SEM, TEM and N2 physisorption measurements....

  15. Tantalum-doped hydroxyapatite thin films: Synthesis and characterization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ligot, S.; Godfroid, T.; Music, D.; Bousser, E.; Schneider, J.M.; Snyders, R.

    2012-01-01

    To achieve a good bioactivity, magnetron-sputtered (MS) hydroxyapatite (HA) coatings have to be stoichiometric and crystalline. It has also been suggested that doping HA with metallic elements improves its bioactivity but frequently reduces its Young’s modulus. Therefore, efforts are still necessary to identify adequate growth conditions, good doping elements and finally to grow doped HA films. In a first attempt, HA films have been synthesized by MS. Our conditions enabled us to grow at ∼10 nm min −1 stoichiometric and crystallized HA coatings that presented a strong texture. The latter is discussed in view of the competitive growth of the material under the strong electron and ion bombardments used here. Based on ab initio calculations identifying Ta as a promising doping element, we then investigated the growth of Ta-doped hydroxyapatite (HA:Ta) by magnetron co-sputtering. The HA:Ta films were in situ crystallized. Our data reveals that for Ta contents <4.5 at.%, Ta could substitute Ca in the HA cell. For higher doping contents, a deviation from the stoichiometric compound is observed and CaO appears. By nanoindentation, we have measured an elastic modulus of 120 ± 9 GPa for a Ta content of 3 at.%. This value is very close to the value of 110 GPa calculated by ab initio calculations, supporting the substitution scenario. The elasticity drop may be understood by screening of the ionic interaction between constituents in HA upon Ta incorporation.

  16. Methanol synthesis beyond chemical equilibrium

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Bennekom, J. G.; Venderbosch, R. H.; Winkelman, J. G. M.; Wilbers, E.; Assink, D.; Lemmens, K. P. J.; Heeres, H. J.

    2013-01-01

    In commercial methanol production from syngas, the conversion is thermodynamically limited to 0.3-0.7 leading to large recycles of non-converted syngas. This problem can be overcome to a significant extent by in situ condensation of methanol during its synthesis which is possible nowadays due to the

  17. In situ-synthesized cadmium sulfide nanowire photosensor with a parylene passivation layer for chemiluminescent immunoassays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Im, Ju-Hee; Kim, Hong-Rae; An, Byoung-Gi; Chang, Young Wook; Kang, Min-Jung; Lee, Tae-Geol; Son, Jin Gyeng; Park, Jae-Gwan; Pyun, Jae-Chul

    2017-06-15

    The direct in situ synthesis of cadmium sulfide (CdS) nanowires (NWs) was presented by direct synthesis of CdS NWs on the gold surface of an interdigitated electrode (IDE). In this work, we investigated the effect of a strong oxidant on the surfaces of the CdS NWs using X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, transmission electron microscopy, and time-of-flight secondary ion mass spectrometry. We also fabricated a parylene-C film as a surface passivation layer for in situ-synthesized CdS NW photosensors and investigated the influence of the parylene-C passivation layer on the photoresponse during the coating of parylene-C under vacuum using a quartz crystal microbalance and a photoanalyzer. Finally, we used the in situ-synthesized CdS NW photosensor with the parylene-C passivation layer to detect the chemiluminescence of horseradish peroxidase and luminol and applied it to medical detection of carcinoembryonic antigen. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Gaining Control over Radiolytic Synthesis of Uniform Sub-3-nanometer Palladium Nanoparticles: Use of Aromatic Liquids in the Electron Microscope.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abellan, Patricia; Parent, Lucas R; Al Hasan, Naila; Park, Chiwoo; Arslan, Ilke; Karim, Ayman M; Evans, James E; Browning, Nigel D

    2016-02-16

    Synthesizing nanomaterials of uniform shape and size is of critical importance to access and manipulate the novel structure-property relationships arising at the nanoscale, such as catalytic activity. In this work, we synthesize Pd nanoparticles with well-controlled size in the sub-3 nm range using scanning transmission electron microscopy (STEM) in combination with an in situ liquid stage. We use an aromatic hydrocarbon (toluene) as a solvent that is very resistant to high-energy electron irradiation, which creates a net reducing environment without the need for additives to scavenge oxidizing radicals. The primary reducing species is molecular hydrogen, which is a widely used reductant in the synthesis of supported metal catalysts. We propose a mechanism of particle formation based on the effect of tri-n-octylphosphine (TOP) on size stabilization, relatively low production of radicals, and autocatalytic reduction of Pd(II) compounds. We combine in situ STEM results with insights from in situ small-angle X-ray scattering (SAXS) from alcohol-based synthesis, having similar reduction potential, in a customized microfluidic device as well as ex situ bulk experiments. This has allowed us to develop a fundamental growth model for the synthesis of size-stabilized Pd nanoparticles and demonstrate the utility of correlating different in situ and ex situ characterization techniques to understand, and ultimately control, metal nanostructure synthesis.

  19. Preparation and characterization of bio-composite PEEK/nHA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Y. S.; Bian, C. C.; Zhang, Z. Q.; Zhao, Y.; Yang, L.

    2017-01-01

    PEEK/nHA composite material, with excellent mechanical property as polyetheretherketone (PEEK) and biological activity as hydroxyapatite (HA), has attracted wide attention of medical experts and materials science experts. The addition of hydroxyapatite was the decisive factor for biological activity in PEEK/nHA composite. In this paper, acicular nanohydroxyapatite was prepared by chemical precipitation method with Ca(NO3)2, (NH4)2HPO4 as raw material; PEEK/nHA composite was prepared by solution blending and vacuum sintering method. The composite was characterized with FT-IR, XRD, DSC, TG and mechanical property test. Results showed that the composite has good thermal stability and compressive property when the mass ratio of PEEK to nHA is 10:3; and high nHA content can improve the biological activity of the composite, which can meet the basic requirements for bone tissue engineering scaffold.

  20. Microwave-Assisted Synthesis – Catalytic Applications in Aqueous Media

    Science.gov (United States)

    The development of sustainable methods directed towards the synthesis of molecules is due to the heightened awareness and recognition of alternative eco-friendly and economical protocols that have minimum impact on environment. Among others, microwave (MW)-assisted methodology ha...

  1. Immunomodulatory Effects of Hemagglutinin- (HA- Modified A20 B-Cell Lymphoma Expanded as a Brain Tumor on Adoptively Transferred HA-Specific CD4+ T Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valentin P. Shichkin

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Previously, the mouse A20 B-cell lymphoma engineered to express hemagglutinin (HA antigen (A20HA was used as a systemic tumor model. In this work, we used the A20HA cells as a brain tumor. HA-specific CD4+ T cells were transferred intravenously in a tail vein 5 days after A20HA intracranial inoculation and analyzed on days 2, 9, and 16 after the adoptive transfer by different methods. The transferred cells demonstrated state of activation as early as day 2 after the adoptive transfer and most the of viable HA-specific cells became anergic on day 16. Additionally, symptoms of systemic immunosuppression were observed in mice with massive brain tumors at a late stage of the brain tumor progression (days 20–24 after the A20HA inoculation. Despite that, a deal of HA-specific CD4+ T cells kept the functional activity even at the late stage of A20HA tumor growth. The activated HA-specific CD4+ T cells were found also in the brain of brain-tumor-bearing mice. These cells were still responding to reactivation with HA-peptide in vitro. Our data support an idea about sufficient role of both the tumor-specific and -nonspecific mechanisms inducing immunosuppression in cancer patients.

  2. Waste utilization for the controlled synthesis of nanosized hydroxyapatite

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nayar, Suprabha, E-mail: Suprabha.nayar@gmail.com [National Metallurgical Laboratory, Jamshedpur (India); Guha, Avijit [National Metallurgical Laboratory, Jamshedpur (India)

    2009-05-05

    This work uses biomolecules in waste and medicinally important materials for the synthesis of hydroxyapatite nanoparticles. Orange and potato peel, eggshell, papaya leaf and calendula flower extracts have varied biomolecules, which exert a significant, control on the in situ synthesis of nanosized hydroxyapatite particles. The biomimetic synthesis of inorganic particles using known matrices is already well established, however, there are only a few reports using compound extracts. The synthesized nanocomposite has been characterized using X-ray diffraction, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and scanning electron microscopy studies. Role of varied biomolecules in controlled inorganic synthesis may have tremendous technological impact.

  3. Laser treatment of plasma sprayed HA coatings

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Khor, KA; Vreeling, A; Dong, ZL; Cheang, P

    1999-01-01

    Laser treatment was conducted on plasma sprayed hydroxyapatite (HA) coatings using a Nd-YAG pulse laser. Various laser parameters were investigated. The results showed that the HA surface melted when an energy level of greater than or equal to 2 J and a spot size of 2 mm was employed during

  4. Hyaluronan (HA) interacting proteins RHAMM and hyaluronidase impact prostate cancer cell behavior and invadopodia formation in 3D HA-based hydrogels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gurski, Lisa A; Xu, Xian; Labrada, Lyana N; Nguyen, Ngoc T; Xiao, Longxi; van Golen, Kenneth L; Jia, Xinqiao; Farach-Carson, Mary C

    2012-01-01

    To study the individual functions of hyaluronan interacting proteins in prostate cancer (PCa) motility through connective tissues, we developed a novel three-dimensional (3D) hyaluronic acid (HA) hydrogel assay that provides a flexible, quantifiable, and physiologically relevant alternative to current methods. Invasion in this system reflects the prevalence of HA in connective tissues and its role in the promotion of cancer cell motility and tissue invasion, making the system ideal to study invasion through bone marrow or other HA-rich connective tissues. The bio-compatible cross-linking process we used allows for direct encapsulation of cancer cells within the gel where they adopt a distinct, cluster-like morphology. Metastatic PCa cells in these hydrogels develop fingerlike structures, "invadopodia", consistent with their invasive properties. The number of invadopodia, as well as cluster size, shape, and convergence, can provide a quantifiable measure of invasive potential. Among candidate hyaluronan interacting proteins that could be responsible for the behavior we observed, we found that culture in the HA hydrogel triggers invasive PCa cells to differentially express and localize receptor for hyaluronan mediated motility (RHAMM)/CD168 which, in the absence of CD44, appears to contribute to PCa motility and invasion by interacting with the HA hydrogel components. PCa cell invasion through the HA hydrogel also was found to depend on the activity of hyaluronidases. Studies shown here reveal that while hyaluronidase activity is necessary for invadopodia and inter-connecting cluster formation, activity alone is not sufficient for acquisition of invasiveness to occur. We therefore suggest that development of invasive behavior in 3D HA-based systems requires development of additional cellular features, such as activation of motility associated pathways that regulate formation of invadopodia. Thus, we report development of a 3D system amenable to dissection of

  5. In-situ high temperature XRD of calcium phosphate biomaterial using DEHPA as the starting material

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meor Yusoff Meor Sulaiman; Masliana Muslim

    2009-01-01

    A process to produce calcium phosphate biomaterial was done using an organic based phosphoric acid (DEHPA) as its starting material. The gel obtained from this reaction was used to study calcium phosphate transformation using in-situ XRD with temperature ranges from room temperature to 1300 degree C. The results obtained from this analysis show the following phase transformation: Gel β-Ca 2 P 2 O 7 β-TCP + HA α-TCP + HA, β-Ca 2 P 2 O 7 forms at 400 degree C and as we heat the sample at 1000 degree C peaks belonging to β- TCP and HA appears showing the transformation of the β-Ca 2 P 2 O 7 phase. When the sample is heated up further to 1200 degree C, β-TCP is transform into α-TCP. In the cold in-situ study, XRD analysis was performed on the sample from room temperature to -140 degree C. At room the XRD diffractogram shows the sample as an amorphous material and as the temperature was further lowered sharp peaks begins to form indicating that the material had becomes crystalline. The peaks were identified to be that calcium hydrogen phosphate (Ca(H 2 PO 4 ) 2 ) and this indicates that there is no hydroxyl group removal during the cooling process. The relative crystallinity values obtained for the different cooling temperatures show a slow exponential increase on the initial cooling of 0 to -100 degree C and at further cooling temperatures resulted fast and linear process. Also unlike the in-situ XRD analysis performs at high temperature no phase transformation occurred at this low temperature. (Author)

  6. Efficacy of a mouthrinse based on hydroxyapatite to reduce initial bacterial colonisation in situ.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kensche, A; Holder, C; Basche, S; Tahan, N; Hannig, C; Hannig, M

    2017-08-01

    The present in situ - investigation aimed to specify the impact of pure hydroxyapatite microclusters on initial bioadhesion and bacterial colonization at the tooth surface. Pellicle formation was carried out in situ on bovine enamel slabs (9 subjects). After 1min of pellicle formation rinses with 8ml of hydroxyapatite (HA) microclusters (5%) in bidestilled water or chlorhexidine 0.2% were performed. As negative control no rinse was adopted. In situ biofilm formation was promoted by the intraoral slab exposure for 8h overnight. Afterwards initial bacterial adhesion was quantified by DAPI staining and bacterial viability was determined in vivo/in vitro by live/dead-staining (BacLight). SEM analysis evaluated the efficacy of the mouthrinse to accumulate hydroxyapatite microclusters at the specimens' surface and spit-out samples of the testsolution were investigated by TEM. Compared to the control (2.36×10 6 ±2.01×10 6 bacteria/cm 2 ), significantly reduced amounts of adherent bacteria were detected on specimens rinsed with chlorhexidine 0.2% (8.73×10 4 ±1.37×10 5 bacteria/cm 2 ) and likewise after rinses with the hydroxyapatite testsolution (2.08×10 5 ±2.85×10 5 bacteria/cm 2 , phydroxyapatite microclusters at the tooth surface. Adhesive interactions of HA-particles with oral bacteria were shown by TEM. Hydroxyapatite microclusters reduced initial bacterial adhesion to enamel in situ considerably and could therefore sensibly supplement current approaches in dental prophylaxis. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Polymer-Assisted Hydrothermal Synthesis of Hierarchically Arranged Hydroxyapatite Nanoceramic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Joseph Nathanael

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Flower-like hydroxyapatite (HA nanostructures were synthesized by a polymer-assisted hydrothermal method. The thickness of the petals/plates decreased from 200 nm to 40 nm as the polymer concentration increased. The thickness also decreased as the hydrothermal treatment time increased from 6 to 12 hr. The HRTEM and SAED patterns suggest that the floral-like HA nanostructures are single crystalline in nature. Structural analysis based on XRD and Raman experiments implied that the produced nanostructure is a pure form of HA without any other impurities. The possible formation mechanism was discussed for the formation of flower-like HA nanostructures during polymer-assisted hydrothermal synthesis. Finally, in vitro cellular analysis revealed that the hierarchically arranged HA nanoceramic had improved cell viability relative to other structures. The cells were actively proliferated over these nanostructures due to lower cytotoxicity. Overall, the size and the crystallinity of the nanostructures played a role in improving the cell proliferation.

  8. Sterilisation effect study on granular hydroxyapatite (HA)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saidu, M.F.; Mashita, M.; Khadijah, K.; Fazan, F.; Khalid, K.A.

    2004-01-01

    Hydroxyapatite (HA) is a calcium phosphate bio ceramic that has been shown by many authors to be biocompatible with bioactive properties. It is widely accepted as the best synthetic material available for surgical use as a bone graft substitute. HA granules produced by Amerce-SIRIM from local materials underwent 5 types of sterilisation techniques with different ageing periods. Samples were tested for chemical and phase composition and microbial contamination before and after being sterilised. From the microbiological tests done, none of the unsterilised positive control yielded a positive culture. Results from X-Ray diffraction studies found that all the sterilisation techniques did not chemically degrade or structurally change the HA granules significantly. (Author)

  9. Synthesis of azaphenanthridines via anionic ring closure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Henriette Møller; Lysén, M.; Begtrup, M.

    2005-01-01

    A new and convergent synthesis of azaphenanthridines via an anionic ring closure is reported. Ortho-lithiation/in situ borylation of cyanopyridines produces the corresponding cyanopyridylboronic esters, which undergo a Suzuki-Miyaura cross-coupling to give the key intermediates. Addition of lithium...

  10. In-situ synthesis of Co_3O_4/graphite nanocomposite for high-performance supercapacitor electrode applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    M, Gopalakrishnan; G, Srikesh; A, Mohan; V, Arivazhagan

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • High surface area, which governs the specific capacitance. • High chemical and thermal stability. • Co_3O_4/graphite nanocomposite electrode shows lower resistance. - Abstract: In this work, a low cost and pollution free in-situ synthesis of phase pure Co_3O_4 nanoparticles and Co_3O_4/graphite nanocomposite have been successfully developed via co-precipitation method followed by the thermal treatment process. The prepared samples were characterized by powder X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscope, high resolution transmission electron microscope, Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy and electrochemical measurements. Electrochemical measurements such as cyclic voltammetry, galvanostatic charge–discharge, electrochemical impedance spectroscopy were carried out in 6 M KOH aqueous electrolytic solution. The results show the excellent maximum specific capacitive behavior of 239.5 F g"−"1 for pure and 395.04 F g"−"1 for Co_3O_4/graphite nanocomposite at a current density of 0.5 A g"−"1. This composite exhibits a good cyclic stability, with a small loss of 2.68% of maximum capacitance over a consecutive 1000 cycles. The investigation indicates that the prepared electrode material could be a potential and promising candidate for electrochemical supercapacitors.

  11. Nitroxide radicals formed in situ as polymer chain growth regulators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kolyakina, Elena V; Grishin, Dmitry F

    2009-01-01

    Published data on controlled synthesis of macromolecules using nitroxide radicals, formed in situ during polymerization, as polymer chain growth regulators are systematized and generalized. The attention is focused on the mechanism of polymer chain growth control during reversibly inhibited radical homopolymerization and the effect of structure of precursors and regulating additives on the polymerization kinetics of monomers of different nature and the molecular-mass characteristics of the polymers thus formed. The key methods for generation of nitroxide radicals directly during polymerization are considered. The prospects for development and practical use of these approaches for the synthesis of new polymeric materials are evaluated.

  12. Hierarchically nanostructured hydroxyapatite: hydrothermal synthesis, morphology control, growth mechanism, and biological activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ma MG

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Ming-Guo MaInstitute of Biomass Chemistry and Technology, College of Materials Science and Technology, Beijing Forestry University, Beijing, People's Republic of ChinaAbstract: Hierarchically nanosized hydroxyapatite (HA with flower-like structure assembled from nanosheets consisting of nanorod building blocks was successfully synthesized by using CaCl2, NaH2PO4, and potassium sodium tartrate via a hydrothermal method at 200°C for 24 hours. The effects of heating time and heating temperature on the products were investigated. As a chelating ligand and template molecule, the potassium sodium tartrate plays a key role in the formation of hierarchically nanostructured HA. On the basis of experimental results, a possible mechanism based on soft-template and self-assembly was proposed for the formation and growth of the hierarchically nanostructured HA. Cytotoxicity experiments indicated that the hierarchically nanostructured HA had good biocompatibility. It was shown by in-vitro experiments that mesenchymal stem cells could attach to the hierarchically nanostructured HA after being cultured for 48 hours.Objective: The purpose of this study was to develop facile and effective methods for the synthesis of novel hydroxyapatite (HA with hierarchical nanostructures assembled from independent and discrete nanobuilding blocks.Methods: A simple hydrothermal approach was applied to synthesize HA by using CaCl2, NaH2PO4, and potassium sodium tartrate at 200°C for 24 hours. The cell cytotoxicity of the hierarchically nanostructured HA was tested by MTT (3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide assay.Results: HA displayed the flower-like structure assembled from nanosheets consisting of nanorod building blocks. The potassium sodium tartrate was used as a chelating ligand, inducing the formation and self-assembly of HA nanorods. The heating time and heating temperature influenced the aggregation and morphology of HA. The cell viability did

  13. Niobium-Doped Hydroxyapatite Bioceramics: Synthesis, Characterization and In Vitro Cytocompatibility

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nádia S. V. Capanema

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Doping calcium phosphates with ionic species can play an important role in biological responses promoting alkaline phosphatase activity, and, therefore inducing the generation of new bone. Thus, in this study, the synthesis of niobium-doped hydroxyapatite (Nb-HA nanosize particles obtained by the precipitation process in aqueous media followed by thermal treatment is presented. The bioceramics were extensively characterized by X-ray diffraction, wavelength dispersive X-ray fluorescence spectrometry, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy/energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy analysis, transmission electron microscopy, atomic force microscopy and thermal analysis regarding their chemical composition, structure and morphology. The results showed that the precipitate dried at 110 °C was composed of amorphous calcium phosphate and HA, with polidisperse particles ranging from micro to nano dimensions. After the thermal treatment at 900 °C, the bioceramic system evolved predominantly to HA crystalline phase, with evident features of particle sintering and reduction of surface area. Moreover, the addition of 10 mol% of niobium salt precursor during the synthesis indicated the complete incorporation of the Nb(V species in the HA crystals with detectable changes in the original lattice parameters. Furthermore, the incorporation of Nb ions caused a significant refinement on the average particle size of HA. Finally, the preliminary cytocompatibility response of the biomaterials was accessed by human osteoblast cell culture using MTT and resazurin assays, which demonstrated no cytotoxicity of the Nb-alloyed hydroxyapatite. Thus, these findings seem promising for developing innovative Nb-doped calcium phosphates as artificial biomaterials for potential use in bone replacements and repair.

  14. Effective Adsorption/Reduction of Cr(VI) Oxyanion by Halloysite@Polyaniline Hybrid Nanotubes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Tianzhu; Li, Cuiping; Jin, Huiling; Lian, Yangyang; Han, Wenmei

    2017-02-22

    Halloysite@polyaniline (HA@PANI) hybrid nanotubes are synthesized by the in situ chemical polymerization of aniline on halloysite clay nanotubes. By facilely tuning the dopant acid, pH, and apparent weight proportion for aniline (ANI) and halloysite (HA) nanotubes in the synthesis process, PANI with tuned oxidation state, doping extent, and content are in situ growing on halloysite nanotubes. The reaction system's acidity is tuned by dopant acid, such as HCl, H 2 SO 4 , HNO 3 , and H 3 PO 4 . The adsorption result shows the fabricated HA@PANI hybrid nanotubes can effectively adsorb Cr(VI) oxyanion and the adsorption ability changes according to the dopant acid, pH, and apparent weight proportion for ANI and HA in the synthesis process. Among them, the HA@PANI fabricated with HCl as dopant acid tuning the pH at 0.5 and 204% apparent weight proportion for ANI and HA (HP/0.5/204%-HCl) shows the highest adsorption capacity. The adsorption capacity is in accordance well with the doping extent of PANI in HA@PANI. Furthermore, when HP/0.5/204%-HCl is redoped with HNO 3 , H 2 SO 4 , and H 3 PO 4 , the adsorption capacity declines, implying the dopant acid in the process of redoping exhibits a marked effect on Cr(VI) oxyanion adsorption for the HA@PANI hybrid nanotubes. HP/0.5/204%-HCl and HP/0.5/204%-H 3 PO 4 have demonstrated good regenerability with an above 80% removal ratio after four cycles. Moreover, the HA@PANI adsorbent has better sedimentation ability than that of pure PANI. The adsorption behavior is in good agreement with Langmuir and pseudo second-order equations, indicating the adsorption of HA@PANI for Cr(VI) oxyanion is chemical adsorption. FT-IR and XPS of HA@PANI after Cr(VI) oxyanion adsorption indicate that the doped amine/imine groups (-NH + /═N + - groups) are the main adsorption sites for the removal of Cr(VI) oxyanion by electrostatic adsorption and reduction of the adsorbed Cr (VI) oxyanion to Cr(III) simultaneously.

  15. In situ polymerization of monomers for polyphenylquinoxaline/graphite fiber composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serafini, T. T.; Delvigs, P.; Vannucci, R. D.

    1974-01-01

    Methods currently used to prepare fiber reinforced, high temperature resistant polyphenylquinoxaline (PPQ) composites employ extremely viscous, low solids content solutions of high molecular weight PPQ polymers. An improved approach, described in this report, consists of impregnating the fiber with a solution of the appropriate monomers instead of a solution of previously synthesized high molecular weight polymer. Polymerization of the monomers occurs in situ on the fiber during the solvent removal and curing stages. The in situ polymerization approach greatly simplifies the fabrication of PPQ graphite fiber composites. The use of low viscosity monomeric type solutions facilitates fiber wetting, permits a high solids content, and eliminates the need for prior polymer synthesis.

  16. Low temperature synthesis of polyaniline-crystalline TiO2-halloysite composite nanotubes with enhanced visible light photocatalytic activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Cuiping; Wang, Jie; Guo, Hong; Ding, Shujiang

    2015-11-15

    A series of one-dimensional polyaniline-crystalline TiO2-halloysite composite nanotubes with different mass ratio of polyaniline to TiO2 are facilely prepared by employing the low-temperature synthesis of crystalline TiO2 on halloysite nanotubes. The halloysite nanotubes can adsorb TiO2/polyaniline precursors and induce TiO2 nanocrystals/polyaniline to grow on the support in situ simultaneously. By simply adjusting the acidity of reaction system, PANI-crystalline TiO2-HA composite nanotubes composed of anatase, a mixed phase TiO2 and different PANI redox state are obtained. The XRD and UV-vis results show that the surface polyaniline sensitization has no effect on the crystalline structure of halloysite and TiO2 and the light response of TiO2 is extended to visible-light regions. Photocatalysis test results reveal the photocatalytic activity will be affected by the pH value and the volume ratio of ANI to TTIP. The highest photocatalytic activity is achieved with the composite photocatalysts prepared at pH 0.5 and 1% volume ratio of ANI and TTIP owing to the sensitizing effect of polyaniline and the charge transfer from the photoexcited PANI sensitizer to TiO2. Moreover, the PANI-TiO2-HA composite nanotubes synthesized by one-step at pH 0.5 with 1% volume ratio of ANI to TTIP exhibit higher visible light photocatalytic activity than those synthesized by the two-step. Heterogeneous PANI-TiO2-HA composite nanotubes prepared at pH 0.5 exhibit a higher degradation activity than that prepared at pH 1.5. The redoped experiment proves that the PANI redox state plays the main contribution to the enhanced visible light catalytic degradation efficiency of PANI-TiO2-HA prepared at pH 0.5. Furthermore, the heterogeneous PANI-crystalline TiO2-HA nanotubes have good photocatalytic stability and can be reused four times with only gradual loss of activity under visible light irradiation. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Enantiomers of HA-966 (3-amino-1-hydroxypyrrolid-2-one) exhibit distinct central nervous system effects: (+)-HA-966 is a selective glycine/N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor antagonist, but (-)-HA-966 is a potent gamma-butyrolactone-like sedative

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Singh, L.; Donald, A.E.; Foster, A.C.; Hutson, P.H.; Iversen, L.L.; Iversen, S.D.; Kemp, J.A.; Leeson, P.D.; Marshall, G.R.; Oles, R.J.; Priestley, T.; Thorn, L.; Tricklebank, M.D.; Vass, C.A.; Williams, B.J.

    1990-01-01

    The antagonist effect of ±-3-amino-1-hydroxypyrrolid-2-one (HA-966) at the N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptor occurs through a selective interaction with the glycine modulatory site within the receptor complex. When the enantiomers of ±-HA-966 were resolved, the (R)-(+)-enantiomer was found to be a selective glycine/NMDA receptor antagonist, a property that accounts for its anticonvulsant activity in vivo. In contrast, the (S)-(-)-enantiomer was only weakly active as an NMDA-receptor antagonist, but nevertheless it possessed a marked sedative and muscle relaxant action in vivo. In radioligand binding experiments, (+)-HA-966 inhibited strychnine-insensitive [ 3 H]glycine binding to rat cerebral cortex synaptic membranes with an IC 50 of 12.5 μM, whereas (-)-HA-966 had an IC 50 value of 339 μM. In mice, (+)-HA-966 antagonized sound and N-methyl-DL-aspartic acid (NMDLA)-induced seizures. The coadministration of D-serine dose-dependently antagonized the anticonvulsant effect of a submaximal dose of (+)-HA-966 against NMDLA-induced seizures. The sedative/ataxic effect of racemic HA-966 was mainly attributable to the (-)-enantiomer. It is suggested that, as in the case of the sedative γ-butyrolactone, disruption of striatal dopaminergic mechanisms may be responsible for this action

  18. Amphoteric Borylketenimines: Versatile Intermediates in the Synthesis of Borylated Heterocycles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaldas, Sherif J; O'Keefe, Kowan T V; Mendoza-Sanchez, Rodrigo; Yudin, Andrei K

    2017-07-21

    We report the first synthesis of amphoteric borylketenimines from ethynyl N-methyliminodiacetic acid (MIDA) boronate and sulfonyl azides via copper catalysis. In situ trapping of these intermediates with various nucleophiles provided access to novel borylated azetidimines, iminocoumarins, amides, iminooxetanes, and amidines. The described strategy based on borylketenimines offers high levels of chemo- and regioselectivity, enabling the synthesis of unprecedented borylated molecules. This work highlights the unexplored utility of borylketenimines in the synthesis of potentially bioactive molecules. © 2017 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  19. Direct Synthesis of H2O2 over Ti-Containing Molecular Sieves Supported Gold Catalysts: A Comparative Study for In-situ-H2O2-ODS of Fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, Han; Song, Haiyan; Chen, Chunxia; Han, Fuqin; Hu, Shaozheng; Liu, Guangliang; Chen, Ping; Zhao, Zhixi

    2013-01-01

    Direct synthesis of H 2 O 2 and in situ oxidative desulfurization of model fuel over Au/Ti-HMS and Au/TS-1 catalysts has been comparatively investigated in water or methanol. Maximum amount (82%) of active Au 0 species for H 2 O 2 synthesis was obtained. Au/Ti-HMS and Au/TS-1 exhibited the contrary performances in H 2 O 2 synthesis as CH 3 OH/H 2 O ratio of solvent changed. H 2 O 2 decomposition and hydrogenation in water was inhibited by the introduction of methanol. Effect of O 2 /H 2 ratio on H 2 O 2 concentration, H 2 conversion and H 2 O 2 selectivity revealed a relationship between H 2 O 2 generation and H2 consumption. The highest dibenzothiophene removal rate (83.2%) was obtained over Au/Ti-HMS in methanol at 1.5 of O 2 /H 2 ratio and 60 .deg. C. But removal of thiophene over Au/TS-1 should be performed in water without heating to obtain a high removal rate (61.3%). Meanwhile, H 2 conversion and oxidative desulfurization selectivity of H 2 were presented

  20. An in-situ chemical reaction deposition of nanosized wurtzite CdS thin films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chu Juan; Jin Zhengguo; Cai Shu; Yang Jingxia; Hong Zhanglian

    2012-01-01

    Nanocrystalline CdS thin films were deposited on glass substrates by an ammonia-free in-situ chemical reaction synthesis technique using cadmium cationic precursor solid films as reaction source and sodium sulfide based solutions as anionic reaction medium. Effects of ethanolamine addition to the cadmium cationic precursor solid films, deposition cycle numbers and annealing treatments in Ar atmosphere on structure, morphology, chemical composition and optical properties of the resultant films were investigated by X-ray diffraction, field emission scanning electron microscope, energy dispersive X-ray analysis and UV–Vis spectra measurements. The results show that CdS thin films deposited by the in-situ chemical reaction synthesis have wurtzite structure with (002) plane preferential orientation and crystallite size is in the range of 16 nm–19 nm. The growth of film thickness is almost constant with deposition cycle numbers and about 96 nm per cycle.

  1. Effect of reaction solvent on hydroxyapatite synthesis in sol-gel process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nazeer, Muhammad Anwaar; Yilgor, Emel; Yagci, Mustafa Baris; Unal, Ugur; Yilgor, Iskender

    2017-12-01

    Synthesis of hydroxyapatite (HA) through sol-gel process in different solvent systems is reported. Calcium nitrate tetrahydrate (CNTH) and diammonium hydrogen phosphate (DAHP) were used as calcium and phosphorus precursors, respectively. Three different synthesis reactions were carried out by changing the solvent media, while keeping all other process parameters constant. A measure of 0.5 M aqueous DAHP solution was used in all reactions while CNTH was dissolved in distilled water, tetrahydrofuran (THF) and N,N-dimethylformamide (DMF) at a concentration of 0.5 M. Ammonia solution (28-30%) was used to maintain the pH of the reaction mixtures in the 10-12 range. All reactions were carried out at 40 ± 2°C for 4 h. Upon completion of the reactions, products were filtered, washed and calcined at 500°C for 2 h. It was clearly demonstrated through various techniques that the dielectric constant and polarity of the solvent mixture strongly influence the chemical structure and morphological properties of calcium phosphate synthesized. Water-based reaction medium, with highest dielectric constant, mainly produced β-calcium pyrophosphate (β-CPF) with a minor amount of HA. DMF/water system yielded HA as the major phase with a very minor amount of β-CPF. THF/water solvent system with the lowest dielectric constant resulted in the formation of pure HA.

  2. In situ assembly of fibrinogen/hyaluronic acid hydrogel via knob-hole interaction for 3D cellular engineering

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shengjie Huang

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Hyaluronic acid (HA-based hydrogels have applied widely for biomedical applications due to its biocompatibility and biodegradability. However, the use of initiators or crosslinkers during the hydrogel formation may cause cytotoxicity and thereby impair the biocompatibility. Inspired by the crosslinking mechanism of fibrin gel, a novel HA-based hydrogel was developed via the in situ supramolecular assembly based on knob-hole interactions between fibrinogen and knob-grafted HA (knob-g-HA in this study. The knob-grafted HA was synthesized by coupling knob peptides (GPRPAAC, a mimic peptide of fibrin knob A to HA via Michael addition. Then the translucent fibrinogen/knob-g-HA hydrogels were prepared by simply mixing the solutions of knob-g-HA and fibrinogen at the knob/hole ratio of 1.2. The rheological behaviors of the fibrinogen/knob-g-HA hydrogels with the fibrinogen concentrations of 50, 100 and 200 mg/mL were evaluated, and it was found that the dynamic storage moduli (G′ were higher than the loss moduli (G″ over the whole frequency range for all the groups. The SEM results showed that fibrinogen/knob-g-HA hydrogels presented the heterogeneous mesh-like structures which were different from the honeycomb-like structures of fibrinogen/MA-HA hydrogels. Correspondingly, a higher swelling ratio was obtained in the groups of fibrinogen/knob-g-HA hydrogel. Finally, the cytocompatibility of fibrinogen/knob-g-HA hydrogels was proved by live/dead stainings and MTT assays in the 293T cells encapsulation test. All these results highlight the biological potential of the fibrinogen/knob-g-HA hydrogels for 3D cellular engineering.

  3. Preparation, optimization and property of PVA-HA/PAA composite hydrogel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Kai; Liu, Jinlong; Yang, Xuehui; Zhang, Dekun

    2017-09-01

    PVA-HA/PAA composite hydrogel is prepared by freezing-thawing, PEG dehydration and annealing method. Orthogonal design method is used to choose the optimization combination. Results showed that HA and PVA have the maximum effect on water content. PVA and freezing-thawing cycles have the maximum effect on creep resistance and stress relaxation rate of hydrogel. Annealing temperature and freezing-thawing cycles have the maximum effect on compressive elastic modulus of hydrogel. Comparing with the water content and mechanical properties of 16 kinds of combination, PVA-HA/PAA composite hydrogel with freezing-thawing cycles of 3, annealing temperature of 120°C, PVA of 16%, HA of 2%, PAA of 4% has the optimization comprehensive properties. PVA-HA/PAA composite hydrogel has a porous network structure. There are some interactions between PVA, HA and PAA in hydrogel and the properties of hydrogel are strengthened. The annealing treatment improves the crystalline and crosslinking of hydrogel. Therefore, the annealing PVA-HA/PAA composite hydrogel has good thermostability, strength and mechanical properties. It also has good lubrication property and its friction coefficient is relative low. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. In situ reduction of as-prepared γ-Iron Oxide Nanoparticles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Garbus, Pelle Gorm; Ahlburg, Jakob; Christensen, Mogens

    -ray diffraction measurement. The as-prepared maghemite nanoparticles were synthesized by the continuous decomposition of solutes in supercritical hydrothermal flow synthesis [3, 4]. The reagent used was ferric ammonium citrate (C6H8O7•xFe(III)•yNH3) that under hydrothermal flow synthesis decomposes into the γ......-iron oxide Fe2O3. The reduction of maghemite to body centered cubic (BCC) iron does not go through a detectable intermediate state.1.Jensen, K.M., et al., Mechanisms for iron oxide formation under hydrothermal conditions: an in situ total scattering study. ACS nano, 2014. 8(10): p. 10704-10714.2.Andersen, H...

  5. In Situ Denitrification and Biological Nitrogen Fixation Under Enhanced Atmospheric Reactive Nitrogen Deposition in UK Peatlands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ullah, Sami; Saiz Val, Ernesto; Sgouridis, Fotis; Peichl, Matthias; Nilsson, Mats

    2017-04-01

    Dinitrogen (N2) and nitrous oxide (N2O) losses due to denitrification and biological N2 fixation (BNF) are the most uncertain components of the nitrogen (N) cycle in peatlands under enhanced atmospheric reactive nitrogen (Nr) deposition. This uncertainty hampers our ability to assess the contribution of denitrification to the removal of biologically fixed and/or atmospherically deposited Nr in peatlands. This uncertainty emanates from the difficulty in measuring in situ soil N2 and N2O production and consumption in peatlands. In situ denitrification and its contribution to total N2O flux was measured monthly between April 2013 and October 2014 in peatlands in two UK catchments. An adapted 15N-Gas Flux method1 with low level addition of 15N tracer (0.03 ± 0.005 kg 15N ha-1) was used to measure denitrification and its contribution to net N2O production (DN2O/TN2O). BNF was measured in situ through incubation of selected sphagnum species under 15N2 gas tracer. Denitrification2 varied temporally and averaged 8 kg N-N2 ha-1 y-1. The contribution of denitrification was about 48% to total N2O flux3 of 0.05 kg N ha-1 y-1. Soil moisture, temperature, ecosystem respiration, pH and mineral N content mainly regulated the flux of N2 and N2O. Preliminary results showed suppression of BNF, which was 1.8 to 7 times lower in peatland mosses exposed to ˜15 to 20 kg N ha-1 y-1 Nr deposition in the UK than in peatland mosses in northern Sweden with background Nr deposition. Overall, the contribution of denitrification to Nr removal in the selected peatlands was ˜50% of the annual Nr deposition rates, making these ecosystems vulnerable to chronic N saturation. These results point to a need for a more comprehensive annual BNF measurement to more accurately account for total Nr input into peatlands and its atmospheric loss due to denitrification. References Sgouridis F, Stott A & Ullah S, 2016. Application of the 15N-Gas Flux method for measuring in situ N2 and N2O fluxes due to

  6. Võidupüha 8. mail? / Leonti Kährik

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Kährik, Leonti

    2005-01-01

    Eesti peaks väärikalt tähistama võidupüha kui euroopalike demokraatlike väärtuste võitu natsismi ja fašismi üle. Lähtudes 1940. a. juunini Eestis kehtinud vööndiajast, võiks võidupüha tähistada 8. mail

  7. In situ TEM electromechanical testing of nanowires and nanotubes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Espinosa, Horacio D; Bernal, Rodrigo A; Filleter, Tobin

    2012-11-05

    The emergence of one-dimensional nanostructures as fundamental constituents of advanced materials and next-generation electronic and electromechanical devices has increased the need for their atomic-scale characterization. Given its spatial and temporal resolution, coupled with analytical capabilities, transmission electron microscopy (TEM) has been the technique of choice in performing atomic structure and defect characterization. A number of approaches have been recently developed to combine these capabilities with in-situ mechanical deformation and electrical characterization in the emerging field of in-situ TEM electromechanical testing. This has enabled researchers to establish unambiguous synthesis-structure-property relations for one-dimensional nanostructures. In this article, the development and latest advances of several in-situ TEM techniques to carry out mechanical and electromechanical testing of nanowires and nanotubes are reviewed. Through discussion of specific examples, it is shown how the merging of several microsystems and TEM has led to significant insights into the behavior of nanowires and nanotubes, underscoring the significant role in-situ techniques play in the development of novel nanoscale systems and materials. Copyright © 2012 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  8. Hydrocortisone and triiodothyronine regulate hyaluronate synthesis in a tissue-engineered human dermal equivalent through independent pathways.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deshpande, Madhura; Papp, Suzanne; Schaffer, Lana; Pouyani, Tara

    2015-02-01

    Hydrocortisone (HC) and triiodothyronine (T3) have both been shown to be capable of independently inhibiting hyaluronate (HA, hyaluronic acid) synthesis in a self-assembled human dermal equivalent (human dermal matrix). We sought to investigate the action of these two hormones in concert on extracellular matrix formation and HA inhibition in the tissue engineered human dermal matrix. To this end, neonatal human dermal fibroblasts were cultured in defined serum-free medium for 21 days in the presence of each hormone alone, or in combination, in varying concentrations. Through a process of self-assembly, a substantial dermal extracellular matrix formed that was characterized. The results of these studies demonstrate that combinations of the hormones T3 and hydrocortisone showed significantly higher levels of hyaluronate inhibition as compared to each hormone alone in the human dermal matrix. In order to gain preliminary insight into the genes regulating HA synthesis in this system, a differential gene array analysis was conducted in which the construct prepared in the presence of 200 μg/mL HC and 0.2 nM T3 was compared to the normal construct (0.4 μg/mL HC and 20 pM T3). Using a GLYCOv4 gene chip containing approximately 1260 human genes, we observed differential expression of 131 genes. These data suggest that when these two hormones are used in concert a different mechanism of inhibition prevails and a combination of degradation and inhibition of HA synthesis may be responsible for HA regulation in the human dermal matrix. Copyright © 2014 The Society for Biotechnology, Japan. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Prospects of HA-Based Universal Influenza Vaccine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anwar M. Hashem

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Current influenza vaccines afford substantial protection in humans by inducing strain-specific neutralizing antibodies (Abs. Most of these Abs target highly variable immunodominant epitopes in the globular domain of the viral hemagglutinin (HA. Therefore, current vaccines may not be able to induce heterosubtypic immunity against the divergent influenza subtypes. The identification of broadly neutralizing Abs (BnAbs against influenza HA using recent technological advancements in antibody libraries, hybridoma, and isolation of single Ab-secreting plasma cells has increased the interest in developing a universal influenza vaccine as it could provide life-long protection. While these BnAbs can serve as a source for passive immunotherapy, their identification represents an important step towards the design of such a universal vaccine. This review describes the recent advances and approaches used in the development of universal influenza vaccine based on highly conserved HA regions identified by BnAbs.

  10. Heterotopic cardiac transplantation decreases the capacity for rat myocardial protein synthesis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Klein, I.; Samarel, A.M.; Welikson, R.; Hong, C.

    1991-01-01

    Heterotopic cardiac isografts are vascularly perfused hearts that maintain structural and functional integrity for prolonged periods of time. When placed in an infrarenal location, the heart is hemodynamically unloaded and undergoes negative growth, leading to cardiac atrophy. At 7 and 14 days after transplantation, the transplanted heart was decreased in size compared with the in situ heart (p less than 0.001). To assess the possible mechanism(s) to account for this reduction in size we studied in vivo rates of total left ventricular (LV) protein synthesis, total LV RNA content, and 18S ribosomal RNA content by nucleic acid hybridization. The LV protein synthetic rate was 4.7 and 5.3 mg/day in the in situ heart and was significantly decreased to 2.9 and 2.7 mg/day in the transplanted hearts at 7 and 14 days, respectively. LV RNA content of the transplant declined to 53% and 48% of the in situ value at 7 and 14 days, respectively. Hybridization studies revealed that LV 18S ribosomal subunit content was reduced proportionately to total RNA in the heterotopic hearts. As a result of these changes, there was no significant difference in the efficiency of total LV protein synthesis between the in situ and transplanted hearts. The present studies demonstrate that the hemodynamic unloading and cardiac atrophy that is characteristic of heterotopic cardiac transplantation is accompanied by a decrease in LV total RNA content and 18S RNA, resulting in a decreased capacity for myocardial protein synthesis

  11. Hyaluronan synthesis in cultured tobacco cells (BY-2) expressing a chlorovirus enzyme: cytological studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rakkhumkaew, Numfon; Shibatani, Shigeo; Kawasaki, Takeru; Fujie, Makoto; Yamada, Takashi

    2013-04-01

    Extraction of hyaluronan from animals or microbial fermentation has risks including contamination with pathogens and microbial toxins. In this work, tobacco cultured-cells (BY-2) were successfully transformed with a chloroviral hyaluronan synthase (cvHAS) gene to produce hyaluronan. Cytological studies revealed accumulation of HA on the cells, and also in subcellular fractions (protoplasts, miniplasts, vacuoplasts, and vacuoles). Transgenic BY-2 cells harboring a vSPO-cvHAS construct containing the vacuolar targeting signal of sporamin connected to the N-terminus of cvHAS accumulated significant amounts of HA in vacuoles. These results suggested that cvHAS successfully functions on the vacuolar membrane and synthesizes/transports HA into vacuoles. Efficient synthesis of HA using this system provides a new method for practical production of HA. Copyright © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  12. Fibrous hydroxyapatite–carbon nanotube composites by chemical vapor deposition: In situ fabrication, structural and morphological characterization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kosma, Vassiliki; Tsoufis, Theodoros; Koliou, Theodora; Kazantzis, Antonios; Beltsios, Konstantinos; De Hosson, Jeff Th. M.; Gournis, Dimitrios

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: ► CNTs synthesized on fibrous HA surfaces supporting Fe–Co bi- metallic catalysts by CVD. ► CNTs are rooted on HA distinct needle-like monocrystals and needle spherulitic aggregates. ► Reaction temperature and metal loading are critical parameters for CNT production. -- Abstract: Fibrous hydroxyapatite (HA)–carbon nanotube composites were synthesized by the catalytic decomposition of acetylene over Fe–Co bimetallic catalysts supported on the fibrous HA. Two forms of fibrous HA (distinct needle-like monocrystals and spherulitic aggregates of needles) were synthesized using a simple precipitation method and loaded with bimetallic catalysts (from 2 up to 20 wt%) by a wet chemical impregnation method. The HA supported catalysts were evaluated for the in situ growth of carbon nanotubes using the catalytic chemical vapor deposition method. The effect of reaction temperature and metal loading on the yield, structural perfection and morphology of the carbon products were investigated using a combination of X-ray diffraction, thermal analysis, Raman spectroscopy and scanning and transmission electron microscopies. The results revealed that both the selection of the growing conditions and the metal loading determine the yield and overall quality of the synthesized carbon nanotubes, which exhibit high graphitization degree when synthesized in high yields

  13. Fibrous hydroxyapatite–carbon nanotube composites by chemical vapor deposition: In situ fabrication, structural and morphological characterization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kosma, Vassiliki; Tsoufis, Theodoros; Koliou, Theodora [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, University of Ioannina, GR-45110 Ioannina (Greece); Kazantzis, Antonios [Department of Applied Physics, Zernike Institute for Advanced Materials, University of Groningen, Nijenborgh 4, NL-9747AG Groningen (Netherlands); Beltsios, Konstantinos [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, University of Ioannina, GR-45110 Ioannina (Greece); De Hosson, Jeff Th. M. [Department of Applied Physics, Zernike Institute for Advanced Materials, University of Groningen, Nijenborgh 4, NL-9747AG Groningen (Netherlands); Gournis, Dimitrios, E-mail: dgourni@cc.uoi.gr [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, University of Ioannina, GR-45110 Ioannina (Greece)

    2013-04-20

    Highlights: ► CNTs synthesized on fibrous HA surfaces supporting Fe–Co bi- metallic catalysts by CVD. ► CNTs are rooted on HA distinct needle-like monocrystals and needle spherulitic aggregates. ► Reaction temperature and metal loading are critical parameters for CNT production. -- Abstract: Fibrous hydroxyapatite (HA)–carbon nanotube composites were synthesized by the catalytic decomposition of acetylene over Fe–Co bimetallic catalysts supported on the fibrous HA. Two forms of fibrous HA (distinct needle-like monocrystals and spherulitic aggregates of needles) were synthesized using a simple precipitation method and loaded with bimetallic catalysts (from 2 up to 20 wt%) by a wet chemical impregnation method. The HA supported catalysts were evaluated for the in situ growth of carbon nanotubes using the catalytic chemical vapor deposition method. The effect of reaction temperature and metal loading on the yield, structural perfection and morphology of the carbon products were investigated using a combination of X-ray diffraction, thermal analysis, Raman spectroscopy and scanning and transmission electron microscopies. The results revealed that both the selection of the growing conditions and the metal loading determine the yield and overall quality of the synthesized carbon nanotubes, which exhibit high graphitization degree when synthesized in high yields.

  14. In-situ synthesis of Ag nanoparticles by electron beam irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gong, Jiangfeng; Liu, Hongwei; Jiang, Yuwen; Yang, Shaoguang; Liao, Xiaozhou; Liu, Zongwen; Ringer, Simon

    2015-01-01

    Ag nanoparticles were synthesized by electron beam irradiation in the transmission electron microscope chamber at room temperature and the growth mechanism was explored in detail. The sizes of the Ag nanoparticles are controlled by the electron beam current density. Two nanoparticle growth stages were identified. The first growth stage was dominated by the discharging effect, while the second stage was controlled by the heating effect. The nanoparticle synthesis method should be applicable to the synthesis of other metallic nanoparticles. - Highlights: • Ag nanoparticles were synthesized by electron beam irradiation in the transmission electron microscope chamber. • The sizes of the Ag nanoparticles are controlled by the electron beam current density. • The growth mechanism was studied, two growth stages were confirmed. • The first growth stage was dominated by the discharging effect, and the second stage was controlled by the heating effect.

  15. Enhanced Enzymatic Production of Cephalexin at High Substrate Concentration with in situ Product Removal by Complexation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dengchao Li

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Cephalexin (CEX was synthesized with 7-amino-3-deacetoxycephalosporanic acid (7-ADCA and D(–-phenylglycine methyl ester (PGME using immobilized penicillin G acylase from Escherichia coli. It was found that substrate concentration and in situ product could remarkably influence the ratio of synthesis to hydrolysis (S/H and the efficiency of CEX synthesis. The optimal ratio of enzyme to substrate was 65 IU/mM 7-ADCA. High substrate concentration improved the 7-ADCA conversion from 61 to 81 % in the process without in situ product removal (ISPR, while in the synthetic process with ISPR, high substrate concentration increased the 7-ADCA conversion from 88 to 98 %. CEX was easily separated from CEX/β-naphthol complex and its purity and overall yield were 99 and 70 %, respectively.

  16. A novel fabrication technology of in situ TiB2/6063Al composites: High energy ball milling and melt in situ reaction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, S.-L.; Yang, J.; Zhang, B.-R.; Zhao, Y.-T.; Chen, G.; Shi, X.-X.; Liang, Z.-P.

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • This paper presents a novel technology to fabricate the TiB 2 /6063Al composites. • The novel technology decreases in situ reaction temperature and shortens the time. • The reaction mechanism of in situ reaction at the low temperature is discussed. • Effect of ball milling time and in situ reaction time on the composites is studied. - Abstract: TiB 2 /6063Al matrix composites are fabricated from Al–TiO 2 –B 2 O 3 system by the technology combining high energy ball milling with melt in situ reaction. The microstructure and tensile properties of the composites are investigated by XRD, SEM, EDS, TEM and electronic tensile testing. The results indicate that high energy ball milling technology decreases the in situ reaction temperature and shortens the reaction time for Al–TiO 2 –B 2 O 3 system in contrast with the conventional melt in situ synthesis. The morphology of in situ TiB 2 particles is exhibited in irregular shape or nearly circular shape, and the average size of the particles is less than 700 nm, thereinto the minimum size is approximately 200 nm. In addition, the morphology and size of the reinforced particles are affected by the time of ball milling and in situ reaction. TEM images indicate that the interface between 6063Al matrix and TiB 2 particles is clear and no interfacial outgrowth is observed. Tensile testing results show that the as-cast TiB 2 /6063Al composites exhibit a much higher strength, reaching 191 MPa, which is 1.23 times as high as the as-cast 6063Al matrix. Besides, the tensile fracture surface of the composites displays the dimple-fracture character

  17. High Ionic Conductivity of Composite Solid Polymer Electrolyte via In Situ Synthesis of Monodispersed SiO2 Nanospheres in Poly(ethylene oxide).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Dingchang; Liu, Wei; Liu, Yayuan; Lee, Hye Ryoung; Hsu, Po-Chun; Liu, Kai; Cui, Yi

    2016-01-13

    High ionic conductivity solid polymer electrolyte (SPE) has long been desired for the next generation high energy and safe rechargeable lithium batteries. Among all of the SPEs, composite polymer electrolyte (CPE) with ceramic fillers has garnered great interest due to the enhancement of ionic conductivity. However, the high degree of polymer crystallinity, agglomeration of ceramic fillers, and weak polymer-ceramic interaction limit the further improvement of ionic conductivity. Different from the existing methods of blending preformed ceramic particles with polymers, here we introduce an in situ synthesis of ceramic filler particles in polymer electrolyte. Much stronger chemical/mechanical interactions between monodispersed 12 nm diameter SiO2 nanospheres and poly(ethylene oxide) (PEO) chains were produced by in situ hydrolysis, which significantly suppresses the crystallization of PEO and thus facilitates polymer segmental motion for ionic conduction. In addition, an improved degree of LiClO4 dissociation can also be achieved. All of these lead to good ionic conductivity (1.2 × 10(-3) S cm(-1) at 60 °C, 4.4 × 10(-5) S cm(-1) at 30 °C). At the same time, largely extended electrochemical stability window up to 5.5 V can be observed. We further demonstrated all-solid-state lithium batteries showing excellent rate capability as well as good cycling performance.

  18. Synthesis of core-shell heterostructured Cu/Cu2O nanowires monitored by in situ XRD as efficient visible-light photocatalysts

    KAUST Repository

    Chen, Wei

    2013-01-01

    Core-shell heterostructured Cu/Cu2O nanowires with a high aspect ratio were synthesized from Cu foam using a novel oxidation/reduction process. In situ XRD was used as an efficient tool to acquire phase transformation details during the temperature-programmed oxidation of Cu foam and the subsequent reduction process. Based on knowledge of the crucial phase transformation, optimal synthesis conditions for producing high-quality CuO and core-shell Cu/Cu2O nanowires were determined. In favor of efficient charge separation induced by the special core-shell heterostructure and the advanced three-dimensional spatial configuration, Cu/Cu2O nanowires exhibited superior visible-light activity in the degradation of methylene blue. The present study illustrates a novel strategy for fabricating efficiently core-shell heterostructured nanowires and provides the potential for developing their applications in electronic devices, for environmental remediation and in solar energy utilization fields. This journal is © The Royal Society of Chemistry.

  19. In situ synthesis of NiAl–NbB2 composite powder through combustion synthesis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shokati, Ali Akbar; Parvin, Nader; Sabzianpour, Naser; Shokati, Mohammad; Hemmati, Ali

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: ► A Novel NiAl matrix composite powder with 0–40 wt.% NbB 2 was synthesized. ► Composite powders were synthesized by thermal explosion reaction of Ni–Al–Nb–B system. ► Microhardness of NiAl considerably increased with raising NbB 2 content. ► Synthesized composite powders is a good candidate as precursor for thermal barrier application. - Abstract: Synthesis of a novel NiAl matrix composite powder reinforced with 0–40 wt.% NbB 2 by combustion synthesis in thermal explosion mode was investigated. The elemental powders of Ni, Al, Nb, and amorphous boron were used as starting material. For all compositions final products consisted of only the NiAl and NbB 2 phases. Coarser NbB 2 with a relatively uniform distribution in NiAl matrix was formed with rising NbB 2 content. Microhardness of NiAl considerably increased from 377 ± 13 HV 0.05 to 866 ± 81 HV 0.05 for NiAl with 40 wt.% NbB 2 . High microhardness, proper size and distribution of NbB 2 in NiAl matrix make it a good candidate as precursor for thermal spray application.

  20. In situ composite coating of titania-hydroxyapatite on titanium substrate by micro-arc oxidation coupled with electrophoretic deposition processing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bai, Yu [Department of Dental Biomaterials, School of Dentistry and Institute of Oral Bioscience, Brain Korea 21 Project, Chonbuk National University, Jeonju 561-756 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Kyoung-A. [Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Radiology, School of Dentistry and Institute of Oral Bio Science, Chonbuk National University, Jeonju 561-756 (Korea, Republic of); Park, Il Song, E-mail: ilsong@chonbuk.ac.kr [Department of Dental Biomaterials, School of Dentistry and Institute of Oral Bioscience, Brain Korea 21 Project, Chonbuk National University, Jeonju 561-756 (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Sook Jeong [Neural Injury Research Lab, Department of Neurology, Asan life Science Institute, University, of Ulsan, College of Medicine, Seoul 138-736 (Korea, Republic of); Bae, Tae Sung [Department of Dental Biomaterials, School of Dentistry and Institute of Oral Bioscience, Brain Korea 21 Project, Chonbuk National University, Jeonju 561-756 (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Min Ho, E-mail: mh@jbnu.ac.kr [Department of Dental Biomaterials, School of Dentistry and Institute of Oral Bioscience, Brain Korea 21 Project, Chonbuk National University, Jeonju 561-756 (Korea, Republic of)

    2011-09-15

    Highlights: {center_dot} HA/TiO{sub 2} coating were prepared by a MAO and EPD technique. {center_dot} The NaOH electrolyte solution containing HA particles is employed. {center_dot} MAO and EPD treatment enhances the corrosion resistance and bioactivity of titanium. - Abstract: In situ composite coating of hydroxyapatite (HA)/TiO{sub 2} were produced on titanium (Ti) substrate by micro-arc oxidation coupled with electrophoretic deposition (MAO and EPD) technique with different concentrations of HA particles in the 0.2 M NaOH electrolyte solution. The surface morphology and chemical composition of the hybrid coating were effected by HA concentration. The amount of HA particles incorporated into coating layer increased with increasing HA concentration used in the electrolyte solution. The corrosion behavior of the coating layer in simulated body fluids (SBF) was evaluated using a potentiodynamic polarization test. The corrosion resistance of the coated sample was increased compared to the untreated Ti sample. The in vitro bioactivity assessment showed that the MAO and EPD treated Ti substrate possessed higher apatite-forming ability than the untreated Ti. Moreover, the apatite-forming ability had a positive correlation with HA concentration. In addition, the cell behavior was also examined using cell proliferation assay and alkaline phosphatase ability. The coating formed at HA concentration of 5 g/L exhibited the highest cell ability.

  1. Microstructure and property evolutions of titanium/nano-hydroxyapatite composites in-situ prepared by selective laser melting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Changjun; Wang, Qian; Song, Bo; Li, Wei; Wei, Qingsong; Wen, Shifeng; Liu, Jie; Shi, Yusheng

    2017-07-01

    Titanium (Ti)-hydroxyapatite (HA) composites have the potential for orthopedic applications due to their favorable mechanical properties, excellent biocompatibility and bioactivity. In this work, the pure Ti and nano-scale HA (Ti-nHA) composites were in-situ prepared by selective laser melting (SLM) for the first time. The phase, microstructure, surface characteristic and mechanical properties of the SLM-processed Ti-nHA composites were studied by X-ray diffraction, transmission electron microscope, atomic force microscope and tensile tests, respectively. Results show that SLM is a suitable method for fabricating the Ti-nHA composites with refined microstructure, low modulus and high strength. A novel microstructure evolution can be illustrated as: Relatively long lath-shaped grains of pure Ti evolved into short acicular-shaped and quasi-continuous circle-shaped grains with the varying contents of nHA. The elastic modulus of the Ti-nHA composites is 3.7% higher than that of pure Ti due to the effect of grain refinement. With the addition of 2% nHA, the ultimate tensile strength significantly reduces to 289MPa but still meets the application requirement of bone implants. The Ti-nHA composites exhibit a remarkable improvement of microhardness from 336.2 to 600.8 HV and nanohardness from 5.6 to 8.3GPa, compared to those of pure Ti. Moreover, the microstructure and property evolution mechanisms of the composites with the addition of HA were discussed and analyzed. It provides some new knowledge to the design and fabrication of biomedical material composites for bone implant applications. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Simultaneous Hypoxia and Low Extracellular pH Suppress Overall Metabolic Rate and Protein Synthesis In Vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sørensen, Brita Singers; Busk, Morten; Overgaard, Jens; Horsman, Michael R; Alsner, Jan

    2015-01-01

    The tumor microenvironment is characterized by regions of hypoxia and acidosis which are linked to poor prognosis. This occurs due to an aberrant vasculature as well as high rates of glycolysis and lactate production in tumor cells even in the presence of oxygen (the Warburg effect), which weakens the spatial linkage between hypoxia and acidosis. Five different human squamous cell carcinoma cell lines (SiHa, FaDuDD, UTSCC5, UTSCC14 and UTSCC15) were treated with hypoxia, acidosis (pH 6.3), or a combination, and gene expression analyzed using microarray. SiHa and FaDuDD were chosen for further characterization of cell energetics and protein synthesis. Total cellular ATP turnover and relative glycolytic dependency was determined by simultaneous measurements of oxygen consumption and lactate synthesis rates and total protein synthesis was determined by autoradiographic quantification of the incorporation of 35S-labelled methionine and cysteine into protein. Microarray analysis allowed differentiation between genes induced at low oxygen only at normal extracellular pH (pHe), genes induced at low oxygen at both normal and low pHe, and genes induced at low pHe independent of oxygen concentration. Several genes were found to be upregulated by acidosis independent of oxygenation. Acidosis resulted in a more wide-scale change in gene expression profiles than hypoxia including upregulation of genes involved in the translation process, for example Eukaryotic translation initiation factor 4A, isoform 2 (EIF4A2), and Ribosomal protein L37 (RPL37). Acidosis suppressed overall ATP turnover and protein synthesis by 50%. Protein synthesis, but not total ATP production, was also suppressed under hypoxic conditions. A dramatic decrease in ATP turnover (SiHa) and protein synthesis (both cell lines) was observed when hypoxia and low pHe were combined. We demonstrate here that the influence of hypoxia and acidosis causes different responses, both in gene expression and in de novo

  3. A novel fabrication technology of in situ TiB{sub 2}/6063Al composites: High energy ball milling and melt in situ reaction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, S.-L.; Yang, J. [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Jiangsu University, Zhenjiang, Jiangsu 212013 (China); Zhang, B.-R. [School of Mechanical Engineering, Qilu University of Technology, Jinan, Shandong 250022 (China); Zhao, Y.-T., E-mail: 278075525@qq.com [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Jiangsu University, Zhenjiang, Jiangsu 212013 (China); Chen, G.; Shi, X.-X.; Liang, Z.-P. [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Jiangsu University, Zhenjiang, Jiangsu 212013 (China)

    2015-08-05

    Highlights: • This paper presents a novel technology to fabricate the TiB{sub 2}/6063Al composites. • The novel technology decreases in situ reaction temperature and shortens the time. • The reaction mechanism of in situ reaction at the low temperature is discussed. • Effect of ball milling time and in situ reaction time on the composites is studied. - Abstract: TiB{sub 2}/6063Al matrix composites are fabricated from Al–TiO{sub 2}–B{sub 2}O{sub 3} system by the technology combining high energy ball milling with melt in situ reaction. The microstructure and tensile properties of the composites are investigated by XRD, SEM, EDS, TEM and electronic tensile testing. The results indicate that high energy ball milling technology decreases the in situ reaction temperature and shortens the reaction time for Al–TiO{sub 2}–B{sub 2}O{sub 3} system in contrast with the conventional melt in situ synthesis. The morphology of in situ TiB{sub 2} particles is exhibited in irregular shape or nearly circular shape, and the average size of the particles is less than 700 nm, thereinto the minimum size is approximately 200 nm. In addition, the morphology and size of the reinforced particles are affected by the time of ball milling and in situ reaction. TEM images indicate that the interface between 6063Al matrix and TiB{sub 2} particles is clear and no interfacial outgrowth is observed. Tensile testing results show that the as-cast TiB{sub 2}/6063Al composites exhibit a much higher strength, reaching 191 MPa, which is 1.23 times as high as the as-cast 6063Al matrix. Besides, the tensile fracture surface of the composites displays the dimple-fracture character.

  4. A biological method for in-situ synthesis of hydroxyapatite-coated magnetite nanoparticles using Enterobacter aerogenes: Characterization and acute toxicity assessments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmadzadeh, Elham; Talebnia Rowshan, Farid; Hosseini, Morteza

    2017-04-01

    Hydroxyapatite (HA)-coated magnetite nanoparticles (MNPs) are being widely investigated for various applications in medical engineering and wastewater treatment. In this work, the MNPs were thoroughly coated by bacterial synthesized HA nanoparticles during biomineralization process using Enterobacter aerogenes. The resulting bacterial-induced precipitate was then calcined at 600°C and investigated with respect to structural characteristics, particle size and magnetic strength by XRD, FT-IR, SEM, EDS, TEM and VSM analyses. The effects of MNPs and HA-coated MNPs (HA-MNPs) on the viability of human MCF-7 cell lines were also investigated via mitochondrial activity test (MTT) and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) assays. The powder characterization results showed appropriate structural properties for HA-MNPs samples. The particles diameter size of the MNPs and HA-MNPs were in the range of 3-25nm and 20-80nm, respectively. The biologically-synthesized HA-MNPs formed a stable suspension in water while keeping their magnetic property. The saturation magnetization (Ms) of HA-MNPs was measured at ~10emug -1 which was in good agreement with the structural composition of this sample. Finally, the results of the cell lines viability indicated that coating of toxic MNPs via biomineralization was a promising approach in order to synthesize bio-compatible magnetic nanoparticles with suitable physical and chemical structural characteristics. The toxicity level of MNPs was reduced by 10 fold when coated by bacterial-synthesized HA. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. In Situ PDF Study of the Nucleation and Growth of Intermetallic PtPb Nanocrystals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Saha, Dipankar; Bojesen, Espen D.; Mamakhel, Mohammad Aref Hasen

    2017-01-01

    The mechanism of Pt and PtPb nanocrystal formation under supercritical ethanol conditions has been investigated by means of in situ X-ray total scattering and pair distribution function (PDF) analysis. The metal complex structures of two different platinum precursor solutions, chloroplatinic acid...... supercritical ethanol process for obtaining phase-pure hexagonal PtPb nanocrystals. The study thus highlights the importance of in situ studies in revealing atomic-scale information about nucleation mechanisms, which can be used in design of specific synthesis pathways, and the new continuous-flow process...

  6. Interactive modeling-synthesis-characterization approach towards controllable in situ self-assembly of artificial pinning centers in RE-123 films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Judy; Shi, Jack

    2017-10-01

    Raising critical current density J c in high temperature superconductors (HTSs) is an important strategy towards performance-cost balanced HTS technology for commercialization. The development of strong nanoscale artificial pinning centers (APCs) in HTS, such as YBa2Cu3O7 or RE-123 in general, represents one of the most exciting progressions in HTS material research in the last decade. Significantly raised J c has been demonstrated in APC/RE-123 nanocomposites by enhanced pinning on magnetic vortices in magnetic fields towards that demanded in practical applications. Among other processes, strain-mediated self-organization has been explored extensively for in situ formation of the APCs based on fundamental physics design rules. The desire in controlling the morphology, dimension, orientation, and concentration of APCs has led to a fundamental question on how strains interact in determining APCs at a macroscopic scale. Answering this question demands an interactive modeling-synthesis-characterization approach towards a thorough understanding of fundamental physics governing the strain-mediated self-organization of the APCs in the APC/RE-123 nanocomposites. Such an understanding is the key for a leap forward from the traditionally empirical method to materials-by-design to enable an optimal APC landscape to be achieved in epitaxial films of APC/YBCO nanocomposites under a precise guidance of fundamental physics. The paper intends to provide a review of recent progress made in the controllable generation of APCs using the interactive modeling-synthesis-characterization approach. The emphasis will be given to the understanding so far achieved using such an approach on the collective effect of the strain field on the morphology, dimension, and orientation of APCs in epitaxial APC/RE-123 nanocomposite films.

  7. Synthesis of 2-phenylnaphthalenes from styryl-2-methoxybenzenes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mudududdla, Ramesh; Sharma, Rohit; Abbat, Sheenu; Bharatam, Prasad V; Vishwakarma, Ram A; Bharate, Sandip B

    2014-10-18

    A new simple and efficient method for the synthesis of 2-phenylnaphthalenes from electron-rich 1-styryl-2-methoxybenzenes has been described. The reaction proceeds via TFA catalyzed C-C bond cleavage followed by intermolecular [4+2]-Diels-Alder cycloaddition of an in situ formed styrenyl trifluoroacetate intermediate. The quantum chemical calculations identified the transition state for the cycloaddition reaction and helped in tracing the reaction mechanism. The method has been efficiently utilized for synthesis of the phenanthrene skeleton and a naphthalene-based potent and selective ER-β agonist.

  8. Crystal structure of the HA3 subcomponent of Clostridium botulinum type C progenitor toxin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakamura, Toshio; Kotani, Mao; Tonozuka, Takashi; Ide, Azusa; Oguma, Keiji; Nishikawa, Atsushi

    2009-01-30

    The Clostridium botulinum type C 16S progenitor toxin contains a neurotoxin and several nontoxic components, designated nontoxic nonhemagglutinin (HA), HA1 (HA-33), HA2 (HA-17), HA3a (HA-22-23), and HA3b (HA-53). The HA3b subcomponent seems to play an important role cooperatively with HA1 in the internalization of the toxin by gastrointestinal epithelial cells via binding of these subcomponents to specific oligosaccharides. In this study, we investigated the sugar-binding specificity of the HA3b subcomponent using recombinant protein fused to glutathione S-transferase and determined the three-dimensional structure of the HA3a-HA3b complex based on X-ray crystallography. The crystal structure was determined at a resolution of 2.6 A. HA3b contains three domains, domains I to III, and the structure of domain I resembles HA3a. In crystal packing, three HA3a-HA3b molecules are assembled to form a three-leaved propeller-like structure. The three HA3b domain I and three HA3a alternate, forming a trimer of dimers. In a database search, no proteins with high structural homology to any of the domains (Z score >10) were found. Especially, HA3a and HA3b domain I, mainly composed of beta-sheets, reveal a unique fold. In binding assays, HA3b bound sialic acid with high affinity, but did not bind galactose, N-acetylgalactosamine, or N-acetylglucosamine. The electron density of liganded N-acetylneuraminic acid was determined by crystal soaking. In the sugar-complex structure, the N-acetylneuraminic acid-binding site was located in the cleft formed between domains II and III of HA3b. This report provides the first determination of the three-dimensional structure of the HA3a-HA3b complex and its sialic acid binding site. Our results will provide useful information for elucidating the mechanism of assembly of the C16S toxin and for understanding the interactions with oligosaccharides on epithelial cells and internalization of the botulinum toxin complex.

  9. Sr-containing hydroxyapatite: morphologies of HA crystals and bioactivity on osteoblast cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aina, Valentina [Department of Chemistry, Università degli Studi di Torino, Via P. Giuria 7, 10125 Torino (Italy); Centre of Excellence NIS (Nanostructured Interfaces and Surface) Università degli Studi di Torino (Italy); INSTM (Italian National Consortium for Materials Science and Technology), UdR Università di Torino (Italy); Bergandi, Loredana, E-mail: loredana.bergandi@unito.it [Department of Oncology, Università degli Studi di Torino, Via Santena 5/bis, 10126 Torino (Italy); Lusvardi, Gigliola; Malavasi, Gianluca [Department of Chemical and Geological Sciences, Università di Modena and Reggio Emilia, Via Campi 183, 41125 Modena (Italy); Imrie, Flora E.; Gibson, Iain R. [School of Medical Sciences, Institute of Medical Sciences, University of Aberdeen, Foresterhill, Aberdeen, AB25 2ZD (United Kingdom); Cerrato, Giuseppina [Department of Chemistry, Università degli Studi di Torino, Via P. Giuria 7, 10125 Torino (Italy); Centre of Excellence NIS (Nanostructured Interfaces and Surface) Università degli Studi di Torino (Italy); INSTM (Italian National Consortium for Materials Science and Technology), UdR Università di Torino (Italy); Ghigo, Dario [Department of Oncology, Università degli Studi di Torino, Via Santena 5/bis, 10126 Torino (Italy)

    2013-04-01

    A series of Sr-substituted hydroxyapatites (HA), of general formula Ca{sub (10−x)}Sr{sub x}(PO{sub 4}){sub 6}(OH){sub 2}, where x = 2 and 4, were synthesized by solid state methods and characterized extensively. The reactivity of these materials in cell culture medium was evaluated, and the behavior towards MG-63 osteoblast cells (in terms of cytotoxicity and proliferation assays) was studied. Future in vivo studies will give further insights into the behavior of the materials. A paper by Lagergren et al. (1975), concerning Sr-substituted HA prepared by a solid state method, reports that the presence of Sr in the apatite composition strongly influences the apatite diffraction patterns. Zeglinsky et al. (2012) investigated Sr-substituted HA by ab initio methods and Rietveld analyses and reported changes in the HA unit cell volume and shape due to the Sr addition. To further clarify the role played by the addition of Sr on the physico-chemical properties of these materials we prepared Sr-substituted HA compositions by a solid state method, using different reagents, thermal treatments and a multi-technique approach. Our results indicated that the introduction of Sr at the levels considered here does influence the structure of HA. There is also evidence of a decrease in the crystallinity degree of the materials upon Sr addition. The introduction of increasing amounts of Sr into the HA composition causes a decrease in the specific surface area and an enrichment of Sr-apatite phase at the surface of the samples. Bioactivity tests show that the presence of Sr causes changes in particle size and/or morphology during soaking in MEM solution; on the contrary the morphology of pure HA does not change after 14 days of reaction. The presence of Sr, as Sr-substituted HA and SrCl{sub 2,} in cultures of human MG-63 osteoblasts did not produce any cytotoxic effect. In fact, Sr-substituted HA increased the proliferation of osteoblast cells and enhanced cell differentiation: Sr in

  10. Sr-containing hydroxyapatite: morphologies of HA crystals and bioactivity on osteoblast cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aina, Valentina; Bergandi, Loredana; Lusvardi, Gigliola; Malavasi, Gianluca; Imrie, Flora E.; Gibson, Iain R.; Cerrato, Giuseppina; Ghigo, Dario

    2013-01-01

    A series of Sr-substituted hydroxyapatites (HA), of general formula Ca (10−x) Sr x (PO 4 ) 6 (OH) 2 , where x = 2 and 4, were synthesized by solid state methods and characterized extensively. The reactivity of these materials in cell culture medium was evaluated, and the behavior towards MG-63 osteoblast cells (in terms of cytotoxicity and proliferation assays) was studied. Future in vivo studies will give further insights into the behavior of the materials. A paper by Lagergren et al. (1975), concerning Sr-substituted HA prepared by a solid state method, reports that the presence of Sr in the apatite composition strongly influences the apatite diffraction patterns. Zeglinsky et al. (2012) investigated Sr-substituted HA by ab initio methods and Rietveld analyses and reported changes in the HA unit cell volume and shape due to the Sr addition. To further clarify the role played by the addition of Sr on the physico-chemical properties of these materials we prepared Sr-substituted HA compositions by a solid state method, using different reagents, thermal treatments and a multi-technique approach. Our results indicated that the introduction of Sr at the levels considered here does influence the structure of HA. There is also evidence of a decrease in the crystallinity degree of the materials upon Sr addition. The introduction of increasing amounts of Sr into the HA composition causes a decrease in the specific surface area and an enrichment of Sr-apatite phase at the surface of the samples. Bioactivity tests show that the presence of Sr causes changes in particle size and/or morphology during soaking in MEM solution; on the contrary the morphology of pure HA does not change after 14 days of reaction. The presence of Sr, as Sr-substituted HA and SrCl 2, in cultures of human MG-63 osteoblasts did not produce any cytotoxic effect. In fact, Sr-substituted HA increased the proliferation of osteoblast cells and enhanced cell differentiation: Sr in HA has a positive effect

  11. In Situ Formation of Carbon Nanomaterials on Bulk Metallic Materials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Y. Xu

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Carbon nanomaterials were synthesized in situ on bulk 316L stainless steel, pure cobalt, and pure nickel by hybrid surface mechanical attrition treatment (SMAT. The microstructures of the treated samples and the resulted carbon nanomaterials were investigated by SEM and TEM characterizations. Different substrates resulted in different morphologies of products. The diameter of carbon nanomaterials is related to the size of the nanograins on the surface layer of substrates. The possible growth mechanism was discussed. Effects of the main parameters of the synthesis, including the carbon source and gas reactant composition, hydrogen, and the reaction temperature, were studied. Using hybrid SMAT is proved to be an effective way to synthesize carbon nanomaterials in situ on surfaces of metallic materials.

  12. Synthesis of magnesium- and manganese-doped hydroxyapatite structures assisted by the simultaneous incorporation of strontium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moreira, Mirna Pereira [Laboratório de Biomateriais, P" 2CEM/UFS, Av. Marechal Rondon, s/n, São Cristóvão 49100-000, Sergipe (Brazil); Dulce de Almeida Soares, Gloria [Dep. de Eng. Metal. e de Materiais, COPPE/UFRJ, CP 68505, Rio de Janeiro 21941-972 (Brazil); Dentzer, Joseph; Anselme, Karine [Institut de Science des Matériaux de Mulhouse (IS2M), CNRS UMR7361, Université de Haute-Alsace, 15, rue Jean Starcky, BP 2488, 68057 Mulhouse (France); Sena, Lídia Ágata de; Kuznetsov, Alexei [Divisão de Metrologia de Materiais, Inmetro, Av. N. Sra. das Graças, 50, Duque de Caxias 25250-020, Rio de Janeiro (Brazil); Santos, Euler Araujo dos, E-mail: euler@ufs.br [Laboratório de Biomateriais, P" 2CEM/UFS, Av. Marechal Rondon, s/n, São Cristóvão 49100-000, Sergipe (Brazil)

    2016-04-01

    Samples of crystalline hydroxyapatite (HA) with and without the addition of individual Mg{sup 2+}, Mn{sup 2+} and Sr{sup 2+} ions and samples with the addition of all three ions simultaneously were prepared using the precipitation method in an aqueous medium. Chemical, structural, spectroscopic and thermophysical analyses of the synthesized samples were conducted. The obtained results indicate that Sr{sup 2+} ions were easily incorporated into the HA crystal structure, whereas it was difficult to incorporate Mg{sup 2+} and Mn{sup 2+} ions into the HA lattice when these ions were individually introduced into the samples. The synthesis of HA with Mg{sup 2+} or Mn{sup 2+} ions is characterized by the formation of HA with a low concentration of doping elements that is outweighed by the amount of these atoms present in less biocompatible phases that formed simultaneously. However, the incorporation of Sr{sup 2+} along with Mg{sup 2+} and Mn{sup 2+} ions into the samples allowed for the synthesis of HA with considerably higher concentrations of Mg{sup 2+} and Mn{sup 2+} in the crystal lattice. - Graphical abstract: Sr{sup 2+} ions were easily incorporated into the HA lattice, whereas Mg{sup 2+} and Mn{sup 2+} ions were hardly retained in the HA structure after heating to 1000 °C when they were individually incorporated in the samples. Nevertheless, co-substitution with Sr{sup 2+} ions allowed for better fixation of the Mg{sup 2+} and Mn{sup 2+} ions into the HA lattice. - Highlights: • Mg{sup 2+} and Mn{sup 2+} ions have a great difficulty being stabilized in the apatite lattice. • Sr{sup 2+} ions can stabilize Mg{sup 2+} and Mn{sup 2+} in the hydroxyapatite structure. • Except for Mn{sup 2+}, Sr{sup 2+} and Mg{sup 2+} obstruct the release of CO{sub 2}.

  13. RNA detection in situ with FISH-STICs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sinnamon, John R; Czaplinski, Kevin

    2014-02-01

    The ability to detect RNA molecules in situ has long had important applications for molecular biological studies. Enzyme or dye-labeled antisense in vitro runoff transcripts and synthetic oligodeoxynucleotides (ODN) both have a proven track record of success, but each of these also has scientific and practical drawbacks and limitations to its use. We devised a means to use commercially synthesized oligonucleotides as RNA-FISH probes without further modification and show that such probes work well for detection of RNA in cultured cells. This approach can bind a high concentration of fluorescent ODN to a short stretch of an RNA using commercial DNA synthesis outlets available to any laboratory. We call this approach for creating in situ hybridization probes Fluorescence In Situ Hybridization with Sequential Tethered and Intertwined ODN Complexes (FISH-STICs). We demonstrate that one FISH-STIC probe can detect mRNA molecules in culture, and that probe detection can be improved by the addition of multiple probes that can be easily adapted for robust mRNA quantification. Using FISH-STICs, we demonstrate a nonoverlapping distribution for β-actin and γ-actin mRNA in cultured fibroblasts, and the detection of neuron-specific transcripts within cultured primary hippocampal neurons.

  14. Synthesis of aluminium nanoparticles by arc evaporation of an ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Administrator

    Abstract. Aluminium nanoparticles (Al Nps) are synthesized using arc discharge method by applying direct current between aluminium electrodes in liquid environment without any use of vacuum equipment, heat exchangers, high temperatures furnaces and inert gases. After synthesis of Al Nps, in situ coating process on.

  15. Synthesis and application of in-situ molecularly imprinted silica monolithic in pipette-tip solid-phase microextraction for the separation and determination of gallic acid in orange juice samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arabi, Maryam; Ghaedi, Mehrorang; Ostovan, Abbas

    2017-03-24

    A novel strategy was presented for the synthesis and application of functionalized silica monolithic as artificial receptor of gallic acid at micro-pipette tip. A sol-gel process was used to prepare the sorbent. In this in-situ polymerization reaction, tetraethyl orthosilicate (TEOS), 3-aminopropyl trimethoxysilane (APTMS), gallic acid and thiourea were used, respectively, as cross-linker, functionalized monomer, template and precursor to make crack-free and non-fragile structure. Such durable and inexpensive in-situ monolithic was successfully employed as useful tool for highly efficient extraction of gallic acid from orange juice samples. The effective parameters in extraction recovery were investigated and optimum conditions were obtained using experimental design methodology. Applying HPLC-UV for separation quantification at optimal conditions, the gallic acid was efficiently extracted without significant matrix interference. Good linearity for gallic acid in the range of 0.02-5.0mgL -1 with correlation coefficients of R 2 >0.999 revealed well applicability of the method for trace analysis. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  16. HVOF-Sprayed Nano TiO2-HA Coatings Exhibiting Enhanced Biocompatibility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lima, R. S.; Dimitrievska, S.; Bureau, M. N.; Marple, B. R.; Petit, A.; Mwale, F.; Antoniou, J.

    2010-01-01

    Biomedical thermal spray coatings produced via high-velocity oxy-fuel (HVOF) from nanostructured titania (n-TiO2) and 10 wt.% hydroxyapatite (HA) (n-TiO2-10wt.%HA) powders have been engineered as possible future alternatives to HA coatings deposited via air plasma spray (APS). This approach was chosen due to (i) the stability of TiO2 in the human body (i.e., no dissolution) and (ii) bond strength values on Ti-6Al-4V substrates more than two times higher than those of APS HA coatings. To explore the bioperformance of these novel materials and coatings, human mesenchymal stem cells (hMSCs) were cultured from 1 to 21 days on the surface of HVOF-sprayed n-TiO2 and n-TiO2-10 wt.%HA coatings. APS HA coatings and uncoated Ti-6Al-4V substrates were employed as controls. The profiles of the hMSCs were evaluated for (i) cellular proliferation, (ii) biochemical analysis of alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activity, (iii) cytoskeleton organization (fluorescent/confocal microscopy), and (iv) cell/substrate interaction via scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The biochemical analysis indicated that the hMSCs cultured on n-TiO2-10 wt.%HA coatings exhibited superior levels of bioactivity than hMSCs cultured on APS HA and pure n-TiO2 coatings. The cytoskeleton organization demonstrated a higher degree of cellular proliferation on the HVOF-sprayed n-TiO2-10wt.%HA coatings when compared to the control coatings. These results are considered promising for engineering improved performance in the next generation of thermally sprayed biomedical coatings.

  17. In situ synthesis of molecularly imprinted nanoparticles in porous support membranes using high-viscosity polymerization solvents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Renkecz, Tibor; László, Krisztina; Horváth, Viola

    2012-06-01

    There is a growing need in membrane separations for novel membrane materials providing selective retention. Molecularly imprinted polymers (MIPs) are promising candidates for membrane functionalization. In this work, a novel approach is described to prepare composite membrane adsorbers incorporating molecularly imprinted microparticles or nanoparticles into commercially available macroporous filtration membranes. The polymerization is carried out in highly viscous polymerization solvents, and the particles are formed in situ in the pores of the support membrane. MIP particle composite membranes selective for terbutylazine were prepared and characterized by scanning electron microscopy and N₂ porosimetry. By varying the polymerization solvent microparticles or nanoparticles with diameters ranging from several hundred nanometers to 1 µm could be embedded into the support. The permeability of the membranes was in the range of 1000 to 20,000 Lm⁻²  hr⁻¹  bar⁻¹. The imprinted composite membranes showed high MIP/NIP (nonimprinted polymer) selectivity for the template in organic media both in equilibrium-rebinding measurements and in filtration experiments. The solid phase extraction of a mixture of the template, its analogs, and a nonrelated compound demonstrated MIP/NIP selectivity and substance selectivity of the new molecularly imprinted membrane. The synthesis technique offers a potential for the cost-effective production of selective membrane adsorbers with high capacity and high throughput. Copyright © 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  18. In situ growth of capping-free magnetic iron oxide nanoparticles on liquid-phase exfoliated graphene

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tsoufis, T.; Syrgiannis, Z.; Akhtar, N.; Prato, M.; Katsaros, F.; Sideratou, Z.; Kouloumpis, A.; Gournis, D.; Rudolf, P.

    2015-01-01

    We report a facile approach for the in situ synthesis of very small iron oxide nanoparticles on the surface of high-quality graphene sheets. Our synthetic strategy involved the direct, liquid-phase exfoliation of highly crystalline graphite (avoiding any oxidation treatment) and the subsequent

  19. The Synthesis of "N"-Benzyl-2-Azanorbornene via Aqueous Hetero Diels-Alder Reaction: An Undergraduate Project in Organic Synthesis and Structural Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sauvage, Xavier; Delaude, Lionel

    2008-01-01

    The synthesis of "N"-benzyl-2-azanorbornene via aqueous hetero Diels-Alder reaction of cyclopentadiene and benzyliminium chloride formed in situ from benzylamine hydrochloride and formaldehyde is described. Characterization of the product was achieved by IR and NMR spectroscopies. The spectral data acquired are thoroughly discussed. Numerous…

  20. Enzyme Engineering for In Situ Immobilization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rehm, Fabian B H; Chen, Shuxiong; Rehm, Bernd H A

    2016-10-14

    Enzymes are used as biocatalysts in a vast range of industrial applications. Immobilization of enzymes to solid supports or their self-assembly into insoluble particles enhances their applicability by strongly improving properties such as stability in changing environments, re-usability and applicability in continuous biocatalytic processes. The possibility of co-immobilizing various functionally related enzymes involved in multistep synthesis, conversion or degradation reactions enables the design of multifunctional biocatalyst with enhanced performance compared to their soluble counterparts. This review provides a brief overview of up-to-date in vitro immobilization strategies while focusing on recent advances in enzyme engineering towards in situ self-assembly into insoluble particles. In situ self-assembly approaches include the bioengineering of bacteria to abundantly form enzymatically active inclusion bodies such as enzyme inclusions or enzyme-coated polyhydroxyalkanoate granules. These one-step production strategies for immobilized enzymes avoid prefabrication of the carrier as well as chemical cross-linking or attachment to a support material while the controlled oriented display strongly enhances the fraction of accessible catalytic sites and hence functional enzymes.

  1. Electrochromatography on acrylate-based monolith in cyclic olefin copolymer microchip: a cost-effective and easy-to-use technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ladner, Yoann; Crétier, Gérard; Faure, Karine

    2012-10-01

    This article shows that there is great interest in using an electrochromatographic microchip made of hexyl acrylate (HA) based porous monolith cast within the channel of a cyclic olefin copolymer (COC) device. The monolith is simultaneously in situ synthesized and anchored to the inner walls of the channel in less than 10 min. By appropriate choice of light intensity used during the synthesis, the separation efficiency obtained for nonpolar solutes such as polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) is increased up to 250 000 plates/m. The performance of this HA-filled COC microchip was investigated for a wide range of analytes of varying nature. The reversed-phase separation of four aflatoxins is obtained in less than 2 min. The baseline separation of a mixture of neurotransmitters including six amino acids and two catecholamines is possible thanks to the superimposition of the differences in electrophoretic mobility on the chromatographic process. The durability of the system at pH 13 allows the separation of five biogenic amines and the quantitative determination of two of them in numerous wine samples. The feasibility of on-line preconcentration is also demonstrated. Hydrophilic surface modification of COC channel via UV-photografting with poly(ethylene glycol) methacrylate (PEGMA) before in situ synthesis of HA, is necessary to reduce the adsorption of very hydrophobic solutes such as PAH during enrichment. The detection limit of fluoranthene is decreased down to less than 1 ppb with a preconcentration of 4.5 h on the HA-filled PEGMA functionalized COC microchip. © 2012 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  2. Antigenic properties of a transport-competent influenza HA/HIV Env chimeric protein

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ye Ling; Sun Yuliang; Lin Jianguo; Bu Zhigao; Wu Qingyang; Jiang, Shibo; Steinhauer, David A.; Compans, Richard W.; Yang Chinglai

    2006-01-01

    The transmembrane subunit (gp41) of the HIV Env glycoprotein contains conserved neutralizing epitopes which are not well-exposed in wild-type HIV Env proteins. To enhance the exposure of these epitopes, a chimeric protein, HA/gp41, in which the gp41 of HIV-1 89.6 envelope protein was fused to the C-terminus of the HA1 subunit of the influenza HA protein, was constructed. Characterization of protein expression showed that the HA/gp41 chimeric proteins were expressed on cell surfaces and formed trimeric oligomers, as found in the HIV Env as well as influenza HA proteins. In addition, the HA/gp41 chimeric protein expressed on the cell surface can also be cleaved into 2 subunits by trypsin treatment, similar to the influenza HA. Moreover, the HA/gp41 chimeric protein was found to maintain a pre-fusion conformation. Interestingly, the HA/gp41 chimeric proteins on cell surfaces exhibited increased reactivity to monoclonal antibodies against the HIV Env gp41 subunit compared with the HIV-1 envelope protein, including the two broadly neutralizing monoclonal antibodies 2F5 and 4E10. Immunization of mice with a DNA vaccine expressing the HA/gp41 chimeric protein induced antibodies against the HIV gp41 protein and these antibodies exhibit neutralizing activity against infection by an HIV SF162 pseudovirus. These results demonstrate that the construction of such chimeric proteins can provide enhanced exposure of conserved epitopes in the HIV Env gp41 and may represent a novel vaccine design strategy for inducing broadly neutralizing antibodies against HIV

  3. Expression of proto-oncogenes in non-Hodgkin's lymphomas by in situ hybridization with biotinylated DNA probes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hamatani, Kiyohiro; Yoshida, Kuniko; Abe, Masumi; Shimaoka, Katsutaro; Shiku, Hiroshi; Akiyama, Mitoshi; Kondo, Hisayoshi.

    1989-11-01

    Expression of six proto-oncogenes (fos, myc, myb, Ki-ras, Ha-ras, and N-ras) in 43 cases of non-Hodgkin's lymphoma was analyzed by means of in situ hybridization. Biotinylated DNA probes of the six oncogenes and those of the immunoglobulin H-chain (IgH) gene and the T cell receptor β-chain (TCRβ) gene were used. The results of in situ hybridization performed under blind conditions by IgH and TCRβ gene probes were compatible with those of typing by cell surface markers. The nuclear protein-related proto-oncogenes, fos myc, and myb, were expressed in about 70 % - 80 % of all cases regardless of phenotypes, histology or histologic grade. On the contrary, genes of the ras family were expressed in fewer cases except for the Ki-ras gene which was more frequently expressed by cases of the T cell immunophenotype with a high malignancy grade. The results of dot hybridization with RNA extracted from some cases were compatible with those of in situ hybridization, further demonstrating the specificity of in situ hybridization. (author)

  4. Polycomplexes of Hyaluronic Acid and Borates in a Solid State and Solution: Synthesis, Characterization and Perspectives of Application in Boron Neutron Capture Therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander N. Zelenetskii

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available In this report, we propose a new polyborate fragment synthesis strategy along the whole chain of the polysaccharide hyaluronic acid (HA to produce boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT compounds. Under high pressure and deformatory solid-state conditions, polymolecular system formation takes place due to association of phase-specific transition components into a more or less distinct microscopic organization. Fourier transform infrared (FTIR spectroscopy shows that HA and polyborates form a network of cyclic polychelate complexes. HA acts as a multidentate ligand using carboxylic and hydroxyl proton donor groups to link oxygen atoms in B–O–B bonds and borate-anions B–O(−: O–H···O, O–H···(−O. With free electron pairs in heteroatoms –O(:···B, –N(:···B, HA can act simultaneously as an electron donor. Nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR with 13C and 1H reveals a preserved complex interaction after both solubilizing and attenuating the HA-polyborate system. Stability of the product in water, low cost, ease of synthesis and scalability of manufacturing indicate that HA-polyborate complexes might have advantages over current chemotherapeutic approaches in creating therapeutic agents for BNCT.

  5. New Synthesis and Tritium Labeling of a Selective Ligand for Studying High-Affinity γ-Hydroxybutyrate (GHB) Binding Sites

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vogensen, Stine B.; Marek, Ales; Bay, Tina

    2013-01-01

    3-Hydroxycyclopent-1-enecarboxylic acid (HOCPCA, 1) is a potent ligand for the high-affinity GHB binding sites in the CNS. An improved synthesis of 1 together with a very efficient synthesis of [3H]-1 is described. The radiosynthesis employs in situ generated lithium trimethoxyborotritide. Screen...

  6. Modular in situ-Functionalization Strategy: Multicomponent Polymerization via Palladium/Norbornene Cooperative Catalysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoon, Ki-Young; Dong, Guangbin

    2018-05-23

    Herein, we report the palladium/norbornene cooperatively catalyzed polymerization, which simplifies synthesis of functional aromatic polymers, including conjugated polymers. Specifically, an A2B2C-type multicomponent polymerization is developed using ortho-amination/ipso-alkynylation reaction for preparing various amine-functionalized arylacetylene-containing polymers. Within a single catalytic cycle, the amine side-chains are site-selectively installed in situ via C-H activation during the polymerization process, which represents a major difference from conventional cross-coupling polymerizations. This in situ-functionalization strategy enables modular incorporation of functional side-chains from simple monomers, thereby conveniently affording a diverse range of functional polymers. © 2018 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  7. In Situ Synthesis of Mn3 O4 Nanoparticles on Hollow Carbon Nanofiber as High-Performance Lithium-Ion Battery Anode.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Dan; Li, Guangshe; Fan, Jianming; Li, Baoyun; Li, Liping

    2018-04-26

    The practical applications of Mn 3 O 4 in lithium-ion batteries are greatly hindered by fast capacity decay and poor rate performance as a result of significant volume changes and low electrical conductivity. It is believed that the synthesis of nanoscale Mn 3 O 4 combined with carbonaceous matrix will lead to a better electrochemical performance. Herein, a convenient route for the synthesis of Mn 3 O 4 nanoparticles grown in situ on hollow carbon nanofiber (denoted as HCF/Mn 3 O 4 ) is reported. The small size of Mn 3 O 4 particles combined with HCF can significantly alleviate volume changes and electrical conductivity; the strong chemical interactions between HCF and Mn 3 O 4 would improve the reversibility of the conversion reaction for MnO into Mn 3 O 4 and accelerate charge transfer. These features endow the HCF/Mn 3 O 4 composite with superior cycling stability and rate performance if used as the anode for lithium-ion batteries. The composite delivers a high discharge capacity of 835 mA h g -1 after 100 cycles at 200 mA g -1 , and 652 mA h g -1 after 240 cycles at 1000 mA g -1 . Even at 2000 mA g -1 , it still shows a high capacity of 528 mA h g -1 . The facile synthetic method and outstanding electrochemical performance of the as-prepared HCF/Mn 3 O 4 composite make it a promising candidate for a potential anode material for lithium-ion batteries. © 2018 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  8. Simultaneous Hypoxia and Low Extracellular pH Suppress Overall Metabolic Rate and Protein Synthesis In Vitro.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brita Singers Sørensen

    Full Text Available The tumor microenvironment is characterized by regions of hypoxia and acidosis which are linked to poor prognosis. This occurs due to an aberrant vasculature as well as high rates of glycolysis and lactate production in tumor cells even in the presence of oxygen (the Warburg effect, which weakens the spatial linkage between hypoxia and acidosis.Five different human squamous cell carcinoma cell lines (SiHa, FaDuDD, UTSCC5, UTSCC14 and UTSCC15 were treated with hypoxia, acidosis (pH 6.3, or a combination, and gene expression analyzed using microarray. SiHa and FaDuDD were chosen for further characterization of cell energetics and protein synthesis. Total cellular ATP turnover and relative glycolytic dependency was determined by simultaneous measurements of oxygen consumption and lactate synthesis rates and total protein synthesis was determined by autoradiographic quantification of the incorporation of 35S-labelled methionine and cysteine into protein.Microarray analysis allowed differentiation between genes induced at low oxygen only at normal extracellular pH (pHe, genes induced at low oxygen at both normal and low pHe, and genes induced at low pHe independent of oxygen concentration. Several genes were found to be upregulated by acidosis independent of oxygenation. Acidosis resulted in a more wide-scale change in gene expression profiles than hypoxia including upregulation of genes involved in the translation process, for example Eukaryotic translation initiation factor 4A, isoform 2 (EIF4A2, and Ribosomal protein L37 (RPL37. Acidosis suppressed overall ATP turnover and protein synthesis by 50%. Protein synthesis, but not total ATP production, was also suppressed under hypoxic conditions. A dramatic decrease in ATP turnover (SiHa and protein synthesis (both cell lines was observed when hypoxia and low pHe were combined.We demonstrate here that the influence of hypoxia and acidosis causes different responses, both in gene expression and in de

  9. A light-assisted in situ embedment of silver nanoparticles to prepare functionalized fabrics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Toh HS

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Her Shuang Toh,1 Roxanne Line Faure,2 Liyana Bte Mohd Amin,1 Crystal Yu Fang Hay,1 Saji George1,3 1Centre of Sustainable Nanotechnology, School of Chemical and Life Sciences, Nanyang Polytechnic, Singapore, Singapore; 2DUT Analyses Biologiques et Biochimiques, IUT Génie Biologique, Dijon, France; 3Department of Food Science and Agricultural Chemistry, Macdonald Campus, McGill University, Sainte-Anne-de-Bellevue, QC, Canada Abstract: This article presents a simple, one-step, in situ generation of silver nanoparticle-functionalized fabrics with antibacterial properties, circumventing the conventional, multistep, time-consuming methods. Silver nanoparticle formation was studied with a library of capping agents (branched polyethylenimine [BPEI] of molecular weight [Mw] 10,000 and 25,000, polyvinylpyrrolidone, polyethylene glycol, polyvinylalcohol and citrate mixed with silver nitrate. The mixture was then exposed to an assortment of light wavelengths (ultraviolet, infrared and simulated solar light for studying the light-assisted synthesis of nanoparticles. The formation of nanoparticles corresponded with the reducing capabilities of the polymers wherein BPEI gave the best response. Notably, the irradiation wavelengths had little effect on the formation of the nanoparticle when the total irradiation energy was kept constant. The feasibility of utilizing this method for in situ nanoparticle synthesis on textile fabrics (towel [100% cotton], gauze [100% cotton], rayon, felt [100% polyester] and microfiber [15% nylon, 85% polyester] was verified by exposing the fabrics soaked in an aqueous solution of 1% (w/v AgNO3 and 1% (w/v BPEI (Mw 25,000 to light. The formation of nanoparticles on fabrics and their retention after washing was verified using scanning electron microscopy and quantified by inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometry. The functional property of the fabric as an antibacterial surface was successfully demonstrated using

  10. Fabrication and evaluation of porous Ti–HA bio-nanomaterial by leaching process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.M. Omran

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available A porous surface of Ti–HA composite was successfully fabricated by pulsed current activated sintering (PCAS, followed by leaching using diluted H3PO4. The Ti and HA powders were mixed at different contents of the HA, Ti-5, 10, 30 and 40 wt% HA powders. The mixed powders were pressed in a coated graphite die using pulsed current activated sintering (PCAS under pressure of 60 MPa at temperature of 1000 °C for 5 min. The sintered Ti–HA specimens were immersed in the eight kinds of leaching solutions at room temperature for 24 h. The leached specimen’s surfaces were characterized using XRD, SEM, EDX and Rockwell hardness. The XRD patterns after sintering show that many phases were detected at the sintered specimen surfaces such as; Ti2O, CaO, CaTiO3, TixPy in addition to the remaining Ti and HA. Furthermore, the high concentration H3PO4 leaching solution is more efficient than the low concentration. Also the produced porous surfaces of Ti–HA materials containing more than 30% HA have a low relative density and hardness than the commercial Ti–6Al–4V ELI alloy. In a word, the presence of porous surface coated by HA will promote the nucleation of the biological apatite created with the human tissue and increase the bonding between them. So, the produced porous materials are considered so easy for the muscle cells to permeate after transplanted with high coherence.

  11. In Situ Monitoring of the Mechanosynthesis of the Archetypal Metal-Organic Framework HKUST-1: Effect of Liquid Additives on the Milling Reactivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stolar, Tomislav; Batzdorf, Lisa; Lukin, Stipe; Žilić, Dijana; Motillo, Cristina; Friščić, Tomislav; Emmerling, Franziska; Halasz, Ivan; Užarević, Krunoslav

    2017-06-05

    We have applied in situ monitoring of mechanochemical reactions by high-energy synchrotron powder X-ray diffraction to study the role of liquid additives on the mechanochemical synthesis of the archetypal metal-organic framework (MOF) HKUST-1, which was one of the first and is still among the most widely investigated MOF materials to be synthesized by solvent-free procedures. It is shown here how the kinetics and mechanisms of the mechanochemical synthesis of HKUST-1 can be influenced by milling conditions and additives, yielding on occasion two new and previously undetected intermediate phases containing a mononuclear copper core, and that finally rearrange to form the HKUST-1 architecture. On the basis of in situ data, we were able to tune and direct the milling reactions toward the formation of these intermediates, which were isolated and characterized by spectroscopic and structural means and their magnetic properties compared to those of HKUST-1. The results have shown that despite the relatively large breadth of analysis available for such widely investigated materials as HKUST-1, in situ monitoring of milling reactions can help in the detection and isolation of new materials and to establish efficient reaction conditions for the mechanochemical synthesis of porous MOFs.

  12. Synthesis and investigation of physico-chemical, antibacterial, biomymetic properties of silver and zinc containing hydroxyapatite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhuk, Ilya; Rasskazova, Lyudmila; Korotchenko, Natalia; Kozik, Vladimir; Kurzina, Irina

    2017-11-01

    In the work we carried out microwave synthesis of modified hydroxyapatites (HA) with different content of ions. A solid solution based on HA remains a single-phase sample when the calcium ions are substituted by silver and zinc ions up to 5 % by weight (0.5 mole fraction). The microstructure parameters, morphology and the particle powders size were studied by X-ray diffraction analysis, IR spectroscopy, and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). It is shown that the modification of HA by silver (AgHA) and zinc (ZnHA) ions increases the size of its particles, the degree of crystallinity, and the pore sizes of the samples while reducing their specific surface and uniformity of their forms. Elemental analysis and distribution of elements over the surface of HA, AgHA, and ZnHA powders were performed by X-ray spectral microanalysis (RSMA). The ratio of Ca/P is within the range of 1.66-1.77 and corresponds to the ratio of Ca/P in stoichiometric HA and the HA entering bone tissue. The ability of AgHA- and ZnHA-substrates to form on their surface a calcium-phosphate layer from the simulated body fluid (SBF) at 37 °C is determined. This ability decreases in the order: in ZnHA it is less than in AgHA, but greater than in HA. The antibacterial activity of the samples was analyzed. The AgHA sample has both bactericidal and persistent bacteriostatic properties in the case of direct contact with Escherichia coli cells.

  13. Synthesis of thermoplastic starch-bacterial cellulose nanocomposites via in situ fermentation

    OpenAIRE

    Osorio, Marlon A.; Restrepo, David; Velásquez-Cock, Jorge A.; Zuluaga, Robin O.; Montoya, Ursula; Rojas, Orlando; Gañán, Piedad F.; Marin, Diana; Castro, Cristina I.

    2014-01-01

    In this paper, a nanocomposite based on thermoplastic starch (TPS) reinforced with bacterial cellulose (BC) nanoribbons was synthesized by in situ fermentation and chemical crosslinking. BC nanoribbons were produced by a Colombian native strain of Gluconacetobacter medellinensis; the nanocomposite was plasticized with glycerol and crosslinked with citric acid. The reinforcement percentage in the nanocomposites remained constant throughout the fermentation time because of the TPS absorption ca...

  14. In-situ synthesis of Co{sub 3}O{sub 4}/graphite nanocomposite for high-performance supercapacitor electrode applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    M, Gopalakrishnan, E-mail: gopalkphy@gmail.com [Department of Physics, Vivekanandha College of Arts and Science for Women, Tiruchengode, Namakkal, 637205, Tamilnadu (India); G, Srikesh [Department of Chemistry, Material Electrochemistry Lab, Karunya University, Coimbatore 641114, Tamilnadu (India); A, Mohan [Department of Physics, Thin Film Laboratory, Karunya University, Coimbatore 641114, Tamilnadu (India); V, Arivazhagan [Department of Physics and Technology, University of Bergen, Bergen (Norway)

    2017-05-01

    Highlights: • High surface area, which governs the specific capacitance. • High chemical and thermal stability. • Co{sub 3}O{sub 4}/graphite nanocomposite electrode shows lower resistance. - Abstract: In this work, a low cost and pollution free in-situ synthesis of phase pure Co{sub 3}O{sub 4} nanoparticles and Co{sub 3}O{sub 4}/graphite nanocomposite have been successfully developed via co-precipitation method followed by the thermal treatment process. The prepared samples were characterized by powder X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscope, high resolution transmission electron microscope, Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy and electrochemical measurements. Electrochemical measurements such as cyclic voltammetry, galvanostatic charge–discharge, electrochemical impedance spectroscopy were carried out in 6 M KOH aqueous electrolytic solution. The results show the excellent maximum specific capacitive behavior of 239.5 F g{sup −1} for pure and 395.04 F g{sup −1} for Co{sub 3}O{sub 4}/graphite nanocomposite at a current density of 0.5 A g{sup −1}. This composite exhibits a good cyclic stability, with a small loss of 2.68% of maximum capacitance over a consecutive 1000 cycles. The investigation indicates that the prepared electrode material could be a potential and promising candidate for electrochemical supercapacitors.

  15. CILogon-HA. Higher Assurance Federated Identities for DOE Science

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Basney, James [Univ. of Illinois, Urbana-Champaign, IL (United States)

    2015-08-01

    The CILogon-HA project extended the existing open source CILogon service (initially developed with funding from the National Science Foundation) to provide credentials at multiple levels of assurance to users of DOE facilities for collaborative science. CILogon translates mechanism and policy across higher education and grid trust federations, bridging from the InCommon identity federation (which federates university and DOE lab identities) to the Interoperable Global Trust Federation (which defines standards across the Worldwide LHC Computing Grid, the Open Science Grid, and other cyberinfrastructure). The CILogon-HA project expanded the CILogon service to support over 160 identity providers (including 6 DOE facilities) and 3 internationally accredited certification authorities. To provide continuity of operations upon the end of the CILogon-HA project period, project staff transitioned the CILogon service to operation by XSEDE.

  16. Differential sensitivity to aphidicolin of replicative DNA synthesis and ultraviolet-induced unscheduled DNA synthesis in vivo in mammalian cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seki, Shuji; Hosogi, Nobuo; Oda, Takuzo

    1984-01-01

    In vivo in mammalian cells, ultraviolet-induced unscheduled DNA synthesis was less sensitive to aphidicolin than was replicative DNA synthesis. Replicative DNA synthesis in HeLa, HEp-2, WI-38 VA-13 and CV-1 cells was inhibited more than 97 % by aphidicolin at 10 μg/ml, whereas aphidicolin inhibition of DNA synthesis in ultraviolet-irradiated cells varied between 30 % and 90 % depending on cell types and assay conditions. Aphidicolin inhibition of unscheduled DNA synthesis (UDS) in HeLa cells increased gradually with increasing aphidicolin concentration and reached approximately 90 % at 100 μg/ml aphidicolin. A significant fraction of UDS in ultraviolet-irradiated HEp-2 cells was resistant to aphidicolin even at 300 μg/ml. Considered along with related information reported previously, the present results suggest that both aphidicolin-sensitive and insensitive DNA polymerases, DNA polymerase α and a non-α DNA polymerase (possibly DNA polymerase β), are involved in in situ UDS in these ultraviolet-irradiated cells. Comparison of staphylococcal nuclease sensitivity between DNAs repaired in the presence and in the absence of aphidicolin in HEp-2 cells suggested that the involvement of DNA polymerase α in UDS favored DNA synthesis in the intranucleosomal region. (author)

  17. In situ N{sub 2}O emissions are not mitigated by hippuric and benzoic acids under denitrifying conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Krol, D.J., E-mail: dominika.krol@teagasc.ie; Forrestal, P.J.; Lanigan, G.J.; Richards, K.G.

    2015-04-01

    Ruminant urine patches deposited onto pasture are a significant source of greenhouse gas nitrous oxide (N{sub 2}O) from livestock agriculture. Increasing food demand is predicted to lead to a rise in ruminant numbers globally, which, in turn will result in elevated levels of urine-derived N{sub 2}O. Therefore mitigation strategies are urgently needed. Urine contains hippuric acid and together with one of its breakdown products, benzoic acid, has previously been linked to mitigating N{sub 2}O emissions from urine patches in laboratory studies. However, the sole field study to date found no effect of hippuric and benzoic acid concentration on N{sub 2}O emissions. Therefore the aim of this study was to investigate the in situ effect of these urine constituents on N{sub 2}O emissions under conditions conducive to denitrification losses. Unadulterated bovine urine (0 mM of hippuric acid, U) was applied, as well as urine amended with either benzoic acid (96 mM, U + BA) or varying rates of hippuric acid (8 and 82 mM, U + HA1, U + HA2). Soil inorganic nitrogen (N) and N{sub 2}O fluxes were monitored over a 66 day period. Urine application resulted in elevated N{sub 2}O flux for 44 days. The largest N{sub 2}O fluxes accounting for between 13% (U) and 26% (U + HA1) of total loss were observed on the day of urine application. Between 0.9 and 1.3% of urine-N was lost as N{sub 2}O. Cumulative N{sub 2}O loss from the control was 0.3 kg N{sub 2}O–N ha{sup −1} compared with 11, 9, 12, and 10 kg N{sub 2}O–N ha{sup −1} for the U, U + HA1, U + HA2, and U + BA treatments, respectively. Incremental increases in urine HA or increase in BA concentrations had no effect on N{sub 2}O emissions. Although simulation of dietary manipulation to reduce N{sub 2}O emissions through altering individual urine constituents appears to have no effect, there may be other manipulations such as reducing N content or inclusion of synthetic inhibitory products that warrant further investigation

  18. The facile and low temperature synthesis of nanophase hydroxyapatite crystals using wet chemistry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dhand, Vivek; Rhee, K.Y.; Park, Soo-Jin

    2014-01-01

    A simple and facile wet chemistry route was used to synthesize nanophase hydroxyapatite (HaP) crystals at low temperature. The synthesis was carried out at a pH of 11.0 and at a temperature of 37 °C. The resulting samples were washed several times and subjected to further analysis. XRD studies revealed that the HaP crystals were polycrystalline in nature with a crystallite size of ∼ 15–60 ± 5 nm. SEM-EDXA images confirmed the presence of calcium (Ca), phosphorous (P), and oxygen (O) peaks. Likewise, FTIR confirmed the presence of characteristic phosphate and hydroxyl peaks in samples. Lastly, HRTEM images clearly showed distinctive lattice fringes positioned in the 100 and 002 planes. TGA analysis shows that HaP crystals can withstand higher calcination temperatures and are thermally stable. - Highlights: • Facile and low temperature nanophase HaP crystals synthesized at pH 11 and 37 °C • Electron microscopy image of HaP shows characteristic rice grain like morphology. • FTIR results show the characteristic and fingerprint functional groups of HaP. • Thermal stability of HaP crystals up to 500 °C • Growth of Hap crystals occur parallel to c-axis and a possible mechanism proposed

  19. Efficient Synthesis of 1-Sulfonyl-1,2,3-triazoles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raushel, Jessica; Fokin, Valery V.

    2010-01-01

    An efficient room temperature method for the synthesis of 1-sulfonyl-1,2,3-triazoles from in situ generated copper(I) acetylides and sulfonyl azides is described. Copper(I) thiophene-2-carboxylate (CuTC) catalyst produces the title compounds under both non-basic anhydrous and aqueous conditions in good yields. PMID:20931987

  20. Microstructure, mechanical properties, and biological response to functionally graded HA coatings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rabiei, Afsaneh; Blalock, Travis; Thomas, Brent; Cuomo, Jerry; Yang, Y.; Ong, Joo

    2007-01-01

    Hydroxyapatite (HA) [Ca 10 (PO 4 ) 6 (OH) 2 ] is the primary mineral content, representing 43% by weight, of bone. Applying a thin layer of HA, to the surface of a metal implant, can promote osseointegration and increase the mechanical stability of the implant. In this study, a biocompatible coating comprising an HA film with functionally graded crystallinity is being deposited on a heated substrate in an Ion Beam Assisted Deposition (IBAD) system. The microstructure of the film was studied using Transmission Electron Microscopy techniques. Finally, initial cell adhesion and cell differentiation on the coating was evaluated using ATCC CRL 1486 human embryonic palatal mesenchymal cell, an osteoblast precursor cell line. The results have shown superior mechanical properties and biological response to the functionally graded HA film

  1. Intra-articular Hyaluronic Acid (HA) and Platelet Rich Plasma (PRP) injection versus Hyaluronic acid (HA) injection alone in Patients with Grade III and IV Knee Osteoarthritis (OA): A Retrospective Study on Functional Outcome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saturveithan, C; Premganesh, G; Fakhrizzaki, S; Mahathir, M; Karuna, K; Rauf, K; William, H; Akmal, H; Sivapathasundaram, N; Jaspreet, K

    2016-07-01

    Introduction: Intra-articular hyaluronic acid (HA) is widely utilized in the treatment of knee osteoarthritis whereas platelet rich plasma (PRP) enhances the regeneration of articular cartilage. This study analyses the efficacy of HA and PRP in grade III and IV knee osteoarthritis. Methodology: This is a cross sectional study with retrospective review of 64 patients (101 knees) which includes 56 knees injected with HA+ PRP, and 45 knees with HA only. Results: During the post six months International Knee Documentation Committee (IKDC) evaluation, HA+PRP group showed marked improvement of 24.33 compared to 12.15 in HA group. Decrement in visual analogue score (VAS) in HA+PRP was 1.9 compared to 0.8 in HA group. Conclusion: We propose intra-articular HA and PRP injections as an optional treatment modality in Grade III and IV knee osteoarthritis in terms of functional outcome and pain control for up to six months when arthroplasty is not an option.

  2. Intra-articular Hyaluronic Acid (HA and Platelet Rich Plasma (PRP injection versus Hyaluronic acid (HA injection alone in Patients with Grade III and IV Knee Osteoarthritis (OA: A Retrospective Study on Functional Outcome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saturveithan C

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Intra-articular hyaluronic acid (HA is widely utilized in the treatment of knee osteoarthritis whereas platelet rich plasma (PRP enhances the regeneration of articular cartilage. This study analyses the efficacy of HA and PRP in grade III and IV knee osteoarthritis. Methodology: This is a cross sectional study with retrospective review of 64 patients (101 knees which includes 56 knees injected with HA+ PRP, and 45 knees with HA only. Results: During the post six months International Knee Documentation Committee (IKDC evaluation, HA+PRP group showed marked improvement of 24.33 compared to 12.15 in HA group. Decrement in visual analogue score (VAS in HA+PRP was 1.9 compared to 0.8 in HA group. Conclusion: We propose intra-articular HA and PRP injections as an optional treatment modality in Grade III and IV knee osteoarthritis in terms of functional outcome and pain control for up to six months when arthroplasty is not an option.

  3. A-Ha. Drum'n'bassi supernimi FABIO

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2002-01-01

    7.sept. annab norra menukaim popansambel A-Ha Tallinnas Lauluväljakul kontserdi, kus presenteerib ka oma viimast albumit "Lifelines". 14. sept.tuleb drum'n'bassi spetsialist Fabio Tallinna üritusele Circulation

  4. Mechanical strength of [HA/Bioplastic/Sericin] composite part printed by bioprinter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tontowi, Alva Edy, E-mail: alvaedytontowi@ugm.ac.id; Setiawan, Agris [Department of Mechanical and Industrial Engineering Faculty of Engineering Universitas Gadjah Mada (Indonesia)

    2016-06-17

    The aim of this research was to determine the effect of hydroxyapatite (HA) content in printed biocomposite to its mechanical strength. The biocomposite paste was prepared by composing HA, bioplastic and sericin with various ratios of [HA/Bioplastic]: 40/60, 50/50, 60,40 and 70/30. Sericin of 0.3% weight was added to the biocomposite. Mechanical test was conducted to observe tensile (ASTM D 638 type 4) and flexural strength (ASTM D 790). Both type of specimens were fabricated using 3D Printer. Printing process parameter (infill speed, print speed and layer height) were set up as 60 mm/s, 10 mm/s, 0.35 mm, respectively. Results showed that biocomposite with [HA/Biplastic]. weight ratio of 60/40(w/w) has an optimum tensile (3.89 ± 1.26 MPa) and flexural strength (2.51 ± 0.45 MPa). Scanning electron microscope observation indicated that microstructure of specimen was influenced by the percentage of the hydroxyapatite. There was no agglomeration of HA particle within the composite.

  5. Mechanical strength of [HA/Bioplastic/Sericin] composite part printed by bioprinter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tontowi, Alva Edy; Setiawan, Agris

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this research was to determine the effect of hydroxyapatite (HA) content in printed biocomposite to its mechanical strength. The biocomposite paste was prepared by composing HA, bioplastic and sericin with various ratios of [HA/Bioplastic]: 40/60, 50/50, 60,40 and 70/30. Sericin of 0.3% weight was added to the biocomposite. Mechanical test was conducted to observe tensile (ASTM D 638 type 4) and flexural strength (ASTM D 790). Both type of specimens were fabricated using 3D Printer. Printing process parameter (infill speed, print speed and layer height) were set up as 60 mm/s, 10 mm/s, 0.35 mm, respectively. Results showed that biocomposite with [HA/Biplastic]. weight ratio of 60/40(w/w) has an optimum tensile (3.89 ± 1.26 MPa) and flexural strength (2.51 ± 0.45 MPa). Scanning electron microscope observation indicated that microstructure of specimen was influenced by the percentage of the hydroxyapatite. There was no agglomeration of HA particle within the composite.

  6. Rh(III)-catalyzed olefination of N-sulfonyl imines: synthesis of ortho-olefinated benzaldehydes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Tao; Wu, Lamei; Li, Xingwei

    2013-12-20

    Rh(III)-catalyzed olefination of N-sulfonyl imines using acrylates and styrenes has been achieved for the synthesis of ortho-olefinated benaldehydes. This reaction proceeds via a chelation assisted C-H olefination/in situ hydrolysis process.

  7. In Situ Studies and Magnetic Properties of the Cmcm Polymorph of LiCoPO4 with a Hierarchical Dumbbell-Like Morphology Synthesized by Easy Single-Step Polyol Synthesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Alarcón-Suesca

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available LiCoPO4 (LCP exists in three different structural modifications: LCP-Pnma (olivine structure, LCP-Pn21a (KNiPO4 structure type, and LCP-Cmcm (Na2CrO4 structure type. The synthesis of the LCP-Cmcm polymorph has been reported via high pressure/temperature solid-state methods and by microwave-assisted solvothermal synthesis. Phase transitions from both LCP-Pn21a and LCP-Cmcm to LCP-Pnma upon heating indicates a metastable behavior. However, a precise study of the structural changes during the heating process and the magnetic properties of LCP-Cmcm are hitherto unknown. Herein, we present the synthesis and characterization of LCP-Cmcm via a rapid and facile soft-chemistry approach using two different kinetically controlled pathways, solvothermal and polyol syntheses, both of which only require relatively low temperatures (~200 °C. Additionally, by polyol, method a dumbbell-like morphology is obtained without the use of any additional surfactant or template. A temperature-dependent in situ powder XRD shows a transition from LCP-Cmcm at room temperature to LCP-Pnma and finally to LCP-Pn21a at 575 and 725 °C, respectively. In addition to that, the determination of the magnetic susceptibility as a function of temperature indicates a long-range antiferromagnetic order below TN = 11 K at 10 kOe and 9.1 K at 25 kOe. The magnetization curves suggests the presence of a metamagnetic transition.

  8. Current status and future directions for in situ transmission electron microscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Taheri, Mitra L. [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Drexel University (United States); Stach, Eric A. [Center for Functional Nanomaterials, National Laboratory, Brookhaven (United States); Arslan, Ilke [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Physical and Computational Sciences Directorate, 902 Battelle Blvd, Richland, WA (United States); Crozier, P.A. [School for Engineering of Matter, Transport and Energy, Arizona State University, Tempe, AZ 85281 (United States); Kabius, Bernd C. [The Pennsylvania State University, University Park, PA 16802 (United States); LaGrange, Thomas [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Physical and Life Science Directorate, Condensed Matter and Materials Division, 7000 East Avenue, P.O. 808 L-356 (United States); Minor, Andrew M. [Department of Materials Science & Engineering, University of California, Berkeley and National Center for Electron Microscopy, Molecular Foundry, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, One Cyclotron Road, MS 72, Berkeley, CA (United States); Takeda, Seiji [Institute of Scientific and Industrial Research (ISIR), Osaka University, 8-1 Mihogaoka, Ibaraki, Osaka 567-0047 (Japan); Tanase, Mihaela [Center for Nanoscale Science and Technology, National Institute of Standards and Technology, Gaithersburg, MD 20899-6203 (United States); Wagner, Jakob B. [Center for Electron Nanoscopy, Technical University of Denmark, Kgs, Lyngby (Denmark); Sharma, Renu, E-mail: renu.sharma@nist.gov [Center for Nanoscale Science and Technology, National Institute of Standards and Technology, Gaithersburg, MD 20899-6203 (United States)

    2016-11-15

    This review article discusses the current and future possibilities for the application of in situ transmission electron microscopy to reveal synthesis pathways and functional mechanisms in complex and nanoscale materials. The findings of a group of scientists, representing academia, government labs and private sector entities (predominantly commercial vendors) during a workshop, held at the Center for Nanoscale Science and Technology- National Institute of Science and Technology (CNST-NIST), are discussed. We provide a comprehensive review of the scientific needs and future instrument and technique developments required to meet them. - Highlights: • Evaluation of currently available technology for performing in situ experiments using transmission electron microscope. • Limitations of currently available instrumentation with respect to base TEM, specialty TEM holders, and data acquisition systems. • Guidelines and wish list for the areas of future development.

  9. Current status and future directions for in situ transmission electron microscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Taheri, Mitra L.; Stach, Eric A.; Arslan, Ilke; Crozier, P.A.; Kabius, Bernd C.; LaGrange, Thomas; Minor, Andrew M.; Takeda, Seiji; Tanase, Mihaela; Wagner, Jakob B.; Sharma, Renu

    2016-01-01

    This review article discusses the current and future possibilities for the application of in situ transmission electron microscopy to reveal synthesis pathways and functional mechanisms in complex and nanoscale materials. The findings of a group of scientists, representing academia, government labs and private sector entities (predominantly commercial vendors) during a workshop, held at the Center for Nanoscale Science and Technology- National Institute of Science and Technology (CNST-NIST), are discussed. We provide a comprehensive review of the scientific needs and future instrument and technique developments required to meet them. - Highlights: • Evaluation of currently available technology for performing in situ experiments using transmission electron microscope. • Limitations of currently available instrumentation with respect to base TEM, specialty TEM holders, and data acquisition systems. • Guidelines and wish list for the areas of future development.

  10. Synthesis and characterization of TEP-EDTA-regulated bioactive hydroxyapatite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haders, Daniel Joseph, II

    Ca2+ concentration enabled the HA crystallization process to be growth dominated, producing films composed of high crystallinity, hexagonal grains on multiple metallic substrates. TEP regulation of HA crystallization enabled the deposition of an adhesive CaTiO3 intermediate layer, and then HA in a continuous, phase sequenced process on Ti6Al4V substrates, the first such process reported in the hydrothermal HA literature. The HA film was found to be deposited by a passivating competitive growth mechanism that enabled the [0001] crystallographic orientation of hexagonal single crystals to be engineered with synthesis time. Bioactivity analysis demonstrated that films were bioactive and bone bonding. Together, these results suggest that these HA films are candidates for use on metallic orthopedic implants, namely Ti6Al4V.

  11. Human hypervariable sequences in risk assessment: rare Ha-ras alleles in cancer patients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krontiris, T.G.; DiMartino, N.A.; Mitcheson, H.D.; Lonergan, J.A.; Begg, C.; Parkinson, D.R.

    1987-01-01

    A variable tandem repeat (VTR) is responsible for the hyperallelism one kilobase 3' to the human c-Ha-ras-1 (Ha-ras) gene. Thirty-two distinct restriction fragments, comprising 3 allelic classes by frequency of occurrence, have thus far been detected in a sample size of approximately 800 caucasians. Rare Ha-ras alleles, 21 in all, are almost exclusively confined to the genomes of cancer patients. From their data the authors have computed the relative cancer risk associated with possession of a rare Ha-ras allele to be 27. To understand the molecular basis for this phenomenon, they have begun to clone Ha-ras fragments from nontumor DNA of cancer patients. They report here the weak activation, as detected by transfection and transformation of NIH 3T3 mouse cells, of two Ha-ras genes which were obtained from lymphocyte DNA of a melanoma patient. They have mapped the regions that confer this transforming activity to the fragment containing the VTR in one Ha-ras clone and the fragment containing gene coding sequences in the other

  12. Direct Synthesis of H{sub 2}O{sub 2} over Ti-Containing Molecular Sieves Supported Gold Catalysts: A Comparative Study for In-situ-H{sub 2}O{sub 2}-ODS of Fuel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Han; Song, Haiyan; Chen, Chunxia; Han, Fuqin; Hu, Shaozheng [Northeast Forestry Univ., Harbin (China); Liu, Guangliang [Univ. of Connecticut, Storrs (United States); Chen, Ping; Zhao, Zhixi [Xinjiang Normal Univ., Urumqi (China)

    2013-10-15

    Direct synthesis of H{sub 2}O{sub 2} and in situ oxidative desulfurization of model fuel over Au/Ti-HMS and Au/TS-1 catalysts has been comparatively investigated in water or methanol. Maximum amount (82%) of active Au{sup 0} species for H{sub 2}O{sub 2} synthesis was obtained. Au/Ti-HMS and Au/TS-1 exhibited the contrary performances in H{sub 2}O{sub 2} synthesis as CH{sub 3}OH/H{sub 2}O ratio of solvent changed. H{sub 2}O{sub 2} decomposition and hydrogenation in water was inhibited by the introduction of methanol. Effect of O{sub 2}/H{sub 2} ratio on H{sub 2}O{sub 2} concentration, H{sub 2} conversion and H{sub 2}O{sub 2} selectivity revealed a relationship between H{sub 2}O{sub 2} generation and H2 consumption. The highest dibenzothiophene removal rate (83.2%) was obtained over Au/Ti-HMS in methanol at 1.5 of O{sub 2}/H{sub 2} ratio and 60 .deg. C. But removal of thiophene over Au/TS-1 should be performed in water without heating to obtain a high removal rate (61.3%). Meanwhile, H{sub 2} conversion and oxidative desulfurization selectivity of H{sub 2} were presented.

  13. Poredbena analiza Haških i Roterdamskih pravila

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vesna Skorupan Wolff

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Primjenom komparativne metode uspoređuju se najvažnije konvencijske odredbe i rješenja Roterdamskih pravila s onima sadržanim u Haškim pravilima. Raščlanjuje se većina recentnih odredbi Roterdamskih pravila koje predstavljaju ključne elemente po kojime se ona razlikuju od Haških pravila. U okviru toga ukazuje se na važnost novih pojmova, instituta i osoba koje sudjeluju u prijevoznom poslu. Govori se i o važnim odredbama koje su podudarne jer upravo brojna tradicionalna rješenja koja donose Roterdamska pravila mogu pridonijeti njihovom bržem i lakšem akceptiranju. Roterdamska pravila nastoje na suvremeni način urediti ugovore o prijevozu stvari morem, a pod određenim uvjetima primjenjivat će se i na prijevoze drugim prijevoznim granama. Opsežnost konvencije govori o njezinoj sveobuhvatnosti i velikoj preciznosti u propisivanju gotovo svih pitanja iz područja pravnog uređenja pomorskih prijevoznih ugovora, i više od toga, ona je jedinstven primjer temeljite raščlambe svih obveza i odgovornosti ugovornih stranaka i općenito svih subjekata koji se pojavljuju u prijevoznom poslu. Cilj poredbene analize Haških i Roterdamskih pravila je spoznati što novo donose Roterdamska pravila i procijeniti kako se ona uklapaju u postojeće pravno uređenje prijevoza stvari morem. Istodobno cilj je spoznati koje se odredbe Haških pravila danas izlažu kritici zbog njihove neprilagođenosti suvremenim uvjetima prijevoza i novim i drugačijim odnosima snaga između ugovornih strana u pomorskim prijevoznim ugovorima.

  14. One-step synthesis and structural features of CdS/montmorillonite nanocomposites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Zhaohui; Zhu, Huaiyong; Bulcock, Shaun R; Ringer, Simon P

    2005-02-24

    A novel synthesis method was introduced for the nanocomposites of cadmium sulfide and montmorillonite. This method features the combination of an ion exchange process and an in situ hydrothermal decomposition process of a complex precursor, which is simple in contrast to the conventional synthesis methods that comprise two separate steps for similar nanocomposite materials. Cadmium sulfide species in the composites exist in the forms of pillars and nanoparticles, the crystallized sulfide particles are in the hexagonal phase, and the sizes change when the amount of the complex for the synthesis is varied. Structural features of the nanocomposites are similar to those of the clay host but changed because of the introduction of the sulfide into the clay.

  15. New therapeutic agent for radiation synovectomy - preparation of 166Ho-EDTMP-HA particle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bai, H.; Jin, X.; Du, J.; Wang, F.; Chen, D.; Fan, H.; Cheng, Z.; Zhang, J.

    1997-01-01

    In order to prepare new therapeutical agent for radiation synovectomy, Hydroxyapatite (HA) was labelled with 166 Ho by EDTMP that had high affinity to HA particles. Radiolabelling of HA particles was divided into two steps, 166 Ho-EDTMP was prepared first; then mixed with HA particles completely and vibrated for 15 minutes on the micromixer at room temperature, washed 3 times with deionized water. Radiolabelling particle was separated from free 166 Ho via centrifugation to determine its radiolabelling efficiency. 166 Ho-EDTMP-HA and 166 Ho-EDTMP were injected into knee joint of normal rabbits respectively, every group was killed at different time postinjection, took out major organ and collected urine and blood, then weighted and determined their radio counts. HA particles, as a natural component of bone was known to have good compatibility with soft tissue and biodegrade into calcium and phosphate in vivo. It was readily prepared from common chemical and formed into particles of desired size range in a controlled process, it had high stability in vitro and vivo. Radiolabelling of HA particle with 166 Ho by EDTMP was simple to perform and provides an excellent labelling yield that was more than 95% under the optimal labelling condition. The optimal labelling condition at room temperature was pH 6.0-8.0 and vibration time 15 minutes. The absorbed capacity of HA particle was 5 mg Ho/g HA particle and size of radiolabelling particle was at range of 2-5,μm that is suitable for therapy of radiation synovectomy. 166 Ho-EDTMP-HA particle demonstrated high in vitro stability in either normal saline or 1% BSA solution, but instability under extremely acidic condition (pH 1-2). The control studies performed with 166 Ho-EDTMP not bound to HA particle provided information on the distribution of radioactivity that would occur upon leakage of the radiochemical compound from joint. Its short half-life, its extremely low leakage from the joint and its even distribution throughout

  16. Synthesis and characterization of hydroxyapatite-gelatine composite materials for orthopaedic application

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yanovska, A.; Kuznetsov, V.; Stanislavov, A.; Husak, E.; Pogorielov, M.; Starikov, V.; Bolshanina, S.; Danilchenko, S.

    2016-01-01

    The composite materials based on hydroxyapatite (HA) and gelatine (Gel) with addition of silver and zirconium oxide were obtained. The study investigates a combination of low powered ultrasonic irradiation and low concentration of gelatine in the co-precipitation synthesis. These composites have different weight ratios of organic/inorganic components and may be synthesized in two ways: simple mixing and co-precipitation. Both of which were compared. The estimation of porosity, in vivo testing, surface morphology and phase composition as well as the IR-analysis were provided. Hydroxyapatite was the main crystalline phase in obtained composites. While around powdered HA-Gel composite the connective tissue capsule is formed without bone tissue formation, HA-Gel-Ag porous composite implantation leads to formation of new bone tissue and activation of cell proliferation. Addition of silver ions into composite material allows decreasing inflammation on the first stage of implantation and has positive effect on bone tissue formation. Some of the obtained composite materials containing silver or ZrO_2 are biocompatible. bio-resorbable and osteoconductive with high level of porosity (75–85%). - Highlights: • Hydroxyapatite-gelatine composites with addition of Ag"+ and ZrO_2 were obtained. • Composites were synthesized in two ways: simple mixing and co-precipitation. • Co-precipitation synthesis combined ultrasonic treatment and low concentration of gelatine. • Obtained composites have different weight ratios of organic/inorganic components. • Some composites are osteoconductive and all of them have high level of porosity (75–85%).

  17. Synthesis and Characterization of Colloidal Metal and Photovoltaic Semiconductor Nanocrystals

    KAUST Repository

    Abulikemu, Mutalifu

    2014-11-05

    Metal and semiconducting nanocrystals have received a great deal of attention from fundamental scientists and application-oriented researchers due to their physical and chemical properties, which differ from those of bulk materials. Nanocrystals are essential building blocks in the development of nanostructured devices for energy conversion. Colloidal metals and metal chalcogenides have been developed for use as nanocrystal inks to produce efficient solar cells with lower costs. All high-performing photovoltaic nanocrystals contain toxic elements, such as Pb, or scarce elements, such as In; thus, the production of solution-processable nanocrystals from earth-abundant materials using environmentally benign synthesis and processing methods has become a major challenge for the inorganic semiconductor-based solar field. This dissertation, divided into two parts, addresses several aspects of these emerging challenges. The first portion of the thesis describes the synthesis and characterization of nanocrystals of antimony sulfide, which is composed of non-scarce and non-toxic elements, and examines their performance in photovoltaic devices. The effect of various synthetic parameters on the final morphology is explored. The structural, optical and morphological properties of the nanocrystals were investigated, and Sb2S3 nanocrystal-based solid-state semiconductor-sensitized solar cells were fabricated using different deposition processes. We achieved promising power conversion efficiencies of 1.48%. The second part of the thesis demonstrates a novel method for the in situ synthesis and patterning of nanocrystals via reactive inkjet printing. The use of low-cost manufacturing approaches for the synthesis of nanocrystals is critical for many applications, including photonics and electronics. In this work, a simple, low-cost method for the synthesis of nanocrystals with minimum size variation and waste using reactive inkjet printing is introduced. As a proof of concept, the

  18. Finite element design for the HPHT synthesis of diamond

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Rui; Ding, Mingming; Shi, Tongfei

    2018-06-01

    The finite element method is used to simulate the steady-state temperature field in diamond synthesis cell. The 2D and 3D models of the China-type cubic press with large deformation of the synthesis cell was established successfully, which has been verified by situ measurements of synthesis cell. The assembly design, component design and process design for the HPHT synthesis of diamond based on the finite element simulation were presented one by one. The temperature field in a high-pressure synthetic cavity for diamond production is optimized by adjusting the cavity assembly. A series of analysis about the influence of the pressure media parameters on the temperature field are examined through adjusting the model parameters. Furthermore, the formation mechanism of wasteland was studied in detail. It indicates that the wasteland is inevitably exists in the synthesis sample, the distribution of growth region of the diamond with hex-octahedral is move to the center of the synthesis sample from near the heater as the power increasing, and the growth conditions of high quality diamond is locating at the center of the synthesis sample. These works can offer suggestion and advice to the development and optimization of a diamond production process.

  19. Fabrication of Nanocarbon Composites Using In Situ Chemical Vapor Deposition and Their Applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Chunnian; Zhao, Naiqin; Shi, Chunsheng; Liu, Enzuo; Li, Jiajun

    2015-09-23

    Nanocarbon (carbon nanotubes (CNTs) and graphene (GN)) composites attract considerable research interest due to their fascinating applications in many fields. Here, recent developments in the field of in situ chemical vapor deposition (CVD) for the design and controlled preparation of advanced nanocarbon composites are highlighted, specifically, CNT-reinforced bulk structural composites, as well as CNT, GN, and CNT/GN functional composites, together with their practical and potential applications. In situ CVD is a very attractive approach for the fabrication of composites because of its engaging features, such as its simplicity, low-cost, versatility, and tunability. The morphologies, structures, dispersion, and interface of the resulting nanocarbon composites can be easily modulated by varying the experimental parameters (such as temperature, catalysts, carbon sources, templates or template catalysts, etc.), which enables a great potential for the in situ synthesis of high-quality nanocarbons with tailored size and dimension for constructing high-performance composites, which has not yet been achieved by conventional methods. In addition, new trends of the in situ CVD toward nanocarbon composites are discussed. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  20. In situ Sn2+-incorporation synthesis of titanate nanotubes for photocatalytic dye degradation under visible light illumination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tsai, Chien-Cheng; Chen, Liang-Che; Yeh, Te-Fu; Teng, Hsisheng

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: ► Sn 2+ ions sensitize titanate nanotubes for photocatalysis under visible-light illumination. ► The Sn 5s orbital replaces the O 2p orbital as the top level of the valence band of titanates. ► The presence of Sn 2+ lifts the valence band of titanate nanotubes by approximately 0.9 eV. ► The doped Sn 2+ sites are active in donating photo-induced charges to dye degradation. - Abstract: Sn 2+ -incorporated titanate nanotubes, prepared by washing a layered sodium titanate with a SnCl 2 solution for tube formation, exhibit noticeable photocatalytic activity under visible light irradiation. This in situ synthesis results in a Sn/Ti ratio of approximately 0.6. Because of the introduction of Sn 2+ ions, the Sn 5s orbital replaces the O 2p orbital as the top level of the valence band of titanate nanotubes. Optical absorption analysis shows that Sn doping reduces the bandgap of titanate nanotubes from 3.5 to 2.6 eV. Oxidation of the Sn 2+ -incorporated titanate nanotubes leads to oxidation of Sn 2+ to Sn 4+ , hence, widening the bandgap. Under visible light irradiation, Sn 2+ -incorporated titanate nanotubes effectively degrade methylene blue in an aqueous solution, whereas the bare titanate nanotubes exhibit substantially lower photocatalytic activity. Photoluminescence analysis demonstrates that the induced charges from excitation of the Sn 2+ ions tend to be relaxed through chemical interactions, rather than irradiative recombination.

  1. In Situ Synthesis of Al-Si-Cu Alloy During Brazing Process and Mechanical Property of Brazing Joint

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    LONG Wei-min

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The Al-Si-Cu alloy system is considered to be a promising choice of filler metal for aluminium alloys brazing due to its high strength and low melting point. The greatest obstacle is its lack of plastic forming ability and being difficult to be processed by conventional methods. This disadvantage is ascribed to the considerable amount of brittle CuAl2 intermetallic compound which forms when alloy composition is around the ternary eutectic point. In order to overcome this deficiency, authors of this article proposed to synthesize Al-Si-Cu filler metal by using in situ synthesis method, and the structure and properties of brazing joints were studied. The results show that AlSi alloy is used as the wrap layer, and CuAl alloy is used as the powder core in the composite brazing wire, the two alloys have similar melting points. The machinability of the composite brazing wire is much superior to the traditional Al-Si-Cu filler metal. During the induction brazing of 3A21 alloy, when using AlSi-CuAl composite filler wire, AlSi and CuAl alloys melt almost simultaneously, then after short time holding, Al-Si-Cu braze filler is obtained, the brazing seam has uniform composition and good bonding interface, also, the shearing strength of the brazing joints is higher than the joint brazed by conventional Al-Si-Cu filler metal.

  2. Hi ha un paper per a l'ètica a l'empresa?

    OpenAIRE

    Argandoña Rámiz, Antonio

    2001-01-01

    No hi ha decisions ètiques i decisions no ètiques. Hi ha decisions: l'ètica és, simplement, un component més de cada decisió —i, per tant, molt important. No hi ha directors d'empresa ètics i altres que no ho són: hi ha directors que dirigeixen bé, i directors que dirigeixen malament. Els que dirigeixen bé són ètics. Si no són ètics, estan perdent algun aspecte de la realitat que és necessari per a la seva tasca de dirigir: per tant, dirigeixen malament. Però, a més a més, ser ètic no és tan ...

  3. Development and characterization of poli composites (ether ether ketone)(PEEK)(Hydroxyapatite(HA); Desenvolvimento e caracterizacao de compositos poli (eter-eter-cetona)(PEEK)/Hidroxiapatita(HA)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ferreira, V.P.; Santos, F.S.F.; Sa, M.D. de; Fook, M.V.L., E-mail: valeriap.ferreira@hotmail.com [Universidade Federal de Campina Grande (UFCG), PB (Brazil). Centro de Ciencias e Tecnologia. Programa de Pos-Graduacao em Ciencia e Engenharia de Materiais

    2016-07-01

    The objective of this work was to develop PEEK / HA composites, combining the biological activity of the ceramic phase with the properties of the polymer phase, the materials used in this research were Poly (ether-ether-ketone) (PEEK) and Hydroxyapatite (HA) (50, 60, 70 and 80% m / v HA), this material was subjected to a load of two tons followed by a thermal treatment at 390 ° for a period of 30 minutes. Then they were characterized by FTIR, DRX and MO. In the physical-chemical characterization of FTIR and XRD, it was not possible to identify significant alterations. In the FTIR spectra of the composites, there is no formation of new identifiable chemical bonds. In the composites XRD diffractograms a profile similar to the ceramic phase was observed, with peaks increasing in intensity and narrowing proportional to the increase of the hydroxyapatite concentration in the composites. In optical microscopy it is possible to observe surfaces with heterogeneous morphology, with signs of roughness and in the cross section we observe a heterogeneous aspect, rich in regions with large agglomerates and lighter particles. Considering the processing aspects, the technique proved to be effective for the development of PEEK /HA composites. (author)

  4. A study on the phase transformation of the nanosized hydroxyapatite synthesized by hydrolysis using in situ high temperature X-ray diffraction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shih, W.-J. [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, National Cheng Kung University, 1 Ta-Hsueh Road, Tainan, 70101, Taiwan (China); Wang, J.-W. [Department of Enviromental and Safety Engineering, Chung Hwa College of Medical Technology, 89 Wen-Hua 1st St., Rende Shiang, Tainan, 71703, Taiwan (China); Wang, M.-C. [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, National United University, 1 Lien-Da, Kung-Ching Li, Miao Li 360, Taiwan (China)]. E-mail: mcwang@nuu.edu.tw; Hon, M.-H. [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, National Cheng Kung University, 1 Ta-Hsueh Road, Tainan, 70101, Taiwan (China); Dayeh University, 112 Shan-Jiau Road, Da-Tsuen, Changhua 515, Taiwan (China)

    2006-09-15

    The biodegradable hydroxyapatite (HA) was synthesized by hydrolysis and characterized using high temperature X-ray diffraction (HT-XRD), differential thermal analysis and thermogravimetry (DTA/TG), and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The in situ phase transformation of the HA synthesized from CaHPO{sub 4}.2H{sub 2}O (DCPD) and CaCO{sub 3} with a Ca / P = 1.5 in 2.5 M NaOH{sub (aq)} at 75 deg. C for 1 h was investigated by HT-XRD between 25 and 1500 deg. C. The HA was crystallized at 600 deg. C and maintained as the major phase until 1400 deg. C. The HA steadily transformed to the {alpha}-tricalcium phosphate ({alpha}-TCP) which became the major phosphate phase at 1500 deg. C. At 700 deg. C, the minor CaO phase appeared and vanished at 1300 deg. C. The Na{sup +} impurity from the hydrolysis process was responsible for the formation of the NaCaPO{sub 4} phase, which appeared above 800 deg. C and disappeared at 1200 deg. C.

  5. Investigation of microstructure and mechanical properties of PLLA/HA system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nik Hanyn N., H.; Ahmad, K. Z. Ku; Yusof, Mohd Reusmaazran; Kamarolzaman, A. A.

    2017-12-01

    The poly(L-lactide) (PLLA), carboxymethyl starch (CMS) and hydroxyapatite (HAp) nanofibers have been prepared by electrospinning technique. The PLLA/CMS formulations applied at various voltage were studied for electrospinning into nanofibers. It was found that the morphology of the fibers became finer with the increment of voltage applied. The formulation with 10 kV voltage was selected as it shows promising result based on the morphology observation. The PLLA/CMS/HA formulation with HA loading concentration (i.e. 0.25, 0.50, 0.75 and 1.00 wt%) was fabricated in the next stage, and the effect of HA addition was studied. Observation showed that the electrospun nanofibers' diameters were reduced with the addition of HAp concentration from 0.25 wt% HAp to 1.00 wt% Hap.

  6. Synthesis of hydroxyapatite nanoparticles onto modified polypropylene surface to be used in bone tissue engineering; Sintese de nanoparticulas de hidroxiapatita na superficie de polipropileno modificado para utilizacao na engenharia de tecido osseo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cellet, Thelma Sley P.; Pereira, Guilherme M.; Fragal, Elizangela H.; Rubira, Adley F., E-mail: thelmaspc@hotmail.com [Universidade Estadual de Maringa (UEM), Maringa, PR (Brazil). Departamento de Quimica; Companhoni, Mychelle V.P.; Nakamura, Celso V.; Ueda-Nakamura, Tania [Universidade Estadual de Maringa (UEM), Maringa, PR (Brazil). Departamento de Ciencias Basicas da Saude

    2015-07-01

    Chemical modification of polypropylene (PP) films can be explored to prepare innovative materials, for instance materials which can be used in tissue engineering application. The maleimide synthesis onto PP films was made for later polymerizes glycidyl methacrylate (GMA) and to grow up hydroxyapatite nanoparticles (n-HA) by biomimetization method (BM) in metastable simulated body fluid (SBF) for 7, 14 and 21 days. The modification steps were proved by infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) and the n-HA synthesis evidenced by X-ray diffractometry (XRD), scanning electronic microscopy (SEM) and energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDS). PP films exposed to SBF for 14 and 21 days showed n-HA on all over the films surface. The interaction of pre-osteoblasts with the films after 48 hours was evaluated by SEM. The results demonstrate that cells on the surface of n-HA films showed spreading, and number of filopodia similar to the control, wherein the films with greater amount of n-HA appear to have higher filopodia connections between the cells and appear to have its surface covered with higher cell density. (author)

  7. Autoradiographic study of transcription during early germination of Zea mays embryos maintained in situ

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Deltour, Roger

    1979-01-01

    Recovery of RNA synthesis was studied by autoradiography in primary root of Zea mays embryos germinating at 16 0 C. [H 3 ] uridine was provided to embryos maintained in situ. During the first 4hrs of germination the cell radioactivity is located almost exclusively in the extranucleolar chromatin. These observations agree well with previous results obtained when [H 3 ] uridine was provided to isolated embryos [fr

  8. Synthesis of flexible magnetic nanohybrid based on bacterial cellulose under ultrasonic irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zheng, Yi; Yang, Jingxuan; Zheng, Weili; Wang, Xiao; Xiang, Cao; Tang, Lian; Zhang, Wen; Chen, Shiyan; Wang, Huaping

    2013-01-01

    Flexible magnetic membrane based on bacterial cellulose (BC) was successfully prepared by in-situ synthesis of the Fe 3 O 4 nanoparticles under different conditions and its properties were characterized. The results demonstrated that the Fe 3 O 4 nanoparticles coated with PEG were well homogeneously dispersed in the BC matrix under ultrasonic irradiation with the saturation magnetization of 40.58 emu/g. Besides that, the membranes exhibited the striking flexibility and mechanical properties. This study provided a green and facile method to inhibit magnetic nanoparticle aggregation without compromising the mechanical properties of the nanocomposites. Magnetically responsive BC membrane would have potential applications in electronic actuators, information storage, electromagnetic shielding coating and anti-counterfeit. - Highlights: ► Flexible magnetic film is prepared by in situ synthesis on bacterial cellulose. ► Ultrasound and PEG are used together to inhibit the nanoparticle aggregation. ► The magnetic membrane demonstrates the great superparamagnetic behavior

  9. Mao & Püha Eliisabet / Jüri Kuuskemaa

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Kuuskemaa, Jüri, 1942-

    2000-01-01

    Kadrioru lossis Väliskunstimuuseumi ekspositsioonis olevast antikvaar August Käbi pärandist pärit maalist. Kunstiteadlase Mai Levini arvates võib maali autoriks olla Rooma kunstnik Tommaso Salini, hüüdnimega Mao. Maali süzee: "Püha Eliisabeti kuulutus". 1 ill

  10. Characterization of Platinum Electrodes and In-situ Cell Confluency Measurement Based on Current Changes of Cell-Electrodes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chin Fhong SOON

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed at the development of a biosensor to examine the growth confluency of human derived keratinocytes (HaCaT cell lines in-situ. The biosensor consists of a sputter- coated glass substrate with platinum patterns. Cells were grown on the conductive substrates and the confluency of the cells were monitored in-situ based on the conductivity changes of the substrates. Characterization of the cell proliferation and confluency were interrogated using electrical cell-substrate impedance sensing (ECIS techniques and current change of cells using a pico-ammeter. The investigation was followed by the electrical characterization of the platinum electrode (PE using a two probe I-V measurement system. The surface morphology of platinum electrodes were studied using an atomic force microscopy (AFM and the HaCaT cell morphology was studied using Field-Emission Scanning Electron Microscopy (FE-SEM. The microscopy results showed that the cells coupled and proliferated on the platinum electrodes. For monitoring the conductivity and impedance changes of the cell-electrode in-situ, the cover of a Petri dish was inserted with pogo pins to be in contact with the platinum electrodes. The impedance was sampled using the ECIS technique at a twenty-four hour interval. In our findings, the cell proliferation rate can be measured by observing the changes in capacitance or impedance measured at low ac frequencies ranged from 10 - 1 kHz. In good agreement, the current measured at micro-ampere range by the biosensor decreased as the cell coverage area increased over the time. Thus, the percent of cell confluence was shown inversely proportional to the current changes.

  11. Poly I-lactide-layered double hydroxide nanocomposites via in situ polymerization of I-lactide

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Katiyar, Vimal; Gerds, N.; Koch, C.B.

    2010-01-01

    The use of clay nanofillers offers a potential route to improved barrier properties in polylactide films. Magnesium–aluminium layered double hydroxides (LDHs) are interesting in this respect and we therefore explored synthesis of PLA-LDH nanocomposites by ring-opening polymerization. This method ...... weight was significantly reduced when in-situ polymerization was conducted in the presence of the LDHs and we suggest that chain termination via LDH surface hydroxyl groups and/or metal-catalyzed degradation could be responsible.......The use of clay nanofillers offers a potential route to improved barrier properties in polylactide films. Magnesium–aluminium layered double hydroxides (LDHs) are interesting in this respect and we therefore explored synthesis of PLA-LDH nanocomposites by ring-opening polymerization. This method...

  12. Prediction of IOI-HA Scores Using Speech Reception Thresholds and Speech Discrimination Scores in Quiet

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brännström, K Jonas; Lantz, Johannes; Nielsen, Lars Holme

    2014-01-01

    ), and speech discrimination scores (SDSs) in quiet or in noise are common assessments made prior to hearing aid (HA) fittings. It is not known whether SRT and SDS in quiet relate to HA outcome measured with the International Outcome Inventory for Hearing Aids (IOI-HA). PURPOSE: The aim of the present study...... COLLECTION AND ANALYSIS: The psychometric properties were evaluated and compared to previous studies using the IOI-HA. The associations and differences between the outcome scores and a number of descriptive variables (age, gender, fitted monaurally/binaurally with HA, first-time/experienced HA users, years...

  13. In-situ PXRD studies of ZnO nanoparticle growth: How do various salts influence the hydrothermal growth of ZnO?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bøjesen, Espen Drath

    ZnO is a material of great scientific and everyday relevance; it is used widely in all sorts of application. Synthesis of ZnO nanoparticles can be performed by a wide assortment of methods and a tremendous variety of sizes and shapes, it has been suggested that ZnO is the one known compound showing...... the broadest range of nanostructures. Previously many different in-situ characterization methods have been used to investigate the ZnO formation under various synthesis conditions; these include UV-VIS and SAXS. These methods were primarily used to give information on particle size of ZnO formed using soft...... chemical methods and non-aqueous solvents. In our work we have studied the formation of ZnO during hydrothermal syntheses using in-situ powder X-ray diffraction, thus enabling us to extract crystallographic as well as microstructural information. The data was analyzed using Rietveld refinement and whole...

  14. Hydrothermal synthesis of uranyl squarates and squarate-oxalates: hydrolysis trends and in situ oxalate formation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rowland, Clare E; Cahill, Christopher L

    2010-07-19

    We report the synthesis of two uranyl squarates and two mixed-ligand uranyl squarate-oxalates from aqueous solutions under hydrothermal conditions. These products exhibit a range of uranyl building units from squarates with monomers in (UO(2))(2)(C(4)O(4))(5).6NH(4).4H(2)O (1; a = 16.731(17) A, b = 7.280(8) A, c = 15.872(16) A, beta = 113.294(16) degrees , monoclinic, P2(1)/c) and chains in (UO(2))(2)(OH)(2)(H(2)O)(2)(C(4)O(4)) (2; a = 12.909(5) A, b = 8.400(3) A, c = 10.322(4) A, beta = 100.056(7) degrees , monoclinic, C2/c) to two squarate-oxalate polymorphs with dimers in (UO(2))(2)(OH)(C(4)O(4))(C(2)O(4)).NH(4).H(2)O (3; a = 9.0601(7) A, b = 15.7299(12) A, c = 10.5108(8) A, beta = 106.394(1) degrees , monoclinic, P2(1)/n; and 4; a = 8.4469(6) A, b = 7.7589(5) A, c = 10.5257(7) A, beta = 105.696(1) degrees , monoclinic, P2(1)/m). The dominance at low pH of monomeric species and the increasing occurrence of oligomeric species with increasing pH suggests that uranyl hydrolysis, mUO(2)(2+) + nH(2)O right harpoon over left harpoon [(UO(2))(m)(OH)(n)](2m-n) + nH(+), has a significant role in the identity of the inorganic building unit. Additional factors that influence product assembly include in situ hydrolysis of squaric acid to oxalic acid, dynamic metal to ligand concentration, and additional binding modes resulting from the introduction of oxalate anions. These points and the effects of uranyl hydrolysis with changing pH are discussed in the context of the compounds presented herein.

  15. Facile synthesis of AgCl/polydopamine/Ag nanoparticles with in-situ laser improving Raman scattering effect

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Yan; Zhang, Wenqi; Wang, Lin; Wang, Feng, E-mail: wangfeng@shnu.edu.cn; Yang, Haifeng

    2017-01-15

    Highlights: • AgCl/PDA/AgNPs (polydopamine (PDA) adlayer covered cubic AgCl core inlaid with Ag nanoparticles (AgNPs)) was fabricated for in-situ SERS detection. • Such SERS substrate shows in-situ laser improving Raman scattering effect due to the generation of more AgNPs. • Enhancement factor could reach 10{sup 7}. • Such SERS substrate shows good reproducibility and long term stability. - Abstract: We reported a simple and fast method to prepare a composite material of polydopamine (PDA) adlayer covered cubic AgCl core, which was inlaid with Ag nanoparticles (NPs), shortly named as AgCl/PDA/AgNPs. The resultant AgCl/PDA/AgNPs could be employed as surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) substrate for in-situ detection and the SERS activity could be further greatly improved due to the production of more AgNPs upon laser irradiation. With 4-mercaptopyridine (4-Mpy) as the probe molecule, the enhancement factor could reach 10{sup 7}. Additionally, such SERS substrate shows good reproducibility with relative standard deviation of 7.32% and long term stability (after storage for 100 days under ambient condition, SERS intensity decay is less than 25%). In-situ elevating SERS activity of AgCl/PDA/AgNPs induced by laser may be beneficial to sensitive analysis in practical fields.

  16. El griot no ha muerto, viva el hip-hop

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fco. Javier González García-Mamely

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available La oratura en África ha jugado un papel vital a lo largo de los milenios como un (único medio de preservar y transmitir la historia, la cultura y el imaginario de cada comunidad. El griot es un claro modelo de las artes orales, pero ha sufrido cambios drásticos en su modo de vida y en los recursos narrativos de los que dispone. Tras el mecenazgo de los grandes reyes y las sucesivas llegadas del islam, el colonialismo y los procesos de modernización y occidentalización, los griots se han tenido que adaptar a nuevos patrones, audiencias y medios de comunicación, convirtiéndose en políticos o en figuras del espectáculo. La aparición del rap y el hip-hop reclamando ser los “modernos griots” ha ocasionado una respuesta crítica y una atracción viral hacia el nuevo fenómeno, sea éste un nuevo género o una reinvención de la oratura del antiguo griot.

  17. In situ click chemistry: from small molecule discovery to synthetic antibodies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agnew, Heather D.; Lai, Bert; Lee, Su Seong; Lim, Jaehong; Nag, Arundhati; Pitram, Suresh; Rohde, Rosemary; Heath, James R.

    2013-01-01

    Advances in the fields of proteomics, molecular imaging, and therapeutics are closely linked to the availability of affinity reagents that selectively recognize their biological targets. Here we present a review of Iterative Peptide In Situ Click Chemistry (IPISC), a novel screening technology for designing peptide multiligands with high affinity and specificity. This technology builds upon in situ click chemistry, a kinetic target-guided synthesis approach where the protein target catalyzes the conjugation of two small molecules, typically through the azide–alkyne Huisgen cycloaddition. Integrating this methodology with solid phase peptide libraries enables the assembly of linear and branched peptide multiligands we refer to as Protein Catalyzed Capture Agents (PCC Agents). The resulting structures can be thought of as analogous to the antigen recognition site of antibodies and serve as antibody replacements in biochemical and cell-based applications. In this review, we discuss the recent progress in ligand design through IPISC and related approaches, focusing on the improvements in affinity and specificity as multiligands are assembled by target-catalyzed peptide conjugation. We compare the IPISC process to small molecule in situ click chemistry with particular emphasis on the advantages and technical challenges of constructing antibody-like PCC Agents. PMID:22836343

  18. Changes of serum HA and LN level in patients with pulmonary tuberculosis after therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yu Jing Zhang Hongwei; Li Jie

    2007-01-01

    Objective: To study the serum HA and LN level in patients with pulmonary tuberculosis and their response to therapy. Methods: Serum HA and LN levels were measured with RIA in: (1) 42 patients with active pulmonary tuberculosis both before and after 2 months' therapy, (2) 40 patients with non-active pulmonary TB and 330 controls. Results: The serum HA and LN level in patients with active pulmonary tubemulosis were significantly higher than those in controls (P < 0.01 ), while no significant difference could Be found Between the levels in patients with non-active pulmonary tuberculosis and controls. The serum HA and LN level in patients with active pulmonary tuberculosis dropped after therapy, but were still higher than those in controls. Significant correlation could Be found between HA and LN levels (P<0.01). The HA and LN levels were positively correlated with severity of the disease, ESR and CRP contents. Conclusion: The measurement of serum HA and LN is valuable for early diagnosis, monitoring development and assessment of therapeutic effect in patients with pulmonary tubemulosis. (authors)

  19. In Situ Synthesis of γ-AlOOH and Synchronous Adsorption Separation of V(V) from Highly Concentrated Cr(VI) Multiplex Complex solutions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Hailin [National; University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, No. 19A Yuquan Road, Shijingshan District,; Li, Ping [National; Wang, Zheming [Physcial; Zhang, Xin [Physcial; Zheng, Shili [National; Zhang, Yi [National

    2017-07-13

    Boehmite (γ-AlOOH) was synthesized to selectively adsorb V(V) from K2CrO4-KVO3-H2O solutions with highly concentrated Cr(VI) and low concentration V(V). The synthesized γ-AlOOH has a BET surface area of 433.2 m2/g and an average pore size of 3.5 nm. It possesses a maximum adsorption capacity of V(V) of 1.53 mmol/g from K2CrO4-KVO3-H2O solutions. The adsorption of V(V) onto γ-AlOOH follows the Langmuir isotherm model and pseudo-second-order kinetics equation by forming innersphere complexes while the Cr(VI) adsorption forms both inner-sphere and outer-sphere chromate complexes depending on solution pH. The γ-AlOOH was further synthesized in situ by adding HNO3 into the K2CrO4-KAlO2- KVO3-H2O solutions and then used for synchronous adsorption of V(V) and Cr(VI), resulting in increased adsorption capacity of V(V) of 2.88 mmol/g and decreased adsorption capacity of Cr(VI) to 0.073 mmol/g, respectively. In the latter process, adsorption pH values were adjustable, and adsorption reached equilibrium instantaneously, supporting a novel in situ synthesis and adsorption integration strategy with adjustable surface charge of adsorbent and disappearance of diffusion effect.

  20. Asymmetric synthesis of synthetic alkaloids by a tandem biocatalysis/Ugi/Pictet-Spengler-type

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Znabet, A.; Zonneveld, J.; Janssen, E.; de Kanter, F.J.J.; Helliwell, M.; Turner, N.J.; Ruijter, E.; Orru, R.V.A.

    2010-01-01

    We have combined the biocatalytic desymmetrization of 3,4-cis-substituted meso-pyrrolidines with an Ugi-type multicomponent reaction followed in situ by a Pictet-Spengler-type cyclization reaction sequence for the rapid asymmetric synthesis of alkaloid-like polycyclic compounds. © The Royal Society

  1. 166Ho-HA evaluation as therapeutic agent for rheumatoid arthritis treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chandia, M.C.; Errazu, X.C.; Pinto, L.N.; Godoy, N.O.; Avila, M.J.; Mendoza, P.; Mendoza, J.; Jofre, J.; Sirraalta, P.

    2002-01-01

    Aim: Rheumatoid arthritis is a limiting disease having, among its pathological features, the inflammation of synovial tissue with progressive and later destruction of the articulation. This leads to joint deformation and loss of its function, generating pain and reducing the mobility of the affected articulation. The aim was to evaluate 166 Ho-Hydroxyapatite ( 166 Ho-HA) as potential radiopharmaceutical for the symptomatic treatment of chronic and acute arthritis. Materials and Methods: Holmiun-166 was produced by irradiation of Ho 2 O 3 at La Reina Research Reactor, Nuclear Chilean Energy Commission. Hydroxyapatite was in-house synthesized. Its labelling and quality controls follows the internationally accepted procedures. An antigen's arthritis was induced to eight New Zealand rabbits with the 166 Ho-HA radiochemical being administered thereafter in two dosage modalities (single and double). The compound therapeutic efficiency was evaluated based upon clinical improvement and images from the inflamated articulation using 67 Ga citrate before and after 166 Ho-HA injection. Results: The radiochemical purity of the inoculated compound was greater than 98% as measured under sterility conditions. Clinically, an inflammation reduction (2 cm), appetite improvement and general well being was observed. The 166 Ho-HA distribution and localization was monitored using gamma camera images taken at 4 and 24 h. There was no evidence of extra articular leakage. From the 67 Ga citrate imaging, the acute group shows an overall improvement of well being corresponding to a lesser uptake at the inflamated articulation, regarding to the chronic group. The 166 Ho-HA double doses, compared to the single doses, suggest a reduced uptake of 67 Ga citrate at the inflamated tissue, meaning an increased therapeutic effect. Conclusions: 166 Ho-HA is useful as therapeutic agent for the symptomatic treatment of rheumatoid arthritis as shown by imaging and clinical examination

  2. 166 Ho-HA Evaluation as therapeutic agent for rheumatoid arthritis treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chandia, M; Errazu, X; Mendoza, P; Troncoso, F; Jofre, J; Sierralta, P

    2003-01-01

    Aim: Rheumatoid arthritis is a limiting disease having, among its pathological features, the inflammation of synovial tissue with progressive and later destruction of the articulation. This lead to joint deformation and loss of its function, generating pain and reducing the mobility of the affected articulation. The aim was to evaluate 166 Ho-Hydroxyapatite ( 166 Ho-HA) as potential radiopharmaceutical for the syntomatic treatment of chronic and acute arthritis Materials and Methods: 166 Holmiun was produced by irradiation of Ho 2 O 3 at La Reina Research Reactor, Nuclear Chilean Energy Commission. Hydroxyapatite was in-house synthetized. Its labelling and quality controls follows the internationally accepted procedures. An antigen arthritis was induced to eight New Zealand rabbits with the 166 Ho-HA radiochemical being administred thereafter in two dosage modalities (single and double). The compound therapeutic efficiency was evaluated based upon clinical improvement and images from the inflamated articulation using 67 Ga citrate before and after 166 Ho-HA injection. Results: The radiochemical purity of the innoculated compound was greater than 98% as measured under sterility conditions. Clinically, an inflamation reduction (2 cm), appetite improvement and general well being was observed. The 166 Ho-HA distribution and localization was monitored using gamma camera images taken at 4 and 24 h. There was no evidence of extraarticular leakage. From the 67 Ga citrate imaging, the acute group shows an overall improvement of well being corresponding to a lesser uptake at the inflamated articulation, regarding to the chronic group. The 166 Ho-HA double dosis, compared to the single dosis, suggest a reduced uptake of 67 Ga citrate at the inflamated tissue, meaning an increased therapeutic effect. Conclusions: 166 Ho-HA is usefull as therapeutic agent for the syntomatic treatment of rheumatoideal arthritis as shown by imaging and clinical examination (author)

  3. Synthesis and characterization of hydroxyapatite-gelatine composite materials for orthopaedic application

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yanovska, A., E-mail: biophy@yandex.ru [Institute of Applied Physics, National Academy of Sciences of Ukraine, 58 Petropavlovskaya Str., 40000, Sumy (Ukraine); Sumy State University, Ministry of Education and Science of Ukraine, 2 R. Korsakova Str., 40007, Sumy (Ukraine); Kuznetsov, V. [Institute of Applied Physics, National Academy of Sciences of Ukraine, 58 Petropavlovskaya Str., 40000, Sumy (Ukraine); Sumy State University, Ministry of Education and Science of Ukraine, 2 R. Korsakova Str., 40007, Sumy (Ukraine); Stanislavov, A. [Institute of Applied Physics, National Academy of Sciences of Ukraine, 58 Petropavlovskaya Str., 40000, Sumy (Ukraine); Husak, E. [Institute of Applied Physics, National Academy of Sciences of Ukraine, 58 Petropavlovskaya Str., 40000, Sumy (Ukraine); Sumy State University, Ministry of Education and Science of Ukraine, 2 R. Korsakova Str., 40007, Sumy (Ukraine); Pogorielov, M. [Sumy State University, Ministry of Education and Science of Ukraine, 2 R. Korsakova Str., 40007, Sumy (Ukraine); Starikov, V. [National Technical University ”Kharkov Polytechnic Institute”, 21 Frunze Str., 61002, Kharkov (Ukraine); Bolshanina, S. [Sumy State University, Ministry of Education and Science of Ukraine, 2 R. Korsakova Str., 40007, Sumy (Ukraine); Danilchenko, S. [Institute of Applied Physics, National Academy of Sciences of Ukraine, 58 Petropavlovskaya Str., 40000, Sumy (Ukraine)

    2016-11-01

    The composite materials based on hydroxyapatite (HA) and gelatine (Gel) with addition of silver and zirconium oxide were obtained. The study investigates a combination of low powered ultrasonic irradiation and low concentration of gelatine in the co-precipitation synthesis. These composites have different weight ratios of organic/inorganic components and may be synthesized in two ways: simple mixing and co-precipitation. Both of which were compared. The estimation of porosity, in vivo testing, surface morphology and phase composition as well as the IR-analysis were provided. Hydroxyapatite was the main crystalline phase in obtained composites. While around powdered HA-Gel composite the connective tissue capsule is formed without bone tissue formation, HA-Gel-Ag porous composite implantation leads to formation of new bone tissue and activation of cell proliferation. Addition of silver ions into composite material allows decreasing inflammation on the first stage of implantation and has positive effect on bone tissue formation. Some of the obtained composite materials containing silver or ZrO{sub 2} are biocompatible. bio-resorbable and osteoconductive with high level of porosity (75–85%). - Highlights: • Hydroxyapatite-gelatine composites with addition of Ag{sup +} and ZrO{sub 2} were obtained. • Composites were synthesized in two ways: simple mixing and co-precipitation. • Co-precipitation synthesis combined ultrasonic treatment and low concentration of gelatine. • Obtained composites have different weight ratios of organic/inorganic components. • Some composites are osteoconductive and all of them have high level of porosity (75–85%).

  4. In situ and ex situ electron microscopy and X-ray diffraction characterization of the evolution of a catalytic system - from synthesis to deactivation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gardini, Diego

    Heterogeneous catalysis represents a research field of undeniable importance for a multitude of technological and industrial processes. Supported catalysts are nowadays at the base of the large-scale production of most chemicals and are used for the removal of air pollutants from automotive engines...... the understanding of the structural properties and mechanisms at the origin of catalytic activity. This thesis presents the potential and uniqueness of ex situ and in situ transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and X-ray diffraction (XRD) techniques in the characterization of several supported material systems...... TEM (HRTEM) and electron energy loss spectroscopy (EELS) revealed the degradation of the supported carbide particles probably due to the formation of volatile molybdenum hydroxide species. The activity of silver nanoparticles as catalyst for soot oxidation was studied in operative conditions...

  5. Solid oxide electrode kinetics in light of in situ surface studies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mogensen, Mogens Bjerg

    2014-01-01

    The combination of in situ and in particular in operando characterization methods such as electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) on both technical and model electrode are well known ways to gain some practical insight in electrode reaction kinetics. Yet, is has become clear that in spite...... of the strengths it is not sufficient to reveal much details of the electrode mechanisms mainly because it provide average values only. Therefore it has to be combined with surface science methods in order to reveal the interface structure and composition. Ex situ methods have been very useful over the latest....... Furthermore, it seems that detailed mathematical modeling using new tools like COMSOL is necessary for the synthesis of the large amount of data for a well-characterized electrode into one physical meaningful picture. A brief review of literature an own data will be presented with a practical example of SOFC...

  6. Synthesis and characterization of eggshell-derived hydroxyapatite via mechanochemical method: A comparative study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamidi, A. A.; Salimi, M. N.; Yusoff, A. H. M.

    2017-04-01

    The focus of bone graft properties has developed through generations, from the ability to withstand mechanical stress to the ability to integrate with the biological structure. In recent years, the use of hydroxyapatite (HA) as bone graft material in orthopedic and dental applications has been increasing. HA is a natural occuring mineral with excellent bioactivity but relatively poor mechanical properties. It constitutes 96% portion of enamel in teeth and 67% portion of bone. HA can be extracted from animal bones or fabricated from synthetic or biologic sources. In this study, eggshells were used as raw material to synthesize eggshell-derived HA (EHA) via mechanochemical method. The synthesis of EHA involved CaO, which was obtained from the calcination of eggshells, and reaction with dicalcium hydrogen phosphate dihydrous (DCPD) or phosphoric acid (H3PO4). The effects of rotational speed and heat treatment temperature on EHA's characteristics were investigated. The characterization studies were carried out by using the Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR), X-Ray Diffraction (XRD) analysis and Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM). HA powder was successfully synthesized with crystallite and particle sizes in the range of 8-47 nm and 250-550 nm respectively. It was observed from this study that the increase of milling rotational speed had increased the phase purity of EHA samples. Furthermore, the higher heating temperature of HA samples resulted in higher degree of crystallinity of HA and the appearance of β-tricalcium phosphate (β-TCP) as secondary phase.

  7. Mechanical, thermal, rheological and morphological behaviour of irradiated PP/HA composites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ramirez, C.; Albano, C.; Karam, A.; Dominguez, N.; Sanchez, Y.; Gonzalez, G.

    2005-01-01

    Hydroxyapatite (HA) reinforced polypropylene (PP) composites are being developed as bone graft materials. In this research, the effect of γ irradiation on mechanical, rheological, thermal and morphological behaviour of PP-HA composites was studied. The melt flow index of polymer increased markedly when it was exposed to radiation. This is indicative of chain scission reaction as the predominant process. During the tensile testing, the composites exhibited brittle behaviour, showing no fluency point. Elongation at break showed a tendency to decrease with the increase in radiation dose while stress at break did not show significant variation with radiation dose. High HA content (>20%) and radiation dose (25 kGy) had significant influence on thermal stability

  8. Influence of the dopant during the one step mechano-chemical synthesis of sodium alanate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rongeat, C; Geipel, C; Llamas-Jansa, I; Schultz, L; Gutfleisch, O

    2009-01-01

    High-pressure reactive milling under hydrogen atmosphere is used for the one-step synthesis of doped sodium alanate. In-situ monitoring of the pressure and the temperature inside the vial gives a direct feedback about the reactions occurring during the milling. This information is used to study the influence of the dopant during synthesis, e.g. the amount of dopant added. The study of the pressure variations during milling is a reliable tool for screening the efficiency of different dopants.

  9. Enhancement of mucosal immune responses by chimeric influenza HA/SHIV virus-like particles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guo Lizheng; Lu Xiaoyan; Kang, S.-M.; Chen Changyi; Compans, Richard W.; Yao Qizhi

    2003-01-01

    To enhance mucosal immune responses using simian/human immunodeficiency virus-like particles (SHIV VLPs), we have produced novel phenotypically mixed chimeric influenza HA/SHIV VLPs and used them to immunize C57BL/6J mice intranasally. Antibody and cytotoxic T-cell (CTL) responses as well as cytokine production in both systemic and mucosal sites were compared after immunization with SHIV VLPs or chimeric HA/SHIV VLPs. By using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), the levels of serum IgG and mucosal IgA to the HIV envelope protein (Env) were found to be highest in the group immunized with chimeric HA/SHIV VLPs. Furthermore, the highest titer of serum neutralizing antibody against HIV Env was found with the group immunized with chimeric HA/SHIV VLPs. Analysis of the IgG1/IgG2a ratio indicated that a T H 1-oriented immune response resulted from these VLP immunizations. HA/SHIV VLP-immunized mice also showed significantly higher CTL responses than those observed in SHIV VLP-immunized mice. Moreover, a MHC class I restricted T-cell activation ELISPOT assay showed a mixed type of T H 1/T H 2 cytokines in the HA/SHIV VLP-immunized mice, indicating that the chimeric VLPs can enhance both humoral and cellular immune responses to the HIV Env protein at multiple mucosal and systemic sites. The results indicate that incorporation of influenza HA into heterotypic VLPs may be highly effective for targeting vaccines to mucosal surfaces

  10. 3D bioprinting of methacrylated hyaluronic acid (MeHA) hydrogel with intrinsic osteogenicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poldervaart, Michelle T; Goversen, Birgit; de Ruijter, Mylene; Abbadessa, Anna; Melchels, Ferry P W; Öner, F Cumhur; Dhert, Wouter J A; Vermonden, Tina; Alblas, Jacqueline

    2017-01-01

    In bone regenerative medicine there is a need for suitable bone substitutes. Hydrogels have excellent biocompatible and biodegradable characteristics, but their visco-elastic properties limit their applicability, especially with respect to 3D bioprinting. In this study, we modified the naturally occurring extracellular matrix glycosaminoglycan hyaluronic acid (HA), in order to yield photo-crosslinkable hydrogels with increased mechanical stiffness and long-term stability, and with minimal decrease in cytocompatibility. Application of these tailor-made methacrylated hyaluronic acid (MeHA) gels for bone tissue engineering and 3D bioprinting was the subject of investigation. Visco-elastic properties of MeHA gels, measured by rheology and dynamic mechanical analysis, showed that irradiation of the hydrogels with UV light led to increased storage moduli and elastic moduli, indicating increasing gel rigidity. Subsequently, human bone marrow derived mesenchymal stromal cells (MSCs) were incorporated into MeHA hydrogels, and cell viability remained 64.4% after 21 days of culture. Osteogenic differentiation of MSCs occurred spontaneously in hydrogels with high concentrations of MeHA polymer, in absence of additional osteogenic stimuli. Addition of bone morphogenetic protein-2 (BMP-2) to the culture medium further increased osteogenic differentiation, as evidenced by increased matrix mineralisation. MeHA hydrogels demonstrated to be suitable for 3D bioprinting, and were printed into porous and anatomically shaped scaffolds. Taken together, photosensitive MeHA-based hydrogels fulfilled our criteria for cellular bioprinted bone constructs within a narrow window of concentration.

  11. 3D bioprinting of methacrylated hyaluronic acid (MeHA hydrogel with intrinsic osteogenicity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michelle T Poldervaart

    Full Text Available In bone regenerative medicine there is a need for suitable bone substitutes. Hydrogels have excellent biocompatible and biodegradable characteristics, but their visco-elastic properties limit their applicability, especially with respect to 3D bioprinting. In this study, we modified the naturally occurring extracellular matrix glycosaminoglycan hyaluronic acid (HA, in order to yield photo-crosslinkable hydrogels with increased mechanical stiffness and long-term stability, and with minimal decrease in cytocompatibility. Application of these tailor-made methacrylated hyaluronic acid (MeHA gels for bone tissue engineering and 3D bioprinting was the subject of investigation. Visco-elastic properties of MeHA gels, measured by rheology and dynamic mechanical analysis, showed that irradiation of the hydrogels with UV light led to increased storage moduli and elastic moduli, indicating increasing gel rigidity. Subsequently, human bone marrow derived mesenchymal stromal cells (MSCs were incorporated into MeHA hydrogels, and cell viability remained 64.4% after 21 days of culture. Osteogenic differentiation of MSCs occurred spontaneously in hydrogels with high concentrations of MeHA polymer, in absence of additional osteogenic stimuli. Addition of bone morphogenetic protein-2 (BMP-2 to the culture medium further increased osteogenic differentiation, as evidenced by increased matrix mineralisation. MeHA hydrogels demonstrated to be suitable for 3D bioprinting, and were printed into porous and anatomically shaped scaffolds. Taken together, photosensitive MeHA-based hydrogels fulfilled our criteria for cellular bioprinted bone constructs within a narrow window of concentration.

  12. A Modified ELISA Accurately Measures Secretion of High Molecular Weight Hyaluronan (HA) by Graves' Disease Orbital Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krieger, Christine C.

    2014-01-01

    Excess production of hyaluronan (hyaluronic acid [HA]) in the retro-orbital space is a major component of Graves' ophthalmopathy, and regulation of HA production by orbital cells is a major research area. In most previous studies, HA was measured by ELISAs that used HA-binding proteins for detection and rooster comb HA as standards. We show that the binding efficiency of HA-binding protein in the ELISA is a function of HA polymer size. Using gel electrophoresis, we show that HA secreted from orbital cells is primarily comprised of polymers more than 500 000. We modified a commercially available ELISA by using 1 million molecular weight HA as standard to accurately measure HA of this size. We demonstrated that IL-1β-stimulated HA secretion is at least 2-fold greater than previously reported, and activation of the TSH receptor by an activating antibody M22 from a patient with Graves' disease led to more than 3-fold increase in HA production in both fibroblasts/preadipocytes and adipocytes. These effects were not consistently detected with the commercial ELISA using rooster comb HA as standard and suggest that fibroblasts/preadipocytes may play a more prominent role in HA remodeling in Graves' ophthalmopathy than previously appreciated. PMID:24302624

  13. Inhibitory effect of PTD-OD-HA fusion protein on Bcr-Abl in K562 cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miao GAO

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Objective To study the transduction dynamics, location of PTD-OD-HA fusion protein and its interaction with Bcr-Abl oncoprotein in K562 cell lines, and explore the influence of PTD-OD-HA fusion protein on oligomerization and tyrosine kinase activity of Bcr-Abl. Methods PTD-OD-HA fusion protein was labeled with FITC and co-cultured with K562 cells. The transduction efficiency of labeled PTD-OD-HA at different doses and time intervals was observed under fluorescence microscope. The location of labeled PTD-OD-HA fusion protein in K562 cells was detected by confocal microscopy. The interaction of PTD-OD-HA fusion protein with Bcr-Abl oncoprotein was confirmed by coimmunoprecipitation. The phosphorylation of Bcr-Abl oncoprotein was detected by Western blotting. Results PTD-OD-HA fusion protein labeled with FITC was transduced into K562 cells in a dose- and time-dependent manner. PTD-OD-HA fusion protein was located in the cytoplasm of K562 cells and was consistent with the location of Bcr-Abl oncoprotein. The interaction of PTD-OD-HA fusion protein with Bcr-Abl oncoprotein was proved in K562 cells. This interaction could interrupt the homologous oligomerization of Bcr-Abl oncoprotein and reduce the phosphorylation of Bcr-Abl oncoprotein. Conclusion PTD-OD-HA fusion protein could be transduced into K562 cells efficiently, inhibit the oligomerization and reduce the phosphorylation of Bcr-Abl oncoprotein.

  14. Synthesis and Characterization of WO3/Graphene Nanocomposites for Enhanced Photocatalytic Activities by One-Step In-Situ Hydrothermal Reaction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaoxiao Hu

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Tungsten trioxide (WO3 nanorods are synthesized on the surface of graphene (GR sheets by using a one-step in-situ hydrothermal method employing sodium tungstate (Na2WO4·2H2O and graphene oxide (GO as precursors. The resulting WO3/GR nanocomposites are characterized by X-ray diffraction, Raman spectroscopy, transmission electron microscopy, scanning electron microscopy and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. The results confirm that the interface between WO3 nanorod and graphene contains chemical bonds. The enhanced optical absorption properties are measured by UV-vis diffuse reflectance spectra. The photocatalytic activity of the WO3/GR nanocomposites under visible light is evaluated by the photodegradation of methylene blue, where the degradation rate of WO3/GR nanocomposites is shown to be double that of pure WO3. This is attributed to the synergistic effect of graphene and the WO3 nanorod, which greatly enhances the photocatalytic performance of the prepared sample, reduces the recombination of the photogenerated electron-hole pairs and increases the visible light absorption efficiency. Finally, the photocatalytic mechanism of the WO3/GR nanocomposites is presented. The synthesis of the prepared sample is convenient, direct and environmentally friendly. The study reports a highly efficient composite photocatalyst for the degradation of contaminants that can be applied to cleaning up the environment.

  15. In situ enzymology of DNA replication and ultraviolet-induced DNA repair synthesis in permeable human cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dresler, S.; Frattini, M.G.; Robinson-Hill, R.M.

    1988-01-01

    Using permeable diploid human fibroblasts, the authors have studied the deoxyribonucleoside triphosphate concentration dependences of ultraviolet- (UV-) induced DNA repair synthesis and semiconservative DNA replication. In both cell types (AG1518 and IMR-90) examined, the apparent K m values for dCTP, dGTP, and dTTP for DNA replication were between 1.2 and 2.9 μM. For UV-induced DNA repair synthesis, the apparent K m values were substantially lower, ranging from 0.11 to 0.44 μM for AG1518 cells and from 0.06 to 0.24 μM for IMR-90 cells. Recent data implicate DNA polymerase δ in UV-induced repair synthesis and suggest that DNA polymerases α and δ are both involved in semiconservative replication. They measured K m values for dGTP and dTTP for polymerases α and δ, for comparison with the values for replication and repair synthesis. The deoxyribonucleotide K m values for DNA polymerase δ are much greater than the K m values for UV-induced repair synthesis, suggesting that when polymerase δ functions in DNA repair, its characteristics are altered substantially either by association with accessory proteins or by direct posttranslational modification. In contrast, the deoxyribonucleotide binding characteristics of the DNA replication machinery differ little from those of the isolated DNA polymerases. The K m values for UV-induced repair synthesis are 5-80-fold lower than deoxyribonucleotide concentrations that have been reported for intact cultured diploid human fibroblasts. For replication, however, the K m for dGTP is only slightly lower than the average cellular dGTP concentration that has been reported for exponentially growing human fibroblasts. This finding is consistent with the concept that nucleotide compartmentation is required for the attainment of high rates of DNA replication in vivo

  16. Synthesis activity-based zymography for detection of lipases and esterases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwon, Min-A; Kim, Hyun Suk; Hahm, Dae-Hyun; Song, Jae Kwang

    2011-04-01

    A new zymography method for lipases and esterases was developed on the basis of the esterification reaction between fatty acids and alcohols. The enzymes were separated by SDS-PAGE and native PAGE. The gel was washed and then incubated in an aqueous solution containing fatty acids (oleic acid 18:1 or caprylic acid 8:0) and dodecanol. Synthesis was visualized by in situ precipitation of water-insoluble and non-diffusible fatty acid esters, such as dodecyl oleate and dodecyl octanoate. The synthesis activity-based zymography was confirmed with different enzyme samples, including commercial lipase preparations, purified recombinant lipase and cutinase, and crude culture supernatants of lipolytic enzyme-producing soil bacteria.

  17. Conservación in situ de los Mosaicos Romanos de Mérida. Historia y Tecnologías de la Información Geográfica Aplicadas

    OpenAIRE

    Pérez Chivite, Mª Paz

    2017-01-01

    448 p. Mérida constituye uno de los centros más destacados dentro de la producción musiva del mundo romano en la Península Ibérica. Desde los primeros descubrimientos de mosaicos a partir del siglo XIX hasta nuestros días, este patrimonio se ha ido incrementando al compás del desarrollo de la disciplina arqueológica con gran éxito en este centro urbano.La conservación in situ de este vasto legado ha supuesto desde el primer momento un gran esfuerzo por parte de las instituciones creadas a ...

  18. Ahmet Haşim’de Ev-Yuva ve Doğa İmgesi Home-Nest and Nature Images in Ahmet Haşim

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Refika ALTIKULAÇ DEMİRDAĞ

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Home and Nest images are commonly used images in poetry. Home is a shelter within the poet feels himself safe and secure. Image of nature in Ahmet Hasim’s poems, has been the most focused subjects on. Furthermore, assessments have been made on the poet's pessimism and desire that escape to an imaginary world from the real world. But, It hasn’t been dwelled enough on subject why Haşim escape from the real world to an imaginary world. Because, imaginary world that was created in Haşim’s poems, is richer than the real world. It is alsa a remarkable issue, the need of Haşim for a home and a nest or a shelter in nature. Haşim is more peaceful in a narrower space, inside the home. We can see this situation in poet’s poem called "Evim". Furthermore Hashim described a larger shelter in his poem called "O Belde”. “O Belde” is a part of nature and a nook in nature. Therefore, just like abird's nest, it has been made with the poet's feelings, his heart. Actuallyit is not important to be real or not for poet. Because in fact the poetknows the place that described, is mind’s shelter. It is the poet’s mindand dream, who wants to escape from the real world. His mind wants toescape from the real world, Because the real world is a place that ispessimistic and unsafe. There is plenty of "movement" and plenty oflight. This plenty of movement and light has scared the poet. He canfind the world that is less bright, more silent, more and more intimatewith nature, in his "untouched" regions of his mind. This is the placethat he found is home-nest, “O Belde”. Ev ve yuva imgeleri şiirde çok kullanılan imgelerdendir. Şairin kendini güvende hissettiği bir sığınaktır ev. Ahmet Haşim’in şiirlerinde doğa imgesi üzerinde en fazla durulan konulardan olmuştur. Ayrıca şairin karamsarlığı ve gerçek dünyadan hayali dünyaya kaçma isteği üzerinde de değerlendirmeler yapılmıştır. Fakat Haşim’in neden gerçek d

  19. In-situ sulfuration synthesis of sandwiched spherical tin sulfide/sulfur-doped graphene composite with ultra-low sulfur content

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Bing; Yang, Yaqing; Wang, Zhixuan; Huang, Shoushuang; Wang, Yanyan; Wang, Shanshan; Chen, Zhiwen; Jiang, Yong

    2018-02-01

    SnS is widely studied as anode materials since of its superior structural stability and physicochemical property comparing with other Sn-based composites. Nevertheless, the inconvenience of phase morphology control and excessive consumption of sulfur sources during synthesis hinder the scalable application of SnS nanocomposites. Herein, we report a facile in-situ sulfuration strategy to synthesize sandwiched spherical SnS/sulfur-doped graphene (SnS/S-SG) composite. An ultra-low sulfur content with approximately stoichiometric ratio of Sn:S can effectively promote the sulfuration reaction of SnO2 to SnS and simultaneous sulfur-doping of graphene. The as-prepared SnS/S-SG composite shows a three-dimensional interconnected spherical structure as a whole, in which SnS nanoparticles are sandwiched between the multilayers of graphene sheets forming a hollow sphere. The sandwiched sphere structure and high S doping amount can improve the binding force between SnS and graphene, as well as the structural stability and electrical conductivity of the composite. Thus, a high reversibility of conversion reaction, promising specific capacity (772 mAh g-1 after 100 cycles at 0.1 C) and excellent rate performance (705 and 411 mAh g-1 at 1 C and 10 C, respectively) are exhibited in the SnS/S-SG electrode, which are much higher than that of the SnS/spherical graphene synthesized by traditional post-sulfuration method.

  20. Static in-situ hydrothermal synthesis of small pore zeolite SSZ-16 (AFX) using heated and pre-aged synthesis mixtures

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Hrabánek, Pavel; Zikánová, Arlette; Supiňková, Taťána; Drahokoupil, Jan; Fíla, V.; Lhotka, M.; Dragounová, H.; Laufek, František; Brabec, Libor; Jirka, Ivan; Bernauer, B.; Prokopová, Olga; Martin-Gil, V.; Kočiřík, Milan

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 228, JUL 2016 (2016), s. 107-115 ISSN 1387-1811 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GAP204/11/1206 Institutional support: RVO:61388955 ; RVO:68378271 Keywords : zeolite * synthesis * AFX Subject RIV: CF - Physical ; Theoretical Chemistry Impact factor: 3.615, year: 2016

  1. Experimental study on bone tissue reaction around HA implants radiated after implantation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kudo, Masato; Matsui, Yoshiro; Tamura, Sayaka; Chen, Xuan; Uchida, Haruo; Mori, Kimie; Ohno, Kohsuke; Michi, Ken-ichi

    1998-01-01

    This study was conducted to investigate histologically and histomorphometrically the tissue reaction around hydroxylapatite (HA) implants that underwent irradiation in 3 different periods in the course of bone healing after implantation. The cylindrical high-density HA implants were implanted in 48 Japanese white rabbit mandibles. A single 15 Gy dose was applied to the mandible 5, 14, or 28 days after implantation. The rabbits were sacrificed 7, 14, 28, and 90 days after irradiation. Nonirradiated rabbits were used as controls. CMR, labeling with tetracycline and calcein, and non-decalcified specimens stained with toluidine blue were used for histological analyses and histomorphometric measurements. The results were as follows: In the rabbits irradiated 5 days after implantation, the HA-bone contact was observed later than that in the controls and the bone-implant contact surface ratio was lower than that in the controls at examination because necrosis of the newly-formed bone occurred just after irradiation. HA-bone contact of the rabbits irradiated 14 and 28 days after implantation was similar to that of the controls. And, bone remodeling was suppressed in rabbits of each group sacrificed at 90 days after irradiation. The results suggested that a short interval between implantation and irradiation causes direct contact between HA implant and bone and a long lapse of time before irradiation hardly affects the bone-implant contact, but delays bone remodeling. Therefore, it is necessary to prevent overloading the HA implants irradiated after implantation and pay utmost attention to conditions around the bone-implant contact. (author)

  2. One-step synthesis and characterization of CoS-Nanoparticles decorated multi-walled carbon nanotubes

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Kesavan Pillai, Sreejarani

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available of applications. It is vital to develop efficient methods to attach quantum dots onto the sidewalls of CNTs whose structures have been preserved intact. In this study, a simple and facile one-step synthesis approach for the in situ mineralisation of Co...

  3. New therapeutic agent for radiation synovectomy - preparation of {sup 166}Ho-EDTMP-HA particle

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bai, H.; Jin, X.; Du, J.; Wang, F.; Chen, D.; Fan, H.; Cheng, Z.; Zhang, J. [China Institute of Atomic Energy, Beijing (Switzerland). Isotope Department

    1997-10-01

    In order to prepare new therapeutical agent for radiation synovectomy, Hydroxyapatite (HA) was labelled with {sup 166}Ho by EDTMP that had high affinity to HA particles. Radiolabelling of HA particles was divided into two steps, {sup 166}Ho-EDTMP was prepared first; then mixed with HA particles completely and vibrated for 15 minutes on the micromixer at room temperature, washed 3 times with deionized water. Radiolabelling particle was separated from free {sup 166}Ho via centrifugation to determine its radiolabelling efficiency. {sup 166}Ho-EDTMP-HA and {sup 166}Ho-EDTMP were injected into knee joint of normal rabbits respectively, every group was killed at different time postinjection, took out major organ and collected urine and blood, then weighted and determined their radio counts. HA particles, as a natural component of bone was known to have good compatibility with soft tissue and biodegrade into calcium and phosphate in vivo. It was readily prepared from common chemical and formed into particles of desired size range in a controlled process, it had high stability in vitro and vivo. Radiolabelling of HA particle with {sup 166}Ho by EDTMP was simple to perform and provides an excellent labelling yield that was more than 95% under the optimal labelling condition. The optimal labelling condition at room temperature was pH 6.0-8.0 and vibration time 15 minutes. The absorbed capacity of HA particle was 5 mg Ho/g HA particle and size of radiolabelling particle was at range of 2-5,{mu}m that is suitable for therapy of radiation synovectomy. {sup 166}Ho-EDTMP-HA particle demonstrated high in vitro stability in either normal saline or 1% BSA solution, but instability under extremely acidic condition (pH 1-2). The control studies performed with {sup 166}Ho-EDTMP not bound to HA particle provided information on the distribution of radioactivity that would occur upon leakage of the radiochemical compound from joint. Its short half-life, its extremely low leakage from the

  4. Facile, low temperature synthesis of SnO_2/reduced graphene oxide nanocomposite as anode material for lithium-ion batteries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hou, Chau-Chung; Brahma, Sanjaya; Weng, Shao-Chieh; Chang, Chia-Chin; Huang, Jow-Lay

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • Facile, one-pot, low temperature synthesis of SnO_2-RGO composite. • In-situ reduction of graphene oxide and growth of SnO_2 nanoparticle. • Concentration of reductant during synthesis affects the properties significantly. • SnO_2-RGO composite shows good rate capability and stable capacitance. • Synthesis method is energy efficient and scalable for other metal oxides. - Abstract: We demonstrate a facile, single step, low temperature and energy efficient strategy for the synthesis of SnO_2-reduced graphene oxide (RGO) nanocomposite where the crystallization of SnO_2 nanoparticles and the reduction of graphene oxide takes place simultaneously by an in situ chemical reduction process. The electrochemical property of the SnO_2-RGO composite prepared by using low concentrations of reducing agent shows better Li storage performance, good rate capability (378 mAh g"−"1 at 3200 mA g"−"1) and stable capacitance (522 mAh g"−"1 after 50 cycles). Increasing the reductant concentration lead to crystallization of high concentration of SnO_2 nanoparticle aggregation and degrade the Li ion storage property.

  5. Sintering behavior and property of bioglass modified HA-Al2O3 composite

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wang Li-li

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The bioglass modified HA-Al2O3 composites were successfully fabricated by mixing HA, synthesized by wet chemical method between precursor materials H3PO4 and Ca(OH2, with 25wt% Al2O3 and different content of bioglass (5%, 25%, 45%, 65wt% respectively, with a mole fraction of 53.9%SiO2, 22.6%Na2O, 21.8%CaO, and 1.7wt%P2O5, sintered in air at various temperatures (750-950°C for 2h. when the content of bioglass is below 45wt% in the composite, HA decomposes completely and transforms to β-TCP. The main phase in this case are β-TCP, Al2O3 and Ca3(AlO32.When the content of bioglass is above 45wt% in the composite, the decomposition of HA to β-TCP is suppressed and the main phases in this case are Al2O3 and HA, DCP□CaHPO4□ and β-TCP, which almost have the same chemical composition, forming ternary-glass phase, and have better bioactive than pure HA. It can also be found that at the certain addition of bioglass, the higher sintered temperature, the bigger volume density and flexural strength of the composite are, but when the sintered temperature reaches 950°C, they decrease. This modified HA-Al2O3 composites by calcium silicate glass have a much lower sintering temperature and decrease the production cost much.

  6. Synthesis of Ortho Substituted Arylboronic Esters by in Situ Trapping of Unstable Lithio Intermediates

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristensen, Jesper Langgaard; Lysén, M.; Vedsø, Per

    2001-01-01

    matrix presented Ortho lithiation-in situ boration using lithium 2,2,6,6-tetramethylpiperidide (LTMP) in combination with triisopropylborate (B(OiPr) ) is a highly efficient and experimentally straightforward process for the preparation of ortho substituted arylboronic esters. The mild reaction c...

  7. Synthesis of Nanogels via Cell Membrane-Templated Polymerization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jianhua; Gao, Weiwei; Fang, Ronnie H; Dong, Anjie; Zhang, Liangfang

    2015-09-09

    The synthesis of biomimetic hydrogel nanoparticles coated with a natural cell membrane is described. Compared to the existing strategy of wrapping cell membranes onto pre-formed nanoparticle substrates, this new approach forms the cell membrane-derived vesicles first, followed by growing nanoparticle cores in situ. It adds significant controllability over the nanoparticle properties and opens unique opportunities for a broad range of biomedical applications. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  8. HaVec: An Efficient de Bruijn Graph Construction Algorithm for Genome Assembly

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Md Mahfuzer Rahman

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. The rapid advancement of sequencing technologies has made it possible to regularly produce millions of high-quality reads from the DNA samples in the sequencing laboratories. To this end, the de Bruijn graph is a popular data structure in the genome assembly literature for efficient representation and processing of data. Due to the number of nodes in a de Bruijn graph, the main barrier here is the memory and runtime. Therefore, this area has received significant attention in contemporary literature. Results. In this paper, we present an approach called HaVec that attempts to achieve a balance between the memory consumption and the running time. HaVec uses a hash table along with an auxiliary vector data structure to store the de Bruijn graph thereby improving the total memory usage and the running time. A critical and noteworthy feature of HaVec is that it exhibits no false positive error. Conclusions. In general, the graph construction procedure takes the major share of the time involved in an assembly process. HaVec can be seen as a significant advancement in this aspect. We anticipate that HaVec will be extremely useful in the de Bruijn graph-based genome assembly.

  9. Elastin-like protein-hyaluronic acid (ELP-HA) hydrogels with decoupled mechanical and biochemical cues for cartilage regeneration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Danqing; Wang, Huiyuan; Trinh, Pavin; Heilshorn, Sarah C; Yang, Fan

    2017-05-01

    Hyaluronic acid (HA) is a major component of cartilage extracellular matrix and is an attractive material for use as 3D injectable matrices for cartilage regeneration. While previous studies have shown the promise of HA-based hydrogels to support cell-based cartilage formation, varying HA concentration generally led to simultaneous changes in both biochemical cues and stiffness. How cells respond to the change of biochemical content of HA remains largely unknown. Here we report an adaptable elastin-like protein-hyaluronic acid (ELP-HA) hydrogel platform using dynamic covalent chemistry, which allows variation of HA concentration without affecting matrix stiffness. ELP-HA hydrogels were created through dynamic hydrazone bonds via the reaction between hydrazine-modified ELP (ELP-HYD) and aldehyde-modified HA (HA-ALD). By tuning the stoichiometric ratio of aldehyde groups to hydrazine groups while maintaining ELP-HYD concentration constant, hydrogels with variable HA concentration (1.5%, 3%, or 5%) (w/v) were fabricated with comparable stiffness. To evaluate the effects of HA concentration on cell-based cartilage regeneration, chondrocytes were encapsulated within ELP-HA hydrogels with varying HA concentration. Increasing HA concentration led to a dose-dependent increase in cartilage-marker gene expression and enhanced sGAG deposition while minimizing undesirable fibrocartilage phenotype. The use of adaptable protein hydrogels formed via dynamic covalent chemistry may be broadly applicable as 3D scaffolds with decoupled niche properties to guide other desirable cell fates and tissue repair. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. A Study of Hybrid Composite Hydroxyapatite (HA-Geopolymers as a Material for Biomedical Application

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saleha

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The main purpose of this research is to study the physical properties and microstructure characters of hybrid composites HA-geopolymers as a material for biomedical application. Hybrid composite HA–geopolymers were produced through alkaline activation method of metakaolin as a matrix and HA as the filler. HA was synthesized from eggshell particles by using a precipitation method. The addition of HA in metakaolin paste was varied from 0.5%, 1.0%, 1.5%, and 2.0% relative the weight of metakaolin. FTIR was used to examine the absorption bands the composites. X-ray diffraction (XRD was used to study the crystal structure of the starting and the resulting materials. Scanning Electron Microscopy-Energy Dispersive Spectroscopy (SEM-EDS was used to investigate the surface morphology of the composites. The thermal properties of the samples was examined by means of Differential Scanning Calorimetry (DSC. Capacitance measurement was conducted to investigate the bioactive properties of HA. The study results suggest that hybrid composite HA-geopolymers has a potential to be applied as a biomedical such as biosensor material.

  11. {sup 166} Ho-HA Evaluation as therapeutic agent for rheumatoid arthritis treatment; Evaluacion de {sup 166}Ho-Ha como agente terapeutico en el tratamiento de la artritis reumatoidea

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chandia, M; Errazu, X [Comision Chilena de Energia Nuclear, Santiago (Chile); Mendoza, P [Departamento de Medicina Nuclear, Hospital Militar, Santiago (Chile); Troncoso, F [Comision Chilena de Energia Nuclear, Santiago (Chile); Jofre, J; Sierralta, P [Departamento de Medicina Nuclear, Hospital Militar, Santiago (Chile)

    2003-01-01

    Aim: Rheumatoid arthritis is a limiting disease having, among its pathological features, the inflammation of synovial tissue with progressive and later destruction of the articulation. This lead to joint deformation and loss of its function, generating pain and reducing the mobility of the affected articulation. The aim was to evaluate {sup 166}Ho-Hydroxyapatite ({sup 166} Ho-HA) as potential radiopharmaceutical for the syntomatic treatment of chronic and acute arthritis Materials and Methods: {sup 166}Holmiun was produced by irradiation of Ho{sub 2}O{sub 3} at La Reina Research Reactor, Nuclear Chilean Energy Commission. Hydroxyapatite was in-house synthetized. Its labelling and quality controls follows the internationally accepted procedures. An antigen arthritis was induced to eight New Zealand rabbits with the {sup 166}Ho-HA radiochemical being administred thereafter in two dosage modalities (single and double). The compound therapeutic efficiency was evaluated based upon clinical improvement and images from the inflamated articulation using {sup 67}Ga citrate before and after {sup 166} Ho-HA injection. Results: The radiochemical purity of the innoculated compound was greater than 98% as measured under sterility conditions. Clinically, an inflamation reduction (2 cm), appetite improvement and general well being was observed. The {sup 166} Ho-HA distribution and localization was monitored using gamma camera images taken at 4 and 24 h. There was no evidence of extraarticular leakage. From the {sup 67}Ga citrate imaging, the acute group shows an overall improvement of well being corresponding to a lesser uptake at the inflamated articulation, regarding to the chronic group. The {sup 166}Ho-HA double dosis, compared to the single dosis, suggest a reduced uptake of {sup 67}Ga citrate at the inflamated tissue, meaning an increased therapeutic effect. Conclusions: {sup 166} Ho-HA is usefull as therapeutic agent for the syntomatic treatment of rheumatoideal arthritis

  12. Hamster endogenous retrovirus (HaER) - distinct properties of structural proteins and DNA polymerase

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goldschmied-Reouven, A.; Yaniv, A.

    1983-01-01

    The structural proteins as well as some features of the RNA-dependent DNA polymerase of the hamster endogenous retrovirus (HaER) were examined. The polypeptide pattern of this virus is substantially different from that of other known retroviruses in containing major polypeptides with molecular weights of 68000, 59000, 27000, 24000 daltons. Double antibody competitive radioimmunoassays showed that the HaER particles do not share any detectable antigenic relatedness with the murine viruses' p30, but manifest a considerable relatedness with the feline leukemia virus p27 and a slight cross-reactivity with the rat virus major protein. The RNA-dependent DNA polymerase of HaER virus has a molecular size of approximately 73000 daltons and in contrast to other mammalian retroviruses shows no significant preference for Mn 2+ over Mg 2+ . Apart from the lack of antigenic relatedness between the HaER virus proteins and the p30 protein of murine viruses, there is also no antigenic relatedness between HaER and murine viruses insofar as their DNA polymerase is concerned. (Author)

  13. Facile In Situ Fabrication of Nanostructured Graphene–CuO Hybrid with Hydrogen Sulfide Removal Capacity

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Sunil P.Lonkar; Vishnu V.Pillai; Samuel Stephen; Ahmed Abdala; Vikas Mittal

    2016-01-01

    A simple and scalable synthetic approach for one-step synthesis of graphene–Cu O(TRGC) nanocomposite by an in situ thermo-annealing method has been developed.Using graphene oxide(GO) and copper hydroxide as a precursors reagent,the reduction of GO and the uniform deposition of in situ formed Cu O nanoparticles on graphene was simultaneously achieved.The method employed no solvents,toxic-reducing agents,or organic modifiers.The resulting nanostructured hybrid exhibited improved H2 S sorption capacity of 1.5 mmol H2S/g-sorbent(3 g S/100 g-sorbent).Due to its highly dispersed sub-20 nm Cu O nanoparticles and large specific surface area,TRGC nanocomposite exhibits tremendous potential for energy and environment applications.

  14. Effects of quartz particle size and water-to-solid ratio on hydrothermal synthesis of tobermorite studied by in-situ time-resolved X-ray diffraction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kikuma, J.; Tsunashima, M.; Ishikawa, T.; Matsuno, S.; Ogawa, A.; Matsui, K.; Sato, M.

    2011-01-01

    Hydrothermal synthesis process of tobermorite (5CaO.6SiO 2 .5H 2 O) has been investigated by in-situ X-ray diffraction using high-energy X-rays from a synchrotron radiation source in combination with a purpose-build autoclave cell. Dissolution rates of quartz were largely affected by its particle size distribution in the starting mixtures. However, the composition (Ca/Si) of non-crystalline C-S-H at the start of tobermorite formation was identical regardless of the quartz dissolution rate. An effect of water-to-solid ratio (w/s) was investigated for samples using fine particle quartz. Tobermorite did not occur with w/s of 1.7 but occurred with w/s higher than 3.0. Surprisingly, however, the dissolution curves of quartz were nearly identical for all samples with w/s from 1.7 to 9, indicating that the dissolution rate is predominated by surface area. Possible reaction mechanism for tobermorite formation will be discussed in terms of Ca and/or silicate ion concentration in the liquid phase and distribution of Ca/Si in non-crystalline C-S-H. - Graphical abstract: Time-resolved XRD data set was obtained at up to 190 deg. C under a saturated steam pressure. Tobermorite (5CaO.6SiO 2 .5H 2 O) formation reaction was investigated in detail for several different starting materials. Highlights: → Hydrothermal formation of tobermorite was monitored by in-situ XRD. → Ca/Si of C-S-H at the start time of tobermorite formation was determined. → The Ca/Si value was identical regardless of the quartz particle size in the starting mixture.

  15. Läkaköha - aktuaalne uurimisteema / Marje Oona

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Oona, Marje, 1963-

    2012-01-01

    TÜ peremeditsiini õppetooli töötajate poolt algatatud uurimistööst, mille eesmärgiks on uurida Bordetella spp. infektsioonide epidemioloogiat, molekulaargeneetikat ja kliinilisi eripärasid ning selgitada läkaköha sagedasema diagnsimise põhjusi Eestis

  16. The Technology and Properties of Digital Double Pulse Electrodepositing Ni-HA Composite Coating of Bioceramics

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    DONG He-yan; WANG Zhou; SHI Gu-guizhi; FU Chuan-qi; CHEN Wei-rong; JIN Zhong-hong; LI Yan

    2004-01-01

    This article discusses and analyses the technology, the surface image, microstructure and ability of digital double pulse electrodepositing Ni-HA composite coatings of bioceramics made on 1Crl8Ni9Ti substrate by SEM ,XRD and so on. The results shows that ( 1 ) the HA particles exit in substrate uniformly; (2) XRD result shows that there are HA peaks at 78. 023 ° ,43. 246°and 73. 120°differently; (3) The microhardnees of the composite coatings is increased with the rise of content of HA particles, and on the same conditions the microhardnees value is greater than that of common non-pulse electrodepositing Ni-HA composite coatings of bioceramics. (4) The grain size of digital double pulse electrodepositing Ni-HA composite coatings of bioceramics is much thinner than that of common D. C.

  17. c-Ha-ras BamHI RFLP in human urothelial tumors and point mutations in hot codons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weismanova, E; Skovraga, M.; Kaluz, S.

    1993-01-01

    High-molecular weights DNAs from 30 bladder and renal cell carcinomas (RCC) were isolated and the c-Ha-ras the c-Ha-ras gene BamHI RFLP was examined. Amplification of c-Ha-ras with normal localization with regard to the size of alleles was found only in the case. One of the normally localized c-Ha-ras allele termed RCC c-H-ras of a length of about 6.6 kbp was cloned and an oncogene-activating point mutation was identified using two restriction enzymes. After comparison of CfrI and Cfr10I cleavage maps of RCC c-Ha-ras to complete nucleotide sequences of EJ/T24 c-Ha-ras oncogene and its normal counterpart, a point mutation was identified within codon 11 or 12. The use of CfrI and Cfr10I is of value for clinical practice in identification of point mutations in c-Ha-ras PCR product in neoplasia accompanied by somatic mutation of c-Ha-ras. The correlation among c-Ha-ras allele, amplification/loss, presence of point mutation and progression of neoplasia is discussed. (author)

  18. Inhibition of Hyaluronic Acid Synthesis Suppresses Angiogenesis in Developing Endometriotic Lesions.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carla N Olivares

    Full Text Available The development and long-term survival of endometriotic lesions is crucially dependent on an adequate vascularization. Hyaluronic acid (HA through its receptor CD44 has been described to be involved in the process of angiogenesis.To study the effect of HA synthesis inhibition using non-toxic doses of 4-methylumbelliferone (4-MU on endometriosis-related angiogenesis.The cytotoxicity of different in vitro doses of 4-MU on endothelial cells was firstly tested by means of a lactate dehydrogenase assay. The anti-angiogenic action of non-cytotoxic doses of 4-MU was then assessed by a rat aortic ring assay. In addition, endometriotic lesions were induced in dorsal skinfold chambers of female BALB/c mice, which were daily treated with an intraperitoneal injection of 0.9% NaCl (vehicle group; n = 6, 20 mg/kg 4-MU (n = 8 or 80 mg/kg 4-MU (n = 7 throughout an observation period of 14 days. The effect of 4-MU on their vascularization, survival and growth were studied by intravital fluorescence microscopy, histology and immunohistochemistry.Non-cytotoxic doses of 4-MU effectively inhibited vascular sprout formation in the rat aortic ring assay. Endometriotic lesions in dorsal skinfold chambers of 4-MU-treated mice dose-dependently exhibited a significantly smaller vascularized area and lower functional microvessel density when compared to vehicle-treated controls. Histological analyses revealed a downregulation of HA expression in 4-MU-treated lesions. This was associated with a reduced density of CD31-positive microvessels within the lesions. In contrast, numbers of PCNA-positive proliferating and cleaved caspase-3-positive apoptotic cells did not differ between 4-MU-treated and control lesions.The present study demonstrates for the first time that targeting the synthesis of HA suppresses angiogenesis in developing endometriotic lesions. Further studies have to clarify now whether in the future this anti-angiogenic effect can be used beneficially for the

  19. Microstructure Characteristics of Fe-Matrix Composites Reinforced by In-Situ Carbide Particulates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Xiaodong; Song, Yanpei

    2017-10-01

    Carbide particulates reinforced iron-matrix composites were prepared by in-situ synthesis reaction between Ti, V and C on liquid alloys surface. The microstructure of the composite was characterized by SEM, TEM and OM. The results showed that the main phases were α-Fe, carbide particulate; besides, there were small amounts of γ-Fe and graphite (G) in the composite. The carbides were TiVC2 and VC in the shape of short bar and graininess. The matrix consisted of martensite and small amounts of retained austenite.

  20. In-situ irradiation of cerium precursors in TEM to study nanocrystal formation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asghar, Muhammad Sajid Ali; Sabri, Mohammed Mohammed; Tian, Zijian; Möbus, Günter

    2017-09-01

    Three of the most commonly used precursor chemicals for wet-chemical nano-ceria synthesis are examined by means of direct dry electron irradiation in TEM. Transformation reactions of micron-size carbonate, chloride, and nitrate grains into nanocrystallites (internal or external) are recorded in situ. Progress of possible redox-changes of cerium is tracked by EELS. We find a straight local oxidation reaction for carbonates, but external nanorod formation by condensation in the case of chlorides, while nitrates show a multi-stage complex redox behaviour.

  1. Microwave synthesis and antibacterial studies of bioceramics doped with antibacterial metal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iqbal, Nida; Kadir, M. R. Abdul

    2017-12-01

    The aim of this work was to evaluate the effect of zinc metal ion on the antibacterial properties of bioceramics i.e. hydroxyapatite for the protection of bacterial infections. In this paper, rapid icrowave synthesis of hydroxyapatite with different weightages of antibacterial ions zinc (2 and 4 wt%) at 850 watts via microwave irradiation method at 10 mins was reported. The synthesized bioceramics were chemically characterized using energy dispersive X-ray (EDAX) and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) studies. FT-IR analysis revealed the presence of Zn into HA lattices due to the increasing in the vibrational modes corresponds to phosphates and hydroxyl groups and EDAX analysis confirmed the presence of oxygen (O), calcium (Ca), phosphor (P), and zinc (Zn) in the ZnHA samples. Antibacterial studies have demonstrated that each of the Zn-bearing bioceramics samples exhibits marked antibacterial effects against Bacillus subtilis and Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Based on the results, it can be concluded that the synthesized Zn HA bioceramics have potential to prevent the bacterial infections and can be used as bone tissue regeneration.

  2. Physical deoxygenation of graphene oxide paper surface and facile in situ synthesis of graphene based ZnO films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ding, Jijun; Wang, Minqiang; Zhang, Xiangyu; Ran, Chenxin; Shao, Jinyou; Ding, Yucheng

    2014-01-01

    In-situ sputtering ZnO films on graphene oxide (GO) paper are used to fabricate graphene based ZnO films. Crystal structure and surface chemical states are investigated. Results indicated that GO paper can be effectively deoxygenated by in-situ sputtering ZnO on them without adding any reducing agent. Based on the principle of radio frequency magnetron sputtering, we propose that during magnetron sputtering process, plasma streams contain large numbers of electrons. These electrons not only collide with argon atoms to produce secondary electrons but also they are accelerated to bombard the substrates (GO paper) resulting in effective deoxygenation of oxygen-containing functional groups. In-situ sputtering ZnO films on GO paper provide an approach to design graphene-semiconductor nanocomposites

  3. Facile Synthesis of Worm-like Micelles by Visible Light Mediated Dispersion Polymerization Using Photoredox Catalyst.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeow, Jonathan; Xu, Jiangtao; Boyer, Cyrille

    2016-06-08

    Presented herein is a protocol for the facile synthesis of worm-like micelles by visible light mediated dispersion polymerization. This approach begins with the synthesis of a hydrophilic poly(oligo(ethylene glycol) methyl ether methacrylate) (POEGMA) homopolymer using reversible addition-fragmentation chain-transfer (RAFT) polymerization. Under mild visible light irradiation (λ = 460 nm, 0.7 mW/cm(2)), this macro-chain transfer agent (macro-CTA) in the presence of a ruthenium based photoredox catalyst, Ru(bpy)3Cl2 can be chain extended with a second monomer to form a well-defined block copolymer in a process known as Photoinduced Electron Transfer RAFT (PET-RAFT). When PET-RAFT is used to chain extend POEGMA with benzyl methacrylate (BzMA) in ethanol (EtOH), polymeric nanoparticles with different morphologies are formed in situ according to a polymerization-induced self-assembly (PISA) mechanism. Self-assembly into nanoparticles presenting POEGMA chains at the corona and poly(benzyl methacrylate) (PBzMA) chains in the core occurs in situ due to the growing insolubility of the PBzMA block in ethanol. Interestingly, the formation of highly pure worm-like micelles can be readily monitored by observing the onset of a highly viscous gel in situ due to nanoparticle entanglements occurring during the polymerization. This process thereby allows for a more reproducible synthesis of worm-like micelles simply by monitoring the solution viscosity during the course of the polymerization. In addition, the light stimulus can be intermittently applied in an ON/OFF manner demonstrating temporal control over the nanoparticle morphology.

  4. Facile, low temperature synthesis of SnO{sub 2}/reduced graphene oxide nanocomposite as anode material for lithium-ion batteries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hou, Chau-Chung; Brahma, Sanjaya; Weng, Shao-Chieh [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, National Cheng Kung University, Tainan 70001, Taiwan, ROC (China); Chang, Chia-Chin [Department of Greenergy, National University of Tainan, Tainan 70005, Taiwan, ROC (China); Huang, Jow-Lay, E-mail: jlh888@mail.ncku.edu.tw [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, National Cheng Kung University, Tainan 70001, Taiwan, ROC (China); Department of Chemical and Materials Engineering, National University of Kaohsiung, Kaohsiung 81148, Taiwan, ROC (China); Center for Micro/Nano Science and Technology, National Cheng Kung University, Tainan 70101, Taiwan, ROC (China)

    2017-08-15

    Highlights: • Facile, one-pot, low temperature synthesis of SnO{sub 2}-RGO composite. • In-situ reduction of graphene oxide and growth of SnO{sub 2} nanoparticle. • Concentration of reductant during synthesis affects the properties significantly. • SnO{sub 2}-RGO composite shows good rate capability and stable capacitance. • Synthesis method is energy efficient and scalable for other metal oxides. - Abstract: We demonstrate a facile, single step, low temperature and energy efficient strategy for the synthesis of SnO{sub 2}-reduced graphene oxide (RGO) nanocomposite where the crystallization of SnO{sub 2} nanoparticles and the reduction of graphene oxide takes place simultaneously by an in situ chemical reduction process. The electrochemical property of the SnO{sub 2}-RGO composite prepared by using low concentrations of reducing agent shows better Li storage performance, good rate capability (378 mAh g{sup −1} at 3200 mA g{sup −1}) and stable capacitance (522 mAh g{sup −1} after 50 cycles). Increasing the reductant concentration lead to crystallization of high concentration of SnO{sub 2} nanoparticle aggregation and degrade the Li ion storage property.

  5. Fabrication and in vitro biocompatibility of biomorphic PLGA/nHA composite scaffolds for bone tissue engineering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Qian, Junmin; Xu, Weijun; Yong, Xueqing; Jin, Xinxia; Zhang, Wei

    2014-01-01

    In this study, biomorphic poly(DL-lactic-co-glycolic acid)/nano-hydroxyapatite (PLGA/nHA) composite scaffolds were successfully prepared using cane as a template. The porous morphology, phase, compression characteristics and in vitro biocompatibility of the PLGA/nHA composite scaffolds and biomorphic PLGA scaffolds as control were investigated. The results showed that the biomorphic scaffolds preserved the original honeycomb-like architecture of cane and exhibited a bimodal porous structure. The average channel diameter and micropore size of the PLGA/nHA composite scaffolds were 164 ± 52 μm and 13 ± 8 μm, respectively, with a porosity of 89.3 ± 1.4%. The incorporation of nHA into PLGA decreased the degree of crystallinity of PLGA, and significantly improved the compressive modulus of biomorphic scaffolds. The in vitro biocompatibility evaluation with MC3T3-E1 cells demonstrated that the biomorphic PLGA/nHA composite scaffolds could better support cell attachment, proliferation and differentiation than the biomorphic PLGA scaffolds. The localization depth of MC3T3-E1 cells within the channels of the biomorphic PLGA/nHA composite scaffolds could reach approximately 400 μm. The results suggested that the biomorphic PLGA/nHA composite scaffolds were promising candidates for bone tissue engineering. - Highlights: • Novel biomimetic PLGA/nHA composite scaffolds were successfully prepared. • nHA addition improved elastic modulus of PLGA scaffold and decreased its crystallinity. • PLGA/nHA composite scaffolds had better biocompatibility than PLGA scaffolds. • Biomorphic PLGA/nHA composite scaffold had great potential in bone tissue engineering

  6. Fabrication and in vitro biocompatibility of biomorphic PLGA/nHA composite scaffolds for bone tissue engineering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Qian, Junmin, E-mail: jmqian@mail.xjtu.edu.cn; Xu, Weijun; Yong, Xueqing; Jin, Xinxia; Zhang, Wei

    2014-03-01

    In this study, biomorphic poly(DL-lactic-co-glycolic acid)/nano-hydroxyapatite (PLGA/nHA) composite scaffolds were successfully prepared using cane as a template. The porous morphology, phase, compression characteristics and in vitro biocompatibility of the PLGA/nHA composite scaffolds and biomorphic PLGA scaffolds as control were investigated. The results showed that the biomorphic scaffolds preserved the original honeycomb-like architecture of cane and exhibited a bimodal porous structure. The average channel diameter and micropore size of the PLGA/nHA composite scaffolds were 164 ± 52 μm and 13 ± 8 μm, respectively, with a porosity of 89.3 ± 1.4%. The incorporation of nHA into PLGA decreased the degree of crystallinity of PLGA, and significantly improved the compressive modulus of biomorphic scaffolds. The in vitro biocompatibility evaluation with MC3T3-E1 cells demonstrated that the biomorphic PLGA/nHA composite scaffolds could better support cell attachment, proliferation and differentiation than the biomorphic PLGA scaffolds. The localization depth of MC3T3-E1 cells within the channels of the biomorphic PLGA/nHA composite scaffolds could reach approximately 400 μm. The results suggested that the biomorphic PLGA/nHA composite scaffolds were promising candidates for bone tissue engineering. - Highlights: • Novel biomimetic PLGA/nHA composite scaffolds were successfully prepared. • nHA addition improved elastic modulus of PLGA scaffold and decreased its crystallinity. • PLGA/nHA composite scaffolds had better biocompatibility than PLGA scaffolds. • Biomorphic PLGA/nHA composite scaffold had great potential in bone tissue engineering.

  7. Fabrication and Characterization of Collagen-Immobilized Porous PHBV/HA Nano composite Scaffolds for Bone Tissue Engineering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jin-Young, B.; Zhi-Cai, X.; Giseop, K.; Keun-Byoung, Y.; Soo-Young, P.; Lee, S.P.; Inn-Kyu, K.

    2012-01-01

    The porous composite scaffolds (PHBV/HA) consisting of poly (3-hydroxybutyrate-co-3-hydroxyvalerate) (PHBV) and hydroxyapatite (HA) were fabricated using a hot-press machine and salt-leaching. Collagen (type I) was then immobilized on the surface of the porous PHBV/HA composite scaffolds to improve tissue compatibility. The structure and morphology of the collagen-immobilized composite scaffolds (PHBV/HA/Col) were investigated using a scanning electron microscope (SEM), Fourier transform infrared (FTIR), and electron spectroscopy for chemical analysis (ESCA). The potential of the porous PHBV/HA/Col composite scaffolds for use as a bone scaffold was assessed by an experiment with osteoblast cells (MC3T3-E1) in terms of cell adhesion, proliferation, and differentiation. The results showed that the PHBV/HA/Col composite scaffolds possess better cell adhesion and significantly higher proliferation and differentiation than the PHBV/HA composite scaffolds and the PHBV scaffolds. These results suggest that the PHBV/HA/Col composite scaffolds have a high potential for use in the field of bone regeneration and tissue engineering.

  8. Mishima jo ha kyu

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matteo Casari

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract – IT La grandezza artistica di Mishima si è espressa attraverso una eterogenea gamma di linguaggi tra i quali il teatro – nella drammaturgia ma anche nella saggistica, regia, recitazione e direzione di compagnia – ha avuto un ruolo di primo piano. Al pari di un uomo di scena Mishima inaugura, a partire dagli anni ’50, un processo di attenzione al proprio corpo come possibile, anzi necessario, veicolo di estrinsecazione etico-estetica tanto da poter istituire l’equazione corpo-teatro quale snodo profondo del suo processo creativo. Il corpo sognato e ottenuto da Mishima attraverso l’addestramento nel kendo, in altre arti marziali e nel body building si conformava ad un ideale estetico di matrice greco-classica assai lontano dal corpo teatrale nipponico. Il corpo come luogo di elaborazione e strumento di espressione autentica da realizzare con impegno, però, lo legano profondamente alle esperienze nascenti – tra gli anni ’50 e ’60 – delle avanguardie teatrali giapponesi. La metafora teatrale è spesso usata nella lettura critica del Mishima uomo e artista con accezione deteriore: un personaggio che dà spettacolo di sé con ripetute provocazioni tra le quali il suicidio del 25 novembre 1970 non sarebbe che l’esempio ultimo e più estremo. La costruzione di sé come personaggio, invece, sembrerebbe corrispondere ad una ben più profonda e meditata necessità di comporre la propria vita in una sapiente messa in scena di classica perfezione: i principi della scansione ritmico formale del jo ha kyu, pilastro teorico del teatro no codificato da Zeami tra XIV e XV secolo, offrono un valido modello di riferimento. Abstract – EN Mishima’s artistic greatness has been expressed through a diverse range of languages among wich theater – in dramaturgy as well as in written essays, as a director, performer and in company direction – played a central role. As a true front-man, Mishima – starting from the 50’s

  9. In situ generation of the Ohira-Bestmann reagent from stable sulfonyl azide: scalable synthesis of alkynes from aldehydes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jepsen, Tue Heesgaard; Kristensen, Jesper Langgaard

    2014-10-03

    We report an improved method for in situ generation of the Ohira-Bestmann reagent. Using the recently reported bench-stable imidazole-1-sulfonyl azide as diazotransfer reagent, this new method represents a scalable and convenient approach for the transformation of aldehydes into terminal alkynes. The method features an easier workup compared to the existing in situ protocol due to increased aqueous solubility of waste products.

  10. Tricalcium phosphate/hydroxyapatite (TCP-HA) bone scaffold as potential candidate for the formation of tissue engineered bone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sulaiman, Shamsul Bin; Keong, Tan Kok; Cheng, Chen Hui; Saim, Aminuddin Bin; Idrus, Ruszymah Bt Hj

    2013-06-01

    Various materials have been used as scaffolds to suit different demands in tissue engineering. One of the most important criteria is that the scaffold must be biocompatible. This study was carried out to investigate the potential of HA or TCP/HA scaffold seeded with osteogenic induced sheep marrow cells (SMCs) for bone tissue engineering. HA-SMC and TCP/HA-SMC constructs were induced in the osteogenic medium for three weeks prior to implantation in nude mice. The HA-SMC and TCP/HA-SMC constructs were implanted subcutaneously on the dorsum of nude mice on each side of the midline. These constructs were harvested after 8 wk of implantation. Constructs before and after implantation were analyzed through histological staining, scanning electron microscope (SEM) and gene expression analysis. The HA-SMC constructs demonstrated minimal bone formation. TCP/HA-SMC construct showed bone formation eight weeks after implantation. The bone formation started on the surface of the ceramic and proceeded to the centre of the pores. H&E and Alizarin Red staining demonstrated new bone tissue. Gene expression of collagen type 1 increased significantly for both constructs, but more superior for TCP/HA-SMC. SEM results showed the formation of thick collagen fibers encapsulating TCP/HA-SMC more than HA-SMC. Cells attached to both constructs surface proliferated and secreted collagen fibers. The findings suggest that TCP/HA-SMC constructs with better osteogenic potential compared to HA-SMC constructs can be a potential candidate for the formation of tissue engineered bone.

  11. A study on improving mechanical properties of porous HA tissue engineering scaffolds by hot isostatic pressing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhao Jing; Xiao Suguang; Lu Xiong; Wang Jianxin; Weng Jie

    2006-01-01

    Various interconnected porous hydroxyapatite (HA) ceramic scaffolds are universally used to induct the tissue growth for bone repair and replacement, and serve to support the adhesion, transfer, proliferation and differentiation of cells. Impregnation of polyurethane sponges with a ceramic slurry is adopted to produce highly porous HA ceramic scaffolds with a 3D interconnected structure. However, high porosity always accompanies a decrease in the strength of the HA ceramic scaffolds. Therefore, it is significant to improve the strength of the HA ceramic scaffolds with highly interconnected porosity so that they are more suitable in clinical applications. In this work, highly porous HA ceramic scaffolds are first produced by the polymer impregnation approach, and subsequently further sintered by hot isostatic pressing (HIP). The phase composition, macro- and micro-porous structure, sintering and mechanical properties of the porous HA scaffolds are investigated by x-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), nanoindentation analysis and compressive test. The experimental results show that the nanohardness and compressive strength of HIP-sintered porous HA ceramics are higher than those of commonly sintered HA scaffolds. The HIP technique can effectively improve the sintering property and densification of porous HA ceramic scaffolds, so inducing an increase in the compression strength

  12. Synthesis and characterization of cationic lipid coated magnetic nanoparticles using multiple emulsions as microreactors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Akbaba, Hasan; Karagöz, Uğur [Ege University, Faculty of Pharmacy, Department of Pharmaceutical Biotechnology, 35100 Izmir (Turkey); Selamet, Yusuf [Izmir Institute of Technology, Faculty of Science, Department of Physics, 35433 Izmir (Turkey); Kantarcı, A. Gülten, E-mail: gulten.kantarci@ege.edu.tr [Ege University, Faculty of Pharmacy, Department of Pharmaceutical Biotechnology, 35100 Izmir (Turkey)

    2017-03-15

    The aim of this study was to develop a novel iron oxide nanoparticle synthesis method with in-situ surface coating. For this purpose multiple emulsions were used as microreactors for the first time and magnetic iron oxide particles synthesized in the core of cationic solid lipid nanoparticles. DLS, SEM, TEM, VSM, Raman Spectrometer, XRD, and XPS techniques were performed for characterization of the magnetic nanoparticles. Obtained magnetic nanoparticles are superparamagnetic and no additional process was needed for surface adjustments. They are positively charged as a result of cationic lipid coating and has appropriate particle size (<30 nm) for drug or nucleic acid delivery. Structure analysis showed that magnetic core material is in the form of magnetite. Saturation magnetization value was measured as 15–17 emu g{sup −1} for lipid coated magnetic nanoparticles obtained by multiple emulsion method which is reasonably sufficient for magnetic targeting. - Highlights: • A novel iron oxide nanoparticle synthesis method with in-situ surface coating. • Combining advantages of microemulsions and multiple emulsion methods. • Multiple emulsions were used as microreactors for magnetic nanoparticle synthesis. • Superparamagnetic iron oxide particles synthesized in the core of cationic lipids. • Possible delivery systems for nucleic acids, oil soluble compounds or drugs.

  13. Rapid Vortex Fluidics: Continuous Flow Synthesis of Amides and Local Anesthetic Lidocaine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Britton, Joshua; Chalker, Justin M; Raston, Colin L

    2015-07-20

    Thin film flow chemistry using a vortex fluidic device (VFD) is effective in the scalable acylation of amines under shear, with the yields of the amides dramatically enhanced relative to traditional batch techniques. The optimized monophasic flow conditions are effective in ≤80 seconds at room temperature, enabling access to structurally diverse amides, functionalized amino acids and substituted ureas on multigram scales. Amide synthesis under flow was also extended to a total synthesis of local anesthetic lidocaine, with sequential reactions carried out in two serially linked VFD units. The synthesis could also be executed in a single VFD, in which the tandem reactions involve reagent delivery at different positions along the rapidly rotating tube with in situ solvent replacement, as a molecular assembly line process. This further highlights the versatility of the VFD in organic synthesis, as does the finding of a remarkably efficient debenzylation of p-methoxybenzyl amines. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  14. Trehalose improves cell proliferation and dehydration tolerance of human HaCaT cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lee Kyung Eun

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Trehalose is a disaccharide molecule that serves as a natural osmotic regulator in halophilic microorganisms and plants but not in mammals. We observed that human HaCaT cells supplied with trehalose improved cell proliferation and extended viability under dehydration. In HaCaT cells, in response to increasing concentrations of exogenous trehalose, the levels of heat shock protein (HSP 70 increased and matrix metalloproteinase (MMP 1 decreased. Proteome analysis of trehalose-treated HaCaT cells revealed remarkable increases in the levels of proteins involved in cell signaling and the cell cycle, including p21 activated kinase I, Sec I family domain protein and elongation factor G. Moreover, the proteins for cell stress resistance, tryptophan hydroxylase, serine/cysteine proteinase inhibitors and vitamin D receptors were also increased. In addition, the proteins responsible for the maintenance of the cytoskeleton and cellular structures including procollagen-lysine dioxygenase, vinculin and ezrin were increased. Proteomic data revealed that trehalose affected HaCaT cells by inducing the proteins involved in cell proliferation. These results suggest that trehalose improves the proliferation and dehydration tolerance of HaCaT cells by inducing proteins involved in cell growth and dehydration protection.

  15. Synthesis of nanocrystalline Y2O3 in a specially designed atmospheric pressure radio frequency thermal plasma reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dhamale, G. D.; Mathe, V. L.; Bhoraskar, S. V.; Sahasrabudhe, S. N.; Ghorui, S.

    2015-01-01

    Synthesis of yttrium oxide nanoparticles in a specially designed radio frequency thermal plasma reactor is reported. Good crystallinity, narrow size distribution, low defect state concentration, high purity, good production rate, single-step synthesis, and simultaneous formation of nanocrystalline monoclinic and cubic phases are some of the interesting features observed. Synthesized particles are characterized through X-ray diffraction, transmission electron microscopy, scanning electron microscopy, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, thermo-luminescence (TL), and Brunauer–Emmett–Teller surface area analysis. Polymorphism of the nanocrystalline yttria is addressed in detail. Synthesis mechanism is explored through in-situ emission spectroscopy. Post-synthesis environmental effects and possible methods to eliminate the undesired phases are probed. Defect states are investigated through the study of TL spectra

  16. ¿Ha cambiado la esencia de la medicina con los adelantos modernos?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pablo Arango Restrepo

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available La sociedad a lo largo de los siglos ha tenido cambios progresivos y en la actualidad estos son rápidos e incluyen el ejercicio de la profesión médica, que ha perdido su enfoque inicial en el paciente para centrarse en un interés prin - cipalmente comercial en detrimento de la atención respetuosa al paciente. En el presente artículo se revisa cuál ha sido considerada la esencia de la profesión a lo largo de los siglos, se contrasta con la situación actual y se invita a recuperar el ejercicio médico centrado en el paciente

  17. Rapid thermal processing chamber for in-situ x-ray diffraction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahmad, Md. Imteyaz; Van Campen, Douglas G.; Yu, Jiafan; Pool, Vanessa L.; Van Hest, Maikel F. A. M.; Toney, Michael F.; Fields, Jeremy D.; Parilla, Philip A.; Ginley, David S.

    2015-01-01

    Rapid thermal processing (RTP) is widely used for processing a variety of materials, including electronics and photovoltaics. Presently, optimization of RTP is done primarily based on ex-situ studies. As a consequence, the precise reaction pathways and phase progression during the RTP remain unclear. More awareness of the reaction pathways would better enable process optimization and foster increased adoption of RTP, which offers numerous advantages for synthesis of a broad range of materials systems. To achieve this, we have designed and developed a RTP instrument that enables real-time collection of X-ray diffraction data with intervals as short as 100 ms, while heating with ramp rates up to 100 °Cs −1 , and with a maximum operating temperature of 1200 °C. The system is portable and can be installed on a synchrotron beamline. The unique capabilities of this instrument are demonstrated with in-situ characterization of a Bi 2 O 3 -SiO 2 glass frit obtained during heating with ramp rates 5 °C s −1 and 100 °C s −1 , revealing numerous phase changes

  18. Perdas de solo e de água em sistemas de captação in situ no Semi-Árido brasileiro Soil and water losses in situ water harvesting systems in the brazilian semi-arid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luiza T. L. Brito

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Os sistemas de cultivo utilizados no semi-árido brasileiro apresentam riscos de perda devido à irregularidade das chuvas, devendo-se associá-los a práticas que propiciem maior infiltração e, conseqüentemente, menor erosão, o que pode ser obtido por meio de técnicas de captação de água de chuva in situ. Neste trabalho, teve-se o objetivo de avaliar as perdas de água e de solo em área cultivada com milho (Zea mays L., submetida a diferentes sistemas de preparo do solo, correspondendo aos tratamentos Guimarães Duque (T1; aração profunda (T2; aração parcial (T3 e sulcos barrados (T4, comparados com o sistema tradicional (T5, que corresponde ao plantio sem preparo do solo. Após cada evento de chuva, a água e o solo escoados foram coletados e medidos. A umidade do solo em diferentes profundidades foi monitorada durante o ciclo de produção da cultura e avaliada a produtividade dos grãos por meio da análise de variância. A partir dos resultados, pode-se observar que o método Guimarães Duque (T1 proporcionou maiores perdas de água (6.696 L e de solo (15.225 kg ha-1, enquanto as menores perdas foram obtidas com os sulcos barrados (T4, correspondendo a 1.066 L e 1.022 kg ha-1, respectivamente. Nesse tratamento (T4, também foi obtida a maior produtividade de grãos (606 kg ha-1, apresentando-se como o sistema mais indicado para as condições analisadas.The cropping systems used in the Brazilian semi-arid show risks of losses due to irregularity of rainfall, requiring the use of practices which produce higher water infiltration and, as a consequence, lower soil erosion, which can be obtained through in situ rainwater harvest techniques. This study had the objective of evaluating soil and water losses in a corn (Zea mays L. area subjected to different soil preparation systems: Guimarães Duque (T1, deep plowing (T2, partial plowing (T3, and furrows with barriers (T4, compared to the traditional system (T5, i.e., plain planting

  19. Effect of tamoxifen in RAFT miniemulsion polymerization during the synthesis of polymer nanoparticles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tailane Sant'Anna Moreira

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Tamoxifen (TXF is currently the only hormonal agent used for treatment of breast cancer. Although very effective, TXF presents low solubility in water, which affects its absorption and bioavailability. A common strategy to overcome this barrier is the formulation of a drug delivery system (DDS in order to increase the drug stability and improve the treatment effectiveness. Reversible addition-fragmentation chain transfer (RAFT polymerization is the most versatile method of controlled/living radical polymerization (CLRP, allowing for synthesis of well-defined polymers and being adapted to a wide range of polymerization systems. Miniemulsion polymerization is a dispersed system that is commonly used to prepare nanoparticles (NP with 50 to 500 nm of diameter. The aim of this work was to evaluate the effect of the in situ incorporation of TXF during miniemulsion conventional and RAFT polymerizations, using methyl methacrylate (MMA as monomer. Although the in situ addition of TXF promoted a slight reduction of the reaction rate, it did not affect the final particle size distribution of the latex or the molecular weight control exerted by the RAFT agent. The obtained results suggest that in situ incorporation of TXF during the synthesis of polymer NP via RAFT polymerization allows for production of a polymer DDS for different uses, such as the breast cancer treatment.

  20. Evaluation of nanohydroxyapaptite (nano-HA) coated epigallocatechin-3-gallate (EGCG) cross-linked collagen membranes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chu, Chenyu; Deng, Jia; Man, Yi; Qu, Yili

    2017-09-01

    Collagen is the main component of extracellular matrix (ECM) with desirable biological activities and low antigenicity. Collagen materials have been widely utilized in guided bone regeneration (GBR) surgery due to its abilities to maintain space for hard tissue growth. However, pure collagen lacks optimal mechanical properties. In our previous study, epigallocatechin-3-gallate (EGCG) cross-linked collagen membranes, with better biological activities and enhanced mechanical properties, may promote osteoblast proliferation, but their effect on osteoblast differentiation is not very significant. Nanohydroxyapatite (nano-HA) is the main component of mineral bone, which possesses exceptional bioactivity properties including good biocompatibility, high osteoconductivity and osteoinductivity, non-immunogenicity and non-inflammatory behavior. Herein, by analyzing the physical and chemical properties as well as the effects on promoting bone regeneration, we have attempted to present a novel EGCG-modified collagen membrane with nano-HA coating, and have found evidence that the novel collagen membrane may promote bone regeneration with a better surface morphology, without destroying collagen backbone. To evaluate the surface morphologies, chemical and mechanical properties of pure collagen membranes, epigallocatechin-3-gallate (EGCG) cross-linked collagen membranes, nano-HA coated collagen membranes, nano-HA coated EGCG-collagen membranes, (ii) to evaluate the bone regeneration promoted by theses membranes. In the present study, collagen membranes were divided into 4 groups: (1) untreated collagen membranes (2) EGCG cross-linked collagen membranes (3) nano-HA modified collagen membranes (4) nano-HA modified EGCG-collagen membranes. Scanning electron microscope (SEM) and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) were used to evaluate surface morphologies and chemical properties, respectively. Mechanical properties were determined by differential scanning calorimeter (DSC

  1. The Isinglass Auroral Sounding Rocket Campaign: data synthesis incorporating remote sensing, in situ observations, and modelling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lynch, K. A.; Clayton, R.; Roberts, T. M.; Hampton, D. L.; Conde, M.; Zettergren, M. D.; Burleigh, M.; Samara, M.; Michell, R.; Grubbs, G. A., II; Lessard, M.; Hysell, D. L.; Varney, R. H.; Reimer, A.

    2017-12-01

    The NASA auroral sounding rocket mission Isinglass was launched from Poker Flat Alaska in winter 2017. This mission consists of two separate multi-payload sounding rockets, over an array of groundbased observations, including radars and filtered cameras. The science goal is to collect two case studies, in two different auroral events, of the gradient scale sizes of auroral disturbances in the ionosphere. Data from the in situ payloads and the groundbased observations will be synthesized and fed into an ionospheric model, and the results will be studied to learn about which scale sizes of ionospheric structuring have significance for magnetosphere-ionosphere auroral coupling. The in situ instrumentation includes thermal ion sensors (at 5 points on the second flight), thermal electron sensors (at 2 points), DC magnetic fields (2 point), DC electric fields (one point, plus the 4 low-resource thermal ion RPA observations of drift on the second flight), and an auroral precipitation sensor (one point). The groundbased array includes filtered auroral imagers, the PFISR and SuperDarn radars, a coherent scatter radar, and a Fabry-Perot interferometer array. The ionospheric model to be used is a 3d electrostatic model including the effects of ionospheric chemistry. One observational and modelling goal for the mission is to move both observations and models of auroral arc systems into the third (along-arc) dimension. Modern assimilative tools combined with multipoint but low-resource observations allow a new view of the auroral ionosphere, that should allow us to learn more about the auroral zone as a coupled system. Conjugate case studies such as the Isinglass rocket flights allow for a test of the models' intepretation by comparing to in situ data. We aim to develop and improve ionospheric models to the point where they can be used to interpret remote sensing data with confidence without the checkpoint of in situ comparison.

  2. Green synthesis of dimension-controlled silver nanoparticle–graphene oxide with in situ ultrasonication

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hui, K.S.; Hui, K.N.; Dinh, D.A.; Tsang, C.H.; Cho, Y.R.; Zhou, Wei; Hong, Xiaoting; Chun, Ho-Hwan

    2014-01-01

    Graphical abstract: -- Abstract: A green chemical approach to control the dimensions of Ag nanoparticle-decorated graphene oxide (AgNP–GO) composites was proposed by in situ ultrasonication of a mixture of AgNO 3 and GO solution with the assistance of vitamin C acting as an environmentally friendly reducing agent at room temperature. The AgNP–GO composites were characterized by X-ray diffraction, transmission electron microscopy, energy-dispersive spectroscopy, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, Raman spectra and ultraviolet–visible absorption spectra. The results demonstrated that Ag nanoparticles with an average diameter of ∼15 nm were uniformly dispersed on the surface of GO nanosheets by in situ ultrasonication of 1 min with vitamin C. Increasing the ultrasonication times resulted in Ag nanoparticles with tunable dimensions ranging from 15 to 55 nm being formed on the surface of GO nanosheets. The amount of silver nitrate and the ultrasonication time play a key role in the control of the dimension of Ag nanoparticles on GO, and a formation mechanism of the as-prepared AgNP–GO composites is proposed. This study provides a guide to controlling the dimensions of AgNP–GO composites, which may hold promise as advanced materials for various analytical applications such as catalysis, sensors and microchips

  3. Cake properties in ultrafiltration of TiO2 fine particles combined with HA: in situ measurement of cake thickness by fluid dynamic gauging and CFD calculation of imposed shear stress for cake controlling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du, Xing; Qu, Fangshu; Liang, Heng; Li, Kai; Chang, Haiqing; Li, Guibai

    2016-05-01

    In this study, the cake buildup of TiO2 fine particles in the presence of humid acid (HA) and cake layer controlling during ultrafiltration (UF) were investigated. Specifically, we measured the cake thickness using fluid dynamic gauging (FDG) method under various solution conditions, including TiO2 concentration (0.1-0.5 g/L), HA concentration (0-5 mg/L, total organic carbon (TOC)), and pH values (e.g., 4, 6 and 10), and calculated the shear stress distribution induced by stirring using computational fluid dynamics (CFD) to analyze the cake layer controlling conditions, including the operation flux (50-200 L m(-2) h(-1)) and TiO2 concentration (0.1-0.5 g/L). It was found that lower TiO2/HA concentration ratio could lead to exceedingly severe membrane fouling because of the formation of a relatively denser cake layer by filling the voids of cake layer with HA, and pH was essential for cake layer formation owing to the net repulsion between particles. Additionally, it was observed that shear stress was rewarding for mitigating cake growth under lower operation flux as a result of sufficient back-transport forces, and exhibited an excellent performance on cake layer controlling in lower TiO2 concentrations due to slight interaction forces on the vicinity of membrane.

  4. Electrospinning in Situ Synthesis of Graphene-Doped Porous Copper Indium Disulfide/Carbon Composite Nanofibers for Highly Efficient Counter Electrode in Dye-Sensitized Solar Cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    He, Jianxin; Zhou, Mengjuan; Wang, Lidan; Zhao, Shuyuan; Wang, Qian; Ding, Bin; Cui, Shizhong

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • P-GN@CuInS 2(*) /C nanofibers were fabricated via electrospinning, in situ synthesis. • CuInS 2 nanocrystals were uniformly anchored in wrapped RGO to form nanofiber structure. • P-GN@CuInS 2 /C nanofibers exhibited porous and 3D superfine fiber morphology. • Graphene nanosheets led well-dispersed growth of CuInS 2 nanocrystals in nanofibers. • DSSC assembled using p-GN@CuInS 2 /C CE delivered a conversion efficiency of 7.23%. - Abstract: Porous graphene-doped copper indium disulfide/carbon (p-GN@CuInS 2 /C) composite nanofibers were fabricated via electrospinning, in situ synthesis, and carbonization. A polyacrylonitrile (PAN) solution containing graphene oxide nanosheets, copper dichloride (CuCl 2 ), indium trichloride (InCl 3 ), and thiourea (Tu.) in a mixed solvent of N,N-dimethylformamide/trichloromethane (DMF/CF) was used as the precursor solution for electrospinning. The resulting porous GN@CuInS 2 /C nanofibers were 107 ± 24 nm in diameter, and graphene nanosheets anchored with chalcopyrite CuInS 2 nanocrystals 7–12 nm in diameter were overlapped and embedded in the carbon matrix, aligning along the fiber axial direction. The Brunauer–Emmett–Teller (BET) surface area of the p-GN@CuInS 2 /C composite nanofibers was 795 m 2 /g, with a total pore volume of 0.71 cm 3 /g. These values were significantly larger than those of the sample without graphene and CuInS 2 /C nanofibers. A dye-sensitized solar cell (DSSC) assembled using the p-GN@CuInS 2 /C nanofibers as the counter electrode (CE) delivered a photoelectric conversion efficiency of 7.23%, which was higher than the efficiencies of DSSCs assembled using the samples without graphene (6.48%) and with the CuInS 2 /C nanofibers (5.45%). It was also much higher than that of the DSSC with a Pt CE (6.34%). The excellent photoelectric performance of the p-GN@CuInS 2 /C CE was attributed to its special hierarchical porous structure, which facilitated permeation of the liquid

  5. Facile synthesis of TiO2/microcrystalline cellulose nanocomposites: photocatalytically active material under visible light irradiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doped TiO2 nanocomposites were prepared in situ by a facile and simple synthesis utilizing benign and renewable precursors such as microcrystalline cellulose (MC) and TiCl4 through hydrolysis in alkaline medium without the addition of organic solvents. The as-prepared nanocompos...

  6. Cascade synthesis of dihydrobenzofuran via Claisen rearrangement of allyl aryl ethers using FeCl3/MCM-41 catalyst

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sachin S. Sakate

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Dihydrobenzofuran as one of the active ingredients of the naturally occurring motif is synthesized by using in situ generation of ortho allyl phenols. Aryl allyl ethers on reacting with catalytic amounts of non noble metal iron (III chloride supported on MCM-41 under moderate reaction conditions yield dihydrobenzofuran. First step via Claisen rearrangement gives ortho allyl phenol followed by its in situ cyclization to yield dihydrobenzofuran in very good yields. Both Lewis as well as Brønsted acidity of the catalyst as evidenced by Py-FTIR studies was found to catalyze the cascade synthesis of dihydrobenzofuran. The scope of the present strategy was successfully demonstrated for several substrates with varying electronic effects for the synthesis of corresponding dihydrobenzofuran with high yields in a range of 71–86%. Keywords: Claisen rearrangement, Dihydrobenzofuran, Aryl allyl ether, MCM-41, Ferric chloride

  7. Procesos de evolución de la descontaminación "in situ" de suelos afectados por hidrocarburos

    OpenAIRE

    Maroto Arroyo, Esther

    2003-01-01

    El objetivo de la tesis doctoral es la determinación de forma cualitativa y cuantitativa de aquellos parámetros o variables que afectan directa o indirectamente en el proceso de descontaminación de un acuífero contaminado por hidrocarburos, empleando técnicas de descontaminación "in situ", estableciendo los parámetros que definirán el rendimiento y la eficacia del sistema, optimizando en un futuro las obras de descontaminación. Se ha propuesto un modelo de descontaminación basado en las tres ...

  8. PCL-HA microscaffolds for in vitro modular bone tissue engineering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Totaro, Alessandra; Salerno, Aurelio; Imparato, Giorgia; Domingo, Concepción; Urciuolo, Francesco; Netti, Paolo Antonio

    2017-06-01

    The evolution of microscaffolds and bone-bioactive surfaces is a pivotal point in modular bone tissue engineering. In this study, the design and fabrication of porous polycaprolactone (PCL) microscaffolds functionalized with hydroxyapatite (HA) nanoparticles by means of a bio-safe and versatile thermally-induced phase separation process is reported. The ability of the as-prepared nanocomposite microscaffolds to support the adhesion, growth and osteogenic differentiation of human mesenchymal stem cells (hMSCs) in standard and osteogenic media and using dynamic seeding/culture conditions was investigated. The obtained results demonstrated that the PCL-HA nanocomposite microparticles had an enhanced interaction with hMSCs and induced their osteogenic differentiation, even without the exogenous addition of osteogenic factors. In particular, calcium deposition, alizarin red assay, histological analysis, osteogenic gene expression and collagen I secretion were assessed. The results of these tests demonstrated the formation of bone microtissue precursors after 28 days of dynamic culture. These findings suggest that PCL-HA nanocomposite microparticles represent an excellent platform for in vitro modular bone tissue engineering. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  9. Compositos CNTs/bioceramico para a estimulacao eletrica ossea in situ

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mata, Diogo Miguel Rodrigues Marinho da

    The present thesis aims to develop a biocompatible and electroconductor bone graft containing carbon nanotubes (CNTs) that allows the in situ regeneration of bone cells by applying pulsed external electrical stimuli. The CNTs were produced by chemical vapor deposition (CVD) by a semi-continuous method with a yield of 500 mg/day. The deposition parameters were optimised to obtain high pure CNTs 99.96% with controlled morphologies, fundamental requisites for the biomedical application under study. The chemical functionalisation of CNTs was also optimised to maximise their processability and biocompatibility. The CNTs were functionalised by the Diels-Alder cycloaddition of 1,3-butadiene. The biological behaviour of the functionalised CNTs was evaluated in vitro with the osteoblastic cells line MG63 and in vivo, by subcutaneous implantation in rats. The materials did not induce an expressed inflammatory response, but the functionalised CNTs showed a superior in vitro and in vivo biocompatibility than the non-functionalised ones. Composites of ceramic matrix, of bioglass (Glass) and hydroxyapatite (HA), reinforced with carbon nanotubes (CNT/Glass/HA) were processed by a wet approach. The incorporation of just 4.4 vol% of CNTs allowed the increase of 10 orders of magnitude of the electrical conductivity of the matrix. In vitro studies with MG63 cells show that the CNT/Glass/HA composites guarantee the adhesion and proliferation of bone cells, and stimulate their phenotype expression, namely the alkaline phosphate (ALP). The interactions between the composite materials and the culture medium (α-MEM), under an applied electrical external field, were studied by scanning vibrating electrode technique. An increase of the culture medium electrical conductivity and the electrical field confinement in the presence of the conductive samples submerged in the medium was demonstrated. The in vitro electrical stimulation of MG63 cells on the conductive composites promotes the

  10. Elementary Steps of Faujasite Formation Followed by in Situ Spectroscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Prodinger, Sebastian [Institute; Vjunov, Aleksei [Institute; Hu, Jian Zhi [Institute; Fulton, John L. [Institute; Camaioni, Donald M. [Institute; Derewinski, Miroslaw A. [Institute; Lercher, Johannes A. [Institute; Department

    2018-01-24

    Ex situ and in situ spectroscopy was used to identify the kinetics of processes during the formation of the faujasite (FAU) zeolite lattice from a hydrous gel. Using solid-state 27Al MAS NMR, the autocatalytic transformation from the amorphous gel into the crystalline material was monitored. Al-XANES shows that most Al already adopts a tetrahedral coordination in the X-ray-amorphous aluminosilicate at the beginning of the induction period, which hardly changes throughout the rest of the synthesis. Using 23Na NMR spectroscopy, environments in the growing zeolite crystal were identified and used to define the processes in the stepwise formation of the zeolite lattice. The end of the induction period was accompanied by a narrowing of the 27Al and 23Na MAS NMR peak widths, indicating the increased long-range order. The experiments show conclusively that the formation of faujasite occurs via the continuous formation and subsequent condensation of intermediary sodalite-like units that constitute the key building block of the zeolite. Acknowledgement The authors thank T. Huthwelker for assistance with XAFS experiment setup at the Swiss Light Source (PSI, Switzerland). Further, we would like to acknowledge V. Shutthanandan and B.W. Arey for performing Helium ion microscopy as well as Z. Zhao, N.R. Jaeger, M. Weng, C. Wan and M. Hu for aiding in the NMR experimental procedure. T. Varga is acknowledged for his help with the capillary XRD. A.V., D.M.C., J.H., J.L.F and J.A.L. were supported by the US Department of Energy, Office of Science, Office of Basic Energy Sciences. S.P. and M.A.D. acknowledge support by the Materials Synthesis and Simulation Across Scales (MS3 Initiative) conducted under Laboratory Directed Research & Development Program at PNNL. The in situ NMR experiments were supported by the U. S. Department of Energy (DOE), Office of Science, Office of Basic Energy Sciences, Division of Chemical Sciences, Biosciences and Geosciences. Part of the research

  11. Unscheduled DNA synthesis after β-irradiation of mouse skin in situ

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ootsuyama, Akira; Tanooka, Hiroshi

    1986-01-01

    The skin of ICR mouse was irradiated with β-rays from 90 Sr- 90 Y with surface doses up to 30 krad. Unscheduled DNA synthesis (UDS) was measured by autoradiography after labeling the skin with radioactive thymidine using the forceps-clamping method. The level of UDS in epithelial cells of the skin was detected as an increasing function of radiation dose. Fibroblastic cells, compared with epithelial cells and hair follicle cells at the same depth of the skin, showed a lower level of UDS, indicating a lower DNA repair activity in fibroblasts. Cancer risk of the skin was discussed. (Auth.)

  12. Crystallization and preliminary X-ray analysis of the HA3 component of Clostridium botulinum type C progenitor toxin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nakamura, Toshio; Tonozuka, Takashi; Kotani, Mao; Obata, Kanae [Department of Applied Biological Science, Tokyo University of Agriculture and Technology, 3-5-8 Saiwai-cho, Fuchu-shi, Tokyo 183-8509 (Japan); Oguma, Keiji [Okayama University Graduate School of Medicine, Dentistry and Pharmaceutical Sciences, 2-5-1 Shikata-cho, Okayama 700-8558 (Japan); Nishikawa, Atsushi, E-mail: nishikaw@cc.tuat.ac.jp [Department of Applied Biological Science, Tokyo University of Agriculture and Technology, 3-5-8 Saiwai-cho, Fuchu-shi, Tokyo 183-8509 (Japan); CREST, Japan Science and Technology Agency (Japan)

    2007-12-01

    HA3, a 70 kDa haemagglutinating protein, is a precursor form of HA3a and HA3b, the subcomponents of Clostridium botulinum type C 16S progenitor toxin. In this report, recombinant HA3 protein was overexpressed in Escherichia coli, purified and crystallized. HA3, a 70 kDa haemagglutinating protein, is a precursor form of HA3a and HA3b, the subcomponents of Clostridium botulinum type C 16S progenitor toxin. In this report, recombinant HA3 protein was overexpressed in Escherichia coli, purified and crystallized. Diffraction data were collected to 2.6 Å resolution and the crystal belonged to the hexagonal space group P6{sub 3}. Matthews coefficient and self-rotation function calculations indicate that there is probably one molecule of HA3 in the asymmetric unit. A search for heavy-atom derivatives has been undertaken.

  13. Synthesis and Mechanism of Tetracalcium Phosphate from Nanocrystalline Precursor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jianguo Liao

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Tetracalcium phosphate (TTCP, Ca4(PO42O was prepared by the calcination of coprecipitated mixture of nanoscale hydroxyapatite (HA, Ca10(PO46(OH2 and calcium carbonate crystal (CaCO3, followed by cooling in the air or furnace. The effect of calcination temperature on crystal structure and phase composition of the coprecipitation mixture was characterized by transmission electron microscope (TEM, thermal analysis-thermogravimetry (DTA-TG, X-ray diffraction (XRD, Fourier transform-infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR, and Raman spectroscopy (RS. The obtained results indicated that the synthesized mixture consisted of nanoscale HA and CaCO3 with uniform distribution throughout the composite. TTCP was observed in the air quenching samples when the calcination temperature was above 1185°C. With the increase of the calcination temperature, the amount of the intermediate products in the air quenching samples decreased and cannot be detected when calcination temperature reached 1450°C. Unexpectedly, the mixture of HA and calcium oxide was observed in the furnace cooling samples. Clearly, the calcination temperature and cooling methods are critical for the synthesis of high-purity TTCP. The results indicate that the nanosize of precursors can decrease the calcination temperature, and TTCP can be calcinated by low temperature.

  14. Reaction scheme of partial oxidation of methane to synthesis gas over yttrium-stabilized zirconia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zhu, J.J.; van Ommen, J.G.; Lefferts, Leonardus

    2004-01-01

    The partial oxidation of methane to synthesis gas over yttrium-stabilized zirconia (YSZ) was studied with in situ FTIR and both steady-state and transient experiments. The four major products, CO, H2, CO2, and H2O, are primary products of CPOM over YSZ. Besides these major products and traces of

  15. Gaining Control over Radiolytic Synthesis of Uniform Sub-3-nanometer Palladium Nanoparticles: Use of Aromatic Liquids in the Electron Microscope

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abellan Baeza, Patricia; Parent, Lucas R.; Al Hasan, Naila M.; Park, Chiwoo; Arslan, Ilke; Karim, Ayman M.; Evans, James E.; Browning, Nigel D.

    2016-01-07

    Synthesizing nanomaterials of uniform shape and size is of critical importance to access and manipulate the novel structure-property relationships arising at the nanoscale. In this work we synthesize Pd nanoparticles with well-controlled size using in situ liquid-stage scanning transmission electron microscopy (STEM) and demonstrate a match between the reaction kinetics and products of the radiolytic and chemical syntheses of size-stabilized Pd nanoparticles. We quantify the effect of electron dose on the nucleation kinetics, and compare these results with in situ small angle X-ray scattering (SAXS) experiments investigating the effect of temperature during chemical synthesis. This work introduces methods for precise control of nanoparticle synthesis in the STEM and provides a means to uncover the fundamental processes behind the size and shape stabilization of nanoparticles.

  16. Mineral carbonation - possibilities in and ex-situ, evaluation and experiments in laboratory. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bodenan, F.; Bailly, L.; Piantone, P.; Seron, A.; Touze, S.

    2006-01-01

    This report proposes a state of the art of the knowledge and a synthesis of the studies realized at the BRGM since many years, especially in the following domains: the possibilities of the natural minerals and alkaline wastes for the CO 2 sequestration under mineral form, a accounting analysis of the ex-situ processes called direct and indirect, the design of experimental bench scale to study the mineral carbonation at ambient conditions and at high pressure and temperature. (A.L.B.)

  17. Modified Synthesis of Erlotinib Hydrochloride

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leila Barghi

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: An improved and economical method has been described for the synthesis of erlotinib hydrochloride, as a useful drug in treatment of non-small-cell lung cancer. Methods: Erlotinib hydrochloride was synthesized in seven steps starting from 3, 4-dihydroxy benzoic acid. In this study, we were able to modify one of the key steps which involved the reduction of the 6-nitrobenzoic acid derivative to 6-aminobenzoic acid derivative. An inexpensive reagent such as ammonium formate was used as an in situ hydrogen donor in the presence of palladium/charcoal (Pd/C instead of hydrogen gas at high pressure. Results: This proposed method proceeded with 92% yield at room temperature. Synthesis of erlotinib was completed in 7 steps with overall yield of 44%.Conclusion: From the results obtained it can be concluded that the modified method eliminated the potential danger associated with the use of hydrogen gas in the presence of flammable catalysts. It should be mentioned that the catalyst was recovered after the reaction and could be used again.

  18. ALP gene expression in cDNA samples from bone tissue engineering using a HA/TCP/Chitosan scaffold

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stephanie, N.; Katarina, H.; Amir, L. R.; Gunawan, H. A.

    2017-08-01

    This study examined the potential use of hydroxyapatite (HA)/tricalcium phosphate (TCP)/Chitosan as a bone tissue engineering scaffold. The potential for using HA/TCP/chitosan as a scaffold was analyzed by measuring expression of the ALP osteogenic gene in cDNA from bone biopsies from four Macaque nemestrina. Experimental conditions included control (untreated), treatment with HA/TCP 70:30, HA/TCP 50:50, and HA/TCP/chitosan. cDNA samples were measured quantitively with Real-Time PCR (qPCR) and semi-quantitively by gel electrophoresis. There were no significant differences in ALP gene expression between treatment subjects after two weeks, but the HA/TCP/chitosan treatment gave the highest level of expression after four weeks. The scaffold using the HA/TCP/chitosan combination induced a higher level of expression of the osteogenic gene ALP than did scaffold without chitosan.

  19. In situ synthesis of TiB2-TiC particulates locally reinforced medium carbon steel-matrix composites via the SHS reaction of Ni-Ti-B4C system during casting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, H.Y.; Huang, L.; Jiang, Q.C.

    2005-01-01

    The fabrication of medium carbon steel-matrix composites locally reinforced with in situ TiB 2 -TiC particulates using self-propagating high-temperature synthesis (SHS) reaction of Ni-Ti-B 4 C system during casting was investigated. X-ray diffraction (XRD) results reveal that the exotherm of 1042 deg. C initiated by heat release of the solid state reaction in the differential thermal analysis (DTA) curve is an incomplete reaction in Ni-Ti-B 4 C system. As-cast microstructures of the in situ processed composites reveal a relatively uniform distribution of TiB 2 -TiC particulates in the locally reinforced regions. Furthermore, the particulate size and micro-porosity in the locally reinforced regions are significantly decreased with the increasing of the Ni content in the preforms. For a Ni content of 30 and 40 wt.%, near fully dense composites locally reinforced with in situ TiB 2 and TiC particulates can be fabricated. Although most of fine TiB 2 and TiC particulates which form by the reaction-precipitation mechanism during SHS reaction are present in the locally reinforced region, some large particulates which form by the nucleation-growth mechanism during solidification are entrapped inside the Fe-rich region located in the reinforcing region or inside the matrix region nearby the interface between matrix and reinforcing region. The hardness of the reinforcing region in the composite is significantly higher than that of the unreinforced medium carbon steel. Furthermore, the hardness values of the composites synthesized from 30 to 40 wt.% Ni-Ti-B 4 C systems are higher than those of the composites synthesized from 10 to 20 wt.% Ni-Ti-B 4 C systems

  20. The use of acetone to enhance the infiltration of HA nanoparticles into a demineralized dentin collagen matrix.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Besinis, Alexandros; van Noort, Richard; Martin, Nicolas

    2016-03-01

    This study investigates the role of acetone, as a carrier for nano-hydroxyapatite (nano-HA) in solution, to enhance the infiltration of fully demineralized dentin with HA nanoparticles (NPs). Dentin specimens were fully demineralized and subsequently infiltrated with two types of water-based nano-HA solutions (one containing acetone and one without). Characterization of the dentin surfaces and nano-HA particles was performed using scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The surface wettability and infiltration capacity of the nano-HA solutions were quantified by means of contact angle measurements and energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS), respectively. Contact angle measurements were taken at baseline and repeated at regular intervals to assess the effect of acetone. The P and Ca levels of infiltrated dentin specimens were measured and compared to sound dentin and non-infiltrated controls. The presence of acetone resulted in an eight-fold decrease in the contact angles of the nano-HA solutions recorded on the surface of demineralized dentin compared to nano-HA solutions without acetone (one-way ANOVA, pacetone. Infiltration of demineralized dentin with the nano-HA solution containing acetone restored the lost mineral content by 50%, whereas the mean mineralization values for P and Ca in dentin treated with the acetone-free nano-HA solution were less than 6%. Acetone was shown to act as a vehicle to enhance the capacity to infiltrate demineralized dentin with HA NPs. The successful infiltration of dentin collagen with HA NPs provides a suitable scaffold, whereby the infiltrated HA NPs have the potential to act as seeds that may initiate heterogenous mineral growth when exposed to an appropriate mineral-rich environment. Copyright © 2015 Academy of Dental Materials. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Ha-DEF1, a sunflower defensin, induces cell death in Orobanche parasitic plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Zélicourt, Axel; Letousey, Patricia; Thoiron, Séverine; Campion, Claire; Simoneau, Philippe; Elmorjani, Khalil; Marion, Didier; Simier, Philippe; Delavault, Philippe

    2007-08-01

    Plant defensins are small basic peptides of 5-10 kDa and most of them exhibit antifungal activity. In a sunflower resistant to broomrape, among the three defensin encoding cDNA identified, SF18, SD2 and HaDef1, only HaDef1 presented a preferential root expression pattern and was induced upon infection by the root parasitic plant Orobanche cumana. The amino acid sequence deduced from HaDef1 coding sequence was composed of an endoplasmic reticulum signal sequence of 28 amino acids, a standard defensin domain of 50 amino-acid residues and an unusual C-terminal domain of 30 amino acids with a net positive charge. A 5.8 kDa recombinant mature Ha-DEF1 corresponding to the defensin domain was produced in Escherichia coli and was purified by means of a two-step chromatography procedure, Immobilized Metal Affinity Chromatography (IMAC) and Ion Exchange Chromatography. Investigation of in vitro antifungal activity of Ha-DEF1 showed a strong inhibition on Saccharomyces cerevisiae growth linked to a membrane permeabilization, and a morphogenetic activity on Alternaria brassicicola germ tube development, as already reported for some other plant defensins. Bioassays also revealed that Ha-DEF1 rapidly induced browning symptoms at the radicle apex of Orobanche seedlings but not of another parasitic plant, Striga hermonthica, nor of Arabidopsis thaliana. FDA vital staining showed that these browning areas corresponded to dead cells. These results demonstrate for the first time a lethal effect of defensins on plant cells. The potent mode of action of defensin in Orobanche cell death and the possible involvement in sunflower resistance are discussed.

  2. Designing, preparing and evaluation of novel HA/Ti composite coating for endodontic dental implant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fathi MH.

    2002-08-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays, application of implants as a new method for replacing extracted teeth have been improved. So, many researches have been performed for improving the characteristics of implants. The aim of this study was to design and produce a desired coating in order to obtaining two goals including; improvement of the corrosion behavior of metallic endodontic implant and the bone osseointegration simultaneously. Stainless steel 316L (SS, cobalt-chromium alloy (Vit and commercial pure titanium (cpTi were chosen as metallic substrates and hydroxyapatite coating (HAC were performed by plasma-spraying (PS process on three different substrates. A novel double layer Hydroxyapatite/Titanium (HA/Ti composite coating composed of a HA top layer and a Ti under layer was prepared using PS and physical vapor deposition (PVD process respectively on SS. Structural characterization techniques including XRD, SEM and EDX were utilized to investigate the microstructure, morpholgy and crystallinity of the coatings. Electrochemical potentiodynamic tests were performed in physiological solutions in order to determine and compare the corrosion behavior of the coated and uncoated specimens behavior as an indication of biocmpatibility. Results indicated that the cpTi possesses the highest and SS the lowest corrosion resistance (highest corrosion current density between uncoated substrates. This trend was independent to the type of physiological environment. The HA coating decreased the corrosion current density of HA coated metallic implants but did not change that trend. HAC acted as a mechanical barrier on the metallic substrate but could not prevent the interaction between metallic substrate and environment completely. The HA/Ti composite coating improved the corrosion behavior of SS. The corrosion current density of HA/Ti coated SS decreased and was exactly similar to single HA coated cpTi in physiological solutions. The results indicated that HA/Ti composite coated SS

  3. Sequence diversity within the HA-1 gene as detected by melting temperature assay without oligonucleotide probes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mattiuz Pier

    2005-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The minor histocompatibility antigens (mHags are self-peptides derived from common cellular proteins and presented by MHC class I and II molecules. Disparities in mHags are a potential risk for the development of graft-versus-host disease (GvHD in the recipients of bone marrow from HLA-identical donors. Two alleles have been identified in the mHag HA-1. The correlation between mismatches of the mHag HA-1 and GvHD has been suggested and methods to facilitate large-scale testing were afterwards developed. Methods We used sequence specific primer (SSP PCR and direct sequencing to detect HA-1 gene polymorphisms in a sample of 131 unrelated Italian subjects. We then set up a novel melting temperature (Tm assay that may help identification of HA-1 alleles without oligonucleotide probes. Results We report the frequencies of HA-1 alleles in the Italian population and the presence of an intronic 5 base-pair deletion associated with the immunogeneic allele HA-1H. We also detected novel variable sites with respect to the consensus sequence of HA-1 locus. Even though recombination/gene conversion events are documented, there is considerable linkage disequilibrium in the data. The gametic associations between HA-1R/H alleles and the intronic 5-bp ins/del polymorphism prompted us to try the Tm analysis with SYBR® Green I. We show that the addition of dimethylsulfoxide (DMSO during the assay yields distinct patterns when amplicons from HA-1H homozygotes, HA-1R homozygotes, and heterozygotes are analysed. Conclusion The possibility to use SYBR® Green I to detect Tm differences between allelic variants is attractive but requires great caution. We succeeded in allele discrimination of the HA-1 locus using a relatively short (101 bp amplicon, only in the presence of DMSO. We believe that, at least in certain assets, Tm assays may benefit by the addition of DMSO or other agents affecting DNA strand conformation and stability.

  4. Microstructure and mechanical properties of plasma sprayed HA/YSZ/Ti-6Al-4V composite coatings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khor, K A; Gu, Y W; Pan, D; Cheang, P

    2004-08-01

    Plasma sprayed hydroxyapatite (HA) coatings on titanium alloy substrate have been used extensively due to their excellent biocompatibility and osteoconductivity. However, the erratic bond strength between HA and Ti alloy has raised concern over the long-term reliability of the implant. In this paper, HA/yttria stabilized zirconia (YSZ)/Ti-6Al-4V composite coatings that possess superior mechanical properties to conventional plasma sprayed HA coatings were developed. Ti-6Al-4V powders coated with fine YSZ and HA particles were prepared through a unique ceramic slurry mixing method. The so-formed composite powder was employed as feedstock for plasma spraying of the HA/YSZ/Ti-6Al-4V coatings. The influence of net plasma energy, plasma spray standoff distance, and post-spray heat treatment on microstructure, phase composition and mechanical properties were investigated. Results showed that coatings prepared with the optimum plasma sprayed condition showed a well-defined splat structure. HA/YSZ/Ti-6Al-4V solid solution was formed during plasma spraying which was beneficial for the improvement of mechanical properties. There was no evidence of Ti oxidation from the successful processing of YSZ and HA coated Ti-6Al-4V composite powders. Small amount of CaO apart from HA, ZrO(2) and Ti was present in the composite coatings. The microhardness, Young's modulus, fracture toughness, and bond strength increased significantly with the addition of YSZ. Post-spray heat treatment at 600 degrees C and 700 degrees C for up to 12h was found to further improve the mechanical properties of coatings. After the post-spray heat treatment, 17.6% increment in Young's modulus (E) and 16.3% increment in Vicker's hardness were achieved. The strengthening mechanisms of HA/YSZ/Ti-6Al-4V composite coatings were related to the dispersion strengthening by homogeneous distribution of YSZ particles in the matrix, the good mechanical properties of Ti-6Al-4V and the formation of solid solution among HA

  5. Synthesis and characterization of hydrogen-bond acidic functionalized graphene

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Liu; Han, Qiang; Pan, Yong; Cao, Shuya; Ding, Mingyu

    2014-05-01

    Hexafluoroisopropanol phenyl group functionalized materials have great potential in the application of gas-sensitive materials for nerve agent detection, due to the formation of strong hydrogen-bonding interactions between the group and the analytes. In this paper, take full advantage of ultra-large specific surface area and plenty of carbon-carbon double bonds and hexafluoroisopropanol phenyl functionalized graphene was synthesized through in situ diazonium reaction between -C=C- and p-hexafluoroisopropanol aniline. The identity of the as-synthesis material was confirmed by transmission electron microscopy, Raman spectroscopy, ultraviolet visible spectroscopy, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and thermo gravimetric analysis. The synthesis method is simply which retained the excellent physical properties of original graphene. In addition, the novel material can be assigned as an potential candidate for gas sensitive materials towards organophosphorus nerve agent detection.

  6. Synthesis of titanium carbide from wood by self-propagating high temperature synthesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sutham Niyomwas

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Titanium carbide (TiC particles were obtained in situ by a self-propagating high temperature synthesis (SHS of wooddust with TiO2 and Mg. The reaction was carried out in a SHS reactor under static argon gas at the pressure of 0.5 MPa. Thestandard Gibbs energy minimization method was used to calculate the equilibrium composition of the reacting species. Theeffects of increasing Mg mole ratio to the precursor mixture of TiO2 and wood dusts were investigated. XRD and SEManalyses indicate a complete reaction of the precursors to yield TiC-MgO as a product composite. The synthesized compositeswere leached with 0.1M HCl acid solution to obtain TiC particles as final products.

  7. Theiler's virus RNA and protein synthesis in the central nervous system of demyelinating mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cash, E.; Chamorro, M.; Brahic, M.

    1985-01-01

    The authors studied Theiler's virus RNA and capsid protein synthesis in sections of mouse spinal cord using in situ hybridization coupled to immunoperoxidase. They found that the majority of infected cells contain 100 to 500 viral genomes and no detectable capsid antigens. Similarly, baby hamster kidney (BHK) cells, which are permissive to Theiler's virus, do not synthesize capsid if they contain less than 1000 viral genomes. The results demonstrate that virus multiplication is restricted in vivo at the level of RNA replication. They suggest that RNA restriction is sufficient to explain the lack of capsid antigen synthesis

  8. Impact of Membrane-Induced Particle Immobilization on Seeded Growth Monitored by In Situ Liquid Scanning Transmission Electron Microscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weiner, Rebecca G; Chen, Dennis P; Unocic, Raymond R; Skrabalak, Sara E

    2016-05-01

    In situ liquid cell scanning transmission electron microscopy probes seeded growth in real time. The growth of Pd on Au nanocubes is monitored as a model system to compare growth within a liquid cell and traditional colloidal synthesis. Different growth patterns are observed due to seed immobilization and the highly reducing environment within the liquid cell. © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  9. Functionalized PCL/HA nanocomposites as microporous membranes for bone regeneration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Basile, Maria Assunta; Gomez d' Ayala, Giovanna; Malinconico, Mario [Institute for Polymers, Composites and Biomaterials, CNR, Via Campi Flegrei 34, Pozzuoli (Naples) (Italy); Laurienzo, Paola, E-mail: paola.laurienzo@ipcb.cnr.it [Institute for Polymers, Composites and Biomaterials, CNR, Via Campi Flegrei 34, Pozzuoli (Naples) (Italy); Coudane, Jean; Nottelet, Benjamin [Institut des Biomolécules Max Mousseron (IBMM), Artificial Biopolymers Group, CNRS UMR 5247, University of Montpellier 1, Faculty of Pharmacy, 15 Av. C. Flahault, Montpellier 34093 (France); Ragione, Fulvio Della [Department of Biochemistry and Biophysics, Second University of Naples, Via L. De Crecchio 7, Naples (Italy); Oliva, Adriana, E-mail: adriana.oliva@unina2.it [Department of Biochemistry and Biophysics, Second University of Naples, Via L. De Crecchio 7, Naples (Italy)

    2015-03-01

    In the present work, microporous membranes based on poly(ε-caprolactone) (PCL) and PCL functionalized with amine (PCL-DMAEA) or anhydride groups (PCL-MAGMA) were realized by solvent–non solvent phase inversion and proposed for use in Guided Tissue Regeneration (GTR). Nanowhiskers of hydroxyapatite (HA) were also incorporated in the polymer matrix to realize nanocomposite membranes. Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) showed improved interfacial adhesion with HA for functionalized polymers, and highlighted substantial differences in the porosity. A relationship between the developed porous structure of the membrane and the chemical nature of grafted groups was proposed. Compared to virgin PCL, hydrophilicity increases for functionalized PCL, while the addition of HA influences significantly the hydrophilic characteristics only in the case of virgin polymer. A significant increase of in vitro degradation rate was found for PCL-MAGMA based membranes, and at lower extent of PCL-DMAEA membranes. The novel materials were investigated regarding their potential as support for cell growth in bone repair using multipotent mesenchymal stromal cells (MSC) as a model. MSC plated onto the various membranes were analyzed in terms of adhesion, proliferation and osteogenic capacity that resulted to be related to chemical as well as porous structure. In particular, PCL-DMAEA and the relative nanocomposite membranes are the most promising in terms of cell-biomaterial interactions. - Graphical abstract: Functionalized PCL is used to realize nanocomposites with hydroxyapatite (HA) in the form of microporous membranes. The influence of different grafted groups on mechanical properties, in vitro degradation, porous membrane structure and interaction with mesenchymal stromal cells (MSC) is discussed. - Highlights: • Functionalized PCL shows faster in vitro degradation rate. • Functionalized PCL shows superior cell adhesion, proliferation and differentiation. • Nanocomposites based

  10. Functionalized PCL/HA nanocomposites as microporous membranes for bone regeneration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Basile, Maria Assunta; Gomez d'Ayala, Giovanna; Malinconico, Mario; Laurienzo, Paola; Coudane, Jean; Nottelet, Benjamin; Ragione, Fulvio Della; Oliva, Adriana

    2015-01-01

    In the present work, microporous membranes based on poly(ε-caprolactone) (PCL) and PCL functionalized with amine (PCL-DMAEA) or anhydride groups (PCL-MAGMA) were realized by solvent–non solvent phase inversion and proposed for use in Guided Tissue Regeneration (GTR). Nanowhiskers of hydroxyapatite (HA) were also incorporated in the polymer matrix to realize nanocomposite membranes. Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) showed improved interfacial adhesion with HA for functionalized polymers, and highlighted substantial differences in the porosity. A relationship between the developed porous structure of the membrane and the chemical nature of grafted groups was proposed. Compared to virgin PCL, hydrophilicity increases for functionalized PCL, while the addition of HA influences significantly the hydrophilic characteristics only in the case of virgin polymer. A significant increase of in vitro degradation rate was found for PCL-MAGMA based membranes, and at lower extent of PCL-DMAEA membranes. The novel materials were investigated regarding their potential as support for cell growth in bone repair using multipotent mesenchymal stromal cells (MSC) as a model. MSC plated onto the various membranes were analyzed in terms of adhesion, proliferation and osteogenic capacity that resulted to be related to chemical as well as porous structure. In particular, PCL-DMAEA and the relative nanocomposite membranes are the most promising in terms of cell-biomaterial interactions. - Graphical abstract: Functionalized PCL is used to realize nanocomposites with hydroxyapatite (HA) in the form of microporous membranes. The influence of different grafted groups on mechanical properties, in vitro degradation, porous membrane structure and interaction with mesenchymal stromal cells (MSC) is discussed. - Highlights: • Functionalized PCL shows faster in vitro degradation rate. • Functionalized PCL shows superior cell adhesion, proliferation and differentiation. • Nanocomposites based

  11. Avoimen lähdekoodin HA-tietokannat

    OpenAIRE

    Vartio, Sami

    2014-01-01

    Insinöörityössä perehdyttiin avoimen lähdekoodin periaatteisiin ja lisenssimalleihin sekä huomioitiin liiketaloudelliset lähtökohdat. Tavoitteena oli tutustua järjestelmän saatavuuteen sekä klusteroinnin periaatteisiin. Järjestelmän saatavuus (HA) on tietojärjestelmien suunnittelussa käytettävä käytäntö, joka pyrkii siihen että järjestelmä on aina käyttäjän käytettävissä. Aluksi käsiteltiin perustietoja sekä teoriaa. Tutkimuksen edetessä paneuduttiin laajemmin yleisimpiin avoimen lähdeko...

  12. Clinical significance of determination of serum HA, PCIII and ADA levels in patients with chronic hepatitis C

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Jing; Yu Fan; Zhao Changxin

    2006-01-01

    Objective: To explore the changes of serum HA, PCIII and ADA levels in patients with chronic hepatitis C. Methods: Serum HA, PCIII and ADA levels were detected with RIA in 42 cases with chronic hepatitis C and 35 controls. Results: The levels of serum HA, PC III and ADA in the patients were significantly higher than those in controls (P<0.01). Serum HA, PC m and ADA levels were positive correlated (r=0.6178, 0.6211, P<0.01). Conclusion: The results suggested the serum HA, PC m and ADA levels can reflect the degree of hepatic injury in the patients with cirrhosis, detection of serum HA, PC m and ADA levels is helpful in estimating the status of the disease. (authors)

  13. Vaccine-induced anti-HA2 antibodies promote virus fusion and enhance influenza virus respiratory disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khurana, Surender; Loving, Crystal L; Manischewitz, Jody; King, Lisa R; Gauger, Phillip C; Henningson, Jamie; Vincent, Amy L; Golding, Hana

    2013-08-28

    Vaccine-induced disease enhancement has been described in connection with several viral vaccines in animal models and in humans. We investigated a swine model to evaluate mismatched influenza vaccine-associated enhanced respiratory disease (VAERD) after pH1N1 infection. Vaccinating pigs with whole inactivated H1N2 (human-like) virus vaccine (WIV-H1N2) resulted in enhanced pneumonia and disease after pH1N1 infection. WIV-H1N2 immune sera contained high titers of cross-reactive anti-pH1N1 hemagglutinin (HA) antibodies that bound exclusively to the HA2 domain but not to the HA1 globular head. No hemagglutination inhibition titers against pH1N1 (challenge virus) were measured. Epitope mapping using phage display library identified the immunodominant epitope recognized by WIV-H1N2 immune sera as amino acids 32 to 77 of pH1N1-HA2 domain, close to the fusion peptide. These cross-reactive anti-HA2 antibodies enhanced pH1N1 infection of Madin-Darby canine kidney cells by promoting virus membrane fusion activity. The enhanced fusion activity correlated with lung pathology in pigs. This study suggests a role for fusion-enhancing anti-HA2 antibodies in VAERD, in the absence of receptor-blocking virus-neutralizing antibodies. These findings should be considered during the evaluation of universal influenza vaccines designed to elicit HA2 stem-targeting antibodies.

  14. Isothermal Crystallization Kinetics of HDPE/HA Compounds Irradiated with Sterilization Doses of Gamma Rays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Albano, C.

    2006-01-01

    The objective of this work was to study the isothermal crystallization of High Density Polyethylene/Hydroxyapatite nanocomposites, with 2 and 5 ppc of HA, irradiated with 25 kGy (sterilization dose) of γ-Ray from a 60 C o source, at a rate of 4.8 kGy/h in air and at room temperature. The selected crystallization temperatures were 118, 117, 116 and 115 degree. The crystallization kinetics was analyzed using the Avrami's model whose parameters were optimized using a non-linear regression technique. Regression results show that the Avrami exponent varies between 1.8 and 1.5, meaning that the spherulitic growth is mainly two dimensional. Values for specific crystallization constant 'k' were found to be higher for HDPE/HA compounds than for pure HDPE, clearly indicating the presence of an HA nucleation effect. It was also observed that values for the specific crystallization constant 'k' decreases with increasing temperatures, being this effect more noticeable for HDPE/HA compounds than for pure HDPE. Regarding to irradiated samples, their 'k' values were found to be lower than those for non irradiated samples, the difference getting more significant with decreasing crystallization temperature. Simulation of experimental data with the Avrami's model show a clear influence of the crystallization temperature, the HA content in the sample and the amount of applied radiation. It was also observed that the Avrami model correlates satisfactorily experimental data for not irradiated samples of pure HDPE and HDPE/HA compounds at the highest crystallization (T c ). However, as the crystallization temperature decreases, the values simulated with the Avrami model increasingly deviate from experimental data, specifically at the highest values of the relative crystallinity. This effect is even stronger on irradiated samples of HDPE and HDPE/HA compounds

  15. Development and characterization of poli composites (ether ether ketone)(PEEK)(Hydroxyapatite(HA)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ferreira, V.P.; Santos, F.S.F.; Sa, M.D. de; Fook, M.V.L.

    2016-01-01

    The objective of this work was to develop PEEK / HA composites, combining the biological activity of the ceramic phase with the properties of the polymer phase, the materials used in this research were Poly (ether-ether-ketone) (PEEK) and Hydroxyapatite (HA) (50, 60, 70 and 80% m / v HA), this material was subjected to a load of two tons followed by a thermal treatment at 390 ° for a period of 30 minutes. Then they were characterized by FTIR, DRX and MO. In the physical-chemical characterization of FTIR and XRD, it was not possible to identify significant alterations. In the FTIR spectra of the composites, there is no formation of new identifiable chemical bonds. In the composites XRD diffractograms a profile similar to the ceramic phase was observed, with peaks increasing in intensity and narrowing proportional to the increase of the hydroxyapatite concentration in the composites. In optical microscopy it is possible to observe surfaces with heterogeneous morphology, with signs of roughness and in the cross section we observe a heterogeneous aspect, rich in regions with large agglomerates and lighter particles. Considering the processing aspects, the technique proved to be effective for the development of PEEK /HA composites. (author)

  16. Effect of critical process parameters on the synthesis of chiral amines

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pirrung, Silvia; Lima Afonso Neto, Watson; Schwarze, Daniel

    equilibrium, the inhibition profiles for substrates and products but also on the possibilities for in-situ product removal (ISPR) and technologies for shifting the equilibrium. In a challenging process such as the synthesis of optically pure chiral amines using ω-transaminase, these decisions will have...... process parameters involved in the production of two chiral amines (S-methylbenzylamine and 3-amino-1-phenylbutane) (Figure 1) to demonstrate the effects of such decisions....

  17. Porous HA-Al2O3 composite characterization using corn starch as a porogen agent

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Silva, L.A.J. da; Galdino, A.G.S.; Cardoso, G.B.C.; Zavaglia, C.A.C.

    2011-01-01

    The porous ceramics based on hydroxyapatite have great potential for application in bone grafts due to its chemical similarity with the mineral phase of bone tissue, but have poor biomechanical properties, which cause limitations in its applications. This work aims to analyze the structural characteristics of porous ceramics obtained by addition of hydroxyapatite (HA, sintered in the laboratory), Corn Starch (CS, commercial) and Al 2 O 3 (ALCOA), at different temperatures. Samples were made of dense HA (100% HA), porous (70% HA - 30% CS) and with addition of 2.5%, 5% and 7.5% Al 2 O 3 porous composition. The samples were sintered at 1250°C, 1300 deg C and 135 0°C and characterized by: XRF, XRD, SEM and density by the Archimedes method. Concludes It is the possibility of obtaining samples porous HA / Al 2 O 3 using starch as porogenic agent. The temperature and concentration of Al 2 O 3 most appropriate were: 1250°C and 7.5%. (author)

  18. Study of the gamma irradiation effects on the PMMA/HA and PMMA/SW

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silva, P., E-mail: silva@ivic.v [Instituto Venezolano de Investigaciones Cientificas, Centro de Fisica, Carretera Panamericana Km. 11, Caracas 1020-A (Venezuela, Bolivarian Republic of); Albano, C. [Universidad Central de Venezuela, Facultad de Ingenieria (Venezuela, Bolivarian Republic of); Instituto Venezolano de Investigaciones Cientificas, Centro de Quimica (Venezuela, Bolivarian Republic of); Perera, R. [Departamento de Mecanica, Universidad Simon Bolivar, Caracas 1080-A (Venezuela, Bolivarian Republic of); Dominguez, N. [Instituto Venezolano de Investigaciones Cientificas, Centro de Quimica (Venezuela, Bolivarian Republic of)

    2010-03-15

    The behavior of the poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA) under the action of gamma radiation has been sufficiently studied. In this work, we present results from melt flow index (MFI), thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) and electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) of PMMA composites with hydroxyapatite (HA) and seaweed residues (SW) irradiated with gamma rays at 1.08 kGy/h. Composites of PMMA/HA and PMMA/SW with 10%, 20% and 30% of the filler were prepared. The results show an increase in the MFI values with the integral dose of radiation, being consistent with chain-scission reactions. No EPR signal was observed in pure PMMA, while in the composites, the typical EPR signal of the PMMA radicals was observed, which increased with the amount of HA or SW. When comparing the relative intensities of the EPR signals for both types of composites, a slight increase in the concentration of free radicals generated in the sample with SW respect to that of PMMA/HA composite was obtained. A decay of the total free radical concentration was observed as time elapsed.

  19. Does PEEK/HA Enhance Bone Formation Compared With PEEK in a Sheep Cervical Fusion Model?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walsh, William R; Pelletier, Matthew H; Bertollo, Nicky; Christou, Chris; Tan, Chris

    2016-11-01

    Polyetheretherketone (PEEK) has a wide range of clinical applications but does not directly bond to bone. Bulk incorporation of osteoconductive materials including hydroxyapatite (HA) into the PEEK matrix is a potential solution to address the formation of a fibrous tissue layer between PEEK and bone and has not been tested. Using in vivo ovine animal models, we asked: (1) Does PEEK-HA improve cortical and cancellous bone ongrowth compared with PEEK? (2) Does PEEK-HA improve bone ongrowth and fusion outcome in a more challenging functional ovine cervical fusion model? The in vivo responses of PEEK-HA Enhanced and PEEK-OPTIMA ® Natural were evaluated for bone ongrowth in the form of dowels implanted in the cancellous and cortical bone of adult sheep and examined at 4 and 12 weeks as well as interbody cervical fusion at 6, 12, and 26 weeks. The bone-implant interface was evaluated with radiographic and histologic endpoints for a qualitative assessment of direct bone contact of an intervening fibrous tissue later. Gamma-irradiated cortical allograft cages were evaluated as well. Incorporating HA into the PEEK matrix resulted in more direct bone apposition as opposed to the fibrous tissue interface with PEEK alone in the bone ongrowth as well as interbody cervical fusions. No adverse reactions were found at the implant-bone interface for either material. Radiography and histology revealed resorption and fracture of the allograft devices in vivo. Incorporating HA into PEEK provides a more favorable environment than PEEK alone for bone ongrowth. Cervical fusion was improved with PEEK-HA compared with PEEK alone as well as allograft bone interbody devices. Improving the bone-implant interface with a PEEK device by incorporating HA may improve interbody fusion results and requires further clinical studies.

  20. Epitope-Targeting of Tertiary Protein Structure Enables Target-Guided Synthesis of a Potent in Cell Inhibitor of Botulinum Neurotoxin**

    OpenAIRE

    Farrow, Blake; Wong, Michelle; Malette, Jacquie; Lai, Bert; Deyle, Kaycie M.; Das, Samir; Nag, Arundhati; Agnew, Heather D.; Heath, James R.

    2015-01-01

    Botulinum neurotoxin (BoNT) serotype A is the most lethal known toxin and has an occluded structure, which prevents direct inhibition of its active site before it enters the cytosol. Target-guided synthesis by in situ click chemistry is combined with synthetic epitope targeting to exploit the tertiary structure of the BoNT protein as a landscape for assembling a competitive inhibitor. A substrate-mimicking peptide macrocycle is used as a direct inhibitor of BoNT. An epitope-targeting in situ ...

  1. The In-Situ One-Step Synthesis of a PDC Macromolecular Pro-Drug and the Fabrication of a Novel Core-Shell Micell.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Cui-Yun; Yang, Sa; Li, Zhi-Ping; Huang, Can; Ning, Qian; Huang, Wen; Yang, Wen-Tong; He, Dongxiu; Sun, Lichun

    2016-01-01

    hydrophobicity of free DOX. This work proposes a novel strategy for in-situ one-step synthesis of macromolecular pro-drugs and fabrication of a core-shell micelle, demonstrating great potential for cancer chemotherapy.

  2. Decomposição in situ de folhas senescentes de pereira (Pyrus communis L. cv. Rocha In situ decomposition of pear (Pyrus communis L. cv. Rocha senescent leaves

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Neto

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available Estudou-se a variação da perda de peso e a contribuição das folhas senescentes de pereira (cv. Rocha para a restituição de azoto (N ao solo através da técnica dos sacos de decomposição in situ, colocados em Outubro de 2003 à superfície do solo dum pomar situado no Cadaval (Oeste de Portugal. Os sacos contendo folhas senescentes colhidas em pereiras com um ano de plantação e fertilizadas com três níveis de N (0, 10 e 40 kg N/ha, foram recolhidos em Dezembro de 2003, Janeiro, Fevereiro, Maio, Julho e Outubro de 2004 e Março de 2005. No mesmo pomar enterraram-se, em Outubro de 2003, 12 cilindros de PVC, contendo à superfície folhas senescentes de pereiras com três anos de plantação e fertilizadas com 40 kg N/ha de adubo enriquecido com 10% de átomos de 15N. Os cilindros foram recolhidos em Janeiro, Março, Junho e Novembro de 2004. Determinouse a variação do peso e os teores de N total e enriquecimento em 15N nos resíduos, e nas amostras de terra avaliaram-se os teores de N “total”, N-inorgânico e carbono (C orgânico, bem como os nitratos potencialmente lixiviados e adsorvidos em resinas de troca aniónica, em cada data. A decomposição in situ das folhas senescentes das pereiras ‘Rocha’ jovens variou significativamente com a fertilização azotada após 506 dias. As folhas provenientes da modalidade 0 kg N/ha apresentaram menor peso residual (21% do inicial e menor teor de N (44% do teor inicial de N comparativamente com as folhas resultantes das modalidades adubadas com N, no final do período em estudo. Padrão idêntico de comportamento verificou-se na decomposição in situ das folhas das árvores com três anos, colocada à superfície do solo dos cilindros de PVC enterrados. A mineralização do N destas folhas levou à disponibilização do N para as árvores no início do abrolhamento e a partir de Junho, não se tendo observado lixiviação do N mineral produzido.The weight loss of one year-old

  3. High Altitude Affects Nocturnal Non-linear Heart Rate Variability: PATCH-HA Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christopher J. Boos

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: High altitude (HA exposure can lead to changes in resting heart rate variability (HRV, which may be linked to acute mountain sickness (AMS development. Compared with traditional HRV measures, non-linear HRV appears to offer incremental and prognostic data, yet its utility and relationship to AMS have been barely examined at HA. This study sought to examine this relationship at terrestrial HA.Methods: Sixteen healthy British military servicemen were studied at baseline (800 m, first night and over eight consecutive nights, at a sleeping altitude of up to 3600 m. A disposable cardiac patch monitor was used, to record the nocturnal cardiac inter-beat interval data, over 1 h (0200–0300 h, for offline HRV assessment. Non-linear HRV measures included Sample entropy (SampEn, the short (α1, 4–12 beats and long-term (α2, 13–64 beats detrend fluctuation analysis slope and the correlation dimension (D2. The maximal rating of perceived exertion (RPE, during daily exercise, was assessed using the Borg 6–20 RPE scale.Results: All subjects completed the HA exposure. The average age of included subjects was 31.4 ± 8.1 years. HA led to a significant fall in SpO2 and increase in heart rate, LLS and RPE. There were no significant changes in the ECG-derived respiratory rate or in any of the time domain measures of HRV during sleep. The only notable changes in frequency domain measures of HRV were an increase in LF and fall in HFnu power at the highest altitude. Conversely, SampEn, SD1/SD2 and D2 all fell, whereas α1 and α2 increased (p < 0.05. RPE inversely correlated with SD1/SD2 (r = -0.31; p = 0.002, SampEn (r = -0.22; p = 0.03, HFnu (r = -0.27; p = 0.007 and positively correlated with LF (r = 0.24; p = 0.02, LF/HF (r = 0.24; p = 0.02, α1 (r = 0.32; p = 0.002 and α2 (r = 0.21; p = 0.04. AMS occurred in 7/16 subjects (43.8% and was very mild in 85.7% of cases. HRV failed to predict AMS.Conclusion: Non-linear HRV is more sensitive to the

  4. Ordered synthesis and mobilization of glycogen in the perfused heart

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brainard, J.R.; Hutson, J.Y.; Hoekenga, D.E.; Lenhoff, R.

    1989-01-01

    The molecular order of synthesis and mobilization of glycogen in the perfused heart was studied by 13 C NMR. By varying the glucose isotopomer ([1- 13 C]glucose or [2- 13 C]glucose) supplied to the heart, glycogen synthesized at different times during the perfusion was labeled at different carbon sites. Subsequently, the in situ mobilization of glycogen during ischemia was observed by detection of labeled lactate derived from glycolysis of the glucosyl monomers. When [1- 13 C]glucose was given initially in the perfusion and [2- 13 C]glucose was given second, [2- 13 C]lactate was detected first during ischemia and [3- 13 C]lactate second. This result, and the equivalent result when the glucose labels were given in the reverse order, demonstrates that glycogen synthesis and mobilization are ordered in the heart, where glycogen is found morphologically only as β particles. Previous studies of glycogen synthesis and mobilization in liver and adipocytes have suggested that the organization of β particles into α particles was partially responsible for ordered synthesis and mobilization. The observations reported here for cardiac glycogen suggest that another mechanism is responsible. In addition to examine the ordered synthesis and mobilization of cardiac glycogen, the authors have selectively monitored the NMR properties of 13 C-labeled glycogen synthesized early in the perfusion during further glycogen synthesis from a second, differently labeled substrate. During synthesis from the second labeled glucose monomer, the glycogen resonance from the first label decreased in integrated intensity and increased in line width. These results suggest either that there is significant isotopic exchange of glucosyl monomers in glycogen during net synthesis or that glucosyl residues incorporated into glycogen undergo motional restrictions as further glycogen synthesis occurs

  5. Rapid thermal processing chamber for in-situ x-ray diffraction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ahmad, Md. Imteyaz; Van Campen, Douglas G.; Yu, Jiafan; Pool, Vanessa L.; Van Hest, Maikel F. A. M.; Toney, Michael F., E-mail: mftoney@slac.stanford.edu [SSRL, SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory, 2575, Sand Hill Road, Menlo Park, California 94025 (United States); Fields, Jeremy D.; Parilla, Philip A.; Ginley, David S. [National Renewable Energy Laboratory, Golden, Colorado 80401 (United States)

    2015-01-15

    Rapid thermal processing (RTP) is widely used for processing a variety of materials, including electronics and photovoltaics. Presently, optimization of RTP is done primarily based on ex-situ studies. As a consequence, the precise reaction pathways and phase progression during the RTP remain unclear. More awareness of the reaction pathways would better enable process optimization and foster increased adoption of RTP, which offers numerous advantages for synthesis of a broad range of materials systems. To achieve this, we have designed and developed a RTP instrument that enables real-time collection of X-ray diffraction data with intervals as short as 100 ms, while heating with ramp rates up to 100 °Cs{sup −1}, and with a maximum operating temperature of 1200 °C. The system is portable and can be installed on a synchrotron beamline. The unique capabilities of this instrument are demonstrated with in-situ characterization of a Bi{sub 2}O{sub 3}-SiO{sub 2} glass frit obtained during heating with ramp rates 5 °C s{sup −1} and 100 °C s{sup −1}, revealing numerous phase changes.

  6. The Renal Protective Effects of Corn Silk and Feijoa by using in situ Rat Renal System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Karami

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: Corn silk (CS is widely used in Iranian traditional medicine. Feijoa sellowiana (FS, on the other hand, is a non-native plant widespread in the southern part of Iran. The aim of the present study was to examine the renal protective activity of CS and FS against dosage-induced ecstasy (MDMA by in situ rat renal perfusion (IRRP system. Methods: Hydro-alcoholic extracts of CS and FS (10, 20, 40 and 100 mg/ kg were studied for their renal protective activities by IRRP system. In this study, the kidneys were perfused with Kerbs-Henseleit buffer, containing different concentrations of hydro-alcoholic (HA extracts of CS and FS (10, 20, 40, 50, and 100mg/kg added to the buffer and perfused for two hours. During the perfusion, many factors, including urea, creatinine and GSH levels assessed as indicator of renal viability. Consequently, sections of renal tissue were examined for any histopathological changes. Results: The results showed that histopathological changes in renal tissue related to HA extract of CS AND FS concentrations dose-dependently. Doses of 50, 100 mg/kg caused significant histopathological changes (P<0.05. Glutathione (GSH levels of samples perfused by HA extract of CS and FS increased compared with the positive control group. Conclusion: Renal protective effects of CS and FS decrease lipid peroxidation, although other mechanisms may also be involved.

  7. Understanding the undelaying mechanism of HA-subtyping in the level of physic-chemical characteristics of protein.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ebrahimi, Mansour; Aghagolzadeh, Parisa; Shamabadi, Narges; Tahmasebi, Ahmad; Alsharifi, Mohammed; Adelson, David L; Hemmatzadeh, Farhid; Ebrahimie, Esmaeil

    2014-01-01

    The evolution of the influenza A virus to increase its host range is a major concern worldwide. Molecular mechanisms of increasing host range are largely unknown. Influenza surface proteins play determining roles in reorganization of host-sialic acid receptors and host range. In an attempt to uncover the physic-chemical attributes which govern HA subtyping, we performed a large scale functional analysis of over 7000 sequences of 16 different HA subtypes. Large number (896) of physic-chemical protein characteristics were calculated for each HA sequence. Then, 10 different attribute weighting algorithms were used to find the key characteristics distinguishing HA subtypes. Furthermore, to discover machine leaning models which can predict HA subtypes, various Decision Tree, Support Vector Machine, Naïve Bayes, and Neural Network models were trained on calculated protein characteristics dataset as well as 10 trimmed datasets generated by attribute weighting algorithms. The prediction accuracies of the machine learning methods were evaluated by 10-fold cross validation. The results highlighted the frequency of Gln (selected by 80% of attribute weighting algorithms), percentage/frequency of Tyr, percentage of Cys, and frequencies of Try and Glu (selected by 70% of attribute weighting algorithms) as the key features that are associated with HA subtyping. Random Forest tree induction algorithm and RBF kernel function of SVM (scaled by grid search) showed high accuracy of 98% in clustering and predicting HA subtypes based on protein attributes. Decision tree models were successful in monitoring the short mutation/reassortment paths by which influenza virus can gain the key protein structure of another HA subtype and increase its host range in a short period of time with less energy consumption. Extracting and mining a large number of amino acid attributes of HA subtypes of influenza A virus through supervised algorithms represent a new avenue for understanding and

  8. Understanding the undelaying mechanism of HA-subtyping in the level of physic-chemical characteristics of protein.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mansour Ebrahimi

    Full Text Available The evolution of the influenza A virus to increase its host range is a major concern worldwide. Molecular mechanisms of increasing host range are largely unknown. Influenza surface proteins play determining roles in reorganization of host-sialic acid receptors and host range. In an attempt to uncover the physic-chemical attributes which govern HA subtyping, we performed a large scale functional analysis of over 7000 sequences of 16 different HA subtypes. Large number (896 of physic-chemical protein characteristics were calculated for each HA sequence. Then, 10 different attribute weighting algorithms were used to find the key characteristics distinguishing HA subtypes. Furthermore, to discover machine leaning models which can predict HA subtypes, various Decision Tree, Support Vector Machine, Naïve Bayes, and Neural Network models were trained on calculated protein characteristics dataset as well as 10 trimmed datasets generated by attribute weighting algorithms. The prediction accuracies of the machine learning methods were evaluated by 10-fold cross validation. The results highlighted the frequency of Gln (selected by 80% of attribute weighting algorithms, percentage/frequency of Tyr, percentage of Cys, and frequencies of Try and Glu (selected by 70% of attribute weighting algorithms as the key features that are associated with HA subtyping. Random Forest tree induction algorithm and RBF kernel function of SVM (scaled by grid search showed high accuracy of 98% in clustering and predicting HA subtypes based on protein attributes. Decision tree models were successful in monitoring the short mutation/reassortment paths by which influenza virus can gain the key protein structure of another HA subtype and increase its host range in a short period of time with less energy consumption. Extracting and mining a large number of amino acid attributes of HA subtypes of influenza A virus through supervised algorithms represent a new avenue for

  9. Consolidation de centres de recherche sur la reconstruction en Haïti ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Haïti doit encore relever des défis de taille en ce qui a trait à l'édification de l'État et à la démocratisation. Un groupe de pays latino-américains assume un rôle de premier plan au sein des forces de maintien de la paix coordonnées par la Mission des Nations Unies pour la stabilisation en Haïti (MINUSTAH). L'efficacité de ...

  10. Mechanical properties of titanium-hydroxyapatite (Ti-HA) composite coating on stainless steel prepared by thermal spraying

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosmamuhamadani, R.; Azhar, N. H.; Talari, M. K.; Yahaya, Sabrina M.; Sulaiman, S.; Ismail, M. I. S.

    2017-09-01

    Addition of hydroxyapatite (HA) can enhance the bioactivity of the common metallic implant due to its similarity with natural bones and teeth. In this investigation, high velocity oxy-fuel (HVOFT) technique was used to deposit titanium-hydroxyapatite (Ti-HA) composite on stainless steel substrate plate with different percentage of HA for biomedical applications. The aim of this research is to investigate the mechanical properties of Ti-HA coating such as hardness, adhesion strength and wear behaviour. The hardness and strength was determined by using SHIMADZU-microhardness Vickers tester and PosiTest AT portable adhesion tester respectively. The wear test was performed by using pin-on-disk equipment and field emission scanning electron microscope (FESEM) used to determine the extent of surface damage. From the results obtained, mechanical properties such as hardness and adhesion strength of titanium (Ti) coating decreased with the increased of HA contents. Meanwhile, the coefficient of friction of Ti-10% HA coating shows the highest value compare to others as three-body abrasion had occurred during the test.

  11. A facile one-pot synthesis of ruthenium hydroxide nanoparticles on magnetic silica: Aqueous hydration of nitriles to amides

    Science.gov (United States)

    One-pot synthesis of ruthenium hydroxide nanoparticles on magnetic silica is described which involve the in situ generation of magnetic silica (Fe3O4@ SiO2) and ruthenium hydroxide immobilization; the hydration of nitriles occurs in high yield and excellent selectivity using this...

  12. The use of physiological solutions or media in calcium phosphate synthesis and processing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tas, A Cuneyt

    2014-05-01

    This review examined the literature to spot uses, if any, of physiological solutions/media for the in situ synthesis of calcium phosphates (CaP) under processing conditions (i.e. temperature, pH, concentration of inorganic ions present in media) mimicking those prevalent in the human hard tissue environments. There happens to be a variety of aqueous solutions or media developed for different purposes; sometimes they have been named as physiological saline, isotonic solution, cell culture solution, metastable CaP solution, supersaturated calcification solution, simulated body fluid or even dialysate solution (for dialysis patients). Most of the time such solutions were not used as the aqueous medium to perform the biomimetic synthesis of calcium phosphates, and their use was usually limited to the in vitro testing of synthetic biomaterials. This review illustrates that only a limited number of research studies used physiological solutions or media such as Earle's balanced salt solution, Bachra et al. solutions or Tris-buffered simulated body fluid solution containing 27mM HCO3(-) for synthesizing CaP, and these studies have consistently reported the formation of X-ray-amorphous CaP nanopowders instead of Ap-CaP or stoichiometric hydroxyapatite (HA, Ca10(PO4)6(OH)2) at 37°C and pH 7.4. By relying on the published articles, this review highlights the significance of the use of aqueous solutions containing 0.8-1.5 mMMg(2+), 22-27mM HCO3(-), 142-145mM Na(+), 5-5.8mM K(+), 103-133mM Cl(-), 1.8-3.75mM Ca(2+), and 0.8-1.67mM HPO4(2-), which essentially mimic the composition and the overall ionic strength of the human extracellular fluid (ECF), in forming the nanospheres of X-ray-amorphous CaP. Copyright © 2013 Acta Materialia Inc. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. In Situ Tagged nsp15 Reveals Interactions with Coronavirus Replication/Transcription Complex-Associated Proteins

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeremiah Athmer

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Coronavirus (CoV replication and transcription are carried out in close proximity to restructured endoplasmic reticulum (ER membranes in replication/transcription complexes (RTC. Many of the CoV nonstructural proteins (nsps are required for RTC function; however, not all of their functions are known. nsp15 contains an endoribonuclease domain that is conserved in the CoV family. While the enzymatic activity and crystal structure of nsp15 are well defined, its role in replication remains elusive. nsp15 localizes to sites of RNA replication, but whether it acts independently or requires additional interactions for its function remains unknown. To begin to address these questions, we created an in situ tagged form of nsp15 using the prototypic CoV, mouse hepatitis virus (MHV. In MHV, nsp15 contains the genomic RNA packaging signal (P/S, a 95-bp RNA stem-loop structure that is not required for viral replication or nsp15 function. Utilizing this knowledge, we constructed an internal hemagglutinin (HA tag that replaced the P/S. We found that nsp15-HA was localized to discrete perinuclear puncta and strongly colocalized with nsp8 and nsp12, both well-defined members of the RTC, but not the membrane (M protein, involved in virus assembly. Finally, we found that nsp15 interacted with RTC-associated proteins nsp8 and nsp12 during infection, and this interaction was RNA independent. From this, we conclude that nsp15 localizes and interacts with CoV proteins in the RTC, suggesting it plays a direct or indirect role in virus replication. Furthermore, the use of in situ epitope tags could be used to determine novel nsp-nsp interactions in coronaviruses.

  14. Duality of solar UV-B radiation and relevant dosimetry: vitamin D synthesis versus skin erythema

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terenetskaya, Irina P.

    2003-06-01

    Solar ultraviolet radiation (UVR) gives rise to beneficial or adverse health effects depending on the dose. Excessive UV exposures are associated with acute and chronic health effect but in appropriate doses UV sunlight is advisable. Important biological function of UVR is initiation of endogenous synthesis of vitamin D in human skin. A useful method based on an in vitro model of vitamin D synthesis ('D-dosimeter') has been specially developed to measure the vitamin D synthetic capacity of sunlight in situ. For the first time laboratory and field tests have been performed to link commonly used erythemal units (MEDs) and previtamin D accumulation.

  15. Continuous microwave flow synthesis of mesoporous hydroxyapatite

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Akram, Muhammad; Alshemary, Ammar Z.; Goh, Yi-Fan; Wan Ibrahim, Wan Aini; Lintang, Hendrik O.; Hussain, Rafaqat

    2015-01-01

    We have successfully used continuous microwave flow synthesis (CMFS) technique for the template free synthesis of mesoporous hydroxyapatite. The continuous microwave flow reactor consisted of a modified 2.45 GHz household microwave, peristaltic pumps and a Teflon coil. This cost effective and efficient system was exploited to produce semi-crystalline phase pure nano-sized hydroxyapatite. Effect of microwave power, retention time and the concentration of reactants on the phase purity, degree of crystallinity and surface area of the final product was studied in detail. X-ray diffraction (XRD) and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) were used to study the phase purity and composition of the product, while transmission electron microscopy (TEM) was used to study the effect of process parameters on the morphology of hydroxyapatite. The TEM analysis confirmed the formation of spherical particles at low microwave power; however the morphology of the particles changed to mesoporous needle and rod-like structure upon exposing the reaction mixture to higher microwave power and longer retention time inside the microwave. The in-vitro ion dissolution behavior of the as synthesized hydroxyapatite was studied by determining the amount of Ca 2+ ion released in SBF solution. - Highlights: • Continuous microwave flow synthesis method was used to prepare hydroxyapatite. • Increase in microwave power enhanced the degree of crystallinity. • TEM images confirmed the presence of mesopores on the surface of HA

  16. Continuous microwave flow synthesis of mesoporous hydroxyapatite

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Akram, Muhammad; Alshemary, Ammar Z.; Goh, Yi-Fan; Wan Ibrahim, Wan Aini [Department of Chemistry, Universiti Teknologi Malaysia, 81310 UTM Johor Bahru, Johor (Malaysia); Lintang, Hendrik O. [Centre for Sustainable Nanomaterials (CSNano), Ibnu Sina Institute for Scientific and Industrial Research, Universiti Teknologi Malaysia, 81310 UTM Johor Bahru, Johor (Malaysia); Hussain, Rafaqat, E-mail: rafaqat@kimia.fs.utm.my [Centre for Sustainable Nanomaterials (CSNano), Ibnu Sina Institute for Scientific and Industrial Research, Universiti Teknologi Malaysia, 81310 UTM Johor Bahru, Johor (Malaysia)

    2015-11-01

    We have successfully used continuous microwave flow synthesis (CMFS) technique for the template free synthesis of mesoporous hydroxyapatite. The continuous microwave flow reactor consisted of a modified 2.45 GHz household microwave, peristaltic pumps and a Teflon coil. This cost effective and efficient system was exploited to produce semi-crystalline phase pure nano-sized hydroxyapatite. Effect of microwave power, retention time and the concentration of reactants on the phase purity, degree of crystallinity and surface area of the final product was studied in detail. X-ray diffraction (XRD) and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) were used to study the phase purity and composition of the product, while transmission electron microscopy (TEM) was used to study the effect of process parameters on the morphology of hydroxyapatite. The TEM analysis confirmed the formation of spherical particles at low microwave power; however the morphology of the particles changed to mesoporous needle and rod-like structure upon exposing the reaction mixture to higher microwave power and longer retention time inside the microwave. The in-vitro ion dissolution behavior of the as synthesized hydroxyapatite was studied by determining the amount of Ca{sup 2+} ion released in SBF solution. - Highlights: • Continuous microwave flow synthesis method was used to prepare hydroxyapatite. • Increase in microwave power enhanced the degree of crystallinity. • TEM images confirmed the presence of mesopores on the surface of HA.

  17. Magneto-optical and catalytic properties of Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4}@HA@Ag magnetic nanocomposite

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Amir, Md., E-mail: mdamir01031001@gmail.com [Department of Chemistry, Fatih University, 34500 B.Çekmece-İstanbul, Turkey (Turkey); Bio & Nanotechnology Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, Istanbul University, 34452 Beyazıt/Fatih-İstanbul (Turkey); Güner, S. [Department of Physics, Fatih University, 34500 B.Çekmece-İstanbul, Turkey (Turkey); Yıldız, A. [Department of Textile Engineering, Namık Kemal University, 59860 Çorlu-Tekirdağ, Turkey (Turkey); Baykal, A. [Department of Chemistry, Fatih University, 34500 B.Çekmece-İstanbul, Turkey (Turkey)

    2017-01-01

    Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4}@HA@Ag magnetic nanocomposites (MNCs) were successfully synthesized by the simple reflux method for the removal of azo dyes from the industrial aqueous media. Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4}@HA@AgMNCs exhibited high catalytic activity to reduce MB within 20 min from the waste water. The obtained materials were characterized by the means of different techniques. Powder X-ray diffraction (XRD) analysis confirmed the single-phase of Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4} spinel structure. SEM and TEM analysis indicated that Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4}@HA@AgMNCs were nanoparticles like structure with small agglomeration. TG result showed that the products contained 9% of HA. The characteristic peaks of HA at 1601 cm{sup −1} and 1703 cm{sup −1} was observed by the means of FT-IR spectra of Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4}@HA@AgMNCs. The hysteresis (σ–H) curves revealed Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4}@HA@Ag MNCs exhibit a typical superparamagnetic characteristic with a saturation magnetization of 59.11 emu/g and measured magnetic moment is 2.45 µ{sub B}. The average magnetic particle dimension (D{sub mag}) is 13.25 nm. In accordance, the average crystallite and particle dimensions were obtained as 11.50 nm and 13.10 nm from XRD and TEM measurements, respectively. Magnetocrystalline anisotropy was offered as uniaxial and calculated effective anisotropy constant (K{sub eff}) is 2.96×10{sup 5} Erg/g. The blocking temperature was estimated as 522 K. The size-dependent saturation magnetization suggests the existence of a magnetically dead layer as 0.793 nm for Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4}@HA@Ag MNCs. The UV–vis diffuse reflectance spectroscopy (DRS) and Kubelka–Munk theory were applied to determine the optical properties of powder samples. The direct optical energy band gap (E{sub g}) values were estimated from Tauc plots between 1.62 eV and 2.12 eV. - Graphical abstract: An illustration for the fabrication of Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4}@HA@Ag MNCs. - Highlights: • The reduction of azo dye such Methylene Blue was instantly completed with

  18. Synthesis of hydroxyapatite/multi-walled carbon nanotubes for the removal of fluoride ions from solution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruan, Zhongyuan; Tian, Yaxi; Ruan, Jifu; Cui, Guijia; Iqbal, Kanwal; Iqbal, Anam; Ye, Herui; Yang, Zhangzhong; Yan, Shiqiang

    2017-08-01

    A novel composite material, hydroxyapatite (HA)-multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs), was prepared using a simple in-situ sol-gel method, and was used for the first time to remove fluoride from water. The novel HA-MWCNTs were characterized using TEM, FT-IR, BET and XRD analysis. The TEM and SAED results revealed that the MWCNTs were uniformly encapsulated by hydroxyapatite nanoparticles. The synthesized HA-MWCNTs had a high specific surface area (180.504 m2 g-1), with an average pore width (14.607 nm) and pore volume (0.774 cm3 g-1), which produced a defluoridation capacity (DC) of 30.22 mgF- g-1. This value was greater than unmodified hydroxyapatite (HA), which exhibited a larger specific surface area (172.233 m2 g-1) and an excellent DC of 17.80 mgF- g-1. A number of pertinent parameters that could affect the defluoridation performance of the HA/MWCNTs including weight ratios of the two key materials, solution pH and competing anions were carefully and comprehensively examined. It was found that the adsorption results followed the Langmuir and Freundlich isotherm model, and the sorption kinetics of the F- appeared to exhibit a pseudo second order. Moreover, the adsorption reaction was spontaneous and endothermic and appeared to exhibit a higher initial adsorption rate. This reaction appeared to occur result from both anion exchange and electrostatic interactions. When the HA-MWCNTs (MH6) were at an adsorbent dose of 2.0 g L-1, they were able to decrease the fluoride concentration of actual nuclear industry wastewater from 8.79 mg L-1 to about 0.25 mg L-1 (97.15% removal efficiency). The experimental results of this study showed that the HA-MWCNTs composites have application potential for the removal of fluoride ions from wastewater.

  19. CuI-Catalyzed: One-Pot Synthesis of Diaryl Disulfides from Aryl Halides and Carbon Disulfide

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Soleiman-Beigi

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available A new application of carbon disulfide in the presence of KF/Al2O3 is reported for the synthesis of organic symmetrical diaryl disulfides. These products were synthesized by one-pot reaction of aryl halides with the in situ generated trithiocarbonate ion in the presence of copper under air atmosphere.

  20. Antibiotic-containing hyaluronic acid gel as an antibacterial carrier: Usefulness of sponge and film-formed HA gel in deep infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsuno, Hiroaki; Yudoh, Kazuo; Hashimoto, Masamichi; Himeda, Yasukazu; Miyoshi, Teruzo; Yoshida, Kaoru; Kano, Syogo

    2006-03-01

    We have developed a novel bioabsorbable antibacterial carrier using hyaluronic acid (HA) gel for prevention and treatment of orthopedic infections. In this study, we investigated the in vivo antibacterial effects of two forms of this new material, an HA gel sponge and an HA gel film. A titanium cylinder was inserted into the intramedullary cavity of each rabbit femur, along with an HA gel sponge or HA gel film containing antibiotics. The HA gel sponge contained gentamycin, vancomycin, tobramycin, or minomycin. The HA gel film contained gentamycin or vancomycin. After 0, 7, and 14 days, the rabbit bone marrow was collected, and the antibacterial activity of the HA gel was determined by agar diffusion test. As a control, we used Septocoll, a commercially available antibacterial carrier. Both the HA gel sponge and HA gel film exhibited antibacterial activity. The present results indicate that HA gel containing antibiotics is a clinically useful bioabsorbable antibacterial carrier. Copyright 2006 Orthopaedic Research Society.

  1. In situ crystallization of b-oriented MFI films on plane and curved substrates coated with a mesoporous silica layer

    KAUST Repository

    Deng, Zhiyong

    2013-05-01

    A simple and reproducible method is presented for preparing b-oriented MFI films on plane (disc) and curved (hollow fiber) supports by in situ hydrothermal synthesis. A mesoporous silica (sub-)layer was pre-coated on the supports by dip coating followed by a rapid thermal calcination step (973 K during 1 min) to reduce the number of grain boundaries while keeping the hydrophilic behavior of silica. The role of the silica sub-layer is not only to smoothen the substrate surface, but also to provide a silica source to promote the nucleation and growth of zeolite crystals via a heterogeneous nucleation mechanism (zeolitization), and adsorb zeolite moieties generated in the synthesis solution via a homogeneous nucleation mechanism. A monolayer of b-oriented MFI crystals was obtained on both supports after 3 h synthesis time with a moderate degree of twinning on the surface. © 2013 Elsevier Ltd.

  2. High-Throughput Platform for Synthesis of Melamine-Formaldehyde Microcapsules.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Çakir, Seda; Bauters, Erwin; Rivero, Guadalupe; Parasote, Tom; Paul, Johan; Du Prez, Filip E

    2017-07-10

    The synthesis of microcapsules via in situ polymerization is a labor-intensive and time-consuming process, where many composition and process factors affect the microcapsule formation and its morphology. Herein, we report a novel combinatorial technique for the preparation of melamine-formaldehyde microcapsules, using a custom-made and automated high-throughput platform (HTP). After performing validation experiments for ensuring the accuracy and reproducibility of the novel platform, a design of experiment study was performed. The influence of different encapsulation parameters was investigated, such as the effect of the surfactant, surfactant type, surfactant concentration and core/shell ratio. As a result, this HTP-platform is suitable to be used for the synthesis of different types of microcapsules in an automated and controlled way, allowing the screening of different reaction parameters in a shorter time compared to the manual synthetic techniques.

  3. Hydrothermal synthesis of hydroxyapatite nanoparticles decorated with silver nanoparticles for application in biomaterials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Assis, Jordanna Fernandes; Arantes, Tatiane Moraes; Cristovan, F.H.; Tada, Dayane Batista

    2016-01-01

    Full text: The hydroxyapatite nanoparticles (HA) have research attention because are material that exhibit biocompatibility with bone mineral phase of human body is great interest in the scientific community. Synthetic hydroxyapatite nanoparticles have excellent biocompatibility and bioactivity, due biocompatibility and osteo inducibility [1-3]. The hydroxyapatite nanoparticles were synthesized by hydrothermal processing and were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), Raman spectroscopy and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The XRD and Raman spectra showed crystalline hydroxyapatite colloidal nanoparticles were obtained in the hexagonal phase. XRD measure showed silver diffraction peaks cubic phase confirmed the presence of the silver nanoparticles decorated hydroxyapatite surface. TEM images showed HA nanoparticles presented a well defined nanorod shapes and narrow size distributions with dimensions (width and length) around of 5 nm and 50 nm decorated with silver nanoparticles of spherical shape about 20 nm in diameter The results showed that crystalline hydroxyapatite colloidal nanoparticles with rod-like morphology and uniform decorated with silver spherical nanoparticles size were obtained by hydrothermal synthesis. These nanoparticles The cell viability of the HA and HA/Ag was analyzed by reduction of the tetrazolium salt (MTT test). Embryonic mouse fibroblast cells were grown in the presence of nanoparticles for a total period of 96 hours. Analyses were made in 24h, 48h, 72h and 96h. The suspensions at the end of each period were analyzed in spectrophotometer. The 24h experiments were the most conclusive, with the silver presence in the HA, there is an increased in cellular proliferation. The results demonstrated that the HA/Ag nanoparticles have potential use as biomaterials in medical/odontological applications. (author)

  4. Hydrothermal synthesis of hydroxyapatite nanoparticles decorated with silver nanoparticles for application in biomaterials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Assis, Jordanna Fernandes; Arantes, Tatiane Moraes, E-mail: fernandes.jordanna9@gmail.com [Universidade Federal de Goias (UFG), Goiania (Brazil); Cristovan, F.H.; Tada, Dayane Batista [Universidade Federal de Sao Paulo (UNIFESP), Sao Jose dos Campos, SP (Brazil)

    2016-07-01

    Full text: The hydroxyapatite nanoparticles (HA) have research attention because are material that exhibit biocompatibility with bone mineral phase of human body is great interest in the scientific community. Synthetic hydroxyapatite nanoparticles have excellent biocompatibility and bioactivity, due biocompatibility and osteo inducibility [1-3]. The hydroxyapatite nanoparticles were synthesized by hydrothermal processing and were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), Raman spectroscopy and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The XRD and Raman spectra showed crystalline hydroxyapatite colloidal nanoparticles were obtained in the hexagonal phase. XRD measure showed silver diffraction peaks cubic phase confirmed the presence of the silver nanoparticles decorated hydroxyapatite surface. TEM images showed HA nanoparticles presented a well defined nanorod shapes and narrow size distributions with dimensions (width and length) around of 5 nm and 50 nm decorated with silver nanoparticles of spherical shape about 20 nm in diameter The results showed that crystalline hydroxyapatite colloidal nanoparticles with rod-like morphology and uniform decorated with silver spherical nanoparticles size were obtained by hydrothermal synthesis. These nanoparticles The cell viability of the HA and HA/Ag was analyzed by reduction of the tetrazolium salt (MTT test). Embryonic mouse fibroblast cells were grown in the presence of nanoparticles for a total period of 96 hours. Analyses were made in 24h, 48h, 72h and 96h. The suspensions at the end of each period were analyzed in spectrophotometer. The 24h experiments were the most conclusive, with the silver presence in the HA, there is an increased in cellular proliferation. The results demonstrated that the HA/Ag nanoparticles have potential use as biomaterials in medical/odontological applications. (author)

  5. Effect of plagiochin E, an antifungal macrocyclic bis(bibenzyl), on cell wall chitin synthesis in Candida albicans

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xiu-zhen WU; Ai-xia CHENG; Ling-mei SUN; Hong-xiang LOU

    2008-01-01

    Aim: To investigate the effect of plagiochin E (PLE), an antifungal macrocyclic bis(bibenzyl) isolated from liverwort Marchantia polymorpha L, on cell wall chitin synthesis in Candida albicans. Methods: The effect of PLE on chitin synthesis in Candida albicans was investigated at the cellular and molecular lev-els. First, the ultrastructural changes were observed under transmission electron microscopy (TEM). Second, the effects of PLE on chitin synthetase (Chs) activi-ties in vitro were assayed using 6-O-dansyl-N-acetylglucosamine as a fluorescent substrate, and its effect on chitin synthesis in situ was assayed by spheroplast regeneration. Finally, real-time RT-PCR was performed to assay its effect on the expression of Chs genes (CHS). Results: Observation under TEM showed that the structure of the cell wall in Candida albicans was seriously damaged, which suggested that the antifungal activity of PLE was associated with its effect on the cell wail. Enzymatic assays and spheroplast regeneration showed that PLE inhibited chitin synthesis in vitro and in situ. The results of the PCR showed that PLE significantly downregulated the expression of CHS1, and upregulated the expression of CHS2 and CHS3. Because different Chs is regulated at different stages of transcription and post-translation, the downregulation of CHS1 would decrease the level of Chs 1 and inhibit its activity, and the inhibitory effects of PLE on Chs2 and Chs3 would be at the post-translational level or by the inhibi-tion on the enzyme-active center. Conclusion: These results indicate that the antifungal activity of PLE would be attributed to its inhibitory effect on cell wall chitin synthesis in Candida albicans.

  6. Bone Tissue Response to Nano-HA-ZrO2 Compound Bioceramics%纳米增韧HA-ZrO2生物陶瓷与骨缺损断面的结合性能观察

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孟志兵; 唐月军; 郭军; 吕春堂; 周中华

    2013-01-01

    目的:观察纳米增韧HA-ZrO2生物陶瓷植入体与骨断面的结合情况.方法:12只健康成年新西兰大白兔,双侧下颌骨制备洞穿性骨缺损,一侧植入纳米增韧HA-ZrO2生物陶瓷,对侧植入HA(羟基磷灰石)材料,4、8、12周时取材,进行X线摄片观察、材料顶出实验、硬组织切片,比较观察2组骨与材料界面结合情况.结果:X线片和硬组织切片观察结果显示4、8周时HA-ZrO2、HA和骨断面结合不良,12周时发现两种材料均和骨断面结合良好,少部分区域有纤维组织包绕.4、8、12周纳米增韧HA-ZrO2组抗剪切强度分别为(2.36±1.04)、(10.65±1.48)和(30.95±3.67)MPa,不同时间段的组内差异有统计学意义;4、8、12周HA组抗剪切强度分别为(2.27±1.12)、(12.33±1.57)和(31.05±3.44)MPa,不同时间段组内比较差异有统计学意义(P<0.01);但同时间段的结果组间比较,差异无统计学意义(P>0.05).结论:初步认为纳米增韧HA-ZrO2生物陶瓷和骨断面,可以取得与HA类似的较好结合,但是如何在尽量短的时间内使其与骨断面完全结合,还需要进一步的研究.%Objective:The purpose of the present study was to observe the combination of the interface between nanoHA-ZrO2 compound bioceramics and bone tissue.Methods:12 healthy adult New Zealand rabbits were used in the study.Nano-HA-ZrO2 compound bioceramics were placed in one side of the mandible.On the other side,HA were placed as control.Animals were sacrificed at 4、8、12 weeks after operation,histological sections and the interface shear strength were evaluated.X-ray examination were also performed to observe the interface between the bone,nano-HA-ZrO2,and HA bioceramics materials.Results:Hard tissue section and X-rays examination showed a good interface osseointegration appeared at 12 weeks in nano-HA-ZrO2 ceramic group,as well as in HA group.Fibrous tissue manifested in some areas of the interface.Incomplete osseointegration were shown in the

  7. New Synthesis and Tritium Labeling of a Selective Ligand for Studying High-affinity γ-Hydroxybutyrate (GHB) Binding Sites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vogensen, Stine B.; Marek, Aleš; Bay, Tina; Wellendorph, Petrine; Kehler, Jan; Bundgaard, Christoffer; Frølund, Bente; Pedersen, Martin H.F.; Clausen, Rasmus P.

    2013-01-01

    3-Hydroxycyclopent-1-enecarboxylic acid (HOCPCA, 1) is a potent ligand for the high-affinity GHB binding sites in the CNS. An improved synthesis of 1 together with a very efficient synthesis of [3H]-1 is described. The radiosynthesis employs in situ generated lithium trimethoxyborotritide. Screening of 1 against different CNS targets establishes a high selectivity and we demonstrate in vivo brain penetration. In vitro characterization of [3H]-1 binding shows high specificity to the high-affinity GHB binding sites. PMID:24053696

  8. Improving natural resource management in Viet Nam's Hong Ha ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    2011-07-15

    Jul 15, 2011 ... Improving natural resource management in Viet Nam's Hong Ha commune ... In this work, the research team helped local farmers improve their land ... with a home garden economy, limit forest destruction, diversify crop production, ... low female participation rates in decision making; limited education; rapid ...

  9. Rapid sensing of melamine in milk by interference green synthesis of silver nanoparticles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Varun, S.; Kiruba Daniel, S.C.G.; Gorthi, Sai Siva, E-mail: saisiva.gorthi@iap.iisc.ernet.in

    2017-05-01

    A highly sensitive, selective, and rapid interference green synthesis based determination of potential milk adulterant melamine has been reported here. Melamine is a nitrogenous compound added to milk for mimicking proteins, consumption of which leads to kidney stones and renal failures. Melamine interacts with ascorbic acid (AA) through strong hydrogen-bonding interactions, thus resulting in an interference/interruption in the formation of silver (Ag) nanoparticles which was confirmed by UV–Vis spectroscopy and Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM). The corresponding benchmark validations for melamine spiked milk samples were performed using High Performance Liquid Chromatography (HPLC). This interference in the formation of Ag nanoparticles resulted in color change that varies with concentration of melamine, thereby enabling in-situ rapid sensing of melamine from milk to a lower limit of 0.1 ppm with a linear correlation coefficient of 0.9908. - Highlights: • Rapid detection of milk adulterant melamine based on interference green synthesis. • Green chemical ascorbic acid used as the reducing agent for interference sensing. • Enabling in-situ sensing of melamine from milk with a limit of detection of 0.1 ppm. • Presence of analyte inhibits the nanoparticle formation.

  10. Deformation and recrystallization of Nb-10Si in-situ composite

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saqib, M.; Thirukkonda, M.; Cockeram, B.; Srinivasan, R.; Weiss, I.

    1993-01-01

    Materials for elevated temperature applications require a balance of strength, fracture toughness, mechanical and microstructural stability over the temperature range between room temperature and service temperatures which are expected to exceed 1,200 C, as well as oxidation and creep resistance. Recent trends indicate that Carbon/Carbon and Ceramic/Ceramic Composites do not meet all of these requirements. For example, carbon/carbon composites have good strength to density ratio, but inherently possess poor oxidation resistance, and SiC/SiC composites ha e excellent oxidation resistance, but are brittle over the entire temperature range of their stability. Ductile phase toughened composites with refractory intermetallic matrices are attractive alternatives. At service temperatures of about 1,200 C, most of the applied load will be carried by the intermetallic matrix phase, while the ductile (metallic) phase increases toughness by impeding crack propagation. As compared to other materials with potential for elevated temperature applications, mentioned above, these materials provide a better combination of elevated temperature strength and room temperature fracture toughness. Nb 10 a/o Si is a model material for ductile phase toughened in situ composites. In the as-cast condition the microstructure contains both the ductile metallic niobium phase and the continuous inter-metallic Nb 3 Si phase. The microstructure of this in situ composite can be tailored by thermomechanical processing (TMP). The changes in the morphology and spacing of the phases, and microstructural refinement following TMP, have been shown to improve the fracture toughness of the alloy. as compared to the as-cast material. Therefore, understanding of the deformation behavior and the mechanisms of recovery and recrystallization are of great importance in tailoring the microstructure of in situ composites by TMP

  11. Jom ha-Šo'a...počátky jednoho svátku

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zbyněk Tarant

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available If one looks at the calendar, one will find there 'International Holocaust Rememberance Day' on 27th of January. This day was set by the UN General Assembly in 2005 and it refers to the anniversary of Auschwitz liberation. However, if one looks at the Israeli calendar, or any of the Jewish Luakh haShannah's, one will find there another day of mourning that is actually far older. The Yom HaShoah was set according to the Hebrew calendar and refers not to the liberation of Auschwitz, but to the Warsaw ghetto uprising. Today, this day of mourning is an interesting relict of the pioneer, upbuilding era that preferred the stories of heroes to those of victims. This article attempts to map the very beginning of the Yom HaShoah commemoration, by using Hebrew sources that were never published before in the Czech language. The story of Yom HaShoah in the context of the young state of Israel in the 1950s is an interesting case-study on the issue of how the contemporary political and public discourse affects the collective memory of  future generations.

  12. DEMENCIA FRONTOTEMPORAL, CÓMO HA RESURGIDO SU DIAGNÓSTICO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patricia Lillo Z, MD, PhD

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Desde la descripción inicial efectuada por Pick hace más de un siglo atrás, el interés por las demencias frontotemporales ha tenido un gran crecimiento. Gracias a los avances de las neuroimágenes y el desarrollo de biomarcadores, el progreso en este campo ha generado nuevos conocimientos en torno a la categorización clínica, correlatos neuronales de las funciones cerebrales superiores y mecanismos de neurodegeneración. Paradójicamente, estos avances han traído consigo cierta controversia y desafíos, los cuales han motivado la creación de nuevos criterios diagnósticos. Esta breve revisión muestra la evolución histórica de estas condiciones y describe los criterios diagnósticos actuales para la variante conductual y las afasias progresivas primarias, que son las dos formas clínicas de las demencias frontotemporales.

  13. Functional study of the novel multidrug resistance gene HA117 and its comparison to multidrug resistance gene 1

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chen Tingfu

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The novel gene HA117 is a multidrug resistance (MDR gene expressed by all-trans retinoic acid-resistant HL-60 cells. In the present study, we compared the multidrug resistance of the HA117 with that of the classical multidrug resistance gene 1 (MDR1 in breast cancer cell line 4T1. Methods Transduction of the breast cancer cell line 4T1 with adenoviral vectors encoding the HA117 gene and the green fluorescence protein gene (GFP (Ad-GFP-HA117, the MDR1 and GFP (Ad-GFP-MDR1 or GFP (Ad-GFP was respectively carried out. The transduction efficiency and the multiplicity of infection (MOI were detected by fluorescence microscope and flow cytometry. The transcription of HA117 gene and MDR1 gene were detected by reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR. Western blotting analysis was used to detect the expression of P-glycoprotein (P-gp but the expression of HA117 could not be analyzed as it is a novel gene and its antibody has not yet been synthesized. The drug-excretion activity of HA117 and MDR1 were determined by daunorubicin (DNR efflux assay. The drug sensitivities of 4T1/HA117 and 4T1/MDR1 to chemotherapeutic agents were detected by Methyl-Thiazolyl-Tetrazolium (MTT assay. Results The transducted efficiency of Ad-GFP-HA117 and Ad-GFP-MDR1 were 75%-80% when MOI was equal to 50. The transduction of Ad-GFP-HA117 and Ad-GFP-MDR1 could increase the expression of HA117 and MDR1. The drug resistance index to Adriamycin (ADM, vincristine (VCR, paclitaxel (Taxol and bleomycin (BLM increased to19.8050, 9.0663, 9.7245, 3.5650 respectively for 4T1/HA117 and 24.2236, 11.0480, 11.3741, 0.9630 respectively for 4T1/MDR1 as compared to the control cells. There were no significant differences in drug sensitivity between 4T1/HA117 and 4T1/MDR1 for the P-gp substrates (ADM, VCR and Taxol (P Conclusions These results confirm that HA117 is a strong MDR gene in both HL-60 and 4T1 cells. Furthermore, our results indicate that the MDR

  14. Sugar-binding sites of the HA1 subcomponent of Clostridium botulinum type C progenitor toxin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakamura, Toshio; Tonozuka, Takashi; Ide, Azusa; Yuzawa, Takayuki; Oguma, Keiji; Nishikawa, Atsushi

    2008-02-22

    Clostridium botulinum type C 16S progenitor toxin contains a hemagglutinin (HA) subcomponent, designated HA1, which appears to play an important role in the effective internalization of the toxin in gastrointestinal epithelial cells and in creating a broad specificity for the oligosaccharide structure that corresponds to various targets. In this study, using the recombinant protein fused to glutathione S-transferase, we investigated the binding specificity of the HA1 subcomponent to sugars and estimated the binding sites of HA1 based on X-ray crystallography and soaking experiments using various sugars. N-Acetylneuraminic acid, N-acetylgalactosamine, and galactose effectively inhibited the binding that occurs between glutathione S-transferase-HA1 and mucins, whereas N-acetylglucosamine and glucose did not inhibit it. The crystal structures of HA1 complex with N-acetylneuraminic acid, N-acetylgalactosamine, and galactose were also determined. There are two sugar-binding sites, sites I and II. Site I corresponds to the electron densities noted for all sugars and is located at the C-terminal beta-trefoil domain, while site II corresponds to the electron densities noted only for galactose. An aromatic amino acid residue, Trp176, at site I has a stacking interaction with the hexose ring of the sugars. On the other hand, there is no aromatic residue at site II; thus, the interaction with galactose seems to be poor. The double mutant W176A at site I and D271F at site II has no avidity for N-acetylneuraminic acid but has avidity for galactose. In this report, the binding specificity of botulinum C16S toxin HA1 to various sugars is demonstrated based on its structural features.

  15. Serum expression of HA and LN in lewis rat models of autoimmune myocarditis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Han Li'na; Li Tieling; Zhang Yajing; Yang Tingshu; Ding Yu; Guo Shuli; Zhao Xiaoning

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To study the clinical significance of dynamic changes of serum expressions of hyaluronic acid (HA) and laminin (LN) in Lewis rat models of experimental autoimmune myocarditis (EAM). Methods: Fifty Lewis rat models of experimental autoimmune myocarditis (EAM) were established with injection of recombinant cardiac C protein with complete freund adjuvant into two foot-pads plus intraperitoneal injection of pertussis toxin. At 1w, 2w, 4w, 6w and 8w, 10 models were sacrificed each time;cardiac tissues were examined with HE stain for myocardial inflammatory score and examined with picrosirius red stain for myocardial fibrosis score, also, serum HA and LN expressions were determined with RIA. These examinations were performed in 10 undisturbed animals as controls. Results: The myocardial inflammatory scores of the models at 1w were about the same as those in the controls, but the scores rapidly increased from 2w on to 4w then fell gradually. The myocardial fibrosis scores of the models at 1wk were also not much different from those in controls. The fibrosis scores increased rapidly at 4w and maintained at high level up to 8w. The changes of serum expressions of HA and LN roughly paralleled those of myocardial fibrosis scores i. e. rapidly increased at 4w up to 8w. Conclusion: Serum expressions of HA and LN could faithfully reflect the degree of myocardial fibrosis in rat models of EAM. HA and LN were useful markers of myocardial fibrois and were of prognostic importance. (authors)

  16. 3D-printed scaffolds based on PLA/HA nanocomposites for trabecular bone reconstruction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niaza, K. V.; Senatov, F. S.; Kaloshkin, S. D.; Maksimkin, A. V.; Chukov, D. I.

    2016-08-01

    In the present work porous PLA scaffolds filled with micro- and nano- HA were studied. Both composites with micro- and nano-HA were obtained by extrusion in the same conditions. Scaffolds were obtained by 3D-printing by fused filament fabrication method. Structure of porous scaffolds was pre-modeled by computer software. Compression and three - point flexural tests were used to study mechanical properties of the scaffolds.

  17. Role of induced glutathione-S-transferase from Helicoverpa armigera (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) HaGST-8 in detoxification of pesticides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Labade, Chaitali P; Jadhav, Abhilash R; Ahire, Mehul; Zinjarde, Smita S; Tamhane, Vaijayanti A

    2018-01-01

    The present study deals with glutathione-S-transferase (GST) based detoxification of pesticides in Helicoverpa armigera and its potential application in eliminating pesticides from the environment. Dietary exposure of a pesticide mixture (organophosphates - chlorpyrifos and dichlorvos, pyrethroid - cypermethrin; 2-15ppm each) to H. armigera larvae resulted in a dose dependant up-regulation of GST activity and gene expression. A variant GST from H. armigera (HaGST-8) was isolated from larvae fed with 10ppm pesticide mixture and it was recombinantly expressed in yeast (Pichia pastoris HaGST-8). HaGST-8 had a molecular mass of 29kDa and was most active at pH 9 at 30°C. GC-MS and LC-HRMS analysis validated that HaGST-8 was effective in eliminating organophosphate type of pesticides and partially reduced the cypermethrin content (53%) from aqueous solutions. Unlike the untransformed yeast, P. pastoris HaGST-8 grew efficiently in media supplemented with pesticide mixtures (200 and 400ppm each pesticide) signifying the detoxification ability of HaGST-8. The amino acid sequence of HaGST-8 and the already reported sequence of HaGST-7 had just 2 mismatches. The studies on molecular interaction strengths revealed that HaGST-8 had stronger binding affinities with organophosphate, pyrethroid, organochloride, carbamate and neonicotinoid type of pesticides. The abilities of recombinant HaGST-8 to eliminate pesticides and P. pastoris HaGST-8 to grow profusely in the presence of high level of pesticide content can be applied for removal of such residues from food, water resources and bioremediation. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Synthesis of integrated primary production in the Arctic Ocean: II. In situ and remotely sensed estimates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hill, Victoria J.; Matrai, Patricia A.; Olson, Elise; Suttles, S.; Steele, Mike; Codispoti, L. A.; Zimmerman, Richard C.

    2013-03-01

    Recent warming of surface waters, accompanied by reduced ice thickness and extent may have significant consequences for climate-driven changes of primary production (PP) in the Arctic Ocean (AO). However, it has been difficult to obtain a robust benchmark estimate of pan-Arctic PP necessary for evaluating change. This paper provides an estimate of pan-Arctic PP prior to significant warming from a synthetic analysis of the ARCSS-PP database of in situ measurements collected from 1954 to 2007 and estimates derived from satellite-based observations from 1998 to 2007. Vertical profiles of in situ chlorophyll a (Chl a) and PP revealed persistent subsurface peaks in biomass and PP throughout the AO during most of the summer period. This was contradictory with the commonly assumed exponential decrease in PP with depth on which prior satellite-derived estimates were based. As remotely sensed Chl a was not a good predictor of integrated water column Chl a, accurate satellite-based modeling of vertically integrated primary production (IPPsat), requires knowledge of the subsurface distribution of phytoplankton, coincident with the remotely sensed ocean color measurements. We developed an alternative approach to modeling PP from satellite observations by incorporating climatological information on the depths of the euphotic zone and the mixed layer that control the distribution of phytoplankton that significantly improved the fidelity of satellite derived PP to in situ observations. The annual IPP of the Arctic Ocean combining both in situ and satellite based estimates was calculated here to be a minimum of 466 ± 94 Tg C yr-1 and a maximum of 993 ± 94 Tg C yr-1, when corrected for subsurface production. Inflow shelf seas account for 75% of annual IPP, while the central basin and Beaufort northern sea were the regions with the lowest annual integrated productivity, due to persistently stratified, oligotrophic and ice-covered conditions. Although the expansion of summertime

  19. Bør leger ha reservasjonsrett ved assistert befruktning?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Morten Magelssen

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Omfanget av helsepersonells reservasjonsrett har nylig vært gjenstand for debatt i Norge. Vi spør om leger bør ha reservasjonsrett ved utførelse og henvisning til assistert befruktning, og drøfter argumenter for og imot ved hjelp av et rammeverk med sju kriterier for vurdering av reservasjon. Reservasjonsrettens grunnleggende dilemma er hvordan to viktige hensyn, henholdsvis pasientens rett til behandling og hensynet til helsepersonellets moralske integritet, best kan ivaretas. Det argumenteres for at leger bør ha rett til å reservere seg mot å utføre, assistere ved og henvise til assistert befruktning generelt hvis begrunnelsen er hensynet til befruktede eggs moralske verdi. Videre finner vi at leger også kan ha en moralsk rett til reservasjon mot å utføre, assistere ved og henvise til assistert befruktning for likekjønnede, men da på nærmere spesifiserte vilkår.Nøkkelord: reservasjonsrett, assistert befruktning, samvittighet, moralsk integritetEnglish summary: Should physicians have the right to conscientiously object to assisted reproduction?The extent of the healthcare worker's right to conscientious objection has recently been debated in Norway. This article asks whether physicians should have a right to conscientious objection to the performance of, and referral for, assisted reproduction, and discusses arguments for and against the same, utilizing a framework of seven criteria for the evaluation of conscientious objection. The fundamental dilemma of conscientious objection is how two important considerations can be reconciled: the patient's right to treatment, and the protection of the healthcare worker's moral integrity. It is argued that physicians should have the right to object to performing, assisting with, and referring for assisted reproduction generally when the objection is grounded in the moral value of the embryo. Furthermore, physicians may also have a moral right to object to performing, assisting with, and

  20. In situ synthesis and catalytic application of reduced graphene oxide supported cobalt nanowires

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Zhiqiang; Long, Qin; Deng, Yi; Liao, Li

    2018-05-01

    Controlled synthesis of magnetic nanocomposite with outstanding catalytic performances is a promising strategy in catalyst industry. We proposed a novel concept for fabrication of reduced graphene oxide-supported cobalt nanowires (RGO/Co-NWs) nanocomposite as high-efficient magnetic catalyst. Unlike the majority of experiments necessitating harsh synthesis conditions such as high-pressure, high-temperature and expensive template, here the RGO/Co-NWs were successfully prepared in aqueous solution under mild conditions with the assistance of external magnetic field. The synthetic process was facile and external magnetic force was adopted to induce the unidirectional self-assembly of cobalt crystals on graphene oxide to form RGO/Co-NWs. The possible formation mechanism laid on the fact that the dipole magnetic moments of the nanoparticles were aligned along the magnetic induction lines with the external magnetic field direction resulting in the formation of nanowires elongating in the direction of the magnetization axis. Simultaneously, a series of controlled reactions were conducted to illuminate the effect of graphene oxide, external magnetic field and PVP on the morphology and size of RGO/Co-NWs in the present approach. More importantly, the nanocomposite exhibited a high catalytic performance towards ammonia borane. Hence the novel nanocomposite holds a great potential for technological applications such as catalyst industry.

  1. In situ single-atom array synthesis using dynamic holographic optical tweezers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Hyosub; Lee, Woojun; Lee, Han-gyeol; Jo, Hanlae; Song, Yunheung; Ahn, Jaewook

    2016-01-01

    Establishing a reliable method to form scalable neutral-atom platforms is an essential cornerstone for quantum computation, quantum simulation and quantum many-body physics. Here we demonstrate a real-time transport of single atoms using holographic microtraps controlled by a liquid-crystal spatial light modulator. For this, an analytical design approach to flicker-free microtrap movement is devised and cold rubidium atoms are simultaneously rearranged with 2N motional degrees of freedom, representing unprecedented space controllability. We also accomplish an in situ feedback control for single-atom rearrangements with the high success rate of 99% for up to 10 μm translation. We hope this proof-of-principle demonstration of high-fidelity atom-array preparations will be useful for deterministic loading of N single atoms, especially on arbitrary lattice locations, and also for real-time qubit shuttling in high-dimensional quantum computing architectures. PMID:27796372

  2. [Study on biocompatibility of hydroxyapatite/high density polyethylene (HA/HDPE) nano-composites artificial ossicle].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Guohui; Zhu, Shaihong; Tan, Guolin; Zhou, Kechao; Huang, Suping; Zhao, Yanzhong; Li, Zhiyou; Huang, Boyun

    2008-06-01

    This study was aimed to evaluate the biocompatibility of Hydroxyapatite/High density polyethylene (HA/ HDPE) nano-composites artificial ossicle. The percentage of S-period cells were detected by flow cytometry after L929 cells being incubated with extraction of the HA/HDPE nano-composites; the titanium materials for clinical application served as the contrast. In addition, both materials were implanted in animals and the histopathological evaluations were conducted. There were no statistically significant differences between the two groups (P >0.05). The results demonstrated that the HA/HDPE nano-composite artificial ossicle made by our laboratory is of a good biocompatibility and clinical application outlook.

  3. On the formation of Mo{sub 2}C nanocrystals by a novel system through microwave assisted combustion synthesis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hoseinpur, Arman, E-mail: arman_hoseinpur@metaleng.iust.ac.ir [School of Metallurgy and Materials Engineering, Iran University of Science and Technology (IUST), 16846-13114, Narmak, Tehran, Islamic Republic of Iran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Jalaly, Maisam [Nanotechnology Department, School of New Technologies, Iran University of Science and Technology (IUST), 16846-13114, Narmak, Tehran, Islamic Republic of Iran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Bafghi, Mohammad Sh. [School of Metallurgy and Materials Engineering, Iran University of Science and Technology (IUST), 16846-13114, Narmak, Tehran, Islamic Republic of Iran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Khaki, Jalil Vahdati [Department of Materials Engineering, Ferdowsi University of Mashhad, 91775-1111, Islamic Republic of Iran (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2015-10-15

    This research is devoted to microwave assisted combustion synthesis of Mo{sub 2}C nanoparticles. The ternary system of MoO{sub 3}–Zn–C was used as a novel approach for the in-situ synthesis of Mo{sub 2}C in which the zincothermic reduction of MoO{sub 3} was responsible for the combustion to take place. Results showed that the formation of Mo{sub 2}C was assisted by the zincothermic reaction, although further microwave heating up to 6 min was necessary to complete the reaction. The effects of the microwave heating and mechanical activation on the reaction progress were investigated. X-ray powder diffraction was used to examine the synthesis progress. Final products (Mo{sub 2}C and ZnO) were successfully separated from each other and the synthesized carbide was characterized by transmission electron microscopy (TEM), showing the formation of Mo{sub 2}C hexagonal nanocrystals during combustion process. - Highlights: • Hexagonal β-Mo{sub 2}C nanocrystals were successfully synthesized. • MoO{sub 3}–Zn–C powder mixture was selected as the initial mixture for the in-situ synthesis of Mo{sub 2}C. • 30 min of mechanical activation was necessary for the carbide formation to be completed. • The zincothermic reduction of MoO{sub 3} by Zn was responsible for the combustion. • The final products included of Mo{sub 2}C and ZnO in which ZnO was removed by acid leaching.

  4. Activation of a Cu/ZnO catalyst for methanol synthesis