Sample records for situ co2 mineralization

  1. Reduction of the greenhouse effect by geological mineral in-situ sequestration of CO2 in basic rocks: bibliographic synthesis and possibilities in France. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marechal, J.C.; Lachassagne, P.


    The report constitutes a first bibliographic study defining the environments the most adapted to the geological mineral in-situ sequestration of CO 2 . For each environment the lithology and the rocks permeability and porosity are analyzed. Thus the possible rocks and deposits in France are presented. (A.L.B.)

  2. In situ mid-infrared spectroscopic titration of forsterite with water in supercritical CO2: Dependence of mineral carbonation on quantitative water speciation (United States)

    Loring, J. S.; Thompson, C. J.; Wang, Z.; Schaef, H. T.; Martin, P.; Qafoku, O.; Felmy, A. R.; Rosso, K. M.


    Geologic sequestration of carbon dioxide holds promise for helping mitigate CO2 emissions generated from the burning of fossil fuels. Supercritical CO2 (scCO2) plumes containing variable water concentrations (wet scCO2) will displace aqueous solution and dominate the pore space adjacent to caprocks. It is important to understand possible mineral reactions with wet scCO2 to better predict long-term caprock integrity. We introduce novel in situ instrumentation that enables quantitative titrations of reactant minerals with water in scCO2 at temperatures and pressures relevant to target geologic reservoirs. The system includes both transmission and attenuated total reflection mid-infrared optics. Transmission infrared spectroscopy is used to measure concentrations of water dissolved in the scCO2, adsorbed on mineral surfaces, and incorporated into precipitated carbonates. Single-reflection attenuated total reflection infrared spectroscopy is used to monitor water adsorption, mineral dissolution, and carbonate precipitation reactions. Results are presented for the infrared spectroscopic titration of forsterite (Mg2SiO4), a model divalent metal silicate, with water in scCO2 at 100 bar and at both 50 and 75°C. The spectral data demonstrate that the quantitative speciation of water as either dissolved or adsorbed is important for understanding the types, growth rates, and amounts of carbonate precipitates formed. Relationships between dissolved/adsorbed water, water concentrations, and the role of liquid-like adsorbed water are discussed. Our results unify previous in situ studies from our laboratory based on infrared spectroscopy, nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy and X-ray diffraction.

  3. A method for permanent CO2 mineral carbonation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dahlin, David C.; O' Connor, William K.; Nilsen, David N.; Rush, G.E.; Walters, Richard P.; Turner, Paul C.


    The Albany Research Center (ARC) of the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) has been conducting research to investigate the feasibility of mineral carbonation as a method for carbon dioxide (CO2) sequestration. The research is part of a Mineral Carbonation Study Program within the Office of Fossil Energy in DOE. Other participants in this Program include DOE?s Los Alamos National Laboratory and National Energy Technology Laboratory, Arizona State University, and Science Applications International Corporation. The research has focused on ex-situ mineral carbonation in an aqueous system. The process developed at ARC reacts a slurry of magnesium silicate mineral with supercritical CO2 to produce a solid magnesium carbonate product. To date, olivine and serpentine have been used as the mineral reactant, but other magnesium silicates could be used as well. The process is designed to simulate the natural serpentinization reaction of ultramafic minerals, and consequently, these results may also be applicable to strategies for in-situ geological sequestration. Baseline tests were begun in distilled water on ground products of foundry-grade olivine. Tests conducted at 150 C and subcritical CO2 pressures (50 atm) resulted in very slow conversion to carbonate. Increasing the partial pressure of CO2 to supercritical (>73 atm) conditions, coupled with agitation of the slurry and gas dispersion within the water column, resulted in significant improvement in the extent of reaction in much shorter reaction times. A change from distilled water to a bicarbonate/salt solution further improved the rate and extent of reaction. When serpentine, a hydrated mineral, was used instead of olivine, extent of reaction was poor until heat treatment was included prior to the carbonation reaction. Removal of the chemically bound water resulted in conversion to carbonate similar to those obtained with olivine. Recent results have shown that conversions of nearly 80 pct are achievable after 30 minutes

  4. How much CO2 is trapped in carbonate minerals of a natural CO2 occurrence? (United States)

    Király, Csilla; Szabó, Zsuzsanna; Szamosfalvi, Ágnes; Cseresznyés, Dóra; Király, Edit; Szabó, Csaba; Falus, György


    Carbon Capture and Storage (CCS) is a transitional technology to decrease CO2 emissions from human fossil fuel usage and, therefore, to mitigate climate change. The most important criteria of a CO2 geological storage reservoir is that it must hold the injected CO2 for geological time scales without its significant seepage. The injected CO2 undergoes physical and chemical reactions in the reservoir rocks such as structural-stratigraphic, residual, dissolution or mineral trapping mechanisms. Among these, the safest is the mineral trapping, when carbonate minerals such as calcite, ankerite, siderite, dolomite and dawsonite build the CO2 into their crystal structures. The study of natural CO2 occurrences may help to understand the processes in CO2 reservoirs on geological time scales. This is the reason why the selected, the Mihályi-Répcelak natural CO2 occurrence as our research area, which is able to provide particular and highly significant information for the future of CO2 storage. The area is one of the best known CO2 fields in Central Europe. The main aim of this study is to estimate the amount of CO2 trapped in the mineral phase at Mihályi-Répcelak CO2 reservoirs. For gaining the suitable data, we apply petrographic, major and trace element (microprobe and LA-ICP-MS) and stable isotope analysis (mass spectrometry) and thermodynamic and kinetic geochemical models coded in PHREEQC. Rock and pore water compositions of the same formation, representing the pre-CO2 flooding stages of the Mihályi-Répcelak natural CO2 reservoirs are used in the models. Kinetic rate parameters are derived from the USGS report of Palandri and Kharaka (2004). The results of petrographic analysis show that a significant amount of dawsonite (NaAlCO3(OH)2, max. 16 m/m%) precipitated in the rock due to its reactions with CO2 which flooded the reservoir. This carbonate mineral alone traps about 10-30 kg/m3 of the reservoir rock from the CO2 at Mihályi-Répcelak area, which is an

  5. Rates of CO2 Mineralization in Geological Carbon Storage. (United States)

    Zhang, Shuo; DePaolo, Donald J


    Geologic carbon storage (GCS) involves capture and purification of CO 2 at industrial emission sources, compression into a supercritical state, and subsequent injection into geologic formations. This process reverses the flow of carbon to the atmosphere with the intention of returning the carbon to long-term geologic storage. Models suggest that most of the injected CO 2 will be "trapped" in the subsurface by physical means, but the most risk-free and permanent form of carbon storage is as carbonate minerals (Ca,Mg,Fe)CO 3 . The transformation of CO 2 to carbonate minerals requires supply of the necessary divalent cations by dissolution of silicate minerals. Available data suggest that rates of transformation are highly uncertain and difficult to predict by standard approaches. Here we show that the chemical kinetic observations and experimental results, when they can be reduced to a single cation-release time scale that describes the fractional rate at which cations are released to solution by mineral dissolution, show sufficiently systematic behavior as a function of pH, fluid flow rate, and time that the rates of mineralization can be estimated with reasonable certainty. The rate of mineralization depends on both the abundance (determined by the reservoir rock mineralogy) and the rate at which cations are released from silicate minerals by dissolution into pore fluid that has been acidified with dissolved CO 2 . Laboratory-measured rates and field observations give values spanning 8 to 10 orders of magnitude, but when they are evaluated in the context of a reservoir-scale reactive transport simulation, this range becomes much smaller. The reservoir scale simulations provide limits on the applicable conditions under which silicate mineral dissolution and subsequent carbonate mineral precipitation are likely to occur (pH 4.5 to 6, fluid flow velocity less than 5 m/year, and 50-100 years or more after the start of injection). These constraints lead to estimates of

  6. Mineral CO2 sequestration in alkaline solid residues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huijgen, W.J.J.; Comans, R.N.J.; Witkamp, G.J.


    Mineral carbonation is a promising sequestration route for the permanent and safe storage of carbon dioxide. In addition to calcium- or magnesium-containing primary minerals, suitable alkaline solid residues can be used as feedstock. The use of alkaline residues has several advantages, such as their availability close to CO2 sources and their higher reactivity for carbonation than primary minerals. In addition, the environmental quality of residues can potentially be improved by carbonation. In this study, key factors of the mineral CO2 sequestration process are identified, their influence on the carbonation process is examined, and environmental properties of the reaction products with regard to their possible beneficial utilization are investigated. The use of alkaline solid residues forms a potentially attractive alternative for the first mineral sequestration plants

  7. Cost evaluation of CO2 sequestration by aqueous mineral carbonation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huijgen, Wouter J.J.; Comans, Rob N.J.; Witkamp, Geert-Jan


    A cost evaluation of CO 2 sequestration by aqueous mineral carbonation has been made using either wollastonite (CaSiO 3 ) or steel slag as feedstock. First, the process was simulated to determine the properties of the streams as well as the power and heat consumption of the process equipment. Second, a basic design was made for the major process equipment, and total investment costs were estimated with the help of the publicly available literature and a factorial cost estimation method. Finally, the sequestration costs were determined on the basis of the depreciation of investments and variable and fixed operating costs. Estimated costs are 102 and 77 EUR/ton CO 2 net avoided for wollastonite and steel slag, respectively. For wollastonite, the major costs are associated with the feedstock and the electricity consumption for grinding and compression (54 and 26 EUR/ton CO 2 avoided, respectively). A sensitivity analysis showed that additional influential parameters in the sequestration costs include the liquid-to-solid ratio in the carbonation reactor and the possible value of the carbonated product. The sequestration costs for steel slag are significantly lower due to the absence of costs for the feedstock. Although various options for potential cost reduction have been identified, CO 2 sequestration by current aqueous carbonation processes seems expensive relative to other CO 2 storage technologies. The permanent and inherently safe sequestration of CO 2 by mineral carbonation may justify higher costs, but further cost reductions are required, particularly in view of (current) prices of CO 2 emission rights. Niche applications of mineral carbonation with a solid residue such as steel slag as feedstock and/or a useful carbonated product hold the best prospects for an economically feasible CO 2 sequestration process. (author)

  8. Cost Evaluation of CO2 Sequestration by Aqueous Mineral Carbonation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Huijgen, W.J.J.; Comans, R.N.J.; Witkamp, G.J.


    A cost evaluation of CO2 sequestration by aqueous mineral carbonation has been made using either wollastonite (CaSiO3) or steel slag as feedstock. First, the process was simulated to determine the properties of the streams as well as the power and heat consumption of the process equipment. Second, a

  9. Interactions between CO2, saline water and minerals during geological storage of CO2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hellevang, Helge


    The topic of this thesis is to gain a better understanding of interactions between injected CO 2 , aqueous solutions and formation mineralogies. The main focus is concerned with the potential role mineral reactions play in safe long term storage of CO 2 . The work is divided into an experimental part concentrated on the potential of dawsonite (NaAl(OH) 2 CO 3 ) as a permanent storage host of CO 2 , and the development of a new geochemical code ACCRETE that is coupled with the ATHENA multiphase flow simulator. The thesis is composed of two parts: (I) the first part introducing CO 2 storage, geochemical interactions and related work; and (II) the second part that consists of the papers. Part I is composed as follows: Chapter 2 gives a short introduction to geochemical reactions considered important during CO 2 storage, including a thermodynamic framework. Chapter 3 presents objectives of numerical work related to CO 2 -water-rock interactions including a discussion of factors that influence the outcome of numerical simulations. Chapter 4 presents the main results from paper A to E. Chapter 5 give some details about further research that we propose based on the present work and related work in the project. Several new activities have emerged from research on CO 2 -water-rock interaction during the project. Several of the proposed activities are already initiated. Papers A to F are then listed in Part II of the thesis after the citation list. The thesis presents the first data on the reaction kinetics of dawsonite at different pH (Paper A), and comprehensive numerical simulations, both batch- and large scale 3D reactive transport, that illustrate the role different carbonates have for safe storage of CO 2 in geological formations (Papers C to F). The role of dawsonite in CO 2 storage settings is treated throughout the study (Papers A to E) After the main part of the thesis (Part I and II), two appendices are included: Appendix A lists reactions that are included in the

  10. Mineral CO2 sequestration by steel slag carbonation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huijgen, W.J.J.; Comans, R.N.J.; Witkamp, G.J.


    Mineral CO2 sequestration, i.e., carbonation of alkaline silicate Ca/Mg minerals, analogous to natural weathering processes, is a possible technology for the reduction of carbon dioxide emissions to the atmosphere. In this paper, alkaline Ca-rich industrial residues are presented as a possible feedstock for mineral CO2 sequestration. These materials are cheap, available near large point sources of CO2, and tend to react relatively rapidly with CO2 due to their chemical instability. Ground steel slag was carbonated in aqueous suspensions to study its reaction mechanisms. Process variables, such as particle size, temperature, carbon dioxide pressure, and reaction time, were systematically varied, and their influence on the carbonation rate was investigated. The maximum carbonation degree reached was 74% of the Ca content in 30 min at 19 bar pressure, 100C, and a particle size of <38 μm. The two must important factors determining the reaction rare are particle size (<2 mm to <38 μm) and reaction temperature (25-225C). The carbonation reaction was found to occur in two steps: (1) leaching of calcium from the steel slag particles into the solution; (2) precipitation of calcite on the surface of these particles. The first step and, more in particular, the diffusion of calcium through the solid matrix toward the surface appeared to be the rate-determining reaction step, The Ca diffusion was found to be hindered by the formation of a CaCO3-coating and a Ca-depleted silicate zona during the carbonation process. Research on further enhancement of the reaction rate, which would contribute to the development of a cost-effective CO2-sequestration process, should focus particularly on this mechanism

  11. Mineral storage of CO2/H2S gas mixture injection in basaltic rocks (United States)

    Clark, D. E.; Gunnarsson, I.; Aradottir, E. S.; Oelkers, E. H.; Sigfússon, B.; Snæbjörnsdottír, S. Ó.; Matter, J. M.; Stute, M.; Júlíusson, B. M.; Gíslason, S. R.


    carbon mineralization for permanent disposal of anthropogenic carbon dioxide emissions. Science 352 (6291), 1312-1314. [3] Snæbjörnsdottír, S.O., et al. (2017). The chemistry and saturation states of subsurface fluids during the in-situ mineralisation of CO2 and H2S at the CarbFix site in SW-Iceland. International Journal of Greenhouse Gas Control 58, 87-102.

  12. Assessment of CO2 Mineralization and Dynamic Rock Properties at the Kemper Pilot CO2 Injection Site (United States)

    Qin, F.; Kirkland, B. L.; Beckingham, L. E.


    CO2-brine-mineral reactions following CO2 injection may impact rock properties including porosity, permeability, and pore connectivity. The rate and extent of alteration largely depends on the nature and evolution of reactive mineral interfaces. In this work, the potential for geochemical reactions and the nature of the reactive mineral interface and corresponding hydrologic properties are evaluated for samples from the Lower Tuscaloosa, Washita-Fredericksburg, and Paluxy formations. These formations have been identified as future regionally extensive and attractive CO2 storage reservoirs at the CO2 Storage Complex in Kemper County, Mississippi, USA (Project ECO2S). Samples from these formations were obtained from the Geological Survey of Alabama and evaluated using a suite of complementary analyses. The mineral composition of these samples will be determined using petrography and powder X-ray Diffraction (XRD). Using these compositions, continuum-scale reactive transport simulations will be developed and the potential CO2-brine-mineral interactions will be examined. Simulations will focus on identifying potential reactive minerals as well as the corresponding rate and extent of reactions. The spatial distribution and accessibility of minerals to reactive fluids is critical to understanding mineral reaction rates and corresponding changes in the pore structure, including pore connectivity, porosity and permeability. The nature of the pore-mineral interface, and distribution of reactive minerals, will be determined through imaging analysis. Multiple 2D scanning electron microscopy (SEM) backscattered electron (BSE) images and energy dispersive x-ray spectroscopy (EDS) images will be used to create spatial maps of mineral distributions. These maps will be processed to evaluate the accessibility of reactive minerals and the potential for flow-path modifications following CO2 injection. The "Establishing an Early CO2 Storage Complex in Kemper, MS" project is funded by

  13. CO2 emissions: mineral carbonation and Finnish pulp and paper industry (CO2 Nordic Plus) and use of serpentinites in energy and metal industry (ECOSERP)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fogelholm, C.-J.; Raiski, T.; Teir, S.


    Abstract Mineral carbonation has been investigated at Helsinki University of Technology (TKK), laboratory of energy engineering and environmental protection since year 2000. The Finnish Technology Agency Tekes and the Finnish Recovery Boiler Committee are funding through the ClimBus technology programme, in conjunction with the Nordic Energy Research Programme, the research regarding the application of ex situ mineral carbonation processes. One aspect is to verify the possible use of mineral carbonation for the separation, utilisation and long-term storage of carbon dioxide (CO 2 ) in the pulp and paper industry. The Geological Survey of Finland (GTK) has been screening since 2004 the location, quality and suitability of the Finnish processed serpentine and stoped serpentinite storage of mines and in situ serpentinite bodies of ultramafic rock formations for mineral carbonation of CO 2 . Tekes and the GTK are funding development work through the ClimBus technology programme on the utilisation of serpentine and serpentinite for CO 2 sequestration purposes, based on economical and environmental evaluation of mineral and mining processing operations. Also the options for other use of serpentine and serpentinite are evaluated. The most promising magnesium- and calcium-based sources for carbonation are by-products of mining processes of ultramafic rocks (such as serpentinites and serpentine) and steelmaking slags. Carbonated minerals could possibly be used as paper coating materials (PCC), fillers or construction materials. For magnesium carbonate new markets and applications must be developed. (orig.)

  14. Modeling CO2-Water-Mineral Wettability and Mineralization for Carbon Geosequestration. (United States)

    Liang, Yunfeng; Tsuji, Shinya; Jia, Jihui; Tsuji, Takeshi; Matsuoka, Toshifumi


    Carbon dioxide (CO 2 ) capture and storage (CCS) is an important climate change mitigation option along with improved energy efficiency, renewable energy, and nuclear energy. CO 2 geosequestration, that is, to store CO 2 under the subsurface of Earth, is feasible because the world's sedimentary basins have high capacity and are often located in the same region of the world as emission sources. How CO 2 interacts with the connate water and minerals is the focus of this Account. There are four trapping mechanisms that keep CO 2 in the pores of subsurface rocks: (1) structural trapping, (2) residual trapping, (3) dissolution trapping, and (4) mineral trapping. The first two are dominated by capillary action, where wettability controls CO 2 and water two-phase flow in porous media. We review state-of-the-art studies on CO 2 /water/mineral wettability, which was found to depend on pressure and temperature conditions, salt concentration in aqueous solutions, mineral surface chemistry, and geometry. We then review some recent advances in mineral trapping. First, we show that it is possible to reproduce the CO 2 /water/mineral wettability at a wide range of pressures using molecular dynamics (MD) simulations. As the pressure increases, CO 2 gas transforms into a supercritical fluid or liquid at ∼7.4 MPa depending on the environmental temperature. This transition leads to a substantial decrease of the interfacial tension between CO 2 and reservoir brine (or pure water). However, the wettability of CO 2 /water/rock systems depends on the type of rock surface. Recently, we investigated the contact angle of CO 2 /water/silica systems with two different silica surfaces using MD simulations. We found that contact angle increased with pressure for the hydrophobic (siloxane) surface while it was almost constant for the hydrophilic (silanol) surface, in excellent agreement with experimental observations. Furthermore, we found that the CO 2 thin films at the CO 2 -hydrophilic

  15. Scientific and Engineering Progress in CO2 Mineralization Using Industrial Waste and Natural Minerals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heping Xie


    Full Text Available The issues of reducing CO2 levels in the atmosphere, sustainably utilizing natural mineral resources, and dealing with industrial waste offer challenging opportunities for sustainable development in energy and the environment. The latest advances in CO2 mineralization technology involving natural minerals and industrial waste are summarized in this paper, with great emphasis on the advancement of fundamental science, economic evaluation, and engineering applications. We discuss several leading large-scale CO2 mineralization methodologies from a technical and engineering-science perspective. For each technology option, we give an overview of the technical parameters, reaction pathway, reactivity, procedural scheme, and laboratorial and pilot devices. Furthermore, we present a discussion of each technology based on experimental results and the literature. Finally, current gaps in knowledge are identified in the conclusion, and an overview of the challenges and opportunities for future research in this field is provided.

  16. Effect of Mineral Dissolution/Precipitation and CO2 Exsolution on CO2 transport in Geological Carbon Storage. (United States)

    Xu, Ruina; Li, Rong; Ma, Jin; He, Di; Jiang, Peixue


    Geological carbon sequestration (GCS) in deep saline aquifers is an effective means for storing carbon dioxide to address global climate change. As the time after injection increases, the safety of storage increases as the CO 2 transforms from a separate phase to CO 2 (aq) and HCO 3 - by dissolution and then to carbonates by mineral dissolution. However, subsequent depressurization could lead to dissolved CO 2 (aq) escaping from the formation water and creating a new separate phase which may reduce the GCS system safety. The mineral dissolution and the CO 2 exsolution and mineral precipitation during depressurization change the morphology, porosity, and permeability of the porous rock medium, which then affects the two-phase flow of the CO 2 and formation water. A better understanding of these effects on the CO 2 -water two-phase flow will improve predictions of the long-term CO 2 storage reliability, especially the impact of depressurization on the long-term stability. In this Account, we summarize our recent work on the effect of CO 2 exsolution and mineral dissolution/precipitation on CO 2 transport in GCS reservoirs. We place emphasis on understanding the behavior and transformation of the carbon components in the reservoir, including CO 2 (sc/g), CO 2 (aq), HCO 3 - , and carbonate minerals (calcite and dolomite), highlight their transport and mobility by coupled geochemical and two-phase flow processes, and consider the implications of these transport mechanisms on estimates of the long-term safety of GCS. We describe experimental and numerical pore- and core-scale methods used in our lab in conjunction with industrial and international partners to investigate these effects. Experimental results show how mineral dissolution affects permeability, capillary pressure, and relative permeability, which are important phenomena affecting the input parameters for reservoir flow modeling. The porosity and the absolute permeability increase when CO 2 dissolved water is

  17. The thermal behaviour and structural stability of nesquehonite, MgCO3.3H2O, evaluated by in situ laboratory parallel-beam X-ray powder diffraction: New constraints on CO2 sequestration within minerals. (United States)

    Ballirano, Paolo; De Vito, Caterina; Ferrini, Vincenzo; Mignardi, Silvano


    In order to gauge the appropriateness of CO(2) reaction with Mg chloride solutions as a process for storing carbon dioxide, the thermal behaviour and structural stability of its solid product, nesquehonite (MgCO(3).3H(2)O), were investigated in situ using real-time laboratory parallel-beam X-ray powder diffraction. The results suggest that the nesquehonite structure remains substantially unaffected up to 373 K, with the exception of a markedly anisotropic thermal expansion acting mainly along the c axis. In the 371-390 K range, the loss of one water molecule results in the nucleation of a phase of probable composition MgCO(3).2H(2)O, which is characterized by significant structural disorder. At higher temperatures (423-483 K), both magnesite and MgO.2MgCO(3) coexist. Finally, at 603 K, periclase nucleation starts and the disappearance of carbonate phases is completed at 683 K. Consequently, the structural stability of nesquehonite at high temperatures suggests that it will remain stable under the temperature conditions that prevail at the Earth's surface. These results will help (a) to set constraints on the temperature conditions under which nesquehonite may be safely stored and (b) to develop CO(2) sequestration via the synthesis of nesquehonite for industrial application. Copyright 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Investigation of the potential of coal combustion fly ash for mineral sequestration of CO2 by accelerated carbonation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ukwattage, N.L.; Ranjith, P.G.; Wang, S.H.


    Mineral carbonation of alkaline waste materials is being studied extensively for its potential as a way of reducing the increased level of CO 2 in the atmosphere. Carbonation converts CO 2 into minerals which are stable over geological time scales. This process occurs naturally but slowly, and needs to be accelerated to offset the present rate of emissions from power plants and other emission sources. The present study attempts to identify the potential of coal fly ash as a source for carbon storage (sequestration) through ex-situ accelerated mineral carbonation. In the study, two operational parameters that could affect the reaction process were tested to investigate their effect on mineralization. Coal fly ash was mixed with water to different water-to-solid ratios and samples were carbonated in a pressure vessel at different initial CO 2 pressures. Temperature was kept constant at 40 °C. According to the results, one ton of Hazelwood fly ash could sequester 7.66 kg of CO 2 . The pressure of CO 2 inside the vessel has an effect on the rate of CO 2 uptake and the water-to-solid ratio affects the weight gain after the carbonation of fly ash. The results confirm the possibility of the manipulation of process parameters in enhancing the carbonation reaction. - Highlights: ► Mineral sequestration CO 2 by of coal fly ash is a slow process under ambient conditions. ► It can be accelerated by manipulating the process parameters inside a reactor. ► Initial CO 2 pressure and water to solid mixing ratio inside the reactor are two of those operational parameters. ► According to the test results higher CO 2 initial pressure gives higher on rates of CO 2 sequestration. ► Water to fly ash mixing ratio effect on amount of CO 2 sequestered into fly ash

  19. An experimental study on mineral sequestration of CO2 in basics and ultra basics rocks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dufaud, F.


    The first part of the thesis is dedicated to dissolution data of siderite FeCO 3 and magnetite Fe 3 O 4 which have been monitored in situ on the FAME beamline of the european synchrotron radiation facility in Grenoble. Iron in solution close to siderite single crystals is shown to be divalent hydrated. The small size of the experimentally investigated volume of solution (200 *400 micrometer and 3 mm height) allowed to work with single crystals in well defined geometries. No specific interaction was observed between iron (II) and dissolved inorganic carbon, suggesting that modelling siderite evolution under high CO 2 pressures by using CO 2 -less very acidic (pH 1-2) solutions is adequate. Using initial reaction rates, we get an activation energy for siderite dissolution of 62 kJ.mol -1 , consistent with existing literature data. Such a value is suggestive of a mineral/solution interface mechanism.. Data from this study and from literature are consistent over a temperature range 25 C - 125 C and a pH range pH 1-7 with an empirical law: pk = pH + E a /(ln(10)*RT(K)) - log(S/V) - 10,5 where E a = 62 kJ.mol -1 and S/V is the ratio between solid surface S and fluid volume V. A value of activation energy of 73.5 kJ.mol -1 is obtained in the case of magnetite, also consistent with mineral/solution processes. The second and major part of the thesis work is the realization of analogical experiments for simulating carbonation of basic and ultra basic minerals. Experiments were carried out on consolidated rock cores at 90 C and 280 bar of CO 2 (low temperature experiments) and on powders contained in metallic capsules at 400-500 C and 1000-1700 bars of CO 2 (high temperature experiments). The rate of mineral storage of CO 2 was defined as the molar ratio of solid carbonate formed over total CO 2 injected. It is of about 1% in three months in low temperature experiments whereas it reaches several tens of percents per hour in high temperature experiments. In all cases

  20. Progress Toward Measuring CO2 Isotopologue Fluxes in situ with the LLNL Miniature, Laser-based CO2 Sensor (United States)

    Osuna, J. L.; Bora, M.; Bond, T.


    One method to constrain photosynthesis and respiration independently at the ecosystem scale is to measure the fluxes of CO2­ isotopologues. Instrumentation is currently available to makes these measurements but they are generally costly, large, bench-top instruments. Here, we present progress toward developing a laser-based sensor that can be deployed directly to a canopy to passively measure CO2 isotopologue fluxes. In this study, we perform initial proof-of-concept and sensor characterization tests in the laboratory and in the field to demonstrate performance of the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) tunable diode laser flux sensor. The results shown herein demonstrate measurement of bulk CO2 as a first step toward achieving flux measurements of CO2 isotopologues. The sensor uses a Vertical Cavity Surface Emitting Laser (VCSEL) in the 2012 nm range. The laser is mounted in a multi-pass White Cell. In order to amplify the absorption signal of CO2 in this range we employ wave modulation spectroscopy, introducing an alternating current (AC) bias component where f is the frequency of modulation on the laser drive current in addition to the direct current (DC) emission scanning component. We observed a strong linear relationship (r2 = 0.998 and r2 = 0.978 at all and low CO2 concentrations, respectively) between the 2f signal and the CO2 concentration in the cell across the range of CO2 concentrations relevant for flux measurements. We use this calibration to interpret CO2 concentration of a gas flowing through the White cell in the laboratory and deployed over a grassy field. We will discuss sensor performance in the lab and in situ as well as address steps toward achieving canopy-deployed, passive measurements of CO2 isotopologue fluxes. This work performed under the auspices of the U.S. Department of Energy by Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory under Contract DE-AC52-07NA27344. LLNL-ABS-675788

  1. Field Tests of Real-time In-situ Dissolved CO2 Monitoring for CO2 Leakage Detection in Groundwater (United States)

    Yang, C.; Zou, Y.; Delgado, J.; Guzman, N.; Pinedo, J.


    Groundwater monitoring for detecting CO2 leakage relies on groundwater sampling from water wells drilled into aquifers. Usually groundwater samples are required be collected periodically in field and analyzed in the laboratory. Obviously groundwater sampling is labor and cost-intensive for long-term monitoring of large areas. Potential damage and contamination of water samples during the sampling process can degrade accuracy, and intermittent monitoring may miss changes in the geochemical parameters of groundwater, and therefore signs of CO2 leakage. Real-time in-situ monitoring of geochemical parameters with chemical sensors may play an important role for CO2 leakage detection in groundwater at a geological carbon sequestration site. This study presents field demonstration of a real-time in situ monitoring system capable of covering large areas for detection of low levels of dissolved CO2 in groundwater and reliably differentiating natural variations of dissolved CO2 concentration from small changes resulting from leakage. The sand-alone system includes fully distributed fiber optic sensors for carbon dioxide detection with a unique sensor technology developed by Intelligent Optical Systems. The systems were deployed to the two research sites: the Brackenridge Field Laboratory where the aquifer is shallow at depths of 10-20 ft below surface and the Devine site where the aquifer is much deeper at depths of 140 to 150 ft. Groundwater samples were periodically collected from the water wells which were installed with the chemical sensors and further compared to the measurements of the chemical sensors. Our study shows that geochemical monitoring of dissolved CO2 with fiber optic sensors could provide reliable CO2 leakage signal detection in groundwater as long as CO2 leakage signals are stronger than background noises at the monitoring locations.

  2. Retrieval of average CO2 fluxes by combining in situ CO2 measurements and backscatter lidar information (United States)

    Gibert, Fabien; Schmidt, Martina; Cuesta, Juan; Ciais, Philippe; Ramonet, Michel; Xueref, IrèNe; Larmanou, Eric; Flamant, Pierre Henri


    The present paper deals with a boundary layer budgeting method which makes use of observations from various in situ and remote sensing instruments to infer regional average net ecosystem exchange (NEE) of CO2. Measurements of CO2 within and above the atmospheric boundary layer (ABL) by in situ sensors, in conjunction with a precise knowledge of the change in ABL height by lidar and radiosoundings, enable to infer diurnal and seasonal NEE variations. Near-ground in situ CO measurements are used to discriminate natural and anthropogenic contributions of CO2 diurnal variations in the ABL. The method yields mean NEE that amounts to 5 μmol m-2 s-1 during the night and -20 μmol m-2 s-1 in the middle of the day between May and July. A good agreement is found with the expected NEE accounting for a mixed wheat field and forest area during winter season, representative of the mesoscale ecosystems in the Paris area according to the trajectory of an air column crossing the landscape. Daytime NEE is seen to follow the vegetation growth and the change in the ratio diffuse/direct radiation. The CO2 vertical mixing flux during the rise of the atmospheric boundary layer is also estimated and seems to be the main cause of the large decrease of CO2 mixing ratio in the morning. The outcomes on CO2 flux estimate are compared to eddy-covariance measurements on a barley field. The importance of various sources of error and uncertainty on the retrieval is discussed. These errors are estimated to be less than 15%; the main error resulted from anthropogenic emissions.

  3. Quantitative comparison of in situ soil CO2 flux measurement methods (United States)

    Jennifer D. Knoepp; James M. Vose


    Development of reliable regional or global carbon budgets requires accurate measurement of soil CO2 flux. We conducted laboratory and field studies to determine the accuracy and comparability of methods commonly used to measure in situ soil CO2 fluxes. Methods compared included CO2...

  4. Analysis of ex situ processes of CO2 sequestration. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Touze, S.; Bourgeois, F.; Baranger, P.; Durst, P.


    The aim of this study is to bring quantitative elements to evaluate the validation of the CO 2 mineral sequestration to limit the greenhouse effect gases. This analysis aims to calculate the CO 2 accounting of the system (internal energy production balance the energy expend) sequestrated CO 2 and produced CO 2 . The first part detailed the possible experimental solutions. Then two carbonation processes, direct and indirect, have been chosen of the analysis. (A.L.B.)

  5. In situ measurement of magnesium carbonate formation from CO2 using static high-pressure and -temperature 13C NMR. (United States)

    Surface, J Andrew; Skemer, Philip; Hayes, Sophia E; Conradi, Mark S


    We explore a new in situ NMR spectroscopy method that possesses the ability to monitor the chemical evolution of supercritical CO(2) in relevant conditions for geological CO(2) sequestration. As a model, we use the fast reaction of the mineral brucite, Mg(OH)(2), with supercritical CO(2) (88 bar) in aqueous conditions at 80 °C. The in situ conversion of CO(2) into metastable and stable carbonates is observed throughout the reaction. After more than 58 h of reaction, the sample was depressurized and analyzed using in situ Raman spectroscopy, where the laser was focused on the undisturbed products through the glass reaction tube. Postreaction, ex situ analysis was performed on the extracted and dried products using Raman spectroscopy, powder X-ray diffraction, and magic-angle spinning (1)H-decoupled (13)C NMR. These separate methods of analysis confirmed a spatial dependence of products, possibly caused by a gradient of reactant availability, pH, and/or a reaction mechanism that involves first forming hydroxy-hydrated (basic, hydrated) carbonates that convert to the end-product, anhydrous magnesite. This carbonation reaction illustrates the importance of static (unmixed) reaction systems at sequestration-like conditions.

  6. Depth-Dependent Mineral Soil CO2 Production Processes: Sensitivity to Harvesting-Induced Changes in Soil Climate. (United States)

    Kellman, Lisa; Myette, Amy; Beltrami, Hugo


    Forest harvesting induces a step change in the climatic variables (temperature and moisture), that control carbon dioxide (CO2) production arising from soil organic matter decomposition within soils. Efforts to examine these vertically complex relationships in situ within soil profiles are lacking. In this study we examined how the climatic controls on CO2 production change within vertically distinct layers of the soil profile in intact and clearcut forest soils of a humid temperate forest system of Atlantic Canada. We measured mineral soil temperature (0, 5, 10, 20, 50 and 100 cm depth) and moisture (0-15 cm and 30-60 cm depth), along with CO2 surface efflux and subsurface concentrations (0, 2.5, 5, 10, 20, 35, 50, 75 and 100 cm depth) in 1 m deep soil pits at 4 sites represented by two forest-clearcut pairs over a complete annual cycle. We examined relationships between surface efflux at each site, and soil heat, moisture, and mineral soil CO2 production. Following clearcut harvesting we observed increases in temperature through depth (1-2°C annually; often in excess of 4°C in summer and spring), alongside increases in soil moisture (30%). We observed a systematic breakdown in the expected exponential relationship between CO2 production and heat with mineral soil depth, consistent with an increase in the role moisture plays in constraining CO2 production. These findings should be considered in efforts to model and characterize mineral soil organic matter decomposition in harvested forest soils.

  7. In situ X-ray ptychography imaging of high-temperature CO2 acceptor particle agglomerates

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Høydalsvik, Kristin; Fløystad, Jostein Bø; Zhao, Tiejun


    be used for in situ phase contrast imaging in structure studies at atmospheric pressure and elevated temperatures. Lithium zirconate, a candidate CO2 capture material, was studied at a pressure of one atmosphere in air and in CO2, at temperatures exceeding 600 °C. Images with a spatial resolution better...

  8. Hydrothermal Valorization of Steel Slags—Part I: Coupled H2 Production and CO2 Mineral Sequestration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Camille Crouzet


    Full Text Available A new process route for the valorization of BOF steel slags combining H2 production and CO2 mineral sequestration is investigated at 300°C (HT under hydrothermal conditions. A BOF steel slag stored several weeks outdoor on the production site was used as starting material. To serve as a reference, room temperature (RT carbonation of the same BOF steel slag has been monitored with in situ Raman spectroscopy and by measuring pH and PCO2 on a time-resolved basis. CO2 uptake under RT and HT are, respectively, 243 and 327 kg CO2/t of fresh steel slag, which add up with the 63 kg of atmospheric CO2 per ton already uptaken by the starting steel slag on the storage site. The CO2 gained by the sample at HT is bounded to the carbonation of brownmillerite. H2 yield decreased by about 30% in comparison to the same experiment performed without added CO2, due to sequestration of ferrous iron in a Mg-rich siderite phase. Ferric iron, initially present in brownmillerite, is partitioned between an Fe-rich clay mineral of saponite type and metastable hematite. Saponite is likely stabilized by the presence of Al, whereas hematite may represent a metastable product of brownmillerite carbonation. Mg-rich wüstite is involved in at least two competing reactions, i.e., oxidation into magnetite and carbonation into siderite. Results of both water-slag and water-CO2-slag experiments after 72 h are consistent with a kinetics enhancement of the former reaction when a CO2 partial pressure imposes a pH between 5 and 6. Three possible valorization routes, (1 RT carbonation prior to hydrothermal oxidation, (2 RT carbonation after hydrothermal treatment, and (3 combined HT carbonation and oxidation are discussed in light of the present results and literature data.

  9. Ex-situ and in-situ mineral carbonation as a means to sequester carbon dioxide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gerdemann, Stephen J.; Dahlin, David C.; O' Connor, William K.; Penner, Larry R.; Rush, G.E.


    The U. S. Department of Energy's Albany Research Center is investigating mineral carbonation as a method of sequestering CO2 from coal-fired-power plants. Magnesium-silicate minerals such as serpentine [Mg3Si2O5(OH)4] and olivine (Mg2SiO4) react with CO2 to produce magnesite (MgCO3), and the calcium-silicate mineral, wollastonite (CaSiO3), reacts to form calcite (CaCO3). It is possible to carry out these reactions either ex situ (above ground in a traditional chemical processing plant) or in situ (storage underground and subsequent reaction with the host rock to trap CO2 as carbonate minerals). For ex situ mineral carbonation to be economically attractive, the reaction must proceed quickly to near completion. The reaction rate is accelerated by raising the activity of CO2 in solution, heat (but not too much), reducing the particle size, high-intensity grinding to disrupt the crystal structure, and, in the case of serpentine, heat-treatment to remove the chemically bound water. All of these carry energy/economic penalties. An economic study illustrates the impact of mineral availability and process parameters on the cost of ex situ carbon sequestration. In situ carbonation offers economic advantages over ex situ processes, because no chemical plant is required. Knowledge gained from the ex situ work was applied to long-term experiments designed to simulate in situ CO2 storage conditions. The Columbia River Basalt Group (CRBG), a multi-layered basaltic lava formation, has potentially favorable mineralogy (up to 25% combined concentration of Ca, Fe2+, and Mg cations) for storage of CO2. However, more information about the interaction of CO2 with aquifers and the host rock is needed. Core samples from the CRBG, as well as samples of olivine, serpentine, and sandstone, were reacted in an autoclave for up to 2000 hours at elevated temperatures and pressures. Changes in core porosity, secondary mineralizations, and both solution and solid chemistry were measured.

  10. Numerical simulation of CO2 disposal by mineral trapping in deep aquifers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xu Tianfu; Apps, John A.; Pruess, Karsten


    Carbon dioxide disposal into deep aquifers is a potential means whereby atmospheric emissions of greenhouse gases may be reduced. However, our knowledge of the geohydrology, geochemistry, geophysics, and geomechanics of CO 2 disposal must be refined if this technology is to be implemented safely, efficiently, and predictably. As a prelude to a fully coupled treatment of physical and chemical effects of CO 2 injection, the authors have analyzed the impact of CO 2 immobilization through carbonate mineral precipitation. Batch reaction modeling of the geochemical evolution of 3 different aquifer mineral compositions in the presence of CO 2 at high pressure were performed. The modeling considered the following important factors affecting CO 2 sequestration: (1) the kinetics of chemical interactions between the host rock minerals and the aqueous phase, (2) CO 2 solubility dependence on pressure, temperature and salinity of the system, and (3) redox processes that could be important in deep subsurface environments. The geochemical evolution under CO 2 injection conditions was evaluated. In addition, changes in porosity were monitored during the simulations. Results indicate that CO 2 sequestration by matrix minerals varies considerably with rock type. Under favorable conditions the amount of CO 2 that may be sequestered by precipitation of secondary carbonates is comparable with and can be larger than the effect of CO 2 dissolution in pore waters. The precipitation of ankerite and siderite is sensitive to the rate of reduction of Fe(III) mineral precursors such as goethite or glauconite. The accumulation of carbonates in the rock matrix leads to a considerable decrease in porosity. This in turn adversely affects permeability and fluid flow in the aquifer. The numerical experiments described here provide useful insight into sequestration mechanisms, and their controlling geochemical conditions and parameters

  11. Energy consumption and net CO2 sequestration of aqueous mineral carbonation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huijgen, W.J.J.; Ruijg, G.J.; Comans, R.N.J.; Witkamp, G.J.


    Aqueous mineral carbonation is a potentially attractive sequestration technology to reduce CO2 emissions. The energy consumption of this technology, however, reduces the net amount of CO2 sequestered. Therefore, the energetic CO2 sequestration efficiency of aqueous mineral carbonation was studied in dependence of various process variables using either wollastonite (CaSiO3) or steel slag as feedstock. For wollastonite, the maximum energetic CO2 sequestration efficiency within the ranges of process conditions studied was 75% at 200C, 20 bar CO2, and a particle size of <38μm. The main energy-consuming process steps were the grinding of the feedstock and the compression of the CO2 feed. At these process conditions, a significantly lower efficiency was determined for steel slag (69%), mainly because of the lower Ca content of the feedstock. The CO2 sequestration efficiency might be improved substantially for both types of feedstock by, e.g., reducing the amount of process water applied and further grinding of the feedstock. The calculated energetic efficiencies warrant a further assessment of the (energetic) feasibility of CO2 sequestration by aqueous mineral carbonation on the basis of a pilot-scale process

  12. Negative CO2 emissions via subsurface mineral carbonation in fractured peridotite (United States)

    Kelemen, P. B.; Matter, J.


    Uptake of CO2 from surface water via mineral carbonation in peridotite can be engineered to achieve negative CO2 emissions. Reaction with peridotite, e.g., CO2 + olivine (A), serpentine (B) and brucite (C), forms inert, non-toxic, solid carbonates such as magnesite. Experimental studies show that A can be 80% complete in a few hours with 30 micron powders and elevated P(CO2) [1,2,3]. B is slower, but in natural systems the rate of B+C is significant [4]. Methods for capture of dilute CO2 via mineral carbonation [4,5,6,7] are not well known, though CO2 storage via mineral carbonation has been discussed for decades [8,9]. Where crushed peridotite is available, as in mine tailings, increased air or water flow could enhance CO2 uptake at a reasonable cost [4,5]. Here we focus on enhancing subsurface CO2 uptake from surface water flowing in fractured peridotite, in systems driven by thermal convection such as geothermal power plants. Return of depleted water to the surface would draw down CO2 from the air [6,7]. CO2 uptake from water, rate limited by flow in input and output wells, could exceed 1000 tons CO2/yr [7]. If well costs minus power sales were 0.1M to 1M and each system lasts 10 years this costs oil industry. Uptake of 1 Gt CO2/yr at 1000 t/well/yr requires 1M wells, comparable to the number of producing oil and gas wells in the USA. Subsurface CO2 uptake could first be applied in coastal, sub-seafloor peridotite with onshore drilling. Sub-seafloor peridotite is extensive off Oman, New Caledonia and Papua New Guinea, with smaller amounts off Spain, Morocco, USA, etc. This would be a regional contribution, used in parallel with other methods elsewhere. To achieve larger scale is conceivable. There is a giant mass of seafloor peridotite along slow-spreading mid-ocean ridges. Could robotic drills enhance CO2 uptake at a reasonable cost, while fabric chimneys transport CO2-depleted water to the sea surface? Does anyone know James Cameron's phone number? [1] O

  13. In-situ Optical Spectroscopy Investigation of Water and Its influence on Forsterite Transformation in Supercritical CO2 (United States)

    Wang, Z.; Thompson, C. J.; Joly, A. G.; Sklarew, D. S.; Poindexter, L.; Rosso, K. M.


    Carbon capture and sequestration (CCS) from coal/gas-burning power plants is currently viewed as one of the most promising technologies for mitigating green house gas emissions. This strategy involves injection of supercritical CO2 (scCO2) into deep geological formations such as depleted oil and gas reservoirs and deep saline aquifers. The feasibility of this approach and the ultimate fate of the stored CO2 are determined by the interactions between scCO2, various minerals in the rock formations, and the host fluids. Currently, there is only limited knowledge about both the thermodynamic and kinetic aspects of the physical and chemical processes that occur between scCO2 and relevant minerals, such as metal silicates and metal aluminosilicates, and the role of water activity for catalyzing mineral transformation reactions. In this work, we have developed a modular in situ optical spectroscopic platform that integrates a scCO2 generation and manipulation system with an array of optical and laser spectroscopies including UV-visible, IR, Raman and laser fluorescence spectroscopy. We have used the system to study i) the dissolution and quantification of H2O/D2O in scCO2 and ii) interaction between scCO2 and a model metal silicate, forsterite (Mg2SiO4), and the effects of the presence of water under variable pressure, temperature and water content. Our results showed that H2O and D2O have unique IR spectral features over a broad spectral range from 700 cm-1 to ~ 2900 cm-1 in scCO2 and their concentrations are directly proportional to the characteristic IR bands that correspond to their stretching (D2O) and bending frequencies (both D2O and H2O). These bands offer a unique spectroscopic signature useful for qualitative and quantitative analysis of the properties and reactivity of small amounts of H2O in scCO2. metal carbonation reactions relevant to sequestration.

  14. Kinetics of carbonate mineral dissolution in CO2-acidified brines at storage reservoir conditions. (United States)

    Peng, Cheng; Anabaraonye, Benaiah U; Crawshaw, John P; Maitland, Geoffrey C; Trusler, J P Martin


    We report experimental measurements of the dissolution rate of several carbonate minerals in CO 2 -saturated water or brine at temperatures between 323 K and 373 K and at pressures up to 15 MPa. The dissolution kinetics of pure calcite were studied in CO 2 -saturated NaCl brines with molalities of up to 5 mol kg -1 . The results of these experiments were found to depend only weakly on the brine molality and to conform reasonably well with a kinetic model involving two parallel first-order reactions: one involving reactions with protons and the other involving reaction with carbonic acid. The dissolution rates of dolomite and magnesite were studied in both aqueous HCl solution and in CO 2 -saturated water. For these minerals, the dissolution rates could be explained by a simpler kinetic model involving only direct reaction between protons and the mineral surface. Finally, the rates of dissolution of two carbonate-reservoir analogue minerals (Ketton limestone and North-Sea chalk) in CO 2 -saturated water were found to follow the same kinetics as found for pure calcite. Vertical scanning interferometry was used to study the surface morphology of unreacted and reacted samples. The results of the present study may find application in reactive-flow simulations of CO 2 -injection into carbonate-mineral saline aquifers.

  15. Spatial variation of sediment mineralization supports differential CO2 emissions from a tropical hydroelectric reservoir

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simone Jaqueline Cardoso


    Full Text Available Substantial amounts of organic matter (OM from terrestrial ecosystems are buried as sediments in inland waters. It is still unclear to what extent this OM constitutes a sink of carbon, and how much of it is returned to the atmosphere upon mineralization to carbon dioxide (CO2. The construction of reservoirs affects the carbon cycle by increasing OM sedimentation at the regional scale. In this study we determine the OM mineralization in the sediment of three zones (river, transition and dam of a tropical hydroelectric reservoir in Brazil as well as identify the composition of the carbon pool available for mineralization. We measured sediment OC mineralization rates and related them to the composition of the OM, bacterial abundance and pCO2 of the surface water of the reservoir. Terrestrial OM was an important substrate for the mineralization. In the river and transition zones most of the OM was allochthonous (56 % and 48 %, respectively while the dam zone had the lowest allochthonous contribution (7 %. The highest mineralization rates were found in the transition zone (154.80 ± 33.50 mg C m-2 d-1 and the lowest in the dam (51.60 ± 26.80 mg C m-2 d-1. Moreover, mineralization rates were significantly related to bacterial abundance (r2 = 0.50, p < 0.001 and pCO2 in the surface water of the reservoir (r2 = 0.73, p < 0.001. The results indicate that allochthonous OM has different contributions to sediment mineralization in the three zones of the reservoir. Further, the sediment mineralization, mediated by heterotrophic bacteria metabolism, significantly contributes to CO2 supersaturation in the water column, resulting in higher pCO2 in the river and transition zones in comparison with the dam zone, affecting greenhouse gas emission estimations from hydroelectric reservoirs.

  16. Impact of elevated CO_2 concentrations on carbonate mineral precipitation ability of sulfate-reducing bacteria and implications for CO_2 sequestration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Paul, Varun G.; Wronkiewicz, David J.; Mormile, Melanie R.


    Interest in anthropogenic CO_2 release and associated global climatic change has prompted numerous laboratory-scale and commercial efforts focused on capturing, sequestering or utilizing CO_2 in the subsurface. Known carbonate mineral precipitating microorganisms, such as the anaerobic sulfate-reducing bacteria (SRB), could enhance the rate of conversion of CO_2 into solid minerals and thereby improve long-term storage of captured gasses. The ability of SRB to induce carbonate mineral precipitation, when exposed to atmospheric and elevated pCO_2, was investigated in laboratory scale tests with bacteria from organic-rich sediments collected from hypersaline Lake Estancia, New Mexico. The enriched SRB culture was inoculated in continuous gas flow and batch reactors under variable headspace pCO_2 (0.0059 psi to 20 psi). Solution pH, redox conditions, sulfide, calcium and magnesium concentrations were monitored in the reactors. Those reactors containing SRB that were exposed to pCO_2 of 14.7 psi or less showed Mg-calcite precipitation. Reactors exposed to 20 psi pCO_2 did not exhibit any carbonate mineralization, likely due to the inhibition of bacterial metabolism caused by the high levels of CO_2. Hydrogen, lactate and formate served as suitable electron donors for the SRB metabolism and related carbonate mineralization. Carbon isotopic studies confirmed that ∼53% of carbon in the precipitated carbonate minerals was derived from the CO_2 headspace, with the remaining carbon being derived from the organic electron donors, and the bicarbonate ions available in the liquid medium. The ability of halotolerant SRB to induce the precipitation of carbonate minerals can potentially be applied to the long-term storage of anthropogenic CO_2 in saline aquifers and other ideal subsurface rock units by converting the gas into solid immobile phases. - Highlights: • SRB under study are capable of precipitating calcite up to 14.7 psi pCO_2. • At 20 psi pCO_2, bacterial activity

  17. Mechanisms for chemostatic behavior in catchments: implications for CO2 consumption by mineral weathering (United States)

    Clow, David W.; Mast, M. Alisa


    Concentrations of weathering products in streams often show relatively little variation compared to changes in discharge, both at event and annual scales. In this study, several hypothesized mechanisms for this “chemostatic behavior” were evaluated, and the potential for those mechanisms to influence relations between climate, weathering fluxes, and CO2 consumption via mineral weathering was assessed. Data from Loch Vale, an alpine catchment in the Colorado Rocky Mountains, indicates that cation exchange and seasonal precipitation and dissolution of amorphous or poorly crystalline aluminosilicates are important processes that help regulate solute concentrations in the stream; however, those processes have no direct effect on CO2 consumption in catchments. Hydrograph separation analyses indicate that old water stored in the subsurface over the winter accounts for about one-quarter of annual streamflow, and almost one-half of annual fluxes of Na and SiO2 in the stream; thus, flushing of old water by new water (snowmelt) is an important component of chemostatic behavior. Hydrologic flushing of subsurface materials further induces chemostatic behavior by reducing mineral saturation indices and increasing reactive mineral surface area, which stimulate mineral weathering rates. CO2 consumption by carbonic acid mediated mineral weathering was quantified using mass-balance calculations; results indicated that silicate mineral weathering was responsible for approximately two-thirds of annual CO2 consumption, and carbonate weathering was responsible for the remaining one-third. CO2 consumption was strongly dependent on annual precipitation and temperature; these relations were captured in a simple statistical model that accounted for 71% of the annual variation in CO2 consumption via mineral weathering in Loch Vale.

  18. Mineral Carbonation Potential of CO2 from Natural and Industrial-based Alkalinity Sources (United States)

    Wilcox, J.; Kirchofer, A.


    Mineral carbonation is a Carbon Capture and Storage (CSS) technology where gaseous CO2 is reacted with alkaline materials (such as silicate minerals and alkaline industrial wastes) and converted into stable and environmentally benign carbonate minerals (Metz et al., 2005). Here, we present a holistic, transparent life cycle assessment model of aqueous mineral carbonation built using a hybrid process model and economic input-output life cycle assessment approach. We compared the energy efficiency and the net CO2 storage potential of various mineral carbonation processes based on different feedstock material and process schemes on a consistent basis by determining the energy and material balance of each implementation (Kirchofer et al., 2011). In particular, we evaluated the net CO2 storage potential of aqueous mineral carbonation for serpentine, olivine, cement kiln dust, fly ash, and steel slag across a range of reaction conditions and process parameters. A preliminary systematic investigation of the tradeoffs inherent in mineral carbonation processes was conducted and guidelines for the optimization of the life-cycle energy efficiency are provided. The life-cycle assessment of aqueous mineral carbonation suggests that a variety of alkalinity sources and process configurations are capable of net CO2 reductions. The maximum carbonation efficiency, defined as mass percent of CO2 mitigated per CO2 input, was 83% for CKD at ambient temperature and pressure conditions. In order of decreasing efficiency, the maximum carbonation efficiencies for the other alkalinity sources investigated were: olivine, 66%; SS, 64%; FA, 36%; and serpentine, 13%. For natural alkalinity sources, availability is estimated based on U.S. production rates of a) lime (18 Mt/yr) or b) sand and gravel (760 Mt/yr) (USGS, 2011). The low estimate assumes the maximum sequestration efficiency of the alkalinity source obtained in the current work and the high estimate assumes a sequestration efficiency

  19. Simplified models of rates of CO2 mineralization in Geologic Carbon Storage (United States)

    DePaolo, D. J.; Zhang, S.


    Geologic carbon storage (GCS) reverses the flow of carbon to the atmosphere, returning the carbon to long-term geologic storage. Models suggest that most of the injected CO2 will be "trapped" in the subsurface by physical means, but the most risk-free and permanent form of carbon storage is as carbonate minerals (Ca,Mg,Fe)CO3. The transformation of CO2 to carbonate minerals requires supply of divalent cations by dissolution of silicate minerals. Available data suggest that rates of transformation are difficult to predict. We show that the chemical kinetic observations and experimental results, when reduced to a single timescale that describes the fractional rate at which cations are released to solution by mineral dissolution, show sufficiently systematic behavior that the rates of mineralization can be estimated with reasonable certainty. Rate of mineralization depends on both the abundance (determined by the reservoir rock mineralogy) and the rate at which cations are released by dissolution into pore fluid that has been acidified with dissolved CO2. Laboratory-measured rates and field observations give values spanning 8 to 10 orders of magnitude, but when evaluated in the context of reservoir-scale reactive transport simulations, this range becomes much smaller. Reservoir scale simulations indicate that silicate mineral dissolution and subsequent carbonate mineral precipitation occur at pH 4.5 to 6, fluid flow velocity less than 5m/yr, and 50-100 years or more after the start of injection. These constraints lead to estimates of 200 to 2000 years for conversion of 60-90% of injected CO2 when the reservoir rock has a sufficient volume fraction of divalent cation-bearing silicate minerals (ca. 20%), and confirms that when reservoir rock mineralogy is not favorable the fraction of CO2 converted to carbonate minerals is minimal over 104 years. A sufficient amount of reactive minerals represents the condition by which the available cations per volume of rock plus pore

  20. Experiment and simulation study on the effects of cement minerals on the water-rock-CO2 interaction during CO2 geological storage (United States)

    Liu, N.; Cheng, J.


    The CO2 geological storage is one of the most promising technology to mitigate CO2 emission. The fate of CO2 underground is dramatically affected by the CO2-water-rock interaction, which are mainly dependent on the initial aquifer mineralogy and brine components. The cement minerals are common materials in sandstone reservoir but few attention has been paid for its effects on CO2-water-rock interaction. Five batch reactions, in which 5% cement minerals were assigned to be quartz, calcite, dolomite, chlorite and Ca-montmorillonite, respectively, were conducted to understanding the cement minerals behaviors and its corresponding effects on the matrix minerals alterations during CO2 geological storage. Pure mineral powders were selected to mix and assemble the 'sandstone rock' with different cement components meanwhile keeping the matrix minerals same for each group as 70% quartz, 20% K-feldspar and 5% albite. These `rock' reacted with 750ml deionized water and CO2 under 180° and 18MPa for 15 days, during which the water chemistry evolution and minerals surface micromorphology changes has been monitored. The minerals saturation indexes calculation and phase diagram as well as the kinetic models were made by PHREEQC to uncover the minerals reaction paths. The experiment results indicated that the quartz got less eroded, on the contrary, K-feldspar and albite continuously dissolved to favor the gibbsite and kaolinite precipitations. The carbonates cement minerals quickly dissolved to reach equilibrium with the pH buffered and in turn suppressed the alkali feldspar dissolutions. No carbonates minerals precipitations occurred until the end of reactions for all groups. The simulation results were basically consistent with the experiment record but failed to simulate the non-stoichiometric reactions and the minerals kinetic rates seemed underestimated at the early stage of reactions. The cement minerals significantly dominated the reaction paths during CO2 geological

  1. Experimental and simulation studies on mineral trapping of CO2 with brine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Soong, Y.; Goodman, A.L.; McCarthy-Jones, J.R.; Baltrus, J.P.


    The reaction of carbon dioxide (CO 2 ) with brine samples collected from the Oriskany Formation in Indiana County, PA, was investigated in an autoclave reactor under various conditions. A geochemical code, PHREEQC, was used as to simulate the reaction in the autoclave reactor. The combined experimental and modeling data suggests that pH (pH > 9) plays a key role in the formation of carbonate minerals. The effects of temperature and CO 2 pressure have a lesser impact on the formation of carbonate minerals

  2. In-Situ X-ray Tomography Study of Cement Exposed to CO2 Saturated Brine

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chavez Panduro, E. A.; Torsæter, M.; Gawel, K.


    For successful CO2 storage in underground reservoirs, the potential problem of CO2 leakage needs to be addressed. A profoundly improved understanding of the behavior of fractured cement under realistic subsurface conditions including elevated temperature, high pressure and the presence of CO2...... saturated brine is required. Here, we report in situ X-ray micro computed tomography (μ-CT) studies visualizing the microstructural changes upon exposure of cured Portland cement with an artificially engineered leakage path (cavity) to CO2 saturated brine at high pressure. Carbonation of the bulk cement......, self-healing of the leakage path in the cement specimen, and leaching of CaCO3 were thus directly observed. The precipitation of CaCO3, which is of key importance as a possible healing mechanism of fractured cement, was found to be enhanced in confined regions having limited access to CO2...

  3. Community-level sensitivity of a calcifying ecosystem to acute in situ CO2 enrichment

    KAUST Repository

    Burdett, HL


    The rate of change in ocean carbonate chemistry is a vital determinant in the magnitude of effects observed. Benthic marine ecosystems are facing an increasing risk of acute CO2 exposure that may be natural or anthropogenically derived (e.g. engineering and industrial activities). However, our understanding of how acute CO2 events impact marine life is restricted to individual organisms, with little understanding for how this manifests at the community level. Here, we investigated in situ the effect of acute CO2 enrichment on the coralline algal ecosystem—a globally ubiquitous, ecologically and economically important habitat, but one which is likely to be sensitive to CO2 enrichment due to its highly calcified reef-like structures engineered by coralline algae. Most notably, we observed a rapid community-level shift to favour net dissolution rather than net calcification. Smaller changes from net respiration to net photosynthesis were also observed. There was no effect on the net flux of DMS/DMSP (algal secondary metabolites), nor on the nutrients nitrate and phosphate. Following return to ambient CO2 levels, only a partial recovery was seen within the monitoring timeframe. This study highlights the sensitivity of biogenic carbonate marine communities to acute CO2 enrichment and raises concerns over the capacity for the system to ‘bounce back’ if subjected to repeated acute high-CO2 events.

  4. Spatial variation of sediment mineralization supports differential CO2 emissions from a tropical hydroelectric reservoir. (United States)

    Cardoso, Simone J; Vidal, Luciana O; Mendonça, Raquel F; Tranvik, Lars J; Sobek, Sebastian; Fábio, Roland


    Substantial amounts of organic matter (OM) from terrestrial ecosystems are buried as sediments in inland waters. It is still unclear to what extent this OM constitutes a sink of carbon, and how much of it is returned to the atmosphere upon mineralization to carbon dioxide (CO2). The construction of reservoirs affects the carbon cycle by increasing OM sedimentation at the regional scale. In this study we determine the OM mineralization in the sediment of three zones (river, transition, and dam) of a tropical hydroelectric reservoir in Brazil as well as identify the composition of the carbon pool available for mineralization. We measured sediment organic carbon mineralization rates and related them to the composition of the OM, bacterial abundance and pCO2 of the surface water of the reservoir. Terrestrial OM was an important substrate for the mineralization. In the river and transition zones most of the OM was allochthonous (56 and 48%, respectively) while the dam zone had the lowest allochthonous contribution (7%). The highest mineralization rates were found in the transition zone (154.80 ± 33.50 mg C m(-) (2) d(-) (1)) and the lowest in the dam (51.60 ± 26.80 mg C m(-) (2) d(-) (1)). Moreover, mineralization rates were significantly related to bacterial abundance (r (2) = 0.50, p hydroelectric reservoirs.

  5. Carbon Mineralization by Aqueous Precipitation for Beneficial Use of CO2 from Flue Gas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Devenney, Martin; Gilliam, Ryan; Seeker, Randy


    The objective of this project is to demonstrate an innovative process to mineralize CO2 from flue gas directly to reactive carbonates and maximize the value and versatility of its beneficial use products. The program scope includes the design, construction, and testing of a CO2 Conversion to Material Products (CCMP) Pilot Demonstration Plant utilizing CO2 from the flue gas of a power production facility in Moss Landing, CA as well as flue gas from coal combustion. This topical report covers Phase 2b, which is the construction phase of pilot demonstration subsystems that make up the integrated plant. The subsystems included are the mineralization subsystem, the Alkalinity Based on Low Energy (ABLE) subsystem, the waste calcium oxide processing subsystem, and the fiber cement board production subsystem. The fully integrated plant is now capable of capturing CO2 from various sources (gas and coal) and mineralizing into a reactive calcium carbonate binder and subsequently producing commercial size (4ftx8ft) fiber cement boards. The topical report provides a description of the “as built” design of these subsystems and the results of the commissioning activities that have taken place to confirm operability. At the end of Phase 2b, the CCMP pilot demonstration is fully ready for testing.

  6. In situ spectroscopic monitoring of CO2 reduction at copper oxide electrode. (United States)

    Wang, Liying; Gupta, Kalyani; Goodall, Josephine B M; Darr, Jawwad A; Holt, Katherine B


    Copper oxide modified electrodes were investigated as a function of applied electrode potential using in situ infrared spectroscopy and ex situ Raman and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. In deoxygenated KHCO 3 electrolyte bicarbonate and carbonate species were found to adsorb to the electrode during reduction and the CuO was reduced to Cu(i) or Cu(0) species. Carbonate was incorporated into the structure and the CuO starting material was not regenerated on cycling to positive potentials. In contrast, in CO 2 saturated KHCO 3 solution, surface adsorption of bicarbonate and carbonate was not observed and adsorption of a carbonato-species was observed with in situ infrared spectroscopy. This species is believed to be activated, bent CO 2 . On cycling to negative potentials, larger reduction currents were observed in the presence of CO 2 ; however, less of the charge could be attributed to the reduction of CuO. In the presence of CO 2 CuO underwent reduction to Cu 2 O and potentially Cu, with no incorporation of carbonate. Under these conditions the CuO starting material could be regenerated by cycling to positive potentials.

  7. The CarbFix Pilot Project in Iceland - CO2 capture and mineral storage in basaltic rocks (United States)

    Sigurdardottir, H.; Sigfusson, B.; Aradottir, E. S.; Gunnlaugsson, E.; Gislason, S. R.; Alfredsson, H. A.; Broecker, W. S.; Matter, J. M.; Stute, M.; Oelkers, E.


    The overall objective of the CarbFix project is to develop and optimize a practical and cost-effective technology for capturing CO2 and storing it via in situ mineral carbonation in basaltic rocks, as well as to train young scientist to carry the corresponding knowledge into the future. The project consists of a field injection of CO2 charged water at the Hellisheidi geothermal power plant in SW Iceland, laboratory experiments, numerical reactive transport modeling, tracer tests, natural analogue and cost analysis. The CO2 injection site is situated about 3 km south of the Hellisheidi geothermal power plant. Reykjavik Energy operates the power plant, which currently produces 60,000 tons/year CO2 of magmatic origin. The produced geothermal gas mainly consists of CO2 and H2S. The two gases will be separated in a pilot gas treatment plant, and CO2 will be transported in a pipeline to the injection site. There, CO2 will be fully dissolved in 20 - 25°C water during injection at 25 - 30 bar pressure, resulting in a single fluid phase entering the storage formation, which consists of relatively fresh basaltic lavas. The CO2 charged water is reactive and will dissolve divalent cations from the rock, which will combine with the dissolved carbon to form solid thermodynamically stable carbonate minerals. The injection test is designed to inject 2200 tons of CO2 per year. In the past three years the CarbFix project has been addressing background fluid chemistries at the injection site and characterizing the target reservoir for the planned CO2 injection. Numerous groundwater samples have been collected and analysed. A monitoring and accounting plan has been developed, which integrates surface, subsurface and atmospheric monitoring. A weather station is operating at the injection site for continuous monitoring of atmospheric CO2 and to track all key parameters for the injection. Environmental authorities have granted licenses for the CO2 injection and the use of tracers, based

  8. CO2 emissions: mineral carbonation and Finnish pulp and paper industry (CONordicPlus) and use of serpentinites in energy and metal industry (ECOSERP)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fogelholm, C.J.; Raiski, T.; Teir, S.


    Mineral carbonation has been investigated at Helsinki University of Technology (TKK), laboratory of energy engineering and environmental protection since year 2000. The Finnish Technology Agency Tekes and the Finnish Recovery Boiler Committee are funding through the ClimBus technology programme, in conjunction with the Nordic Energy Research Programme, the research regarding the application of ex situ mineral carbonation processes. One aspect is to verify the possible use of mineral carbonation for the separation, utilisation and long-term storage of carbon dioxide (CO2) in the pulp and paper industry. The Geological Survey of Finland (GTK) has been screening since 2004 the location, quality and suitability of the Finnish processed serpentine and stopped serpentinite storage of mines and in situ serpentinite bodies of ultramafic rock formations for mineral carbonation of CO2. Tekes and the GTK are funding development work through the ClimBus technology programme on the utilisation of serpentine and serpentinite for CO2 sequestration purposes, based on economical and environmental evaluation of mineral and mining processing operations. Also the options for other use of serpentine and serpentinite are evaluated. The most promising magnesium and calcium-based sources for carbonation are by products of mining processes of ultramafic rocks (such as serpentinites and serpentine) and steelmaking slags. Carbonated minerals could possibly be used as paper coating materials (PCC), fillers or construction materials. For magnesium carbonate new markets and applications must be developed. (orig.)

  9. CO2 Energy Reactor - Integrated Mineral Carbonation: Perspectives on Lab-Scale Investigation and Products Valorization


    Rafael M Santos; Pol CM Knops; Keesjan L Rijnsburger; Yi Wai eChiang


    To overcome the challenges of mineral CO2 sequestration, Innovation Concepts B.V. is developing a unique proprietary gravity pressure vessel (GPV) reactor technology and has focussed on generating reaction products of high economic value. The GPV provides intense process conditions through hydrostatic pressurization and heat exchange integration that harvests exothermic reaction energy, thereby reducing energy demand of conventional reactor designs, in addition to offering other benefits. In ...

  10. Thermal decomposition of dolomite under CO2: insights from TGA and in situ XRD analysis. (United States)

    Valverde, Jose Manuel; Perejon, Antonio; Medina, Santiago; Perez-Maqueda, Luis A


    Thermal decomposition of dolomite in the presence of CO2 in a calcination environment is investigated by means of in situ X-ray diffraction (XRD) and thermogravimetric analysis (TGA). The in situ XRD results suggest that dolomite decomposes directly at a temperature around 700 °C into MgO and CaO. Immediate carbonation of nascent CaO crystals leads to the formation of calcite as an intermediate product of decomposition. Subsequently, decarbonation of this poorly crystalline calcite occurs when the reaction is thermodynamically favorable and sufficiently fast at a temperature depending on the CO2 partial pressure in the calcination atmosphere. Decarbonation of this dolomitic calcite occurs at a lower temperature than limestone decarbonation due to the relatively low crystallinity of the former. Full decomposition of dolomite leads also to a relatively low crystalline CaO, which exhibits a high reactivity as compared to limestone derived CaO. Under CO2 capture conditions in the Calcium-Looping (CaL) process, MgO grains remain inert yet favor the carbonation reactivity of dolomitic CaO especially in the solid-state diffusion controlled phase. The fundamental mechanism that drives the crystallographic transformation of dolomite in the presence of CO2 is thus responsible for its fast calcination kinetics and the high carbonation reactivity of dolomitic CaO, which makes natural dolomite a potentially advantageous alternative to limestone for CO2 capture in the CaL technology as well as SO2in situ removal in oxy-combustion fluidized bed reactors.

  11. Sample environment for in situ synchrotron XRD measurements for CO2 interaction with subsurface materials (United States)

    Elbakhshwan, M.; Gill, S.; Weidner, R.; Ecker, L.


    Sequestration of CO2 in geological formations requires a deep understanding of its interaction with the cement-casing components in the depleted oil and gas wells. Portland cement is used to seal the wellbores; however it tends to interact with the CO2. Therefore it is critical to investigate the wellbore integrity over long term exposure to CO2. Studies showed that, CO2 leakage is due to the flow through the casing-cement microannulus, cement-cement fractures, or the cement-caprock interface. The objective of this work is to gain a better understanding of the dissolution process of the cement-casing in the CO2 flow channels alongside with the carbonation reactions at the interfaces using XRF, XANES and X-ray tomography techniques. In this study, a synthetic wellbore system, consisting of cement with an embedded rectangular length of steel casing that had grooves to accommodate fluid flow, was used to investigate the casing-cement microannulus through core-flood experiments. The objective of this work is to gain a better understanding of the dissolution process of the cement-casing in the CO2 flow channels alongside with the carbonation reactions at the interfaces using a sample environment designed and built for in situ X-ray diffraction in the National Synchrotron Light Source II (NSLS II). The formation of carbonate phases at cement -fluid and cement-steel/fluid interfaces will be monitored in real time. Samples may be exposed to super critical CO2 at pressures above 1100 psi and temperatures around 50°C. The reaction cell is built from hastealloy to provide corrosion resistance, while the experimental temperature and pressure are controlled with thermocouples and pressure vessel.

  12. Experimental Investigation and Simplistic Geochemical Modeling of CO2 Mineral Carbonation Using the Mount Tawai Peridotite

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Omeid Rahmani


    Full Text Available In this work, the potential of CO2 mineral carbonation of brucite (Mg(OH2 derived from the Mount Tawai peridotite (forsterite based (Mg2SiO4 to produce thermodynamically stable magnesium carbonate (MgCO3 was evaluated. The effect of three main factors (reaction temperature, particle size, and water vapor were investigated in a sequence of experiments consisting of aqueous acid leaching, evaporation to dryness of the slurry mass, and then gas-solid carbonation under pressurized CO2. The maximum amount of Mg converted to MgCO3 is ~99%, which occurred at temperatures between 150 and 175 °C. It was also found that the reduction of particle size range from >200 to <75 µm enhanced the leaching rate significantly. In addition, the results showed the essential role of water vapor in promoting effective carbonation. By increasing water vapor concentration from 5 to 10 vol %, the mineral carbonation rate increased by 30%. This work has also numerically modeled the process by which CO2 gas may be sequestered, by reaction with forsterite in the presence of moisture. In both experimental analysis and geochemical modeling, the results showed that the reaction is favored and of high yield; going almost to completion (within about one year with the bulk of the carbon partitioning into magnesite and that very little remains in solution.

  13. Mineral composition of durum wheat grain and pasta under increasing atmospheric CO2 concentrations. (United States)

    Beleggia, Romina; Fragasso, Mariagiovanna; Miglietta, Franco; Cattivelli, Luigi; Menga, Valeria; Nigro, Franca; Pecchioni, Nicola; Fares, Clara


    The concentrations of 10 minerals were investigated in the grain of 12 durum wheat genotypes grown under free air CO 2 enrichment conditions, and in four of their derived pasta samples, using inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry. Compared to ambient CO 2 (400ppm; AMB), under elevated CO 2 (570ppm; ELE), the micro-element and macro-element contents showed strong and significant decreases in the grain: Mn, -28.3%; Fe, -26.7%; Zn, -21.9%; Mg, -22.7%; Mo, -40.4%; K, -22.4%; and Ca, -19.5%. These variations defined the 12 genotypes as sensitive or non-sensitive to ELE. The pasta samples under AMB and ELE showed decreased mineral contents compared to the grain. Nevertheless, the contributions of the pasta to the recommended daily allowances remained relevant, also for the micro-elements under ELE conditions (range, from 18% of the recommended daily allowance for Zn, to 70% for Mn and Mo). Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. In Situ Raman Analysis of CO2—Assisted Drying of Fruit-Slices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andreas Siegfried Braeuer


    Full Text Available This work explores the feasibility of applying in situ Raman spectroscopy for the online monitoring of the supercritical carbon dioxide (SC-CO2 drying of fruits. Specifically, we investigate two types of fruits: mango and persimmon. The drying experiments were carried out inside an optical accessible vessel at 10 MPa and 313 K. The Raman spectra reveal: (i the reduction of the water from the fruit slice and (ii the change of the fruit matrix structure during the drying process. Two different Raman excitation wavelengths were compared: 532 nm and 785 nm. With respect to the quality of the obtained spectra, the 532 nm excitation wavelength was superior due to a higher signal-to-noise ratio and due to a resonant excitation scheme of the carotenoid molecules. It was found that the absorption of CO2 into the fruit matrix enhances the extraction of water, which was expressed by the obtained drying kinetic curve.

  15. In Situ Raman Analysis of CO2—Assisted Drying of Fruit-Slices (United States)

    Braeuer, Andreas Siegfried; Schuster, Julian Jonathan; Gebrekidan, Medhanie Tesfay; Bahr, Leo; Michelino, Filippo; Zambon, Alessandro; Spilimbergo, Sara


    This work explores the feasibility of applying in situ Raman spectroscopy for the online monitoring of the supercritical carbon dioxide (SC-CO2) drying of fruits. Specifically, we investigate two types of fruits: mango and persimmon. The drying experiments were carried out inside an optical accessible vessel at 10 MPa and 313 K. The Raman spectra reveal: (i) the reduction of the water from the fruit slice and (ii) the change of the fruit matrix structure during the drying process. Two different Raman excitation wavelengths were compared: 532 nm and 785 nm. With respect to the quality of the obtained spectra, the 532 nm excitation wavelength was superior due to a higher signal-to-noise ratio and due to a resonant excitation scheme of the carotenoid molecules. It was found that the absorption of CO2 into the fruit matrix enhances the extraction of water, which was expressed by the obtained drying kinetic curve. PMID:28505120

  16. Micro-CT in situ study of carbonate rock microstructural evolution for geologic CO2 storage

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zheng, Yi; Yang, Yan; Rogowska, M.


    to achieve this is to find a suitable condition to create a stable 3D space in carbonate rock by injecting liquid to prepare space for the later CO2 injection. Micro-CT imaging is a non-destructive 3D method that can be used to study the property changes of carbonate rocks during and after CO2 injection....... The advance in lab source based micro-CT has made it capable of in situ experiments. We used a commercial bench top micro-CT (Zeiss Versa XRM410) to study the microstructure changes of chalk during liquid injection. Flexible temporal CT resolution is essential in this study because that the time scales...... of coupled physical and chemical processes can be very different. The results validated the feasibility of using a bench top CT system with a pressure cell to monitor the mesoscale multiphase interactions in chalk....

  17. Mineral carbonation - possibilities in and ex-situ, evaluation and experiments in laboratory. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bodenan, F.; Bailly, L.; Piantone, P.; Seron, A.; Touze, S.


    This report proposes a state of the art of the knowledge and a synthesis of the studies realized at the BRGM since many years, especially in the following domains: the possibilities of the natural minerals and alkaline wastes for the CO 2 sequestration under mineral form, a accounting analysis of the ex-situ processes called direct and indirect, the design of experimental bench scale to study the mineral carbonation at ambient conditions and at high pressure and temperature. (A.L.B.)

  18. Activation of magnesium rich minerals as carbonation feedstock materials for CO2 sequestration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maroto-Valer, M.M.; Kuchta, M.E.; Zhang, Y.; Andresen, J.M.; Fauth, D.J.


    Mineral carbonation, the reaction of magnesium-rich minerals such as olivine and serpentine with CO 2 to form stable mineral carbonates, is a novel and promising approach to carbon sequestration. However, the preparation of the minerals prior to carbonation can be energy intensive, where some current studies have been exploring extensive pulverization of the minerals below 37 μm, heat treatment of minerals up to 650 o C, prior separation of CO 2 from flue gases, and carbonation at high pressures, temperatures and long reaction times of up to 125 atm, 185 o C and 6 h, respectively. Thus, the objective of the mineral activation concept is to promote and accelerate carbonation reaction rates and efficiencies through surface activation to the extent that such rigorous reaction conditions were not required. The physical activations were performed with air and steam, while chemical activations were performed with a suite of acids and bases. The parent serpentine, activated serpentines, and carbonation products were characterized to determine their surface properties and assess their potential as carbonation minerals. The results indicate that the surface area of the raw serpentine, which is approximately 8 m 2 /g, can be increased through physical and chemical activation methods to over 330 m 2 /g. The chemical activations were more effective than the physical activations at increasing the surface area, with the 650 o C steam activated serpentine presenting a surface area of only 17 m 2 /g. Sulfuric acid was the most effective acid used during the chemical activations, resulting in surface areas greater than 330 m 2 /g. Several of the samples produced underwent varying degrees of carbonation. The steam activated serpentine underwent a 60% conversion to magnesite at 155 o C and 126 atm in 1 h, while the parent sample only exhibited a 7% conversion. The most promising results came from the carbonation of the extracted Mg(OH) 2 solution, where, based on the amount of

  19. Waste water treatment of CO2+O2 in-situ leaching uranium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xu Lechang; Liu Naizhong; Du Zhiming; Wang Hongying


    An in-situ leaching uranium mine located in Northern China uses CO 2 +O 2 leaching process to leach uranium. The consumption of industrial reagent and water, and generation and discharge of waste water are minimized by comprehensive waste water treatment technology with process water recycle, reverse osmosis and natural evaporation. The process water of the mine that can be recycled and reused includes barren fluid, solution washing loaded resin, precipitating mother solution and filtered liquor of yellow cake. Solution regenerating barren resin is treated by reverse osmosis. Concentrated water from reverse osmosis and solution washing barren resin are naturally evaporated. (authors)

  20. Microbe-driven turnover offsets mineral-mediated storage of soil carbon under elevated CO2 (United States)

    Sulman, Benjamin N.; Phillips, Richard P.; Oishi, A. Christopher; Shevliakova, Elena; Pacala, Stephen W.


    The sensitivity of soil organic carbon (SOC) to changing environmental conditions represents a critical uncertainty in coupled carbon cycle-climate models. Much of this uncertainty arises from our limited understanding of the extent to which root-microbe interactions induce SOC losses (through accelerated decomposition or `priming') or indirectly promote SOC gains (via `protection' through interactions with mineral particles). We developed a new SOC model to examine priming and protection responses to rising atmospheric CO2. The model captured disparate SOC responses at two temperate free-air CO2 enrichment (FACE) experiments. We show that stabilization of `new' carbon in protected SOC pools may equal or exceed microbial priming of `old' SOC in ecosystems with readily decomposable litter and high clay content (for example, Oak Ridge). In contrast, carbon losses induced through priming dominate the net SOC response in ecosystems with more resistant litters and lower clay content (for example, Duke). The SOC model was fully integrated into a global terrestrial carbon cycle model to run global simulations of elevated CO2 effects. Although protected carbon provides an important constraint on priming effects, priming nonetheless reduced SOC storage in the majority of terrestrial areas, partially counterbalancing SOC gains from enhanced ecosystem productivity.

  1. Carbon Mineralization by Aqueous Precipitation for Beneficial Use of CO2 from Flue Gas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Devenney, Martin; Gilliam, Ryan; Seeker, Randy


    The objective of this project is to demonstrate an innovative process to mineralize CO2 from flue gas directly to reactive carbonates and maximize the value and versatility of its beneficial use products. The program scope includes the design, construction, and testing of a CO2 Conversion to Material Products (CCMP) Pilot Demonstration Plant utilizing CO2 from the flue gas of a power production facility in Moss Landing, CA. This topical report covers Subphase 2a which is the design phase of pilot demonstration subsystems. Materials of construction have been selected and proven in both lab scale and prototype testing to be acceptable for the reagent conditions of interest. The target application for the reactive carbonate material has been selected based upon small-scale feasibility studies and the design of a continuous fiber board production line has been completed. The electrochemical cell architecture and components have been selected based upon both lab scale and prototype testing. The appropriate quality control and diagnostic techniques have been developed and tested along with the required instrumentation and controls. Finally the demonstrate site infrastructure, NEPA categorical exclusion, and permitting is all ready for the construction and installation of the new units and upgrades.

  2. Carbon dioxide sequestration by mineral carbonation. Feasibility of enhanced natural weathering as a CO2 emission reduction technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huijgen, W.J.J.


    A possible technology that can contribute to the reduction of carbon dioxide emissions is CO2 sequestration by mineral carbonation. The basic concept behind mineral CO2 sequestration is the mimicking of natural weathering processes in which calcium or magnesium containing minerals react with gaseous CO2 and form solid calcium or magnesium carbonates. Potential advantages of mineral CO2 sequestration compared to, e.g., geological CO2 storage include (1) the permanent and inherently safe sequestration of CO2, due to the thermodynamic stability of the carbonate product formed and (2) the vast potential sequestration capacity, because of the widespread and abundant occurrence of suitable feedstock. In addition, carbonation is an exothermic process, which potentially limits the overall energy consumption and costs of CO2 emission reduction. However, weathering processes are slow, with timescales at natural conditions of thousands to millions of years. For industrial implementation, a reduction of the reaction time to the order of minutes has to be achieved by developing alternative process routes. The aim of this thesis is an investigation of the technical, energetic, and economic feasibility of CO2 sequestration by mineral carbonation. In Chapter 1 the literature published on CO2 sequestration by mineral carbonation is reviewed. Among the potentially suitable mineral feedstock for mineral CO2 sequestration, Ca-silicates, more particularly wollastonite (CaSiO3), a mineral ore, and steel slag, an industrial alkaline solid residue, are selected for further research. Alkaline Ca-rich residues seem particularly promising, since these materials are inexpensive and available near large industrial point sources of CO2. In addition, residues tend to react relatively rapidly with CO2 due to their (geo)chemical instability. Various process routes have been proposed for mineral carbonation, which often include a pre-treatment of the solid feedstock (e.g., size reduction and

  3. CO2 fixation using magnesium silicate minerals part 1: Process description and performance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fagerlund, Johan; Nduagu, Experience; Romão, Inês; Zevenhoven, Ron


    This paper describes a staged carbonation process for magnesium silicate mineral carbonation. This carbon dioxide capture and storage (CCS) alternative involves the production of magnesium hydroxide, followed by its carbonation in a pressurised fluidised bed (PFB) reactor. The goal is to utilise the heat of the carbonation reaction to drive the Mg(OH) 2 production step. The results show that Mg(OH) 2 can be produced successfully (up to 78% Mg extraction extent achieved so far) and efficiently from different serpentinite minerals from locations worldwide (Finland, Lithuania, Australia, Portugal…). From the extraction step, ammonium sulphate is recovered while iron oxides (from the mineral) are obtained as by-products. The carbonation step, while still being developed, resulted in >50%-wt conversion in 10 min (500 °C, 20 bar) for > 300 μm serpentinite-derived Mg(OH) 2 particles. Thus the reaction rate achieved so far is much faster than what is currently being considered fast in the field of mineral carbonation. -- Highlights: ► Magnesium silicate-based rock can sequester CO 2 as stable magnesium carbonate. ► Abundance of rock material offers a larger capacity than other CCS methods. ► Mg(OH) 2 production is followed by its carbonation in a pressurised fluidised bed. ► Carbonation reaches >50% in around 10 min for >0.3 mm particles. ► Mg(OH) 2 produced from different rock material show the same performance.

  4. Evaluation of a cavity ring-down spectrometer for in situ observations of 13CO2

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. E. J. Worthy


    Full Text Available With the emergence of wide-spread application of new optical techniques to monitor δ13C in atmospheric CO2 there is a growing need to ensure well-calibrated measurements. We characterized one commonly available instrument, a cavity ring-down spectrometer (CRDS system used for continuous in situ monitoring of atmospheric 13CO2. We found no dependency of δ13C on the CO2 concentration in the range of 303–437 ppm. We designed a calibration scheme according to the diagnosed instrumental drifts and established a quality assurance protocol. We find that the repeatability (1-σ of measurements is 0.25‰ for 10 min and 0.15‰ for 20 min integrated averages, respectively. Due to a spectral overlap, our instrument displays a cross-sensitivity to CH4 of 0.42 ± 0.024‰ ppm−1. Our ongoing target measurements yield standard deviations of δ13C from 0.22‰ to 0.28‰ for 10 min averages. We furthermore estimate the reproducibility of our system for ambient air samples from weekly measurements of a long-term target gas to be 0.18‰. We find only a minuscule offset of 0.002 ± 0.025‰ between the CRDS and Environment Canada's isotope ratio mass spectrometer (IRMS results for four target gases used over the course of one year.

  5. Quantitative percutaneous CO2 measurement following CO2 mineral water baths by means of the isotope ratio

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mass, I.; Huebner, G.; Birkenfeld, H.; Zelaitis, L.; Ploetner, G.


    A method for the quantitative determination of the carbon dioxide penetration through the human skin during a medical carbon dioxide mineral water bath is described. The natural isotope variation of carbon in the carbon dioxide of bath water, blood, and exspiratory gas are used for the calculation of the penetrated carbon dioxide amount. The method permits to optimize the effectiveness of medical carbon dioxide baths. (author)

  6. Monitoring of the microbial community composition of the saline aquifers during CO2 storage by fluorescence in situ hybridisation


    Daria Morozova; M. Wandrey; Mashal Alawi; Martin Zimmer; Andrea Vieth-Hillebrand [Vieth; M. Zettlitzer; Hilke Würdemann


    This study reveals the first analyses of the composition and activity of the microbial community of a saline CO2 storage aquifer. Microbial monitoring during CO2 injection has been reported. By using fluorescence in situ hybridisation (FISH), we have shown that the microbial community was strongly influenced by the CO2 injection. Before CO2 arrival, up to 6 × 106 cells ml−1 were detected by DAPI staining at a depth of 647 m below the surface. The microbial community was dominated by the dom...

  7. Procedure to use phosphogypsum industrial waste for mineral CO2 sequestration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cárdenas-Escudero, C.; Morales-Flórez, V.; Pérez-López, R.; Santos, A.; Esquivias, L.


    Highlights: ► Phosphogypsum wastes are proposed to reduce CO 2 greenhouse gas emissions. ► Phosphogypsum dissolution with NaOH results in Ca(OH) 2 precipitation and Na 2 SO 4 . ► Aqueous carbonation of Ca(OH) 2 with CO 2 results in the CaCO 3 precipitation. ► Metals contained in the phosphogypsum are transferred to the final calcite. ► Applications of CaCO 3 and Na 2 SiO 4 by-products are proposed to improve viability. - Abstract: Industrial wet phosphoric acid production in Huelva (SW Spain) has led to the controversial stockpiling of waste phosphogypsum by-products, resulting in the release of significant quantities of toxic impurities in salt marshes in the Tinto river estuary. In the framework of the fight against global climate change and the effort to reduce carbon dioxide emissions, a simple and efficient procedure for CO 2 mineral sequestration is presented in this work, using phosphogypsum waste as a calcium source. Our results demonstrate the high efficiency of portlandite precipitation by phosphogypsum dissolution using an alkaline soda solution. Carbonation experiments performed at ambient pressure and temperature resulted in total conversion of the portlandite into carbonate. The fate of trace elements present in the phosphogypsum waste was also investigated, and trace impurities were found to be completely transferred to the final calcite. We believe that the procedure proposed here should be considered not only as a solution for reducing old stockpiles of phosphogypsum wastes, but also for future phosphoric acid and other gypsum-producing industrial processes, resulting in more sustainable production.

  8. Airborne remote sensing and in situ measurements of atmospheric CO2 to quantify point source emissions (United States)

    Krings, Thomas; Neininger, Bruno; Gerilowski, Konstantin; Krautwurst, Sven; Buchwitz, Michael; Burrows, John P.; Lindemann, Carsten; Ruhtz, Thomas; Schüttemeyer, Dirk; Bovensmann, Heinrich


    Reliable techniques to infer greenhouse gas emission rates from localised sources require accurate measurement and inversion approaches. In this study airborne remote sensing observations of CO2 by the MAMAP instrument and airborne in situ measurements are used to infer emission estimates of carbon dioxide released from a cluster of coal-fired power plants. The study area is complex due to sources being located in close proximity and overlapping associated carbon dioxide plumes. For the analysis of in situ data, a mass balance approach is described and applied, whereas for the remote sensing observations an inverse Gaussian plume model is used in addition to a mass balance technique. A comparison between methods shows that results for all methods agree within 10 % or better with uncertainties of 10 to 30 % for cases in which in situ measurements were made for the complete vertical plume extent. The computed emissions for individual power plants are in agreement with results derived from emission factors and energy production data for the time of the overflight.

  9. Stochastic Approach to Determine CO2 Hydrate Induction Time in Clay Mineral Suspensions (United States)

    Lee, K.; Lee, S.; Lee, W.


    A large number of induction time data for carbon dioxide hydrate formation were obtained from a batch reactor consisting of four independent reaction cells. Using resistance temperature detector(RTD)s and a digital microscope, we successfully monitored the whole process of hydrate formation (i.e., nucleation and crystal growth) and detected the induction time. The experiments were carried out in kaolinite and montmorillonite suspensions at temperatures between 274 and 277 K and pressures ranging from 3.0 to 4.0 MPa. Each set of data was analyzed beforehand whether to be treated by stochastic manner or not. Geochemical factors potentially influencing the hydrate induction time under different experimental conditions were investigated by stochastic analyses. We observed that clay mineral type, pressure, and temperature significantly affect the stochastic behavior of the induction times for CO2 hydrate formation in this study. The hydrate formation kinetics along with stochastic analyses can provide basic understanding for CO2 hydrate storage in deep-sea sediment and geologic formation, securing its stability under the environments.

  10. In Situ Oxygen Generation from CO2 under Benign Conditions, Phase I (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Two key technical challenges will be addressed: Construction of binuclear-CO2 complexes with CO2-CO2 spatially close enough to each other and activation of...

  11. Adsorption of Dissolved Gases (CH4, CO2, H2, Noble Gases) by Water-Saturated Smectite Clay Minerals (United States)

    Bourg, I. C.; Gadikota, G.; Dazas, B.


    Adsorption of dissolved gases by water-saturated clay minerals plays important roles in a range of fields. For example, gas adsorption in on clay minerals may significantly impact the formation of CH4 hydrates in fine-grained sediments, the behavior of CH4 in shale, CO2 leakage across caprocks of geologic CO2 sequestration sites, H2 leakage across engineered clay barriers of high-level radioactive waste repositories, and noble gas geochemistry reconstructions of hydrocarbon migration in the subsurface. Despite its importance, the adsorption of gases on clay minerals remains poorly understood. For example, some studies have suggested that clay surfaces promote the formation of CH4 hydrates, whereas others indicate that clay surfaces inhibit the formation of CH4 hydrates. Here, we present molecular dynamics (MD) simulations of the adsorption of a range of gases (CH4, CO2, H2, noble gases) on clay mineral surfaces. Our results indicate that the affinity of dissolved gases for clay mineral surfaces has a non-monotone dependence on the hydrated radius of the gas molecules. This non-monotone dependence arises from a combination of two effects: the polar nature of certain gas molecules (in particular, CO2) and the templating of interfacial water structure by the clay basal surface, which results in the presence of interfacial water "cages" of optimal size for intermediate-size gas molecules (such as Ne or Ar).

  12. [Temperature sensitivity of CO2 fluxes from rhizosphere soil mineralization and root decomposition in Pinus massoniana and Castanopsis sclerophylla forests]. (United States)

    Liu, Yu; Hu, Xiao-Fei; Chen, Fu-Sheng; Yuan, Ping-Cheng


    Rhizospheric and non-rhizospheric soils and the absorption, transition, and storage roots were sampled from the mid-subtropical Pinus massoniana and Castanopsis sclerophylla forests to study the CO2 fluxes from soil mineralization and root decomposition in the forests. The samples were incubated in closed jars at 15 degrees C, 25 degrees C, 35 degrees C, and 45 degrees C, respectively, and alkali absorption method was applied to measure the CO2 fluxes during 53 days incubation. For the two forests, the rhizospheric effect (ratio of rhizospheric to non-rhizospheric soil) on the CO2 flux from soil mineralization across all incubation temperature ranged from 1.12 to 3.09, with a decreasing trend along incubation days. There was no significant difference in the CO2 flux from soil mineralization between the two forests at 15 degrees C, but the CO2 flux was significantly higher in P. massoniana forest than in C. sclerophylla forest at 25 degrees C and 35 degrees C, and in an opposite pattern at 45 degrees C. At all incubation temperature, the CO2 release from the absorption root decomposition was higher than that from the transition and storage roots decomposition, and was smaller in P. massoniana than in C. sclerophylla forest for all the root functional types. The Q10 values of the CO2 fluxes from the two forests were higher for soils (1.21-1.83) than for roots (0.96-1.36). No significant differences were observed in the Q10 values of the CO2 flux from soil mineralization between the two forests, but the Q10 value of the CO2 flux from root decomposition was significantly higher in P. massoniana than in C. sclerophylla forest. It was suggested that the increment of CO2 flux from soil mineralization under global warming was far higher than that from root decomposition, and for P. massoniana than for C. sclerophylla forest. In subtropics of China, the adaptability of zonal climax community to global warming would be stronger than that of pioneer community.

  13. Fundamental study of CO2-H2O-mineral interactions for carbon sequestration, with emphasis on the nature of the supercritical fluid-mineral interface.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bryan, Charles R.; Dewers, Thomas A.; Heath, Jason E.; Wang, Yifeng; Matteo, Edward N.; Meserole, Stephen P.; Tallant, David Robert


    In the supercritical CO2-water-mineral systems relevant to subsurface CO2 sequestration, interfacial processes at the supercritical fluid-mineral interface will strongly affect core- and reservoir-scale hydrologic properties. Experimental and theoretical studies have shown that water films will form on mineral surfaces in supercritical CO2, but will be thinner than those that form in vadose zone environments at any given matric potential. The theoretical model presented here allows assessment of water saturation as a function of matric potential, a critical step for evaluating relative permeabilities the CO2 sequestration environment. The experimental water adsorption studies, using Quartz Crystal Microbalance and Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy methods, confirm the major conclusions of the adsorption/condensation model. Additional data provided by the FTIR study is that CO2 intercalation into clays, if it occurs, does not involve carbonate or bicarbonate formation, or significant restriction of CO2 mobility. We have shown that the water film that forms in supercritical CO2 is reactive with common rock-forming minerals, including albite, orthoclase, labradorite, and muscovite. The experimental data indicate that reactivity is a function of water film thickness; at an activity of water of 0.9, the greatest extent of reaction in scCO2 occurred in areas (step edges, surface pits) where capillary condensation thickened the water films. This suggests that dissolution/precipitation reactions may occur preferentially in small pores and pore throats, where it may have a disproportionately large effect on rock hydrologic properties. Finally, a theoretical model is presented here that describes the formation and movement of CO2 ganglia in porous media, allowing assessment of the effect of pore size and structural heterogeneity on capillary trapping efficiency. The model results also suggest possible engineering approaches for optimizing trapping capacity and for

  14. Environmental Benign Synthesis of Lithium Silicates and Mg-Al Layered Double Hydroxide from Vermiculite Mineral for CO2 Capture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu Zhang


    Full Text Available This research introduces a completely new environmental benign synthesis route for obtaining two kinds of inter-mediate and high temperature CO2 sorbents, Mg-Al layered double hydroxide (LDH and Li4SiO4, from vermiculite. The mineral vermiculite was leached with acid, from which the obtained SiO2 was used for the synthesis of Li4SiO4 and the leaching waste water was used for the synthesis of Mg-Al LDH. Therefore, no waste was produced during the whole process. Both Li4SiO4 and Mg-Al LDH sorbents were carefully characterized using XRD, SEM, and BET analyses. The CO2 capturing performance of these two sorbents was comprehensively evaluated. The influence of the Li/Si ratio, calcination temperature, calcination time, and sorption temperature on the CO2 sorption capacity of Li4SiO4, and the sorption temperature on the CO2 sorption capacity of LDH, were investigated. The optimal leaching acid concentration for vermiculite and the CO2 sorption/desorption cycling performance of both the Li4SiO4 and Mg-Al LDH sorbents were determined. In sum, this demonstrated a unique and environment-friendly scheme for obtaining two CO2 sorbents from cheap raw materials, and this idea is applicable to the efficient utilization of other minerals.

  15. Hidden shift of the ionome of plants exposed to elevated CO2 depletes minerals at the base of human nutrition (United States)

    Loladze, Irakli


    Mineral malnutrition stemming from undiversified plant-based diets is a top global challenge. In C3 plants (e.g., rice, wheat), elevated concentrations of atmospheric carbon dioxide (eCO2) reduce protein and nitrogen concentrations, and can increase the total non-structural carbohydrates (TNC; mainly starch, sugars). However, contradictory findings have obscured the effect of eCO2 on the ionome—the mineral and trace-element composition—of plants. Consequently, CO2-induced shifts in plant quality have been ignored in the estimation of the impact of global change on humans. This study shows that eCO2 reduces the overall mineral concentrations (−8%, 95% confidence interval: −9.1 to −6.9, p carbon:minerals in C3 plants. The meta-analysis of 7761 observations, including 2264 observations at state of the art FACE centers, covers 130 species/cultivars. The attained statistical power reveals that the shift is systemic and global. Its potential to exacerbate the prevalence of ‘hidden hunger’ and obesity is discussed. DOI: PMID:24867639

  16. An in-situ IR study on the adsorption of CO2 and H2O on hydrotalcites

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Coenen, K.T.; Gallucci, F.; Mezari, B.; Hensen, E.J.M.; van Sint Annaland, M.


    In-situ IR technique was used to study the reversible adsorption of CO2 and H2O at elevated temperatures on a potassium-promoted hydrotalcite for its use in sorption-enhanced water-gas shift (SEWGS). It was found that mainly bidentate carbonate species are responsible for the reversible (cyclic)

  17. In Situ Local Contact Angle Measurement in a CO2-Brine-Sand System Using Microfocused X-ray CT. (United States)

    Lv, Pengfei; Liu, Yu; Wang, Zhe; Liu, Shuyang; Jiang, Lanlan; Chen, Junlin; Song, Yongchen


    The wettability of porous media is of major interest in a broad range of natural and engineering applications. The wettability of a fluid on a solid surface is usually evaluated by the contact angle between them. While in situ local contact angle measurements are complicated by the topology of porous media, which can make it difficult to use traditional methods, recent advances in microfocused X-ray computed tomography (micro-CT) and image processing techniques have made it possible to measure contact angles on the scale of the pore sizes in such media. However, the effects of ionic strength, CO 2 phase, and flow pattern (drainage or imbibition) on pore-scale contact angle distribution are still not clear and have not been reported in detail in previous studies. In this study, we employed a micro-CT scanner for in situ investigation of local contact angles in a CO 2 -brine-sand system under various conditions. The effects of ionic strength, CO 2 phase, and flow pattern on the local contact-angle distribution were examined in detail. The results showed that the local contact angles vary over a wide range as a result of the interaction of surface contaminants, roughness, pore topology, and capillarity. The wettability of a porous surface could thus slowly weaken with increasing ionic strength, and the average contact angle could significantly increase when gaseous CO 2 (gCO 2 ) turns into supercritical CO 2 (scCO 2 ). Contact angle hysteresis also occurred between drainage and imbibition procedures, and the hysteresis was more significant under gCO 2 condition.

  18. Silicate minerals for CO2 scavenging from biogas in Autogenerative High Pressure Digestion

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lindeboom, R.E.F.; Ferrer, I.; Weijma, J.; Lier, van J.B.


    Autogenerative High Pressure Digestion (AHPD) is a novel concept that integrates gas upgrading with anaerobic digestion by selective dissolution of CO2 at elevated biogas pressure. However, accumulation of CO2 and fatty acids after anaerobic digestion of glucose resulted in pH 3–5, which is

  19. CO2 Mineralization and Utilization using Steel Slag for Establishing a Waste-to-Resource Supply Chain. (United States)

    Pan, Shu-Yuan; Chung, Tai-Chun; Ho, Chang-Ching; Hou, Chin-Jen; Chen, Yi-Hung; Chiang, Pen-Chi


    Both steelmaking via an electric arc furnace and manufacturing of portland cement are energy-intensive and resource-exploiting processes, with great amounts of carbon dioxide (CO 2 ) emission and alkaline solid waste generation. In fact, most CO 2 capture and storage technologies are currently too expensive to be widely applied in industries. Moreover, proper stabilization prior to utilization of electric arc furnace slag are still challenging due to its high alkalinity, heavy metal leaching potentials and volume instability. Here we deploy an integrated approach to mineralizing flue gas CO 2 using electric arc furnace slag while utilizing the reacted product as supplementary cementitious materials to establish a waste-to-resource supply chain toward a circular economy. We found that the flue gas CO 2 was rapidly mineralized into calcite precipitates using electric arc furnace slag. The carbonated slag can be successfully utilized as green construction materials in blended cement mortar. By this modulus, the global CO 2 reduction potential using iron and steel slags was estimated to be ~138 million tons per year.

  20. Estimation of the reactive mineral surface area during CO2-rich fluid-rock interaction: the influence of neogenic phases (United States)

    Scislewski, A.; Zuddas, P.


    Mineral dissolution and precipitation reactions actively participate to control fluid chemistry during water-rock interaction. It is however, difficult to estimate and well normalize bulk reaction rates if the mineral surface area exposed to the aqueous solution and effectively participating on the reactions is unknown. We evaluated the changing of the reactive mineral surface area during the interaction between CO2-rich fluids and Albitite/Granitoid rocks (similar mineralogy but different abundances), reacting under flow-through conditions. Our methodology, adopting an inverse modeling approach, is based on the estimation of dissolution rate and reactive surface area of the different minerals participating in the reactions by the reconstruction the chemical evolution of the interacting fluids. The irreversible mass-transfer processes is defined by a fractional degree of advancement, while calculations were carried out for Albite, Microcline, Biotite and Calcite assuming that the ion activity of dissolved silica and aluminium ions was limited by the equilibrium with quartz and kaolinite. Irrespective of the mineral abundance in granite and albitite, we found that mineral dissolution rates did not change significantly in the investigated range of time where output solution’s pH remained in the range between 6 and 8, indicating that the observed variation in fluid composition depends not on pH but rather on the variation of the parent mineral’s reactive surface area. We found that the reactive surface area of Albite varied by more than 2 orders of magnitude, while Microcline, Calcite and Biotite surface areas changed by 1-2 orders of magnitude. We propose that parent mineral chemical heterogeneity and, particularly, the stability of secondary mineral phases may explain the observed variation of the reactive surface area of the minerals. Formation of coatings at the dissolving parent mineral surfaces significantly reduced the amount of surface available to react

  1. Review of CO2 Reduction Technologies using Mineral Carbonation of Iron and Steel Making Slag in Malaysia (United States)

    Norhana Selamat, Siti; Nor, Nik Hisyamudin Muhd; Rashid, Muhammad Hanif Abdul; Fauzi Ahmad, Mohd; Mohamad, Fariza; Ismail, Al Emran; Fahrul Hassan, Mohd; Turan, Faiz Mohd; Zain, Mohd Zamzuri Mohd; Abu Bakar, Elmi; Seiji, Yokoyama


    Climate change, greenhouse gas effect, and global warming is envisioning to turn more awful and more terrible by year. Since the leading cause of global warming is uncontrolled CO2 in atmosphere. The amount of unused steel slag is expected to increment later on, steel industries is one of the mechanical industries that contribute the CO2 emission. That because this businesses deliver carbon in light of powers reductant and substantial volume of steel. The changes of atmosphere these day is truly developing concern and that make steel creator are confronted with test of discovering methods for bringing down CO2 emission. Malaysia is working decidedly in the diminishment of CO2 gas. There are a few techniques in decreasing the amount of CO2 in the air as underlined by the Intergovernmental Panel of Climate Change (IPCC), an organization under the United Country however CCS is an extremely encouraging innovation to moderate CO2 emission in air. Mineral carbonation is another technique to store carbon dioxide permanently, long term stability and vast capacity.

  2. In Situ analysis of CO2 laser irradiation on controlling progression of erosive lesions on dental enamel. (United States)

    Lepri, Taísa Penazzo; Scatolin, Renata Siqueira; Colucci, Vivian; De Alexandria, Adílis Kalina; Maia, Lucianne Cople; Turssi, Cecília Pedroso; Corona, Silmara Aparecida Milori


    The present study aimed to evaluate in situ the effect of CO2 laser irradiation to control the progression of enamel erosive lesions. Fifty-six slabs of bovine incisors enamel (5 × 3 × 2.5 mm(3) ) were divided in four distinct areas: (1) sound (reference area), (2) initial erosion, (3) treatment (irradiated or nonirradiated with CO2 laser), (4) final erosion (after in situ phase). The initial erosive challenge was performed with 1% citric acid (pH = 2.3), for 5 min, 2×/day, for 2 days. The slabs were divided in two groups according to surface treatment: irradiated with CO2 laser (λ = 10.6 µm; 0.5 W) and nonirradiate. After a 2-day lead-in period, 14 volunteers wore an intraoral palatal appliance containing two slabs (irradiated and nonirradiated), in two intraoral phases of 5 days each. Following a cross-over design during the first intraoral phase, half of the volunteers immersed the appliance in 100 mL of citric acid for 5 min, 3×/day, while other half of the volunteers used deionized water (control). The volunteers were crossed over in the second phase. Enamel wear was determined by an optical 3D profilometer. Three-way ANOVA for repeated measures revealed that there was no significant interaction between erosive challenge and CO2 laser irradiation (P = 0.419). Erosive challenge significantly increased enamel wear (P = 0.001), regardless whether or not CO2 laser irradiation was performed. There was no difference in enamel wear between specimens CO2 -laser irradiated and non-irradiated (P = 0.513). Under intraoral conditions, CO2 laser irradiation did not control the progression of erosive lesions in enamel caused by citric acid. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  3. Sequestering CO2 by mineralization into useful nesquehonite-based products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fredrik Paul Glasser


    Full Text Available The precipitation of magnesium hydroxy-carbonate hydrates has been suggested as a route to sequester CO2 into solids. We report the development of self-cementing compositions based on nesquehonite, MgCO3·3H2O, that are made from CO2-containing gas streams, the CO2 being separated from other gases by its high solubility in alkaline water, while magnesium is typically provided by waste desalination brines. Precipitation conditions are adjusted to optimize the formation of nesquehonite and the crystalline solid can readily be washed free of chloride. Products can be prepared to achieve self-cementation following two routes: (i thermal activation of the nesquehonite then rehydration of the precursor or (ii direct curing of a slurry of nesquehonite. The products thus obtained contain ~ 30 wt% CO2 and could form the basis for a new generation of lightweight, thermally insulating boards, blocks and panels, with sufficient strength for general construction.

  4. Geochemical effects of CO2 sequestration in sandstones under simulated in situ conditions of deep saline aquifers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wigand, M.; Carey, J.W.; Schuett, H.; Spangenberg, E.; Erzinger, J.


    The geochemical effects of brine and supercritical CO 2 (SCCO 2 ) on reservoir rocks from deep (1500-2000 m) saline aquifers were examined via experimental simulation at in situ conditions. Dry sandstone samples were mounted in a triaxial cell and autoclave system, evacuated, and saturated with 1 M NaCl solution. The brine-rock system was allowed to react at 30 MPa confining pressure, 15 MPa pore fluid pressure, and 60 deg. C while SCCO 2 was injected at a pressure gradient of 1-2 MPa. The experiment was conducted for a period of 1496 h, during which fluids were periodically sampled and analyzed. The pH measured in partially degassed fluid samples at 25 deg. C decreased from a starting value of 7.0-4.3 (9 days) and finally 5.1 after saturation with SCCO 2 . Fluid analyses indicate that most of the major (e.g. Ca, Mg, Fe, Mn) and trace elements (e.g. Sr, Ba, Pb) of the sandstone increase in concentration during the reaction with brine and SCCO 2 . These results are supported by scanning electron microscopy which indicates dissolution of dolomite cement, K-feldspar, and albite. In addition to dissolution reactions the formation of montmorillonite was observed. By adjusting surface area and reaction rates of dissolution and precipitation, geochemical modeling of the experiments could reproduce long-term trends in solution chemistry and indicated limited rates of dissolution as the system remained strongly undersaturated with most minerals, including carbonates. The geochemical models could not account for decreases in concentration of some elements, changes in solution composition resulting from changes in imposed pressure gradient, and the observed Ca/Mg and Si/Al ratios in solution

  5. Hydrogeochemical and stable isotopic investigations on CO2-rich mineral waters from Harghita Mts. (Eastern Carpathians, Romania) (United States)

    Kis, Boglárka-Mercedesz; Baciu, Călin; Kármán, Krisztina; Kékedy-Nagy, Ladislau; Francesco, Italiano


    There is a worldwide interest on geothermal, mineral and groundwater as a resource for energy, drinking water supply and therapeutic needs. The increasing trend in replacing tap water with commercial bottled mineral water for drinking purposes has become an economic, hydrogeologic and medical concern in the last decades. Several investigations have been carried out worldwide on different topics related to geothermal and mineral waters, dealing with mineral water quality assessment, origin of geothermal and mineral waters, geochemical processes that influence water chemistry and water-rock interaction In Romania, the Călimani-Gurghiu-Harghita Neogene to Quaternary volcanic chain (Eastern Carpathians) is one of the most important areas from the point of view of CO2-rich mineral waters. These mineral water springs occur within other post-volcanic phenomena like dry CO2 emissions, moffettes, bubbling pools, H2S gas emissions etc. Mineral waters from this area are used for bottling, local spas and drinking purposes for local people. The number of springs, around 2000 according to literature data, shows that there is still a significant unexploited potential for good quality drinking water in this area. Within the youngest segment of the volcanic chain, the Harghita Mts., its volcaniclastic aprons and its boundary with the Transylvanian Basin, we have carried out an investigation on 23 CO2-rich mineral water springs from a hydrogeochemical and stable isotopic point of view. The mineral waters are Ca-Mg-HCO3 to Na-Cl type. Sometimes mixing between the two types can be observed. We have detected a great influence of water-rock interaction on the stable isotopic composition of the mineral waters, shown by isotopic shifts to the heavier oxygen isotope, mixing processes between shallow and deeper aquifers and local thermal anomalies. Acknowledgements: The present work was financially supported by the Romanian National Research Council, Project PN-II-ID-PCE-2011-3-0537 and by

  6. Micro-CT in situ study of carbonate rock microstructural evolution for geologic CO2 storage

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zheng, Yi; Yang, Yan; Rogowska, M.


    settings such as the carbonate reservoirs in the North Sea. The final aim of our project is to find out how to control the evolution of petrophysical parameters during CO2 injection using an optimal combination of flow rate, injection pressure and chemical composition of the influent. The first step...... to achieve this is to find a suitable condition to create a stable 3D space in carbonate rock by injecting liquid to prepare space for the later CO2 injection. Micro-CT imaging is a non-destructive 3D method that can be used to study the property changes of carbonate rocks during and after CO2 injection...

  7. Verification of geomechanical integrity and prediction of long-term mineral trapping for the Ketzin CO2 storage pilot site (United States)

    Kempka, Thomas; De Lucia, Marco; Kühn, Michael


    Static and dynamic numerical modelling generally accompany the entire CO2 storage site life cycle. Thereto, it is required to match the employed models with field observations on a regular basis in order to predict future site behaviour. We investigated the coupled processes at the Ketzin CO2 storage pilot site [1] using a model coupling concept focusing on the temporal relevance of processes involved (hydraulic, chemical and mechanical) at given time-scales (site operation, abandonment and long-term stabilization). For that purpose, long-term dynamic multi-phase flow simulations [2], [3] established the basis for all simulations discussed in the following. Hereby, pressure changes resulting in geomechanical effects are largest during site operation, whereas geochemical reactions are governed by slow kinetics resulting in a long-term stabilization. To account for mechanical integrity, which may be mainly affected during site operation, we incorporated a regional-scale coupled hydro-mechanical model. Our simulation results show maximum ground surface displacements of about 4 mm, whereas shear and tensile failure are not observed. Consequently, the CO2 storage operation at the Ketzin pilot site does not compromise reservoir, caprock and fault integrity. Chemical processes responsible for mineral trapping are expected to mainly occur during long-term stabilization at the Ketzin pilot site [4]. Hence, our previous assessment [3] was extended by integrating two long-term mineral trapping scenarios. Thereby, mineral trapping contributes to the trapping mechanisms with 11.7 % after 16,000 years of simulation in our conservative and with 30.9 % in our maximum reactivity scenarios. Dynamic flow simulations indicate that only 0.2 % of the CO2 injected (about 67,270 t CO2 in total) is in gaseous state, but structurally trapped after 16,000 years. Depending on the studied long-term scenario, CO2 dissolution is the dominating trapping mechanism with 68.9 % and 88

  8. Reverse osmosis treatment in CO_2 + O_2 to the application of the in-situ leaching of uranium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ruan Zhilong; Li Xilong; Yang Shaowu


    Advantages and disadvantages of various groundwater management methods, combined with CO_2 + O_2 characteristics of in situ leaching uranium mining process, use reverse osmosis wastewater treatment technology, has carried on the laboratory test, field condition test and industrial test. Obtained by indoor experiment and field conditions for Cl"- ion concentration variation characteristics; Reverse osmosis treatment effect of wastewater is verified by industrial test, obtained the technical parameters and consumption data, as well as the leaching liquid and adsorption tail liquid pH, SO_4"2"-; Cl"- in the plasma concentration monitoring, and further prove that the reverse osmosis treatment technology is suitable for in-situ leaching of uranium in CO_2 + O_2 in wastewater treatment. (authors)

  9. Microbiological and Geochemical Survey of CO2-Dominated Mofette and Mineral Waters of the Cheb Basin, Czech Republic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patryk Krauze


    Full Text Available The Cheb Basin (NW Bohemia, Czech Republic is a shallow, neogene intracontinental basin. It is a non-volcanic region which features frequent earthquake swarms and large-scale diffuse degassing of mantle-derived CO2 at the surface that occurs in the form of CO2-rich mineral springs and wet and dry mofettes. So far, the influence of CO2 degassing onto the microbial communities has been studied for soil environments, but not for aquatic systems. We hypothesized, that deep-trenching CO2 conduits interconnect the subsurface with the surface. This admixture of deep thermal fluids should be reflected in geochemical parameters and in the microbial community compositions. In the present study four mineral water springs and two wet mofettes were investigated through an interdisciplinary survey. The waters were acidic and differed in terms of organic carbon and anion/cation concentrations. Element geochemical and isotope analyses of fluid components were used to verify the origin of the fluids. Prokaryotic communities were characterized through quantitative PCR and Illumina 16S rRNA gene sequencing. Putative chemolithotrophic, anaerobic and microaerophilic organisms connected to sulfur (e.g., Sulfuricurvum, Sulfurimonas and iron (e.g., Gallionella, Sideroxydans cycling shaped the core community. Additionally, CO2-influenced waters form an ecosystem containing many taxa that are usually found in marine or terrestrial subsurface ecosystems. Multivariate statistics highlighted the influence of environmental parameters such as pH, Fe2+ concentration and conductivity on species distribution. The hydrochemical and microbiological survey introduces a new perspective on mofettes. Our results support that mofettes are either analogs or rather windows into the deep biosphere and furthermore enable access to deeply buried paleo-sediments.

  10. Magnesium hydroxide extracted from a magnesium-rich mineral for CO2 sequestration in a gas-solid system. (United States)

    Lin, Pao-Chung; Huang, Cheng-Wei; Hsiao, Ching-Ta; Teng, Hsisheng


    Magnesium hydroxide extracted from magnesium-bearing minerals is considered a promising agent for binding CO2 as a carbonate mineral in a gas-solid reaction. An efficient extraction route consisting of hydrothermal treatment on serpentine in HCl followed by NaOH titration for Mg(OH)2 precipitation was demonstrated. The extracted Mg(OH)2 powder had a mean crystal domain size as small as 12 nm and an apparent surface area of 54 m2/g. Under one atmosphere of 10 vol% CO2/N2, carbonation of the serpentine-derived Mg(OH)2 to 26% of the stoichiometric limit was achieved at 325 degrees C in 2 h; while carbonation of a commercially available Mg(OH)2, with a mean crystal domain size of 33 nm and an apparent surface area of 3.5 m2/g, reached only 9% of the stoichiometric limit. The amount of CO2 fixation was found to be inversely proportional to the crystal domain size of the Mg(OH)2 specimens. The experimental data strongly suggested that only a monolayer of carbonates was formed on the crystal domain boundary in the gas-solid reaction, with little penetration of the carbonates into the crystal domain.

  11. Coupled multiphase reactive flow and mineral dissolution-precipitation kinetics: Examples of long-term CO2 sequestration in Utsira Sand, Norway and Mt. Simon Formation, Midwest USA (United States)

    Zhang, Y.; Zhang, G.; Lu, P.; Hu, B.; Zhu, C.


    The extent of CO2 mineralization after CO2 injection into deep saline aquifers is a result of the complex coupling of multiphase fluid flow, mass transport, and brine-mineral reactions. The effects of dissolution rate laws and groundwater flow on the long-term fate of CO2 have been seriously overlooked. To investigate these effects, we conducted multiphase (CO2 and brine) coupled reactive transport modeling of CO2 storage in two sandy formations (Utsira Sand, Norway1,2 and Mt. Simon formation, USA 3) using ToughReact and simulated a series of scenarios. The results indicated that: (1) Different dissolution rate laws for feldspars can significantly affect the amount of CO2 mineralization. Increased feldspar dissolution will promote CO2 mineral trapping through the coupling between feldspar dissolution and carbonate mineral precipitation at raised pH. The predicted amount of CO2 mineral trapping when using the principle of detailed balancing-based rate law for feldspar dissolution is about twice as much as that when using sigmoidal rate laws in the literature. (2) Mineral trapping is twice as much when regional groundwater flow is taken into consideration in long-term simulations (e.g., 10,000 years) whereas most modeling studies neglected the regional groundwater flow back and effectively simulated a batch reactor process. Under the influence of regional groundwater flow, the fresh brine from upstream continuously dissolves CO2 at the tail of CO2 plume, generating a large acidified area where large amount of CO2 mineralization takes place. The upstream replenishment of groundwater results in ˜22% mineral trapping at year 10,000, compared to ˜4% when this effect is ignored. Refs: 1Zhang, G., Lu, P., Wei, X., Zhu, C. (2016). Impacts of Mineral Reaction Kinetics and Regional Groundwater Flow on Long-Term CO2 Fate at Sleipner. Energy & Fuels, 30(5), 4159-4180. 2Zhu, C., Zhang, G., Lu, P., Meng, L., Ji, X. (2015). Benchmark modeling of the Sleipner CO2 plume

  12. In situ Low-temperature Pair Distribution Function (PDF) Analysis of CH4 and CO2 Hydrates (United States)

    Cladek, B.; Everett, M.; McDonnell, M.; Tucker, M.; Keffer, D.; Rawn, C.


    Gas hydrates occur in ocean floor and sub-surface permafrost deposits and are stable at moderate to high pressures and low temperatures. They are a clathrate structure composed of hydrogen bonded water cages that accommodate a wide variety of guest molecules. CO2 and CH4 hydrates both crystallize as the cubic sI hydrate and can form a solid solution. Natural gas hydrates are interesting as a potential methane source and for CO2 sequestration. Long-range diffraction studies on gas hydrates give valuable structural information but do not provide a detailed understanding of the disordered gas molecule interactions with the host lattice. In-situ low temperature total scattering experiments combined with pair distribution function (PDF) analysis are used to investigate the gas molecule motions and guest-cage interactions. CO2 and methane hydrates exhibit different decomposition behavior, and CO2 hydrate has a smaller lattice parameter despite it being a relatively larger molecule. Total scattering studies characterizing both the short- and long-range order simultaneously help to elucidate the structural source of these phenomena. Low temperature neutron total scattering data were collected using the Nanoscale Ordered MAterials Diffractometer (NOMAD) beamline at the Spallation Neutron Source (SNS) on CO2 and CH4 hydrates synthesized with D2O. Guest molecule motion within cages and interactions between gases and cages are investigated through the hydrate stability and decomposition regions. Data were collected from 2-80 K at a pressure of 55 mbar on CO2 and CH4 hydrates, and from 80-270 K at 25 bar on CH4 hydrate. The hydrate systems were modeled with classical molecular dynamic (MD) simulations to provide an analysis of the total energy into guest-guest, guest-host and host-host contributions. Combined Reitveld and Reverse Monte Carlo (RMC) structure refinement were used to fit models of the data. This combined modeling and simulation characterizes the effects of CO2 and

  13. Impact of combined CO2 laser irradiation and fluoride on enamel and dentin biofilm-induced mineral loss. (United States)

    Esteves-Oliveira, Marcella; El-Sayed, Karim Fawzy; Dörfer, Christof; Schwendicke, Falk


    The caries-protective effects of CO 2 laser irradiation on dental enamel have been demonstrated using chemical demineralization models. We compared the effect of CO 2 laser irradiation, sodium fluoride, or both on biofilm-induced mineral loss (∆Z) and Streptococcus mutans adhesion to enamel and dentin in vitro. Ground, polished bovine enamel, and dentin samples were allocated to four groups (n = 12/group): no treatment (C); single 22,600-ppm fluoride (F) varnish (5 % NaF) application; single CO 2 laser treatment (L) with short pulses (5 μs/λ = 10.6 μm); and laser and subsequent fluoride treatment (LF). Samples were sterilized and submitted to an automated mono-species S. mutans biofilm model. Brain heart infusion plus 5 % sucrose medium was provided eight times daily, followed by rinses with artificial saliva. After 10 days, bacterial numbers in biofilms were enumerated as colony-forming units/ml (CFU/ml) (n = 7/group). ∆Z was assessed using transversal microradiography (n = 12/group). Univariate ANOVA with post hoc Tukey honestly-significant-difference test was used for statistical analysis. Bacterial numbers were significantly higher on dentin than enamel (p  0.05). In dentin, only LF (163/227) significantly reduced ∆Z (p fluoride application was required to protect dentin.

  14. Evaluation of Southern Quebec asbestos residues for CO2 sequestration by mineral carbonation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beaudoin, G.; Hebert, R.; Constantin, M. [Laval Univ., Quebec City, PQ (Canada); Bonin, G. [LAB Chrysotile Inc., Black Lake, PQ (Canada); Dipple, G. [British Columbia Univ., Vancouver, BC (Canada)


    One alternative to help reduce carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) levels in the atmosphere is to sequester CO{sub 2} by mineral carbonation using ultramafic rock-hosted magnesian silicates (serpentine, olivine, talc). The carbonation process produces magnesite, which is a geologically stable and an environmentally safe magnesium carbonate. Three CO{sub 2} sinks exist in southern Quebec use such silicates. They are: (1) asbestos mill residues, (2) associated mine waste, and (3) ultramafic bedrock. Extraction of asbestos in the region has been accomplished from serpentinized harzburgite located in the Thetford Mines and Asbestos ophiolitic massifs and also from the highly sheared Pennington Sheet. The physical and chemical properties of magnesium silicate deposits greatly determine their carbonation potential. A wide range of properties was observed in samples obtained from almost all asbestos mill residues and waste. The reaction which takes place depends on the mineral content. The kinetics of the reactions are influenced by humidity and grain size.

  15. Varying response of the concentration and content of soybean seed mineral elements, carbohydrates, organic acids, amino acids, protein, and oil to phosphorus starvation and CO2 enrichment (United States)

    A detailed investigation of the concentration (g-1 seed weight) and content (g plant-1) of seed mineral elements and metabolic profile under phosphorus (P) starvation at ambient (aCO2) and elevated carbon dioxide (eCO2) in soybean is limited. Soybean plants were grown in a controlled environment at ...

  16. Comparison of continuous in situ CO2 observations at Jungfraujoch using two different measurement techniques (United States)

    Schibig, M. F.; Steinbacher, M.; Buchmann, B.; van der Laan-Luijkx, I. T.; van der Laan, S.; Ranjan, S.; Leuenberger, M. C.


    Since 2004, atmospheric carbon dioxide (CO2) is being measured at the High Altitude Research Station Jungfraujoch by the division of Climate and Environmental Physics at the University of Bern (KUP) using a nondispersive infrared gas analyzer (NDIR) in combination with a paramagnetic O2 analyzer. In January 2010, CO2 measurements based on cavity ring-down spectroscopy (CRDS) as part of the Swiss National Air Pollution Monitoring Network were added by the Swiss Federal Laboratories for Materials Science and Technology (Empa). To ensure a smooth transition - a prerequisite when merging two data sets, e.g., for trend determinations - the two measurement systems run in parallel for several years. Such a long-term intercomparison also allows the identification of potential offsets between the two data sets and the collection of information about the compatibility of the two systems on different time scales. A good agreement of the seasonality, short-term variations and, to a lesser extent mainly due to the short common period, trend calculations is observed. However, the comparison reveals some issues related to the stability of the calibration gases of the KUP system and their assigned CO2 mole fraction. It is possible to adapt an improved calibration strategy based on standard gas determinations, which leads to better agreement between the two data sets. By excluding periods with technical problems and bad calibration gas cylinders, the average hourly difference (CRDS - NDIR) of the two systems is -0.03 ppm ± 0.25 ppm. Although the difference of the two data sets is in line with the compatibility goal of ±0.1 ppm of the World Meteorological Organization (WMO), the standard deviation is still too high. A significant part of this uncertainty originates from the necessity to switch the KUP system frequently (every 12 min) for 6 min from ambient air to a working gas in order to correct short-term variations of the O2 measurement system. Allowing additional time for

  17. Comparison of continuous in-situ CO2 observations at Jungfraujoch using two different measurement techniques (United States)

    Schibig, M. F.; Steinbacher, M.; Buchmann, B.; van der Laan-Luijkx, I. T.; van der Laan, S.; Ranjan, S.; Leuenberger, M. C.


    Since 2004, atmospheric carbon dioxide (CO2) is measured at the High Altitude Research Station Jungfraujoch by the division of Climate and Environmental Physics at the University of Bern (KUP) using a nondispersive infrared gas analyzer (NDIR) in combination with a paramagnetic O2 analyzer. In January 2010, CO2 measurements based on cavity ring down spectroscopy (CRDS) as part of the Swiss National Air Pollution Monitoring Network have been added by the Swiss Federal Laboratories for Materials Science and Technology (Empa). To ensure a smooth transition - a prerequisite when merging two datasets e.g. for trend determinations - the two measurement systems run in parallel for several years. Such a long-term intercomparison also allows identifying potential offsets between the two datasets and getting information about the compatibility of the two systems on different time scales. A good agreement of the seasonality as well as for the short-term variations was observed and to a lesser extent for trend calculations mainly due to the short common period. However, the comparison revealed some issues related to the stability of the calibration gases of the KUP system and their assigned CO2 mole fraction. It was possible to adapt an improved calibration strategy based on standard gas determinations, which lead to better agreement between the two data sets. By excluding periods with technical problems and bad calibration gas cylinders, the average hourly difference (CRDS - NDIR) of the two systems is -0.03 ppm ± 0.25 ppm. Although the difference of the two datasets is in line with the compatibility goal of ±0.1 ppm of the World Meteorological Organization (WMO), the standard deviation is still too high. A significant part of this uncertainty originates from the necessity to switch the KUP system frequently (every 12 min) for 6 min from ambient air to a working gas in order to correct short-term variations of the O2 measurement system. Allowing additionally for signal

  18. An Inversion Analysis of Recent Variability in Natural CO2 Fluxes Using GOSAT and In Situ Observations (United States)

    Wang, James S.; Kawa, S. Randolph; Collatz, G. James; Baker, David F.; Ott, Lesley


    About one-half of the global CO2 emissions from fossil fuel combustion and deforestation accumulates in the atmosphere, where it contributes to global warming. The rest is taken up by vegetation and the ocean. The precise contribution of the two sinks, and their location and year-to-year variability are, however, not well understood. We use two different approaches, batch Bayesian synthesis inversion and variational data assimilation, to deduce the global spatiotemporal distributions of CO2 fluxes during 2009-2010. One of our objectives is to assess different sources of uncertainties in inferred fluxes, including uncertainties in prior flux estimates and observations, and differences in inversion techniques. For prior constraints, we utilize fluxes and uncertainties from the CASA-GFED model of the terrestrial biosphere and biomass burning driven by satellite observations and interannually varying meteorology. We also use measurement-based ocean flux estimates and two sets of fixed fossil CO2 emissions. Here, our inversions incorporate column CO2 measurements from the GOSAT satellite (ACOS retrieval, filtered and bias-corrected) and in situ observations (individual flask and afternoon-average continuous observations) to estimate fluxes in 108 regions over 8-day intervals for the batch inversion and at 3 x 3.75 weekly for the variational system. Relationships between fluxes and atmospheric concentrations are derived consistently for the two inversion systems using the PCTM atmospheric transport model driven by meteorology from the MERRA reanalysis. We compare the posterior fluxes and uncertainties derived using different data sets and the two inversion approaches, and evaluate the posterior atmospheric concentrations against independent data including aircraft measurements. The optimized fluxes generally resemble those from other studies. For example, the results indicate that the terrestrial biosphere is a net CO2 sink, and a GOSAT-only inversion suggests a shift in

  19. Process-based modeling of silicate mineral weathering responses to increasing atmospheric CO2 and climate change (United States)

    Banwart, Steven A.; Berg, Astrid; Beerling, David J.


    A mathematical model describes silicate mineral weathering processes in modern soils located in the boreal coniferous region of northern Europe. The process model results demonstrate a stabilizing biological feedback mechanism between atmospheric CO2 levels and silicate weathering rates as is generally postulated for atmospheric evolution. The process model feedback response agrees within a factor of 2 of that calculated by a weathering feedback function of the type generally employed in global geochemical carbon cycle models of the Earth's Phanerozoic CO2 history. Sensitivity analysis of parameter values in the process model provides insight into the key mechanisms that influence the strength of the biological feedback to weathering. First, the process model accounts for the alkalinity released by weathering, whereby its acceleration stabilizes pH at values that are higher than expected. Although the process model yields faster weathering with increasing temperature, because of activation energy effects on mineral dissolution kinetics at warmer temperature, the mineral dissolution rate laws utilized in the process model also result in lower dissolution rates at higher pH values. Hence, as dissolution rates increase under warmer conditions, more alkalinity is released by the weathering reaction, helping maintain higher pH values thus stabilizing the weathering rate. Second, the process model yields a relatively low sensitivity of soil pH to increasing plant productivity. This is due to more rapid decomposition of dissolved organic carbon (DOC) under warmer conditions. Because DOC fluxes strongly influence the soil water proton balance and pH, this increased decomposition rate dampens the feedback between productivity and weathering. The process model is most sensitive to parameters reflecting soil structure; depth, porosity, and water content. This suggests that the role of biota to influence these characteristics of the weathering profile is as important, if not

  20. An In-Situ Root-Imaging System in the Context of Surface Detection of CO2 (United States)

    Apple, M. E.; Prince, J. B.; Bradley, A. R.; Zhou, X.; Lakkaraju, V. R.; Male, E. J.; Pickles, W.; Thordsen, J. J.; Dobeck, L.; Cunningham, A.; Spangler, L.


    Carbon sequestration is a valuable method of spatially confining CO2 belowground. The Zero Emissions Research Technology, (ZERT), site is an experimental facility in a former agricultural field on the Montana State University campus in Bozeman, Montana, where CO2 was experimentally released at a rate of 200kg/day in 2009 into a 100 meter underground injection well running parallel to the ground surface. This injection well, or pipe, has deliberate leaks at intervals, and CO2 travels from these leaks upward to the surface of the ground. The ZERT site is a model system designed with the purpose of testing methods of surface detection of CO2. One important aspect of surface detection is the determination of the effects of CO2 on the above and belowground portions of plants growing above sequestration fields. At ZERT, these plants consist of a pre-existing mixture of herbaceous species present at the agricultural field. Species growing at the ZERT site include several grasses, Dactylis glomerata (Orchard Grass), Poa pratensis (Kentucky Bluegrass), and Bromus japonicus (Japanese Brome); the nitrogen-fixing legumes Medicago sativa, (Alfalfa), and Lotus corniculatus, (Birdsfoot trefoil); and an abundance of Taraxacum officinale, (Dandelion). Although the aboveground parts of the plants at high CO2 are stressed, as indicated by changes in hyperspectral plant signatures, leaf fluorescence and leaf chlorophyll content, we are interested in determining whether the roots are also stressed. To do so, we are combining measurements of soil conductivity and soil moisture with root imaging. We are using an in-situ root-imaging system manufactured by CID, Inc. (Camas, WA), along with image analysis software (Image-J) to analyze morphometric parameters in the images and to determine what effects, if any, the presence of leaking and subsequently upwelling CO2 has on the phenology of root growth, growth and turnover of individual fine and coarse roots, branching patterns, and root

  1. Application of oxy-fuel CO2 capture for In-situ bitumen extraction from Canada's oil sands

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bohm, Mark; Goold, Scott; Laux, Stefan; Sharma, Apoorva; Aasen, Knut; Neu, Ben


    The CO2 Capture Project, along with Praxair, Devon Canada, Cenovus Energy and Statoil are executing a project to demonstrate oxy-fuel combustion as a practical and economic method for CO2 capture from once-through steam generators used in the in-situ production of bitumen in the Canadian Oil Sands. The goal of the project is to develop a reliable, lower cost solution for capturing CO2 that will eliminate up to 90% of the GHG emissions from in-situ operations. The participants will present results of Phase I of this project, and will also outline the future Phases to pilot this technology.

  2. Experimental Studies on the Interaction of scCO2 and scCO2-SO2 With Rock Forming Minerals at Conditions of Geologic Carbon Storages - First Results (United States)

    Erzinger, J.; Wilke, F.; Wiersberg, T.; Vasquez Parra, M.


    Co-injection of SO2 (plus possibly NOx and O2) during CO2 storage in deep saline aquifers may cause stronger brine acidification than CO2 alone. Because of that, we investigate chemical corrosion of rocks and rock-forming minerals with impure supercritical CO2 (scCO2) at possible storage conditions of >73.7 bar and >31°C. Contaminates were chosen with respect to the composition of CO2 captured industrially from coal-fired power plants using the oxyfuel technology. The resulting data should build a base for the long-term prediction of the behavior of CO2 in geologic storage reservoirs. Experiments of up to 1000 hrs duration have been performed with 10 natural mineral concentrates (calcite, dolomite, siderite, anhydrite, hematite, albite, microcline, kaolinite, muscovite, biotite) in 3n NaCl solution and pure scCO2 or scCO2+SO2 (99.5+0.5 vol%). The NaCl reaction fluid resembles the average salinity of deep formation waters of the North German Basin and is not free of oxygen. To increase reaction rates all minerals were ground and the reagents agitated either by stirring or shaking in autoclaves of about one liter in volume. The autoclaves consist of Hastelloy™ or ferromagnetic stainless steel fully coated with PTFE. We used in average 15 g of solids, 700 ml liquid, and the vessels were pressurized up to 100 bars with CO2 or CO2-SO2 mixture. Experiments were run at temperatures up to 90°C. Before, during and after the experiments small amounts fluids were sampled and analyzed for dissolved constituents and pH. Solid phases were characterized by XRF, XRD, and EMPA before and after the experiments. Pure scCO2 corrodes all carbonates, reacts only slightly with anhydrite, albite, and microcline at a minimum pH of 4, and does not recognizably interact with the others. After the experiment, albite has gained in a, not yet fully identified, carbonate phase which might be dawsonite. Reaction fluids of the experiments with scCO2+SO2 have mostly lower pH than using scCO2

  3. On the interaction of pure and impure supercritical CO2 with rock forming minerals in saline aquifers: An experimental geochemical approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wilke, Franziska D.H.; Vásquez, Mónica; Wiersberg, Thomas; Naumann, Rudolf; Erzinger, Jörg


    The aim of this experimental study was to evaluate and compare the geochemical impact of pure and impure CO 2 on rock forming minerals of possible CO 2 storage reservoirs. This geochemical approach takes into account the incomplete purification of industrial captured CO 2 and the related effects during injection, and provides relevant data for long-term storage simulations of this specific greenhouse gas. Batch experiments were conducted to investigate the interactions of supercritical CO 2 , brine and rock-forming mineral concentrates (albite, microcline, kaolinite, biotite, muscovite, calcite, dolomite and anhydrite) using a newly developed experimental setup. After up to 42 day (1000 h) experiments using pure and impure supercritical CO 2 the dissolution and solution characteristics were examined by XRD, XRF, SEM and EDS for the solid, and ICP–MS and IC for the fluid reactants, respectively. Experiments with mixtures of supercritical CO 2 (99.5 vol.%) and SO 2 or NO 2 impurities (0.5 vol.%) suggest the formation of H 2 SO 4 and HNO 3 , reflected in pH values between 1 and 4 for experiments with silicates and anhydrite and between 5 and 6 for experiments with carbonates. These acids should be responsible for the general larger amount of cations dissolved from the mineral phases compared to experiments using pure CO 2 . For pure CO 2 a pH of around 4 was obtained using silicates and anhydrite, and 7–8 for carbonates. Dissolution of carbonates was observed after both pure and impure CO 2 experiments. Anhydrite was corroded by approximately 50 wt.% and gypsum precipitated during experiments with supercritical CO 2 + NO 2 . Silicates do not exhibit visible alterations during all experiments but released an increasing amount of cations in the reaction fluid during experiments with impure CO 2 . Nonetheless, precipitated secondary carbonates could not be identified.

  4. Leaf Cutter Ant (Atta cephalotes) Soil Modification and In Situ CO2 Gas Dynamics in a Neotropical Wet Forest (United States)

    Fernandez Bou, A. S.; Carrasquillo Quintana, O.; Dierick, D.; Harmon, T. C.; Johnson, S.; Schwendenmann, L.; Zelikova, T. J.


    The goal of this work is to advance our understanding of soil carbon cycling in highly productive neotropical wet forests. More specifically, we are investigating the influence of leaf cutter ants (LCA) on soil CO2 gas dynamics in primary and secondary forest soils at La Selva Biological Station, Costa Rica. LCA are the dominant herbivore in tropical Americas, responsible for as much as 50% of the total herbivory. Their presence is increasing and their range is expanding because of forest fragmentation and other human impacts. We installed gas sampling wells in LCA (Atta cephalotes) nest and control sites (non-nests in the same soil and forest settings). The experimental design encompassed land cover (primary and secondary forest) and soil type (residual and alluvial). We collected gas samples monthly over an 18-month period. Several of the LCA nests were abandoned during this period. Nevertheless, we continued to sample these sites for LCA legacy effects. In several of the sites, we also installed sensors to continuously monitor soil moisture content, temperature, and CO2 levels. Within the 18-month period we conducted a 2-month field campaign to collect soil and nest vent CO2 efflux data from 3 of the nest-control pairs. Integrating the various data sets, we observed that for most of the sites nest and control soils behaved similarly during the tropical dry season. However, during the wet season gas well CO2 concentrations increased in the control sites while levels in the nests remained at dry season levels. This outcome suggests that ants modify soil gas transport properties (e.g., tortuosity). In situ time series and efflux sampling campaign data corroborated these findings. Abandoned nest CO2 levels were similar to those of the active nests, supporting the notion of a legacy effect from LCA manipulations. For this work, the period of abandonment was relatively short (several months to 1 year maximum), which appears to be insufficient for estimating the

  5. Carbon Mineralization by Aqueous Precipitation for Beneficial Use of CO2 from Flue Gas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brent Constantz; Randy Seeker; Martin Devenney


    Calera's innovative Mineralization via Aqueous Precipitation (MAP) technology for the capture and conversion of CO{sub 2} to useful materials for use in the built environment was further developed and proven in the Phase 1 Department of Energy Grant. The process was scaled to 300 gallon batch reactors and subsequently to Pilot Plant scale for the continuous production of product with the production of reactive calcium carbonate material that was evaluated as a supplementary cementitious material (SCM). The Calera SCM{trademark} was evaluated as a 20% replacement for ordinary portland cement and demonstrated to meet the industry specification ASTM 1157 which is a standard performance specification for hydraulic cement. The performance of the 20% replacement material was comparable to the 100% ordinary portland cement control in terms of compressive strength and workability as measured by a variety of ASTM standard tests. In addition to the performance metrics, detailed characterization of the Calera SCM was performed using advanced analytical techniques to better understand the material interaction with the phases of ordinary portland cement. X-ray synchrotron diffraction studies at the Advanced Photon Source in Argonne National Lab confirmed the presence of an amorphous phase(s) in addition to the crystalline calcium carbonate phases in the reactive carbonate material. The presence of carboaluminate phases as a result of the interaction of the reactive carbonate materials with ordinary portland cement was also confirmed. A Life Cycle Assessment was completed for several cases based on different Calera process configurations and compared against the life cycle of ordinary portland cement. In addition to the materials development efforts, the Calera technology for the production of product using an innovative building materials demonstration plant was developed beyond conceptual engineering to a detailed design with a construction schedule and cost estimate.

  6. Ultrathin bismuth nanosheets from in situ topotactic transformation for selective electrocatalytic CO2 reduction to formate. (United States)

    Han, Na; Wang, Yu; Yang, Hui; Deng, Jun; Wu, Jinghua; Li, Yafei; Li, Yanguang


    Electrocatalytic carbon dioxide reduction to formate is desirable but challenging. Current attention is mostly focused on tin-based materials, which, unfortunately, often suffer from limited Faradaic efficiency. The potential of bismuth in carbon dioxide reduction has been suggested but remained understudied. Here, we report that ultrathin bismuth nanosheets are prepared from the in situ topotactic transformation of bismuth oxyiodide nanosheets. They process single crystallinity and enlarged surface areas. Such an advantageous nanostructure affords the material with excellent electrocatalytic performance for carbon dioxide reduction to formate. High selectivity (~100%) and large current density are measured over a broad potential, as well as excellent durability for >10 h. Its selectivity for formate is also understood by density functional theory calculations. In addition, bismuth nanosheets were coupled with an iridium-based oxygen evolution electrocatalyst to achieve efficient full-cell electrolysis. When powered by two AA-size alkaline batteries, the full cell exhibits impressive Faradaic efficiency and electricity-to-formate conversion efficiency.

  7. Micro-view-cell for phase behaviour and in situ Raman analysis of heterogeneously catalysed CO2 hydrogenation (United States)

    Reymond, Helena; Rudolf von Rohr, Philipp


    The operando study of CO2 hydrogenation is fundamental for a more rational optimisation of heterogeneous catalyst and reactor designs. To further complement the established efficiency of microreactors in reaction screening and bridge the operating and optical gaps, a micro-view-cell is presented for Raman microscopy at extreme conditions with minimum flow interference for genuine reaction analysis. Based on a flat sapphire window unit sealed in a plug flow-type enclosure holding the sample, the cell features unique 14 mm working distance and 0.36 numerical aperture and resists 400 °C and 500 bars. The use of the cell as an in situ tool for fast process monitoring and surface catalyst characterisation is demonstrated with phase behaviour and chemical analysis of the methanol synthesis over a commercial Cu/ZnO/Al2O3 catalyst.

  8. The radiation stability of glycine in solid CO2 - In situ laboratory measurements with applications to Mars (United States)

    Gerakines, Perry A.; Hudson, Reggie L.


    The detection of biologically important, organic molecules on Mars is an important goal that may soon be reached. However, the current small number of organic detections at the martian surface may be due to the harsh UV and radiation conditions there. It seems likely that a successful search will require probing the subsurface of Mars, where penetrating cosmic rays and solar energetic particles dominate the radiation environment, with an influence that weakens with depth. Toward the goal of understanding the survival of organic molecules in cold radiation-rich environments on Mars, we present new kinetics data on the radiolytic destruction of glycine diluted in frozen carbon dioxide. Rate constants were measured in situ with infrared spectroscopy, without additional sample manipulation, for irradiations at 25, 50, and 75 K with 0.8-MeV protons. The resulting half-lives for glycine in CO2-ice are compared to previous results for glycine in H2O-ice and show that glycine in CO2-ice is much less stable in a radiation environment, with destruction rate constants ∼20-40 times higher than glycine in H2O-ice. Extrapolation of these results to conditions in the martian subsurface results in half-lives estimated to be less than 100-200 Myr even at depths of a few meters.


    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Glenn O' Gorman; Hans von Michaelis; Gregory J. Olson


    This white paper summarizes the state of art of in-situ leaching of metals and minerals, and describes a new technology concept employing improved fragmentation of ores underground in order to prepare the ore for more efficient in-situ leaching, combined with technology to continuously improve solution flow patterns through the ore during the leaching process. The process parameters and economic benefits of combining the new concept with chemical and biological leaching are described. A summary is provided of the next steps required to demonstrate the technology with the goal of enabling more widespread use of in-situ leaching.

  10. Commentary: Ex Situ Aqueous Mineral Carbonation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gadikota, Greeshma, E-mail: [Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, Princeton University, Princeton, NJ (United States)


    CO{sub 2} conversion to calcium and magnesium carbonates has garnered considerable attention since it is a thermodynamically downhill pathway to safely and permanently sequester large quantities of CO{sub 2}. This seminal work performed at The National Energy Technology Laboratory in Albany (NETL-Albany) reports the conversion of calcium- and magnesium-bearing silicate minerals, such as olivine [(Mg, Fe){sub 2}SiO{sub 4}], wollastonite (CaSiO{sub 3}), and serpentine [Mg{sub 3}Si{sub 2}O{sub 5}(OH){sub 4}], as they are reacted with CO{sub 2} in an aqueous environment to form magnesium or calcium carbonates. This paper discusses various pretreatment methods of the starting materials, such as grinding or heat treatment of hydroxylated Mg silicates, to enhance the reaction kinetics. The effects of various chemical additives (e.g., NaCl and NaHCO{sub 3}), and reaction parameters, such as temperature, pressure, and reaction time, on the conversion are investigated. Feasibility assessments and energy and economic analyses of the direct carbonation of calcium- and magnesium-bearing minerals are presented.

  11. Crystal-field-driven redox reactions: How common minerals split H2O and CO2 into reduced H2 and C plus oxygen (United States)

    Freund, F.; Batllo, F.; Leroy, R. C.; Lersky, S.; Masuda, M. M.; Chang, S.


    It is difficult to prove the presence of molecular H2 and reduced C in minerals containing dissolved H2 and CO2. A technique was developed which unambiguously shows that minerals grown in viciously reducing environments contain peroxy in their crystal structures. The peroxy represent interstitial oxygen atoms left behind when the solute H2O and/or CO2 split off H2 and C as a result of internal redox reactions, driven by the crystal field. The observation of peroxy affirms the presence of H2 and reduced C. It shows that the solid state is indeed an unusual reaction medium.

  12. Effects of in situ CO2 enrichment on structural characteristics, photosynthesis, and growth of the Mediterranean seagrass Posidonia oceanica (United States)

    Cox, T. Erin; Gazeau, Frédéric; Alliouane, Samir; Hendriks, Iris E.; Mahacek, Paul; Le Fur, Arnaud; Gattuso, Jean-Pierre


    Seagrass is expected to benefit from increased carbon availability under future ocean acidification. This hypothesis has been little tested by in situ manipulation. To test for ocean acidification effects on seagrass meadows under controlled CO2/pH conditions, we used a Free Ocean Carbon Dioxide Enrichment (FOCE) system which allows for the manipulation of pH as continuous offset from ambient. It was deployed in a Posidonia oceanica meadow at 11 m depth in the Northwestern Mediterranean Sea. It consisted of two benthic enclosures, an experimental and a control unit both 1.7 m3, and an additional reference plot in the ambient environment (2 m2) to account for structural artifacts. The meadow was monitored from April to November 2014. The pH of the experimental enclosure was lowered by 0.26 pH units for the second half of the 8-month study. The greatest magnitude of change in P. oceanica leaf biometrics, photosynthesis, and leaf growth accompanied seasonal changes recorded in the environment and values were similar between the two enclosures. Leaf thickness may change in response to lower pH but this requires further testing. Results are congruent with other short-term and natural studies that have investigated the response of P. oceanica over a wide range of pH. They suggest any benefit from ocean acidification, over the next century (at a pH of ˜ 7.7 on the total scale), on Posidonia physiology and growth may be minimal and difficult to detect without increased replication or longer experimental duration. The limited stimulation, which did not surpass any enclosure or seasonal effect, casts doubts on speculations that elevated CO2 would confer resistance to thermal stress and increase the buffering capacity of meadows.

  13. Long-term C-CO2 emissions and carbon crop residue mineralization in an oxisol under different tillage and crop rotation systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ben-Hur Costa de Campos


    Full Text Available Soil C-CO2 emissions are sensitive indicators of management system impacts on soil organic matter (SOM. The main soil C-CO2 sources at the soil-plant interface are the decomposition of crop residues, SOM turnover, and respiration of roots and soil biota. The objectives of this study were to evaluate the impacts of tillage and cropping systems on long-term soil C-CO2 emissions and their relationship with carbon (C mineralization of crop residues. A long-term experiment was conducted in a Red Oxisol in Cruz Alta, RS, Brazil, with subtropical climate Cfa (Köppen classification, mean annual precipitation of 1,774 mm and mean annual temperature of 19.2 ºC. Treatments consisted of two tillage systems: (a conventional tillage (CT and (b no tillage (NT in combination with three cropping systems: (a R0- monoculture system (soybean/wheat, (b R1- winter crop rotation (soybean/wheat/soybean/black oat, and (c R2- intensive crop rotation (soybean/ black oat/soybean/black oat + common vetch/maize/oilseed radish/wheat. The soil C-CO2 efflux was measured every 14 days for two years (48 measurements, by trapping the CO2 in an alkaline solution. The soil gravimetric moisture in the 0-0.05 m layer was determined concomitantly with the C-CO2 efflux measurements. The crop residue C mineralization was evaluated with the mesh-bag method, with sampling 14, 28, 56, 84, 112, and 140 days after the beginning of the evaluation period for C measurements. Four C conservation indexes were used to assess the relation between C-CO2 efflux and soil C stock and its compartments. The crop residue C mineralization fit an exponential model in time. For black oat, wheat and maize residues, C mineralization was higher in CT than NT, while for soybean it was similar. Soil moisture was higher in NT than CT, mainly in the second year of evaluation. There was no difference in tillage systems for annual average C-CO2 emissions, but in some individual evaluations, differences between

  14. New insights into the mechanism of interaction between CO2 and polymers from thermodynamic parameters obtained by in situ ATR-FTIR spectroscopy. (United States)

    Gabrienko, Anton A; Ewing, Andrew V; Chibiryaev, Andrey M; Agafontsev, Alexander M; Dubkov, Konstantin A; Kazarian, Sergei G


    This work reports new physical insights of the thermodynamic parameters and mechanisms of possible interactions occurring in polymers subjected to high-pressure CO2. ATR-FTIR spectroscopy has been used in situ to determine the thermodynamic parameters of the intermolecular interactions between CO2 and different functional groups of the polymers capable of specific interactions with sorbed CO2 molecules. Based on the measured ATR-FTIR spectra of the polymer samples subjected to high-pressure CO2 (30 bar) at different temperatures (300-340 K), it was possible to characterize polymer-polymer and CO2-polymer interactions. Particularly, the enthalpy and entropy of the formation of the specific non-covalent complexes between CO2 and the hydroxy (-OH), carbonyl (C[double bond, length as m-dash]O) and hydroxyimino ([double bond, length as m-dash]N-OH) functional groups of the polymer samples have been measured. Furthermore, the obtained spectroscopic results have provided an opportunity for the structure of these complexes to be proposed. An interesting phenomenon regarding the behavior of CO2/polymer systems has also been observed. It has been found that only for the polyketone, the value of enthalpy was negative indicating an exothermic process during the formation of the CO2-polymer non-covalent complexes. Conversely, for the polyoxime and polyalcohol samples there is a positive enthalpy determined. This is a result of the initial polymer-polymer interactions requiring more energy to break than is released during the formation of the CO2-polymer complex. The effect of increasing temperature to facilitate the breaking of the polymer-polymer interactions has also been observed. Hence, a mechanism for the formation of CO2-polymer complexes was suggested based on these results, which occurs via a two-step process: (1) the breaking of the existing polymer-polymer interactions followed by (2) the formation of new CO2-polymer non-covalent interactions.

  15. Carbon Dioxide Production Responsibility on the Basis of comparing in Situ and mean CO2 Atmosphere Concentration Data


    Mavrodiev, S. Cht.; Pekevski, L.; Vachev, B.


    The method is proposed for estimation of regional CO2 and other greenhouses and pollutants production responcibility. The comparison of CO2 local emissions reduction data with world CO2 atmosphere data will permit easy to judge for overall effect in curbing not only global warming but also chemical polution.

  16. Highly textured fresnoite thin films synthesized in situ by pulsed laser deposition with CO2 laser direct heating

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lorenz, Michael; Stölzel, Marko; Brachwitz, Kerstin; Hochmuth, Holger; Grundmann, Marius; De Pablos-Martin, Araceli; Patzig, Christian; Höche, Thomas


    Fresnoite Ba 2 TiSi 2 O 8 (BTS) thin films were grown and crystallized in situ using pulsed laser deposition (PLD) with CO 2 laser direct heating of the a-plane sapphire (1 1 0) substrates up to 1250 °C. Starting with 775 °C growth temperature, (0 0 1)- and (1 1 0)-textured BTS and BaTiO 3 phases, respectively, could be assigned in the films, and the typical fern-like BTS crystallization patterns appear. For higher process temperatures of 1100 to 1250 °C, atomically smooth, terraced surface of the films was found, accompanied by crystalline high-temperature phases of Ba–Ti–Si oxides. HAADF micrographs taken in both scanning transmission electron microscopy and energy-dispersive x-ray spectrometry mode show details of morphology and elemental distribution inside the films and at the interface. To balance the inherent Si deficiency of the BTS films, growth from glassy BTS × 2 SiO 2 and BTS × 2.5 SiO 2 targets was considered as well. The latter targets are ideal for PLD since the employed glasses possess 100% of the theoretical density and are homogeneous at the atomic scale. (paper)

  17. Mineral CO2 sequestration in basalts and ultra-basic rocks: impact of secondary silicated phases on the carbonation process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sissmann, Olivier


    The formation of carbonates constitutes a stable option for carbon dioxide (CO 2 ) geological sequestration, and is prone to play a significant role in reducing emissions of anthropic origin. However, our comprehension of the carbonation mechanism, as well as of the kinetics limitations encountered during this chemical reaction, remains poorly developed. Though there is a large number of studies focusing on the dissolution kinetics of basic silicates and on the precipitation of carbonates, few have inquired about the impact that the formation of non-carbonated secondary phases can have on these reaction's kinetics. It is the approach chosen here, as only solid knowledge of the global carbonation mechanism can make this process predictive and efficient. Experimental data on dissolution and carbonation have therefore been determined in batch reactors, on relevant minerals and rocks. Firstly, we studied the carbonation of olivine (a major phase within peridotites and minor within basalts) at 90 deg. C and under pCO 2 of 280 bars. The dissolution of San Carlos olivine (Mg 1.76 Fe 0.24 SiO 4 ) is slowed down by the formation of a surface silica gel, when the fluid reaches equilibrium with amorphous silica. The transport of species to the reactive medium becomes the limiting step of the process, slowing down the dissolution process of San Carlos olivine by 5 orders of magnitude. However, this passivation doesn't occur during the alteration of Ca-olivine (Ca 2 SiO 4 ), though a surface silica layer does form. This comparison suggests that it isn't the structure of the silicate but its chemical composition, which controls the transport properties through the interfacial layer. The second part explores the effects of organic ligands and of temperature variations on the formation of those phases. The addition of citrate at 90 deg. C increases the kinetics of San Carlos olivine by one order of magnitude, and allows the release of enough Mg in the aqueous medium to form

  18. Performance evaluation of a green process for microalgal CO2 sequestration in closed photobioreactor using flue gas generated in-situ. (United States)

    Yadav, Geetanjali; Karemore, Ankush; Dash, Sukanta Kumar; Sen, Ramkrishna


    In the present study, carbon-dioxide capture from in situ generated flue gas was carried out using Chlorella sp. in bubble column photobioreactors to develop a cost effective process for concomitant carbon sequestration and biomass production. Firstly, a comparative analysis of CO2 sequestration with varying concentrations of CO2 in air-CO2 and air-flue gas mixtures was performed. Chlorella sp. was found to be tolerant to 5% CO2 concentration. Subsequently, inhibitory effect of pure flue gas was minimized using various strategies like use of high initial cell density and photobioreactors in series. The final biofixation efficiency was improved by 54% using the adopted strategies. Further, sequestered microalgal biomass was analyzed for various biochemical constituents for their use in food, feed or biofuel applications. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Evaluation of the Consistency among In Situ and Remote Sensing Measurements of CO2 over North America using the CarbonTracker-Lagrange Regional Inverse Modeling Framework (United States)

    Andrews, A. E.; Trudeau, M.; Hu, L.; Thoning, K. W.; Shiga, Y. P.; Michalak, A. M.; Benmergui, J. S.; Mountain, M. E.; Nehrkorn, T.; O'Dell, C.; Jacobson, A. R.; Miller, J.; Sweeney, C.; Chen, H.; Ploeger, F.; Tans, P. P.


    CarbonTracker-Lagrange (CT-L) is a regional inverse modeling system for estimating CO2 fluxes with rigorous uncertainty quantification. CT-L uses footprints from the Stochastic Time-Inverted Lagrangian Transport (STILT) model driven by high-resolution (10 to 30 km) meteorological fields from the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) model. We have computed a library of footprints corresponding to in situ and remote sensing measurements of CO2 over North America for 2007-2015. GOSAT and OCO-2 XCO2 retrievals are simulated using a suite of CT-L terrestrial ecosystem flux estimates that have been optimized with respect to in situ atmospheric CO2 measurements along with fossil fuel fluxes from emissions inventories. A vertical profile of STILT-WRF footprints was constructed corresponding to each simulated satellite retrieval, and CO2 profiles are generated by convolving the footprints with fluxes and attaching initial values advected from the domain boundaries. The stratospheric contribution to XCO2 has been estimated using 4-dimensional CO2 fields from the NOAA CarbonTracker model (version CT2016) and from the Chemical Lagrangian Model of the Stratosphere (CLaMS), after scaling the model fields to match data from the NOAA AirCore surface-to-stratosphere air sampling system. Tropospheric lateral boundary conditions are from CT2016 and from an empirical boundary value product derived from aircraft and marine boundary layer data. The averaging kernel and a priori CO2 profile are taken into account for direct comparisons with retrievals. We have focused on North America due to the relatively dense in situ measurements available with the aim of developing strategies for combined assimilation of in situ and remote sensing data. We will consider the extent to which interannual variability in terrestrial fluxes is manifest in the real and simulated satellite retrievals, and we will investigate possible systematic biases in the satellite retrievals and in the model.

  20. Carbon Mineralization by Aqueous Precipitation for Beneficial Use of CO2 from Flue Gas. Phase I. Final Topical Report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Constantz, Brent; Seeker, Randy; Devenney, Martin


    Calera's innovative Mineralization via Aqueous Precipitation (MAP) technology for the capture and conversion of CO 2 to useful materials for use in the built environment was further developed and proven in the Phase 1 Department of Energy Grant. The process was scaled to 300 gallon batch reactors and subsequently to Pilot Plant scale for the continuous production of product with the production of reactive calcium carbonate material that was evaluated as a supplementary cementitious material (SCM). The Calera SCM(trademark) was evaluated as a 20% replacement for ordinary portland cement and demonstrated to meet the industry specification ASTM 1157 which is a standard performance specification for hydraulic cement. The performance of the 20% replacement material was comparable to the 100% ordinary portland cement control in terms of compressive strength and workability as measured by a variety of ASTM standard tests. In addition to the performance metrics, detailed characterization of the Calera SCM was performed using advanced analytical techniques to better understand the material interaction with the phases of ordinary portland cement. X-ray synchrotron diffraction studies at the Advanced Photon Source in Argonne National Lab confirmed the presence of an amorphous phase(s) in addition to the crystalline calcium carbonate phases in the reactive carbonate material. The presence of carboaluminate phases as a result of the interaction of the reactive carbonate materials with ordinary portland cement was also confirmed. A Life Cycle Assessment was completed for several cases based on different Calera process configurations and compared against the life cycle of ordinary portland cement. In addition to the materials development efforts, the Calera technology for the production of product using an innovative building materials demonstration plant was developed beyond conceptual engineering to a detailed design with a construction schedule and cost estimate.

  1. On the potential for CO2 mineral storage in continental flood basalts – PHREEQC batch- and 1D diffusion–reaction simulations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Van Pham Thi


    Full Text Available Abstract Continental flood basalts (CFB are considered as potential CO2 storage sites because of their high reactivity and abundant divalent metal ions that can potentially trap carbon for geological timescales. Moreover, laterally extensive CFB are found in many place in the world within reasonable distances from major CO2 point emission sources. Based on the mineral and glass composition of the Columbia River Basalt (CRB we estimated the potential of CFB to store CO2 in secondary carbonates. We simulated the system using kinetic dependent dissolution of primary basalt-minerals (pyroxene, feldspar and glass and the local equilibrium assumption for secondary phases (weathering products. The simulations were divided into closed-system batch simulations at a constant CO2 pressure of 100 bar with sensitivity studies of temperature and reactive surface area, an evaluation of the reactivity of H2O in scCO2, and finally 1D reactive diffusion simulations giving reactivity at CO2 pressures varying from 0 to 100 bar. Although the uncertainty in reactive surface area and corresponding reaction rates are large, we have estimated the potential for CO2 mineral storage and identified factors that control the maximum extent of carbonation. The simulations showed that formation of carbonates from basalt at 40 C may be limited to the formation of siderite and possibly FeMg carbonates. Calcium was largely consumed by zeolite and oxide instead of forming carbonates. At higher temperatures (60 – 100 C, magnesite is suggested to form together with siderite and ankerite. The maximum potential of CO2 stored as solid carbonates, if CO2 is supplied to the reactions unlimited, is shown to depend on the availability of pore space as the hydration and carbonation reactions increase the solid volume and clog the pore space. For systems such as in the scCO2 phase with limited amount of water, the total carbonation potential is limited by the amount of water present

  2. Supplying synthetic crude oil from Canadian oil sands: A comparative study of the costs and CO2 emissions of mining and in-situ recovery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Méjean, Aurélie; Hope, Chris


    High crude oil prices and the eventual decline of conventional oil production raise the issue of alternative fuels such as non-conventional oil. The paper describes a simple probabilistic model of the costs of synthetic crude oil produced from Canadian oil sands. Synthetic crude oil is obtained by upgrading bitumen that is first produced through mining or in-situ recovery techniques. This forward-looking analysis quantifies the effects of learning and production constraints on the costs of supplying synthetic crude oil. The sensitivity analysis shows that before 2035, the most influential parameters are the learning parameter in the case of in-situ bitumen and the depletion parameter in the case of mined bitumen. After 2035, depletion dominates in both cases. The results show that the social cost of CO 2 has a large impact on the total costs of synthetic crude oil, in particular in the case of synthetic crude oil from in-situ bitumen, due to the carbon intensity of the recovery techniques: taking into account the social cost of CO 2 adds more than half to the cost of producing synthetic crude oil from mined bitumen in 2050 (mean value), while the cost of producing synthetic crude oil from in-situ bitumen more than doubles. - Highlights: • We model the cost of Canadian synthetic crude oil (SCO) using Monte-Carlo techniques. • We reveal the uncertainty associated with each input parameter. • We quantify the effect of learning, depletion and CO 2 using sensitivity analyses. • Accounting for the social cost of CO 2 doubles the cost of SCO from in-situ bitumen. • CO 2 pricing could have a large effect on the economics of the oil sands

  3. In Situ Mineralization of Magnetite Nanoparticles in Chitosan Hydrogel (United States)

    Wang, Yongliang; Li, Baoqiang; Zhou, Yu; Jia, Dechang


    Based on chelation effect between iron ions and amino groups of chitosan, in situ mineralization of magnetite nanoparticles in chitosan hydrogel under ambient conditions was proposed. The chelation effect between iron ions and amino groups in CS-Fe complex, which led to that chitosan hydrogel exerted a crucial control on the magnetite mineralization, was proved by X-ray photoelectron spectrum. The composition, morphology and size of the mineralized magnetite nanoparticles were characterized by X-ray diffraction, Raman spectroscopy, transmission electron microscopy and thermal gravity. The mineralized nanoparticles were nonstoichiometric magnetite with a unit formula of Fe2.85O4 and coated by a thin layer of chitosan. The mineralized magnetite nanoparticles with mean diameter of 13 nm dispersed in chitosan hydrogel uniformly. Magnetization measurement indicated that superparamagnetism behavior was exhibited. These magnetite nanoparticles mineralized in chitosan hydrogel have potential applications in the field of biotechnology. Moreover, this method can also be used to synthesize other kinds of inorganic nanoparticles, such as ZnO, Fe2O3 and hydroxyapatite.

  4. In Situ Mineralization of Magnetite Nanoparticles in Chitosan Hydrogel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wang Yongliang


    Full Text Available Abstract Based on chelation effect between iron ions and amino groups of chitosan, in situ mineralization of magnetite nanoparticles in chitosan hydrogel under ambient conditions was proposed. The chelation effect between iron ions and amino groups in CS–Fe complex, which led to that chitosan hydrogel exerted a crucial control on the magnetite mineralization, was proved by X-ray photoelectron spectrum. The composition, morphology and size of the mineralized magnetite nanoparticles were characterized by X-ray diffraction, Raman spectroscopy, transmission electron microscopy and thermal gravity. The mineralized nanoparticles were nonstoichiometric magnetite with a unit formula of Fe2.85O4and coated by a thin layer of chitosan. The mineralized magnetite nanoparticles with mean diameter of 13 nm dispersed in chitosan hydrogel uniformly. Magnetization measurement indicated that superparamagnetism behavior was exhibited. These magnetite nanoparticles mineralized in chitosan hydrogel have potential applications in the field of biotechnology. Moreover, this method can also be used to synthesize other kinds of inorganic nanoparticles, such as ZnO, Fe2O3and hydroxyapatite.

  5. In situ growth of NiCo(2)S(4) nanosheets on graphene for high-performance supercapacitors. (United States)

    Peng, Shengjie; Li, Linlin; Li, Chengchao; Tan, Huiteng; Cai, Ren; Yu, Hong; Mhaisalkar, Subodh; Srinivasan, Madhavi; Ramakrishna, Seeram; Yan, Qingyu


    We demonstrate a facile hydrothermal method for growth of ultrathin NiCo2S4 nanosheets on reduced graphene oxide (RGO), which exhibit remarkable electrochemical performance with higher capacitance and longer cycle life than the bare NiCo2S4 hollow spheres (HSs).

  6. [Data processing and QA/QC of atmosphere CO2 and CH4 concentrations by a method of GC-FID in-situ measurement at Waliguan station]. (United States)

    Zhang, Fang; Zhou, Ling-Xi; Liu, Li-Xin; Fang, Shuang-Xi; Yao, Bo; Xu, Lin; Zhang, Xiao-Chun; Masarie, Kenneth A; Conway, Thomas J; Worthy, Douglas E J; Ernst, Michele


    To strengthen scientific management and sharing of greenhouse gas data obtained from atmospheric background stations in China, it is important to ensure the standardization of observations and establish the data treatment and quality control procedure so as to maintain consistency in atmospheric carbon dioxide (CO2) and methane (CH4) measurements from different background stations. An automated gas chromatographic system (Hewlett Packard 5890GC employing flame ionization detection) for in situ measurements of atmospheric CO2 and CH4 has been developed since 1994 at the China Global Atmosphere Watch Baseline Observatory at Mt. Waliguan, in Qinhai. In this study, processing and quality control flow of CO2 and CH4 data acquired by HP ChemStation are discussed in detail, including raw data acquisition, data merge, time series inspection, operator flag, principal investigator flag, and the comparison of the GC measurement with the flask method. Atmosphere CO2 and CH4 mixing ratios were separated as background and non-background data using a robust local regression method, approximately 72% and 44% observed values had been filtered as background data for CO2 and CH4, respectively. Comparison of the CO1 and CH, in situ data to the flask sampling data were in good agreement, the relative deviations are within +/- 0.5% for CO2 and for CH4. The data has been assimilated into global database (Globalview-CO2, Globalview-CH4), submitted to the World Data Centre for Greenhouse Gases (WDCGG), and applied to World Meteorological Organization (WMO) Greenhouse Gas Bulletin and assessment reports of the United Nations Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC).

  7. Adaptation and acclimatization to ocean acidification in marine ectotherms: an in situ transplant experiment with polychaetes at a shallow CO2 vent system. (United States)

    Calosi, Piero; Rastrick, Samuel P S; Lombardi, Chiara; de Guzman, Heidi J; Davidson, Laura; Jahnke, Marlene; Giangrande, Adriana; Hardege, Jörg D; Schulze, Anja; Spicer, John I; Gambi, Maria-Cristina


    Metabolic rate determines the physiological and life-history performances of ectotherms. Thus, the extent to which such rates are sensitive and plastic to environmental perturbation is central to an organism's ability to function in a changing environment. Little is known of long-term metabolic plasticity and potential for metabolic adaptation in marine ectotherms exposed to elevated pCO2. Consequently, we carried out a series of in situ transplant experiments using a number of tolerant and sensitive polychaete species living around a natural CO2 vent system. Here, we show that a marine metazoan (i.e. Platynereis dumerilii) was able to adapt to chronic and elevated levels of pCO2. The vent population of P. dumerilii was physiologically and genetically different from nearby populations that experience low pCO2, as well as smaller in body size. By contrast, different populations of Amphiglena mediterranea showed marked physiological plasticity indicating that adaptation or acclimatization are both viable strategies for the successful colonization of elevated pCO2 environments. In addition, sensitive species showed either a reduced or increased metabolism when exposed acutely to elevated pCO2. Our findings may help explain, from a metabolic perspective, the occurrence of past mass extinction, as well as shed light on alternative pathways of resilience in species facing ongoing ocean acidification.

  8. Equations for calculating hydrogeochemical reactions of minerals and gases such as CO2 at high pressures and temperatures (United States)

    Appelo, C.A.J.; Parkhurst, David L.; Post, V.E.A.


    coefficients for the Peng–Robinson equations are readily available in the literature.The required equations have been implemented in PHREEQC, version 3, and the parameters for calculating the partial molar volumes and fugacity coefficients have been added to the databases that are distributed with PHREEQC. The ease of use and power of the formulation are illustrated by calculating the solubility of CO2 at high pressures and temperatures, and comparing with well-known examples from the geochemical literature. The equations and parameterizations are suitable for wide application in hydrogeochemical systems, especially in the field of carbon capture and storage.

  9. Equations for calculating hydrogeochemical reactions of minerals and gases such as CO2 at high pressures and temperatures (United States)

    Appelo, C. A. J.; Parkhurst, D. L.; Post, V. E. A.


    Peng-Robinson equations are readily available in the literature. The required equations have been implemented in PHREEQC, version 3, and the parameters for calculating the partial molar volumes and fugacity coefficients have been added to the databases that are distributed with PHREEQC. The ease of use and power of the formulation are illustrated by calculating the solubility of CO2 at high pressures and temperatures, and comparing with well-known examples from the geochemical literature. The equations and parameterizations are suitable for wide application in hydrogeochemical systems, especially in the field of carbon capture and storage.

  10. Structural characterization of framework-gas interactions in the metal-organic framework Co2(dobdc) by in situ single-crystal X-ray diffraction. (United States)

    Gonzalez, Miguel I; Mason, Jarad A; Bloch, Eric D; Teat, Simon J; Gagnon, Kevin J; Morrison, Gregory Y; Queen, Wendy L; Long, Jeffrey R


    The crystallographic characterization of framework-guest interactions in metal-organic frameworks allows the location of guest binding sites and provides meaningful information on the nature of these interactions, enabling the correlation of structure with adsorption behavior. Here, techniques developed for in situ single-crystal X-ray diffraction experiments on porous crystals have enabled the direct observation of CO, CH 4 , N 2 , O 2 , Ar, and P 4 adsorption in Co 2 (dobdc) (dobdc 4- = 2,5-dioxido-1,4-benzenedicarboxylate), a metal-organic framework bearing coordinatively unsaturated cobalt(ii) sites. All these molecules exhibit such weak interactions with the high-spin cobalt(ii) sites in the framework that no analogous molecular structures exist, demonstrating the utility of metal-organic frameworks as crystalline matrices for the isolation and structural determination of unstable species. Notably, the Co-CH 4 and Co-Ar interactions observed in Co 2 (dobdc) represent, to the best of our knowledge, the first single-crystal structure determination of a metal-CH 4 interaction and the first crystallographically characterized metal-Ar interaction. Analysis of low-pressure gas adsorption isotherms confirms that these gases exhibit mainly physisorptive interactions with the cobalt(ii) sites in Co 2 (dobdc), with differential enthalpies of adsorption as weak as -17(1) kJ mol -1 (for Ar). Moreover, the structures of Co 2 (dobdc)·3.8N 2 , Co 2 (dobdc)·5.9O 2 , and Co 2 (dobdc)·2.0Ar reveal the location of secondary (N 2 , O 2 , and Ar) and tertiary (O 2 ) binding sites in Co 2 (dobdc), while high-pressure CO 2 , CO, CH 4 , N 2 , and Ar adsorption isotherms show that these binding sites become more relevant at elevated pressures.

  11. A comparison of multiple regression and neural network techniques for mapping in situ pCO2 data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lefevre, Nathalie; Watson, Andrew J.; Watson, Adam R.


    Using about 138,000 measurements of surface pCO 2 in the Atlantic subpolar gyre (50-70 deg N, 60-10 deg W) during 1995-1997, we compare two methods of interpolation in space and time: a monthly distribution of surface pCO 2 constructed using multiple linear regressions on position and temperature, and a self-organizing neural network approach. Both methods confirm characteristics of the region found in previous work, i.e. the subpolar gyre is a sink for atmospheric CO 2 throughout the year, and exhibits a strong seasonal variability with the highest undersaturations occurring in spring and summer due to biological activity. As an annual average the surface pCO 2 is higher than estimates based on available syntheses of surface pCO 2 . This supports earlier suggestions that the sink of CO 2 in the Atlantic subpolar gyre has decreased over the last decade instead of increasing as previously assumed. The neural network is able to capture a more complex distribution than can be well represented by linear regressions, but both techniques agree relatively well on the average values of pCO 2 and derived fluxes. However, when both techniques are used with a subset of the data, the neural network predicts the remaining data to a much better accuracy than the regressions, with a residual standard deviation ranging from 3 to 11 μatm. The subpolar gyre is a net sink of CO 2 of 0.13 Gt-C/yr using the multiple linear regressions and 0.15 Gt-C/yr using the neural network, on average between 1995 and 1997. Both calculations were made with the NCEP monthly wind speeds converted to 10 m height and averaged between 1995 and 1997, and using the gas exchange coefficient of Wanninkhof

  12. Numerical Simulation and Optimization of Enhanced Oil Recovery by the In Situ Generated CO2 Huff-n-Puff Process with Compound Surfactant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yong Tang


    Full Text Available This paper presents the numerical investigation and optimization of the operating parameters of the in situ generated CO2 Huff-n-Puff method with compound surfactant on the performance of enhanced oil recovery. First, we conducted experiments of in situ generated CO2 and surfactant flooding. Next, we constructed a single-well radial 3D numerical model using a thermal recovery chemical flooding simulator to simulate the process of CO2 Huff-n-Puff. The activation energy and reaction enthalpy were calculated based on the reaction kinetics and thermodynamic models. The interpolation parameters were determined through history matching a series of surfactant core flooding results with the simulation model. The effect of compound surfactant on the Huff-n-Puff CO2 process was demonstrated via a series of sensitivity studies to quantify the effects of a number of operation parameters including the injection volume and mole concentration of the reagent, the injection rate, the well shut-in time, and the oil withdrawal rate. Based on the daily production rate during the period of Huff-n-Puff, a desirable agreement was shown between the field applications and simulated results.

  13. Abrupt rise in atmospheric CO2 at the onset of the Bølling/Allerød: in-situ ice core data versus true atmospheric signals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Chappellaz


    Full Text Available During the last glacial/interglacial transition the Earth's climate underwent abrupt changes around 14.6 kyr ago. Temperature proxies from ice cores revealed the onset of the Bølling/Allerød (B/A warm period in the north and the start of the Antarctic Cold Reversal in the south. Furthermore, the B/A was accompanied by a rapid sea level rise of about 20 m during meltwater pulse (MWP 1A, whose exact timing is a matter of current debate. In-situ measured CO2 in the EPICA Dome C (EDC ice core also revealed a remarkable jump of 10 ± 1 ppmv in 230 yr at the same time. Allowing for the modelled age distribution of CO2 in firn, we show that atmospheric CO2 could have jumped by 20–35 ppmv in less than 200 yr, which is a factor of 2–3.5 greater than the CO2 signal recorded in-situ in EDC. This rate of change in atmospheric CO2 corresponds to 29–50% of the anthropogenic signal during the last 50 yr and is connected with a radiative forcing of 0.59–0.75 W m−2. Using a model-based airborne fraction of 0.17 of atmospheric CO2, we infer that 125 Pg of carbon need to be released into the atmosphere to produce such a peak. If the abrupt rise in CO2 at the onset of the B/A is unique with respect to other Dansgaard/Oeschger (D/O events of the last 60 kyr (which seems plausible if not unequivocal based on current observations, then the mechanism responsible for it may also have been unique. Available δ13CO2 data are neutral, whether the source of the carbon is of marine or terrestrial origin. We therefore hypothesise that most of the carbon might have been activated as a consequence of continental shelf flooding during MWP-1A. This potential impact of rapid sea level rise on atmospheric CO2 might define the point of no return during the last deglaciation.

  14. Advanced mineral and lithological mapping using high spectral resolution TIR data from the active CO2 remote sensing system; CO2 laser wo mochiita kosupekutoru bunkaino netsusekigai remote sensing data no ganseki kobutsu shikibetsu eno oyo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Okada, K [Sumitomo Metal Mining Co. Ltd., Osaka (Japan); Hato, M [Earth Remote Sensing Data Analysis Center, Tokyo (Japan); Cudahy, T; Tapley, I


    A study was conducted on rock/mineral mapping technology for the metal ore deposit survey using MIRACO2LAS, an active type thermal infrared ray remote sensing system which was developed by CSIRO of Australia and is now the highest in spectral resolution in the world, and TIMS of NASA which is a passive type system. The area for the survey is the area of Olary/Broken Hill and Mt. Fitton of Australia. A good correlation is seen between the ground reflectance measured by MIRACO2LAS and the value measured by the chamber CO2 laser of rocks sampled at the above-mentioned area. In case that the width of spectral characteristics is below 300nm, the inspection ability by MIRACO2LAS`s high spectral resolution is more determined in mineral mapping as compared with TIMS which is large in band width. Minerals mapped using MIRACO2LAS are quartz, talc, amphibole, hornblende, garnet, supessartine, dolomite, magnesite, etc. 4 refs., 3 figs.

  15. Formation of Anhydrite due to Interaction Between Water Soluble CO2 (aq) and Calcite Mineral During Enhanced Oil Recovery

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chakravarty, Krishna Hara; Fosbøl, Philip Loldrup; Thomsen, Kaj


    In the Low Salinity based EOR method, formation and migration of fines have proved to have profound effect on the displacement efficiency of residual oil. Salinity variations of injected brines have also been shown to affect oil recovery for WAG-CO2 processes. But the effect of fines in EOR during...... simulations were conducted over a temperature range of 50°C to 250°C and a pressure range of 5 bars to 500 bars. The amounts of fines formation taking place for different LSWAG-CO2 processes were correlated to the described oil recovery. It is observed that significant amounts of fines formation can take...... with the available SO42- ions. The salinity and composition of brines present in pore space shows direct correlation with the amount of fines produced during CO2 injection. With increase in temperature and pressure, the amount fines formation increased significantly. The described oil recovery for different LSWAG...

  16. NiCo2O4 nanosheets in-situ grown on three dimensional porous Ni film current collectors as integrated electrodes for high-performance supercapacitors (United States)

    Wang, Tao; Guo, Ying; Zhao, Bo; Yu, Shuhui; Yang, Hai-Peng; Lu, Daniel; Fu, Xian-Zhu; Sun, Rong; Wong, Ching-Ping


    Three dimensional interconnected hierarchical porous Ni films are easily fabricated as effective current collectors through hydrogen bubble template electrochemical deposition. The binder-free integrated electrodes of spinel NiCo2O4 nanosheets directly coated the three dimensional porous Ni films are facilely obtained through successively electrochemical co-deposition of Ni/Co alloy layer then followed by subsequent annealing at 350 °C in air. Compared with NiCo2O4 nanosheets on smooth Ni foil or porous NiO/Ni film electrodes, the porous NiCo2O4/Ni integrated film electrodes for supercapacitors demonstrate remarkably higher area specific capacitance. The porous NiCo2O4/Ni film electrodes also exhibit excellent rate capability and cycling stability. The super electrochemical capacitive performances are attributed to the unique integrated architecture of NiCo2O4 nanosheets in-situ grown on three dimensional continuous hierarchical porous Ni collector collectors, which could provide large electrode-electrolyte interface area, high active sites, low contact resistance between current collector and active materials, fast electron conduction and ion/electrolyte diffusion.

  17. Precipitation kinetics of Mg-carbonates, influence of organic ligands and consequences for CO2 mineral sequestration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gautier, Q.


    Forming magnesium carbonate minerals through carbonation of magnesium silicates has been proposed as a safe and durable way to store carbon dioxide, with a possibly high potential to offset anthropogenic CO 2 emissions. To date however, chemical reactions involved in this process are facing strong kinetic limitations, which originate in the low reactivity of both Mg-silicates and Mg-carbonates. Numerous studies have focused on the dissolution of Mg-silicates, under the questionable hypothesis that this step limits the whole process. This thesis work focuses instead on the mechanisms and rates of formation of magnesium carbonates, which are the final products of carbonation reactions. The first part of the work is dedicated to studying the influence on magnesite precipitation kinetics of three organic ligands known to accelerate Mg-silicates dissolution rates: oxalate, citrate and EDTA. With help of mixed-flow reactor experiments performed between 100 and 150 C, we show that these ligands significantly reduce magnesite growth rates, through two combined mechanisms: (1) complexation of Mg 2+ cations in aqueous solution, which was rigorously estimated from a thermodynamic database established through a critical review of the literature, and (2) adsorption of ligands to a limited number of surface sites, leading to a decrease of the precipitation rate constant. The observed growth inhibition is maximal with citrate. We then used hydrothermal atomic force microscopy to probe the origin of the documented growth inhibition. Our observations show that citrate and oxalate interact with the crystal growth process on magnesite surface, modifying the shape of growth hillocks as well as the step generation frequency through spiral growth. We also show that the ligands adsorb preferentially on different kink-sites, which is probably related to their different structures and chemical properties. We propose that the stronger magnesite growth inhibition caused by citrate is related

  18. Direct gas-solid carbonation kinetics of steel slag and the contribution to in situ sequestration of flue gas CO(2) in steel-making plants. (United States)

    Tian, Sicong; Jiang, Jianguo; Chen, Xuejing; Yan, Feng; Li, Kaimin


    Direct gas-solid carbonation of steel slag under various operational conditions was investigated to determine the sequestration of the flue gas CO2 . X-ray diffraction analysis of steel slag revealed the existence of portlandite, which provided a maximum theoretical CO2 sequestration potential of 159.4 kg CO 2 tslag (-1) as calculated by the reference intensity ratio method. The carbonation reaction occurred through a fast kinetically controlled stage with an activation energy of 21.29 kJ mol(-1) , followed by 10(3) orders of magnitude slower diffusion-controlled stage with an activation energy of 49.54 kJ mol(-1) , which could be represented by a first-order reaction kinetic equation and the Ginstling equation, respectively. Temperature, CO2 concentration, and the presence of SO2 impacted on the carbonation conversion of steel slag through their direct and definite influence on the rate constants. Temperature was the most important factor influencing the direct gas-solid carbonation of steel slag in terms of both the carbonation conversion and reaction rate. CO2 concentration had a definite influence on the carbonation rate during the kinetically controlled stage, and the presence of SO2 at typical flue gas concentrations enhanced the direct gas-solid carbonation of steel slag. Carbonation conversions between 49.5 % and 55.5 % were achieved in a typical flue gas at 600 °C, with the maximum CO2 sequestration amount generating 88.5 kg CO 2 tslag (-1) . Direct gas-solid carbonation of steel slag showed a rapid CO2 sequestration rate, high CO2 sequestration amounts, low raw-material costs, and a large potential for waste heat utilization, which is promising for in situ carbon capture and sequestration in the steel industry. Copyright © 2013 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  19. Free atmospheric CO2 enrichment (FACE) increased respiration and humification in the mineral soil of a poplar plantation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoosbeek, M.R.; Vos, J.M.; Meinders, M.B.J.; Velthorst, E.J.; Scarascia-Mugnozza, G.


    Free atmospheric CO2 enrichment (FACE) studies conducted at the whole-tree and ecosystem scale indicate that there is a marked increase in primary production, mainly allocated into below-ground biomass. The enhanced carbon transfer to the root system may result in enhanced rhizodeposition and

  20. Caprock and overburden processes in geological CO2 storage: An experimental study on sealing efficiency and mineral alterations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wollenweber, J.; Alles, S.a.; Kronimus, A.; Busch, A.; Stanjek, H.; Krooss, B.M.


    A comprehensive set of experimental and analytical methods has been used to characterise the sealing and fluid -transport properties of fine-grained (pelitic) sedimentary rocks under the pressure and temperature conditions of geological CO2 storage. The flow experiments were carried out on

  1. Mode-I Fracture Toughness Testing and Coupled Cohesive Zone Modeling at In Situ P, T, and Chemical (H2O-CO2-NaCl) Conditions (United States)

    Dewers, T. A.; Choens, R. C., II; Regueiro, R. A.; Eichhubl, P.; Bryan, C. R.; Rinehart, A. J.; Su, J. C.; Heath, J. E.


    Propagation of mode I cracks is fundamental to subsurface engineering endeavors, but the majority of fracture toughness measurements are performed at ambient conditions. A novel testing apparatus was used to quantify the relationship between supercritical carbon dioxide (scCO2), water vapor, and fracture toughness in analogs for reservoir rock and caprock lithologies at temperature and pressure conditions relevant to geologic carbon storage. Samples of Boise Sandstone and Marcellus Shale were subject to fracture propagation via a novel short rod fracture toughness tester composed of titanium and Hastelloy® and designed to fit inside a pressure vessel. The tester is controlled by a hydraulically-driven ram and instrumented with a LVDT to monitor displacement. We measure fracture toughness under conditions of dry supercritical CO2 (scCO2), scCO2-saturated brine, and scCO2 with varying water content ( 25%, 90%, and 100% humidity) at 13.8 MPa and 70oC. Water film development as a function of humidity is determined in situ during the experiments with a quartz crystal microbalance. Two orientations of the Marcellus are included in the testing matrix. Dry CO2 has a negligible to slightly strengthening effect compared to a control, however hydrous scCO2 can decrease the fracture toughness, and the effect increases with increasing humidity, which likely is due to capillary condensation of reactive water films at nascent crack tips and associated subcritical weakening. A 2D poromechanical finite element model with cohesive surface elements (CSEs) and a chemo-plasticity phenomenology is being used to describe the chemical weakening/softening effects observed in the testing. The reductions in fracture toughness seen in this study could be important in considerations of borehole stability, in situ stress measurements, changes in fracture gradient, and reservoir caprock integrity during CO2 injection and storage. Sandia National Laboratories is a multimission laboratory managed

  2. Carbon isotope composition of CO2-rich inclusions in cumulate-forming mantle minerals from Stromboli volcano (Italy) (United States)

    Gennaro, Mimma Emanuela; Grassa, Fausto; Martelli, Mauro; Renzulli, Alberto; Rizzo, Andrea Luca


    We report on measurements of concentration and carbon isotope composition (δ13CCO2) of CO2 trapped in fluid inclusions of olivine and clinopyroxene crystals separated from San Bartolo ultramafic cumulate Xenoliths (SBX) formed at mantle depth (i.e., beneath a shallow Moho supposed to be at 14.8 km). These cumulates, erupted about 2 ka ago at Stromboli volcano (Italy), have been already investigated by Martelli et al. (2014) mainly for Sr-Nd isotopes and for their noble gases geochemistry. The concentration of CO2 varies of one order of magnitude from 3.8·10- 8 mol g- 1 to 4.8·10- 7 mol g- 1, with δ13C values between - 2.8‰ and - 1.5‰ vs V-PDB. These values overlap the range of measurements performed in the crater gases emitted at Stromboli (- 2.5‰ residence within the volcano plumbing system. Such δ13C values are higher than those commonly reported for MORB-like upper mantle (- 8 ÷ - 4‰) and likely reflect the source contamination of the local mantle wedge by CO2 coming from the decarbonation of the sediments carried by the subducting Ionian slab with a contribution of organic carbon up to 7%.


    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    M.J. McKelvy; R. Sharma; A.V.G. Chizmeshya; H. Bearat; R.W. Carpenter


    Fossil fuels, especially coal, can support the energy demands of the world for centuries to come, if the environmental problems associated with CO(sub 2) emissions can be overcome. Permanent and safe methods for CO(sub 2) capture and disposal/storage need to be developed. Mineralization of stationary-source CO(sub 2) emissions as carbonates can provide such safe capture and long-term sequestration. Mg-rich lamellar-hydroxide based minerals (e.g., brucite and serpentine) offer a class of widely available, low-cost materials, with intriguing mineral carbonation potential. Carbonation of such materials inherently involves dehydroxylation, which can disrupt the material down to the atomic level. As such, controlled dehydroxylation, before and/or during carbonation, may provide an important parameter for enhancing carbonation reaction processes. Mg(OH)(sub 2) was chosen as the model material for investigating lamellar hydroxide mineral dehydroxylation/carbonation mechanisms due to (i) its structural and chemical simplicity, (ii) interest in Mg(OH)(sub 2) gas-solid carbonation as a potentially cost-effective CO(sub 2) mineral sequestration process component, and (iii) its structural and chemical similarity to other lamellar-hydroxide-based minerals (e.g., serpentine-based minerals) whose carbonation reaction processes are being explored due to their low-cost CO(sub 2) sequestration potential. Fundamental understanding of the mechanisms that govern dehydroxylation/carbonation processes is essential for minimizing the cost of any lamellar-hydroxide-based mineral carbonation sequestration process. This report covers the third year progress of this grant, as well as providing an integrated overview of the progress in years 1-3, as we have been granted a one-year no-cost extension to wrap up a few studies and publications to optimize project impact

  4. Detecting Patterns of Changing Carbon Uptake in Alaska Using Sustained In Situ and Remote Sensing CO2 Observations (United States)

    Parazoo, N.; Miller, C. E.; Commane, R.; Wofsy, S. C.; Koven, C.; Lawrence, D. M.; Lindaas, J.; Chang, R. Y. W.; Sweeney, C.


    The future trajectory of Arctic ecosystems as a carbon sink or source is of global importance due to vast quantities of carbon in permafrost soils. Over the last few years, a sustained set of airborne (NOAA-PFA, NOAA-ACG, and CARVE) and satellite (OCO-2 and GOSAT) atmospheric CO2 mole fraction measurements have provided unprecedented space and time scale sampling density across Alaska, making it possible to study the Arctic carbon cycle in more detail than ever before. Here, we use a synthesis of airborne and satellite CO2 over the 2009-2013 period with simulated concentrations from CLM4.5 and GEOS-Chem to examine the extent to which regional-scale carbon cycle changes in Alaska can be distinguished from interannual variability and long-range transport. We show that observational strategies focused on sustained profile measurements spanning continental interiors provide key insights into magnitude, duration, and variability of Summer sink activity, but that cold season sources are currently poorly resolved due to lack of sustained spatial sampling. Consequently, although future CO2 budgets dominated by enhanced cold season emission sources under climate warming and permafrost thaw scenarios are likely to produce substantial changes to near-surface CO2 gradients and seasonal cycle amplitude, they are unlikely to be detected by current observational strategies. We conclude that airborne and ground-based networks that provide more spatial coverage in year round profiles will help compensate for systematic sampling gaps in NIR passive satellite systems and provide essential constraints for Arctic carbon cycle changes.

  5. Dissolved organic carbon and nitrogen mineralization strongly affect co2 emissions following lime application to acidic soil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shaaban, M.; Peng, Q.; Lin, S.; Wu, Y.


    Emission of greenhouse gases from agricultural soils has main contribution to the climatic change and global warming. Dynamics of dissolved organic carbon (DOC) and nitrogen mineralization can affect CO/sub 2/ emission from soils. Influence of DOC and nitrogen mineralization on CO/sub 2/ emissions following lime application to acidic soil was investigated in current study. Laboratory experiment was conducted under aerobic conditions with 25% moisture contents (66% water-filled pore space) at 25 degree C in the dark conditions. Different treatments of lime were applied to acidic soil as follows: CK (control), L (low rate of lime: 0.2g lime / 100 g soil) and H (high rate of lime: 0.5g lime /100g soil). CO/sub 2/ emissions were measured by gas chromatography and dissolved organic carbon, NH4 +-N, NO/sub 3/ --N and soil pH were measured during incubation study. Addition of lime to acidic soil significantly increased the concentration of DOC and N mineralization rate. Higher concentrations of DOC and N mineralization, consequently, increased the CO/sub 2/ emissions from lime treated soils. Cumulative CO/sub 2/ emission was 75% and 71% higher from L and H treatments as compared to CK. The results of current study suggest that DOC and N mineralization are critical in controlling gaseous emissions of CO/sub 2/ from acidic soils following lime application. (author)

  6. The role of mineral heterogeneity on the hydrogeochemical response of two fractured reservoir rocks in contact with dissolved CO2 (United States)

    Garcia Rios, Maria; Luquot, Linda; Soler, Josep M.; Cama, Jordi


    In this study we compare the hydrogeochemical response of two fractured reservoir rocks (limestone composed of 100 wt.% calcite and sandstone composed of 66 wt.% calcite, 28 wt.% quartz and 6 wt.% microcline) in contact with CO2-rich sulfate solutions. Flow-through percolation experiments were performed using artificially fractured limestone and sandstone cores and injecting a CO2-rich sulfate solution under a constant volumetric flow rate (from 0.2 to 60 mL/h) at P = 150 bar and T = 60 °C. Measurements of the pressure difference between the inlet and the outlet of the samples and of the aqueous chemistry enabled the determination of fracture permeability changes and net reaction rates. Additionally, X-ray computed microtomography (XCMT) was used to characterize and localized changes in fracture volume induced by dissolution and precipitation reactions. In all reacted cores an increase in fracture permeability and in fracture volume was always produced even when gypsum precipitation happened. The presence of inert silicate grains in sandstone samples favored the occurrence of largely distributed dissolution structures in contrast to localized dissolution in limestone samples. This phenomenon promoted greater dissolution and smaller precipitation in sandstone than in limestone experiments. As a result, in sandstone reservoirs, the larger increase in fracture volume as well as the more extended distribution of the created volume would favor the CO2 storage capacity. The different distribution of created volume between limestone and sandstone experiments led to a different variation in fracture permeability. The progressive stepped permeability increase for sandstone would be preferred to the sharp permeability increase for limestone to minimize risks related to CO2 injection, favor capillary trapping and reduce energetic storage costs. 2D reactive transport simulations that reproduce the variation in aqueous chemistry and the fracture geometry (dissolution pattern

  7. Mineralization of Carbon Dioxide: Literature Review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Romanov, V; Soong, Y; Carney, C; Rush, G; Nielsen, B; O' Connor, W


    CCS research has been focused on CO2 storage in geologic formations, with many potential risks. An alternative to conventional geologic storage is carbon mineralization, where CO2 is reacted with metal cations to form carbonate minerals. Mineralization methods can be broadly divided into two categories: in situ and ex situ. In situ mineralization, or mineral trapping, is a component of underground geologic sequestration, in which a portion of the injected CO2 reacts with alkaline rock present in the target formation to form solid carbonate species. In ex situ mineralization, the carbonation reaction occurs above ground, within a separate reactor or industrial process. This literature review is meant to provide an update on the current status of research on CO2 mineralization. 2

  8. Estimation of the efficiency of hydrocarbon mineralization in soil by measuring CO2-emission and variations in the isotope composition of carbon dioxide (United States)

    Dubrovskaya, Ekaterina; Turkovskaya, Olga


    Estimation of the efficiency of hydrocarbon mineralization in soil by measuring CO2-emission and variations in the isotope composition of carbon dioxide E. Dubrovskaya1, O. Turkovskaya1, A. Tiunov2, N. Pozdnyakova1, A. Muratova1 1 - Institute of Biochemistry and Physiology of Plants and Microorganisms, RAS, Saratov, 2 - A.N. Severtsov Institute of Ecology and Evolution, RAS, Moscow, Russian Federation Hydrocarbon mineralization in soil undergoing phytoremediation was investigated in a laboratory experiment by estimating the variation in the 13С/12С ratio in the respired СО2. Hexadecane (HD) was used as a model hydrocarbon pollutant. The polluted soil was planted with winter rye (Secale cereale) inoculated with Azospirillum brasilense strain SR80, which combines the abilities to promote plant growth and to degrade oil hydrocarbon. Each vegetated treatment was accompanied with a corresponding nonvegetated one, and uncontaminated treatments were used as controls. Emission of carbon dioxide, its isotopic composition, and the residual concentration of HD in the soil were examined after two and four weeks. At the beginning of the experiment, the CO2-emission level was higher in the uncontaminated than in the contaminated soil. After two weeks, the quantity of emitted carbon dioxide decreased by about three times and did not change significantly in all uncontaminated treatments. The presence of HD in the soil initially increased CO2 emission, but later the respiration was reduced. During the first two weeks, nonvegetated soil had the highest CO2-emission level. Subsequently, the maximum increase in respiration was recorded in the vegetated contaminated treatments. The isotope composition of plant material determines the isotope composition of soil. The soil used in our experiment had an isotopic signature typical of soils formed by C3 plants (δ13C,-22.4‰). Generally, there was no significant fractionation of the carbon isotopes of the substrates metabolized by the

  9. CoMet: an airborne mission to simultaneously measure CO2 and CH4 using lidar, passive remote sensing, and in-situ techniques (United States)

    Fix, Andreas; Amediek, Axel; Bovensmann, Heinrich; Ehret, Gerhard; Gerbig, Christoph; Gerilowski, Konstantin; Pfeilsticker, Klaus; Roiger, Anke; Zöger, Martin


    TIn order to improve our current knowledge on the budgets of the two most important anthropogenic greenhouse gases, CO2 and CH4, an airborne mission on board the German research aircraft HALO in coordination with two smaller Cessna aircraft is going to be conducted in April/May 2017. The goal of CoMet is to combine a suite of the best currently available active (lidar) and passive remote sensors as well as in-situ instruments to provide regional-scale data of greenhouse gases which are urgently required.

  10. In situ synchrotron X-ray diffraction study of surface scale formation during CO2 corrosion of carbon steel at temperatures up to 90 oC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ingham, B.; Ko, M.; Kear, G.; Kappen, P.; Laycock, N.; Kimpton, J.A.; Williams, D.E.


    In situ synchrotron X-ray diffraction was used to follow the formation of corrosion product scales on carbon steel in CO 2 saturated brine at temperatures from 40 to 90 o C. The corrosion process was accelerated by applying a small anodic current, and in selected tests a scale inhibitor, amino trimethylene phosphonic acid (ATMPA), was added. Siderite was identified as the major phase in the scale formed in all conditions. With increasing temperature, the scale formation rate increased, while the scale thickness and crystallite size decreased. Above 60 o C, the scale became increasingly protective. The scale thickness and crystallite size decreased with increasing ATMPA concentration.


    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    George Alexander; M. Mercedes Maroto-Valer; Parvana Aksoy; Harold Schobert


    Mineral carbonation provides a potential option for the long-term storage of carbon dioxide. Serpentine has been chosen as the feedstock mineral, due to its abundance and availability. However, the relatively low reactivity of serpentine has warranted research into physical and chemical treatments that have been shown to greatly increase its reactivity. The use of sulfuric acid as an accelerating medium for the removal of magnesium from serpentine has recently been investigated. In addition to the challenges presented by the dissolution of serpentine, another challenge is the subsequent carbonation of the magnesium ions. A stable hydration sphere for the magnesium ion reduces the carbonation kinetics by obstructing the formation of the carbonation products. Accordingly, this research has evaluated the solubility of carbon dioxide in aqueous solution, the interaction between the dissociation products of carbon dioxide, and the carbonation potential of the magnesium ion

  12. To accelerate technology of in situ leaching and heap leaching for mining mineral resources of China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Luo Mei


    Recently, in situ leaching and heap leaching are the most advanced technology for mining low-grade mineral resources in the world. The author briefly expounds the basic concept and advantages of in situ leaching and heap leaching and deals with the main research content of the hydrometallurgical technology of in situ leaching and heap leaching, its development and present application at home and abroad. Having expounded the gap existing between China's technology of in situ leaching and heap leaching and the foreign technology, the author forecasts the prospects of accelerating the mining of China's mineral resources by using the technology of in situ leaching and heap leaching

  13. Carbonate chemistry of an in-situ free-ocean CO2 enrichment experiment (antFOCE) in comparison to short term variation in Antarctic coastal waters. (United States)

    Stark, J S; Roden, N P; Johnstone, G J; Milnes, M; Black, J G; Whiteside, S; Kirkwood, W; Newbery, K; Stark, S; van Ooijen, E; Tilbrook, B; Peltzer, E T; Berry, K; Roberts, D


    Free-ocean CO 2 enrichment (FOCE) experiments have been deployed in marine ecosystems to manipulate carbonate system conditions to those predicted in future oceans. We investigated whether the pH/carbonate chemistry of extremely cold polar waters can be manipulated in an ecologically relevant way, to represent conditions under future atmospheric CO 2 levels, in an in-situ FOCE experiment in Antarctica. We examined spatial and temporal variation in local ambient carbonate chemistry at hourly intervals at two sites between December and February and compared these with experimental conditions. We successfully maintained a mean pH offset in acidified benthic chambers of -0.38 (±0.07) from ambient for approximately 8 weeks. Local diel and seasonal fluctuations in ambient pH were duplicated in the FOCE system. Large temporal variability in acidified chambers resulted from system stoppages. The mean pH, Ω arag and fCO 2 values in the acidified chambers were 7.688 ± 0.079, 0.62 ± 0.13 and 912 ± 150 µatm, respectively. Variation in ambient pH appeared to be mainly driven by salinity and biological production and ranged from 8.019 to 8.192 with significant spatio-temporal variation. This experiment demonstrates the utility of FOCE systems to create conditions expected in future oceans that represent ecologically relevant variation, even under polar conditions.

  14. Efficiency of consortium for in-situ bioremediation and CO2 evolution method of refines petroleum oil in microcosms study


    Dutta, Shreyasri; Singh, Padma


    An in-situ bioremediation study was conducted in a laboratory by using mixed microbial consortium. An indigenous microbial consortium was developed by assemble of two Pseudomonas spp. and two Aspergillus spp. which were isolated from various oil contaminated sites of India. The laboratory feasibility study was conducted in a 225 m2 block. Six treatment options-Oil alone, Oil+Best remediater, Oil+Bacterial consortium, Oil+Fungal consortium, Oil+Mixed microbial consortium, Oil+Indigenous microf...

  15. In situ developmental responses of tropical sea urchin larvae to ocean acidification conditions at naturally elevated pCO2 vent sites. (United States)

    Lamare, Miles D; Liddy, Michelle; Uthicke, Sven


    Laboratory experiments suggest that calcifying developmental stages of marine invertebrates may be the most ocean acidification (OA)-sensitive life-history stage and represent a life-history bottleneck. To better extrapolate laboratory findings to future OA conditions, developmental responses in sea urchin embryos/larvae were compared under ecologically relevant in situ exposures on vent-elevated pCO 2 and ambient pCO 2 coral reefs in Papua New Guinea. Echinometra embryos/larvae were reared in meshed chambers moored in arrays on either venting reefs or adjacent non-vent reefs. After 24 and 48 h, larval development and morphology were quantified. Compared with controls (mean pH (T) = 7.89-7.92), larvae developing in elevated pCO 2 vent conditions (pH (T) = 7.50-7.72) displayed a significant reduction in size and increased abnormality, with a significant correlation of seawater pH with both larval size and larval asymmetry across all experiments. Reciprocal transplants (embryos from vent adults transplanted to control conditions, and vice versa) were also undertaken to identify if adult acclimatization can translate resilience to offspring (i.e. transgenerational processes). Embryos originating from vent adults were, however, no more tolerant to reduced pH. Sea temperature and chlorophyll-a concentrations (i.e. larval nutrition) did not contribute to difference in larval size, but abnormality was correlated with chlorophyll levels. This study is the first to examine the response of marine larvae to OA scenarios in the natural environment where, importantly, we found that stunted and abnormal development observed in situ are consistent with laboratory observations reported in sea urchins, in both the direction and magnitude of the response. © 2016 The Author(s).

  16. Mass-balance modeling of mineral weathering rates and CO2 consumption in the forested, metabasaltic Hauver Branch watershed, Catoctin Mountain, Maryland, USA (United States)

    Rice, Karen; Price, Jason R.; Szymanski, David W.


    Mineral weathering rates and a forest macronutrient uptake stoichiometry were determined for the forested, metabasaltic Hauver Branch watershed in north-central Maryland, USA. Previous studies of Hauver Branch have had an insufficient number of analytes to permit determination of rates of all the minerals involved in chemical weathering, including biomass. More equations in the mass-balance matrix were added using existing mineralogic information. The stoichiometry of a deciduous biomass term was determined using multi-year weekly to biweekly stream-water chemistry for a nearby watershed, which drains relatively unreactive quartzite bedrock.At Hauver Branch, calcite hosts ~38 mol% of the calcium ion (Ca2+) contained in weathering minerals, but its weathering provides ~90% of the stream water Ca2+. This occurs in a landscape with a regolith residence time of more than several Ka (kiloannum). Previous studies indicate that such old regolith does not typically contain dissolving calcite that affects stream Ca2+/Na+ ratios. The relatively high calcite dissolution rate likely reflects dissolution of calcite in fractures of the deep critical zone.Of the carbon dioxide (CO2) consumed by mineral weathering, calcite is responsible for approximately 27%, with the silicate weathering consumption rate far exceeding that of the global average. The chemical weathering of mafic terrains in decaying orogens thus may be capable of influencing global geochemical cycles, and therefore, climate, on geological timescales. Based on carbon-balance calculations, atmospheric-derived sulfuric acid is responsible for approximately 22% of the mineral weathering occurring in the watershed. Our results suggest that rising air temperatures, driven by global warming and resulting in higher precipitation, will cause the rate of chemical weathering in the Hauver Branch watershed to increase until a threshold temperature is reached. Beyond the threshold temperature, increased recharge would

  17. Morphological Changes Of The Root Surface And Fracture Resistance After Treatment Of Root Fracture By CO2 Laser And Glass Ionomer Or Mineral Trioxide Aggregates (United States)

    Badr, Y. A.; Abd El-Gawad, L. M.; Ghaith, M. E.


    This in vitro study evaluates the morphological changes of the root surface and fracture resistance after treatment of root cracks by CO2 laser and glass Ionomer or mineral trioxide aggregates (MTA). Fifty freshly extracted human maxillary central incisor teeth with similar dimension were selected. Crowns were sectioned at the cemento-enamel junction, and the lengths of the roots were adjusted to 13 mm. A longitudinal groove with a dimension of 1×5 mm2 and a depth of 1.5 mm was prepared by a high speed fissure bur on the labial surface of the root. The roots were divided into 5 groups: the 10 root grooves in group 1 were remained unfilled and were used as a control group. The 10 root grooves in group 2 were filled with glass Ionomer, 10 root grooves in group 3 were filled with MTA, the 10 root grooves in group 4 were filled with glass Ionomer and irradiated by CO2 laser and the 10 root grooves in group 5 were filled with MTA and irradiated with CO2 laser. Scanning electron microscopy was performed for two samples in each group. Tests for fracture strength were performed using a universal testing machine and a round tip of a diameter of 4 mm. The force was applied vertically with a constant speed of 1 mm min 1. For each root, the force at the time of fracture was recorded in Newtons. Results were evaluated statistically with ANOVA and Turkey's Honestly Significant Difference (HSD) tests. SEM micrographs revealed that the melted masses and the plate-like crystals formed a tight Chemical bond between the cementum and glass Ionomer and melted masses and globular like structure between cementum and MTA. The mean fracture resistance was the maximum fracture resistance in group 5 (810.8 N). Glass Ionomer and MTA with the help of CO2 laser can be an alternative to the treatment of tooth crack or fracture. CO2 laser increase the resistance of the teeth to fracture.

  18. Coal Direct Chemical Looping Retrofit to Pulverized Coal Power Plants for In-Situ CO2 Capture

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zeng, Liang; Li, Fanxing; Kim, Ray; Bayham, Samuel; McGiveron, Omar; Tong, Andrew; Connell, Daniel; Luo, Siwei; Sridhar, Deepak; Wang, Fei; Sun, Zhenchao; Fan, Liang-Shih


    A novel Coal Direct Chemical Looping (CDCL) system is proposed to effectively capture CO2 from existing PC power plants. The work during the past three years has led to an oxygen carrier particle with satisfactory performance. Moreover, successful laboratory, bench scale, and integrated demonstrations have been performed. The proposed project further advanced the novel CDCL technology to sub-pilot scale (25 kWth). To be more specific, the following objectives attained in the proposed project are: 1. to further improve the oxygen carrying capacity as well as the sulfur/ash tolerance of the current (working) particle; 2. to demonstrate continuous CDCL operations in an integrated mode with > 99% coal (bituminous, subbituminous, and lignite) conversion as well as the production of high temperature exhaust gas stream that is suitable for steam generation in existing PC boilers; 3. to identify, via demonstrations, the fate of sulfur and NOx; 4. to conduct thorough techno-economic analysis that validates the technical and economical attractiveness of the CDCL system. The objectives outlined above were achieved through collaborative efforts among all the participants. CONSOL Energy Inc. performed the techno-economic analysis of the CDCL process. Shell/CRI was able to perform feasibility and economic studies on the large scale particle synthesis and provide composite particles for the sub-pilot scale testing. The experience of B&W (with boilers) and Air Products (with handling gases) assisted the retrofit system design as well as the demonstration unit operations. The experience gained from the sub-pilot scale demonstration of the Syngas Chemical Looping (SCL) process at OSU was able to ensure the successful handling of the solids. Phase 1 focused on studies to improve the current particle to better suit the CDCL operations. The optimum operating conditions for the reducer reactor such as the temperature, char gasification enhancer type, and flow rate were identified. The

  19. In situ synchrotron X-ray diffraction study of scale formation during CO2 corrosion of carbon steel in sodium and magnesium chloride solutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ingham, B.; Ko, M.; Laycock, N.; Burnell, J.; Kappen, P.; Kimpton, J.A.; Williams, D.E.


    Highlights: ► We studied the scale formation processes of carbon steel in CO 2 saturated brine at 80 °C. ► Protective scales were formed in all tests. ► Only FeCO 3 formed in saturated brine while Fe(OH) 2 CO 3 detected with presence of MgCl 2 . ► MgCl 2 accelerates the onset of siderite precipitation. - Abstract: In situ synchrotron X-ray diffraction was used to follow the formation of corrosion products on carbon steel in CO 2 saturated NaCl solution and mixed NaCl/magnesium chloride (MgCl 2 ) at 80 °C. Siderite (FeCO 3 ) was the only phase formed in NaCl solution, while Fe(OH) 2 CO 3 was also detected when MgCl 2 was present. The proposed model is that siderite precipitation, occurring once the critical supersaturation was exceeded within a defined boundary layer, caused local acidification which accelerated the anodic dissolution of iron. The current fell once a complete surface scale was formed. It is suggested that MgCl 2 addition decreased the required critical supersaturation for precipitation.

  20. In situ evidence of mineral physical protection and carbon stabilization revealed by nanoscale 3-D tomography (United States)

    Weng, Yi-Tse; Wang, Chun-Chieh; Chiang, Cheng-Cheng; Tsai, Heng; Song, Yen-Fang; Huang, Shiuh-Tsuen; Liang, Biqing


    An approach for nanoscale 3-D tomography of organic carbon (OC) and associated mineral nanoparticles was developed to illustrate their spatial distribution and boundary interplay, using synchrotron-based transmission X-ray microscopy (TXM). The proposed 3-D tomography technique was first applied to in situ observation of a laboratory-made consortium of black carbon (BC) and nanomineral (TiO2, 15 nm), and its performance was evaluated using dual-scan (absorption contrast and phase contrast) modes. This novel tool was then successfully applied to a natural OC-mineral consortium from mountain soil at a spatial resolution of 60 nm, showing the fine structure and boundary of OC, the distribution of abundant nano-sized minerals, and the 3-D organo-mineral association in situ. The stabilization of 3500-year-old natural OC was mainly attributed to the physical protection of nano-sized iron (Fe)-containing minerals (Fe oxyhydroxides including ferrihydrite, goethite, and lepidocrocite), and the strong organo-mineral complexation. In situ evidence revealed an abundance of mineral nanoparticles, in dense thin layers or nano-aggregates/clusters, instead of crystalline clay-sized minerals on or near OC surfaces. The key working minerals for C stabilization were reactive short-range-order (SRO) mineral nanoparticles and poorly crystalline submicron-sized clay minerals. Spectroscopic analyses demonstrated that the studied OC was not merely in crisscross co-localization with reactive SRO minerals; there could be a significant degree of binding between OC and the minerals. The ubiquity and abundance of mineral nanoparticles on the OC surface, and their heterogeneity in the natural environment may have been severely underestimated by traditional research approaches. Our in situ description of organo-mineral interplay at the nanoscale provides direct evidence to substantiate the importance of mineral physical protection for the long-term stabilization of OC. This high-resolution 3-D

  1. Capture, transport and storage of CO2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    De Boer, B.


    The emission of greenhouse gas CO2 in industrial processes and electricity production can be reduced on a large scale. Available techniques include post-combustion, pre-combustion, the oxy-fuel process, CO2 fixation in industrial processes and CO2 mineralization. In the Netherlands, plans for CO2 capture are not developing rapidly (CCS - carbon capture and storage). [mk] [nl

  2. Improved understanding of drought controls on seasonal variation in Mediterranean forest canopy CO2 and water fluxes through combined in situ measurements and ecosystem modelling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Sabate


    Full Text Available Water stress is a defining characteristic of Mediterranean ecosystems, and is likely to become more severe in the coming decades. Simulation models are key tools for making predictions, but our current understanding of how soil moisture controls ecosystem functioning is not sufficient to adequately constrain parameterisations. Canopy-scale flux data from four forest ecosystems with Mediterranean-type climates were used in order to analyse the physiological controls on carbon and water flues through the year. Significant non-stomatal limitations on photosynthesis were detected, along with lesser changes in the conductance-assimilation relationship. New model parameterisations were derived and implemented in two contrasting modelling approaches. The effectiveness of two models, one a dynamic global vegetation model ("ORCHIDEE", and the other a forest growth model particularly developed for Mediterranean simulations ("GOTILWA+", was assessed and modelled canopy responses to seasonal changes in soil moisture were analysed in comparison with in situ flux measurements. In contrast to commonly held assumptions, we find that changing the ratio of conductance to assimilation under natural, seasonally-developing, soil moisture stress is not sufficient to reproduce forest canopy CO2 and water fluxes. However, accurate predictions of both CO2 and water fluxes under all soil moisture levels encountered in the field are obtained if photosynthetic capacity is assumed to vary with soil moisture. This new parameterisation has important consequences for simulated responses of carbon and water fluxes to seasonal soil moisture stress, and should greatly improve our ability to anticipate future impacts of climate changes on the functioning of ecosystems in Mediterranean-type climates.

  3. Polymer-Derived Silicoboron Carbonitride Foams for CO2 Capture: From Design to Application as Scaffolds for the in Situ Growth of Metal-Organic Frameworks. (United States)

    Sandra, Fabien; Depardieu, Martin; Mouline, Zineb; Vignoles, Gérard L; Iwamoto, Yuji; Miele, Philippe; Backov, Rénal; Bernard, Samuel


    A template-assisted polymer-derived ceramic route is investigated for preparing a series of silicoboron carbonitride (Si/B/C/N) foams with a hierarchical pore size distribution and tailorable interconnected porosity. A boron-modified polycarbosilazane was selected to impregnate monolithic silica and carbonaceous templates and form after pyrolysis and template removal Si/B/C/N foams. By changing the hard template nature and controlling the quantity of polymer to be impregnated, controlled micropore/macropore distributions with mesoscopic cell windows are generated. Specific surface areas from 29 to 239 m(2)  g(-1) and porosities from 51 to 77 % are achieved. These foams combine a low density with a thermal insulation and a relatively good thermostructural stability. Their particular structure allowed the in situ growth of metal-organic frameworks (MOFs) directly within the open-cell structure. MOFs offered a microporosity feature to the resulting Si/B/C/N@MOF composite foams that allowed increasing the specific surface area to provide CO2 uptake of 2.2 %. © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  4. Limestone calcination under calcium-looping conditions for CO2 capture and thermochemical energy storage in the presence of H2O: an in situ XRD analysis. (United States)

    Valverde, Jose Manuel; Medina, Santiago


    This work reports an in situ XRD analysis of whether the calcination/carbonation behavior of natural limestone (CaCO 3 ) is affected by the addition of H 2 O to the calciner at a very low concentration under relevant Calcium-Looping (CaL) conditions for CO 2 capture in coal fired power plants (CFPP) and Thermochemical Energy Storage (TCES) in Concentrated Solar Power plants (CSP). Previous studies have demonstrated that the presence of steam in the calciner at a high concentration yields a significant increase in the reaction rate. However, a further undesired consequence is the serious deterioration of the CaO mechanical strength, which would lead to particle attrition and mass loss in any CaL process based on the use of circulating fluidized beds. The results presented in this manuscript on the time evolution of the wt% and crystallite size of the phases involved in the calcination/carbonation reactions indicate that the calcination rate is still notably increased by the presence of H 2 O at very low concentrations whereas the reactivity toward carbonation and crystal structure of the formed CaO are not essentially affected, which suggests that the CaO mechanical strength is not impaired. Thus, the benefit of using steam for calcination in the CaL process could be still retained while at the same time particle attrition would not be promoted.

  5. Contrasting Impact of Future CO2 Emission Scenarios on the Extent of CaCO3 Mineral Undersaturation in the Humboldt Current System (United States)

    Franco, A. C.; Gruber, N.; Frölicher, T. L.; Kropuenske Artman, L.


    The eastern boundary upwelling systems are among those regions that are most vulnerable to an ocean acidification-induced transition toward undersaturated conditions with respect to mineral CaCO3, but no assessment exists yet for the Humboldt Current System. Here we use a high-resolution (˜7.5 km) regional ocean model to investigate past and future changes in ocean pH and CaCO3 saturation state in this system. We find that within the next few decades, the nearshore waters off Peru are projected to become corrosive year round with regard to aragonite, the more soluble form of CaCO3. The volume of aragonite undersaturated water off Peru will continue to increase in the future irrespective of the amount of CO2 emitted to the atmosphere. In contrast, the development of the saturation state with regard to calcite, a less soluble form of carbonate, depends strongly on the scenario followed. By 2050, calcite undersaturation appears in the nearshore waters off Peru occasionally, but by 2090 in a high-emission scenario (RCP8.5), ˜60% of the water in the euphotic zone will become permanently calcite undersaturated. Most of this calcite undersaturation off Peru can likely be avoided if a low emission scenario (RCP2.6) consistent with the Paris Agreement is followed. The progression of ocean acidification off Chile follows a similar pattern, except that the saturation states are overall higher. But also here, calcite undersaturated waters will become common in the subsurface waters under the RCP8.5 scenario by the end of this century, while this can be avoided under the RCP2.6 scenario.

  6. Forecasting global atmospheric CO2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Agusti-Panareda, A.; Massart, S.; Boussetta, S.; Balsamo, G.; Beljaars, A.; Engelen, R.; Jones, L.; Peuch, V.H.; Chevallier, F.; Ciais, P.; Paris, J.D.; Sherlock, V.


    measurements and CO 2 in situ observations, as they become available in near-real time. In this way, the accumulation of errors in the atmospheric CO 2 forecast will be reduced. Improvements in the CO 2 forecast are also expected with the continuous developments in the operational IFS. (authors)

  7. Nuclear techniques for in situ evaluation of coal and mineral deposits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Borsaru, M.


    This paper reviews developments in in situ analysis of minerals and coal by nuclear borehole logging. Developments in the oil, gas and uranium industries are not discussed in the present paper unless they have direct applications in the mineral industry (e.g. multi-element analysis and development of spectral litho-density tools). The review covers techniques developed mostly in the last decade and is based on work published in North America, Europe and Australia. (author)

  8. Study on tertiary in-situ leachable uranium mineralization conditions in South Songliao basin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Zhenqiang; Li Guokuan; Zhao Zonghua; Zhang Jingxun


    Tertiary in-situ leachable mineralization in Songliao Basin was analyzed in theory in the past. Since 1998, regional investigation at 1:200000 scale has been done with about 120 holes drilled. Based on drill holes recording, section compiling and sample analysis, the authors investigate into the Tertiary in-situ leachable conditions including rock character, sedimentary facies, rock chemistry, organic substances, uranium content, sandstone porosity, sandstone bodies, interlayer oxidation, and hydro-dynamic value. The study would play important role in prospecting for in-situ leachable uranium in South Songliao basin

  9. CO2 dose–response functions for wheat grain, protein and mineral yield based on FACE and open-top chamber experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pleijel, Håkan; Högy, Petra


    Data from three Swedish open-top chamber and four German FACE experiments were combined to derive response functions for elevated CO 2 (eCO 2 ) effects on Cd, Zn, Mn, protein, grain yield, grain mass and grain number of wheat. Grain yield and grain number were increased by ∼6% and ∼7%, respectively, per 100 ppm CO 2 ; the former effect was linked to plant nitrogen status. Grain mass was not influenced by eCO 2 , whereas Cd concentration was reduced. Unlike Zn, Mn and protein, effects on Cd yield were not related to effects on grain yield. Yields of Mn, Zn and (weakly) protein were positively affected by eCO 2 . For protein, grain yield, grain mass and grain number, the results were consistent among the FACE and OTC experiments. A key conclusion was that yields of essential nutrients were enhanced (Mn > Zn > protein), although less than grain yield, which would not be expected from a simple dilution model. - Highlights: • Grain yield and grain number were positively affected by 6–7% per 100 ppm CO 2 . • Yield stimulation by CO 2 was influenced by plant nitrogen status. • Cd concentration was reduced by elevated CO 2 . • Yields of Zn, Mn and protein were stimulated by CO 2 , but less than grain yield. • A simple dilution model did not explain effects on Zn, Mn and protein. - Yields of Zn, Mn and protein were stimulated less by elevated CO 2 than grain yield, while Cd yield and grain mass were unaffected, in wheat exposed in FACE and open-top chambers

  10. In situ 13CO2 pulse‐labeling in a temperate heathland – development of a mobile multi‐plot field setup

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Reinsch, Sabine; Ambus, Per


    Pulse‐labeling with 13CO2 and the subsequent analysis of 13C‐carbon via isotope ratio mass spectrometry (IRMS) have been shown to be an excellent method to investigate the terrestrial carbon cycle. Improving 13CO2 manipulation experiments will facilitate our understanding of carbon cycling...

  11. Bench top and portable mineral analysers, borehole core analysers and in situ borehole logging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Howarth, W.J.; Watt, J.S.


    Bench top and portable mineral analysers are usually based on balanced filter techniques using scintillation detectors or on low resolution proportional detectors. The application of radioisotope x-ray techniques to in situ borehole logging is increasing, and is particularly suited for logging for tin and higher atomic number elements

  12. CO2 Sequestration short course

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    DePaolo, Donald J. [Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory; Cole, David R [The Ohio State University; Navrotsky, Alexandra [University of California-Davis; Bourg, Ian C [Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory


    Given the public’s interest and concern over the impact of atmospheric greenhouse gases (GHGs) on global warming and related climate change patterns, the course is a timely discussion of the underlying geochemical and mineralogical processes associated with gas-water-mineral-interactions encountered during geological sequestration of CO2. The geochemical and mineralogical processes encountered in the subsurface during storage of CO2 will play an important role in facilitating the isolation of anthropogenic CO2 in the subsurface for thousands of years, thus moderating rapid increases in concentrations of atmospheric CO2 and mitigating global warming. Successful implementation of a variety of geological sequestration scenarios will be dependent on our ability to accurately predict, monitor and verify the behavior of CO2 in the subsurface. The course was proposed to and accepted by the Mineralogical Society of America (MSA) and The Geochemical Society (GS).

  13. In situ Determination of CO2 and N2O Emissions and Isotopic Composition in Agricultural Soils Following a Precipitation Pulse - The Use of Real-Time CO2 and N2O Isotope Analysers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, Janet; Resch, Christian; Mayr, Leopold; Heiling, Maria; Dercon, Gerd


    Agricultural soils cover 12.6% of the Earth's surface and are essential in food production. Agricultural land can either serve as a reservoir of greenhouse gases (GHGs) in the soil, or release them into the atmosphere. Accurately estimating GHG fluxes from agricultural soils is difficult, however, due to the dynamic pattern of emissions that are largely driven by environmental factors such as water availability. Farming practices, such as mulch application, also influence soil GHG emissions. We measured effects of mulch application on emissions and isotopic composition of two GHGs, CO 2 and N 2 O, in agricultural soils by using greenhouse “mesocosms” (soil sample columns 70 cm deep and 50 cm diameter that have been subjected to a soybean-maize crop rotation since 2012).

  14. Enhance performance of micro direct methanol fuel cell by in situ CO2 removal using novel anode flow field with superhydrophobic degassing channels (United States)

    Liang, Junsheng; Luo, Ying; Zheng, Sheng; Wang, Dazhi


    Capillary blocking caused by CO2 bubbles in anode flow field (AFF) is one of the bottlenecks for performance improvement of a micro direct methanol fuel cell (μDMFC). In this work, we present a novel AFF structure with nested layout of hydrophilic fuel channels and superhydrophobic degassing channels which can remove most of CO2 from AFF before it is released to the fuel channels. The new AFFs are fabricated on Ti substrates by using micro photochemical etching combined with anodization and fluorination treatments. Performance of the μDMFCs with and without superhydrophobic degassing channels in their AFF is comparatively studied. Results show that the superhydrophobic degassing channels can significantly speed up the exhaust of CO2 from the AFF. CO2 clogging is not observed in the new AFFs even when their comparison AFFs have been seriously blocked by CO2 slugs under the same operating conditions. 55% and 60% of total CO2 produced in μDMFCs with N-serpentine and N-spiral AFF can be respectively removed by the superhydrophobic degassing channels. The power densities of the μDMFCs equipped with new serpentine and spiral AFFs are respectively improved by 30% and 90% compared with those using conventional AFFs. This means that the new AFFs developed in this work can effectively prevent CO2-induced capillary blocking in the fuel channels, and finally significantly improve the performance of the μDMFCs.

  15. Magnetic, in situ, mineral characterization of Chelyabinsk meteorite thin section (United States)

    Nabelek, Ladislav; Mazanec, Martin; Kdyr, Simon; Kletetschka, Gunther


    Magnetic images of Chelyabinsk meteorite's (fragment F1 removed from Chebarkul lake) thin section have been unraveled by a magnetic scanning system from Youngwood Science and Engineering (YSE) capable of resolving magnetic anomalies down to 10-3 mT range from about 0.3 mm distance between the probe and meteorite surface (resolution about 0.15 mm). Anomalies were produced repeatedly, each time after application of magnetic field pulse of varying amplitude and constant, normal or reversed, direction. This process resulted in both magnetizing and demagnetizing of the meteorite thin section, while keeping the magnetization vector in the plane of the thin section. Analysis of the magnetic data allows determination of coercivity of remanence (Bcr) for the magnetic sources in situ. Value of Bcr is critical for calculating magnetic forces applicable during missions to asteroids where gravity is compromised. Bcr was estimated by two methods. First method measured varying dipole magnetic field strength produced by each anomaly in the direction of magnetic pulses. Second method measured deflections of the dipole direction from the direction of magnetic pulses. Bcr of magnetic sources in Chelyabinsk meteorite ranges between 4 and 7 mT. These magnetic sources enter their saturation states when applying 40 mT external magnetic field pulse.

  16. Direct measurement of CO2 solubility and pH in NaCl hydrothermal solutions by combining in-situ potentiometry and Raman spectroscopy up to 280 °C and 150 bar (United States)

    Truche, Laurent; Bazarkina, Elena F.; Berger, Gilles; Caumon, Marie-Camille; Bessaque, Gilles; Dubessy, Jean


    The in-situ monitoring of aqueous solution chemistry at elevated temperatures and pressures is a major challenge in geochemistry. Here, we combined for the first time in-situ Raman spectroscopy for concentration measurements and potentiometry for pH measurement in a single hydrothermal cell equipped with sampling systems and operating under controlled conditions of temperature and pressure. Dissolved CO2 concentration and pH were measured at temperatures up to 280 °C and pressures up to 150 bar in the H2O-CO2 and H2O-CO2-NaCl systems. A Pitzer specific-ion-interaction aqueous model was developed and confirmed the accuracy and consistency of the measurements, at least up to 250 °C. The revised Pitzer parameters for the H2O-CO2-NaCl system were formatted for the Phreeqc geochemical software. Significant changes with respect to the Pitzer.dat database currently associated with Phreeqc were observed. The new model parameters are now available for further applications. The Raman and pH probes tested here may also be applied to field monitoring of hydrothermal springs, geothermal wells, and oil and gas boreholes.

  17. An in situ FTIR step-scan photoacoustic investigation of kerogen and minerals in oil shale. (United States)

    Alstadt, Kristin N; Katti, Dinesh R; Katti, Kalpana S


    Step-scan photoacoustic infrared spectroscopy experiments were performed on Green River oil shale samples obtained from the Piceance Basin located in Colorado, USA. We have investigated the molecular nature of light and dark colored areas of the oil shale core using FTIR photoacoustic step-scan spectroscopy. This technique provided us with the means to analyze the oil shale in its original in situ form with the kerogen-mineral interactions intact. All vibrational bands characteristic of kerogen were found in the dark and light colored oil shale samples confirming that kerogen is present throughout the depth of the core. Depth profiling experiments indicated that there are changes between layers in the oil shale molecular structure at a length scale of micron. Comparisons of spectra from the light and dark colored oil shale core samples suggest that the light colored regions have high kerogen content, with spectra similar to that from isolated kerogen, whereas, the dark colored areas contain more mineral components which include clay minerals, dolomite, calcite, and pyrite. The mineral components of the oil shale are important in understanding how the kerogen is "trapped" in the oil shale. Comparing in situ kerogen spectra with spectra from isolated kerogen indicate significant band shifts suggesting important nonbonded molecular interactions between the kerogen and minerals. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. In situ preparation of MgCo2O4 nanosheets on Ni-foam as a binder-free electrode for high performance hybrid supercapacitors. (United States)

    Vijayakumar, Subbukalai; Nagamuthu, Sadayappan; Ryu, Kwang-Sun


    A binder-free, MgCo2O4 nanosheet-like architecture was prepared on Ni-foam using a hydrothermal method. MgCo2O4/Ni-foam was characterized by X-ray diffraction, field emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM), and transmission electron microscopy techniques. The FESEM image revealed a nanosheet array-like architecture. The MgCo2O4 nanosheets grown on Ni-foam exhibited the maximum specific capacity of 947 C g-1 at a specific current of 2 A g-1. Approximately 96% of the specific capacity was retained from the maximum specific capacity after 5000 continuous charge-discharge cycles. This hybrid device exhibited a maximum specific capacity of 52 C g-1 at a specific current of 0.5 A g-1, and also exhibited a maximum specific energy of 12.99 W h kg-1 at a specific power of 448.7 W kg-1. These results confirmed that the binder-free MgCo2O4 nanosheets grown on Ni-foam are a suitable positive electrode material for hybrid supercapacitors.

  19. Feasibility study of using a 'travelling' CO2 and CH4 instrument to validate continuous in-situ measurement stations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hammer, S.; Konrad, G.; Levin, I. [Institut fuer Umweltphysik IUP, Heidelberg University (Germany); Vermeulen, A.T. [Energy research Center of the Netherlands ECN, Petten (Netherlands); Laurent, O.; Delmotte, M.; Hazan, L. [Laboratoire des Sciences du Climat et de l' Environnement LSCE, Gif-sur-Yvette (France); Jordan, A. [Max Planck Institute for Biogeochemistry, Jena (Germany); Conil, S. [Agence Nationale pour la gestion des Dechets Radioactifs ANDRA, Bure (France)


    In the course of the ICOS (Integrated Carbon Observation System) Demo Experiment a feasibility study on the usefulness of a Travelling Comparison Instrument (TCI) was conducted in order to evaluate continuous atmospheric CO2 and CH4 measurements at two European stations. The aim of the TCI is to independently measure ambient air in parallel to the standard station instrumentation, thus providing a comprehensive comparison that includes the sample intake system, the instrument itself as well as its calibration and data evaluation. Observed differences between the TCI and the Heidelberg gas chromatographic system, which acted as a reference for the TCI, were -0.02{+-}0.08{mu}mol mol{sup -1} for CO2 and -0.3{+-}2.3{mu}mol mol{sup -1} for CH4. Over a period of two weeks each, the continuous CO2 and CH4 measurements at two ICOS field stations, Cabauw and OPE, were compared to co-located TCI measurements. At Cabauw mean differences of 0.21{+-}0.06{mu}mol mol{sup -1} for CO2 and 0.41{+-}0.50{mu}mol mol{sup -1} for CH4 were found. For OPE the mean differences were 0.13{+-}0.07{mu}mol mol{sup -1} for CO2 and 0.44{+-}0.36{mu}mol mol{sup -1} for CH4. Potential causes of these observed differences are leakages or contaminations in the intake lines and/or there flushing pumps. At Cabauw station an additional error contribution originates from insufficient flushing of standard gases. Offsets arising from differences in the working standard calibrations or leakages/ contaminations in the drying systems are too small to explain the observed differences. Finally a comprehensive quality management strategy for atmospheric monitoring networks is proposed.

  20. Study of the reactivity of pure minerals in presence of CO2 at the supercritical state. Measurement of the portlandite carbonation kinetics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Regnault, O.


    The efficiency on the long term of CO 2 geological storage will rely on trapping mechanisms and good sealing properties of the cap rock and the eventual access wells. A series of experiments has been devised to observe and quantify the reactivity of portlandite with supercritical CO 2 . The portlandite has been chosen as a key component of calcium-rich cement for its interest in borehole cement degradation. Initial carbonation rates have been measured under different conditions: pressure 160 bar, temperatures 80, 120, and 200 C and with various amount of water. SEM observations show that the reacting fluid state (absence or presence of liquid phase) controls strongly the carbonation behaviour and the reaction path. A specific geochemical model has been developed in order to account for the particular conditions of our experiments. These results (portlandite carbonation rate and water-poor geochemical system modelling techniques) should be useful to simulate well-bore cement degradation. (author)

  1. CO2 blood test (United States)

    Bicarbonate test; HCO3-; Carbon dioxide test; TCO2; Total CO2; CO2 test - serum; Acidosis - CO2; Alkalosis - CO2 ... Many medicines can interfere with blood test results. Your health ... need to stop taking any medicines before you have this test. DO ...

  2. Biomassa microbiana e produção de C-CO2 e N mineral de um podzólico vermelho-escuro submetido a diferentes sistemas de manejo: Microbial biomass and C-CO2 and mineral nitrogen production in paleudult soil cultivated under different management systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. K. Vargas


    Full Text Available Os sistemas de manejo, com diferenças no revolvimento do solo e na composição dos resíduos vegetais, alteram as propriedades biológicas do solo, com reflexos na qualidade do solo e na produtividade das culturas. Com vistas em medir estas alterações nas propriedades biológicas do solo, a biomassa e a atividade microbiana foram avaliadas em um Podzólico Vermelho-Escuro, em Eldorado do Sul (RS, utilizando diferentes preparos (convencional, reduzido e plantio direto e dois sistemas de sucessões de culturas (aveia preta + vica/milho + caupi e aveia/milho. As avaliações foram realizadas em quatro épocas, durante 12 meses, e em duas profundidades (0-5 e 5-15 cm. O carbono da biomassa microbiana foi analisado pelo método de fumigação-incubação, e a atividade microbiana, pela produção de C-CO2 e N mineral, após 60 dias de incubação. As diferenças na biomassa e na atividade microbiana, entre os sistemas de manejo, foram mais pronunciadas na camada de 0-5 cm. Nesta camada de solo, observaram-se os maiores valores de biomassa e de atividade nos preparos conservacionistas e no sistema aveia + vica/milho + caupi. Dentre as variáveis estudadas, a mineralização de N mostrou-se a mais sensível aos manejos, à profundidade e à época de amostragem.

  3. Facile formation of 2D Co2P@Co3O4 microsheets through in-situ toptactic conversion and surface corrosion: Bifunctional electrocatalysts towards overall water splitting (United States)

    Yao, Lihua; Zhang, Nan; Wang, Yin; Ni, Yuanman; Yan, Dongpeng; Hu, Changwen


    Exploring efficient non-precious electrocatalysts for both the hydrogen evolution reaction (HER) and oxygen evolution reaction (OER) is crucial for many renewable energy conversion processes. In this work, we report that 2D Co2P@Co3O4 microsheets can be prepared through an in-situ toptactic conversion from single-crystal β-Co(OH)2 microplatelets, associated with a surface phosphatization and corrosion process. The resultant Co2P@Co3O4 2D hybrid materials can further serve as self-supported bifunctional catalytic electrodes to drive the overall water splitting for HER and OER simultaneously, with low overpotentials and high long-term stability. Furthermore, a water electrolyzer based on Co2P@Co3O4 hybrid as both anode and cathode is fabricated, which achieves 10 mA cm-2 current at only 1.57 V during water splitting process. Therefore, this work provides a facile strategy to obtain 2D Co2P-based micro/nanostructures, which act as low-cost and highly active electrocatalysts towards overall water splitting application.

  4. In situ growth of NiCo2S4 nanotube arrays on Ni foam for supercapacitors: Maximizing utilization efficiency at high mass loading to achieve ultrahigh areal pseudocapacitance (United States)

    Chen, Haichao; Jiang, Jianjun; Zhang, Li; Xia, Dandan; Zhao, Yuandong; Guo, Danqing; Qi, Tong; Wan, Houzhao


    Self-standing NiCo2S4 nanotube arrays have been in situ grown on Ni foam by the anion-exchange reaction and directly used as the electrode for supercapacitors. The NiCo2S4 nanotube in the arrays effectively reduces the inactive material and increases the electroactive surface area because of the ultrathin wall, which is quite competent to achieve high utilization efficiency at high electroactive materials mass loading. The NiCo2S4 nanotube arrays hybrid electrode exhibits an ultrahigh specific capacitance of 14.39 F cm-2 at 5 mA cm-2 with excellent rate performance (67.7% retention for current increases 30 times) and cycling stability (92% retention after 5000 cycles) at a high mass loading of 6 mg cm-2. High areal capacitance (4.68 F cm-2 at 10 mA cm-2), high energy density (31.5 Wh kg-1 at 156.6 W kg-1) and high power density (2348.5 W kg-1 at 16.6 Wh kg-1) can be achieved by assembling asymmetric supercapacitor with reduced graphene oxide at a total active material mass loading as high as 49.5 mg. This work demonstrates that NiCo2S4 nanotube arrays structure is a superior electroactive material for high-performance supercapacitors even at a mass loading of potential application-specific scale.

  5. CO2 sequestration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Favre, E.; Jammes, L.; Guyot, F.; Prinzhofer, A.; Le Thiez, P.


    This document presents the summary of a conference-debate held at the Academie des Sciences (Paris, France) on the topic of CO 2 sequestration. Five papers are reviewed: problems and solutions for the CO 2 sequestration; observation and surveillance of reservoirs; genesis of carbonates and geological storage of CO 2 ; CO 2 sequestration in volcanic and ultra-basic rocks; CO 2 sequestration, transport and geological storage: scientific and economical perspectives

  6. In situ synchrotron X-ray diffraction study of the effect of chromium additions to the steel and solution on CO2 corrosion of pipeline steels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ko, M.; Ingham, B.; Laycock, N.; Williams, D.E.


    Highlights: •We studied the effect of chromium on CO 2 corrosion processes. •Chromium addition accelerates the onset of siderite and chukanovite precipitation. •One of the key effects is to decrease the critical supersaturation for siderite nucleation. -- Abstract: We demonstrate the important effects of chromium in the steel composition and of Cr 3+ ions in solution on the nucleation and growth of corrosion layers in a CO 2 environment. We propose that high-valent metal cations in solution (within the boundary layer) catalyse the nucleation of siderite, which otherwise has a high critical supersaturation for precipitation. One of the key effects of small alloy additions to the steel is to put into the local solution species that decrease the critical supersaturation for siderite and modify the growth rate of the scale, thereby promoting the formation of an adherent and protective scale

  7. Estimation of Potential Source Region in Northeast Asia through Continuous In-Situ Measurement of Atmospheric CO2 at Gosan, Jeju Island, Korea


    Fenji Jin; Jooil Kim; Kyung-Ryul Kim


    High-Precision (¡_0.1 ppm), high-frequency (hourly averaged) measurement of atmospheric carbon dioxide (CO2) was made at Gosan Station on Jeju Island, Korea, using a Non-dispersive Infrared (NDIR) analyzer calibrated with National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration/Earth Sys tem Re search Laboratory standards. This paper presents the one-year results from these measurements, including discussions on data quality control and data selection, data characteristics through comparing with other...

  8. Re- and Demineralization Characteristics of Enamel Depending on Baseline Mineral Loss and Lesion Depth in situ. (United States)

    Wierichs, Richard J; Lausch, Julian; Meyer-Lueckel, Hendrik; Esteves-Oliveira, Marcella


    The aim of this double-blinded, randomized, cross-over in situ study was to evaluate the re- and demineralization characteristics of sound enamel as well as lowly and highly demineralized caries-like enamel lesions after the application of different fluoride compounds. In each of three experimental legs of 4 weeks, 21 participants wore intraoral mandibular appliances containing 4 bovine enamel specimens (2 lowly and 2 highly demineralized). Each specimen included one sound enamel and either one lowly demineralized (7 days, pH 4.95) or one highly demineralized (21 days, pH 4.95) lesion, and was positioned 1 mm below the acrylic under a plastic mesh. The three randomly allocated treatments (application only) included the following dentifrices: (1) 1,100 ppm F as NaF, (2) 1,100 ppm F as SnF2 and (3) 0 ppm F (fluoride-free) as negative control. Differences in integrated mineral loss (x0394;x0394;Z) and lesion depth (x0394;LD) were calculated between values before and after the in situ period using transversal microradiography. Of the 21 participants, 6 did not complete the study and 2 were excluded due to protocol violation. Irrespectively of the treatment, higher baseline mineral loss and lesion depth led to a less pronounced change in mineral loss and lesion depth. Except for x0394;x0394;Z of the dentifrice with 0 ppm F, sound surfaces showed significantly higher x0394;x0394;Z and x0394;LD values compared with lowly and highly demineralized lesions (p test). Re- and demineralization characteristics of enamel depended directly on baseline mineral loss and lesion depth. Treatment groups should therefore be well balanced with respect to baseline mineral loss and lesion depth. © 2016 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  9. In-situ nanoscale imaging of clay minerals with atomic force microscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bosbach, D.


    Document available in extended abstract form only. Clay minerals play a key role in many concepts for high-level nuclear waste repository systems in deep geological formations. Various aspects related to the long-term safety of nuclear disposal are linked to their fundamental physical-chemical properties, in particular with respect to their reactivity in aqueous environments. Atomic Force Microscopy (AFM) allows high resolution imaging of clay minerals in-situ while they are exposed to an aqueous solution. The presentation is intended to provide an overview of examples of AFM studies on clay minerals: 1. AFM is an ideal tool to visualize the shape of individual clay particles down to molecular scales including a quantitative description of for example their aspect ratio. Furthermore, the particle size can be easily extracted from AFM data for individual particles as well as particle size distribution. 2. Surface area of clay minerals is a key issue when discussing heterogeneous reactions such as dissolution, adsorption or (surface) precipitation - total surface area, BET surface area, reactive surface area need to be distinguished. In particular reactive surface area is linked to specific reactive surface sites. AFM is of course able to identify such sites and consequently AFM data allow to characterize and to quantify reactive surface area. 3. The reactivity of clay mineral surfaces in aqueous environments controls the behaviour of clay minerals under repository conditions and also affects the migration/retention of radionuclides. It could be shown that the dissolution of smectite particles under acidic conditions at room temperature primarily occurs at (hk0) particle edges, whereas the reactivity of the (001) basal surfaces is very limited. The heterogeneous (surface) precipitation of secondary iron (hydr)oxides phase could be unraveled by AFM observations. Surface precipitation occurs preferentially at (hk0) edges surfaces. Ignoring the surface site specific

  10. CO2 sequestration: Storage capacity guideline needed (United States)

    Frailey, S.M.; Finley, R.J.; Hickman, T.S.


    Petroleum reserves are classified for the assessment of available supplies by governmental agencies, management of business processes for achieving exploration and production efficiency, and documentation of the value of reserves and resources in financial statements. Up to the present however, the storage capacity determinations made by some organizations in the initial CO2 resource assessment are incorrect technically. New publications should thus cover differences in mineral adsorption of CO2 and dissolution of CO2 in various brine waters.

  11. Investigating the complex relationship between in situ Southern Ocean pCO2 and its ocean physics and biogeochemical drivers using a nonparametric regression approach

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Pretorius, W


    Full Text Available the relationship more accurately in terms of MSE, RMSE and MAE, than a standard parametric approach (multiple linear regression). These results provide a platform for using the developed nonparametric regression model based on in situ measurements to predict p...

  12. In Situ-Grown ZnCo2O4 on Single-Walled Carbon Nanotubes as Air Electrode Materials for Rechargeable Lithium–Oxygen Batteries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Bin; Xu, Wu; Yan, Pengfei; Bhattacharya, Priyanka; Cao, Ruiguo; Bowden, Mark E.; Engelhard, Mark H.; Wang, Chong M.; Zhang, Jiguang


    Although lithium-oxygen (Li-O2) batteries have great potential to be used as one of the next generation energy storage systems due to their ultrahigh theoretical specific energy, there are still many significant barriers before their practical applications. These barriers include electrolyte and electrode instability, poor ORR/OER efficiency and cycling capability, etc. Development of a highly efficient catalyst will not only enhance ORR/OER efficiency, it may also improve the stability of electrolyte because the reduced charge voltage. Here we report the synthesis of nano-sheet-assembled ZnCo2O4 spheres/single walled carbon nanotubes (ZCO/SWCNTs) composites as high performance air electrode materials for Li-O2 batteries. The ZCO catalyzed SWCNTs electrodes delivered high discharge capacities, decreased the onset of oxygen evolution reaction by 0.9 V during charge processes, and led to more stable cycling stability. These results indicate that ZCO/SWCNTs composite can be used as highly efficient air electrode for oxygen reduction and evolution reactions. The highly enhanced catalytic activity by uniformly dispersed ZnCo2O4 catalyst on nanostructured electrodes is expected to inspire

  13. In situ synchrotron X-ray diffraction study of the effect of microstructure and boundary layer conditions on CO2 corrosion of pipeline steels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ko, M.; Ingham, B.; Laycock, N.; Williams, D.E.


    Highlights: • We studied the effects of steel microstructures and local conditions on CO 2 corrosion. • Microstructure influences the development of surface roughness during corrosion. • The effects of Cr alloying, on average, dominate over the effects of microstructure. • Spatial segregation of Cr between the phases in the steel may result in localised corrosion. - Abstract: This study demonstrates that the nucleation of crystalline scales of siderite and chukanovite onto the surface of low-alloy steels under CO 2 corrosion at elevated temperature is critically dependent on initial surface roughness, on microstructure-related surface roughness developed during corrosion, and on stirring in the solution. This study confirms that effects due to chromium micro-alloying in the steel are extremely important for siderite nucleation. On average, these effects dominate over the effects of microstructure. However, spatial variation of the corrosion deposit thickness indicates an interdependence between microstructure and chromium-enhanced siderite nucleation with the possibility of localised corrosion developing as a result

  14. Microbial and Chemical Enhancement of In-Situ Carbon Mineralization in Geological Formation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Matter, J.; Chandran, K.


    Predictions of global energy usage suggest a continued increase in carbon emissions and rising concentrations of CO{sub 2} in the atmosphere unless major changes are made to the way energy is produced and used. Various carbon capture and storage (CCS) technologies are currently being developed, but unfortunately little is known regarding the fundamental characteristics of CO{sub 2}-mineral reactions to allow a viable in-situ carbon mineralization that would provide the most permanent and safe storage of geologically-injected CO{sub 2}. The ultimate goal of this research project was to develop a microbial and chemical enhancement scheme for in-situ carbon mineralization in geologic formations in order to achieve long-term stability of injected CO{sub 2}. Thermodynamic and kinetic studies of CO{sub 2}-mineral-brine systems were systematically performed to develop the in-situ mineral carbonation process that utilizes organic acids produced by a microbial reactor. The major participants in the project are three faculty members and their graduate and undergraduate students at the School of Engineering and Applied Science and at the Lamont-Doherty Earth Observatory at Columbia University: Alissa Park in Earth and Environmental Engineering & Chemical Engineering (PI), Juerg Matter in Earth and Environmental Science (Co-PI), and Kartik Chandran in Earth and Environmental Engineering (Co-PI). Two graduate students, Huangjing Zhao and Edris Taher, were trained as a part of this project as well as a number of graduate students and undergraduate students who participated part-time. Edris Taher received his MS degree in 2012 and Huangjing Zhao will defend his PhD on Jan. 15th, 2014. The interdisciplinary training provided by this project was valuable to those students who are entering into the workforce in the United States. Furthermore, the findings from this study were and will be published in referred journals to disseminate the results. The list of the papers is given at

  15. Análisis de emisiones de CO2 en la producción de forjados planos in situ de hormigón en comportamiento unidireccional

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liébana, O.


    Full Text Available In this work, different one-way slab solutions have been studied for a reference building, with spans from 5 to 10 meters, based on the most frequent uses in building in terms of material quantities, and environmental criteria based on CO2 emissions generated during production. We have been able to evaluate the different systems and how post-tensioning slabs allow for optimization of material resources. The current status of low production of post-tensioning flat slabs is actually related to a combination of reasons such as lack of technical knowledge, developments in currents codes in each country resulting in higher material consumption, or inertia in the workplace with resistance to changing systems which are apparently satisfactory. But above all, it is necessary to introduce sustainability criteria in construction based on reducing CO2 emissions and also on a more responsible consumption of raw materials.Se ha realizado un estudio de soluciones de forjado sobre un edificio de referencia con luces de cinco a diez metros en un esquema unidireccional que recoja usos frecuentes en edificación. Se ha obtenido el consumo de materiales y cuantificado el impacto medioambiental con un criterio basado en emisiones de CO2 generadas en la etapa de producción. Una vez analizados los resultados, se han podido valorar los diferentes sistemas y concluir cómo el pretensado de armadura postesa presenta una gran optimización de recursos. El desconocimiento de las técnicas, los desarrollos de la normativa actual que inciden en mayores gastos materiales o, simplemente, las inercias de trabajo que se resisten al cambio de sistemas conocidos aparentemente satisfactorios, son factores responsables de su mínima implantación. Pero sobre todo, es necesaria la aplicación global de criterios de sostenibilidad basados en reducción de emisiones y gasto energético, así como de un consumo más responsable de materia prima.

  16. First Continuous High Frequency in Situ Measurements of CO2 and CH4 in Rwanda Using Cavity Ring-down Spectroscopy (United States)

    Gasore, J.; DeWitt, L. H.; Prinn, R. G.


    Recent IPCC reports emphasize the lack of ground measurements of greenhouse gases on the African continent, despite Africa's significant emissions from agriculture and biomass burning as well as ongoing land use changes. We have established a greenhouse gas monitoring station in northern Rwanda that will be part of the Advanced Global Atmospheric Gases Experiment (AGAGE), a global network of high frequency long-term remote atmospheric measurement stations. Using a Picarro G2401 cavity ring-down analyzer, continuous measurements of CO2, CH4, and CO at a frequency of five seconds are being captured at this equatorial East African site. The measurement site is located near the Virunga mountains, a volcanic range in North-West Rwanda, on the summit of Mt. Mugogo (2507 m above sea level). Mt. Mugogo is located in a rural area 70km away from Kigali, the capital of Rwanda, and about 13km from the nearest town. From HYSPLIT 7-day back-trajectory calculations, we have determined that the station measures air masses originating from East and Central Africa, the Indian Ocean and occasionally from Southern Asia. Depending on the wind direction and local boundary layer height, measurements taken at Mt Mugogo are occasionally influenced by local sources, including emissions from the nearby city and wood fires from small rural settlements around the station. Here we present the first greenhouse gas measurement data from this unique and understudied location in Africa. Using the lagrangian transport and dispersion model FLEXPART, we derive the relationship between the observed mole fractions of CO2 and CH4 and our current knowledge of their sources and sinks, across this large African footprint.

  17. In-situ growing NiCo2O4 nanoplatelets on carbon cloth as binder-free catalyst air-cathode for high-performance microbial fuel cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cao, Chun; Wei, Liling; Wang, Gang; Shen, Jianquan


    Highlights: • NiCo 2 O 4 nanoplatelets were in-situ growing on carbon cloth as ORR catalyst in biofuel cells. • Binder-free cathode with the lower internal resistance. • Binder-free cathode was low-cost. • NiCo 2 O 4 -CFC shows better power generation performance than Pt/C. - Abstract: Air-cathode microbial fuel cells (MFCs) was one of most promising sustainable new energy device as well as an advanced sewage treatment technology, and thoroughly studies have been devoted to lower its cost and enhance its power generation. Herein, a binder-free and low-cost catalyst air-cathode was fabricated by in-situ electro-deposition of NiCo 2 O 4 nanoplatelets on carbon cloth, followed by feasible calcinations. The catalytic activity of catalyst air-cathode was optimized by varying the deposition time. And the optimal air-cathode was installed in real MFCs and exhibited distinct maximum out-put power density (645 ± 6 mW m −2 ), which was 12.96% higher than commercial Pt/C (571 ± 11 mW m −2 ). Noted that its remarkable electricity generation performance in MFCs should absolutely attributed to the well catalytic activity for oxygen reduction reaction, and more likely ascribed to its low internal resistance since binder-free catalyst air-cathode can facilitate the electron/charge transfer process. Therefore, it was an efficient strategy to improve the electricity generation performance of MFCs by using this binder-free catalyst air-cathode, which was also potential for application in many other electrochemical devices.

  18. Numerical modeling of injection and mineral trapping of CO2 withH2S and SO2 in a Sandstone Formation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xu, Tianfu; Apps, John A.; Pruess, Karsten; Yamamoto, Hajime


    Carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) injection into deep geologic formations could decrease the atmospheric accumulation of this gas from anthropogenic sources. Furthermore, by co-injecting H{sub 2}S or SO{sub 2}, the products respectively of coal gasification or combustion, with captured CO{sub 2}, problems associated with surface disposal would be mitigated. We developed models that simulate the co-injection of H{sub 2}S or SO{sub 2} with CO{sub 2} into an arkose formation at a depth of about 2 km and 75 C. The hydrogeology and mineralogy of the injected formation are typical of those encountered in Gulf Coast aquifers of the United States. Six numerical simulations of a simplified 1-D radial region surrounding the injection well were performed. The injection of CO{sub 2} alone or co-injection with SO{sub 2} or H{sub 2}S results in a concentrically zoned distribution of secondary minerals surrounding a leached and acidified region adjacent to the injection well. Co-injection of SO{sub 2} with CO{sub 2} results in a larger and more strongly acidified zone, and alteration differs substantially from that caused by the co-injection of H{sub 2}S or injection of CO{sub 2} alone. Precipitation of carbonates occurs within a higher pH (pH > 5) peripheral zone. Significant quantities of CO{sub 2} are sequestered by ankerite, dawsonite, and lesser siderite. The CO{sub 2} mineral-trapping capacity of the formation can attain 40-50 kg/m{sup 3} medium for the selected arkose. In contrast, secondary sulfates precipitate at lower pH (pH < 5) within the acidified zone. Most of the injected SO{sub 2} is transformed and immobilized through alunite precipitation with lesser amounts of anhydrite and minor quantities of pyrite. The dissolved CO{sub 2} increases with time (enhanced solubility trapping). The mineral alteration induced by injection of CO{sub 2} with either SO{sub 2} or H{sub 2}S leads to corresponding changes in porosity. Significant increases in porosity occur in the acidified

  19. In situ XAS study of the Mn(III)(salen)Br catalyzed synthesis of cyclic organic carbonates from epoxides and CO2

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jutz, Fabian; Grunwaldt, Jan-Dierk; Baiker, Alfons


    In situ X-ray absorption spectroscopy at the Mn K- and Br K-edge was employed to study the cycloaddition of carbon dioxide to propylene oxide and styrene oxide, catalyzed by Mn(III) salen bromide complexes. Three homogeneous complexes with varying salen ligand structure and one complex immobilized...... coordination of the bromine neighbors to the Mn central atom was also evidenced by EXAFS spectra, e.g. loss of Br backscattering in the Mn K-EXAFS spectra and the Mn-backscattering in the Br K-edge spectra. In the catalytic studies it was observed that propylene oxide usually reacted much faster than styrene...


    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    M.J. McKelvy; J. Diefenbacher; R. Nunez; R.W. Carpenter; A.V.G. Chizmeshya


    Coal can support a large fraction of global energy demands for centuries to come, if the environmental problems associated with CO{sub 2} emissions can be overcome. Unlike other candidate technologies, which propose long-term storage (e.g., ocean and geological sequestration), mineral sequestration permanently disposes of CO{sub 2} as geologically stable mineral carbonates. Only benign, naturally occurring materials are formed, eliminating long-term storage and liability issues. Serpentine carbonation is a leading mineral sequestration process candidate, which offers large scale, permanent sequestration. Deposits exceed those needed to carbonate all the CO{sub 2} that could be generated from global coal reserves, and mining and milling costs are reasonable ({approx}$4 to $5/ton). Carbonation is exothermic, providing exciting low-cost process potential. The remaining goal is to develop an economically viable process. An essential step in this development is increasing the carbonation reaction rate and degree of completion, without substantially impacting other process costs. Recently, the Albany Research Center (ARC) has accelerated serpentine carbonation, which occurs naturally over geological time, to near completion in less than an hour. While reaction rates for natural serpentine have been found to be too slow for practical application, both heat and mechanical (attrition grinding) pretreatment were found to substantially enhance carbonation reactivity. Unfortunately, these processes are too energy intensive to be cost-effective in their present form. In this project we explored the potential that utilizing power plant waste heat (e.g., available up to {approx}200-250 C) during mechanical activation (i.e., thermomechanical activation) offers to enhance serpentine mineral carbonation, while reducing pretreatment energy consumption and process cost. This project was carried out in collaboration with the Albany Research Center (ARC) to maximize the insight into the

  1. Evaluation of process performance, energy consumption and microbiota characterization in a ceramic membrane bioreactor for ex-situ biomethanation of H2 and CO2. (United States)

    Alfaro, Natalia; Fdz-Polanco, María; Fdz-Polanco, Fernando; Díaz, Israel


    The performance of a pilot ceramic membrane bioreactor for the bioconversion of H 2 and CO 2 to bioCH 4 was evaluated in thermophilic conditions. The loading rate was between 10 and 30 m 3  H 2 /m 3 reactor  d and the system transformed 95% of H 2 fed. The highest methane yield found was 0.22 m 3  CH 4 /m 3  H 2 , close to the maximum stoichiometric value (0.25 m 3  CH 4 /m 3  H 2 ) thus indicating that archaeas employed almost all H 2 transferred to produce CH 4 . k L a value of 268 h -1 was reached at 30 m 3  H 2 /m 3 reactor  d. DGGE and FISH revealed a remarkable archaeas increase related to the selection-effect of H 2 on community composition over time. Methanothermobacter thermautotrophicus was the archaea found with high level of similarity. This study verified the successful application of membrane technology to efficiently transfer H 2 from gas to the liquid phase, the development of a hydrogenotrophic community from a conventional thermophilic sludge and the technical feasibility of the bioconversion. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. CO2NNIE

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krogh, Benjamin Bjerre; Andersen, Ove; Lewis-Kelham, Edwin


    We propose a system for calculating the personalized annual fuel consumption and CO2 emissions from transportation. The system, named CO2NNIE, estimates the fuel consumption on the fastest route between the frequent destinations of the user. The travel time and fuel consumption estimated are based......% of the actual fuel consumption (4.6% deviation on average). We conclude, that the system provides new detailed information on CO2 emissions and fuel consumption for any make and model....

  3. CO2-laser fusion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stark, E.E. Jr.


    The basic concept of laser fusion is described, with a set of requirements on the laser system. Systems and applications concepts are presented and discussed. The CO 2 laser's characteristics and advantages for laser fusion are described. Finally, technological issues in the development of CO 2 laser systems for fusion applications are discussed

  4. The radiation stability of the RNA base uracil in H2O-ice and CO2-ice: in-situ laboratory measurements with applications to comets, Europa, and Mars (United States)

    Gerakines, Perry A.; Frail, Sarah; Hudson, Reggie L.


    Planetary bodies of astrobiological interest, such as Mars, are often exposed to harsh incident radiation, which will influence the times that molecules can survive on them. Some or all of these bodies may well contain biologically-important organic molecules, some may even have supported life at some point in their history, and some may support life today. Future searches for organic molecules likely will include sampling the martian subsurface or a cometary surface sample return mission, where organics may be frozen in ices dominated by either H2O or CO2, which provide some protection from ionizing radiation.Recently, our research group has published studies of the radiation stability of amino acids, with a focus on glycine - in both undiluted form and in mixtures with H2O and CO2. Here, we present a similar study that focuses on the radiation-chemical kinetics of the RNA base uracil. We compare results for uracil decay for dilution in both H2O and CO2 ices. Moreover, we compare these new results with those for glycine. For each sample, we measured uracil’s destruction rate constant and half-life dose due to irradiation by 0.9-MeV protons. All measurements were made in situ at the temperature of irradiation using IR spectroscopy. Trends with dilution (up to ~300:1) and temperature (up to ~150 K) are considered, and results are discussed in the context of icy planetary surfaces.Acknowledgment: Our work is supported in part by the NASA Emerging Worlds Program and by the NASA Astrobiology Institute through the Goddard Center for Astrobiology.

  5. Evaluation of the CO2 sequestration capacity for coal fly ash using a flow-through column reactor under ambient conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jo, Ho Young; Ahn, Joon-Hoon; Jo, Hwanju


    Highlights: ► A conceptual in-situ mineral carbonation method using a coal ash pond is proposed. ► CO 2 uptake occurred by carbonation reaction of CO 2 with Ca 2+ ions from coal fly ash. ► The CO 2 sequestration capacity was affected by the solid dosage. ► Seawater can be used as a solvent for mineral carbonation of coal fly ash. - Abstract: An in-situ CO 2 sequestration method using coal ash ponds located in coastal regions is proposed. The CO 2 sequestration capacity of coal fly ash (CFA) by mineral carbonation was evaluated in a flow-through column reactor under various conditions (solid dosage: 100–330 g/L, CO 2 flow rate: 20–80 mL/min, solvent type: deionized (DI) water, 1 M NH 4 Cl solution, and seawater). The CO 2 sequestration tests were conducted on CFA slurries using flow-through column reactors to simulate more realistic flow-through conditions. The CO 2 sequestration capacity increased when the solid dosage was increased, whereas it was affected insignificantly by the CO 2 flow rate. A 1 M NH 4 Cl solution was the most effective solvent, but it was not significantly different from DI water or seawater. The CO 2 sequestration capacity of CFA under the flow-through conditions was approximately 0.019 g CO 2 /g CFA under the test conditions (solid dosage: 333 g/L, CO 2 flow rate: 40 mL/min, and solvent: seawater).

  6. Sustained effects of atmospheric [CO2] and nitrogen availability on forest soil CO2 efflux (United States)

    A. Christopher Oishi; Sari Palmroth; Kurt H. Johnsen; Heather R. McCarthy; Ram. Oren


    Soil CO2 efflux (Fsoil) is the largest source of carbon from forests and reflects primary productivity as well as how carbon is allocated within forest ecosystems. Through early stages of stand development, both elevated [CO2] and availability of soil nitrogen (N; sum of mineralization, deposition, and fixation) have been shown to increase gross primary productivity,...

  7. Carbonate mineral solubility at low temperatures in the Na-K-Mg-Ca-H-Cl-SO 4-OH-HCO 3-CO 3-CO 2-H 2O system (United States)

    Marion, Giles M.


    Carbonate minerals have played an important role in the geochemical evolution of Earth, and may have also played an important role in the geochemical evolution of Mars and Europa. Several models have been published in recent years that describe chloride and sulfate mineral solubilities in concentrated brines using the Pitzer equations. Few of these models are parameterized for subzero temperatures, and those that are do not include carbonate chemistry. The objectives of this work are to estimate Pitzer-equation bicarbonate-carbonate parameters and carbonate mineral solubility products and to incorporate them into the FREZCHEM model to predict carbonate mineral solubilities in the Na-K-Mg-Ca-H-Cl-SO 4-OH-HCO 3-CO 3-CO 2-H 2O system at low temperatures (≤25°C) with a special focus on subzero temperatures. Most of the Pitzer-equation parameters and equilibrium constants are taken from the literature and extrapolated into the subzero temperature range. Solubility products for 14 sodium, potassium, magnesium, and calcium bicarbonate and carbonate minerals are included in the model. Most of the experimental data are at temperatures ≥ -8°C; only for the NaHCO 3-NaCl-H 2O and Na 2CO 3-NaCl-H 2O systems are there bicarbonate and carbonate data to temperatures as low as -21.6°C. In general, the fit of the model to the experimental data is good. For example, calculated eutectic temperatures and compositions for NaHCO 3, Na 2CO 3, and their mixtures with NaCl and Na 2SO 4 salts are in good agreement with experimental data to temperatures as low as -21.6°C. Application of the model to eight saline, alkaline carbonate waters give predicted pHs ranging from 9.2 to 10.2, in comparison with measured pHs that range from 8.7 to 10.2. The model suggests that the CaCO 3 mineral that precipitates during seawater freezing is probably calcite and not ikaite. The model demonstrates that a proposed salt assemblage for the icy surface of Europa consisting of highly hydrated MgSO 4

  8. Supercritical CO2 uptake by nonswelling phyllosilicates. (United States)

    Wan, Jiamin; Tokunaga, Tetsu K; Ashby, Paul D; Kim, Yongman; Voltolini, Marco; Gilbert, Benjamin; DePaolo, Donald J


    Interactions between supercritical (sc) CO 2 and minerals are important when CO 2 is injected into geologic formations for storage and as working fluids for enhanced oil recovery, hydraulic fracturing, and geothermal energy extraction. It has previously been shown that at the elevated pressures and temperatures of the deep subsurface, scCO 2 alters smectites (typical swelling phyllosilicates). However, less is known about the effects of scCO 2 on nonswelling phyllosilicates (illite and muscovite), despite the fact that the latter are the dominant clay minerals in deep subsurface shales and mudstones. Our studies conducted by using single crystals, combining reaction (incubation with scCO 2 ), visualization [atomic force microscopy (AFM)], and quantifications (AFM, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction, and off-gassing measurements) revealed unexpectedly high CO 2 uptake that far exceeded its macroscopic surface area. Results from different methods collectively suggest that CO 2 partially entered the muscovite interlayers, although the pathways remain to be determined. We hypothesize that preferential dissolution at weaker surface defects and frayed edges allows CO 2 to enter the interlayers under elevated pressure and temperature, rather than by diffusing solely from edges deeply into interlayers. This unexpected uptake of CO 2 , can increase CO 2 storage capacity by up to ∼30% relative to the capacity associated with residual trapping in a 0.2-porosity sandstone reservoir containing up to 18 mass % of illite/muscovite. This excess CO 2 uptake constitutes a previously unrecognized potential trapping mechanism. Copyright © 2018 the Author(s). Published by PNAS.

  9. Outsourcing CO2 Emissions (United States)

    Davis, S. J.; Caldeira, K. G.


    CO2 emissions from the burning of fossil fuels are the primary cause of global warming. Much attention has been focused on the CO2 directly emitted by each country, but relatively little attention has been paid to the amount of emissions associated with consumption of goods and services in each country. This consumption-based emissions inventory differs from the production-based inventory because of imports and exports of goods and services that, either directly or indirectly, involved CO2 emissions. Using the latest available data and reasonable assumptions regarding trans-shipment of embodied carbon through third-party countries, we developed a global consumption-based CO2 emissions inventory and have calculated associated consumption-based energy and carbon intensities. We find that, in 2004, 24% of CO2 emissions are effectively outsourced to other countries, with much of the developed world outsourcing CO2 emissions to emerging markets, principally China. Some wealthy countries, including Switzerland and Sweden, outsource over half of their consumption-based emissions, with many northern Europeans outsourcing more than three tons of emissions per person per year. The United States is both a big importer and exporter of emissions embodied in trade, outsourcing >2.6 tons of CO2 per person and at the same time as >2.0 tons of CO2 per person are outsourced to the United States. These large flows indicate that CO2 emissions embodied in trade must be taken into consideration when considering responsibility for increasing atmospheric greenhouse gas concentrations.

  10. Minerals (United States)

    Minerals are important for your body to stay healthy. Your body uses minerals for many different jobs, including keeping your bones, muscles, heart, and brain working properly. Minerals are also important for making enzymes and hormones. ...

  11. Field demonstration of CO2 leakage detection in potable aquifers with a pulselike CO2-release test. (United States)

    Yang, Changbing; Hovorka, Susan D; Delgado-Alonso, Jesus; Mickler, Patrick J; Treviño, Ramón H; Phillips, Straun


    This study presents two field pulselike CO2-release tests to demonstrate CO2 leakage detection in a shallow aquifer by monitoring groundwater pH, alkalinity, and dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC) using the periodic groundwater sampling method and a fiber-optic CO2 sensor for real-time in situ monitoring of dissolved CO2 in groundwater. Measurements of groundwater pH, alkalinity, DIC, and dissolved CO2 clearly deviated from their background values, showing responses to CO2 leakage. Dissolved CO2 observed in the tests was highly sensitive in comparison to groundwater pH, DIC, and alkalinity. Comparison of the pulselike CO2-release tests to other field tests suggests that pulselike CO2-release tests can provide reliable assessment of geochemical parameters indicative of CO2 leakage. Measurements by the fiber-optic CO2 sensor, showing obvious leakage signals, demonstrated the potential of real-time in situ monitoring of dissolved CO2 for leakage detection at a geologic carbon sequestration (GCS) site. Results of a two-dimensional reactive transport model reproduced the geochemical measurements and confirmed that the decrease in groundwater pH and the increases in DIC and dissolved CO2 observed in the pulselike CO2-release tests were caused by dissolution of CO2 whereas alkalinity was likely affected by carbonate dissolution.

  12. Dolomite decomposition under CO2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guerfa, F.; Bensouici, F.; Barama, S.E.; Harabi, A.; Achour, S.


    Full text.Dolomite (MgCa (CO 3 ) 2 is one of the most abundant mineral species on the surface of the planet, it occurs in sedimentary rocks. MgO, CaO and Doloma (Phase mixture of MgO and CaO, obtained from the mineral dolomite) based materials are attractive steel-making refractories because of their potential cost effectiveness and world wide abundance more recently, MgO is also used as protective layers in plasma screen manufacture ceel. The crystal structure of dolomite was determined as rhombohedral carbonates, they are layers of Mg +2 and layers of Ca +2 ions. It dissociates depending on the temperature variations according to the following reactions: MgCa (CO 3 ) 2 → MgO + CaO + 2CO 2 .....MgCa (CO 3 ) 2 → MgO + Ca + CaCO 3 + CO 2 .....This latter reaction may be considered as a first step for MgO production. Differential thermal analysis (DTA) are used to control dolomite decomposition and the X-Ray Diffraction (XRD) was used to elucidate thermal decomposition of dolomite according to the reaction. That required samples were heated to specific temperature and holding times. The average particle size of used dolomite powders is 0.3 mm, as where, the heating temperature was 700 degree celsius, using various holding times (90 and 120 minutes). Under CO 2 dolomite decomposed directly to CaCO 3 accompanied by the formation of MgO, no evidence was offered for the MgO formation of either CaO or MgCO 3 , under air, simultaneous formation of CaCO 3 , CaO and accompanied dolomite decomposition

  13. CO2 chemical valorization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kerlero De Rosbo, Guillaume; Rakotojaona, Loic; Bucy, Jacques de; Clodic, Denis; Roger, Anne-Cecile; El Khamlichi, Aicha; Thybaud, Nathalie; Oeser, Christian; Forti, Laurent; Gimenez, Michel; Savary, David; Amouroux, Jacques


    Facing global warming, different technological solutions exist to tackle carbon dioxide (CO 2 ) emissions. Some inevitable short term emissions can be captured so as to avoid direct emissions into the atmosphere. This CO 2 must then be managed and geological storage seems to currently be the only way of dealing with the large volumes involved. However, this solution faces major economic profitability and societal acceptance challenges. In this context, alternative pathways consisting in using CO 2 instead of storing it do exist and are generating growing interest. This study ordered by the French Environment and Energy Management Agency (ADEME), aims at taking stock of the different technologies used for the chemical conversion of CO 2 in order to have a better understanding of their development potential by 2030, of the conditions in which they could be competitive and of the main actions to be implemented in France to foster their emergence. To do this, the study was broken down into two main areas of focus: The review and characterization of the main CO 2 chemical conversion routes for the synthesis of basic chemical products, energy products and inert materials. This review includes a presentation of the main principles underpinning the studied routes, a preliminary assessment of their performances, advantages and drawbacks, a list of the main R and D projects underway, a focus on emblematic projects as well as a brief analysis of the markets for the main products produced. Based on these elements, 3 routes were selected from among the most promising by 2030 for an in-depth modelling and assessment of their energy, environmental and economic performances. The study shows that the processes modelled do have favorable CO 2 balances (from 1 to 4 t-CO 2 /t-product) and effectively constitute solutions to reduce CO 2 emissions, despite limited volumes of CO 2 in question. Moreover, the profitability of certain solutions will remain difficult to reach, even with an

  14. CO2 cycle (United States)

    Titus, Timothy N.; Byrne, Shane; Colaprete, Anthony; Forget, Francois; Michaels, Timothy I.; Prettyman, Thomas H.


    This chapter discusses the use of models, observations, and laboratory experiments to understand the cycling of CO2 between the atmosphere and seasonal Martian polar caps. This cycle is primarily controlled by the polar heat budget, and thus the emphasis here is on its components, including solar and infrared radiation, the effect of clouds (water- and CO2-ice), atmospheric transport, and subsurface heat conduction. There is a discussion about cap properties including growth and regression rates, albedos and emissivities, grain sizes and dust and/or water-ice contamination, and curious features like cold gas jets and araneiform (spider-shaped) terrain. The nature of the residual south polar cap is discussed as well as its long-term stability and ability to buffer atmospheric pressures. There is also a discussion of the consequences of the CO2 cycle as revealed by the non-condensable gas enrichment observed by Odyssey and modeled by various groups.

  15. Investigation of Wyoming Bentonite Hydration in Dry to Water-Saturated Supercritical CO2: Implications for Caprock Integrity (United States)

    Loring, J. S.; Chen, J.; Thompson, C.; Schaef, T.; Miller, Q. R.; Martin, P. F.; Ilton, E. S.; Qafoku, O.; Felmy, A. R.; Rosso, K. M.


    The effectiveness of geologic sequestration as an enterprise for CO2 storage depends partly on the reactivity of supercritical CO2 (scCO2) with caprock minerals. Injection of scCO2 will displace formation water, and the pore space adjacent to overlying caprocks could eventually be dominated by dry to water-saturated scCO2. Caprock formations have high concentrations of clay minerals, including expandable montmorillonites. Water-bearing scCO2 is highly reactive and capable of hydrating or dehydrating clays, possibly leading to porosity and permeability changes that directly impact caprock performance. Dehydration will cause montmorillonite clay minerals in caprocks to contract, thereby decreasing solid volume and possibly increasing caprock permeability and porosity. On the other hand, water intercalation will cause these clays to expand, thereby increasing solid volume and possibly leading to self-sealing of caprock fractures. Pacific Northwest National Laboratory's Carbon Sequestration Initiative is developing capabilities for studying wet scCO2-mineral reactions in situ. Here, we introduce novel in situ infrared (IR) spectroscopic instrumentation that enables quantitative titrations of reactant minerals with water in scCO2. Results are presented for the infrared spectroscopic titrations of Na-, Ca-, and Mg-saturated Wyoming betonites with water over concentrations ranging from zero to scCO2 saturated. These experiments were carried out at 50°C and 90 bar. Transmission IR spectroscopy was used to measure concentrations of water dissolved in the scCO2 or intercalated into the clays. The titration curves evaluated from the transmission-IR data are compared between the three types of clays to assess the effects of the cation on water partitioning. Single-reflection attenuated total reflection (ATR) IR spectroscopy was used to collect the spectrum of the clays as they hydrate at every total water concentration during the titration. Clay hydration is evidenced by

  16. Simulation of CO2–water–rock interactions on geologic CO2 sequestration under geological conditions of China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Tianye; Wang, Huaiyuan; Zhang, Fengjun; Xu, Tianfu


    Highlights: • We determined the feasibilities of geologic CO 2 sequestration in China. • We determined the formation of gibbsite suggested CO 2 can be captured by rocks. • We suggested the mechanisms of CO 2 –water–rock interactions. • We found the corrosion and dissolution of the rock increased as temperature rose. -- Abstract: The main purpose of this study focused on the feasibility of geologic CO 2 sequestration within the actual geological conditions of the first Carbon Capture and Storage (CCS) project in China. This study investigated CO 2 –water–rock interactions under simulated hydrothermal conditions via physicochemical analyses and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Mass loss measurement and SEM showed that corrosion of feldspars, silica, and clay minerals increased with increasing temperature. Corrosion of sandstone samples in the CO 2 -containing fluid showed a positive correlation with temperature. During reaction at 70 °C, 85 °C, and 100 °C, gibbsite (an intermediate mineral product) formed on the sample surface. This demonstrated mineral capture of CO 2 and supported the feasibility of geologic CO 2 sequestration. Chemical analyses suggested a dissolution–reprecipitation mechanism underlying the CO 2 –water–rock interactions. The results of this study suggested that mineral dissolution, new mineral precipitation, and carbonic acid formation-dissociation are closely interrelated in CO 2 –water–rock interactions

  17. CO2 Acquisition Membrane (CAM) (United States)

    Mason, Larry W.; Way, J. Douglas; Vlasse, Marcus


    The objective of CAM is to develop, test, and analyze thin film membrane materials for separation and purification of carbon dioxide (CO2) from mixtures of gases, such as those found in the Martian atmosphere. The membranes are targeted toward In Situ Resource Utilization (ISRU) applications that will operate in extraterrestrial environments and support future unmanned and human space missions. A primary application is the Sabatier Electrolysis process that uses Mars atmosphere CO2 as raw material for producing water, oxygen, and methane for rocket fuel and habitat support. Other applications include use as an inlet filter to collect and concentrate Mars atmospheric argon and nitrogen gases for habitat pressurization, and to remove CO2 from breathing gases in Closed Environment Life Support Systems (CELSS). CAM membrane materials include crystalline faujasite (FAU) zeolite and rubbery polymers such as silicone rubber (PDMS) that have been shown in the literature and via molecular simulation to favor adsorption and permeation of CO2 over nitrogen and argon. Pure gas permeation tests using commercial PDMS membranes have shown that both CO2 permeance and the separation factor relative to other gases increase as the temperature decreases, and low (Delta)P(Sub CO2) favors higher separation factors. The ideal CO2/N2 separation factor increases from 7.5 to 17.5 as temperature decreases from 22 C to -30 C. For gas mixtures containing CO2, N2, and Ar, plasticization decreased the separation factors from 4.5 to 6 over the same temperature range. We currently synthesize and test our own Na(+) FAU zeolite membranes using standard formulations and secondary growth methods on porous alumina. Preliminary tests with a Na(+) FAU membrane at 22 C show a He/SF6 ideal separation factor of 62, exceeding the Knudsen diffusion selectivity by an order of magnitude. This shows that the membrane is relatively free from large defects and associated non-selective (viscous flow) transport

  18. CO2-strategier

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Michael Søgaard


    I 2007 henvendte Lyngby-Taarbæk kommunens Agenda 21 koordinator sig til Videnskabsbutikken og spurgte om der var interesse for at samarbejde om CO2-strategier. Da Videnskabsbutikken DTU er en åben dør til DTU for borgerne og deres organisationer, foreslog Videnskabsbutikken DTU at Danmarks...

  19. CO2-neutral fuels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Goede A. P. H.


    Full Text Available The need for storage of renewable energy (RE generated by photovoltaic, concentrated solar and wind arises from the fact that supply and demand are ill-matched both geographically and temporarily. This already causes problems of overcapacity and grid congestion in countries where the fraction of RE exceeds the 20% level. A system approach is needed, which focusses not only on the energy source, but includes conversion, storage, transport, distribution, use and, last but not least, the recycling of waste. Furthermore, there is a need for more flexibility in the energy system, rather than relying on electrification, integration with other energy systems, for example the gas network, would yield a system less vulnerable to failure and better adapted to requirements. For example, long-term large-scale storage of electrical energy is limited by capacity, yet needed to cover weekly to seasonal demand. This limitation can be overcome by coupling the electricity net to the gas system, considering the fact that the Dutch gas network alone has a storage capacity of 552 TWh, sufficient to cover the entire EU energy demand for over a month. This lecture explores energy storage in chemicals bonds. The focus is on chemicals other than hydrogen, taking advantage of the higher volumetric energy density of hydrocarbons, in this case methane, which has an approximate 3.5 times higher volumetric energy density. More importantly, it allows the ready use of existing gas infrastructure for energy storage, transport and distribution. Intermittent wind electricity generated is converted into synthetic methane, the Power to Gas (P2G scheme, by splitting feedstock CO2 and H2O into synthesis gas, a mixture of CO and H2. Syngas plays a central role in the synthesis of a range of hydrocarbon products, including methane, diesel and dimethyl ether. The splitting is accomplished by innovative means; plasmolysis and high-temperature solid oxygen electrolysis. A CO2-neutral fuel

  20. Atmospheric Measurements by Ultra-Light SpEctrometer (AMULSE Dedicated to Vertical Profile in Situ Measurements of Carbon Dioxide (CO2 Under Weather Balloons: Instrumental Development and Field Application

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lilian Joly


    Full Text Available The concentration of greenhouse gases in the atmosphere plays an important role in the radiative effects in the Earth’s climate system. Therefore, it is crucial to increase the number of atmospheric observations in order to quantify the natural sinks and emission sources. We report in this paper the development of a new compact lightweight spectrometer (1.8 kg called AMULSE based on near infrared laser technology at 2.04 µm coupled to a 6-m open-path multipass cell. The measurements were made using the Wavelength Modulation Spectroscopy (WMS technique and the spectrometer is hence dedicated to in situ measuring the vertical profiles of the CO2 at high precision levels (σAllan = 0.96 ppm in 1 s integration time (1σ and with high temporal/spatial resolution (1 Hz/5 m using meteorological balloons. The instrument is compact, robust, cost-effective, fully autonomous, has low-power consumption, a non-intrusive probe and is plug & play. It was first calibrated and validated in the laboratory and then used for 17 successful flights up to 10 km altitude in the region Champagne—Ardenne, France in 2014. A rate of 100% of instrument recovery was validated due to the pre-localization prediction of the Météo—France based on the flight simulation software.

  1. Revealing fate of CO2 leakage pathways in the Little Grand Wash Fault, Green River, Utah (United States)

    Han, K.; Han, W. S.; Watson, Z. T.; Guyant, E.; Park, E.


    To assure long-term security of geologic carbon sequestration site, evaluation of natural CO2 leakage should be preceded before actual construction of the CO2 facility by comparing natural and artificial reservoir systems. The Little Grand Wash fault is located at the northwestern margin of the Paradox Basin and roles on a bypass of deep subsurface CO2 and brine water onto the surface, e.g., cold water geyser, CO2 spring, and surface travertine deposits. CO2 degassed out from brine at the Little Grand Wash fault zone may react with formation water and minerals while migrating through the fault conduit. Leakage observed by soil CO2 flux on the fault trace shows this ongoing transition of CO2, from supersaturated condition in deep subsurface to shallow surface equilibria. The present study aims to investigate the reactions induced by changes in hydrological and mineralogical factors inside of the fault zone. The methodology to develop site-specific geochemical model of the Little Grand Wash Fault combines calculated mechanical movements of each fluid end-member, along with chemical reactions among fluid, free CO2 gas and rock formations. Reactive transport modeling was conducted to simulate these property changes inside of the fault zone, using chemistry dataset based on 86 effluent samples of CO2 geysers, springs and in situ formation water from Entrada, Carmel, and Navajo Sandstone. Meanwhile, one- and two-dimensional models were separately developed to delineate features mentioned above. The results from the 3000-year simulation showed an appearance of self-sealing processes near the surface of the fault conduit. By tracking physicochemical changes at the depth of 15 m on the 2-dimensional model, significant changes induced by fluid mixing were indicated. Calculated rates of precipitation for calcite, illite, and pyrite showed increase in 2.6 x 10-4, 2.25 x 10-5, and 3.0 x 10-6 in mineral volume fraction at the depth of 15m, respectively. Concurrently

  2. CO2 flowrate calculator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carossi, Jean-Claude


    A CO 2 flowrate calculator has been designed for measuring and recording the gas flow in the loops of Pegase reactor. The analog calculator applies, at every moment, Bernoulli's formula to the values that characterize the carbon dioxide flow through a nozzle. The calculator electronics is described (it includes a sampling calculator and a two-variable function generator), with its amplifiers, triggers, interpolator, multiplier, etc. Calculator operation and setting are presented

  3. The Li–CO2 battery: a novel method for CO2 capture and utilization

    KAUST Repository

    Xu, Shaomao


    We report a novel primary Li-CO2 battery that consumes pure CO2 gas as its cathode. The battery exhibits a high discharge capacity of around 2500 mA h g-1 at moderate temperatures. At 100 °C the discharge capacity is close to 1000% higher than that at 40 °C, and the temperature dependence is significantly weaker for higher surface area carbon cathodes. Ex-situ FTIR and XRD analyses convincingly show that lithium carbonate (Li2CO3) is the main component of the discharge product. The feasibility of similar primary metal-CO2 batteries based on earth abundant metal anodes, such as Al and Mg, is demonstrated. The metal-CO2 battery platform provides a novel approach for simultaneous capturing of CO2 emissions and producing electrical energy. © 2013 The Royal Society of Chemistry.

  4. Towards Molecular Characterization of Mineral-Organic Matter Interface Using In Situ Liquid Secondary Ion Mass Spectrometry (United States)

    Zhu, Z.; Yu, X. Y.


    Organo-Mineral-Microbe interactions in terrestrial ecosystems are of great interest. Quite a few models have been developed through extensive efforts in this field. However, predictions from current models are far from being accurate, and many debates still exist. One of the major reasons is that most experimental data generated from bulk analysis, and the information of molecular dynamics occurring at mineral-organic matter interface is rare. Such information has been difficult to obtain, due to lack of suitable in situ analysis tools. Recently, we have developed in situ liquid secondary ion mass spectrometry (SIMS) at Pacific Northwest National Laboratory1, and it has shown promise to provide both elemental and molecular information at vacuum-liquid and solid-liquid interfaces.2 In this presentation, we demonstrate that in situ liquid SIMS can provide critical molecular information at solid substrate-live biofilm interface.3 Shewanella oneidensis is used as a model micro-organism and silicon nitride as a model mineral surface. Of particular interest, biologically relevant water clusters have been first observed in the living biofilms. Characteristic fragments of biofilm matrix components such as proteins, polysaccharides, and lipids can be molecularly examined. Furthermore, characteristic fatty acids (e.g., palmitic acid), quinolone signal, and riboflavin fragments were found to respond after the biofilm is treated with Cr(VI), leading to biofilm dispersal. Significant changes in water clusters and quorum sensing signals indicative of intercellular communication in the aqueous environment were observed, suggesting that they might result in fatty acid synthesis and inhibition of riboflavin production. The Cr(VI) reduction seems to follow the Mtr pathway leading to Cr(III) formation. Our approach potentially opens a new avenue for in-situ understanding of mineral-organo or mineral-microbe interfaces using in situ liquid SIMS and super resolution fluorescence

  5. Implications for carbon processing beneath the Greenland Ice Sheet from dissolved CO2 and CH4 concentrations of subglacial discharge (United States)

    Pain, A.; Martin, J.; Martin, E. E.


    Subglacial carbon processes are of increasing interest as warming induces ice melting and increases fluxes of glacial meltwater into proglacial rivers and the coastal ocean. Meltwater may serve as an atmospheric source or sink of carbon dioxide (CO2) or methane (CH4), depending on the magnitudes of subglacial organic carbon (OC) remineralization, which produces CO2 and CH4, and mineral weathering reactions, which consume CO2 but not CH4. We report wide variability in dissolved CO2 and CH4 concentrations at the beginning of the melt season (May-June 2017) between three sites draining land-terminating glaciers of the Greenland Ice Sheet. Two sites, located along the Watson River in western Greenland, drain the Isunnguata and Russell Glaciers and contained 1060 and 400 ppm CO2, respectively. In-situ CO2 flux measurements indicated that the Isunnguata was a source of atmospheric CO2, while the Russell was a sink. Both sites had elevated CH4 concentrations, at 325 and 25 ppm CH4, respectively, suggesting active anaerobic OC remineralization beneath the ice sheet. Dissolved CO2 and CH4 reached atmospheric equilibrium within 2.6 and 8.6 km downstream of Isunnguata and Russell discharge sites, respectively. These changes reflect rapid gas exchange with the atmosphere and/or CO2 consumption via instream mineral weathering. The third site, draining the Kiagtut Sermiat in southern Greenland, had about half atmospheric CO2 concentrations (250 ppm), but approximately atmospheric CH4 concentrations (2.1 ppm). Downstream CO2 flux measurements indicated ingassing of CO2 over the entire 10-km length of the proglacial river. CO2 undersaturation may be due to more readily weathered lithologies underlying the Kiagtut Sermiat compared to Watson River sites, but low CH4 concentrations also suggest limited contributions of CO2 and CH4 from OC remineralization. These results suggest that carbon processing beneath the Greenland Ice Sheet may be more variable than previously recognized

  6. CO2-Water-Rock Wettability: Variability, Influencing Factors, and Implications for CO2 Geostorage. (United States)

    Iglauer, Stefan


    Carbon geosequestration (CGS) has been identified as a key technology to reduce anthropogenic greenhouse gas emissions and thus significantly mitigate climate change. In CGS, CO 2 is captured from large point-source emitters (e.g., coal fired power stations), purified, and injected deep underground into geological formations for disposal. However, the CO 2 has a lower density than the resident formation brine and thus migrates upward due to buoyancy forces. To prevent the CO 2 from leaking back to the surface, four trapping mechanisms are used: (1) structural trapping (where a tight caprock acts as a seal barrier through which the CO 2 cannot percolate), (2) residual trapping (where the CO 2 plume is split into many micrometer-sized bubbles, which are immobilized by capillary forces in the pore network of the rock), (3) dissolution trapping (where CO 2 dissolves in the formation brine and sinks deep into the reservoir due to a slight increase in brine density), and (4) mineral trapping (where the CO 2 introduced into the subsurface chemically reacts with the formation brine or reservoir rock or both to form solid precipitates). The efficiency of these trapping mechanisms and the movement of CO 2 through the rock are strongly influenced by the CO 2 -brine-rock wettability (mainly due to the small capillary-like pores in the rock which form a complex network), and it is thus of key importance to rigorously understand CO 2 -wettability. In this context, a substantial number of experiments have been conducted from which several conclusions can be drawn: of prime importance is the rock surface chemistry, and hydrophilic surfaces are water-wet while hydrophobic surfaces are CO 2 -wet. Note that CO 2 -wet surfaces dramatically reduce CO 2 storage capacities. Furthermore, increasing pressure, salinity, or dissolved ion valency increases CO 2 -wettability, while the effect of temperature is not well understood. Indeed theoretical understanding of CO 2 -wettability and the

  7. In situ x-ray fluorescence and californium-252 neutron activation analysis for marine and terrestrial mineral exploration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wogman, N.A.


    Instrumentation has been designed for in situ analysis of marine and terrestrial minerals using the techniques of x-ray fluorescence and neutron activation analysis. The energy-dispersive x-ray fluorescence analyzer allows more than 20 elements to be quantitatively measured at the 10 ppM level in water depths to 300 m. The analyzer consists of a solid cryogen-cooled Si(Li) detector, a 50 mCi 109 Cd or 57 Co excitation source, and an analyzer-computer system for data storage and manipulation. The neutron activation analysis, which is designed to measure up to 30 elements at parts per hundred to ppM levels, utilizes the man-made element 252 Cf as its neutron activation source. The resulting radioelements which emit characteristic gamma radiation are then analyzed in situ during 2- to 200-s counting intervals with Ge(Li) or NaI(T1) detector systems. An extension of this latter technique, which uses a 252 Cf- 235 U fueled subcritical multiplier, is also being studied. The subcritical facility allows the neutrons from the 252 Cf source to be multiplied, thus providing greater neutron flux. Details of these in situ analysis systems, actual in situ spectra, and recorded data are discussed with respect to the detection of minerals at their varying concentration levels. The system response of each illustrates its usefulness for various rapid environmental mineral exploration studies. These techniques can be utilized on terrestrial surfaces and marine or fresh water sediments. 5 figures, 2 tables

  8. Combined Raman/Infrared Reflectance Instrument for In Situ Mineral Analysis, Phase I (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — NASA's Science Instruments, Observatories, and Sensor Systems Roadmap calls for instruments capable of in situ mineralogical analysis in support of planetary...

  9. CO2 laser development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)



    The research and development programs on high-energy, short-pulse CO 2 lasers were begun at LASL in 1969. Three large systems are now either operating or are being installed. The Single-Beam System (SBS), a four-stage prototype, was designed in 1971 and has been in operation since 1973 with an output energy of 250 J in a 1-ns pulse with an on-target intensity of 3.5 x 10 14 W/cm 2 . The Dual-Beam System (DBS), now in the final stages of electrical and optical checkout, will provide about ten times more power for two-beam target irradiation experiments. Four such dual-beam modules are being installed in the Laser-Fusion Laboratory to provide an Eight-Beam System (EBS) scheduled for operation at the 5- to 10-TW level in 1977. A fourth system, a 100- to 200-TW CO 2 laser, is being designed for the High-Energy Gas Laser Facility (HEGLF) program

  10. Adsorption of methane and CO2 onto olivine surfaces in Martian dust conditions (United States)

    Escamilla-Roa, Elizabeth; Martin-Torres, Javier; Sainz-Díaz, C. Ignacio


    Methane has been detected on all planets of our Solar System, and most of the larger moons, as well as in dwarf-planets like Pluto and Eric. The presence of this molecule in rocky planets is very interesting because its presence in the Earth's atmosphere is mainly related to biotic processes. Space instrumentation in orbiters around Mars has detected olivine on the Martian soil and dust. On the other hand the measurements of methane from the Curiosity rover report detection of background levels of atmospheric methane with abundance that is lower than model estimates of ultraviolet degradation of accreted interplanetary dust particles or carbonaceous chondrite material. Additionally, elevated levels of methane about this background have been observed implying that Mars is episodically producing methane from an additional unknown source, making the reasons of these temporal fluctuations of methane a hot topic in planetary research. The goal of this study is to investigate at atomic level the interactions during the adsorption processes of methane and other Mars atmospheric species (CO2, H2O) on forsterite surfaces, through electronic structure calculations based on the Density Functional Theory (DFT). We propose two models to simulate the interaction of adsorbates with the surface of dust mineral, such as binary mixtures (5CH4+5H2O/5CH4+5CO2) and as a semi-clathrate adsorption. We have obtained interesting results of the adsorption process in the mixture 5CH4+5CO2. Associative and dissociative adsorptions were observed for water and CO2 molecules. The methane molecules were only trapped and held by water or CO2 molecules. In the dipolar surface, the adsorption of CO2 molecules produced new species: one CO from a CO2 dissociation, and, two CO2 molecules chemisorbed to mineral surface forming in one case a carbonate group. Our results suggest that CO2 has a strong interaction with the mineral surface when methane is present. These results could be confirmed after the

  11. Seasonal dynamics of permafrost carbon emissions: A passive, quasi-continuous 14CO2 sampler (United States)

    Pedron, S.; Xu, X.; Walker, J. C.; Welker, J. M.; Klein, E. S.; Euskirchen, E. S.; Czimczik, C. I.


    Millennia of carbon (C) fixation by tundra vegetation, coupled with low rates of C mineralization by soil microorganisms and preservation in permafrost, have allowed Arctic soils to accumulate vast quantities of organic C (1672 Pg C total). Today, the Arctic is rapidly warming (0.48oC decade-1) and widespread degradation of permafrost may subject permafrost C to microbial mineralization and fluxes to the atmosphere, accelerating climate change. Loss of permafrost C can be quantified in situ by measuring the radiocarbon (14C) content of soil and ecosystem respiration, because permafrost C is older (depleted in 14C) than current plant products and soil C cycling operates on timescales of years to centuries. Here, we use 14C analysis of CO2 respired from graminoid tundra in Arctic Alaska to 1) apportion how plant and microbial respiration contribute to ecosystem respiration in spring, summer, and fall, and 2) elucidate the C sources of microbial respiration throughout the year. We used a novel, passive sampling system, capable of trapping diffusive CO2 throughout the active layer of tussock sedge tundra (n=4, from mineral soil to air) over periods of 2 days to 3 weeks in June 2017. CO2 was collected into various sizes of canisters, ranging from 0.5-32 L, and analyzed for its 14C content at UC Irvine's KCCAMS laboratory. To evaluate the system's efficiency, and quantify the temporal and spatial variability of ecosystem respiration sources, we co-deployed 3 Vaisala Carbocap [CO2] and temperature probes, and traditional chambers (n=6) and gas wells (n=10) for sampling of ecosystem- and soil-respired 14CO2 over 15 min-24 hours. A comparison of traditional methods with our new sampler indicates that the system accurately sampled the expected [CO2] depth gradient. The CO2 sampling rate was positively correlated to soil [CO2] (R2=0.963), equivalent to 1.4*10-3±1.6*10-3 mg C/L/month/ppm (n=8). Gas well and probe concentrations were of the same order of magnitude on the same

  12. Geochemical Interaction of Middle Bakken Reservoir Rock and CO2 during CO2-Based Fracturing (United States)

    Nicot, J. P.; Lu, J.; Mickler, P. J.; Ribeiro, L. H.; Darvari, R.


    This study was conducted to investigate the effects of geochemical interactions when CO2 is used to create the fractures necessary to produce hydrocarbons from low-permeability Middle Bakken sandstone. The primary objectives are to: (1) identify and understand the geochemical reactions related to CO2-based fracturing, and (2) assess potential changes of reservoir property. Three autoclave experiments were conducted at reservoir conditions exposing middle Bakken core fragments to supercritical CO2 (sc-CO2) only and to CO2-saturated synthetic brine. Ion-milled core samples were examined before and after the reaction experiments using scanning electron microscope, which enabled us to image the reaction surface in extreme details and unambiguously identify mineral dissolution and precipitation. The most significant changes in the reacted rock samples exposed to the CO2-saturated brine is dissolution of the carbonate minerals, particularly calcite which displays severely corrosion. Dolomite grains were corroded to a lesser degree. Quartz and feldspars remained intact and some pyrite framboids underwent slight dissolution. Additionally, small amount of calcite precipitation took place as indicated by numerous small calcite crystals formed at the reaction surface and in the pores. The aqueous solution composition changes confirm these petrographic observations with increase in Ca and Mg and associated minor elements and very slight increase in Fe and sulfate. When exposed to sc-CO2 only, changes observed include etching of calcite grain surface and precipitation of salt crystals (halite and anhydrite) due to evaporation of residual pore water into the sc-CO2 phase. Dolomite and feldspars remained intact and pyrite grains were slightly altered. Mercury intrusion capillary pressure tests on reacted and unreacted samples shows an increase in porosity when an aqueous phase is present but no overall porosity change caused by sc-CO2. It also suggests an increase in permeability

  13. Minerals (United States)

    ... Aren't minerals something you find in the earth, like iron and quartz? Well, yes, but small ... canned salmon and sardines with bones leafy green vegetables, such as broccoli calcium-fortified foods — from orange ...

  14. CO2 Laser Market (United States)

    Simonsson, Samuel


    It gives me a great deal of pleasure to introduce our final speaker of this morning's session for two reasons: First of all, his company has been very much in the news not only in our own community but in the pages of Wall Street Journal and in the world economic press. And, secondly, we would like to welcome him to our shores. He is a temporary resident of the United States, for a few months, forsaking his home in Germany to come here and help with the start up of a new company which we believe, probably, ranks #1 as the world supplier of CO2 lasers now, through the combination of former Spectra Physics Industrial Laser Division and Rofin-Sinar GMBH. Samuel Simonsson is the Chairman of the Board of Rofin-Sinar, Inc., here in the U.S. and managing director of Rofin-Sinar GMBH. It is a pleasure to welcome him.

  15. Ex situ bioremediation of mineral oil in soils: Aerated pile treatment. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Graves, D.


    Under a contract with Southern Company Services, a pilot-scale evaluation of mineral oil biodegradation was conducted at Plant Mitchell. The evaluation consisted of two demonstrations to examine land treatment and aerated pile treatment of soil contaminated with the mineral insulating oil used in electrical transformers. Treatment of mineral oil contaminated soil is problematic in the State of Georgia and throughout the US because current practice is to excavate and landfill the contaminated soil. In many cases, the cost associated with these activities far exceeds the environmental risk of mineral oil in soil. This project was designed to evaluate the performance of bioremediation for the treatment of mineral oil in soil. Testing was carried out in a demonstration facility prepared by Georgia Power Company. The facility consisted of 12 independent treatment cells constructed on a concrete pad and covered with a roof

  16. CO2 Emission Factors for Coals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Orlović-Leko


    Full Text Available Emission factors are used in greenhouse gas inventories to estimate emissions from coal combustion. In the absence of direct measures, emissions factors are frequently used as a quick, low cost way to estimate emissions values. Coal combustion has been a major contributor to the CO2 flux into the atmosphere. Nearly all of the fuel carbon (99 % in coal is converted to CO2 during the combustion process. The carbon content is the most important coal parameter which is the measure of the degree of coalification (coal rank. Coalification is the alteration of vegetation to form peat, succeeded by the transformation of peat through lignite, sub-bituminous, bituminous to anthracite coal. During the geochemical or metamorphic stage, the progressive changes that occur within the coal are an increase in the carbon content and a decrease in the hydrogen and oxygen content resulting in a loss of volatiles. Heterogeneous composition of coal causes variation in CO2 emission from different coals. The IPCC (Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change has produced guidelines on how to produce emission inventories which includes emission factors. Although 2006 IPCC Guidelines provided the default values specified according to the rank of the coal, the application of country-specific emission factors was recommended when estimating the national greenhouse gas emissions. This paper discusses the differences between country-specific emission factors and default IPCC CO2 emission factors, EF(CO2, for coals. Also, this study estimated EF(CO2 for two different types of coals and peat from B&H, on the basis fuel analyses. Carbon emission factors for coal mainly depend on the carbon content of the fuel and vary with both rank and geographic origin, which supports the idea of provincial variation of carbon emission factors. Also, various other factors, such as content of sulphur, minerals and macerals play an important role and influence EF(CO2 from coal. Carbonate minerals

  17. Relationship between characteristics of fan-delta sandstone bodies and in-situ leachable sandstone-type uranium mineralization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nie Fengjun; Zhou Weixun; Guan Taiyang; Li Sitian


    Like normal deltas, fan-deltas are composed of three parts, i.e., fan-delta plain, fan-delta front and pre-fin-delta, In-situ leachable uranium deposits are commonly distributed along the margins of in-land basins. The author analyzes the possible relationship between the basic characteristics of fan-delta sandstone bodies and uranium mineralization. Two examples, e.g., the fan delta depositional systems in the eastern part of Jungger basin and the southern part of Yili basin, are given to illustrate the fan-delta vertical sequence and planar distribution of sedimentary facies. It has been pointed out that the braided channel sandstone bodies on delta plain, sub-aqueous distributional channel sandstone bodies and delta front sandstone bodies may be the favourable host rocks for in-situ leachable sandstone uranium deposits

  18. Elevated CO2 and O3 Levels Influence the Uptake and Leaf Concentration of Mineral N, P, K in Phyllostachys edulis (Carrière J.Houz. and Oligostachyum lubricum (wen King f.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Minghao Zhuang


    Full Text Available Rising CO2 and O3 concentrations significantly affect plant growth and can alter nutrient cycles. However, the effects of elevated CO2 and O3 concentrations on the nutrient dynamics of bamboo species are not well understood. In this study, using open top chambers (OTCs, we examined the effects of elevated CO2 and O3 concentrations on leaf biomass and nutrient (N, P, and K dynamics in two bamboo species, Phyllostachys edulis (Carrière J.Houz. and Oligostachyum lubricum (wen King f. Elevated O3 significantly decreased leaf biomass and nutrient uptake of both bamboo species, with the exception of no observed change in K uptake by O. lubricum. Elevated CO2 increased leaf biomass, N and K uptake of both bamboo species. Elevated CO2 and O3 simultaneously had no significant influence on leaf biomass of either species but decreased P and N uptake in P. edulis and O. lubricum, respectively, and increased K uptake in O. lubricum. The results indicate that elevated CO2 alleviated the damage caused by elevated O3 in the two bamboo species by altering the uptake of certain nutrients, which further highlights the potential interactive effects between the two gases on nutrient uptake. In addition, we found differential responses of nutrient dynamics in the two bamboo species to the two elevated gases, alone or in combination. These findings will facilitate the development of effective nutrient management strategies for sustainable management of P. edulis and O. lubricum under global change scenarios.

  19. Sustained effects of atmospheric [CO2] and nitrogen availability on forest soil CO2 efflux. (United States)

    Oishi, A Christopher; Palmroth, Sari; Johnsen, Kurt H; McCarthy, Heather R; Oren, Ram


    Soil CO2 efflux (Fsoil ) is the largest source of carbon from forests and reflects primary productivity as well as how carbon is allocated within forest ecosystems. Through early stages of stand development, both elevated [CO2] and availability of soil nitrogen (N; sum of mineralization, deposition, and fixation) have been shown to increase gross primary productivity, but the long-term effects of these factors on Fsoil are less clear. Expanding on previous studies at the Duke Free-Air CO2 Enrichment (FACE) site, we quantified the effects of elevated [CO2] and N fertilization on Fsoil using daily measurements from automated chambers over 10 years. Consistent with previous results, compared to ambient unfertilized plots, annual Fsoil increased under elevated [CO2] (ca. 17%) and decreased with N (ca. 21%). N fertilization under elevated [CO2] reduced Fsoil to values similar to untreated plots. Over the study period, base respiration rates increased with leaf productivity, but declined after productivity saturated. Despite treatment-induced differences in aboveground biomass, soil temperature and water content were similar among treatments. Interannually, low soil water content decreased annual Fsoil from potential values - estimated based on temperature alone assuming nonlimiting soil water content - by ca. 0.7% per 1.0% reduction in relative extractable water. This effect was only slightly ameliorated by elevated [CO2]. Variability in soil N availability among plots accounted for the spatial variability in Fsoil , showing a decrease of ca. 114 g C m(-2) yr(-1) per 1 g m(-2) increase in soil N availability, with consistently higher Fsoil in elevated [CO2] plots ca. 127 g C per 100 ppm [CO2] over the +200 ppm enrichment. Altogether, reflecting increased belowground carbon partitioning in response to greater plant nutritional needs, the effects of elevated [CO2] and N fertilization on Fsoil in this stand are sustained beyond the early stages of stand development and

  20. Energy and economic considerations for ex-situ and aqueous mineral carbonation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    O' Connor, William K.; Dahlin, David C.; Rush, G.E.; Gerdemann, Stephen J.; Penner, L.R.


    Due to the scale and breadth of carbon dioxide emissions, and speculation regarding their impact on global climate, sequestration of some portion of these emissions has been under increased study. A practical approach to carbon sequestration will likely include several options, which will be driven largely by the energy demand and economics of operation. Aqueous mineral carbonation of calcium and magnesium silicate minerals has been studied as one potential method to sequester carbon dioxide. Although these carbonation reactions are all thermodynamically favored, they occur at geologic rates of reaction. Laboratory studies have demonstrated that these rates of reaction are accelerated with increasing temperature, pressure, and particle surface area. Mineral-specific activation methods were identified, however, each of these techniques incurs energy as well as economic costs. An overview of the mineral availability, pretreatment options and energy demands, and process economics is provided.

  1. Calcium Carbonate Precipitation for CO2 Storage and Utilization: A Review of the Carbonate Crystallization and Polymorphism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ribooga Chang


    Full Text Available The transformation of CO2 into a precipitated mineral carbonate through an ex situ mineral carbonation route is considered a promising option for carbon capture and storage (CCS since (i the captured CO2 can be stored permanently and (ii industrial wastes (i.e., coal fly ash, steel and stainless-steel slags, and cement and lime kiln dusts can be recycled and converted into value-added carbonate materials by controlling polymorphs and properties of the mineral carbonates. The final products produced by the ex situ mineral carbonation route can be divided into two categories—low-end high-volume and high-end low-volume mineral carbonates—in terms of their market needs as well as their properties (i.e., purity. Therefore, it is expected that this can partially offset the total cost of the CCS processes. Polymorphs and physicochemical properties of CaCO3 strongly rely on the synthesis variables such as temperature, pH of the solution, reaction time, ion concentration and ratio, stirring, and the concentration of additives. Various efforts to control and fabricate polymorphs of CaCO3 have been made to date. In this review, we present a summary of current knowledge and recent investigations entailing mechanistic studies on the formation of the precipitated CaCO3 and the influences of the synthesis factors on the polymorphs.

  2. A novel high-pressure vessel for simultaneous observations of seismic velocity and in situ CO2 distribution in a porous rock using a medical X-ray CT scanner (United States)

    Jiang, Lanlan; Nishizawa, Osamu; Zhang, Yi; Park, Hyuck; Xue, Ziqiu


    Understanding the relationship between seismic wave velocity or attenuation and CO2 saturation is essential for CO2 storage in deep saline formations. In the present study, we describe a novel upright high-pressure vessel that is designed to keep a rock sample under reservoir conditions and simultaneously image the entire sample using a medical X-ray CT scanner. The pressure vessel is composed of low X-ray absorption materials: a carbon-fibre-enhanced polyetheretherketone (PEEK) cylinder and PEEK vessel closures supported by carbon-fibre-reinforced plastic (CFRP) joists. The temperature was controlled by a carbon-coated film heater and an aramid fibre thermal insulator. The assembled sample cell allows us to obtain high-resolution images of rock samples during CO2 drainage and brine imbibition under reservoir conditions. The rock sample was oriented vertical to the rotation axis of the CT scanner, and seismic wave paths were aligned parallel to the rotation axis to avoid shadows from the acoustic transducers. The reconstructed CO2 distribution images allow us to calculate the CO2 saturation in the first Fresnel zone along the ray path between transducers. A robust relationship between the seismic wave velocity or attenuation and the CO2 saturation in porous rock was obtained from experiments using this pressure vessel.

  3. The effects of impure CO2 on reservoir sandstones: results from mineralogical and geomechanical experiments (United States)

    Marbler, H.; Erickson, K. P.; Schmidt, M.; Lempp, Ch.; Pöllmann, H.


    An experimental study of the behaviour of reservoir sandstones from deep saline aquifers during the injection and geological storage of CO2 with the inherent impurities SOX and NOX is part of the German national project COORAL*. Sample materials were taken from outcrops of possible reservoir formations of Rotliegend and Bunter Sandstones from the North German Basin. A combination of mineralogical alteration experiments and geomechanical tests was carried out on these rocks to study the potential effects of the impurities within the CO2 pore fluid. Altered rock samples after the treatment with CO2 + SOX/NOX in an autoclave system were loaded in a triaxial cell under in-situ pressure and temperature conditions in order to estimate the modifications of the geomechanical rock properties. Mineralogical alterations were observed within the sandstones after the exposure to impure supercritical (sc)CO2 and brine, mainly of the carbonatic, but also of the silicatic cements, as well as of single minerals. Besides the partial solution effects also secondary carbonate and minor silicate mineral precipitates were observed within the pore space of the treated sandstones. These alterations affect the grain structure of the reservoir rock. Results of geomechanical experiments with unaltered sandstones show that the rock strength is influenced by the degree of rock saturation before the experiment and the chemical composition of the pore fluid (scCO2 + SOX + NOX). After long-term autoclave treatment with impure scCO2, the sandstone samples exhibit modified strength parameters and elastic deformation behaviour as well as changes in porosity compared to untreated samples. Furthermore, the injected fluid volume into the pore space of sandstones from the same lithotype varies during triaxial loading depending on the chemistry of the pore fluid. CO2 with NOX and SOX bearing fluid fills a significantly larger proportion of the sandstone pore space than brine with pure scCO2. * The

  4. Minerals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vaquero, M. P.


    Full Text Available The possible changes in the mineral composition of food during frying could be the consequence of losses by leaching, or changes in concentrations caused by exchanges between the food and culinary fat of other compounds. The net result depends on the type of food, the frying fat used and the frying process. Moreover, the modifications that frying produces in other nutrients could indirectly affect the availability of dietary minerals. The most outstanding ones are those that can take place in the fat or in the protein. With respect to the interactions between frying oils and minerals, we have recent knowledge concerning the effects of consuming vegetable oils used in repeated fryings of potatoes without turnover, on the nutritive utilization of dietary minerals. The experiments have been carried out in pregnant and growing rats, which consumed diets containing, as a sole source of fat, the testing frying oils or unused oils. It seems that the consumption of various frying oils, with a polar compound content lower or close to the maximum limit of 25% accepted for human consumption, does not alter the absorption and metabolism of calcium, phosphorous, iron or copper. Magnesium absorption from diets containing frying oils tends to increase but the urinary excretion of this element increases, resulting imperceptible the variations in the magnesium balance. The urinary excretion of Zn also increased although its balance remained unchanged. Different studies referring to the effects of consuming fried fatty fish on mineral bioavailability will also be presented. On one hand, frying can cause structural changes in fish protein, which are associated with an increase in iron absorption and a decrease in body zinc retention. The nutritive utilization of other elements such as magnesium, calcium and copper seems to be unaffected. On the other hand; it has been described that an excess of fish fatty acids in the diet produces iron depletion, but when fatty

  5. CO_2 valorization - Part. 2: chemical transformation ways

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dumergues, Laurent


    Carbon dioxide (CO_2) can be used in many ways as a raw material or chemical reagent. The chemical conversion of CO_2 used as a feedstock is achievable by different techniques: mineralization, organic synthesis, hydrogenation, dry reforming, electrolysis, thermolysis, etc. The products obtained have applications as energy products, chemicals, building materials, etc. Choosing an appropriate CO_2 reuse technology will depend on technical and economic requirements (such as the CO_2 purity needed, technological maturity, cost-effectiveness, etc.) and also environmental and social criteria

  6. In-Situ Electrochemical Corrosion Behavior of Nickel-Base 718 Alloy Under Various CO2 Partial Pressures at 150 and 205 °C in NaCl Solution (United States)

    Zhang, Yubi; Zhao, Yongtao; Tang, An; Yang, Wenjie; Li, Enzuo


    The electrochemical corrosion behavior of nickel-base alloy 718 was investigated using electrochemical impedance spectroscopy and potentiodynamic polarization techniques at various partial pressures of CO2 (P_{{{CO}2 }} s) in a 25 wt% NaCl solution at 150 and 205 °C. The passive films composed of FeCO3 exhibit good corrosion resistance with a feature of Warburg impedance, Tafel plots show a complete passivation and the anodic reactions was dominated by a diffusion process at low P_{{{CO}2 }} s (1.8-9.8 MPa) at 150 °C. While numerous dented corrosion areas appeared on the sample surface for the P_{{{CO}2 }} of 11.6 MPa at 205 °C, the Tafel plot with three anodic peaks and the Nyquist diagram with an atrophied impedance arc were present. This dented corrosion attribute to the synergistic effects of stress, temperature, P_{{{CO}2 }} and Cl-, the temperature and stress could play crucial roles on the corrosion of the alloy 718.

  7. Determining CO2 storage potential during miscible CO2 enhanced oil recovery: Noble gas and stable isotope tracers (United States)

    Shelton, Jenna L.; McIntosh, Jennifer C.; Hunt, Andrew; Beebe, Thomas L; Parker, Andrew D; Warwick, Peter D.; Drake, Ronald; McCray, John E.


    Rising atmospheric carbon dioxide (CO2) concentrations are fueling anthropogenic climate change. Geologic sequestration of anthropogenic CO2 in depleted oil reservoirs is one option for reducing CO2 emissions to the atmosphere while enhancing oil recovery. In order to evaluate the feasibility of using enhanced oil recovery (EOR) sites in the United States for permanent CO2 storage, an active multi-stage miscible CO2flooding project in the Permian Basin (North Ward Estes Field, near Wickett, Texas) was investigated. In addition, two major natural CO2 reservoirs in the southeastern Paradox Basin (McElmo Dome and Doe Canyon) were also investigated as they provide CO2 for EOR operations in the Permian Basin. Produced gas and water were collected from three different CO2 flooding phases (with different start dates) within the North Ward Estes Field to evaluate possible CO2 storage mechanisms and amounts of total CO2retention. McElmo Dome and Doe Canyon were sampled for produced gas to determine the noble gas and stable isotope signature of the original injected EOR gas and to confirm the source of this naturally-occurring CO2. As expected, the natural CO2produced from McElmo Dome and Doe Canyon is a mix of mantle and crustal sources. When comparing CO2 injection and production rates for the CO2 floods in the North Ward Estes Field, it appears that CO2 retention in the reservoir decreased over the course of the three injections, retaining 39%, 49% and 61% of the injected CO2 for the 2008, 2010, and 2013 projects, respectively, characteristic of maturing CO2 miscible flood projects. Noble gas isotopic composition of the injected and produced gas for the flood projects suggest no active fractionation, while δ13CCO2 values suggest no active CO2dissolution into formation water, or mineralization. CO2 volumes capable of dissolving in residual formation fluids were also estimated along with the potential to store pure-phase supercritical CO2. Using a combination

  8. Investigation of In-situ Biogeochemical Reduction of Chlorinated Solvents in Groundwater by Reduced Iron Minerals (United States)

    Biogeochemical transformation is a process in which chlorinated solvents are degraded abiotically by reactive minerals formed by, at least in part or indirectly from, anaerobic biological processes. Five mulch biowall and/or vegetable oil-based bioremediation applications for tr...

  9. Alteration of bentonite when contacted with supercritical CO2 (United States)

    Jinseok, K.; Jo, H. Y.; Yun, S. T.


    Deep saline formations overlaid by impermeable caprocks with a high sealing capacity are attractive CO2 storage reservoirs. Shales, which consist of mainly clay minerals, are potential caprocks for the CO2 storage reservoirs. The properties of clay minerals in shales may affect the sealing capacity of shales. In this study, changes in clay minerals' properties when contacted with supercritical (SC) CO2 at various conditions were investigated. Bentonite, whichis composed of primarily montmorillonite, was used as the clay material in this study. Batch reactor tests on wet bentonite samples in the presence of SC CO2 with or without aqueous phases were conducted at high pressure (12 MPa) and moderate temperature (50 oC) conditions for a week. Results show that the bentonite samples obtained from the tests with SC CO2 had less change in porosity than those obtained from the tests without SC CO2 (vacuum-drying) at a given reaction time, indicating that the bentonite samples dried in the presence of SC CO2 maintained their structure. These results suggest that CO2 molecules can diffuse into interlayer of montmorillonite, which is a primary mineral of bentonite, and form a single CO2 molecule layer or double CO2 molecule layers. The CO2 molecules can displace water molecules in the interlayer, resulting in maintaining the interlayer spacing when dehydration occurs. Noticeable changes in reacted bentonite samples obtained from the tests with an aqueous phase (NaCl, CaCl2, or sea water) are decreases in the fraction of plagioclase and pyrite and formation of carbonate minerals (i.e., calcite and dolomite) and halite. In addition, no significant exchanges of Na or Ca on the exchangeable complex of the montmorillonite in the presence of SC CO2 occurred, resulting in no significant changes in the swelling capacity of bentonite samples after reacting with SC CO2 in the presence of aqueous phases. These results might be attributed by the CO2 molecule layer, which prevents

  10. CO2 as a refrigerant

    CERN Document Server


    A first edition, the IIR guide “CO2 as a Refrigerant” highlights the application of carbon dioxide in supermarkets, industrial freezers, refrigerated transport, and cold stores as well as ice rinks, chillers, air conditioning systems, data centers and heat pumps. This guide is for design and development engineers needing instruction and inspiration as well as non-technical experts seeking background information on a specific topic. Written by Dr A.B. Pearson, a well-known expert in the field who has considerable experience in the use of CO2 as a refrigerant. Main topics: Thermophysical properties of CO2 – Exposure to CO2, safety precautions – CO2 Plant Design – CO2 applications – Future prospects – Standards and regulations – Bibliography.

  11. Chemical and Biological Catalytic Enhancement of Weathering of Silicate Minerals and industrial wastes as a Novel Carbon Capture and Storage Technology (United States)

    Park, A. H. A.


    Increasing concentration of CO2 in the atmosphere is attributed to rising consumption of fossil fuels around the world. The development of solutions to reduce CO2 emissions to the atmosphere is one of the most urgent needs of today's society. One of the most stable and long-term solutions for storing CO2 is via carbon mineralization, where minerals containing metal oxides of Ca or Mg are reacted with CO2 to produce thermodynamically stable Ca- and Mg-carbonates that are insoluble in water. Carbon mineralization can be carried out in-situ or ex-situ. In the case of in-situ mineralization, the degree of carbonation is thought to be limited by both mineral dissolution and carbonate precipitation reaction kinetics, and must be well understood to predict the ultimate fate of CO2 within geological reservoirs. While the kinetics of in-situ mineral trapping via carbonation is naturally slow, it can be enhanced at high temperature and high partial pressure of CO2. The addition of weak organic acids produced from food waste has also been shown to enhance mineral weathering kinetics. In the case of the ex-situ carbon mineralization, the role of these ligand-bearing organic acids can be further amplified for silicate mineral dissolution. Unfortunately, high mineral dissolution rates often lead to the formation of a silica-rich passivation layer on the surface of silicate minerals. Thus, the use of novel solvent mixture that allows chemically catalyzed removal of this passivation layer during enhanced Mg-leaching surface reaction has been proposed and demonstrated. Furthermore, an engineered biological catalyst, carbonic anhydrase, has been developed and evaluated to accelerate the hydration of CO2, which is another potentially rate-limiting step of the carbonation reaction. The development of these novel catalytic reaction schemes has significantly improved the overall efficiency and sustainability of in-situ and ex-situ mineral carbonation technologies and allowed direct

  12. Continuous in situ measurements of volcanic gases with a diode-laser-based spectrometer: CO2 and H2O concentration and soil degassing at Vulcano (Aeolian islands: Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    De Natale Paolo


    Full Text Available Abstract We report on a continuous-measurement campaign carried out in Vulcano (Aeolian islands, Sicily, devoted to the simultaneous monitoring of CO2 and H2O concentrations. The measurements were performed with an absorption spectrometer based on a semiconductor laser source emitting around a 2-μm wavelength. The emitted radiation was selectively absorbed by two molecular ro-vibrational transitions specific of the investigated species. Data for CO2 and H2O concentrations, and CO2 soil diffusive flux using an accumulation chamber configuration, were collected at several interesting sampling points on the island (Porto Levante beach- PLB, Fossa Grande Crater – FOG- and Valley of Palizzi, PAL. CO2/H2O values, measured on the ground, are very similar (around 0.019 (± 0.006 and comparable to the previous discrete detected values of 0.213 (Fumarole F5-La Fossa crater rim and 0.012 (Fumarole VFS – Baia Levante beach obtaid during the 1977–1993 heating phase of the crater fumaroles. In this work much more homogeneous values are found in different points of the three sites investigated. The field work, although carried out in a limited time window (25th–28th August 2004, pointed out the new apparatus is suitable for continuous gas monitoring of the two species and their ratios, which are important geochemical indicators of volcanic activity, for which other reliable continuous monitoring systems are not yet available.

  13. Continuous in situ measurements of volcanic gases with a diode-laser-based spectrometer: CO2 and H2O concentration and soil degassing at Vulcano (Aeolian islands: Italy). (United States)

    De Rosa, Maurizio; Gagliardi, Gianluca; Rocco, Alessandra; Somma, Renato; De Natale, Paolo; De Natale, Giuseppe


    We report on a continuous-measurement campaign carried out in Vulcano (Aeolian islands, Sicily), devoted to the simultaneous monitoring of CO2 and H2O concentrations. The measurements were performed with an absorption spectrometer based on a semiconductor laser source emitting around a 2-microm wavelength. The emitted radiation was selectively absorbed by two molecular ro-vibrational transitions specific of the investigated species. Data for CO2 and H2O concentrations, and CO2 soil diffusive flux using an accumulation chamber configuration, were collected at several interesting sampling points on the island (Porto Levante beach- PLB, Fossa Grande Crater - FOG- and Valley of Palizzi, PAL). CO2/H2O values, measured on the ground, are very similar (around 0.019 (+/- 0.006)) and comparable to the previous discrete detected values of 0.213 (Fumarole F5-La Fossa crater rim) and 0.012 (Fumarole VFS - Baia Levante beach) obtaid during the 1977-1993 heating phase of the crater fumaroles. In this work much more homogeneous values are found in different points of the three sites investigated. The field work, although carried out in a limited time window (25th-28th August 2004), pointed out the new apparatus is suitable for continuous gas monitoring of the two species and their ratios, which are important geochemical indicators of volcanic activity, for which other reliable continuous monitoring systems are not yet available.

  14. Enhancing CO2 Electroreduction with the Metal-Oxide Interface. (United States)

    Gao, Dunfeng; Zhang, Yi; Zhou, Zhiwen; Cai, Fan; Zhao, Xinfei; Huang, Wugen; Li, Yangsheng; Zhu, Junfa; Liu, Ping; Yang, Fan; Wang, Guoxiong; Bao, Xinhe


    The electrochemical CO 2 reduction reaction (CO 2 RR) typically uses transition metals as the catalysts. To improve the efficiency, tremendous efforts have been dedicated to tuning the morphology, size, and structure of metal catalysts and employing electrolytes that enhance the adsorption of CO 2 . We report here a strategy to enhance CO 2 RR by constructing the metal-oxide interface. We demonstrate that Au-CeO x shows much higher activity and Faradaic efficiency than Au or CeO x alone for CO 2 RR. In situ scanning tunneling microscopy and synchrotron-radiation photoemission spectroscopy show that the Au-CeO x interface is dominant in enhancing CO 2 adsorption and activation, which can be further promoted by the presence of hydroxyl groups. Density functional theory calculations indicate that the Au-CeO x interface is the active site for CO 2 activation and the reduction to CO, where the synergy between Au and CeO x promotes the stability of key carboxyl intermediate (*COOH) and thus facilitates CO 2 RR. Similar interface-enhanced CO 2 RR is further observed on Ag-CeO x , demonstrating the generality of the strategy for enhancing CO 2 RR.

  15. Solubility of krypton in liquid CO2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Notz, K.J.; Meservey, A.B.


    The solubility of krypton in liquid CO 2 was measured experimentally over essentially the entire liquid range of CO 2 , from -53 to 29 0 C. A tracer technique using 85 Kr was employed, and equilibrated gas-liquid samples were analyzed in situ with a collimated counter. Dilute concentrations of krypton were used, and the data are expressed as a distribution ratio, Y/sub Kr//X/sub Kr/, the log of which is nearly linear with respect to temperature from the lowest temperature to about 20 0 C, above which the values fall off rapidly toward a value of unity at the critical temperature. The numerical values obtained for the distribution ratio increase from 1.44 at 29 0 C to 29.4 at -53 0 C

  16. Comparison of Surface and Column Variations of CO2 Over Urban Areas for Future Active Remote CO2 Sensors (United States)

    Choi, Yonghoon; Yang, Melissa; Kooi, Susan; Browell, Edward


    High resolution in-situ CO2 measurements were recorded onboard the NASA P-3B during the DISCOVER-AQ (Deriving Information on Surface Conditions from Column and Vertically Resolved Observations Relevant to Air Quality) Field Campaign, to investigate the ability of space-based observations to accurately assess near surface conditions related to air quality. This campaign includes, Washington DC/Baltimore, MD (July 2011), San Joaquin Valley, CA (January - February 2013), Houston, TX (September 2013), and Denver, CO (July-August 2014). Each of these campaigns consisted of missed approaches and approximately two hundred vertical soundings of CO2 within the lower troposphere (surface to about 5 km). In this study, surface (0 - 1 km) and column-averaged (0 - 3.5 km) CO2 mixing ratio values from the vertical soundings in the four geographically different urban areas are used to investigate the temporal and spatial variability of CO2 within the different urban atmospheric emission environments. Tracers such as CO, CH2O, NOx, and NMHCs are used to identify the source of CO2 variations in the urban sites. Additionally, we apply nominal CO2 column weighting functions for potential future active remote CO2 sensors operating in the 1.57-microns and 2.05-microns measurement regions to convert the in situ CO2 vertical mixing ratio profiles to variations in CO2 column optical depths, which is what the active remote sensors actually measure. Using statistics calculated from the optical depths at each urban site measured during the DISCOVER-AQ field campaign and for each nominal weighting function, we investigate the natural variability of CO2 columns in the lower troposphere; relate the CO2 column variability to the urban surface emissions; and show the measurement requirements for the future ASCENDS (Active Sensing of CO2 Emissions over Nights, Days, and Seasons) in the continental U.S. urban areas.

  17. The sequestration of CO2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Le Thiez, P.


    The reduction of greenhouse gas emissions, especially CO 2 , represents a major technological and societal challenge in the fight against climate change. Among the measures likely to reduce anthropic CO 2 emissions, capture and geological storage holds out promise for the future. (author)

  18. Molecular simulations of CO2 at interfaces

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Silvestri, Alessandro

    trapping mechanisms that act over dierent time scales, where eectiveness is determined by phenomena that occur at the interfaces between CO2, pore uids and the pore surfaces. Solid theoretical understanding of the nanoscale interactions that result from the interplay of intermolecular and surface forces...... variety of conditions: pressure, temperature, pore solution salinity and various mineral surfaces. However, achieving representative subsurface conditions in experiments is challenging and reported data are aected by experimental uncertainties and sometimes are contradictory. Molecular modelling...... rock record and the formations are generally porous so their probable response to CO2 sequestration needs to be investigated. However, despite the large number of geologic sequestration publications on water{rock interactions over the last decade, studies on carbonate reservoirs remain scarce...

  19. In Situ Chemical Characterization of Mineral Phases in Lunar Granulite Meteorite Northwest Africa 5744 (United States)

    Kent, J. J.; Brandon, A. D.; Lapen, T. J.; Peslier, A. H.; Irving, A. J.; Coleff, D. M.


    Northwest Africa (NWA) 5744 meteorite is a granulitic and troctolitic lunar breccia which may represent nearly pristine lunar crust (Fig. 1). NWA 5744 is unusually magnesian compared to other lunar breccias, with bulk [Mg/(Mg+Fe)] 0.79 [1, 2]. Inspection shows impactor content is likely to be very minor, with low Ni content and a lack of metal grains. Some terrestrial contamination is present, evidenced by calcite within cracks. NWA 5744 has notably low concentrations of incompatible trace elements (ITEs) [2]. The goal of this study is to attempt to classify this lunar granulite through analyses of in situ phases.

  20. Enzymes in CO2 Capture

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fosbøl, Philip Loldrup; Gladis, Arne; Thomsen, Kaj

    The enzyme Carbonic Anhydrase (CA) can accelerate the absorption rate of CO2 into aqueous solutions by several-fold. It exist in almost all living organisms and catalyses different important processes like CO2 transport, respiration and the acid-base balances. A new technology in the field...... of carbon capture is the application of enzymes for acceleration of typically slow ternary amines or inorganic carbonates. There is a hidden potential to revive currently infeasible amines which have an interesting low energy consumption for regeneration but too slow kinetics for viable CO2 capture. The aim...... of this work is to discuss the measurements of kinetic properties for CA promoted CO2 capture solvent systems. The development of a rate-based model for enzymes will be discussed showing the principles of implementation and the results on using a well-known ternary amine for CO2 capture. Conclusions...

  1. Modeling Silicate Weathering for Elevated CO2 and Temperature (United States)

    Bolton, E. W.


    A reactive transport model (RTM) is used to assess CO2 drawdown by silicate weathering over a wide range of temperature, pCO2, and infiltration rates for basalts and granites. Although RTM's have been used extensively to model weathering of basalts and granites for present-day conditions, we extend such modeling to higher CO2 that could have existed during the Archean and Proterozoic. We also consider a wide range of surface temperatures and infiltration rates. We consider several model basalt and granite compositions. We normally impose CO2 in equilibrium with the various atmospheric ranges modeled and CO2 is delivered to the weathering zone by aqueous transport. We also consider models with fixed CO2 (aq) throughout the weathering zone as could occur in soils with partial water saturation or with plant respiration, which can strongly influence pH and mineral dissolution rates. For the modeling, we use Kinflow: a model developed at Yale that includes mineral dissolution and precipitation under kinetic control, aqueous speciation, surface erosion, dynamic porosity, permeability, and mineral surface areas via sub-grid-scale grain models, and exchange of volatiles at the surface. Most of the modeling is done in 1D, but some comparisons to 2D domains with heterogeneous permeability are made. We find that when CO2 is fixed only at the surface, the pH tends toward higher values for basalts than granites, in large part due to the presence of more divalent than monovalent cations in the primary minerals, tending to decrease rates of mineral dissolution. Weathering rates increase (as expected) with increasing CO2 and temperature. This modeling is done with the support of the Virtual Planetary Laboratory.

  2. In situ measurements of H2O, CH4 and CO2 in the upper troposphere and the lower stratosphere (UT-LS) with the baloonborne picoSDLA and AMULSE tunable diode laser spectrometers during the 2014 and 2015 "Stratoscience" campaigns (United States)

    Miftah-El-Khair, Zineb; Joly, Lilian; Decarpenterie, Thomas; Cousin, Julien; Dumelié, Nicolas; Grouiez, Bruno; Albo, Grégory; Chauvin, Nicolas; Maamary, Rabih; Amarouche, Nadir; Durry, Georges


    H2O, CH4 and CO2 are major greenhouse gases with a strong impact on climate. The concentrations of CO2 and CH4 have dramatically increased since the beginning of the industrialization era due to anthropogenic activities, contributing thereby to the global warming. Anthropogenic activities as fossil fuels, ruminant, and biomass burning constitute the major sources of carbon dioxide and methane. The increase of H2O concentration in the stratosphere could cause a cooling of this atmospheric region, impacting the recovery of the ozone layer. Therefore, having information and data about the vertical distribution of H2O, CO2 and CH4 is very useful to improve our knowledge of the future of our climate. We have developed, with the help of French space agency (CNES) and CNRS, two laser diode sensors PicoSDLA and AMULSE devoted to the in situ measurements of H2O, CH4 and CO2 from balloon platforms. These instruments were operated from open stratospheric balloons in Timmins, CA, in August 2014 and 2015. We report and discuss the instrumental achievements of both sensors during these flights in the UT-LS. Aknowledgments: The authors acknowledge financial supports from CNES, CNRS and the region Champagne-Ardenne.

  3. Numerical Study on CO2-Brine-Rock Interaction of Enhanced Geothermal Systems with CO2 as Heat Transmission Fluid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wan Yuyu


    Full Text Available Enhanced Geothermal Systems (EGS with CO2 instead of water as heat transmission fluid is an attractive concept for both geothermal resources development and CO2 geological sequestration. Previous studies show that CO2 has lots of favorable properties as heat transmission fluid and also can offer geologic storage of CO2 as an ancillary benefit. However, after CO2 injection into geological formations, chemical reaction between brine and rock can change chemical characteristics of saline and properties of rock such as porosity and permeability. Is this advantage or disadvantage for EGS operating? To answer this question, we have performed chemically reactive transport modeling to investigate fluid-rock interactions and CO2 mineral carbonation of Enhanced Geothermal Systems (EGS site at Desert Peak (Nevada operated with CO2. The simulation results show that (1 injection CO2 can create a core zone fulfilled with CO2 as main working domain for EGS, and (2 CO2 storage can induced self-enhancing alteration of EGS.

  4. Experimental evidence for carbonate precipitation and CO 2 degassing during sea ice formation (United States)

    Papadimitriou, S.; Kennedy, H.; Kattner, G.; Dieckmann, G. S.; Thomas, D. N.


    Chemical and stable carbon isotopic modifications during the freezing of artificial seawater were measured in four 4 m 3 tank incubations. Three of the four incubations were inoculated with a nonaxenic Antarctic diatom culture. The 18 days of freezing resulted in 25 to 27 cm thick ice sheets overlying the residual seawater. The ice phase was characterized by a decrease in temperature from -1.9 to -2.2°C in the under-ice seawater down to -6.7°C in the upper 4 cm of the ice sheet, with a concurrent increase in the salinity of the under-ice seawater and brine inclusions of the ice sheet as a result of physical concentration of major dissolved salts by expulsion from the solid ice matrix. Measurements of pH, total dissolved inorganic carbon (C T) and its stable isotopic composition (δ 13C T) all exhibited changes, which suggest minimal effect by biological activity during the experiment. A systematic drop in pH and salinity-normalized C T by up to 0.37 pH SWS units and 376 μmol C kg -1 respectively at the lowest temperature and highest salinity part of the ice sheet were coupled with an equally systematic 13C enrichment of the C T. Calculations based on the direct pH and C T measurements indicated a steady increase in the in situ concentration of dissolved carbon dioxide (CO 2(aq)) with time and increasing salinity within the ice sheet, partly due to changes in the dissociation constants of carbonic acid in the low temperature-high salinity range within sea ice. The combined effects of temperature and salinity on the solubility of CO 2 over the range of conditions encountered during this study was a slight net decrease in the equilibrium CO 2(aq) concentration as a result of the salting-out overriding the increase in solubility with decreasing temperature. Hence, the increase in the in situ CO 2(aq) concentration lead to saturation or supersaturation of the brine inclusions in the ice sheet with respect to atmospheric pCO 2 (≈3.5 × 10 -4 atm). When all physico

  5. Dependency of tunneling magnetoresistance ratio on Pt seed-layer thickness for double MgO perpendicular magnetic tunneling junction spin-valves with a top Co2Fe6B2 free layer ex-situ annealed at 400 °C. (United States)

    Takemura, Yasutaka; Lee, Du-Yeong; Lee, Seung-Eun; Park, Jea-Gun


    For the double MgO based perpendicular magnetic tunneling junction (p-MTJ) spin-valves with a top Co 2 Fe 6 B 2 free layer ex situ annealed at 400 °C, the tunneling-magnetoresistance ratio (TMR) strongly depended on the platinum (Pt) seed layer thickness (t Pt ): it peaked (∼134%) at a specific t Pt (3.3 nm). The TMR ratio was initially and slightly increased from 113%-134% by the enhancement of the magnetic moment of the Co 2 Fe 6 B 2 pinned layer when t Pt increased from 2.0-3.3 nm, and then rapidly decreased from 134%-38.6% by the degrading face-centered-cubic crystallinity of the MgO tunneling barrier when t Pt increased from 3.3-14.3 nm.

  6. CO2 pellet blasting studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Archibald, K.E.


    Initial tests with CO 2 pellet blasting as a decontamination technique were completed in 1993 at the Idaho Chemical Processing Plant (ICPP) at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL). During 1996, a number of additional CO 2 pellet blasting studies with Alpheus Cleaning Technologies, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, and Pennsylvania State University were conducted. After the testing with Alpheus was complete, an SDI-5 shaved CO 2 blasting unit was purchased by the ICPP to test and determine its capabilities before using in ICPP decontamination efforts. Results of the 1996 testing will be presented in this report

  7. Laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy for in situ qualitative and quantitative analysis of mineral ores

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pořízka, P.; Demidov, A.; Kaiser, J.; Keivanian, J.; Gornushkin, I.; Panne, U.; Riedel, J.


    In this work, the potential of laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS) for discrimination and analysis of geological materials was examined. The research was focused on classification of mineral ores using their LIBS spectra prior to quantitative determination of copper. Quantitative analysis is not a trivial task in LIBS measurement because intensities of emission lines in laser-induced plasmas (LIP) are strongly affected by the sample matrix (matrix effect). To circumvent this effect, typically matrix-matched standards are used to obtain matrix-dependent calibration curves. If the sample set consists of a mixture of different matrices, even in this approach, the corresponding matrix has to be known prior to the downstream data analysis. For this categorization, the multielemental character of LIBS spectra can be of help. In this contribution, a principal component analysis (PCA) was employed on the measured data set to discriminate individual rocks as individual matrices against each other according to their overall elemental composition. Twenty-seven igneous rock samples were analyzed in the form of fine dust, classified and subsequently quantitatively analyzed. Two different LIBS setups in two laboratories were used to prove the reproducibility of classification and quantification. A superposition of partial calibration plots constructed from the individual clustered data displayed a large improvement in precision and accuracy compared to the calibration plot constructed from all ore samples. The classification of mineral samples with complex matrices can thus be recommended prior to LIBS system calibration and quantitative analysis. - Highlights: • Twenty seven igneous rocks were measured on different LIBS systems. • Principal component analysis (PCA) was employed for classification. • The necessity of the classification of the rock (ore) samples prior to the quantification analysis is stressed. • Classification based on the whole LIP spectra and

  8. Laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy for in situ qualitative and quantitative analysis of mineral ores

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pořízka, P. [BAM, Federal Institute for Materials Research and Testing, Richard Willstätter-Straße 11, D-12489 Berlin (Germany); Institute of Physical Engineering, Faculty of Mechanical Engineering, Brno University of Technology, Technická 2896/2, 61669 Brno (Czech Republic); Demidov, A. [BAM, Federal Institute for Materials Research and Testing, Richard Willstätter-Straße 11, D-12489 Berlin (Germany); Kaiser, J. [Institute of Physical Engineering, Faculty of Mechanical Engineering, Brno University of Technology, Technická 2896/2, 61669 Brno (Czech Republic); Keivanian, J. [Institute for Mining, Technical University Clausthal, Erzstraße 18, 38678 Clausthal-Zellerfeld (Germany); Gornushkin, I. [BAM, Federal Institute for Materials Research and Testing, Richard Willstätter-Straße 11, D-12489 Berlin (Germany); Panne, U. [BAM, Federal Institute for Materials Research and Testing, Richard Willstätter-Straße 11, D-12489 Berlin (Germany); Chemistry Department, Humboldt Univerisät zu Berlin, Brook-Taylor-Straße 2, D-12489 Berlin (Germany); Riedel, J., E-mail: [BAM, Federal Institute for Materials Research and Testing, Richard Willstätter-Straße 11, D-12489 Berlin (Germany)


    In this work, the potential of laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS) for discrimination and analysis of geological materials was examined. The research was focused on classification of mineral ores using their LIBS spectra prior to quantitative determination of copper. Quantitative analysis is not a trivial task in LIBS measurement because intensities of emission lines in laser-induced plasmas (LIP) are strongly affected by the sample matrix (matrix effect). To circumvent this effect, typically matrix-matched standards are used to obtain matrix-dependent calibration curves. If the sample set consists of a mixture of different matrices, even in this approach, the corresponding matrix has to be known prior to the downstream data analysis. For this categorization, the multielemental character of LIBS spectra can be of help. In this contribution, a principal component analysis (PCA) was employed on the measured data set to discriminate individual rocks as individual matrices against each other according to their overall elemental composition. Twenty-seven igneous rock samples were analyzed in the form of fine dust, classified and subsequently quantitatively analyzed. Two different LIBS setups in two laboratories were used to prove the reproducibility of classification and quantification. A superposition of partial calibration plots constructed from the individual clustered data displayed a large improvement in precision and accuracy compared to the calibration plot constructed from all ore samples. The classification of mineral samples with complex matrices can thus be recommended prior to LIBS system calibration and quantitative analysis. - Highlights: • Twenty seven igneous rocks were measured on different LIBS systems. • Principal component analysis (PCA) was employed for classification. • The necessity of the classification of the rock (ore) samples prior to the quantification analysis is stressed. • Classification based on the whole LIP spectra and

  9. Microbial electrolysis desalination and chemical-production cell for CO2 sequestration

    KAUST Repository

    Zhu, Xiuping; Logan, Bruce E.


    Mineral carbonation can be used for CO2 sequestration, but the reaction rate is slow. In order to accelerate mineral carbonation, acid generated in a microbial electrolysis desalination and chemical-production cell (MEDCC) was examined to dissolve

  10. In Situ Identification of Mineral Resources with an X-Ray-Optical "Hands-Lens" Instrument (United States)

    Marshall, J.; Koppel, L.; Bratton, C.; Metzger, E.; Hecht, M.


    The recognition of material resources on a planetary surface requires exploration strategies not dissimilar to those employed by early field geologists who searched for ore deposits primarily from surface clues. In order to determine the location of mineral ores or other materials, it will be necessary to characterize host terranes at regional or subregional scales. This requires geographically broad surveys in which statistically significant numbers of samples are rapidly scanned from a roving platform. To enable broad-scale, yet power-conservative planetary-surface exploration, we are developing an instrument that combines x-ray diffractometry (XRD), x-ray fluorescence spectrometry (XRF), and optical capabilities; the instrument can be deployed at the end of a rover's robotic arm, without the need for sample capture or preparation. The instrument provides XRD data for identification of mineral species and lithological types; diffractometry of minerals is conducted by ascertaining the characteristic lattice parameters or "d-spacings" of mineral compounds. D-spacings of 1.4 to 25 angstroms can be determined to include the large molecular structures of hydrated minerals such as clays. The XRF data will identify elements ranging from carbon (Atomic Number = 6) to elements as heavy as barium (Atomic Number = 56). While a sample is being x-rayed, the instrument simultaneously acquires an optical image of the sample surface at magnifications from lx to at least 50x (200x being feasible, depending on the sample surface). We believe that imaging the sample is extremely important as corroborative sample-identification data (the need for this capability having been illustrated by the experience of the Pathfinder rover). Very few geologists would rely on instrument data for sample identification without having seen the sample. Visual inspection provides critical recognition data such as texture, crystallinity, granularity, porosity, vesicularity, color, lustre, opacity, and

  11. Realization of a collection of reference minerals to develop a technique for in situ dating of the Martian rocks (United States)

    Cattani, F.; Gillot, P. Y.; Hildenbrand, A.; Quidelleur, X.; Courtade, F.; Boukari, C.; Lefevre, J. C.


    -defined relationship between the ablation time and the type of ablated mineral. Experiments have been conducted to test our dating system for rocks with similar features than those from the Martian surface. Our preliminary results show that our QMS and LIBS instruments are suitable for in-situ K-Ar analyses with an uncertainty for K-Ar age much better than 15%.

  12. CO2 emissions from soil incubated with sugarcane straw and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)



    Aug 13, 2014 ... CO2 emissions peaked at 5.45, 10.82, 14.00, 11.92 and 11.20, 14.47, 15.98,and 14.74 µg mol of. CO2 g-1 s-1 within the ... of mineral N for plants and microorganisms. The .... incubation and were highest when incubated at 30°C with average daily ... because the majority of labile C had been consumed.

  13. CO2: a worldwide myth

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gerondeau, Ch.


    In this book, the author demonstrates the paradox that reducing CO 2 emissions leads to no CO 2 abatement at all. This assertion is based on an obvious statement. Everybody knows that oil resources are going to be exhausted in few decades. The oil that industrialized countries will not use will be consumed by emerging countries and the CO 2 emissions will remain the same. Who would believe that the oil, gas or coal still available will remain unused? The Kyoto protocol, the national policies, the European agreements of emissions abatement, the carbon taxes, the emissions abatement requests sent to the rest of the world, all these actions cost a lot and are useless. CO 2 concentration in the atmosphere will inescapably double during the 21. century but, according to the author, without any catastrophic consequence for the Earth. (J.S.)

  14. Connecting CO2. Feasibility study CO2 network Southwest Netherlands; Connecting CO2. Haalbaarheidsstudie CO2-netwerk Zuidwest-Nederland

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rutten, M.


    An overview is given of supply and demand of CO2 in the region Southwest Netherlands and the regions Antwerp and Gent in Belgium. Also attention is paid to possible connections between these regions [Dutch] Een inventarisatie wordt gegeven van vraag en aanbod van CO2 in de regio Zuidwest- Nederland en de regios Antwerpen en Gent in Belgie. Ook worden mogelijke koppelingen tussen de regios besproken.

  15. Practical guidebook about the market of CO2 emission quotas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)


    Since January 1, 2005, the European directive about the trading of CO 2 emission quotas foresees the allocation of CO 2 emission quotas to the industrial sectors that generate huge amounts of greenhouse gases (energy generation, cement, glass, steel-making, mineral and paper industries). A system of trading of CO 2 quotas has been implemented and allows the companies to exchange, sale or purchase quotas in order to be conformable with the volume of CO 2 they have been authorized to release in the atmosphere. This guidebook is a vade mecum of the management of emission quotas. It explains the actions of the international community in favor of the fight against greenhouse emissions, the 3 flexibility mechanisms, the French environmental policy, the European system of fight against climatic change, the CO 2 quotas system and its practical implementation. (J.S.)

  16. Foraminiferal calcification and CO2 (United States)

    Nooijer, L. D.; Toyofuku, T.; Reichart, G. J.


    Ongoing burning of fossil fuels increases atmospheric CO2, elevates marine dissolved CO2 and decreases pH and the saturation state with respect to calcium carbonate. Intuitively this should decrease the ability of CaCO3-producing organisms to build their skeletons and shells. Whereas on geological time scales weathering and carbonate deposition removes carbon from the geo-biosphere, on time scales up to thousands of years, carbonate precipitation increases pCO2 because of the associated shift in seawater carbon speciation. Hence reduced calcification provides a potentially important negative feedback on increased pCO2 levels. Here we show that foraminifera form their calcium carbonate by active proton pumping. This elevates the internal pH and acidifies the direct foraminiferal surrounding. This also creates a strong pCO2 gradient and facilitates the uptake of DIC in the form of carbon dioxide. This finding uncouples saturation state from calcification and predicts that the added carbon due to ocean acidification will promote calcification by these organisms. This unknown effect could add substantially to atmospheric pCO2 levels, and might need to be accounted for in future mitigation strategies.

  17. CO2 reduction through energy conservation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)


    A study was carried out of the potential to economically reduce carbon dioxide emissions through energy conservation in the petroleum and natural gas industry. The study examined current and projected emissions levels, cogeneration at gas plants, flaring, economics, regulation, reporting requirements, implementation, and research and development. Economically attractive energy conservation measures can reduce oil and gas industry, exclusive of Athabasca oil sands operations, CO 2 emissions by 6-7%. The energy conservation options identified range from field energy awareness committees through to equipment retrofits and replacement. At ca 3 million tonnes/y, these reductions will not offset the increases in oil and gas related CO 2 emissions anticipated by producers and Alberta government agencies. There will be increasing emphasis on in-situ bitumen production, more energy intensive light crude oil production and increasing natural gas sales, increasing energy inputs in excess of reductions. Cogeneration of electricity for utility company distribution and for internally required steam at gas plants and in-situ production sites is not economic due to low electricity prices. 8 tabs

  18. Headspace analysis gas-phase infrared spectroscopy: a study of xanthate decomposition on mineral surfaces (United States)

    Vreugdenhil, Andrew J.; Brienne, Stephane H. R.; Markwell, Ross D.; Butler, Ian S.; Finch, James A.


    The O-ethyldithiocarbonate (ethyl xanthate, CH 3CH 2OCS -2) anion is a widely used reagent in mineral processing for the separation of sulphide minerals by froth flotation. Ethyl xanthate interacts with mineral powders to produce a hydrophobic layer on the mineral surface. A novel infrared technique, headspace analysis gas-phase infrared spectroscopy (HAGIS) has been used to study the in situ thermal decomposition products of ethyl xanthate on mineral surfaces. These products include CS 2, COS, CO 2, CH 4, SO 2, and higher molecular weight alkyl-containing species. Decomposition pathways have been proposed with some information determined from 2H- and 13C-isotope labelling experiments.

  19. CO2 Capture and Reuse

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thambimuthu, K.; Gupta, M.; Davison, J.


    CO2 capture and storage including its utilization or reuse presents an opportunity to achieve deep reductions in greenhouse gas emissions from fossil energy use. The development and deployment of this option could significantly assist in meeting a future goal of achieving stabilization of the presently rising atmospheric concentration of greenhouse gases. CO2 capture from process streams is an established concept that has achieved industrial practice. Examples of current applications include the use of primarily, solvent based capture technologies for the recovery of pure CO2 streams for chemical synthesis, for utilization as a food additive, for use as a miscible agent in enhanced oil recovery operations and removal of CO2 as an undesired contaminant from gaseous process streams for the production of fuel gases such as hydrogen and methane. In these applications, the technologies deployed for CO2 capture have focused on gas separation from high purity, high pressure streams and in reducing (or oxygen deficient) environments, where the energy penalties and cost for capture are moderately low. However, application of the same capture technologies for large scale abatement of greenhouse gas emissions from fossil fuel use poses significant challenges in achieving (at comparably low energy penalty and cost) gas separation in large volume, dilute concentration and/or low pressure flue gas streams. This paper will focus on a review of existing commercial methods of CO2 capture and the technology stretch, process integration and energy system pathways needed for their large scale deployment in fossil fueled processes. The assessment of potential capture technologies for the latter purpose will also be based on published literature data that are both 'transparent' and 'systematic' in their evaluation of the overall cost and energy penalties of CO2 capture. In view of the of the fact that many of the existing commercial processes for CO2 capture have seen applications in

  20. Multiscale observations of CO2, 13CO2, and pollutants at Four Corners for emission verification and attribution (United States)

    Lindenmaier, Rodica; Dubey, Manvendra K.; Henderson, Bradley G.; Butterfield, Zachary T.; Herman, Jay R.; Rahn, Thom; Lee, Sang-Hyun


    There is a pressing need to verify air pollutant and greenhouse gas emissions from anthropogenic fossil energy sources to enforce current and future regulations. We demonstrate the feasibility of using simultaneous remote sensing observations of column abundances of CO2, CO, and NO2 to inform and verify emission inventories. We report, to our knowledge, the first ever simultaneous column enhancements in CO2 (3–10 ppm) and NO2 (1–3 Dobson Units), and evidence of δ13CO2 depletion in an urban region with two large coal-fired power plants with distinct scrubbing technologies that have resulted in ∆NOx/∆CO2 emission ratios that differ by a factor of two. Ground-based total atmospheric column trace gas abundances change synchronously and correlate well with simultaneous in situ point measurements during plume interceptions. Emission ratios of ∆NOx/∆CO2 and ∆SO2/∆CO2 derived from in situ atmospheric observations agree with those reported by in-stack monitors. Forward simulations using in-stack emissions agree with remote column CO2 and NO2 plume observations after fine scale adjustments. Both observed and simulated column ∆NO2/∆CO2 ratios indicate that a large fraction (70–75%) of the region is polluted. We demonstrate that the column emission ratios of ∆NO2/∆CO2 can resolve changes from day-to-day variation in sources with distinct emission factors (clean and dirty power plants, urban, and fires). We apportion these sources by using NO2, SO2, and CO as signatures. Our high-frequency remote sensing observations of CO2 and coemitted pollutants offer promise for the verification of power plant emission factors and abatement technologies from ground and space. PMID:24843169

  1. Reactivity of dissolved- vs. supercritical-CO2 phase toward muscovite basal surfaces (United States)

    Wan, J.; Tokunaga, T. K.; Kim, Y.; Wang, S.; Altoe, M. V. P.; Ashby, P. D.; DePaolo, D.


    The current understanding of geochemical reactions in reservoirs for geological carbon sequestration (GCS) is largely based on aqueous chemistry (CO2 dissolves in reservoir brine and brine reacts with rocks). However, only a portion of the injected supercritical (sc) CO2 dissolves before the buoyant plume contacts caprock, where it is expected to reside for a long time. Although numerous studies have addressed scCO2-mineral reactions occurring within adsorbed aqueous films, possible reactions resulting from direct CO2-rock contact remain less understood. Does CO2 as a supercritical phase react with reservoir rocks? Do mineral react differently with scCO2 than with dissolved CO2? We selected muscovite, one of the more stable and common rock-forming silicate minerals, to react with scCO2 phase (both water-saturated and water-free) and compared with CO2-saturated-brine. The reacted basal surfaces were analyzed using atomic force microscopy and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy for examining the changes in surface morphology and chemistry. The results show that scCO2 (regardless of its water content) altered muscovite considerably more than CO2-saturated brine; suggest CO2 diffusion into mica interlayers and localized mica dissolution into scCO2 phase. The mechanisms underlying these observations and their implications for GCS need further exploration.

  2. Characterization of hydrotalcite materials for CO2 selective membranes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Feuillade, V.C.; Haije, W.G. [ECN Hydrogen and Clean Fossil Fuels, Petten (Netherlands)


    The present concern about climate change has urged researchers and engineers all over the world to go and look for ways of reducing greenhouse gas emissions. Largescale CO2 emissions occur at power plants burning fossil fuels or e.g. the production of hydrogen from carbonaceous feed. In these cases pre- or post-combustion CO2 capture techniques followed by CO2 storage seems a promising route for reducing emissions. Prerequisite in these processes is the effective separation of CO2 from mixed gaseous process streams. The purpose of this work is to develop CO2 membranes to allow for the combination of natural gas reforming with separation of H2 and CO2 in separation enhanced reactors, i.e. membrane reactors, for carbon-free hydrogen production or electricity generation. This paper describes the materials' properties of hydrotalcites, a promising class of compounds for CO2 membranes. They have already proven their applicability as CO2 sorbent in sorption enhanced reaction processes. It is of fundamental importance to know the structural stability of this compound in the operational window of a chosen membrane reactor prior to any membrane fabrication. To this end, in-situ XRPD and DRIFTS as well as TGA-MS and SEM-EDX measurements have been performed on commercial (Pural) and hydrothermally synthesized homemade samples.

  3. CO2/Brine transport into shallow aquifers along fault zones. (United States)

    Keating, Elizabeth H; Newell, Dennis L; Viswanathan, Hari; Carey, J W; Zyvoloski, G; Pawar, Rajesh


    Unintended release of CO(2) from carbon sequestration reservoirs poses a well-recognized risk to groundwater quality. Research has largely focused on in situ CO(2)-induced pH depression and subsequent trace metal mobilization. In this paper we focus on a second mechanism: upward intrusion of displaced brine or brackish-water into a shallow aquifer as a result of CO(2) injection. Studies of two natural analog sites provide insights into physical and chemical mechanisms controlling both brackish water and CO(2) intrusion into shallow aquifers along fault zones. At the Chimayó, New Mexico site, shallow groundwater near the fault is enriched in CO(2) and, in some places, salinity is significantly elevated. In contrast, at the Springerville, Arizona site CO(2) is leaking upward through brine aquifers but does not appear to be increasing salinity in the shallow aquifer. Using multiphase transport simulations we show conditions under which significant CO(2) can be transported through deep brine aquifers into shallow layers. Only a subset of these conditions favor entrainment of salinity into the shallow aquifer: high aspect-ratio leakage pathways and viscous coupling between the fluid phases. Recognition of the conditions under which salinity is favored to be cotransported with CO(2) into shallow aquifers will be important in environmental risk assessments.

  4. The effect of elevated CO2 and temperature on nutrient uptake by plants grown in basaltic soil (United States)

    Villasenor Iribe, E.; Dontsova, K.; Juarez, S.; Le Galliard, J. F.; Chollet, S.; Llavata, M.; Massol, F.; Barré, P.; Gelabert, A.; Daval, D.; Troch, P.; Barron-Gafford, G.; Van Haren, J. L. M.; Ferrière, R.


    Mineral weathering is an important process in soil formation. The interactions between the hydrologic, geologic and atmospheric cycles often determine the rate at which weathering occurs. Elements and nutrients weathered from the soil by water can be removed from soils in the runoff and seepage, but they can also remain in situ as newly precipitated secondary minerals or in biomass as a result of plant uptake. Here we present data from an experiment that was conducted at the controlled environment facility, Ecotron Ile-de-France (Saint-Pierre-les-Nemours, France) that studied mineral weathering and plant growth in granular basaltic material with high glass content that is being used to simulate soil in large scale Biosphere 2 Landscape Evolution Observatory (LEO) project. The experiment used 3 plant types: velvet mesquite (Prosopis velutina), green spangletop (Leptochloa dubia), and alfalfa (Medicago sativa), which were grown under varying temperature and CO2 conditions. We hypothesized that plants grown under warmer, higher CO2 conditions would have larger nutrient concentrations as more mineral weathering would occur. Results of plant digestions and analysis showed that plant concentrations of lithogenic elements were significantly influenced by the plant type and were different between above- and below-ground parts of the plant. Temperature and CO2 treatment effects were less pronounced, but we observed significant temperature effect on plant uptake. A number of major and trace elements showed increase in concentration with increase in temperature at elevated atmospheric CO2. Effect was observed both in the shoots and in the roots, but more significant differences were observed in the shoots. Results presented here indicate that climate change would have strong effect on plant uptake and mobility of weathered elements during soil formation and give further evidence of interactions between abiotic and biological processes in terrestrial ecosystems.

  5. Feasibility of using fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) to detect early gene changes in sputum cells from uranium miners

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Neft, R.E.; Rogers, J.L.; Belinsky, S.A. [and others


    Epidemiological studies have shown that combined exposure to radon progeny and tobacco smoke produce a greater than additive or synergistic increase in lung cancer risk. Lung cancer results from multiple genetic changes over a long period of time. An early change that occurs in lung cancer is trisomy 7 which is found in 50% of non-small cell lung cancer and in the far margins of resected lung tumors. The 80% mortality associated with lung cancer is in part related to the high proportion of patients who present with an advanced, unresectable tumor. Therefore, early detection of patients at risk for tumor development is critical to improve treatment of this disease. Currently, it is difficult to detect lung cancer early while it is still amendable by surgery. Saccomanno, G. has shown that premalignant cytologic changes in sputum cells collected from uranium miners can be detected by a skilled, highly trained cytopathologist. A more objective alternative for identifying premalignant cells in sputum may be to determine whether an early genetic change such as trisomy 7 is present in these cells. Fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) can be used to identify cells with trisomy 7. The results of this investigation indicate that FISH may prove to be an accurate, efficient method to test at-risk individuals for genetic alterations in bronchial epithelial cells from sputum.

  6. Feasibility of using fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) to detect early gene changes in sputum cells from uranium miners

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Neft, R.E.; Rogers, J.L.; Belinsky, S.A.


    Epidemiological studies have shown that combined exposure to radon progeny and tobacco smoke produce a greater than additive or synergistic increase in lung cancer risk. Lung cancer results from multiple genetic changes over a long period of time. An early change that occurs in lung cancer is trisomy 7 which is found in 50% of non-small cell lung cancer and in the far margins of resected lung tumors. The 80% mortality associated with lung cancer is in part related to the high proportion of patients who present with an advanced, unresectable tumor. Therefore, early detection of patients at risk for tumor development is critical to improve treatment of this disease. Currently, it is difficult to detect lung cancer early while it is still amendable by surgery. Saccomanno, G. has shown that premalignant cytologic changes in sputum cells collected from uranium miners can be detected by a skilled, highly trained cytopathologist. A more objective alternative for identifying premalignant cells in sputum may be to determine whether an early genetic change such as trisomy 7 is present in these cells. Fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) can be used to identify cells with trisomy 7. The results of this investigation indicate that FISH may prove to be an accurate, efficient method to test at-risk individuals for genetic alterations in bronchial epithelial cells from sputum

  7. Geologic CO2 Sequestration: Predicting and Confirming Performance in Oil Reservoirs and Saline Aquifers (United States)

    Johnson, J. W.; Nitao, J. J.; Newmark, R. L.; Kirkendall, B. A.; Nimz, G. J.; Knauss, K. G.; Ziagos, J. P.


    Reducing anthropogenic CO2 emissions ranks high among the grand scientific challenges of this century. In the near-term, significant reductions can only be achieved through innovative sequestration strategies that prevent atmospheric release of large-scale CO2 waste streams. Among such strategies, injection into confined geologic formations represents arguably the most promising alternative; and among potential geologic storage sites, oil reservoirs and saline aquifers represent the most attractive targets. Oil reservoirs offer a unique "win-win" approach because CO2 flooding is an effective technique of enhanced oil recovery (EOR), while saline aquifers offer immense storage capacity and widespread distribution. Although CO2-flood EOR has been widely used in the Permian Basin and elsewhere since the 1980s, the oil industry has just recently become concerned with the significant fraction of injected CO2 that eludes recycling and is therefore sequestered. This "lost" CO2 now has potential economic value in the growing emissions credit market; hence, the industry's emerging interest in recasting CO2 floods as co-optimized EOR/sequestration projects. The world's first saline aquifer storage project was also catalyzed in part by economics: Norway's newly imposed atmospheric emissions tax, which spurred development of Statoil's unique North Sea Sleipner facility in 1996. Successful implementation of geologic sequestration projects hinges on development of advanced predictive models and a diverse set of remote sensing, in situ sampling, and experimental techniques. The models are needed to design and forecast long-term sequestration performance; the monitoring techniques are required to confirm and refine model predictions and to ensure compliance with environmental regulations. We have developed a unique reactive transport modeling capability for predicting sequestration performance in saline aquifers, and used it to simulate CO2 injection at Sleipner; we are now

  8. The CO2nnect activities (United States)

    Eugenia, Marcu


    Climate change is one of the biggest challenges we face today. A first step is the understanding the problem, more exactly what is the challenge and the differences people can make. Pupils need a wide competencies to meet the challenges of sustainable development - including climate change. The CO2nnect activities are designed to support learning which can provide pupils the abilities, skills, attitudes and awareness as well as knowledge and understanding of the issues. The project "Together for a clean and healthy world" is part of "The Global Educational Campaign CO2nnect- CO2 on the way to school" and it was held in our school in the period between February and October 2009. It contained a variety of curricular and extra-curricular activities, adapted to students aged from 11 to 15. These activities aimed to develop in students the necessary skills to understanding man's active role in improving the quality of the environment, putting an end to its degrading process and to reducing the effects of climate changes caused by the human intervention in nature, including transport- a source of CO2 pollution. The activity which I propose can be easily adapted to a wide range of age groups and linked to the curricula of many subjects: - Investigate CO2 emissions from travel to school -Share the findings using an international database -Compare and discuss CO2 emissions -Submit questions to a climate- and transport expert -Partner with other schools -Meet with people in your community to discuss emissions from transport Intended learning outcomes for pupils who participate in the CO2nnect campaign are: Understanding of the interconnected mobility- and climate change issue climate change, its causes and consequences greenhouse-gas emissions from transport and mobility the interlinking of social, environmental, cultural and economic aspects of the local transport system how individual choices and participation can contribute to creating a more sustainable development

  9. CO2 storage in Sweden

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ekstroem, Clas; Andersson, Annika; Kling, Aasa; Bernstone, Christian; Carlsson, Anders; Liljemark, Stefan; Wall, Caroline; Erstedt, Thomas; Lindroth, Maria; Tengborg, Per; Edstroem, Mikael


    This study considers options, that could be feasible for Sweden, to transport and geologically store CO 2 , providing that technology for electricity production with CO 2 capture will be available in the future and also acceptable from cost- and reliability point of view. As a starting point, it is assumed that a new 600-1000 MW power plant, fired with coal or natural gas, will be constructed with CO 2 capture and localised to the Stockholm, Malmoe or Goeteborg areas. Of vital importance for storage of carbon dioxide in a reservoir is the possibility to monitor its distribution, i.e. its migration within the reservoir. It has been shown in the SACS-project that the distribution of carbon dioxide within the reservoir can be monitored successfully, mainly by seismic methods. Suitable geologic conditions and a large storage potential seems to exist mainly in South West Scania, where additional knowledge on geology/hydrogeology has been obtained since the year 2000 in connection to geothermal energy projects, and in the Eastern part of Denmark, bordering on South West Scania. Storage of carbon dioxide from the Stockholm area should not be excluded, but more studies are needed to clarify the storage options within this area. The possibilities to use CO 2 for enhanced oil recovery, EOR, in i.a. the North Sea should be investigated, in order to receive incomes from the CO 2 and shared costs for infrastructure, and by this also make the CO 2 regarded as a trading commodity, and thereby achieving a more favourable position concerning acceptance, legal issues and regulations. The dimensions of CO 2 -pipelines should be similar to those for natural natural gas, although regarding some aspects they have different design and construction prerequisites. To obtain cost efficiency, the transport distances should be kept short, and possibilities for co-ordinated networks with short distribution pipelines connected to common main pipelines, should be searched for. Also, synergies

  10. CO2 leakage monitoring and analysis to understand the variation of CO2 concentration in vadose zone by natural effects (United States)

    Joun, Won-Tak; Ha, Seung-Wook; Kim, Hyun Jung; Ju, YeoJin; Lee, Sung-Sun; Lee, Kang-Kun


    Controlled ex-situ experiments and continuous CO2 monitoring in the field are significant implications for detecting and monitoring potential leakage from CO2 sequestration reservoir. However, it is difficult to understand the observed parameters because the natural disturbance will fluctuate the signal of detections in given local system. To identify the original source leaking from sequestration reservoir and to distinguish the camouflaged signal of CO2 concentration, the artificial leakage test was conducted in shallow groundwater environment and long-term monitoring have been performed. The monitoring system included several parameters such as pH, temperature, groundwater level, CO2 gas concentration, wind speed and direction, atmospheric pressure, borehole pressure, and rainfall event etc. Especially in this study, focused on understanding a relationship among the CO2 concentration, wind speed, rainfall and pressure difference. The results represent that changes of CO2 concentration in vadose zone could be influenced by physical parameters and this reason is helpful in identifying the camouflaged signal of CO2 concentrations. The 1-D column laboratory experiment also was conducted to understand the sparking-peak as shown in observed data plot. The results showed a similar peak plot and could consider two assumptions why the sparking-peak was shown. First, the trapped CO2 gas was escaped when the water table was changed. Second, the pressure equivalence between CO2 gas and water was broken when the water table was changed. These field data analysis and laboratory experiment need to advance due to comprehensively quantify local long-term dynamics of the artificial CO2 leaking aquifer. Acknowledgement Financial support was provided by the "R&D Project on Environmental Management of Geologic CO2 Storage" from the KEITI (Project Number: 2014001810003)

  11. Storage of CO2 by mineral carbonation of olivine: Study of the global process for the recovery of the reaction products and the separation of chromite particles by flotation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Turri, Laura


    This work deals with the study of direct carbonation of olivine in solution, for the chemical transformation of CO 2 emitted by the industries. The influence of operating conditions is evaluated in order to optimize the yield of the reaction. However, for environmental acceptability and economic viability of the project, the beneficiation of recoverable metals and products is considered. Chromite particles contained in olivine are unreactive during the carbonation reaction: the separation is developed by flotation upstream of the reaction. According to the results, the extraction of chromite by magnetic separation is also conceivable. Gravimetric separation by sedimentation is considered to recover residual olivine in the reaction products, in order to recycle them in the carbonation process. Products sieving allowed to concentrate carbonates (less than 40 μm) and silica (between 40 and 106 μm). However, the co-precipitation of mixed carbonates due to the presence of iron and nickel included in the magnesium matrix, compromises the purification and the optimal valorization of the solids. Moreover, the formation of a passivation layer on the particles surface limits the conversion of olivine. Pretreatment of olivine is envisaged for the leaching of nickel in ammoniac solution. Besides, preliminary dissolution of olivine and selective precipitation of species with pH control of the solution can be an interesting alternative for higher carbonation extent and more efficient purification of the products. (author)

  12. Projecting Soil Feedbacks to Atmospheric CO2 Following Erosion and Deposition on Centennial Timescales in Two Contrasting Forests: A Study of Critical Zone-Atmosphere Exchange (United States)

    Billings, S. A.; Richter, D., Jr.; Ziegler, S. E.; Prestegaard, K. L.


    For almost 20 y there has been a growing recognition that erosion and associated lateral movement of SOC does not necessarily result in a net CO2 source from terrestrial sources to the atmosphere. Eroded SOC may undergo mineralization to CO2 at a more rapid pace than it would have in situ, but the eroding ecosystem continues to generate SOC at a potentially modified rate, and the eroding profile may also experience changing SOC mineralization rates. No one knows how these process rates may change upon erosion. Years ago, we introduced a model that computes the influence of erosion on biosphere-atmosphere CO2 exchange for any profile of interest. The model permits the user to test how assumptions of changing SOC production and mineralization can influence the degree to which erosion induces a net CO2 sink or source. Here we present an analogous model depicting how deposition of eroded SOC also can result in altered biosphere-atmosphere CO2 exchange. We employ both models to investigate how erosion and deposition in two contrasting forested regions may influence regional C budgets. Runoff-induced erosion in a boreal forest occurs at low rates, but removes C-rich, organic material; anthropogenically-enhanced erosion in a warm temperate forest removed both O- and mineral-rich A-horizons. Model runs (100 y) suggest that even though the great volume of mineral soil eroded from the temperate forest was relatively low-SOC, high erosion rates prompted greater potential for erosion to serve as a net CO2 sink compared to the boreal forest where C-rich material was lost but erosion rates remained low. The models further suggest that changes in SOC production and mineralization at eroding sites in both forest types are a greater influence on CO2 source or sink strength than analogous changes at depositional sites. The fate of eroded material and the influence of erosion and deposition on SOC dynamics remain knowledge gaps critical for projecting atmospheric CO2.

  13. Deep microbial life in the Altmark natural gas reservoir: baseline characterization prior CO2 injection (United States)

    Morozova, Daria; Shaheed, Mina; Vieth, Andrea; Krüger, Martin; Kock, Dagmar; Würdemann, Hilke


    Within the framework of the CLEAN project (CO2 Largescale Enhanced gas recovery in the Altmark Natural gas field) technical basics with special emphasis on process monitoring are explored by injecting CO2 into a gas reservoir. Our study focuses on the investigation of the in-situ microbial community of the Rotliegend natural gas reservoir in the Altmark, located south of the city Salzwedel, Germany. In order to characterize the microbial life in the extreme habitat we aim to localize and identify microbes including their metabolism influencing the creation and dissolution of minerals. The ability of microorganisms to speed up dissolution and formation of minerals might result in changes of the local permeability and the long-term safety of CO2 storage. However, geology, structure and chemistry of the reservoir rock and the cap rock as well as interaction with saline formation water and natural gases and the injected CO2 affect the microbial community composition and activity. The reservoir located at the depth of about 3500m, is characterised by high salinity fluid and temperatures up to 127° C. It represents an extreme environment for microbial life and therefore the main focus is on hyperthermophilic, halophilic anaerobic microorganisms. In consequence of the injection of large amounts of CO2 in the course of a commercial EGR (Enhanced Gas Recovery) the environmental conditions (e.g. pH, temperature, pressure and solubility of minerals) for the autochthonous microorganisms will change. Genetic profiling of amplified 16S rRNA genes are applied for detecting structural changes in the community by using PCR- SSCP (PCR-Single-Strand-Conformation Polymorphism) and DGGE (Denaturing Gradient Gel Electrophoresis). First results of the baseline survey indicate the presence of microorganisms similar to representatives from other saline, hot, anoxic, deep environments. However, due to the hypersaline and hyperthermophilic reservoir conditions, cell numbers are low, so that

  14. On a CO2 ration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    De Wit, P.


    In 2 years all the large energy companies in the European Union will have a CO2 ration, including a system to trade a shortage or surplus of emission rights. A cost effective system to reduce emission, provided that the government does not auction the emission rights [nl

  15. Reducing cement's CO2 footprint (United States)

    van Oss, Hendrik G.


    The manufacturing process for Portland cement causes high levels of greenhouse gas emissions. However, environmental impacts can be reduced by using more energy-efficient kilns and replacing fossil energy with alternative fuels. Although carbon capture and new cements with less CO2 emission are still in the experimental phase, all these innovations can help develop a cleaner cement industry.

  16. Application of a 1,1,3,3-tetramethylguanidine (TMG)/MeOH-CO2 in situ derivatization procedure for the gas chromatographic characterization of the fatty acid profile in olive oil. (United States)

    Saliu, F; Anzano, M; Franzetti, A


    1,1,3,3-Tetramethylguanidine (TMG), methanol and carbon dioxide were investigated as switchable polarity solvents (SPS) in the simultaneous derivatization and extraction of triacylglycerols for the gas chromatographic (GC) characterization of olive oil. Three commercial olive oils were used as test samples. Results of the developed method did not differ statistically from those provided by reference derivatization procedures. The transesterification reaction was carried out under a very mild condition, one step and in situ, and no particular matrix interferences were evidenced. The method represented the first example of the use of a switchable polarity mixture for the preparation of methyl ester derivatives of fatty acids (FAME).

  17. Sequestering CO2 in the Built Environment (United States)

    Constantz, B. R.


    Calera’s Carbonate Mineralization by Aqueous Precipitation (CMAP) technology with beneficial reuse has been called, “game-changing” by Carl Pope, Director of the Sierra Club. Calera offers a solution to the scale of the carbon problem. By capturing carbon into the built environment through carbonate mineralization, Calera provides a sound and cost-effective alternative to Geologic Sequestration and Terrestrial Sequestration. The CMAP technology permanently converts carbon dioxide into a mineral form that can be stored above ground, or used as a building material. The process produces a suite of carbonate-containing minerals of various polymorphic forms. Calera product can be substituted into blends with ordinary Portland cements and used as aggregate to produce concrete with reduced carbon, carbon neutral, or carbon negative footprints. For each ton of product produced, approximately half a ton of carbon dioxide can be sequestered using the Calera process. Coal and natural gas are composed of predominately istopically light carbon, as the carbon in the fuel is plant-derived. Thus, power plant CO2 emissions have relatively low δ13C values.The carbon species throughout the CMAP process are identified through measuring the inorganic carbon content, δ13C values of the dissolved carbonate species, and the product carbonate minerals. Measuring δ13C allows for tracking the flue gas CO2 throughout the capture process. Initial analysis of the capture of propane flue gas (δ13C ˜ -25 ‰) with seawater (δ13C ˜ -10 ‰) and industrial brucite tailings from a retired magnesium oxide plant in Moss Landing, CA (δ13C ˜ -7 ‰ from residual calcite) produced carbonate mineral products with a δ13C value of ˜ -20 ‰. This isotopically light carbon, transformed from flue gas to stable carbonate minerals, can be transferred and tracked through the capture process, and finally to the built environment. CMAP provides an economical solution to global warming by producing

  18. Soil CO2 evolution: Response from arginine additions (United States)

    Short-term response of soil C mineralization following drying/rewetting has been proposed as an indicator of soil microbial activity. Houston Black clay was amended with four rates of arginine to vary microbial response and keep other soil properties constant. The evolution of CO2 during one and thr...

  19. CO2 - The Canary in the Energy Efficiency Coal Mine (United States)

    Somssich, Peter


    While much of the discussion surrounding CO2 is focused on its role as a GHG (green house gas) and its affect on Climate Change, CO2 can also be viewed as an indicator for reductions in fossil fuel use and increased energy efficiency. Much as the canary in a mine was used to warn miners of unsafe health conditions in a mine, CO2 can be seen as allowing us to effectively track progress towards energy efficiency and sustainability. Such an effort can best be achieved by either a Carbon Tax or a Cap and Trade system which was highly effective as part of the 1992 Clean Air Act, contributing to a significant reduction of SO2 and acid rain. A similar attempt has been made using the 1997 Kyoto Protocol to reduce carbon emissions. The mechanisms of how this treaty was intended to work will be explained, and examples will be given, both in the USA and Europe, of how the protocol was used to reduce energy consumption and energy dependence, while also reducing CO2 emissions. Regardless of how strong an impact CO2 reduction may have for Climate Change issues, a reduction of CO2 is guaranteed to produce energy benefits, monetary benefits and can even enhance national security. For all of these reasons, we need the CO2 canary.

  20. Achieving Negative CO2 Emissions by Protecting Ocean Chemistry (United States)

    Cannara, A.


    Industrial Age CO2 added 1.8 trillion tons to the atmosphere. About ¼ has dissolved in seas. The rest still dissolves, bolstered by present emissions of >30 gigatons/year. Airborne & oceanic CO2 have induced sea warming & ocean acidification*. This paper suggests a way to induce a negative CO2-emissions environment for climate & oceans - preserve the planet`s dominant CO2-sequestration system ( 1 gigaton/year via calcifying sea life**) by promptly protecting ocean chemistry via expansion of clean power for both lime production & replacement of CO2-emitting sources. Provide natural alkali (CaO, MgO…) to oceans to maintain average pH above 8.0, as indicated by marine biologists. That alkali (lime) is available from past calcifying life's limestone deposits, so can be returned safely to seas once its CO2 is removed & permanently sequestered (Carbfix, BSCP, etc.***). Limestone is a dense source of CO2 - efficient processing per mole sequestered. Distribution of enough lime is possible via cargo-ship transits - 10,000 tons lime/transit, 1 million transits/year. New Panamax ships carry 120,000 tons. Just 10,000/transit allows gradual reduction of present & past CO2 emissions effects, if coupled with combustion-power reductions. CO2 separation from limestone, as in cement plants, consumes 400kWHrs of thermal energy per ton of output lime (or CO2). To combat yearly CO2 dissolution in seas, we must produce & distribute about 10gigatons of lime/year. Only nuclear power produces the clean energy (thousands of terawatt hours) to meet this need - 1000 dedicated 1GWe reactors, processing 12 cubic miles of limestone/year & sequestering CO2 into a similar mass of basalt. Basalt is common in the world. Researchers*** report it provides good, mineralized CO2 sequestration. The numbers above allow gradual CO2 reduction in air and seas, if we return to President Kennedy's energy path: We're on an environmental precipice due to failure to eliminate

  1. In situ speciation of the functional groups at mineral/electrolyte interfaces by sum frequency vibrational spectroscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Floersheimer, M.; Kruse, K.; Klenze, R.; Kim, J.I. [Institut fuer Nukleare Entsorgung, Forschungszentrum Karlsruhe, Postfach 3640, D-76021 Karlsruhe (Germany); Fanghaenel, Th. [Institut fuer Nukleare Entsorgung, Forschungszentrum Karlsruhe, Postfach 3640, D-76021 Karlsruhe (Germany); Physikalisch-Chemisches Institut, Ruprecht-Karls-Universitaet Heidelberg, Im Neuenheimer Feld 253, D-69120, Heidelberg (Germany)


    Full text of publication follows: In order to describe surface reactivity and adsorption/desorption processes on the molecular level, a large number of functional groups has been postulated. In most cases, however, a direct proof for the existence of these species in real aquatic environment is lacking because it is difficult to obtain chemical analytical information in situ under electrolyte with interface selectivity. Here we apply interface selective sum frequency (SF) vibrational spectroscopy to study the (001) and (110) surfaces of sapphire ({alpha}-Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}) under water between pH 4 and 12. This work is part of an ongoing fundamental study of the sorption mechanism of actinides on single crystals faces of sapphire by various experimental and theoretical techniques. Sapphire is used as a simple model for natural clay minerals and related iron phases. In the O-H stretch region of the infrared spectrum between 2800 and 4000 cm{sup -1}, we observe a surprisingly large number of 8 SF bands in total. Two of them are due to the polar ordered water film near the mineral surface which is well known from various aquatic interfaces. The other bands originate from up to 6 different aluminol species or from specifically [1] bound water molecules. The prominent peak of the (001) surface (SF intensity maximum at 3690 cm{sup -1}), we attribute to an OH species bridging two [1-4] aluminium atoms. At the (110) surface, the concentration of this species is considerably smaller. Another aluminol species that can be detected at the (001) and the (110) surface (signal maximum near 3450 cm{sup -1}) exhibits O-H bonds which are almost parallel to the interface plane. This species is probably the in-plane aluminol group predicted in recent molecular dynamics calculations [4]. SF spectroscopy allows us also to measure the absolute polar orientation of the water molecules adjacent to the mineral surface. The inversion of the molecules polar orientation upon alteration of the p

  2. Global energy / CO2 projections

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sinyak, Y.


    Section headings are: (1) Social and economic problems of the 21 st century and the role of energy supply systems (2) Energy-environment interactions as a central point of energy research activities (3) New ways of technological progress and its impacts on energy demand and supply (4) Long-term global energy projections (5) Comparative analysis of global long-term energy / CO 2 studies (6) Conclusions. The author shows that, in order to alleviate the negative impacts of energy systems on the climate, it will be necessary to undertake tremendous efforts to improve the energy use efficiency, to drastically change the primary energy mix, and, at the same time, to take action to reduce greenhouse emissions from other sources and increase the CO 2 sink through enhanced reforestation. (Quittner)

  3. Fang CO2 med Aminosyrer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lerche, Benedicte Mai


    Med såkaldte “carbon capture-teknikker” er det muligt at rense røgen fra kulfyrede kraftværker, således at den er næsten helt fri for drivhusgassen CO2. Kunsten er at gøre processen tilstrækkeligt billig. Et lovende fangstredskab i denne proces er aminosyrer.......Med såkaldte “carbon capture-teknikker” er det muligt at rense røgen fra kulfyrede kraftværker, således at den er næsten helt fri for drivhusgassen CO2. Kunsten er at gøre processen tilstrækkeligt billig. Et lovende fangstredskab i denne proces er aminosyrer....

  4. Structural characterization of framework–gas interactions in the metal–organic framework Co2(dobdc) by in situ single-crystal X-ray diffraction† †Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available: Supplementary figures, crystallographic information, adsorption isotherms and fits, CCDC 1530119–1530126. For ESI and crystallographic data in CIF or other electronic format. See DOI: 10.1039/c7sc00449d Click here for additional data file. Click here for additional data file. (United States)

    Gonzalez, Miguel I.; Mason, Jarad A.; Bloch, Eric D.; Teat, Simon J.; Gagnon, Kevin J.; Morrison, Gregory Y.; Queen, Wendy L.


    The crystallographic characterization of framework–guest interactions in metal–organic frameworks allows the location of guest binding sites and provides meaningful information on the nature of these interactions, enabling the correlation of structure with adsorption behavior. Here, techniques developed for in situ single-crystal X-ray diffraction experiments on porous crystals have enabled the direct observation of CO, CH4, N2, O2, Ar, and P4 adsorption in Co2(dobdc) (dobdc4– = 2,5-dioxido-1,4-benzenedicarboxylate), a metal–organic framework bearing coordinatively unsaturated cobalt(ii) sites. All these molecules exhibit such weak interactions with the high-spin cobalt(ii) sites in the framework that no analogous molecular structures exist, demonstrating the utility of metal–organic frameworks as crystalline matrices for the isolation and structural determination of unstable species. Notably, the Co–CH4 and Co–Ar interactions observed in Co2(dobdc) represent, to the best of our knowledge, the first single-crystal structure determination of a metal–CH4 interaction and the first crystallographically characterized metal–Ar interaction. Analysis of low-pressure gas adsorption isotherms confirms that these gases exhibit mainly physisorptive interactions with the cobalt(ii) sites in Co2(dobdc), with differential enthalpies of adsorption as weak as –17(1) kJ mol–1 (for Ar). Moreover, the structures of Co2(dobdc)·3.8N2, Co2(dobdc)·5.9O2, and Co2(dobdc)·2.0Ar reveal the location of secondary (N2, O2, and Ar) and tertiary (O2) binding sites in Co2(dobdc), while high-pressure CO2, CO, CH4, N2, and Ar adsorption isotherms show that these binding sites become more relevant at elevated pressures. PMID:28966783

  5. Soil warming enhances the hidden shift of elemental stoichiometry by elevated CO2 in wheat

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Li, Xiangnan; Jiang, Dong; Liu, Fulai


    sap and their partitioning in different organs of wheat plant during grain filling were investigated. Results showed that the combination of elevated [CO2] and soil warming improved wheat grain yield, but decreased plant K, Ca and Mg accumulation and their concentrations in the leaves, stems, roots......Increase in atmospheric CO2 concentration ([CO2]) and associated soil warming along with global climate change are expected to have large impacts on grain mineral nutrition in wheat. The effects of CO2 elevation (700 μmol l(-1)) and soil warming (+2.4 °C) on K, Ca and Mg concentrations in the xylem...... and grains. The reduced grain mineral concentration was attributed to the lowered mineral uptake as exemplified by both the decreased stomatal conductance and mineral concentration in the xylem sap. These findings suggest that future higher atmospheric [CO2] and warmer soil conditions may decrease...

  6. CO2 reduction by dematerialization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hekkert, M.P. [Department of Innovation Studies, Copernicus Institute, Utrecht University, Utrecht (Netherlands)


    Current policy for the reduction of greenhouse gases is mainly concerned with a number of types of solutions: energy saving, shifting to the use of low-carbon fuels and the implementation of sustainable energy technologies. Recent research has shown that a strategy directed at a more efficient use of materials could make a considerable contribution to reducing CO2 emissions. Moreover, the costs to society as a whole of such a measure appear to be very low.

  7. Outsourcing CO2 within China. (United States)

    Feng, Kuishuang; Davis, Steven J; Sun, Laixiang; Li, Xin; Guan, Dabo; Liu, Weidong; Liu, Zhu; Hubacek, Klaus


    Recent studies have shown that the high standard of living enjoyed by people in the richest countries often comes at the expense of CO2 emissions produced with technologies of low efficiency in less affluent, developing countries. Less apparent is that this relationship between developed and developing can exist within a single country's borders, with rich regions consuming and exporting high-value goods and services that depend upon production of low-cost and emission-intensive goods and services from poorer regions in the same country. As the world's largest emitter of CO2, China is a prominent and important example, struggling to balance rapid economic growth and environmental sustainability across provinces that are in very different stages of development. In this study, we track CO2 emissions embodied in products traded among Chinese provinces and internationally. We find that 57% of China's emissions are related to goods that are consumed outside of the province where they are produced. For instance, up to 80% of the emissions related to goods consumed in the highly developed coastal provinces are imported from less developed provinces in central and western China where many low-value-added but high-carbon-intensive goods are produced. Without policy attention to this sort of interprovincial carbon leakage, the less developed provinces will struggle to meet their emissions intensity targets, whereas the more developed provinces might achieve their own targets by further outsourcing. Consumption-based accounting of emissions can thus inform effective and equitable climate policy within China.

  8. A sensitivity analysis on seismic tomography data with respect to CO2 saturation of a CO2 geological sequestration field (United States)

    Park, Chanho; Nguyen, Phung K. T.; Nam, Myung Jin; Kim, Jongwook


    Monitoring CO2 migration and storage in geological formations is important not only for the stability of geological sequestration of CO2 but also for efficient management of CO2 injection. Especially, geophysical methods can make in situ observation of CO2 to assess the potential leakage of CO2 and to improve reservoir description as well to monitor development of geologic discontinuity (i.e., fault, crack, joint, etc.). Geophysical monitoring can be based on wireline logging or surface surveys for well-scale monitoring (high resolution and nallow area of investigation) or basin-scale monitoring (low resolution and wide area of investigation). In the meantime, crosswell tomography can make reservoir-scale monitoring to bridge the resolution gap between well logs and surface measurements. This study focuses on reservoir-scale monitoring based on crosswell seismic tomography aiming describe details of reservoir structure and monitoring migration of reservoir fluid (water and CO2). For the monitoring, we first make a sensitivity analysis on crosswell seismic tomography data with respect to CO2 saturation. For the sensitivity analysis, Rock Physics Models (RPMs) are constructed by calculating the values of density and P and S-wave velocities of a virtual CO2 injection reservoir. Since the seismic velocity of the reservoir accordingly changes as CO2 saturation changes when the CO2 saturation is less than about 20%, while when the CO2 saturation is larger than 20%, the seismic velocity is insensitive to the change, sensitivity analysis is mainly made when CO2 saturation is less than 20%. For precise simulation of seismic tomography responses for constructed RPMs, we developed a time-domain 2D elastic modeling based on finite difference method with a staggered grid employing a boundary condition of a convolutional perfectly matched layer. We further make comparison between sensitivities of seismic tomography and surface measurements for RPMs to analysis resolution

  9. LIBS Sensor for Sub-surface CO2 Leak Detection in Carbon Sequestration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jinesh JAIN


    Full Text Available Monitoring carbon sequestration poses numerous challenges to the sensor community. For example, the subsurface environment is notoriously harsh, with large potential mechanical, thermal, and chemical stresses, making long-term stability and survival a challenge to any potential in situ monitoring method. Laser induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS has been demonstrated as a promising technology for chemical monitoring of harsh environments and hard to reach places. LIBS has a real- time monitoring capability and can be used for the elemental and isotopic analysis of solid, liquid, and gas samples. The flexibility of the probe design and the use of fiber- optics has made LIBS particularly suited for remote measurements. The paper focuses on developing a LIBS instrument for downhole high-pressure, high-temperature brine experiments, where CO2 leakage could result in changes in the trace mineral composition of an aquifer. The progress in fabricating a compact, robust, and simple LIBS sensor for widespread subsurface leak detection is presented.

  10. A rapid in situ method for determining the ages of uranium oxide minerals: Evolution of the Cigar Lake deposit, Athabasca Basin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fayek, M.; Harrison, T.M.; Grove, M.; Coath, C.D.


    The authors present a rapid and accurate technique for making in situ U-Pb isotopic measurements of uranium oxide minerals that utilizes both electron and ion microprobes. U and Pb concentrations are determined using an electron microprobe, whereas the isotopic composition of Pb for the same area is measured using a high-resolution ion microprobe. The advantages of this approach are: mineral separation and chemical digestion are unnecessary; homogeneous uranium oxide standards, which are difficult to obtain, are not required; and precise and accurate U-Pb ages on ∼10 microm spots can be obtained in a matter of hours. The authors have applied their method to study the distribution of U-Pb ages in complexly intergrown uranium oxides from the unconformity-type Cigar Lake uranium deposit, Saskatchewan, Canada. In situ U-Pb results from early formed uraninite define a well-correlated array on concordia with upper and lower intercepts of 1,467 ± 63 Ma and 443 ± 96 Ma (±1σ), respectively. The 1,467 Ma age is interpreted as the minimum age of mineralization and is consistent with the age of clay-mineral alteration (approximately1477 Ma) and magnetization of diagenetic hematite (1,650 to 1,450 Ma) that is associated with these unconformity-type uranium deposits and early diagenesis of the Athabasca Basin sediments. In situ U-Pb isotopic analysis of uraninite and coffinite can document the Pb*/U heterogeneities that can occur on a scale of 15 to 30 microm, thus providing relatively accurate information regarding the timing of fluid interactions associated with the evolution of these deposits


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zofia LUBAŃSKA

    Full Text Available Z pojęciem ochrony środowiska wiąże się bardzo szeroko w ostatnim czasie omawiane zagadnienie dotyczące ograniczenia emisji CO2. Konsekwencją globalnych zmian klimatu wywołanego przez ludzi jest wzrost stężenia atmosferycznego gazów cieplarnianych, które powodują nasilający się efekt cieplarniany. Wzrasta na świecie liczba ludności, a co za tym idzie wzrasta konsumpcja na jednego mieszkańca, szczególnie w krajach szeroko rozwiniętych gospodarczo. Protokół z Kioto ściśle określa działania jakie należy podjąć w celu zmniejszenia stężenia dwutlenku węgla w atmosferze. Pomimo maksymalnej optymalizacji procesu spalania paliw kopalnianych wykorzystywanych do produkcji energii, zastosowania odnawialnych źródeł energii zmiana klimatu jest nieunikniona i konsekwentnie będzie postępować przez kolejne dekady. Prognozuje się, że duże znaczenie odegra nowoczesna technologia, która ma za zadanie wychwycenie CO2 a następnie składowanie go w odpowiednio wybranych formacjach geologicznych (CCS- Carbon Capture and Storage. Eksperci są zgodni, że ta technologia w niedalekiej przyszłości stanie się rozwiązaniem pozwalającym ograniczyć ogromną ilość emisji CO2 pochodzącą z procesów wytwarzania energii z paliw kopalnych. Z analiz Raportu IPCC wynika, iż technologia CSS może się przyczynić do ok. 20% redukcji emisji dwutlenku węgla przewidzianej do 2050 roku [3]. Zastosowanie jej napotyka na wiele barier, nie tylko technologicznych i ekonomicznych, ale także społecznych. Inną metodą dającą ujemne źródło emisji CO2 jest możliwość wykorzystania obszarów leśnych o odpowiedniej strukturze drzewostanu. Środkiem do tego celu, oprócz ograniczenia zużycia emisjogennych paliw kopalnych (przy zachowaniu zasad zrównoważonego rozwoju może być intensyfikacja zalesień. Zwiększanie lesistości i prawidłowa gospodarka leśna należy do najbardziej efektywnych sposobów kompensowania

  12. Outsourcing CO2 within China (United States)

    Feng, Kuishuang; Davis, Steven J.; Sun, Laixiang; Li, Xin; Guan, Dabo; Liu, Weidong; Liu, Zhu; Hubacek, Klaus


    Recent studies have shown that the high standard of living enjoyed by people in the richest countries often comes at the expense of CO2 emissions produced with technologies of low efficiency in less affluent, developing countries. Less apparent is that this relationship between developed and developing can exist within a single country’s borders, with rich regions consuming and exporting high-value goods and services that depend upon production of low-cost and emission-intensive goods and services from poorer regions in the same country. As the world’s largest emitter of CO2, China is a prominent and important example, struggling to balance rapid economic growth and environmental sustainability across provinces that are in very different stages of development. In this study, we track CO2 emissions embodied in products traded among Chinese provinces and internationally. We find that 57% of China’s emissions are related to goods that are consumed outside of the province where they are produced. For instance, up to 80% of the emissions related to goods consumed in the highly developed coastal provinces are imported from less developed provinces in central and western China where many low–value-added but high–carbon-intensive goods are produced. Without policy attention to this sort of interprovincial carbon leakage, the less developed provinces will struggle to meet their emissions intensity targets, whereas the more developed provinces might achieve their own targets by further outsourcing. Consumption-based accounting of emissions can thus inform effective and equitable climate policy within China. PMID:23754377

  13. Microorganisms implication in the CO2 geologic storage processes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dupraz, S.


    A first result of this thesis is the building and validation of a circulation reactor named BCC (Bio-mineralization Control Cell). The reactor has the functionality of a biological reactor and allows a monitoring of physico-chemical characteristics such as Eh, pH, electrical conductivity, spectro-photochemical parameters. It also has a capability of percolation through rock cores. It is a first step toward an analogical modeling of interactions between injected CO 2 and deep bio-spheric components. Moreover, a new spectro-photochemical method for monitoring reduced sulfur species has been developed which allows efficient monitoring of sulfate-reducing metabolisms. In the thesis, we have tested four metabolisms relevant to bio-mineralisation or biological assimilation of CO 2 : a reference ureolytic aerobic strain, Bacillus pasteurii, a sulfate-reducing bacterium, Desulfovibrio longus, a sulfate-reducing consortium (DVcons) and an homoacetogenic bacterium, Acetobacterium carbinolicum. In the case of Bacillus pasteurii, which is considered as a model for non photosynthetic prokaryotic carbonate bio-mineralization, we have demonstrated that the biological basification and carbonate bio-mineralization processes can be modelled accurately both analogically and numerically under conditions relevant to deep CO 2 storage, using a synthetic saline groundwater. We have shown that salinity has a positive effect on CO 2 mineral trapping by this bacterium; we have measured the limits of the system in terms of CO 2 pressure and we have shown that the carbonates that nucleate on intracellular calcium phosphates have specific carbon isotope signatures. The studied deep-subsurface strains (Desulfovibrio longus and Acetobacterium carbinolicum) as well as the sulfate-reducing consortium also have capabilities of converting CO 2 into solid carbonates, much less efficient though than in the case of Bacillus pasteurii. However, once inoculated in synthetic saline groundwater and

  14. Engineered in situ bioremediation of a petroleum hydrocarbon-contaminated aquifer: assessment of mineralization based on alkalinity, inorganic carbon and stable carbon isotope balances (United States)

    Hunkeler, Daniel; Höhener, Patrick; Bernasconi, Stefano; Zeyer, Josef


    A concept is proposed to assess in situ petroleum hydrocarbon mineralization by combining data on oxidant consumption, production of reduced species, CH 4, alkalinity and dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC) with measurements of stable isotope ratios. The concept was applied to a diesel fuel contaminated aquifer in Menziken, Switzerland, which was treated by engineered in situ bioremediation. In the contaminated aquifer, added oxidants (O 2 and NO 3-) were consumed, elevated concentrations of Fe(II), Mn(II), CH 4, alkalinity and DIC were detected and the DIC was generally depleted in 13C compared to the background. The DIC production was larger than expected based on the consumption of dissolved oxidants and the production of reduced species. Stable carbon isotope balances revealed that the DIC production in the aquifer originated mainly from microbial petroleum hydrocarbon mineralization, and that geochemical reactions such as carbonate dissolution produced little DIC. This suggests that petroleum hydrocarbon mineralization can be underestimated if it is determined based on concentrations of dissolved oxidants and reduced species.

  15. Ecological imperatives for aquatic CO2-concentrating mechanisms. (United States)

    Maberly, Stephen C; Gontero, Brigitte


    In aquatic environments, the concentration of inorganic carbon is spatially and temporally variable and CO2 can be substantially oversaturated or depleted. Depletion of CO2 plus low rates of diffusion cause inorganic carbon to be more limiting in aquatic than terrestrial environments, and the frequency of species with a CO2-concentrating mechanism (CCM), and their contribution to productivity, is correspondingly greater. Aquatic photoautotrophs may have biochemical or biophysical CCMs and exploit CO2 from the sediment or the atmosphere. Though partly constrained by phylogeny, CCM activity is related to environmental conditions. CCMs are absent or down-regulated when their increased energy costs, lower CO2 affinity, or altered mineral requirements outweigh their benefits. Aquatic CCMs are most widespread in environments with low CO2, high HCO3-, high pH, and high light. Freshwater species are generally less effective at inorganic carbon removal than marine species, but have a greater range of ability to remove carbon, matching the environmental variability in carbon availability. The diversity of CCMs in seagrasses and marine phytoplankton, and detailed mechanistic studies on larger aquatic photoautotrophs are understudied. Strengthening the links between ecology and CCMs will increase our understanding of the mechanisms underlying ecological success and will place mechanistic studies in a clearer ecological context. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Experimental Biology. All rights reserved. For permissions, please email:

  16. Trading CO2 emission; Verhandelbaarheid van CO2-emissies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    De Waal, J.F.; Looijenga, A.; Moor, R.; Wissema, E.W.J. [Afdeling Energie, Ministerie van VROM, The Hague (Netherlands)


    Systems for CO2-emission trading can take many shapes as developments in Europe show. European developments for emission trading tend to comprehend cap and-trade systems for large emission sources. In the Netherlands a different policy is in preparation. A trading system for sheltered sectors with an option to buy reductions from exposed sectors will be further developed by a Commission, appointed by the minister of environment. Exposed sectors are committed to belong to the top of the world on the area of energy-efficiency. The authors point out that a cap on the distribution of energy carriers natural gas, electricity and fuel seems to be an interesting option to shape the trade scheme. A cap on the distribution of electricity is desirable, but not easy to implement. The possible success of the system depends partly on an experiment with emission reductions. 10 refs.

  17. Geological storage of CO2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Czernichowski-Lauriol, I.


    The industrial storage of CO 2 is comprised of three steps: - capture of CO 2 where it is produced (power plants, cement plants, etc.); - transport (pipe lines or boats); - storage, mainly underground, called geological sequestration... Three types of reservoirs are considered: - salted deep aquifers - they offer the biggest storage capacity; - exhausted oil and gas fields; - non-exploited deep coal mine streams. The two latter storage types may allow the recovery of sellable products, which partially or totally offsets the storage costs. This process is largely used in the petroleum industry to improve the productivity of an oil field, and is called FOR (Enhanced Oil Recovery). A similar process is applied in the coal mining industry to recover the imprisoned gas, and is called ECBM (Enhanced Coal Bed methane). Two storage operations have been initiated in Norway and in Canada, as well as research programmes in Europe, North America, Australia and Japan. International organisations to stimulate this technology have been created such as the 'Carbon Sequestration Leadership Forum' and 'the Intergovernmental Group for Climate Change'. This technology will be taken into account in the instruments provided by the Tokyo Protocol. (author)

  18. Public Acceptance for Geological CO2-Storage (United States)

    Schilling, F.; Ossing, F.; Würdemann, H.; Co2SINK Team


    for public, press, NGOs,…). - being open for visitors (first of all for the local!) often we informed the public together with the mining authorities - being open for podium discussions and presentation etc. - organized by NGOs, Student groups, press, politics, scientific meetings… Since people usually trust scientists more than politicians and companies, scientists have an enhanced responsibility while informing the public. Once again - always tell the truth and take care of your credibility! In this case, it was most helpful that the project was embedded in the broad scientific activity of research centre which seems to have given the project a positive neutral background. As many people have an undefined fear of all operations in the underground, we tried to address all issues related to storage. Ranging from the transport, injection facility, technical installation, safety of the storage site, the wells, hydraulic system, chemical reactions etc.. When addressing all major concerns before people ask, confidence to the scientists is kept high. We never said that there is absolutely no risk (by the way, nobody would believe that!) we weighted the risk with respect to health, safety and environmental HSE issues. We explained in detail the different trapping mechanisms of the storage operation. This has to be done according to the social groups involved. For the broad public common analogues were helpful: - Trapping in the pore space - a sponge - Trapping through a tight cap rock - a bottle of mineral water with a crown cap as seal - Chemical Trapping - opening of a bottle of mineral water - Well bore integrity - problem of retightening of a bottle with a crown cap - Sucking in of fluid -instead of releasing a sandstone sample standing partly in water - Injecting of CO2 - using a soda machine - Often the concern of burning gas is addressed - showing a CO2 fire extinguisher -CO is poisonous, CO2 not: - drinking soda or even better? champaigne Beyond information of

  19. In situ X-ray and neutron diffraction of the Ruddlesden-Popper compounds (RE2-xSrx)0.98(Fe0.8Co0.2)1-yMgyO4-δ (RE=La, Pr): Structure and CO2 stability

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chatzichristodoulou, Christodoulos; Hauback, B.C.; Hendriksen, Peter Vang


    The crystal structure of the Ruddlesden-Popper compounds (La 1.0Sr1.0)0.98Fe0.8Co 0.2O4-δ and (La1.2Sr0.8) 0.98(Fe0.8Co0.2)0.8Mg 0.2O4-δ was investigated at 1000 °C in N 2 (aO2=1×10-4) by in-situ powder neutron diffraction. In-situ powder X-ray diffraction (PXD) was also employed to investigate....... The equivalent pseudo-cubic thermal and chemical expansion coefficients are in agreement with values determined by dilatometry. The chemical stability in CO2 containing environments of various Ruddlesden-Popper compounds with chemical formula (RE2-xSr x)0.98(Fe0.8Co0.2) 1-yMgyO4-δ (RE=La, Pr), as well...

  20. Dynamics of mineral crystallization from precipitated slab-derived fluid phase: first in situ synchrotron X-ray measurements (United States)

    Malaspina, Nadia; Alvaro, Matteo; Campione, Marcello; Wilhelm, Heribert; Nestola, Fabrizio


    Remnants of the fluid phase at ultrahigh pressure (UHP) in subduction environments may be preserved as primary multiphase inclusions in UHP minerals. The mode of crystallization of daughter minerals during precipitation within the inclusion and/or the mechanism of interaction between the fluid at supercritical conditions and the host mineral are still poorly understood from a crystallographic point of view. A case study is represented by garnet-orthopyroxenites from the Maowu Ultramafic Complex (China) deriving from harzburgite precursors metasomatized at ~4 GPa, 750 °C by a silica- and incompatible trace element-rich fluid phase. This metasomatism produced poikilitic orthopyroxene and inclusion-rich garnet porphyroblasts. Solid multiphase primary inclusions in garnet display a size within a few tens of micrometres and negative crystal shapes. Infilling minerals (spinel: 10-20 vol%; amphibole, chlorite, talc, mica: 80-90 vol%) occur with constant volume proportions and derive from trapped solute-rich aqueous fluids. To constrain the possible mode of precipitation of daughter minerals, we performed for the first time a single-crystal X-ray diffraction experiment by synchrotron radiation at Diamond Light Source. In combination with electron probe microanalyses, this measurement allowed the unique identification of each mineral phase and reciprocal orientations. We demonstrated the epitaxial relationship between spinel and garnet and between some hydrous minerals. Such information is discussed in relation to the physico-chemical aspects of nucleation and growth, shedding light on the mode of mineral crystallization from a fluid phase trapped at supercritical conditions.

  1. Alberta industrial synergy CO2 programs initiative

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yildirim, E.


    The various industrial sectors within Alberta produce about 350,000 tonnes of CO 2 per day. This presentation was concerned with how this large volume and high concentration of CO 2 can be used in industrial and agricultural applications, because every tonne of CO 2 used for such purposes is a tonne that does not end up in the atmosphere. There is a good potential for an industrial synergy between the producers and users of CO 2 . The Alberta Industrial Synergy CO 2 Programs Initiative was established to ultimately achieve a balance between the producers of CO 2 and the users of CO 2 by creating ways to use the massive quantities of CO 2 produced by Alberta's hydrocarbon-based economy. The Alberta CO 2 Research Steering Committee was created to initiate and support CO 2 programs such as: (1) CO 2 use in enhanced oil recovery, (2) creation of a CO 2 production inventory, (3) survey of CO 2 users and potential users, (4) investigation of process issues such as power generation, oil sands and cement manufacturing, and (5) biofixation by plants, (6) other disposal options (e.g. in depleted oil and gas reservoirs, in aquifers, in tailings ponds, in coal beds). The single most important challenge was identified as 'rationalizing the formation of the necessary infrastructure'. Failing to do that will greatly impede efforts directed towards CO 2 utilization

  2. In situ X-ray and neutron diffraction of the Ruddlesden–Popper compounds (RE2−xSrx)0.98(Fe0.8Co0.2)1−yMgyO4−δ (RE=La, Pr): Structure and CO2 stability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chatzichristodoulou, C.; Hauback, B.C.; Hendriksen, P.V.


    The crystal structure of the Ruddlesden–Popper compounds (La 1.0 Sr 1.0 ) 0.98 Fe 0.8 Co 0.2 O 4−δ and (La 1.2 Sr 0.8 ) 0.98 (Fe 0.8 Co 0.2 ) 0.8 Mg 0.2 O 4−δ was investigated at 1000 °C in N 2 (a O2 =1×10 −4 ) by in-situ powder neutron diffraction. In-situ powder X-ray diffraction (PXD) was also employed to investigate the temperature dependence of the lattice parameters of the compounds in air and the oxygen activity dependence of the lattice parameters at 800 °C and 1000 °C. The thermal and chemical expansion coefficients, determined along the two crystallographic directions of the tetragonal unit cell, are highly anisotropic. The equivalent pseudo-cubic thermal and chemical expansion coefficients are in agreement with values determined by dilatometry. The chemical stability in CO 2 containing environments of various Ruddlesden–Popper compounds with chemical formula (RE 2−x Sr x ) 0.98 (Fe 0.8 Co 0.2 ) 1−y Mg y O 4−δ (RE=La, Pr), as well as their stability limit in H 2 /H 2 O=4.5 were also determined by in-situ PXD for x=0.9, 1.0 and y=0, 0.2. - Graphical abstract: Influence of electronic configuration on bond length, lattice parameters and anisotropic thermal and chemical expansion. Highlights: ► The thermal and chemical expansion coefficients are largely anisotropic. ► The expansion of the perovskite layers is constrained along the a direction. ► The studied compositions show remarkable thermodynamic stability upon reduction. ► The thermal and chemical expansion coefficients are lower than related perovskites. ► The investigated materials decompose in CO 2 containing atmospheres

  3. Non Thermal Plasma Assisted Catalytic Reactor for CO2 Methanation, Phase I (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — In situ production of methane as propellant and oxygen as life support consumables from the atmospheric CO2 and water on Mars is a key enabling technology required...

  4. Bioelectrochemical removal of carbon dioxide (CO2): an innovative method for biogas upgrading. (United States)

    Xu, Heng; Wang, Kaijun; Holmes, Dawn E


    Innovative methods for biogas upgrading based on biological/in-situ concepts have started to arouse considerable interest. Bioelectrochemical removal of CO2 for biogas upgrading was proposed here and demonstrated in both batch and continuous experiments. The in-situ biogas upgrading system seemed to perform better than the ex-situ one, but CO2 content was kept below 10% in both systems. The in-situ system's performance was further enhanced under continuous operation. Hydrogenotrophic methanogenesis and alkali production with CO2 absorption could be major contributors to biogas upgrading. Molecular studies showed that all the biocathodes associated with biogas upgrading were dominated by sequences most similar to the same hydrogenotrophic methanogen species, Methanobacterium petrolearium (97-99% sequence identity). Conclusively, bioelectrochemical removal of CO2 showed great potential for biogas upgrading. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. CO2 Sparging Phase 3 Full Scale Implementation and Monitoring Report (United States)

    In-situ carbon dioxide (CO2) sparging was designed and implemented to treat a subsurface causticbrine pool (CBP) formed as a result of releases from historical production of industrial chemicals at theLCP Chemicals Site, Brunswick, GA (Site).

  6. Non Thermal Plasma Assisted Catalytic Reactor for CO2 Methanation, Phase II (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — In situ production of methane as propellant by methanation of CO2, also called Sabatier reaction, is a key enabling technology required for sustainable and...

  7. Assessing systematic errors in GOSAT CO2 retrievals by comparing assimilated fields to independent CO2 data (United States)

    Baker, D. F.; Oda, T.; O'Dell, C.; Wunch, D.; Jacobson, A. R.; Yoshida, Y.; Partners, T.


    Measurements of column CO2 concentration from space are now being taken at a spatial and temporal density that permits regional CO2 sources and sinks to be estimated. Systematic errors in the satellite retrievals must be minimized for these estimates to be useful, however. CO2 retrievals from the TANSO instrument aboard the GOSAT satellite are compared to similar column retrievals from the Total Carbon Column Observing Network (TCCON) as the primary method of validation; while this is a powerful approach, it can only be done for overflights of 10-20 locations and has not, for example, permitted validation of GOSAT data over the oceans or deserts. Here we present a complementary approach that uses a global atmospheric transport model and flux inversion method to compare different types of CO2 measurements (GOSAT, TCCON, surface in situ, and aircraft) at different locations, at the cost of added transport error. The measurements from any single type of data are used in a variational carbon data assimilation method to optimize surface CO2 fluxes (with a CarbonTracker prior), then the corresponding optimized CO2 concentration fields are compared to those data types not inverted, using the appropriate vertical weighting. With this approach, we find that GOSAT column CO2 retrievals from the ACOS project (version 2.9 and 2.10) contain systematic errors that make the modeled fit to the independent data worse. However, we find that the differences between the GOSAT data and our prior model are correlated with certain physical variables (aerosol amount, surface albedo, correction to total column mass) that are likely driving errors in the retrievals, independent of CO2 concentration. If we correct the GOSAT data using a fit to these variables, then we find the GOSAT data to improve the fit to independent CO2 data, which suggests that the useful information in the measurements outweighs the negative impact of the remaining systematic errors. With this assurance, we compare

  8. Comparison of the Wymark CO2 Reservoir with the Midale Beds at the Weyburn CO2 Injection Project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ryerson, F.; Johnson, J.


    The Devonian carbonates of the Duperow Formation on the western flank of the Williston Basin in southwest Saskatchewan contain natural accumulations of CO 2 , and may have done so for as long as 50 m.y. in the views of some investigations. These carbonate sediments are characterized by a succession of carbonate cycles capped by anhydrite-rich evaporites that are thought to act as seals to fluid migration. The Weyburn CO 2 injection site lies 400 km to the east in a series of Mississippian carbonates that were deposited in a similar depositional environment. That natural CO 2 can be stored long-term within carbonate strata has motivated the investigation of the Duperow rocks as a potential natural analogue to storage of anthropogenic CO 2 that may ultimately provide additional confidence for CO 2 sequestration in carbonate lithologies. For the Duperow strata to represent a legitimate analog for Midale injection and storage, the similarity in lithofacies, whole rock compositions, mineral compositions and porosity with the Midale Beds must be established. Previous workers have demonstrated the similarity of the lithofacies at both sites. Here we compare the whole rock compositions, mineralogy and mineral compositions. The major mineral phases at both locales are calcite, dolomite and anhydrite. In addition, accessory pyrite, fluorite and celestine are also observed. The distribution of porosity in the Midale Vuggy units is virtually identical to that of the Duperow Formation, but the Marly units of the Midale have significantly higher porosity. The Duperow Formation is topped by the Dinesmore evaporite that is particularly rich in anhydrite, and often contains authigenic K-feldspar. The chemistry of dolomite and calcite from the two localities also overlaps. Silicate minerals are in low abundance within the analyzed Duperow samples, < 3 wt% on a normative basis, with quartz the only phase identifiable in x-ray diffraction patterns. The Midale Beds contain

  9. [Spectroscopic study of photocatalytic mechanism of methanol and CO2]. (United States)

    Hai, Feng; Zhang, Qian-cheng; Bai, Feng-rong; Wang, A-nan; Wang, Zhi-wei; Jian, Li


    Ni-Ti-O/SiO2 catalyst was prepared by impregnation method, and its photocatalytic performance for carbonylation of methanol with CO2 was investigated under UV light. The in-situ IR, XPS and MS were carried out to analyze the possible photocatalytic reaction mechanism. Results indicated that the Ni-Ti-O/SiO2 exhibited good photocatalytic performance for carbonylation of methanol with CO2, the methanol conversion reached up to 24.9%, and the selectivity for the carbonylated products was more than 60% within 180 min reaction time. The catalyst characterization results showed that the O==C .--O- and CH3OC(O)* might be important intermediate in the carbonylation of methanol with CO2.

  10. CO 2 lasers to destroy defiance of nanobacteria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jafar Kolahi


    Full Text Available Introduction: Nanobacteria are mysterious particles that have spurred one of the biggest controversies in modern microbiology. The apatite mineral around the nanobacteria serves as a primary defense shield against various chemicals and extremely harsh condition. It is combined with a very slow metabolism of nanobacteria. These two items would be the likely explanation for the sever resistance of nanobacteria. The Hypothesis: The CO 2 laser is a continuous wave gas laser and emits infrared light at 9,600-10,600 nm in an easily manipulated focused beam that is well absorbed by water and hydroxyapatite. Hence, it seems logical to postulate that CO 2 laser can be used successfully to destroy defensive external hydroxyapatite layer of nanobacteria. Evaluation of the Hypothesis: Main criticism with this hypothesis is differential radiation of nanobacteria. It is well known that CO 2 laser has high water absorption and consequently can cause unwanted damage to human host tissues.

  11. Application of anatectic mineralization to prospecting in-situ leachable sandstone type uranium ore in South Songliao Basin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhao Zhonghua


    The deep ore-forming origin is a new theory for prospecting in-situ leachable sandstone type uranium. Tectonics, lithologic and geochemistry are basic forecasting criteria. Previous unconsolidated sand, source area and geochemical barrier are three essential conditions for forming uranium deposit. Metallogenic environment and prospective region are found. Tertiary system is prospective layer for prospecting in-situ leachable sandstone type uranium ore in south Songliao Basin

  12. Does Silicate Weathering of Loess Affect Atmospheric CO2? (United States)

    Anderson, S. P.


    Weathering of glacial loess may be a significant, yet unrecognized, component of the carbon cycle. Glaciers produce fine-grained sediment, exposing vast amounts of mineral surface area to weathering processes, yet silicate mineral weathering rates at glacier beds and of glacial till are not high. Thus, despite the tremendous potential for glaciers to influence global weathering rates and atmospheric CO2 levels, this effect has not been demonstrated. Loess, comprised of silt-clay sizes, may be the key glacial deposit in which silicate weathering rates are high. Loess is transported by wind off braid plains of rivers, and deposited broadly (order 100 km from the source) in vegetated areas. Both the fine grain size, and hence large mineral surface area, and presence of vegetation should render loess deposits highly susceptible to silicate weathering. These deposits effectively extend the geochemical impact of glaciation in time and space, and bring rock flour into conditions conducive to chemical weathering. A simple 1-d model of silicate weathering fluxes from a soil profile demonstrates the potential of loess deposition to enhance CO2 consumption. At each time step, computed mineral dissolution (using anorthite and field-based rate constants) modifies the size of mineral grains within the soil. In the case of a stable soil surface, this results in a gradual decline in weathering fluxes and CO2 consumption through time, as finer grain sizes dissolve away. Computed weathering fluxes for a typical loess, with an initial mean grain size of 25 μm, are an order of magnitude greater than fluxes from a non-loess soil that differs only in having a mean grain size of 320 μm. High weathering fluxes are maintained through time if loess is continually deposited. Deposition rates as low as 0.01 mm/yr (one loess grain thickness per year) can lead to a doubling of CO2 consumption rates within 5 ka. These results suggest that even modest loess deposition rates can significantly

  13. ISLSCP II Globalview: Atmospheric CO2 Concentrations (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The GlobalView Carbon Dioxide (CO2) data product contains synchronized and smoothed time series of atmospheric CO2 concentrations at selected sites that were created...

  14. The Force of Crystallization and Fracture Propagation during In-Situ Carbonation of Peridotite

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reinier van Noort


    Full Text Available Subsurface mineralization of CO2 by injection into (hydro-fractured peridotites has been proposed as a carbon sequestration method. It is envisaged that the expansion in solid volume associated with the mineralization reaction leads to a build-up of stress, resulting in the opening of further fractures. We performed CO2-mineralization experiments on simulated fractures in peridotite materials under confined, hydrothermal conditions, to directly measure the induced stresses. Only one of these experiments resulted in the development of a stress, which was less than 5% of the theoretical maximum. We also performed one method control test in which we measured stress development during the hydration of MgO. Based on microstructural observations, as well as XRD and TGA measurements, we infer that, due to pore clogging and grain boundary healing at growing mineral interfaces, the transport of CO2, water and solutes into these sites inhibited reaction-related stress development. When grain boundary healing was impeded by the precipitation of silica, a small stress did develop. This implies that when applied to in-situ CO2-storage, the mineralization reaction will be limited by transport through clogged fractures, and proceed at a rate that is likely too slow for the process to accommodate the volumes of CO2 expected for sequestration.

  15. Plants increase laccase activity in soil with long-term elevated CO2 legacy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Partavian, Asrin; Mikkelsen, Teis Nørgaard; Vestergård, Mette


    [CO2] stimulate laccase activity. We incubated soil exposed to seven years of elevated or ambient field [CO2] in ambient or elevated [CO2] chambers for six months either with or without plants (Deschampsia flexuosa). Elevated chamber [CO2] increased D. flexuosa production and belowground respiration....... Interestingly, plants also grew larger in soil with an elevated [CO2] legacy. Plants stimulated soil microbial biomass, belowground respiration and laccase activity, and the plant-induced laccase stimulation was particularly apparent in soil exposed to long-term elevated [CO2] in the field, whereas laccase......Actively growing plants can stimulate mineralization of recalcitrant soil organic matter (SOM), and increased atmospheric [CO2] can further enhance such plant-mediated SOM degradation. Laccases are central for recalcitrant SOM decomposition, and we therefore hypothesized that plants and elevated...

  16. Bioelectrochemical conversion of CO2 to chemicals

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bajracharya, Suman; Vanbroekhoven, Karolien; Buisman, Cees J.N.; Strik, David P.B.T.B.; Pant, Deepak


    The recent concept of microbial electrosynthesis (MES) has evolved as an electricity-driven production technology for chemicals from low-value carbon dioxide (CO2) using micro-organisms as biocatalysts. MES from CO2 comprises bioelectrochemical reduction of CO2 to multi-carbon organic compounds

  17. Aluminosilicate Dissolution and Silicate Carbonation during Geologic CO2 Sequestration (United States)

    Min, Yujia

    Geologic CO2 sequestration (GCS) is considered a promising method to reduce anthropogenic CO2 emission. Assessing the supercritical CO2 (scCO2) gas or liquid phase water (g, l)-mineral interactions is critical to evaluating the viability of GCS processes. This work contributes to our understanding of geochemical reactions at CO 2-water (g, l)-mineral interfaces, by investigating the dissolution of aluminosilicates in CO2-acidified water (l). Plagioclase and biotite were chosen as model minerals in reservoir rock and caprock, respectively. To elucidate the effects of brine chemistry, first, the influences of cations in brine including Na, Ca, and K, have been investigated. In addition to the cations, the effects of abundant anions including sulfate and oxalate were also examined. Besides the reactions in aqueous phase, we also examine the carbonation of silicates in water (g)-bearing supercritical CO2 (scCO2) under conditions relevant to GCS. For the metal carbonation, in particular, the effects of particle sizes, water, temperature, and pressure on the carbonation of wollastonite were systematically examined. For understanding the cations effects in brine, the impacts of Na concentrations up to 4 M on the dissolution of plagioclase and biotite were examined. High concentrations of Na significantly inhibited plagioclase dissolution by competing adsorption with proton and suppressing proton-promoted dissolution. Ca has a similar effect to Na, and their effects did not suppress each other when Na and Ca co-existed. For biotite, the inhibition effects of Na coupled with an enhancing effect due to ion exchange reaction between Na and interlayer K, which cracked the basal surfaces of biotite. The K in aqueous phase significantly inhibited the dissolution. If the biotite is equilibrated with NaCl solutions initially, the biotite dissolved faster than the original biotite and the dissolution was inhibited by Na and K in brine. The outcomes improve our current knowledge of

  18. Effects of CO2 injection and Kerogen Maturation on Low-Field Nuclear Magnetic Resonance Response (United States)

    Prasad, M.; Livo, K.


    Low-field Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR) is commonly used in petrophysical analysis of petroleum reservoir rocks. NMR experiments record the relaxation and polarization of in-situ hydrogen protons present in gaseous phases such as free-gas intervals and solution gas fluids, bulk fluid phases such as oil and aquifer intervals, and immovable fractions of kerogen and bitumen. Analysis of NMR relaxation spectra is performed to record how fluid composition, maturity, and viscosity change NMR experimental results. We present T1-T2 maps as thermal maturity of a water-saturated, sub-mature Woodford shale is increased at temperatures from 125 to 400 degrees Celsius. Experiments with applied fluid pressure in paraffinic mineral oil and DI water with varying fluid pH have been performed to mimic reservoir conditions in analysis of the relaxation of bulk fluid phases. We have recorded NMR spectra, T1-T2 maps, and fluid diffusion coefficients using a low-field (2 MHz) MagritekTM NMR. CO2 was injected at a pressure of 900 psi in an in house developed NMR pressure vessel made of torlon plastic. Observable 2D NMR shifts in immature kerogen formations as thermal maturity is increased show generation of lighter oils with increased maturity. CO2 injection leads to a decrease in bulk fluid relaxation time that is attributed to viscosity modification with gas presence. pH variation with increased CO2 presence were shown to not effect NMR spectra. From this, fluid properties have been shown to greatly affect NMR readings and must be taken into account for more accurate NMR reservoir characterization.

  19. Forest succession at elevated CO2; TOPICAL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clark, James S.; Schlesinger, William H.


    We tested hypotheses concerning the response of forest succession to elevated CO2 in the FACTS-1 site at the Duke Forest. We quantified growth and survival of naturally recruited seedlings, tree saplings, vines, and shrubs under ambient and elevated CO2. We planted seeds and seedlings to augment sample sites. We augmented CO2 treatments with estimates of shade tolerance and nutrient limitation while controlling for soil and light effects to place CO2 treatments within the context of natural variability at the site. Results are now being analyzed and used to parameterize forest models of CO2 response

  20. Growth strategy of Norway spruce under air elevated [CO2 (United States)

    Pokorny, R.; Urban, O.; Holisova, P.; Sprtova, M.; Sigut, L.; Slipkova, R.


    Plants will respond to globally increasing atmospheric CO2 concentration ([CO2]) by acclimation or adaptation at physiological and morphological levels. Considering the temporal onset, physiological responses may be categorized as short-term and morphological ones as long-term responses. The degree of plant growth responses, including cell division and cell expansion, is highly variable. It depends mainly on the specie's genetic predisposition, environment, mineral nutrition status, duration of CO2 enrichment, and/or synergetic effects of other stresses. Elevated [CO2] causes changes in tissue anatomy, quantity, size, shape and spatial orientation and can result in altered sink strength. Since, there are many experimental facilities for the investigation of elevated [CO2] effects on trees: i) closed systems or open top chambers (OTCs), ii) semi-open systems (for example glass domes with adjustable lamella windows - DAWs), and iii) free-air [CO2] enrichments (FACE); the results are still unsatisfactory due to: i) relatively short-term duration of experiments, ii) cultivation of young plants with different growth strategy comparing to old ones, iii) plant cultivation under artificial soil and weather conditions, and iv) in non-representative stand structure. In this contribution we are discussing the physiological and morphological responses of Norway spruce trees cultivated in DAWs during eight consecutive growing seasons in the context with other results from Norway spruce cultivation under air-elevated [CO2] conditions. On the level of physiological responses, we discuss the changes in the rate of CO2 assimilation, assimilation capacity, photorespiration, dark respiration, stomatal conductance, water potential and transpiration, and the sensitivity of these physiological processes to temperature. On the level of morphological responses, we discuss the changes in bud and growth phenology, needle and shoot morphology, architecture of crown and root system, wood

  1. Residual CO2 trapping in Indiana limestone. (United States)

    El-Maghraby, Rehab M; Blunt, Martin J


    We performed core flooding experiments on Indiana limestone using the porous plate method to measure the amount of trapped CO(2) at a temperature of 50 °C and two pressures: 4.2 and 9 MPa. Brine was mixed with CO(2) for equilibration, then the mixture was circulated through a sacrificial core. Porosity and permeability tests conducted before and after 884 h of continuous core flooding confirmed negligible dissolution. A trapping curve for supercritical (sc)CO(2) in Indiana showing the relationship between the initial and residual CO(2) saturations was measured and compared with that of gaseous CO(2). The results were also compared with scCO(2) trapping in Berea sandstone at the same conditions. A scCO(2) residual trapping end point of 23.7% was observed, indicating slightly less trapping of scCO(2) in Indiana carbonates than in Berea sandstone. There is less trapping for gaseous CO(2) (end point of 18.8%). The system appears to be more water-wet under scCO(2) conditions, which is different from the trend observed in Berea; we hypothesize that this is due to the greater concentration of Ca(2+) in brine at higher pressure. Our work indicates that capillary trapping could contribute to the immobilization of CO(2) in carbonate aquifers.

  2. In situ quantification of Br and Cl in minerals and fluid inclusions by LA-ICP-MS: a powerful tool to identify fluid sources (United States)

    Hammerli, Johannes; Rusk, Brian; Spandler, Carl; Emsbo, Poul; Oliver, Nicholas H.S.


    Bromine and chlorine are important halogens for fluid source identification in the Earth's crust, but until recently we lacked routine analytical techniques to determine the concentration of these elements in situ on a micrometer scale in minerals and fluid inclusions. In this study, we evaluate the potential of in situ Cl and Br measurements by LA-ICP-MS through analysis of a range of scapolite grains with known Cl and Br concentrations. We assess the effects of varying spot sizes, variable plasma energy and resolve the contribution of polyatomic interferences on Br measurements. Using well-characterised natural scapolite standards, we show that LA-ICP-MS analysis allows measurement of Br and Cl concentrations in scapolite, and fluid inclusions as small as 16 μm in diameter and potentially in sodalite and a variety of other minerals, such as apatite, biotite, and amphibole. As a demonstration of the accuracy and potential of Cl and Br analyses by LA-ICP-MS, we analysed natural fluid inclusions hosted in sphalerite and compared them to crush and leach ion chromatography Cl/Br analyses. Limit of detection for Br is ~8 μg g−1, whereas relatively high Cl concentrations (> 500 μg g−1) are required for quantification by LA-ICP-MS. In general, our LA-ICP-MS fluid inclusion results agree well with ion chromatography (IC) data. Additionally, combined cathodoluminescence and LA-ICP-MS analyses on natural scapolites within a well-studied regional metamorphic suite in South Australia demonstrate that Cl and Br can be quantified with a ~25 μm resolution in natural minerals. This technique can be applied to resolve a range of hydrothermal geology problems, including determining the origins of ore forming brines and ore deposition processes, mapping metamorphic and hydrothermal fluid provinces and pathways, and constraining the effects of fluid–rock reactions and fluid mixing.

  3. CO2 clearance by membrane lungs. (United States)

    Sun, Liqun; Kaesler, Andreas; Fernando, Piyumindri; Thompson, Alex J; Toomasian, John M; Bartlett, Robert H


    Commercial membrane lungs are designed to transfer a specific amount of oxygen per unit of venous blood flow. Membrane lungs are much more efficient at removing CO 2 than adding oxygen, but the range of CO 2 transfer is rarely reported. Commercial membrane lungs were studied with the goal of evaluating CO 2 removal capacity. CO 2 removal was measured in 4 commercial membrane lungs under standardized conditions. CO 2 clearance can be greater than 4 times that of oxygen at a given blood flow when the gas to blood flow ratio is elevated to 4:1 or 8:1. The CO 2 clearance was less dependent on surface area and configuration than oxygen transfer. Any ECMO system can be used for selective CO 2 removal.

  4. Extraction of stevia glycosides with CO2 + water, CO2 + ethanol, and CO2 + water + ethanol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Pasquel


    Full Text Available Stevia leaves are an important source of natural sugar substitute. There are some restrictions on the use of stevia extract because of its distinctive aftertaste. Some authors attribute this to soluble material other than the stevia glycosides, even though it is well known that stevia glycosides have to some extent a bitter taste. Therefore, the purpose of this work was to develop a process to obtain stevia extract of a better quality. The proposed process includes two steps: i Pretreatment of the leaves by SCFE; ii Extraction of the stevia glycosides by SCFE using CO2 as solvent and water and/or ethanol as cosolvent. The mean total yield for SCFE pretreatment was 3.0%. The yields for SCFE with cosolvent of stevia glycosides were below 0.50%, except at 120 bar, 16°C, and 9.5% (molar of water. Under this condition, total yield was 3.4%. The quality of the glycosidic fraction with respect to its capacity as sweetener was better for the SCFE extract as compared to extract obtained by the conventional process. The overall extraction curves were well described by the Lack extended model.

  5. Binding CO2 from Air by a Bulky Organometallic Cation Containing Primary Amines. (United States)

    Luo, Yang-Hui; Chen, Chen; Hong, Dan-Li; He, Xiao-Tong; Wang, Jing-Wen; Ding, Ting; Wang, Bo-Jun; Sun, Bai-Wang


    The organometallic cation 1 (Fe(bipy-NH 2 ) 3 2+ , bipy-NH 2 = 4,4'-diamino-2,2'-bipyridine), which was constructed in situ in solution, can bind CO 2 from air effectively with a stoichiometric ratio of 1:4 (1/CO 2 ), through the formation of "H-bonded CO 2 " species: [CO 2 -OH-CO 2 ] - and [CO 2 -CO 2 -OH] - . These two species, along with the captured individual CO 2 molecules, connected 1 into a novel 3D (three-dimensional) architecture, that was crystal 1·2(OH - )·4(CO 2 ). The adsorption isotherms, recycling investigations, and the heat capacity of 1 have been investigated; the results revealed that the organometallic cation 1 can be recycled at least 10 times for the real-world CO 2 capture applications. The strategies presented here may provide new hints for the development of new alkanolamine-related absorbents or technologies for CO 2 capture and sequestration.

  6. Petrophysical laboratory invertigations of carbon dioxide storage in a subsurface saline aquifer in Ketzin/Germany within the scope of CO2SINK (United States)

    Zemke, K.; Kummmerow, J.; Wandrey, M.; Co2SINK Group


    Since June of 2008 carbon dioxide has been injected into a saline aquifer at the Ketzin test site [Würdemann et al., this volume]. The food grade CO2 is injected into a sandstone zone of the Stuttgart formation at ca. 650 m depth at 35°C reservoir temperature and 62 bar reservoir pressure. With the injection of CO2 into the geological formation, chemical and physical reservoir characteristics are changed depending on pressure, temperature, fluid chemistry and rock composition. Fluid-rock interaction could comprise dissolution of non-resistant minerals in CO2-bearing pore fluids, cementing of the pore space by precipitating substances from the pore fluid, drying and disintegration of clay minerals and thus influence of the composition and activities of the deep biosphere. To testing the injection behaviour of CO2 in water saturated rock and to evaluate the geophysical signature depending on the thermodynamic conditions, flow experiments with water and CO2 have been performed on cores of the Stuttgart formation from different locations including new wells of ketzin test site. The studied core material is an unconsolidated fine-grained sandstone with porosity values from 15 to 32 %. Permeability, electrical resistivity, and sonic wave velocities and their changes with pressure, saturation and time have been studied under simulated in situ conditions. The flow experiments conducted over several weeks with brine and CO2 showed no significant changes of resistivity and velocity and a slightly decreasing permeability. Pore fluid analysis showed mobilization of clay and some other components. A main objective of the CO2Sink laboratory program is the assessment of the effect of long-term CO2 exposure on reservoir rocks to predict the long-term behaviour of geological CO2 storage. For this CO2 exposure experiments reservoir rock samples were exposed to CO2 saturated reservoir fluid in corrosion-resistant high pressure vessels under in situ temperature and pressure

  7. CO2-Induced Changes in Wheat Grain Composition: Meta-Analysis and Response Functions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Malin C. Broberg


    Full Text Available Elevated carbon dioxide (eCO2 stimulates wheat grain yield, but simultaneously reduces protein/nitrogen (N concentration. Also, other essential nutrients are subject to change. This study is a synthesis of wheat experiments with eCO2, estimating the effects on N, minerals (B, Ca, Cd, Fe, K, Mg, Mn, Na, P, S, Zn, and starch. The analysis was performed by (i deriving response functions to assess the gradual change in element concentration with increasing CO2 concentration, (ii meta-analysis to test the average magnitude and significance of observed effects, and (iii relating CO2 effects on minerals to effects on N and grain yield. Responses ranged from zero to strong negative effects of eCO2 on mineral concentration, with the largest reductions for the nutritionally important elements of N, Fe, S, Zn, and Mg. Together with the positive but small and non-significant effect on starch concentration, the large variation in effects suggests that CO2-induced responses cannot be explained only by a simple dilution model. To explain the observed pattern, uptake and transport mechanisms may have to be considered, along with the link of different elements to N uptake. Our study shows that eCO2 has a significant effect on wheat grain stoichiometry, with implications for human nutrition in a world of rising CO2.

  8. Analysis of Microbial Communities in the Oil Reservoir Subjected to CO2-Flooding by Using Functional Genes as Molecular Biomarkers for Microbial CO2 Sequestration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jin-Feng eLiu


    Full Text Available Sequestration of CO2 in oil reservoirs is considered to be one of the feasible options for mitigating atmospheric CO2 building up and also for the in situ potential bioconversion of stored CO2 to methane. However, the information on these functional microbial communities and the impact of CO2 storage on them is hardly available. In this paper a comprehensive molecular survey was performed on microbial communities in production water samples from oil reservoirs experienced CO2-flooding by analysis of functional genes involved in the process, including cbbM, cbbL, fthfs, [FeFe]-hydrogenase and mcrA. As a comparison, these functional genes in the production water samples from oil reservoir only experienced water-flooding in areas of the same oil bearing bed were also analyzed. It showed that these functional genes were all of rich diversity in these samples, and the functional microbial communities and their diversity were strongly affected by a long-term exposure to injected CO2. More interestingly, microorganisms affiliated with members of the genera Methanothemobacter, Acetobacterium and Halothiobacillus as well as hydrogen producers in CO2 injected area either increased or remained unchanged in relative abundance compared to that in water-flooded area, which implied that these microorganisms could adapt to CO2 injection and, if so, demonstrated the potential for microbial fixation and conversion of CO2 into methane in subsurface oil reservoirs.

  9. Development of an aerobic/anaerobic process for in-situ-rehabilitation of a mostly with mineral oil contaminated location. Final report; Entwicklung eines aeroben/anaeroben Verfahrens zur `In situ-Sanierung` eines vorwiegend mineraloelkontaminierten Altlaststandortes. Abschlussbericht

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Auerbach, C; Winsel, E; Wartenberg, G


    - A location contaminated with mineral oil was tested for the possibility of a bioremediation; - the microbiological tests showed, that there is both an aerobiotic and an optional anaerobic autochthonous pollutants degrading microflora but only the activation of the aerobiotic germs was possible by both suitable nutrients and test conditions; - in degrading tests with a high concentration of pollutants a degradation was possible by addition of different nutrients. Within a week a degradation of about 70% was shown. In areas of lower concentration the possible degradation was smaller. - An in-situ-rehabilitation by a hydraulic supply of the soil microorganisms was not possible because of the anisotropic conditions at the location in a depth of 5-10 m; - an in-situ-rehabilitation with both soil air aspiration and aeration, for the supply of the soil microorganisms too, is even possible at anisotropic soil conditions; - now there is knowledge about both a variable filtration and tubing for an optimal adaptation for the bioremediation to the damage; - apparatus were developped for in-situ-rehabilitation for small and medium locations, useable for biological processes too; - there is a wide utilization of the aeration apparatus is because of the careful environmental use. (orig.) [Deutsch] - Ein Mineraloel-kontaminierter Altlaststandort wurde im Hinblick auf eine moegliche biologische Sanierung untersucht. - Die mikrobiologischen Untersuchungen ergaben, dass eine aerobe und fakultativ anaerobe autochthone schadstoffabbauende Mikroflora vorhanden ist, aber nur der aeroben Keime durch geeignete Naehrstoffe und Versuchsbedingungen aktivierbar waren. - In Abbauuntersuchungen durch Zusatz unterschiedlicher Naehrsalze konnte bei hoher Schadstoffkonzentration schon nach 1 Woche ein Abbau > 70% erreicht werden. In niederen Konzentrationsbereichen war die Schadstoffabbaupotenz wesentlich geringer. - Die anisotropen Verhaeltnisse am Standort in 5-10m Tiefe liessen eine In-situ

  10. Variability in soil CO2 production and surface CO2 efflux across riparian-hillslope transitions (United States)

    Vincent Jerald. Pacific


    The spatial and temporal controls on soil CO2 production and surface CO2 efflux have been identified as an outstanding gap in our understanding of carbon cycling. I investigated both the spatial and temporal variability of soil CO2 concentrations and surface CO2 efflux across eight topographically distinct riparian-hillslope transitions in the ~300 ha subalpine upper-...

  11. CO2 flux from Javanese mud volcanism. (United States)

    Queißer, M; Burton, M R; Arzilli, F; Chiarugi, A; Marliyani, G I; Anggara, F; Harijoko, A


    Studying the quantity and origin of CO 2 emitted by back-arc mud volcanoes is critical to correctly model fluid-dynamical, thermodynamical, and geochemical processes that drive their activity and to constrain their role in the global geochemical carbon cycle. We measured CO 2 fluxes of the Bledug Kuwu mud volcano on the Kendeng Fold and thrust belt in the back arc of Central Java, Indonesia, using scanning remote sensing absorption spectroscopy. The data show that the expelled gas is rich in CO 2 with a volume fraction of at least 16 vol %. A lower limit CO 2 flux of 1.4 kg s -1 (117 t d -1 ) was determined, in line with the CO 2 flux from the Javanese mud volcano LUSI. Extrapolating these results to mud volcanism from the whole of Java suggests an order of magnitude total CO 2 flux of 3 kt d -1 , comparable with the expected back-arc efflux of magmatic CO 2 . After discussing geochemical, geological, and geophysical evidence we conclude that the source of CO 2 observed at Bledug Kuwu is likely a mixture of thermogenic, biogenic, and magmatic CO 2 , with faulting controlling potential pathways for magmatic fluids. This study further demonstrates the merit of man-portable active remote sensing instruments for probing natural gas releases, enabling bottom-up quantification of CO 2 fluxes.

  12. Modeling of CO2 storage in aquifers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Savioli, Gabriela B; Santos, Juan E


    Storage of CO 2 in geological formations is a means of mitigating the greenhouse effect. Saline aquifers are a good alternative as storage sites due to their large volume and their common occurrence in nature. The first commercial CO 2 injection project is that of the Sleipner field in the Utsira Sand aquifer (North Sea). Nevertheless, very little was known about the effectiveness of CO 2 sequestration over very long periods of time. In this way, numerical modeling of CO 2 injection and seismic monitoring is an important tool to understand the behavior of CO 2 after injection and to make long term predictions in order to prevent CO 2 leaks from the storage into the atmosphere. The description of CO 2 injection into subsurface formations requires an accurate fluid-flow model. To simulate the simultaneous flow of brine and CO 2 we apply the Black-Oil formulation for two phase flow in porous media, which uses the PVT data as a simplified thermodynamic model. Seismic monitoring is modeled using Biot's equations of motion describing wave propagation in fluid-saturated poroviscoelastic solids. Numerical examples of CO 2 injection and time-lapse seismics using data of the Utsira formation show the capability of this methodology to monitor the migration and dispersal of CO 2 after injection.

  13. Explaining CO2 fluctuations observed in snowpacks (United States)

    Graham, Laura; Risk, David


    Winter soil carbon dioxide (CO2) respiration is a significant and understudied component of the global carbon (C) cycle. Winter soil CO2 fluxes can be surprisingly variable, owing to physical factors such as snowpack properties and wind. This study aimed to quantify the effects of advective transport of CO2 in soil-snow systems on the subdiurnal to diurnal (hours to days) timescale, use an enhanced diffusion model to replicate the effects of CO2 concentration depletions from persistent winds, and use a model-measure pairing to effectively explore what is happening in the field. We took continuous measurements of CO2 concentration gradients and meteorological data at a site in the Cape Breton Highlands of Nova Scotia, Canada, to determine the relationship between wind speeds and CO2 levels in snowpacks. We adapted a soil CO2 diffusion model for the soil-snow system and simulated stepwise changes in transport rate over a broad range of plausible synthetic cases. The goal was to mimic the changes we observed in CO2 snowpack concentration to help elucidate the mechanisms (diffusion, advection) responsible for observed variations. On subdiurnal to diurnal timescales with varying winds and constant snow levels, a strong negative relationship between wind speed and CO2 concentration within the snowpack was often identified. Modelling clearly demonstrated that diffusion alone was unable to replicate the high-frequency CO2 fluctuations, but simulations using above-atmospheric snowpack diffusivities (simulating advective transport within the snowpack) reproduced snow CO2 changes of the observed magnitude and speed. This confirmed that wind-induced ventilation contributed to episodic pulsed emissions from the snow surface and to suppressed snowpack concentrations. This study improves our understanding of winter CO2 dynamics to aid in continued quantification of the annual global C cycle and demonstrates a preference for continuous wintertime CO2 flux measurement systems.

  14. Porous Organic Polymers for CO2 Capture

    KAUST Repository

    Teng, Baiyang


    Carbon dioxide (CO2) has long been regarded as the major greenhouse gas, which leads to numerous negative effects on global environment. The capture and separation of CO2 by selective adsorption using porous materials proves to be an effective way to reduce the emission of CO2 to atmosphere. Porous organic polymers (POPs) are promising candidates for this application due to their readily tunable textual properties and surface functionalities. The objective of this thesis work is to develop new POPs with high CO2 adsorption capacities and CO2/N2 selectivities for post-combustion effluent (e.g. flue gas) treatment. We will also exploit the correlation between the CO2 capture performance of POPs and their textual properties/functionalities. Chapters Two focuses on the study of a group of porous phenolic-aldehyde polymers (PPAPs) synthesized by a catalyst-free method, the CO2 capture capacities of these PPAPs exceed 2.0 mmol/g at 298 K and 1 bar, while keeping CO2/N2 selectivity of more than 30 at the same time. Chapter Three reports the gas adsorption results of different hyper-cross-linked polymers (HCPs), which indicate that heterocyclo aromatic monomers can greatly enhance polymers’ CO2/N2 selectivities, and the N-H bond is proved to the active CO2 adsorption center in the N-contained (e.g. pyrrole) HCPs, which possess the highest selectivities of more than 40 at 273 K when compared with other HCPs. Chapter Four emphasizes on the chemical modification of a new designed polymer of intrinsic microporosity (PIM) with high CO2/N2 selectivity (50 at 273 K), whose experimental repeatability and chemical stability prove excellent. In Chapter Five, we demonstrate an improvement of both CO2 capture capacity and CO2/N2 selectivity by doping alkali metal ions into azo-polymers, which leads a promising method to the design of new porous organic polymers.

  15. CO2 efflux from soils with seasonal water repellency (United States)

    Urbanek, Emilia; Doerr, Stefan H.


    Soil carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions are strongly dependent on pore water distribution, which in turn can be modified by reduced wettability. Many soils around the world are affected by soil water repellency (SWR), which reduces infiltration and results in diverse moisture distribution. SWR is temporally variable and soils can change from wettable to water-repellent and vice versa throughout the year. Effects of SWR on soil carbon (C) dynamics, and specifically on CO2 efflux, have only been studied in a few laboratory experiments and hence remain poorly understood. Existing studies suggest soil respiration is reduced with increasing severity of SWR, but the responses of soil CO2 efflux to varying water distribution created by SWR are not yet known.Here we report on the first field-based study that tests whether SWR indeed reduces soil CO2 efflux, based on in situ measurements carried out over three consecutive years at a grassland and pine forest sites under the humid temperate climate of the UK.Soil CO2 efflux was indeed very low on occasions when soil exhibited consistently high SWR and low soil moisture following long dry spells. Low CO2 efflux was also observed when SWR was absent, in spring and late autumn when soil temperatures were low, but also in summer when SWR was reduced by frequent rainfall events. The highest CO2 efflux occurred not when soil was wettable, but when SWR, and thus soil moisture, was spatially patchy, a pattern observed for the majority of the measurement period. Patchiness of SWR is likely to have created zones with two different characteristics related to CO2 production and transport. Zones with wettable soil or low persistence of SWR with higher proportion of water-filled pores are expected to provide water with high nutrient concentration resulting in higher microbial activity and CO2 production. Soil zones with high SWR persistence, on the other hand, are dominated by air-filled pores with low microbial activity, but facilitating O2

  16. Experimental investigation of CO2-brine-rock interactions at elevated temperature and pressure: Implications for CO2 sequestration in deep-saline aquifers (United States)

    Rosenbauer, R.J.; Koksalan, T.; Palandri, J.L.


    Deep-saline aquifers are potential repositories for excess CO2, currently being emitted to the atmosphere from anthropogenic activities, but the reactivity of supercritical CO2 with host aquifer fluids and formation minerals needs to be understood. Experiments reacting supercritical CO2 with natural and synthetic brines in the presence and absence of limestone and plagioclase-rich arkosic sandstone showed that the reaction of CO2-saturated brine with limestone results in compositional, mineralogical, and porosity changes in the aquifer fluid and rock that are dependent on initial brine composition, especially dissolved calcium and sulfate. Experiments reacting CO2-saturated, low-sulfate brine with limestone dissolved 10% of the original calcite and increased rock porosity by 2.6%. Experiments reacting high-sulfate brine with limestone, both in the presence and absence of supercritical CO2, were characterized by the precipitation of anhydrite, dolomitization of the limestone, and a final decrease in porosity of 4.5%. However, based on favorable initial porosity changes of about 15% due to the dissolution of calcite, the combination of CO2 co-injection with other mitigation strategies might help alleviate some of the well-bore scale and formation-plugging problems near the injection zone of a brine disposal well in Paradox Valley, Colorado, as well as provide a repository for CO2. Experiments showed that the solubility of CO2 is enhanced in brine in the presence of limestone by 9% at 25 ??C and 6% at 120 ??C and 200 bar relative to the brine itself. The solubility of CO2 is enhanced also in brine in the presence of arkosic sandstone by 5% at 120 ??C and 300 bar. The storage of CO 2 in limestone aquifers is limited to only ionic and hydraulic trapping. However, brine reacted with supercritical CO2 and arkose yielded fixation and sequestration of CO2 in carbonate mineral phases. Brine desiccation was observed in all experiments containing a discrete CO2 phase

  17. Wellbore integrity analysis of a natural CO2 producer

    KAUST Repository

    Crow, Walter


    Long-term integrity of existing wells in a CO2-rich environment is essential for ensuring that geological sequestration of CO2 will be an effective technology for mitigating greenhouse gas-induced climate change. The potential for wellbore leakage depends in part on the quality of the original construction as well as geochemical and geomechanical stresses that occur over its life-cycle. Field data are essential for assessing the integrated effect of these factors and their impact on wellbore integrity, defined as the maintenance of isolation between subsurface intervals. In this report, we investigate a 30-year-old well from a natural CO2 production reservoir using a suite of downhole and laboratory tests to characterize isolation performance. These tests included mineralogical and hydrological characterization of 10 core samples of casing/cement/formation, wireline surveys to evaluate well conditions, fluid samples and an in situ permeability test. We find evidence for CO2 migration in the occurrence of carbonated cement and calculate that the effective permeability of an 11′-region of the wellbore barrier system was between 0.5 and 1 milliDarcy. Despite these observations, we find that the amount of fluid migration along the wellbore was probably small because of several factors: the amount of carbonation decreased with distance from the reservoir, cement permeability was low (0.3-30 microDarcy), the cement-casing and cement-formation interfaces were tight, the casing was not corroded, fluid samples lacked CO2, and the pressure gradient between reservoir and caprock was maintained. We conclude that the barrier system has ultimately performed well over the last 3 decades. These results will be used as part of a broader effort to develop a long-term predictive simulation tool to assess wellbore integrity performance in CO2 storage sites. © 2009 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Why is Dawsonite Absent in CO2 Charged Reservoirs? Pourquoi la dawsonite est-elle absente des réservoirs chargés en CO2 ?


    Hellevang H.; Declercq J.; Aagaard P.


    Growth of the sodiumaluminium-hydroxy carbonate dawsonite (NaAl(OH)2CO3) after charging saline aquifers with CO2 has been assumed in a plethora of numerical simulations at different mineralogies, aqueous solutions, pressures and temperatures. It appears however that dawsonite is less abundant than expected in natural CO2 storage analogues if we take into account the thermodynamic stability alone. We have mapped the thermodynamic stability of dawsonite relative to mineral phases like al...

  19. Metal-Organic Framework-Stabilized CO2/Water Interfacial Route for Photocatalytic CO2 Conversion. (United States)

    Luo, Tian; Zhang, Jianling; Li, Wei; He, Zhenhong; Sun, Xiaofu; Shi, Jinbiao; Shao, Dan; Zhang, Bingxing; Tan, Xiuniang; Han, Buxing


    Here, we propose a CO 2 /water interfacial route for photocatalytic CO 2 conversion by utilizing a metal-organic framework (MOF) as both an emulsifier and a catalyst. The CO 2 reduction occurring at the CO 2 /water interface produces formate with remarkably enhanced efficiency as compared with that in conventional solvent. The route is efficient, facile, adjustable, and environmentally benign, which is applicable for the CO 2 transformation photocatalyzed by different kinds of MOFs.

  20. Hemiparasite abundance in an alpine treeline ecotone increases in response to atmospheric CO(2) enrichment. (United States)

    Hättenschwiler, Stephan; Zumbrunn, Thomas


    Populations of the annual hemiparasites Melampyrum pratense L. and Melampyrum sylvaticum L. were studied at the treeline in the Swiss Alps after 3 years of in situ CO(2) enrichment. The total density of Melampyrum doubled to an average of 44 individuals per square meter at elevated CO(2) compared to ambient CO(2). In response to elevated CO(2), the height of the more abundant and more evenly distributed M. pratense increased by 20%, the number of seeds per fruit by 21%, and the total seed dry mass per fruit by 27%, but the individual seed size did not change. These results suggest that rising atmospheric CO(2) may stimulate the reproductive output and increase the abundance of Melampyrum in the alpine treeline ecotone. Because hemiparasites can have important effects on community dynamics and ecosystem processes, notably the N cycle, changing Melampyrum abundance may potentially influence the functioning of alpine ecosystems in a future CO(2)-rich atmosphere.

  1. Advanced technology development reducing CO2 emissions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Dong Sup


    Responding to Korean government policies on green growth and global energy/ environmental challenges, SK energy has been developing new technologies to reduce CO2 emissions by 1) CO2 capture and utilization, 2) efficiency improvement, and 3) Li-ion batteries. The paper introduces three advanced technologies developed by SK energy; GreenPol, ACO, and Li-ion battery. Contributing to company vision, a more energy and less CO2, the three technologies are characterized as follows. GreenPol utilizes CO2 as a feedstock for making polymer. Advanced Catalytic Olefin (ACO) reduces CO2 emission by 20% and increase olefin production by 17%. Li-ion Batteries for automotive industries improves CO2 emission.

  2. CO2 Allowance and Electricity Price Interaction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)



    With the introduction of CO2 emission constraints on power generators in the European Union, climate policy is starting to have notable effects on energy markets. This paper sheds light on the links between CO2 prices, electricity prices, and electricity costs to industry. It is based on a series of interviews with industrial and electricity stakeholders, as well as a rich literature seeking to estimate the exact effect of CO2 prices on electricity prices.

  3. Economic effects on taxing CO2 emissions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haaparanta, P.; Jerkkola, J.; Pohjola, J.


    The CO 2 emissions can be reduced by using economic instruments, like carbon tax. This project included two specific questions related to CO 2 taxation. First one was the economic effects of increasing CO 2 tax and decreasing other taxes. Second was the economic adjustment costs of reducing net emissions instead of gross emissions. A computable general equilibrium (CGE) model was used in this analysis. The study was taken place in Helsinki School of Economics

  4. Carbon dioxide sequestration by direct mineral carbonation with carbonic acid

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    O' Connor, William K.; Dahlin, David C.; Nilsen, David N.; Walters, Richard P.; Turner, Paul C.


    The Albany Research Center (ARC) of the U.S. Dept. of Energy (DOE) has been conducting a series of mineral carbonation tests at its Albany, Oregon, facility over the past 2 years as part of a Mineral Carbonation Study Program within the DOE. Other participants in this Program include the Los Alamos National Laboratory, Arizona State University, Science Applications International Corporation, and the DOE National Energy Technology Laboratory. The ARC tests have focused on ex-situ mineral carbonation in an aqueous system. The process developed at ARC utilizes a slurry of water mixed with a magnesium silicate mineral, olivine [forsterite end member (Mg2SiO4)], or serpentine [Mg3Si2O5(OH)4]. This slurry is reacted with supercritical carbon dioxide (CO2) to produce magnesite (MgCO3). The CO2 is dissolved in water to form carbonic acid (H2CO3), which dissociates to H+ and HCO3 -. The H+ reacts with the mineral, liberating Mg2+ cations which react with the bicarbonate to form the solid carbonate. The process is designed to simulate the natural serpentinization reaction of ultramafic minerals, and for this reason, these results may also be applicable to in-situ geological sequestration regimes. Results of the baseline tests, conducted on ground products of the natural minerals, have been encouraging. Tests conducted at ambient temperature (22 C) and subcritical CO2 pressures (below 73 atm) resulted in very slow conversion to the carbonate. However, when elevated temperatures and pressures are utilized, coupled with continuous stirring of the slurry and gas dispersion within the water column, significant reaction occurs within much shorter reaction times. Extent of reaction, as measured by the stoichiometric conversion of the silicate mineral (olivine) to the carbonate, is roughly 90% within 24 hours, using distilled water, and a reaction temperature of 185?C and a partial pressure of CO2 (PCO2) of 115 atm. Recent tests using a bicarbonate solution, under identical reaction

  5. Re-Examining Embodied SO2 and CO2 Emissions in China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rui Huang


    Full Text Available CO2 and SO2, while having different environmental impacts, are both linked to the burning of fossil fuels. Research on joint patterns of CO2 emissions and SO2 emissions may provide useful information for decision-makers to reduce these emissions effectively. This study analyzes both CO2 emissions and SO2 emissions embodied in interprovincial trade in 2007 and 2010 using multi-regional input–output analysis. Backward and forward linkage analysis shows that Production and Supply of Electric Power and Steam, Non-metal Mineral Products, and Metal Smelting and Pressing are key sectors for mitigating SO2 and CO2 emissions along the national supply chain. The total SO2 emissions and CO2 emissions of these sectors accounted for 81% and 76% of the total national SO2 emissions and CO2 emissions, respectively.

  6. Soil warming enhances the hidden shift of elemental stoichiometry by elevated CO2 in wheat. (United States)

    Li, Xiangnan; Jiang, Dong; Liu, Fulai


    Increase in atmospheric CO2 concentration ([CO2]) and associated soil warming along with global climate change are expected to have large impacts on grain mineral nutrition in wheat. The effects of CO2 elevation (700 μmol l(-1)) and soil warming (+2.4 °C) on K, Ca and Mg concentrations in the xylem sap and their partitioning in different organs of wheat plant during grain filling were investigated. Results showed that the combination of elevated [CO2] and soil warming improved wheat grain yield, but decreased plant K, Ca and Mg accumulation and their concentrations in the leaves, stems, roots and grains. The reduced grain mineral concentration was attributed to the lowered mineral uptake as exemplified by both the decreased stomatal conductance and mineral concentration in the xylem sap. These findings suggest that future higher atmospheric [CO2] and warmer soil conditions may decrease the dietary availability of minerals from wheat crops. Breeding wheat cultivars possessing higher ability of mineral uptake at reduced xylem flux in exposure to climate change should be a target.

  7. Element mobilization and immobilization from carbonate rocks between CO 2 storage reservoirs and the overlying aquifers during a potential CO 2 leakage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lawter, Amanda R.; Qafoku, Nikolla P.; Asmussen, R. Matthew; Kukkadapu, Ravi K.; Qafoku, Odeta; Bacon, Diana H.; Brown, Christopher F.


    Despite the numerous studies on changes within the reservoir following CO2 injection and the effects of CO2 release into overlying aquifers, little or no literature is available on the effect of CO2 release on rock between the storage reservoirs and subsurface. To address this knowledge gap, relevant rock materials, temperatures and pressures were used to study mineralogical and elemental changes in this intermediate zone. After rocks reacted with CO2, liquid analysis showed an increase of major elements (e.g., Ca, and Mg) and variable concentrations of potential contaminants (e.g., Sr and Ba); lower concentrations were observed in N2 controls. In experiments with As/Cd and/or organic spikes, representing potential contaminants in the CO2 plume originating in the storage reservoir, most or all of these contaminants were removed from the aqueous phase. SEM and Mössbauer spectroscopy results showed the formation of new minerals and Fe oxides in some CO2-reacted samples, indicating potential for contaminant removal through mineral incorporation or adsorption onto Fe oxides. These experiments show the interactions between the CO2-laden plume and the rock between storage reservoirs and overlying aquifers have the potential to affect the level of risk to overlying groundwater, and should be considered during site selection and risk evaluation.

  8. Large-scale CO2 storage — Is it feasible?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Johansen H.


    Full Text Available CCS is generally estimated to have to account for about 20% of the reduction of CO2 emissions to the atmosphere. This paper focuses on the technical aspects of CO2 storage, even if the CCS challenge is equally dependent upon finding viable international solutions to a wide range of economic, political and cultural issues. It has already been demonstrated that it is technically possible to store adequate amounts of CO2 in the subsurface (Sleipner, InSalah, Snøhvit. The large-scale storage challenge (several Gigatons of CO2 per year is more an issue of minimizing cost without compromising safety, and of making international regulations.The storage challenge may be split into 4 main parts: 1 finding reservoirs with adequate storage capacity, 2 make sure that the sealing capacity above the reservoir is sufficient, 3 build the infrastructure for transport, drilling and injection, and 4 set up and perform the necessary monitoring activities. More than 150 years of worldwide experience from the production of oil and gas is an important source of competence for CO2 storage. The storage challenge is however different in three important aspects: 1 the storage activity results in pressure increase in the subsurface, 2 there is no production of fluids that give important feedback on reservoir performance, and 3 the monitoring requirement will have to extend for a much longer time into the future than what is needed during oil and gas production. An important property of CO2 is that its behaviour in the subsurface is significantly different from that of oil and gas. CO2 in contact with water is reactive and corrosive, and may impose great damage on both man-made and natural materials, if proper precautions are not executed. On the other hand, the long-term effect of most of these reactions is that a large amount of CO2 will become immobilized and permanently stored as solid carbonate minerals. The reduced opportunity for direct monitoring of fluid samples

  9. Large-scale CO2 storage — Is it feasible? (United States)

    Johansen, H.


    CCS is generally estimated to have to account for about 20% of the reduction of CO2 emissions to the atmosphere. This paper focuses on the technical aspects of CO2 storage, even if the CCS challenge is equally dependent upon finding viable international solutions to a wide range of economic, political and cultural issues. It has already been demonstrated that it is technically possible to store adequate amounts of CO2 in the subsurface (Sleipner, InSalah, Snøhvit). The large-scale storage challenge (several Gigatons of CO2 per year) is more an issue of minimizing cost without compromising safety, and of making international regulations.The storage challenge may be split into 4 main parts: 1) finding reservoirs with adequate storage capacity, 2) make sure that the sealing capacity above the reservoir is sufficient, 3) build the infrastructure for transport, drilling and injection, and 4) set up and perform the necessary monitoring activities. More than 150 years of worldwide experience from the production of oil and gas is an important source of competence for CO2 storage. The storage challenge is however different in three important aspects: 1) the storage activity results in pressure increase in the subsurface, 2) there is no production of fluids that give important feedback on reservoir performance, and 3) the monitoring requirement will have to extend for a much longer time into the future than what is needed during oil and gas production. An important property of CO2 is that its behaviour in the subsurface is significantly different from that of oil and gas. CO2 in contact with water is reactive and corrosive, and may impose great damage on both man-made and natural materials, if proper precautions are not executed. On the other hand, the long-term effect of most of these reactions is that a large amount of CO2 will become immobilized and permanently stored as solid carbonate minerals. The reduced opportunity for direct monitoring of fluid samples close to the

  10. Development of Double and Triple-Pulsed 2-micron IPDA Lidars for Column CO2 Measurements (United States)

    Singh, Upendra N.; Yu, Jirong; Petros, Mulugeta; Refaat, Tamer F.; Remus, Ruben G.; Reithmaier, Karl


    Carbon dioxide (CO2) is an important greenhouse gas that significantly contributes to the carbon cycle and globalradiation budget on Earth. CO2 role on Earth’s climate is complicated due to different interactions with various climatecomponents that include the atmosphere, the biosphere and the hydrosphere. Although extensive worldwide efforts formonitoring atmospheric CO2 through various techniques, including in-situ and passive sensors, are taking place highuncertainties exist in quantifying CO2 sources and sinks. These uncertainties are mainly due to insufficient spatial andtemporal mapping of the gas. Therefore it is required to have more rapid and accurate CO2 monitoring with higheruniform coverage and higher resolution. CO2 DIAL operating in the 2-µm band offer better near-surface CO2measurement sensitivity due to the intrinsically stronger absorption lines. For more than 15 years, NASA LangleyResearch Center (LaRC) contributed in developing several 2-?m CO2 DIAL systems and technologies. This paperfocuses on the current development of the airborne double-pulsed and triple-pulsed 2-?m CO2 integrated pathdifferential absorption (IPDA) lidar system at NASA LaRC. This includes the IPDA system development andintegration. Results from ground and airborne CO2 IPDA testing will be presented. The potential of scaling suchtechnology to a space mission will be addressed.

  11. [Dynamic observation, simulation and application of soil CO2 concentration: a review]. (United States)

    Sheng, Hao; Luo, Sha; Zhou, Ping; Li, Teng-Yi; Wang, Juan; Li, Jie


    Soil CO2 concentration is the consequences of biological activities in above- and below-ground, and its fluctuation may significantly affect the future atmospheric CO2 concentration and the projected climate change. This paper reviewed the methodologies for measuring the soil CO2 concentration in situ as well as their advantages and disadvantages, analyzed the variation patterns and controlling factors of soil CO2 concentration across the temporal (diurnal, several days, seasonal and inter-annual) and spatial (soil profile, site and landscape) scales, introduced the primary empirical and mechanical models for estimating and predicting soil CO2 concentration, and summarized the applications and constraints of soil CO2 concentration gradient in determining soil respiration. Four research priorities were proposed, i. e., to develop new techniques for collecting and determining the soil CO2 in severe soil conditions (e. g., flooding, lithoso and others), to approach the responses of soil CO2 concentration to weather change and related regulation mechanisms, to strengthen the researches on the spatial heterogeneity of soil CO2 concentration, and to expand the applications of soil CO2 concentration gradient in the measurement of tropical-subtropical soil respiration.

  12. Experimental Ion Mobility measurements in Ne-CO$_2$ and CO$_2$-N$_2$ mixtures

    CERN Document Server

    Encarnação, P.M.C.C.; Veenhof, R.; Neves, P.N.B.; Santos, F.P.; Trindade, A.M.F.; Borges, F.I.G.M.; Conde, C.A.N.


    In this paper we present the experimental results for the mobility, K0, of ions in neon-carbon dioxide (Ne-CO2) and carbon dioxide-nitrogen (CO2-N2) gaseous mixtures for total pressures ranging from 8–12 Torr, reduced electric fields in the 10–25 Td range, at room temperature. Regarding the Ne-CO2 mixture only one peak was observed for CO2 concentrations above 25%, which has been identified as an ion originated in CO2, while below 25% of CO2 a second-small peak appears at the left side of the main peak, which has been attributed to impurities. The mobility values for the main peak range between 3.51 ± 0.05 and 1.07 ± 0.01 cm2V−1s−1 in the 10%-99% interval of CO2, and from 4.61 ± 0.19 to 3.00 ± 0.09 cm2V−1s−1 for the second peak observed (10%–25% of CO2). For the CO2-N2, the time-of-arrival spectra displayed only one peak for CO2 concentrations above 10%, which was attributed to ions originated in CO2, namely CO2+(CO2), with a second peak appearing for CO2 concentrations below 10%. This secon...

  13. Recent advances on mixed matrix membranes for CO2 separation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ming Wang; Zhi Wang; Song Zhao; Jixiao Wang; Shichang Wang


    Recent advances on mixed matrix membrane for CO2 separation are reviewed in this paper. To improve CO2 separation performance of polymer membranes, mixedmatrixmembranes (MMMs) are developed. The concept of MMM is illustrated distinctly. Suitable polymer and inorganic or organic fillers for MMMs are summarized.Possible interface morphologies between polymer and filler, and the effect of interface morphologies on gas transport properties of MMMs are summarized. The methods to improve compatibility between polymer and filler are introduced. There are eightmethods including silane coupling, Grignard treatment, incorporation of additive,grafting, in situ polymerization, polydopamine coating, particle fusion approach and polymer functionalization. To achieve higher productivity for industrial application,mixed matrix composite membranes are developed. The recent development on hollow fiber and flat mixedmatrix composite membrane is reviewed in detail. Last, the future trend of MMM is forecasted.

  14. Microbial electrochemical separation of CO2 for biogas upgrading

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kokkoli, Argyro; Zhang, Yifeng; Angelidaki, Irini


    was obtained at 1.2 V, inlet biogas rate of 0.088 mL/h/mL reactor and NaCl concentration of 100 mM at a 5-day operation. Meanwhile, the organic matter of the domestic wastewater in the anode was almost completely removed at the end. The study demonstrated a new sustainable way to simultaneously upgrade biogas......Biogas upgrading to natural gas quality has been under focus the recent years for increasing the utilization potential of biogas. Conventional methods for CO2 removal are expensive and have environmental challenges, such as increased emissions of methane in the atmosphere with serious greenhouse...... impact. In this study, an innovative microbial electrochemical separation cell (MESC) was developed to in-situ separate and regenerate CO2 via alkali and acid regeneration. The MESC was tested under different applied voltages, inlet biogas rates and electrolyte concentrations. Pure biomethane...

  15. Nanoscale Chemical Processes Affecting Storage Capacities and Seals during Geologic CO2 Sequestration. (United States)

    Jun, Young-Shin; Zhang, Lijie; Min, Yujia; Li, Qingyun


    Geologic CO 2 sequestration (GCS) is a promising strategy to mitigate anthropogenic CO 2 emission to the atmosphere. Suitable geologic storage sites should have a porous reservoir rock zone where injected CO 2 can displace brine and be stored in pores, and an impermeable zone on top of reservoir rocks to hinder upward movement of buoyant CO 2 . The injection wells (steel casings encased in concrete) pass through these geologic zones and lead CO 2 to the desired zones. In subsurface environments, CO 2 is reactive as both a supercritical (sc) phase and aqueous (aq) species. Its nanoscale chemical reactions with geomedia and wellbores are closely related to the safety and efficiency of CO 2 storage. For example, the injection pressure is determined by the wettability and permeability of geomedia, which can be sensitive to nanoscale mineral-fluid interactions; the sealing safety of the injection sites is affected by the opening and closing of fractures in caprocks and the alteration of wellbore integrity caused by nanoscale chemical reactions; and the time scale for CO 2 mineralization is also largely dependent on the chemical reactivities of the reservoir rocks. Therefore, nanoscale chemical processes can influence the hydrogeological and mechanical properties of geomedia, such as their wettability, permeability, mechanical strength, and fracturing. This Account reviews our group's work on nanoscale chemical reactions and their qualitative impacts on seal integrity and storage capacity at GCS sites from four points of view. First, studies on dissolution of feldspar, an important reservoir rock constituent, and subsequent secondary mineral precipitation are discussed, focusing on the effects of feldspar crystallography, cations, and sulfate anions. Second, interfacial reactions between caprock and brine are introduced using model clay minerals, with focuses on the effects of water chemistries (salinity and organic ligands) and water content on mineral dissolution and

  16. Alginate/nanohydroxyapatite scaffolds with designed core/shell structures fabricated by 3D plotting and in situ mineralization for bone tissue engineering. (United States)

    Luo, Yongxiang; Lode, Anja; Wu, Chengtie; Chang, Jiang; Gelinsky, Michael


    Composite scaffolds, especially polymer/hydroxyapatite (HAP) composite scaffolds with predesigned structures, are promising materials for bone tissue engineering. Various methods including direct mixing of HAP powder with polymers or incubating polymer scaffolds in simulated body fluid for preparing polymer/HAP composite scaffolds are either uncontrolled or require long times of incubation. In this work, alginate/nano-HAP composite scaffolds with designed pore parameters and core/shell structures were fabricated using 3D plotting technique and in situ mineralization under mild conditions (at room temperature and without the use of any organic solvents). Light microscopy, scanning electron microscopy, microcomputer tomography, X-ray diffraction, and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy were applied to characterize the fabricated scaffolds. Mechanical properties and protein delivery of the scaffolds were evaluated, as well as the cell response to the scaffolds by culturing human bone-marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells (hBMSC). The obtained data indicate that this method is suitable to fabricate alginate/nano-HAP composite scaffolds with a layer of nano-HAP, coating the surface of the alginate strands homogeneously and completely. The surface mineralization enhanced the mechanical properties and improved the cell attachment and spreading, as well as supported sustaining protein release, compared to pure alginate scaffolds without nano-HAP shell layer. The results demonstrated that the method provides an interesting option for bone tissue engineering application.

  17. Corn residue removal and CO2 emissions (United States)

    Carbon dioxide (CO2), nitrous oxide (N2O), and methane (CH4) are the primary greenhouse gases (GHG) emitted from the soil due to agricultural activities. In the short-term, increases in CO2 emissions indicate increased soil microbial activity. Soil micro-organisms decompose crop residues and release...

  18. Increasing CO2 storage in oil recovery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jessen, K.; Kovscek, A.R.; Orr, F.M. Jr.


    Oil fields offer a significant potential for storing CO 2 and will most likely be the first large scale geological targets for sequestration as the infrastructure, experience and permitting procedures already exist. The problem of co-optimizing oil production and CO 2 storage differs significantly from current gas injection practice due to the cost-benefit imbalance resulting from buying CO 2 for enhanced oil recovery projects. Consequently, operators aim to minimize the amount of CO 2 required to sweep an oil reservoir. For sequestration purposes, where high availability of low cost CO 2 is assumed, the design parameters of enhanced oil recovery processes must be re-defined to optimize the amount of CO 2 left in the reservoir at the time of abandonment. To redefine properly the design parameters, thorough insight into the mechanisms controlling the pore scale displacement efficiency and the overall sweep efficiency is essential. We demonstrate by calculation examples the different mechanisms controlling the displacement behavior of CO 2 sequestration schemes, the interaction between flow and phase equilibrium and how proper design of the injection gas composition and well completion are required to co-optimize oil production and CO 2 storage. [Author

  19. NIST Photoionization of CO2 (ARPES) Database (United States)

    SRD 119 NIST Photoionization of CO2 (ARPES) Database (Web, free access)   CO2 is studied using dispersed synchrotron radiation in the 650 Å to 850 Å spectral region. The vibrationally resolved photoelectron spectra are analyzed to generate relative vibrational transition amplitudes and the angular asymmetry parameters describing the various transitions observed.

  20. CO2 Capture with Enzyme Synthetic Analogue

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cordatos, Harry


    Overview of an ongoing, 2 year research project partially funded by APRA-E to create a novel, synthetic analogue of carbonic anhydrase and incorporate it into a membrane for removal of CO2 from flue gas in coal power plants. Mechanism background, preliminary feasibility study results, molecular modeling of analogue-CO2 interaction, and program timeline are provided.

  1. Eindhoven Airport : towards zero CO2 emissions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jorge Simoes Pedro, Joana


    Eindhoven airport is growing and it is strongly committed to take this opportunity to invest in innovative solutions for a sustainable development. Therefore, this document proposes a strategic plan for reaching Zero CO2 emissions at Eindhoven airport. This document proposes to reduce the CO2

  2. Thermodynamic modeling of CO2 mixtures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjørner, Martin Gamel

    Knowledge of the thermodynamic properties and phase equilibria of mixtures containing carbon dioxide (CO2) is important in several industrial processes such as enhanced oil recovery, carbon capture and storage, and supercritical extractions, where CO2 is used as a solvent. Despite this importance...

  3. Increasing CO2 storage in oil recovery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jessen, Kristian; Kovscek, Anthony R.; Orr, Franklin M.


    Oil fields offer a significant potential for storing CO 2 and will most likely be the first large scale geological targets for sequestration as the infrastructure, experience and permitting procedures already exist. The problem of co-optimizing oil production and CO 2 storage differs significantly from current gas injection practice due to the cost-benefit imbalance resulting from buying CO 2 for enhanced oil recovery projects. Consequently, operators aim to minimize the amount of CO 2 required to sweep an oil reservoir. For sequestration purposes, where high availability of low cost CO 2 is assumed, the design parameters of enhanced oil recovery processes must be re-defined to optimize the amount of CO 2 left in the reservoir at the time of abandonment. To redefine properly the design parameters, thorough insight into the mechanisms controlling the pore scale displacement efficiency and the overall sweep efficiency is essential. We demonstrate by calculation examples the different mechanisms controlling the displacement behavior of CO 2 sequestration schemes, the interaction between flow and phase equilibrium and how proper design of the injection gas composition and well completion are required to co-optimize oil production and CO 2 storage

  4. CO2 emission calculations and trends

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boden, T.A.; Marland, G.; Andres, R.J.


    Evidence that the atmospheric CO 2 concentration has risen during the past several decades is irrefutable. Most of the observed increase in atmospheric CO 2 is believed to result from CO 2 releases from fossil-fuel burning. The United Nations (UN) Framework Convention on Climate Change (FCCC), signed in Rio de Janeiro in June 1992, reflects global concern over the increasing CO 2 concentration and its potential impact on climate. One of the convention's stated objectives was the ''stabilization of greenhouse gas concentrations in the atmosphere at a level that would prevent dangerous anthropogenic interference with the climate system. '' Specifically, the FCCC asked all 154 signing countries to conduct an inventory of their current greenhouse gas emissions, and it set nonbinding targets for some countries to control emissions by stabilizing them at 1990 levels by the year 2000. Given the importance of CO 2 as a greenhouse gas, the relationship between CO 2 emissions and increases in atmospheric CO 2 levels, and the potential impacts of a greenhouse gas-induced climate change; it is important that comprehensive CO 2 emissions records be compiled, maintained, updated, and documented

  5. Recent development of capture of CO2

    CERN Document Server

    Chavez, Rosa Hilda


    "Recent Technologies in the capture of CO2" provides a comprehensive summary on the latest technologies available to minimize the emission of CO2 from large point sources like fossil-fuel power plants or industrial facilities. This ebook also covers various techniques that could be developed to reduce the amount of CO2 released into the atmosphere. The contents of this book include chapters on oxy-fuel combustion in fluidized beds, gas separation membrane used in post-combustion capture, minimizing energy consumption in CO2 capture processes through process integration, characterization and application of structured packing for CO2 capture, calcium looping technology for CO2 capture and many more. Recent Technologies in capture of CO2 is a valuable resource for graduate students, process engineers and administrative staff looking for real-case analysis of pilot plants. This eBook brings together the research results and professional experiences of the most renowned work groups in the CO2 capture field...

  6. Flow assurance studies for CO2 transport

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Veltin, J.; Belfroid, S.P.C.


    In order to compensate for the relative lack of experience of the CCTS community, Flow Assurance studies of new CO2 pipelines and networks are a very important step toward reliable operation. This report details a typical approach for Flow Assurance study of CO2 transport pipeline. Considerations to

  7. Biological CO2 conversion to acetate in subsurface coal-sand formation using a high-pressure reactor system (United States)

    Ohtomo, Y.; Ijiri, A.; Ikegawa, Y.; Tsutsumi, M.; Imachi, H.; Uramoto, G.; Hoshino, T.; Morono, Y.; Tanikawa, W.; Hirose, T.; Inagaki, F.


    The geological CO2 sequestration into subsurface unmineable oil/gas fields and coal formations has been considered as one of the possible ways to reduce dispersal of anthropogenic greenhouse gasses into the atmosphere. However, feasibility of CO2 injection largely depends on a variety of geological and economical settings, and its ecological consequences have remained largely unpredictable. To address these issues, we developed a new flow-through-type CO2 injection system designated as the 'geobio-reactor system' to examine possible geophysical, geochemical and microbiological impact caused by CO2 injection under in-situ pressure (0-100 MPa) and temperature (0-70°C) conditions. In this study, we investigated Eocene bituminous coal-sandstones in the northwestern Pacific coast, Hokkaido, Japan, using the geobio-reactor system. Anaerobic artificial fluid and CO2 (flow rate: 0.002 and 0.00001 mL/min, respectively) were continuously supplemented into the coal-sand column under the pore pressure of 40 MPa (confined pressure: 41 MPa) at 40°C for 56 days. Molecular analysis of bacterial 16S rRNA genes showed that predominant bacterial components were physically dispersed from coal to sand as the intact form during experiment. Cultivation experiments from sub-sampling fluids indicated that some terrestrial microbes could preserve their survival in subsurface condition. Molecular analysis of archaeal 16S rRNA genes also showed that no methanogens were activated during experiment. We also anaerobically incubated the coal sample using conventional batch-type cultivation technique with a medium for methanogens. After one year of the batch incubation at 20°C, methane could be detected from the cultures except for the acetate-fed culture. The sequence of archaeal 16S rRNA genes via PCR amplification obtained from the H2 plus formate-fed culture was affiliated with a hydrogenotrophic methanogen within the genus Methanobacterium, whereas the methanol plus trimethylamine culture


    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhu, Chen


    An important question for the Carbon Capture, Storage, and Utility program is “can we adequately predict the CO2 plume migration?” For tracking CO2 plume development, the Sleipner project in the Norwegian North Sea provides more time-lapse seismic monitoring data than any other sites, but significant uncertainties still exist for some of the reservoir parameters. In Part I, we assessed model uncertainties by applying two multi-phase compositional simulators to the Sleipner Benchmark model for the uppermost layer (Layer 9) of the Utsira Sand and calibrated our model against the time-lapsed seismic monitoring data for the site from 1999 to 2010. Approximate match with the observed plume was achieved by introducing lateral permeability anisotropy, adding CH4 into the CO2 stream, and adjusting the reservoir temperatures. Model-predicted gas saturation, CO2 accumulation thickness, and CO2 solubility in brine—none were used as calibration metrics—were all comparable with the interpretations of the seismic data in the literature. In Part II & III, we evaluated the uncertainties of predicted long-term CO2 fate up to 10,000 years, due to uncertain reaction kinetics. Under four scenarios of the kinetic rate laws, the temporal and spatial evolution of CO2 partitioning into the four trapping mechanisms (hydrodynamic/structural, solubility, residual/capillary, and mineral) was simulated with ToughReact, taking into account the CO2-brine-rock reactions and the multi-phase reactive flow and mass transport. Modeling results show that different rate laws for mineral dissolution and precipitation reactions resulted in different predicted amounts of trapped CO2 by carbonate minerals, with scenarios of the conventional linear rate law for feldspar dissolution having twice as much mineral trapping (21% of the injected CO2) as scenarios with a Burch-type or Alekseyev et al.–type rate law for feldspar dissolution (11%). So far, most reactive transport modeling (RTM) studies for

  9. Why is Dawsonite Absent in CO2 Charged Reservoirs?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hellevang, H.; Declercq, J.; Aagaard, P.


    Growth of the sodium-aluminium-hydroxy carbonate dawsonite (NaAl(OH) 2 CO 3 ) after charging saline aquifers with CO 2 has been assumed in a plethora of numerical simulations at different mineralogies, aqueous solutions, pressures and temperatures. It appears however that dawsonite is less abundant than expected in natural CO 2 storage analogues if we take into account the thermodynamic stability alone. We have mapped the thermodynamic stability of dawsonite relative to mineral phases like albite, kaolinite and analcime from 37 to 200 C and performed closed-system batch kinetic simulations using a new kinetic expression including a nucleation term based on classical nucleation theory, and a growth term that was based on BCF growth theory. Using this rate equation, we have performed a sensitivity study on dawsonite growth on mineralogy, temperature, CO 2 pressure, nucleation rate and its dependencies on temperature and affinity, and on the dawsonite precipitation rate coefficient. Simulations with dawsonite growth disabled showed that the maximum over-saturation reached for dawsonite for seawater-like solutions never exceeded 3-4 times over-saturation. The positive effect on dawsonite growth of increasing the CO 2 pressure was mostly neutralized by higher acidity. Decreasing the precipitation rate coefficient by 5 orders of magnitude had a limited effect on the onset of significant growth, but the amount of dawsonite formed at the end of the 1 000 years simulated time was only 37% below the high-rate case. Reducing the nucleation rates had similar effects leading to postponed dawsonite growth. Finally, based on thermodynamic considerations and numerical simulations, we suggest that the potential of dawsonite growth is limited to a medium-temperature window framed by a high thermodynamic stability relative to competing mineral phases at low temperatures, but with rapidly diminishing nucleation and growth rates at lower temperatures constrained by energy barriers

  10. Silvering substrates after CO2 snow cleaning (United States)

    Zito, Richard R.


    There have been some questions in the astronomical community concerning the quality of silver coatings deposited on substrates that have been cleaned with carbon dioxide snow. These questions center around the possible existence of carbonate ions left behind on the substrate by CO2. Such carbonate ions could react with deposited silver to produce insoluble silver carbonate, thereby reducing film adhesion and reflectivity. Carbonate ions could be produced from CO2 via the following mechanism. First, during CO2 snow cleaning, a small amount of moisture can condense on a surface. This is especially true if the jet of CO2 is allowed to dwell on one spot. CO2 gas can dissolve in this moisture, producing carbonic acid, which can undergo two acid dissociations to form carbonate ions. In reality, it is highly unlikely that charged carbonate ions will remain stable on a substrate for very long. As condensed water evaporates, Le Chatelier's principle will shift the equilibrium of the chain of reactions that produced carbonate back to CO2 gas. Furthermore, the hydration of CO2 reaction of CO2 with H20) is an extremely slow process, and the total dehydrogenation of carbonic acid is not favored. Living tissues that must carry out the equilibration of carbonic acid and CO2 use the enzyme carbonic anhydrase to speed up the reaction by a factor of one million. But no such enzymatic action is present on a clean mirror substrate. In short, the worst case analysis presented below shows that the ratio of silver atoms to carbonate radicals must be at least 500 million to one. The results of chemical tests presented here support this view. Furthermore, film lift-off tests, also presented in this report, show that silver film adhesion to fused silica substrates is actually enhanced by CO2 snow cleaning.

  11. The ins and outs of CO2 (United States)

    Raven, John A.; Beardall, John


    It is difficult to distinguish influx and efflux of inorganic C in photosynthesizing tissues; this article examines what is known and where there are gaps in knowledge. Irreversible decarboxylases produce CO2, and CO2 is the substrate/product of enzymes that act as carboxylases and decarboxylases. Some irreversible carboxylases use CO2; others use HCO3 –. The relative role of permeation through the lipid bilayer versus movement through CO2-selective membrane proteins in the downhill, non-energized, movement of CO2 is not clear. Passive permeation explains most CO2 entry, including terrestrial and aquatic organisms with C3 physiology and biochemistry, terrestrial C4 plants and all crassulacean acid metabolism (CAM) plants, as well as being part of some mechanisms of HCO3 – use in CO2 concentrating mechanism (CCM) function, although further work is needed to test the mechanism in some cases. However, there is some evidence of active CO2 influx at the plasmalemma of algae. HCO3 – active influx at the plasmalemma underlies all cyanobacterial and some algal CCMs. HCO3 – can also enter some algal chloroplasts, probably as part of a CCM. The high intracellular CO2 and HCO3 – pools consequent upon CCMs result in leakage involving CO2, and occasionally HCO3 –. Leakage from cyanobacterial and microalgal CCMs involves up to half, but sometimes more, of the gross inorganic C entering in the CCM; leakage from terrestrial C4 plants is lower in most environments. Little is known of leakage from other organisms with CCMs, though given the leakage better-examined organisms, leakage occurs and increases the energetic cost of net carbon assimilation. PMID:26466660

  12. Wollastonite Carbonation in Water-Bearing Supercritical CO2: Effects of Particle Size. (United States)

    Min, Yujia; Li, Qingyun; Voltolini, Marco; Kneafsey, Timothy; Jun, Young-Shin


    The performance of geologic CO 2 sequestration (GCS) can be affected by CO 2 mineralization and changes in the permeability of geologic formations resulting from interactions between water-bearing supercritical CO 2 (scCO 2 ) and silicates in reservoir rocks. However, without an understanding of the size effects, the findings in previous studies using nanometer- or micrometer-size particles cannot be applied to the bulk rock in field sites. In this study, we report the effects of particle sizes on the carbonation of wollastonite (CaSiO 3 ) at 60 °C and 100 bar in water-bearing scCO 2 . After normalization by the surface area, the thickness of the reacted wollastonite layer on the surfaces was independent of particle sizes. After 20 h, the reaction was not controlled by the kinetics of surface reactions but by the diffusion of water-bearing scCO 2 across the product layer on wollastonite surfaces. Among the products of reaction, amorphous silica, rather than calcite, covered the wollastonite surface and acted as a diffusion barrier to water-bearing scCO 2 . The product layer was not highly porous, with a specific surface area 10 times smaller than that of the altered amorphous silica formed at the wollastonite surface in aqueous solution. These findings can help us evaluate the impacts of mineral carbonation in water-bearing scCO 2 .

  13. Multiphase, multicomponent simulations and experiments of reactive flow, relevant for combining geologic CO2 sequestration with geothermal energy capture (United States)

    Saar, Martin O.


    Understanding the fluid dynamics of supercritical carbon dioxide (CO2) in brine- filled porous media is important for predictions of CO2 flow and brine displacement during geologic CO2 sequestration and during geothermal energy capture using sequestered CO2 as the subsurface heat extraction fluid. We investigate multiphase fluid flow in porous media employing particle image velocimetry experiments and lattice-Boltzmann fluid flow simulations at the pore scale. In particular, we are interested in the motion of a drop (representing a CO2 bubble) through an orifice in a plate, representing a simplified porous medium. In addition, we study single-phase/multicomponent reactive transport experimentally by injecting water with dissolved CO2 into rocks/sediments typically considered for CO2 sequestration to investigate how resultant fluid-mineral reactions modify permeability fields. Finally, we investigate numerically subsurface CO2 and heat transport at the geologic formation scale.

  14. Reactive and multiphase modelling for the identification of monitoring parameters to detect CO2 intrusion into freshwater aquifers (United States)

    Fahrner, S.; Schaefer, D.; Wiegers, C.; Köber, R.; Dahmke, A.


    A monitoring at geological CO2 storage sites has to meet environmental, regulative, financial and public demands and thus has to enable the detection of CO2 leakages. Current monitoring concepts for the detection of CO2 intrusion into freshwater aquifers located above saline storage formations in course of leakage events lack the identification of monitoring parameters. Their response to CO2 intrusion still has to be enlightened. Scenario simulations of CO2 intrusion in virtual synthetic aquifers are performed using the simulators PhreeqC and TOUGH2 to reveal relevant CO2-water-mineral interactions and multiphase behaviour on potential monitoring parameters. The focus is set on pH, total dissolved inorganic carbon (TIC) and the hydroelectric conductivity (EC). The study aims at identifying at which conditions the parameters react rapidly, durable and in a measurable degree. The depth of the aquifer, the mineralogy, the intrusion rates, the sorption specification and capacities, and groundwater flow velocities are varied in the course of the scenario modelling. All three parameters have been found suited in most scenarios. However, in case of a lack of calcite combined with low saturation of the water with respect to CO2 and shallow conditions, changes are close to the measurement resolution. Predicted changes in EC result from the interplay between carbonic acid production and its dissociation, and pH buffering by mineral dissolution. The formation of a discrete gas phase in cases of full saturation of the groundwater in confined aquifers illustrates the potential bipartite resistivity response: An increased hydroelectric conductivity at locations with dissolved CO2, and a high resistivity where the gas phase dominates the pore volume occupation. Increased hydrostatic pressure with depth and enhanced groundwater flow velocities enforce gas dissolution and diminish the formation of a discrete gas phase. Based on the results, a monitoring strategy is proposed which

  15. Recycling CO 2 ? Computational Considerations of the Activation of CO 2 with Homogeneous Transition Metal Catalysts

    KAUST Repository

    Drees, Markus; Cokoja, Mirza; Kü hn, Fritz E.


    . A similar approach, storing energy from renewable sources in chemical bonds with CO 2 as starting material, may lead to partial recycling of CO 2 created by human industrial activities. Unfortunately, currently available routes for the transformation

  16. Carbonation and CO2 uptake of concrete

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang, Keun-Hyeok; Seo, Eun-A; Tae, Sung-Ho


    This study developed a reliable procedure to assess the carbon dioxide (CO 2 ) uptake of concrete by carbonation during the service life of a structure and by the recycling of concrete after demolition. To generalize the amount of absorbable CO 2 per unit volume of concrete, the molar concentration of carbonatable constituents in hardened cement paste was simplified as a function of the unit content of cement, and the degree of hydration of the cement paste was formulated as a function of the water-to-cement ratio. The contribution of the relative humidity, type of finishing material for the concrete surface, and the substitution level of supplementary cementitious materials to the CO 2 diffusion coefficient in concrete was reflected using various correction factors. The following parameters varying with the recycling scenario were also considered: the carbonatable surface area of concrete crusher-runs and underground phenomena of the decreased CO 2 diffusion coefficient and increased CO 2 concentration. Based on the developed procedure, a case study was conducted for an apartment building with a principal wall system and an office building with a Rahmen system, with the aim of examining the CO 2 uptake of each structural element under different exposure environments during the service life and recycling of the building. As input data necessary for the case study, data collected from actual surveys conducted in 2012 in South Korea were used, which included data on the surrounding environments, lifecycle inventory database, life expectancy of structures, and recycling activity scenario. Ultimately, the CO 2 uptake of concrete during a 100-year lifecycle (life expectancy of 40 years and recycling span of 60 years) was estimated to be 15.5%–17% of the CO 2 emissions from concrete production, which roughly corresponds to 18%–21% of the CO 2 emissions from the production of ordinary Portland cement. - Highlights: • CO 2 uptake assessment approach owing to the

  17. Potential and economics of CO2 sequestration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jean-Baptiste, Ph.; Ciais, Ph.; Orr, J.


    Increasing atmospheric level of greenhouse gases are causing global warming and putting at risk the global climate system. The main anthropogenic greenhouse gas is CO 2 . Some techniques could be used to reduced CO 2 emission and stabilize atmospheric CO 2 concentration, including i) energy savings and energy efficiency, ii) switch to lower carbon content fuels (natural gas) and use energy sources with zero CO 2 emissions such as renewable or nuclear energy, iii) capture and store CO 2 from fossil fuels combustion, and enhance the natural sinks for CO 2 (forests, soils, ocean...). The purpose of this report is to provide an overview of the technology and cost for capture and storage of CO 2 and to review the various options for CO 2 sequestration by enhancing natural carbon sinks. Some of the factors which will influence application, including environmental impact, cost and efficiency, are discussed. Capturing CO 2 and storing it in underground geological reservoirs appears as the best environmentally acceptable option. It can be done with existing technology, however, substantial R and D is needed to improve available technology and to lower the cost. Applicable to large CO 2 emitting industrial facilities such as power plants, cement factories, steel industry, etc., which amount to about 30% of the global anthropic CO 2 emission, it represents a valuable tool in the baffle against global warming. About 50% of the anthropic CO 2 is being naturally absorbed by the biosphere and the ocean. The 'natural assistance' provided by these two large carbon reservoirs to the mitigation of climate change is substantial. The existing natural sinks could be enhanced by deliberate action. Given the known and likely environmental consequences, which could be very damaging indeed, enhancing ocean sinks does not appears as a satisfactory option. In contrast, the promotion of land sinks through demonstrated carbon-storing approach to agriculture, forests and land management could


    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reid B. Grigg; Robert K. Svec; Zheng-Wen Zeng; Liu Yi; Baojun Bai


    A three-year contract for the project, DOE Contract No. DE-FG26-01BC15364, ''Improving CO 2 Efficiency for Recovering Oil in Heterogeneous Reservoirs'', was started on September 28, 2001. This project examines three major areas in which CO 2 flooding can be improved: fluid and matrix interactions, conformance control/sweep efficiency, and reservoir simulation for improved oil recovery. The project has received a one-year, no-cost extension to September 27, 2005. During this extra time additional deliverables will be (1) the version of MASTER that has been debugged and a foam option added for CO 2 mobility control and (2) adsorption/desorption data on pure component minerals common in reservoir rock that will be used to improve predictions of chemical loss to adsorption in reservoirs. This report discusses the activity during the six-month period covering October 1, 2003 through March 31, 2004 that comprises the first and second fiscal quarters of the project's third year. During this period of the project several areas have advanced: reservoir fluid/rock interactions and their relationships to changing injectivity, and surfactant adsorption on quarried core and pure component granules, foam stability, and high flow rate effects. Presentations and papers included: a papers covered in a previous report was presented at the fall SPE ATCE in Denver in October 2003, a presentation at the Southwest ACS meeting in Oklahoma City, presentation on CO 2 flood basic behavior at the Midland Annual CO 2 Conference December 2003; two papers prepared for the biannual SPE/DOE Symposium on IOR, Tulsa, April 2004; one paper accepted for the fall 2004 SPE ATCE in Houston; and a paper submitted to an international journal Journal of Colloid and Interface Science which is being revised after peer review

  19. Characterization of Unconventional Reservoirs: CO2 Induced Petrophysics (United States)

    Verba, C.; Goral, J.; Washburn, A.; Crandall, D.; Moore, J.


    As concerns about human-driven CO2 emissions grow, it is critical to develop economically and environmentally effective strategies to mitigate impacts associated with fossil energy. Geologic carbon storage (GCS) is a potentially promising technique which involves the injection of captured CO2 into subsurface formations. Unconventional shale formations are attractive targets for GCS while concurrently improving gas recovery. However, shales are inherently heterogeneous, and minor differences can impact the ability of the shale to effectively adsorb and store CO2. Understanding GCS capacity from such endemic heterogeneities is further complicated by the complex geochemical processes which can dynamically alter shale petrophysics. We investigated the size distribution, connectivity, and type (intraparticle, interparticle, and organic) of pores in shale; the mineralogy of cores from unconventional shale (e.g. Bakken); and the changes to these properties under simulated GCS conditions. Electron microscopy and dual beam focused ion beam scanning electron microscopy were used to reconstruct 2D/3D digital matrix and pore structures. Comparison of pre and post-reacted samples gives insights into CO2-shale interactions - such as the mechanism of CO2 sorption in shales- intended for enhanced oil recovery and GCS initiatives. These comparisons also show how geochemical processes proceed differently across shales based on their initial diagenesis. Results show that most shale pore sizes fall within meso-macro pore classification (> 2 nm), but have variable porosity and organic content. The formation of secondary minerals (calcite, gypsum, and halite) may play a role in the infilling of fractures and pore spaces in the shale, which may reduce permeability and inhibit the flow of fluids.

  20. Long-Term CO2 Exposure Experiments - Geochemical Effects on Brine-Saturated Reservoir Sandstone (United States)

    Fischer, Sebastian; Zemke, Kornelia; Liebscher, Axel; Wandrey, Maren


    albite during the experiments. Additionally, XRD data suggest anhydrite dissolution in the course of CO2 exposure. The chemical evolution of the brine displays increasing Ca2+ concentrations (Wandrey et al., 2010) in line with the preferred dissolution of the anorthite component of plagioclase. SEM photomicrographs show corrosion textures on mineral surfaces of, e.g., plagioclase. The petrophysical properties of the sandstone samples also suggest slight changes. NMR and MP data indicate a slightly increased porosity and a shifting to larger pore sizes. The physico-chemical measurements imply (i) Ca2+ dissolution from the rock by the fluid, and (ii) slightly increasing porosity, but decreasing permeability. However, additional evaluation is still needed to interconnect the changes suggested to occur during CO2 exposure and to better understand CO2-brine-rock interactions. Supplementary core samples have been removed from the pressure vessels after 21 and 24 months and will soon be analyzed. Further core fragments will remain in storage in the autoclaves for longer-term experiments. References BLASCHKE, A.-W., SCHöNER, R., GAUPP, R. AND FöRSTER, A. (2008): Sandstone petrography and pore system of the Upper Triassic Stuttgart Formation from a CO2 pilot storage site (Ketzin, Germany), Geo 2008 - Resources and Risks in the Earth System, International Conference and 106th Annual Meeting of the Deutsche Gesellschaft für Geowissenschaften e.V. (DGG) and 98th Annual Meeting of the Geologische Vereinigung e.V. (GV) (Aachen 2008), 301. FöRSTER, A, NORDEN, B., ZINCK-JORGENSEN, K., FRYKMAN, P., KUHLENKAMP, J., SPANGENBERG, E., ERZINGER, J., ZIMMER, M., KOPP, J., BORM, G., JUHLIN, C., COSMA, C.-G., HURTER, S. (2006): Baseline Characterization of the CO2SINK Geological Storage Site at Ketzin, Germany, Environmental Geoscience, 13, 3, 145-161. WANDREY, M., FISCHER, S., ZEMKE, K., LIEBSCHER, A., SCHERF, A.-K., VIETH, A., ZETTLITZER, M. and WüRDEMANN, H. (2010), Monitoring

  1. Thermodynamic Data for Geochemical Modeling of Carbonate Reactions Associated with CO2 Sequestration – Literature Review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Krupka, Kenneth M. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Cantrell, Kirk J. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); McGrail, B. Peter [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)


    Permanent storage of anthropogenic CO2 in deep geologic formations is being considered as a means to reduce the concentration of atmospheric CO2 and thus its contribution to global climate change. To ensure safe and effective geologic sequestration, numerous studies have been completed of the extent to which the CO2 migrates within geologic formations and what physical and geochemical changes occur in these formations when CO2 is injected. Sophisticated, computerized reservoir simulations are used as part of field site and laboratory CO2 sequestration studies. These simulations use coupled multiphase flow-reactive chemical transport models and/or standalone (i.e., no coupled fluid transport) geochemical models to calculate gas solubility, aqueous complexation, reduction/oxidation (redox), and/or mineral solubility reactions related to CO2 injection and sequestration. Thermodynamic data are critical inputs to modeling geochemical processes. The adequacy of thermodynamic data for carbonate compounds has been identified as an important data requirement for the successful application of these geochemical reaction models to CO2 sequestration. A review of thermodynamic data for CO2 gas and carbonate aqueous species and minerals present in published data compilations and databases used in geochemical reaction models was therefore completed. Published studies that describe mineralogical analyses from CO2 sequestration field and natural analogue sites and laboratory studies were also reviewed to identify specific carbonate minerals that are important to CO2 sequestration reactions and therefore require thermodynamic data. The results of the literature review indicated that an extensive thermodynamic database exists for CO2 and CH4 gases, carbonate aqueous species, and carbonate minerals. Values of ΔfG298° and/or log Kr,298° are available for essentially all of these compounds. However, log Kr,T° or heat capacity values at temperatures above 298 K exist for less than

  2. Thermodynamic Data for Geochemical Modeling of Carbonate Reactions Associated with CO2 Sequestration - Literature Review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krupka, Kenneth M.; Cantrell, Kirk J.; McGrail, B. Peter


    Permanent storage of anthropogenic CO 2 in deep geologic formations is being considered as a means to reduce the concentration of atmospheric CO 2 and thus its contribution to global climate change. To ensure safe and effective geologic sequestration, numerous studies have been completed of the extent to which the CO 2 migrates within geologic formations and what physical and geochemical changes occur in these formations when CO 2 is injected. Sophisticated, computerized reservoir simulations are used as part of field site and laboratory CO 2 sequestration studies. These simulations use coupled multiphase flow-reactive chemical transport models and/or standalone (i.e., no coupled fluid transport) geochemical models to calculate gas solubility, aqueous complexation, reduction/oxidation (redox), and/or mineral solubility reactions related to CO 2 injection and sequestration. Thermodynamic data are critical inputs to modeling geochemical processes. The adequacy of thermodynamic data for carbonate compounds has been identified as an important data requirement for the successful application of these geochemical reaction models to CO 2 sequestration. A review of thermodynamic data for CO 2 gas and carbonate aqueous species and minerals present in published data compilations and databases used in geochemical reaction models was therefore completed. Published studies that describe mineralogical analyses from CO 2 sequestration field and natural analogue sites and laboratory studies were also reviewed to identify specific carbonate minerals that are important to CO 2 sequestration reactions and therefore require thermodynamic data. The results of the literature review indicated that an extensive thermodynamic database exists for CO 2 and CH 4 gases, carbonate aqueous species, and carbonate minerals. Values of Δ f G 298 o and/or log K r,298 o are available for essentially all of these compounds. However, log K r,T o or heat capacity values at temperatures above 298 K exist

  3. Electrocatalytic Alloys for CO2 Reduction. (United States)

    He, Jingfu; Johnson, Noah J J; Huang, Aoxue; Berlinguette, Curtis P


    Electrochemically reducing CO 2 using renewable energy is a contemporary global challenge that will only be met with electrocatalysts capable of efficiently converting CO 2 into fuels and chemicals with high selectivity. Although many different metals and morphologies have been tested for CO 2 electrocatalysis over the last several decades, relatively limited attention has been committed to the study of alloys for this application. Alloying is a promising method to tailor the geometric and electric environments of active sites. The parameter space for discovering new alloys for CO 2 electrocatalysis is particularly large because of the myriad products that can be formed during CO 2 reduction. In this Minireview, mixed-metal electrocatalyst compositions that have been evaluated for CO 2 reduction are summarized. A distillation of the structure-property relationships gleaned from this survey are intended to help in the construction of guidelines for discovering new classes of alloys for the CO 2 reduction reaction. © 2018 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  4. CO2 Accounting and Risk Analysis for CO2 Sequestration at Enhanced Oil Recovery Sites. (United States)

    Dai, Zhenxue; Viswanathan, Hari; Middleton, Richard; Pan, Feng; Ampomah, William; Yang, Changbing; Jia, Wei; Xiao, Ting; Lee, Si-Yong; McPherson, Brian; Balch, Robert; Grigg, Reid; White, Mark


    Using CO2 in enhanced oil recovery (CO2-EOR) is a promising technology for emissions management because CO2-EOR can dramatically reduce sequestration costs in the absence of emissions policies that include incentives for carbon capture and storage. This study develops a multiscale statistical framework to perform CO2 accounting and risk analysis in an EOR environment at the Farnsworth Unit (FWU), Texas. A set of geostatistical-based Monte Carlo simulations of CO2-oil/gas-water flow and transport in the Morrow formation are conducted for global sensitivity and statistical analysis of the major risk metrics: CO2/water injection/production rates, cumulative net CO2 storage, cumulative oil/gas productions, and CO2 breakthrough time. The median and confidence intervals are estimated for quantifying uncertainty ranges of the risk metrics. A response-surface-based economic model has been derived to calculate the CO2-EOR profitability for the FWU site with a current oil price, which suggests that approximately 31% of the 1000 realizations can be profitable. If government carbon-tax credits are available, or the oil price goes up or CO2 capture and operating expenses reduce, more realizations would be profitable. The results from this study provide valuable insights for understanding CO2 storage potential and the corresponding environmental and economic risks of commercial-scale CO2-sequestration in depleted reservoirs.

  5. Effects of tillage practice and atmospheric CO2 level on soil CO2 efflux (United States)

    Elevated atmospheric carbon dioxide (CO2) affects both the quantity and quality of plant tissues, which impacts the cycling and storage of carbon (C) within plant/soil systems and thus the rate of CO2 release back to the atmosphere. Research to accurately quantify the effects of elevated CO2 and as...

  6. Estimating CO2 Emission Reduction of Non-capture CO2 Utilization (NCCU) Technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Ji Hyun; Lee, Dong Woog; Gyu, Jang Se; Kwak, No-Sang; Lee, In Young; Jang, Kyung Ryoung; Shim, Jae-Goo; Choi, Jong Shin


    Estimating potential of CO 2 emission reduction of non-capture CO 2 utilization (NCCU) technology was evaluated. NCCU is sodium bicarbonate production technology through the carbonation reaction of CO 2 contained in the flue gas. For the estimating the CO 2 emission reduction, process simulation using process simulator (PRO/II) based on a chemical plant which could handle CO 2 of 100 tons per day was performed, Also for the estimation of the indirect CO 2 reduction, the solvay process which is a conventional technology for the production of sodium carbonate/sodium bicarbonate, was studied. The results of the analysis showed that in case of the solvay process, overall CO 2 emission was estimated as 48,862 ton per year based on the energy consumption for the production of NaHCO 3 (7.4 GJ/tNaHCO 3 ). While for the NCCU technology, the direct CO 2 reduction through the CO 2 carbonation was estimated as 36,500 ton per year and the indirect CO 2 reduction through the lower energy consumption was 46,885 ton per year which lead to 83,385 ton per year in total. From these results, it could be concluded that sodium bicarbonate production technology through the carbonation reaction of CO 2 contained in the flue was energy efficient and could be one of the promising technology for the low CO 2 emission technology.

  7. CO2 content of electricity losses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Daví-Arderius, Daniel; Sanin, María-Eugenia; Trujillo-Baute, Elisa


    Countries are implementing policies to develop greener energy markets worldwide. In Europe, the ¨2030 Energy and Climate Package¨ asks for further reductions of green house gases, renewable sources integration, and energy efficiency targets. But the polluting intensity of electricity may be different in average than when considering market inefficiencies, in particular losses, and therefore the implemented policy must take those differences into account. Precisely, herein we study the importance in terms of CO2 emissions the extra amount of energy necessary to cover losses. With this purpose we use Spanish market and system data with hourly frequency from 2011 to 2013. Our results show that indeed electricity losses significantly explain CO2 emissions, with a higher CO2 emissions rate when covering losses than the average rate of the system. Additionally, we find that the market closing technologies used to cover losses have a positive and significant impact on CO2 emissions: when polluting technologies (coal or combined cycle) close the market, the impact of losses on CO2 emissions is high compared to the rest of technologies (combined heat and power, renewables or hydropower). To the light of these results we make some policy recommendations to reduce the impact of losses on CO2 emissions. - Highlights: • Electricity losses significantly explain CO2 emissions. • Policies aimed to reducing losses have a positive impact on CO2 emissions. • The market closing technology used to cover losses have impacts on CO2 emissions. • Pollutant technologies that close the market should be replaced by renewables.

  8. Investigation of scleral buckling by CO2 laser

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maswadi, S.


    This thesis investigates the effect of using the infrared wavelength CO 2 laser (10.6μm) as a localised heat source for inducing scleral buckling on eyes. Retinal detachment disease is a major cause of blindness and the scleral buckling is an important technique used in treatment. A radio-frequency excited 10.6λm laser source is used to heat collagen in the sclera above its shrinkage temperature so as to produce a localised indentation and deformation in the human eye (in vitro). Basic measurements of the onset shrinkage temperatures of porcine and human sclera are taken. Optical properties of sclera tissue at 10.6μm are also determined to provide information about the interaction of the CO 2 laser with the sclera. It is found that CO 2 laser radiation is highly absorbed by the scleral water. Optical diffraction technique is investigated to quantify in-plane deformation in the sclera tissue as result of heating by producing grating on porcine and human sclera using the ArF laser (193nm). Photothermal deflection technique is also used to investigate scleral ablation by using the TEA and Ultrapulse CO 2 laser. This technique provides a useful guide to the regime where ablation rather than heat shrinkage of collagen in the sclera will dominate using the Ultrapulse CO 2 laser. A quantitative assessment of buckling using the technique of projection moire interferometry is described which allows a non-contact measurement to be made of the out-of-plane displacement by laser radiation. In-plane surface strain (shrinkage) has also been demonstrated using in-situ optical microscopy of the laser treated eye. The moire method is suitable to obtain information on buckling in real time and to obtain a three-dimensional view of the eye surface as laser treatment proceeds. A theoretical heat flow model is described for predicting the temperature profile produced in the sclera using the Ultrapulse CO 2 laser. For appropriate exposure parameters the CO 2 laser is found to be an

  9. Case study on ground surface deformation induced by CO2 injection into coal seam

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Hong; Tang Chun'an


    To monitor a geomechanical response of injecting CO 2 into relatively shallow coal seams, tiltmeters were set as an array to cover the ground surface area surrounding the injection well, and to measure the ground deformation during a well fracturing stimulation and a short-term CO 2 injection test. In this paper, an attempt to establish a quantitative relationship between the in-situ coal swelling and the corresponding ground deformation was made by means of numerical simulation study. (authors)

  10. Dry lithography of large-area, thin-film organic semiconductors using frozen CO(2) resists. (United States)

    Bahlke, Matthias E; Mendoza, Hiroshi A; Ashall, Daniel T; Yin, Allen S; Baldo, Marc A


    To address the incompatibility of organic semiconductors with traditional photolithography, an inert, frozen CO(2) resist is demonstrated that forms an in situ shadow mask. Contact with a room-temperature micro-featured stamp is used to pattern the resist. After thin film deposition, the remaining CO(2) is sublimed to lift off unwanted material. Pixel densities of 325 pixels-per-inch are shown. Copyright © 2012 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  11. CO2 fluxes near a forest edge

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sogachev, Andrey; Leclerc, Monique Y.; Zhang, Gensheng


    In contrast with recent advances on the dynamics of the flow at a forest edge, few studies have considered its role on scalar transport and, in particular, on CO2 transfer. The present study addresses the influence of the abrupt roughness change on forest atmosphere CO2 exchange and contrasts...... as a function of both sources/sinks distribution and the vertical structure of the canopy. Results suggest that the ground source plays a major role in the formation of wave-like vertical CO2 flux behavior downwind of a forest edge, despite the fact that the contribution of foliage sources/sinks changes...

  12. CO2, the promises of geological sequestration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rouat, S.


    Trapping part of the world CO 2 effluents in the deep underground is a profitable and ecological way to limit the global warming. This digest paper presents the different ways of CO 2 sequestration (depleted oil and gas fields, unexploited coal seams, saline aquifers), the other possible solutions for CO 2 abatement (injection in the bottom of the ocean, conversion into carbonates by injection into basic rocks, fixation by photosynthesis thanks to micro-algae cultivation), and takes stock of the experiments in progress (Snoehvit field in Norway, European project Castor). (J.S.)

  13. Climate change and the CO2 myth

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boettcher, C.J.F.


    Further increase of the CO 2 concentration in the atmosphere has little effect on the greenhouse effect contrary to the effect of the increase of other greenhouse gases. However, politicians are using targets for the reduction of CO 2 emissions that are unrealistic, taking into account the scientific uncertainties of the applied models, the doubts about the feasibility of quantitative targets and the economic consequences of such drastic measures. Some recommendations are given for a more realistic CO 2 policy. Also attention is paid to the important role that coal will play in the future of the energy supply. 5 figs., 3 ills

  14. 大気CO_2濃度上昇が植物−土壌系に及ぼす影響評価のための島根県の天然CO_2泉の利用可能性


    足立, 文彦; 増永, 二之; 上堂園, 明


    Sites in Ganryuji with mineral springs and Torijigoku with pure carbon dioxide(CO_2)springs were examined for their potential as experimental areas to study the effects of elevated atmospheric CO_2 concentration on soil-plant system. Soils in Ganryuji mineral spring was highly contaminated with mineral spring water. Torijigoku CO_2 spring emits very high concentration of CO_2(>30%)at a vent soil surface. Average CO_2 concentration in the middle part of the grassland was 500-1000ppm in the aft...

  15. The other ocean acidification problem: CO2 as a resource among competitors for ecosystem dominance (United States)

    Connell, Sean D.; Kroeker, Kristy J.; Fabricius, Katharina E.; Kline, David I.; Russell, Bayden D.


    Predictions concerning the consequences of the oceanic uptake of increasing atmospheric carbon dioxide (CO2) have been primarily occupied with the effects of ocean acidification on calcifying organisms, particularly those critical to the formation of habitats (e.g. coral reefs) or their maintenance (e.g. grazing echinoderms). This focus overlooks direct and indirect effects of CO2 on non-calcareous taxa that play critical roles in ecosystem shifts (e.g. competitors). We present the model that future atmospheric [CO2] may act as a resource for mat-forming algae, a diverse and widespread group known to reduce the resilience of kelp forests and coral reefs. We test this hypothesis by combining laboratory and field CO2 experiments and data from ‘natural’ volcanic CO2 vents. We show that mats have enhanced productivity in experiments and more expansive covers in situ under projected near-future CO2 conditions both in temperate and tropical conditions. The benefits of CO2 are likely to vary among species of producers, potentially leading to shifts in species dominance in a high CO2 world. We explore how ocean acidification combines with other environmental changes across a number of scales, and raise awareness of CO2 as a resource whose change in availability could have wide-ranging community consequences beyond its direct effects. PMID:23980244

  16. CO2 leakage alters biogeochemical and ecological functions of submarine sands (United States)

    Molari, Massimiliano; Guilini, Katja; Lott, Christian; Weber, Miriam; de Beer, Dirk; Meyer, Stefanie; Ramette, Alban; Wegener, Gunter; Wenzhöfer, Frank; Martin, Daniel; Cibic, Tamara; De Vittor, Cinzia; Vanreusel, Ann; Boetius, Antje


    Subseabed CO2 storage is considered a future climate change mitigation technology. We investigated the ecological consequences of CO2 leakage for a marine benthic ecosystem. For the first time with a multidisciplinary integrated study, we tested hypotheses derived from a meta-analysis of previous experimental and in situ high-CO2 impact studies. For this, we compared ecological functions of naturally CO2-vented seafloor off the Mediterranean island Panarea (Tyrrhenian Sea, Italy) to those of nonvented sands, with a focus on biogeochemical processes and microbial and faunal community composition. High CO2 fluxes (up to 4 to 7 mol CO2 m−2 hour−1) dissolved all sedimentary carbonate, and comigration of silicate and iron led to local increases of microphytobenthos productivity (+450%) and standing stocks (+300%). Despite the higher food availability, faunal biomass (−80%) and trophic diversity were substantially lower compared to those at the reference site. Bacterial communities were also structurally and functionally affected, most notably in the composition of heterotrophs and microbial sulfate reduction rates (−90%). The observed ecological effects of CO2 leakage on submarine sands were reproduced with medium-term transplant experiments. This study assesses indicators of environmental impact by CO2 leakage and finds that community compositions and important ecological functions are permanently altered under high CO2. PMID:29441359

  17. Controlling Cooperative CO2 Adsorption in Diamine-Appended Mg2(dobpdc) Metal-Organic Frameworks. (United States)

    Siegelman, Rebecca L; McDonald, Thomas M; Gonzalez, Miguel I; Martell, Jeffrey D; Milner, Phillip J; Mason, Jarad A; Berger, Adam H; Bhown, Abhoyjit S; Long, Jeffrey R


    In the transition to a clean-energy future, CO 2 separations will play a critical role in mitigating current greenhouse gas emissions and facilitating conversion to cleaner-burning and renewable fuels. New materials with high selectivities for CO 2 adsorption, large CO 2 removal capacities, and low regeneration energies are needed to achieve these separations efficiently at scale. Here, we present a detailed investigation of nine diamine-appended variants of the metal-organic framework Mg 2 (dobpdc) (dobpdc 4- = 4,4'-dioxidobiphenyl-3,3'-dicarboxylate) that feature step-shaped CO 2 adsorption isotherms resulting from cooperative and reversible insertion of CO 2 into metal-amine bonds to form ammonium carbamate chains. Small modifications to the diamine structure are found to shift the threshold pressure for cooperative CO 2 adsorption by over 4 orders of magnitude at a given temperature, and the observed trends are rationalized on the basis of crystal structures of the isostructural zinc frameworks obtained from in situ single-crystal X-ray diffraction experiments. The structure-activity relationships derived from these results can be leveraged to tailor adsorbents to the conditions of a given CO 2 separation process. The unparalleled versatility of these materials, coupled with their high CO 2 capacities and low projected energy costs, highlights their potential as next-generation adsorbents for a wide array of CO 2 separations.

  18. The other ocean acidification problem: CO2 as a resource among competitors for ecosystem dominance. (United States)

    Connell, Sean D; Kroeker, Kristy J; Fabricius, Katharina E; Kline, David I; Russell, Bayden D


    Predictions concerning the consequences of the oceanic uptake of increasing atmospheric carbon dioxide (CO2) have been primarily occupied with the effects of ocean acidification on calcifying organisms, particularly those critical to the formation of habitats (e.g. coral reefs) or their maintenance (e.g. grazing echinoderms). This focus overlooks direct and indirect effects of CO2 on non-calcareous taxa that play critical roles in ecosystem shifts (e.g. competitors). We present the model that future atmospheric [CO2] may act as a resource for mat-forming algae, a diverse and widespread group known to reduce the resilience of kelp forests and coral reefs. We test this hypothesis by combining laboratory and field CO2 experiments and data from 'natural' volcanic CO2 vents. We show that mats have enhanced productivity in experiments and more expansive covers in situ under projected near-future CO2 conditions both in temperate and tropical conditions. The benefits of CO2 are likely to vary among species of producers, potentially leading to shifts in species dominance in a high CO2 world. We explore how ocean acidification combines with other environmental changes across a number of scales, and raise awareness of CO2 as a resource whose change in availability could have wide-ranging community consequences beyond its direct effects.

  19. CO2-Dissolved - A Novel Approach to Combining CCS and Geothermal Heat Recovery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kervevan, C.; Bugarel, F.; Galiegue, X.; Le Gallo, Y.; May, F.; O'Neil, K.; Sterpenich, J.


    This paper presents the outline of the CO 2 -Dissolved project whose objective is to assess the technical-economic feasibility of a novel CCS concept integrating geothermal energy recovery, aqueous dissolution of CO 2 and injection via a doublet system, and an innovative post-combustion CO 2 capture technology. Compared to the use of a supercritical phase, this approach offers substantial benefits in terms of storage safety, due to lower brine displacement risks, lower CO 2 escape risks, and the potential for more rapid mineralization. However, the solubility of CO 2 in brine will be a limiting factor to the amount of CO 2 that can be injected. Consequently, and as another contributing novel factor, this proposal targets low to medium range CO 2 emitters (ca. 10-100 kt/yr), that could be compatible with a single doublet installation. Since it is intended to be a local solution, the costs related to CO 2 transport would then be dramatically reduced, provided that the local underground geology is favorable. Finally, this project adds the potential for energy and/or revenue generation through geothermal heat recovery. This constitutes an interesting way of valorization of the injection operations, demonstrating that an actual synergy between CO 2 storage and geothermal activities may exist. (authors)

  20. Direct Coupling of Thermo- and Photocatalysis for Conversion of CO2 -H2 O into Fuels. (United States)

    Zhang, Li; Kong, Guoguo; Meng, Yaping; Tian, Jinshu; Zhang, Lijie; Wan, Shaolong; Lin, Jingdong; Wang, Yong


    Photocatalytic CO 2 reduction into renewable hydrocarbon solar fuels is considered as a promising strategy to simultaneously address global energy and environmental issues. This study focused on the direct coupling of photocatalytic water splitting and thermocatalytic hydrogenation of CO 2 in the conversion of CO 2 -H 2 O into fuels. Specifically, it was found that direct coupling of thermo- and photocatalysis over Au-Ru/TiO 2 leads to activity 15 times higher (T=358 K; ca. 99 % CH 4 selectivity) in the conversion of CO 2 -H 2 O into fuels than that of photocatalytic water splitting. This is ascribed to the promoting effect of thermocatalytic hydrogenation of CO 2 by hydrogen atoms generated in situ by photocatalytic water splitting. © 2017 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  1. Equilibration of metabolic CO2 with preformed CO2 and bicarbonate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hems, R.; Saez, G.T.


    Entry of metabolic 14 CO 2 into urea is shown to occur more readily than it equilibrates with the general pool of cellular plus extracellular bicarbonate plus CO 2 . Since the sites of CO 2 production (pyruvate dehydrogenase and oxoglutarate dehydrogenase) and of fixation (carbamoylphosphate synthetase) are intramitochondrial, it is likely that the fixation of CO 2 is also more rapid than its equilibration with the cytoplasmic pool of bicarbonate plus CO 2 . This observation may point to a more general problem concerning the interpretation of isotope data, with compartmentation or proximity of sites of production and utilisation of metabolites may result in the isotope following a preferred pathway. (Auth.)

  2. TransCom model simulations of hourly atmospheric CO2: Analysis of synoptic-scale variations for the period 2002-2003

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Patra, P. K.; Law, R. M.; Peters, W.; RöDenbeck, C.; Takigawa, M.; Aulagnier, C.; Baker, I.; Bergmann, D. J.; Bousquet, P.; Brandt, J.; Bruhwiler, L.; Cameron-Smith, P. J.; Christensen, J. H.; Delage, F.; Denning, A. S.; Fan, S.; Geels, C.; Houweling, S.; Imasu, R.; Karstens, U.; Kawa, S. R.; Kleist, J.; Krol, M. C.; Lin, S.-J.; Lokupitiya, R.; Maki, T.; Maksyutov, S.; Niwa, Y.; Onishi, R.; Parazoo, N.; Pieterse, G.; Rivier, L.; Satoh, M.; Serrar, S.; Taguchi, S.; Vautard, R.; Vermeulen, A. T.; Zhu, Z.


    The ability to reliably estimate CO2 fluxes from current in situ atmospheric CO2 measurements and future satellite CO2 measurements is dependent on transport model performance at synoptic and shorter timescales. The TransCom continuous experiment was designed to evaluate the performance of forward

  3. CO2 Capture by Cement Raw Meal

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pathi, Sharat Kumar; Lin, Weigang; Illerup, Jytte Boll


    The cement industry is one of the major sources of CO2 emissions and is likely to contribute to further increases in the near future. The carbonate looping process has the potential to capture CO2 emissions from the cement industry, in which raw meal for cement production could be used...... as the sorbent. Cyclic experiments were carried out in a TGA apparatus using industrial cement raw meal and synthetic raw meal as sorbents, with limestone as the reference. The results show that the CO2 capture capacities of the cement raw meal and the synthetic raw meal are comparable to those of pure limestone...... that raw meal could be used as a sorbent for the easy integration of the carbonate looping process into the cement pyro process for reducing CO2 emissions from the cement production process....

  4. Energy Efficiency instead of CO2 levy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Uetz, R.


    This article takes a look at ways of avoiding a future, planned Swiss CO 2 levy by improving the efficiency of energy use. The political situation concerning the reduction of CO 2 emissions in Switzerland is reviewed and the likeliness of the introduction of a CO 2 levy is discussed. Strategies for the reduction of fossil fuel consumption and therefore of CO 2 emissions are looked at, including process optimisation. Recommendations are made on how to approach this work systematically - data collection, assessment of the potential for reduction and the planning of measures to be taken are looked at. The high economic efficiency of immediate action is stressed and typical middle and long-term measures are listed

  5. The ATLAS IBL CO2 Cooling System

    CERN Document Server

    Verlaat, Bartholomeus; The ATLAS collaboration


    The Atlas Pixel detector has been equipped with an extra B-layer in the space obtained by a reduced beam pipe. This new pixel detector called the ATLAS Insertable B-Layer (IBL) is installed in 2014 and is operational in the current ATLAS data taking. The IBL detector is cooled with evaporative CO2 and is the first of its kind in ATLAS. The ATLAS IBL CO2 cooling system is designed for lower temperature operation (<-35⁰C) than the previous developed CO2 cooling systems in High Energy Physics experiments. The cold temperatures are required to protect the pixel sensors for the high expected radiation dose up to 550 fb^-1 integrated luminosity. This paper describes the design, development, construction and commissioning of the IBL CO2 cooling system. It describes the challenges overcome and the important lessons learned for the development of future systems which are now under design for the Phase-II upgrade detectors.

  6. Capture and geological storage of CO2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)


    Capture and geological storage of CO 2 could be a contribution to reduce CO 2 emissions, and also a way to meet the factor 4 objective of reduction of greenhouse gas emissions. This publication briefly presents the capture and storage definitions and principles, and comments some key data related to CO 2 emissions, and their natural trapping by oceans, soils and forests. It discusses strengths (a massive and perennial reduction of CO 2 emissions, a well defined regulatory framework) and weaknesses (high costs and uncertain cost reduction perspectives, a technology which still consumes a lot of energy, geological storage capacities still to be determined, health environmental impacts and risks to be controlled, a necessary consultation of population for planned projects) of this option. Actions undertaken by the ADEME are briefly reviewed

  7. CO2 Washout Capability with Breathing Manikin (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Carbon Dioxide (CO2) Washout performance is a critical parameter needed to ensure proper and sufficient designs in a spacesuit and in vehicle applications such as...

  8. Emerging terawatt picosecond CO2 laser technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pogorelsky, I.V.


    The first terawatt picosecond (TWps) CO 2 laser is under construction at the BNL Accelerator Test Facility (ATF). TWps-CO 2 lasers, having an order of magnitude longer wavelength than the well-known table-top terawatt solid state lasers, offer new opportunities for strong-field physics research. For laser wakefield accelerators (LWFA) the advantage of the new class of lasers is due to a gain of two orders of magnitude in the ponderomotive potential. The large average power of CO 2 lasers is important for the generation of hard radiation through Compton back-scattering of the laser off energetic electron beams. The authors discuss applications of TWps-CO 2 lasers for LWFA modules of a tentative electron-positron collider, for γ-γ (or γ-lepton) colliders, for a possible table-top source of high-intensity x-rays and gamma rays, and the generation of polarized positron beams

  9. Porous Organic Polymers for CO2 Capture

    KAUST Repository

    Teng, Baiyang


    to reduce the emission of CO2 to atmosphere. Porous organic polymers (POPs) are promising candidates for this application due to their readily tunable textual properties and surface functionalities. The objective of this thesis work is to develop new POPs

  10. Upscaling of enzyme enhanced CO2 capture

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gladis, Arne Berthold

    Fossil fuels are the backbone of the energy generation in the coming decades for USA, China, India and Europe, hence high greenhouse gas emissions are expected in future. Carbon capture and storage technology (CCS) is the only technology that can mitigate greenhouse gas emissions from fossil fuel...... the mass transfer of CO2 with slow-capturing but energetically favorable solvents can open up a variety of new process options for this technology. The ubiquitous enzyme carbonic anhydrase (CA), which enhances the mass transfer of CO2 in the lungs by catalyzing the reversible hydration of CO2, is one very...... enhanced CO2 capture technology by identifying the potentials and limitations in lab and in pilot scale and benchmarking the process against proven technologies. The main goal was to derive a realistic process model for technical size absorbers with a wide range of validity incorporating a mechanistic...

  11. Natural Analogues of CO2 Geological Storage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Perez del Villar, L.; Pelayo, M.; Recreo, F.


    Geological storage of carbon dioxide is nowadays, internationally considered as the most effective method for greenhouse gas emission mitigation, in order to minimize the global climate change universally accepted. Nevertheless, the possible risks derived of this long-term storage have a direct influence on its public acceptance. Among the favourable geological formations to store CO2, depleted oil and gas fields, deep saline reservoirs, and unamiable coal seams are highlighted. One of the most important objectives of the R and D projects related to the CO2 geological storage is the evaluation of the CO2 leakage rate through the above mentioned geological formations. Therefore, it is absolutely necessary to increase our knowledge on the interaction among CO2, storage and sealing formations, as well as on the flow paths and the physical resistance of the sealing formation. The quantification of the CO2 leakage rate is essential to evaluate the effects on the human and animal health, as well as for the ecosystem and water quality. To achieve these objectives, the study of the natural analogues is very useful in order to know the natural leakage rate to the atmosphere, its flow paths, the physical, chemical and mineralogical modifications due to the long term interaction processes among the CO2 and the storage and sealing formations, as well as the effects on the groundwaters and ecosystems. In this report, we have tried to summarise the main characteristics of the natural reservoirs and surficial sources of CO2, which are both natural analogues of the geological storage and CO2 leakage, studied in EEUU, Europe and Australia. The main objective of this summary is to find the possible applications for long-term risk prediction and for the performance assessment by means of conceptual and numerical modelling, which will allow to validate the predictive models of the CO2 storage behaviour, to design and develop suitable monitoring techniques to control the CO2 behaviour

  12. CO2 emissions of nuclear power supply

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wissel, S.; Mayer-Spohn, O.; Fahl, U.; Voss, A.


    Increasingly, supported by the recent reports of the IPCC (International Panel on Climate Change), political, social and scientific institutions call for the use of atomic energy for reducing CO2 emissions. In Germany, the discussion is highly controversial. A life-cycle balance of nuclear power shows that its CO2 emissions are much lower than those of other technologies, even if changes in the nuclear fuel cycle are taken into account. (orig.)

  13. Photoacoustic CO2-Sensor for Automotive Applications


    Huber, J.; Weber, C.; Eberhardt, A.; Wöllenstein, J.


    We present a field-tested miniaturized spectroscopic CO2 sensor which is based on the photoacoustic effect. The sensor is developed for automotive applications and considers the requirements for the usage in vehicles. The sensor measures two measurement ranges simultaneously: The monitoring of the indoor air quality and the detection of possible leakages of the coolant in CO2 air-conditioning systems. The sensor consists of a miniaturized innovative photoacoustic sensor unit with integrated e...

  14. Study on CO2 global recycling system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takeuchi, M.; Sakamoto, Y.; Niwa, S.


    In order to assist in finding ways to mitigate CO 2 emission and to slow the depletion of fossil fuels we have established and evaluated a representative system, which consists of three technologies developed in our laboratory. These technologies were in CO 2 recovery, hydrogen production and methanol synthesis and in addition we established the necessary supporting systems. Analysis of outline designs of the large scale renewable energy power generation system and this system and energy input for building plant, energy input for running plant has been conducted based on a case using this system for a 1000-MW coal fired power plant, followed by an evaluation of the material balance and energy balance. The results are as follows. Energy efficiency is 34%, the CO 2 reduction rate is 41%, the balance ratio of the energy and CO 2 of the system is 2.2 and 1.8, respectively, on the assumption that the primary renewable energy is solar thermal power generation, the stationary CO 2 emission source is a coal-fired power plant and the generation efficiency of the methanol power plant is 60%. By adopting the system, 3.7 million tons of CO 2 can be recovered, approximately 2.7 million tons of methanol can be produced, and 15.4 billion kWh of electricity can be generated per year. Compared to generating all electrical power using only coal, approximately 2.6 million tons of coal per year can be saved and approximately 2.15 million tons of CO 2 emission can be reduced. Therefore, it is clearly revealed that this system would be effective to reduce CO 2 emissions and to utilize renewable energy

  15. Column CO2 Measurement From an Airborne Solid-State Double-Pulsed 2-Micron Integrated Path Differential Absorption Lidar (United States)

    Singh, U. N.; Yu, J.; Petros, M.; Refaat, T. F.; Remus, R.; Fay, J.; Reithmaier, K.