WorldWideScience

Sample records for situ conservation measures

  1. Soil conservation measures: exercises

    OpenAIRE

    Figueiredo, Tomás de; Fonseca, Felícia

    2009-01-01

    Exercises proposed under the topic of Soil Conservation Measures addresses to the design of structural measure, namely waterways in the context of a soil conservation plan. However, to get a better insight on the actual meaning of soil loss as a resource loss, a prior exercise is proposed to students. It concerns calculations of soil loss due to sheet (interrill) erosion and to gully erosion, and allows the perception through realistic number of the impact of these mechanism...

  2. In Situ TEM Electrical Measurements

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Canepa, Silvia; Alam, Sardar Bilal; Ngo, Duc-The

    2016-01-01

    understanding of complex physical and chemical interactions in the pursuit to optimize nanostructure function and device performance. Recent developments of sample holder technology for TEM have enabled a new field of research in the study of functional nanomaterials and devices via electrical stimulation...... influence the sample by external stimuli, e.g. through electrical connections, the TEM becomes a powerful laboratory for performing quantitative real time in situ experiments. Such TEM setups enable the characterization of nanostructures and nanodevices under working conditions, thereby providing a deeper...... and measurement of the specimen. Recognizing the benefits of electrical measurements for in situ TEM, many research groups have focused their effort in this field and some of these methods have transferred to ETEM. This chapter will describe recent advances in the in situ TEM investigation of nanostructured...

  3. Planning for ex situ conservation in the face of uncertainty

    Science.gov (United States)

    Canessa, Stefano; Converse, Sarah J.; West, Matt; Clemann, Nick; Gillespie, Graeme; McFadden, Michael; Silla, Aimee J; Parris, Kirsten M; McCarthy, Michael A

    2016-01-01

    Ex situ conservation strategies for threatened species often require long-term commitment and financial investment to achieve management objectives. We present a framework that considers the decision to adopt ex situ management for a target species as the end point of several linked decisions. We used a decision tree to intuitively represent the logical sequence of decision making. The first decision is to identify the specific management actions most likely to achieve the fundamental objectives of the recovery plan, with or without the use of ex-situ populations. Once this decision has been made, one decides whether to establish an ex situ population, accounting for the probability of success in the initial phase of the recovery plan, for example, the probability of successful breeding in captivity. Approaching these decisions in the reverse order (attempting to establish an ex situ population before its purpose is clearly defined) can lead to a poor allocation of resources, because it may restrict the range of available decisions in the second stage. We applied our decision framework to the recovery program for the threatened spotted tree frog (Litoria spenceri) of southeastern Australia. Across a range of possible management actions, only those including ex situ management were expected to provide >50% probability of the species’ persistence, but these actions cost more than use of in situ alternatives only. The expected benefits of ex situ actions were predicted to be offset by additional uncertainty and stochasticity associated with establishing and maintaining ex situ populations. Naïvely implementing ex situ conservation strategies can lead to inefficient management. Our framework may help managers explicitly evaluate objectives, management options, and the probability of success prior to establishing a captive colony of any given species.

  4. Planning for ex situ conservation in the face of uncertainty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Canessa, Stefano; Converse, Sarah J; West, Matt; Clemann, Nick; Gillespie, Graeme; McFadden, Michael; Silla, Aimee J; Parris, Kirsten M; McCarthy, Michael A

    2016-06-01

    Ex situ conservation strategies for threatened species often require long-term commitment and financial investment to achieve management objectives. We present a framework that considers the decision to adopt ex situ management for a target species as the end point of several linked decisions. We used a decision tree to intuitively represent the logical sequence of decision making. The first decision is to identify the specific management actions most likely to achieve the fundamental objectives of the recovery plan, with or without the use of ex-situ populations. Once this decision has been made, one decides whether to establish an ex situ population, accounting for the probability of success in the initial phase of the recovery plan, for example, the probability of successful breeding in captivity. Approaching these decisions in the reverse order (attempting to establish an ex situ population before its purpose is clearly defined) can lead to a poor allocation of resources, because it may restrict the range of available decisions in the second stage. We applied our decision framework to the recovery program for the threatened spotted tree frog (Litoria spenceri) of southeastern Australia. Across a range of possible management actions, only those including ex situ management were expected to provide >50% probability of the species' persistence, but these actions cost more than use of in situ alternatives only. The expected benefits of ex situ actions were predicted to be offset by additional uncertainty and stochasticity associated with establishing and maintaining ex situ populations. Naïvely implementing ex situ conservation strategies can lead to inefficient management. Our framework may help managers explicitly evaluate objectives, management options, and the probability of success prior to establishing a captive colony of any given species. Published 2015. This article is a U.S. Government work and is in the public domain in the USA.

  5. In situ measurement of diffusivity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berne, F.; Pocachard, J.

    2004-01-01

    The mechanism of molecular diffusion controls the migration of contaminants in very low-permeability porous media, like underground facilities for the storage of hazardous waste. Determining of relevant diffusion coefficients is therefore of prime importance. A few techniques exist for in situ measurement of the quantity, but they suffer from many handicaps (duration, complexity and cost of the experiments). We propose here two innovative methods that have some potential to improve the situation. So far, we have found them feasible on the basis of design calculations and laboratory experiments. This work is presently protected by a patent. (author)

  6. In situ measurement of diffusivity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berne, Ph.; Pocachard, J.

    2005-01-01

    The mechanism of molecular diffusion controls the migration of contaminants in very low-permeability porous media, like underground facilities for the storage of hazardous waste. Determining the relevant diffusion coefficients is, therefore, of prime importance. A few techniques exist for the in situ measurement of that quantity, but they suffer from many handicaps (duration, complexity and cost of the experiments). We propose here two innovative methods that have some potential to improve this situation. So far, we have found them feasible on the basis of design calculations and laboratory experiments. This work is presently protected by a patent. (author)

  7. Integrating In-Situ and Ex-Situ Data Management Processes for Biodiversity Conservation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karin R. Schwartz

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available There is an increasing need for a “one plan approach” for conservation strategies that integrate in-situ and ex-situ management processes. Zoological institutions contribute directly to threatened species conservation through paradigms, such as reintroduction, head-starting, supplementation, or rescue/rehabilitation/release. This in-situ/ex-situ integration necessitates collaboration at all levels of conservation action including planning, implementation, monitoring and assessment to drive adaptive management processes. Each component is dependent on the availability and accuracy of data for evidence to facilitate evaluation and adaptive management processes. The Zoological Information Management System (ZIMS, managed by Species360, is a centralized web-based information system used in zoological institutions worldwide to pool life history, behavior and health data and facilitate animal husbandry, health, and breeding management processes. Currently used for few integrated conservation programs, ZIMS is an innovative tool that offers a new opportunity to link data management processes for animals that spend a part of their lives under human care and part in their natural environment and has great potential for use in managed wild populations.

  8. Genetic approaches refine ex situ lowland tapir (Tapirus terrestris) conservation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonçalves da Silva, Anders; Lalonde, Danielle R; Quse, Viviana; Shoemaker, Alan; Russello, Michael A

    2010-01-01

    Ex situ conservation management remains an important tool in the face of continued habitat loss and global environmental change. Here, we use microsatellite marker variation to evaluate conventional assumptions of pedigree-based ex situ population management and directly inform a captive lowland tapir breeding program within a range country. We found relatively high levels of genetic variation (N(total) = 41; mean H(E) = 0.67 across 10 variable loci) and little evidence for relatedness among founder individuals (N(founders) = 10; mean relatedness = -0.05). Seven of 29 putative parent-offspring relationships were excluded by parentage analysis based on allele sharing, and we identified 2 individuals of high genetic value to the population (mk situ conservation.

  9. Introgression from cultivated rice alters genetic structures of wild relative populations: implications for in situ conservation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Xin; Chen, Yu; Liu, Ping; Li, Chen; Cai, Xingxing; Rong, Jun

    2018-01-01

    Abstract Maintaining genetic integrity is essential for in situ and ex situ conservation of crop wild relative (CWR) species. However, introgression of crop alleles into CWR species/populations may change their genetic structure and diversity, resulting in more invasive weeds or, in contrast, the extinction of endangered populations. To determine crop-wild introgression and its consequences, we examined the genetic structure and diversity of six wild rice (Oryza rufipogon) populations under in situ conservation in China. Thirty-four simple sequence repeat (SSR) and 34 insertion/deletion markers were used to genotype the wild rice populations and two sets of rice cultivars (O. sativa), corresponding to the two types of molecular markers. Shared alleles and STRUCTURE analyses suggested a variable level of crop-wild introgression and admixture. Principal coordinates and cluster analyses indicated differentiation of wild rice populations, which was associated with the spatial distances to cultivated rice fields. The level of overall genetic diversity was comparable between wild rice populations and rice cultivars, but a great number of wild-specific alleles was detected in the wild populations. We conclude based on the results that crop-wild introgression can considerably alter the pattern of genetic structure and relationships of CWR populations. Appropriate measures should be taken for effective in situ conservation of CWR species under the scenario of crop-wild introgression. PMID:29308123

  10. Ex situ conservation of plant diversity in the world's botanic gardens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mounce, Ross; Smith, Paul; Brockington, Samuel

    2017-10-01

    Botanic gardens conserve plant diversity ex situ and can prevent extinction through integrated conservation action. Here we quantify how that diversity is conserved in ex situ collections across the world's botanic gardens. We reveal that botanic gardens manage at least 105,634 species, equating to 30% of all plant species diversity, and conserve over 41% of known threatened species. However, we also reveal that botanic gardens are disproportionately temperate, with 93% of species held in the Northern Hemisphere. Consequently, an estimated 76% of species absent from living collections are tropical in origin. Furthermore, phylogenetic bias ensures that over 50% of vascular genera, but barely 5% of non-vascular genera, are conserved ex situ. While botanic gardens are discernibly responding to the threat of species extinction, just 10% of network capacity is devoted to threatened species. We conclude that botanic gardens play a fundamental role in plant conservation, but identify actions to enhance future conservation of biodiversity.

  11. Keeping All the PIECES: Phylogenetically Informed Ex Situ Conservation of Endangered Species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larkin, Daniel J; Jacobi, Sarah K; Hipp, Andrew L; Kramer, Andrea T

    2016-01-01

    Ex situ conservation in germplasm and living collections is a major focus of global plant conservation strategies. Prioritizing species for ex situ collection is a necessary component of this effort for which sound strategies are needed. Phylogenetic considerations can play an important role in prioritization. Collections that are more phylogenetically diverse are likely to encompass more ecological and trait variation, and thus provide stronger conservation insurance and richer resources for future restoration efforts. However, phylogenetic criteria need to be weighed against other, potentially competing objectives. We used ex situ collection and threat rank data for North American angiosperms to investigate gaps in ex situ coverage and phylogenetic diversity of collections and to develop a flexible framework for prioritizing species across multiple objectives. We found that ex situ coverage of 18,766 North American angiosperm taxa was low with respect to the most vulnerable taxa: just 43% of vulnerable to critically imperiled taxa were in ex situ collections, far short of a year-2020 goal of 75%. In addition, species held in ex situ collections were phylogenetically clustered (P species been drawn at random. These patterns support incorporating phylogenetic considerations into ex situ prioritization in a manner balanced with other criteria, such as vulnerability. To meet this need, we present the 'PIECES' index (Phylogenetically Informed Ex situ Conservation of Endangered Species). PIECES integrates phylogenetic considerations into a flexible framework for prioritizing species across competing objectives using multi-criteria decision analysis. Applying PIECES to prioritizing ex situ conservation of North American angiosperms, we show strong return on investment across multiple objectives, some of which are negatively correlated with each other. A spreadsheet-based decision support tool for North American angiosperms is provided; this tool can be customized to

  12. Missouri botanical garden’s support of ex-situ conservation with living collections

    Science.gov (United States)

    David Gunn; Meg Engelhardt; Derek. Lyle

    2017-01-01

    The Missouri Botanical Garden’s living collections are critical for supporting its multi-disciplinary strategy of integrated plant conservation. The Garden is increasing ex-situ collections of plants in need of conservation to build species diversity into its displays for visitor education. Current areas of focus include native Missouri species and International Union...

  13. Prioritising in situ conservation of crop resources: a case study of African cowpea (Vigna unguiculata).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moray, C; Game, E T; Maxted, N

    2014-06-17

    Conserving crop wild relatives (CWR) is critical for maintaining food security. However, CWR-focused conservation plans are lacking, and are often based on the entire genus, even though only a few taxa are useful for crop improvement. We used taxonomic and geographic prioritisation to identify the best locations for in situ conservation of the most important (priority) CWR, using African cowpea (Vigna unguiculata (L.) Walp.) as a case study. Cowpea is an important crop for subsistence farmers in sub-Saharan Africa, yet its CWR are under-collected, under-conserved and under-utilised in breeding. We identified the most efficient sites to focus in situ cowpea CWR conservation and assessed whether priority CWR would be adequately represented in a genus-based conservation plan. We also investigated whether priority cowpea CWR are likely to be found in existing conservation areas and in areas important for mammal conservation. The genus-based method captured most priority CWR, and the distributions of many priority CWR overlapped with established conservation reserves and targets. These results suggest that priority cowpea CWR can be conserved by building on conservation initiatives established for other species.

  14. In situ conservation and landscape genetics in forest species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martín L.M.

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Conservation of forest genetic resources is essential for sustaining the environmental and productive values of forests. One of the environmental values is the conservation of the diversity that is assessed through the amount of genetic diversity stored by forests, their structure and dynamics. The current need for forest conservation and management has driven a rapid expansion of landscape genetics discipline that combines tools from molecular genetics, landscape ecology and spatial statistics and is decisive for improving not only ecological knowledge but also for properly managing population genetic resources. The objective of this study is to show the way to establish the safeguard of genetic diversity through this approach using the results obtained in sweet chestnut (Castanea sativa Mill. that has provided a better understanding on the species genetic resources. In this respect, we will show how the information provided by different types of molecular markers (genomic and genic offer more accurate indication on the distribution of the genetic diversity among and within populations assuming different evolutionary drivers.

  15. Compensatory Measures in European Nature Conservation Law

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Geert Van Hoorick

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available The Birds and Habitats Directives are the cornerstones of EU nature conservation law, aiming at the conservation of the Natura 2000 network, a network of protected sites under these directives, and the protection of species. The protection regime for these sites and species is not absolute: Member States may, under certain conditions, allow plans or projects that can have an adverse impact on nature. In this case compensatory measures can play an important role in safeguarding the Natura 2000 network and ensuring the survival of the protected species.This contribution analyses whether taking compensatory measures is always obligatory, and discusses the aim and the characteristics of compensatory measures, in relation to other kinds of measures such as mitigation measures, usual nature conservation measures, and former nature development measures, and to the assessment of the adverse impact caused by the plan or project and of the alternative solutions. The questions will be discussed in light of the contents of the legislation, the guidance and practice by the European Commission, (legal doctrine and case law, mainly of the Court of Justice of the European Union.

  16. Re-resection rates and risk characteristics following breast conserving surgery for breast cancer and carcinoma in situ

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kryh, C G; Pietersen, C A; Rahr, Hans

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: To examine the frequency of re-resections and describe risk characteristics: invasive carcinoma or carcinoma in situ (CIS), palpability of the lesion, and neoadjuvant chemotherapy. RESULTS: 1703 breast conserving surgeries were performed: 1575 primary breast conserving surgeries (BCS...

  17. Caractéristiques, menaces et nécessité de conservation in situ du ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objectives: To know Husbandry practices, morpho-biometric characteristics, biological and zootechnical, breeding performance of Baoulé taurine cattle, to show its socio-cultural and economic role, the threats to its survival and understand the need for its conservation in situ in the South-West savannahs of Burkina Faso.

  18. Experimental Measurement of In Situ Stress

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tibbo, Maria; Milkereit, Bernd; Nasseri, Farzine; Schmitt, Douglas; Young, Paul

    2016-04-01

    The World Stress Map data is determined by stress indicators including earthquake focal mechanisms, in situ measurement in mining, oil and gas boreholes as well as the borehole cores, and geologic data. Unfortunately, these measurements are not only infrequent but sometimes infeasible, and do not provide nearly enough data points with high accuracy to correctly infer stress fields in deep mines around the world. Improvements in stress measurements of Earth's crust is fundamental to several industries such as oil and gas, mining, nuclear waste management, and enhanced geothermal systems. Quantifying the state of stress and the geophysical properties of different rock types is a major complication in geophysical monitoring of deep mines. Most stress measurement techniques involve either the boreholes or their cores, however these measurements usually only give stress along one axis, not the complete stress tensor. The goal of this project is to investigate a new method of acquiring a complete stress tensor of the in situ stress in the Earth's crust. This project is part of a comprehensive, exploration geophysical study in a deep, highly stressed mine located in Sudbury, Ontario, Canada, and focuses on two boreholes located in this mine. These boreholes are approximately 400 m long with NQ diameters and are located at depths of about 1300 - 1600 m and 1700 - 2000 m. Two borehole logging surveys were performed on both boreholes, October 2013 and July 2015, in order to perform a time-lapse analysis of the geophysical changes in the mine. These multi-parameter surveys include caliper, full waveform sonic, televiewer, chargeability (IP), and resistivity. Laboratory experiments have been performed on borehole core samples of varying geologies from each borehole. These experiments have measured the geophysical properties including elastic modulus, bulk modulus, P- and S-wave velocities, and density. The apparatus' used for this project are geophysical imaging cells capable

  19. Potato diversity at height: multiple dimensions of farmer-driven in-situ conservation in the Andes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Haan, de S.

    2009-01-01

    In-situ conservation Two types of in-situ conservation of crop genetic resources can be distinguished: farmer-driven and externally driven. The first is subject of this thesis and refers to the persistence of potato genetic resources in areas where everyday practices of farmers maintain diversity

  20. IN SITU MEASUREMENT OF BEDROCK EROSION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. H. Rieke-Zapp

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available While long term erosion rates of bedrock material may be estimated by dating methods, current day erosion rates are – if at all available – based on rough estimates or on point measurements. Precise quantification of short term erosion rates are required to improve our understanding of short term processes, for input in landscape evolution models, as well as for studying the mechanics and efficiency of different erosion processes in varying geomorphological settings. Typical current day erosion rates in the European Alps range from sub-millimetre to several millimetres per year depending on the dominant erosion processes. The level of surveying accuracy required for recurring sub-millimetre to millimetre measurements in the field is demanding. A novel surveying setup for in-situ measurement of bedrock erosion was tested recently in three different locations in Switzerland. Natural bedrock was investigated in the Gornera gorge close to Zermatt. Further on, bedrock samples were installed in exposed locations in the Erlenbach research watershed close to Einsiedeln, and in the Illgraben debris flow channel, located in the Canton Schwyz and Valais, respectively. A twofold measurement approach was chosen for all locations. For the first setup control points providing an absolute reference frame for recurrent measurements were embedded close to the area of interest. Close range photogrammetry was applied to measure surface changes on the bedrock samples. The precision for surface measurements in the field was 0.1 mm (1 σ and thus suitable for the application. The equipment needed for the surveys can easily be carried to the field. At one field site a structured light scanner was used along with the photogrammetric setup. Although the current generation of structured light scanners appeared less suitable for field application, data acquisition was much faster and checking the data for completeness in the field was straight forward. The latest

  1. In Situ Measurement of Bedrock Erosion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rieke-Zapp, D. H.; Beer, A.; Turowski, J. M.; Campana, L.

    2012-07-01

    While long term erosion rates of bedrock material may be estimated by dating methods, current day erosion rates are - if at all available - based on rough estimates or on point measurements. Precise quantification of short term erosion rates are required to improve our understanding of short term processes, for input in landscape evolution models, as well as for studying the mechanics and efficiency of different erosion processes in varying geomorphological settings. Typical current day erosion rates in the European Alps range from sub-millimetre to several millimetres per year depending on the dominant erosion processes. The level of surveying accuracy required for recurring sub-millimetre to millimetre measurements in the field is demanding. A novel surveying setup for in-situ measurement of bedrock erosion was tested recently in three different locations in Switzerland. Natural bedrock was investigated in the Gornera gorge close to Zermatt. Further on, bedrock samples were installed in exposed locations in the Erlenbach research watershed close to Einsiedeln, and in the Illgraben debris flow channel, located in the Canton Schwyz and Valais, respectively. A twofold measurement approach was chosen for all locations. For the first setup control points providing an absolute reference frame for recurrent measurements were embedded close to the area of interest. Close range photogrammetry was applied to measure surface changes on the bedrock samples. The precision for surface measurements in the field was 0.1 mm (1 σ) and thus suitable for the application. The equipment needed for the surveys can easily be carried to the field. At one field site a structured light scanner was used along with the photogrammetric setup. Although the current generation of structured light scanners appeared less suitable for field application, data acquisition was much faster and checking the data for completeness in the field was straight forward. The latest generation of compact

  2. DNA barcoding applied to ex situ tropical amphibian conservation programme reveals cryptic diversity in captive populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crawford, Andrew J; Cruz, Catalina; Griffith, Edgardo; Ross, Heidi; Ibáñez, Roberto; Lips, Karen R; Driskell, Amy C; Bermingham, Eldredge; Crump, Paul

    2013-11-01

    Amphibians constitute a diverse yet still incompletely characterized clade of vertebrates, in which new species are still being discovered and described at a high rate. Amphibians are also increasingly endangered, due in part to disease-driven threats of extinctions. As an emergency response, conservationists have begun ex situ assurance colonies for priority species. The abundance of cryptic amphibian diversity, however, may cause problems for ex situ conservation. In this study we used a DNA barcoding approach to survey mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) variation in captive populations of 10 species of Neotropical amphibians maintained in an ex situ assurance programme at El Valle Amphibian Conservation Center (EVACC) in the Republic of Panama. We combined these mtDNA sequences with genetic data from presumably conspecific wild populations sampled from across Panama, and applied genetic distance-based and character-based analyses to identify cryptic lineages. We found that three of ten species harboured substantial cryptic genetic diversity within EVACC, and an additional three species harboured cryptic diversity among wild populations, but not in captivity. Ex situ conservation efforts focused on amphibians are therefore vulnerable to an incomplete taxonomy leading to misidentification among cryptic species. DNA barcoding may therefore provide a simple, standardized protocol to identify cryptic diversity readily applicable to any amphibian community. © 2012 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  3. An analysis of energy conservation measure costs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jones, R.; Ellis, R.; Gellineau, D.

    1990-01-01

    This paper reports on a Denver Support Office project to evaluate cost estimation in the Institutional Conservation Program. Unit cost characteristics and cost prediction accuracy were evaluated from 1,721 Energy Conservation Measures (ECMs) and 390 Technical Assistance (TA) reports funded in the last six years. This information is especially useful to state and DOE review engineers in determining the reasonableness of future cost estimates. The estimated cost provisions for TA report grants were generally adequate to cover the actual costs. Individually, there was a tendency for TA reports to cost less than estimated by about 10%. TA report unit costs averaged $.09 to $.11 per square foot, and decreased as the building size increased. Individually, there was a tendency for ECMs to cost more than estimated by about 17%. Overall, the estimated costs of the 1,721 measures were $20.4 minion, while the actual costs were $21.4 million. This 4.6% difference indicates that, overall, ECM cost estimates have provided a reasonable basis for grant awards. There was a high variation in ECM unit costs. The data did not support speculation that there is a tendency to manipulate cost estimates to fit ECMs within the simple payback eligibility criteria of 2 to 10 years

  4. Bamboo resources, utilization and ex-situ conservation in Xishuangbanna, South-eastern China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YANG Qing; DUAN Zhu-biao; WANG Zheng-liang; HE Kai-hong; SUN Qi-xiang; PENG Zhen-hua

    2008-01-01

    This paper describes the geographical distribution, utilization, cultural value and ex-situ conservation of bamboo resources in Xishuangbanna, Yunan Province, China. Sixty species of bamboo in 19 genera are recorded in Xishuangbanna. The area of natural bamboo forest is 14319 ha, accounting for 5.92% of whole area of Xishuangbanna. The abundant resource of bamboo plays an important role in the economics and culture of national minorities in Xishuangbanna. Xishuangbanna Tropic Botanic Garden, Chinese Academy of Sciences (CAS), started to introduce bamboo species in 1961 and established the ex-situ conservation reserve (8 ha) of bamboo in 1981. Up to now, 211 species in 27 genera collected from tropic and sub-tropic of China and South-east Asia have been planted in the bamboo reserve, of which 11 species have bloomed and seeded, and their seeds were cultivated in Xishuangbanna Tropical Botanic Gardens, CAS, China.

  5. Potato diversity at height: multiple dimensions of farmer-driven in-situ conservation in the Andes

    OpenAIRE

    Haan, de, S.

    2009-01-01

    In-situ conservation Two types of in-situ conservation of crop genetic resources can be distinguished: farmer-driven and externally driven. The first is subject of this thesis and refers to the persistence of potato genetic resources in areas where everyday practices of farmers maintain diversity on-farm. The second concerns the more recent phenomenon of Research & Development (R&D) interventions which aim to support in-situ conservation by farmers. In this study, farmer-driven in-sit...

  6. The reproductive biology of Calligonum L. in relation to ex situ conservation in a botanical garden

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaoshan Kang

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available In this study, we observed the flowering phenology, breeding system, pollination and seed germination of four species of Calligonum (C. calliphysa, C. rubicundum, C. densum and C. ebinuricum in the Turpan Eremophytes Botanic Garden, China. Our results showed that the species had overlapping flowering phenologies and were pollinated by similar pollination agents. Their breeding systems were self-compatible, and with signs of outbreeding, but not of hybridization with each other; the main isolation mechanism was post-zygotic isolation and they also had high seed germination rates. Therefore, they are suited to ex situ conservation in the Turpan Eremophytes Botanic Garden, and can supply sufficient seeds for renewal populations and the conservation of germplasm resources. Furthermore, these results provide theoretical support for the construction of a national germplasm resource garden of Calligonum, and for the introduction to the garden of other eremophyteplants and their conservation.

  7. State of the art knowledge in adrenocortical and behavioral responses to environmental challenges in a threatened South American ratite: Implications to in situ and ex-situ conservation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luis, Navarro Joaquín; Lèche, Alvina; Costa, Natalia S Della; Cortez, Marilina Vera; Marin, Raúl H; Martella, Mónica B

    2018-04-12

    The Greater Rhea (Rhea americana) is an endemic ratite to South America, whose wild populations have undergone a remarkable decrease due to habitat degradation and fragmentation by the expansion of the agricultural frontier, poaching and predation by dogs. Anthropogenic perturbations in wild environments, as well as the management in captivity, can generate different stress responses in this species, thus, the monitoring of adrenocortical and behavioral activities are considered primary assessment tools with both conservation and welfare implications. In this review we analyze and integrate the different measurements of glucocorticoids (in plasma, feces, and yolk) carried out in different captive and wild populations, taking into account the diverse predictable and unpredictable conditions to which the Greater Rhea responds in each of those environments. In addition, the translocation of this bird is presented as an application of stress physiology in field ecology for conservation purposes, in which we evaluated how this species responds when it is released into a novel environment. Our results indicate that this ratite has a striking high sensitivity of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis compared to that of other bird species and shows a wide variety of adrenocortical responses depending on the environment in which it lives. This suggests that its HPA axis has a phenotypic plasticity that enables the rhea to cope with the environmental challenges. In this sense, we propose that one of the routes of this plasticity could be mediated by the maternal transfer of steroid hormones to the egg. Finally, we discuss the importance of integrating the monitoring of the adrenocortical response along with the environmental variables that define the life history of the species, in management and conservation programs ex-situ and in situ. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  8. Ex situ Conservation Effort through the Inventory of Plant Diversity in Mount Seblat, Bengkulu

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Imawan Wahyu Hidayat

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Mount Seblat, as part a of Kerinci Seblat National Park (KSNP, is a pristine and natural mountain, particularly from disturbances and destructions by human activities. Nevertheless, the richness of biological resources especially plant diversity.in this area has not been more explored. The purpose of this study was to conduct an inventory of plant diversity and to determine the plant species composition. The inventory activities were conducted by plants collection along the ascent route. The results were then be maintained through ex situ conservation method in Cibodas Botanical Garden (CBG. The study was conducted by exploratory method, from Seblat Ulu Village (641 m asl up to altitude of 1,037 m asl. There were 18 points of plant sample observation with an area of 5 x 5 square meters per point. Plant collection obtained 380 specimens. Five groups of most collected plants were Lauraceae (18 species, Rubiaceae (8 species, Anacardiaceae (6 species, Annonaceae (5 species, and Fagaceae (4 species. In order to enrich the plants collection as well as conduct the ex situ conservation effort, plants from Orchidaceae were also collected which resulted in 33 species. These results were an important initial inventory of plant diversity of Mount Seblat, considering that there was no record as well as very limited current information. When the environment disturbance tends to increase, this information may act as a reference and an initial database to develop plants conservation effort and strategy in the future.

  9. Comparison of GRACE with in situ hydrological measurement data ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Comparison of GRACE with in situ hydrological measurement data shows storage depletion in Hai River basin, Northern China. ... of the world, their application in conjunction with hydrological models could improve hydrological studies.

  10. In situ measurement of conductivity during nanocomposite film deposition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blattmann, Christoph O.; Pratsinis, Sotiris E.

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • Flame-made nanosilver dynamics are elucidated in the gas-phase & on substrates. • The resistance of freshly depositing nanosilver layers is monitored. • Low T g polymers facilitate rapid synthesis of conductive films. • Conductive nanosilver films form on top of or within the polymer depending on MW. - Abstract: Flexible and electrically conductive nanocomposite films are essential for small, portable and even implantable electronic devices. Typically, such film synthesis and conductivity measurement are carried out sequentially. As a result, optimization of filler loading and size/morphology characteristics with respect to film conductivity is rather tedious and costly. Here, freshly-made Ag nanoparticles (nanosilver) are made by scalable flame aerosol technology and directly deposited onto polymeric (polystyrene and poly(methyl methacrylate)) films during which the resistance of the resulting nanocomposite is measured in situ. The formation and gas-phase growth of such flame-made nanosilver, just before incorporation onto the polymer film, is measured by thermophoretic sampling and microscopy. Monitoring the nanocomposite resistance in situ reveals the onset of conductive network formation by the deposited nanosilver growth and sinternecking. The in situ measurement is much faster and more accurate than conventional ex situ four-point resistance measurements since an electrically percolating network is detected upon its formation by the in situ technique. Nevertheless, general resistance trends with respect to filler loading and host polymer composition are consistent for both in situ and ex situ measurements. The time lag for the onset of a conductive network (i.e., percolation) depends linearly on the glass transition temperature (T g ) of the host polymer. This is attributed to the increased nanoparticle-polymer interaction with decreasing T g . Proper selection of the host polymer in combination with in situ resistance monitoring

  11. Conservative Treatment Seems the Best Choice in Adenocarcinoma In Situ of the Cervix Uteri.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baalbergen, Astrid; Molijn, Anco C; Quint, Wim G V; Smedts, Frank; Helmerhorst, Theo J M

    2015-07-01

    To study diagnostic and therapeutic strategies, outcomes, and follow-up in a large series of women with adenocarcinoma in situ (AIS) of the uterine cervix and investigate if human papillomavirus (HPV) typing among women with negative cytology reports would have helped with early AIS detection. Records of 132 AIS cases diagnosed between 1989 and 2012 were retrieved. Clinical and pathological data were reviewed and analyzed. Mean age at diagnosis was 37 years. Seventy-two percent (n = 95) of all patients were asymptomatic; diagnosis was established using cytology and biopsy. Primary treatment for 124 patents was cold knife cone or loop electrosurgical excision procedure (LEEP). Positive margins were found in 18% of those women treated with CKC versus 40% in those treated with LEEP. The mean follow-up time was 62 months (range, 2-217 months; median, 46 months). Three recurrences were found after conservative treatment in 86 patients. High-risk HPV (hrHPV) positivity was detected in 115 (96%) of 120 patients, with HPV-18 being the most commonly occurring subtype (51%). There is a small risk of relapse after conservative therapy with cold knife cone or LEEP when resection margins are negative in women with AIS. Patients should be given the options of hysterectomy or conservative therapy with strict follow-up.

  12. The in situ measurement of road reflection.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schreuder, D.A.

    1994-01-01

    This paper describes a procedure that has been designed to measure P(0;0), P(2;0) and P(1;90), the three values that are the basis for the C1-C2 system for measuring road reflection of light. The system was proposed in The Netherlands, and subsequently adopted by the CIE as an alternative to the

  13. satellite and in-situ measurements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José de Jesús Salas Pérez

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available La distribución espacial y temporal de la circulación superficial de la Bahía de Banderas se obtuvo con el empleo de series temporales de rapidez de viento, temperatura superficial del mar (AVHR radiómetro y un termógrafo, nivel del mar y trazas ascendentes y descendentes del radar altimétrico ERS-2. El período que abarca dichos datos es de cuatro años, ya que comenzó en el verano de 1997 y finalizó en el invierno de 2002. La marea en la Bahía es mixta (F=0.25 con predominio del armónico M2. La bahía no muestra características de resonancia con la marea del mar abierto. Amplitudes promedio de 30 cms., resultan en corrientes de marea de pocos cms./s. Las bajas frecuencias (periodos mayores a tres días parecen ser los principales generadores de la circulación marina en esta área, en la que predomina el periodo estacional sobre los otros periodos. FEOs fueron aplicadas a las componentes de velocidad, calculadas con observaciones de altimetría medidas en la boca de la Bahía, las cuales mostraron dos principales distribuciones espaciales. El primer periodo de distribución, que se extendió desde febrero hasta julio, muestra un flujo de entrada por la porción norte/sur de la bahía, con un flujo de salida por su boca (distribución anticiclónica. El segundo periodo se extiende desde agosto hasta diciembre y es opuesto al primero (distribución ciclónica. Las características de la circulación aquí presentadas son hipotéticas y observaciones de velocidad medidas in-situ deben confirmarlas

  14. In situ measurements of Merensky pillar behaviour at Impala Platinum

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Watson, BP

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available to stabilize the stoping excavations. This paper describes the in situ measurement, of stress within a Merensky pillar from Impala Platinum. These measurements were used to derive a stress-strain curve that includes pre and post failure behaviour. 2D FLAC...

  15. Synthesis and review: delivering on conservation promises: the challenges of managing and measuring conservation outcomes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adams, Vanessa M; Game, Edward T; Bode, Michael

    2014-01-01

    Growing threats and limited resources have always been the financial realities of biodiversity conservation. As the conservation sector has matured, however, the accountability of conservation investments has become an increasingly debated topic, with two key topics being driven to the forefront of the discourse: understanding how to manage the risks associated with our conservation investments and demonstrating that our investments are making a difference through evidence-based analyses. A better understanding of the uncertainties associated with conservation decisions is a central component of managing risks to investments that is often neglected. This focus issue presents both theoretical and applied approaches to quantifying and managing risks. Furthermore, transparent and replicable approaches to measuring impacts of conservation investments are noticeably absent in many conservation programs globally. This focus issue contains state of the art conservation program impact evaluations that both demonstrate how these methods can be used to measure outcomes as well as directing future investments. This focus issue thus brings together current thinking and case studies that can provide a valuable resource for directing future conservation investments. (paper)

  16. Synthesis and review: delivering on conservation promises: the challenges of managing and measuring conservation outcomes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adams, Vanessa M.; Game, Edward T.; Bode, Michael

    2014-08-01

    Growing threats and limited resources have always been the financial realities of biodiversity conservation. As the conservation sector has matured, however, the accountability of conservation investments has become an increasingly debated topic, with two key topics being driven to the forefront of the discourse: understanding how to manage the risks associated with our conservation investments and demonstrating that our investments are making a difference through evidence-based analyses. A better understanding of the uncertainties associated with conservation decisions is a central component of managing risks to investments that is often neglected. This focus issue presents both theoretical and applied approaches to quantifying and managing risks. Furthermore, transparent and replicable approaches to measuring impacts of conservation investments are noticeably absent in many conservation programs globally. This focus issue contains state of the art conservation program impact evaluations that both demonstrate how these methods can be used to measure outcomes as well as directing future investments. This focus issue thus brings together current thinking and case studies that can provide a valuable resource for directing future conservation investments.

  17. In situ measurement of laser beam quality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hashemi, Somayeh Sadat; Ghavami Sabouri, Saeed; Khorsandi, Alireza

    2017-09-01

    An innovative optical method is introduced for the beam quality measurement of any arbitrary transverse mode based on the reconstruction of the mode from a few-frame image of the beam cross-section. This is performed by the decomposition of a mode to its basic Hermite-Gaussian modal coefficients. The performance of the proposed method is examined through M 2-factor measurement of the beam of a Nd:YAG laser which was forced to oscillate in a certain mode using a crossed rectangular intracavity aperture. Obtained results have shown that this method can be alternatively replaced for the hologram- and ISO-based techniques recently exploiting for beam quality measurement regardless of the mode type and the position of utilized CCD camera along the beam direction.

  18. Subclinical ductal carcinoma in situ of the breast: treatment with conservative surgery and radiotherapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amichetti, M; Caffo, O; Richetti, A; Zini, G; Rigon, A; Antonello, M; Roncadin, M; Coghetto, F; Valdagni, R; Fasan, S; Maluta, S; Di Marco, A; Neri, S; Vidali, C; Panizzoni, G; Aristei, C

    1999-01-01

    In spite of the fact that ductal carcinoma in situ (DCIS) of the breast is a frequently encountered clinical problem, there is no consensus about the optimal treatment of clinically occult (i.e., mammographic presentation only) DCIS. Interest in breast conservation therapy has recently increased. Few data are available in Italy on the conservative treatment with surgery and adjuvant postoperative radiotherapy. A retrospective multi-institutional study was performed in 15 Radiation Oncology Departments in northern Italy involving 112 women with subclinical DCIS of the breast treated between 1982 and 1993. Age of the patients ranged between 32 and 72 years (median, 50 years). All of them underwent conservative surgery: quadrantectomy in 89, tumorectomy in 11, and wide excision in 12 cases. The most common histologic subtype was comedocarcinoma (37%). The median pathologic size was 10 mm (range 1 to 55 mm). Axillary dissection was performed in 83 cases: all the patients were node negative. All the patients received adjunctive radiation therapy with 60Co units (77%) or 6 MV linear accelerators (23%) for a median total dose to the entire breast of 50 Gy (mean, 49.48 Gy; range, 45-60 Gy). Seventy-six cases (68%) received a boost to the tumor bed at a dose of 8-20 Gy (median 10 Gy) for a minimum tumor dose of 58 Gy. At a median follow-up of 66 months, 8 local recurrences were observed, 4 intraductal and 4 invasive. All recurrent patients had a salvage mastectomy and are alive and free of disease at this writing. The 10-year actuarial overall, cause-specific, and recurrence-free survival was of 98.8%, 100%, and 91%, respectively. The retrospective multicentric study, with a local control rate of more than 90% at 10 years with 100% cause-specific survival, showed that conservative surgery and adjuvant radiation therapy is a safe and efficacious treatment for patients with occult, non-palpable DCIS.

  19. Conservation caring: measuring the influence of zoo visitors' connection to wildlife on pro-conservation behaviors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skibins, Jeffrey C; Powell, Robert B

    2013-01-01

    Zoos in the 21st century are striving to make effective contributions to conservation. Although zoos are extremely popular and host over 600 million visitors worldwide, one challenge zoos face is how to effectively engage visitors and raise awareness and action for conservation. To this end, zoos commonly rely on charismatic megafauna, which have been shown to elicit a connection with zoo visitors. However, little is known about how to measure a connection to a species or how this connection may influence conservation behaviors. This study had two sequential objectives. The first was to develop a scale to measure visitors' connection to a species (Conservation Caring). The second was to investigate the relationship of Conservation Caring to pro-conservation behaviors, following a zoo experience. Pre- (n = 411) and post-visit (n = 452) responses were collected from three sites in order to assess the reliability and validity of a scale to measure Conservation Caring. Structural equation modeling was used to explore the relationship between Conservation Caring and pro-conservation behaviors. Conservation Caring was deemed a valid and reliable scale and was a strong predictor of species oriented behaviors (β = 0.62), for example, "adopting" an animal, but a weak predictor for biodiversity oriented behaviors (β = 0.07), for example, supporting sustainability policies. Results support the role zoos can play in fostering a connection to wildlife and stimulating pro-conservation behaviors. Additionally, visitors connected to a wide array of animals. On the basis of these results, zoos may recruit a wider assemblage of species as potential flagships. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  20. Feasibility of in situ beta ray measurements in underwater environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Hye Min; Park, Ki Hyun; Kang, Sung Won; Joo, Koan Sik

    2017-09-01

    We describe an attempt at the development of an in situ detector for beta ray measurements in underwater environment. The prototype of the in situ detector is based on a CaF2: Eu scintillator using crystal light guide and Si photomultiplier. Tests were conducted using various reference sources for evaluating the linearity and stability of the detector in underwater environment. The system is simple and stable for long-term monitoring, and consumes low power. We show here an effective detection distance of 7 mm and a 2.273 MeV end-point energy spectrum of 90 Sr/ 90 Y when using the system underwater. The results demonstrate the feasibility of in situ beta ray measurements in underwater environment and can be applied for designing an in situ detector for radioactivity measurement in underwater environment. The in situ detector can also have other applications such as installation on the marine monitoring platform and quantitative analysis of radionuclides. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Development of portable HPGe spectrometer for in situ measurements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kail Artjoms

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In situ applications require a very high level of portability of high-resolution spectrometric equipment. Usage of HPGe detectors for radioactivity measurements in the environment or for nuclear safeguard applications, to combat illicit trafficking of nuclear materials or uranium and plutonium monitoring in nuclear wastes, has become a norm in the recent years. Portable HPGe-based radionuclide spectrometer with electrical cooling has lately appeared on the market for in situ applications. At the same time deterioration of energy resolution associated with vibrations produced by cryocooler or high weight of the instrument, short time of autonomous operation and high price of these spectrometers are limiting their usage in many cases. In this paper we present development results of ultra compact hand held all-in-one spectrometer for in situ measurements based on HPGe detector cooled by liquid nitrogen without listing the above disadvantages.

  2. In situ spectrophotometric measurement of dissolved inorganic carbon in seawater

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liua, Xuewu; Byrne, Robert H.; Adornato, Lori; Yates, Kimberly K.; Kaltenbacher, Eric; Ding, Xiaoling; Yang, Bo

    2013-01-01

    Autonomous in situ sensors are needed to document the effects of today’s rapid ocean uptake of atmospheric carbon dioxide (e.g., ocean acidification). General environmental conditions (e.g., biofouling, turbidity) and carbon-specific conditions (e.g., wide diel variations) present significant challenges to acquiring long-term measurements of dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC) with satisfactory accuracy and resolution. SEAS-DIC is a new in situ instrument designed to provide calibrated, high-frequency, long-term measurements of DIC in marine and fresh waters. Sample water is first acidified to convert all DIC to carbon dioxide (CO2). The sample and a known reagent solution are then equilibrated across a gas-permeable membrane. Spectrophotometric measurement of reagent pH can thereby determine the sample DIC over a wide dynamic range, with inherent calibration provided by the pH indicator’s molecular characteristics. Field trials indicate that SEAS-DIC performs well in biofouling and turbid waters, with a DIC accuracy and precision of ∼2 μmol kg–1 and a measurement rate of approximately once per minute. The acidic reagent protects the sensor cell from biofouling, and the gas-permeable membrane excludes particulates from the optical path. This instrument, the first spectrophotometric system capable of automated in situ DIC measurements, positions DIC to become a key parameter for in situ CO2-system characterizations.

  3. Measuring farmer conservation behaviors: Challenges and best practices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kristin Floress; Adam Reimer; Aaron Thompson; Mark Burbach; Cody Knutson; Linda Prokopy; Marc Ribaudo; Jessica. Ulrich-Schad

    2018-01-01

    This article presents a guide for understanding the purposes and appropriate uses of different measures of conservation behavior. While applicable across natural resource management contexts, we primarily draw upon agricultural conservation research to illustrate our points. Farmers are often of interest to researchers, program managers, extension professionals, and...

  4. Serosurvey of ex situ giant pandas (Ailuropoda melanoleuca) and red pandas (Ailurus fulgens) in China with implications for species conservation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loeffler, I Kati; Howard, JoGayle; Montali, Richard J; Hayek, Lee-Ann; Dubovi, Edward; Zhang, Zhihe; Yan, Qigui; Guo, Wanzhu; Wildt, David E

    2007-12-01

    Conservation strategies for the giant panda (Ailuropoda melanoleuca) include the development of a self-sustaining ex situ population. This study examined the potential significance of infectious pathogens in giant pandas ex situ. Serologic antibody titers against canine distemper virus (CDV), canine parvovirus (CPV), canine adenovirus (CAV), canine coronavirus (CCV), canine herpesvirus, canine parainfluenza virus (CPIV), Toxoplasma gondii, Neospora caninum, and Leptospira interrogans were measured in 44 samples taken from 19 giant pandas between 1998 and 2003 at the Chengdu Research Base of Giant Panda Breeding in Sichuan, China. Seroassays also included samples obtained in 2003 from eight red pandas (Ailurus fulgens) housed at the same institution. All individuals had been vaccinated with a Chinese canine vaccine that included modified live CDV, CPV, CAV, CCV, and CPIV. Positive antibody titers were found only against CDV, CPV, and T. gondii. Sera were negative for antibodies against the other six pathogens. Results indicate that the quality of the vaccine may not be reliable and that it should not be considered protective or safe in giant pandas and red pandas. Positive antibody titers against T. gondii were found in seven of the 19 giant pandas. The clinical, subclinical, or epidemiologic significance of infection with these pathogens via natural exposure or from modified live vaccines in giant pandas is unknown. Research in this area is imperative to sustaining a viable population of giant pandas and other endangered species.

  5. In-situ measurements in Vesivehmaa air field - STUK team

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Markkanen, M.; Honkamaa, T.; Niskala, P. [Finnish Centre for Radiation and Nuclear Safety, Helsinki (Finland)

    1997-12-31

    Nineteen in-situ gamma-ray spectrometric measurements were performed in Vesivehmaa air field on 17th August 1995. The results for {sup 137}Cs and natural radionuclides are in good agreement with the results from soil sampling and laboratory analyses. (au).

  6. In-situ measurements in Vesivehmaa air field - STUK team

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Markkanen, M; Honkamaa, T; Niskala, P [Finnish Centre for Radiation and Nuclear Safety, Helsinki (Finland)

    1998-12-31

    Nineteen in-situ gamma-ray spectrometric measurements were performed in Vesivehmaa air field on 17th August 1995. The results for {sup 137}Cs and natural radionuclides are in good agreement with the results from soil sampling and laboratory analyses. (au).

  7. In situ Measurements of Phytoplankton Fluorescence Using Low Cost Electronics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dana L. Wright

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Chlorophyll a fluorometry has long been used as a method to study phytoplankton in the ocean. In situ fluorometry is used frequently in oceanography to provide depth-resolved estimates of phytoplankton biomass. However, the high price of commercially manufactured in situ fluorometers has made them unavailable to some individuals and institutions. Presented here is an investigation into building an in situ fluorometer using low cost electronics. The goal was to construct an easily reproducible in situ fluorometer from simple and widely available electronic components. The simplicity and modest cost of the sensor makes it valuable to students and professionals alike. Open source sharing of architecture and software will allow students to reconstruct and customize the sensor on a small budget. Research applications that require numerous in situ fluorometers or expendable fluorometers can also benefit from this study. The sensor costs US$150.00 and can be constructed with little to no previous experience. The sensor uses a blue LED to excite chlorophyll a and measures fluorescence using a silicon photodiode. The sensor is controlled by an Arduino microcontroller that also serves as a data logger.

  8. Local Recurrences After Conservative Treatment of Ductal Carcinoma-In-Situ of the Breast Without Radiotherapy: The Effect of Age

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schouten van der Velden, A.P.; Peeters, P.H.M.; Koot, V.C.M.; Hennipman, A.

    2006-01-01

    Background: The main goal in treatment of ductal carcinoma-in-situ (DCIS) of the breast is to prevent local recurrences. Radiotherapy after breast-conserving surgery has been shown to decrease the recurrence rate, although whether all patients should be treated with radiotherapy remains a topic

  9. Energy conservation measures adopted at Heavy Water Plant, Manuguru

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gupta, R.V.; Venugopal, M.

    1997-01-01

    The importance of conservation of energy is well recognised all over the world as the world reserves of fossil fuels will eventually run out depending on the rate of their use. This paper deals with various energy conservation schemes adopted at Heavy Water Plant, Manuguru (HWPM). Most energy conservation measures offer large financial saving with very short pay back periods. This fact has been well recognised by the management of HWPM as well as Heavy Water Board and their wholehearted and enthusiastic approach to energy conservation and energy management yielded very good results in reducing the operating cost. The process of energy conservation is not a one time exercise. Persistent efforts are on to identify the areas like condition of heat exchangers, margins in control valves, steam and condensate leakages etc. for further reduction in energy consumption

  10. In-situ measurements of soil-water conductivity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Murphy, C.E.

    1978-01-01

    Radionuclides and other environmentally important materials often move in association with water. In terrestrial ecosystems, the storage and movement of water in the soil is of prime importance to the hydrologic cycle of the ecosystem. The soil-water conductivity (the rate at which water moves through the soil) is a necessary input to models of soil-water movement. In situ techniques for measurement of soil-water conductivity have the advantage of averaging soil-water properties over larger areas than most laboratory methods. The in situ techniques also cause minimum disturbance of the soil under investigation. Results of measurements using a period of soil-water drainage after initial wetting indicate that soil-water conductivity and its variation with soil-water content can be determined with reasonable accuracy for the plot where the measurements were made. Further investigations are being carried out to look at variability between plots within a soil type

  11. Worldwide status of burbot and conservation measures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stapanian, Martin A.; Paragamian, Vaughn L.; Madenjian, Charles P.; Jackson, James R.; Lappalainen, Jyrki; Evenson, Matthew J.; Neufeld, Matthew D.

    2010-01-01

    Although burbot (Lota lota Gadidae) are widespread and abundant throughout much of their natural range, there are many populations that have been extirpated, endangered or are in serious decline. Due in part to the species’ lack of popularity as a game and commercial fish, few regions consider burbot in management plans. We review the worldwide population status of burbot and synthesize reasons why some burbot populations are endangered or declining, some burbot populations have recovered and some burbot populations do not recover despite management measures. Burbot have been extirpated in much of Western Europe and the United Kingdom and are threatened or endangered in much of North America and Eurasia. Pollution and habitat change, particularly the effects of dams, appear to be the main causes for declines in riverine burbot populations. Pollution and the adverse effects of invasive species appear to be the main reasons for declines in lacustrine populations. Warmer water temperatures, due either to discharge from dams or climate change, have been noted in declining burbot populations at the southern extent of their range. Currently, fishing pressure does not appear to be limiting burbot populations world-wide. We suggest mitigation measures for burbot population recovery, particularly those impacted by dams and invasive species.

  12. Labor and energy impacts of energy-conservation measures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1980-01-01

    Three papers are presented discussing the labor and energy impacts of energy-conservation measures, namely: Generation of the Industry/Occupation Wage Matrix and Related Matters, by Carole Green; Job Shifts from Energy Conservation (Salary Distribution Effects), by Robert A. Herendeen; and Energy and Labor Implication of Improving Thermal Integrity of New Houses, by John Joseph Nangle. A separate abstract was prepared for each paper.

  13. Using in situ management to conserve biodiversity under climate change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greenwood, Owen; Mossman, Hannah L; Suggitt, Andrew J; Curtis, Robin J; Maclean, Ilya M D

    2016-06-01

    Successful conservation will increasingly depend on our ability to help species cope with climate change. While there has been much attention on accommodating or assisting range shifts, less has been given to the alternative strategy of helping species survive climate change through in situ management.Here we provide a synthesis of published evidence examining whether habitat management can be used to offset the adverse impacts on biodiversity of changes in temperature, water availability and sea-level rise. Our focus is on practical methods whereby the local environmental conditions experienced by organisms can be made more suitable.Many studies suggest that manipulating vegetation structure can alter the temperature and moisture conditions experienced by organisms, and several demonstrate that these altered conditions benefit species as regional climatic conditions become unsuitable. The effects of topography on local climatic conditions are even better understood, but the alteration of topography as a climate adaptation tool is not ingrained in conservation practice. Trials of topographic alteration in the field should therefore be a priority for future research.Coastal systems have the natural capacity to keep pace with climate change, but require sufficient sediment supplies and space for landward migration to do so. There is an extensive literature on managed realignment. While the underlying rationale is simple, successful implementation requires careful consideration of elevation and past land use. Even with careful management, restored habitats may not attain the physical and biological attributes of natural habitats. Synthesis and applications . The recent literature provides a compelling case that some of the adverse effects of climate change can be offset by appropriate management. However, much of the evidence for this is indirect and too few studies provide empirical tests of the long-term effectiveness of these management interventions. It is clear

  14. In situ measurement of tritium permeation through stainless steel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Luscher, Walter G., E-mail: walter.luscher@pnnl.gov [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, 902 Battelle Blvd, Richland, WA 99352 (United States); Senor, David J., E-mail: david.senor@pnnl.gov [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, 902 Battelle Blvd, Richland, WA 99352 (United States); Clayton, Kevin K., E-mail: kevin.clayton@inl.gov [Idaho National Laboratory, 2525 Fremont Ave., Idaho Falls, ID 83415 (United States); Longhurst, Glen R., E-mail: glenlonghurst@suu.edu [Idaho National Laboratory, 2525 Fremont Ave., Idaho Falls, ID 83415 (United States)

    2013-06-15

    Highlights: ► In situ tritium permeation measurements collected over broad pressure range. ► Test conditions relevant to 316 SS in commercial light water reactors. ► Comparisons between in- and ex-reactor measurements provided. ► Correlation between tritium permeation, temperature, and pressure developed. -- Abstract: The TMIST-2 irradiation experiment was conducted in the Advanced Test Reactor at Idaho National Laboratory to evaluate tritium permeation through Type 316 stainless steel (316 SS). The interior of a 316 SS seamless tube specimen was exposed to a {sup 4}He carrier gas mixed with a specified quantity of tritium (T{sub 2}) to yield partial pressures of 0.1, 5, and 50 Pa at 292 °C and 330 °C. In situ tritium permeation measurements were made by passing a He–Ne sweep gas over the outer surface of the specimen to carry the permeated tritium to a bubbler column for liquid scintillation counting. Results from in situ permeation measurements were compared with predictions based on an ex-reactor permeation correlation in the literature. In situ permeation data were also used to derive an in-reactor permeation correlation as a function of temperature and pressure over the ranges considered in this study. In addition, the triton recoil contribution to tritium permeation, which results from the transmutation of {sup 3}He to T, was also evaluated by introducing a {sup 4}He carrier gas mixed with {sup 3}He at a partial pressure of 1013 Pa at 330 °C. Less than 3% of the tritium resulting from {sup 3}He transmutation contributed to tritium permeation.

  15. Conservative Sample Size Determination for Repeated Measures Analysis of Covariance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morgan, Timothy M; Case, L Douglas

    2013-07-05

    In the design of a randomized clinical trial with one pre and multiple post randomized assessments of the outcome variable, one needs to account for the repeated measures in determining the appropriate sample size. Unfortunately, one seldom has a good estimate of the variance of the outcome measure, let alone the correlations among the measurements over time. We show how sample sizes can be calculated by making conservative assumptions regarding the correlations for a variety of covariance structures. The most conservative choice for the correlation depends on the covariance structure and the number of repeated measures. In the absence of good estimates of the correlations, the sample size is often based on a two-sample t-test, making the 'ultra' conservative and unrealistic assumption that there are zero correlations between the baseline and follow-up measures while at the same time assuming there are perfect correlations between the follow-up measures. Compared to the case of taking a single measurement, substantial savings in sample size can be realized by accounting for the repeated measures, even with very conservative assumptions regarding the parameters of the assumed correlation matrix. Assuming compound symmetry, the sample size from the two-sample t-test calculation can be reduced at least 44%, 56%, and 61% for repeated measures analysis of covariance by taking 2, 3, and 4 follow-up measures, respectively. The results offer a rational basis for determining a fairly conservative, yet efficient, sample size for clinical trials with repeated measures and a baseline value.

  16. In situ measurement of tritium permeation through stainless steel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luscher, Walter G.; Senor, David J.; Clayton, Kevin K.; Longhurst, Glen R.

    2013-06-01

    The TMIST-2 irradiation experiment was conducted in the Advanced Test Reactor at Idaho National Laboratory to evaluate tritium permeation through Type 316 stainless steel (316 SS). The interior of a 316 SS seamless tube specimen was exposed to a 4He carrier gas mixed with a specified quantity of tritium (T2) to yield partial pressures of 0.1, 5, and 50 Pa at 292 °C and 330 °C. In situ tritium permeation measurements were made by passing a He-Ne sweep gas over the outer surface of the specimen to carry the permeated tritium to a bubbler column for liquid scintillation counting. Results from in situ permeation measurements were compared with predictions based on an ex-reactor permeation correlation in the literature. In situ permeation data were also used to derive an in-reactor permeation correlation as a function of temperature and pressure over the ranges considered in this study. In addition, the triton recoil contribution to tritium permeation, which results from the transmutation of 3He to T, was also evaluated by introducing a 4He carrier gas mixed with 3He at a partial pressure of 1013 Pa at 330 °C. Less than 3% of the tritium resulting from 3He transmutation contributed to tritium permeation.

  17. Global ex-situ crop diversity conservation and the Svalbard Global Seed Vault: assessing the current status.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ola T Westengen

    Full Text Available Ex-situ conservation of crop diversity is a global concern, and the development of an efficient and sustainable conservation system is a historic priority recognized in international law and policy. We assess the completeness of the safety duplication collection in the Svalbard Global Seed Vault with respect to data on the world's ex-situ collections as reported by the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations. Currently, 774,601 samples are deposited at Svalbard by 53 genebanks. We estimate that more than one third of the globally distinct accessions of 156 crop genera stored in genebanks as orthodox seeds are conserved in the Seed Vault. The numbers of safety duplicates of Triticum (wheat, Sorghum (sorghum, Pennisetum (pearl millet, Eleusine (finger millet, Cicer (chickpea and Lens (lentil exceed 50% of the estimated numbers of distinct accessions in global ex-situ collections. The number of accessions conserved globally generally reflects importance for food production, but there are significant gaps in the safety collection at Svalbard in some genera of high importance for food security in tropical countries, such as Amaranthus (amaranth, Chenopodium (quinoa, Eragrostis (teff and Abelmoschus (okra. In the 29 food-crop genera with the largest number of accessions stored globally, an average of 5.5 out of the ten largest collections is already represented in the Seed Vault collection or is covered by existing deposit agreements. The high coverage of ITPGRFA Annex 1 crops and of those crops for which there is a CGIAR mandate in the current Seed Vault collection indicates that existence of international policies and institutions are important determinants for accessions to be safety duplicated at Svalbard. As a back-up site for the global conservation system, the Seed Vault plays not only a practical but also a symbolic role for enhanced integration and cooperation for conservation of crop diversity.

  18. Global ex-situ crop diversity conservation and the Svalbard Global Seed Vault: assessing the current status.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Westengen, Ola T; Jeppson, Simon; Guarino, Luigi

    2013-01-01

    Ex-situ conservation of crop diversity is a global concern, and the development of an efficient and sustainable conservation system is a historic priority recognized in international law and policy. We assess the completeness of the safety duplication collection in the Svalbard Global Seed Vault with respect to data on the world's ex-situ collections as reported by the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations. Currently, 774,601 samples are deposited at Svalbard by 53 genebanks. We estimate that more than one third of the globally distinct accessions of 156 crop genera stored in genebanks as orthodox seeds are conserved in the Seed Vault. The numbers of safety duplicates of Triticum (wheat), Sorghum (sorghum), Pennisetum (pearl millet), Eleusine (finger millet), Cicer (chickpea) and Lens (lentil) exceed 50% of the estimated numbers of distinct accessions in global ex-situ collections. The number of accessions conserved globally generally reflects importance for food production, but there are significant gaps in the safety collection at Svalbard in some genera of high importance for food security in tropical countries, such as Amaranthus (amaranth), Chenopodium (quinoa), Eragrostis (teff) and Abelmoschus (okra). In the 29 food-crop genera with the largest number of accessions stored globally, an average of 5.5 out of the ten largest collections is already represented in the Seed Vault collection or is covered by existing deposit agreements. The high coverage of ITPGRFA Annex 1 crops and of those crops for which there is a CGIAR mandate in the current Seed Vault collection indicates that existence of international policies and institutions are important determinants for accessions to be safety duplicated at Svalbard. As a back-up site for the global conservation system, the Seed Vault plays not only a practical but also a symbolic role for enhanced integration and cooperation for conservation of crop diversity.

  19. 76 FR 28954 - International Conservation and Management Measures Recognized by the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-19

    ... International Conservation and Management Measures Recognized by the United States AGENCY: National Marine... international conservation and management measures recognized by the United States. To fulfill this requirement, a list of agreements resulting in international conservation and management measures was first...

  20. Improved Outcomes of Breast-Conserving Therapy for Patients With Ductal Carcinoma in Situ

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Halasz, Lia M. [Harvard Radiation Oncology Program, Boston, MA (United States); Sreedhara, Meera [Department of Radiation Oncology, Dana-Farber Cancer Institute/Brigham and Women' s Hospital, Boston, MA (United States); Chen, Yu-Hui [Department of Biostatistics and Computational Biology, Dana-Farber Cancer Institute, Boston, MA (United States); Bellon, Jennifer R.; Punglia, Rinaa S.; Wong, Julia S.; Harris, Jay R. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Dana-Farber Cancer Institute/Brigham and Women' s Hospital, Boston, MA (United States); Brock, Jane E., E-mail: jebrock@partners.org [Department of Pathology, Brigham and Women' s Hospital, Boston, MA (United States)

    2012-03-15

    Purpose: Patients treated for ductal carcinoma in situ (DCIS) with breast-conserving surgery (BCS) and radiation therapy (RT) at our center from 1976 to 1990 had a 15% actuarial 10-year local recurrence (LR) rate. Since then, improved mammographic and pathologic evaluation and greater attention to achieving negative margins may have resulted in a lower risk of LR. In addition, clinical implications of hormone receptor and HER-2 status in DCIS remain unclear. We sought to determine the following: LR rates with this more modern approach; the relation between LR and HER-2 status; and clinical and pathologic factors associated with HER-2{sup +} DCIS. Methods and Materials: We studied 246 consecutive patients who underwent BCS and RT for DCIS from 2001 to 2007. Of the patients, 96 (39%) were Grade III and the median number of involved tissue blocks was 3. Half underwent re-excision and 222 (90%) had negative margins (>2 mm). All received whole-breast RT (40-52 Gy) and 99% (244) received a tumor bed boost (8-18 Gy). Routine estrogen receptor (ER), progesterone receptor (PR), and HER-2 immunohistochemistry was instituted in 2003. Results: With median follow-up of 58 months, there were no LRs. Seven patients (3%) developed contralateral breast cancer (4 invasive and 3 in situ). Among 163 patients with immunohistochemistry, 124 were ER/PR{sup +}HER-2{sup -}, 27 were ER/PR{sup +}HER-2{sup +}, 6 were ER{sup -}/PR{sup -}HER-2{sup +}, and 6 were ER{sup -}/PR{sup -}HER-2{sup -}. On univariable analysis, HER-2{sup +}was significantly associated with Grade III, ER{sup -}/PR{sup -}, central necrosis, comedo subtype, more extensive DCIS, and postmenopausal status. On multivariable analysis, Grade III and postmenopausal status remained significantly associated with HER-2{sup +}. Conclusions: In an era of mammographically identified DCIS, larger excisions, widely negative margins and the use of a tumor bed boost, we observed no LR regardless of ER/PR/HER-2 status. Factors associated

  1. An in-situ measuring method for planar straightness error

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Xi; Fu, Luhua; Yang, Tongyu; Sun, Changku; Wang, Zhong; Zhao, Yan; Liu, Changjie

    2018-01-01

    According to some current problems in the course of measuring the plane shape error of workpiece, an in-situ measuring method based on laser triangulation is presented in this paper. The method avoids the inefficiency of traditional methods like knife straightedge as well as the time and cost requirements of coordinate measuring machine(CMM). A laser-based measuring head is designed and installed on the spindle of a numerical control(NC) machine. The measuring head moves in the path planning to measure measuring points. The spatial coordinates of the measuring points are obtained by the combination of the laser triangulation displacement sensor and the coordinate system of the NC machine, which could make the indicators of measurement come true. The method to evaluate planar straightness error adopts particle swarm optimization(PSO). To verify the feasibility and accuracy of the measuring method, simulation experiments were implemented with a CMM. Comparing the measurement results of measuring head with the corresponding measured values obtained by composite measuring machine, it is verified that the method can realize high-precise and automatic measurement of the planar straightness error of the workpiece.

  2. Strategies for measuring evolutionary conservation of RNA secondary structures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hofacker Ivo L

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Evolutionary conservation of RNA secondary structure is a typical feature of many functional non-coding RNAs. Since almost all of the available methods used for prediction and annotation of non-coding RNA genes rely on this evolutionary signature, accurate measures for structural conservation are essential. Results We systematically assessed the ability of various measures to detect conserved RNA structures in multiple sequence alignments. We tested three existing and eight novel strategies that are based on metrics of folding energies, metrics of single optimal structure predictions, and metrics of structure ensembles. We find that the folding energy based SCI score used in the RNAz program and a simple base-pair distance metric are by far the most accurate. The use of more complex metrics like for example tree editing does not improve performance. A variant of the SCI performed particularly well on highly conserved alignments and is thus a viable alternative when only little evolutionary information is available. Surprisingly, ensemble based methods that, in principle, could benefit from the additional information contained in sub-optimal structures, perform particularly poorly. As a general trend, we observed that methods that include a consensus structure prediction outperformed equivalent methods that only consider pairwise comparisons. Conclusion Structural conservation can be measured accurately with relatively simple and intuitive metrics. They have the potential to form the basis of future RNA gene finders, that face new challenges like finding lineage specific structures or detecting mis-aligned sequences.

  3. Use of tensiometer for in situ measurement of nitrate leaching

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, K.; Reddy, M.R.

    1999-07-01

    In order to monitor nitrate leaching from non-point source pollution, this study used tensiometers to measure in situ nitrate concentration and soil-moisture potential. Instead of filling the tensiometers with pure water, the study filled the tensiometers with nitrate ionic strength adjuster (ISA, 1 M (NH{sub 4}){sub 2}SO{sub 4}). After the installation of the tensiometers at various depths along soil profiles, a portable pressure transducer was used to measure the soil moisture potential, and a nitrate electrode attached to an ion analyzer was used to measure the nitrate concentration in situ. The measurement was continuous and non-destructive. To test this method in the laboratory, eight bottles filled with pure sand were treated with known nitrate solutions, and a tensiometer was placed in each bottle. Measurements were taken every day for 30 days. Laboratory test showed a linear relationship between the known nitrate concentration and the tensiometer readings (R{sup 2} = 0.9990). Then a field test was conducted in a watermelon field with green manure mulch. Field data indicated a potential of nitrate leaching below the soil depth of 100 cm when crop uptake of nutrients was low.

  4. In situ surface roughness measurement using a laser scattering method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tay, C. J.; Wang, S. H.; Quan, C.; Shang, H. M.

    2003-03-01

    In this paper, the design and development of an optical probe for in situ measurement of surface roughness are discussed. Based on this light scattering principle, the probe which consists of a laser diode, measuring lens and a linear photodiode array, is designed to capture the scattered light from a test surface with a relatively large scattering angle ϕ (=28°). This capability increases the measuring range and enhances repeatability of the results. The coaxial arrangement that incorporates a dual-laser beam and a constant compressed air stream renders the proposed system insensitive to movement or vibration of the test surface as well as surface conditions. Tests were conducted on workpieces which were mounted on a turning machine that operates with different cutting speeds. Test specimens which underwent different machining processes and of different surface finish were also studied. The results obtained demonstrate the feasibility of surface roughness measurement using the proposed method.

  5. Test plan for in situ stress measurement system development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, K.

    1981-09-01

    The tests are to be performed to provide information regarding the state of stress of the basalt rock beneath the Hanford Site. This test series is designed to obtain information necessary to determine if hydrofracturing stress measurement is feasible in a fractured basalt medium. During the course of these field tests, it will be attempted to adapt the conventional hydrofracturing test method and analysis techniques to the basalt medium. If the test is shown to be feasible, more holes will be identified for testing. A comprehensive in situ stress determination program will be initiated. 2 figs

  6. In situ measurements of dose rates from terrestrial gamma rays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Horng, M.C.; Jiang, S.H.

    2002-01-01

    A portable, high purity germanium (HPGe) detector was employed for the performance of in situ measurements of radionuclide activity concentrations in the ground in Taiwan, at altitudes ranging from sea level to 3900 m. The absolute peak efficiency of the HPGe detector for a gamma-ray source uniformly distributed in the semi-infinite ground was determined using a semi-empirical method. The gamma-ray dose rates from terrestrial radionuclides were calculated from the measured activity levels using recently published dose rate conversion factors. The absorbed dose rate in air due to cosmic rays was derived by subtracting the terrestrial gamma-ray dose rate from the overall absorbed dose rate in air measured using a high-pressure ionization chamber. The cosmic-ray dose rate calculated as a function of altitude, was found to be in good agreement with the data reported by UNSCEAR. (orig.)

  7. Colorimetric measurements as control elements in wood conservation status

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ovidia Soto-Martín

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper is a methodological proposal for the study of altarpieces on wooden supports. The process was implemented to study the altarpiece of San Antonio de Padua in Garachico, Tenerife. For this, we conducted a review of key aspects appropriate to the discipline of wood identification carried out by macroscopic examination and for the characterization of the status of deterioration by colorimetric analysis. For the evaluation of the wood conservation status, the samples were subjected for the first time to colorimetric measurement. As a result we have created an online database to provide information for conservation professionals permitting them to design a proposal for preventive conservation and intervention individually for each object.

  8. Potential environmental effects of energy conservation measures in northwest industries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baechler, M C; Gygi, K F; Hendrickson, P L

    1992-01-01

    The Bonneville Power Administration (Bonneville) has identified 101 plants in the Pacific Northwest that account for 80% of the region's industrial electricity consumption. These plants offer a precise target for a conservation program. PNL determined that most of these 101 plants were represented by 11 major industries. We then reviewed 36 major conservation technologies used in these 11 industrial settings to determine their potential environmental impacts. Energy efficiency technologies designed for industrial use may result in direct or indirect environmental impacts. Effects may result from the production of the conservation measure technology, changes in the working environment due to different energy and material requirements, or changes to waste streams. Industry type, work-place conditions, worker training, and environmental conditions inside and outside the plant are all key variables that may affect environmental outcomes. To address these issues this report has three objectives: Describe potential conservation measures that Bonneville may employ in industrial programs and discuss potential primary impacts. Characterize industrial systems and processes where the measure may be employed and describe general environmental issues associated with each industry type. Review environmental permitting, licensing, and other regulatory actions required for industries and summarize the type of information available from these sources for further analysis.

  9. Modular enrichment measurement system for in-situ enrichment assay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stewart, J.P.

    1976-01-01

    A modular enrichment measurement system has been designed and is in operation within General Electric's Nuclear Fuel Fabrication Facility for the in-situ enrichment assay of uranium-bearing materials in process containers. This enrichment assay system, which is based on the ''enrichment meter'' concept, is an integral part of the site's enrichment control program and is used in the in-situ assay of the enrichment of uranium dioxide (UO 2 ) powder in process containers (five gallon pails). The assay system utilizes a commercially available modular counting system and a collimnator designed for compatability with process container transport lines and ease of operator access. The system has been upgraded to include a microprocessor-based controller to perform system operation functions and to provide data acquisition and processing functions. Standards have been fabricated and qualified for the enrichment assay of several types of uranium-bearing materials, including UO 2 powders. The assay system has performed in excess of 20,000 enrichment verification measurements annually and has significantly contributed to the facility's enrichment control program

  10. In situ Micrometeorological Measurements during RxCADRE

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clements, C. B.; Hiers, J. K.; Strenfel, S. J.

    2009-12-01

    The Prescribed Fire Combustion and Atmospheric Dynamics Research Experiment (RxCADRE) was a collaborative research project designed to fully instrument prescribed fires in the Southeastern United States. Data were collected on pre-burn fuel loads, post burn consumption, ambient weather, in situ atmospheric dynamics, plume dynamics, radiant heat release (both from in-situ and remote sensors), in-situ fire behavior, and select fire effects. The sampling was conducted at Eglin Air Force Base, Florida, and the Joseph W. Jones Ecological Research Center in Newton, Georgia, from February 29 to March 6, 2008. Data were collected on 5 prescribed burns, totaling 4458 acres. The largest aerial ignition totaled 2,290 acres and the smallest ground ignition totaled 104 acres. Quantifying fire-atmospheric interactions is critical for understanding wildland fire dynamics and enhancing modeling of smoke plumes. During Rx-CADRE, atmospheric soundings using radiosondes were made at each burn prior to ignition. In situ micrometeorological measurements were made within each burn unit using five portable, 10-m towers equipped with sonic and prop anemometers, fine-wire thermocouples, and a carbon dioxide probes. The towers were arranged within the burn units to capture the wind and temperature fields as the fire front and plume passed the towers. Due to the interaction of fire lines following ignition, several of the fire fronts that passed the towers were backing fires and thus less intense. Preliminary results indicate that the average vertical velocities associated with the fire front passage were on the order of 3-5 m s-1 and average plume temperatures were on the order of 30-50 °C above ambient. During two of the experimental burns, radiosondes were released into the fire plumes to determine the vertical structure of the plume temperature, humidity, and winds. A radiosonde released into the plume during the burn conducted on 3 March 2008 indicated a definite plume boundary in the

  11. Contact sponge water absorption test implemented for in situ measures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaggero, Laura; Scrivano, Simona

    2016-04-01

    The contact sponge method is a non-destructive in-situ methodology used to estimate a water uptake coefficient. The procedure, unlike other in-situ measurement was proven to be directly comparable to the water uptake laboratory measurements, and was registered as UNI 11432:2011. The UNI Normal procedure requires to use a sponge with known density, soaked in water, weighed, placed on the material for 1 minute (UNI 11432, 2011; Pardini & Tiano, 2004), then weighed again. Difficulties arise in operating on test samples or on materials with porosity varied for decay. While carrying on the test, fluctuations in the bearing of the environmental parameters were negligible, but not the pressure applied to the surface, that induced the release of different water amounts towards the material. For this reason we designed a metal piece of the same diameter of the plate carrying the sponge, to be screwed at the tip of a pocket penetrometer. With this instrument the sponge was kept in contact with the surface for 1 minute applying two different loads, at first pushed with 0.3 kg/cm2 in order to press the sponge, but not its holder, against the surface. Then, a load of 1.1 kg/ cm2 was applied, still avoiding deviating the load to the sponge holder. We applied both the current and our implemented method to determine the water absorption by contact sponge on 5 fresh rock types (4 limestones: Fine - and Coarse grained Pietra di Vicenza, Rosso Verona, Breccia Aurora, and the silicoclastic Macigno sandstone). The results show that 1) the current methodology imply manual skill and experience to produce a coherent set of data; the variable involved are in fact not only the imposed pressure but also the compression mechanics. 2) The control on the applied pressure allowed reproducible measurements. Moreover, 3) the use of a thicker sponge enabled to apply the method even on rougher surfaces, as the device holding the sponge is not in contact with the tested object. Finally, 4) the

  12. Three types of photon detectors for in situ measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Helmer, R. G.; Gehrke, R. J.; Carpenter, M. V.

    1999-02-01

    The authors have been involved in the calibration and use of three types of γ- and X-ray detectors for in situ measurements of soil contamination. These three detectors are an N-type, thin-window Ge semiconductor detector (5.0 cm diam.× 2.0 cm deep), a plastic scintillator (30.5 cm × 30.5 cm × 3.8 cm thick), and an array of six CaF 2 detectors (each 7.6 cm × 7.6 cm × 0.15 cm thick). The latter two detectors have been used with scanning systems that allow significant areas (say, >100 m 2) to be surveyed completely with the aid of either laser-based triangulation or a global positioning system (GPS) to record the precise position for each measurement. Typically, these systems scan at a rate of 15-30 cm/s which allows an area of 100 m 2 to covered with the plastic scintillator in about 15 min. The data are telemetered or transferred via RS232 protocol to a computer, providing operators with real-time mapping of the area surveyed and of the measured detector count rate. The "efficiencies" of these detectors have been determined by a combination of measurements of calibrated planar sources and Monte Carlo transport calculations for a variety of source sizes and depths in soil, as well as by comparing these field measurements with independent laboratory sample analysis.

  13. In situ measured elimination of Vibrio cholerae from brackish water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez, María Elena Martínez; Macek, Miroslav; Galván, María Teresa Castro

    2004-01-01

    In situ elimination of fluorescently labelled Vibrio cholerae (FLB) was measured in two saline water bodies in Mexico: in a brackish water lagoon, Mecoacán (Gulf of Mexico; State of Tabasco) and an athalassohaline lake, Alchichica (State of Puebla). Disappearance rates of fluorescently labelled V. cholera O1 showed that they were eliminated from the environment at an average rate of 32% and 63%/day, respectively (based on the bacterial standing stocks). The indirect immunofluorescence method confirmed the presence of V. cholerae O1 in the lagoon. However, the elimination of FLB was not directly related either to the presence or absence of the bacterium in the water body or to the phytoplankton concentration.

  14. In situ measurements of oxygen dynamics in unsaturated archaeological deposits

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Matthiesen, Henning; Hollesen, Jørgen; Dunlop, Rory

    2015-01-01

    Oxygen is a key parameter in the degradation of archaeological material, but little is known of its dynamics in situ. In this study, 10 optical oxygen sensors placed in a 2 m deep test pit in the cultural deposits at Bryggen in Bergen have monitored oxygen concentrations every half hour for more ...... of the soil exceeds 10–15% vol, while oxygen dissolved in infiltrating rainwater is of less importance for the supply of oxygen in the unsaturated zone....... than a year. It is shown that there is a significant spatial and temporal variation in the oxygen concentration, which is correlated to measured soil characteristics, precipitation, soil water content and degradation of organic material. In these deposits oxygen typically occurs when the air content...

  15. Developments in wireline in-situ rock stress measurement

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pedroso, Carlos [PETROBRAS S.A., Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Canas, Jesus A.; Holzberg, Bruno; Gmach, Helmut [Schlumberger Servicos de Petroleo Ltda., Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2008-07-01

    This paper presents recent developments of in-situ stress measurements with wireline tools. The stress measurements are based on the micro hydraulic techniques that can be initialized when an interval is pressurized by pumping fluid until a tensile fracture begins or by packers fracturing (sleeve fracturing). Ultrasonic and Micro-resistivity borehole image logs (before and after the testes) are used as a complement, in order to observe the fractures created by the tests, evaluating the mechanical behavior of the formation. An offshore case study is presented, where shales and tight sandstones at depths deeper than 4500 meters depth were successfully evaluated. A workflow to succeed on stress measurements on such environments is proposed, what includes a planning phase: where breakdown pressures ranges are estimated and compared with the capacity of the tools, a Real Time Monitoring phase, where a decision tree is proposed to help on quick decisions while testing, and an interpretation phase, where appropriate techniques are indicated to evaluate the results. Also, the paper presents the main operational needs to succeed on such environments. Basically, such tests require an entirely software controlled, motorized and modular design tool consisting of dual packer (DP), pump out and flow control modules (Figure 1). These modules were upgraded for the present environment: conditions such as temperatures above 300 deg F, formation pressures above 10,000 psia, very low formation permeability, high pressure differential need and oil based mud (OBM) environment. (author)

  16. In situ flume measurements of resuspension in the North Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, C. E. L.; Couceiro, F.; Fones, G. R.; Helsby, R.; Amos, C. L.; Black, K.; Parker, E. R.; Greenwood, N.; Statham, P. J.; Kelly-Gerreyn, B. A.

    2011-07-01

    The in situ annular flume, Voyager II, was deployed at three sites in the North Sea in order to investigate resuspension events, to determine the physical characteristics of the seabed, to determine the threshold of resuspension of the bed and to quantify erosion rates and erosion depths. These are the first controlled, in situ flume experiments to study resuspension in the North Sea, and were combined with long-term measurements of waves and currents. Resuspension experiments were undertaken at two muddy, and one sandy site: north of the Dogger Bank (DG: water depths ˜80 m, very fine, poorly sorted, very fine-skewed sediment experiencing seasonal thermal stratification of the water column along with oxygen depletion); the Oyster Grounds (OG: ˜40 m, similar bed properties, year round water column thermal stratification, Atlantic forcing); and in the Sean Gas Field (SGF: ˜20 m, moderately sorted, very coarse-skewed sand, and well mixed water column). The erosion thresholds of the bed were found to be 0.66-1.04 Pa (DG) and 0.91-1.27 Pa (OG), with corresponding erosion depths of 0.1-0.15 mm and 0.02-0.06 mm throughout the experiments. Evaluation of a year of current velocities from 2007 indicated that at OG, resuspension of the consolidated bed was limited to on average ˜8% of the time as a result of tidal forcing alone for short (properties of the bed. Therefore, while complex variations in biogeophysical factors affected the critical threshold of erosion, once exceeded, erosion rates were related to the nature of the sediment.

  17. In situ measurement of inelastic light scattering in natural waters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Chuanmin

    Variation in the shape of solar absorption (Fraunhofer) lines are used to study the inelastic scattering in natural waters. In addition, oxygen absorption lines near 689nm are used to study the solar stimulated chlorophyll fluorescence. The prototype Oceanic Fraunhofer Line Discriminator (OFLD) has been further developed and improved by using a well protected fiber optic - wire conductor cable and underwater electronic housing. A Monte-Carlo code and a simple code have been modified to simulate the Raman scattering, DOM fluorescence and chlorophyll fluorescence. A series of in situ measurements have been conducted in clear ocean waters in the Florida Straits, in the turbid waters of Florida Bay, and in the vicinity of a coral reef in the Dry Tortugas. By comparing the reduced data with the model simulation results, the Raman scattering coefficient, b r with an excitation wavelength at 488nm, has been verified to be 2.6 × 10-4m-1 (Marshall and Smith, 1990), as opposed to 14.4 × 10- 4m-1 (Slusher and Derr, 1975). The wavelength dependence of b r cannot be accurately determined from the data set as the reported values (λ m-4 to λ m- 5) have an insignificant effect in the natural underwater light field. Generally, in clear water, the percentage of inelastic scattered light in the total light field at /lambda 510nm. At low concentrations (a y(/lambda = 380nm) less than 0.1m-1), DOM fluorescence plays a small role in the inelastic light field. However, chlorophyll fluorescence is much stronger than Raman scattering at 685nm. In shallow waters where a sea bottom affects the ambient light field, inelastic light is negligible for the whole visible band. Since Raman scattering is now well characterized, the new OFLD can be used to measure the solar stimulated in situ fluorescence. As a result, the fluorescence signals of various bottom surfaces, from coral to macrophytes, have been measured and have been found to vary with time possibly due to nonphotochemical quenching

  18. Seed conservation in ex situ genebanks - genetic studies on longevity in barley

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nagel, M.; Vogel, H.; Landjeva, S.; Buck-Sorlin, G.H.; Lohwasser, U.; Scholz, U.; Börner, A.

    2009-01-01

    Recognizing the danger due to a permanent risk of loss of the genetic variability of cultivated plants and their wild relatives in response to changing environmental conditions and cultural practices, plant ex situ genebank collections were created since the beginning of the last century. World-wide

  19. Measuring in-situ stress in deep boreholes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1985-08-01

    The hydrofracturing method of in-situ stress measurement is the only technique which has been proven to be reliable in boreholes below depths of 300 m. The method has been used in a variety of applications at depths of up to 5000m, and in a range of borehole diameters. The equipment used is composed of standard components from proven and long-established oil industry well-logging tools and is simple to operate. This is preferable to the delicate electrical devices used in the overcoring stress measurement method. Electrical components are difficult to waterproof, very small strains are monitored and the tendency of electrical circuits to drift, due to a variety of effects, makes interpretation of the results difficult. However, the interpretation of hydrofracturing test results is often not easy. Many factors can prevent ideal fracturing behaviour from occurring, in which case conventional analyses will yield incorrect answers. The complete state of stress can often not be determined and sweeping assumptions are commonly made about principal stress direction, which cannot always be subsequently verified. (author)

  20. In situ electrical measurements of polytypic silver nanowires

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Xiaohua; Zhu Jing; Jin Chuanhong; Peng Lianmao; Tang Daiming; Cheng Huiming

    2008-01-01

    Novel 4H structure silver nanowires (4H-AgNWs) have been reported to coexist with the usual face-centered cubic (FCC) ones. Here we report the electrical properties of these polytypic AgNWs for the first time. AgNWs with either 4H or FCC structures in the diameter range of 20-80 nm were measured in situ inside a transmission electron microscope (TEM). Both kinds of AgNW in the diameter range show metallic conductance. The average resistivity of the 4H-AgNWs is 19.9 μΩ cm, comparable to the 11.9 μΩ cm of the FCC-AgNWs. The failure current density can be up to ∼10 8 A cm -2 for both 4H-and FCC-AgNWs. The maximum stable current density (MSCD) is introduced to estimate the AgNWs' current-carrying ability, which shows diameter-dependence with a peak around 34 nm in diameter. It is attributed to fast annihilation of the current-induced vacancies and the enhanced surface scattering. Our investigations also suggest that the magnetic field of the electromagnetic lens may also introduce some influence on the measurements inside the TEM

  1. Hysteresis in YHx films observed with in situ measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Remhof, A.; Kerssemakers, J.W.J.; Molen, S.J. van der; Griessen, R.; Kooij, E.S.

    2002-01-01

    Giant hysteretic effects in the YH x hydrogen switchable mirror system are observed between x=1.9 and x=3 in pressure composition isotherms, optical and electrical properties, and mechanical stress. Polycrystalline Y films are studied by simultaneous in situ measurements of electrical resistivity, optical transmittance and x-ray diffractometry. These experiments are linked to optical microscopy of the samples. During hydrogen loading above x=1.9 the films stay in the metallic fcc phase until the optical transmittance reaches its minimum and the electrical resistance curve exhibits a characteristic feature at x=2.1. Upon further loading the system crosses the miscibility gap in which the fcc phase coexists with the hcp phase before hydrogen saturation is reached in the pure hcp phase. While the fcc phase stays at a concentration of x=2.1 in the coexistence region during loading, it remains at a concentration of x=1.9 during unloading. The hysteretic effects observed in optical transmission and electrical resistivity result from the different properties of the low concentration fcc phase YH 1.9 and the high concentration fcc phase YH 2.1 . They can be explained on the basis of the bulk phase diagram if the different stress states during loading and unloading are taken into account. These results contradict earlier interpretations of the hysteresis in thin film YH x , based on nonsimultaneous measurements of the optical and structural properties on different films

  2. Conservation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Noteboom, H.P.

    1985-01-01

    The IUCN/WWF Plants Conservation Programme 1984 — 1985. World Wildlife Fund chose plants to be the subject of their fund-raising campaign in the period 1984 — 1985. The objectives were to: 1. Use information techniques to achieve the conservation objectives of the Plants Programme – to save plants;

  3. Conservation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    National Audubon Society, New York, NY.

    This set of teaching aids consists of seven Audubon Nature Bulletins, providing the teacher and student with informational reading on various topics in conservation. The bulletins have these titles: Plants as Makers of Soil, Water Pollution Control, The Ground Water Table, Conservation--To Keep This Earth Habitable, Our Threatened Air Supply,…

  4. Development of a cost-effective diversity-maximising decision-support tool for in situ crop genetic resources conservation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Samuel, Aurelia F.; Drucker, Adam G.; Andersen, Sven Bode

    2013-01-01

    conservation outcomes. Alternative risk measures generally resulted in the allocation of conservation funds to the same priority clusters of cacao (Criollo and Curaray). However, the use of the number of locally common alleles as an alternative to the original Weitzman diversity measure produced a markedly...... different result, prioritising the Purús cluster in Western Amazonia. The Curaray cluster was highly prioritised under both diversity measures, indicating its distinctiveness relative to both the Criollo and Purús clusters. We conclude that the Weitzman approach can indeed allow diversity comparisons...

  5. IN SITU AND EX SITU CONSERVATION OF RARE AND ENDANGERED GEOPHYTES OF THE HIRKAN NATIONAL PARK (AZERBAIJAN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    IBADLI Oruc

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The Hirkan National Park consists of natural region of Talish Mountains characterized with their unique natural complex. This research was carried out from 2004 to 2007 in order to study the floristic and taxonomical composition of geophytes, elaborate optimal measures of biosafety and their sustainable use. According to floristic composition of the National Park it is a valuable forest which includes 150 endemic species of trees and bushes out of 435 species of trees and bushes. As a result of researches for the first time were found that more than 15 geophyte species are endemic plants of Caucasus or Azerbaijan. Some geophyte species are Allium lenkoranicum Miscz. ex Grossh., A. talyschense Miscz. ex Grossh., Bellevalia fominii Woronow, Ornithogalum hyrcanum Grossh., Fritillaria grandiflora Grossh., Crocus caspius Fisch. & C. A. Mey., Iris helena (C. Koch C. Koch, Himantoglossum formosum (Stev. C. Koch, Ophrys oestrifera M. Bieb., etc. among many others. Isolation of a geographical position of Talish, which vegetation differ a variety of life forms, allows considering geophytes as a group of independent bioecological value. 92 species of geophytes identified and registered in the Hirkan National Park is grouped into 21 families and 46 genera, including 33 rare and endangered species, of which 11 species are included into the “Red Data Book” of Azerbaijan.

  6. Factors influencing in situ gamma-ray measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loonstra, E. H.; van Egmond, F. M.

    2009-04-01

    Introduction In situ passive gamma-ray sensors are very well suitable for mapping physical soil properties. In order to make a qualitative sound soil map, high quality input parameters for calibration are required. This paper will focus on the factors that affect the output of in situ passive gamma-ray sensors, the primary source, soil, not taken into account. Factors The gamma-ray spectrum contains information of naturally occurring nuclides 40K, 238U and 232Th and man-made nuclides like 137Cs, as well as the total count rate. Factors that influence the concentration of these nuclides and the count rate can be classified in 3 categories. These are sensor design, environmental conditions and operational circumstances. Sensor design The main elements of an in situ gamma-ray sensor that influence the outcome and quality of the output are the crystal and the spectrum analysis method. Material and size of the crystal determine the energy resolution. Though widely used, NaI crystals are not the most efficient capturer of gamma radiation. Alternatives are BGO and CsI. BGO has a low peak resolution, which prohibits use in cases where man-made nuclides are subject of interest. The material is expensive and prone to temperature instability. CsI is robust compared to NaI and BGO. The density of CsI is higher than NaI, yielding better efficiency, especially for smaller crystal sizes. More volume results in higher energy efficiency. The reduction of the measured spectral information into concentration of radionuclides is mostly done using the Windows analysis method. In Windows, the activities of the nuclides are found by summing the intensities of the spectrum found in a certain interval surrounding a peak. A major flaw of the Windows method is the limited amount of spectral information that is incorporated into the analysis. Another weakness is the inherent use of ‘stripping factors' to account for contributions of radiation from nuclide A into the peak of nuclide B. This

  7. Founded: Genetic Reconstruction of Lineage Diversity and Kinship Informs Ex situ Conservation of Cuban Amazon Parrots (Amazona leucocephala).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milián-García, Yoamel; Jensen, Evelyn L; Madsen, Jeanette; Álvarez Alonso, Suleiky; Serrano Rodríguez, Aryamne; Espinosa López, Georgina; Russello, Michael A

    2015-01-01

    Captive breeding is a widespread conservation strategy, yet such programs rarely include empirical genetic data for assessing management assumptions and meeting conservation goals. Cuban Amazon parrots (Amazona leucocephala) are considered vulnerable, and multiple on-island captive populations have been established from wild-caught and confiscated individuals of unknown ancestry. Here, we used mitochondrial haplotypic and nuclear genotypic data at 9 microsatellite loci to quantify the extent and distribution of genetic variation within and among captive populations in Zapata Swamp and Managua, Cuba, and to estimate kinship among breeders (n = 88). Using Bayesian clustering analysis, we detected 2 distinct clusters within the Zapata population, one of which was shared with Managua. Individuals from the cluster unique to Zapata possessed mitochondrial haplotypes with affinities to Cuban subspecies (A. l. leucocephala, A. l. palmarum); the shared cluster was similar, but also included haplotypes closely related to the subspecies restricted to Cayman Brac (A. l. hesterna). Overall mean kinship was low within each captive population (-0.026 to -0.012), with 19 and 11 recommended breeding pairs in Zapata and Managua, respectively, ranked according to mean kinship and informed by molecular sexing. Our results highlight the importance of understanding population history within ex situ management programs, while providing genetic information to directly inform Cuban parrot conservation. © The American Genetic Association 2015. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  8. Ex situ conservation of Holstein-Friesian cattle: Comparing the Dutch, French and USA germplasm collections

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holstein-Friesian (HF) gene bank collections were established in France, the Netherlands and USA in order to conserve genetic diversity for this breed. Genetic diversity of HF collections within and between countries was assessed and compared with active HF bulls in each country by using pedigree da...

  9. Caractéristiques, menaces et nécessité de conservation in situ du ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    SARAH

    30 sept. 2015 ... Le contrôle et la limitation de son absorption par le sang zébu sont ... breeding performance of Baoulé taurine cattle, to show its ... zones de savane et dans une moindre mesure ...... conservation et de la gestion des stocks.

  10. In situ gamma-ray spectrometric measurements of uranium in phosphates soil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lavi, N.; Ne'eman, E.; Brenner, S.; Haquin, G.; Nir-El, Y.

    1997-01-01

    Abstract Radioactivity concentration of 238 U in a phosphate ores quarry was measured in situ. Independently, soil samples collected in the site were measured in the laboratory. It was disclosed that radon emanation from the soil lowers in situ results that are derived from radon daughters. Uranium concentration was found to be 121.6±1.9 mg kg -1 (authors)

  11. Role of Brazilian zoos in ex situ bird conservation: from 1981 to 2005.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azevedo, Cristiano S; Young, Robert J; Rodrigues, Marcos

    2011-01-01

    Zoos may play an important role in conservation when they maintain and breed large numbers of animals that are threatened with extinction. Bird conservation is in a privileged situation owing to the extensive biological information available about this class. Annual inventories produced by the "Sociedade de Zoológicos do Brasil" in the years 1981, 1990, 2000, and 2005 were analyzed. Variables, such as the number of zoos per geographic region; number of birds held; number of bird species in each IUCN threat category; number of exotic and native bird species; number of potentially breeding bird species; number of bird species in each order; and number of threatened bird species breeding, were analyzed. Brazilian zoos kept more than 350 bird species. The number of bird species and specimens held by the Brazilian Zoos increased from 1981 to 2000, but decreased in 2005. The same pattern was observed for the number of species in each IUCN threat category. Results showed that the potential of the Brazilian zoos in bird conservation needs to be enhanced because they maintain threatened species but do not implement systematic genetic, reproductive, or behavioral management protocols for most species. © 2010 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  12. Reoperation Rates in Ductal Carcinoma In Situ vs Invasive Breast Cancer After Wire-Guided Breast-Conserving Surgery

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Langhans, Linnea; Jensen, Maj-Britt; Talman, Maj-Lis M

    2017-01-01

    Importance: New techniques for preoperative localization of nonpalpable breast lesions may decrease the reoperation rate in breast-conserving surgery (BCS) compared with rates after surgery with the standard wire-guided localization. However, a valid reoperation rate for this procedure needs...... to be established for comparison, as previous studies on this procedure include a variety of malignant and benign breast lesions. Objectives: To determine the reoperation rate after wire-guided BCS in patients with histologically verified nonpalpable invasive breast cancer (IBC) or ductal carcinoma in situ (DCIS......) and to examine whether the risk of reoperation is associated with DCIS or histologic type of the IBC. Design, Setting, and Participants: This nationwide study including women with histologically verified IBC or DCIS having wire-guided BCS performed between January 1, 2010, and December 31, 2013, used data from...

  13. In Situ Conservation of Some Rare and Endemic Species of Iridaceae Family in National Botanical Garden of Georgia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tamar Nadiradze

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The article covers some information on anthropogenic influence upon natural ecosystems that is considered to be one of the strongest factors for reducing biodiversity of Georgian flora. With this purpose, some species of fam. Iridaceae that need to be protected under in situ conditions are being studied. The paper focuses on the fam. Iridaceae. This family is particularly interesting as it unites a considerable number of valuable, beautifully flowering plants with ornamental leaves, representing different biomorphs. Particularly rare and endangered species are: Iris iberica, I. Grossheimii, I. Lycotis, I. Camillae, I. Elegantissima, etc. We have carried out complex studies of bio-ecological peculiarities of bulbous geophytes and ephemeroids of genus Iridodictyum winogradowii, Ir. Reticulatum, Siphonastilis lasica and Iuno caucasica. There has been studied rhythm of growth and development of vital cycle of monocarpic shootings and ways of their propagation in the sub arid zone of East Georgia. There should be mentioned that they have perfectly adapted to the conditions. Such rare species of rootstock plants like Iris iberica, I. Carthalinical. Aphylla, I. graminea, I. imbricata, I. timofejewii, I. prilipkoana, I. musulmanica, Siphonastilis lazica and others even give abundant self-seedlings that undoubtedly makes it possible to protect them from being finally extinct. All the investigated plants can be recommended for using in landscape architecture under the conditions of East Georgia that will contribute to conservation of the valuable genofond of relict and endemic plants of Georgian flora. The work deals with the results of in situ conservation of some of rare and endemic species of fam. Iridaceae from Iridaceae Juss family. According to IUCN categories, the studied taxaare discussed as the endangered species in nature.

  14. Novel Sensor for the In Situ Measurement of Uranium Fluxes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hatfield, Kirk [Univ. of Florida, Gainesville, FL (United States)

    2015-02-10

    The goal of this project was to develop a sensor that incorporates the field-tested concepts of the passive flux meter to provide direct in situ measures of flux for uranium and groundwater in porous media. Measurable contaminant fluxes [J] are essentially the product of concentration [C] and groundwater flux or specific discharge [q ]. The sensor measures [J] and [q] by changes in contaminant and tracer amounts respectively on a sorbent. By using measurement rather than inference from static parameters, the sensor can directly advance conceptual and computational models for field scale simulations. The sensor was deployed in conjunction with DOE in obtaining field-scale quantification of subsurface processes affecting uranium transport (e.g., advection) and transformation (e.g., uranium attenuation) at the Rifle IFRC Site in Rifle, Colorado. Project results have expanded our current understanding of how field-scale spatial variations in fluxes of uranium, groundwater and salient electron donor/acceptors are coupled to spatial variations in measured microbial biomass/community composition, effective field-scale uranium mass balances, attenuation, and stability. The coupling between uranium, various nutrients and micro flora can be used to estimate field-scale rates of uranium attenuation and field-scale transitions in microbial communities. This research focuses on uranium (VI), but the sensor principles and design are applicable to field-scale fate and transport of other radionuclides. Laboratory studies focused on sorbent selection and calibration, along with sensor development and validation under controlled conditions. Field studies were conducted at the Rifle IFRC Site in Rifle, Colorado. These studies were closely coordinated with existing SBR (formerly ERSP) projects to complement data collection. Small field tests were conducted during the first two years that focused on evaluating field-scale deployment procedures and validating sensor performance under

  15. Kinematic analysis of in situ measurement during chemical mechanical planarization process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Hongkai; Wang, Tongqing; Zhao, Qian; Meng, Yonggang; Lu, Xinchun, E-mail: xclu@tsinghua.edu.cn [State Key Laboratory of Tribology, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084 (China)

    2015-10-15

    Chemical mechanical planarization (CMP) is the most widely used planarization technique in semiconductor manufacturing presently. With the aid of in situ measurement technology, CMP tools can achieve good performance and stable productivity. However, the in situ measurement has remained unexplored from a kinematic standpoint. The available related resources for the kinematic analysis are very limited due to the complexity and technical secret. In this paper, a comprehensive kinematic analysis of in situ measurement is provided, including the analysis model, the measurement trajectory, and the measurement time of each zone of wafer surface during the practical CMP process. In addition, a lot of numerical calculations are performed to study the influences of main parameters on the measurement trajectory and the measurement velocity variation of the probe during the measurement process. All the efforts are expected to improve the in situ measurement system and promote the advancement in CMP control system.

  16. Leaving the placenta in situ versus conservative and radical surgery in the treatment of placenta accreta spectrum disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kutuk, Mehmet S; Ak, Mehmet; Ozgun, Mahmut T

    2018-03-01

    To compare different treatment methods in the management of placenta accreta spectrum (PAS) disorders. In a retrospective cohort study, medical records were retrieved for patients who underwent elective surgery at 24 weeks of pregnancy or more after a diagnosis of PAS disorder (creta, increta, or percreta) at a center in Turkey between May 2, 2010, and August 10, 2016. The final analysis included patients whose diagnosis was confirmed intraoperatively and for whom complete data were available. Patients were divided into three groups: group 1 included those who underwent hysterectomy without placental removal, group 2 included patients whose placenta was left in situ, and group 3 included those who underwent placental removal and conservative surgery. Among 79 included patients (33 creta, 18 increta, 28 percreta), 27 (34%) were in group 1, 15 (19%) in group 2, and 37 (47%) in group 3. Total blood loss and the amounts of blood products transfused were lowest in group 2; significant differences between groups were noted (all P ≤ 0.001). Surgical complication rates were similar between groups (4/27 [15%], 1/15 [7%], and 11/37 [30%], respectively; P=0.119). Overall uterine preservation rates were not significantly different between groups 2 and 3 (14/15 [93%] vs 33/37 [89%]; P>0.99). Leaving the placenta in situ could become the treatment of choice for PAS disorders. © 2017 International Federation of Gynecology and Obstetrics.

  17. Conservation of coral reefs through active restoration measures: recent approaches and last decade progress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rinkevich, Baruch

    2005-06-15

    The scientific discipline of active restoration of denuded coral reef areas has drawn much attention in the past decade as it became evident that this ecosystem does not often recover naturally from anthropogenic stress without manipulation. Essentially, the choices are eitherthe continuous degradation of the reefs or active restoration to encourage reef development. As a result, worldwide restoration operations during the past decade have been recognized as being a major tool for reef rehabilitation. This situation has also stirred discussions and debates on the various restoration measures suggested as management options, supplementary to the traditional conservation acts. The present essay reviews past decade's (1994-2004) approaches and advances in coral reef restoration. While direct coral transplantation is still the primer vehicle of operations used, the concept of in situ and ex situ coral nurseries (the gardening concept), where coral materials (nubbins, branches, spats) are maricultured to a size suitable for transplantation, has been gaining recognition. The use of nubbins (down to the size of a single or few polyps) has been suggested and employed as a unique technique for mass production of coral colonies. Restoration of ship grounding sites and the use of artificial reefs have become common tools for specific restoration needs. Substrate stabilization, 3-D structural consideration of developing colonies, and the use of molecular/biochemical tools are part of novel technology approaches developed in the past decade. Economic considerations for reef restoration have become an important avenue for evaluating success of restoration activities. It has been suggested that landscape restoration and restoration genetics are important issues to be studied. In the future, as coral reef restoration may become the dominant conservation act, there would be the need not only to develop improved protocols but also to define the conceptual bases.

  18. Conserving what, where and how? Cost-efficient measures to conserve biodiversity in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Anders Højgård; Strange, Niels; Anthon, Signe

    2016-01-01

    Biodiversity conservation efforts in Europe have traditionally focused on farmland and open nature areas such as grasslands, heathlands and meadows, while little attention has been devoted to conservation actions in forest. Using detailed information on the geographical distribution of about 900...... terrestrial species in Denmark we apply systematic conservation planning techniques to identify how to protect biodiversity at the lowest cost to society. The results suggest that conservation actions in forest should be given a higher priority. Thus, three to four times the number of forest species...... are protected per million € compared with species living in open land natural areas. Furthermore, a gap analysis finds the current designation of Natura 2000 and other protected areas is skewed toward open land natural areas, and insufficient to meet the conservation targets on forest species....

  19. Savannah River Site Experiences in In Situ Field Measurements of Radioactive Materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moore, F.S.

    1999-01-01

    This paper discusses some of the field gamma-ray measurements made at the Savannah River Site, the equipment used for the measurements, and lessons learned during in situ identification and characterization of radioactive materials

  20. Conservative treatment of breast ductal carcinoma in situ: results of an Italian multi-institutional retrospective study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vidali, Cristiana; Neri, Stefano; Pietta, Nicoletta; Caffo, Orazio; Aristei, Cynthia; Bertoni, Filippo; Bonetta, Alberto; Guenzi, Marina; Iotti, Cinzia; Leonardi, Maria Cristina; Mussari, Salvatore

    2012-01-01

    The incidence of ductal carcinoma in situ (DCIS) has increased markedly in recent decades. In the past, mastectomy was the primary treatment for patients with DCIS, but as with invasive cancer, breast-conserving surgery followed by radiation therapy (RT) has become the standard approach. We present the final results of a multi-institutional retrospective study of an Italian Radiation Oncology Group for the study of conservative treatment of DCIS, characterized by a very long period of accrual, from February 1985 to March 2000, and a median follow-up longer than 11 years. A collaborative multi-institutional study was conducted in Italy in 10 Radiation Oncology Departments. A consecutive series of 586 women with DCIS histologically confirmed, treated between February 1985 and March 2000, was retrospectively evaluated. Median age at diagnosis was 55 years (range: 29–84); 32 patients were 40 years old or younger. All women underwent conservative surgery followed by whole breast RT. Irradiation was delivered to the entire breast, for a median total dose of 50 Gy; the tumour bed was boosted in 295 cases (50%) at a median dose of 10 Gy. After a median follow-up of 136 months (range: 16–292 months), 59/586 patients (10%) experienced a local recurrence: invasive in 37 cases, intraductal in 20 and not specified in two. Salvage mastectomy was the treatment of choice in 46 recurrent patients; conservative surgery in 10 and it was unknown in three patients. The incidence of local recurrence was significantly higher in women younger than 40 years (31.3%) (p= 0.0009). Five patients developed distant metastases. Furthermore 40 patients developed a contralateral breast cancer and 31 a second primary tumour in a different site. The 10-year actuarial overall survival (OS) was 95.5% and the 10-year actuarial disease-specific survival (DSS) was 99%. Our results are consistent with those reported in the literature. In particular it has been defined the importance of young age (40

  1. Relationship of family history and outcome after breast conservation therapy in women with ductal carcinoma in situ of the breast

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harris, Eleanor E.R.; Schultz, Delray J.; Peters, Christopher A.; Solin, Lawrence J.

    2000-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this study was to evaluate the relationship between a family history of breast or ovarian cancer and outcome after breast-conserving surgery and radiation in women presenting with an initial diagnosis of ductal carcinoma in situ (DCIS) of the breast. Methods and Materials: A total of 146 consecutive women with a pathologic diagnosis of ductal carcinoma in situ as their first diagnosis of any breast cancer were identified; 28 (19%) had a positive family history of breast or ovarian cancer in a first-degree relative, 27 (19%) had a positive family history in a second-degree relative, and 91 (62%) had no family history. Pathologic, clinical, and treatment factors, and clinical outcomes for each family history group were compared. Cosmesis and complications were recorded at each follow-up. Patients were treated between 1978 and 1995, and the median follow-up was 7.1 years. Results: Patients with a positive family history in a first- or second-degree relative each had an 8% incidence of local failure at 10 years, while the negative family history group demonstrated a 16% local failure rate (p = 0.33). Overall survival at 10 years for patients with a positive family history in a first- or second-degree relative was 100% and for those with a negative family history was 91% (p = 0.08). The negative family history group had a higher median age that may account for the difference in overall survival. Cause-specific survival (CSS) was 97%, 100%, and 99%, respectively, at 10 years (p = 0.25). There were no differences in the cosmetic results or complication rates between women with a positive or negative family history. Conclusion: We have shown that a family history of breast and/or ovarian cancer is not associated with an adverse outcome for women treated with breast conservation therapy for DCIS. Local recurrence, cause-specific survival, overall survival, cosmesis, and complication rates were comparable to that of similarly treated women with

  2. Ten-year results of treatment of ductal carcinoma in situ (DCIS) of the breast with conservative surgery and radiotherapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amichetti, M; Caffo, O; Richetti, A; Zini, G; Rigon, A; Antonello, M; Arcicasa, M; Coghetto, F; Valdagni, R; Maluta, S; Di Marco, A

    1997-09-01

    The optimal treatment of ductal carcinoma in situ (DCIS) of the breast has not yet been established. The effectiveness of adjuvant postoperative radiotherapy after conservative surgery is debated. Few data are available in Italy on the combined treatment. A collaborative multi-institutional study on this issue in 10 radiation oncology departments of the north-east of Italy was conducted. One hundred and thirty nine women with DCIS of the breast were treated between 1980 and 1990. Age ranged between 28 and 88 years (median 50 years). Surgical procedures were: quadrantectomy in 108, lumpectomy in 22 and wide excision in 9 cases. The axilla was surgically staged in 97 cases: all the patients were node-negative. Radiation therapy was delivered with 60Co units (78%) or 6 MV linear accelerators (22%) for a median total dose to the entire breast of 50 Gy (mean 49.48 Gy; range 45-60 Gy). The tumour bed was boosted in 109 cases (78%) at a dose of 4-30 Gy (median 10 Gy) for a minimum tumour dose of 58 Gy. Median follow-up was 81 months. Thirteen local recurrences were recorded, 7 intraductal and 6 invasive. All recurrent patients had a salvage mastectomy and are alive and free of disease. Actuarial overall, cause-specific and recurrence-free survival at 10 years are of 93%, 100% and 86%, respectively. The results of this retrospective multicentric study substantiate the favourable data reported in the literature and confirm the efficacy of the breast-conserving treatment of DCIS employing conservative surgery and adjuvant radiation therapy.

  3. Ecological adaptation of wild peach palm, its in situ conservation and deforestation-mediated extinction in southern Brazilian Amazonia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Charles R Clement

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The Arc of Fire across southern Amazonia seasonally attracts worldwide attention as forests are cut and burned for agricultural expansion. These forests contain numerous wild relatives of native South American crops, such as peach palm. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Our prospecting expeditions examined critical areas for wild peach palm in the Arc of Fire in Mato Grosso, Pará, Maranhão and Tocantins, as well as areas not previously examined in Amazonas and Amapá states. Recent digitization of the RADAM Brasil project permitted comparison among RADAM's parataxonomists' observations, previous botanical collections and our prospecting. Mapping on soils and vegetation types enabled us to hypothesize a set of ecological preferences. Wild peach palm is best adapted to Ultisols (Acrisols in open forests across the Arc of Fire and westward into the more humid western Amazonia. Populations are generally small (fewer than 10 plants on slopes above watercourses. In northern Mato Grosso and southern Pará soybean fields and pastures now occupy numerous areas where RADAM identified wild peach palm. The controversial BR-163 Highway is already eroding wild peach palm as deforestation expands. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Many of these populations are now isolated by increasing forest fragmentation, which will lead to decreased reproduction via inbreeding depression and eventual extinction even without complete deforestation. Federal conservation areas are less numerous in the Arc of Fire than in other parts of Brazilian Amazonia, although there are indigenous lands; these conservation areas contain viable populations of wild peach palm and require better protection than they are currently receiving. Ex situ conservation of these populations is not viable given the relative lack of importance of domesticated peach palm and the difficulty of maintaining even economically interesting genetic resources.

  4. Ecological adaptation of wild peach palm, its in situ conservation and deforestation-mediated extinction in southern Brazilian Amazonia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clement, Charles R; Santos, Ronaldo P; Desmouliere, Sylvain J M; Ferreira, Evandro J L; Neto, João Tomé Farias

    2009-01-01

    The Arc of Fire across southern Amazonia seasonally attracts worldwide attention as forests are cut and burned for agricultural expansion. These forests contain numerous wild relatives of native South American crops, such as peach palm. Our prospecting expeditions examined critical areas for wild peach palm in the Arc of Fire in Mato Grosso, Pará, Maranhão and Tocantins, as well as areas not previously examined in Amazonas and Amapá states. Recent digitization of the RADAM Brasil project permitted comparison among RADAM's parataxonomists' observations, previous botanical collections and our prospecting. Mapping on soils and vegetation types enabled us to hypothesize a set of ecological preferences. Wild peach palm is best adapted to Ultisols (Acrisols) in open forests across the Arc of Fire and westward into the more humid western Amazonia. Populations are generally small (fewer than 10 plants) on slopes above watercourses. In northern Mato Grosso and southern Pará soybean fields and pastures now occupy numerous areas where RADAM identified wild peach palm. The controversial BR-163 Highway is already eroding wild peach palm as deforestation expands. Many of these populations are now isolated by increasing forest fragmentation, which will lead to decreased reproduction via inbreeding depression and eventual extinction even without complete deforestation. Federal conservation areas are less numerous in the Arc of Fire than in other parts of Brazilian Amazonia, although there are indigenous lands; these conservation areas contain viable populations of wild peach palm and require better protection than they are currently receiving. Ex situ conservation of these populations is not viable given the relative lack of importance of domesticated peach palm and the difficulty of maintaining even economically interesting genetic resources.

  5. An improved in situ measurement of offset phase shift towards quantitative damping-measurement with AFM

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Minary-Jolandan, Majid; Yu Minfeng

    2008-01-01

    An improved approach is introduced in damping measurement with atomic force microscope (AFM) for the in situ measurement of the offset phase shift needed for determining the intrinsic mechanical damping in nanoscale materials. The offset phase shift is defined and measured at a point of zero contact force according to the deflection part of the AFM force plot. It is shown that such defined offset phase shift is independent of the type of sample material, varied from hard to relatively soft materials in this study. This improved approach allows the self-calibrated and quantitative damping measurement with AFM. The ability of dynamic mechanical analysis for the measurement of damping in isolated one-dimensional nanostructures, e.g. individual multiwalled carbon nanotubes, was demonstrated

  6. Salvage treatment for local or local-regional recurrence after initial breast conservation treatment with radiation for ductal carcinoma in situ

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Solin, Lawrence J.; Fourquet, Alain; Vicini, Frank A.; Taylor, Marie; Haffty, Bruce; Strom, Eric A.; Wai, Elaine; Pierce, Lori J.; Marks, Lawrence B.; Bartelink, Harry; Campana, Francois; McNeese, Marsha D.; Jhingran, Anuja; Olivotto, Ivo A.; Bijker, Nina; Hwang, Wei-Ting

    2005-01-01

    The present study evaluated the outcome of salvage treatment for women with local or local-regional recurrence after initial breast conservation treatment with radiation for mammographically detected ductal carcinoma in situ (DCIS; intraductal carcinoma) of the breast. The study cohort consisted of

  7. Improved measurements of RNA structure conservation with generalized centroid estimators

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yohei eOkada

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Identification of non-protein-coding RNAs (ncRNAs in genomes is acrucial task for not only molecular cell biology but alsobioinformatics. Secondary structures of ncRNAs are employed as a keyfeature of ncRNA analysis since biological functions of ncRNAs aredeeply related to their secondary structures. Although the minimumfree energy (MFE structure of an RNA sequence is regarded as the moststable structure, MFE alone could not be an appropriate measure foridentifying ncRNAs since the free energy is heavily biased by thenucleotide composition. Therefore, instead of MFE itself, severalalternative measures for identifying ncRNAs have been proposed such asthe structure conservation index (SCI and the base pair distance(BPD, both of which employ MFE structures. However, thesemeasurements are unfortunately not suitable for identifying ncRNAs insome cases including the genome-wide search and incur high falsediscovery rate. In this study, we propose improved measurements basedon SCI and BPD, applying generalized centroid estimators toincorporate the robustness against low quality multiple alignments.Our experiments show that our proposed methods achieve higher accuracythan the original SCI and BPD for not only human-curated structuralalignments but also low quality alignments produced by CLUSTALW. Furthermore, the centroid-based SCI on CLUSTAL W alignments is moreaccurate than or comparable with that of the original SCI onstructural alignments generated with RAF, a high quality structuralaligner, for which two-fold expensive computational time is requiredon average. We conclude that our methods are more suitable forgenome-wide alignments which are of low quality from the point of viewon secondary structures than the original SCI and BPD.

  8. Preservation of cosmesis with low complication risk after conservative surgery and radiotherapy for ductal carcinoma in situ of the breast

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mills, Janete M.; Schultz, Delray J.; Solin, Lawrence J.

    1997-01-01

    Purpose: Although the clinical outcome after treatment of ductal carcinoma in situ (DCIS) using breast-conservation surgery and radiation therapy has been well documented, little data has been reported on cosmetic outcome or treatment complications. Therefore, the present study was performed to evaluate cosmesis and complications after breast-conservation treatment for DCIS and to analyze various factors that might affect cosmesis and predispose to complications. Methods and Materials: The records of 90 patients who were alive without evidence of disease with a 3-year minimum follow-up were evaluated for cosmetic results and treatment complications following breast-conservation surgery and radiation therapy for DCIS. Complete gross excision of the primary tumor had been performed in all patients. Additionally, 24 patients had undergone an axillary lymph node dissection in the earlier years of the study. The majority of the patients had received 50-50.4 Gy to the whole breast followed by an electron boost for a total dose of 60-66 Gy. Results: The cosmetic results of 90 evaluable patients at 3 years were: excellent in 69 (77%), good in 19 (21%), and fair in 2 (2%). The cosmetic results of 64 evaluable patients at 5 years were: excellent in 46 (72%), good in 16 (25%), and fair in 2 (3%). Factors associated with worse cosmetic results were an increased volume of tissue excised (>70 cm 3 ) and a negative ipsilateral breast biopsy after radiotherapy. Complications in the 24 patients with an axillary dissection were: arm edema (n = 6), cellulitis of the arm (n = 5), and axillary vein thrombosis (n = 1). Complications in the 66 patients without an axillary dissection were: cellulitis of the arm (n = 1) and cellulitis of the breast (n = 1). Discussion: Breast-conservation surgery followed by radiation therapy achieved excellent or good cosmetic results in 98 and 97% of patients at 3 years and 5 years, respectively. Complications were associated primarily with axillary

  9. Renewable energy and conservation measures for non-residential buildings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grossman, Andrew James

    The energy demand in most countries is growing at an alarming rate and identifying economically feasible building retrofit solutions to decrease the need for fossil fuels so as to mitigate their environmental and societal impacts has become imperative. Two approaches are available for identifying feasible retrofit solutions: 1) the implementation of energy conservation measures; and 2) the production of energy from renewable sources. This thesis focuses on the development of retrofit software planning tools for the implementation of solar photovoltaic systems, and lighting system retrofits for mid-Michigan institutional buildings. The solar planning tool exploits the existing blueprint of a building's rooftop, and via image processing, the layouts of the solar photovoltaic arrays are developed based on the building's geographical location and typical weather patterns. The resulting energy generation of a PV system is estimated and is utilized to determine levelized energy costs. The lighting system retrofit analysis starts by a current utilization assessment of a building to determine the amount of energy used by the lighting system. Several LED lighting options are evaluated on the basis of color correlation temperature, color rendering index, energy consumption, and financial feasibility, to determine a retrofit solution. Solar photovoltaic installations in mid-Michigan are not yet financially feasible, but with the anticipated growth and dynamic complexity of the solar photovoltaic market, this solar planning tool is able to assist building proprietors make executive decisions regarding their energy usage. Additionally, a lighting system retrofit is shown to have significant financial and health benefits.

  10. Translocation of threatened plants as a conservation measure in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Hong; Ren, Hai; Liu, Qiang; Wen, XiangYing; Maunder, Michael; Gao, JiangYun

    2015-12-01

    We assessed the current status of plant conservation translocation efforts in China, a topic poorly reported in recent scientific literature. We identified 222 conservation translocation cases involving 154 species, of these 87 were Chinese endemic species and 101 (78%) were listed as threatened on the Chinese Species Red List. We categorized the life form of each species and, when possible, determined for each case the translocation type, propagule source, propagule type, and survival and reproductive parameters. A surprisingly large proportion (26%) of the conservation translocations in China were conservation introductions, largely implemented in response to large-scale habitat destruction caused by the Three-Gorge Dam and another hydropower project. Documentation and management of the translocations varied greatly. Less than half the cases had plant survival records. Statistical analyses showed that survival percentages were significantly correlated with plant life form and the type of planting materials. Thirty percent of the cases had records on whether or not individuals flowered or fruited. Results of information theoretic model selection indicated that plant life form, translocation type, propagule type, propagule source, and time since planting significantly influenced the likelihood of flowering and fruiting on the project level. We suggest that the scientific-based application of species conservation translocations should be promoted as part of a commitment to species recovery management. In addition, we recommend that the common practice of within and out of range introductions in nature reserves to be regulated more carefully due to its potential ecological risks. We recommend the establishment of a national office and database to coordinate conservation translocations in China. Our review effort is timely considering the need for a comprehensive national guideline for the newly announced nation-wide conservation program on species with extremely

  11. Comparison between ex situ and in situ measurement methods for the assessment of radioactively contaminated land. Comparison between measurement methods for the characterisation of radioactively contaminated land

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rostron, Peter D.; Ramsey, Michael H.; Heathcote, John A.

    2012-01-01

    In the UK, it is estimated that there may be 20,000,000 cubic metres of contaminated land at Sellafield alone. Harwell and Dounreay are known to have significant amounts of radioactive or nonradioactive contaminated land (NDA, 2006). It is therefore important to devise optimal methods for the characterisation of areas of land for radionuclide content, in order to enable cost-effective decommissioning. With chemical contaminants, ex situ measurements are made on a larger volume of soil than are in situ measurements, such as PXRF. However, the opposite is often true for the characterisation of radioactive contamination, when this involves the detection of penetrating radiation from γ-emitting radionuclides. This means that when investigating for hotspots of radioactive contamination at or near the ground surface, better coverage can be obtained using in situ methods. This leads to the question, what is the optimal strategy (e.g. percentage coverage, counting time) for in situ characterisation of radioactively contaminated land' Surveys on light-moderate contaminated areas of ground were conducted at Dounreay in order to compare the relative effectiveness of in situ and ex situ methods, both for the detection of radioactive hotspots and also for estimating the average radionuclide content of an area of ground. These surveys suggest that continuous coverage by in situ devices is more effective at hotspot detection, with ex situ laboratory measurements being less effective, although in one case elevated activity below 10 cm depth that was identified by ex situ measurement was not located by in situ measurement. The surveys also highlighted that careful choice of an appropriate spatial model is critical to the estimation of activity concentrations over averaging areas. Whereas continuous coverage may be considered necessary for hotspot identification, in the particular case of the detection of hot particles (where the particle is very small compared to the sampling

  12. Results of conservative surgery and radiation for mammographically detected ductal carcinoma in situ (DCIS)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fowble, B.; Hanlon, A.L.; Fein, D.A.; Hoffman, J.P.; Sigurdson, E.R.; Patchefsky, A.; Kessler, H.

    1996-01-01

    Purpose: The role of conservative surgery and radiation for mammographically detected DCIS is controversial. In particular, there is a paucity of data for outcome with radiation in a group of patients comparable to those treated with local excision and surveillance (mammographically detected DCIS ≤2.5 cm, negative resection margins, negative post-biopsy mammogram). The purpose of this study is to report long term outcome of conservative surgery and radiation for mammographically detected DCIS with emphasis on the results in patients (pts.) considered candidates for excision alone. Materials and Methods: From 1983 to 1992, 110 women with mammographically detected DCIS (calcifications 72%, mass ± calcifications 27%) and no prior history of breast cancer underwent needle localization biopsy followed by radiation. The median age of the patient population was 56 yrs. (range 37-81). The median followup was 5.3 yrs. (range .5-12). Re-excision was performed in 55%. Final margins of resection were negative in 62%, positive 7%, close 11%, and unknown 20%. Axillary dissection was performed in 31 pts. and all had negative nodes. 31% had a positive family history of breast cancer (1 affected relative-25 pts., two-7 pts., three-2 pts.). The most common predominant histologic subtype was comedo (54%) followed by cribriform (22%). The median pathologic tumor size was 8 mm (range 2 mm to 5 cm). A post-biopsy mammogram prior to radiation was performed in 46% of the patients. Radiation consisted of treatment to the entire breast (median 5000 cGy) with a boost to the primary site (97%) of an additional 1000 cGy. The median total dose to the primary site was 6040 cGy (range 5000 to 6660). Results: Three patients developed a recurrence in the treated breast at 52, 106, and 107 months. All 3 recurrences were invasive ductal cancers and all were treated with mastectomy. The location of the recurrence was in the same quadrant as the primary in 1 pt. and in a separate quadrant in 2 pts

  13. Portable gamma spectrometry: measuring soil erosion in-situ at four Critical Zone Observatories in P. R. China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanderson, N. K.; Green, S. M.; Chen, Z.; Wang, J.; Wang, Y.; Wang, R.; Yu, K.; Tu, C.; Jia, X.; Li, G.; Peng, X.; Quine, T. A.

    2017-12-01

    Detecting patterns of soil erosion, redistribution, and/soil nutrient loss is important for long-term soil conservation and agricultural sustainability. Caesium-137 (137Cs) and other fallout radionuclide inventories have been used over the the last 50 years to track soil erosion, transport and deposition on a catchment scale, and have been shown to be useful for informing models of temporal/spatial soil redistribution. Traditional sampling methods usually involves coring, grinding, sieving, sub-sampling and laboratory analysis using HPGe detectors, all of which can be costly and time consuming. In-situ measurements can provide a mechanism for assessment of 137Cs over larger areas that integrate the spatial variability, and expand turnover of analyses. Here, we assess the applicability of an in-situ approach based on radionuclide principles, and provide a comparison of the two approaches: laboratory vs. in-situ. The UK-China Critical Zone Observatory (CZO) programme provides an ideal research platform to assess the in-situ approach to measuring soil erosion: using a portable gamma spectrometer to determine 137Cs inventories. Four extensive field slope surveys were conducted in the CZO's, which covers four ecosystem types in China: karst, red soil, peri-urban, and loess plateau. In each CZO, 3-6 plots were measured along 2 slope transects, with 3 replicated 1 hour counts of 137Cs in each plot. In addition, 137Cs soil depth and bulk density profiles were also sampled for each plot, and lab-derived inventories calculated using traditional methods for comparison. Accurately and rapidly measuring 137Cs inventories using a portable field detector allows for a greater coverage of sampling locations and the potential for small-scale spatial integration, as well as the ability to re-visit sites over time and continually adapt and improve soil erosion/redistribution models, thus more effectively targeting areas of interest with reduced cost and time constraints.

  14. Reliable practical technique for in-situ rock stress measurements in deep gold mines.

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Stacey, TR

    1998-03-01

    Full Text Available The proposed primary output of this research project is the development of a set of equipment and method of in situ stress measurements in a high stress environment typical of the deep level gold mines....

  15. Determination of the in situ modulus of the rockmass by the use of backfill measurements

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Gurtunca, RG

    1991-03-01

    Full Text Available In situ measurements and numerical modelling based on elastic theory showed that backfill stresses are considerably higher than originally thought. This has led to a change in understanding of rockmass behaviour. After describing previous work...

  16. A Review of Fiscal Measures to Benefit Heritage Conservation

    OpenAIRE

    Pickerill, Tracy; Pickard, Rob

    2007-01-01

    This research paper explores to use of fiscal incentives for heritage conservation in a range of countries in Western Europe (Belgium, Denmark, France, Germany, Ireland, Italy, Netherlands, Spain and the United Kingdom) and North America (Canada and USA), to see how they are used and how effective they are. The main incentives are: Income tax deductions and credits for costs incurred in heritage conservation activity; Income tax credits for the provision of social housing in heritage bui...

  17. Application of in situ measurement for site remediation and final status survey of decommissioning KRR site

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hong, Sang Bum; Nam, Jong Soo; Choi, Yong Suk; Seo, Bum Kyoung; Moon, Jei Kwon [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-06-15

    In situ gamma spectrometry has been used to measure environmental radiation, assumptions are usually made about the depth distribution of the radionuclides of interest in the soil. The main limitation of in situ gamma spectrometry lies in determining the depth distribution of radionuclides. The objective of this study is to develop a method for subsurface characterization by in situ measurement. The peak to valley method based on the ratio of counting rate between the photoelectric peak and Compton region was applied to identify the depth distribution. The peak to valley method could be applied to establish the relation between the spectrally derived coefficients (Q) with relaxation mass per unit area (β) for various depth distribution in soil. The in situ measurement results were verified by MCNP simulation and calculated correlation equation. In order to compare the depth distributions and contamination levels in decommissioning KRR site, in situ measurement and sampling results were compared. The in situ measurement results and MCNP simulation results show a good correlation for laboratory measurement. The simulation relationship between Q and source burial for the source layers have exponential relationship for a variety depth distributions. We applied the peak to valley method to contaminated decommissioning KRR site to determine a depth distribution and initial activity without sampling. The observed results has a good correlation, relative error between in situ measurement with sampling result is around 7% for depth distribution and 4% for initial activity. In this study, the vertical activity distribution and initial activity of {sup 137}Cs could be identifying directly through in situ measurement. Therefore, the peak to valley method demonstrated good potential for assessment of the residual radioactivity for site remediation in decommissioning and contaminated site.

  18. Measurement of thermal conductivity and diffusivity in situ: Literature survey and theoretical modelling of measurements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kukkonen, I.; Suppala, I. [Geological Survey of Finland, Espoo (Finland)

    1999-01-01

    In situ measurements of thermal conductivity and diffusivity of bedrock were investigated with the aid of a literature survey and theoretical simulations of a measurement system. According to the surveyed literature, in situ methods can be divided into `active` drill hole methods, and `passive` indirect methods utilizing other drill hole measurements together with cutting samples and petrophysical relationships. The most common active drill hole method is a cylindrical heat producing probe whose temperature is registered as a function of time. The temperature response can be calculated and interpreted with the aid of analytical solutions of the cylindrical heat conduction equation, particularly the solution for an infinite perfectly conducting cylindrical probe in a homogeneous medium, and the solution for a line source of heat in a medium. Using both forward and inverse modellings, a theoretical measurement system was analysed with an aim at finding the basic parameters for construction of a practical measurement system. The results indicate that thermal conductivity can be relatively well estimated with borehole measurements, whereas thermal diffusivity is much more sensitive to various disturbing factors, such as thermal contact resistance and variations in probe parameters. In addition, the three-dimensional conduction effects were investigated to find out the magnitude of axial `leak` of heat in long-duration experiments. The radius of influence of a drill hole measurement is mainly dependent on the duration of the experiment. Assuming typical conductivity and diffusivity values of crystalline rocks, the measurement yields information within less than a metre from the drill hole, when the experiment lasts about 24 hours. We propose the following factors to be taken as basic parameters in the construction of a practical measurement system: the probe length 1.5-2 m, heating power 5-20 Wm{sup -1}, temperature recording with 5-7 sensors placed along the probe, and

  19. Measurement of thermal conductivity and diffusivity in situ: Literature survey and theoretical modelling of measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kukkonen, I.; Suppala, I.

    1999-01-01

    In situ measurements of thermal conductivity and diffusivity of bedrock were investigated with the aid of a literature survey and theoretical simulations of a measurement system. According to the surveyed literature, in situ methods can be divided into 'active' drill hole methods, and 'passive' indirect methods utilizing other drill hole measurements together with cutting samples and petrophysical relationships. The most common active drill hole method is a cylindrical heat producing probe whose temperature is registered as a function of time. The temperature response can be calculated and interpreted with the aid of analytical solutions of the cylindrical heat conduction equation, particularly the solution for an infinite perfectly conducting cylindrical probe in a homogeneous medium, and the solution for a line source of heat in a medium. Using both forward and inverse modellings, a theoretical measurement system was analysed with an aim at finding the basic parameters for construction of a practical measurement system. The results indicate that thermal conductivity can be relatively well estimated with borehole measurements, whereas thermal diffusivity is much more sensitive to various disturbing factors, such as thermal contact resistance and variations in probe parameters. In addition, the three-dimensional conduction effects were investigated to find out the magnitude of axial 'leak' of heat in long-duration experiments. The radius of influence of a drill hole measurement is mainly dependent on the duration of the experiment. Assuming typical conductivity and diffusivity values of crystalline rocks, the measurement yields information within less than a metre from the drill hole, when the experiment lasts about 24 hours. We propose the following factors to be taken as basic parameters in the construction of a practical measurement system: the probe length 1.5-2 m, heating power 5-20 Wm -1 , temperature recording with 5-7 sensors placed along the probe, and

  20. Conservation covenants on private land: issues with measuring and achieving biodiversity outcomes in Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fitzsimons, James A; Carr, C Ben

    2014-09-01

    Conservation covenants and easements have become essential tools to secure biodiversity outcomes on private land, and to assist in meeting international protection targets. In Australia, the number and spatial area of conservation covenants has grown significantly in the past decade. Yet there has been little research or detailed policy analysis of conservation covenanting in Australia. We sought to determine how conservation covenanting agencies were measuring the biodiversity conservation outcomes achieved on covenanted properties, and factors inhibiting or contributing to measuring these outcomes. In addition, we also investigated the drivers and constraints associated with actually delivering the biodiversity outcomes, drawing on detailed input from covenanting programs. Although all conservation covenanting programs had the broad aim of maintaining or improving biodiversity in their covenants in the long term, the specific stated objectives of conservation covenanting programs varied. Programs undertook monitoring and evaluation in different ways and at different spatial and temporal scales. Thus, it was difficult to determine the extent Australian conservation covenanting agencies were measuring the biodiversity conservation outcomes achieved on covenanted properties on a national scale. Lack of time available to covenantors to undertake management was one of the biggest impediments to achieving biodiversity conservation outcomes. A lack of financial resources and human capital to monitor, knowing what to monitor, inconsistent monitoring methodologies, a lack of benchmark data, and length of time to achieve outcomes were all considered potential barriers to monitoring the biodiversity conservation outcomes of conservation covenants.

  1. Quality of life in patients with ductal carcinoma in situ of the breast treated with conservative surgery and postoperative irradiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amichetti, M; Caffo, O; Arcicasa, M; Roncadin, M; Lora, O; Rigon, A; Zini, G; Armaroli, L; Coghetto, F; Zorat, P; Neri, S; Teodorani, N

    1999-03-01

    To evaluate the quality of life (QL) in patients with ductal carcinoma in situ of the breast treated with conservative surgery and postoperative irradiation. A self-completed questionnaire covering many disease-, symptom-, and treatment-specific issues was administered to 106 conservatively treated patients affected by non-infiltrating breast cancer. The questionnaire was based on a series of 34 items assessing five main fields of post-treatment adjustment: physical well being, sexual adaptation, aesthetic outcome, emotional/psychological well being, relational behaviour. Furthermore, the patients were requested to evaluate the degree of information provided by the medical staff concerning surgical procedures and radiation therapy, and to evaluate the effects of the treatment on their social and overall life. The questionnaire was completed by 83 patients (78%), who had a median follow-up of 54.5 months. This final sample had a median age of 50 years (range 29-88) at the time of treatment and 54 years (range 32-94) at the time of study. The patients claimed to be in good physical condition. Data relating to sexual life were provided by 93% of the sample. Some limitations in sexuality, some interference with sexual desire, and some modifications during intercourse were reported by 5, 6, and 5 patients, respectively. The subjective evaluations of the cosmetic results of the therapies were generally good. Only 13 patients (16%) reported the perception of a worsened body image. Forty-six percent of the sample (38 patients) declared that they felt tense, 48% (39 patients) nervous, 29% (38 patients) lonely, 59% (41 patients) anxious, and 41% (34 patients) depressed. Only seven patients (8%) declared that the treatment had had a bad effect on their social life, and 15 (18%) thought that their current life had been affected by the treatment. The amount of information received concerning the disease and treatment (surgery and radiotherapy) was considered sufficient by 79

  2. In situ/non-contact superfluid density measurement apparatus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nam, Hyoungdo; Su, Ping-Hsang; Shih, Chih-Kang

    2018-04-01

    We present a double-coil apparatus designed to operate with in situ capability, which is strongly desired for superconductivity studies on recently discovered two-dimensional superconductors. Coupled with a scanning tunneling microscope, the study of both local and global superconductivity [for superconducting gap and superfluid density (SFD), respectively] is possible on an identical sample without sample degradations due to damage, contamination, or oxidation in an atmosphere. The performance of the double-coil apparatus was tested on atomically clean surfaces of non-superconducting Si(111)-7 × 7 and on superconducting films of 100 nm-thick Pb and 1.4 nm-ultrathin Pb. The results clearly show the normal-to-superconductor phase transition for Pb films with a strong SFD.

  3. Measurements of in situ produced 14C in terrestrial rocks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yokoyama, Yusuke; Caffee, Marc W.; Southon, John R.; Nishiizumi, Kunihiko

    2004-01-01

    We developed and are testing a system for extracting in situ produced 14 C from quartz. 14 C is liberated from quartz matrix using step-wise heating during which time a spiked carrier gas consisting O 2 -CO-CO 2 -He is flowed through the high-temperature chamber continuously. The total 14 C background is reproducible and typically (2.3 ± 0.2) x 10 6 atoms, and the recovery is consistently greater than 90%. To validate the performance of the system and determine the blank level, we are using quartz samples taken from the Homestake mine (1600 m below the surface), South Dakota. To determine the 14 C release pattern and recovery, we used samples taken from the Transantarctic Mountains, Antarctica

  4. In situ response time measurements of RTD temperature sensors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goncalves, I.M.P.

    1985-01-01

    The loop-current-step-response test provides a mean for determining the time constant of resistence thermometers. The test consist in heating the sensor a few degrees above ambient temperature by causing a step pertubation in the electric current that flows through the sensor leads. The developed mathematical transformation permits to use data collected during the internal heating transient to predict the sensor response to perturbations in fluid temperature. Experimental data obtained show that the time constant determined by method is within 15 percent of true value. The loop-current-step-response test is a remote in situ test, which can be performed with the sensor installed in the process. Consequently it takes account the local heat transfer conditions, and appropriated for nuclear power plants, where sensors are installed in points of difficult access. (author) [pt

  5. Burst mode trigger of STEREO in situ measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jian, L. K.; Russell, C. T.; Luhmann, J. G.; Curtis, D.; Schroeder, P.

    2013-06-01

    Since the launch of the STEREO spacecraft, the in situ instrument suites have continued to modify their burst mode trigger in order to optimize the collection of high-cadence magnetic field, solar wind, and suprathermal electron data. This report reviews the criteria used for the burst mode trigger and their evolution with time. From 2007 to 2011, the twin STEREO spacecraft observed 236 interplanetary shocks, and 54% of them were captured by the burst mode trigger. The capture rate increased remarkably with time, from 30% in 2007 to 69% in 2011. We evaluate the performance of multiple trigger criteria and investigate why some of the shocks were missed by the trigger. Lessons learned from STEREO are useful for future missions, because the telemetry bandwidth needed to capture the waveforms of high frequency but infrequent events would be unaffordable without an effective burst mode trigger.

  6. 10 CFR 455.110 - Grant application submittals for technical assistance and energy conservation measures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Grant application submittals for technical assistance and... Grant application submittals for technical assistance and energy conservation measures. (a) Each... assistance for energy conservation measures, including renewable resource measures, shall include the...

  7. Blending Satellite Observed, Model Simulated, and in Situ Measured Soil Moisture over Tibetan Plateau

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yijian Zeng

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The inter-comparison of different soil moisture (SM products over the Tibetan Plateau (TP reveals the inconsistency among different SM products, when compared to in situ measurement. It highlights the need to constrain the model simulated SM with the in situ measured data climatology. In this study, the in situ soil moisture networks, combined with the classification of climate zones over the TP, were used to produce the in situ measured SM climatology at the plateau scale. The generated TP scale in situ SM climatology was then used to scale the model-simulated SM data, which was subsequently used to scale the SM satellite observations. The climatology-scaled satellite and model-simulated SM were then blended objectively, by applying the triple collocation and least squares method. The final blended SM can replicate the SM dynamics across different climatic zones, from sub-humid regions to semi-arid and arid regions over the TP. This demonstrates the need to constrain the model-simulated SM estimates with the in situ measurements before their further applications in scaling climatology of SM satellite products.

  8. Measuring rural homeowners' willingness to pay for land conservation easements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seong-Hoon Cho; David H. Newman; J. Michael Bowker

    2005-01-01

    Rapid growth of rural communities in the Blue Ridge Mountains of Macon County, North Carolina has been giving rise to concerns over declining environmental quality and increasing need for land-use policy. This paper examines willingness to pay (WTP) for hypothetical conservation easements as an alternative land-use policy for the county. Despite the fact that Macon...

  9. Grant request: to implement energy conservation measures as part of the state original and supplemental energy conservation plans

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1978-01-16

    The program measures described in this document comprise a grant request to DOE under the Energy Policy and Conservation Act of 1975 and the Energy Conservation and Production Act of 1976. The amount requested, $5,555,000, will allow the extension, acceleration, and implementation of energy conservation activities already in progress in California. Accomplishments to date have included the adoption of residential standards, and the implementation of an energy survey program for public buildings. Efficiency standards have been established for refrigerators and room and central air conditioners, appliances which utilize a significant amount of residential energy. Before the end of 1977, efficiency standards will be established for clothes dryers, washers, and water heaters. Program elements are: technical/financial assistance; public awareness; standards setting; solar element; research/analysis/evaluation; and coordination and management.

  10. In-situ measurement of mechanical properties of structural components using cyclic ball indentation technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chatterjee, S.; Madhusoodanan, K.; Panwar, Sanjay; Rupani, B.B.

    2007-01-01

    Material properties of components change during service due to environmental conditions. Measurement of mechanical properties of the components is important for assessing their fitness for service. In many instances, it is not possible to remove sizable samples from the component for doing the measurement in laboratory. In-situ technique for measurement of mechanical properties has great significance in such cases. One of the nondestructive methods that can be adopted for in-situ application is based on cyclic ball indentation technique. It involves multiple indentation cycles (at the same penetration location) on a metallic surface by a spherical indenter. Each cycle consists of indentation, partial unload and reload sequences. Presently, commercial systems are available for doing indentation test on structural component for limited applications. But, there is a genuine need of remotely operable compact in-situ property measurement system. Considering the importance of such applications Reactor Engineering Division of BARC has developed an In-situ Property Measurement System (IProMS), which can be used for in-situ measurement of mechanical properties of a flat or tubular component. This paper highlights the basic theory of measurement, qualification tests on IProMS and results from tests done on flat specimens and tubular component. (author)

  11. Distribution patterns of long-lived individuals of relict plants around Fanjingshan Mountain in China: Implications for in situ conservation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liao, H. Y.

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The mountain areas in south-central China are widely recognized as refugia of relict plants during the late Neogene and Quaternary periods. In this paper, we try to explore the distribution patterns of natural habitats and to exactly locate the refugia of relict species around Fanjingshan Mountain using dendrological data of long-lived individuals (≥ 100 years old. Six typical relict plants were found around the mountain, i.e. Cyclocarya paliurus, Ginkgo biloba, Liriodendron chinense, Pinus massoniana, Podocarpus macrophyllus, and Taxus chinensis. The long-lived individuals were divided into three classes according to their ages: Class-I (≥ 500 years, Class-II (300–499 years, and Class-III (100–299 years. Our results showed that the south-west region to the mountain was the main distribution area of Class-I trees of G. biloba and T. chinensis, most of which occurring in the same small village (Yangliu Village of Yinjiang County. The north-east region harboured all the six relict species. Floristic analyses also indicated these two regions were very similar in tree growth as measured by DBH (diameter at breast height of 1.3 m. Thus, these two areas would have provided long-term suitable habitats for relict species. The south-west region, especially the small village Yangliu, should be given highest priority for in situ conservation of relict species and other rare and endangered plants. Attention should also be paid to the north-east region for its very high species diversity of relict species.Las áreas montañosas de la región centro-sur de China están ampliamente reconocidas por su papel como refugio de plantas relictas durante la última etapa del Neógeno y el Cuaternario. En el presente trabajo se intentan explorar los patrones de distribución de los hábitats naturales y la localización exacta de los refugios para especies vegetales relictas en los alrededores de la montaña Fanjinshan, mediante el empleo de datos dendrol

  12. Estimation of the in situ degradation of the washout fraction of starch by using a modified in situ protocol and in vitro measurements

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jonge, de L.H.; Laar, van H.; Dijkstra, J.

    2015-01-01

    The in situ degradation of the washout fraction of starch in six feed ingredients (i.e. barley, faba beans, maize, oats, peas and wheat) was studied by using a modified in situ protocol and in vitro measurements. In comparison with the washing machine method, the modified protocol comprises a milder

  13. Conservation of 19th and early 20th century oil paintings - in situ studies using the environmental scanning electron microscope

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    White, R.; Phillips, M.; Wuhrer, R.; Thomas, D.

    2003-01-01

    Full text: Most 19th and early 20th century oil paintings suffer from fading, discolouration, pitting, cracking swelling or the loss of material due to the embrittlement or the extreme friability of the paint layers. As a consequence of this deterioration, they require special care by experienced conservators to ensure their continued preservation. These aging processes are a consequence of (i) chemical interactions between pigments, oils and binders used by the artist and (ii) the action of air, water and ultra-violet irradiation on these materials. The influence of chemical interactions is pertinent for paintings of this era as the industrial revolution brought forth new colourful chemicals that were quickly adopted as pigments with varying success. The conservation of oil paintings requires an understanding of the individual structure of each work of art and what mechanisms underlie its deterioration. This generally involves the need for (i) correct identification of the pigments used by the artist, (ii) a detailed knowledge of the chemical interaction between these pigments, (iii) an understanding of the artist's method of mixing colours and laying paint on the canvas and (iv) a detailed knowledge of the role of the atmosphere, moisture and UV irradiation on painting deterioration. In addition to dealing with the deterioration that occurs within the painting, conservators spend a large portion of their time correcting earlier failed conservation attempts. Most oil paintings from this era are valuable from an artistic or historic perspective and only an extremely small sample may be excised from the work, hence microscopy is an indispensable technique in art preservation. Optical microscopy is the core analysis technique used, however, in recent years a limited number of conservators have begun to use Environmental scanning electron microscopy (ESEM) technology to examine paint layers to take advantage of the accurate and rapid identification of elements present

  14. Breast-conserving therapy for ductal carcinoma in situ of the breast: the French Cancer Centers' experience

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cutuli, Bruno; Cohen-Solal-le Nir, Christine; Lafontan, Brigitte de; Mignotte, Herve; Fichet, Virginie; Fay, Renaud; Servent, Veronique; Giard, Sylvia; Charra-Brunaud, Claire; Lemanski, Claire; Auvray, Hugues; Jacquot, Stephane; Charpentier, Jean-Christophe

    2002-01-01

    Purpose: To assess the long-term outcome for women with ductal carcinoma in situ of the breast treated in current clinical practice by conservative surgery with or without definitive breast irradiation. Methods and Materials: We analyzed 705 cases of ductal carcinoma in situ treated between 1985 and 1995 in nine French regional cancer centers; 515 underwent conservative surgery and radiotherapy (CS+RT) and 190 CS alone. The median follow-up was 7 years. Results: The 7-year crude local recurrence (LR) rate was 12.6% (95% confidence interval [CI] 9.4-15.8) and 32.4% (95% CI 25-39.7) for the CS+RT and CS groups, respectively (p<0.0001). The respective 10-year results were 18.2% (95% CI 13.3-23) and 43.8% (95% CI 30-57.7). A total of 125 LRs occurred, 66 and 59 in the CS+RT and CS groups, respectively. Invasive or microinvasive LRs occurred in 60.6% and 52% of the cases in the same respective groups. The median time to LR development was 55 and 41 months. Nine (1.7%) and 6 (3.1%) nodal recurrences occurred in the CS+RT and CS groups, respectively. Distant metastases occurred in 1.4% and 3% of the respective groups. Patient age and excision quality (final margin status) were both significantly associated with LR risk in the CS+RT group: the LR rate was 29%, 13%, and 8% among women aged ≤40, 41-60, and ≥61 years (p<0.001). Even in the case of complete excision, we observed a 24% rate of LR (6 of 25) in women <40 years. Patients with negative, positive, or uncertain margins had a 7-year crude LR rate of 9.7%, 25.2%, and 12.2%, respectively (p=0.008). RT reduced the LR rate in all subgroups, especially in those with comedocarcinoma (17% vs. 59% in the CS+RT and CS groups, respectively, p<0.0001) and mixed cribriform/papillary tumors (9% vs. 31%, p<0.0001). In the multivariate Cox regression model, young age and positive margins remained significant in the CS+RT group (p=0.00012 and p=0.016). Finally, the relative LR risk in the CS+RT group compared with the CS group

  15. Financial efficiency of major soil and water conservation measures in West Usambara highlands, Tanzania

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tenge, A.J.M.; Graaff, de J.; Hella, J.P.

    2005-01-01

    Soil and Water Conservation (SWC) measures are needed to control soil erosion and sustain agricultural production on steep slopes of West Usambara mountains. However, the adoption by farmers of the recommended soil and water conservation measures is low and soil erosion continues to be a problem. It

  16. Cost-effectiveness of radiation therapy following conservative surgery for ductal carcinoma in situ of the breast

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suh, W. Warren; Hillner, Bruce E.; Pierce, Lori J.; Hayman, James A.

    2005-01-01

    Purpose: To assess the cost-effectiveness of radiation therapy (RT) in patients with ductal carcinoma in situ (DCIS) after breast-conserving surgery (BCS). Methods and materials: A Markov model was constructed for a theoretical cohort of 55-year-old women with DCIS over a life-time horizon. Probability estimates for local noninvasive (N-INV), local invasive (INV), and distant recurrences were obtained from National Surgical Adjuvant Breast and Bowel Project (NSABP) B-17. Utilities for eight nonmetastatic health states were collected from both healthy women and DCIS patients. Direct medical (2002 Medicare fee schedule) and nonmedical costs (time and transportation) of RT were ascertained. Results: For BCS + RT vs. BCS alone, the estimated N-INV and INV rates at 12 years were 9% and 8% vs. 16% and 18%, respectively. The incremental cost of adding RT was $3300 despite an initial RT cost of $8700 due to higher local recurrence-related salvage costs incurred with the BCS alone strategy. An increase of 0.09 quality-adjusted life-years (QALYs) primarily reflected the lower risk of INV with RT, resulting in an incremental cost-effectiveness ratio (ICER) of $36,700/QALY. Sensitivity analyses revealed the ICER to be affected by baseline probability of a local recurrence, relative efficacy of RT in preventing INV, negative impact of an INV on quality of life, and cost of initial RT. Cost of salvage BCS + RT and source of utilities (healthy women vs. DCIS patients) influenced the ICER albeit to a lesser degree. Conclusions: Addition of RT following BCS for patients with DCIS should not be withheld because of concerns regarding its cost-effectiveness

  17. Outcomes of Low-Risk Ductal Carcinoma In Situ in Southeast Asian Women Treated With Breast Conservation Therapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wong, Fuh Yong, E-mail: fuhyong@yahoo.com [Department of Radiation Oncology, National Cancer Centre Singapore (Singapore); Wang, Fuqiang [Department of Radiation Oncology, National Cancer Centre Singapore (Singapore); Chen, John Ju [Department of Cancer Informatics, National Cancer Centre Singapore (Singapore); Tan, Chiew Har [Department of Radiation Oncology, National Cancer Centre Singapore (Singapore); Tan, Puay Hoon [Department of Pathology, Singapore General Hospital (Singapore)

    2014-04-01

    Purpose: To examine the outcomes of Southeast Asian (SEA) women with low-risk ductal carcinoma in situ (DCIS) treated with breast-conserving surgery (BCS) and adjuvant radiation therapy. Methods and Materials: Retrospective chart reviews of patients treated with BCS for DCIS from 1995 to 2011 were performed. Patients meeting the selection criteria from Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group 5194 were included. Most patients received adjuvant radiation therapy (RT) consisting of whole-breast RT delivered to 50 Gy followed by a 10-Gy boost to the tumor bed. Results: Of 744 patients with pathologic diagnosis of pure DCIS identified, 273 met the selection criteria: low-intermediate grade (LIG), n=219; high grade (HG), n=54. Median follow-up for these patients was 60 months. There were 8 ipsilateral breast tumor recurrences (IBTRs) in total, 7 of which were DCIS. The estimated actuarial IBTR rates at 5 and 10 years for the entire cohort are 1.8% and 4.3%, respectively. Of the 219 patients with LIG DCIS, 210 received RT and 9 did not. There were 7 IBTRs in LIG DCIS, 2 among the 9 patients who did not receive RT. The IBTR rates in LIG DCIS at 5 and 10 years are 2.3% and 4.2%, respectively. All patients with HG DCIS received RT. There was only 1 IBTR occurring beyond 5 years, giving an estimated IBTR rate of 4.5% at 10 years. Conclusions: SEA women with screen-detected DCIS have exceedingly low rates of IBTR after BCS, comparable to that observed in reports of similar patients with low-risk DCIS treated with adjuvant radiation.

  18. Outcomes of Low-Risk Ductal Carcinoma In Situ in Southeast Asian Women Treated With Breast Conservation Therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wong, Fuh Yong; Wang, Fuqiang; Chen, John Ju; Tan, Chiew Har; Tan, Puay Hoon

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: To examine the outcomes of Southeast Asian (SEA) women with low-risk ductal carcinoma in situ (DCIS) treated with breast-conserving surgery (BCS) and adjuvant radiation therapy. Methods and Materials: Retrospective chart reviews of patients treated with BCS for DCIS from 1995 to 2011 were performed. Patients meeting the selection criteria from Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group 5194 were included. Most patients received adjuvant radiation therapy (RT) consisting of whole-breast RT delivered to 50 Gy followed by a 10-Gy boost to the tumor bed. Results: Of 744 patients with pathologic diagnosis of pure DCIS identified, 273 met the selection criteria: low-intermediate grade (LIG), n=219; high grade (HG), n=54. Median follow-up for these patients was 60 months. There were 8 ipsilateral breast tumor recurrences (IBTRs) in total, 7 of which were DCIS. The estimated actuarial IBTR rates at 5 and 10 years for the entire cohort are 1.8% and 4.3%, respectively. Of the 219 patients with LIG DCIS, 210 received RT and 9 did not. There were 7 IBTRs in LIG DCIS, 2 among the 9 patients who did not receive RT. The IBTR rates in LIG DCIS at 5 and 10 years are 2.3% and 4.2%, respectively. All patients with HG DCIS received RT. There was only 1 IBTR occurring beyond 5 years, giving an estimated IBTR rate of 4.5% at 10 years. Conclusions: SEA women with screen-detected DCIS have exceedingly low rates of IBTR after BCS, comparable to that observed in reports of similar patients with low-risk DCIS treated with adjuvant radiation

  19. Application of economic principles in energy conservation measures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bhattacharyya, A

    1976-01-01

    The point of departure for the selection of any energy-conserving policy is the availability of (at least) two practical options or alternatives for policy maker at enterprise level. In real life, in the same point of time, or in the same geographical location, there could be several energy conservation options for the same industrial process. One need only set up a pairwise comparison of two options at a time and answer the question: which option is the most desirable from the energy conservation standpoint. Which option is the most desirable from the purchaser's point of view. If one takes both these factors into account, which option is socially the most desirable. We have explained two economic techniques (Life Cycle Cost (LCC), Market Acceptance) and their integration to compare two systems at a time. To begin with, a policy maker at enterprise level can carry out LCC. As technology progresses over time, Market Acceptance estimation may be warranted. Finally, Cost-Benefit Analysis may be applied to overall evaluation of competing projects which have involvement of large social groups, and wider foreign exchange implications.

  20. In situ measurement of ceramic vacuum chamber conductive coating quality

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Doose, C.; Harkay, K.; Kim, S.; Milton, S.

    1997-01-01

    A method for measuring the relative surface resistivity and quality of conductive coatings on ceramic vacuum chambers was developed. This method is unique in that it allows one to test the coating even after the ceramic chamber is installed in the accelerator and under vacuum; furthermore, the measurement provides a localized surface reading of the coating conductance. The method uses a magnetic probe is calibrated using the measured DC end-to-end resistance of the tube under test and by comparison to a high quality test surface. The measurement method has also been verified by comparison to high frequency impedance measurements. A detailed description, results, and sensitivity of the technique are given here

  1. In situ measurements reveal extremely low pH in soil

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Knud Erik; Loibide, Amaia Irixar; Nielsen, Lars Peter

    2017-01-01

    We measured pH in situ in the top organic soil horizons in heathland and pine forest and found values between 2.6 and 3.2. This was 0.5e0.8 units lower than concurrent laboratory pH measurements of the same soil, which raises questions about the interpretation of pH measurements. We propose that ...... that the higher pH recorded by standard laboratory methods may be due to buffering ions from soil biota released from drying, grinding and rewetting of soil samples, whereas the in situ pH reflects the correct level of acidification....

  2. In-situ measurement of environment radioactivity by mobile nuclear field laboratory (MNFL)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gopalani, Deepak; Mathur, A.P.; Rawat, D.K.; Barala, S.S.; Singhal, K.P.; Singh, G.P.; Samant, R.P.

    2008-01-01

    In-situ measurement of environment radioactivity is useful tool for determine the unusual increase of radioactivity at any place due to any nuclear eventuality take place. A mobile nuclear field laboratory has been designed and developed for in-situ measurement of environment radioactivity at any desired location. This vehicle is equipped with different monitoring and analysis instruments. These equipment can be operated while vehicle is moving. The measured data can be stored in computer. This vehicle has the space for storage of various environmental matrices of affected area and these can analysis in laboratory. (author)

  3. In-situ ionic conductivity measurement of lithium ceramics under high energy heavy ion irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakazawa, Tetsuya; Noda, Kenji; Ishii, Yoshinobu; Ohno, Hideo; Watanabe, Hitoshi; Matsui, Hisayuki.

    1992-01-01

    To obtain fundamental information regarding the radiation damage in some lithium ceramics, e.g. Li 2 O, Li 4 SiO 4 etc., candidate of breeder materials exposed to severe irradiation environment, an in-situ experiment technique for the ionic conductivity measurement, which allows the specimen temperature control and the beam current monitoring, have been developed. This paper describes the features of an apparatus to measure in situ the ionic conductivity under the irradiation environment and presents some results of ionic conductivity measured for typical ceramic breeders using this apparatus. (J.P.N.)

  4. In situ high-pressure measurement of crystal solubility by using neutron diffraction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Ji; Hu, Qiwei; Fang, Leiming; He, Duanwei; Chen, Xiping; Xie, Lei; Chen, Bo; Li, Xin; Ni, Xiaolin; Fan, Cong; Liang, Akun

    2018-05-01

    Crystal solubility is one of the most important thermo-physical properties and plays a key role in industrial applications, fundamental science, and geoscientific research. However, high-pressure in situ measurements of crystal solubility remain very challenging. Here, we present a method involving high-pressure neutron diffraction for making high-precision in situ measurements of crystal solubility as a function of pressure over a wide range of pressures. For these experiments, we designed a piston-cylinder cell with a large chamber volume for high-pressure neutron diffraction. The solution pressures are continuously monitored in situ based on the equation of state of the sample crystal. The solubility at a high pressure can be obtained by applying a Rietveld quantitative multiphase analysis. To evaluate the proposed method, we measured the high-pressure solubility of NaCl in water up to 610 MPa. At a low pressure, the results are consistent with the previous results measured ex situ. At a higher pressure, more reliable data could be provided by using an in situ high-pressure neutron diffraction method.

  5. Quantitative comparison of in situ soil CO2 flux measurement methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jennifer D. Knoepp; James M. Vose

    2002-01-01

    Development of reliable regional or global carbon budgets requires accurate measurement of soil CO2 flux. We conducted laboratory and field studies to determine the accuracy and comparability of methods commonly used to measure in situ soil CO2 fluxes. Methods compared included CO2...

  6. Caliper variable sonde for thermal conductivity measurements in situ

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oelsner, C; Leischner, H; Pischel, S

    1968-01-01

    For the measurement of the thermal conductivity of the formations surrounding a borehole, a sonde having variable diameter (consisting of an inflatable rubber cylinder with heating wires embedded in its wall) is described. The conditions for the usual sonde made of metal are no longer fulfilled, but the solution to the problem of determining the thermal conductivity from the temperature rise is given, based on an approach by Carslaw and Jaeger, which contains the Bessel functions of the second kind. It is shown that a simpler solution for large values of time can be obtained through the Laplace transformation, and the necessary series developments for computer application are also given. The sonde and the necessary measuring circuitry are described. Tests measurements have indicated that the thermal conductivity can be determined with this sonde with a precision of + 10%.

  7. In situ performance curves measurements of large pumps

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anton, A

    2010-01-01

    The complex energetic system on the river Lotru in Romania comprises of a series of lakes and pumping stations and a major hydroelectric power plant: Lotru-Ciunget. All the efforts have been oriented towards the maintenance of the Pelton turbines and very little attention has been directed to the pumps. In the system, there are three large pumping stations and only in the last 5 years, the pump performances have become a concern. The performances where determined using portable ultrasonic flow meters, a Yates meter, precision manometers and appropriate electrical equipment for power measurement (Power Analiser - NORMA D4000 LEM). The measurements are not supposed to interfere with the normal operation so only a limited number of tests could be performed. Based on those tests, portions of the test curves have been measured and represented in specific diagrams.

  8. In situ performance curves measurements of large pumps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anton, A.

    2010-08-01

    The complex energetic system on the river Lotru in Romania comprises of a series of lakes and pumping stations and a major hydroelectric power plant: Lotru-Ciunget. All the efforts have been oriented towards the maintenance of the Pelton turbines and very little attention has been directed to the pumps. In the system, there are three large pumping stations and only in the last 5 years, the pump performances have become a concern. The performances where determined using portable ultrasonic flow meters, a Yates meter, precision manometers and appropriate electrical equipment for power measurement (Power Analiser - NORMA D4000 LEM). The measurements are not supposed to interfere with the normal operation so only a limited number of tests could be performed. Based on those tests, portions of the test curves have been measured and represented in specific diagrams.

  9. Calibration and application of a HPGe gamma spectrometer for in-situ measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xiao Xuefu; Yue Qingyu

    1992-02-01

    The principle and methods of the calibration for an in-situ γ spectrometer are introduced. The calibration for a portable HPGe γ spectrometer has been completed. The N f /A(peak count rate per unit activity in soil) and N f /D(peak count rate per unit absorbed dose rate in the air) are listed. The uncertainties of the calibration factors are estimated. The in-situ measurements have been carried out in surroundings near the nuclear facilities and the data are compared with those measured by other methods

  10. Reliable cost effective technique for in situ ground stress measurements in deep gold mines.

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Stacey, TR

    1995-07-01

    Full Text Available on these requirements, an in situ stress measurement technique which will be practically applicable in the deep gold mines, has been developed conceptually. Referring to the figure on the following page, this method involves: • a borehole-based system, using... level mines have not been developed. 2 This is some of the background to the present SIMRAC research project, the title ofwhich is “Reliable cost effective technique for in-situ ground stress measurements in deep gold mines”. A copy of the research...

  11. Cataclastic effects in rock salt laboratory and in situ measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gramberg, J.; Roest, J.P.A.

    1984-01-01

    The aim of the research is the determination of eventual cataclastic effects in environmental rock salt of a heated part of a vertical deep test bore hole, a model for HLW disposal. Known cataclastic systems from hard rock mining and rock salt mines will form the starting point for the explanation of convergence of underground cavity walls. In rock salt, however, different elements seem to prevail: crystal plasticity and micro-cataclasis. The environmental measurements at the deep bore hole have to be carried out from a distance. To this end the acoustic micro-seismic method will be a suitable one. The appropriate equipment for micro-seismic cross hole measurement is designed, constructed and tested in the laboratory as well as underground. Acoustic velocity data form a crucial point. A micro-seismic acoustic P-wave model, adapted to the process of structural changes, is developed. P-wave velocity measurements in rock salt cubes in the laboratory are described. An underground cross hole measurement in the wall of a gallery with semi-circular section is treated and analysed. A conclusion was that, in this case, no macro-cataclasis (systematic large fractures) will be involved in the process of gallery convergence, but that the mechanism proved to be a combination of crystal plasticity and micro-cataclasis. The same mechanism might be expected to be present in the environmental rock salt of the HLW-disposal deep bore hole. As a result this environmental rock salt might be expected to be impermeable. A plan for the application of the developed equipment during the heating test on the ECN-deep-bore-hole is shown. A theory on ''disking'' or ''rim cracks'' is presented in an annex

  12. A new probe for in situ TDR moisture measurement

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yokuda, E. (EG and G Idaho, Inc., Idaho Falls, ID (United States)); Smith, R. (Sonsub Services, Inc., Houston, TX (United States))

    1993-01-01

    This paper explains the development of a new Time Domain Reflectometry (TDR) probe which can be inserted through waste and soil to a depth of 14 feet with minimal labor and minimal soil disturbance. TDR has been used for 10 years as a method for measuring soil moisture contents. Conventional TDR probes are 30 centimeters long and therefore are difficult to insert at depths below a few feet. Recently, a probe has been developed which can be inserted to depths of 14 feet with the use of a vibratory drill. Quality objectives for the instrument, preliminary data, and suggestions for future developments are presented.

  13. A new probe for in situ TDR moisture measurement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yokuda, E.; Smith, R.

    1993-01-01

    This paper explains the development of a new Time Domain Reflectometry (TDR) probe which can be inserted through waste and soil to a depth of 14 feet with minimal labor and minimal soil disturbance. TDR has been used for 10 years as a method for measuring soil moisture contents. Conventional TDR probes are 30 centimeters long and therefore are difficult to insert at depths below a few feet. Recently, a probe has been developed which can be inserted to depths of 14 feet with the use of a vibratory drill. Quality objectives for the instrument, preliminary data, and suggestions for future developments are presented

  14. A new probe for in situ TDR moisture measurement

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yokuda, E. [EG and G Idaho, Inc., Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Smith, R. [Sonsub Services, Inc., Houston, TX (United States)

    1993-05-01

    This paper explains the development of a new Time Domain Reflectometry (TDR) probe which can be inserted through waste and soil to a depth of 14 feet with minimal labor and minimal soil disturbance. TDR has been used for 10 years as a method for measuring soil moisture contents. Conventional TDR probes are 30 centimeters long and therefore are difficult to insert at depths below a few feet. Recently, a probe has been developed which can be inserted to depths of 14 feet with the use of a vibratory drill. Quality objectives for the instrument, preliminary data, and suggestions for future developments are presented.

  15. Prognostic Significance of Clinicopathologic Features in Patients With Breast Ductal Carcinoma-in-Situ Who Received Breast-Conserving Surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuo, Sung-Hsin; Lo, Chiao; Chen, Yu-Hsuan; Lien, Huang-Chun; Kuo, Wen-Hung; Wang, Ming-Yang; Lee, Yi-Hsuan; Huang, Chiun-Sheng

    2018-04-10

    To identify whether a certain group of breast ductal carcinoma-in-situ (DCIS) patients can be treated with breast-conserving surgery (BCS) alone; to analyze the clinicopathologic features of DCIS and tamoxifen administration in patients treated with BCS who developed ipsilateral breast tumor recurrence (IBTR). Data for 375 women with breast DCIS who underwent BCS at our institute between June 2003 and October 2010 were analyzed. The patients were divided into different categories according to the recurrence risk predicted using the California/Van Nuys Prognostic Index (USC/VNPI) score (4-6, 7-9, and 10-12), Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group (ECOG) E5194 criteria, or combined risk features with USC/VNPI score and ECOG E5194 criteria. The IBTR and disease-free survival (DFS) rates were calculated by the Kaplan-Meier method. The prognostic effects of age, tumor size, tumor grade, margin width, estrogen receptor status, USC/VNPI score, low-risk characteristics, and tamoxifen use were evaluated by log-rank tests. Of the patients, 168 were treated with breast irradiation after BCS and 207 were not. The patients who were treated with radiotherapy (RT) tended to be younger (USC/VNPI scores (7-9), and to meet the ECOG E5194 non-cohort 1 criteria. The 7-year risk of IBTR was 6.2% (n = 11) in the patients who received irradiation and 9.0% (n = 22) in those who did not. DFS rates were better in the patients who underwent RT than in those who did not (93.3% vs. 88.5%, P = .056). Among the patients who underwent BCS alone, age ≥ 40 years, margin width > 10 mm, USC/VNPI scores 4-6, ECOG E5194 cohort 1 criteria, estrogen receptor-positive status, and tamoxifen use predicted lower IBTR and better DFS rates. In the multivariate analysis, combined low-risk characteristics (USC/VNPI scores 4-6 and meeting the ECOG E5194 cohort 1 criteria) were identified as an independent prognostic factor of lower IBTR (P = .028) and better DFS (P = .005). RT reduces the risk of IBTR after

  16. In situ measurements of thoron exhalation rate in Okinawa (Japan)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shiroma, Y.; Isa, N.; Hosoda, M.; Sorimachi, A.; Ishikawa, T.; Tokonami, S.; Furukawa, M.

    2010-01-01

    Thoron exhalation rates from the ground surface were measured at 57 sites on Okinawa Island (Japan), using a ZnS(Ag) scintillation detector equipped with photomultiplier. The arithmetic means ± SD, median ± SD, minimum and maximum of the rates (unit: Bq m -2 s -1 ) were estimated to be 1.9 ± 1.4, 1.6 ± 0.3, 0.04 and 6.2, respectively. The soils distributed on the island are generally classified into dark red soils, residual regosols, as well as red and yellow soils. While it was assumed that the soils were originated from the bedrock, recent studies suggested that the main material of dark red soils is the East Asian eolian dust. In the dark red soils area, the exhalation rate is relatively higher than that in the other areas. This suggested that the eolian dust was an enhancer for the environmental thoron concentration on Okinawa Island. (authors)

  17. In situ measurement of ash content by neutron activation analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chrusciel, E.; Palka, K.; Makhabane, J.L.

    1991-01-01

    The paper presents the results of spectrometric neutron activation logging. A scintillation spectrometer with the source-to-detector spacing of 1.5 m, together with a Po-Be neutron source, with the yield of about 10 7 n/s, were used to measure the intensity of gamma rays in two energy windows during continuous logging. The first energy window of 300 keV width was centered at the 843 keV energy and the second - of 500 keV width at 1779 keV. For ash content varying between 5-35 wt % the mean standard deviation was 2.5 wt %. (author). 22 refs, 6 figs, 1 tab

  18. Results of conservative treatment with surgery and radiation therapy of 132 non-palpable ductal carcinomas in situ of the breast; Resultats du traitement par chirurgie conservatrice et irradiation de 132 carcinomes canalaires in situ non palpables du sein

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Amalric, R.; Brandone, H.; Dubau, A.; Hans, D.; Brandone, J.M.; Robert, F.; Pollet, J.F.; Amalric, F.; Rouah, Y.; Thomassin, L.; Giraud, D.; Henric, A.; Martin, P.M.; Romain, S. [Academie mediterraneenne d`oncologie clinique, Polyclinique Clairval, 13 - Marseille (France)

    1998-01-01

    Retrospective analysis of results of treatment of 132 subclinical ductal carcinomas in situ, non-palpable. Patients were treated with limited surgery and 70 Gy radiation therapy (70 Gy). With a median follow-up of 7 years, the total recurrence rate was 6 % and the actuarial rate at 5 years 4 % and at 10 years 13 % at. These have no influence on recurrence on the specific actuarial survival rate which was 100 % at 10 years. In spite of five infiltrating recurrences of seven, no metastasis appeared 48 months after the salvage surgery. The global rate of breast. The global rate of breast preservation was 92 % at 7 years. Therapeutic indications were developed taking into account the present analysis and a literature review (2,338 in situ ductal carcinomas, palpable or not, treated with conservative surgery, with or without adjuvant radio-therapy). (author)

  19. Application of in-situ measurement to determine 137Cs in the Swiss Alps

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schaub, M.; Konz, N.; Meusburger, K.; Alewell, C.

    2010-01-01

    Establishment of 137 Cs inventories is often used to gain information on soil stability. The latter is crucial in mountain systems, where ecosystem stability is tightly connected to soil stability. In-situ measurements of 137 Cs in steep alpine environments are scarce. Most studies have been carried out in arable lands and with Germanium (Ge) detectors. Sodium Iodide (NaI) detector system is an inexpensive and easy to handle field instrument, but its validity on steep alpine environments has not been tested yet. In this study, a comparison of laboratory measurements with GeLi detector and in-situ measurements with NaI detector of 137 Cs gamma soil radiation has been done in an alpine catchment with high 137 Cs concentration (Urseren Valley, Switzerland). The aim of this study was to calibrate the in-situ NaI detector system for application on steep alpine slopes. Replicate samples from an altitudinal transect through the Urseren Valley, measured in the laboratory with a GeLi detector, showed a large variability in 137 Cs activities at a meter scale. This small-scale heterogeneity determined with the GeLi detector is smoothed out by uncollimated in-situ measurements with the NaI detector, which provides integrated estimates of 137 Cs within the field of view (3.1 m 2 ) of each measurement. There was no dependency of 137 Cs on pH, clay content and carbon content, but a close relationship was determined between measured 137 Cs activities and soil moisture. Thus, in-situ data must be corrected for soil moisture. Close correlation (R 2 = 0.86, p 137 Cs activities (in Bq kg -1 ) estimated with in-situ (NaI detector) and laboratory (GeLi detector) methods. We thus concluded that the NaI detector system is a suitable tool for in-situ measurements in alpine environments. This paper describes the calibration of the NaI detector system for field application under elevated 137 Cs activities originating from Chernobyl fallout.

  20. Optimizing Conservation Strategies for a Threatened Tree Species: In Situ Conservation of White Ash (Fraxinus americana L. Genetic Diversity through Insecticide Treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Charles E. Flower

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Forest resources face numerous threats that require costly management. Hence, there is an increasing need for data-informed strategies to guide conservation practices. The introduction of the emerald ash borer to North America has caused rapid declines in ash populations (Fraxinus spp. L.. Natural resource managers are faced with a choice of either allowing ash trees to die, risking forest degradation and reduced functional resilience, or investing in conserving trees to preserve ecosystem structure and standing genetic diversity. The information needed to guide these decisions is not always readily available. Therefore, to address this concern, we used eight microsatellites to genotype 352 white ash trees (Fraxinus americana L. across 17 populations in the Allegheny National Forest; a subset of individuals sampled are part of an insecticide treatment regimen. Genetic diversity (number of alleles and He was equivalent in treated and untreated trees, with little evidence of differentiation or inbreeding, suggesting current insecticidal treatment is conserving local, neutral genetic diversity. Using simulations, we demonstrated that best practice is treating more populations rather than more trees in fewer populations. Furthermore, through genetic screening, conservation practitioners can select highly diverse and unique populations to maximize diversity and reduce expenditures (by up to 21%. These findings will help practitioners develop cost-effective strategies to conserve genetic diversity.

  1. A New Technique for Deep in situ Measurements of the Soil Water Retention Behaviour

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rocchi, Irene; Gragnano, Carmine Gerardo; Govoni, Laura

    2018-01-01

    In situ measurements of soil suction and water content in deep soil layers still represent an experimental challenge. Mostly developed within agriculture related disciplines, field techniques for the identification of soil retention behaviour have been so far employed in the geotechnical context ...

  2. A single well pumping and recovery test to measure in situ acrotelm transmissivity in raised bogs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schaaf, van der S.

    2004-01-01

    A quasi-steady-state single pit pumping and recovery test to measure in situ the transmissivity of the highly permeable upper layer of raised bogs, the acrotelm, is described and discussed. The basic concept is the expanding depression cone during both pumping and recovery. It is shown that applying

  3. Model predictions of metal speciation in freshwaters compared to measurements by in situ techniques.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Unsworth, Emily R; Warnken, Kent W; Zhang, Hao; Davison, William; Black, Frank; Buffle, Jacques; Cao, Jun; Cleven, Rob; Galceran, Josep; Gunkel, Peggy; Kalis, Erwin; Kistler, David; Leeuwen, Herman P van; Martin, Michel; Noël, Stéphane; Nur, Yusuf; Odzak, Niksa; Puy, Jaume; Riemsdijk, Willem van; Sigg, Laura; Temminghoff, Erwin; Tercier-Waeber, Mary-Lou; Toepperwien, Stefanie; Town, Raewyn M; Weng, Liping; Xue, Hanbin

    2006-01-01

    Measurements of trace metal species in situ in a softwater river, a hardwater lake, and a hardwater stream were compared to the equilibrium distribution of species calculated using two models, WHAM 6, incorporating humic ion binding model VI and visual MINTEQ incorporating NICA-Donnan. Diffusive

  4. Straylight measurements in laser in situ keratomileusis and laser-assisted subepithelial keratectomy for myopia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lapid-Gortzak, Ruth; van der Linden, Jan Willem; van der Meulen, Ivanka; Nieuwendaal, Carla; van den Berg, Tom

    2010-01-01

    PURPOSE: To compare straylight values before and 3 months after laser in situ keratomileusis (LASIK) and laser-assisted subepithelial keratectomy (LASEK) and to analyze the causes of any change. SETTING: Private refractive surgery clinic, Driebergen, The Netherlands. METHODS: Straylight was measured

  5. Quantification of in situ temperature measurements on a PBI-based high temperature PEMFC unit cell

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lebæk, Jesper; Ali, Syed Talat; Møller, Per

    2010-01-01

    The temperature is a very important operating parameter for all types of fuel cells. In the present work distributed in situ temperature measurements are presented on a polybenzimidazole based high temperature PEM fuel cell (HT-PEM). A total of 16 T-type thermocouples were embedded on both the an...

  6. Hazards and preventive measures of well deviation in well construction of in-situ leaching

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zou Wenjie; Chen Shihe

    2006-01-01

    Whether the in-situ leaching method is successful depends on the quality of borehole engineering to a great extent. There are lots of factors that affect the quality, and the well deviation is one of notable problems. The hazards and causes of the well deviation are analyzed. The preventive measures and the methods of rectifying the deviation are put forward. (authors)

  7. In-situ measurement of the electrical conductivity of aluminum oxide in HFIR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zinkle, S.J.; White, D.P.; Snead, L.L. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States)] [and others

    1996-10-01

    A collaborative DOE/Monbusho irradiation experiment has been completed which measured the in-situ electrical resistivity of 12 different grades of aluminum oxide during HFIR neutron irradiation at 450{degrees}C. No evidence for bulk RIED was observed following irradiation to a maximum dose of 3 dpa with an applied dc electric field of 200 V/mm.

  8. Comparative Intradermal Tuberculin Testing of Free-Ranging African Buffaloes (Syncerus caffer Captured for Ex Situ Conservation in the Kafue Basin Ecosystem in Zambia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hetron Mweemba Munang'andu

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Bovine tuberculosis (BTB is endemic in African buffaloes (Syncerus caffer in some National Parks in Southern Africa, whilst no studies have been conducted on BTB on buffalo populations in Zambia. The increased demand for ecotourism and conservation of the African buffalo on private owned game ranches has prompted the Zambian Wildlife Authority (ZAWA and private sector in Zambia to generate a herd of “BTB-free buffaloes” for ex situ conservation. In the present study, 86 African buffaloes from four different herds comprising a total of 530 animals were investigated for the presence of BTB for the purpose of generating “BTB free” buffalo for ex-situ conservation. Using the comparative intradermal tuberculin test (CIDT the BTB status at both individual animal and herd level was estimated to be 0.0% by the CIDT technique. Compared to Avian reactors only, a prevalence of 5.8% was determined whilst for Bovine-only reactors a prevalence of 0.0% was determined. These results suggest the likelihood of buffalo herds in the Kafue National Park being free of BTB.

  9. In-Situ and Ex-Situ status of the Javan Gibbon and the role of zoos in conservation of the species

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nijman, V.

    2006-01-01

    The Javan gibbon Hylobates moloch is confined to the last remnants of rainforest on the island of Java, Indonesia. As of 2002, the species has been recorded in 29 forest areas, and the wild population is conservatively estimated at 4100-4500 individuals. Over 95% of the gibbons are in populations of

  10. Utilizing The Synergy of Airborne Backscatter Lidar and In-Situ Measurements for Evaluating CALIPSO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tsekeri Alexandra

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Airborne campaigns dedicated to satellite validation are crucial for the effective global aerosol monitoring. CALIPSO is currently the only active remote sensing satellite mission, acquiring the vertical profiles of the aerosol backscatter and extinction coefficients. Here we present a method for CALIPSO evaluation from combining lidar and in-situ airborne measurements. The limitations of the method have to do mainly with the in-situ instrumentation capabilities and the hydration modelling. We also discuss the future implementation of our method in the ICE-D campaign (Cape Verde, August 2015.

  11. In situ radiation measurements at the former Soviet Nuclear Test Site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tipton, W.J.

    1996-06-01

    A team from the Remote Sensing Laboratory conducted a series of in situ radiological measurements at the former Soviet Nuclear Test Site near Semipalatinsk, Kazakhstan, during the period of July 21-30, 1994. The survey team measured the terrestrial gamma radiation at selected areas on the site to determine the levels of natural and man-made radiation. The survey was part of a cooperative effort between the United States team and teams of radiation scientists from the National Nuclear Center of the Republic of Kazakhstan and the V.G. Khlopin Radium Institute in St. Petersburg, Russia. In addition to in situ radiation measurements made by the United States and Russian teams, soil samples were collected and analyzed by the Russian and Kazakhstani teams. All teams conducted their measurements at ten locations within the test site. The United States team also made a number of additional measurements to locate and verify the positions of three potential fallout plumes containing plutonium contamination from nonnuclear tests. In addition, the United States team made several measurements in Kurchatov City, the housing area used by personnel and their families who work(ed) at the test sites. Comparisons between the United States and Russian in situ measurements and the soil sample results are presented as well as comparisons with a Soviet aerial survey conducted in 1990-1991. The agreement between the different types of measurements made by all three countries was quite good

  12. Paloma: In-Situ Measurement of the Isotopic Composition of Mars Atmosphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jambon, A.; Quemerais, E.; Chassiefiere, E.; Berthelier, J. J.; Agrinier, P.; Cartigny, P.; Javoy, M.; Moreira, M.; Sabroux, J. -C.; Sarda, P.; Pineau, J. -F.

    2000-07-01

    Scientific objectives for an atmospheric analysis of Mars are presented in the DREAM project. Among the information presently available most are fragmentary or limited in their precision for both major element (H, C, O, N) and noble gas isotopes. These data are necessary for the understanding and modelling of Mars atmospheric formation and evolution, and consequently for other planets, particularly the Earth. To fulfill the above requirements, two approaches can be envisonned: 1) analysis of a returned sample (DREAM project) or 2) in situ analysis, e.g. PALOMA project presented here. Among the advantages of in situ analysis, we notice: the minimal terrestrial contamination, the unlimited availability of gas to be analyzed and the possibility of multiple analyses (replicates, daynight... ). Difficulties specific to in situ analyses are of a very different kind to those of returned samples. In situ analysis could also be viewed as a preparation to future analysis of returned samples. Finally, some of the measurements will not be possible on Earth: for instance, radon and its short lived decay products, will provide complementary information to 4-He analysis and can only be obtained in situ, independently of analytical capabilities.

  13. In situ mechanical TEM: seeing and measuring under stress with electrons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Legros, M.

    2014-01-01

    From the first observation of moving dislocations in 1956 to the latest developments of piezo-actuated sample holders and direct electron sensing cameras in modern transmission electron microscopes (TEM), in situ mechanical testing has brought an unequaled view of the involved mechanisms during the plastic deformation of materials. Although MEMS-based or load-cell equipped holders provide an almost direct measure of these quantities, deriving stress and strain from in situ TEM experiments has an extensive history. Nowadays, the realization of a complete mechanical test while observing the evolution of a dislocation structure is possible, and it constitutes the perfect combination to explore size effects in plasticity. New cameras, data acquisition rates and intrinsic image-related techniques, such as holography, should extend the efficiency and capabilities of in situ deformation inside a TEM. (author)

  14. Field instruments for real time in-situ crude oil concentration measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fuller, C.B.; Bonner, J.S.; Page, C.A.; Arrambide, G.; Sterling, M.C.Jr.; Ojo, T.O.

    2003-01-01

    Accidental oil spills, contaminant release during resuspension, storms, and harmful algal blooms are all episodic events that can effect coastal margins. It is important to quantitatively describe water and ecological quality evolution and predict the impact to these areas by such events, but traditional sampling methods miss environmental activity during cyclical events. This paper presents a new sampling approach that involves continuous, real-time in-situ monitoring to provide data for development of comprehensive modeling protocols. It gives spill response coordinators greater assurance in making decisions using the latest visualization tools which are based on a good understanding of the physical processes at work in pulsed events. Five sensors for rapid monitoring of crude oil concentrations in aquatic systems were described. The in-situ and ex-situ sensors can measure plume transport and estimate polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon exposure concentrations to assess risk of toxicity. A brief description and evaluation of the following 5 sensors was provided: the LISST-100 by Sequoia Instrument, a submersible multi-angle laser scattering instrument; the AU-10 field fluorometer by Turner Designs, an ex-situ single wavelength fluorometer; the Flashlamp by WET Labs Inc., an in-situ single wavelength fluorometer; and, the ECO-FL3 and SAFire by WET Labs Inc., two in-situ multiple wavelength fluorometers. These instruments were used to analyze crude oil emissions of various concentrations. All of the instruments followed a linear response within the tested concentration range. At the lowest concentrations the LISST-100 was not as effective as the fluorometers because of limited particle volume for scatter. For the AU-10 field fluorometer, the highest concentrations tested were above the measurement range of the instrument. 6 refs., 5 figs

  15. Method for in situ carbon deposition measurement for solid oxide fuel cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuhn, J.; Kesler, O.

    2014-01-01

    Previous methods to measure carbon deposition in solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) anodes do not permit simultaneous electrochemical measurements. Electrochemical measurements supplemented with carbon deposition quantities create the opportunity to further understand how carbon affects SOFC performance and electrochemical impedance spectra (EIS). In this work, a method for measuring carbon in situ, named here as the quantification of gasified carbon (QGC), was developed. TGA experiments showed that carbon with a 100 h residence time in the SOFC was >99.8% gasified. Comparison of carbon mass measurements between the TGA and QGC show good agreement. In situ measurements of carbon deposition in SOFCs at varying molar steam/carbon ratios were performed to further validate the QGC method, and suppression of carbon deposition with increasing steam concentration was observed, in agreement with previous studies. The technique can be used to investigate in situ carbon deposition and gasification behavior simultaneously with electrochemical measurements for a variety of fuels and operating conditions, such as determining conditions under which incipient carbon deposition is reversible.

  16. Matrix diffusion studies by electrical conductivity methods. Comparison between laboratory and in-situ measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ohlsson, Y.; Neretnieks, I.

    1998-01-01

    Traditional laboratory diffusion experiments in rock material are time consuming, and quite small samples are generally used. Electrical conductivity measurements, on the other hand, provide a fast means for examining transport properties in rock and allow measurements on larger samples as well. Laboratory measurements using electrical conductivity give results that compare well to those from traditional diffusion experiments. The measurement of the electrical resistivity in the rock surrounding a borehole is a standard method for the detection of water conducting fractures. If these data could be correlated to matrix diffusion properties, in-situ diffusion data from large areas could be obtained. This would be valuable because it would make it possible to obtain data very early in future investigations of potentially suitable sites for a repository. This study compares laboratory electrical conductivity measurements with in-situ resistivity measurements from a borehole at Aespoe. The laboratory samples consist mainly of Aespoe diorite and fine-grained granite and the rock surrounding the borehole of Aespoe diorite, Smaaland granite and fine-grained granite. The comparison shows good agreement between laboratory measurements and in-situ data

  17. Operation of buildings: Energy supply and energy conservation measures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kraft, H

    1985-01-01

    Energy saving in public administration. A list-like collection of the measures to monitor the consumption, the measures of saving energy at existing buildings, new systems and by new techniques. Examples with figures for the savings achieved in the region of Marburg-Biedenkopf (Hesse). Guidelines are set up which are mainly based on energy saving, heat recovery, use of new technologies and renewable energy sources, fluidized-bed combustion also in smaller plants of ca. 2 MW, waste management separating wastes into burnable/unburnable, information of the public administration and the people and the setting up of energy concepts. (PJH).

  18. In situ recording of particle network formation in liquids by ion conductivity measurements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pfaffenhuber, Christian; Sörgel, Seniz; Weichert, Katja; Bele, Marjan; Mundinger, Tabea; Göbel, Marcus; Maier, Joachim

    2011-09-21

    The formation of fractal silica networks from a colloidal initial state was followed in situ by ion conductivity measurements. The underlying effect is a high interfacial lithium ion conductivity arising when silica particles are brought into contact with Li salt-containing liquid electrolytes. The experimental results were modeled using Monte Carlo simulations and tested using confocal fluorescence laser microscopy and ζ-potential measurements.

  19. New Genome Similarity Measures based on Conserved Gene Adjacencies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doerr, Daniel; Kowada, Luis Antonio B; Araujo, Eloi; Deshpande, Shachi; Dantas, Simone; Moret, Bernard M E; Stoye, Jens

    2017-06-01

    Many important questions in molecular biology, evolution, and biomedicine can be addressed by comparative genomic approaches. One of the basic tasks when comparing genomes is the definition of measures of similarity (or dissimilarity) between two genomes, for example, to elucidate the phylogenetic relationships between species. The power of different genome comparison methods varies with the underlying formal model of a genome. The simplest models impose the strong restriction that each genome under study must contain the same genes, each in exactly one copy. More realistic models allow several copies of a gene in a genome. One speaks of gene families, and comparative genomic methods that allow this kind of input are called gene family-based. The most powerful-but also most complex-models avoid this preprocessing of the input data and instead integrate the family assignment within the comparative analysis. Such methods are called gene family-free. In this article, we study an intermediate approach between family-based and family-free genomic similarity measures. Introducing this simpler model, called gene connections, we focus on the combinatorial aspects of gene family-free genome comparison. While in most cases, the computational costs to the general family-free case are the same, we also find an instance where the gene connections model has lower complexity. Within the gene connections model, we define three variants of genomic similarity measures that have different expression powers. We give polynomial-time algorithms for two of them, while we show NP-hardness for the third, most powerful one. We also generalize the measures and algorithms to make them more robust against recent local disruptions in gene order. Our theoretical findings are supported by experimental results, proving the applicability and performance of our newly defined similarity measures.

  20. Problems in the implementation of energy conservation measures. II. Consumer motivation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Phillips, P. H.

    1977-10-15

    During the course of 1975 a national survey of household attitudes to energy use and conservation was undertaken. The study suggested that while the public are generally in favor of energy conservation, they do not practice it. The study highlighted the need to do more than merely raise the level of awareness of the need for energy conservation. The energy intensive nature of our life-style was identified as a critical constraint on the implementations of effective voluntary energy conservation programs. It was suggested that our pattern of energy use is so deeply embedded in our everyday behaviors that it would take more than the presentation of information to produce the necessary changes in behavior. Some of the problems involved in attempting to motivate the consumer to conserve energy using either an extrinsic or instrinsic motivational approach are explored. A general model of the energy system is employed to illustrate that changes in the informational environment must be accompanied by changes in the institutional environment if pro-conservation attitudes are to be converted into conserving behavior. The case of personal transportation is used to indicate the need for a comprehensive package of measures which not only motivate the consumer but also facilitate and reinforce positive behavior if the dual goals of satisfying personal mobility needs and energy conservation are to be satisfied.

  1. Factors influencing adoption of soil and water conservation measures in southern Mali

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bodnar, F.; Graaff, de J.

    2003-01-01

    A soil and water conservation (SWC) extension programme, promoting erosion control measures and soil fertility measures, has been going on in southern Mali since 1986. Five factors that influence farmer adoption of SWC measures were analysed: land pressure, cotton-growing area, possession of

  2. On iron radionuclide interactions and in situ measurement of iron corrosion products

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Puranen, A.; Jonsson, M.; Cui, D.; Scheidegger, A.M.; Wersin, P.; Spahiu, K.

    2005-01-01

    Full text of publication follows: In performance assessments of hard rock repositories, it is conservatively assumed that waste canisters are breached and that the spent fuel will get into contact with groundwater after 1000 years. When the canister eventually fails to protect HLW from groundwater, dissolved radionuclides from HLW will react with iron canister materials. The reactivity will depend on the conditions in solution and at the iron-water interface. To improve our understanding on the redox chemistry at near field conditions, batch experiments are conducted by contacting polished iron foils with a synthetic groundwater solution containing 10 mM NaCl, 2 mM NaHCO 3 and 5 ppm Se(IV), Se(VI), Tc(VII) and U(VI) in a glove box filled with Ar + 0.03% CO 2 gas mixture. The reaction rates are measured by analysing Se, Tc and U concentrations by ICP-MS. Iron corrosion products formed during the reaction(s) is monitored in-situ by a Layer Raman spectrometer through an optical window. The corrosion potential of the iron foil as well as the Eh and pH values of the bulk solution are recorded continuously during the experiment. The reacted iron foil is embedded with EPOXY resin, and the cross section will be analysed by SEM-EDS and XAS. The preliminary experimental results shows that with the formation of iron green rust FeII 4 FeIII 2 (OH) 12 CO 3 on iron foil, the rates of redox reactions between iron and the negatively charged radionuclides species are increased. The observation is explained by the fact that radionuclide anionic species can be first adsorbed then reduced on the positively charged outer surface of iron green rust. The positive charge is a result of the electrical balance of the negative charges of carbonate contained between the layered iron hydroxides in the green rust. Reduced forms of radionuclides are identified in the iron corrosion products. The results suggest that the formation of iron green rust as a corrosion product on the surface of iron

  3. In situ measurements and transmission electron microscopy of carbon nanotube field-effect transistors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Taekyung; Kim, Seongwon; Olson, Eric; Zuo Jianmin

    2008-01-01

    We present the design and operation of a transmission electron microscopy (TEM)-compatible carbon nanotube (CNT) field-effect transistor (FET). The device is configured with microfabricated slits, which allows direct observation of CNTs in a FET using TEM and measurement of electrical transport while inside the TEM. As demonstrations of the device architecture, two examples are presented. The first example is an in situ electrical transport measurement of a bundle of carbon nanotubes. The second example is a study of electron beam radiation effect on CNT bundles using a 200 keV electron beam. In situ electrical transport measurement during the beam irradiation shows a signature of wall- or tube-breakdown. Stepwise current drops were observed when a high intensity electron beam was used to cut individual CNT bundles in a device with multiple bundles

  4. Underwater in situ measurements of radionuclides in selected submarine groundwater springs, Mediterranean sea

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tsabaris, C.; Scholten, J.; Karageorgis, A. P.; Comanducci, J. F.; Georgopoulos, D.; Liong Wee Kwong, L.; Patiris, D. L.; Papathanassiou, E.

    2010-01-01

    The application of the in situ measurement system 'KATERINA' for monitoring of radon progenies in submarine groundwater discharge (SGD) was investigated at different locations in the Mediterranean Sea (Chalkida, Stoupa, Korfos and Cabbe). At Chalkida and Stoupa radon progenies concentration exhibited almost constant values of 1.2±0.1 and 2.5±0.2 Bq l -1 , respectively. At Korfos these activities ranged between 1.4±0.1 and 2.3±0.2 Bq l -1 exhibiting inverse relationship with salinity. At Cabbe the in situ measured data were compared with radon measurements obtained by liquid scintillation counter. The system also resolved radon progeny variations of SGD on time scales above 1 h. The radioactivity levels of radon progenies from all sites were found considerably lower (approximately 2 orders of magnitude) than the commonly accepted limits for radon in drinking water. (authors)

  5. Combining Space-Based and In-Situ Measurements to Track Flooding in Thailand

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chien, Steve; Doubleday, Joshua; Mclaren, David; Tran, Daniel; Tanpipat, Veerachai; Chitradon, Royal; Boonya-aaroonnet, Surajate; Thanapakpawin, Porranee; Khunboa, Chatchai; Leelapatra, Watis; hide

    2011-01-01

    We describe efforts to integrate in-situ sensing, space-borne sensing, hydrological modeling, active control of sensing, and automatic data product generation to enhance monitoring and management of flooding. In our approach, broad coverage sensors and missions such as MODIS, TRMM, and weather satellite information and in-situ weather and river gauging information are all inputs to track flooding via river basin and sub-basin hydrological models. While these inputs can provide significant information as to the major flooding, targetable space measurements can provide better spatial resolution measurements of flooding extent. In order to leverage such assets we automatically task observations in response to automated analysis indications of major flooding. These new measurements are automatically processed and assimilated with the other flooding data. We describe our ongoing efforts to deploy this system to track major flooding events in Thailand.

  6. A computer program (COSTUM) to calculate confidence intervals for in situ stress measurements. V. 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dzik, E.J.; Walker, J.R.; Martin, C.D.

    1989-03-01

    The state of in situ stress is one of the parameters required both for the design and analysis of underground excavations and for the evaluation of numerical models used to simulate underground conditions. To account for the variability and uncertainty of in situ stress measurements, it is desirable to apply confidence limits to measured stresses. Several measurements of the state of stress along a borehole are often made to estimate the average state of stress at a point. Since stress is a tensor, calculating the mean stress and confidence limits using scalar techniques is inappropriate as well as incorrect. A computer program has been written to calculate and present the mean principle stresses and the confidence limits for the magnitudes and directions of the mean principle stresses. This report describes the computer program, COSTUM

  7. Improved design and in-situ measurements of new beam position monitors for Indus-2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, M.; Babbar, L. K.; Holikatti, A. C.; Yadav, S.; Tyagi, Y.; Puntambekar, T. A.; Senecha, V. K.

    2018-01-01

    Beam position monitors (BPM) are important diagnostic devices used in particle accelerators to monitor position of the beam for various applications. Improved version of button electrode BPM has been designed using CST Studio Suite for Indus-2 ring. The new BPMs are designed to replace old BPMs which were designed and installed more than 12 years back. The improved BPMs have higher transfer impedance, resonance free output signal, equal sensitivity in horizontal and vertical planes and fast decaying wakefield as compared to old BPMs. The new BPMs have been calibrated using coaxial wire method. Measurement of transfer impedance and time domain signals has also been performed in-situ with electron beam during Indus-2 operation. The calibration and beam based measurements results showed close agreement with the design parameters. This paper presents design, electromagnetic simulations, calibration result and in-situ beam based measurements of newly designed BPMs.

  8. Health effects associated with energy conservation measures in commercial buildings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stenner, R.D.; Baechler, M.C.

    1990-09-01

    Indoor air quality can be impacted by hundreds of different chemicals. More than 900 different organic compounds alone have been identified in indoor air. Health effects that could arise from exposure to individual pollutants or mixtures of pollutants cover the full range of acute and chronic effects, including largely reversible responses, such as rashes and irritations, to the irreversible toxic and carcinogenic effects. These indoor contaminants are emitted from a large variety of materials and substances that are widespread components of everyday life. Pacific Northwest Laboratory conducted a search of the peer-reviewed literature on health effects associated with indoor air contaminants for the Bonneville Power Administration to aid the agency in the preparation of environmental documents. Results are reported in two volumes. Volume 1 summarizes the results of the search of the peer-reviewed literature on health effects associated with a selected list of indoor air contaminants. In addition, the report discusses potential health effects of polychlorinated biphenyls and chlorofluorocarbons. All references to the literature reviewed are found in this document Volume 2. Volume 2 provides detailed information from the literature reviewed, summarizes potential health effects, reports health hazard ratings, and discusses quantitative estimates of carcinogenic risk in humans and animals. Contaminants discussed in this report are those that; have been measured in the indoor air of a public building; have been measured (significant concentrations) in test situations simulating indoor air quality (as presented in the referenced literature); and have a significant hazard rating. 38 refs., 7 figs., 23 tabs

  9. Health effects associated with energy conservation measures in commercial buildings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stenner, R.D.; Baechler, M.C.

    1990-09-01

    Indoor air quality can be impacted by hundreds of different chemicals. More than 900 different organic compounds alone have been identified in indoor air. Health effects that could arise from exposure to individual pollutants or mixtures of pollutants cover the full range of acute and chronic effects, including largely reversible responses, such as rashes and irritations, to the irreversible toxic and carcinogenic effects. These indoor contaminants are emitted from a large variety of materials and substances that are widespread components of everyday life. Pacific Northwest Laboratory conducted a search of the peer-reviewed literature on health effects associated with indoor air contaminants for the Bonneville Power Administration to aid the agency in the preparation of environmental documents. Results are reported in two volumes. Volume 1 summarizes the results of the search of the peer-reviewed literature on health effects associated with a selected list of indoor air contaminants. In addition, the report discusses potential health effects of polychlorinated biphenyls and chlorofluorocarbons. All references to the literature reviewed are found in this document Volume 2. Volume 2 provides detailed information from the literature reviewed, summarizes potential health effects, reports health hazard ratings, and discusses quantitative estimates of carcinogenic risk in humans and animals. Contaminants discussed in this report are those that; have been measured in the indoor air of a public building; have been measured (significant concentrations) in test situations simulating indoor air quality (as presented in the referenced literature); and have a significant hazard rating. 38 refs., 7 figs., 23 tabs.

  10. In-situ measurements of the secondary electron yield in an accelerator environment: Instrumentation and methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hartung, W.H.; Asner, D.M.; Conway, J.V.; Dennett, C.A.; Greenwald, S.; Kim, J.-S.; Li, Y.; Moore, T.P.; Omanovic, V.; Palmer, M.A.; Strohman, C.R.

    2015-01-01

    The performance of a particle accelerator can be limited by the build-up of an electron cloud (EC) in the vacuum chamber. Secondary electron emission from the chamber walls can contribute to EC growth. An apparatus for in-situ measurements of the secondary electron yield (SEY) in the Cornell Electron Storage Ring (CESR) was developed in connection with EC studies for the CESR Test Accelerator program. The CESR in-situ system, in operation since 2010, allows for SEY measurements as a function of incident electron energy and angle on samples that are exposed to the accelerator environment, typically 5.3 GeV counter-rotating beams of electrons and positrons. The system was designed for periodic measurements to observe beam conditioning of the SEY with discrimination between exposure to direct photons from synchrotron radiation versus scattered photons and cloud electrons. The samples can be exchanged without venting the CESR vacuum chamber. Measurements have been done on metal surfaces and EC-mitigation coatings. The in-situ SEY apparatus and improvements to the measurement tools and techniques are described

  11. In-situ measurements of the secondary electron yield in an accelerator environment: Instrumentation and methods

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hartung, W.H., E-mail: wh29@cornell.edu; Asner, D.M.; Conway, J.V.; Dennett, C.A.; Greenwald, S.; Kim, J.-S.; Li, Y.; Moore, T.P.; Omanovic, V.; Palmer, M.A.; Strohman, C.R.

    2015-05-21

    The performance of a particle accelerator can be limited by the build-up of an electron cloud (EC) in the vacuum chamber. Secondary electron emission from the chamber walls can contribute to EC growth. An apparatus for in-situ measurements of the secondary electron yield (SEY) in the Cornell Electron Storage Ring (CESR) was developed in connection with EC studies for the CESR Test Accelerator program. The CESR in-situ system, in operation since 2010, allows for SEY measurements as a function of incident electron energy and angle on samples that are exposed to the accelerator environment, typically 5.3 GeV counter-rotating beams of electrons and positrons. The system was designed for periodic measurements to observe beam conditioning of the SEY with discrimination between exposure to direct photons from synchrotron radiation versus scattered photons and cloud electrons. The samples can be exchanged without venting the CESR vacuum chamber. Measurements have been done on metal surfaces and EC-mitigation coatings. The in-situ SEY apparatus and improvements to the measurement tools and techniques are described.

  12. In situ measurement on TSV-Cu deformation with hotplate system based on sheet resistance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Yunna; Wang, Bo; Wang, Huiying; Wu, Kaifeng; Yang, Shengyong; Wang, Yan; Ding, Guifu

    2017-12-01

    The in situ measurement of TSVs deformation at different temperature is meaningful for learning more about the thermal deformation schemes of 3D TSVs in the microelectronic devices. An efficient and smart hotplate based on sheet resistance is designed for offering more heat, producing a uniform temperature distribution, relieving thermal stress and heat concentration issues, and reducing room space, which was optimized by the finite element method (FEM). The fabricated hotplate is efficient and smart (2.5 cm  ×  2.0 cm  ×  0.5 cm) enough to be located in the limited space during measuring. The thermal infrared imager was employed as the temperature sensor for monitoring the temperature distribution of TSVs sample. The 3D profilometry was adopted as the observer for TSVs profiles survey. The in situ 2D top surface profiles and 3D displacement profiles of TSVs sample at the different temperature were measured by 3D profilometer. The in situ average relative deformation and effective plastic deformation of the TSV sample were measured. With optical measurement method, 3D profilometry, the TSV sample can be tested repeatedly.

  13. Early in-situ measurements program for the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wowak, W.E.

    1979-06-01

    The technical basis and description of measurements for the early in-situ measurements program at the WIPP are described and a proposed organizational structure is presented. Measurements are needed for verification of design predictions and also for a prelude to the main experiment program. The design verification measurements will be concentrated in the first shaft and the underground support and access areas. Early experiments will be concentrated in the test drifts on the storage horizons. Recommendations are made to DOE for appropriate division of responsibility among Bechtel, the technical support contractor, the instrumentation contractor, and Sandia

  14. Intercomparison of MODIS Albedo Retrievals and In Situ Measurements Across the Global FLUXNET Network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cescatti, Alessandro; Marcolla, Barbara; Vannan, Suresh K. Santhana; Pan, Jerry Yun; Roman, Miguel O.; Yang, Xiaoyuan; Ciais, Philippe; Cook, Robert B.; Law, Beverly E.; Matteucci, Girogio; hide

    2012-01-01

    Surface albedo is a key parameter in the Earth's energy balance since it affects the amount of solar radiation directly absorbed at the planet surface. Its variability in time and space can be globally retrieved through the use of remote sensing products. To evaluate and improve the quality of satellite retrievals, careful intercomparisons with in situ measurements of surface albedo are crucial. For this purpose we compared MODIS albedo retrievals with surface measurements taken at 53 FLUXNET sites that met strict conditions of land cover homogeneity. A good agreement between mean yearly values of satellite retrievals and in situ measurements was found (R(exp 2)= 0.82). The mismatch is correlated to the spatial heterogeneity of surface albedo, stressing the relevance of land cover homogeneity when comparing point to pixel data. When the seasonal patterns of MODIS albedo is considered for different plant functional types, the match with surface observation is extremely good at all forest sites. On the contrary, in non-forest sites satellite retrievals underestimate in situ measurements across the seasonal cycle. The mismatch observed at grasslands and croplands sites is likely due to the extreme fragmentation of these landscapes, as confirmed by geostatistical attributes derived from high resolution scenes.

  15. Environmental gamma-ray measurements using in situ and core sampling techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dickson, H.W.; Kerr, G.D.; Perdue, P.T.; Abdullah, S.A.

    1976-01-01

    Dose rates from natural radionuclides and 137 Cs in soils of the Oak Ridge area have been determined from in situ and core sample measurements. In situ γ-ray measurements were made with a transportable spectrometer. A tape of spectral data and a soil core sample from each site were returned to ORNL for further analysis. Information on soil composition, density and moisture content and on the distribution of cesium in the soil was obtained from the core samples. In situ spectra were analyzed by a computer program which identified and assigned energies to peaks, integrated the areas under the peaks, and calculated radionuclide concentrations based on a uniform distribution in the soil. The assumption of a uniform distribution was adequate only for natural radionuclides, but simple corrections can be made to the computer calculations for man-made radionuclides distributed on the surface or exponentially in the soil. For 137 Cs a correction was used based on an exponential function fitted to the distribution measured in core samples. At typical sites in Oak Ridge, the dose rate determined from these measurements was about 5 μrad/hr. (author)

  16. In situ measurements of HO{sub x} in super- and subsonic aircraft exhaust plumes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hanisco, T F; Wennberg, P O; Cohen, R C; Anderson, J G [Harvard Univ., Cambridge, MA (United States). Dept. of Chemistry; Fahey, D W; Keim, E R; Gao, R S; Wamsley, R C; Donnelly, S G; Del Negro, L A [National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Boulder, CO (United States). Aeronomy Lab.; others, and

    1998-12-31

    Concentrations of HO{sub x} (OH and HO{sub 2}) have been obtained in the exhaust plumes of an Air France Concorde and a NASA ER-2 in the lower stratosphere and the NASA DC-8 in the upper troposphere using instruments aboard the NASA ER-2. These fast-time response in situ measurements are used in conjunction with simultaneous in situ measurements of other key exhaust species (NO, NO{sub 2}, NO{sub y}, H{sub 2}O, and CO) to analyze the emissions of HO{sub x} from each aircraft under a variety of conditions. The data are used to establish a general description of gas phase plume chemistry that is easily implemented in a photochemical model. This model is used to determine the amount of HO{sub x} emitted from the engines and the gas phase oxidation rates of nitrogen and sulfur species in the exhaust plumes. (author) 10 refs.

  17. In-situ gamma spectroscopic measurement of natural waters in Bulgaria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Manushev, B.; Mandzhukov, I.; Tsankov, L.; Boshkova, T.; Gurev, V.; Mandzhukova, B.; Kozhukharov, I.; Grozev, G.

    1983-01-01

    In-situ gamma spectrometric measurements are carried out to record differences higher than the errors of measurement in the gamma-field spectra in various basins in Bulgaria - two high mountain lakes, dam and the Black sea. A standard scintillation gamma spectrometer, consisting of a scintillation detector ND-424 type, a channel analyzer NP-424 and a 128 channel Al-128 type analyzer, has been used. The sensitivity of the procedure used is sufficient to detect the transfer of nuclides by dissolution from rocks, forming the bottom and the water-collecting region of the water basin. The advancement of the experimental techniques defines the future use of the procedure. In-situ gamma spectrometric determination may be used in cases of continuous and automated control of the radiation purity of the cooling water in atomic power plants or the water basins located close to such plants and of radioactive contamination of the sea and ocean water

  18. In situ measurements of HO{sub x} in super- and subsonic aircraft exhaust plumes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hanisco, T.F.; Wennberg, P.O.; Cohen, R.C.; Anderson, J.G. [Harvard Univ., Cambridge, MA (United States). Dept. of Chemistry; Fahey, D.W.; Keim, E.R.; Gao, R.S.; Wamsley, R.C.; Donnelly, S.G.; Del Negro, L.A. [National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Boulder, CO (United States). Aeronomy Lab.; and others

    1997-12-31

    Concentrations of HO{sub x} (OH and HO{sub 2}) have been obtained in the exhaust plumes of an Air France Concorde and a NASA ER-2 in the lower stratosphere and the NASA DC-8 in the upper troposphere using instruments aboard the NASA ER-2. These fast-time response in situ measurements are used in conjunction with simultaneous in situ measurements of other key exhaust species (NO, NO{sub 2}, NO{sub y}, H{sub 2}O, and CO) to analyze the emissions of HO{sub x} from each aircraft under a variety of conditions. The data are used to establish a general description of gas phase plume chemistry that is easily implemented in a photochemical model. This model is used to determine the amount of HO{sub x} emitted from the engines and the gas phase oxidation rates of nitrogen and sulfur species in the exhaust plumes. (author) 10 refs.

  19. Development of novel sol-gel indicators (SGI's) for in-situ environmental measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Livingston, R.R.; Wicks, G.G.; Baylor, L.C.; Whitaker, M.J.

    1993-01-01

    Organic indicator molecules have been incorporated in a porous sol- gel matrix coated on the end of a fiber-optic lens assembly to create sensors for in situ environmental measurements. Probes have been made that are sensitive to pH and uranyl concentration. The use of fiber optics allows the probe to be lowered into a well or bore hole, while support equipment such as a spectrophotometer and computer may be situated hundreds of meters away

  20. Development of conductivity probe and temperature probe for in-situ measurements in hydrological studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chandra, U.; Galindo, B.J.; Castagnet, A.C.G.

    1981-05-01

    A conductivity probe and a temperature probe have been developed for in-situ measurements in various hydrological field studies. The conductivity probe has platinum electrodes and is powered with two 12 volt batteries. The sensing element of the temperature probe consists of a resistor of high coefficient of temperature. Response of the conductivity probe is measured in a milliampere mater while the resistance of the thermistor is read by a digital meter. The values of conductivity and temperature are derived from respective calibration. The probes are prototype and their range of measurement can be improved depending upon the requirement of the field problem. (Author) [pt

  1. An in situ measurement of the radio-frequency attenuation in ice at Summit Station, Greenland

    OpenAIRE

    Avva, J.; Kovac, J. M.; Miki, C.; Saltzberg, D.; Vieregg, A. G.

    2014-01-01

    We report an in situ measurement of the electric field attenuation length Lα at radio frequencies for the bulk ice at Summit Station, Greenland, made by broadcasting radio-frequency signals vertically through the ice and measuring the relative power in the return ground bounce signal. We find the depth-averaged field attenuation length to be hLαi = 947+92 −85 m at 75 MHz. While this measurement has clear radioglaciological applications, the radio clarity of the ice also has implications for t...

  2. In-situ radiation measurements of the C1 and C2 waste storage tank vault

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yong, L.K.; Womble, P.C.; Weems, L.D.

    1996-09-01

    In August of 1996, the Applied Radiation Measurements Department (ARMD) of the Waste Management and Remedial Action Division (WMRAD) at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) was tasked with characterizing the radiation fields in the C 1 and C 2 Liquid Low Level Waste (LLLW) tank vault located at ORNL. These in-situ measurements were made to provide data for evaluating the potential radiological conditions for personnel working in or around the vault during future planned activities. This report describes the locations where measurements were made, the types of radiation detection instruments used, the methods employed, the problems encountered and resolved, and discusses the results obtained

  3. A pragmatic approach to modelling soil and water conservation measures with a cathment scale erosion model.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hessel, R.; Tenge, A.J.M.

    2008-01-01

    To reduce soil erosion, soil and water conservation (SWC) methods are often used. However, no method exists to model beforehand how implementing such measures will affect erosion at catchment scale. A method was developed to simulate the effects of SWC measures with catchment scale erosion models.

  4. Monitoring groundwater variation by satellite and implications for in-situ gravity measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fukuda, Yoichi; Yamamoto, Keiko; Hasegawa, Takashi; Nakaegawa, Toshiyuki; Nishijima, Jun; Taniguchi, Makoto

    2009-01-01

    In order to establish a new technique for monitoring groundwater variations in urban areas, the applicability of precise in-situ gravity measurements and extremely high precision satellite gravity data via GRACE (Gravity Recovery and Climate Experiment) was tested. Using the GRACE data, regional scale water mass variations in four major river basins of the Indochina Peninsula were estimated. The estimated variations were compared with Soil-Vegetation-Atmosphere Transfer Scheme (SVATS) models with a river flow model of 1) globally uniform river velocity, 2) river velocity tuned by each river basin, 3) globally uniform river velocity considering groundwater storage, and 4) river velocity tuned by each river basin considering groundwater storage. Model 3) attained the best fit to the GRACE data, and the model 4) yielded almost the same values. This implies that the groundwater plays an important role in estimating the variation of total terrestrial storage. It also indicates that tuning river velocity, which is based on the in-situ measurements, needs further investigations in combination with the GRACE data. The relationships among GRACE data, SVATS models, and in-situ measurements were also discussed briefly.

  5. Airborne remote sensing and in situ measurements of atmospheric CO2 to quantify point source emissions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krings, Thomas; Neininger, Bruno; Gerilowski, Konstantin; Krautwurst, Sven; Buchwitz, Michael; Burrows, John P.; Lindemann, Carsten; Ruhtz, Thomas; Schüttemeyer, Dirk; Bovensmann, Heinrich

    2018-02-01

    Reliable techniques to infer greenhouse gas emission rates from localised sources require accurate measurement and inversion approaches. In this study airborne remote sensing observations of CO2 by the MAMAP instrument and airborne in situ measurements are used to infer emission estimates of carbon dioxide released from a cluster of coal-fired power plants. The study area is complex due to sources being located in close proximity and overlapping associated carbon dioxide plumes. For the analysis of in situ data, a mass balance approach is described and applied, whereas for the remote sensing observations an inverse Gaussian plume model is used in addition to a mass balance technique. A comparison between methods shows that results for all methods agree within 10 % or better with uncertainties of 10 to 30 % for cases in which in situ measurements were made for the complete vertical plume extent. The computed emissions for individual power plants are in agreement with results derived from emission factors and energy production data for the time of the overflight.

  6. Numerical modeling to assess possible influence of the mine openings on far-field in-situ stress measurements at Stripa

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chan, T.; Guvanasen, V.; Littlestone, N.

    1981-03-01

    Finite element analyses were carried out to assess the possible effects of the Stripa mine openings on the in-situ stress measured in a 400-m-deep borehole drilled from the surface. For this assessment, four 2-dimensional cases were modeled. These cases variously included two horizontal sections, and two separate, idealized vertical sections. An iron ore body in the mine was assumed to be completely extracted, thereby providing conservative estimates of stress concentration effects. Since no in-situ stress measurements were made before mining, overburden weight and horizontal stresses measured by hyrodfracturing were assumed to be the pre-mining state of stress. The stress state resulting from excavation of the mine was calculated by the finite element model. In the cases using horizontal sections, the model predicted a stress concentration factor at the borehole of approximately 1.15, which is negligible considering the difficulty of obtaining accurate stress measurements. For the vertical sections the model predicted higher stress concentration factors at depths less than 200 m. This was expected because the vertical sections chosen brought the borehole unrealistically close to the mine openings, thereby leading to overly conservative estimates. In general, deviations in the magnitudes and orientations of the calculated redistributed principal stresses from the assumed pre-mining state of stress were found to be comparable to the scatter of overcoring data. It is, therefore, recommended that, for near-field stress calculations, the vertical stress due to overburden weight and the horizontal stresses measured by hydrofracturing at the borehole be considered the unperturbed far-field in situ state of stress

  7. Diffusion of agricultural innovation: farmers opinion on land conservation measures in pishin, pakistan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Qsim, S.; Khan, A.N.; Shrestha, R.P.

    2014-01-01

    Land resources in Pakistan are under severe threat of degradation due to population growth. The situation is more serious in the arid and semi-arid areas, where the natural resources, especially the water-resources, are scarce. This paper reviews the study conducted to investigate the farmers views on land conservation measures in Pishin, Pakistan. Data were collected through survey questionnaires, focus-group discussions and field observations. Increased expenditure, poor extension services and lack of awareness were found to be the major reasons behind the non-adoption of the needed conservation measures. Significant differences were found for adoption of conservation measures by household categories. The study proposes government support and proper assistance to farmers by extension agents for sustainable use of land and water resources. (author)

  8. Nitrogen budget of the northwestern Black Sea shelf inferred from modeling studies and in situ benthic measurements

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Grégoire, M.; Friedrich, J.

    2004-01-01

    A 3D eddy-resolving coupled biogeochemical-hydrodynamical model and in situ observations are used to investigate benthic processes on the Black Sea's NW shelf. Measurements of benthic fluxes (oxygen, nutrients, redox compounds) with in situ flux chambers are analyzed in regard to sediment dynamics

  9. In-situ real time measurements of net erosion rates of copper during hydrogen plasma exposure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kesler, Leigh; Wright, Graham; Peterson, Ethan; Whyte, Dennis

    2013-10-01

    In order to properly understand the dynamics of net erosion/deposition in fusion reactors, such as tokamaks, a diagnostic measuring the real time rates of net erosion/deposition during plasma exposure is necessary. The DIONISOS experiment produces real time measurements of net erosion/deposition by using Rutherford backscattering spectroscopy (RBS) ion beam analysis simultaneously with plasma exposure from a helicon plasma source. This in-situ method improves on ex-situ weight loss measurements by allowing measurement of possible synergistic effects of high ion implantation rates and net erosion rate and by giving a real time response to changes in plasma parameters. Previous work has validated this new technique for measuring copper (Cu) erosion from helium (He) plasma ion bombardment. This technique is now extended to measure copper erosion due to deuterium and hydrogen plasma ion exposure. Targets used were a 1.5 μm Cu layer on an aluminum substrate. Cu layer thickness is tracked in real time using 1.2 MeV proton RBS. Measured erosion rates will be compared to results from literature and He erosion rates. Supported by US DoE award DE-SC00-02060.

  10. 3D shape measurements with a single interferometric sensor for in-situ lathe monitoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuschmierz, R.; Huang, Y.; Czarske, J.; Metschke, S.; Löffler, F.; Fischer, A.

    2015-05-01

    Temperature drifts, tool deterioration, unknown vibrations as well as spindle play are major effects which decrease the achievable precision of computerized numerically controlled (CNC) lathes and lead to shape deviations between the processed work pieces. Since currently no measurement system exist for fast, precise and in-situ 3d shape monitoring with keyhole access, much effort has to be made to simulate and compensate these effects. Therefore we introduce an optical interferometric sensor for absolute 3d shape measurements, which was integrated into a working lathe. According to the spindle rotational speed, a measurement rate of 2,500 Hz was achieved. In-situ absolute shape, surface profile and vibration measurements are presented. While thermal drifts of the sensor led to errors of several mµm for the absolute shape, reference measurements with a coordinate machine show, that the surface profile could be measured with an uncertainty below one micron. Additionally, the spindle play of 0.8 µm was measured with the sensor.

  11. A microscopy approach for in situ inspection of micro-coordinate measurement machine styli for contamination

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Xiaobing; Pascal, Jonathan; Lawes, Simon

    2017-09-01

    During the process of measurement using a micro-coordinate measurement machine (µCMM) contamination gradually builds up on the surface of the stylus tip and affects the dimensional accuracy of the measurement. Regular inspection of the stylus for contamination is essential to determine the appropriate cleaning interval and prevent the dimensional error from becoming significant. However, in situ inspection of a µCMM stylus is challenging due to the size, spherical shape, material and surface properties of a typical stylus. To address this challenge, this study evaluates several non-contact measurement technologies for in situ stylus inspection and, based on those findings, proposes a cost-effective microscopy approach. The operational principle is then demonstrated by an automated prototype, coordinated directly by the CMM software MCOSMOS, with an effective threshold of detection as low as 400 nm and a large field of view and depth of field. The level of contamination on the stylus has been found to increase steadily with the number of measurement contacts made. Once excessive contamination is detected on the stylus, measurement should be stopped and a stylus cleaning procedure should be performed to avoid affecting measurement accuracy.

  12. A microscopy approach for in situ inspection of micro-coordinate measurement machine styli for contamination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Feng, Xiaobing; Lawes, Simon; Pascal, Jonathan

    2017-01-01

    During the process of measurement using a micro-coordinate measurement machine (µCMM) contamination gradually builds up on the surface of the stylus tip and affects the dimensional accuracy of the measurement. Regular inspection of the stylus for contamination is essential to determine the appropriate cleaning interval and prevent the dimensional error from becoming significant. However, in situ inspection of a µCMM stylus is challenging due to the size, spherical shape, material and surface properties of a typical stylus. To address this challenge, this study evaluates several non-contact measurement technologies for in situ stylus inspection and, based on those findings, proposes a cost-effective microscopy approach. The operational principle is then demonstrated by an automated prototype, coordinated directly by the CMM software MCOSMOS, with an effective threshold of detection as low as 400 nm and a large field of view and depth of field. The level of contamination on the stylus has been found to increase steadily with the number of measurement contacts made. Once excessive contamination is detected on the stylus, measurement should be stopped and a stylus cleaning procedure should be performed to avoid affecting measurement accuracy. (paper)

  13. An optode sensor array for long term in situ Oxygen measurements in soil and sediment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rickelt, Lars F; Jensen, Louise Askær; Walpersdorf, Eva Christine

    2013-01-01

    Long-term measurements of molecular oxygen (O2) dynamics in wetlands are highly relevant for understanding the eff ects of water level changes on net greenhouse gas budgets in these ecosystems. However, such measurements have been limited due to a lack of suitable measuring equipment. We construc......Long-term measurements of molecular oxygen (O2) dynamics in wetlands are highly relevant for understanding the eff ects of water level changes on net greenhouse gas budgets in these ecosystems. However, such measurements have been limited due to a lack of suitable measuring equipment. We...... constructed an O2 optode sensor array for long-term in situ measurements in soil and sediment. Th e new device consists of a 1.3-m-long, cylindrical, spear-shaped rod equipped with 10 sensor spots along the shaft . Each spot contains a thermocouple fi xed with a robust fi beroptic O2 optode made...... characteristics of the sensor array system are presented along with a novel approach for temperature compensation of O2 optodes. During in situ application over several months in a peat bog, we used the new device to document pronounced variations in O2 distribution aft er marked shift s in water level. Th e...

  14. First in-situ measurements of a highly fragmented comet: ACE SWICS and WIND STICS measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lepri, S. T.; Gilbert, J. A.; Rubin, M.; Zurbuchen, T.; Combi, M. R.

    2011-12-01

    While many of the characteristics of comets and their local plasma environment are obtained using remote sensing via spectroscopic methods, space-based mass spectrometers allow a unique opportunity to directly sample cometary material in situ. To date there have been only a handful of in-situ spacecraft encounters with comets, such as 1P/Halley, 103P/Hartley, 81P/Wild and others. Comet 73P/Schwassmann-Wachmann started to disintegrate in 1995, two major components B and C were recovered in 2001, and it burst into more than 36 pieces during its passage near the Earth in 2006. Serendipitously, some very distant fragmentation members, well-separated from the major identified fragments, passed between the Earth and Sun. Cometary pickup ions and possibly recombined solar wind minor ions convected past the Earth in late May 2006 and were observed by both the ACE/SWICS and WIND/STICS mass spectrometers, which are located in halo orbits around the Earth-Sun L1 Lagrange point. Most of these observations took place a few days after the main comet fragments passed through the ecliptic, when their orbits crossed the spacecraft-Sun line, suggesting additional pieces lagging far behind the main fragments. In this paper, we present the first in-situ observation of these pieces that passed very close to the spacecraft (<0.07AU) and conduct a comparative analysis of composition and characteristics of pick-up ions originating from a number of the cometary fragments. We find that the pick-up ion trail related to the comet fragments is much longer than expected. We constrain the C+/O+ and He+/He++ ratio and discuss the implications for the production rates of different fragments.

  15. Retrievals of Cloud Droplet Size from the RSP Data: Validation Using in Situ Measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alexandrov, Mikhail D.; Cairns, Brian; Sinclair, Kenneth; Wasilewski, Andrzej P.; Ziemba, Luke; Crosbie, Ewan; Hair, John; Hu, Yongxiang; Hostetler, Chris; Stamnes, Snorre

    2016-01-01

    We present comparisons of cloud droplet size distributions retrieved from the Research Scanning Polarimeter (RSP) data with correlative in situ measurements made during the North Atlantic Aerosols and Marine Ecosystems Study (NAAMES). This field experiment was based at St. Johns airport, Newfoundland, Canada with the latest deployment in May - June 2016. RSP was onboard the NASA C-130 aircraft together with an array of in situ and other remote sensing instrumentation. The RSP is an along-track scanner measuring polarized and total reflectances in9 spectral channels. Its unique high angular resolution allows for characterization of liquid water droplet size using the rainbow structure observed in the polarized reflectances in the scattering angle range between 135 and 165 degrees. A parametric fitting algorithm applied to the polarized reflectances provides retrievals of the droplet effective radius and variance assuming a prescribed size distribution shape (gamma distribution). In addition to this, we use a non-parametric method, Rainbow Fourier Transform (RFT), which allows us to retrieve the droplet size distribution (DSD) itself. The latter is important in the case of clouds with complex structure, which results in multi-modal DSDs. During NAAMES the aircraft performed a number of flight patterns specifically designed for comparison of remote sensing retrievals and in situ measurements. These patterns consisted of two flight segments above the same straight ground track. One of these segments was flown above clouds allowing for remote sensing measurements, while the other was at the cloud top where cloud droplets were sampled. We compare the DSDs retrieved from the RSP data with in situ measurements made by the Cloud Droplet Probe (CDP). The comparisons show generally good agreement with deviations explainable by the position of the aircraft within cloud and by presence of additional cloud layers in RSP view that do not contribute to the in situ DSDs. In the

  16. Ex Situ gene conservation in high elevation white pine species in the United States-a beginning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richard A. Sniezko; Anna Schoettle; Joan Dunlap; Detlev Vogler; David Conklin; Andrew Bower; Chris Jensen; Rob Mangold; Doug Daoust; Gary Man

    2011-01-01

    The eight white pine species native to the western United States face an array of biotic and abiotic challenges that impact the viability of populations or the species themselves. Well-established programs are already in place to conserve and restore Pinus monticola Dougl. ex D. Don and P. lambertiana Dougl. throughout significant portions of their geographic ranges....

  17. Impact of Soil Conservation Measures on Erosion Control and Soil Quality

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2011-10-01

    This publication summarises the lessons learnt from a FAO/IAEA coordinated research project on the impact of soil conservation measures on erosion control and soil quality over a five-year period across a wide geographic area and range of environments. It demonstrates the new trends in the use of fallout radionuclide-based techniques as powerful tools to assess the effectiveness of soil conservation measures. As a comprehensive reference material it will support IAEA Member States in the use of these techniques to identify practices that can enhance sustainable agriculture and minimize land degradation.

  18. Application of hydraulic fracturing to determine virgin in situ stress state around Waste Isolation Pilot Plant - in situ measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wawersik, W.R.; Stone, C.M.

    1985-10-01

    Hydraulic fracturing tests were carried out in horizontal drillholes in rock salt in the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) near Carlsbad, NM. It was determined that the virgin in situ stress field is isotropic or nearly isotropic. The inferred magnitude of the isotropic in situ stress falls between bounds of 14.28 MPa and 17.9 MPa for the average breakdown/reopening pressures and driving pressures. The best estimate from instantaneous shut-in pressures is 16.61 MPa. Given some uncertainties about the interpretation of hydraulic fracturing data in salt, all of the foregoing values are in acceptable agreement with an average calculated isotropic in situ stress of 14.9 MPa at an average depth of 657 m below surface. Interpretations of breakdown and reopening pressures are based on finite element analyses of the relaxed stress field around a borehole in salt. This stress field varies little between approximately 50 and 200 days after drilling. The finite element analyses were also used to interpret the observed stable pressure-time signatures with little or no pressure drops during primary breakdown of the salt formation. The conclusion about the isotropic nature of the virgin in situ stress field is supported by observations of the induced fracture patterns. The report includes a comparison of the hydrofrac data in the WIPP with the published results of hydraulic fracturing tests in salt at three other locations. 75 refs., 21 figs., 4 tabs

  19. A transportable magnetic resonance imaging system for in situ measurements of living trees: the Tree Hugger.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, M; Aptaker, P S; Cox, J; Gardiner, B A; McDonald, P J

    2012-05-01

    This paper presents the design of the 'Tree Hugger', an open access, transportable, 1.1 MHz (1)H nuclear magnetic resonance imaging system for the in situ analysis of living trees in the forest. A unique construction employing NdFeB blocks embedded in a reinforced carbon fibre frame is used to achieve access up to 210 mm and to allow the magnet to be transported. The magnet weighs 55 kg. The feasibility of imaging living trees in situ using the 'Tree Hugger' is demonstrated. Correlations are drawn between NMR/MRI measurements and other indicators such as relative humidity, soil moisture and net solar radiation. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Co-firing straw and coal in a 150-MWe utility boiler: in situ measurements

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, P. F.B.; Andersen, Karin Hedebo; Wieck-Hansen, K.

    1998-01-01

    A 2-year demonstration program is carried out by the Danish utility I/S Midtkraft at a 150-MWe PF-boiler unit reconstructed for co-firing straw and coal. As a part of the demonstration program, a comprehensive in situ measurement campaign was conducted during the spring of 1996 in collaboration...... with the Technical University of Denmark. Six sample positions have been established between the upper part of the furnace and the economizer. The campaign included in situ sampling of deposits on water/air-cooled probes, sampling of fly ash, flue gas and gas phase alkali metal compounds, and aerosols as well...... deposition propensities and high temperature corrosion during co-combustion of straw and coal in PF-boilers. Danish full scale results from co-firing straw and coal, the test facility and test program, and the potential theoretical support from the Technical University of Denmark are presented in this paper...

  1. Analysis of In Situ Thermal Ion Measurements from the MICA Sounding Rocket

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernandes, P. A.; Lynch, K. A.; Zettergren, M. D.; Hampton, D. L.; Fisher, L. E.; Powell, S. P.

    2014-12-01

    The MICA sounding rocket launched on 19 Feb. 2012 into several discrete, localized arcs in the wake of a westward traveling surge. In situ and ground-based observations provide a measured response of the ionosphere to preflight and localized auroral drivers. Initial analysis of the in situ thermal ion data indicate possible measurement of an ion conic at low altitude (< 325 km). In the low-energy regime, the response of the instrument varies from the ideal because the measured thermal ion population is sensitive to the presence of the instrument. The plasma is accelerated in the frame of the instrument due to flows, ram, and acceleration through the sheath which forms around the spacecraft. The energies associated with these processes are large compared to the thermal energy. Correct interpretation of thermal plasma measurements requires accounting for all of these plasma processes and the non-ideal response of the instrument in the low-energy regime. This is an experimental and modeling project which involves thorough analysis of ionospheric thermal ion data from the MICA campaign. Analysis includes modeling and measuring the instrument response in the low-energy regime as well as accounting for the complex sheath formed around the instrument. This results in a forward model in which plasma parameters of the thermal plasma are propagated through the sheath and instrument models, resulting in an output which matches the in situ measurement. In the case of MICA, we are working toward answering the question of the initiating source processes that result, at higher altitudes, in well-developed conics and outflow on auroral field lines.

  2. In-situ corrosion measurements of WWII shipwrecks in Chuuk Lagoon, quantification of decay mechanisms and rates of deterioration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ian Donald Macleod

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper is based on a series of measurements taken on WWII historic shipwrecks that resulted from the effects of Operation Hailstone in February 1944 on the Japanese merchant fleet which was assembled in Chuuk lagoon, Federated States of Micronesia. More than 65 shipwrecks and 250 aircraft were sunk during two main bombing raids. The vessels lost covered a wide range of underwater orientation and water depths and so provided a perfect suite of corrosion experiments. Since the fuel on board the aircraft was either readily burnt at the time or was lost through volatilisation, the wrecked planes present no pollution problems today. However the bunker fuel kept inside on-board storage tanks does present a real conservation management crisis. In-situ measurements on many vessels have determined how water depth, the localised wreck topography, dissolved oxygen levels, temperature and salinity affects the corrosion rate of cast iron and mild steel. Thus corrosion rates can be calculated with confidence.

  3. Quality assurance of in-situ measurements of land surface albedo: A model-based approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adams, Jennifer; Gobron, Nadine; Widlowski, Jean-Luc; Mio, Corrado

    2016-04-01

    This paper presents the development of a model-based framework for assessing the quality of in-situ measurements of albedo used to validate land surface albedo products. Using a 3D Monte Carlo Ray Tracing (MCRT) radiative transfer model, a quality assurance framework is built based on simulated field measurements of albedo within complex 3D canopies and under various illumination scenarios. This method provides an unbiased approach in assessing the quality of field measurements, and is also able to trace the contributions of two main sources of uncertainty in field-measurements of albedo; those resulting from 1) the field measurement protocol, such as height or placement of field measurement within the canopy, and 2) intrinsic factors of the 3D canopy under specific illumination characteristics considered, such as the canopy structure and landscape heterogeneity, tree heights, ecosystem type and season.

  4. Measurement techniques for in situ stresses around underground constructions in a deep clay formation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li X.L.

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Disposal in deep underground geological formations is internationally recognized as the most viable option for the long-term management of high-level radioactive waste. In Belgium, the Boom clay formation is extensively studied in this context, in particular at the 225 m deep HADES Underground Research Facility in Mol. A cost-effective design of deep underground structures requires an accurate assessment of the in situ stresses; a good estimation of these stresses is also essential when interpreting in situ experiments regarding the hydro-mechanical behaviour of the host formation. Different measurement techniques are available to provide data on the stress evolution and other mechanical properties of the geological formation. The measurement can be direct (measurement of total pressure, or it can be an indirect technique, deriving the stress from related quantities such as strain (changes in structural members. Most total stress measurements are performed through permanently installed sensors; also once-only measurements are performed through specific methods (e.g. pressuremeter. Direct measurement of the stress state is challenging due to the complex mechanical behaviour of the clay, and the fact that the sensor installation inevitably disturbs the original stress field. This paper describes ways to deal with these problems and presents the results obtained using different techniques at HADES.

  5. In situ measurement of the energy gap of a semiconductor using a microcontroller-based system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mukaro, R; Taele, B M; Tinarwo, D

    2006-01-01

    This paper describes a microcontroller-based laboratory technique for automatic in situ measurement of the energy gap of germanium. The design is based on the original undergraduate laboratory experiment in which students manually measure the variation of the reverse saturation current of a germanium diode with temperature using a current-to-voltage converter. After collecting the results students later analyse them to determine the energy gap of the semiconductor. The objective of this work was to introduce interfacing and computerized measurement systems in the undergraduate laboratory. The microcontroller-based data acquisition system and its implementation in automatic in situ measurement of the band gap of germanium diode is presented. The system which uses an LM335 temperature sensor for measuring temperature transmits the measured data to the computer via the RS232 serial port while a C++ software program developed to run on the computer monitors the serial port for incoming information sent by the microcontroller. This information is displayed on the computer screen as it comes and automatically saved to a data file. Once all the data are received, the computer performs least-squares fit to the data to compute the energy gap which is displayed on the screen together with its error estimate. For the IN34A germanium diode used the value of the energy gap obtained was 0.50 ± 0.02 eV

  6. In situ measurement of the energy gap of a semiconductor using a microcontroller-based system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mukaro, R [Department of Physics, Bindura University of Science, P/Bag 1020, Bindura (Zimbabwe); Taele, B M [Department of Physics and Electronics, National University of Lesotho, Roma 180 (Lesotho); Tinarwo, D [Department of Physics, Bindura University of Science, P/Bag 1020, Bindura (Zimbabwe)

    2006-05-01

    This paper describes a microcontroller-based laboratory technique for automatic in situ measurement of the energy gap of germanium. The design is based on the original undergraduate laboratory experiment in which students manually measure the variation of the reverse saturation current of a germanium diode with temperature using a current-to-voltage converter. After collecting the results students later analyse them to determine the energy gap of the semiconductor. The objective of this work was to introduce interfacing and computerized measurement systems in the undergraduate laboratory. The microcontroller-based data acquisition system and its implementation in automatic in situ measurement of the band gap of germanium diode is presented. The system which uses an LM335 temperature sensor for measuring temperature transmits the measured data to the computer via the RS232 serial port while a C++ software program developed to run on the computer monitors the serial port for incoming information sent by the microcontroller. This information is displayed on the computer screen as it comes and automatically saved to a data file. Once all the data are received, the computer performs least-squares fit to the data to compute the energy gap which is displayed on the screen together with its error estimate. For the IN34A germanium diode used the value of the energy gap obtained was 0.50 {+-} 0.02 eV.

  7. Manipulation of Samples at Extreme Temperatures for Fast in-situ Synchrotron Measurements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weber, Richard [Materials Development, Inc., Arlington Heights, IL (United States)

    2016-04-22

    An aerodynamic sample levitation system with laser beam heating was integrated with the APS beamlines 6 ID-D, 11 ID-C and 20 BM-B. The new capability enables in-situ measurements of structure and XANES at extreme temperatures (300-3500 °C) and in conditions that completely avoid contact with container surfaces. In addition to maintaining a high degree of sample purity, the use of aerodynamic levitation enables deep supercooling and greatly enhanced glass formation from a wide variety of melts and liquids. Development and integration of controlled extreme sample environments and new measurement techniques is an important aspect of beamline operations and user support. Processing and solidifying liquids is a critical value-adding step in manufacturing semiconductors, optical materials, metals and in the operation of many energy conversion devices. Understanding structural evolution is of fundamental importance in condensed materials, geology, and biology. The new capability provides unique possibilities for materials research and helps to develop and maintain a competitive materials manufacturing and energy utilization industry. Test samples were used to demonstrate key features of the capability including experiments on hot crystalline materials, liquids at temperatures from about 500 to 3500 °C. The use of controlled atmospheres using redox gas mixtures enabled in-situ changes in the oxidation states of cations in melts. Significant innovations in this work were: (i) Use of redox gas mixtures to adjust the oxidation state of cations in-situ (ii) Operation with a fully enclosed system suitable for work with nuclear fuel materials (iii) Making high quality high energy in-situ x-ray diffraction measurements (iv) Making high quality in-situ XANES measurements (v) Publishing high impact results (vi) Developing independent funding for the research on nuclear materials This SBIR project work led to a commercial instrument product for the niche market of processing and

  8. Ranking energy-conservation measures to establish research priorities: synopsis of a workshop

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moskowitz, P.D.; Le, T.Q.; Pierce, B.

    1979-05-02

    A workshop was convened to assist DOE's Technology Assessment Division in evaluating the need to prepare additional environmental- and social-impact assessments of different energy-conservation measures. Attendees participated in a decision-making exercise designed to rank 19 different energy-conservation measures according to their overall potential for achieving important national goals and their ease of implementation. The participants felt that the most-important ranking criteria dealt with questions concerning feasibility (economic, political/institutional, social, and technical) and economic efficiency. Other criteria, such as environmental quality and occupational health and safety received lower weights; possibly because of the widespread belief that most of the conservation measures presented would be environmentally beneficial. In the participants' view, the most-promising and feasible conservation measures include new-building-performance standards, retrofit of existing housing stock, new-appliance-performance standards and increased use of smaller cars. In contrast, conservation options which ranked rather low, such as diesel engines, coal-fired aluminum remelt furnaces, and cupola furnace modifications were expected to have some harmful environmental and health impacts. Most of these impacts are expected to be highly localized and of lesser national concern. Disagreement exists as to the efficacy of funding those projects deemed highly desirable and feasible versus those which are expected to have the greater environmental and social impacts. These differences must be taken into account in the research priorities that are eventually established. While environmental and social impacts of alternative energy-conservation measures may prove to be either harmful or beneficial, neither side should be ignored by the policy maker.

  9. In situ optoacoustic measurement of the pointing stability of femtosecond laser beams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pushkarev, D.; Mitina, E.; Uryupina, D.; Volkov, R.; Karabytov, A.; Savel'ev, A.

    2018-02-01

    A new method for the in situ acoustic measurement of the beam pointing stability (BPS) of powerful pulsed lasers is tested. A broadband (~6 MHz) piezoelectric transducer placed a few millimeters from the laser spark produces an electric pulse. We show that variation in time of the position of this pulse can be used to assess the BPS down to 1 µrad in a few hundred laser shots. The estimated value coincides well with the BPS estimated using standard measurement in the far field.

  10. American National Standard: for safety in conducting subcritical neutron-multiplication measurements in-situ

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1983-01-01

    This standard provides safety guidance for conducting subcritical neutron-multiplication measurements where physical protection of personnel against the consequences of a criticality accident is not provided. The objectives of in-situ measurements are either to confirm an adequate safety margin or to improve an estimate of such a margin. The first objective may constitute a test of the criticality safety of a design that is based on calculations. The second may effect improved operating conditions by reducing the uncertainty of safety margins and providing guidance to new designs

  11. Simulated plasma facing component measurements for an in situ surface diagnostic on Alcator C-Moda)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartwig, Z. S.; Whyte, D. G.

    2010-10-01

    The ideal in situ plasma facing component (PFC) diagnostic for magnetic fusion devices would perform surface element and isotope composition measurements on a shot-to-shot (˜10 min) time scale with ˜1 μm depth and ˜1 cm spatial resolution over large areas of PFCs. To this end, the experimental adaptation of the customary laboratory surface diagnostic—nuclear scattering of MeV ions—to the Alcator C-Mod tokamak is being guided by ACRONYM, a Geant4 synthetic diagnostic. The diagnostic technique and ACRONYM are described, and synthetic measurements of film thickness for boron-coated PFCs are presented.

  12. Ecological and socio-cultural factors influencing in situ conservation of crop diversity by traditional Andean households in Peru

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Velásquez-Milla Dora

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The Peruvian Andean region is a main center of plant domestication of the world. There, several tuber species were domesticated and the area lodges one of the most important reservoirs of their varieties and wild relatives. It is also the setting of traditional cultures using and conserving them. However, crop genetic erosion has been reported in the region since several decades ago; therefore, understanding factors influencing both loss and maintenance of crop variation is relevant to design conservation policies. Previous researches have examined factors influencing agrobiodiversity conservation in the region but additional case studies are recognized to be still necessary for a deeper understanding of causes of genetic erosion and for policy design to prevent and remedy it. Our study focused on analyzing (1 variation in richness of traditional varieties of tubers cultivated among households, (2 changes in varieties richness occurred in four consecutive agricultural cycles, and (3 ecological, social, and cultural factors influencing loss and conservation of varieties. Methods Richness of farmer varieties of tuber species cultivated by 28 peasant households was monitored in communities of Cajamarca and Huánuco, Peru during four consecutive agricultural cycles (from 2001 to 2005. In-depth interviews were conducted with 12 of the households with higher reputation as conservationists, in order to document farmers' perception of tubers qualities in ecological, social, economic, technological and culinary aspects and how these influence their decisions of conservation priorities. Traditional varieties were identified according to their local names, which were then confronted among farmers and with scientific catalogues in order to identify synonyms. Based on the information documented, indexes of ecological and socio-cultural factors affecting agricultural practices were designed, and their linear correlations and multivariate

  13. Ecological and socio-cultural factors influencing in situ conservation of crop diversity by traditional Andean households in Peru.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Velásquez-Milla, Dora; Casas, Alejandro; Torres-Guevara, Juan; Cruz-Soriano, Aldo

    2011-12-06

    The Peruvian Andean region is a main center of plant domestication of the world. There, several tuber species were domesticated and the area lodges one of the most important reservoirs of their varieties and wild relatives. It is also the setting of traditional cultures using and conserving them. However, crop genetic erosion has been reported in the region since several decades ago; therefore, understanding factors influencing both loss and maintenance of crop variation is relevant to design conservation policies. Previous researches have examined factors influencing agrobiodiversity conservation in the region but additional case studies are recognized to be still necessary for a deeper understanding of causes of genetic erosion and for policy design to prevent and remedy it. Our study focused on analyzing (1) variation in richness of traditional varieties of tubers cultivated among households, (2) changes in varieties richness occurred in four consecutive agricultural cycles, and (3) ecological, social, and cultural factors influencing loss and conservation of varieties. Richness of farmer varieties of tuber species cultivated by 28 peasant households was monitored in communities of Cajamarca and Huánuco, Peru during four consecutive agricultural cycles (from 2001 to 2005). In-depth interviews were conducted with 12 of the households with higher reputation as conservationists, in order to document farmers' perception of tubers qualities in ecological, social, economic, technological and culinary aspects and how these influence their decisions of conservation priorities. Traditional varieties were identified according to their local names, which were then confronted among farmers and with scientific catalogues in order to identify synonyms. Based on the information documented, indexes of ecological and socio-cultural factors affecting agricultural practices were designed, and their linear correlations and multivariate relations with varieties richness managed per

  14. Methyl mercury dynamics in a tidal wetland quantified using in situ optical measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bergamaschi, B.A.; Fleck, J.A.; Downing, B.D.; Boss, E.; Pellerin, B.; Ganju, N.K.; Schoellhamer, D.H.; Byington, A.A.; Heim, W.A.; Stephenson, M.; Fujii, R.

    2011-01-01

    We assessed monomethylmercury (MeHg) dynamics in a tidal wetland over three seasons using a novel method that employs a combination of in situ optical measurements as concentration proxies. MeHg concentrations measured over a single spring tide were extended to a concentration time series using in situ optical measurements. Tidal fluxes were calculated using modeled concentrations and bi-directional velocities obtained acoustically. The magnitude of the flux was the result of complex interactions of tides, geomorphic features, particle sorption, and random episodic events such as wind storms and precipitation. Correlation of dissolved organic matter quality measurements with timing of MeHg release suggests that MeHg is produced in areas of fluctuating redox and not limited by buildup of sulfide. The wetland was a net source of MeHg to the estuary in all seasons, with particulate flux being much higher than dissolved flux, even though dissolved concentrations were commonly higher. Estimated total MeHg yields out of the wetland were approximately 2.5 μg m−2 yr−1—4–40 times previously published yields—representing a potential loading to the estuary of 80 g yr−1, equivalent to 3% of the river loading. Thus, export from tidal wetlands should be included in mass balance estimates for MeHg loading to estuaries. Also, adequate estimation of loads and the interactions between physical and biogeochemical processes in tidal wetlands might not be possible without long-term, high-frequency in situ measurements.

  15. In-situ geophysical measurements in marine sediments: Applications in seafloor acoustics and paleoceanography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gorgas, Thomas Joerg

    Acoustic in-situ sound speeds and attenuation were measured on the Eel River shelf, CA, with the Acoustic Lance between 5 and 15 kHz to 2.0 meters below seafloor (mbsf). A comparison with laboratory ultrasonic geoacoustic data obtained at 400 kHz on cored sediments showed faster in-situ and ultrasonic sound speeds in coarse-grained deposits in water depths to 60 m than in fine-grained deposits below that contour line. Ultrasonic attenuation was often greater than in-situ values and remained almost constant below 0.4 mbsf in these heterogeneous deposits. In-situ attenuation decreased with depth. These observations partly agree with results from other field studies, and with theoretical models that incorporate intergranular friction and dispersion from viscosity as main controls on acoustic wave propagation in marine sediments. Deviations among in-situ and laboratory acoustic data from the Eel Margin with theoretical studies were linked to scattering effects. Acoustic Lance was also deployed in homogeneous, fine-grained sediments on the inner shelf of SE Korea, where free gas was identified in late-September, but not in mid-September 1999. Free gas was evidenced by an abrupt decrease of in-situ sound speed and by characteristic changes in acoustic waveforms. These results suggest the presence of a gassy sediment layer as shallow as 2 mbsf along the 70 m bathymetry line, and was attributed to a variable abundance of free gas on short-term and/or small-regional scales on the SE Korea shelf. Bulk density variations in marine sediments obtained along the Walvis Ridge/Basin, SW Africa, at Ocean Drilling Program (ODP) Sites 1081 to 1084 were spectral-analyzed to compute high-resolution sedimentation rates (SRs) in both the time- and age domains by correctly identifying Milankovitch cycles (MCs). SRs for the ODP sites yielded age-depth models that often correlate positively with biostratigraphic data and with organic mass accumulation rates (MAR Corg), a proxy for

  16. In situ measurement of erosion/deposition in the DIII-D divertor by colorimetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weschenfelder, F.; Wienhold, P.; Winter, J.

    1996-01-01

    Colorimetry was introduced into the DIII-D tokamak to measure in situ the growth and erosion of transparent wall coatings (a-C:H) on the divertor. The colorimetric measurement system consisting of a halogen light source, a set of three filters and a black/white camera is described together with a first erosion measurement. An insertable graphite sample with a diameter of 4.7 cm was precoated with a 300 nm thick amorphous carbon film and was exposed in the divertor for several discharges with its surface coplanar to the surrounding graphite tiles. For each of the discharges the plasma strike point was moved onto the sample for 1 s to erode the coating. Between the discharges a camera signal with each filter was recorded and the film thickness was evaluated along a radial line across the DIMES sample. Thus it has been possible for the first time to measure erosion and deposition of divertor material in situ and shot-by-shot. The average peak heat flux with the strike point on DIMES was about 110 W cm -2 . The measurement shows a strong decrease in the film thickness almost over the entire sample with an average erosion rate of ∼ 9 nm s -1 . (Author)

  17. Monitoring of In-Situ Remediation By Time Lapse 3D Geo-Electric Measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanli, A. I.; Tildy, P.; Neducza, B.; Nagy, P.; Hegymegi, C.

    2017-12-01

    Injection of chemical oxidant solution to degrade the subsurface contaminants can be used for hydrocarbon contamination remediation. In this study, we developed a non-destructive measurement strategy to monitor oxidative in-situ remediation processes. The difficulties of the presented study originate from the small volume of conductive solution that can be used due to environmental considerations. Due to the effect of conductive groundwater and the high clay content of the targeted layer and the small volume of conductive solution that can be used due to environmental considerations, a site specific synthetic modelling is necessary for measurement design involving the results of preliminary 2D ERT measurements, electrical conductivity measurements of different active agents and expected resistivity changes calculated by soil resistivity modelling. Because of chemical biodegradation, the results of soil resistivity modelling have suggested that the reagent have complex effects on contaminated soils. As a result the plume of resistivity changes caused by the injected agent was determined showing strong fracturing effect because of the high pressure of injection. 3D time-lapse geo-electric measurements were proven to provide a usable monitoring tool for in-situ remediation as a result of our sophisticated tests and synthetic modelling.

  18. Janus: Graphical Software for Analyzing In-Situ Measurements of Solar-Wind Ions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maruca, B.; Stevens, M. L.; Kasper, J. C.; Korreck, K. E.

    2016-12-01

    In-situ observations of solar-wind ions provide tremendous insights into the physics of space plasmas. Instrument on spacecraft measure distributions of ion energies, which can be processed into scientifically useful data (e.g., values for ion densities and temperatures). This analysis requires a strong, technical understanding of the instrument, so it has traditionally been carried out by the instrument teams using automated software that they had developed for that purpose. The automated routines are optimized for typical solar-wind conditions, so they can fail to capture the complex (and scientifically interesting) microphysics of transient solar-wind - such as coronal mass ejections (CME's) and co-rotating interaction regions (CIR's) - which are often better analyzed manually.This presentation reports on the ongoing development of Janus, a new software package for processing in-situ measurement of solar-wind ions. Janus will provide user with an easy-to-use graphical user interface (GUI) for carrying out highly customized analyses. Transparent to the user, Janus will automatically handle the most technical tasks (e.g., the retrieval and calibration of measurements). For the first time, users with only limited knowledge about the instruments (e.g., non-instrumentalists and students) will be able to easily process measurements of solar-wind ions. Version 1 of Janus focuses specifically on such measurements from the Wind spacecraft's Faraday Cups and is slated for public release in time for this presentation.

  19. Advanced Soil Moisture Network Technologies; Developments in Collecting in situ Measurements for Remote Sensing Missions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moghaddam, M.; Silva, A. R. D.; Akbar, R.; Clewley, D.

    2015-12-01

    The Soil moisture Sensing Controller And oPtimal Estimator (SoilSCAPE) wireless sensor network has been developed to support Calibration and Validation activities (Cal/Val) for large scale soil moisture remote sensing missions (SMAP and AirMOSS). The technology developed here also readily supports small scale hydrological studies by providing sub-kilometer widespread soil moisture observations. An extensive collection of semi-sparse sensor clusters deployed throughout north-central California and southern Arizona provide near real time soil moisture measurements. Such a wireless network architecture, compared to conventional single points measurement profiles, allows for significant and expanded soil moisture sampling. The work presented here aims at discussing and highlighting novel and new technology developments which increase in situ soil moisture measurements' accuracy, reliability, and robustness with reduced data delivery latency. High efficiency and low maintenance custom hardware have been developed and in-field performance has been demonstrated for a period of three years. The SoilSCAPE technology incorporates (a) intelligent sensing to prevent erroneous measurement reporting, (b) on-board short term memory for data redundancy, (c) adaptive scheduling and sampling capabilities to enhance energy efficiency. A rapid streamlined data delivery architecture openly provides distribution of in situ measurements to SMAP and AirMOSS cal/val activities and other interested parties.

  20. Multi-Institutional Experience of Ductal Carcinoma In Situ in Black vs White Patients Treated With Breast-Conserving Surgery and Whole Breast Radiation Therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nelson, Carl; Bai, Harrison; Neboori, Hanmanth; Takita, Cristiane; Motwani, Sabin; Wright, Jean L.; Hobeika, Georges; Haffty, Bruce G.; Jones, Tiffanie; Goyal, Sharad; Moran, Meena S.

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: Given the paucity of data on racial disparities in ductal carcinoma in situ (DCIS), the data from a multi-institutional cohort of DCIS patients treated with breast-conserving surgery and whole breast radiation therapy (RT) were analyzed to determine whether racial disparities or differences exist. Methods and Materials: A total of 533 white and 76 black DCIS patients from 3 university-based cancer centers were uniformly treated with breast-conserving surgery and RT. All patient data were collected and analyzed as a function of race. Results: The median follow-up was 5.2 years. No significant racial differences were seen in tumor size, age at diagnosis, estrogen receptor status, necrosis, or grade (all P>.05). Of the treatment parameters, the RT dose delivered, boost, positive margin rates, frequency of hormone receptor status assessment, and receipt of hormonal therapy for the 2 cohorts did not significantly differ (all P>.05). The local relapse-free survival was similar at 5 years (96.1% and 98.1%, P=.399) and 10 years (92.8% vs 95.8%, P=.360), with no significant overall survival difference at 10 years (94.0% vs 88.9%, P=.290) between the white and black patients, respectively. On multivariate analysis, race was not an independent predictor of local relapse-free survival or overall survival when accounting for age, grade, and margin status. Conclusion: In our large cohort of DCIS patients uniformly treated at 3 institutions with breast conservation without any apparent differences in treatment delivery parameters, we demonstrated that the clinical and pathologic features and local survival outcomes did not differ as a function of race. Our results suggest that when black patients with DCIS are appropriately selected for breast conservation and receive adjuvant RT without racial disparities in the treatment parameters, differences in the outcomes as a function of race do not exist.

  1. In-situ measurements of a highly fragmented comet: WIND STICS Measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lepri, S. T.; Gilbert, J. A.; Gruesbeck, J. R.; Rubin, M.; Gershman, D. J.; Zurbuchen, T.

    2013-12-01

    In this paper, we present in-situ observations of cometary fragments associated with Comet 73P/Schwassmann-Wachmann as it passed very close to the Earth (<0.07AU) in 2006. We examine the spatial distribution of the fragments and the characteristics of the picked up ion velocity distributions. Comet 73P started to disintegrate in 1995, two major components B and C were recovered in 2001, and it burst into more than 36 pieces during its passage near the Earth in 2006. Distant fragmentation members, well-separated from the major identified fragments, passed between the Earth and Sun so that cometary pickup ions and possibly recombined solar wind minor ions convected past the WIND spacecraft in late May 2006. The Suprathermal Ion Composition Spectrometer on WIND provides a rare and detailed 3D glimpse of the newly picked up ion properties.

  2. Fabrication and testing of an electrochemical microcell for in situ soft X-ray microspectroscopy measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gianoncelli, A.; Kaulich, B.; Kiskinova, M.; Mele, C.; Prasciolu, M.; Sgura, I.; Bozzini, B.

    2013-03-01

    In this paper we report on the fabrication and testing of a novel concept of electrochemical microcell for in-situ soft X-ray microspectroscopy in transmission. The microcell, fabricated by electron-beam lithography, implements an improved electrode design, with optimal current density distribution and minimised ohmic drop, allowing the same three-electrode electrochemical control achievable with traditional cells. Moreover standard electroanalytical measurements, such as cyclic voltammetry, can be routinely performed. As far as the electrolyte is concerned, we selected a room-temperature ionic-liquid. Some of the materials belonging to this class, in addition to a broad range of outstanding electrochemical properties, feature two highlights that are crucial for in situ, soft X-ray transmission work: spinnability, enabling accurate thickness control, and stability to UHV, allowing operation of an open cell in the analysis chamber vacuum (10-6 mbar). The cell can, of course, be used also with non-vacuum stable electrolytes in the sealed version developed in previous work in our group. In this study, the microcell designed, fabricated and tested in situ by applying an anodic polarisation to a Au electrode and following the formation of a distribution of corrosion features. This specific material combination presented in this work does not limit the cell concept, that can implement any electrodic material grown by lithography, any liquid electrolyte and any spinnable solid electrolyte.

  3. Stability of silver nanoparticle monolayers determined by in situ streaming potential measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morga, Maria; Adamczyk, Zbigniew; Oćwieja, Magdalena

    2013-01-01

    A silver particle suspension obtained by a chemical reduction was used in this work. Monolayers of these particles (average size 28 nm) on mica modified by poly(allylamine hydrochloride) were produced under diffusion-controlled transport. Monolayer coverages, quantitatively determined by atomic force microscopy (AFM) and SEM, was regulated by adjusting the nanoparticle deposition time and the suspension concentration. The zeta potential of the monolayers was determined by streaming potential measurements carried out under in situ (wet) conditions. These measurements performed for various ionic strengths and pH were interpreted in terms of the three-dimensional (3D) electrokinetic model. The stability of silver monolayers was also investigated using streaming potential and the AFM methods. The decrease in the surface coverage of particles as a function of time and ionic strength varied between 10 −1 and 10 −4  M was investigated. This allowed one to determine the equilibrium adsorption constant K a and the binding energy of silver particles (energy minima depth). Energy minima depth were calculated that varied between −18 kT for I = 10 −1  M and −19 kT for I = 10 −4 for pH 5.5 and T = 298 K. Our investigations suggest that the interactions between surface and nanoparticles are controlled by the electrostatic interactions among ion pairs. It was also shown that the in situ electrokinetic measurements are in accordance with those obtained by more tedious ex situ AFM measurements. This confirmed the utility of the streaming potential method for direct kinetic studies of nanoparticle deposition/release processes.Graphical Abstract

  4. In situ measurement of some gamma-emitting radionuclides in plant communities of the South Carolina coastal plain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ragsdale, H.L.; Tanner, B.K.; Coleman, R.N.; Palms, J.M.; Wood, R.E.

    1978-01-01

    In situ and laboratory gamma-ray spectroscopy measurements were taken in nine scrub oak forests and nine old fields to determine the applicability of in situ analysis in the coastal plain. Data collected at each of the 18 sites included a 2-hr count, soil density and moisture estimates, and vegetation measurements. Samples returned to the laboratory for radiometric analysis included litter and herbaceous vegetation and soil cores. Analysis of the gamma-emitter detection frequencies, concentrations, and burdens showed good to excellent agreement between laboratory and in situ methods. Generally, forests were determined to be superior in situ sampling systems. Laboratory analysis of collected samples may be a superior technique for gamma emitters with low energies, low concentrations, or nonuniform distributions in the soil. Three potential uses of in situ Ge(Li) spectrometers were identified and discussed in terms of their limits and of the replicate ecosystems appropriate for in situ analyses. Although the variety and the biogeochemical cycling regimes of southeastern coastal plain ecosystems complicate in situ analyses, it was concluded that comparable and probably accurate results can be achieved using in situ technology

  5. The Measurement of Time: Children's Construction of Transitivity, Unit Iteration, and Conservation of Speed.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Long, Kathy; Kamii, Constance

    2001-01-01

    Interviews 120 children in kindergarten and grades 2, 4, and 6 with five Piagetian tasks to determine the grade level at which most have constructed transitive reasoning, unit iteration, and conservation of speed. Indicates that construction of the logic necessary to make sense of the measurement of time is generally not complete before sixth…

  6. Economic benefits of combining soil and water conservation measures with nutrient management in semiarid Burkina Faso

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zougmoré, R.; Mando, A.; Stroosnijder, L.; Ouédraogo, E.

    2004-01-01

    Nutrient limitation is the main cause of per capita decline in crop production in the Sahel, where water shortage also limits an efficient use of available nutrients. Combining soil and water conservation measures with locally available nutrient inputs may optimize crop production and economic

  7. The effectiveness of soil conservation measures at a landscape scale in the West Usambara highlands, Tanzania

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wickama, Juma; Masselink, Rens; Sterk, Geert

    2015-01-01

    The adoption of soil and water conservation (SWC) technologies among small holder farmers in the East African highlands is an area which poses many challenges. When adoption occurs across a vast landscape, the locations and effectiveness of the adopted measures are often not adequately known. For

  8. Farmers' knowledge and perceptions of soil erosion and conservation measures in the Central Highlands, Kenya

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Okoba, B.O.; Graaff, de J.

    2005-01-01

    A lack of appreciation of Kenyan farmers' knowledge and their perceptions of soil erosion and soil conservation measures was the reason for low adoption of recommended technologies. This research was carried out to identify the criteria that farmers used to distinguish farm-types and to use these

  9. Quantitative Analysis of Oxygen Gas Exhausted from Anode through In Situ Measurement during Electrolytic Reduction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eun-Young Choi

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Quantitative analysis by in situ measurement of oxygen gas evolved from an anode was employed to monitor the progress of electrolytic reduction of simulated oxide fuel in a molten Li2O–LiCl salt. The electrolytic reduction of 0.6 kg of simulated oxide fuel was performed in 5 kg of 1.5 wt.% Li2O–LiCl molten salt at 650°C. Porous cylindrical pellets of simulated oxide fuel were used as the cathode by loading a stainless steel wire mesh cathode basket. A platinum plate was employed as the anode. The oxygen gas evolved from the anode was exhausted to the instrumentation for in situ measurement during electrolytic reduction. The instrumentation consisted of a mass flow controller, pump, wet gas meter, and oxygen gas sensor. The oxygen gas was successfully measured using the instrumentation in real time. The measured volume of the oxygen gas was comparable to the theoretically calculated volume generated by the charge applied to the simulated oxide fuel.

  10. Distributions, ex situ conservation priorities, and genetic resource potential of crop wild relatives of sweetpotato [Ipomoea batatas (L. Lam., I. series Batatas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Colin Kahlil Khoury

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Crop wild relatives of sweetpotato [Ipomoea batatas (L. Lam., I. series Batatas] have the potential to contribute to breeding objectives for this important root crop. Uncertainty in regard to species boundaries and their phylogenetic relationships, the limited availability of germplasm with which to perform crosses, and the difficulty of introgression of genes from wild species has constrained their utilization. Here we compile geographic occurrence data on relevant sweetpotato wild relatives and produce potential distribution models for the species. We then assess the comprehensiveness of ex situ germplasm collections, contextualize these results with research and breeding priorities, and use ecogeographic information to identify species with the potential to contribute desirable agronomic traits. The fourteen species that are considered the closest wild relatives of sweetpotato generally occur from the central United States to Argentina, with richness concentrated in Mesoamerica and in the extreme southeastern United States. Currently designated species differ among themselves and in comparison to the crop in their adaptations to temperature, precipitation, and edaphic characteristics and most species also show considerable intraspecific variation. With 79% of species identified as high priority for further collecting, we find that these crop genetic resources are highly under-represented in ex situ conservation systems and thus their availability to breeders and researchers is inadequate. We prioritize taxa and specific geographic locations for further collecting in order to improve the completeness of germplasm collections. In concert with enhanced conservation of sweetpotato wild relatives, further taxonomic research, characterization and evaluation of germplasm, and improving the techniques to overcome barriers to introgression with wild species are needed in order to mobilize these genetic resources for crop breeding.

  11. Distributions, ex situ conservation priorities, and genetic resource potential of crop wild relatives of sweetpotato [Ipomoea batatas (L.) Lam., I. series Batatas].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khoury, Colin K; Heider, Bettina; Castañeda-Álvarez, Nora P; Achicanoy, Harold A; Sosa, Chrystian C; Miller, Richard E; Scotland, Robert W; Wood, John R I; Rossel, Genoveva; Eserman, Lauren A; Jarret, Robert L; Yencho, G C; Bernau, Vivian; Juarez, Henry; Sotelo, Steven; de Haan, Stef; Struik, Paul C

    2015-01-01

    Crop wild relatives of sweetpotato [Ipomoea batatas (L.) Lam., I. series Batatas] have the potential to contribute to breeding objectives for this important root crop. Uncertainty in regard to species boundaries and their phylogenetic relationships, the limited availability of germplasm with which to perform crosses, and the difficulty of introgression of genes from wild species has constrained their utilization. Here, we compile geographic occurrence data on relevant sweetpotato wild relatives and produce potential distribution models for the species. We then assess the comprehensiveness of ex situ germplasm collections, contextualize these results with research and breeding priorities, and use ecogeographic information to identify species with the potential to contribute desirable agronomic traits. The fourteen species that are considered the closest wild relatives of sweetpotato generally occur from the central United States to Argentina, with richness concentrated in Mesoamerica and in the extreme Southeastern United States. Currently designated species differ among themselves and in comparison to the crop in their adaptations to temperature, precipitation, and edaphic characteristics and most species also show considerable intraspecific variation. With 79% of species identified as high priority for further collecting, we find that these crop genetic resources are highly under-represented in ex situ conservation systems and thus their availability to breeders and researchers is inadequate. We prioritize taxa and specific geographic locations for further collecting in order to improve the completeness of germplasm collections. In concert with enhanced conservation of sweetpotato wild relatives, further taxonomic research, characterization and evaluation of germplasm, and improving the techniques to overcome barriers to introgression with wild species are needed in order to mobilize these genetic resources for crop breeding.

  12. In situ prompt gamma-ray measurement of river water salinity in northern Taiwan using HPGe-252Cf probe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jiunnhsing Chao; Chien Chung

    1991-01-01

    A portable HPGe- 252 Cf probe dedicated to in situ survey of river water salinity was placed on board a fishing boat to survey the Tamsui River in northern Taiwan. The variation of water salinity is surveyed by measuring the 6111 keV chlorine prompt photopeak along the river. Results indicate that the probe can be used as a salinometer for rapid, in situ measurement in polluted rivers or sea. (author)

  13. Outside-out "sniffer-patch" clamp technique for in situ measures of neurotransmitter release.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muller-Chrétien, Emilie

    2014-01-01

    The mechanism underlying neurotransmitter release is a critical research domain for the understanding of neuronal network function; however, few techniques are available for the direct detection and measurement of neurotransmitter release. To date, the sniffer-patch clamp technique is mainly used to investigate these mechanisms from individual cultured cells. In this study, we propose to adapt the sniffer-patch clamp technique to in situ detection of neurosecretion. Using outside-out patches from donor cells as specific biosensors plunged in acute cerebral slices, this technique allows for proper detection and quantification of neurotransmitter release at the level of the neuronal network.

  14. In situ method for measurements of community clearance rate on shallow water bivalve populations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Benni W.; Dolmer, Per; Vismann, Bent

    2011-01-01

    An open-top chamber was designed for measuring ambient community clearance rate on undisturbed bivalve populations in the field. The chamber was pressed 5-10 cm down in the sediment on the mussel bed. It holds approximately 30-40 cm water column equal to a volume of 43-77 L. It was provided...... with an air lift connected to a SCUBA diver pressure tank generating a continuous and gentle water circulation. This ensures a complete mixture of suspended particles, and thereby, a maximum filtration by the bivalves. An in situ fluorometer was mounted to record plant pigment reduction due to mussel...

  15. First in situ plasma and neutral gas measurements at comet Halley: initial VEGA results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gringauz, K.I.; Remizov, A.P.; Gombosi, T.I.

    1986-04-01

    The first in situ observations and a description of the large scale behaviour of comet Halley's plasma environment are presented. The scientific objectives of the PLASMAG-1 experiment were as follows: to study the change of plasma parameters and distributions as a function of cometocentric distance; to investigate the existence and structure of the cometary bow shock; to determine the change in chemical composition of the heavily mass loaded plasma as the spacecraft approached the comet; and to measure the neutral gas distribution along the spacecraft trajectory. (author)

  16. An in-situ RBS system for measuring nuclides adsorbed at the liquid-solid interface

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morita, K; Yuhara, J; Ishigami, R [Nagoya Univ. (Japan). School of Engineering; and others

    1997-03-01

    An in-situ RBS system has been developed in which heavier nuclides adsorbed at the inner surface of a thin lighter window specimen of liquid container in order to determine the rate constants for their sorption and release at the interface. The testing of a thin silicon window of the sample assembly, in which Xe gas of one atmosphere was enclosed, against the bombardment of the probing ion beam has been performed. A desorption behavior of a lead layer adsorbed at the SiO{sub 2} layer of silicon window surface into deionized water has been measured as a preliminary experiment. (author)

  17. Seeing the light: Applications of in situ optical measurements for understanding DOM dynamics in river systems (Invited)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pellerin, B. A.; Bergamaschi, B. A.; Downing, B. D.; Saraceno, J.; Fleck, J.; Shanley, J. B.; Aiken, G.; Boss, E.; Fujii, R.

    2009-12-01

    A critical challenge for understanding the sources, character and cycling of dissolved organic matter (DOM) is making measurements at the time scales in which changes occur in aquatic systems. Traditional approaches for data collection (daily to monthly discrete sampling) are often limited by analytical and field costs, site access and logistical challenges, particularly for long-term sampling at a large number of sites. The ability to make optical measurements of DOM in situ has been known for more than 50 years, but much of the work on in situ DOM absorbance and fluorescence using commercially-available instruments has taken place in the last few years. Here we present several recent examples that highlight the application of in situ measurements for understanding DOM dynamics in riverine systems at intervals of minutes to hours. Examples illustrate the utility of in situ optical sensors for studies of DOM over short-duration events of days to weeks (diurnal cycles, tidal cycles, storm events and snowmelt periods) as well as longer-term continuous monitoring for months to years. We also highlight the application of in situ optical DOM measurements as proxies for constituents that are significantly more difficult and expensive to measure at high frequencies (e.g. methylmercury, trihalomethanes). Relatively simple DOM absorbance and fluorescence measurements made in situ could be incorporated into short and long-term ecological research and monitoring programs, resulting in advanced understanding of organic matter sources, character and cycling in riverine systems.

  18. Model-based aviation advice on distal volcanic ash clouds by assimilating aircraft in situ measurements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Fu

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available The forecast accuracy of distal volcanic ash clouds is important for providing valid aviation advice during volcanic ash eruption. However, because the distal part of volcanic ash plume is far from the volcano, the influence of eruption information on this part becomes rather indirect and uncertain, resulting in inaccurate volcanic ash forecasts in these distal areas. In our approach, we use real-life aircraft in situ observations, measured in the northwestern part of Germany during the 2010 Eyjafjallajökull eruption, in an ensemble-based data assimilation system combined with a volcanic ash transport model to investigate the potential improvement on the forecast accuracy with regard to the distal volcanic ash plume. We show that the error of the analyzed volcanic ash state can be significantly reduced through assimilating real-life in situ measurements. After a continuous assimilation, it is shown that the aviation advice for Germany, the Netherlands and Luxembourg can be significantly improved. We suggest that with suitable aircrafts measuring once per day across the distal volcanic ash plume, the description and prediction of volcanic ash clouds in these areas can be greatly improved.

  19. Drag balance Cubesat attitude motion effects on in-situ thermosphere density measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Felicetti, Leonard; Santoni, Fabio

    2014-08-01

    The dynamics of Cubesats carrying a drag balance instrument (DBI) for in situ atmosphere density measurements is analyzed. Atmospheric drag force is measured by the displacement of two light plates exposed to the incoming particle flow. This system is well suited for a distributed sensor network in orbit, to get simultaneous in situ local (non orbit averaged) measurements in multiple positions and orbit heights, contributing to the development and validation of global atmosphere models. The implementation of the DBI leads to orbit normal pointing spinning two body system. The use of a spin-magnetic attitude control system is suggested, based only on magnetometer readings, contributing to making the system simple, inexpensive, and reliable. It is shown, by an averaging technique, that this system provides for orbit normal spin axis pointing. The effect of the coupling between the attitude dynamics and the DBI is evaluated, analyzing its frequency content and showing that no frequency components arise, affecting the DBI performance. The analysis is confirmed by Monte Carlo numerical simulation results.

  20. Testing coordinate measuring arms with a geometric feature-based gauge: in situ field trials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cuesta, E.; Alvarez, B. J.; Patiño, H.; Telenti, A.; Barreiro, J.

    2016-05-01

    This work describes in detail the definition of a procedure for calibrating and evaluating coordinate measuring arms (AACMMs or CMAs). CMAs are portable coordinate measuring machines that have been widely accepted in industry despite their sensitivity to the skill and experience of the operator in charge of the inspection task. The procedure proposed here is based on the use of a dimensional gauge that incorporates multiple geometric features, specifically designed for evaluating the measuring technique when CMAs are used, at company facilities (workshops or laboratories) and by the usual operators who handle these devices in their daily work. After establishing the procedure and manufacturing the feature-based gauge, the research project was complemented with diverse in situ field tests performed with the collaboration of companies that use these devices in their inspection tasks. Some of the results are presented here, not only comparing different operators but also comparing different companies. The knowledge extracted from these experiments has allowed the procedure to be validated, the defects of the methodologies currently used for in situ inspections to be detected, and substantial improvements for increasing the reliability of these portable instruments to be proposed.

  1. Method for local temperature measurement in a nanoreactor for in situ high-resolution electron microscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vendelbo, S B; Kooyman, P J; Creemer, J F; Morana, B; Mele, L; Dona, P; Nelissen, B J; Helveg, S

    2013-10-01

    In situ high-resolution transmission electron microscopy (TEM) of solids under reactive gas conditions can be facilitated by microelectromechanical system devices called nanoreactors. These nanoreactors are windowed cells containing nanoliter volumes of gas at ambient pressures and elevated temperatures. However, due to the high spatial confinement of the reaction environment, traditional methods for measuring process parameters, such as the local temperature, are difficult to apply. To address this issue, we devise an electron energy loss spectroscopy (EELS) method that probes the local temperature of the reaction volume under inspection by the electron beam. The local gas density, as measured using quantitative EELS, is combined with the inherent relation between gas density and temperature, as described by the ideal gas law, to obtain the local temperature. Using this method we determined the temperature gradient in a nanoreactor in situ, while the average, global temperature was monitored by a traditional measurement of the electrical resistivity of the heater. The local gas temperatures had a maximum of 56 °C deviation from the global heater values under the applied conditions. The local temperatures, obtained with the proposed method, are in good agreement with predictions from an analytical model. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Testing coordinate measuring arms with a geometric feature-based gauge: in situ field trials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cuesta, E; Alvarez, B J; Patiño, H; Telenti, A; Barreiro, J

    2016-01-01

    This work describes in detail the definition of a procedure for calibrating and evaluating coordinate measuring arms (AACMMs or CMAs). CMAs are portable coordinate measuring machines that have been widely accepted in industry despite their sensitivity to the skill and experience of the operator in charge of the inspection task. The procedure proposed here is based on the use of a dimensional gauge that incorporates multiple geometric features, specifically designed for evaluating the measuring technique when CMAs are used, at company facilities (workshops or laboratories) and by the usual operators who handle these devices in their daily work. After establishing the procedure and manufacturing the feature-based gauge, the research project was complemented with diverse in situ field tests performed with the collaboration of companies that use these devices in their inspection tasks. Some of the results are presented here, not only comparing different operators but also comparing different companies. The knowledge extracted from these experiments has allowed the procedure to be validated, the defects of the methodologies currently used for in situ inspections to be detected, and substantial improvements for increasing the reliability of these portable instruments to be proposed. (paper)

  3. In situ measurements of contributions to the global electrical circuit by a thunderstorm in southeastern Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, J.N.; Holzworth, R.H.; McCarthy, M.P.

    2009-01-01

    The global electrical circuit, which maintains a potential of about 280??kV between the earth and the ionosphere, is thought to be driven mainly by thunderstorms and lightning. However, very few in situ measurements of electrical current above thunderstorms have been successfully obtained. In this paper, we present dc to very low frequency electric fields and atmospheric conductivity measured in the stratosphere (30-35??km altitude) above an active thunderstorm in southeastern Brazil. From these measurements, we estimate the mean quasi-static conduction current during the storm period to be 2.5 ?? 1.25??A. Additionally, we examine the transient conduction currents following a large positive cloud-to-ground (+ CG) lightning flash and typical - CG flashes. We find that the majority of the total current is attributed to the quasi-static thundercloud charge, rather than lightning, which supports the classical Wilson model for the global electrical circuit.

  4. Analysis for In-situ Fission Rate Measurements using 4He Gas Scintillation Detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lewis, Jason M.; Raetz, Dominik; Jordan, Kelly A.; Murer, David

    2013-06-01

    Active neutron interrogation is a powerful NDA technique that relies on detecting and analyzing fission neutrons produced in a fuel sample by an interrogating high neutron flux. 4 He scintillation gas fast neutron detectors are investigated in this paper for use in a novel fission rate measurement technique The He-4 detectors have excellent gamma rejection, a fast response time, and give significant information on incident neutron energy allowing for energy cuts to be applied to the detected signal. These features are shown in this work to allow for the detection of prompt fission neutrons in-situ during active neutron interrogation of a 238 U sample. The energy spectrum from three different neutrons sources ( 252 Cf, AmBe, AmLi) is measured using the 4 He detection system and analyzed. An initial response matrix for the detector is determined using these measurements and the kinematic interaction properties of the elastic scattering with the 4 He. (authors)

  5. In situ measurement of solvent-mediated phase transformations during dissolution testing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aaltonen, Jaakko; Heinänen, Paula; Peltonen, Leena

    2006-01-01

    In this study, solvent-mediated phase transformations of theophylline (TP) and nitrofurantoin (NF) were measured in a channel flow intrinsic dissolution test system. The test set-up comprised simultaneous measurement of drug concentration in the dissolution medium (with UV-Vis spectrophotometry......) and measurement of the solid-state form of the dissolving solid (in situ with Raman spectroscopy). The solid phase transformations were also investigated off-line with scanning electron microscopy. TP anhydrate underwent a transformation to TP monohydrate, and NF anhydrate (form beta) to NF monohydrate (form II......). Transformation of TP anhydrate to TP monohydrate resulted in a clear decrease in the dissolution rate, while the transformation of NF anhydrate (form beta) to NF monohydrate (form II) could not be linked as clearly to changes in the dissolution rate. The transformation of TP was an order of magnitude faster than...

  6. Airflow resistivity instrument for in situ measurement on the earth's ground surface

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zuckerwar, A. J.

    1983-01-01

    An airflow resistivity instrument features a novel specimen holder, especially designed for in situ measurement on the earth's ground surface. This capability eliminates the disadvantages of prior intrusive instruments, which necessitate the removal of a test specimen from the ground. A prototype instrument can measure airflow resistivities in the range 10-5000 cgs rayl/cm, at specimen depths up to 15.24 cm (6 in.), and at differential pressures up to 2490.8 dyn sq cm (1 in. H2O) across the specimen. Because of the close relationship between flow resistivity and acoustic impedance, this instrument should prove useful in acoustical studies of the earth's ground surface. Results of airflow resistivity measurements on an uncultivated grass field for varying values of moisture content are presented.

  7. Review of current capabilities for the measurement of stress, displacement, and in situ deformation modulus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schrauf, T.W.; Pratt, H.R.

    1979-12-01

    Current capabilities for the measurement of stress, displacement, and in situ deformation modulus in rock masses are reviewed as to their accuracy, sensitivity, advantages, and limitations. Consideration is given to both the instruments themselves and the measurement technique. Recommendations concerning adaptation of existing measurement techniques to repository monitoring are also discussed. These recommendations include: (1) development of a modified borehole deformation gage with improved long-term stability and reliability and reduced thermal sensitivity; (2) development of a downhole transducer type of extensometer; (3) development of a rigid inclusion type gage; (4) development of an improved vibrating wire stressmeter with greater accuracy and simplified calibration and installation requirements; and (5) modification of standard rod extensometers to improve their sensitivity

  8. Temperature profiles by ground-based remote sensing and in situ measurements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Argentini, S; Pietroni, I; Conidi, A; Mastrantonio, G; Petenko, I; Viola, A [ISAC-CNR, Via del Fosso del Cavaliere, 100, 00133 Roma (Italy); Gariazzo, C; Pelliccioni, A; Amicarelli, A [ISPESL Dipartimento Insediamenti Produttivi e Interazione con l' Ambiente, Via Fontana Candida, 1, 00040 Monteporzio Catone (RM) (Italy)], E-mail: s.argentini@isac.cnr.it

    2008-05-01

    This study focuses on the accuracy of the temperature profiles measured with a Doppler Radio-Acoustic Sounding System and a Microwave Temperature Profiler during a period of about 3 months in winter 2007-2008. The experiment was carried on at the experimental facility of the Institute of Atmospheric Sciences and Climate (ISAC) of the Italian National Research Council (CNR). The temperature data measured with remote sensors were verified with in situ measurements on a mast as well as with tethered balloon data. The facsimile echograms obtained with the ISAC Doppler SODAR were analysed to understand to which extent the RASS and Radiometer temperature profiles behaviour can represent the real thermal structure of the atmosphere.

  9. Temperature profiles by ground-based remote sensing and in situ measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Argentini, S; Pietroni, I; Conidi, A; Mastrantonio, G; Petenko, I; Viola, A; Gariazzo, C; Pelliccioni, A; Amicarelli, A

    2008-01-01

    This study focuses on the accuracy of the temperature profiles measured with a Doppler Radio-Acoustic Sounding System and a Microwave Temperature Profiler during a period of about 3 months in winter 2007-2008. The experiment was carried on at the experimental facility of the Institute of Atmospheric Sciences and Climate (ISAC) of the Italian National Research Council (CNR). The temperature data measured with remote sensors were verified with in situ measurements on a mast as well as with tethered balloon data. The facsimile echograms obtained with the ISAC Doppler SODAR were analysed to understand to which extent the RASS and Radiometer temperature profiles behaviour can represent the real thermal structure of the atmosphere

  10. In-situ-gamma ray spectrometry for measurements of environmental radioactivity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Winkelmann, I

    1994-12-31

    A detailed description of the method is presented. The range of application is shown. The calibration of the in-situ gamma ray spectrometer with a HPGe semiconductor detector and the evaluation of the spectra are described. A measuring time of about 15-30 min is sufficient to determine the specific natural and man-made radioactivity of the soil of some ten Bq/m{sup 2}. The results of soil contamination measurements in Germany after the Chernobyl accident are reported. A total of 22 nuclides are detected. The measured contamination for the first days after the accident was as follows: {sup 132}Te/{sup 132}I - 100 kBq/m{sup 2}, and {sup 131}I - 70 kBq/m{sup 2}. 6 figs., 4 tabs. (orig.).

  11. Lobular carcinoma in situ as a component of breast cancer: the long-term outcome in patients treated with breast-conservation therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moran, Meena; Haffty, Bruce G.

    1998-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this study is to assess the long-term outcome of breast cancer patients with a component of lobular carcinoma in situ (LCIS) treated with conservative surgery and radiation therapy. Methods and Materials: The pathology reports of all patients treated with conservative surgery and radiation therapy at our institution prior to 1992 were reviewed to identify patients who had LCIS as a histologic component. A total of 51 patients were identified. Primary histology of the 51 patients was as follows: 53% infiltrating lobular, 20% invasive and intraductal, 18% invasive ductal, 10% intraductal. There were no patients treated who had LCIS only. One thousand forty-five patients treated conservatively during the same time interval without LCIS served as a control group. All patient characteristics, staging, treatment and outcome variables were entered into a computer database. Results: As of (3(96)), the median follow-up for the LCIS-containing group and control group was 10.6 and 11.4 years, respectively. There were no significant differences in age of presentation, clinical stage, nodal status, estrogen receptor status, or adjuvant therapy received between the two groups. Twenty-two patients (43%) in the LCIS group underwent reexcision. Of those, 69% had residual LCIS in the reexcision specimen. LCIS was characterized as focal in 29%, diffuse in 25%, and not specified in all other cases. The primary histology of the two populations differed significantly with a larger percentage of infiltrating lobular primaries in the LCIS group (53 vs. 5%, p < 0.001). The LCIS group also differed from the control group with respect to the percentage of patients with bilateral disease (17 vs. 8%, p = 0.05), and the percentage of patients with 'false negative' mammograms (20 vs. 10%, p = 0.02). There was no statistically significant difference between the LCIS group and control group in the 10-year overall survival (67 vs. 72%), distant disease-free survival (62 vs

  12. DNA from the past informs ex situ conservation for the future: an "extinct" species of Galápagos tortoise identified in captivity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael A Russello

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Although not unusual to find captive relicts of species lost in the wild, rarely are presumed extinct species rediscovered outside of their native range. A recent study detected living descendents of an extinct Galápagos tortoise species (Chelonoidis elephantopus once endemic to Floreana Island on the neighboring island of Isabela. This finding adds to the growing cryptic diversity detected among these species in the wild. There also exists a large number of Galápagos tortoises in captivity of ambiguous origin. The recently accumulated population-level haplotypic and genotypic data now available for C. elephantopus add a critical reference population to the existing database of 11 extant species for investigating the origin of captive individuals of unknown ancestry.We reanalyzed mitochondrial DNA control region haplotypes and microsatellite genotypes of 156 captive individuals using an expanded reference database that included all extant Galápagos tortoise species as well as the extinct species from Floreana. Nine individuals (six females and three males exhibited strong signatures of Floreana ancestry and a high probability of assignment to C. elephantopus as detected by Bayesian assignment and clustering analyses of empirical and simulated data. One male with high assignment probability to C. elephantopus based on microsatellite genotypic data also possessed a "Floreana-like" mitochondrial DNA haplotype.Historical DNA analysis of museum specimens has provided critical spatial and temporal components to ecological, evolutionary, taxonomic and conservation-related research, but rarely has it informed ex situ species recovery efforts. Here, the availability of population-level genotypic data from the extinct C. elephantopus enabled the identification of nine Galápagos tortoise individuals of substantial conservation value that were previously misassigned to extant species of varying conservation status. As all captive individuals of C

  13. On the effect of moisture on the detection of tropospheric turbulence from in situ measurements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Wilson

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available The present paper addresses the detection of turbulence based on the Thorpe (1977 method applied to an atmosphere where saturation of water vapor occurs. The detection method proposed by Thorpe relies on the sorting in ascending order of a measured profile of a variable conserved through adiabatic processes, (e.g. potential temperature. For saturated air, the reordering should be applied to a moist-conservative potential temperature, θm, which is analogous to potential temperature for a dry (subsaturated atmosphere. Here, θm is estimated from the Brunt–Väisälä frequency derived by Lalas and Einaudi (1974 in a saturated atmosphere. The application to balloon data shows that the effective turbulent fraction of the troposphere can dramatically increase when saturation is taken into account. Preliminary results of comparisons with data simultaneously collected from the VHF Middle and Upper atmosphere radar (MUR, Japan seem to give credence to the proposed approach.

  14. In-Situ Measurement of Hall Thruster Erosion Using a Fiber Optic Regression Probe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polzin, Kurt; Korman, Valentin

    2009-01-01

    One potential life-limiting mechanism in a Hall thruster is the erosion of the ceramic material comprising the discharge channel. This is especially true for missions that require long thrusting periods and can be problematic for lifetime qualification, especially when attempting to qualify a thruster by analysis rather than a test lasting the full duration of the mission. In addition to lifetime, several analytical and numerical models include electrode erosion as a mechanism contributing to enhanced transport properties. However, there is still a great deal of dispute over the importance of erosion to transport in Hall thrusters. The capability to perform an in-situ measurement of discharge channel erosion is useful in addressing both the lifetime and transport concerns. An in-situ measurement would allow for real-time data regarding the erosion rates at different operating points, providing a quick method for empirically anchoring any analysis geared towards lifetime qualification. Erosion rate data over a thruster s operating envelope would also be useful in the modeling of the detailed physics inside the discharge chamber. There are many different sensors and techniques that have been employed to quantify discharge channel erosion in Hall thrusters. Snapshots of the wear pattern can be obtained at regular shutdown intervals using laser profilometry. Many non-intrusive techniques of varying complexity and sensitivity have been employed to detect the time-varying presence of erosion products in the thruster plume. These include the use quartz crystal microbalances, emission spectroscopy, laser induced flourescence, and cavity ring-down spectroscopy. While these techniques can provide a very accurate picture of the level of eroded material in the thruster plume, it is more difficult to use them to determine the location from which the material was eroded. Furthermore, none of the methods cited provide a true in-situ measure of erosion at the channel surface while

  15. In-situ stress measurements in the earth's crust in the eastern United States

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rundle, T.A.; Singh, M.M.; Baker, C.H.

    1987-04-01

    The US Nuclear Regulatory Commission requires that the design basis for vibratory ground motion should be determined through correlation of seismicity with tectonic structures or provinces (10CFR100, Appendix A). Such criteria are difficult to apply in the eastern United States, which experiences persistent low level seismicity, with occasional moderate to large earthquakes. This report presents the results of in-situ stress measurements conducted towards reducing this uncertainty at three (3) seismically active sites in the region, namely, near Moodus, Connecticut, around the Ramapo fault zone in New York and New Jersey, and in central Virginia. As far as possible, at each location one bore hole was drilled close to the ''apparent'' epicenter of the seismic activity and one outside the ''known'' seismic zone, so that the data obtained could be compared. The results obtained were very consistent both as to magnitude and direction. No attempt was made to correlate the in-situ stress measurements with the tectonic setting or seismic activity, since this was beyond the scope of this project. Extensive appendices report experimental data. 35 refs

  16. The retrieval of cloud microphysical properties using satellite measurements and an in situ database

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Poix

    1996-01-01

    Full Text Available By combining AVHRR data from the NOAA satellites with information from a database of in situ measurements, large-scale maps can be generated of the microphysical parameters most immediately significant for the modelling of global circulation and climate. From the satellite data, the clouds can be classified into cumuliform, stratiform and cirrus classes and then into further sub-classes by cloud top temperature. At the same time a database of in situ measurements made by research aircraft is classified into the same sub-classes and a statistical analysis is used to derive relationships between the sub-classes and the cloud microphysical properties. These two analyses are then linked to give estimates of the microphysical properties of the satellite observed clouds. Examples are given of the application of this technique to derive maps of the probability of occurrence of precipitating clouds and of precipitating water content derived from a case study within the International Cirrus Experiment (ICE held in 1989 over the North Sea.

  17. The retrieval of cloud microphysical properties using satellite measurements and an in situ database

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christophe Poix

    Full Text Available By combining AVHRR data from the NOAA satellites with information from a database of in situ measurements, large-scale maps can be generated of the microphysical parameters most immediately significant for the modelling of global circulation and climate. From the satellite data, the clouds can be classified into cumuliform, stratiform and cirrus classes and then into further sub-classes by cloud top temperature. At the same time a database of in situ measurements made by research aircraft is classified into the same sub-classes and a statistical analysis is used to derive relationships between the sub-classes and the cloud microphysical properties. These two analyses are then linked to give estimates of the microphysical properties of the satellite observed clouds. Examples are given of the application of this technique to derive maps of the probability of occurrence of precipitating clouds and of precipitating water content derived from a case study within the International Cirrus Experiment (ICE held in 1989 over the North Sea.

  18. Techniques for sampling nuclear waste tank contents and in situ measurement of activity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lawrence, R.C.

    1978-04-01

    A study was conducted to develop suitable sampling equipment and techniques for characterizing the mechanical properties of nuclear wastes; identifying effective means of measuring radiation levels, temperatures, and neutron fluxes in situ in wastes; and developing a waste core sampler. A portable, stainless steel probe was developed which is placed in the tank through a riser. This probe is built for the insertion of instrumentation that can measure the contents of the tank at any level and take temperature, radiation, and neutron activation readings with reliable accuracy. A simple and reliable instrument for the in situ extraction of waste materials ranging from liquid to concrete-like substances was also developed. This portable, stainless steel waste core sampler can remove up to one liter of radioactive waste from tanks for transportation to hot cell laboratories for analysis of hardness, chemical form, and isotopic content. A cask for transporting the waste samples from the tanks to the laboratory under radiation-protected conditions was also fabricated. This cask was designed with a ''boot'' or inner-seal liner to contain any radioactive wastes that might remain on the outside of the waste core sampling device

  19. Rapid characterization of agglomerate aerosols by in situ mass-mobility measurements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scheckman, Jacob H; McMurry, Peter H; Pratsinis, Sotiris E

    2009-07-21

    Transport and physical/chemical properties of nanoparticle agglomerates depend on primary particle size and agglomerate structure (size, fractal dimension, and dynamic shape factor). This research reports on in situ techniques for measuring such properties. Nanoparticle agglomerates of silica were generated by oxidizing hexamethyldisiloxane in a methane/oxygen diffusion flame. Upon leaving the flame, agglomerates of known electrical mobility size were selected with a differential mobility analyzer (DMA), and their mass was measured with an aerosol particle mass analyzer (APM), resulting in their mass fractal dimension, D(f), and dynamic shape factor, chi. Scanning and transmission electron microscopy (SEM/TEM) images were used to determine primary particle diameter and to qualitatively investigate agglomerate morphology. The DMA-APM measurements were reproducible within 5%, as determined by multiple measurements on different days under the same flame conditions. The effects of flame process variables (oxygen flow rate and mass production rate) on particle characteristics (D(f), and chi) were determined. All generated particles were fractal-like agglomerates with average primary particle diameters of 12-93 nm and D(f) = 1.7-2.4. Increasing the oxygen flow rate decreased primary particle size and D(f), while it increased chi. Increasing the production rate increased the agglomerate and primary particle sizes, and decreased chi without affecting D(f). The effects of oxygen flow rate and particle production rate on primary particle size reported here are in agreement with ex situ measurements in the literature, while the effect of process variables on agglomerate shape (chi) is demonstrated for the first time to our knowledge.

  20. In-situ Measurements and Analysis of Naturally Occurring Radioactive Materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mueller, W.F.; Ilie, G.; Russ, W.R.; Lange, H.J.; Rotty, M.

    2013-06-01

    The measurement and quantification of naturally occurring radioactive materials (NORM) is an important element of workplace radioprotection in key industries such as oil and gas production, heavy metals mining and refining, coal burning waste, and water treatment. Monitoring of NORM content in home building materials is another challenge for human safety in the prevention of chronic dose uptake. Materials are classified NORM in case they contain significant amounts of the decay chains of U-238 (Ra-226 as a long lived daughter), U-235 or Th- 232 or the primordial nuclide K-40. Due to the decay of the radionuclides, gamma rays with a signature in the energy range from 45 keV up to 2615 keV are emitted. The most accurate method to measure NORM in a sample is to use a high resolution spectrometric instrument such as a germanium detector in a well-shielded laboratory environment. The shield is used to prevent background with the same signature from the building material of the laboratory. There are occasions in which one is required to assay samples in the field. These in situ field applications may require performing measurements with reduced (or no) background shielding conditions, or involve the use of medium resolution spectrometric instruments such as LaBr 3 or NaI detectors. In-situ analyses such as these have increased complexity. The reduced shielding enforces the subtraction of NORM events produced from the environment but the sample material and container can also shield the detector against this background thus biasing the measured results if not appropriately accounted. The use of medium resolution detectors has additional complications that the multiplicity of gamma-rays from NORM materials is such that most of the gamma-rays are interfering and thus require a very careful quantitative analysis. In this presentation, we will discuss the details of the NORM source term both in the environment and what could potentially be in the sample. We will also discuss

  1. In situ stress measurement with the new LVDT - Cell - method description and verification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hakala, M.; Christiansson, R.; Martin, D.; Siren, T.; Kemppainen, K.

    2013-11-01

    Posiva Oy and SKB (Svensk Kaernbraenslehantering AB) tested the suitability a new LVDT-cell (Linear Variable Differential Transducer cell) to measure the induced stresses in the vicinity of an excavated surface and further to use these results to interpret the in situ state of stress. It utilises the overcoring methodology, measuring the radial convergence of four diameters using eight LVDTs, and is similar in concept to the USBM-gauge. A 127 mm diameter pilot-hole is required and the overcore diameter is 200 mm. The minimum overcoring length is 350 mm, and hence a compact drill can be utilised. Extensive testing of the LVDT-cell shows it to be robust and suitable for use in an underground environment. Sensitivity tests also show that the cell can withstand a range of operating conditions and still provide acceptable results. The in situ stress at the measurement location can be solved by numerical inversion using the results of at least three overcoring measurements around the three-dimensional tunnel section. The large dimensions of the measurement tool and the ability to utilise multiple measurements at various locations in a tunnel section, provides flexibility in selecting an appropriate rock mass volume. Because the inversion technique relies on knowing the exact location of the measurements and the geometry profile of the tunnel, modern survey techniques such as Lidar or photogrammetric technology should be used. Checks using traditional surveying techniques should also be used to ensure adequate survey resolution, specially in case of sidecoring measurements. To evaluate the suitability of the LVDT-cell to provide the in situ state of stress, tests were carried out in the drill-and-blast TASS tunnel and TBM tunnel at the Aespoe Hard Rock Laboratory in Sweden. The state of stress established using the LVDT-cell was in agreement with the state of stress established previously using traditional overcoring and hydraulic fracturing methods. In this study, the

  2. In situ stress measurement with the new LVDT - Cell - method description and verification

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hakala, M. [KMS Hakala Oy, Nokia (Finland); Christiansson, R. [Svensk Kaernbraenslehantering AB, Stockholm (Sweden); Martin, D. [Univ. of Alberta, Edmonton (Canada); Siren, T.; Kemppainen, K.

    2013-11-15

    Posiva Oy and SKB (Svensk Kaernbraenslehantering AB) tested the suitability a new LVDT-cell (Linear Variable Differential Transducer cell) to measure the induced stresses in the vicinity of an excavated surface and further to use these results to interpret the in situ state of stress. It utilises the overcoring methodology, measuring the radial convergence of four diameters using eight LVDTs, and is similar in concept to the USBM-gauge. A 127 mm diameter pilot-hole is required and the overcore diameter is 200 mm. The minimum overcoring length is 350 mm, and hence a compact drill can be utilised. Extensive testing of the LVDT-cell shows it to be robust and suitable for use in an underground environment. Sensitivity tests also show that the cell can withstand a range of operating conditions and still provide acceptable results. The in situ stress at the measurement location can be solved by numerical inversion using the results of at least three overcoring measurements around the three-dimensional tunnel section. The large dimensions of the measurement tool and the ability to utilise multiple measurements at various locations in a tunnel section, provides flexibility in selecting an appropriate rock mass volume. Because the inversion technique relies on knowing the exact location of the measurements and the geometry profile of the tunnel, modern survey techniques such as Lidar or photogrammetric technology should be used. Checks using traditional surveying techniques should also be used to ensure adequate survey resolution, specially in case of sidecoring measurements. To evaluate the suitability of the LVDT-cell to provide the in situ state of stress, tests were carried out in the drill-and-blast TASS tunnel and TBM tunnel at the Aespoe Hard Rock Laboratory in Sweden. The state of stress established using the LVDT-cell was in agreement with the state of stress established previously using traditional overcoring and hydraulic fracturing methods. In this study, the

  3. Lobular carcinoma in-situ as a component of breast cancer: the long term outcome in patients treated with breast conservation therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moran, Meena S.; Haffty, Bruce G.

    1996-01-01

    Purpose: There is a paucity of data regarding prognostic implications of having LCIS as a histologic component of invasive breast carcinomas or ductal carcinoma in situ. The purpose of this study is to assess the long term outcome of patients with breast carcinoma with a component of LCIS, treated with conservative surgery and radiation therapy. Materials and Methods: The pathology reports of all patients treated with conservative surgery and radiation therapy at our institution prior to 1993 were reviewed to identify patients who had LCIS as a histologic component. A total of 51 patients were identified. Primary histology of the 51 patients were as follows: 53% infiltrating lobular, 20% invasive and intraductal, 18% invasive ductal, 10% intraductal. There were no patients treated who had LCIS only. 1023 patients treated conservatively during the same time interval without LCIS served as a control group. All patient characteristics, staging, treatment and outcome variables were entered into a computer database. Overall survival, disease-free survival, local-regional relapse and distant metastasis rates were calculated from the date of diagnosis to the most recent follow-up. Results: As of (3(96)), the median follow-up for the LCIS containing group and control group was 10.6 and 11.4 years, respectively. There were no significant differences in age of presentation, clinical stage, nodal status, estrogen receptor status, or adjuvant therapy received between the two groups. Twenty-two patients (43%) in the LCIS group underwent re-excision. Of those, 68% had residual LCIS in the re-excision specimen. LCIS was characterized as focal in 29%, diffuse in 25%, and not specified in all other cases. Forty-one percent of patients with LCIS containing tumors had a positive family history. The primary histology of the two populations differed significantly with a larger percentage of infiltrating lobular primaries in the LCIS group (53% vs. 4%, p<.001). The LCIS group also

  4. Chromosome translocations measured by fluorescence in-situ hybridization: A promising biomarker

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lucas, J.N.; Straume, T.

    1995-10-01

    A biomarker for exposure and risk assessment would be most useful if it employs an endpoint that is highly quantitative, is stable with time, and is relevant to human risk. Recent advances in chromosome staining using fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) facilitate fast and reliable measurement of reciprocal translocations, a kind of DNA damage linked to both prior exposure and risk. In contrast to other biomarkers available, the frequency of reciprocal translocations in individuals exposed to whole-body radiation is stable with time post exposure, has a rather small inter-individual variability, and can be measured accurately at the low levels. Here, the authors discuss results from their studies demonstrating that chromosome painting can be used to reconstruct radiation dose for workers exposed within the dose limits, for individuals exposed a long time ago, and even for those who have been diagnosed with leukemia but not yet undergone therapy

  5. In Situ Measurement of Atmospheric Krypton and Xenon on Mars with Mars Science Laboratory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conrad, P. G.; Malespin, C. A.; Franz, H. B.; Pepin, R. O.; Trainer, M. G.; Schwenzer, S. P.; Atreya, S. K.; Freissinet, C.; Jones, J. H.; Manning, H.; hide

    2016-01-01

    Mars Science Laboratorys Sample Analysis at Mars (SAM) investigation has measured all of the stable isotopes of the heavy noble gases krypton and xenon in the martian atmosphere, in situ, from the Curiosity Rover at Gale Crater, Mars. Previous knowledge of martian atmospheric krypton and xenon isotope ratios has been based upon a combination of the Viking missions krypton and xenon detections and measurements of noble gas isotope ratios in martian meteorites. However, the meteorite measurements reveal an impure mixture of atmospheric, mantle, and spallation contributions. The xenon and krypton isotopic measurements reported here include the complete set of stable isotopes, unmeasured by Viking. The new results generally agree with Mars meteorite measurements but also provide a unique opportunity to identify various non-atmospheric heavy noble gas components in the meteorites. Kr isotopic measurements define a solar-like atmospheric composition, but deviating from the solar wind pattern at 80Kr and 82Kr in a manner consistent with contributions originating from neutron capture in Br. The Xe measurements suggest an intriguing possibility that isotopes lighter than 132Xe have been enriched to varying degrees by spallation and neutron capture products degassed to the atmosphere from the regolith, and a model is constructed to explore this possibility. Such a spallation component, however, is not apparent in atmospheric Xe trapped in the glassy phases of martian meteorites.

  6. Self-contained in-vacuum in situ thin film stress measurement tool

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reinink, J.; van de Kruijs, R. W. E.; Bijkerk, F.

    2018-05-01

    A fully self-contained in-vacuum device for measuring thin film stress in situ is presented. The stress was measured by measuring the curvature of a cantilever on which the thin film was deposited. For this, a dual beam laser deflectometer was used. All optics and electronics needed to perform the measurement are placed inside a vacuum-compatible vessel with the form factor of the substrate holders of the deposition system used. The stand-alone nature of the setup allows the vessel to be moved inside a deposition system independently of optical or electronic feedthroughs while measuring continuously. A Mo/Si multilayer structure was analyzed to evaluate the performance of the setup. A radius of curvature resolution of 270 km was achieved. This allows small details of the stress development to be resolved, such as the interlayer formation between the layers and the amorphous-to-crystalline transition of the molybdenum which occurs at around 2 nm. The setup communicates with an external computer via a Wi-Fi connection. This wireless connection allows remote control over the acquisition and the live feedback of the measured stress. In principle, the vessel can act as a general metrology platform and add measurement capabilities to deposition setups with no modification to the deposition system.

  7. Applications of synergistic combination of remote sensing and in-situ measurements on urban monitoring of air quality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diaz, Adrian; Dominguez, Victor; Campmier, Mark; Wu, Yonghua; Arend, Mark; Vladutescu, Daniela Viviana; Gross, Barry; Moshary, Fred

    2017-08-01

    In this study, multiple remote sensing and in-situ measurements are combined in order to obtain a comprehensive understanding of the aerosol distribution in New York City. Measurement of the horizontal distribution of aerosols is performed using a scanning eye-safe elastic-backscatter micro-pulse lidar. Vertical distribution of aerosols is measured with a co-located ceilometer. Furthermore, our analysis also includes in-situ measurements of particulate matter and wind speed and direction. These observations combined show boundary layer dynamics as well as transport and inhomogeneous spatial distribution of aerosols, which are of importance for air quality monitoring.

  8. Characterisation of lead-calcium alloys ageing in anisothermal conditions by calorimetric, resistance and hardness in-situ measurements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rossi, F.; Lambertin, M. [Arts et Metiers ParisTech, LaBoMaP, Cluny (France); Delfaut-Durut, L. [CEA, Centre de Valduc, (SEMP, LECM), Is-sur-Tille (France); Maitre, A. [SPCTS, UFR Sciences et techniques, Limoges (France); Vilasi, M. [LCSM, Univ. Nancy I, Vandoeuvre les Nancy (France)

    2010-02-15

    Transformations undergone by lead-calcium alloys are numerous and have different kinetics from a few minutes to a few years. Anisothermal calorimetric measurements were performed to be able to identify these transformations quickly. It was then possible to identify five transformations. Complementary measurements have enabled us to define transformations with an in-situ electrical resistance measurement to follow the evolution of the calcium in solid solution and with an in-situ hardness measurement to characterise the mechanical properties. The aim of these results is to simulate the ageing and overageing of the alloy in isothermal conditions. (orig.)

  9. In situ stress measurements at 250m gallery off the ventilation shaft

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakamura, Takahiro; Sanada, Hiroyuki; Sugita, Yutaka; Kato, Harumi

    2011-06-01

    From FY2000 to FY2005, JAEA had been making research at ground surface of Horonobe town for repository of high-level radioactive waste. During this period, geological investigation, hydrogeology investigation, rock mechanics investigation, geochemical investigation using boreholes were carried out in Hokushin area which is about 3kmx3km in surface area of Horonobe town in order to construct a geological environment model and to confirm the methodology for safety assessment. Now the research program proceeds to the next stage where the underground drifts and shafts are under construction. In the underground rock mass, in situ stress is the sum of tectonic stress as well as overlying stress due to gravity. In situ stresses enter into excavation design and are required in order to predict the response of rock masses to the disturbance associated with those structures. For these reasons, JAEA has carried out in situ stress measurements using vertical boreholes drilled from ground surface to evaluate the state of horizontal stress in the area. In the research during the underground construction, comparison between the stress measurements carried out at surface and at underground is conducted. And if inconsistency between these two measurements is found, the state of stress will be updated based on more reliable information. In order to study the 3D in situ state of stress around Horonobe Underground Research Laboratory, hydraulic fracturing tests and stress relief method (Conical-ended borehole method) were conducted at the 250m gallery located near the bottom of the ventilation shaft. Three 20.0m long boreholes, 09-V250-M01(slightly upwards), 09-V250-M02(slightly upwards) and 09-V250-M03(vertical), were drilled from the gallery using 76mm diameter bit. The results of the measurements are summarized as follows: (1) Hydraulic fracturing technique. Hydraulic fracturing technique using the test equipment with sufficiently small compliance was carried out in the three

  10. In-situ position and vibration measurement of rough surfaces using laser Doppler distance sensors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Czarske, J.; Pfister, T.; Günther, P.; Büttner, L.

    2009-06-01

    In-situ measurement of distances and shapes as well as dynamic deformations and vibrations of fast moving and especially rotating objects, such as gear shafts and turbine blades, is an important task at process control. We recently developed a laser Doppler distance frequency sensor, employing two superposed fan-shaped interference fringe systems with contrary fringe spacing gradients. Via two Doppler frequency evaluations the non-incremental position (i.e. distance) and the tangential velocity of rotating bodies are determined simultaneously. The distance uncertainty is in contrast to e.g. triangulation in principle independent of the object velocity. This unique feature allows micrometer resolutions of fast moved rough surfaces. The novel sensor was applied at turbo machines in order to control the tip clearance. The measurements at a transonic centrifugal compressor were performed during operation at up to 50,000 rpm, i.e. 586 m/s velocity of the blade tips. Due to the operational conditions such as temperatures of up to 300 °C, a flexible and robust measurement system with a passive fiber-coupled sensor, using diffractive optics, has been realized. Since the tip clearance of individual blades could be temporally resolved an analysis of blade vibrations was possible. A Fourier transformation of the blade distances results in an average period of 3 revolutions corresponding to a frequency of 1/3 of the rotary frequency. Additionally, a laser Doppler distance sensor using two tilted fringe systems and phase evaluation will be presented. This phase sensor exhibits a minimum position resolution of σz = 140 nm. It allows precise in-situ shape measurements at grinding and turning processes.

  11. Relasphone—Mobile and Participative In Situ Forest Biomass Measurements Supporting Satellite Image Mapping

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthieu Molinier

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Due to the high cost of traditional forest plot measurements, the availability of up-to-date in situ forest inventory data has been a bottleneck for remote sensing image analysis in support of the important global forest biomass mapping. Capitalizing on the proliferation of smartphones, citizen science is a promising approach to increase spatial and temporal coverages of in situ forest observations in a cost-effective way. Digital cameras can be used as a relascope device to measure basal area, a forest density variable that is closely related to biomass. In this paper, we present the Relasphone mobile application with extensive accuracy assessment in two mixed forest sites from different biomes. Basal area measurements in Finland (boreal zone were in good agreement with reference forest inventory plot data on pine ( R 2 = 0 . 75 , R M S E = 5 . 33 m 2 /ha, spruce ( R 2 = 0 . 75 , R M S E = 6 . 73 m 2 /ha and birch ( R 2 = 0 . 71 , R M S E = 4 . 98 m 2 /ha, with total relative R M S E ( % = 29 . 66 % . In Durango, Mexico (temperate zone, Relasphone stem volume measurements were best for pine ( R 2 = 0 . 88 , R M S E = 32 . 46 m 3 /ha and total stem volume ( R 2 = 0 . 87 , R M S E = 35 . 21 m 3 /ha. Relasphone data were then successfully utilized as the only reference data in combination with optical satellite images to produce biomass maps. The Relasphone concept has been validated for future use by citizens in other locations.

  12. Analysis of energy demand, and evaluation of energy conservation measures in urban districts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakamura, H.; Yoshida, N.

    1994-01-01

    Mitsubishi Research Institute has analyzed the energy demand of a typical Japanese city, Yokohama, as well as the distribution of fossil-energy flow, and the final consumption by sectors. It has evaluated the effectiveness of various energy conservation measures, (e.g., cogeneration, electric cars, insulation,...) in countering the global warming trend. This study defines a viable methodology which may be utilized, in the future, in examining the effectiveness of environmental policies. (TEC). 1 tab., 4 figs

  13. Molecular Genetic Variability of Commercial and Wild Accessions of Passion Fruit (Passiflora spp.) Targeting ex Situ Conservation and Breeding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cerqueira-Silva, Carlos Bernard M.; Santos, Elisa S. L.; Jesus, Onildo N.; Vieira, João G. P.; Mori, Gustavo M.; Corrêa, Ronan X.; Souza, Anete P.

    2014-01-01

    Passiflora species are distributed throughout Latin America, and Brazil and Colombia serve as the centers of diversity for this genus. We performed cross-species amplification to evaluate 109 microsatellite loci in 14 Passiflora species and estimated the diversity and genetic structure of Passiflora cincinnata, Passiflora setaceae and Passiflora edulis. A total of 127 accessions, including 85 accessions of P. edulis, a commercial species, and 42 accessions of 13 wild species, were examined. The cross-species amplification was effective for obtaining microsatellite loci (average cross-amplification of 70%). The average number of alleles per locus (five) was relatively low, and the average diversity ranged from 0.52 in P. cincinnata to 0.32 in P. setacea. The Bayesian analyses indicated that the P. cincinnata and P. setacea accessions were distributed into two groups, and the P. edulis accessions were distributed into five groups. Private alleles were identified, and suggestions for core collections are presented. Further collections are necessary, and the information generated may be useful for breeding and conservation. PMID:25514245

  14. Genetic variation within native populations of endemic silkmoth Antheraea assamensis (Helfer from Northeast India indicates need for in situ conservation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y Tunginba Singh

    Full Text Available A. assamensis is a phytophagous Lepidoptera from Northeast India reared on host trees of Lauraceae family for its characteristic cocoon silk. Source of these cocoons are domesticated farm stocks that crash frequently and/or wild insect populations that provide new cultures. The need to reduce dependence on wild populations for cocoons necessitates assessment of genetic diversity in cultivated and wild populations. Molecular markers based on PCR of Inter-simple sequence repeats (ISSR and simple sequence repeats (SSR were used with four populations of wild insects and eleven populations of cultivated insects. Wild populations had high genetic diversity estimates (H(i = 0.25; H(S = 0.28; H(E = 0.42 and at least one population contained private alleles. Both marker systems indicated that genetic variability within populations examined was significantly high. Among cultivated populations, insects of the Upper Assam region (H(i = 0.19; H(S = 0.18; H(E = 0 were genetically distinct (F(ST = 0.38 with both marker systems from insects of Lower Assam (H(i =0.24; H(S =0.25; H(E = 0.3. Sequencing of polymorphic amplicons suggested transposition as a mechanism for maintaining genomic diversity. Implications for conservation of native populations in the wild and preserving in-farm diversity are discussed.

  15. Measurement of in-situ hydraulic conductivity in the Cretaceous Pierre Shale

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Neuzil, C.E.; Bredehoeft, J.D.

    1981-01-01

    A recent study of the hydrology of the Cretaceous Pierre Shale utilized three techniques for measuring the hydraulic conductivity of tight materials. Regional hydraulic conductivity was obtained from a hydrodynamic model analysis of the aquifer-aquitard system which includes the Pierre Shale. Laboratory values were obtained from consolidation tests on core samples. In-situ values of hydraulic conductivity were obtained by using a borehole slug test designed specifically for tight formations. The test is conducted by isolating a portion of the borehole with one or two packers, abruptly pressurizing the shut-in portion, and recording the pressure decay with time. The test utilizes the analytical solution for pressure decay as water flows into the surrounding formation. Consistent results were obtained using the test on three successively smaller portions of a borehole in the Pierre Shale. The in-situ tests and laboratory tests yielded comparable values; the regional hydraulic conductivity was two to three orders of magnitude larger. This suggests that the lower values represent intergranular hydraulic conductivity of the intact shale and the regional values represent secondary permeability due to fractures. Calculations based on fracture flow theory demonstrate that small fractures could account for the observed differences

  16. In-situ membrane hydration measurement of proton exchange membrane fuel cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lai, Yeh-Hung; Fly, Gerald W.; Clapham, Shawn

    2015-01-01

    Achieving proper membrane hydration control is one of the most critical aspects of PEM fuel cell development. This article describes the development and application of a novel 50 cm2 fuel cell device to study the in-situ membrane hydration by measuring the through-thickness membrane swelling via an array of linear variable differential transducers. Using this setup either as an air/air (dummy) cell or as a hydrogen/air (operating) cell, we performed a series of hydration and dehydration experiments by cycling the RH of the inlet gas streams at 80 °C. From the linear relationship between the under-the-land swelling and the over-the-channel water content, the mechanical constraint within the fuel cell assembly can suppress the membrane water uptake by 11%-18%. The results from the air/air humidity cycling test show that the membrane can equilibrate within 120 s for all RH conditions and that membrane can reach full hydration at a RH higher than 140% in spite of the use of a liquid water impermeable Carbel MP30Z microporous layer. This result confirms that the U.S. DOE's humidity cycling mechanical durability protocol induces sufficient humidity swings to maximize hygrothermal mechanical stresses. This study shows that the novel experimental technique can provide a robust and accurate means to study the in-situ hydration of thin membranes subject to a wide range of fuel cell conditions.

  17. In situ measurement of methane oxidation in groundwater by using natural-gradient tracer tests

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, R.L.; Howes, B.L.; Garabedian, S.P.

    1991-01-01

    Methane oxidation was measured in an unconfined sand and gravel aquifer (Cape Cod, Mass.) by using in situ natural-gradient tracer tests at both a pristine, oxygenated site and an anoxic, sewage-contaminated site. The tracer sites were equipped with multilevel sampling devices to create target grids of sampling points; the injectate was prepared with groundwater from the tracer site to maintain the same geochemical conditions. Methane oxidation was calculated from breakthrough curves of methane relative to halide and inert gas (hexafluoroethane) tracers and was confirmed by the appearance of 13 C-enriched carbon dioxide in experiments in which 13 C-enriched methane was used as the tracer. A V max for methane oxidation could be calculated when the methane concentration was sufficiently high to result in zero-order kinetics throughout the entire transport interval. Methane breakthrough curves could be simulated by modifying a one-dimensional advection-dispersion transport model to include a Michaelis-Menten-based consumption term for methane oxidation. The K m values for methane oxidation that gave the best match for the breakthrough curve peaks were 6.0 and 9.0 μM for the uncontaminated and contaminated sites, respectively. Natural-gradient tracer tests are a promising approach for assessing microbial processes and for testing in situ bioremediation potential in groundwater systems

  18. In-situ electrochemical impedance spectroscopy measurements of zirconium alloy oxide conductivity: Relationship to hydrogen pickup

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Couet, Adrien; Motta, Arthur T.; Ambard, Antoine; Livigni, Didier

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • In-situ electrochemistry on zirconium alloys in 360 °C pure water show oxide layer resistivity changes during corrosion. • A linear relationship is observed between oxide resistivity and instantaneous hydrogen pickup fraction. • The resistivity of the oxide layer formed on Zircaloy-4 (and thus its hydrogen pickup fraction) is higher than on Zr-2.5Nb. - Abstract: Hydrogen pickup during nuclear fuel cladding corrosion is a critical life-limiting degradation mechanism for nuclear fuel. Following a program dedicated to zirconium alloys, corrosion, it has been hypothesized that oxide electronic resistivity determines hydrogen pickup. In-situ electrochemical impedance spectroscopy experiments were performed on Zircaloy-4 and Zr-2.5Nb alloys in 360 °C water. The oxide resistivity was measured as function of time. The results show that as the oxide resistivity increases so does the hydrogen pickup fraction. The resistivity of the oxide layer formed on Zircaloy-4 is higher than on Zr-2.5Nb, resulting in a higher hydrogen pickup fraction of Zircaloy-4, compared to Zr-2.5Nb.

  19. High temporal resolution in situ measurement of the effective particle size characteristics of fluvial suspended sediment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, N D; Walling, D E; Leeks, G J L

    2007-03-01

    This paper reports the use of a LISST-100 device to monitor the effective particle size characteristics of suspended sediment in situ, and at a quasi-continuous temporal resolution. The study site was located on the River Exe at Thorverton, Devon, UK. This device has not previously been utilized in studies of fluvial suspended sediment at the storm event scale, and existing studies of suspended sediment dynamics have not involved such a high temporal resolution for extended periods. An evaluation of the field performance of the instrument is presented, with respect to innovative data collection and analysis techniques. It was found that trends in the effective particle size distribution (EPSD) and degree of flocculation of suspended sediment at the study site were highly complex, and showed significant short-term variability that has not previously been documented in the fluvial environment. The collection of detailed records of EPSD facilitated interpretation of the dynamic evolution of the size characteristics of suspended sediment, in relation to its likely source and delivery and flocculation mechanisms. The influence of measurement frequency is considered in terms of its implications for future studies of the particle size of fluvial suspended sediment employing in situ data acquisition.

  20. Particle size distribution properties in mixed-phase monsoon clouds from in situ measurements during CAIPEEX

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patade, Sachin; Prabha, T. V.; Axisa, D.; Gayatri, K.; Heymsfield, A.

    2015-10-01

    A comprehensive analysis of particle size distributions measured in situ with airborne instrumentation during the Cloud Aerosol Interaction and Precipitation Enhancement Experiment (CAIPEEX) is presented. In situ airborne observations in the developing stage of continental convective clouds during premonsoon (PRE), transition, and monsoon (MON) period at temperatures from 25 to -22°C are used in the study. The PRE clouds have narrow drop size and particle size distributions compared to monsoon clouds and showed less development of size spectra with decrease in temperature. Overall, the PRE cases had much lower values of particle number concentrations and ice water content compared to MON cases, indicating large differences in the ice initiation and growth processes between these cloud regimes. This study provided compelling evidence that in addition to dynamics, aerosol and moisture are important for modulating ice microphysical processes in PRE and MON clouds through impacts on cloud drop size distribution. Significant differences are observed in the relationship of the slope and intercept parameters of the fitted particle size distributions (PSDs) with temperature in PRE and MON clouds. The intercept values are higher in MON clouds than PRE for exponential distribution which can be attributed to higher cloud particle number concentrations and ice water content in MON clouds. The PRE clouds tend to have larger values of dispersion of gamma size distributions than MON clouds, signifying narrower spectra. The relationships between PSDs parameters are presented and compared with previous observations.

  1. The Conservation Measures of NATURA 2000 "Someşul Rece" Site Management Plan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marian Proorocu

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Natura 2000 is a European network of protected natural areas including a significant number of natural habitats and wild species for the interest of comunnity. Natura 2000 ROSCI 0233 "Someşul Rece"  Site is situated in the south-western county of Cluj, on the administrative territory of Măguri-Răcătău and Ierii Valley. It has an area of 8529 ha and is a framed area of the Apuseni Mountains Alpine bioregions. The site preserves the following natural habitats: Rough mountain beech forests Asperulo-Fagetum, beech forests of Luzulo-Fagetum, forests acidophilous Picea Abies mountain region and protect important species and active fish fauna, flora and fauna of the Apuseni Mountains. It is also home for several species (mammals, amphibians, fish and beetles like: lynx, wolf or otter. The conservation measures of Natura 2000 Somesul Rece Site, elaborated in order to protect the habitats and the species are part of the management plan. These measures were developed in close connection with the conservation status of habitats and species, but also taking into account the needs of local communities. These measures include: maintaining habitats in favorable conservation status; maintain the current habitat areas; preventing and combating poaching and overfishing;ensuring peace in areas of rock (for large mammals.

  2. Reactor for in situ measurements of spatially resolved kinetic data in heterogeneous catalysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horn, R.; Korup, O.; Geske, M.; Zavyalova, U.; Oprea, I.; Schlögl, R.

    2010-06-01

    The present work describes a reactor that allows in situ measurements of spatially resolved kinetic data in heterogeneous catalysis. The reactor design allows measurements up to temperatures of 1300 °C and 45 bar pressure, i.e., conditions of industrial relevance. The reactor involves reactants flowing through a solid catalyst bed containing a sampling capillary with a side sampling orifice through which a small fraction of the reacting fluid (gas or liquid) is transferred into an analytical device (e.g., mass spectrometer, gas chromatograph, high pressure liquid chromatograph) for quantitative analysis. The sampling capillary can be moved with μm resolution in or against flow direction to measure species profiles through the catalyst bed. Rotation of the sampling capillary allows averaging over several scan lines. The position of the sampling orifice is such that the capillary channel through the catalyst bed remains always occupied by the capillary preventing flow disturbance and fluid bypassing. The second function of the sampling capillary is to provide a well which can accommodate temperature probes such as a thermocouple or a pyrometer fiber. If a thermocouple is inserted in the sampling capillary and aligned with the sampling orifice fluid temperature profiles can be measured. A pyrometer fiber can be used to measure the temperature profile of the solid catalyst bed. Spatial profile measurements are demonstrated for methane oxidation on Pt and methane oxidative coupling on Li/MgO, both catalysts supported on reticulated α -Al2O3 foam supports.

  3. Photoacoustic measurements of red blood cell oxygen saturation in blood bags in situ

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinto, Ruben N.; Bagga, Karan; Douplik, Alexandre; Acker, Jason P.; Kolios, Michael C.

    2017-03-01

    Red blood cell (RBC) transfusion is a critical component of the health care services. RBCs are stored in blood bags in hypothermic temperatures for a maximum of 6 weeks post donation. During this in vitro storage period, RBCs have been documented to undergo changes in structure and function due to mechanical and biochemical stress. Currently, there are no assessment methods that monitor the quality of RBCs within blood bags stored for transfusion. Conventional assessment methods require the extraction of samples, consequently voiding the sterility of the blood bags and potentially rendering them unfit for transfusions. It is hypothesized that photoacoustic (PA) technology can provide a rapid and non-invasive indication of RBC quality. In this study, a novel PA setup was developed for the acquisition of oxygen saturation (SO2) of two blood bags in situ. These measurements were taken throughout the lifespan of the blood bags (42 days) and compared against the clinical gold standard method of the blood gas analyzer (BGA). SO2 values of the blood bags increased monotonically throughout the storage period. A strong correlation between PA SO2 and BGA SO2 was found, however, PA values were on average 3.5% lower. Both techniques found the bags to increase by an SO2 of approximately 20%, and measured very similar rates of SO2 change. Future work will be focused on determining the cause of discrepancy between SO2 values acquired from PA versus BGA, as well as establishing links between the measured SO2 increase and other changes in RBC in situ.

  4. Mercury dynamics in a San Francisco estuary tidal wetland: assessing dynamics using in situ measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bergamaschi, Brian A.; Fleck, Jacob A.; Downing, Bryan D.; Boss, Emmanuel; Pellerin, Brian A.; Ganju, Neil K.; Schoellhamer, David H.; Byington, Amy A.; Heim, Wesley A.; Stephenson, Mark; Fujii, Roger

    2012-01-01

    We used high-resolution in situ measurements of turbidity and fluorescent dissolved organic matter (FDOM) to quantitatively estimate the tidally driven exchange of mercury (Hg) between the waters of the San Francisco estuary and Browns Island, a tidal wetland. Turbidity and FDOM—representative of particle-associated and filter-passing Hg, respectively—together predicted 94 % of the observed variability in measured total mercury concentration in unfiltered water samples (UTHg) collected during a single tidal cycle in spring, fall, and winter, 2005–2006. Continuous in situ turbidity and FDOM data spanning at least a full spring-neap period were used to generate UTHg concentration time series using this relationship, and then combined with water discharge measurements to calculate Hg fluxes in each season. Wetlands are generally considered to be sinks for sediment and associated mercury. However, during the three periods of monitoring, Browns Island wetland did not appreciably accumulate Hg. Instead, gradual tidally driven export of UTHg from the wetland offset the large episodic on-island fluxes associated with high wind events. Exports were highest during large spring tides, when ebbing waters relatively enriched in FDOM, dissolved organic carbon (DOC), and filter-passing mercury drained from the marsh into the open waters of the estuary. On-island flux of UTHg, which was largely particle-associated, was highest during strong winds coincident with flood tides. Our results demonstrate that processes driving UTHg fluxes in tidal wetlands encompass both the dissolved and particulate phases and multiple timescales, necessitating longer term monitoring to adequately quantify fluxes.

  5. Cryopreservation of sperm of an indigenous endangered fish species Nandus nandus (Hamilton, 1822) for ex-situ conservation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarder, M Rafiqul Islam; Sarker, M F Monowar; Saha, Shankar K

    2012-12-01

    This study dealt with the development of cryopreservation protocol for Nandus nandus, which entailed a number of experiments. Sperm was collected by sacrificing males. The collected sperm was suspended in extenders. Activation of sperm motility was evaluated in different osmolalities of NaCl. Motility of sperm decreased as the osmolality of the extender increased and was completely inhibited at almost 319 mOs mol/kg. To evaluate the toxicity of cryoprotectant, sperm was incubated with DMSO, methanol and ethanol at 5%, 10% and 15% concentrations, respectively, for 5-35 min. Five and ten percent of cryoprotectants produced better motility during 5 and 10 min incubation. Sperm incubated with 15% cryoprotectant seemed to be toxic and this concentration was excluded in the subsequent trials. Three extenders, namely, Alsever's solution, egg-yolk citrate and urea egg-yolk and three cryoprotectants, DMSO, methanol and ethanol were employed to preserve the sperm. Alsever's solution with 10% DMSO showed best performance producing 90.0±1.8% and 75.0±2.5% equilibration and post-thaw motility followed by that of 82.5±4.2% and 62.5±5.5% with Alsever's solution plus methanol, respectively. Between two diluents, sperm preserved with Alsever's solution plus DMSO produced highest fertilization (76.7±3.3%) and hatching (43.8±7.9%) while fresh sperm yielded 83.3±6.7% and 64.0±10.4% fertilization and hatching, respectively. The protocol developed through the study can be applied for long-term conservation of genetic materials of the endangered fish N. nandus and the cryopreserved sperm can be used in artificial breeding for generating new individuals. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. An automated, noncontact laser profile meter for measuring soil roughness in situ

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bertuzzi, P.; Caussignac, J.M.; Stengel, P.; Morel, G.; Lorendeau, J.Y.; Pelloux, G.

    1990-01-01

    This paper describes a new optical technique for measuring in situ soil surface roughness profiles using a laser profile meter. The described method uses a low-power HeNe (helium-neon) laser as a laser source and a matrix-array detector, as the laser image. The matrix-array detector gives a defect-of-focus laser image of the soil. Soil elevation is measured by projecting a laser beam normally onto the soil surface and measuring the ratio (Ir/It) on the matrix-array detector between the referenced intensity of the return Laser beam (Ir), measured by the central cell of the detector and the total intensity (It), measured by all the cells of the detector. The measured profile leads to 1001 sampled values (volt, range 0 to 10 V) of the surface height profile, at a constant increment of 0.002 m, registered automatically on a microcomputer. A calibration is made in the laboratory in order to convert the electrical measurements into elevation data. The method is universal and can be adapted to different scales of soil surface roughness. Changing the scale is done by changing the lens. Tests were carried out to improve this method for field use and to compare this technique with a method of reference. This technique is considerably quicker and causes no disturbance to the soil. The accuracy on height measurement depends on the choice of the lens. The small focal lens is convenient for smooth soil surfaces. The accuracy on height measurement is less than 0.75 mm. The wide focal lens is convenient for rough soil surfaces. The accuracy on height measurement is estimated at about 1.0 to 1.5 mm

  7. In situ heating test in Callovo-Oxfordian clay-stone: measurement and interpretation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Conil, N.; Armand, G.; De La Vaissiere, R.; Morel, J.; Garitte, B.; Jobmann, M.; Jellouli, M.; Filippi, M.

    2012-01-01

    Document available in extended abstract form only. To study the thermo -hydro-mechanical effects of the early thermal phase on the clay host rock of a deep repository, Andra has performed a new in-situ heating test called TED experiment. This experiment is the second one being carried out in the Meuse/Haute-Marne Underground Research Laboratory The aim of the TED experiment is to measure the evolution of the temperature; deformation and pore pressure fields around several heaters and to back-analyse the thermo-hydro-mechanical properties of the rock. The TED experiment was also designed to estimate the overpressure generated by heat in the zero flux plan between several heaters and to study the evolution of the damaged zone due to heat. Analysis of the experimental results will help in calibrating numerical models which will be applied to the disposal cell cases. The test set-up consists of three boreholes containing the heaters and twenty one instrumented observation boreholes. Each heater is 4 m long and may generate a power of 1500 W. The distance between each heater is about 2.6 m, which is close to the ratio of the disposal cell geometry concept. The surrounding boreholes were strategically located to follow the anisotropic THM behavior of the clay-stone. There are twelve pore pressure measurement boreholes (a total of eighteen piezometers), nine temperature measurement boreholes (108 temperature sensors) and 2 strain measurement boreholes. In order to optimize the inverse problem analysis, special attention has been paid to the reduction of uncertainties regarding the sensors location in the boreholes. Possible sensors location errors were indeed found to be a problematic issue for analysis and parameter determination in the previous thermal experiment ([1]). The central heater was activated on January 25, 2010 starting with a relatively low heating power of 150 W, then the heating power was increased to 300 W and finally to 600 W. Each step was about four

  8. Applications of in situ optical measurements in ecological and biogeochemical studies - a framework for a user-driven national network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bergamaschi, B. A.; Pellerin, B. A.; Downing, B. D.; Saraceno, J.; Aiken, G.; Stumpner, P.

    2010-12-01

    A critical challenge for understanding the dynamics between water quality, and ecological processes is obtaining data at time scales in which changes occur. Traditional, discrete sampling, approaches for data collection are often limited by analytical and field costs, site access, and logistical challenges, for long-term sampling at a large number of sites. The timescales of change, however, are often minutes, hours, or years. In situ optical (absorbance and fluorescence) instruments offer opportunities to help overcome these difficulties by directly or indirectly measuring constituents of interest. In situ optical instrumentation have been in use in oceanographic studies for well over 50 years, and as advances in the science, engineering and technology of these sensors have improved, optical sensors have become more commercially viable and available for research. We present several examples that highlight applications of in situ optical measurements for understanding dynamics in stream, river, and estuary systems. Examples illustrate the utility of in situ optical sensors for studies over short-duration events of days to weeks (diurnal cycles, tidal cycles, storm events and snowmelt periods) as well as longer-term continuous monitoring for months to years. We also highlight applied in situ optical measurements as proxies for constituents that are difficult and expensive to measure at high spatiotemporal resolution, for example, dissolved organic carbon, dissolved organic nitrogen, mercury and methylmercury, trihalomethane precursors, harmful algal blooms, and others. We propose that relatively simple absorbance and fluorescence measurements made in situ could be incorporated into short and long-term ecological research and monitoring programs, resulting in advanced understanding of sources that contribute to water quality improvements or degradation, contaminant and carbon cycling, and the occurrence and persistence of harmful algal blooms. Linking these efforts

  9. In situ measurement of low-Z material coating thickness on high Z substrate for tokamaks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mueller, D., E-mail: dmueller@pppl.gov; Roquemore, A. L.; Jaworski, M.; Skinner, C. H.; Miller, J.; Creely, A. [Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory, Princeton, New Jersey 08543 (United States); Raman, P.; Ruzic, D. [Department of Nuclear, Plasma, and Radiological Engineering, Center for Plasma Material Interaction, University of Illinois, Urbana, Illinois 61801 (United States)

    2014-11-15

    Rutherford backscattering of energetic particles can be used to determine the thickness of a coating of a low-Z material over a heavier substrate. Simulations indicate that 5 MeV alpha particles from an {sup 241}Am source can be used to measure the thickness of a Li coating on Mo tiles between 0.5 and 15 μm thick. Using a 0.1 mCi source, a thickness measurement can be accomplished in 2 h of counting. This technique could be used to measure any thin, low-Z material coating (up to 1 mg/cm{sup 2} thick) on a high-Z substrate, such as Be on W, B on Mo, or Li on Mo. By inserting a source and detector on a moveable probe, this technique could be used to provide an in situ measurement of the thickness of Li coating on NSTX-U Mo tiles. A test stand with an alpha source and an annular solid-state detector was used to investigate the measurable range of low-Z material thicknesses on Mo tiles.

  10. Application of in-situ stress measurement on bursts disasters of rock and CO{sub 2} in coal mine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lian-Jie Wang; Dong-Sheng Sun; Li-Rong Zhang; Guan-Wu Zhou [Ministry of Land and Resources, Beijing (China)

    2009-01-15

    For the purpose of reduction and prevention of rock burst disasters and CO{sub 2}, measurements were made of in-situ stress and mechanical parameters of rock in Yingcheng mine. Geological structure and gas measurements were studied and the stress field was simulated and distribution of stress field was obtained in this area. On the basis of the study, the danger areas of rockbursts and CO{sub 2} were predicted. Preventive measures were suggested to decrease gas pressure and in-situ stress in front of the working face with advance boreholes relieving blasting. 12 refs., 5 figs., 1 tab.

  11. Measuring the effectiveness of conservation: a novel framework to quantify the benefits of sage-grouse conservation policy and easements in Wyoming.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Holly E Copeland

    Full Text Available Increasing energy and housing demands are impacting wildlife populations throughout western North America. Greater sage-grouse (Centrocercus urophasianus, a species known for its sensitivity to landscape-scale disturbance, inhabits the same low elevation sage-steppe in which much of this development is occurring. Wyoming has committed to maintain sage-grouse populations through conservation easements and policy changes that conserves high bird abundance "core" habitat and encourages development in less sensitive landscapes. In this study, we built new predictive models of oil and gas, wind, and residential development and applied build-out scenarios to simulate future development and measure the efficacy of conservation actions for maintaining sage-grouse populations. Our approach predicts sage-grouse population losses averted through conservation action and quantifies return on investment for different conservation strategies. We estimate that without conservation, sage-grouse populations in Wyoming will decrease under our long-term scenario by 14-29% (95% CI: 4-46%. However, a conservation strategy that includes the "core area" policy and $250 million in targeted easements could reduce these losses to 9-15% (95% CI: 3-32%, cutting anticipated losses by roughly half statewide and nearly two-thirds within sage-grouse core breeding areas. Core area policy is the single most important component, and targeted easements are complementary to the overall strategy. There is considerable uncertainty around the magnitude of our estimates; however, the relative benefit of different conservation scenarios remains comparable because potential biases and assumptions are consistently applied regardless of the strategy. There is early evidence based on a 40% reduction in leased hectares inside core areas that Wyoming policy is reducing potential for future fragmentation inside core areas. Our framework using build-out scenarios to anticipate species declines

  12. In situ measurements of erosion and redeposition during long duration discharges on TRIAM-1M

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sakamoto, M.; Ogawa, M.; Zushi, H.; Higashijima, A.; Nakashima, H.; Kawasaki, S.; Hasegawa, M.; Idei, H.; Hanada, K.; Nakamura, K.; Sato, K.N.

    2007-01-01

    An in situ and real time measurement system of erosion and deposition has been developed, which is based on interference of light on a thin semi-transparent layer of redeposited material on substrate. It has been applied to long duration discharges in TRIAM-1M. The sapphire window is used as substrate. The deposition pattern on the window indicates up down and toroidal asymmetry. In the 5 h 16 min discharge, the thickness of the deposited layer increased monotonically with time and its deposition rate is ∼1.5 x 10 16 Mo m -2 s -1 . In the low density and long duration discharge, the Mo deposition rate on the window depends on the ratio of Mo flux to hydrogen flux

  13. In-Situ Measurements of the Radiation Stability of Amino Acids at 15-140 K

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerakines, Perry A.; Hudson, Reggie L.; Moore, Marla H.; Bell, Jan-Luca

    2012-01-01

    We present new kinetics data on the radiolytic destruction of amino acids measured in situ with infrared spectroscopy. Samples were irradiated at 15, 100, and 140 K with D.8-MeV protons, and amino-acid decay was followed at each temperature with and without H2O present. Observed radiation products included CO2 and amines, consistent with amino-acid decarboxylation. The half-lives of glycine, alanine, and phenylalanine were estimated for various extraterrestrial environments. Infrared spectral changes demonstrated the conversion from the non-zwitterion structure NH2-CH2(R)-COOH at 15 K to the zwitterion structure +NH3-CH2(R)-COO- at 140 K for each amino acid studied.

  14. Stress–rupture measurements of cast magnesium strengthened by in-situ production of ceramic particles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nagaraj M. Chelliah

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available We have introduced a polymer precursor into molten magnesium and then in-situ pyrolyzed to produce castings of metal matrix composites (P-MMCs containing silicon-carbonitride (SiCNO ceramic particles. Stress-rupture measurements of as-cast P-MMCs was performed at 350 °C (0.69TM to 450 °C (0.78TM under dead load condition corresponding to tensile stress of 2.5 MPa to 20 MPa. The time-to-fracture data were analyzed using the classical Monkman–Grant equation. The time-to-fracture is thermally activated and follows a power-law stress exponent exhibiting dislocation creep. Fractography analysis revealed that while pure magnesium appears to fracture by dislocation slip, the P-MMCs fail from the nucleation and growth of voids at the grain boundaries.

  15. In situ measurements of fuel retention by laser induced desorption spectroscopy in TEXTOR

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zlobinski, M.; Philipps, V.; Schweer, B.; Huber, A.; Stoschus, H.; Brezinsek, S.; Samm, U.; TEXTOR Team

    2011-12-01

    In future fusion devices such as ITER tritium retention due to tritium co-deposition in mixed material layers can be a serious safety problem. Laser induced desorption spectroscopy (LIDS) can measure the hydrogen content of hydrogenic carbon layers locally on plasma-facing components, while hydrogen is used as a tritium substitute. For several years, this method has been applied in the TEXTOR tokamak in situ during plasma operation to monitor the hydrogen content in space and time. This work shows the LIDS signal reproducibility and studies the effects of different plasma conditions, desorption distances from the plasma and different laser energies using a dedicated sample with constant hydrogen amount. Also the LIDS signal evaluation procedure is described in detail and the detection limits for different conditions in the TEXTOR tokamak are estimated.

  16. An optical technique to measure distortion in heat-treated parts in-situ

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sciammarella, Federico; Nash, Phillip

    2005-05-01

    Improvements in the properties of aluminum alloys have made them more popular for structural applications. Using the different heat treatments that are available, aluminum alloys can have a wide variation in properties for different types of applications. The appropriate heat treatments of these alloys are vital in providing the properties needed for their particular applications. Moreover, understanding the effects of heat treatments that may cause distortion to a part is critical. Most of the work carried out in this field is in the form of pre- and post-treatment analysis of a part. In this study, in-situ measurements of the distortions that a heat-treated part undergoes when subjected to rapid heating to temperatures near melting followed by slow cooling were carried out. A numerical model was built to simulate the experiment and the results are compared. This study will provide much-needed insight into the complex occurrences that aluminum parts undergo during heat treatment.

  17. IN-SITU MEASURING METHOD OF RADON AND THORON DIFFUSION COEFFICIENT IN SOIL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V.S. Yakovleva

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available A simple and valid in-situ measurement method of effective diffusion coefficient of radon and thoron in soil and other porous materials was designed. The analysis of numerical investigation of radon and thoron transport in upper layers of soil revealed that thoron flux density from the earth surface does not depend on soil gas advective velocity and varies only with diffusion coefficient changes. This result showed the advantages of thoron using versus radon using in the suggested method. The comparison of the new method with existing ones previously developed. The method could be helpful for solving of problems of radon mass-transport in porous media and gaseous exchange between soil and atmosphere.

  18. Energy performance contracting - energy saving potential of selected energy conservation measures (ECM)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johansson, M. (Dansk Energi Analyse A/S, Frederiksberg (Denmark)); Langkilde, G.; Olesen, Bjarne W. (Technical Univ. of Denmark, ICIEE, Kgs. Lyngby (Denmark)); Moerck, O. (Cenergia Energy Consultants, Herlev (Denmark)); Sundman, O. (DONG Energy, Copenhagen (Denmark)); Engelund Thomsen, K. (Aalborg Univ., SBi, Hoersholm (Denmark))

    2008-09-15

    This report has been developed under the research project 'Etablering af grundlag for energitjenester i Danmark' (project number: ENS-33031-0185) under the Danish research programme - EFP. The objective of this project has been to contribute to the utilisation of the large potential for energy conservations in the building sector within the public, industry and service sectors through the development of a better basis for decision making for both the Energy Service Companies (ESCOes) and the building owners. The EU directive on Energy Service Contracting points at the buildings as the area where the biggest potential market for energy services and energy efficiency improvements are. The EFP-project has two parts: (1) A Danish part and (2) participation in the international cooperation project 'Holistic Assesment Tool-Kit on Energy Efficient Retrofit Measures for Government Buildings (EnERGo)', Annex 46 under the IEA R and D program 'Energy Conservation In Buildings And Community Systems' (ECBCS). This report describes the Danish contributions to the IEA projects subtask B, which has a primary objective to develop a database of energy conservation measures (ECM) with descriptions and performance characteristics of these. (au)

  19. Energy performance contracting - energy saving potential of selected energy conservation measures (ECM)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johansson, M [Dansk Energi Analyse A/S, Frederiksberg (Denmark); Langkilde, G; Olesen, Bjarne W [Technical Univ. of Denmark, ICIEE, Kgs. Lyngby (Denmark); Moerck, O [Cenergia Energy Consultants, Herlev (Denmark); Sundman, O [DONG Energy, Copenhagen (Denmark); Engelund Thomsen, K [Aalborg Univ., SBi, Hoersholm (Denmark)

    2008-09-15

    This report has been developed under the research project 'Etablering af grundlag for energitjenester i Danmark' (project number: ENS-33031-0185) under the Danish research programme - EFP. The objective of this project has been to contribute to the utilisation of the large potential for energy conservations in the building sector within the public, industry and service sectors through the development of a better basis for decision making for both the Energy Service Companies (ESCOes) and the building owners. The EU directive on Energy Service Contracting points at the buildings as the area where the biggest potential market for energy services and energy efficiency improvements are. The EFP-project has two parts: (1) A Danish part and (2) participation in the international cooperation project 'Holistic Assesment Tool-Kit on Energy Efficient Retrofit Measures for Government Buildings (EnERGo)', Annex 46 under the IEA R and D program 'Energy Conservation In Buildings And Community Systems' (ECBCS). This report describes the Danish contributions to the IEA projects subtask B, which has a primary objective to develop a database of energy conservation measures (ECM) with descriptions and performance characteristics of these. (au)

  20. DeepPIV: Measuring in situ Biological-Fluid Interactions from the Surface to Benthos

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katija, K.; Sherman, A.; Graves, D.; Kecy, C. D.; Klimov, D.; Robison, B. H.

    2015-12-01

    The midwater region of the ocean (below the euphotic zone and above the benthos) is one of the largest ecosystems on our planet, yet it remains one of the least explored. Little known marine organisms that inhabit midwater have developed strategies for swimming and feeding that ultimately contributes to their evolutionary success, and may inspire engineering solutions for societally relevant challenges. Fluid mechanics governs the interactions that midwater organisms have with their physical environment, but limited access to midwater depths and lack of non-invasive methods to measure in situ small-scale fluid motions prevent these interactions from being better understood. Significant advances in underwater vehicle technologies have only recently improved access to midwater. Unfortunately, in situ small-scale fluid mechanics measurement methods are still lacking in the oceanographic community. Here we present DeepPIV, an instrumentation package that can be affixed to remotely operated underwater vehicles that quantifies small-scale fluid motions from the surface of the ocean down to 4000 m depths. Utilizing ambient, suspended particulate in the coastal regions of Monterey Bay, fluid-structure interactions are evaluated on a range of marine organisms in midwater. Initial science targets include larvaceans, biological equivalents of flapping flexible foils, that create mucus houses to filter food. Little is known about the structure of these mucus houses and the function they play in selectively filtering particles, and these dynamics can serve as particle-mucus models for human health. Using DeepPIV, we reveal the complex structures and flows generated within larvacean mucus houses, and elucidate how these structures function.

  1. In Situ Measurement of Alkali Metals in an MSW Incinerator Using a Spontaneous Emission Spectrum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Weijie Yan

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents experimental investigations of the in situ diagnosis of the alkali metals in the municipal solid waste (MSW flame of an industrial grade incinerator using flame emission spectroscopy. The spectral radiation intensities of the MSW flame were obtained using a spectrometer. A linear polynomial fitting method is proposed to uncouple the continuous spectrum and the characteristic line. Based on spectra processing and a non-gray emissivity model, the flame temperature, emissivity, and intensities of the emission of alkali metals were calculated by means of measuring the spectral radiation intensities of the MSW flame. Experimental results indicate that the MSW flame contains alkali metals, including Na, K, and even Rb, and it demonstrates non-gray characteristics in a wavelength range from 500 nm to 900 nm. Peak intensities of the emission of the alkali metals were found to increase when the primary air was high, and the measured temperature varied in the same way as the primary air. The temperature and peak intensities of the lines of emission of the alkali metals may be used to adjust the primary airflow and to manage the feeding of the MSW to control the alkali metals in the MSW flame. It was found that the peak intensity of the K emission line had a linear relationship with the peak intensity of the Na emission line; this correlation may be attributed to their similar physicochemical characteristics in the MSW. The variation trend of the emissivity of the MSW flame and the oxygen content in the flue gas were almost opposite because the increased oxygen content suppressed soot formation and decreased soot emissivity. These results prove that the flame emission spectroscopy technique is feasible for monitoring combustion in the MSW incinerator in situ.

  2. Stable water isotope and surface heat flux simulation using ISOLSM: Evaluation against in-situ measurements

    KAUST Repository

    Cai, Mick Y.; Wang, Lixin; Parkes, Stephen; Strauss, Josiah; McCabe, Matthew; Evans, Jason P.; Griffiths, Alan D.

    2015-01-01

    The stable isotopes of water are useful tracers of water sources and hydrological processes. Stable water isotope-enabled land surface modeling is a relatively new approach for characterizing the hydrological cycle, providing spatial and temporal variability for a number of hydrological processes. At the land surface, the integration of stable water isotopes with other meteorological measurements can assist in constraining surface heat flux estimates and discriminate between evaporation (E) and transpiration (T). However, research in this area has traditionally been limited by a lack of continuous in-situ isotopic observations. Here, the National Centre for Atmospheric Research stable isotope-enabled Land Surface Model (ISOLSM) is used to simulate the water and energy fluxes and stable water isotope variations. The model was run for a period of one month with meteorological data collected from a coastal sub-tropical site near Sydney, Australia. The modeled energy fluxes (latent heat and sensible heat) agreed reasonably well with eddy covariance observations, indicating that ISOLSM has the capacity to reproduce observed flux behavior. Comparison of modeled isotopic compositions of evapotranspiration (ET) against in-situ Fourier Transform Infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) measured bulk water vapor isotopic data (10. m above the ground), however, showed differences in magnitude and temporal patterns. The disparity is due to a small contribution from local ET fluxes to atmospheric boundary layer water vapor (~1% based on calculations using ideal gas law) relative to that advected from the ocean for this particular site. Using ISOLSM simulation, the ET was partitioned into E and T with 70% being T. We also identified that soil water from different soil layers affected T and E differently based on the simulated soil isotopic patterns, which reflects the internal working of ISOLSM. These results highlighted the capacity of using the isotope-enabled models to discriminate

  3. Stable water isotope and surface heat flux simulation using ISOLSM: Evaluation against in-situ measurements

    KAUST Repository

    Cai, Mick Y.

    2015-04-01

    The stable isotopes of water are useful tracers of water sources and hydrological processes. Stable water isotope-enabled land surface modeling is a relatively new approach for characterizing the hydrological cycle, providing spatial and temporal variability for a number of hydrological processes. At the land surface, the integration of stable water isotopes with other meteorological measurements can assist in constraining surface heat flux estimates and discriminate between evaporation (E) and transpiration (T). However, research in this area has traditionally been limited by a lack of continuous in-situ isotopic observations. Here, the National Centre for Atmospheric Research stable isotope-enabled Land Surface Model (ISOLSM) is used to simulate the water and energy fluxes and stable water isotope variations. The model was run for a period of one month with meteorological data collected from a coastal sub-tropical site near Sydney, Australia. The modeled energy fluxes (latent heat and sensible heat) agreed reasonably well with eddy covariance observations, indicating that ISOLSM has the capacity to reproduce observed flux behavior. Comparison of modeled isotopic compositions of evapotranspiration (ET) against in-situ Fourier Transform Infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) measured bulk water vapor isotopic data (10. m above the ground), however, showed differences in magnitude and temporal patterns. The disparity is due to a small contribution from local ET fluxes to atmospheric boundary layer water vapor (~1% based on calculations using ideal gas law) relative to that advected from the ocean for this particular site. Using ISOLSM simulation, the ET was partitioned into E and T with 70% being T. We also identified that soil water from different soil layers affected T and E differently based on the simulated soil isotopic patterns, which reflects the internal working of ISOLSM. These results highlighted the capacity of using the isotope-enabled models to discriminate

  4. i-anvils : in situ measurements of pressure, temperature and conductivity in diamond anvil cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Munsch, P.; Bureau, H.; Kubsky, S.; Meijer, J.; Datchi, F.; Ninet, S.; Estève, I.

    2011-12-01

    The precise determination of the pressure and temperature conditions during diamond anvils cells (DAC) experiments is of primary importance. Such determinations are critical more especially for the fields corresponding to "low pressures" (micro-structures are implanted in the diamond anvil lattice a few micrometers below the surface, the sensors are located a few μm below the center of the diamond culet (sample chamber position). When conductive electrodes are implanted at the position of the sample chamber on the culet of the anvil, instead of P,T sensors, they allow in situ measurements of electrical properties of the loaded sample at high P,T conditions in a DAC. The principle consists of applying an electrical potential across the structures through external contacts placed on the slopes of the anvil. The resistivity of these structures is sensitive to pressure and temperature applied in the sample chamber. The electrical transport properties of the sample can be measured the same way when electrodes have been implanted on the culet. Here we will present our last progresses, more especially using the focus ion beam (FIB) technology to perform contacts and electrodes. Progresses about the i-anvils connexions with the electronic devices will also be shown. We will present the last P and T sensors calibrations. Furnaces are also introduced through Boron implantation into the anvils, allowing the possibility to reach intermediate temperatures between externally heated DAC (up to 1100°C) and laser heated DAC (from 1500°C to a few thousands). Preliminary tests and the interest of such devices will be discussed at the meeting. A new diamond anvil cell has been especially designed for this purpose. This DAC allows in situ spectroscopies and X-Ray characterisation of geological fluids in their equilibrium conditions in the crust and in the upper mantle. Preliminary results will be presented.

  5. In-Situ Measurement of Power Loss for Crystalline Silicon Modules Undergoing Thermal Cycling and Mechanical Loading Stress Testing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Spataru, Sergiu; Hacke, Peter; Sera, Dezso

    We analyze the degradation of multi-crystalline silicon photovoltaic modules undergoing simultaneous thermal, mechanical, and humidity-freeze stress testing to develop a dark environmental chamber in-situ measurement procedure for determining module power loss. We analyze dark I-V curves measured...

  6. IN SITU density measurements oozy bottom of the access channel to the port of Santos, Sao Paulo, Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Minardi, P.S.P.

    1988-09-01

    The density of the bottom sediment of the access channel to the port of Santos, Sao Paulo, Brazil was measured. The in situ measurements aimed at verifying the use for navigation purposes of the layers with densities equal to or smaller than 1200 kg/m 3 . (F.E.). 3 refs, 55 figs, 3 tabs

  7. Nanocalorimeter platform for in situ specific heat measurements and x-ray diffraction at low temperature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willa, K.; Diao, Z.; Campanini, D.; Welp, U.; Divan, R.; Hudl, M.; Islam, Z.; Kwok, W.-K.; Rydh, A.

    2017-12-01

    Recent advances in electronics and nanofabrication have enabled membrane-based nanocalorimetry for measurements of the specific heat of microgram-sized samples. We have integrated a nanocalorimeter platform into a 4.5 T split-pair vertical-field magnet to allow for the simultaneous measurement of the specific heat and x-ray scattering in magnetic fields and at temperatures as low as 4 K. This multi-modal approach empowers researchers to directly correlate scattering experiments with insights from thermodynamic properties including structural, electronic, orbital, and magnetic phase transitions. The use of a nanocalorimeter sample platform enables numerous technical advantages: precise measurement and control of the sample temperature, quantification of beam heating effects, fast and precise positioning of the sample in the x-ray beam, and fast acquisition of x-ray scans over a wide temperature range without the need for time-consuming re-centering and re-alignment. Furthermore, on an YBa2Cu3O7-δ crystal and a copper foil, we demonstrate a novel approach to x-ray absorption spectroscopy by monitoring the change in sample temperature as a function of incident photon energy. Finally, we illustrate the new insights that can be gained from in situ structural and thermodynamic measurements by investigating the superheated state occurring at the first-order magneto-elastic phase transition of Fe2P, a material that is of interest for magnetocaloric applications.

  8. In-situ roundness measurement and correction for pin journals in oscillating grinding machines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Hongxiang; Xu, Mengchen; Zhao, Jie

    2015-01-01

    In the mass production of vehicle-engine crankshafts, pin chasing grinding using oscillating grinding machines is a widely accepted method to achieve flexible and efficient performance. However, the eccentric movement of pin journals makes it difficult to develop an in-process roundness measurement scheme for the improvement of contour precision. Here, a new in-situ roundness measurement strategy is proposed with high scanning speed. The measuring mechanism is composed of a V-block and an adaptive telescopic support. The swing pattern of the telescopic support and the V-block is analysed for an equal angle-interval signal sampling. Hence roundness error signal is extracted in frequency domain using a small-signal model of the V-block roundness measurement method and the Fast Fourier Transformation. To implement the roundness data in the CNC coordinate system of an oscillating grinding machine, a transformation function is derived according to the motion model of pin chasing grinding methodology. Computer simulation reveals the relationship between the rotational position of the crankshaft component and the scanning angle of the displacement probe on the V-block, as well as the influence introduced by the rotation centre drift. Prototype investigation indicates the validity of the theoretical analysis and the feasibility of the new strategy.

  9. A Novel Optical Diagnostic for In Situ Measurements of Lithium Polysulfides in Battery Electrolytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saqib, Najmus; Silva, Cody J; Maupin, C Mark; Porter, Jason M

    2017-07-01

    An optical diagnostic technique to determine the order and concentration of lithium polysulfides in lithium-sulfur (Li-S) battery electrolytes has been developed. One of the major challenges of lithium-sulfur batteries is the problem of polysulfide shuttling between the electrodes, which leads to self-discharge and loss of active material. Here we present an optical diagnostic for quantitative in situ measurements of lithium polysulfides using attenuated total reflection Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy. Simulated infrared spectra of lithium polysulfide molecules were generated using computational quantum chemistry routines implemented in Gaussian 09. The theoretical spectra served as a starting point for experimental characterization of lithium polysulfide solutions synthesized by the direct reaction of lithium sulfide and sulfur. Attenuated total reflection FT-IR spectroscopy was used to measure absorption spectra. The lower limit of detection with this technique is 0.05 M. Measured spectra revealed trends with respect to polysulfide order and concentration, consistent with theoretical predictions, which were used to develop a set of equations relating the order and concentration of lithium polysulfides in a sample to the position and area of a characteristic infrared absorption band. The diagnostic routine can measure the order and concentration to within 5% and 0.1 M, respectively.

  10. Experimental reslts from the HERO project: In situ measurements of ionospheric modifications using sounding rockets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rose, G.; Grandal, B.; Neske, E.; Ott, W.; Spenner, K.; Maseide, K.; Troim, J.

    1985-01-01

    The Heating Rocket project HERO comprised the first in situ experiments to measure artifical ionospheric modifications at F layer heights set up by radio waves transmitted from the Heating facility at Ramfjord near Tromso in Northern Norway. Four instrumented payloads were launched on sounding rockets from Andoya Rocket Range during the autumn of 1982 into a sunlit ionosphere with the sun close to the horizon. The payloads recorded modifications, in particular, the presence of electron plasma waves near the reflection level of the heating wave. The amplitude and phase of the three components of the electric and magnetic fields of the heating wave were measured simultaneously as a function of altitude. Coherent spectra of the three electric field components of the locally generated electron plasma waves were obtained in a 50-kHz-wide band. At the same time quasi-continuous measurements were made on several fixed frequencies from 4 kHz to 16 kHz below the heating frequency and in the VLF-range using linear dipole antennas. Moreover, measurements were made of electron temperature, suprathermal electrons and local electron density along the rocket trajectory. The experimental results will be presented and discussed

  11. In Situ Roughness Measurements for the Solar Cell Industry Using an Atomic Force Microscope

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Higinio González-Jorge

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Areal roughness parameters always need to be under control in the thin film solar cell industry because of their close relationship with the electrical efficiency of the cells. In this work, these parameters are evaluated for measurements carried out in a typical fabrication area for this industry. Measurements are made using a portable atomic force microscope on the CNC diamond cutting machine where an initial sample of transparent conductive oxide is cut into four pieces. The method is validated by making a comparison between the parameters obtained in this process and in the laboratory under optimal conditions. Areal roughness parameters and Fourier Spectral Analysis of the data show good compatibility and open the possibility to use this type of measurement instrument to perform in situ quality control. This procedure gives a sample for evaluation without destroying any of the transparent conductive oxide; in this way 100% of the production can be tested, so improving the measurement time and rate of production.

  12. In situ measurement of fixed charge evolution at silicon surfaces during atomic layer deposition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ju, Ling; Watt, Morgan R.; Strandwitz, Nicholas C.

    2015-01-01

    Interfacial fixed charge or interfacial dipoles are present at many semiconductor-dielectric interfaces and have important effects upon device behavior, yet the chemical origins of these electrostatic phenomena are not fully understood. We report the measurement of changes in Si channel conduction in situ during atomic layer deposition (ALD) of aluminum oxide using trimethylaluminum and water to probe changes in surface electrostatics. Current-voltage data were acquired continually before, during, and after the self-limiting chemical reactions that result in film growth. Our measurements indicated an increase in conductance on p-type samples with p + ohmic contacts and a decrease in conductance on analogous n-type samples. Further, p + contacted samples with n-type channels exhibited an increase in measured current and n + contacted p-type samples exhibited a decrease in current under applied voltage. Device physics simulations, where a fixed surface charge was parameterized on the channel surface, connect the surface charge to changes in current-voltage behavior. The simulations and analogous analytical relationships for near-surface conductance were used to explain the experimental results. Specifically, the changes in current-voltage behavior can be attributed to the formation of a fixed negative charge or the modification of a surface dipole upon chemisorption of trimethylaluminum. These measurements allow for the observation of fixed charge or dipole formation during ALD and provide further insight into the electrostatic behavior at semiconductor-dielectric interfaces during film nucleation

  13. Long-Term Outcome in Patients With Ductal Carcinoma In Situ Treated With Breast-Conserving Therapy: Implications for Optimal Follow-up Strategies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shaitelman, Simona F. [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas (United States); Wilkinson, J. Ben [Department of Radiation Oncology, William Beaumont Hospital, Royal Oak, Michigan (United States); Kestin, Larry L. [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas (United States); Ye Hong [Department of Radiation Oncology, William Beaumont Hospital, Royal Oak, Michigan (United States); Goldstein, Neal S. [Advanced Diagnostics Laboratory, Redford, Michigan (United States); Martinez, Alvaro A. [Michigan HealthCare Professionals, Pontiac, Michigan (United States); Vicini, Frank A., E-mail: fvicini@pol.net [Michigan HealthCare Professionals, Pontiac, Michigan (United States)

    2012-07-01

    Purpose: To determine 20-year rates of local control and outcome-associated factors for ductal carcinoma in situ (DCIS) after breast-conserving therapy (BCT). Methods and Materials: All DCIS cases receiving BCT between 1980 and 1993 were reviewed. Patient demographics and pathologic factors were analyzed for effect on outcomes, including ipsilateral breast tumor recurrence (IBTR) and survival. Results: One hundred forty-five cases were evaluated; the median follow-up time was 19.3 years. IBTR developed in 25 patients, for 5-, 10-, 15-, and 20-year actuarial rates of 9.9%, 12.2%, 13.7%, and 17.5%, respectively. One third of IBTRs were elsewhere failures, and 68% of IBTRs occurred <10 years after diagnosis. Young age and cancerization of lobules predicted for IBTR at <10 years, and increased slide involvement and atypical ductal hyperplasia were associated with IBTR at later time points. Conclusions: Patients with DCIS treated with BCT have excellent long-term rates of local control. Predictors of IBTR vary over time, and the risk of recurrence seems highest within 10 to 12 years after diagnosis.

  14. The “Bringing into Cultivation” Phase of the Plant Domestication Process and Its Contributions to In Situ Conservation of Genetic Resources in Benin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Vodouhè

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available All over the world, plant domestication is continually being carried out by local communities to support their needs for food, fibre, medicine, building materials, etc. Using participatory rapid appraisal approach, 150 households were surveyed in 5 villages selected in five ethnic groups of Benin, to investigate the local communities’ motivations for plant domestication and the contributions of this process to in situ conservation of genetic resources. The results indicated differences in plant domestication between agroecological zones and among ethnic groups. People in the humid zones give priority to herbs mainly for their leaves while those in dry area prefer trees mostly for their fruits. Local communities were motivated to undertake plant domestication for foods (80% of respondents, medicinal use (40% of respondents, income generation (20% of respondents and cultural reasons (5% of respondents. 45% of the species recorded are still at early stage in domestication and only 2% are fully domesticated. Eleven factors related to the households surveyed and to the head of the household interviewed affect farmers’ decision making in domesticating plant species. There is gender influence on the domestication: Women are keen in domesticating herbs while men give priority to trees.

  15. Long-Term Outcome in Patients With Ductal Carcinoma In Situ Treated With Breast-Conserving Therapy: Implications for Optimal Follow-up Strategies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shaitelman, Simona F.; Wilkinson, J. Ben; Kestin, Larry L.; Ye Hong; Goldstein, Neal S.; Martinez, Alvaro A.; Vicini, Frank A.

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: To determine 20-year rates of local control and outcome-associated factors for ductal carcinoma in situ (DCIS) after breast-conserving therapy (BCT). Methods and Materials: All DCIS cases receiving BCT between 1980 and 1993 were reviewed. Patient demographics and pathologic factors were analyzed for effect on outcomes, including ipsilateral breast tumor recurrence (IBTR) and survival. Results: One hundred forty-five cases were evaluated; the median follow-up time was 19.3 years. IBTR developed in 25 patients, for 5-, 10-, 15-, and 20-year actuarial rates of 9.9%, 12.2%, 13.7%, and 17.5%, respectively. One third of IBTRs were elsewhere failures, and 68% of IBTRs occurred <10 years after diagnosis. Young age and cancerization of lobules predicted for IBTR at <10 years, and increased slide involvement and atypical ductal hyperplasia were associated with IBTR at later time points. Conclusions: Patients with DCIS treated with BCT have excellent long-term rates of local control. Predictors of IBTR vary over time, and the risk of recurrence seems highest within 10 to 12 years after diagnosis.

  16. Visualizing and measuring flow in shale matrix using in situ synchrotron X-ray microtomography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kohli, A. H.; Kiss, A. M.; Kovscek, A. R.; Bargar, J.

    2017-12-01

    Natural gas production via hydraulic fracturing of shale has proliferated on a global scale, yet recovery factors remain low because production strategies are not based on the physics of flow in shale reservoirs. In particular, the physical mechanisms and time scales of depletion from the matrix into the simulated fracture network are not well understood, limiting the potential to optimize operations and reduce environmental impacts. Studying matrix flow is challenging because shale is heterogeneous and has porosity from the μm- to nm-scale. Characterizing nm-scale flow paths requires electron microscopy but the limited field of view does not capture the connectivity and heterogeneity observed at the mm-scale. Therefore, pore-scale models must link to larger volumes to simulate flow on the reservoir-scale. Upscaled models must honor the physics of flow, but at present there is a gap between cm-scale experiments and μm-scale simulations based on ex situ image data. To address this gap, we developed a synchrotron X-ray microscope with an in situ cell to simultaneously visualize and measure flow. We perform coupled flow and microtomography experiments on mm-scale samples from the Barnett, Eagle Ford and Marcellus reservoirs. We measure permeability at various pressures via the pulse-decay method to quantify effective stress dependence and the relative contributions of advective and diffusive mechanisms. Images at each pressure step document how microfractures, interparticle pores, and organic matter change with effective stress. Linking changes in the pore network to flow measurements motivates a physical model for depletion. To directly visualize flow, we measure imbibition rates using inert, high atomic number gases and image periodically with monochromatic beam. By imaging above/below X-ray adsorption edges, we magnify the signal of gas saturation in μm-scale porosity and nm-scale, sub-voxel features. Comparing vacuumed and saturated states yields image

  17. In-situ measurements of seismic velocities in the San Francisco Bay Region; part III

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gibbs, James F.; Fumal, Thomas E.; Borcherdt, Roger D.; Roth, Edward F.

    1977-01-01

    Seismic wave velocities (compressional and shear) are important parameters for estimating the seismic response characteristics of various geologic units when subjected to strong earthquake ground shaking. Seismic velocities of various units often show a strong correlation with the amounts of damage following large earthquakes and have been used as a basis for certain types of seismic zonation studies. In the current program seismic velocities have been measured at 59 locations 1n the San Francisco Bay Region. This report is the third in a series of Open-File Reports and describes the in-situ velocity measurements at locations 35-59. At each location seismic travel times are measured in drill holes, normally at 2.5-m intervals to a depth of 30 m. Geologic logs are determined from drill cuttings, undisturbed (cored) samples, and penetrometer samples. The data provide a detailed comparison of geologic and seismic characteristics and provide parameters for estimating strong earthquake ground motions quantitatively at each of the sites. A major emphasis of this program is to obtain a detailed comparison of geologic and seismic data on a regional scale for use in seismic zonation. There is a variety of geologic and seismic data available in the San Francisco Bay Region for use 1n developing the general zoning techniques which can then be applied to other areas. Shear wave velocities 1n near-surface geologic materials are of especial interest for engineering seismology and seismic zonation studies, yet in general, they are difficult to measure because of contamination by compressional waves. A comparison of various in-situ techniques by Warrick (1974) establishes the reliability of the method utilizing a "horizontal traction" source for sites underlain by bay mud and alluvium. Gibbs, and others (1975a) present data from 12 holes and establishes the reliability of the method for sites underlain by a variety of different rock units and suggest extending the measurements to

  18. The development of biodiversity conservation measures in China's hydro projects: A review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bai, Ruiqiao; Liu, Xuehua; Liu, Xiaofei; Liu, Lanmei; Wang, Jianping; Liao, Sihui; Zhu, Annah; Li, Zhouyuan

    2017-11-01

    The hydropower capacity of China ranks first in the world and accounts for approximately 20% of the total energy production in the country. While hydropower has substantially contributed to meeting China's renewable energy targets and providing clean energy to rural areas, the development of hydropower in China has been met with significant controversy. Ecologically, hydro projects alter the landscape, with potential impacts to the country's aquatic biodiversity. Over the past four decades in China, various mainstream opinions and misunderstandings have been presented concerning how to alleviate the negative impacts of hydro projects on aquatic ecosystems. This article reviews research concerning potential mitigation measures to enhance aquatic biodiversity conservation in hydro projects in China. Based on the academic attention such research has attracted, three technical measures for aquatic biodiversity conservation are considered: (1) fish passages, (2) restocking efforts and (3) river and lake renovations. This article provides a historical comparison of these three practices in China to demonstrate the advantages and disadvantages of each method. The article also reviews the relevant legislation, regulations and technical guidelines concerning China's hydro projects dating back to 1979. The dynamics in research, publications, and patents concerning these three mitigation measures are summarized to demonstrate their technological developments in the context of legislative and policy advances. Data were gathered through the China Knowledge Resource Integrated Database and the State Intellectual Property Office of the People's Republic of China. Based on the analysis provided, the article recommends an expansion of China's environmental certification system for hydro projects, more robust regional legislation to bolster the national framework, the cooperation between upstream and downstream conservation mechanisms, and better monitoring to determine the efficacy

  19. Measurement of in-situ stress in salt and rock using NQR techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schempp, E.; Hirschfeld, T.; Klainer, S.

    1980-01-01

    A discussion of how stress and strain affect the quantities which can be measured in an NQR experiment shows that, for stresses of the magnitude to be expected at depths up to about 10,000 feet, quadrupole coupling constants will fall in the range of 1 to 10 kHz for both the sodium and chloride ions in NaCl. The most promising system involves pulsed nuclear double resonance detection; and alterative is to observe the quadrupolar splitting of the NMR signal. Choices to be made in the measurement and mapping techniques are discussed. The well-known perturbation of the homogenous stress field in the neighborhood of a borehole is shown to be advantageous from the point of view of obtaining directional information on the stress. Construction and operation of a borehole stress sensor are considered. The NQR technique seems feasible for measuring the magnitude and direction of underground stress with a resolution of about 25 psi, or 2.5% at 1000 psi. Downhole instrumentation suitable for in-situ determinations of stress appears within the state of the art. Additional tasks required on the project are identified

  20. IN SITU REKA PROBE MEASUREMENTS AT FRAN RIDGE AND IN THE ESF

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    GEORGE DANKO; HARRY CREECH; JOHN PHILLIPS; SAI TIPPABHATLA

    1997-01-01

    A thermal probe method, called REKA (Rapid Evaluation of K and Alpha) has been used for determining thermal conductivity (K) and diffusivity (Alpha) at both the Large Heated Block Tests and in the ESF. The REKA method involves a single borehole probe with a heater and temperature measurement section. An elliptical temperature field is generated by the heater, and the temperature distribution along the length of the probe is recorded at several locations and at given time intervals for a period of 6 to 24 hours. A trial-and-error evaluation procedure is used to determine the unknown thermophysical properties by minimizing the RMS error between the measured and calculated temperature fields. If a conduction-only thermal model is used in the evaluation, the thermophysical properties will include the rockmass and the moisture effects, and the values will represent effective properties. If a hydrothermal model is also used, the difference between the effective and the rock matrix thermophysical properties can be related to hydrothermal characteristics. A reusable REKA probe can be applied to measure in situ rock properties in a short, open hole, e.g., in a rockbolt borehole, at low cost. A permanent REKA probe has to be grouted in the insertion hole, if an open hole is not acceptable due to the disturbance it may cause to other site characterization activities

  1. A transparent Pyrex μ-reactor for combined in situ optical characterization and photocatalytic reactivity measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dionigi, F.; Hansen, O.; Nielsen, M. G.; Chorkendorff, I.; Vesborg, P. C. K.; Pedersen, T.

    2013-01-01

    A new Pyrex-based μ-reactor for photocatalytic and optical characterization experiments is presented. The reactor chamber and gas channels are microfabricated in a thin poly-silicon coated Pyrex chip that is sealed with a Pyrex lid by anodic bonding. The device is transparent to light in the UV-vis-near infrared range of wavelengths (photon energies between ∼0.4 and ∼4.1 eV). The absorbance of a photocatalytic film obtained with a light transmission measurement during a photocatalytic reaction is presented as a proof of concept of a photocatalytic reactivity measurement combined with in situ optical characterization. Diffuse reflectance measurements of highly scattering photocatalytic nanopowders in a sealed Pyrex μ-reactor are also possible using an integrating sphere as shown in this work. These experiments prove that a photocatalyst can be characterized with optical techniques after a photocatalytic reaction without removing the material from the reactor. The catalyst deposited in the cylindrical reactor chamber can be illuminated from both top and bottom sides and an example of application of top and bottom illumination is presented

  2. In-situ measurement of texture and elastic strains with HIPPO-CRATES

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hartig, Ch.; Vogel, S.C.; Mecking, H.

    2006-01-01

    In this paper, the micromechanical interaction between constituents of a metallic material during elastic and plastic deformation are analyzed by comparing experimental results with modeling predictions. This comparison aims at determining the locally acting internal stresses, the spatial distribution of strains and the rules allowing deriving the macroscopic behavior of the material from the behavior of its microscopic constituents. We report the application of a new deformation apparatus CRATES, which allows measuring texture and crystal lattice spacings, and from these crystal lattice strains, using neutron diffraction. From the in-situ measured elastic lattice strains ε hkl the corresponding local stresses can be derived. The deformation apparatus allows uni-axial tensile or compressive deformation up to 100 kN and is specifically designed for use in the HIPPO neutron time-of-flight diffractometer. In this paper, we report initial results on an iron-copper model system (Fe100, Fe33Cu67, Fe67Cu33, vol.%) and commercial magnesium alloys (Mg-AZ31 and Mg-AZ80). Finite element calculations using a crystal-plastic constitutive law, allowing for shear and hardening of crystallographic slip-systems, were used for the interpretation of the measurements

  3. In situ phytoplankton distributions in the Amundsen Sea Polynya measured by autonomous gliders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oscar Schofield

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The Amundsen Sea Polynya is characterized by large phytoplankton blooms, which makes this region disproportionately important relative to its size for the biogeochemistry of the Southern Ocean. In situ data on phytoplankton are limited, which is problematic given recent reports of sustained change in the Amundsen Sea. During two field expeditions to the Amundsen Sea during austral summer 2010–2011 and 2014, we collected physical and bio-optical data from ships and autonomous underwater gliders. Gliders documented large phytoplankton blooms associated with Antarctic Surface Waters with low salinity surface water and shallow upper mixed layers (< 50 m. High biomass was not always associated with a specific water mass, suggesting the importance of upper mixed depth and light in influencing phytoplankton biomass. Spectral optical backscatter and ship pigment data suggested that the composition of phytoplankton was spatially heterogeneous, with the large blooms dominated by Phaeocystis and non-bloom waters dominated by diatoms. Phytoplankton growth rates estimated from field data (≤ 0.10 day−1 were at the lower end of the range measured during ship-based incubations, reflecting both in situ nutrient and light limitations. In the bloom waters, phytoplankton biomass was high throughout the 50-m thick upper mixed layer. Those biomass levels, along with the presence of colored dissolved organic matter and detritus, resulted in a euphotic zone that was often < 10 m deep. The net result was that the majority of phytoplankton were light-limited, suggesting that mixing rates within the upper mixed layer were critical to determining the overall productivity; however, regional productivity will ultimately be controlled by water column stability and the depth of the upper mixed layer, which may be enhanced with continued ice melt in the Amundsen Sea Polynya.

  4. Potential social, institutional, and environmental impacts of selected energy-conservation measures in two Washington communities. [Seattle and Yakima

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Edelson, E.; Olsen, M.

    1980-03-01

    The likely environmental, social, and institutional impacts of selected energy-conservation measures in two communities in Washington state are reported. The five conservation measures investigated in this study were: (1) retrofitting existing buildings; (2) district heating and Integrated Community Energy Systems (ICES); (3) small automobiles and vehicle redesign; (4) land-use and housing modifications; and (5) electric-utility rate reform. Twenty potential impact areas were selected for analysis. These areas were divided into five categories of environmental impacts, economic impacts, community impacts, personal impacts, and overall quality of life in the community. The research was conducted in Seattle and Yakima, Washington. In each location, about two dozen public officials and business, labor, and community leaders were interviewed. Their diverse views are summarized. The Seattle respondents saw energy conservation as a highly desirable policy with a number of temporary, transitional problems arising as energy-conservation measures were implemented. Yakima respondents, in contrast, did not expect to encounter many serious energy problems in the foreseeable future and consequently viewed energy conservation as a relatively minor community concern. Moreover, they anticipated that many conservation measures, if implemented by the government, would encounter either apathy or resistance in their community. Two broad generalizations can bedrawn from these interviews: (1) energy conservation will basically be beneficial for the natural environment and our society; and (2) if energy conservation does become a dominant thrust in our society, it could stimulate and reinforce a much broader process of fundamental social change. (LCL)

  5. In-situ Eh sensor measurement and calibration: application to seafloor observatories

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, K.; Seyfried, W. E.; Tan, C.

    2013-12-01

    Eh measurement is often used with manned submersible and AUV assets as an effective way to detect and locate seafloor hydrothermal activity. Eh can be fundamentally and sensitively linked to dissolved H 2 , which, in turn, serves as a key constraint on subseafloor redox reactions. Moreover, Eh is now being increasingly relied on for event detection and process monitoring efforts intrinsic to cabled seafloor observatories. Due to seawater interaction with electrochemical components fundamental to the operation of the Eh sensor, however, the quality and reliability of the measurements are often compromised by signal drift, especially when the sensor is used for long term deployment. To solve this problem, a calibration protocol was developed and added to our previously constructed pH 'calibrator'. Thus, the integrated electrochemical system now permits the combined in-situ measurement and calibration of pH and Eh of seafloor hydrothermal fluids. Key aspects of the design for this calibration system are: (1) the sensing electrodes can be kept preserved in fluid of known pH, Eh and NaCl concentration prior to use, thereby preventing deterioration of electrode response characteristics by chemical and biological activity; (2) the system consists of valves and pumps for flow control, and therefore can be operated remotely with power from the seafloor cabled observatory, or as a stand-alone device, using battery power for shorter-term deployments. In both cases, standardization with on-board fluids of known redox, pH, and NaCl activity can be activated at any time, providing enhanced reliability (3) the current development is aimed at deep sea environments, cold seeps, and hydrothermal diffuse flow fluids at the temperatures up to 100°C and depths up to 4500 m. The in-situ operation is especially well-suited for use with cabled observatory for real time intervention and event response owing to enabled power supply and two way communications. Field tests have been

  6. Effectiveness of biodiversity surrogates for conservation planning: different measures of effectiveness generate a kaleidoscope of variation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hedley S Grantham

    Full Text Available Conservation planners represent many aspects of biodiversity by using surrogates with spatial distributions readily observed or quantified, but tests of their effectiveness have produced varied and conflicting results. We identified four factors likely to have a strong influence on the apparent effectiveness of surrogates: (1 the choice of surrogate; (2 differences among study regions, which might be large and unquantified (3 the test method, that is, how effectiveness is quantified, and (4 the test features that the surrogates are intended to represent. Analysis of an unusually rich dataset enabled us, for the first time, to disentangle these factors and to compare their individual and interacting influences. Using two data-rich regions, we estimated effectiveness using five alternative methods: two forms of incidental representation, two forms of species accumulation index and irreplaceability correlation, to assess the performance of 'forest ecosystems' and 'environmental units' as surrogates for six groups of threatened species-the test features-mammals, birds, reptiles, frogs, plants and all of these combined. Four methods tested the effectiveness of the surrogates by selecting areas for conservation of the surrogates then estimating how effective those areas were at representing test features. One method measured the spatial match between conservation priorities for surrogates and test features. For methods that selected conservation areas, we measured effectiveness using two analytical approaches: (1 when representation targets for the surrogates were achieved (incidental representation, or (2 progressively as areas were selected (species accumulation index. We estimated the spatial correlation of conservation priorities using an index known as summed irreplaceability. In general, the effectiveness of surrogates for our taxa (mostly threatened species was low, although environmental units tended to be more effective than forest ecosystems

  7. In-situ optical and acoustical measurements of the buoyant cyanobacterium p. Rubescens: spatial and temporal distribution patterns.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hilmar Hofmann

    Full Text Available Optical (fluorescence and acoustic in-situ techniques were tested in their ability to measure the spatial and temporal distribution of plankton in freshwater ecosystems with special emphasis on the harmful and buoyant cyanobacterium P. rubescens. Fluorescence was measured with the multi-spectral FluoroProbe (Moldaenke FluoroProbe, MFP and a Seapoint Chlorophyll Fluorometer (SCF. In-situ measurements of the acoustic backscatter strength (ABS were conducted with three different acoustic devices covering multiple acoustic frequencies (614 kHz ADCP, 2 MHz ADP, and 6 MHz ADV. The MFP provides a fast and reliable technique to measure fluorescence at different wavelengths in situ, which allows discriminating between P. rubescens and other phytoplankton species. All three acoustic devices are sensitive to P. rubescens even if other scatterers, e.g., zooplankton or suspended sediment, are present in the water column, because P. rubescens containing gas vesicles has a strong density difference and hence acoustic contrast to the ambient water and other scatterers. After calibration, the combination of optical and acoustical measurements not only allows qualitative and quantitative observation of P. rubescens, but also distinction between P. rubescens, other phytoplankton, and zooplankton. As the measuring devices can sample in situ at high rates they enable assessment of plankton distributions at high temporal (minutes and spatial (decimeters resolution or covering large temporal (seasonal and spatial (basin scale scales.

  8. Religiosity and conservatism revisited: relating a new religiosity measure to the two main conservative political ideologies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duriez, Bart

    2003-04-01

    The relation between the two religiosity dimensions which Wulff (1997) described (Exclusion vs Inclusion of Transcendence and Literal vs Symbolic) and two conservative political ideologies (Cultural and Economic Conservatism) was investigated in a sample of 714 students, a heterogeneous sample of 262 adults, and a sample of 301 religiously affiliated adults gathered in Flanders (Belgium). Both Exclusion vs Inclusion of Transcendence and Literal vs Symbolic were expected to relate only to Cultural Conservatism. Analysis supported these hypotheses, providing further evidence for the close association between religiosity and Cultural Conservatism and the validity of the Post-Critical Belief scale as a measure of Wulff's dimensions of religiosity.

  9. The need for New In Situ Measurements to Understand the Climate, Geology and Evolution of Venus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grinspoon, D. H.

    2017-12-01

    Many measurements needed to address outstanding questions about current processes and evolution of Venus can only be made from in situ platforms such as entry probes, balloons or landers. Among these are precise determination of the value and altitude dependence of the deuterium-to-hydrogen ratio, an important tracer of water history which, while clearly greatly elevated compared to the terrestrial ratio, is still unknown within a large range of uncertainty and appears, based on Venus Express results, to display an enigmatic altitude dependence. Rare gas abundances and isotopes provide clues to volatile sources and histories of outgassing and exospheric escape. Modern mass spectrometry at Venus would yield abundances of the eight stable xenon isotopes, bulk abundances of krypton, and isotopes of neon. Altitude profiles of sulfur-containing chemical species would illuminate global geochemical cycles, including cloud formation, outgassing rates and surface-atmosphere interactions. The altitude profile of wind speeds and radiation fluxes, interpreted in light of the Venus Express and Akatsuki data, would enrich understanding of the global circulation and climate dynamics of Venus. Descent and surface images of carefully chosen locations would lend ground truth to interpretations of the near-global Magellan data sets and provide context for global remote sensing data obtained by future orbiter missions. Landed instruments would provide refinement and calibration for chemical abundance measurements by historical missions as well as direct mineralogical measurements of Venusian surface and subsurface rocks. In concert with atmospheric measurements these would greatly constrain geologic history as well as the nature of surface-atmosphere interactions. Such a suite of measurements will deepen our understanding of the origin and evolution of Venus in the context of Solar System and extrasolar terrestrial planets, determine the level and style of current geological activity

  10. The in situ permeable flow sensor: A device for measuring groundwater flow velocity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ballard, S.; Barker, G.T.; Nichols, R.L.

    1994-03-01

    A new technology called the In Situ Permeable Flow Sensor has been developed at Sandia National Laboratories. These sensors use a thermal perturbation technique to directly measure the direction and magnitude of the full three dimensional groundwater flow velocity vector in unconsolidated, saturated, porous media. The velocity measured is an average value characteristic of an approximately 1 cubic meter volume of the subsurface. During a test at the Savannah River Site in South Carolina, two flow sensors were deployed in a confined aquifer in close proximity to a well which was screened over the entire vertical extent of the aquifer and the well was pumped at four different pumping rates. In this situation horizontal flow which is radially directed toward the pumping well is expected. The flow sensors measured horizontal flow which was directed toward the pumping well, within the uncertainty in the measurements. The observed magnitude of the horizontal component of the flow velocity increased linearly with pumping rate, as predicted by theoretical considerations. The measured horizontal component of the flow velocity differed from the predicted flow velocity, which was calculated with the assumptions that the hydraulic properties of the aquifer were radially homogeneous and isotropic, by less than a factor of two. Drawdown data obtained from other wells near the pumping well during the pump test indicate that the hydraulic properties of the aquifer are probably not radially homogeneous but the effect of the inhomogeneity on the flow velocity field around the pumping well was not modeled because the degree and distribution of the inhomogeneity are unknown. Grain size analysis of core samples from wells in the area were used to estimate the vertical distribution of hydraulic conductivity

  11. In situ measurements of X-ray peak profile asymmetry from individual grains

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wejdemann, Christian; Lienert, U.; Pantleon, Wolfgang

    2010-01-01

    Two copper samples, pre-deformed in tension to 5% plastic strain, are subjected to an in situ tensile deformation of 1% plastic strain while X-ray peak profiles from individual bulk grains are obtained. One sample is oriented with the in situ tensile axis parallel to the pre-deformation axis...

  12. Divergence-Measure Fields, Sets of Finite Perimeter, and Conservation Laws

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Gui-Qiang; Torres, Monica

    2005-02-01

    Divergence-measure fields in L∞ over sets of finite perimeter are analyzed. A notion of normal traces over boundaries of sets of finite perimeter is introduced, and the Gauss-Green formula over sets of finite perimeter is established for divergence-measure fields in L∞. The normal trace introduced here over a class of surfaces of finite perimeter is shown to be the weak-star limit of the normal traces introduced in Chen & Frid [6] over the Lipschitz deformation surfaces, which implies their consistency. As a corollary, an extension theorem of divergence-measure fields in L∞ over sets of finite perimeter is also established. Then we apply the theory to the initial-boundary value problem of nonlinear hyperbolic conservation laws over sets of finite perimeter.

  13. USE OF THE MOBILE NYLON BAG TECHNIQUE FOR MEASURING IN SITU DIGESTIBILITY OF SOME SUPPLIES FOOD AND AVOCADO IN PIGS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julio Ly Carmenatti

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The mobile nylon bag technique was used for measuring in situ digestibility of conventional feeds and avocado (Persea americana Mills products in three 70 kg pigs fitted with a simple cannula in duodenum. One 3x3 Latin square was used for determining in situ digestibility of soybean, maize and sorghum meal and another 3x3 Latin square for measuring in situ digestibility of seed, peel plus seed meal and the entire Nayaritean avocado fruit of Hass type, as well as of the commercial diet given ad libitum to animals. In a preliminary test conducted with only bags containing a commercial feedstuff, it was found that in situ digestibility of DM was on average 73.01%. In conventional feeds, soybean meal samples showed higher (P0.05 for N digestibility among avocado products, which was generally low (between 28.02 and 34.58%. In situ organic matter digestibility was linked to that of MS (r = 0.915; P<0.001, both in percent, in 42 examined samples, by the following found equation: y = 2.076 + 0.926 x. The herein described studies concerning the utilization of the mobile bag showed that it is possible to obtain a fast response in connection to the nutritive value of non conventional, tropical alimentary resources for pigs. On the other hand, the continuation of studies relative to the nutritive value of avocado products for pigs is highly recommended.

  14. In situ beam angle measurement in a multi-wafer high current ion implanter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Freer, B.S.; Reece, R.N.; Graf, M.A.; Parrill, T.; Polner, D.

    2005-01-01

    Direct, in situ measurement of the average angle and angular content of an ion beam in a multi-wafer ion implanter is reported for the first time. A new type of structure and method are described. The structures are located on the spinning disk, allowing precise angular alignment to the wafers. Current that passes through the structures is known to be within a range of angles and is detected behind the disk. By varying the angle of the disk around two axes, beam current versus angle is mapped and the average angle and angular spread are calculated. The average angle measured in this way is found to be consistent with that obtained by other techniques, including beam centroid offset and wafer channeling methods. Average angle of low energy beams, for which it is difficult to use other direct methods, is explored. A 'pencil beam' system is shown to give average angle repeatability of 0.13 deg. (1σ) or less, for two low energy beams under normal tuning variations, even though no effort was made to control the angle

  15. In situ real-time measurement of physical characteristics of airborne bacterial particles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, Jae Hee; Lee, Jung Eun

    2013-12-01

    Bioaerosols, including aerosolized bacteria, viruses, and fungi, are associated with public health and environmental problems. One promising control method to reduce the harmful effects of bioaerosols is thermal inactivation via a continuous-flow high-temperature short-time (HTST) system. However, variations in bioaerosol physical characteristics - for example, the particle size and shape - during the continuous-flow inactivation process can change the transport properties in the air, which can affect particle deposition in the human respiratory system or the filtration efficiency of ventilation systems. Real-time particle monitoring techniques are a desirable alternative to the time-consuming process of microscopic analysis that is conventionally used in sampling and particle characterization. Here, we report in situ real-time optical scattering measurements of the physical characteristics of airborne bacteria particles following an HTST process in a continuous-flow system. Our results demonstrate that the aerodynamic diameter of bacterial aerosols decreases when exposed to a high-temperature environment, and that the shape of the bacterial cells is significantly altered. These variations in physical characteristics using optical scattering measurements were found to be in agreement with the results of scanning electron microscopy analysis.

  16. Corneal Densitometry as a Tool to Measure Epithelial Ingrowth After Laser In Situ Keratomileusis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adran, Daniel; Vaillancourt, Louis; Harissi-Dagher, Mona; Kruh, Jonathan N; Syed, Zeba A; Robinson, Steven; Melki, Samir

    2017-04-01

    This study evaluates the correlation between corneal densitometry and epithelial ingrowth (EI) after laser in situ keratomileusis (LASIK). Corneal densitometry of 3 patients who developed EI after LASIK was measured with the Oculus Pentacam. Corneal densitometry readings of each patient were obtained preoperatively and postoperatively after ingrowth was discovered. Densitometry was recorded at the central nest of opacity and at the leading edges of EI. For all patients, the most severe stages of EI observed on slit-lamp photographs correlated with the highest densitometry readings, with peak densitometry ranging from 73.3 to 95.1. These values were much higher than preoperative densitometry readings, which ranged from 21.8 to 27.2. In 2 cases, the Pentacam densitometry map revealed progression of EI toward the visual axis that was only faintly detectable or not detectable at all on the corresponding slit-lamp photographs. Corneal densitometry seems to be an objective measure of the severity and progression of EI after LASIK.

  17. Molecular Tagging Velocimetry Development for In-situ Measurement in High-Temperature Test Facility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andre, Matthieu A.; Bardet, Philippe M.; Burns, Ross A.; Danehy, Paul M.

    2015-01-01

    The High Temperature Test Facility, HTTF, at Oregon State University (OSU) is an integral-effect test facility designed to model the behavior of a Very High Temperature Gas Reactor (VHTR) during a Depressurized Conduction Cooldown (DCC) event. It also has the ability to conduct limited investigations into the progression of a Pressurized Conduction Cooldown (PCC) event in addition to phenomena occurring during normal operations. Both of these phenomena will be studied with in-situ velocity field measurements. Experimental measurements of velocity are critical to provide proper boundary conditions to validate CFD codes, as well as developing correlations for system level codes, such as RELAP5 (http://www4vip.inl.gov/relap5/). Such data will be the first acquired in the HTTF and will introduce a diagnostic with numerous other applications to the field of nuclear thermal hydraulics. A laser-based optical diagnostic under development at The George Washington University (GWU) is presented; the technique is demonstrated with velocity data obtained in ambient temperature air, and adaptation to high-pressure, high-temperature flow is discussed.

  18. HSRL-2 aerosol optical measurements and microphysical retrievals vs. airborne in situ measurements during DISCOVER-AQ 2013: an intercomparison study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Sawamura

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available We present a detailed evaluation of remotely sensed aerosol microphysical properties obtained from an advanced, multi-wavelength high-spectral-resolution lidar (HSRL-2 during the 2013 NASA DISCOVER-AQ field campaign. Vertically resolved retrievals of fine-mode aerosol number, surface-area, and volume concentration as well as aerosol effective radius are compared to 108 collocated, airborne in situ measurement profiles in the wintertime San Joaquin Valley, California, and in summertime Houston, Texas. An algorithm for relating the dry in situ aerosol properties to those obtained by the HSRL at ambient relative humidity is discussed. We show that the HSRL-2 retrievals of ambient fine-mode aerosol surface-area and volume concentrations agree with the in situ measurements to within 25 and 10 %, respectively, once hygroscopic growth adjustments have been applied to the dry in situ data. Despite this excellent agreement for the microphysical properties, extinction and backscatter coefficients at ambient relative humidity derived from the in situ aerosol measurements using Mie theory are consistently smaller than those measured by the HSRL, with average differences of 31 ± 5 % and 53 ± 11 % for California and Texas, respectively. This low bias in the in situ estimates is attributed to the presence of coarse-mode aerosol that are detected by HSRL-2 but that are too large to be well sampled by the in situ instrumentation. Since the retrieval of aerosol volume is most relevant to current regulatory efforts targeting fine particle mass (PM2. 5, these findings highlight the advantages of an advanced 3β + 2α HSRL for constraining the vertical distribution of the aerosol volume or mass loading relevant for air quality.

  19. AUTOMATING THE MEASUREMENT OF RED CORAL IN SITU USING UNDERWATER PHOTOGRAMMETRY AND CODED TARGETS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Drap

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available A photogrammetry tool dedicated to the monitoring of red coral populations in situ has been developed by LSIS in Marseille (France. This tool is used to collect in an efficient and precise manner key data for the study of the population dynamics of red coral. In selected red coral populations, scuba-divers obtain a series of photographs from the permanent plots (about 2 m2 on an annual basis. To facilitate the photographic sampling and measurements, the scuba-divers use a 20 x 20 cm quadrat to cover the permanent plots. The analysis of the photographs provides reliable measurements on colony sizes (basal diameter and maximum height, occurrence of breakage of colonies and the occurrence of necrosis. To minimize the divers' tasks during the acquisition phase, we opted for stereoscopic acquisition using a single device to easily adapt the measurement procedure to the scene configuration. The material is quite light, one camera and two electronic strobes and a simple procedure with two photographs taken for each site. To facilitate the measurement phase of colony sizes; the exploitation of photographs consists of four key steps: orientation, scaling, measurement of the characteristic points of coral colonies and result validation (checking measurement consistency to detect possible errors in measurement or interpretation. Since the context of the shooting can vary widely, dominant colors, contrast, etc. may often change. In order to have a stable and common reference in all photographs independently of the site, we decided to always include a quadrat in the scene which then will be used for the orientation and scaling phases. The automation of orientation and the lack of constraints to adapt the analytical technique to the features of each site offer the possibility to multiply field surveys and to measure hundreds of quadrats from several different populations in a very efficient manner. The measurement results are exported into a spreadsheet

  20. Airborne In-Situ Measurements of Formaldehyde over California: First Results from the COFFEE Instrument

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marrero, Josette; St. Clair, Jason; Yates, Emma; Swanson, Andrew; Gore, Warren; Iraci, Laura; Hanisco, Thomas

    2016-04-01

    Formaldehyde (HCHO) is one of the most abundant oxygenated volatile organic compounds (VOCs) in the atmosphere, playing a role multiple atmospheric processes. Measurements of HCHO can be used to help quantify convective transport, the abundance of VOCs, and ozone production in urban environments. The Compact Formaldehyde FluorescencE Experiment (COFFEE) instrument uses Non-Resonant Laser Induced Fluorescence (NR-LIF) to detect trace concentrations of HCHO as part of the Alpha Jet Atmospheric eXperiment (AJAX) payload. Developed at NASA GSFC, COFFEE is a small, low maintenance instrument with a sensitivity of 100 pptv and a quick response time (1 sec). The COFFEE instrument has been customized to fit in an external wing pod on the Alpha Jet aircraft based at NASA ARC. The instrument can operate over a broad range of altitudes, from boundary layer to lower stratosphere, making it well suited for the Alpha Jet, which can access altitudes from the surface up to 40,000 ft. We will present results from flights performed over the Central Valley of California, including boundary layer measurements and vertical profiles in the tropospheric column. This region is of particular interest, due to its elevated levels of HCHO, revealed in satellite images, as well as its high ozone concentrations. In addition to HCHO, the AJAX payload includes measurements of atmospheric ozone, methane, and carbon dioxide. These results will be presented in conjunction with formaldehyde. Targets in the Central Valley consist of an oil field, agricultural areas, and highways, each of which can emit HCHO primarily and generate HCHO through secondary production. Formaldehyde is one of the few urban pollutants that can be measured from space. Plans to compare in-situ COFFEE data with satellite-based HCHO observations such as those from OMI (Aura) and OMPS (SuomiNPP) will also be presented.

  1. In situ droplet surface tension and viscosity measurements in gas metal arc welding

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bachmann, B; Siewert, E; Schein, J

    2012-01-01

    In this paper, we present an adaptation of a drop oscillation technique that enables in situ measurements of thermophysical properties of an industrial pulsed gas metal arc welding (GMAW) process. Surface tension, viscosity, density and temperature were derived expanding the portfolio of existing methods and previously published measurements of surface tension in pulsed GMAW. Natural oscillations of pure liquid iron droplets are recorded during the material transfer with a high-speed camera. Frame rates up to 30000 fps were utilized to visualize iron droplet oscillations which were in the low kHz range. Image processing algorithms were employed for edge contour extraction of the droplets and to derive parameters such as oscillation frequencies and damping rates along different dimensions of the droplet. Accurate surface tension measurements were achieved incorporating the effect of temperature on density. These are compared with a second method that has been developed to accurately determine the mass of droplets produced during the GMAW process which enables precise surface tension measurements with accuracies up to 1% and permits the study of thermophysical properties also for metals whose density highly depends on temperature. Thermophysical properties of pure liquid iron droplets formed by a wire with 1.2 mm diameter were investigated in a pulsed GMAW process with a base current of 100 A and a pulse current of 600 A. Surface tension and viscosity of a sample droplet were 1.83 ± 0.02 N m -1 and 2.9 ± 0.3 mPa s, respectively. The corresponding droplet temperature and density are 2040 ± 50 K and 6830 ± 50 kg m -3 , respectively. (paper)

  2. Methane emissions from a Californian landfill, determined from airborne remote sensing and in situ measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krautwurst, Sven; Gerilowski, Konstantin; Jonsson, Haflidi H.; Thompson, David R.; Kolyer, Richard W.; Iraci, Laura T.; Thorpe, Andrew K.; Horstjann, Markus; Eastwood, Michael; Leifer, Ira; Vigil, Samuel A.; Krings, Thomas; Borchardt, Jakob; Buchwitz, Michael; Fladeland, Matthew M.; Burrows, John P.; Bovensmann, Heinrich

    2017-09-01

    Fugitive emissions from waste disposal sites are important anthropogenic sources of the greenhouse gas methane (CH4). As a result of the growing world population and the recognition of the need to control greenhouse gas emissions, this anthropogenic source of CH4 has received much recent attention. However, the accurate assessment of the CH4 emissions from landfills by modeling and existing measurement techniques is challenging. This is because of inaccurate knowledge of the model parameters and the extent of and limited accessibility to landfill sites. This results in a large uncertainty in our knowledge of the emissions of CH4 from landfills and waste management. In this study, we present results derived from data collected during the research campaign COMEX (CO2 and MEthane eXperiment) in late summer 2014 in the Los Angeles (LA) Basin. One objective of COMEX, which comprised aircraft observations of methane by the remote sensing Methane Airborne MAPper (MAMAP) instrument and a Picarro greenhouse gas in situ analyzer, was the quantitative investigation of CH4 emissions. Enhanced CH4 concentrations or CH4 plumes were detected downwind of landfills by remote sensing aircraft surveys. Subsequent to each remote sensing survey, the detected plume was sampled within the atmospheric boundary layer by in situ measurements of atmospheric parameters such as wind information and dry gas mixing ratios of CH4 and carbon dioxide (CO2) from the same aircraft. This was undertaken to facilitate the independent estimation of the surface fluxes for the validation of the remote sensing estimates. During the COMEX campaign, four landfills in the LA Basin were surveyed. One landfill repeatedly showed a clear emission plume. This landfill, the Olinda Alpha Landfill, was investigated on 4 days during the last week of August and first days of September 2014. Emissions were estimated for all days using a mass balance approach. The derived emissions vary between 11.6 and 17.8 kt CH4 yr-1

  3. In situ measurement of some soil properties in paddy soil using visible and near-infrared spectroscopy.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ji Wenjun

    Full Text Available In situ measurements with visible and near-infrared spectroscopy (vis-NIR provide an efficient way for acquiring soil information of paddy soils in the short time gap between the harvest and following rotation. The aim of this study was to evaluate its feasibility to predict a series of soil properties including organic matter (OM, organic carbon (OC, total nitrogen (TN, available nitrogen (AN, available phosphorus (AP, available potassium (AK and pH of paddy soils in Zhejiang province, China. Firstly, the linear partial least squares regression (PLSR was performed on the in situ spectra and the predictions were compared to those with laboratory-based recorded spectra. Then, the non-linear least-square support vector machine (LS-SVM algorithm was carried out aiming to extract more useful information from the in situ spectra and improve predictions. Results show that in terms of OC, OM, TN, AN and pH, (i the predictions were worse using in situ spectra compared to laboratory-based spectra with PLSR algorithm (ii the prediction accuracy using LS-SVM (R2>0.75, RPD>1.90 was obviously improved with in situ vis-NIR spectra compared to PLSR algorithm, and comparable or even better than results generated using laboratory-based spectra with PLSR; (iii in terms of AP and AK, poor predictions were obtained with in situ spectra (R2<0.5, RPD<1.50 either using PLSR or LS-SVM. The results highlight the use of LS-SVM for in situ vis-NIR spectroscopic estimation of soil properties of paddy soils.

  4. Repeatability and reproducibility of in situ measurements of sound reflection and airborne sound insulation index of noise barriers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Garai, M.; Schoen, E.; Behler, G.; Bragado, B.; Chudalla, M.; Conter, M.; Defrance, J.; Demizieux, P.; Glorieux, C.; Guidorzi, P.

    2014-01-01

    In Europe, in situ measurements of sound reflection and airborne sound insulation of noise barriers are usually done according to CEN/TS 1793-5. This method has been improved substantially during the EU funded QUIESST collaborative project. Within the same framework, an inter-laboratory test has

  5. In situ, rapid, and temporally resolved measurements of cellulase adsorption onto lignocellulosic substrates by UV-vis spectrophotometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hao Liu; J. Y. Zhu; X. S. Chai

    2011-01-01

    This study demonstrated two in situ UV-vis spectrophotometric methods for rapid and temporally resolved measurements of cellulase adsorption onto cellulosic and lignocellulosic substrates during enzymatic hydrolysis. The cellulase protein absorption peak at 280 nm was used for quantification. The spectral interferences from light scattering by small fibers (fines) and...

  6. Observations of Bathymetry-Induced Ocean Roughness Modulation in In-situ Surface Slope Measurements and Coincident Airborne SAR Images

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gommenginger, C.P.; Robinson, I.S.; Willoughby, J.; Greidanus, H.S.F.; Taylor, V.

    1999-01-01

    Empirical results from a field experiment in the southern North Sea have demonstrated the possibility to detect bathymetry-induced sea surface roughness modulation in the coastal zone using high frequency in-situ slope measurements provided by the Towed Laser Slopemeter. A strong correlation between

  7. In-situ real time measurements of thermal comfort and comparison with the adaptive comfort theory in Dutch residential dwellings

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ioannou, A.; Itard, L.C.M.; Agarwal, Tushar

    2018-01-01

    Indoor thermal comfort is generally assessed using the PMV or the adaptive model. This research presents the results obtained by in-situ real time measurements of thermal comfort and thermal comfort perception in 17 residential dwellings in the Netherlands. The study demonstrates the new

  8. Comparison of ambient aerosol extinction coefficients obtained from in-situ, MAX-DOAS and LIDAR measurements at Cabauw

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zieger, P.; Weingartner, E.; Henzing, J.; Moerman, M.; Leeuw, G. de; Mikkilä, J.; Ehn, M.; Petäjä, T.; Clémer, K.; Roozendael, M. van; Yilmaz, S.; Frieß, U.; Irie, H.; Wagner, T.; Shaiganfar, R.; Beirle, S.; Apituley, A.; Wilson, K.; Baltensperger, U.

    2011-01-01

    In the field, aerosol in-situ measurements are often performed under dry conditions (relative humidity RH<30-40%). Since ambient aerosol particles experience hygroscopic growth at enhanced RH, their microphysical and optical properties especially the aerosol light scattering are also strongly

  9. Micro-four-point probes in a UHV scanning electron microscope for in-situ surface-conductivity measurements

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shiraki, I.; Nagao, T.; Hasegawa, S.

    2000-01-01

    For in-situ measurements of surface conductivity in ultrahigh vacuum (UHV), we have installed micro-four-point probes (probe spacings down to 4 mum) in a UHV scanning electron microscope (SEM) combined with scanning reflection-high-energy electron diffraction (RHEED). With the aid of piezoactuators...

  10. Approach to first principles model prediction of measured WIPP [Waste Isolation Pilot Plant] in situ room closure in salt

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Munson, D.E.; Fossum, A.F.; Senseny, P.E.

    1989-01-01

    The discrepancies between predicted and measured WIPP in situ Room D closures are markedly reduced through the use of a Tresca flow potential, an improved small strain constitutive model, an improved set of material parameters, and a modified stratigraphy. 17 refs., 8 figs., 1 tab

  11. Assessing the small-strain soil stiffness for offshore wind turbines based on in situ seismic measurements

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Versteijlen, W.G.; Van Dalen, K.N.; Metrikine, A.; Hamre, L.

    2014-01-01

    In this contribution, in situ seismic measurements are used to derive the small-strain shear modulus of soil as input for two soil-structure interaction (SSI) models to assess the initial soil stiffness for offshore wind turbine foundations. This stiffness has a defining influence on the first

  12. Comparison of AOD, AAOD and column single scattering albedo from AERONET retrievals and in situ profiling measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrews, Elisabeth; Ogren, John A.; Kinne, Stefan; Samset, Bjorn

    2017-05-01

    Here we present new results comparing aerosol optical depth (AOD), aerosol absorption optical depth (AAOD) and column single scattering albedo (SSA) obtained from in situ vertical profile measurements with AERONET ground-based remote sensing from two rural, continental sites in the US. The profiles are closely matched in time (within ±3 h) and space (within 15 km) with the AERONET retrievals. We have used Level 1.5 inversion retrievals when there was a valid Level 2 almucantar retrieval in order to be able to compare AAOD and column SSA below AERONET's recommended loading constraint (AOD > 0.4 at 440 nm). While there is reasonable agreement for the AOD comparisons, the direct comparisons of in situ-derived to AERONET-retrieved AAOD (or SSA) reveal that AERONET retrievals yield higher aerosol absorption than obtained from the in situ profiles for the low aerosol optical depth conditions prevalent at the two study sites. However, it should be noted that the majority of SSA comparisons for AOD440 > 0.2 are, nonetheless, within the reported SSA uncertainty bounds. The observation that, relative to in situ measurements, AERONET inversions exhibit increased absorption potential at low AOD values is generally consistent with other published AERONET-in situ comparisons across a range of locations, atmospheric conditions and AOD values. This systematic difference in the comparisons suggests a bias in one or both of the methods, but we cannot assess whether the AERONET retrievals are biased towards high absorption or the in situ measurements are biased low. Based on the discrepancy between the AERONET and in situ values, we conclude that scaling modeled black carbon concentrations upwards to match AERONET retrievals of AAOD should be approached with caution as it may lead to aerosol absorption overestimates in regions of low AOD. Both AERONET retrievals and in situ measurements suggest there is a systematic relationship between SSA and aerosol amount (AOD or aerosol light

  13. Breast-conserving surgery with or without radiotherapy in women with ductal carcinoma in situ: a meta-analysis of randomized trials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leon Paola G

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background To investigate whether Radiation therapy (RT should follow breast conserving surgery in women with ductal carcinoma in situ from breast cancer (DCIS with objective of decreased mortality, invasive or non invasive recurrence, distant metastases and contralateral breast cancer rates. We have done a meta-analysis of these results to give a more balanced view of the total evidence and to increase statistical precision. Methods A meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials (RCT was performed comparing RT treatment for DCIS of breast cancer to observation. The MEDLINE, EMBASE, CANCERLIT, Cochrane Library databases, Trial registers, bibliographic databases, and recent issues of relevant journals were searched. Relevant reports were reviewed by two reviewers independently and the references from these reports were searched for additional trials, using guidelines set by QUOROM statement criteria. Results The reviewers identified four large RCTs, yielding 3665 patients. Pooled results from this four randomized trials of adjuvant radiotherapy showed a significant reduction of invasive and DCIS ipsilateral breast cancer with odds ratio (OR of 0.40 (95% CI 0.33 – 0.60, p Conclusion The conclusion from our meta-analysis is that the addition of radiation therapy to lumpectomy results in an approximately 60% reduction in breast cancer recurrence, no benefit for survival or distant metastases compared to excision alone. Patients with high-grade DCIS lesions and positive margins benefited most from the addition of radiation therapy. It is not yet clear which patients can be successfully treated with lumpectomy alone; until further prospective studies answer this question, radiation should be recommended after lumpectomy for all patients without contraindications.

  14. In situ measurements of rock salt permeability changes due to nearby excavation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stormont, J.C.; Howard, C.L.; Daemen, J.J.K.

    1991-07-01

    The Small-Scale Mine-By was an in situ experiment to measure changes in brine and gas permeability of rock salt as a result of nearby excavation. A series of small-volume pressurized brine- and gas-filled test intervals were established 8 m beneath the floor of Room L1 in the WIPP underground. The test intervals were isolated in the bottom of the 4.8-cm diameter monitoring boreholes with inflatable rubber packers, and are initially pressurized to about 2 MPa. Both brine- and gas-filled test intervals were located 1.25, 1.5, 2, 3, and 4 r from the center of a planned large-diameter hole, where r is the radius of the large-diameter hole. Prior to the drilling of the large-diameter borehole, the responses of both the brine- and gas-filled test intervals were consistent with the formation modeled as a very low permeability, low porosity porous medium with a significant pore (brine) pressure and no measurable gas permeability. The drilling of the mine-by borehole created a zone of dilated, partially saturated rock out to about 1.5 r. The formation pressure increases from near zero at 1.5 r to the pre-excavation value at 4 r. Injection tests reveal a gradient of brine permeabilities from 5 x 10 -18 m 2 at 1.25 r to about the pre-excavation value (10 -21 m 2 ) by 3 r. Gas-injection tests reveal measurable gas permeability is limited to within 1.5 r. 17 refs., 24 figs., 6 tabs

  15. In situ Probe Microphone Measurement for Testing the Direct Acoustical Cochlear Stimulator

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christof Stieger

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Hypothesis: Acoustical measurements can be used for functional control of a direct acoustic cochlear stimulator (DACS.Background: The DACS is a recently released active hearing implant that works on the principle of a conventional piston prosthesis driven by the rod of an electromagnetic actuator. An inherent part of the DACS actuator is a thin titanium diaphragm that allows for movement of the stimulation rod while hermetically sealing the housing. In addition to mechanical stimulation, the actuator emits sound into the mastoid cavity because of the motion of the diaphragm.Methods: We investigated the use of the sound emission of a DACS for intra-operative testing. We measured sound emission in the external auditory canal (PEAC and velocity of the actuators stimulation rod (Vact in five implanted ears of whole-head specimens. We tested the influence various positions of the loudspeaker and a probe microphone on PEAC and simulated implant malfunction in one example.Results: Sound emission of the DACS with a signal-to-noise ratio >10 dB was observed between 0.5 and 5 kHz. Simulated implant misplacement or malfunction could be detected by the absence or shift in the characteristic resonance frequency of the actuator. PEAC changed by <6 dB for variations of the microphone and loudspeaker position.Conclusion: Our data support the feasibility of acoustical measurements for in situ testing of the DACS implant in the mastoid cavity as well as for post-operative monitoring of actuator function.

  16. Water storage change estimation from in situ shrinkage measurements of clay soils

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. te Brake

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study is to assess the applicability of clay soil elevation change measurements to estimate soil water storage changes, using a simplified approach. We measured moisture contents in aggregates by EC-5 sensors, and in multiple aggregate and inter-aggregate spaces (bulk soil by CS616 sensors. In a long dry period, the assumption of constant isotropic shrinkage proved invalid and a soil moisture dependant geometry factor was applied. The relative overestimation made by assuming constant isotropic shrinkage in the linear (basic shrinkage phase was 26.4% (17.5 mm for the actively shrinking layer between 0 and 60 cm. Aggregate-scale water storage and volume change revealed a linear relation for layers ≥ 30 cm depth. The range of basic shrinkage in the bulk soil was limited by delayed drying of deep soil layers, and maximum water loss in the structural shrinkage phase was 40% of total water loss in the 0–60 cm layer, and over 60% in deeper layers. In the dry period, fitted slopes of the ΔV–ΔW relationship ranged from 0.41 to 0.56 (EC-5 and 0.42 to 0.55 (CS616. Under a dynamic drying and wetting regime, slopes ranged from 0.21 to 0.38 (EC-5 and 0.22 to 0.36 (CS616. Alternating shrinkage and incomplete swelling resulted in limited volume change relative to water storage change. The slope of the ΔV–ΔW relationship depended on the drying regime, measurement scale and combined effect of different soil layers. Therefore, solely relying on surface level elevation changes to infer soil water storage changes will lead to large underestimations. Recent and future developments might provide a basis for application of shrinkage relations to field situations, but in situ observations will be required to do so.

  17. In situ composition measurements of Bunsen reaction solution by radiation probes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kubo, Shinji; Nagaya, Yasunobu [Japan Atomic Energy Agency (Japan)

    2010-07-01

    Measuring equipments are integral to chemical process controls. A stable hydrogen production by the Iodine-Sulfur thermochemical water-splitting process is relatively difficult because of lack of existing in situ composition measurement techniques for multiple components and corrosive solution. Composition regulations of Bunsen reaction solution is particularly important, since a closed cycle system provided with this process causes that the many streams with different composition return to this section. Accordingly Bunsen solution becomes changeable composition. Radiation probes have a potential for applications to determine this multiple component solution while the non-contact approach avoids the corrosive issues. Moreover the probes have features of the promptness, contact-less and sequential use. Laboratory scale experiments to evaluate these possibilities of the measurement were conducted with use of simulated Bunsen solution, HIx solution and H{sub 2}SO{sub 4} solution, containing HI, I2, H{sub 2}SO{sub 4} and H{sub 2}O and sealed radiation sources. Radiations were counted, which were interacted with the solutions in various compositions around room temperature contained in vessels. For HIx solution, the obtained counting rates were correlated with hydrogen volume concentrations; moreover, the application of the Monte Carlo method suggests possibilities that the detector responses for HIx solution by the radiation probes are predictable. For H{sub 2}SO{sub 4} solution, iodine atoms had significant influences on the relationship between output values of two gamma-ray density meters, cesium source as higher energy and barium source as lower energy. This results suggest that the neutron ray probe, the gamma-ray probes of both lower energy and higher energy have possibilities to determine the composition of Bunsen solution of HIx and H{sub 2}SO{sub 4} solutions. (orig.)

  18. In situ measurements of hydrogen concentration and flux between 160 and 300 km in the thermosphere

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Breig, E.L.; Hanson, W.B.; Hoffman, J.H.; Kayser, D.C.

    1976-01-01

    Thermospheric concentrations of neutral atomic hydrogen near and below the F peak are directly related to H + , O + and atomic oxygen concentrations through the charge exchange equilibrium that is established between hydrogen and oxygen at these altitudes. This chemical relationship, together with in situ measurements of ionospheric and neutral atmospheric concentrations by instrumentation on board the Atmosphere Explorer C satellite, is utilized to investigate properties of neutral hydrogen at altitudes below 200 km where vertical diffusion strongly affects the hydrogen distribution. Data are discussed for a set of satellite orbits during quiet geomagnetic and solar conditions in February 1974; the resultant altitude variation of the derived hydrogen concentrations applies specifically to early afternoon at low 10 5 atoms/cm 3 is observed for these conditions at 300 km. At lower altitudes the concentration profiles are interpreted in terms of vertical hydrogen flow. The resultant daytime flux in the thermosphere is estimated to be (3.2 +- 1.0) x 10 8 atoms/cm 2 s. The present observations thus support theoretical estimates and model calculations of large hydrogen flow upward from the region below 100 km. They also support the concept of daytime thermospheric loss process of greater magnitude than the traditional evaporative escape mechanism

  19. Design of a facility for the in situ measurement of catalytic reaction by neutron scattering spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Shuai; Cheng, Yongqiang; Daemen, Luke L.; Lutterman, Daniel A.

    2018-01-01

    Catalysis is a critical enabling science for future energy needs. The next frontier of catalysis is to evolve from catalyst discovery to catalyst design, and for this next step to be realized, we must develop new techniques to better understand reaction mechanisms. To do this, we must connect catalytic reaction rates and selectivities to the kinetics, energetics, and dynamics of individual elementary steps and relate these to the structure and dynamics of the catalytic sites involved. Neutron scattering spectroscopies offer unique capabilities that are difficult or impossible to match by other techniques. The current study presents the development of a compact and portable instrumental design that enables the in situ investigation of catalytic samples by neutron scattering techniques. The developed apparatus was tested at the Spallation Neutron Source (SNS) in Oak Ridge National Laboratory and includes a gas handling panel that allows for computer hookups to control the panel externally and online measurement equipment such as coupled GC-FID/TCD (Gas Chromatography-Flame Ionization Detector/Thermal Conductivity Detector) and MS (Mass Spectrometry) to characterize offgassing while the sample is in the neutron scattering spectrometer. This system is flexible, modular, compact, and portable enabling its use for many types of gas-solid and liquid-solid reactions at the various beamlines housed at the SNS.

  20. Effects of laser in situ keratomileusis (LASIK) on corneal biomechanical measurements with the Corvis ST tonometer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frings, Andreas; Linke, Stephan J; Bauer, Eva L; Druchkiv, Vasyl; Katz, Toam; Steinberg, Johannes

    2015-01-01

    This study was initiated to evaluate biomechanical changes using the Corvis ST tonometer (CST) on the cornea after laser in situ keratomileusis (LASIK). University Medical Center Hamburg-Eppendorf, Germany, and Care Vision Refractive Centers, Germany. Retrospective cohort study. This retrospective study included 37 eyes of 37 refractive patients. All CST measurements were performed 1 day before surgery and at the 1-month follow-up examination. The LASIK procedure included mechanical flap preparation using a Moria SBK microkeratome and an Allegretto excimer laser platform. Statistically significant differences were observed for mean first applanation length, mean first and second deflection lengths, mean first and second deflection amplitudes, radius of curvature, and peak distance. Significant positive correlations were found between the change (Δ) of radius of curvature and manifest refraction spherical equivalent (MRSE), ablation depth, and Δintraocular pressure as well as between AD and ΔHC-time. Each diopter of myopic correction in MRSE resulted in an increase in Δradius of curvature of 0.2 mm. Several CST parameters were statistically significantly altered by LASIK, thereby indicating that flap creation, ablation, or both, significantly change the ability of the cornea to absorb or dissipate energy.

  1. Airborne In-Situ Trace Gas Measurements of Multiple Wildfires in California (2013-2014)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iraci, L. T.; Yates, E. L.; Tanaka, T.; Roby, M.; Gore, W.; Clements, C. B.; Lareau, N.; Ambrosia, V. G.; Quayle, B.; Schroeder, W.

    2014-12-01

    Biomass burning emissions are an important source of a wide range of trace gases and particles that can impact local, regional and global air quality, climate forcing, biogeochemical cycles and human health. In the western US, wildfires dominate over prescribed fires, contributing to atmospheric trace gas budgets and regional and local air pollution. Limited sampling of emissions from wildfires means western US emission estimates rely largely on data from prescribed fires, which may not be a suitable proxy for wildfire emissions. We report here in-situ measurements of carbon dioxide, methane, ozone and water vapor from the plumes of a variety of wildfires sampled in California in the fire seasons of 2013 and 2014. Included in the analysis are the Rim Fire (August - October 2013, near Yosemite National Park), the Morgan Fire (September 2013, near Clayton, CA), and the El Portal Fire (July - August 2014, in Yosemite National Park), among others. When possible, fires were sampled on multiple days. Emission ratios and estimated emission factors will be presented and discussed in the context of fuel composition, plume structure, and fire phase. Correlations of plume chemical composition to MODIS/VIIRS Fire Radiative Power (FRP) and other remote sensing information will be explored. Furthermore, the role of plumes in delivery of enhanced ozone concentrations to downwind municipalities will be discussed.

  2. Continuous in-situ measurements of fission fragment irradiation induced void swelling in Ni

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lefakis, H.

    1980-01-01

    A novel simulation technique has been developed to study the early stages of irradiation induced void formation in metals. The technique makes use of fission fragment irradiation produced by doping with 235 U and irradiating in a thermal neutron flux under highly controlled irradiation-environmental conditions. Employment of a computer and a high temperature radiation resistant LVDT resulted in a high volumetric sensitivity and the production of continuous, in-situ void swelling data for bulk specimens. Results for Ni, used as a test-metal served to corroborate the technique in a number of ways including comparisons with (a) reactor data, (b) direct post-irradiation specimen length measurements and (c) TEM examinations of irradiated samples. The technique has several unique advantages and, in conjunction with other conventional methods, it offers the possibility of detailed evaluation of void nucleation and growth theories. In view of the present results no definitive answer may be given on the issue of the incubation period while checks with two theoretical models have yielded an order-of-magnitude agreement

  3. In Situ Monitoring of Dispersion Dynamics of Carbon Nanotubes during Sonication Using Electrical Conductivity Measurements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Syed Sadiq Ali

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The main challenge in the fabrication of carbon nanotube- (CNT- based composite materials is the optimization of the sonication time in order to obtain homogenous and uniform dispersion of CNTs. Past studies mostly relied on postprocessing characterization techniques to address this issue. In the present, however, in situ monitoring of dispersion dynamics of CNTs in distilled water is carried out using instantaneous conductivity measurements. Using a computer controlled data acquisition system, the time evolution of the solution conductivity was carefully recorded. The data were then used to evaluate the intensity of turbulent fluctuations, which clearly highlighted the existence of three distinct sonication phases. During the first phase, the conductivity fluctuations initially increased attaining ultimately a maximum, thus indicating the occurrence of large agglomerates of CNTs. During the second phase of sonication, the solution conductivity showed a rather steep increase while fluctuations steadily declined. This phenomenon can be attributed to the breakdown of large CNT agglomerates, resulting in greater dispersion homogeneity of CNTs. During the third phase, after almost 650 kJ/L of sonication energy, the conductivity increase was almost negligible. The fluctuation intensity also remained constant during this phase signifying that the further sonication was no longer required.

  4. The measurement of enamel and dentine abrasion by tooth whitening products using an in situ model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joiner, A; Collins, L Z; Cox, T F; Pickles, M J; Weader, E; Liscombe, C; Holt, J S

    2005-01-01

    To determine the enamel and dentine wear of two whitening toothpastes using an in situ model with ex vivo brushing. Human enamel/dentine (approximately 50:50) blocks (approximately 4 x 4mm) were placed in the upper buccal aspects of full or partial dentures of a group of 25 subjects. Subjects brushed the specimens ex vivo with either a calcium carbonate/perlite or silica containing whitening toothpaste under exaggerated conditions as compared to normal for 30 s, twice per day. Specimens were removed after 4, 8 and 12 weeks and the wear to the enamel and dentine was determined. Enamel wear was determined by change in Knoop indent length and dentine wear was determined from the enamel-dentine step height, measured using optical profilometry. The mean wear after 12 weeks was for enamel 0.27 and 0.19 microns, and for dentine 34.3 and 61.1 microns, for the calcium carbonate/perlite and silica toothpastes respectively. There were no significant differences between products after 12 weeks. The rate of wear was found to decrease throughout the duration of the study. There were no significant differences between the two whitening toothpastes in terms of enamel and dentine wear after 12 weeks brushing.

  5. In situ measurement of dynamic characteristics of atomic power plant equipment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arya, A.S.; Gupta, S.P.; Shrivastava, S.K.

    1977-01-01

    For the realistic assessment of stiffness and damping, full scale free vibration tests have been carried out on various pieces of equipment located in plant buildings both during the construction stage and after they are erected. Initial displacement or initial velocity was used to excite the free vibrations. Initial displacement was imparted by means of steel rope pulled with chain pulley block. The sudden release was achieved by means of a clutch system. Acceleration transducer with amplifier and ink writting oscillograph was used for recording the vibrations. Frequency and damping was evaluated from the acceleration records. Observed values for some equipment are given. For some equipment, it has been possible to obtain the values with and without pipe connections. The frequency of L.P. Heater in longitudinal and transverse directions without pipe connection were 17.86 and 10.04 Hz but with pipe connections the values increased to 26.74 and 17.85 Hz. Similarly there has been increase in the damping values too. Thus both the frequency and damping increases substantially with the addition of pipe connections. Moreover, their values are quite different in the two principal directions, pointing out to the importance of in situ measurements on prototype equipment

  6. Mercury's plasma belt: hybrid simulations results compared to in-situ measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hercik, D.; Travnicek, P. M.; Schriver, D.; Hellinger, P.

    2012-12-01

    The presence of plasma belt and trapped particles region in the Mercury's inner magnetosphere has been questionable due to small dimensions of the magnetosphere of Mercury compared to Earth, where these regions are formed. Numerical simulations of the solar wind interaction with Mercury's magnetic field suggested that such a structure could be found also in the vicinity of Mercury. These results has been recently confirmed also by MESSENGER observations. Here we present more detailed analysis of the plasma belt structure and quasi-trapped particle population characteristics and behaviour under different orientations of the interplanetary magnetic field.The plasma belt region is constantly supplied with solar wind protons via magnetospheric flanks and tail current sheet region. Protons inside the plasma belt region are quasi-trapped in the magnetic field of Mercury and perform westward drift along the planet. This region is well separated by a magnetic shell and has higher average temperatures and lower bulk proton current densities than surrounding area. On the day side the population exhibits loss cone distribution function matching the theoretical loss cone angle. Simulations results are also compared to in-situ measurements acquired by MESSENGER MAG and FIPS instruments.

  7. Application of microbial biomass and activity measures to assess in situ bioremediation of chlorinated solvents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Phelps, T.J.; Herbes, S.E.; Palumbo, A.V.; Pfiffner, S.M.; Mackowski, R.; Ringelberg, D.; White, D.C.; Tennessee Univ., Knoxville, TN

    1993-01-01

    Evaluating the effectiveness of chlorinated solvent remediation in the subsurface can be a significant problem given uncertainties in estimating the total mass of contaminants present. If the remediation technique is a biological activity, information on the progress and success of the remediation may be gained by monitoring changes in the mass and activities of microbial populations. The in situ bioremediation demonstration at the US Department of Energy (DOE) Savannah River Site (SRS) is designed to test the effectiveness of methane injection for the stimulation of in sediments. Past studies have shown the potential for degradation by native microbial populations. The design and implementation of the SRS Integrated Demonstration is described in this volume. A control phase without treatment was followed by a phase withdrawing air. The next phase included vacuum extraction plus air injection into the lower horizontal well located below the water table. The next period included the injection of 1% methane in air followed by injection of 4% methane in air. Based on the literature, it was hypothesized that the injection of methane would stimulate methanotrophic populations and thus accelerate biological degradation of TCE. Measuring the success of bioremediation is a complex effort that includes monitoring of changes in microbial populations associated with TCE degradation. These monitoring efforts are described in this paper and in related papers in this volume

  8. Measuring Mass-Based Hygroscopicity of Atmospheric Particles through in situ Imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Piens, Dominique` Y.; Kelly, Stephen T.; Harder, Tristan; Petters, Markus D.; O' Brien, Rachel; Wang, Bingbing; Teske, Ken; Dowell, Pat; Laskin, Alexander; Gilles, Mary K.

    2016-04-18

    Quantifying how atmospheric particles interact with water vapor is critical for understanding the effects of aerosols on climate. We present a novel method to measure the mass-based hygroscopicity of particles while characterizing their elemental and carbon functional group compositions. Since mass-based hygroscopicity is insensitive to particle geometry, it is advantageous for probing the hygroscopic behavior of atmospheric particles, which can have irregular morphologies. Combining scanning electron microscopy with energy dispersive X-ray analysis (SEM/EDX), scanning transmission X-ray microscopy (STXM) analysis, and in situ STXM humidification experiments, this method was validated using laboratory-generated, atmospherically relevant particles. Then, the hygroscopicity and elemental composition of 15 complex atmospheric particles were analyzed by leveraging quantification of C, N, and O from STXM, and complementary elemental quantification from SEM/EDX. We found three types of hygroscopic responses, and correlated high hygroscopicity with Na and Cl content. The mixing state determined for 158 particles broadly agreed with those of the humidified particles, indicating the potential to infer the atmospheric hygroscopic behavior from a selected subset of particles. These methods offer unique quantitative capabilities to characterize and correlate the hygroscopicity and chemistry of individual submicron atmospheric particles.

  9. Combining periodic hydraulic tests and surface tilt measurements to explore in situ fracture hydromechanics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schuite, Jonathan; Longuevergne, Laurent; Bour, Olivier; Guihéneuf, Nicolas; Becker, Matthew W.; Cole, Matthew; Burbey, Thomas J.; Lavenant, Nicolas; Boudin, Frédéric

    2017-08-01

    Fractured bedrock reservoirs are of socio-economical importance, as they may be used for storage or retrieval of fluids and energy. In particular, the hydromechanical behavior of fractures needs to be understood as it has implications on flow and governs stability issues (e.g., microseismicity). Laboratory, numerical, or field experiments have brought considerable insights to this topic. Nevertheless, in situ hydromechanical experiments are relatively uncommon, mainly because of technical and instrumental limitations. Here we present the early stage development and validation of a novel approach aiming at capturing the integrated hydromechanical behavior of natural fractures. It combines the use of surface tiltmeters to monitor the deformation associated with the periodic pressurization of fractures at depth in crystalline rocks. Periodic injection and withdrawal advantageously avoids mobilizing or extracting significant amounts of fluid, and it hinders any risk of reservoir failure. The oscillatory perturbation is intended to (1) facilitate the recognition of its signature in tilt measurements and (2) vary the hydraulic penetration depth in order to sample different volumes of the fractured bedrock around the inlet and thereby assess scale effects typical of fractured systems. By stacking tilt signals, we managed to recover small tilt amplitudes associated with pressure-derived fracture deformation. Therewith, we distinguish differences in mechanical properties between the three tested fractures, but we show that tilt amplitudes are weakly dependent on pressure penetration depth. Using an elastic model, we obtain fracture stiffness estimates that are consistent with published data. Our results should encourage further improvement of the method.

  10. Investigation of the Interaction between Perovskite Films with Moisture via in Situ Electrical Resistance Measurement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Long; Shao, Gang; Jiang, Tao; Li, Dengbing; Lv, Xinlin; Wang, Hongya; Liu, Xinsheng; Song, Haisheng; Tang, Jiang; Liu, Huan

    2015-11-18

    Organometal halide perovskites have recently emerged as outstanding semiconductors for solid-state optoelectronic devices. Their sensitivity to moisture is one of the biggest barriers to commercialization. In order to identify the effect of moisture in the degradation process, here we combined the in situ electrical resistance measurement with time-resolved X-ray diffraction analysis to investigate the interaction of CH3NH3PbI(3-x)Cl(x) perovskite films with moisture. Upon short-time exposure, the resistance of the perovskite films decreased and it could be fully recovered, which were ascribed to a mere chemisorption of water molecules, followed by the reversible hydration into CH3NH3PbI(3-x)Cl(x)·H2O. Upon long-time exposure, however, the resistance became irreversible due to the decomposition into PbI2. The results demonstrated the formation of monohydrated intermediate phase when the perovskites interacted with moisture. The role of moisture in accelerating the thermal degradation at 85 °C was also demonstrated. Furthermore, our study suggested that the perovskite films with fewer defects may be more inherently resistant to moisture.

  11. In-situ performance evaluation of radon measurement techniques in Uranium mine exhausts of Jaduguda

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Patnaik, R.L.; Jha, V.N.; Singh, M.K.; Meena, J.S.; Rajesh Kumar; Srivastava, V.S.; Sethy, N.K.; Ravi, P.M.; Tripathi, R.M.

    2014-01-01

    Several techniques are used for the measurement of the activity concentration of radon in the work place and the environment. Devices like Scintillation cell, Alpha guard and Low Level Radon Detection System (LLRDS) are widely used for the estimation of radon. Some of the devices like scintillation cell is normally used in high activity concentration, whereas, device like LLRDS is used in low activity concentration range. All these above devices are used in ambient mode in which air sample is either collected in a cell or in a chamber and the alpha counts are recorded after a definite delay. In some device, air is allowed to be diffused through a filter and alpha activity is estimated using proper detection system. Passive radon dosimeters can effectively be used both in low and high activity concentration range. The cumulative radon exposure can be assessed using passive radon dosimeters. For in situ performance evaluation an area is required where both high and low level activity concentration of radon is anticipated. Uranium mines exhaust area is presumed to be an area where both these conditions can be found by mere variation in the placement of the device. Inter comparison exercise can also be done effectively at this location using various devices of radon estimation

  12. Novel in situ resistance measurement for the investigation of CIGS growth in a selenization process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Wei; He Qing; Li Fengyan; Li Changjian; Sun Yun; Tian Jianguo; Li Zubin

    2009-01-01

    During the selenization process of CIGS thin films, the relation between the element loss rate and the precursor depositions are analyzed. The growth of the CIGS thin films during the selenization process is investigated by the novel in situ resistance measurement, by which the formation of compound semiconductors can be observed directly and simultaneously. Their structures, phase evolutions and element losses are analyzed by XRD and XRF. Based on the experimental results, it can be concluded that the phase transforms have nothing to do with the deposition sequences of precursors, while the element loss rates are related to the deposition sequences in this process. In addition, element loss mechanisms of CIGS thin films prepared by the selenization process are analyzed by the phase evolutions and chemical combined path in the In, Ga–Se reaction processes. Moreover it is verified that the element losses are depressed by increasing the ramping-up rate finally. The results provide effective methods to fabricate high-quality CIGS thin films with low element losses

  13. Novel in situ resistance measurement for the investigation of CIGS growth in a selenization process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Wei; Tian, Jian-Guo; Li, Zu-Bin; He, Qing; Li, Feng-Yan; Li, Chang-Jian; Sun, Yun

    2009-03-01

    During the selenization process of CIGS thin films, the relation between the element loss rate and the precursor depositions are analyzed. The growth of the CIGS thin films during the selenization process is investigated by the novel in situ resistance measurement, by which the formation of compound semiconductors can be observed directly and simultaneously. Their structures, phase evolutions and element losses are analyzed by XRD and XRF. Based on the experimental results, it can be concluded that the phase transforms have nothing to do with the deposition sequences of precursors, while the element loss rates are related to the deposition sequences in this process. In addition, element loss mechanisms of CIGS thin films prepared by the selenization process are analyzed by the phase evolutions and chemical combined path in the In, Ga-Se reaction processes. Moreover it is verified that the element losses are depressed by increasing the ramping-up rate finally. The results provide effective methods to fabricate high-quality CIGS thin films with low element losses.

  14. Selective two-photon collagen crosslinking in situ measured by Brillouin microscopy (Conference Presentation)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwok, Sheldon J. J.; Kuznetsov, Ivan A.; Kim, Moonseok; Choi, Myunghwan; Scarcelli, Giuliano; Yun, Seok-Hyun

    2017-02-01

    Two-photon polymerization and crosslinking are commonly used methods for microfabrication of three-dimensional structures with applications spanning from photonic microdevices, drug delivery systems, to cellular scaffolds. However, the use of two-photon processes for precise, internal modification of biological tissues has not yet been reported. One of the major challenges has been a lack of appropriate tools to monitor and characterize crosslinked regions nondestructively. Here, we demonstrate spatially selective two-photon collagen crosslinking (2P-CXL) in intact tissue for the first time. Using riboflavin photosensitizer and femtosecond laser irradiation, we crosslinked a small volume of tissue within animal corneas. Collagen fiber orientations and photobleaching were characterized by second harmonic generation and two-photon fluorescence imaging, respectively. Using confocal Brillouin microscopy, we measured local changes in longitudinal mechanical moduli and visualized the cross-linked pattern without perturbing surrounding non-irradiated regions. 2P-CXL-induced tissue stiffening was comparable to that achieved with conventional one-photon CXL. Our results demonstrate the ability to selectively stiffen biological tissue in situ at high spatial resolution, with broad implications in ophthalmology, laser surgery, and tissue engineering.

  15. Measuring the bioenergetic cost of fish activity in situ using a globally dispersed radiotracer (137Cs)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rowan, D.J.; Rasmussen, J.B.

    1996-01-01

    The energetic cost of activity is an important component of the bioenergetic budget of fish, yet this parameter has rarely been quantified for wild populations. Using a 137 Cs mass balance approach, we estimated the annual bioenergetic budgets for individual age-classes of 19 species of North American freshwater fish. Immature fish have low activity-related metabolic costs that agree with estimates based on swimming speed or integer multipliers. Mature fish have 2- to 4-fold higher activity than immature fish and 2- to 4-fold higher activity than estimates based on swimming speed or integer multipliers. The higher activity in mature fish may be due to reproductive efforts. Underestimation of activity in conventional bioenergetics models leads to underestimation of consumption rates. Thus, our in situ and age-specific estimates of activity costs provide a means to improve bioenergetic predictions. Although our analysis was done on an annual basis, it is possible to use the 137 Cs technique over shorter intervals (weeks). The 137 Cs method has general applicability to aquatic systems because 137 Cs is globally dispersed and can be accurately measured in all aquatic organisms using gamma spectrometry. (author). 62 refs., 4 tabs., 4 figs

  16. In Situ Acoustic Monitoring of Thermal Spray Process Using High-Frequency Impulse Measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tillmann, Wolfgang; Walther, Frank; Luo, Weifeng; Haack, Matthias; Nellesen, Jens; Knyazeva, Marina

    2018-01-01

    In order to guarantee their protective function, thermal spray coatings must be free from cracks, which expose the substrate surface to, e.g., corrosive media. Cracks in thermal spray coatings are usually formed because of tensile residual stresses. Most commonly, the crack occurrence is determined after the thermal spraying process by examination of metallographic cross sections of the coating. Recent efforts focus on in situ monitoring of crack formation by means of acoustic emission analysis. However, the acoustic signals related to crack propagation can be absorbed by the noise of the thermal spraying process. In this work, a high-frequency impulse measurement technique was applied to separate different acoustic sources by visualizing the characteristic signal of crack formation via quasi-real-time Fourier analysis. The investigations were carried out on a twin wire arc spraying process, utilizing FeCrBSi as a coating material. The impact of the process parameters on the acoustic emission spectrum was studied. Acoustic emission analysis enables to obtain global and integral information on the formed cracks. The coating morphology and coating defects were inspected using light microscopy on metallographic cross sections. Additionally, the resulting crack patterns were imaged in 3D by means of x-ray microtomography.

  17. In situ measurements of the optical absorption of dioxythiophene-based conjugated polymers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hwang, J.; Schwendeman, I.; Ihas, B. C.; Clark, R. J.; Cornick, M.; Nikolou, M.; Argun, A.; Reynolds, J. R.; Tanner, D. B.

    2011-05-01

    Conjugated polymers can be reversibly doped by electrochemical means. This doping introduces new subband-gap optical absorption bands in the polymer while decreasing the band-gap absorption. To study this behavior, we have prepared an electrochemical cell allowing in situ measurements of the optical properties of the polymer. The cell consists of a thin polymer film deposited on gold-coated Mylar behind which is another polymer that serves as a counterelectrode. An infrared transparent window protects the upper polymer from ambient air. By adding a gel electrolyte and making electrical connections to the polymer-on-gold films, one may study electrochromism in a wide spectral range. As the cell voltage (the potential difference between the two electrodes) changes, the doping level of the conjugated polymer films is changed reversibly. Our experiments address electrochromism in poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene) (PEDOT) and poly(3,4-dimethylpropylenedioxythiophene) (PProDOT-Me2). This closed electrochemical cell allows the study of the doping induced subband-gap features (polaronic and bipolaronic modes) in these easily oxidized and highly redox switchable polymers. We also study the changes in cell spectra as a function of polymer thickness and investigate strategies to obtain cleaner spectra, minimizing the contributions of water and gel electrolyte features.

  18. Mechanical properties of in situ demineralised human enamel measured by AFM nanoindentation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finke, Manuela; Hughes, Julie A.; Parker, David M.; Jandt, Klaus D.

    2001-10-01

    Diet-induced demineralisation is one of the key factors in surface changes of tooth enamel, with soft drinks being a significant etiological agent. The first step in this dissolution process is characterised by a change in the mechanical properties of the enamel and a roughening of the surface. The objective of this pilot study was to measure early stages of in situ induced hardness changes of polished human enamel surfaces with high accuracy using a nanoindenter attached to an atomic force microscope (AFM). Human unerupted third molars were cleaned, sterilised with sodium hypochlorite, sectioned and embedded in epoxy resin. The outer enamel surface was polished and the samples partly covered with a tape, allowing a 2-mm-wide zone to be exposed to the oral environment. Samples were fitted in an intra-oral appliance, which was worn from 9 a.m. to 5 p.m. for one day. During this time the volunteer sipped 250 ml of a drink over 10 min periods at 9.00, 11.00, 13.00 and 15.00 h. Three different drinks, mineral water, orange juice and the prototype of a blackcurrant drink with low demineralisation potential were used in this study. At the end of the experiment the samples were detached from the appliance, the tape removed and the surfaces chemically cleaned. The surface hardness and reduced Young's modulus of the exposed and unexposed areas of each sample were determined. In addition, high resolution topographical AFM images were obtained. This study shows that by determining the hardness and reduced Young's modulus, the difference in demineralisation caused by the drinks can be detected and quantified before statistically significant changes in surface topography could be observed with the AFM. The maximum decrease in surface hardness and Young's modulus occurred in the samples exposed to orange juice, followed by those exposed to the blackcurrant drink, while exposure to water led to the same values as unexposed areas. A one-way ANOVA showed a statistically significant

  19. Laboratory investigations of Titan haze formation: In situ measurement of gas and particle composition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hörst, Sarah M.; Yoon, Y. Heidi; Ugelow, Melissa S.; Parker, Alex H.; Li, Rui; de Gouw, Joost A.; Tolbert, Margaret A.

    2018-02-01

    Prior to the arrival of the Cassini-Huygens spacecraft, aerosol production in Titan's atmosphere was believed to begin in the stratosphere where chemical processes are predominantly initiated by far ultraviolet (FUV) radiation. However, measurements taken by the Cassini Ultraviolet Imaging Spectrograph (UVIS) and Cassini Plasma Spectrometer (CAPS) indicate that haze formation initiates in the thermosphere where there is a greater flux of extreme ultraviolet (EUV) photons and energetic particles available to initiate chemical reactions, including the destruction of N2. The discovery of previously unpredicted nitrogen species in measurements of Titan's atmosphere by the Cassini Ion and Neutral Mass Spectrometer (INMS) indicates that nitrogen participates in the chemistry to a much greater extent than was appreciated before Cassini. The degree of nitrogen incorporation in the haze particles is important for understanding the diversity of molecules that may be present in Titan's atmosphere and on its surface. We have conducted a series of Titan atmosphere simulation experiments using either spark discharge (Tesla coil) or FUV photons (deuterium lamp) to initiate chemistry in CH4/N2 gas mixtures ranging from 0.01% CH4/99.99% N2 to 10% CH4/90% N2. We obtained in situ real-time measurements using a high-resolution time-of-flight aerosol mass spectrometer (HR-ToF-AMS) to measure the particle composition as a function of particle size and a proton-transfer ion-trap mass spectrometer (PIT-MS) to measure the composition of gas phase products. These two techniques allow us to investigate the effect of energy source and initial CH4 concentration on the degree of nitrogen incorporation in both the gas and solid phase products. The results presented here confirm that FUV photons produce not only solid phase nitrogen bearing products but also gas phase nitrogen species. We find that in both the gas and solid phase, nitrogen is found in nitriles rather than amines and that both the

  20. In situ stress measurements at the Spent Fuel Test-Climax facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Creveling, J.B.; Shuri, F.S.; Foster, K.M.; Mills, S.V.

    1984-05-01

    The status of the following studies is given: in situ state of stress; stress gradient into rib from south heater drift; pillar stresses; and rock deformational properties. 11 references, 38 figures, 12 tables

  1. Correlation of clinical and pathologic features with outcome in patients with ductal carcinoma in situ of the breast treated with breast-conserving surgery and radiotherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rodrigues, Neesha; Carter, Darryl; Dillon, Deborah; Parisot, Nicole; Choi, Doo Ho; Haffty, Bruce G.

    2002-01-01

    Purpose: Although breast-conserving surgery followed by radiotherapy (RT) has become a standard treatment option for patients with ductal carcinoma in situ of the breast, risk factors for ipsilateral breast tumor recurrence (IBTR) in these patients remain an active area of investigation. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the impact of clinical and pathologic features on long-term outcome in a cohort of DCIS patients treated with breast-conserving surgery plus RT. Methods and Materials: Between 1973 and 1998, 230 patients with DCIS were treated with breast-conserving surgery plus RT at our institution. All patients were treated by local excision followed by RT to the breast to a total median tumor bed dose of 64 Gy. Adjuvant hormonal therapy was used in only 20 patients (9%). All available clinical, pathologic, and outcome data, including ipsilateral and contralateral events, were entered into a computerized database. The clinical and pathologic variables evaluated included detection method, mammographic appearance, age, family history, histologic subtype, presence of necrosis, nuclear grade, final margin status, and use of adjuvant hormonal therapy. Results: As of December 15, 2000, with a median follow-up of 8.2 years, 17 patients had developed a recurrence in the ipsilateral breast, resulting in a 5- and 10-year IBTR rate of 5% and 13%, respectively. Contralateral breast cancer developed in 8 patients, resulting in a 10-year contralateral recurrence rate of 5%. Patient age, family history, histologic subtype, margin status, and tumor grade were not significantly associated with recurrence on univariate analysis. A significantly higher rate of local relapse was observed in patients with the presence of necrosis. The 10-year relapse rate was 22% in 88 patients with necrosis compared with 7% in 142 patients without necrosis (p <0.01). In multivariate analysis, the presence of necrosis remained a significant predictor of local relapse. No breast relapses

  2. In-situ interferometric measurements of compacted smectite under hyper-alkaline condition - 59124

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Satoh, Hisao; Kurosawa, Susumu; Ishii, Tomoko; Owada, Hitoshi

    2012-01-01

    Document available in abstract form only. Full text of publication follows: Alteration of bentonite buffer at the repository for radioactive waste is an unavoidable phenomenon. However, precise kinetic data is useful for evaluation of the endurance for long-term safety. Alkaline attack to bentonite by cement-leachates may enhance alteration of smectite into the other phase such as zeolite. Until recently, there are a number of detailed dissolution studies (e.g., Cama et al., 2000; Yokoyama et al., 2005; Rozalen et al., 2008) for suspended smectite, using high precision measurements by ICPMS and AFM analyses. In contrast, dissolution study of compacted smectite is very limited (e.g., Nakayama et al., 2003). In order to verify the previous data, the dissolution rate of compacted smectite with realistic density needs to be confirmed experimentally. We have, for the first time, applied in-situ vertical scanning interferometry (VSI) along with the auto-compaction cell for measuring dissolution rates of smectite compacted at 0.04-20.0 MPa and 70 deg. C in 0.3 M NaOH (pH 12.1). At less-compaction (0.04 MPa), Kunipia-P smectite initially showed a relatively fast dissolution of ∼2E-11 mol/m 2 /s which is comparable to the rate for suspended smectite under same pH-T condition. At high-compaction ( 2 /s, but at higher compaction (>5 MPa), smectite dissolution was enhanced again to ∼5E-13 mol/ m 2 /s

  3. Evidence of Chemical Cloud Processing from In Situ Measurements in the Polluted Marine Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hudson, J. G.; Noble, S. R., Jr.

    2017-12-01

    SO2, indicating aqueous oxidation within cloud as associated with larger concentrations in the processed mode. Thus, in situ measurements indicate that chemical cloud processing alters size, Sc and κ of activated CCN. Hudson et al. (2015), JGRA, 120, 3436-3452.

  4. Development of a direct push based in-situ thermal conductivity measurement system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chirla, Marian Andrei; Vienken, Thomas; Dietrich, Peter; Bumberger, Jan

    2016-04-01

    push based approaches, called Thermal Conductivity Profiler (TCP), that operates based on the principles of a hollow cylindrical geometry heat source. To determinate thermal conductivity in situ, the transient temperature at the middle of the probe and electrical power dissipation is measured. At the same time, this work presents laboratory results obtained when this novel hollow cylindrical probe system was tested on different materials for calibration. By using the hollow cylindrical probe, the thermal conductivity results have an error of less than 2.5% error for solid samples (Teflon, Agar jelly, and Nylatron). These findings are useful to achieve a proper thermal energy balance in the shallow subsurface by using direct push technology and TCP. By providing information of layers with high thermal conductivity, suitable for thermal storage capability, can be used determine borehole heat exchanger design and, therefore, determine geothermal heat pump architecture.

  5. Effect of In-situ Cure on Measurement of Glass Transition Temperatures in High-temperature Thermosetting Polymers

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-01-01

    TEMPERATURES IN HIGH-TEMPERATURE THERMOSETTING POLYMERS 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER In-House 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6. AUTHOR(S...illustrated the difficulties inherent in measurement of the glass transition temperature of this high-temperature thermosetting polymer via dynamic...copyright protection in the United States. EFFECT OF IN-SITU CURE ON MEASUREMENT OF GLASS TRANSITION TEMPERATURES IN HIGH-TEMPERATURE THERMOSETTING

  6. Thermal surface characteristics of coal fires 1 results of in-situ measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jianzhong; Kuenzer, Claudia

    2007-12-01

    Natural underground coal fires are fires in coal seams occurring subsurface. The fires are ignited through a process named spontaneous combustion, which occurs based on a natural reaction but is usually triggered through human interaction. Coal mining activities expose coal to the air. This leads to the exothermal oxidation of the carbon in the coal with the air's oxygen to CO 2 and - under certain circumstances - to spontaneous combustion. Coal fires occur in many countries world wide - however, currently the Chinese coal mining industry faces the biggest problems with coal fires. Coal fires destroy the valuable resource coal and furthermore lead to many environmental degradation phenomena such as the deterioration of surrounding vegetation, land subsidence and the emission of toxic gasses (CO, N 2O). They additionally contribute to the emission of green house relevant gasses such as CO 2 and CH 4 to the atmosphere. In this paper we present thermal characteristics of coal fires as measured in-situ during a field campaign to the Wuda coal fire area in south-central Inner Mongolia, China. Thermal characteristics include temperature anomaly measurements at the surface, spatial surface temperature profiles of fire areas and unaffected background areas, diurnal temperature profiles, and temperature measurements inside of coal fire induced cracks in the overlying bedrock. For all the measurements the effects of uneven solar heating through influences of slope and aspect are considered. Our findings show that coal fires result in strong or subtle thermal surface anomalies. Especially the latter can easily be influenced by heating of the surrounding background material through solar influences. Temperature variation of background rocks with different albedo, slope, aspect or vegetation cover can substantially influence the detectability of thermal anomalies. In the worst case coal fire related thermal anomalies can be completely masked by solar patterns during the daytime

  7. Husbandry Emissions Estimation: Fusion of Mobile Surface and Airborne Remote Sensing and Mobile Surface In Situ Measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leifer, I.; Hall, J. L.; Melton, C.; Tratt, D. M.; Chang, C. S.; Buckland, K. N.; Frash, J.; Leen, J. B.; Van Damme, M.; Clarisse, L.

    2017-12-01

    Emissions of methane and ammonia from intensive animal husbandry are important drivers of climate and photochemical and aerosol pollution. Husbandry emission estimates are somewhat uncertain because of their dependence on practices, temperature, micro-climate, and other factors, leading to variations in emission factors up to an order-of-magnitude. Mobile in situ measurements are increasingly being applied to derive trace gas emissions by Gaussian plume inversion; however, inversion with incomplete information can lead to erroneous emissions and incorrect source location. Mobile in situ concentration and wind data and mobile remote sensing column data from the Chino Dairy Complex in the Los Angeles Basin were collected near simultaneously (within 1-10 s, depending on speed) while transecting plumes, approximately orthogonal to winds. This analysis included airborne remote sensing trace gas information. MISTIR collected vertical column FTIR data simultaneously with in situ concentration data acquired by the AMOG-Surveyor while both vehicles traveled in convoy. The column measurements are insensitive to the turbulence characterization needed in Gaussian plume inversion of concentration data and thus provide a flux reference for evaluating in situ data inversions. Four different approaches were used on inversions for a single dairy, and also for the aggregate dairy complex plume. Approaches were based on differing levels of "knowledge" used in the inversion from solely the in situ platform and a single gas to a combination of information from all platforms and multiple gases. Derived dairy complex fluxes differed significantly from those estimated by other studies of the Chino complex. Analysis of long term satellite data showed that this most likely results from seasonality effects, highlighting the pitfalls of applying annualized extensions of flux measurements to a single campaign instantiation.

  8. Assessment of crop yield losses in Punjab and Haryana using two years of continuous in-situ ozone measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sinha, B.; Singh Sangwan, K.; Maurya, Y.; Kumar, V.; Sarkar, C.; Chandra, B. P.; Sinha, V.

    2015-01-01

    In this study we use a high quality dataset of in-situ ozone measurements at a suburban site called Mohali in the state of Punjab to estimate ozone related crop yield losses for wheat, rice, cotton and maize for Punjab and the neighbouring state Haryana for the years 2011-2013. We inter-compare crop yield loss estimates according to different exposure metrics such as AOT40 and M7 for the two major crop growing seasons of Kharif (June-October) and Rabi (November-April) and establish a new crop yield exposure relationship for South Asian wheat and rice cultivars. These are a factor of two more sensitive to ozone induced crop yield losses compared to their European and American counterparts. Relative yield losses based on the AOT40 metrics ranged from 27-41% for wheat, 21-26% for rice, 9-11% for maize and 47-58% for cotton. Crop production losses for wheat amounted to 20.8 million t in fiscal year 2012-2013 and 10.3 million t in fiscal year 2013-2014 for Punjab and Haryana jointly. Crop production losses for rice totalled 5.4 million t in fiscal year 2012-2013 and 3.2 million t year 2013-2014 for Punjab and Haryana jointly. The Indian National Food Security Ordinance entitles ~ 820 million of India's poor to purchase about 60 kg of rice/wheat per person annually at subsidized rates. The scheme requires 27.6 Mt of wheat and 33.6 Mt of rice per year. Mitigation of ozone related crop production losses in Punjab and Haryana alone could provide >50% of the wheat and ~10% of the rice required for the scheme. The total economic cost losses in Punjab and Haryana amounted to USD 6.5 billion in the fiscal year 2012-2013 and USD 3.7 billion in the fiscal year 2013-2014. This economic loss estimate represents a very conservative lower limit based on the minimum support price of the crop, which is lower than the actual production costs. The upper limit for ozone related crop yield losses in entire India currently amounts to 3.5-20% of India's GDP. Mitigation of high surface ozone

  9. Numerical Study of Heat Transfer during Artificial Ground Freezing Combined with Groundwater Flow based on in-situ Measurement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, R.; Liu, Q.

    2016-12-01

    For civil engineering projects, especially in the subsurface with groundwater, the artificial ground freezing (AGF) method has been widely used. Commonly, a refrigerant is circulated through a pre-buried pipe network to form a freezing wall to support the construction. In many cases, the temperature change is merely considered as a result of simple heat conduction. However, the influence of the water-ice phase change on the flow properties should not be neglected, if large amount of groundwater with high flow velocities is present. In this work, we perform a 2D modelling (software: Comsol Multiphysics) of an AFG project of a metro tunnel in Southern China, taking groundwater flow into account. The model is validated based on in-situ measurement of groundwater flow and temperature. We choose a cross section of this horizontal AGF project and set up a model with horizontal groundwater flow normal to the axial of the tunnel. The Darcy velocity is a coupling variable and related to the temperature field. During the phase change of the pore water and the decrement of permeability in freezing zone, we introduce a variable of effective hydraulic conductivity which is described by a function of temperature change. The energy conservation problem is solved by apparent heat capacity method and the related parameter change is described by a step function (McKenzie, et. al. 2007). The results of temperature contour maps combined with groundwater flow velocity at different times indicate that the freezing wall appears in an asymmetrical shape along the groundwater flow direction. It forms slowly and on the upstream side the thickness of the freezing wall is thinner than that on the downstream side. The closure time of the freezing wall increases at the middle of the both up and downstream sides. The average thickness of the freezing wall on the upstream side is mostly affected by the groundwater flow velocity. With the successful validation of this model, this numerical

  10. Infrared reflection properties and modelling of in situ reflection measurements on plasma-facing materials in Tore Supra

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reichle, R; Desgranges, C; Faisse, F; Pocheau, C; Lasserre, J-P; Oelhoffen, F; Eupherte, L; Todeschini, M

    2009-01-01

    Tore Supra has-like ITER-reflecting internal surfaces, which can perturb the machine protection systems based on infrared (IR) thermography. To ameliorate this situation, we have measured and modelled in the 3-5 μm wavelength range the bi-directional reflection distribution function (BRDF) of wall material samples from Tore Supra and conducted in situ reflection measurements and simulated them with the CEA COSMOS code. BRDF results are presented for B 4 C and carbon fibre composite (CFC) tiles. The hemispherical integrated reflection ranges from 0.12 for the B 4 C sample to 0.39 for a CFC tile from the limiter erosion zone. In situ measurements of the IR reflection of a blackbody source off an ICRH and an LHCD antenna of Tore Supra are well reproduced by the simulation.

  11. Infrared reflection properties and modelling of in situ reflection measurements on plasma-facing materials in Tore Supra

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reichle, R; Desgranges, C; Faisse, F; Pocheau, C [CEA, IRFM, F-13108 Saint-Paul-lez-Durance (France); Lasserre, J-P; Oelhoffen, F; Eupherte, L; Todeschini, M [CEA, DAM, CESTA, F-33114 Le Barp (France)

    2009-12-15

    Tore Supra has-like ITER-reflecting internal surfaces, which can perturb the machine protection systems based on infrared (IR) thermography. To ameliorate this situation, we have measured and modelled in the 3-5 {mu}m wavelength range the bi-directional reflection distribution function (BRDF) of wall material samples from Tore Supra and conducted in situ reflection measurements and simulated them with the CEA COSMOS code. BRDF results are presented for B{sub 4}C and carbon fibre composite (CFC) tiles. The hemispherical integrated reflection ranges from 0.12 for the B{sub 4}C sample to 0.39 for a CFC tile from the limiter erosion zone. In situ measurements of the IR reflection of a blackbody source off an ICRH and an LHCD antenna of Tore Supra are well reproduced by the simulation.

  12. Analysis of the Functional Independence Measure Value of Cervical Spine Injury Patients with Conservative Management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Zafrullah Arifin

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Analysis of the Functional Independence Measure Value of Cervical Spine Injury Patients with Conservative Management. Cervical spine injury is one of the most common spinal cord injuries in trauma patients. From 100,000 spinal cord injury cases reported in the United States of America (2008, sixty seven percent involve cervical spine injury. American Spinal Cord Injury Association (ASIA impairment score is used as an initial assessment but not enough attention prognostic outcome of these patients was paid to. The objective of this study is to analyze the value of functional independence measure (FIM cervical spine injury patients with conservative management and its correlation with age, sex, type of trauma, onset of trauma, cervical abnormalities, type of cervical spine lesion and ASIA impairment score. A prospective cohort study was performed to all patients with cervical spine injury treated inNeurosurgery Department of Dr. Hasan Sadikin Hospital Bandung that fullfiled the inclusion criteria. The subjects were classified based on age, sex, single/multiple trauma, acute /chronic, cervical abnormalities, complete/incomplete lesion and ASIA impairment score. The FIM examination was performed in Outpatient clinic of Neurosurgery. T-test and chi-square test was done to analyze the data. There were 17 cervical spine injury patients treated in Neurosurgery Department of Dr. Hasan Sadikin Hospital during April 2009–April 2010. The average FIM value of cervical spine injury in those patients is 4+ 1.63 by cohort prospective study. There were no correlation between FIM value with age, sex, type of trauma, onset of trauma and cervical abnormalities. Significant correlations were found between FIM value with type of cervical spine lesion and ASIA impairment score in cervical spine patients. Type of cervical spine lesion and ASIA impairment score have significant correlation with FIM value of patients in 6 months after cervical injury.

  13. New Platforms for Suborbital Astronomical Observations and In Situ Atmospheric Measurements: Spacecraft, Instruments, and Facilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodway, K.; DeForest, C. E.; Diller, J.; Vilas, F.; Sollitt, L. S.; Reyes, M. F.; Filo, A. S.; Anderson, E.

    2014-12-01

    Suborbital astronomical observations have over 50 years' history using NASA's sounding rockets and experimental space planes. The new commercial space industry is developing suborbital reusable launch vehicles (sRLV's) to provide low-cost, flexible, and frequent access to space at ~100 km altitude. In the case of XCOR Aerospace's Lynx spacecraft, the vehicle design and capabilities work well for hosting specially designed experiments that can be flown with a human-tended researcher or alone with the pilot on a customized mission. Some of the first-generation instruments and facilities that will conduct solar observations on dedicated Lynx science missions include the SwRI Solar Instrument Pointing Platform (SSIPP) and Atsa Suborbital Observatory, as well as KickSat sprites, which are picosatellites for in situ atmospheric and solar phenomena measurements. The SSIPP is a demonstration two-stage pointed solar observatory that operates inside the Lynx cockpit. The coarse pointing stage includes the pilot in the feedback loop, and the fine stage stabilizes the solar image to achieve arcsecond class pointing. SSIPP is a stepping-stone to future external instruments that can operate with larger apertures and shorter wavelengths in the solar atmosphere. The Planetary Science Institute's Atsa Suborbital Observatory combines the strengths of ground-based observatories and space-based observing to create a facility where a telescope is maintained and used interchangeably with either in-house facility instruments or user-provided instruments. The Atsa prototype is a proof of concept, hand-guided camera that mounts on the interior of the Lynx cockpit to test target acquisition and tracking for human-operated suborbital astronomy. KickSat sprites are mass-producible, one inch printed circuit boards (PCBs) populated by programmable off the shelf microprocessors and radios for real time data transmission. The sprite PCBs can integrate chip-based radiometers, magnetometers

  14. Chlorine and Sulfur Volatiles from in Situ Measurements of Martian Surface Materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, B. C.

    2014-12-01

    A sentinel discovery by the first in situ measurements on Mars was the high sulfur and chlorine content of global-wide soils. A variety of circumstantial evidence led to the conclusion that soil S is in the form of sulfate, and the Cl is probably chloride. An early hypothesis states that these volatiles are emitted as gases from magmas, and quickly react with dust, soil, and exposed rocks. Subsequent determination that SNC meteorites are also samples of the martian crust revealed a significantly higher S content, as sulfide, than terrestrial igneous rocks but substantially less than in soils. The ensuing wet chemical analyses by the high-latitude Phoenix mission discovered not only chloride but also perchlorate and possibly chlorate. MSL data now also implicate perchlorate at low latitudes. Gaseous interactions may have produced amorphous material on grain surfaces without forming stoichiometric salts. Yet, when exposed to liquid water, Phoenix samples released electrolytes, indicating that the soils have not been leached by rain or fresh groundwater. Sulfate occurrences at many locations on Mars, as well as some chloride enrichments, have now been discovered by remote sensing, Landed missions have discovered Cl-enrichments and ferric, Mg, Ca and more complex sulfates as duricrust, subsurface soil horizons, sandstone evaporites, and rock coatings - most of which cannot be detected from orbit. Salt-forming volatiles affect habitability wherever they are in physical contact: physicochemical parameters (ionic strength, freezing point, water activity); S is an essential element for terrestrial organisms; perchlorate is an oxidant which can degrade some organics but also can be utilized as an energy source; the entire valence range of S-compounds has been exploited by diverse microbiota on Earth. Whether such salt-induced conditions are "extremes" of habitability depends on the relative abundance of liquid H2O.

  15. [In-situ measurement of atmospheric methyl chloroform at the Shangdianzi GAW regional background station].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yao, Bo; Zhou, Ling-Xi; Liu, Zhao; Zhang, Gen; Xia, Ling-Jun

    2014-07-01

    An in-situ GC-ECD monitoring system was established at the Shangdianzi GAW regional background station (SDZ) for a 2-year atmospheric methyl chloroform (CH3CCl3) measurement experiment. Robust extraction of baseline signal filter was applied to the CH3CCl3 time series to separate the background and pollution data. The yearly averaged background mixing ratios of atmospheric CH3CCl3 were (9.03 +/- 0.53) x 10(-12) mol x mol(-1) in 2009 and (7.73 +/- 0.47) x 10(-12) in 2010, and the percentages of the background data in the whole data were 61.1% in 2009 and 60.4% in 2010, respectively. The yearly background CH3CCl3 mixing ratios at SDZ were consistent with the northern hemisphere background levels observed at Mace Head and Trinidad Head stations, but lower than the results observed at sites in southern China and some Chinese cities from 2001 to 2005. During the study period, background mixing ratios trends exhibited a decreasing rate of 1.39 x 10 12(-12) a(-1). The wind direction with the maximum CH3CCl3 mixing ratio was from the southwest sector and that with the minimum ratio was from the northeast sector. The differences between the maximum and the minimum average mixing ratios in the 16 wind directions were 0.77 x 10(-12) (2009) and 0.52 x 10(-12) (2010). In the 16 different wind directions, the averaged mixing ratio of CH3CCl3 in 2010 was lower than that in 2009 by 1.03 x 10(-12) -1.68 x 10(-12).

  16. Simultaneous Investigation of Sediment Transport and Water Quality Parameters Using An In Situ Measurement Device

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prochnow, J. V.

    Though quality of surface waters has improved remarkably over the last twenty years, the contaminant load of soft cohesive sediments remained comparatively unimproved. That is why the new European water framework directive addresses contaminant loaded sediments and postulates criteria for assessing sediment quality. Surveys into contaminated sediment behaviour have revealed adsorption/desorption characteristics of individual toxins. Biomonitoring of pollutant pressure on specific benthic organ- isms on the other hand can be useful to elucidate potential dangers to aquatic ecosys- tems. However, it is yet unknown how a given contaminant loaded sediment will re- spond to different hypercritical flow conditions in terms of release rates and partition- ing of xenobiotica. On this account a small in situ measuring device (EROSIMESS) was constructed, that features simultaneous determination of suspended sediment con- centration (optical turbidity meter), dissolved oxygen levels, pH and temperature (membrane probes) under predefined hydraulic conditions. Samples of the suspen- sion can be withdrawn for subsequent chemical analysis. Bottom shear stresses up to 5N/m2 can be generated by means of a propeller that resides in cylindrical perspex tube (erosion chamber) two centimeters above the sediment bed. Baffles on the in- ner wall of the cylinder prevent a solid body rotation of the suspension by creating additional turbulence and a second propeller straight beneath the concentration me- ter inhibits the development of a concentration gradient within the chamber. A small CCD-camera is used to control positioning of the device. It can be used in water- depths up to 5m. The control unit consists of a trigger box and an ordinary laptop computer running LabView. EROSIMESS has been successfully used in various stud- ies on contaminant release, eutrophication, and SOD (sediment oxygen demand) in rivers (Spree: Germany; Maun: UK), reservoirs (Heimbach, Haus Ley: Germany), and

  17. Development of the DGT technique for in-situ Pu speciation measurements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cusnir, R.; Bochud, F.; Froidevaux, P. [Institute of Radiation Physics, Lausanne University Hospital, Rue du Grand-Pre 1, CH-1007 Lausanne (Switzerland); Steinmann, P. [Federal Office of Public Health, Swarzenburgstrasse 165, CH-3003 Bern (Switzerland)

    2014-07-01

    Toxic effects of artificial radionuclides are strongly dependent on the surrounding chemical environment which determines the bioavailability of contaminant species. Speciation of plutonium in the environment is of particular interest since it is a long-life actinide contributing to the dose exposure via ingestion with water and food in case of radioactive discharge. Furthermore, natural colloids present in waters, as main carriers of dissolved trace metals, can transport plutonium over significant distances from contaminated sites. The diffusive gradients in thin films (DGT) technique is an efficient instrument for passive sampling of trace metals. It allows for in-situ monitoring of mean concentrations of bioavailable contaminant species (1). A DGT sampler consists of two gel layers: a polyacrylamide hydrogel diffusion layer allowing to diffuse labile metal species to the second, binding layer, impregnated with ion-exchange resin. Resin elution and further analysis allow determining the amount of the bioavailable fraction of trace metals in the bulk solution, which can be calculated from the relationship: C{sub bulk}= (M x Δg)/(D x t x A) where M is the measured metal species inventory in the resin, Δg the thickness of the diffusion layer, D the diffusion coefficient of the species in the gel, t the time of deployment, A the diffusion area. To our knowledge, the DGT has not yet been applied for Pu speciation measurements and the D value is unknown. Here we propose the use of DGT to monitor the dissolved phase and labile complexes of plutonium in the aquatic environment. We have first measured the diffusion coefficient of plutonium in the hydrogel. Experiments were carried out in a diffusion cell (2) and with commercially available DGT samplers exposed in standardized solutions containing {sup 239}Pu at pico-molar concentrations. Both approaches give comparable D values in the range of 2.30 x 10{sup -6} - 2.45 x 10{sup -6} cm{sup 2} s{sup -1}. We then studied

  18. Gravimetric and volumetric approaches adapted for hydrogen sorption measurements with in situ conditioning on small sorbent samples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Poirier, E.; Chahine, R.; Tessier, A.; Bose, T.K.

    2005-01-01

    We present high sensitivity (0 to 1 bar, 295 K) gravimetric and volumetric hydrogen sorption measurement systems adapted for in situ sample conditioning at high temperature and high vacuum. These systems are designed especially for experiments on sorbents available in small masses (mg) and requiring thorough degassing prior to sorption measurements. Uncertainty analysis from instrumental specifications and hydrogen absorption measurements on palladium are presented. The gravimetric and volumetric systems yield cross-checkable results within about 0.05 wt % on samples weighing from (3 to 25) mg. Hydrogen storage capacities of single-walled carbon nanotubes measured at 1 bar and 295 K with both systems are presented

  19. Long-term Outcomes of Hypofractionation Versus Conventional Radiation Therapy After Breast-Conserving Surgery for Ductal Carcinoma In Situ of the Breast

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lalani, Nafisha; Paszat, Lawrence; Sutradhar, Rinku; Thiruchelvam, Deva; Nofech-Mozes, Sharon; Hanna, Wedad; Slodkowska, Elzbieta; Done, Susan J.; Miller, Naomi; Youngson, Bruce; Tuck, Alan; Sengupta, Sandip; Elavathil, Leela; Chang, Martin C.; Jani, Prashant A.; Bonin, Michel

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: Whole-breast radiation therapy (XRT) after breast-conserving surgery (BCS) for ductal carcinoma in situ (DCIS) may decrease the risk of local recurrence, but the optimal dose regimen remains unclear. Past studies administered 50 Gy in 25 fractions (conventional); however, treatment pattern studies report that hypofractionated (HF) regimens (42.4 Gy in 16 fractions) are frequently used. We report the impact of HF (vs conventional) on the risk of local recurrence after BCS for DCIS. Methods and Materials: All women with DCIS treated with BCS and XRT in Ontario, Canada from 1994 to 2003 were identified. Treatment and outcomes were assessed through administrative databases and validated by chart review. Survival analyses were performed. To account for systematic differences between women treated with alternate regimens, we used a propensity score adjustment approach. Results: We identified 1609 women, of whom 971 (60%) received conventional regimens and 638 (40%) received HF. A total of 489 patients (30%) received a boost dose, of whom 143 (15%) received conventional radiation therapy and 346 (54%) received HF. The median follow-up time was 9.2 years. The median age at diagnosis was 56 years (interquartile range [IQR], 49-65 years). On univariate analyses, the 10-year actuarial local recurrence–free survival was 86% for conventional radiation therapy and 89% for HF (P=.03). On multivariable analyses, age <45 years (hazard ratio [HR] = 2.4; 95% CI: 1.6-3.4; P<.0001), high (HR=2.9; 95% CI: 1.2-7.3; P=.02) or intermediate nuclear grade (HR=2.7; 95% CI: 1.1-6.6; P=.04), and positive resection margins (HR=1.4; 95% CI: 1.0-2.1; P=.05) were associated with an increased risk of local recurrence. HF was not significantly associated with an increased risk of local recurrence compared with conventional radiation therapy on multivariate analysis (HR=0.8; 95% CI: 0.5-1.2; P=.34). Conclusions: The risk of local recurrence among individuals treated with HF regimens

  20. Long-term Outcomes of Hypofractionation Versus Conventional Radiation Therapy After Breast-Conserving Surgery for Ductal Carcinoma In Situ of the Breast

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lalani, Nafisha; Paszat, Lawrence [University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario (Canada); Department of Radiation Oncology, Sunnybrook Health Sciences Centre, Toronto, Ontario (Canada); Institute for Clinical Evaluative Sciences, Toronto, Ontario (Canada); Sutradhar, Rinku; Thiruchelvam, Deva [Institute for Clinical Evaluative Sciences, Toronto, Ontario (Canada); Nofech-Mozes, Sharon; Hanna, Wedad; Slodkowska, Elzbieta [University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario (Canada); Department of Anatomic Pathology, Sunnybrook Health Sciences Centre and Department of Laboratory Medicine and Pathobiology, Toronto, Ontario (Canada); Done, Susan J. [University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario (Canada); Laboratory Medicine Program, University Health Network and Department of Laboratory Medicine and Pathobiology, Campbell Family Institute for Breast Cancer Research, Toronto, Ontario (Canada); Miller, Naomi; Youngson, Bruce [University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario (Canada); Laboratory Medicine Program, University Health Network and Department of Laboratory Medicine and Pathobiology, Toronto, Ontario (Canada); Tuck, Alan [Pathology and Laboratory Medicine, London Health Sciences Centre and Saint Joseph' s Health Care, London, Ontario (Canada); Sengupta, Sandip [Department of Pathology and Molecular Medicine, Kingston General Hospital, Kingston, Ontario (Canada); Elavathil, Leela [Department of Anatomical Pathology, Juravinski Hospital, Hamilton Health Sciences, Hamilton, Ontario (Canada); Chang, Martin C. [Department of Pathology and Laboratory Medicine, Mount Sinai Hospital and Department of Laboratory Medicine and Pathobiology, Toronto, Ontario (Canada); Jani, Prashant A. [Department of Anatomical Pathology, Thunder Bay Regional Health Sciences Centre, Thunder Bay, Ontario (Canada); Bonin, Michel [Pathology and Laboratory Medicine, Sudbury Regional Hospital, Sudbury, Ontario (Canada); and others

    2014-12-01

    Purpose: Whole-breast radiation therapy (XRT) after breast-conserving surgery (BCS) for ductal carcinoma in situ (DCIS) may decrease the risk of local recurrence, but the optimal dose regimen remains unclear. Past studies administered 50 Gy in 25 fractions (conventional); however, treatment pattern studies report that hypofractionated (HF) regimens (42.4 Gy in 16 fractions) are frequently used. We report the impact of HF (vs conventional) on the risk of local recurrence after BCS for DCIS. Methods and Materials: All women with DCIS treated with BCS and XRT in Ontario, Canada from 1994 to 2003 were identified. Treatment and outcomes were assessed through administrative databases and validated by chart review. Survival analyses were performed. To account for systematic differences between women treated with alternate regimens, we used a propensity score adjustment approach. Results: We identified 1609 women, of whom 971 (60%) received conventional regimens and 638 (40%) received HF. A total of 489 patients (30%) received a boost dose, of whom 143 (15%) received conventional radiation therapy and 346 (54%) received HF. The median follow-up time was 9.2 years. The median age at diagnosis was 56 years (interquartile range [IQR], 49-65 years). On univariate analyses, the 10-year actuarial local recurrence–free survival was 86% for conventional radiation therapy and 89% for HF (P=.03). On multivariable analyses, age <45 years (hazard ratio [HR] = 2.4; 95% CI: 1.6-3.4; P<.0001), high (HR=2.9; 95% CI: 1.2-7.3; P=.02) or intermediate nuclear grade (HR=2.7; 95% CI: 1.1-6.6; P=.04), and positive resection margins (HR=1.4; 95% CI: 1.0-2.1; P=.05) were associated with an increased risk of local recurrence. HF was not significantly associated with an increased risk of local recurrence compared with conventional radiation therapy on multivariate analysis (HR=0.8; 95% CI: 0.5-1.2; P=.34). Conclusions: The risk of local recurrence among individuals treated with HF regimens

  1. Outcome and prognostic factors for local recurrence in mammographically detected ductal carcinoma in situ of the breast treated with conservative surgery and radiation therapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    White, Julia; Levine, Alan; Gustafson, Gregory; Wimbish, Kathryn; Ingold, John; Pettinga, Jane; Matter, Richard; Martinez, Alvaro; Vicini, Frank

    1995-02-15

    Purpose: We have retrospectively reviewed our institution's experience treating a predominantly mammographically detected population of ductal carcinoma in situ (DCIS) patients with conservative surgery and radiation therapy (CSRT) to determine outcome and prognostic factors for local recurrence. Methods and Materials: Between January 1, 1982 and December 31, 1988, 52 consecutive cases of DCIS of the breast were treated with CSRT at William Beaumont Hospital. Forty-six (88%) were mammographically detected nonpalpable lesions. All patients underwent at least an excisional biopsy and 28 (54%) were reexcised. The axilla was surgically staged in 41 (79%) and all were N0. The entire breast was irradiated to 45-50 Gy over 5-6 weeks. The tumor bed was boosted in 49 (94%) so that the minimum dose was 60 Gy. The three patients not boosted received a minimum dose of 50 Gy to the entire breast. Pathologic materials were reviewed by one of the authors. Results: The predominant DCIS pattern was comedo in 40%, cribriform in 28%, solid in 17%, and micropapillary in 15%. The predominant nuclear grade was Grade I in 51%, Grade II in 49%, and Grade III in 0%. The median follow-up is 68 months. There have been three recurrences in the treated breast at a median time to failure of 30 months. The 5- and 8-year actuarial local recurrence rate is 6%. One patient recurred with invasive ductal cancer at 28 months, and the other two recurrences were DCIS at 30 and 50 months. All three patients were treated with salvage mastectomy. The patient who recurred locally with an invasive cancer developed metastasis and died at 64 months. The 5- and 8-year actuarial cause-specific survival rates are 100% and 97%, respectively. The following pathologic factors were analyzed for an association with local recurrence: predominant DCIS histology, predominant nuclear grade, and highest nuclear grade. Of these, the predominant nuclear grade was the best predictor of local recurrence (p = 0.070). No

  2. Measured energy savings and cost-effectiveness of conservation retrofits in commercial buildings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Greely, K.M.; Harris, J.P.; Hatcher, A.M.

    1990-01-01

    In this study, the authors examine the measured savings and cost-effectiveness of 447 commercial retrofit projects in the US, Canada, and Europe, representing over 1,700 buildings. For these projects, they examine savings and cost-effectiveness by building type and retrofit strategy, savings from individual measures, peak electric demand savings, comparisons of measured vs. predicted savings, and the persistence of savings in the years following a retrofit. Median annual site energy savings amounted to 20 kBtu/ft 2 , or 18% of whole-building usage; median retrofit cost was $0.56/ft 2 (1988 $), the median payback time was 3.1 years, and the median cost of conserved energy was $3.10/site MBtu. When examined by retrofit strategy, they found that projects with only HVAC and/or lighting retrofits had median payback times of one to three years, while those affecting the building shell, either alone or in combination with other types of measures, had payback times of five or more years. Projects in which only maintenance practices were changed typically saved 12% of their pre-retrofit consumption, often using in-house labor. Their research suggests that, despite significant savings and short payback times for the majority of projects, optimum savings are often not being achieved, due to limited owner willingness to invest in all cost-effective measures, as well as to improper retrofit installation and/or maintenance. A comprehensive understanding of energy management as a process is needed, including both inspection and commissioning of installed retrofits and ongoing tracking of energy consumption as an indicator of operating problems

  3. Thermal simulation of drift emplacement (TSS): In-situ instrumentation and numerical modeling of stress measurement methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heusermann, S.

    1988-01-01

    In the course of the planned demonstration test Thermal Simulation of Drift Emplacement (TSS) BGR is carrying out in-situ-measurements of rock stresses, rock deformability and permeability of salt rock and backfill material. The following techniques developed and proved by BGR during the last years are planned to be used in the TSS project: overcoring technique, dilatometer technique, hard inclusion technique, slot-cutting techniques, large-flatjack technique, compensation tests in laboratory, vacuum tests, injection tests, and tracer tests. The purpose of measurements is to determine: the initial stress state; stress gradients around test drifts; stress change caused by mining activities, by creep and stress relaxation and by temperature; the in-situ load-deformation behavior of rock salt; the permeability of rock salt around test drifts; the compaction behavior of backfill material; and the load-deformation behavior of rock salt and borehole grout in laboratory tests

  4. In situ growth rate measurements during plasma-enhanced chemical vapour deposition of vertically aligned multiwall carbon nanotube films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Joensson, M; Nerushev, O A; Campbell, E E B

    2007-01-01

    In situ laser reflectivity measurements are used to monitor the growth of multiwalled carbon nanotube (MWCNT) films grown by DC plasma-enhanced chemical vapour deposition (PECVD) from an iron catalyst film deposited on a silicon wafer. In contrast to thermal CVD growth, there is no initial increase in the growth rate; instead, the initial growth rate is high (as much as 10 μm min -1 ) and then drops off rapidly to reach a steady level (2 μm min -1 ) for times beyond 1 min. We show that a limiting factor for growing thick films of multiwalled nanotubes (MWNTs) using PECVD can be the formation of an amorphous carbon layer at the top of the growing nanotubes. In situ reflectivity measurements provide a convenient technique for detecting the onset of the growth of this layer

  5. In Situ Measurement of Discomfort Curves for Seated Subjects in a Car on the Four-Post Rig

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Ibicek

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study is to measure and quantify perceived intensity of discomfort due to vibration in a vehicle in situ considering complete vehicle dynamic behaviour. The shaker table based discomfort curves or the road test results may not accurately and universally indicate the true level of human discomfort in a vehicle. A new experimental method, using a seated human in a car on the four-post rig simulator, is proposed to quantify discomfort. The intensity of perception to vibration decreased with decreasing input and increasing frequency; the rate of change is different from the published literature; the difference is large for angular modes of inputs. Vehicle dynamic response is used to inform and analyse the results. The repeatability of the method and the fact that they are in situ measurements may eventually help reduce reliance on the road tests. Furthermore, discomfort curves obtained, subsequently, can be used in predictive models.

  6. In-situ measurements of the ATLAS large-radius jet response in 13 TeV pp collisions

    CERN Document Server

    The ATLAS collaboration

    2017-01-01

    The response of the ATLAS experiment to groomed large (R=1.0) radius jets is measured {\\em in-situ} with 33 fb−1 of "$\\sqrt$"=13 TeV LHC proton--proton collisions collected in 2016. Results from several methods are combined. The jet transverse momentum scale and resolution are measured in events where the jet recoils against a reference object, either a calibrated photon, another jet, or a recoiling system of jets. The jet mass is constrained using mass peaks formed by boosted W-bosons and top quarks and by comparison to the jet mass calculated with track jets. Generally, the Monte Carlo description is found to be adequate. Small discrepancies are incorporated as {\\em in-situ} corrections. The constraint on the transverse momentum scale is 1-2% for pT< 2 TeV, that on the mass scale 2-4%. The pT (mass) resolution is constrained to 10% (20%).

  7. In Situ Stoichiometry in a Large River: Continuous Measurement of Doc, NO3 and PO4 in the Sacramento River

    Science.gov (United States)

    Downing, B. D.; Pellerin, B. A.; Bergamaschi, B. A.; Saraceno, J.

    2011-12-01

    Studying controls on geochemical processes in rivers and streams is difficult because concentration and composition often changes rapidly in response to physical and biological forcings. Understanding biogeochemical dynamics in rivers will improve current understanding of the role of watershed sources to carbon cycling, river and stream ecology, and loads to estuaries and oceans. Continuous measurements of dissolved organic carbon (DOC), nitrate (NO3-) and soluble reactive phosphate (SRP) concentrations are now possible, along with some information about DOC composition. In situ sensors designed to measure these constituents provide high frequency, real-time data that can elucidate hydrologic and biogeochemical controls which are difficult to detect using more traditional sampling approaches. Here we present a coupled approach, using in situ optical instrumentation with discharge measurements to provide quantitative estimates of constituent loads to investigate C, NO3- and SRP sources and processing in the Sacramento River, CA, USA. Continuous measurement of DOC concentration was conducted by use of a miniature in situ fluorometer (Turner Designs Cyclops) designed to measure chromophoric dissolved organic matter fluorescence (FDOM) over the course of an entire year. Nitrate was measured concurrently using a Satlantic SUNA and phosphate was measured using a WETLabs model Cycle-P instrument for a two week period in July 2011. Continuous measurement from these instruments paired with continuous measurement of physical water quality variables such as temperature, pH, specific conductance, dissolved oxygen, and turbidity, were used to investigate physical and chemical dynamics of DOC, NO3-, SRP over varying time scales. Deploying these instruments at pre-existing USGS discharge gages allowed for calculation of instantaneous and integrated constituent fluxes, as well as filling in gaps in our understanding biogeochemical processes and transport. Results from the study

  8. A new project, SPIRALE. Balloon-borne in situ multi-component measurement using infrared diode lasers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moreau, G.; Pirre, M.; Robert, C. [Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique (CNRS), 45 - Orleans-la-Source (France); Rosier, B.; Louvet, Y.; Ramaroson, R. [Office National d`Etudes et de Recherches Aerospatiales, 91 - Palaiseau (France); Peyret, C.C. [Universite Pierre et Marie Curie, 75 - Paris (France); Macleod, Y. [Universite Pierreet Marie Curie, 75 - Paris (France); Courtois, D. [Reims Univ., 51 (France). Faculte des Sciences

    1997-12-31

    The scientific goals and the description of a new experiment for stratospheric studies SPIRALE are presented which is a balloon-borne instrument, able to measure in situ several air components (up to 10). Infrared diode laser spectroscopy is applied for monitoring simultaneously atmospheric trace gases at high rate. Its specificity, sensitivity, and wide range of compounds to which it can be applied is described. (R.P.) 5 refs.

  9. A new project, SPIRALE. Balloon-borne in situ multi-component measurement using infrared diode lasers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moreau, G; Pirre, M; Robert, C [Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique (CNRS), 45 - Orleans-la-Source (France); Rosier, B; Louvet, Y; Ramaroson, R [Office National d` Etudes et de Recherches Aerospatiales, 91 - Palaiseau (France); Peyret, C C [Universite Pierre et Marie Curie, 75 - Paris (France); Macleod, Y [Universite Pierreet Marie Curie, 75 - Paris (France); Courtois, D [Reims Univ., 51 (France). Faculte des Sciences

    1998-12-31

    The scientific goals and the description of a new experiment for stratospheric studies SPIRALE are presented which is a balloon-borne instrument, able to measure in situ several air components (up to 10). Infrared diode laser spectroscopy is applied for monitoring simultaneously atmospheric trace gases at high rate. Its specificity, sensitivity, and wide range of compounds to which it can be applied is described. (R.P.) 5 refs.

  10. Effect of In-Situ Cure on Measurement of Glass Transition Temperatures in High-Temperature Thermosetting Polymers (Briefing Charts)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-05-20

    TEMPERATURES IN HIGH-TEMPERATURE THERMOSETTING POLYMERS 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER In-House 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6. AUTHOR(S) 5d...temperature thermosetting polymer via dynamic mechanical analysis alone. These difficulties result from the residual cure of samples heated beyond their...98) Prescribed by ANSI Std. 239.18 Effect of In-Situ Cure on Measurement of Glass Transition Temperatures in High-Temperature Thermosetting

  11. In-situ neutron diffraction measurements of temperature and stresses during friction stir welding of 6061-T6 aluminum alloy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Woo, Wan Chuck; Feng, Zhili; Wang, Xun-Li; Brown, D.W.; Clausen, B.; An, Ke; Choo, Hahn; Hubbard, Camden R.; David, Stan A.

    2007-01-01

    The evolution of temperature and thermal stresses during friction stir welding of Al6061-T6 was investigated by means of in-situ, time-resolved neutron diffraction technique. A method is developed to deconvolute the temperature and stress from the lattice spacing changes measured by neutron diffraction. The deep penetration capability of neutrons made it possible for the first time to obtain the temperature and thermal stresses inside a friction stir weld

  12. Calibration of HPGe detector for in situ measurements of 137Cs in soil by 'peak to valley' method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fueloep, M.

    2000-01-01

    The contamination of soil with gamma-ray emitters can be measured in two ways: soil sampling method and in situ spectrometry of the ambient gamma-ray radiation. The conventional soil sampling method has two disadvantages: samples may not be representative for a large areas and determination of the depth distribution of radionuclide requires the measurement of several samples taken from different depths. In situ measurement of a radionuclide activity in soil is more sensitive and provides more representative data than data obtained by soil sample collection and subsequent laboratory analysis. In emergency situations time to assess the contamination is critical. For rapid assessment of the deposited activity direct measurement of ambient gamma-ray radiation are used. In order to obtain accurate measurements of radionuclides in the soil, the detector should be placed on relatively even and open terrain. It is our customary practice to place the detector 1 m above the soil surface. At this height, a tripod-mounted detector can be handled easily and still provide a radius of view for gamma emitting sources out to about 10 m. The 'field of view' actually varies, being somewhat larger for higher sources. Depending upon source energy, the detector effectively sees down to a depth of 15-30 cm. Commonly used method for field gamma spectrometry is method by Beck (1). The most important disadvantages of in situ spectrometry by Beck are that the accuracy of the analysis depends on a separate knowledge of the radioactivity distribution with soil depth. This information can be obtained by calculations using data from in situ measurements and energy dependence of absorption and scattering of photons in soil and track length distribution of photons in soil (2). A method of in situ measurements of 137 Cs in soil where radionuclide distribution in soil profile is calculated by unfolding of detector responses in the full energy peak net area at 0.662 MeV and in the valley under the

  13. Contractility of the guinea pig bladder measured in situ and in vitro

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J.M. Groen (Jan); R. van Mastrigt (Ron); J.L.H.R. Bosch (Ruud)

    1994-01-01

    textabstractTo study the relative importance of neurogenic factors in detrusor contractility and to relate a total bladder in vitro contractility model to a previously described bladder wall strip model, active intravesical pressure values were compared in situ and in vitro in eight male guinea

  14. Ground-Based Remote or In Situ Measurement of Vertical Profiles of Wind in the Lower Troposphere

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Clifton, Andrew; Newman, Jennifer

    2017-02-24

    Knowledge of winds in the lower troposphere is essential for a range of applications, including weather forecasting, transportation, natural hazards, and wind energy. This presentation focuses on the measurement of vertical profiles of wind in the lower troposphere for wind energy applications. This presentation introduces the information that wind energy site development and operations require, how it used, and the benefits and problems of current measurements from in-situ measurements and remote sensing. The development of commercial Doppler wind lidar systems over the last 10 years are shown, along with the lessons learned from this experience. Finally, potential developments in wind profiling aimed at reducing uncertainty and increasing data availability are introduced.

  15. [Thermal energy utilization analysis and energy conservation measures of fluidized bed dryer].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xing, Liming; Zhao, Zhengsheng

    2012-07-01

    To propose measures for enhancing thermal energy utilization by analyzing drying process and operation principle of fluidized bed dryers,in order to guide optimization and upgrade of fluidized bed drying equipment. Through a systematic analysis on drying process and operation principle of fluidized beds,the energy conservation law was adopted to calculate thermal energy of dryers. The thermal energy of fluidized bed dryers is mainly used to make up for thermal consumption of water evaporation (Qw), hot air from outlet equipment (Qe), thermal consumption for heating and drying wet materials (Qm) and heat dissipation to surroundings through hot air pipelines and cyclone separators. Effective measures and major approaches to enhance thermal energy utilization of fluidized bed dryers were to reduce exhaust gas out by the loss of heat Qe, recycle dryer export air quantity of heat, preserve heat for dry towers, hot air pipes and cyclone separators, dehumidify clean air in inlets and reasonably control drying time and air temperature. Such technical parameters such air supply rate, air inlet temperature and humidity, material temperature and outlet temperature and humidity are set and controlled to effectively save energy during the drying process and reduce the production cost.

  16. Energy conservation measures in an institutional building in sub-tropical climate in Australia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rahman, M.M.; Rasul, M.G.; Khan, M.M.K.

    2010-01-01

    In this study, various energy conservation measures (ECMs) on heating, ventilating and air conditioning (HVAC) and lighting systems for a four-storied institutional building in sub-tropical (hot and humid climate) Queensland, Australia are evaluated using the simulation software called DesignBuilder (DB). Base case scenario of energy consumption profiles of existing systems are analysed and simulated first then, the simulated results are verified by on-site measured data. Three categories of ECMs, namely major investment ECMs (variable air volume (VAV) systems against constant air volume (CAV); and low coefficient of performance (COP) chillers against high COP chillers); minor investment ECMs (photo electric dimming control system against general lighting, and double glazed low emittance windows against single-glazed windows) and zero investment ECMs (reset heating and cooling set point temperatures) are evaluated. It is found that the building considered in this study can save up to 41.87% energy without compromising occupancies thermal comfort by implementing the above mentioned ECMs into the existing system.

  17. A new ball-on-disk vacuum tribometer with in situ measurement of the wear track by digital holographic microscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meylan, B.; Ciani, D.; Zhang, B.; Cuche, E.; Wasmer, K.

    2017-12-01

    This contribution presents a new ball-on-disk vacuum tribometer with in situ measurement of the wear track by digital holographic microscopy. This new tribometer allows observation of the evolution of the wear track in situ and in real-time. The method combines a high vacuum high temperature ball-on-disk tribometer with a digital holographic microscope (DHM). The machine was tested and validated by taking DHM images during wear tests at room temperature and in vacuum at 2 · 10-6 of polished 100Cr6 steel disks. We demonstrated that the DHM system is well suited to monitor the evolution of the wear track during sliding. We found that, with an acquisition time of 0.1 ms for the DHM, the maximal linear speed is 10 cm s-1 to have reliable images. We proved, via scanning electron microscope (SEM) pictures, that the lines in the sliding direction in all DHM images exist. We also validated the new tribometer by having an excellent correlation between the images and profiles of the wear track taken by the DHM with the ones from a confocal microscope. Finally, the new tribometer combined with the DHM has four advantages. It can test under vacuum and various atmospheric conditions. The evolution of the wear track is measured in situ and in real-time. Hence, the problem of replacing the sample is avoided. Thanks to the DHM technology, the vertical accuracy of the topographical measurement is 4 nm.

  18. In Situ Local Measurement of Austenite Mechanical Stability and Transformation Behavior in Third-Generation Advanced High-Strength Steels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abu-Farha, Fadi; Hu, Xiaohua; Sun, Xin; Ren, Yang; Hector, Louis G.; Thomas, Grant; Brown, Tyson W.

    2018-05-01

    Austenite mechanical stability, i.e., retained austenite volume fraction (RAVF) variation with strain, and transformation behavior were investigated for two third-generation advanced high-strength steels (3GAHSS) under quasi-static uniaxial tension: a 1200 grade, two-phase medium Mn (10 wt pct) TRIP steel, and a 980 grade, three-phase TRIP steel produced with a quenching and partitioning heat treatment. The medium Mn (10 wt pct) TRIP steel deforms inhomogeneously via propagative instabilities (Lüders and Portevin Le Châtelier-like bands), while the 980 grade TRIP steel deforms homogenously up to necking. The dramatically different deformation behaviors of these steels required the development of a new in situ experimental technique that couples volumetric synchrotron X-ray diffraction measurement of RAVF with surface strain measurement using stereo digital image correlation over the beam impingement area. Measurement results with the new technique are compared to those from a more conventional approach wherein strains are measured over the entire gage region, while RAVF measurement is the same as that in the new technique. A determination is made as to the appropriateness of the different measurement techniques in measuring the transformation behaviors for steels with homogeneous and inhomogeneous deformation behaviors. Extension of the new in situ technique to the measurement of austenite transformation under different deformation modes and to higher strain rates is discussed.

  19. In situ measurements of cloud microphysics and aerosol over coastal Antarctica during the MAC campaign

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Shea, Sebastian J.; Choularton, Thomas W.; Flynn, Michael; Bower, Keith N.; Gallagher, Martin; Crosier, Jonathan; Williams, Paul; Crawford, Ian; Fleming, Zoë L.; Listowski, Constantino; Kirchgaessner, Amélie; Ladkin, Russell S.; Lachlan-Cope, Thomas

    2017-11-01

    During austral summer 2015, the Microphysics of Antarctic Clouds (MAC) field campaign collected unique and detailed airborne and ground-based in situ measurements of cloud and aerosol properties over coastal Antarctica and the Weddell Sea. This paper presents the first results from the experiment and discusses the key processes important in this region, which is critical to predicting future climate change. The sampling was predominantly of stratus clouds, at temperatures between -20 and 0 °C. These clouds were dominated by supercooled liquid water droplets, which had a median concentration of 113 cm-3 and an interquartile range of 86 cm-3. Both cloud liquid water content and effective radius increased closer to cloud top. The cloud droplet effective radius increased from 4 ± 2 µm near cloud base to 8 ± 3 µm near cloud top. Cloud ice particle concentrations were highly variable with the ice tending to occur in small, isolated patches. Below approximately 1000 m, glaciated cloud regions were more common at higher temperatures; however, the clouds were still predominantly liquid throughout. When ice was present at temperatures higher than -10 °C, secondary ice production most likely through the Hallett-Mossop mechanism led to ice concentrations 1 to 3 orders of magnitude higher than the number predicted by commonly used primary ice nucleation parameterisations. The drivers of the ice crystal variability are investigated. No clear dependence on the droplet size distribution was found. The source of first ice in the clouds remains uncertain but may include contributions from biogenic particles, blowing snow or other surface ice production mechanisms. The concentration of large aerosols (diameters 0.5 to 1.6 µm) decreased with altitude and were depleted in air masses that originated over the Antarctic continent compared to those more heavily influenced by the Southern Ocean and sea ice regions. The dominant aerosol in the region was hygroscopic in nature, with

  20. Dynamics behind warming of the southeastern Arabian Sea and its interruption based on in situ measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mathew, Simi; Natesan, Usha; Latha, Ganesan; Venkatesan, Ramasamy

    2018-05-01

    A study of the inter-annual variability of the warming of the southeastern Arabian Sea (SEAS) during the spring transition months was carried out from 2013 to 2015 based on in situ data from moored buoys. An attempt was made to identify the roles of the different variables in the warming of the SEAS (e.g., net heat flux, advection, entrainment, and thickness of the barrier layer during the previous northeast monsoon season). The intense freshening of the SEAS (approximately 2 PSU) occurring in each December, together with the presence of a downwelling Rossby wave, supports the formation of a thick barrier layer during the northeast monsoon season. It is known that the barrier layer thickness, varying each year, plays a major role in the spring warming of the SEAS. Interestingly, an anomalously thick barrier layer occurred during the northeast monsoon season of 2012-2013. However, the highest sea surface temperature (31 °C) was recorded during the last week of April 2015, while the lowest sea surface temperature (29.7 °C) was recorded during the last week of May 2013. The mixed layer heat budget analysis during the spring transition months proved that the intense warming has been mainly supported by the net heat flux, not by other factors like advection and entrainment. The inter-annual variability analysis of the net heat flux and its components, averaged over a box region of the SEAS, showed a substantial latent heat flux release and a reduction in net shortwave radiation in 2013. Both factors contributed to the negative net heat flux. Strong breaks in the warming were also observed in May due to the entrainment of cold sub-surface waters. These events are associated with the cyclonic eddy persisting over the SEAS during the same time. The entrainment term, favoring the cooling, was stronger in 2015 than that in 2013 and 2014. The surface temperatures measured in 2013 were lower than those in 2014 and 2015 despite the presence of a thick barrier layer. The

  1. In situ airborne measurements of aerosol optical properties during photochemical pollution events

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mallet, M.; van Dingenen, R.; Roger, J. C.; Despiau, S.; Cachier, H.

    2005-02-01

    Dry aerosol optical properties (scattering, absorbing coefficients, and single scattering albedo) were derived from in situ airborne measurements during two photochemical pollution events (25 and 26 June) observed during the Experience sur Site pour Contraindre les Modeles de Pollution atmospherique et de Transport d'Emissions (ESCOMPTE) experiment. Two flights were carried out during daytime (one during the morning and one at noon) over a domain, allowing the investigation of how an air pollution event affects the particle optical properties. Both horizontal distribution and vertical profiles are presented. Results from the horizontal mapping show that plumes of enhanced scattering and absorption are formed in the planetary boundary layer (PBL) during the day in the sea breeze-driven outflow of the coastal urban-industrial area of Marseille-Fos de Berre. The domain-averaged scattering coefficient (at 550 nm) over land σs changes from 35 (28) Mm-1 during land breeze to 63 (43) Mm-1 during sea breeze on 25 June (26 June), with local maxima reaching > 100 Mm-1. The increase in the scattering coefficient is associated with new particle formation, indicative of secondary aerosol formation. Simultaneously, the domain-averaged absorption coefficient increases from 5.6 (3.4) Mm-1 to 9.3 (8.0) Mm-1. The pollution plume leads to strong gradients in the single scattering albedo ωo over the domain studied, with local values as low as 0.73 observed inside the pollution plume. The role of photochemistry and secondary aerosol formation during the 25 June case is shown to increase ωo and to make the aerosol more `reflecting' while the plume moves away from the sources. The lower photochemical activity, observed in the 26 June case, induces a relatively higher contribution of black carbon, making the aerosol more absorbing. Results from vertical profiles at a single near-urban location in the domain indicate that the changes in optical properties happen almost entirely within

  2. Micro-Membrane Electrode Assembly Design to Precisely Measure the in Situ Activity of Oxygen Reduction Reaction Electrocatalysts for PEMFC.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Long, Zhi; Li, Yankai; Deng, Guangrong; Liu, Changpeng; Ge, Junjie; Ma, Shuhua; Xing, Wei

    2017-06-20

    An in situ micro-MEA technique, which could precisely measure the performance of ORR electrocatalyst using Nafion as electrolyte, was designed and compared with regular thin-film rotating-disk electrode (TFRDE) (0.1 M HClO 4 ) and normal in situ membrane electrode assembly (MEA) tests. Compared to the traditional TFRDE method, the micro-MEA technique makes the acquisition of catalysts' behavior at low potential values easily achieved without being limited by the solubility of O 2 in water. At the same time, it successfully mimics the structure of regular MEAs and obtains similar results to a regular MEA, thus providing a new technique to simply measure the electrode activity without being bothered by complicated fabrication of regular MEA. In order to further understand the importance of in situ measurement, Fe-N-C as a typical oxygen reduction reaction (ORR) free-Pt catalyst was evaluated by TFRDE and micro-MEA. The results show that the half wave potential of Fe-N-C only shifted negatively by -135 mV in comparison with state-of-the-art Pt/C catalysts from TFRDE tests. However, the active site density, mass transfer of O 2 , and the proton transfer conductivity are found to strongly influence the catalyst activity in the micro-MEA, thereby resulting in a much lower limiting current density than Pt/C (8.7 times lower). Hence, it is suggested that the micro-MEA is better in evaluating the in situ ORR performance, where the catalysts are characterized more thoroughly in terms of intrinsic activity, active site density, proton transfer, and mass transfer properties.

  3. Concentrating or scattering management in agricultural landscapes : Examining the effectiveness and efficiency of conservation measures

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hammers, Martijn; Muskens, Gerard; Van Kats, Ruud J. M.; Teunissen, Wolf A.; Kleijn, David

    A key issue in conservation is where and how much management should be implemented to obtain optimal biodiversity benefits. Cost-effective conservation requires knowledge on whether biodiversity benefits are higher when management is concentrated in a few core areas or scattered across the

  4. Comparison of ambient aerosol extinction coefficients obtained from in-situ, MAX-DOAS and LIDAR measurements at Cabauw

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Zieger

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available In the field, aerosol in-situ measurements are often performed under dry conditions (relative humidity RH<30–40%. Since ambient aerosol particles experience hygroscopic growth at enhanced RH, their microphysical and optical properties – especially the aerosol light scattering – are also strongly dependent on RH. The knowledge of this RH effect is of crucial importance for climate forcing calculations or for the comparison of remote sensing with in-situ measurements. Here, we will present results from a four-month campaign which took place in summer 2009 in Cabauw, The Netherlands. The aerosol scattering coefficient σsp(λ was measured dry and at various, predefined RH conditions between 20 and 95% with a humidified nephelometer. The scattering enhancement factor f(RH,λ is the key parameter to describe the effect of RH on σsp(λ and is defined as σsp(RH,λ measured at a certain RH divided by the dry σsp(dry,λ. The measurement of f(RH,λ together with the dry absorption measurement (assumed not to change with RH allows the determination of the actual extinction coefficient σep(RH,λ at ambient RH. In addition, a wide range of other aerosol properties were measured in parallel. The measurements were used to characterize the effects of RH on the aerosol optical properties. A closure study showed the consistency of the aerosol in-situ measurements. Due to the large variability of air mass origin (and thus aerosol composition a simple parameterization of f(RH,λ could not be established. If f(RH,λ needs to be predicted, the chemical composition and size distribution need to be known. Measurements of four MAX-DOAS (multi-axis differential optical absorption spectroscopy instruments were used to retrieve vertical profiles of σep(λ. The values of the lowest layer were compared to the in-situ values after conversion of the latter ones to ambient

  5. In situ measurement of the efficiency of filtration installations in the nuclear industry by the soda-fluorescein (uranin) aerosol method: AFNOR standard NFX 44.011

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dupoux, J.

    1981-01-01

    The in situ measurement of the efficiency of filtering installations in the French nuclear industry using the soda-fluorescein (uraniun) aerosol method is presented. A brief description and the interest of the method are discussed. Its use for the location of defects in filter elements and for in situ control of casing with tandem HEPA filter stages is described

  6. Classicality condition on a system observable in a quantum measurement and a relative-entropy conservation law

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuramochi, Yui; Ueda, Masahito

    2015-03-01

    We consider the information flow on a system observable X corresponding to a positive-operator-valued measure under a quantum measurement process Y described by a completely positive instrument from the viewpoint of the relative entropy. We establish a sufficient condition for the relative-entropy conservation law which states that the average decrease in the relative entropy of the system observable X equals the relative entropy of the measurement outcome of Y , i.e., the information gain due to measurement. This sufficient condition is interpreted as an assumption of classicality in the sense that there exists a sufficient statistic in a joint successive measurement of Y followed by X such that the probability distribution of the statistic coincides with that of a single measurement of X for the premeasurement state. We show that in the case when X is a discrete projection-valued measure and Y is discrete, the classicality condition is equivalent to the relative-entropy conservation for arbitrary states. The general theory on the relative-entropy conservation is applied to typical quantum measurement models, namely, quantum nondemolition measurement, destructive sharp measurements on two-level systems, a photon counting, a quantum counting, homodyne and heterodyne measurements. These examples except for the nondemolition and photon-counting measurements do not satisfy the known Shannon-entropy conservation law proposed by Ban [M. Ban, J. Phys. A: Math. Gen. 32, 1643 (1999), 10.1088/0305-4470/32/9/012], implying that our approach based on the relative entropy is applicable to a wider class of quantum measurements.

  7. The environmental radiation monitoring system and in-situ measurements for early notification and OIL (Operational Intervention Levels) calculations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haquin, G.; Ne'eman, E.; Brenner, S.; Lavi, N.

    1997-01-01

    The efficiency of the environmental radiation monitoring, low level laboratory and in-situ gamma-ray spectrometry are evaluated as the systems for early notification and for determination of dose rate in air, surface contamination and activity concentration in food during emergencies for Operational Intervention Levels (OIL) recalculation.The National Environmental Radiation Monitoring System has proved its efficiency in the early detection of unregistered radiography work. A mobile station of the network can be used for absorbed dose rate measurement during emergencies in contaminated areas. The calibrated in-situ gamma-ray spectrometry system in an open phosphate ore mine has showed the efficiency of this technique for fast and accurate determination of soil activity concentration. The calibration for an uniform depth distribution can be easily mathematically converted to an exponential depth distribution in cases of radioactive material fallout

  8. In-Situ Investigation of Strain-Induced Martensitic Transformation Kinetics in an Austenitic Stainless Steel by Inductive Measurements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carola Celada-Casero

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available An inductive sensor developed by Philips ATC has been used to study in-situ the austenite (γ to martensite (α′ phase transformation kinetics during tensile testing in an AISI 301 austenitic stainless steel. A correlation between the sensor output signal and the volume fraction of α′-martensite has been found by comparing the results to the ex-situ characterization by magnetization measurements, light optical microscopy, and X-ray diffraction. The sensor has allowed for the observation of the stepwise transformation behavior, a not-well-understood phenomena that takes place in large regions of the bulk material and that so far had only been observed by synchrotron X-ray diffraction.

  9. In situ shape and distance measurements in neutron scattering and diffraction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fujiwara, Satoru; Mendelson, R.A. [Univ. of California, San Francisco, CA (United States)

    1994-12-31

    Neutron scattering combined with selective isotopic labeling and contrast matching is useful for obtaining in situ structural information about a selected particle, or particles, in a macromolecular complex. The observed intensities, however, may be distorted by inter-complex interference and by scattering-length-density fluctuations of the (otherwise) contrast-matched portions. Methods have been proposed to cancel out such distortions (Hoppe`s method, the Statistical Labeling Method, and the Triple Isotopic Substitution Method). With these methods as well as related unmixed-sample methods, structural information about the selected particles can be obtained without these distortions. We have generalized these methods so that, in addition to globular particles in solution, they can be applied to in situ structures of systems having underlying symmetry and/or net orientation as well. The information obtainable from such experiments is discussed.

  10. In situ shape and distance measurements in neutron scattering and diffraction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fujiwara, Satoru; Mendelson, R.A.

    1994-01-01

    Neutron scattering combined with selective isotopic labeling and contrast matching is useful for obtaining in situ structural information about a selected particle, or particles, in a macromolecular complex. The observed intensities, however, may be distorted by inter-complex interference and by scattering-length-density fluctuations of the (otherwise) contrast-matched portions. Methods have been proposed to cancel out such distortions (Hoppe's method, the Statistical Labeling Method, and the Triple Isotopic Substitution Method). With these methods as well as related unmixed-sample methods, structural information about the selected particles can be obtained without these distortions. We have generalized these methods so that, in addition to globular particles in solution, they can be applied to in situ structures of systems having underlying symmetry and/or net orientation as well. The information obtainable from such experiments is discussed

  11. In situ stress and pore pressure in the Kumano Forearc Basin, offshore SW Honshu from downhole measurements during riser drilling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saffer, D. M.; Flemings, P. B.; Boutt, D.; Doan, M.-L.; Ito, T.; McNeill, L.; Byrne, T.; Conin, M.; Lin, W.; Kano, Y.; Araki, E.; Eguchi, N.; Toczko, S.

    2013-05-01

    situ stress and pore pressure are key parameters governing rock deformation, yet direct measurements of these quantities are rare. During Integrated Ocean Drilling Program (IODP) Expedition #319, we drilled through a forearc basin at the Nankai subduction zone and into the underlying accretionary prism. We used the Modular Formation Dynamics Tester tool (MDT) for the first time in IODP to measure in situ minimum stress, pore pressure, and permeability at 11 depths between 729.9 and 1533.9 mbsf. Leak-off testing at 708.6 mbsf conducted as part of drilling operations provided a second measurement of minimum stress. The MDT campaign included nine single-probe (SP) tests to measure permeability and in situ pore pressure and two dual-packer (DP) tests to measure minimum principal stress. Permeabilities defined from the SP tests range from 6.53 × 10-17 to 4.23 × 10-14 m2. Pore fluid pressures are near hydrostatic throughout the section despite rapid sedimentation. This is consistent with the measured hydraulic diffusivity of the sediments and suggests that the forearc basin should not trap overpressures within the upper plate of the subduction zone. Minimum principal stresses are consistently lower than the vertical stress. We estimate the maximum horizontal stress from wellbore failures at the leak-off test and shallow MDT DP test depths. The results indicate a normal or strike-slip stress regime, consistent with the observation of abundant active normal faults in the seaward-most part of the basin, and a general decrease in fault activity in the vicinity of Site C0009.

  12. Novel wireless sensors for in situ measurement of sub-ice hydrologic systems

    OpenAIRE

    Bagshaw, E; Lishman, B; Wadham, J; Bowden, J; Burrow, S; Clare, L; Chandler, D

    2014-01-01

    Wireless sensors have the potential to provide significant insight into in situ physical and biogeochemical processes in sub-ice hydrologic systems. However, the nature of the glacial environment means that sensor deployment and data return is challenging. We describe two bespoke sensor platforms, electronic tracers or ‘ETracers’, and ‘cryoegg’, for untethered, wireless data collection from glacial hydrologic systems, including subglacial channels. Both employ radio frequencies for data trans...

  13. Design of a new lithium ion battery test cell for in-situ neutron diffraction measurements

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Roberts, M.; Biendicho, J. J.; Hull, S.; Beran, Přemysl; Gustafsson, T.; Svensson, G.; Edstrom, K.

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 226, MAR 15 (2013), s. 249-255 ISSN 0378-7753 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(XE) LM2011019 Institutional support: RVO:61389005 Keywords : neutron * Lithium * LiFePO4 * diffraction * in situ Subject RIV: BM - Solid Matter Physics ; Magnetism Impact factor: 5.211, year: 2013 http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0378775312016515

  14. Measuring energy conservation on Nova Scotia (NS) farms: A 2004 to 2011 comparison

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bailey, J.A.; Duinker, P.; Amyotte, P.; Adams, M.; Khan, F.

    2016-01-01

    Many jurisdictions, including Nova Scotia (NS), have implemented policies and programs around energy. The NS government has targeted energy efficiency and more renewable energy as two main policy areas. The NS Department of Agriculture has taken initiative to provide support to implement energy conservation, energy efficiency and renewable energy opportunities in recent years but have these programs and policies been effective? A baseline energy use survey was conducted in 2005 and responses from mail surveys in 2012 (n = 273, 11.4% response rate) were used to measure the change in NS farm energy use data reported for 2004 and 2011. There have been significant reductions in energy use on NS farms. On average, NS farmers spent $8790 on energy expenses in 2011 compared to $11,228 in 2004. Adjusting for inflation, this is a 32% decrease, despite energy commodity pricing increases beyond the inflation rate. This is likely due to a decrease in energy use and a shift from gasoline use to diesel use. By the end of 2012, 36.0% of NS farmers (more than 860) had received some level of support to evaluate their energy options. This includes 410 energy audits compared to only 36 by the end of 2005. - Highlights: • Nova Scotia farmers decreased their energy costs by 32% between 2004 and 2011. • Energy reductions were likely due to decreased energy use and a shift in fuel use. • An estimated 374 NS farms had an energy audit between 2005 and 2012.

  15. The effect of building regulations and energy conservation measures in domestic sector on national energy consumption

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Samo, S.R.; Akhund, M.A.; Brohi, K.M.

    2004-01-01

    In England, housing accounts for some 30% of total fuel consumption and a similar proportion of energy-related carbon dioxide (CO/sub 2/) emission. A study has been conducted to analyse the effect of the legislations and UK thermal building regulations on national energy consumption in housing. This research paper presents data on the percentage of dwelling stock, the energy consumption, energy cost and carbon dioxide (CO/sub 2/) emission in different types of dwellings, which comply different building regulations from 1965 to 1995. It was found that. 66% of the dwelling stock, which comply the building Regulations before 1965, consumes 73% of total energy used in housing. This dwelling stock is also responsible for 75% of carbon dioxide (CO/sub 2/) emission. Whereas currently only 4% of the dwelling stock complies the latest building regulations 1995 which consume 2 % of energy and produce a similar percentage of carbon dioxide (CO/sub 2/) emission in housing. Since the large portion of the dwelling stock is comprised of old dwellings, therefore the greatest potential for energy conservation measures can be found in improving these dwellings instead of constructing new dwellings. (author)

  16. On the cross-sensitivity between water vapor mixing ratio and stable isotope measurements of in-situ analyzers

    KAUST Repository

    Parkes, Stephen

    2015-04-01

    In recent years there has been an increasing amount of water vapor stable isotope data collected using in-situ instrumentation. A number of papers have characterized the performance of these in-situ analyzers and suggested methods for calibrating raw measurements. The cross-sensitivity of the isotopic measurements on the mixing ratio has been shown to be a major uncertainty and a variety of techniques have been suggested to characterize this inaccuracy. However, most of these are based on relating isotopic ratios to water vapor mixing ratios from in-situ analyzers when the mixing ratio is varied and the isotopic composition kept constant. An additional correction for the span of the isotopic ratio scale is then applied by measuring different isotopic standards. Here we argue that the water vapor cross-sensitivity arises from different instrument responses (span and offset) of the parent H2O isotope and the heavier isotopes, rather than spectral overlap that could cause a true variation in the isotopic ratio with mixing ratio. This is especially relevant for commercial laser optical instruments where absorption lines are well resolved. Thus, the cross-sensitivity determined using more conventional techniques is dependent on the isotopic ratio of the standard used for the characterization, although errors are expected to be small. Consequently, the cross-sensitivity should be determined by characterizing the span and zero offset of each isotope mixing ratio. In fact, this technique makes the span correction for the isotopic ratio redundant. In this work we model the impact of changes in the span and offset of the heavy and light isotopes and illustrate the impact on the cross-sensitivity of the isotopic ratios on water vapor. This clearly shows the importance of determining the zero offset for the two isotopes. The cross-sensitivity of the isotopic ratios on water vapor is then characterized by determining the instrument response for the individual isotopes for a

  17. On the cross-sensitivity between water vapor mixing ratio and stable isotope measurements of in-situ analyzers

    KAUST Repository

    Parkes, Stephen; Wang,  Lixin; McCabe, Matthew

    2015-01-01

    In recent years there has been an increasing amount of water vapor stable isotope data collected using in-situ instrumentation. A number of papers have characterized the performance of these in-situ analyzers and suggested methods for calibrating raw measurements. The cross-sensitivity of the isotopic measurements on the mixing ratio has been shown to be a major uncertainty and a variety of techniques have been suggested to characterize this inaccuracy. However, most of these are based on relating isotopic ratios to water vapor mixing ratios from in-situ analyzers when the mixing ratio is varied and the isotopic composition kept constant. An additional correction for the span of the isotopic ratio scale is then applied by measuring different isotopic standards. Here we argue that the water vapor cross-sensitivity arises from different instrument responses (span and offset) of the parent H2O isotope and the heavier isotopes, rather than spectral overlap that could cause a true variation in the isotopic ratio with mixing ratio. This is especially relevant for commercial laser optical instruments where absorption lines are well resolved. Thus, the cross-sensitivity determined using more conventional techniques is dependent on the isotopic ratio of the standard used for the characterization, although errors are expected to be small. Consequently, the cross-sensitivity should be determined by characterizing the span and zero offset of each isotope mixing ratio. In fact, this technique makes the span correction for the isotopic ratio redundant. In this work we model the impact of changes in the span and offset of the heavy and light isotopes and illustrate the impact on the cross-sensitivity of the isotopic ratios on water vapor. This clearly shows the importance of determining the zero offset for the two isotopes. The cross-sensitivity of the isotopic ratios on water vapor is then characterized by determining the instrument response for the individual isotopes for a

  18. In-situ high-pressure measurements and detailed numerical predictions of the catalytic reactivity of methane over platinum

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reinke, M.; Mantzaras, I.; Schaeren, R.; Bombach, R.; Inauen, A.; Schenker, S.

    2003-03-01

    The catalytic reactivity of methane over platinum at pressures of up to 14 bar was evaluated with in-situ Raman measurements and detailed numerical predictions from two different heterogeneous chemical reaction schemes. The best agreement to the measurements was achieved with Deutschmann's reaction scheme that yielded the correct trend for the pressure dependence of the catalytic reactivity, although in absolute terms the reactivity was overpredicted. The catalytic reactivity was consistently underpredicted at all pressures with the reaction scheme of Vlachos. (author)

  19. Safety in conducting subcritical neutron-multiplication measurements in situ (Revision of N16.3-1969) - approved 1975

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1977-01-01

    The standard provides safety guidance for conducting subcritical neutron-multiplication measurements where physical protection of personnel against the consequences of a criticality accident is not provided. The objectives of in situ measurements are either to confirm an adequate safety margin or to improve an estimate of such a margin. The first objective may constitute a test of the criticality safety of a design that is based on calculations. The second may effect improved operating conditions by reducing the uncertainty of safety margins and providing guidance to new designs

  20. Measurement of in situ sulfur isotopes by laser ablation multi-collector ICPMS: opening Pandora’s Box

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ridley, William I.; Pribil, Michael; Koenig, Alan E.; Slack, John F.

    2015-01-01

    Laser ablation multi-collector ICPMS is a modern tool for in situ measurement of S isotopes. Advantages of the technique are speed of analysis and relatively minor matrix effects combined with spatial resolution sufficient for many applications. The main disadvantage is a more destructive sampling mechanism relative to the ion microprobe technique. Recent advances in instrumentation allow precise measurement with spatial resolutions down to 25 microns. We describe specific examples from economic geology where increased spatial resolution has greatly expanded insights into the sources and evolution of fluids that cause mineralization and illuminated genetic relations between individual deposits in single mineral districts.

  1. Applicability study of using in-situ gamma-ray spectrometry technique for 137Cs and 210Pbex inventories measurement in grassland environments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Junjie; Li Yong; Wang Yanglin; Wu Jiansheng

    2010-01-01

    In-situ measurement of fallout radionuclides 137 Cs and 210 Pb ex has the potential to assess soil erosion and sedimentation rapidly. In this study, inventories of 137 Cs and 210 Pb ex in the soil of Inner Mongolia grassland were measured using an In-situ Object Counting System (ISOCS). The results from the field study indicate that in-situ gamma-ray spectrometry has the following advantages over traditional laboratory measurements: no extra time is required for sample collection, no reference inventories are required, more economic, prompt availability of the results, the ability to average radionuclide inventory over a large area, and high precision.

  2. Integrating Multi-Sensor Remote Sensing and In-situ Measurements for Africa Drought Monitoring and Food Security Assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hao, X.; Qu, J. J.; Motha, R. P.; Stefanski, R.; Malherbe, J.

    2015-12-01

    Drought is one of the most complicated natural hazards, and causes serious environmental, economic and social consequences. Agricultural production systems, which are highly susceptible to weather and climate extremes, are often the first and most vulnerable sector to be affected by drought events. In Africa, crop yield potential and grazing quality are already nearing their limit of temperature sensitivity, and, rapid population growth and frequent drought episodes pose serious complications for food security. It is critical to promote sustainable agriculture development in Africa under conditions of climate extremes. Soil moisture is one of the most important indicators for agriculture drought, and is a fundamentally critical parameter for decision support in crop management, including planting, water use efficiency and irrigation. While very significant technological advances have been introduced for remote sensing of surface soil moisture from space, in-situ measurements are still critical for calibration and validation of soil moisture estimation algorithms. For operational applications, synergistic collaboration is needed to integrate measurements from different sensors at different spatial and temporal scales. In this presentation, a collaborative effort is demonstrated for drought monitoring in Africa, supported and coordinated by WMO, including surface soil moisture and crop status monitoring. In-situ measurements of soil moisture, precipitation and temperature at selected sites are provided by local partners in Africa. Measurements from the Soil Moisture and Ocean Salinity (SMOS) and the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) are integrated with in-situ observations to derive surface soil moisture at high spatial resolution. Crop status is estimated through temporal analysis of current and historical MODIS measurements. Integrated analysis of soil moisture data and crop status provides both in-depth understanding of drought conditions and

  3. Extinction-to-Backscatter Ratios of Saharan Dust Layers Derived from In-Situ Measurements and CALIPSO Overflights During NAMMA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Omar, Ali H.; Liu, Zhaoyan; Vaughan, Mark A.; Hu, Yongxiang; Ismail, Syed; Powell, Kathleen A.; Winker, David M.; Trepte, Charles R.; Anderson, Bruce E.

    2010-01-01

    We determine the aerosol extinction-to-backscatter (Sa) ratios of dust using airborne in-situ measurements of microphysical properties, and CALIPSO observations during the NASA African Monsoon Multidisciplinary Analyses (NAMMA). The NAMMA field experiment was conducted from Sal, Cape Verde during Aug-Sept 2006. Using CALIPSO measurements of the attenuated backscatter of lofted Saharan dust layers, we apply the transmittance technique to estimate dust Sa ratios at 532 nm and a 2-color method to determine the corresponding 1064 nm Sa. Using this method, we found dust Sa ratios of 39.8 plus or minus 1.4 sr and 51.8 plus or minus 3.6 sr at 532 nm and 1064 nm, respectively. Secondly, Sa ratios at both wavelengths is independently calculated using size distributions measured aboard the NASA DC-8 and estimates of Saharan dust complex refractive indices applied in a T-Matrix scheme. We found Sa ratios of 39.1 plus or minus 3.5 sr and 50.0 plus or minus 4 sr at 532 nm and 1064 nm, respectively, using the T-Matrix calculations applied to measured size spectra. Finally, in situ measurements of the total scattering (550 nm) and absorption coefficients (532 nm) are used to generate an extinction profile that is used to constrain the CALIPSO 532 nm extinction profile.

  4. In situ laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy measurements of chemical compositions in stainless steels during tungsten inert gas welding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taparli, Ugur Alp; Jacobsen, Lars; Griesche, Axel; Michalik, Katarzyna; Mory, David; Kannengiesser, Thomas

    2018-01-01

    A laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS) system was combined with a bead-on-plate Tungsten Inert Gas (TIG) welding process for the in situ measurement of chemical compositions in austenitic stainless steels during welding. Monitoring the weld pool's chemical composition allows governing the weld pool solidification behavior, and thus enables the reduction of susceptibility to weld defects. Conventional inspection methods for weld seams (e.g. ultrasonic inspection) cannot be performed during the welding process. The analysis system also allows in situ study of the correlation between the occurrence of weld defects and changes in the chemical composition in the weld pool or in the two-phase region where solid and liquid phase coexist. First experiments showed that both the shielding Ar gas and the welding arc plasma have a significant effect on the selected Cr II, Ni II and Mn II characteristic emissions, namely an artificial increase of intensity values via unspecific emission in the spectra. In situ investigations showed that this artificial intensity increase reached a maximum in presence of weld plume. Moreover, an explicit decay has been observed with the termination of the welding plume due to infrared radiation during sample cooling. Furthermore, LIBS can be used after welding to map element distribution. For austenitic stainless steels, Mn accumulations on both sides of the weld could be detected between the heat affected zone (HAZ) and the base material.

  5. In situ calibration of an interferometric velocity sensor for measuring small scale flow structures using a Talbot-pattern

    Science.gov (United States)

    König, Jörg; Czarske, Jürgen

    2017-10-01

    Small scale flow phenomena play an important role across engineering, biological and chemical sciences. To gain deeper understanding of the influence of those flow phenomena involved, measurement techniques with high spatial resolution are often required, presuming a calibration of very low uncertainty. To enable such measurements, a method for the in situ calibration of an interferometric flow velocity profile sensor is presented. This sensor, with demonstrated spatial resolution better than 1 μm, allows for spatially-resolving measurements with low velocity uncertainty in flows with high velocity gradients, on condition that the spatial behavior of the interference fringe systems is well-known by calibration with low uncertainty, especially challenging to obtain at applications with geometries difficult to access. The calibration method described herein uses three interfering beams to form the interference fringe systems of the sensor, yielding Doppler burst signals exhibiting two peaks in the frequency domain whose amplitude ratio varies periodically along the measurement volume major z-axis, giving a further independent value of the axial tracer particle position that can be used to determine the calibration functions of the sensor during the flow measurement. A flow measurement in a microchannel experimentally validates that the presented approach allows for simultaneously estimating the calibration functions and the velocity profile, providing flow measurements with very low systematic measurement errors of the particle position of less than 400 nm (confidence interval 95%). In that way, the interferometric flow velocity profile sensor utilizing the in situ self-calibration method promises valuable insights on small scale flow phenomena, such as those given in shear and boundary layer flows, by featuring reliable flow measurements due to minimum systematic and statistical measurement errors.

  6. IN SITU density measurements oozy bottom of the access channel to the port of Santos, Sao Paulo, Brazil; Medicoes de densidade IN SITU em fundo vasoso do canal de acesso ao Porto de Santos/SP

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Minardi, P S.P.

    1988-09-01

    The density of the bottom sediment of the access channel to the port of Santos, Sao Paulo, Brazil was measured. The in situ measurements aimed at verifying the use for navigation purposes of the layers with densities equal to or smaller than 1200 kg/m{sup 3}. (F.E.). 3 refs, 55 figs, 3 tabs.

  7. Characterization of Platinum Electrodes and In-situ Cell Confluency Measurement Based on Current Changes of Cell-Electrodes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chin Fhong SOON

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed at the development of a biosensor to examine the growth confluency of human derived keratinocytes (HaCaT cell lines in-situ. The biosensor consists of a sputter- coated glass substrate with platinum patterns. Cells were grown on the conductive substrates and the confluency of the cells were monitored in-situ based on the conductivity changes of the substrates. Characterization of the cell proliferation and confluency were interrogated using electrical cell-substrate impedance sensing (ECIS techniques and current change of cells using a pico-ammeter. The investigation was followed by the electrical characterization of the platinum electrode (PE using a two probe I-V measurement system. The surface morphology of platinum electrodes were studied using an atomic force microscopy (AFM and the HaCaT cell morphology was studied using Field-Emission Scanning Electron Microscopy (FE-SEM. The microscopy results showed that the cells coupled and proliferated on the platinum electrodes. For monitoring the conductivity and impedance changes of the cell-electrode in-situ, the cover of a Petri dish was inserted with pogo pins to be in contact with the platinum electrodes. The impedance was sampled using the ECIS technique at a twenty-four hour interval. In our findings, the cell proliferation rate can be measured by observing the changes in capacitance or impedance measured at low ac frequencies ranged from 10 - 1 kHz. In good agreement, the current measured at micro-ampere range by the biosensor decreased as the cell coverage area increased over the time. Thus, the percent of cell confluence was shown inversely proportional to the current changes.

  8. The “Flexi-Chamber”: A Novel Cost-Effective In Situ Respirometry Chamber for Coral Physiological Measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Camp, Emma F.; Krause, Sophie-Louise; Santos, Lourianne M. F.; Naumann, Malik S.; Kikuchi, Ruy K. P.; Smith, David J.; Wild, Christian; Suggett, David J.

    2015-01-01

    Coral reefs are threatened worldwide, with environmental stressors increasingly affecting the ability of reef-building corals to sustain growth from calcification (G), photosynthesis (P) and respiration (R). These processes support the foundation of coral reefs by directly influencing biogeochemical nutrient cycles and complex ecological interactions and therefore represent key knowledge required for effective reef management. However, metabolic rates are not trivial to quantify and typically rely on the use of cumbersome in situ respirometry chambers and/or the need to remove material and examine ex situ, thereby fundamentally limiting the scale, resolution and possibly the accuracy of the rate data. Here we describe a novel low-cost in situ respirometry bag that mitigates many constraints of traditional glass and plexi-glass incubation chambers. We subsequently demonstrate the effectiveness of our novel “Flexi-Chamber” approach via two case studies: 1) the Flexi-Chamber provides values of P, R and G for the reef-building coral Siderastrea cf. stellata collected from reefs close to Salvador, Brazil, which were statistically similar to values collected from a traditional glass respirometry vessel; and 2) wide-scale application of obtaining P, R and G rates for different species across different habitats to obtain inter- and intra-species differences. Our novel cost-effective design allows us to increase sampling scale of metabolic rate measurements in situ without the need for destructive sampling and thus significantly expands on existing research potential, not only for corals as we have demonstrated here, but also other important benthic groups. PMID:26448294

  9. In Situ Analytical Characterization of Contaminated Sites Using Nuclear Spectrometry Techniques. Review of Methodologies and Measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2017-01-01

    Past and current human activities can result in the contamination of sites by radionuclides and heavy metals. The sources of contamination are various. The most important sources for radionuclide release include global fallout from nuclear testing, nuclear and radiological accidents, waste production from nuclear facilities, and activities involving naturally occurring radioactive material (NORM). Contamination of the environment by heavy metals mainly originates from industrial applications and mineralogical background concentration. Contamination of sites by radionuclides and heavy metals can present a risk to people and the environment. Therefore, the estimation of the contamination level and the identification of the source constitute important information for the national authorities with the responsibility to protect people and the environment from adverse health effects. In situ analytical techniques based on nuclear spectrometry are important tools for the characterization of contaminated sites. Much progress has been made in the design and implementation of portable systems for efficient and effective monitoring of radioactivity and heavy metals in the environment directly on-site. Accordingly, the IAEA organized a Technical Meeting to review the current status and trends of various applications of in situ nuclear spectrometry techniques for analytical characterization of contaminated sites and to support Member States in their national environmental monitoring programmes applying portable instrumentation. This publication represents a comprehensive review of the in situ gamma ray spectrometry and field portable X ray fluorescence analysis techniques for the characterization of contaminated sites. It includes papers on the use of these techniques, which provide useful background information for conducting similar studies, in the following Member States: Argentina, Australia, Brazil, Czech Republic, Egypt, France, Greece, Hungary, Italy, Lithuania

  10. Performance of the In Situ Microcosm Technique for Measuring the Degradation of Organic Chemicals in Aquifers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Per H.; Christensen, Thomas Højlund; Albrechtsen, Hans-Jørgen

    1996-01-01

    chemicals in polluted and pristine aquifers representing different redox environments. The ISM technique has great potential for providing field-relevant degradation potentials and rate constants, but care must be taken in using the equipment and interpreting the results. This paper provides details......An in situ microcosm (ISM) consists of a stainless steel cylinder isolating about 2 L of the aquifer and is equipped with valves allowing for loading and sampling from the ground surface. During the last five years, this technique has been used frequently to study the degradation of organic...

  11. Service Life Prediction of Wood Claddings by in-situ Measurement of Wood Moisture Content

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Engelund, Emil Tang; Lindegaard, Berit; Morsing, Niels

    2009-01-01

    of wood moisture are done by in-situ resistance moisture meters (Lindegaard and Morsing 2006). The aim is that the test should form the basis of evaluation of the maintenance requirements and the prediction of service life of the surface treatment and the wood/construction. At the moment 60 test racks...... are exposed. This study examines the data from the first five years of outdoor exposure using data from a test rack with a water-borne acrylic coating and a test rack with ICP coating for case studies. The moisture content data was converted into weekly average and weekly variation values which gave a deeper...

  12. Assessment of crop yield losses in Punjab and Haryana using 2 years of continuous in situ ozone measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sinha, B.; Singh Sangwan, K.; Maurya, Y.; Kumar, V.; Sarkar, C.; Chandra, B. P.; Sinha, V.

    2015-08-01

    In this study we use a high-quality data set of in situ ozone measurements at a suburban site called Mohali in the state of Punjab to estimate ozone-related crop yield losses for wheat, rice, cotton and maize for Punjab and the neighbouring state Haryana for the years 2011-2013. We intercompare crop yield loss estimates according to different exposure metrics, such as AOT40 (accumulated ozone exposure over a threshold of 40) and M7 (mean 7-hour ozone mixing ratio from 09:00 to 15:59), for the two major crop growing seasons of kharif (June-October) and rabi (November-April) and establish a new crop-yield-exposure relationship for southern Asian wheat, maize and rice cultivars. These are a factor of 2 more sensitive to ozone-induced crop yield losses compared to their European and American counterparts. Relative yield losses based on the AOT40 metrics ranged from 27 to 41 % for wheat, 21 to 26 % for rice, 3 to 5 % for maize and 47 to 58 % for cotton. Crop production losses for wheat amounted to 20.8 ± 10.4 million t in the fiscal year of 2012-2013 and 10.3 ± 4.7 million t in the fiscal year of 2013-2014 for Punjab and Haryana taken together. Crop production losses for rice totalled 5.4 ± 1.2 million t in the fiscal year of 2012-2013 and 3.2 ± 0.8 million t in the year 2013-2014 for Punjab and Haryana taken together. The Indian National Food Security Ordinance entitles ~ 820 million of India's poor to purchase about 60 kg of rice or wheat per person annually at subsidized rates. The scheme requires 27.6 Mt of wheat and 33.6 Mt of rice per year. The mitigation of ozone-related crop production losses in Punjab and Haryana alone could provide > 50 % of the wheat and ~ 10 % of the rice required for the scheme. The total economic cost losses in Punjab and Haryana amounted to USD 6.5 ± 2.2 billion in the fiscal year of 2012-2013 and USD 3.7 ± 1.2 billion in the fiscal year of 2013-2014. This economic loss estimate represents a very conservative lower limit based on

  13. A propagation tool to connect remote-sensing observations with in-situ measurements of heliospheric structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rouillard, A. P.; Lavraud, B.; Génot, V.; Bouchemit, M.; Dufourg, N.; Plotnikov, I.; Pinto, R. F.; Sanchez-Diaz, E.; Lavarra, M.; Penou, M.; Jacquey, C.; André, N.; Caussarieu, S.; Toniutti, J.-P.; Popescu, D.; Buchlin, E.; Caminade, S.; Alingery, P.; Davies, J. A.; Odstrcil, D.; Mays, L.

    2017-11-01

    The remoteness of the Sun and the harsh conditions prevailing in the solar corona have so far limited the observational data used in the study of solar physics to remote-sensing observations taken either from the ground or from space. In contrast, the 'solar wind laboratory' is directly measured in situ by a fleet of spacecraft measuring the properties of the plasma and magnetic fields at specific points in space. Since 2007, the solar-terrestrial relations observatory (STEREO) has been providing images of the solar wind that flows between the solar corona and spacecraft making in-situ measurements. This has allowed scientists to directly connect processes imaged near the Sun with the subsequent effects measured in the solar wind. This new capability prompted the development of a series of tools and techniques to track heliospheric structures through space. This article presents one of these tools, a web-based interface called the 'Propagation Tool' that offers an integrated research environment to study the evolution of coronal and solar wind structures, such as Coronal Mass Ejections (CMEs), Corotating Interaction Regions (CIRs) and Solar Energetic Particles (SEPs). These structures can be propagated from the Sun outwards to or alternatively inwards from planets and spacecraft situated in the inner and outer heliosphere. In this paper, we present the global architecture of the tool, discuss some of the assumptions made to simulate the evolution of the structures and show how the tool connects to different databases.

  14. Advanced In Situ I-V Measurements Used in the Study of Porous Structures Growth on Silicon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amare Benor

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The rate of oxide formation during growth of pores structures on silicon was investigated by in situ I-V measurements. The measurements were designed to get two I-V curves in a short time (total time for the two measurements was 300 seconds taking into account the gap (in mA/cm2 for each corresponding voltage. The in situ I-V measurements were made at different pore depth/time, at the electrolyte-pore tip interface, while etching takes place based on p-type Si. The results showed increasing, decreasing, and constant I-V gap in time, for macropores, nanopores, and electropolishing regimes, respectively. This was related to the expected diffusion limitation of oxide forming (H2O molecules reaching the electrolyte-pore tip and the anodizing current, while etching takes place. The method can be developed further and has the potential to be applied in other electrochemically etched porous semiconductor materials.

  15. Characterizing the Asian Tropopause Aerosol Layer using in situ balloon measurements: the BATAL campaigns of 2014-2017

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fairlie, T. D.; Vernier, J. P.; Deshler, T.; Pandit, A. K.; Ratnam, M. V.; Gadhavi, H. S.; Liu, H.; Natarajan, M.; Jayaraman, A.; Kumar, S.; Singh, A. K.; Stenchikov, G. L.; Wienhold, F.; Vignelles, D.; Bedka, K. M.; Avery, M. A.

    2017-12-01

    We present in situ balloon observations of the Asian Tropopause Aerosol Layer (ATAL), a summertime accumulation of aerosols in the upper troposphere and lower stratosphere (UTLS), associated with Asian Summer Monsoon (ASM). The ATAL was first revealed by CALIPSO satellite data, and has been linked with deep convection of boundary layer pollution into the UTLS. The ATAL has potential implications for regional cloud properties, radiative transfer, and chemical processes in the UTLS. The "Balloon measurements of the Asian Tropopause Aerosol Layer (BATAL)" field campaigns to India and Saudi Arabia in were designed to characterize the physical and optical properties of the ATAL, to explore its composition, and its relationship with clouds in the UTLS. We launched 55 balloon flights from 4 locations, in summers 2014-2016. We return to India to make more balloon flights in summer 2017. Balloon payloads range from 500g to 50 kg, making measurements of meteorological parameters, ozone, water vapor, aerosol optical properties, concentration, volatility, and composition in the UTLS region. This project represents the most important effort to date to study UTLS aerosols during the ASM, given few in situ observations. We complement the in situ data presented with 3-d chemical transport simulations, designed to further explore the ATAL's chemical composition, the sensitivity of such to scavenging in parameterized deep convection, and the relative contribution of regional vs. rest-of-the-world pollution sources. The BATAL project has been a successful partnership between institutes in the US, India, Saudi Arabia, and Europe, and continues for the next 3-4 years, sponsored by the NASA Upper Atmosphere Research program. This partnership may provide a foundation for potential high-altitude airborne measurement studies during the ASM in the future.

  16. Retrieval of average CO2 fluxes by combining in situ CO2 measurements and backscatter lidar information

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gibert, Fabien; Schmidt, Martina; Cuesta, Juan; Ciais, Philippe; Ramonet, Michel; Xueref, IrèNe; Larmanou, Eric; Flamant, Pierre Henri

    2007-05-01

    The present paper deals with a boundary layer budgeting method which makes use of observations from various in situ and remote sensing instruments to infer regional average net ecosystem exchange (NEE) of CO2. Measurements of CO2 within and above the atmospheric boundary layer (ABL) by in situ sensors, in conjunction with a precise knowledge of the change in ABL height by lidar and radiosoundings, enable to infer diurnal and seasonal NEE variations. Near-ground in situ CO measurements are used to discriminate natural and anthropogenic contributions of CO2 diurnal variations in the ABL. The method yields mean NEE that amounts to 5 μmol m-2 s-1 during the night and -20 μmol m-2 s-1 in the middle of the day between May and July. A good agreement is found with the expected NEE accounting for a mixed wheat field and forest area during winter season, representative of the mesoscale ecosystems in the Paris area according to the trajectory of an air column crossing the landscape. Daytime NEE is seen to follow the vegetation growth and the change in the ratio diffuse/direct radiation. The CO2 vertical mixing flux during the rise of the atmospheric boundary layer is also estimated and seems to be the main cause of the large decrease of CO2 mixing ratio in the morning. The outcomes on CO2 flux estimate are compared to eddy-covariance measurements on a barley field. The importance of various sources of error and uncertainty on the retrieval is discussed. These errors are estimated to be less than 15%; the main error resulted from anthropogenic emissions.

  17. A comparison of analytical laboratory and optical in situ methods for the measurement of nitrate in north Florida water bodies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rozin, A. G.; Clark, M. W.

    2013-12-01

    Assessing the impact of nutrient concentrations on aquatic ecosystems requires an in depth understanding of dynamic biogeochemical cycles that are often a challenge to monitor at the high spatial and temporal resolution necessary to understand these complex processes. Traditional sampling approaches involving discrete samples and laboratory analyses can be constrained by analytical costs, field time, and logistical details that can fail to accurately capture both spatial and temporal changes. Optical in situ instruments may provide the opportunity to continuously monitor a variety of water quality parameters at a high spatial or temporal resolution. This work explores the suitability of a Submersible Ultraviolet Nitrate Analyzer (SUNA), produced by Satlantic, to accurately assess in situ nitrate concentration in several freshwater systems in north Florida. The SUNA was deployed to measure nitrate at five different water bodies selected to represent a range of watershed land uses and water chemistry in the region. In situ nitrate measurements were compared to standard laboratory methods to evaluate the effectiveness of the SUNA's operation. Other optical sensors were used to measure the spectral properties of absorbance, fluorescence, and turbidity (scatter) in the same Florida water bodies. Data from these additional sensors were collected to quantify possible interferences that may affect SUNA performance. In addition, data from the SUNA and other sensors are being used to infer information about the quality and quantity of aqueous constituents besides nitrate. A better understanding of the capabilities and possible limitations of these relatively new analytical instruments will allow researchers to more effectively investigate biogeochemical processes and nutrient transport and enhance decision-making to protect our water bodies.

  18. Lake Michigan sediments: in-situ tracer measurements using a rare-earth element

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krezoski, J.R.

    1985-01-01

    A rare-earth-element (REE) tracer technique is used to describe in-situ biogenic and physical sediment reworking in Green Bay, Lake Michigan. Europium, a stable, high neutron capture cross section REE, added as Eu 2 O 3 to the sediment-water interface of quadrants of natural bottom muds, served as a tracer of surficial sediment redistribution in an oligochaete-chironomid-sphaerid benthic community. Sixty days after applying a millimeter thick layer of Eu to the undisturbed sediments, divers collected cores from within and around the experimental quadrants that were sectioned in 1 cm intervals to 10 cm and were analyzed by neutron activation analysis. Minute amounts of the activated REE in the sediment, detectable through high resolution gamma spectroscopy, revealed significant burial (to 2.4 cm) and broadening of the marked layer. A calculated bio-diffusion coefficient (K/sub B/ = 2.26 +/- 1.56 x 10 -6 cm 2 sec -1 ), based on a model from earlier microcosm studies, compares remarkably well with experimentally determined values and represents the first application of this model to field data. The method provides reliable estimates of in-situ reworking rates and is more accurate than time-averaged geochronology studies which rely on atmospherically derived radionuclides

  19. The in-situ cometary particulate size distribution measured for one comet: P/Halley

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McDonnell, J.A.M.; Pankiewicz, G.S.

    1989-01-01

    The close approach of Giotto to comet Halley during its 1986 apparition offered an opportunity to study the particulate mass distribution to masses of up to one gram. Data acquired by the front end channels of the highly sensitive mass spectrometer PIA and the dust shield detector system, DIDSY, provide definition to the detected distribution as close as 1000 km to the nucleus. Dynamic motion of the particulates after emission leads to a spatial differentiation affecting the size distribution in several forms: (1) ejecta velocity dispersion; (2) radiation pressure; (3) varying heliocentric distance; and (4) anisotropic nucleus emission. Transformation of the in-situ distribution from PIA and DIDSY weighted heavily by the near-nucleus fluxes leads to a presumed nucleus distribution. The data lead to a puzzling distribution at large masses, not readily explained in an otherwise monotonous power law distribution. Although temporal changes in nucleus activity could and do modify the in-situ size distribution, such an explanation is not wholly possible, because the same form is observed at differing locations in the coma where the time of flight from the nucleus greatly varies. Thus neither a general change in comet activity nor spatial variations lead to a satisfactory explanation

  20. Comparison of Land Skin Temperature from a Land Model, Remote Sensing, and In-situ Measurement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Aihui; Barlage, Michael; Zeng, Xubin; Draper, Clara Sophie

    2014-01-01

    Land skin temperature (Ts) is an important parameter in the energy exchange between the land surface and atmosphere. Here hourly Ts from the Community Land Model Version 4.0, MODIS satellite observations, and in-situ observations in 2003 were compared. Compared with the in-situ observations over four semi-arid stations, both MODIS and modeled Ts show negative biases, but MODIS shows an overall better performance. Global distribution of differences between MODIS and modeled Ts shows diurnal, seasonal, and spatial variations. Over sparsely vegetated areas, the model Ts is generally lower than the MODIS observed Ts during the daytime, while the situation is opposite at nighttime. The revision of roughness length for heat and the constraint of minimum friction velocity from Zeng et al. [2012] bring the modeled Ts closer to MODIS during the day, and have little effect on Ts at night. Five factors contributing to the Ts differences between the model and MODIS are identified, including the difficulty in properly accounting for cloud cover information at the appropriate temporal and spatial resolutions, and uncertainties in surface energy balance computation, atmospheric forcing data, surface emissivity, and MODIS Ts data. These findings have implications for the cross-evaluation of modeled and remotely sensed Ts, as well as the data assimilation of Ts observations into Earth system models.

  1. In situ holographic measurements of the sizes and settling rates of oceanic particulates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carder, Kendall L.; Steward, Robert G.; Betzer, Peter R.

    1982-07-01

    A free-floating sediment trap equipped with a holographic particle velocimeter (HPV) was deployed for 14.4 hours at a depth of 30 m in the western North Atlantic Ocean. The system recorded the in situ sizes, shapes, orientations, and settling rates of microscopic particles moving through the laser beam. The primary data reduction revealed particles from the system's lower limit of resolution, 15 micrometers in diameter, to 250 micrometers in diameter with settling velocities ranging from 0.0190 to 0.2302 cm/s (16-198 m/day). Individual particle densities, calculated from a modified Stokes equation, ranged from 1.37 to 5.10 g/ml. The presence of high density particles was independently corroborated through individual particle analysis of the trapped material with a computer-controlled, scanning electron microscope equipped with an energy dispersive X-ray analyzer. In the future, in situ holographic systems might be used to further our understanding of primary productivity, sediment erosion/deposition, and particle aggregation/disruption/dissolution.

  2. The acoustics of public squares/places: A comparison between results from a computer simulation program and measurements in situ

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Paini, Dario; Rindel, Jens Holger; Gade, Anders

    2004-01-01

    or a band during, for instance, music summer festivals) and the best position for the audience. A further result could be to propose some acoustic adjustments to achieve better acoustic quality by considering the acoustic parameters which are typically used for concert halls and opera houses.......In the contest of a PhD thesis, in which the main purpose is to analyse the importance of the public square/place (“agora”) as a meeting point of sound and music, with particular regard to its use for concerts (amplified or not), a first step was done, making comparisons between measurement in situ...