WorldWideScience

Sample records for site investigation activities

  1. Realities of site investigation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beauheim, R.; Ben Benfahel, M.; Byrum, Ch.; Fedor, F.; Geier, J.; Nys, V.; Schelkes, K.; Selroos, J.O.; Szucs, I.; Whittaker, St.

    2007-01-01

    During the working session, Working Group C discussed the following questions proposed by the Scientific Programme Committee of AMIGO 2: - Provide a list of concrete examples of limitations and their reasons. In addressing these issues, consider the relation between what you can measure and what you would like to describe. - Can these limitations be handled by defensible uncertainty descriptions? - What has been your experience in predicting properties/responses and then making comparisons with subsequent measurements? How much 'after-fitting' was necessary? Did the exercise contribute to validation? What did it teach you about your abilities to characterise? - What are the realities of transferability of data between sites? What can actually be transferred (data, conceptual models, evaluation procedures) and what could not? - How have the experiences on possibilities and limitations influenced your investigation programme? - How are the limits in what can be achieved factored into safety assessment and engineering? (authors)

  2. Activities of the senspol and NICOLE network concerning field investigation at contaminated sites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ree, C.C.D.F. von [GeoDelft, AB Delft (Netherlands); Alcock, S. [Cranfield Univ. of Silsoe, Bedfordshire (United Kingdom)

    2003-07-01

    At a European level several networks can be identified aimed at developments and exchange of knowledge relevant to sustainable management of the subsurface. Based on the common interests in the field of site characterisation and monitoring the SENSPOL and NICOLE networks have established links resulting in cooperation in several project-activities. In this presentation two projects will be addressed: - Seville technicalmeeting (Aznacollar mining site). - Bridging gaps between sensor developers and (end) users in a pragmatic approach (GAPS-project). The goal of the Seville technical meeting was to apply the latest sensing technologies at a site contaminated by metal mining activities, to properly evaluate the advances and limitations in the monitoring of contaminated sites for sustainable land management and to determine further steps to commercial exploitation. Some 17 different instruments have been brought including: - Electrochemical sensors using different forms of anodic stripping voltammetry and constant current chronopotentiometry combined with several types of screen printed electrodes. - An amperometric biosensor using screen printed electrodes, which measures toxicity by inhibition effects on urease and its sensitive to Hg(II), Ag(I), Cu(I) and to a lesser extent to Pb(II), Zn(II) and Cd(II) and a selectrochemical DNA biosensor measuring overall toxicity. - A luminescent bacterial sensors for measuring the bioavailable fraction of Cd, Pb, Zn, Cu, As, and Hg, and a bioluminescent fiber optic sensor for Hg and As. - Toxicity testing instruments (Checklight 'ToxScreen Multi-Shot Test, ToxAlert {sup registered} 100 and ToxAlert {sup registered} 10) - A fieldprobe for pH, EC, TDS measurement - A lead automatic analyser AQUAMET using a ion-selective electrode. - Pulse-neutron borehole device in which interaction of neutrons with the surrounding medium can be used to monitor changes. In a two-day field session on the mining site participants were provided

  3. Status of remedial investigation activities in the Hanford Site 300 Area groundwater operable unit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hulstrom, L.C.; Innis, B.E.; Frank, M.A.

    1993-09-01

    The Phase 1 remedial investigation (RI) and Phase 1 and 2 feasibility studies (FS) for the 300-FF-5 groundwater operable unit underlying the 300 Area on the Hanford Site have been completed. Analysis and evaluation of soil, sediment, and surface water, and biotic sampling data, groundwater chemistry, and radiological data gathered over the past 3 years has been completed. Risk assessment calculations have been performed. Use of the data gathered, coupled with information from an automated water level data collection system, has enabled engineers to track three plumes that represent the most significant contamination of the groundwater

  4. Salmon Site Remedial Investigation Report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1999-01-01

    This Salmon Site Remedial Investigation Report provides the results of activities initiated by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) to determine if contamination at the Salmon Site poses a current or future risk to human health and the environment. These results were used to develop and evaluate a range of risk-based remedial alternatives. Located in Lamar County, Mississippi, the Salmon Site was used by the U.S. Atomic Energy Commission (predecessor to the DOE) between 1964 and 1970 for two nuclear and two gas explosions conducted deep underground in a salt dome. The testing resulted in the release of radionuclides into the salt dome. During reentry drilling and other site activities, liquid and solid wastes containing radioactivity were generated resulting in surface soil and groundwater contamination. Most of the waste and contaminated soil and water were disposed of in 1993 during site restoration either in the cavities left by the tests or in an injection well. Other radioactive wastes were transported to the Nevada Test Site for disposal. Nonradioactive wastes were disposed of in pits at the site and capped with clean soil and graded. The preliminary investigation showed residual contamination in the Surface Ground Zero mud pits below the water table. Remedial investigations results concluded the contaminant concentrations detected present no significant risk to existing and/or future land users, if surface institutional controls and subsurface restrictions are maintained. Recent sampling results determined no significant contamination in the surface or shallow subsurface. The test cavity resulting from the experiments is contaminated and cannot be economically remediated with existing technologies. The ecological sampling did not detect biological uptake of contaminants in the plants or animals sampled. Based on the current use of the Salmon Site, the following remedial actions were identified to protect both human health and the environment: (1) the

  5. MX Siting Investigation. Water Resources Program Industry Activity Inventory, Nevada-Utah.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1980-09-02

    Agua Caliente Existing 150 gpm *One of five sites shown on Plate II may be the site of this project. There are also three additional sites outside the...SOURCE: Wells WATER RECIRCULATED: 80%, hopefully WATER QUALITY: POTABLE : STOCK AGRICULTURE OTHER ? OPERATION - REOPENED: Reopened NEW: WATER...year _________ TYPE OF BENEFICIAL USE: __ * ~~WATER SOURCE: ____-____ WATER RECIRCULATED: ___ _____ WATER QUALITY: POTABLE : STOCK ___AGRICULTURE

  6. Green Remediation Best Management Practices: Site Investigation

    Science.gov (United States)

    The U.S. EPA Principles for Greener Cleanups outline the Agency's policy for evaluating and minimizing the environmental 'footprint' of activities undertaken when cleaning up a contaminated site and conducting site investigation.

  7. Potential energy center site investigations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Savage, W.F.

    1977-01-01

    Past studies by the AEC, NRC, NSF and others have indicated that energy centers have certain advantages over dispersed siting. There is the need, however, to investigate such areas as possible weather modifications due to major heat releases, possible changes in Federal/state/local laws and institutional arrangements to facilitate implementation of energy centers, and to assess methods of easing social and economic pressures on a surrounding community due to center construction. All of these areas are under study by ERDA, but there remains the major requirement for the study of a potential site to yield a true assessment of the energy center concept. In this regard the Division of Nuclear Research and Applications of ERDA is supporting studies by the Southern and Western Interstate Nuclear Boards to establish state and utility interest in the concept and to carry out screening studies of possible sites. After selection of a final site for center study , an analysis will be made of the center including technical areas such as heat dissipation methods, water resource management, transmission methods, construction methods and schedules, co-located fuel cycle facilities, possible mix of reactor types, etc. Additionally, studies of safeguards, the interaction of all effected entities in the siting, construction, licensing and regulation of a center, labor force considerations in terms of local impact, social and economic changes, and financing of a center will be conducted. It is estimated that the potential site study will require approximately two years

  8. Bovine nucleus caudatus acetylcholinesterase: active site determination and investigation of a dimeric form obtained by selective proteolysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Landauer, P.; Ruess, K.P.; Lieflaender, M.

    1984-09-01

    The number of catalytic subunits of purified bovine nucleus caudatus acetylcholinesterase (E.C. 3.1.1.7) has been determined by active site labelling with (3H)diisopropyl fluorophosphate ((3H)DFP). The 10.5 S, 16 S, and 20 S forms were estimated to contain two, four, and six active sites, respectively, per molecule. A 4.8 S form, which showed a weak amphiphile-dependent activity behavior, was obtained by selective proteolytic digestion with pronase. The inability of the purified 4.8 S form to aggregate after detergent removal, and the molecular mass in the range of 130-165 kD under nondenaturating conditions, indicate that this form is a dimeric form, lacking those hydrophobic regions responsible for aggregation.

  9. Site investigations for the disposal of spent fuel - investigation program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aeikaes, Timo

    1985-11-01

    The Industrial Power Company Ltd (TVO) is making preparations for the final disposal of spent nuclear fuel into the Finnish bedrock. The revised site investigation program for the years 1986-2010 is presented in this report. The objectives and activities in the near future are described in more detail. The main objectives and frame programs for the investigations in the more distant future are described. The program planning of these investigations are being developed in the preceding site investigations. The investigations for the site selection are divided into four phases: 1983-1985 selection of the investigation areas, preparations for the field investigations, drilling and investigations in a deep test borehole; 1986-1992 preliminary site investigations in 5-10 investigation areas; 1993-2000 detailed site investigations in 2-3 investigation areas. Site selection in the year 2000; 2001-2010 complementary investigations on the selected site. The first investigation phase will be carried out as planned. In this phase a 1001 m deep test borehole was drilled at Lavia in western Finland. With the investigations in the borehole and related development work, preparations were made for the future field investigations. The equipment and investigation methods are being developed during the site investigations. The equipment for taking groundwater samples and the unit for hydraulic testing have been developed. In the future the emphasis in the work will be in developing equipment for monitoring of the hydraulic head and measuring the volumetric flow. In groundwater sampling the present procedure can be improved by adding the test for the in-situ measurements. The results of the field investigations will be stored and processed in a centralized data base. The data base will transmit the results for the interpretation and then the interpreted results transmitted for model calculations and reporting. The cost estimate for the investigations in 1986-2010 is 110-125 million

  10. SFR site investigation. Bedrock Hydrogeochemistry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nilsson, Ann-Chatrin; Tullborg, Eva-Lena; Smellie, John; Gimeno, Maria J.; Gomez, Javier B.; Auque, Luis F.; Sandstroem, Bjoern; Pedersen, Karsten

    2011-11-01

    There are plans that the final repository for low and intermediate level radioactive waste, SFR, located about 150 km north of Stockholm, will be extended. Geoscientific studies to define and characterise a suitable bedrock volume for the extended repository have been carried out from 2007 to 2011, and have included the drilling and evaluation of seven new core drilled and four percussion boreholes. These new data, together with existing data extending back to 1985, have been interpreted and modelled in order to provide the necessary information for safety assessment and repository design. This report presents the final hydrogeochemical site description for the SFR site, and will constitute a background report for the integrated site description (the SFR Site Descriptive Model version 1.0) together with corresponding reports from the geological and hydrogeological disciplines. Most of the hydrogeochemical data from the field investigations consist of major ions and isotopes together with sporadic gas, microbe and measured redox data. Despite the close proximity of the Forsmark site, few data from this source are of relevance because of the shallow nature of the SFR site, the fact that SFR is located beneath the Baltic Sea and also the drawdown/upconing impacts of its construction on the hydrogeochemistry. This artificially imposed dynamic flow system is naturally more prevalent along major deformation fracture zones of higher transmissivity, whilst lower transmissive fractures together with the less transmissive bedrock masses between major deformation zones, still retain some evidence of the natural groundwater mixing patterns established prior to the SFR construction. The groundwaters in the SFR dataset cover a depth down to -250 m.a.s.l. with single sampling locations at -300 and -400 m.a.s.l. and represent a relatively limited salinity range (1,500 to 5,500 mg/L chloride). However, the δ 18 O values show a wide variation (-15.5 to -7.5 per mille V

  11. SFR site investigation. Bedrock Hydrogeochemistry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nilsson, Ann-Chatrin [Geosigma AB, Uppsala (Sweden); Tullborg, Eva-Lena [Terralogica AB, Graabo (Sweden); Smellie, John [Conterra AB, Uppsala (Sweden); Gimeno, Maria J.; Gomez, Javier B.; Auque, Luis F. [Univ. of Zaragoza, Zaragoza (Spain); Sandstroem, Bjoern [WSP Sverige AB, Goeteborg (Sweden); Pedersen, Karsten [Micans AB, Moelnlycke (Sweden)

    2011-11-15

    There are plans that the final repository for low and intermediate level radioactive waste, SFR, located about 150 km north of Stockholm, will be extended. Geoscientific studies to define and characterise a suitable bedrock volume for the extended repository have been carried out from 2007 to 2011, and have included the drilling and evaluation of seven new core drilled and four percussion boreholes. These new data, together with existing data extending back to 1985, have been interpreted and modelled in order to provide the necessary information for safety assessment and repository design. This report presents the final hydrogeochemical site description for the SFR site, and will constitute a background report for the integrated site description (the SFR Site Descriptive Model version 1.0) together with corresponding reports from the geological and hydrogeological disciplines. Most of the hydrogeochemical data from the field investigations consist of major ions and isotopes together with sporadic gas, microbe and measured redox data. Despite the close proximity of the Forsmark site, few data from this source are of relevance because of the shallow nature of the SFR site, the fact that SFR is located beneath the Baltic Sea and also the drawdown/upconing impacts of its construction on the hydrogeochemistry. This artificially imposed dynamic flow system is naturally more prevalent along major deformation fracture zones of higher transmissivity, whilst lower transmissive fractures together with the less transmissive bedrock masses between major deformation zones, still retain some evidence of the natural groundwater mixing patterns established prior to the SFR construction. The groundwaters in the SFR dataset cover a depth down to -250 m.a.s.l. with single sampling locations at -300 and -400 m.a.s.l. and represent a relatively limited salinity range (1,500 to 5,500 mg/L chloride). However, the {delta}{sup 18}O values show a wide variation (-15.5 to -7.5 per mille V

  12. A summary of INSITE activities in tracking SKB's spent fuel repository site investigations from 2002-2009 and of advice provided to the regulatory authorities on the status of site understanding at the end of the surface-based investigations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chapman, Neil; Bath, Adrian; Geier, Joel; Ove Stephansson; Tiren, Sven; Tsang, Chin-Fu

    2010-11-01

    SSM and its predecessor SKI employed a team of earth scientists who followed and reviewed SKB's investigations of the potential spent nuclear fuel repository sites at Forsmark and Laxemar. This group was named INSITE (INdependent Site Investigation Tracking and Evaluation) and began its work in 2002 and completed its task with the review of the final versions SKB's site descriptive models, SDM-Site, in 2009. This report is a summary of INSITE's work over the eight-and-a-half year period of the site investigations and the lead-in and the wind-down to the work. It is intended to provide an outline and a record of how INSITE has worked and how its advice was generated and provided to SKI and, latterly, to SSM. Together with all the other documentation generated by INSITE, this report is intended to support the regulatory review of SKB's licence application for a spent nuclear fuel repository

  13. Bedrock Hydrogeology - Site investigation SFR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oehman, Johan [Geosigma AB, Stockholm (Sweden); Bockgaard, Niclas [Golder Assoes AB, Stockholm (Sweden); Follin, Sven [SF GeoLogic AB, Taeby (Sweden)

    2012-06-15

    The Swedish Nuclear Fuel and Waste Management Company (SKB) has conducted site investigations for a planned extension of the existing final repository for short-lived radioactive waste (SFR). This report presents an integrated analysis and interpretation of the historic data from the existing SFR (1980 - 1986), as well as, from the recent investigations for the planned extension of SFR (2008 - 2009). The primary objective is to establish a conceptual hydrogeological model of the bedrock for safety assessment and design analyses. Analyses and interpretations of all (old and new) hydraulic data are analysed with regard to the recently developed geological deformation zone model of the SFR model domain (Curtis et al. 2011). The methodology used by Curtis et al. (2011) has focussed on magnetic anomalies and deformation zone intercepts with ground surface greater than 300 m. In the hydrogeological modelling, however, it has been considered important to also explore the occurrence and characteristics of shallow horizontal to sub-horizontal structures (sheet joints) inside the SFR model domain. Such structures are of considerable importance for the hydrogeology in the uppermost c. 150 m of bedrock in SDM-Site Forsmark; hence the term Shallow Bedrock Aquifer was used to emphasise their hydraulic significance. In this study, the acronym SBA-structure is used for horizontal structures identified in the hydrogeological modelling. In addition to the predominantly steeply dipping geological deformation zones, eight so-called SBA-structures are modelled deterministically in the hydrogeological model. The SBA-structures are envisaged as hydraulically heterogeneous and composed of clusters of minor gently dipping to horizontal fractures rather than extensive single features. A type of structures that is partly included in the definition of the SBA-structures is the Unresolved Possible Deformations Zone (Unresolved PDZ) intercepts identified by Curtis et al. (2011). The Unresolved

  14. Theoretical investigation of active sites at the corners of Mgcl 2 crystallites in supported ziegler-natta catalysts

    KAUST Repository

    Correa, Andrea

    2012-05-08

    We present a theoretical study on possible models of catalytic active species corresponding to Ti-chloride species adsorbed at the corners of MgCl 2 crystallites. First we focused our efforts on the interaction between prototypes of three industrially relevant Lewis bases used as internal donors (1,3-diethers, alkoxysilanes and succinates) and MgCl 2 units at the corner of a MgCl 2 crystallite. Our calculations show that the energetic cost to extract MgCl 2 units at the corner of (104) edged MgCl 2 crystallites is not prohibitive, and that Lewis bases added during catalyst preparation make this process easier. After removal of one MgCl 2 unit, a short (110) stretch joining the (104) edges is formed. Adsorption of TiCl 4 on the generated vacancy originates a Ti-active species. In the second part of this manuscript, we report on the stereo- and regioselective behavior of this model of active species in the absence as well as in the presence of the three Lewis bases indicated above. Surface reconstruction due to the additional adsorption of an extra MgCl 2 layer is also considered. We show that, according to experimental data, Lewis bases coordinated in the proximity of the active Ti center confer a remarkable stereoselectivity. Moreover, surface reconstruction as well as donor coordination would improve regioselectivity by disfavoring secondary propene insertion. While still models of possible active species, our results indicate that defects, corners and surface reconstruction should be considered as possible anchoring sites for the catalytically active Ti-species. © 2012 American Chemical Society.

  15. Salmon Site Remedial Investigation Report, Appendix D

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1999-01-01

    This Salmon Site Remedial Investigation Report provides the results of activities initiated by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) to determine if contamination at the Salmon Site poses a current or future risk to human health and the environment. These results were used to develop and evaluate a range of risk-based remedial alternatives. Located in Lamar County, Mississippi, the Salmon Site was used by the U.S. Atomic Energy Commission (predecessor to the DOE) between 1964 and 1970 for two nuclear and two gas explosions conducted deep underground in a salt dome. The testing resulted in the release of radionuclides into the salt dome. During reentry drilling and other site activities, liquid and solid wastes containing radioactivity were generated resulting in surface soil and groundwater contamination. Most of the waste and contaminated soil and water were disposed of in 1993 during site restoration either in the cavities left by the tests or in an injection well. Other radioactive wastes were transported to the Nevada Test Site for disposal. Nonradioactive wastes were disposed of in pits at the site and capped with clean soil and graded. The preliminary investigation showed residual contamination in the Surface Ground Zero mud pits below the water table. Remedial investigations results concluded the contaminant concentrations detected present no significant risk to existing and/or future land users, if surface institutional controls and subsurface restrictions are maintained. Recent sampling results determined no significant contamination in the surface or shallow subsurface. The test cavity resulting from the experiments is contaminated and cannot be economically remediated with existing technologies. The ecological sampling did not detect biological uptake of contaminants in the plants or animals sampled. Based on the current use of the Salmon Site, the following remedial actions were identified to protect both human health and the environment: (1) the

  16. Salmon Site Remediation Investigation Report, Appendix A

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1999-01-01

    This Salmon Site Remedial Investigation Report provides the results of activities initiated by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) to determine if contamination at the Salmon Site poses a current or future risk to human health and the environment. These results were used to develop and evaluate a range of risk-based remedial alternatives. Located in Lamar County, Mississippi, the Salmon Site was used by the U.S. Atomic Energy Commission (predecessor to the DOE) between 1964 and 1970 for two nuclear and two gas explosions conducted deep underground in a salt dome. The testing resulted in the release of radionuclides into the salt dome. During reentry drilling and other site activities, liquid and solid wastes containing radioactivity were generated resulting in surface soil and groundwater contamination. Most of the waste and contaminated soil and water were disposed of in 1993 during site restoration either in the cavities left by the tests or in an injection well. Other radioactive wastes were transported to the Nevada Test Site for disposal. Nonradioactive wastes were disposed of in pits at the site and capped with clean soil and graded. The preliminary investigation showed residual contamination in the Surface Ground Zero mud pits below the water table. Remedial investigations results concluded the contaminant concentrations detected present no significant risk to existing and/or future land users, if surface institutional controls and subsurface restrictions are maintained. Recent sampling results determined no significant contamination in the surface or shallow subsurface. The test cavity resulting from the experiments is contaminated and cannot be economically remediated with existing technologies. The ecological sampling did not detect biological uptake of contaminants in the plants or animals sampled. Based on the current use of the Salmon Site, the following remedial actions were identified to protect both human health and the environment: (1) the

  17. Salmon Site Remedial Investigation Report, Appendix C

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1999-01-01

    This Salmon Site Remedial Investigation Report provides the results of activities initiated by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) to determine if contamination at the Salmon Site poses a current or future risk to human health and the environment. These results were used to develop and evaluate a range of risk-based remedial alternatives. Located in Lamar County, Mississippi, the Salmon Site was used by the U.S. Atomic Energy Commission (predecessor to the DOE) between 1964 and 1970 for two nuclear and two gas explosions conducted deep underground in a salt dome. The testing resulted in the release of radionuclides into the salt dome. During reentry drilling and other site activities, liquid and solid wastes containing radioactivity were generated resulting in surface soil and groundwater contamination. Most of the waste and contaminated soil and water were disposed of in 1993 during site restoration either in the cavities left by the tests or in an injection well. Other radioactive wastes were transported to the Nevada Test Site for disposal. Nonradioactive wastes were disposed of in pits at the site and capped with clean soil and graded. The preliminary investigation showed residual contamination in the Surface Ground Zero mud pits below the water table. Remedial investigations results concluded the contaminant concentrations detected present no significant risk to existing and/or future land users, if surface institutional controls and subsurface restrictions are maintained. Recent sampling results determined no significant contamination in the surface or shallow subsurface. The test cavity resulting from the experiments is contaminated and cannot be economically remediated with existing technologies. The ecological sampling did not detect biological uptake of contaminants in the plants or animals sampled. Based on the current use of the Salmon Site, the following remedial actions were identified to protect both human health and the environment: (1) the

  18. Salmon Site Remedial Investigation Report, Exhibit 2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    USDOE NV

    1999-09-01

    This Salmon Site Remedial Investigation Report provides the results of activities initiated by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) to determine if contamination at the Salmon Site poses a current or future risk to human health and the environment. These results were used to develop and evaluate a range of risk-based remedial alternatives. Located in Lamar County, Mississippi, the Salmon Site was used by the U.S. Atomic Energy Commission (predecessor to the DOE) between 1964 and 1970 for two nuclear and two gas explosions conducted deep underground in a salt dome. The testing resulted in the release of radionuclides into the salt dome. During reentry drilling and other site activities, liquid and solid wastes containing radioactivity were generated resulting in surface soil and groundwater contamination. Most of the waste and contaminated soil and water were disposed of in 1993 during site restoration either in the cavities left by the tests or in an injection well. Other radioactive wastes were transported to the Nevada Test Site for disposal. Nonradioactive wastes were disposed of in pits at the site and capped with clean soil and graded. The preliminary investigation showed residual contamination in the Surface Ground Zero mud pits below the water table. Remedial investigations results concluded the contaminant concentrations detected present no significant risk to existing and/or future land users, if surface institutional controls and subsurface restrictions are maintained. Recent sampling results determined no significant contamination in the surface or shallow subsurface. The test cavity resulting from the experiments is contaminated and cannot be economically remediated with existing technologies. The ecological sampling did not detect biological uptake of contaminants in the plants or animals sampled. Based on the current use of the Salmon Site, the following remedial actions were identified to protect both human health and the environment: (1) the

  19. Salmon Site Remedial Investigation Report, Exhibit 5

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    USDOE/NV

    1999-09-01

    This Salmon Site Remedial Investigation Report provides the results of activities initiated by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) to determine if contamination at the Salmon Site poses a current or future risk to human health and the environment. These results were used to develop and evaluate a range of risk-based remedial alternatives. Located in Lamar County, Mississippi, the Salmon Site was used by the U.S. Atomic Energy Commission (predecessor to the DOE) between 1964 and 1970 for two nuclear and two gas explosions conducted deep underground in a salt dome. The testing resulted in the release of radionuclides into the salt dome. During reentry drilling and other site activities, liquid and solid wastes containing radioactivity were generated resulting in surface soil and groundwater contamination. Most of the waste and contaminated soil and water were disposed of in 1993 during site restoration either in the cavities left by the tests or in an injection well. Other radioactive wastes were transported to the Nevada Test Site for disposal. Nonradioactive wastes were disposed of in pits at the site and capped with clean soil and graded. The preliminary investigation showed residual contamination in the Surface Ground Zero mud pits below the water table. Remedial investigations results concluded the contaminant concentrations detected present no significant risk to existing and/or future land users, if surface institutional controls and subsurface restrictions are maintained. Recent sampling results determined no significant contamination in the surface or shallow subsurface. The test cavity resulting from the experiments is contaminated and cannot be economically remediated with existing technologies. The ecological sampling did not detect biological uptake of contaminants in the plants or animals sampled. Based on the current use of the Salmon Site, the following remedial actions were identified to protect both human health and the environment: (1) the

  20. Salmon Site Remedial Investigation Report, Appendix C

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    US DOE/NV

    1999-09-01

    This Salmon Site Remedial Investigation Report provides the results of activities initiated by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) to determine if contamination at the Salmon Site poses a current or future risk to human health and the environment. These results were used to develop and evaluate a range of risk-based remedial alternatives. Located in Lamar County, Mississippi, the Salmon Site was used by the U.S. Atomic Energy Commission (predecessor to the DOE) between 1964 and 1970 for two nuclear and two gas explosions conducted deep underground in a salt dome. The testing resulted in the release of radionuclides into the salt dome. During reentry drilling and other site activities, liquid and solid wastes containing radioactivity were generated resulting in surface soil and groundwater contamination. Most of the waste and contaminated soil and water were disposed of in 1993 during site restoration either in the cavities left by the tests or in an injection well. Other radioactive wastes were transported to the Nevada Test Site for disposal. Nonradioactive wastes were disposed of in pits at the site and capped with clean soil and graded. The preliminary investigation showed residual contamination in the Surface Ground Zero mud pits below the water table. Remedial investigations results concluded the contaminant concentrations detected present no significant risk to existing and/or future land users, if surface institutional controls and subsurface restrictions are maintained. Recent sampling results determined no significant contamination in the surface or shallow subsurface. The test cavity resulting from the experiments is contaminated and cannot be economically remediated with existing technologies. The ecological sampling did not detect biological uptake of contaminants in the plants or animals sampled. Based on the current use of the Salmon Site, the following remedial actions were identified to protect both human health and the environment: (1) the

  1. Salmon Site Remedial Investigation Report, Exhibit 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1999-01-01

    This Salmon Site Remedial Investigation Report provides the results of activities initiated by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) to determine if contamination at the Salmon Site poses a current or future risk to human health and the environment. These results were used to develop and evaluate a range of risk-based remedial alternatives. Located in Lamar County, Mississippi, the Salmon Site was used by the U.S. Atomic Energy Commission (predecessor to the DOE) between 1964 and 1970 for two nuclear and two gas explosions conducted deep underground in a salt dome. The testing resulted in the release of radionuclides into the salt dome. During reentry drilling and other site activities, liquid and solid wastes containing radioactivity were generated resulting in surface soil and groundwater contamination. Most of the waste and contaminated soil and water were disposed of in 1993 during site restoration either in the cavities left by the tests or in an injection well. Other radioactive wastes were transported to the Nevada Test Site for disposal. Nonradioactive wastes were disposed of in pits at the site and capped with clean soil and graded. The preliminary investigation showed residual contamination in the Surface Ground Zero mud pits below the water table. Remedial investigations results concluded the contaminant concentrations detected present no significant risk to existing and/or future land users, if surface institutional controls and subsurface restrictions are maintained. Recent sampling results determined no significant contamination in the surface or shallow subsurface. The test cavity resulting from the experiments is contaminated and cannot be economically remediated with existing technologies. The ecological sampling did not detect biological uptake of contaminants in the plants or animals sampled. Based on the current use of the Salmon Site, the following remedial actions were identified to protect both human health and the environment: (1) the

  2. Salmon Site Remedial Investigation Report, Main Body

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    US DOE/NV

    1999-09-01

    This Salmon Site Remedial Investigation Report provides the results of activities initiated by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) to determine if contamination at the Salmon Site poses a current or future risk to human health and the environment. These results were used to develop and evaluate a range of risk-based remedial alternatives. Located in Lamar County, Mississippi, the Salmon Site was used by the U.S. Atomic Energy Commission (predecessor to the DOE) between 1964 and 1970 for two nuclear and two gas explosions conducted deep underground in a salt dome. The testing resulted in the release of radionuclides into the salt dome. During reentry drilling and other site activities, liquid and solid wastes containing radioactivity were generated resulting in surface soil and groundwater contamination. Most of the waste and contaminated soil and water were disposed of in 1993 during site restoration either in the cavities left by the tests or in an injection well. Other radioactive wastes were transported to the Nevada Test Site for disposal. Nonradioactive wastes were disposed of in pits at the site and capped with clean soil and graded. The preliminary investigation showed residual contamination in the Surface Ground Zero mud pits below the water table. Remedial investigations results concluded the contaminant concentrations detected present no significant risk to existing and/or future land users, if surface institutional controls and subsurface restrictions are maintained. Recent sampling results determined no significant contamination in the surface or shallow subsurface. The test cavity resulting from the experiments is contaminated and cannot be economically remediated with existing technologies. The ecological sampling did not detect biological uptake of contaminants in the plants or animals sampled. Based on the current use of the Salmon Site, the following remedial actions were identified to protect both human health and the environment: (1) the

  3. Salmon Site Remedial Investigation Report, Exhibit 5

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1999-01-01

    This Salmon Site Remedial Investigation Report provides the results of activities initiated by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) to determine if contamination at the Salmon Site poses a current or future risk to human health and the environment. These results were used to develop and evaluate a range of risk-based remedial alternatives. Located in Lamar County, Mississippi, the Salmon Site was used by the U.S. Atomic Energy Commission (predecessor to the DOE) between 1964 and 1970 for two nuclear and two gas explosions conducted deep underground in a salt dome. The testing resulted in the release of radionuclides into the salt dome. During reentry drilling and other site activities, liquid and solid wastes containing radioactivity were generated resulting in surface soil and groundwater contamination. Most of the waste and contaminated soil and water were disposed of in 1993 during site restoration either in the cavities left by the tests or in an injection well. Other radioactive wastes were transported to the Nevada Test Site for disposal. Nonradioactive wastes were disposed of in pits at the site and capped with clean soil and graded. The preliminary investigation showed residual contamination in the Surface Ground Zero mud pits below the water table. Remedial investigations results concluded the contaminant concentrations detected present no significant risk to existing and/or future land users, if surface institutional controls and subsurface restrictions are maintained. Recent sampling results determined no significant contamination in the surface or shallow subsurface. The test cavity resulting from the experiments is contaminated and cannot be economically remediated with existing technologies. The ecological sampling did not detect biological uptake of contaminants in the plants or animals sampled. Based on the current use of the Salmon Site, the following remedial actions were identified to protect both human health and the environment: (1) the

  4. On-site Identification of Dynamic Annular Seal Forces in Turbo Machinery Using Active Magnetic Bearings - An Experimental Investigation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lauridsen, Jonas S.; Santos, Ilmar F.

    2017-01-01

    Significant dynamic forces can be generated by annular seals in rotordynamics and can under certain conditions destabilize the system leading to machine failure. Mathematical modelling of dynamic seal forces are still challenging, especially for multiphase fluids and for seals with complex...... geometries. This results in much uncertainty in the estimation of the dynamic seal forces which often leads to unexpected system behaviour. This paper presents the results of a method suitable for on-site identification of uncertain dynamic annular seal forces in rotordynamic systems supported by Active...... Magnetic Bearings (AMB). An excitation current is applied through the AMBs to obtain perturbation forces and a system response, from which, the seal coefficients are extracted by utilizing optimization and a-priori information about the mathematical model structure and its known system dynamics. As a study...

  5. Site investigation SFR. Bedrock geology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Curtis, Philip; Markstroem, Ingemar; Petersson, Jesper; Triumf, Carl-Axel; Isaksson, Hans; Mattsson, Haakan

    2011-12-01

    geological tunnel mapping and eleven drill cores remapped according to the Boremap system, input to model version 1.0 has included the results from eight new cored boreholes as well as a fuller integration of Forsmark site investigation data, a further more extensive review of the drill core from an additional 32 boreholes associated with the construction of the existing SFR facility and an updated mapping of the lower construction tunnel. The current modelling work has also reviewed the older SFR data and models. While details concerning the earlier zones lying in immediate contact with the existing SFR facility have been changed, the earlier overall position, orientation and number of these deformation zones is maintained. A significant difference concerns their thickness due to the contrasting methodologies used during the different campaigns. In SFR model version 0.1, a single deformation zone model was produced, with a volume corresponding to the regional model volume. The model contained all the deformation zones modelled irrespective of size. Separate local and regional deformation zone models have been produced in SFR model version 1.0, following resolution criteria for the different model volumes. The local model contains zones with a minimum size of 300 m, while the regional model has structures that have a minimum size constraint of 1,000 m trace length at the ground surface. The selection of these size limits is related to the model volume maximum depth (local model -300 masl and regional model -1,000 masl) and the applied methodology that requires the same model resolution throughout the defined model volume (see Section 5.3.1). To assist hydrogeological modelling work, an updated combined model, including all structures from both the regional and local models, has also been delivered. The existing SFR facility and the rock volume directly to the south-east, which is proposed for the new facility extension, lies within a tectonic block that is bounded to the

  6. Site investigation SFR. Bedrock geology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Curtis, Philip; Markstroem, Ingemar (Golder Associates AB (Sweden)); Petersson, Jesper (Vattenfall Power Consultant AB (Sweden)); Triumf, Carl-Axel; Isaksson, Hans; Mattsson, Haakan (GeoVista AB (Sweden))

    2011-12-15

    the geological tunnel mapping and eleven drill cores remapped according to the Boremap system, input to model version 1.0 has included the results from eight new cored boreholes as well as a fuller integration of Forsmark site investigation data, a further more extensive review of the drill core from an additional 32 boreholes associated with the construction of the existing SFR facility and an updated mapping of the lower construction tunnel. The current modelling work has also reviewed the older SFR data and models. While details concerning the earlier zones lying in immediate contact with the existing SFR facility have been changed, the earlier overall position, orientation and number of these deformation zones is maintained. A significant difference concerns their thickness due to the contrasting methodologies used during the different campaigns. In SFR model version 0.1, a single deformation zone model was produced, with a volume corresponding to the regional model volume. The model contained all the deformation zones modelled irrespective of size. Separate local and regional deformation zone models have been produced in SFR model version 1.0, following resolution criteria for the different model volumes. The local model contains zones with a minimum size of 300 m, while the regional model has structures that have a minimum size constraint of 1,000 m trace length at the ground surface. The selection of these size limits is related to the model volume maximum depth (local model -300 masl and regional model -1,000 masl) and the applied methodology that requires the same model resolution throughout the defined model volume (see Section 5.3.1). To assist hydrogeological modelling work, an updated combined model, including all structures from both the regional and local models, has also been delivered. The existing SFR facility and the rock volume directly to the south-east, which is proposed for the new facility extension, lies within a tectonic block that is bounded

  7. Site investigations. Investigation methods and general execution programme

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2001-01-01

    SKB plans to commence site investigations in 2002. The present report is a broadening of the general programme and describes the execution of the investigations in so-called discipline-specific programmes for the disciplines geology, rock mechanics, thermal properties, hydrogeology, hydro geochemistry, transport properties of the rock and surface ecosystems. It also describes various technical aspects of drilling, which comprises a significant portion of the investigations. Based on this possible programme, site-specific programmes will then be prepared and adapted to the site-specific questions and conditions on the specific candidate area. The main product of the investigations is a site description. This document presents an integrated description of the site (geosphere and biosphere) and its regional environs with respect to current state and naturally ongoing processes. Provided that the initial site investigation shows that the site is still favourable, complete investigations are commenced. Primary investigation data are stored in SKB's database SICADA. The database's primary data mainly represent parameter values for single measurement points or limited measurement objects. Primary data are subjected to both discipline-specific and integrated analysis and interpretation in order to be able to subdivide the site into suitable geometric units and to assign discipline-specific properties to these geometric units. In this way a three-dimensional, primarily geo scientific, site-descriptive model of rock and ground is built. The site-descriptive model is represented with the aid of both geographic information systems (GIS) and above all SKB's CAD-based computer tool, Rock Visualization System (RVS). RVS is also used as an active instrument in the interpretation of information, especially to be able to judge the relative locations of different deformation zones. When the site has been selected, the investigations are focused on characterizing conditions at depth

  8. Site investigations. Investigation methods and general execution programme

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2001-01-01

    SKB plans to commence site investigations in 2002. The present report is a broadening of the general programme and describes the execution of the investigations in so-called discipline-specific programmes for the disciplines geology, rock mechanics, thermal properties, hydrogeology, hydro geochemistry, transport properties of the rock and surface ecosystems. It also describes various technical aspects of drilling, which comprises a significant portion of the investigations. Based on this possible programme, site-specific programmes will then be prepared and adapted to the site-specific questions and conditions on the specific candidate area. The main product of the investigations is a site description. This document presents an integrated description of the site (geosphere and biosphere) and its regional environs with respect to current state and naturally ongoing processes. Provided that the initial site investigation shows that the site is still favourable, complete investigations are commenced. Primary investigation data are stored in SKB's database SICADA. The database's primary data mainly represent parameter values for single measurement points or limited measurement objects. Primary data are subjected to both discipline-specific and integrated analysis and interpretation in order to be able to subdivide the site into suitable geometric units and to assign discipline-specific properties to these geometric units. In this way a three-dimensional, primarily geo scientific, site-descriptive model of rock and ground is built. The site-descriptive model is represented with the aid of both geographic information systems (GIS) and above all SKB's CAD-based computer tool, Rock Visualization System (RVS). RVS is also used as an active instrument in the interpretation of information, especially to be able to judge the relative locations of different deformation zones. When the site has been selected, the investigations are focused on characterizing

  9. RCRA Facility Investigation/Remedial Investigation Report for the Grace Road Site (631-22G)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Palmer, E.

    1998-10-02

    This report summarizes the activities and documents the results of a Resource Conservation and Recovery Act Facility Investigation/Remedial Investigation conducted at Grace Road Site on the Savannah River Site near Aiken, South Carolina.

  10. RCRA Facility Investigation/Remedial Investigation Report for the Grace Road Site (631-22G)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Palmer, E.

    1998-01-01

    This report summarizes the activities and documents the results of a Resource Conservation and Recovery Act Facility Investigation/Remedial Investigation conducted at Grace Road Site on the Savannah River Site near Aiken, South Carolina

  11. Theoretical investigation of active sites at the corners of Mgcl 2 crystallites in supported ziegler-natta catalysts

    KAUST Repository

    Correa, Andrea; Credendino, Raffaele; Pater, Jochem T M; Morini, Giampiero; Cavallo, Luigi

    2012-01-01

    We present a theoretical study on possible models of catalytic active species corresponding to Ti-chloride species adsorbed at the corners of MgCl 2 crystallites. First we focused our efforts on the interaction between prototypes of three

  12. Shear wave velocity investigation of soil liquefaction sites from the Tangshan, China M7.8 earthquake of 1976 using active and passive surface wave methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kayen, Robert E; Tao, Xiaxin; Shi, Lijing; Shi, Hailiang

    2008-01-01

    An initial investigation of soil liquefaction sites from the July, 28 1976 Tangshan M7.8 earthquake was conducted between 1976 and 1978 by the National Ministry of Railways, China. These data are the basis of the ‘Chinese Method’ for assessment of liquefaction potential of silty-sand deposits, and are an important component of the worldwide data set for modern probabilistic methods for assessment of soil liquefaction using Bayesian updating and system reliability tools. We revisited 26 sites identified in the maps and published 198 report of the Ministry of Railways in order to investigate these locations with a suite of active- and passive-array surface wave methods. These sites are clustered along the north coast of the Bo Hai Sea in three areas: Lutai, Tianjin; Tangshan City and outlying village, Hebei; and Luannan county, Hebei. First, we gathered and evaluated the Rayleigh wave dispersion characteristics of the ground by comparing dispersion curves from the active source harmonic wave-spectral analysis of surface waves (SASW) method and the passive array Spatial Auto-Correlation method (SPAC). The dispersive properties of the liquefied ground as measured by these two methods were found to be almost identical. These tests were hybridized and the data sets merged in order to invert of shear wave velocities for analysis of liquefaction potential using a probabilistic framework. The data from high-values of seismic intensity near Tangshan city to low-intensities distant of the event in Luannan County segregate out into clusters of liquefied and non liquefied points clearly separated by liquefaction boundary curves developed from a large global data set of 310 sites

  13. DOE site performance assessment activities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1990-07-01

    Information on performance assessment capabilities and activities was collected from eight DOE sites. All eight sites either currently dispose of low-level radioactive waste (LLW) or plan to dispose of LLW in the near future. A survey questionnaire was developed and sent to key individuals involved in DOE Order 5820.2A performance assessment activities at each site. The sites surveyed included: Hanford Site (Hanford), Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL), Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL), Nevada Test Site (NTS), Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL), Paducah Gaseous Diffusion Plant (Paducah), Portsmouth Gaseous Diffusion Plant (Portsmouth), and Savannah River Site (SRS). The questionnaire addressed all aspects of the performance assessment process; from waste source term to dose conversion factors. This report presents the information developed from the site questionnaire and provides a comparison of site-specific performance assessment approaches, data needs, and ongoing and planned activities. All sites are engaged in completing the radioactive waste disposal facility performance assessment required by DOE Order 5820.2A. Each site has achieved various degrees of progress and have identified a set of critical needs. Within several areas, however, the sites identified common needs and questions

  14. Geophysical investigation, Salmon Site, Lamar County, Mississippi

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-02-01

    Geophysical surveys were conducted in 1992 and 1993 on 21 sites at the Salmon Site (SS) located in Lamar County, Mississippi. The studies are part of the Remedial Investigation/Feasibility Study (RI/FS) being conducted by IT Corporation for the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE). During the 1960s, two nuclear devices and two chemical tests were detonated 826 meters (in) (2710 feet [ft]) below the ground surface in the salt dome underlying the SS. These tests were part of the Vela Uniform Program conducted to improve the United States capability to detect, identify, and locate underground nuclear detonations. The RI/FS is being conducted to determine if any contamination is migrating from the underground shot cavity in the salt dome and if there is any residual contamination in the near surface mud and debris disposal pits used during the testing activities. The objective of the surface geophysical surveys was to locate buried debris, disposal pits, and abandoned mud pits that may be present at the site. This information will then be used to identify the locations for test pits, cone penetrometer tests, and drill hole/monitor well installation. The disposal pits were used during the operation of the test site in the 1960s. Vertical magnetic gradient (magnetic gradient), electromagnetic (EM) conductivity, and ground-penetrating radar (GPR) surveys were used to accomplish these objectives. A description of the equipment used and a theoretical discussion of the geophysical methods are presented Appendix A. Because of the large number of figures relative to the number of pages of text, the geophysical grid-location maps, the contour maps of the magnetic-gradient data, the contour maps of the EM conductivity data, and the GPR traverse location maps are located in Appendix B, Tabs I through 22. In addition, selected GPR records are located in Appendix C

  15. Near Regional and Site Investigations of the Temelin NPP Site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prachar, Ivan; Vacek, Jiri; Heralecky, Pavel

    2011-01-01

    The Temelin NPP is worldwide through heated discussion with nuclear energetic opposition. In addition this discussion goes beyond a border of the Czech Republic. On the other side, results of several international supervisions shown that Temelin NPP is fully comparable with the safest nuclear power plants in the world regarding its technical design and safety functions. This presentation deals with the near regional and site investigations of the Temelin NPP Site. It must be noted that although the Temelin site is situated in the area with low seismicity, item of seismicity is a basic argument against Temelin NPP and therefore a detail seismic hazard assessment was performed

  16. Assessing Contractor Capabilities for Streamlined Site Investigations

    Science.gov (United States)

    The purpose of this document is to familiarize and encourage brownfields decision makers to investigate and employ innovative methods for characterizing their sites, to assist brownfields decision makers in assessing contractors' capabilities.

  17. Site investigations: Strategy for rock mechanics site descriptive model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andersson, Johan; Christiansson, Rolf; Hudson, John

    2002-05-01

    As a part of the planning work for the Site Investigations, SKB has developed a Rock Mechanics Site Descriptive Modelling Strategy. Similar strategies are being developed for other disciplines. The objective of the strategy is that it should guide the practical implementation of evaluating site specific data during the Site Investigations. It is also understood that further development may be needed. This methodology enables the crystalline rock mass to be characterised in terms of the quality at different sites, for considering rock engineering constructability, and for providing the input to numerical models and performance assessment calculations. The model describes the initial stresses and the distribution of deformation and strength properties of the intact rock, of fractures and fracture zones, and of the rock mass. The rock mass mechanical properties are estimated by empirical relations and by numerical simulations. The methodology is based on estimation of mechanical properties using both empirical and heroretical/numerical approaches; and estimation of in situ rock stress using judgement and numerical modelling, including the influence of fracture zones. These approaches are initially used separately, and then combined to produce the required characterisation estimates. The methodology was evaluated with a Test Case at the Aespoe Hard Rock Laboratory in Sweden. The quality control aspects are an important feature of the methodology: these include Protocols to ensure the structure and coherence of the procedures used, regular meetings to enhance communication, feedback from internal and external reviewing, plus the recording of an audit trail of the development steps and decisions made. The strategy will be reviewed and, if required, updated as appropriate

  18. Site investigations: Strategy for rock mechanics site descriptive model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Andersson, Johan [JA Streamflow AB, Aelvsjoe (Sweden); Christiansson, Rolf [Swedish Nuclear Fuel and Waste Management Co., Stockholm (Sweden); Hudson, John [Rock Engineering Consultants, Welwyn Garden City (United Kingdom)

    2002-05-01

    As a part of the planning work for the Site Investigations, SKB has developed a Rock Mechanics Site Descriptive Modelling Strategy. Similar strategies are being developed for other disciplines. The objective of the strategy is that it should guide the practical implementation of evaluating site specific data during the Site Investigations. It is also understood that further development may be needed. This methodology enables the crystalline rock mass to be characterised in terms of the quality at different sites, for considering rock engineering constructability, and for providing the input to numerical models and performance assessment calculations. The model describes the initial stresses and the distribution of deformation and strength properties of the intact rock, of fractures and fracture zones, and of the rock mass. The rock mass mechanical properties are estimated by empirical relations and by numerical simulations. The methodology is based on estimation of mechanical properties using both empirical and heroretical/numerical approaches; and estimation of in situ rock stress using judgement and numerical modelling, including the influence of fracture zones. These approaches are initially used separately, and then combined to produce the required characterisation estimates. The methodology was evaluated with a Test Case at the Aespoe Hard Rock Laboratory in Sweden. The quality control aspects are an important feature of the methodology: these include Protocols to ensure the structure and coherence of the procedures used, regular meetings to enhance communication, feedback from internal and external reviewing, plus the recording of an audit trail of the development steps and decisions made. The strategy will be reviewed and, if required, updated as appropriate.

  19. Geotechnical investigations of the PEP site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gould, R.S.

    1976-02-01

    The purpose of this paper is to summarize the general nature of the geology and rock and soil formations of the PEP site as they relate to the design and construction of the project; to describe site investigation programs and to catalog the geotechnical information presently available about the site. The recently-completed investigation of subterranean conditions around the PEP ring when coupled with previous surveys gives us a good understanding of what to expect with regard to tunneling, undertaking larger underground excavations and constructing research halls are the interaction areas. It bears out the predictions made in Jacobs and Associates' report of 1973; i.e., that the ring housing construction is classified as soft-ground tunneling and that large underground openings, such as region 10 and the injection junction structures, will require great attention to support. A shield or shields will probably be required. On the positive side, the site affords very good conditions for soft-ground tunneling. Water will be a problem in some areas, but not an unsolvable one. The possibility of encountering lethal or explosive gases, almost always the case in tunneling in California's coastal formations, exists but has not been ascertained. Finally, no reasons to change current cost estimates or schedules have merged from the investigation. 13 refs., 1 fig

  20. Alternative approaches to improve site investigations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beach, R.B.; Silka, L.R.

    1992-01-01

    Common complaints about standard investigations at hazardous waste sites include high costs and long time frames. Investigations at military bases as part of the installation restoration program or base closures suffer additionally from nonuniformity of approach and results and redundancy of work effort conducted by multiple environmental contractors. The problems of high costs and long time frames can be minimized by the consistent use of alternative sampling methods (such as soil gas surveys) and the utilization of analytical screening procedures at both on-site and off-site laboratories. Acceptable data quality is maintained by several procedures. Incorporation of quality control measures (10 % frequency), such as matrix spikes and duplicates, into the alternative analytical techniques allows assessment of the data quality relative to predetermined data quality objectives (DQOs). Confirmation of the screening results (10% frequency) using standard US EPA methods, such as the contract laboratory program (CLP) statement of work (SOW), allows an additional evaluation of the data accuracy. Depending on the investigative objectives, knowledge based computer systems (expert systems,) could be used to improve uniformity of site evaluations. Several case histories will be presented demonstrating how soil gas surveys, screening analyses and standard analyses can be utilized to give increased site information in a reduced time frame and at a cost savings of 30 to 40%. One case history illustrates a screening technique developed by the author for polynuclear aromatics (semi-volatile organic compounds) that can be conducted at a cost savings of 90% relative to a standard US EPA method. A comparison of the phased investigative approach to one using an integrated field team is presented for fuel spill or UST areas

  1. Construction of a catalytically inactive cholesterol oxidase mutant: investigation of the interplay between active site-residues glutamate 361 and histidine 447.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yin, Ye; Liu, Pingsheng; Anderson, Richard G W; Sampson, Nicole S

    2002-06-15

    Cholesterol oxidase catalyzes the oxidation of cholesterol to cholest-5-en-3-one and its subsequent isomerization into cholest-4-en-3-one. Two active-site residues, His447 and Glu361, are important for catalyzing the oxidation and isomerization reactions, respectively. Double-mutants were constructed to test the interplay between these residues in catalysis. We observed that the k(cat) of oxidation for the H447Q/E361Q mutant was 3-fold less than that for H447Q and that the k(cat) of oxidation for the H447E/E361Q mutant was 10-fold slower than that for H447E. Because both doubles-mutants do not have a carboxylate at position 361, they do not catalyze isomerization of the reaction intermediate cholest-5-en-3-one to cholest-4-en-3-one. These results suggest that Glu361 can compensate for the loss of histidine at position 447 by acting as a general base catalyst for oxidation of cholesterol. Importantly, the construction of the double-mutant H447E/E361Q yields an enzyme that is 31,000-fold slower than wild type in k(cat) for oxidation. The H447E/E361Q mutant is folded like native enzyme and still associates with model membranes. Thus, this mutant may be used to study the effects of membrane binding in the absence of catalytic activity. It is demonstrated that in assays with caveolae membrane fractions, the wild-type enzyme uncouples platelet-derived growth factor receptor beta (PDGFRbeta) autophosphorylation from tyrosine phosphorylation of neighboring proteins, and the H447E/E361Q mutant does not. Thus maintenance of membrane structure by cholesterol is important for PDGFRbeta-mediated signaling. The cholesterol oxidase mutant probe described will be generally useful for investigating the role of membrane structure in signal transduction pathways in addition to the PDGFRbeta-dependent pathway tested.

  2. Salt site performance assessment activities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kircher, J.F.; Gupta, S.K.

    1983-01-01

    During this year the first selection of the tools (codes) for performance assessments of potential salt sites have been tentatively selected and documented; the emphasis has shifted from code development to applications. During this period prior to detailed characterization of a salt site, the focus is on bounding calculations, sensitivity and with the data available. The development and application of improved methods for sensitivity and uncertainty analysis is a focus for the coming years activities and the subject of a following paper in these proceedings. Although the assessments to date are preliminary and based on admittedly scant data, the results indicate that suitable salt sites can be identified and repository subsystems designed which will meet the established criteria for protecting the health and safety of the public. 36 references, 5 figures, 2 tables

  3. When is there sufficient information from the Site Investigations?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andersson, Johan; Munier, Raymond; Stroem, Anders; Soederbaeck, Bjoern; Almen, Karl-Erik; Olsson, Lars

    2004-04-01

    can be used in the decision whether and how to continue the investigation. Highlight uncertainty evaluation of aspects of the Site Description judged to be critical to the decision of investigation sufficiency ('uncertainty of key aspects') and to help substantiate how these uncertainties should be explored such that they can be used in the decision analysis. In addressing these objectives the report describes some formal decision analyses tools, assessed potential feedback from Safety Assessment and Rock Engineering, explores some key uncertainty in the Site Description and also explores an example where the decision analyses tools are applied. Based on this work it is generally concluded that the question When to stop the site investigation is a decision problem. In simple words the site investigations should stop when the expected net gain of further investigations is zero or negative, where gain is related to the total cost, which includes several factors besides the direct monetary outlay. Furthermore, this decision perspective should be applied not only in determining the sufficiency of the programme, but also when optimising the remaining parts of the ongoing programme. In particular, it needs to be understood that the Site Investigation is only a step towards the ultimate decision of disposing waste and eventually sealing a repository. The cost and value of information obtained in the Site Investigation Phase, needs to be weighted against the costs and value of obtaining information during later stages. All issues need not be resolved during the Site Investigation Phase. Some could be much better handled later, e.g. during the construction and detailed investigation phase. More specifically, it is recommended to: to actively solicit feedback from Safety Assessment and Repository Engineering, keep track of the uncertainty evaluation of the key aspects of the Site Descriptive Models, develop the Underground Characterisation Programme as this is the next step

  4. Remedial Investigation of Hanford Site Releases to the Columbia River

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lerch, J.A.

    2009-01-01

    In south-central Washington State, the Columbia River flows through the U.S. Department of Energy Hanford Site. A primary objective of the Hanford Site cleanup mission is protection of the Columbia River, through remediation of contaminated soil and groundwater that resulted from its weapons production mission. Within the Columbia River system, surface water, sediment, and biota samples related to potential Hanford Site hazardous substance releases have been collected since the start of Hanford operations. The impacts of Hanford Site hazardous substance releases to the Columbia River in areas upstream, within, and downstream of the Hanford Site boundary have been previously investigated as mandated by the U.S. Department of Energy requirements under the Atomic Energy Act. The impacts are now being assessed under the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act of 1980 via a remedial investigation. The Remedial Investigation Work Plan for Hanford Site Releases to the Columbia River has been developed and issued to initiate the remedial investigation. The work plan establishes a phased approach to characterize contaminants, assess current risks, and determine whether or not there is a need for any cleanup actions. Field investigation activities began in October 2008 and are anticipated to continue into Fall 2009 over a 120 mile stretch of the Columbia River. Information gained from performing this remedial investigation will ultimately be used to help make final regulatory decisions for cleaning up Hanford Site contamination that exists in and along the Columbia River. (authors)

  5. Corrective Action Investigation Plan for Corrective Action Unit 137: Waste Disposal Sites, Nevada Test Site, Nevada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wickline, Alfred

    2005-01-01

    This Corrective Action Investigation Plan (CAIP) contains project-specific information including facility descriptions, environmental sample collection objectives, and criteria for conducting site investigation activities at Corrective Action Unit (CAU) 137: Waste Disposal Sites. This CAIP has been developed in accordance with the ''Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order'' (FFACO) (1996) that was agreed to by the State of Nevada, the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), and the U.S. Department of Defense. Corrective Action Unit 137 contains sites that are located in Areas 1, 3, 7, 9, and 12 of the Nevada Test Site (NTS), which is approximately 65 miles (mi) northwest of Las Vegas, Nevada (Figure 1-1). Corrective Action Unit 137 is comprised of the eight corrective action sites (CASs) shown on Figure 1-1 and listed below: (1) CAS 01-08-01, Waste Disposal Site; (2) CAS 03-23-01, Waste Disposal Site; (3) CAS 03-23-07, Radioactive Waste Disposal Site; (4) CAS 03-99-15, Waste Disposal Site; (5) CAS 07-23-02, Radioactive Waste Disposal Site; (6) CAS 09-23-07, Radioactive Waste Disposal Site; (7) CAS 12-08-01, Waste Disposal Site; and (8) CAS 12-23-07, Waste Disposal Site. The Corrective Action Investigation (CAI) will include field inspections, radiological surveys, geophysical surveys, sampling of environmental media, analysis of samples, and assessment of investigation results, where appropriate. Data will be obtained to support corrective action alternative evaluations and waste management decisions. The CASs in CAU 137 are being investigated because hazardous and/or radioactive constituents may be present in concentrations that could potentially pose a threat to human health and the environment. Existing information on the nature and extent of potential contamination is insufficient to evaluate and recommend corrective action alternatives for the CASs. Additional information will be generated by conducting a CAI before evaluating and selecting corrective action

  6. [Organising an investigation site: a national training reference document].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cornu, Catherine; David, Frédérique; Duchossoy, Luc; Hansel-Esteller, Sylvie; Bertoye, Pierre-Henri; Giacomino, Alain; Mouly, Stéphane; Diebolt, Vincent; Blazejewski, Sylvie

    2014-01-01

    Several surveys have shown a declining performance of French investigators in conducting clinical trials. This is partly due to insufficient and heterogeneous investigator training and site organisation. A multidisciplinary group was set up to propose solutions. We describe the tools developed to improve study site organisation. This working group was made up of clinical research experts from academia, industry, drug regulatory authorities, general practice, and consulting. Methods and tools were developed to improve site organisation. The proposed tools mainly focus on increasing investigators' awareness of their responsibilities, their research environment, the importance of a thorough feasibility analysis, and the implementation of active patient recruitment strategies. These tools should be able to improve site organisation and performances in conducting clinical trials. © 2014 Société Française de Pharmacologie et de Thérapeutique.

  7. Forsmark site investigation. Programme for long-term observations of geosphere and biosphere after completed site investigations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2007-06-15

    The site investigation at Forsmark was terminated the last of June, 2007. Hundreds of investigations have been conducted during a period of more than five years. Monitoring of a number of geoscientific parameters and biological objects has been one important part of the site investigation programme. Monitoring is defined as recurrent measurements of the same parameters/objects, so that time series are generated. Long-term monitoring of for example weather parameters, surface water discharge in brooks, and the groundwater head in a large number of boreholes has been conducted during the site investigations. Furthermore, repeated sampling of precipitation, surface water and groundwater in soil and rock for hydrochemical analyses has been carried out, and the groundwater flow in isolated borehole sections has been measured several times. Besides, some biological objects, for example rare bird species, have been invented each year of the site investigation. The measured parameters and the invented objects are characterized by a certain degree of time dependent variability, which is also site-specific. The aim of the monitoring is primarily to establish the 'undisturbed' conditions, the so called 'baseline'. If a deep repository is sited at Forsmark, many site-specific conditions will change, due to natural causes as well as to the construction works. Knowledge about the undisturbed conditions strengthens the ability to reveal and quantify such changes and to distinguish natural changes from those caused by the human activities. Another object of monitoring is to, by the study of the variability pattern of the monitored parameters, elevate the knowledge about the underlying, often complex causes governing the variations. In this way the description of site-specific conditions may be more precise and the prospects of modelling important processes are improved. After completion of the site investigations, a period of about two years will follow, when

  8. Forsmark site investigation. Programme for long-term observations of geosphere and biosphere after completed site investigations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2007-06-01

    The site investigation at Forsmark was terminated the last of June, 2007. Hundreds of investigations have been conducted during a period of more than five years. Monitoring of a number of geoscientific parameters and biological objects has been one important part of the site investigation programme. Monitoring is defined as recurrent measurements of the same parameters/objects, so that time series are generated. Long-term monitoring of for example weather parameters, surface water discharge in brooks, and the groundwater head in a large number of boreholes has been conducted during the site investigations. Furthermore, repeated sampling of precipitation, surface water and groundwater in soil and rock for hydrochemical analyses has been carried out, and the groundwater flow in isolated borehole sections has been measured several times. Besides, some biological objects, for example rare bird species, have been invented each year of the site investigation. The measured parameters and the invented objects are characterized by a certain degree of time dependent variability, which is also site-specific. The aim of the monitoring is primarily to establish the 'undisturbed' conditions, the so called 'baseline'. If a deep repository is sited at Forsmark, many site-specific conditions will change, due to natural causes as well as to the construction works. Knowledge about the undisturbed conditions strengthens the ability to reveal and quantify such changes and to distinguish natural changes from those caused by the human activities. Another object of monitoring is to, by the study of the variability pattern of the monitored parameters, elevate the knowledge about the underlying, often complex causes governing the variations. In this way the description of site-specific conditions may be more precise and the prospects of modelling important processes are improved. After completion of the site investigations, a period of about two years will follow, when the investigation

  9. Sonolytic and Silent Polymerization of Methacrlyic Acid Butyl Ester Catalyzed by a New Onium Salt with bis-Active Sites in a Biphasic System — A Comparative Investigation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Perumberkandgai A. Vivekanand

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Currently, ingenious new analytical and process experimental techniques which are environmentally benign techniques, viz., ultrasound irradiation, have become immensely popular in promoting various reactions. In this work, a novel soluble multi-site phase transfer catalyst (PTC viz., 1,4-bis-(propylmethyleneammounium chloridebenzene (BPMACB was synthesized and its catalytic efficiency was assessed by observing the kinetics of sonolytic polymerization of methacrylic acid butyl ester (MABE using potassium persulphate (PPS as an initiator. The ultrasound–multi-site phase transfer catalysis (US-MPTC-assisted polymerization reaction was compared with the silent (non-ultrasonic polymerization reaction. The effects of the catalyst and various reaction parameters on the catalytic performance were in detail investigated by following the kinetics of polymerization of MABE in an ethyl acetate-water biphasic system. From the detailed kinetic investigation we propose a plausible mechanism. Further the kinetic results demonstrate clearly that ultrasound-assisted phase-transfer catalysis significantly increased the reaction rate when compared to silent reactions. Notably, this environmentally benign and cost-effective process has great potential to be applied in various polymer industries.

  10. Hanfor site past practice investigation strategy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thompson, K.M.

    1991-01-01

    The US Department of Energy (DOE), US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), and the Washington State Department of Ecology (Ecology) have negotiated a strategy for performing Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation and Liability Act (CERCLA) and Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) Past Practice investigations in a more streamlined manner with a bias-for-action. This strategy provides new concepts for (1) accelerating decision-making by maximizing the use of existing data consistent with data quality objectives and (2) undertaking expedited response actions and/or interim remedial measures as appropriate to either remove threats to human health and welfare and the environment or to reduce risk by reducing toxicity, mobility or volume of contaminants. Since the goal of the program is cleanup, much more emphasis will be placed on initiating and completing waste site cleanups through interim measures. While investigations and studies are important in meeting long-range goals, there is now agreement by the parties that an appropriate and significant portion of the near-term funding resources can and should be dedicated to remedial work, where there is sufficient information from which to plan and implement interim remedial measures. The initial stages of Hanford clean-up will optimize the use of interim cleanup actions when justified and practicable. Existing data will be evaluated as the initial basis for decision-making. If the data are found to be insufficient, additional essential data will be collected to support the IRM in a limited field investigation (LFI). Only data needed to formulate a conceptual model (source to pathway to receptor) and qualitative risk assessment would be obtained. The data quality objectives of the LFI will be established based on the use of the data in deciding on IRMs

  11. Bedrock Hydrogeology-Site investigation SFR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oehman, Johan; Bockgaard, Niclas; Follin, Sven

    2012-06-01

    The Swedish Nuclear Fuel and Waste Management Company (SKB) has conducted site investigations for a planned extension of the existing final repository for short-lived radioactive waste (SFR). This report presents an integrated analysis and interpretation of the historic data from the existing SFR (1980 - 1986), as well as, from the recent investigations for the planned extension of SFR (2008 - 2009). The primary objective is to establish a conceptual hydrogeological model of the bedrock for safety assessment and design analyses. Analyses and interpretations of all (old and new) hydraulic data are analysed with regard to the recently developed geological deformation zone model of the SFR model domain (Curtis et al. 2011). The methodology used by Curtis et al. (2011) has focussed on magnetic anomalies and deformation zone intercepts with ground surface greater than 300 m. In the hydrogeological modelling, however, it has been considered important to also explore the occurrence and characteristics of shallow horizontal to sub-horizontal structures (sheet joints) inside the SFR model domain. Such structures are of considerable importance for the hydrogeology in the uppermost c. 150 m of bedrock in SDM-Site Forsmark; hence the term Shallow Bedrock Aquifer was used to emphasise their hydraulic significance. In this study, the acronym SBA-structure is used for horizontal structures identified in the hydrogeological modelling. In addition to the predominantly steeply dipping geological deformation zones, eight so-called SBA-structures are modelled deterministically in the hydrogeological model. The SBA-structures are envisaged as hydraulically heterogeneous and composed of clusters of minor gently dipping to horizontal fractures rather than extensive single features. A type of structures that is partly included in the definition of the SBA-structures is the Unresolved Possible Deformations Zone (Unresolved PDZ) intercepts identified by Curtis et al. (2011). The Unresolved

  12. Geochemical investigation of UMTRAP designated site at Durango, Colorado

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Markos, G.; Bush, K.J.

    1983-09-01

    This report is the result of a geochemical investigation of the former uranium mill and tailings site at Durango, Colorado. This is one in a series of site specific geochemical investigations performed on the inactive uranium mill tailings included in the UMTRA Project. The objectives of the investigation are to characterize the geochemistry, to determine the contaminant distribution resulting from the former milling activities and tailings, and to infer chemical pathways and transport mechanisms from the contaminant distribution. The results will be used to model contaminant migration and to develop criteria for long-term containment media such as a cover system which is impermeable to contaminant migration. This report assumes a familiarity with the hydrologic conditions of the site and the geochemical concepts underlying the investigation. The results reported are based on a one-time sampling of waters and solid material from the background, the area adjacent to the site, and the site. The solid samples are water extracted remove easily soluble salts and acids extracted to remove cabonates and hydroxides. The water extracts and solid samples were analyzed for the major and trace elements. A limited number of samples were analyzed for radiological components. The report includes the methods of sampling, sample processing, analysis, and data interpretation. Three major conclusions are: (1) carbonate salts and low TDS characterize the tailings; (2) the adjacent area and raffinate ponds contain contaminants deposited by a single event of fluid permeation of the soils; and (3) the Animas River adjacent to the site has elevated gross alpha activity attributed to 226 Ra in the sediments derived from the tailings or milling activities

  13. Salmon Site Remedial Investigation Report, Appendix B (Part 2)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1999-01-01

    This Salmon Site Remedial Investigation Report provides the results of activities initiated by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) to determine if contamination at the Salmon Site poses a current or future risk to human health and the environment. These results were used to develop and evaluate a range of risk-based remedial alternatives. Located in Lamar County, Mississippi, the Salmon Site was used by the U.S. Atomic Energy Commission (predecessor to the DOE) between 1964 and 1970 for two nuclear and two gas explosions conducted deep underground in a salt dome. The testing resulted in the release of radionuclides into the salt dome. During reentry drilling and other site activities, liquid and solid wastes containing radioactivity were generated resulting in surface soil and groundwater contamination. Most of the waste and contaminated soil and water were disposed of in 1993 during site restoration either in the cavities left by the tests or in an injection well. Other radioactive wastes were transported to the Nevada Test Site for disposal. Nonradioactive wastes were disposed of in pits at the site and capped with clean soil and graded. The preliminary investigation showed residual contamination in the Surface Ground Zero mud pits below the water table. Remedial investigations results concluded the contaminant concentrations detected present no significant risk to existing and/or future land users, if surface institutional controls and subsurface restrictions are maintained. Recent sampling results determined no significant contamination in the surface or shallow subsurface. The test cavity resulting from the experiments is contaminated and cannot be economically remediated with existing technologies. The ecological sampling did not detect biological uptake of contaminants in the plants or animals sampled. Based on the current use of the Salmon Site, the following remedial actions were identified to protect both human health and the environment: (1) the

  14. Salmon Site Remedial Investigation Report, Appendix B (Part 1)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1999-01-01

    This Salmon Site Remedial Investigation Report provides the results of activities initiated by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) to determine if contamination at the Salmon Site poses a current or future risk to human health and the environment. These results were used to develop and evaluate a range of risk-based remedial alternatives. Located in Lamar County, Mississippi, the Salmon Site was used by the U.S. Atomic Energy Commission (predecessor to the DOE) between 1964 and 1970 for two nuclear and two gas explosions conducted deep underground in a salt dome. The testing resulted in the release of radionuclides into the salt dome. During reentry drilling and other site activities, liquid and solid wastes containing radioactivity were generated resulting in surface soil and groundwater contamination. Most of the waste and contaminated soil and water were disposed of in 1993 during site restoration either in the cavities left by the tests or in an injection well. Other radioactive wastes were transported to the Nevada Test Site for disposal. Nonradioactive wastes were disposed of in pits at the site and capped with clean soil and graded. The preliminary investigation showed residual contamination in the Surface Ground Zero mud pits below the water table. Remedial investigations results concluded the contaminant concentrations detected present no significant risk to existing and/or future land users, if surface institutional controls and subsurface restrictions are maintained. Recent sampling results determined no significant contamination in the surface or shallow subsurface. The test cavity resulting from the experiments is contaminated and cannot be economically remediated with existing technologies. The ecological sampling did not detect biological uptake of contaminants in the plants or animals sampled. Based on the current use of the Salmon Site, the following remedial actions were identified to protect both human health and the environment: (1) the

  15. Hydrogeologic investigations at the Nevada Test Site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hawkins, W.L.; Trudeau, D.A.; Drellack, S.L.

    1992-01-01

    The Nevada Test Site was established in 1950 as a continental area for testing nuclear devices and, since 1963, all nuclear detonations there have been underground. Most tests are conducted in vertical shafts with a small percentage conducted in tunnels. The majority of detonation points are above the water table, primarily in volcanic rocks or alluvium. In the testing areas the water table is 450--700 m below the surface. Pre- and post- event geologic investigations are conducted for each test location and long-term studies assess the impact of underground testing on a more regional scale. Studies in progress have not identified any impact on the regional ground water system from testing, but some local effects have been recognized. In some areas where several large tests have been conducted below the water table, water levels hundreds of meters above the regional water table have been measured and radioactivity has been discovered associated with fractures in a few holes. Flow-through and straddle packer testing has revealed unexpectedly high hydraulic pressures at depth. Recently, a multiple completion monitoring well installed to study three zones has confirmed the existence of a significant upward hydraulic gradient. These observations of local pressurization and fracture flow are being further explored to determine the influence of underground nuclear testing on the regional hydrogeologic system

  16. Managing Siting Activities for Nuclear Power Plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2012-06-15

    , referenced bank of data that can be used during the lifetime of the nuclear power plant. As a result, and after reviewing the existing publications, the IAEA decided to develop an integrated Nuclear Energy Series publication on managing siting activities for a nuclear power plant using recent siting experience from States. This publication: -Complements the IAEA Safety Guide related to site selection; - Emphasizes the integrity and interdependence of various activities related to site selection and assessment, including safety, environmental, technical, economic and social factors; - Develops the methodology and framework for all aspects of the siting process; - Updates the existing IAEA documentation in order to better reflect the developments in the nuclear and energy industry related to siting; - Integrates the existing IAEA publications on the subject into a more compact and user friendly guide. This publication provides the information necessary to organize, guide and realize the activities related to the selection and assessment of a site through defining the factors for consideration and methodologies for site investigation. Other factors that could have an impact on the final selection, such as national or international politics are not addressed. This publication also discusses communication with and involvement of stakeholders as this has a strong influence on the process of selecting a site for a nuclear power plant. This report is intended for use by Member States initiating, restarting or expanding their nuclear power programmes. It gives guidance on the complex organizational, engineering, socio-economic, and environmental issues of siting. It aims to enable States to develop detailed country-specific processes for implementation of siting activities or to improve the efficiency and effectiveness of the siting process. This publication may be used by utilities assessing the possibilities for building and operating a nuclear power plant as well as by contractors

  17. Managing Siting Activities for Nuclear Power Plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2012-01-01

    , referenced bank of data that can be used during the lifetime of the nuclear power plant. As a result, and after reviewing the existing publications, the IAEA decided to develop an integrated Nuclear Energy Series publication on managing siting activities for a nuclear power plant using recent siting experience from States. This publication: -Complements the IAEA Safety Guide related to site selection; - Emphasizes the integrity and interdependence of various activities related to site selection and assessment, including safety, environmental, technical, economic and social factors; - Develops the methodology and framework for all aspects of the siting process; - Updates the existing IAEA documentation in order to better reflect the developments in the nuclear and energy industry related to siting; - Integrates the existing IAEA publications on the subject into a more compact and user friendly guide. This publication provides the information necessary to organize, guide and realize the activities related to the selection and assessment of a site through defining the factors for consideration and methodologies for site investigation. Other factors that could have an impact on the final selection, such as national or international politics are not addressed. This publication also discusses communication with and involvement of stakeholders as this has a strong influence on the process of selecting a site for a nuclear power plant. This report is intended for use by Member States initiating, restarting or expanding their nuclear power programmes. It gives guidance on the complex organizational, engineering, socio-economic, and environmental issues of siting. It aims to enable States to develop detailed country-specific processes for implementation of siting activities or to improve the efficiency and effectiveness of the siting process. This publication may be used by utilities assessing the possibilities for building and operating a nuclear power plant as well as by contractors

  18. Small Scale Multisource Site – Hydrogeology Investigation

    Science.gov (United States)

    A site impacted by brackish water was evaluated using traditional hydrogeologic and geochemical site characterization techniques. No single, specific source of the brine impacted ground water was identified. However, the extent of the brine impacted ground water was found to be...

  19. Archaeological Investigations at a Wisconsin Petroglyph Site

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jack Steinbring

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Preliminary test excavations at the Hensler Petroglyph Site in East Central Wisconsin, U.S.A. have disclosed the remains of aboriginal engravings below Aeolian sediments dated to ca. 15,000 years B.P. The stratified deposits lying adjacent to an engraved panel, containing 35 pecked images, have yielded animal-like cobbles, some covered with red ochre, apparently picked for some esoteric use. The site itself has unusual natural shapes in the rock formation, along with acoustical properties, lightning strikes, a magnetic anomaly, and geographic prominence. Collectively these factors are thought to have attracted the ancient rock artists to the site.

  20. When is there sufficient information from the Site Investigations?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Andersson, Johan [JA Streamflow AB, Aelvsjoe (Sweden); Munier, Raymond; Stroem, Anders; Soederbaeck, Bjoern [Swedish Nuclear Fuel and Waste Management Co., Stockholm (Sweden); Almen, Karl-Erik [KEA Geo-konsult (Sweden); Olsson, Lars [Geostatistik AB, Tumba (Sweden)

    2004-04-01

    can be used in the decision whether and how to continue the investigation. Highlight uncertainty evaluation of aspects of the Site Description judged to be critical to the decision of investigation sufficiency ('uncertainty of key aspects') and to help substantiate how these uncertainties should be explored such that they can be used in the decision analysis. In addressing these objectives the report describes some formal decision analyses tools, assessed potential feedback from Safety Assessment and Rock Engineering, explores some key uncertainty in the Site Description and also explores an example where the decision analyses tools are applied. Based on this work it is generally concluded that the question When to stop the site investigation is a decision problem. In simple words the site investigations should stop when the expected net gain of further investigations is zero or negative, where gain is related to the total cost, which includes several factors besides the direct monetary outlay. Furthermore, this decision perspective should be applied not only in determining the sufficiency of the programme, but also when optimising the remaining parts of the ongoing programme. In particular, it needs to be understood that the Site Investigation is only a step towards the ultimate decision of disposing waste and eventually sealing a repository. The cost and value of information obtained in the Site Investigation Phase, needs to be weighted against the costs and value of obtaining information during later stages. All issues need not be resolved during the Site Investigation Phase. Some could be much better handled later, e.g. during the construction and detailed investigation phase. More specifically, it is recommended to: to actively solicit feedback from Safety Assessment and Repository Engineering, keep track of the uncertainty evaluation of the key aspects of the Site Descriptive Models, develop the Underground Characterisation Programme as this is the

  1. Site description of Laxemar at completion of the site investigation phase. SDM-Site Laxemar

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2009-12-01

    The Swedish Nuclear Fuel and Waste Management Company (SKB) has undertaken site characterisation in two different areas, Forsmark and Laxemar-Simpevarp, in order to identify a suitable location for a geological repository of spent nuclear fuel according to the KBS-3 method. The site investigations have been conducted in campaigns, punctuated by data freezes. After each data freeze, the site data have been analysed and modelling has been carried out with the overall purpose to develop a site descriptive model (SDM). The site descriptive model is used by repository engineering to design the underground facility and to develop a repository layout adapted to the site. It is also essential for safety assessment, since the SDM is the only source for site-specific input. Another important use of the site descriptive model is in the environmental impact assessment. An SDM is an integrated model of geology, thermal properties, rock mechanics, hydrogeology, hydrogeochemistry, bedrock transport properties and a description of the surface system. The site descriptive model compiled in the current report, SDM-Site Laxemar, presents an integrated understanding of the Laxemar-Simpevarp area (with special emphasis on the Laxemar subarea) at the completion of the surface-based investigations, which were conducted during the period 2002 to 2007. A summary is also provided of the abundant underlying data and the discipline specific models that support the site understanding. The description relies heavily on background reports that address, in particular, details of the data analyses and modelling of the different disciplines. The Laxemar-Simpevarp area is located in the province of Smaaland within the municipality of Oskarshamn, about 230 km south of Stockholm. The candidate area for site investigation is located along the shoreline of the strait of Kalmarsund, within a 1.8 billion year old suite of well preserved bedrock belonging to the Transscandinavian Igneous Belt formed during

  2. Site description of Forsmark at completion of the site investigation phase. SDM-Site Forsmark

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2008-12-15

    The Swedish Nuclear Fuel and Waste Management Co., SKB, has undertaken site characterisation in two different areas, Forsmark and Laxemar-Simpevarp, in order to identify a suitable location for a geological repository of spent nuclear fuel according to the KBS-3 method. The site investigations have been conducted in campaigns, punctuated by data freezes. After each data freeze, the site data have been analysed and modelling has been carried out with the overall purpose to develop a site descriptive model (SDM). The site descriptive model is used by repository engineering to design the underground facility and to develop a repository layout adapted to the site. It is also essential for safety assessment, since the model is the only source for site-specific input. Another important use of the site descriptive model is in the environmental impact assessment. An SDM is an integrated model for geology, thermal properties, rock mechanics, hydrogeology, hydrogeochemistry, bedrock transport properties and a description of the surface system. The site descriptive model compiled in the current report, SDM-Site, presents an integrated understanding of the Forsmark area at the completion of the surface-based investigations, which were conducted at Forsmark during the period 2002 to 2007. It also provides a summary of the abundant underlying data and the discipline-specific models that support the site understanding. The description relies heavily on background reports that address, in particular, details in data analyses and modelling in the different disciplines. The Forsmark area is located in northern Uppland within the municipality of Oesthammar, about 120 km north of Stockholm. The candidate area for site investigation is located along the shoreline of Oeregrundsgrepen, within the north-western part of a major tectonic lens that formed between 1.87 and 1.85 billion years ago during the Svecokarelian orogeny. The candidate area is approximately 6 km long and 2 km wide. The

  3. Site description of Laxemar at completion of the site investigation phase. SDM-Site Laxemar

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2009-12-15

    The Swedish Nuclear Fuel and Waste Management Company (SKB) has undertaken site characterisation in two different areas, Forsmark and Laxemar-Simpevarp, in order to identify a suitable location for a geological repository of spent nuclear fuel according to the KBS-3 method. The site investigations have been conducted in campaigns, punctuated by data freezes. After each data freeze, the site data have been analysed and modelling has been carried out with the overall purpose to develop a site descriptive model (SDM). The site descriptive model is used by repository engineering to design the underground facility and to develop a repository layout adapted to the site. It is also essential for safety assessment, since the SDM is the only source for site-specific input. Another important use of the site descriptive model is in the environmental impact assessment. An SDM is an integrated model of geology, thermal properties, rock mechanics, hydrogeology, hydrogeochemistry, bedrock transport properties and a description of the surface system. The site descriptive model compiled in the current report, SDM-Site Laxemar, presents an integrated understanding of the Laxemar-Simpevarp area (with special emphasis on the Laxemar subarea) at the completion of the surface-based investigations, which were conducted during the period 2002 to 2007. A summary is also provided of the abundant underlying data and the discipline specific models that support the site understanding. The description relies heavily on background reports that address, in particular, details of the data analyses and modelling of the different disciplines. The Laxemar-Simpevarp area is located in the province of Smaaland within the municipality of Oskarshamn, about 230 km south of Stockholm. The candidate area for site investigation is located along the shoreline of the strait of Kalmarsund, within a 1.8 billion year old suite of well preserved bedrock belonging to the Transscandinavian Igneous Belt formed during

  4. Site description of Forsmark at completion of the site investigation phase. SDM-Site Forsmark

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2008-12-01

    The Swedish Nuclear Fuel and Waste Management Co., SKB, has undertaken site characterisation in two different areas, Forsmark and Laxemar-Simpevarp, in order to identify a suitable location for a geological repository of spent nuclear fuel according to the KBS-3 method. The site investigations have been conducted in campaigns, punctuated by data freezes. After each data freeze, the site data have been analysed and modelling has been carried out with the overall purpose to develop a site descriptive model (SDM). The site descriptive model is used by repository engineering to design the underground facility and to develop a repository layout adapted to the site. It is also essential for safety assessment, since the model is the only source for site-specific input. Another important use of the site descriptive model is in the environmental impact assessment. An SDM is an integrated model for geology, thermal properties, rock mechanics, hydrogeology, hydrogeochemistry, bedrock transport properties and a description of the surface system. The site descriptive model compiled in the current report, SDM-Site, presents an integrated understanding of the Forsmark area at the completion of the surface-based investigations, which were conducted at Forsmark during the period 2002 to 2007. It also provides a summary of the abundant underlying data and the discipline-specific models that support the site understanding. The description relies heavily on background reports that address, in particular, details in data analyses and modelling in the different disciplines. The Forsmark area is located in northern Uppland within the municipality of Oesthammar, about 120 km north of Stockholm. The candidate area for site investigation is located along the shoreline of Oeregrundsgrepen, within the north-western part of a major tectonic lens that formed between 1.87 and 1.85 billion years ago during the Svecokarelian orogeny. The candidate area is approximately 6 km long and 2 km wide. The

  5. On-site and off-site activities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martin, H.D.

    1986-01-01

    Design principles for NPP training programs. Effects of NPP contracts. Effects of domestic industrial activities. The role of international bodies. Requirements for on-site training. Training abroad, technical, financial and social aspects. Training center on-site, an evaluation. (orig.)

  6. Forsmark site investigation. Interpretation of topographic lineaments 2002

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Isaksson, Hans

    2003-04-01

    SKB performs site investigations for localization of a deep repository for high level radioactive waste. The site investigations are performed in two municipalities; Oesthammar and Oskarshamn. The Forsmark investigation area is situated in Oesthammar, close to the Forsmark nuclear power plant. The purpose of interpretation of lineaments from topographic data is to identify linear features (lineaments), which may correspond to deformation zones in the bedrock. The data will be combined with interpretations of lineaments from airborne geophysical data in order to produce an integrated lineament interpretation for the Forsmark area. This integrated interpretation will be combined with geological data in order to establish a bedrock geological map of the Forsmark area. The area for the lineament interpretation is the same as that selected for the bedrock mapping activities during 2002, i.e. the land area around Forsmark

  7. International workshop on site investigation and evaluation based on the siting process in Sweden

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andersson, Johan; Stroem, A.

    2001-06-01

    SKB's goal is to commence surface based site investigations in 2002. Extensive preparations are now being made for this transition to the next phase in the siting process for the deep repository for spent nuclear fuel. The purpose of the international workshop on site characterisation held at Aespoe April 2001 was to: present the SKB site investigation and evaluation programme to a group of international experts; discuss whether the available toolbox of investigation methods for surface based site investigations is appropriate and state-of-the-art in an international perspective; and by working group sessions discuss the level of ambition in the programme for site investigation for each discipline. This report summarises the conclusions of the workshop in general terms. Many of the detailed comments and ideas obtained at the workshop have already inspired and will also directly inspire the on-going planning work for site characterisation. The core activity at the workshop was the work performed by working groups. They addressed what should be considered for a site characterisation programme, based on the generic planning made so far by SKB. The working groups also outlined site specific characterisation programmes for the sites suggested by SKB. The tasks were strictly confined to technical and scientific modelling issues. The working group chairmen presented the working group results at the workshop and have also submitted short memos to SKB. The present document is a compilation of these memos. The SKB generic programme as presented in the existing top level documents, 'Requirements and Criteria and Overall Programme', received general endorsement and was appreciated for being comprehensive and systematic. For example, it contains comprehensive lists of parameters to be measured. However, there is need for prioritisation and sequencing. This is actually included in the current planning process at SKB where the generic programme later this year will be adapted to

  8. Execution programme for the initial site investigations at Forsmark

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2002-05-01

    In the feasibility studies that were completed in 2001, eight sites were identified as potentially suitable for hosting a repository. All the identified sites meet the safety requirements with respect to bedrock conditions that could be checked at that time. The feasibility studies have revealed good potential when it comes to the technical and environmental aspects as well. Based on an integrated evaluation SKB proposed to start site investigations with test drillings at three sites; Forsmark, Simpevarp and Tierp. Site investigations have started at Forsmark and Simpevarp. The municipal council of Tierp voted no to a site investigation in April 2002. The site investigations are divided into two main phases; initial and complete investigations. Initial site investigations are performed to identify the site within a specified area that is deemed to be most suitable for a deep repository and to determine whether the feasibility study's judgement of the suitability of the area holds up in the light of borehole data from repository depth. The initial site investigations are expected to take 1.5-2 years. If the assessment shows that the site has good potential to host a repository, complete site investigations will follow for an expected duration of 3.5-4 years. The purpose of the complete site investigations is to gather all information required to select one of the sites as the main alternative and to apply for a permit for construction of the deep repository at that site. A general programme in which the results from feasibility studies are summarized, the candidate sites presented and the framework of programme for the site investigation phase presented has been published. The general programme, and main references to the programme, specifies which data are required in order to design the repository and carry out a safety assessment, how the investigations should be carried out in order to provide these data, criteria with which the site must comply, as well as

  9. Execution programme for the initial site investigations at Forsmark

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2002-05-01

    In the feasibility studies that were completed in 2001, eight sites were identified as potentially suitable for hosting a repository. All the identified sites meet the safety requirements with respect to bedrock conditions that could be checked at that time. The feasibility studies have revealed good potential when it comes to the technical and environmental aspects as well. Based on an integrated evaluation SKB proposed to start site investigations with test drillings at three sites; Forsmark, Simpevarp and Tierp. Site investigations have started at Forsmark and Simpevarp. The municipal council of Tierp voted no to a site investigation in April 2002. The site investigations are divided into two main phases; initial and complete investigations. Initial site investigations are performed to identify the site within a specified area that is deemed to be most suitable for a deep repository and to determine whether the feasibility study's judgement of the suitability of the area holds up in the light of borehole data from repository depth. The initial site investigations are expected to take 1.5-2 years. If the assessment shows that the site has good potential to host a repository, complete site investigations will follow for an expected duration of 3.5-4 years. The purpose of the complete site investigations is to gather all information required to select one of the sites as the main alternative and to apply for a permit for construction of the deep repository at that site. A general programme in which the results from feasibility studies are summarized, the candidate sites presented and the framework of programme for the site investigation phase presented has been published. The general programme, and main references to the programme, specifies which data are required in order to design the repository and carry out a safety assessment, how the investigations should be carried out in order to provide these data, criteria with which the site must comply, as well as

  10. Site Safety Plan for Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory CERCLA investigations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bainer, R.; Duarte, J.

    1993-07-01

    The safety policy of LLNL is to take every reasonable precaution in the performance of work to protect the environment and the health and safety of employees and the public, and to prevent property damage. With respect to hazardous agents, this protection is provided by limiting human exposures, releases to the environment, and contamination of property to levels that are as low as reasonably achievable (ALARA). It is the intent of this Plan to supply the broad outline for completing environmental investigations within ALARA guidelines. It may not be possible to determine actual working conditions in advance of the work; therefore, planning must allow the opportunity to provide a range of protection based upon actual working conditions. Requirements will be the least restrictive possible for a given set of circumstances, such that work can be completed in an efficient and timely fashion. Due to the relatively large size of the LLNL Site and the different types of activities underway, site-specific Operational Safety Procedures (OSPs) will be prepared to supplement activities not covered by this Plan. These site-specific OSPs provide the detailed information for each specific activity and act as an addendum to this Plan, which provides the general plan for LLNL Main Site operation.

  11. Summary report of the experiences from TVO's site investigations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oehberg, A.; Saksa, P.; Ahokas, H.; Ruotsalainen, P.; Snellman, M.

    1994-09-01

    In 1992 Teollisuuden Voima Oy (TVO) completed preliminary site investigations for radioactive waste disposal at five sites in Finland. The aim of this report was the compilation of the experiences from TVO's site investigations. The main interest was focused on investigation strategies and the most important investigation methods for the conceptual modelling. The objective of the preliminary site investigations was to obtain data on the bedrock properties in order to evaluate the areas. The programme was divided into four stages, each stage having its own subobjective. The site-specific investigation programme for each site included a large common part and a small site-specific part. The strategies (objectives) and experiences from different disciplines, geology, hydrogeochemistry, geophysics and geohydrology, are presented in the report. The conceptual modelling work procedure including both bedrock and groundwater modelling is described briefly using the Olkiluoto site as an example. Each of the other areas has undergone similar phases of work. (52 refs., 45 figs., 5 tabs.)

  12. Site safety plan for Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory CERCLA investigations at site 300. Revision 2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kilmer, J.

    1997-08-01

    Various Department of Energy Orders incorporate by reference, health and safety regulations promulgated by the Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA). One of the OSHA regulations, 29 CFR 1910.120, Hazardous Waste Operations and Emergency Response, requires that site safety plans are written for activities such as those covered by work plans for Site 300 environmental investigations. Based upon available data, this Site Safety Plan (Plan) for environmental restoration has been prepared specifically for the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory Site 300, located approximately 15 miles east of Livermore, California. As additional facts, monitoring data, or analytical data on hazards are provided, this Plan may need to be modified. It is the responsibility of the Environmental Restoration Program and Division (ERD) Site Safety Officer (SSO), with the assistance of Hazards Control, to evaluate data which may impact health and safety during these activities and to modify the Plan as appropriate. This Plan is not `cast-in-concrete.` The SSO shall have the authority, with the concurrence of Hazards Control, to institute any change to maintain health and safety protection for workers at Site 300.

  13. Forsmark site investigation. Programme for further investigations of geosphere and biosphere

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2005-01-01

    Since the beginning of 2002, SKB (the Swedish Nuclear Fuel and Waste Management Co) has been conducting a site investigation in Forsmark in the municipality of Oesthammar for siting of the deep repository for spent nuclear fuel. An equivalent investigation is also being conducted at Simpevarp and Laxemar in Oskarshamn Municipality. SKB's goal is to submit an application under the Environmental Code and the Nuclear Activities Act for siting of the deep repository at one of these sites by the end of 2008/beginning of 2009. When the application is submitted, everything of importance for the deep repository's safety, constructability and environmental impact shall have been investigated and analyzed. The investigations shall also provide data as a basis for selecting a site and configuring the facility to suit conditions on the site.SKB submitted a programme for the initial site investigation in Forsmark at the end of 2001. The investigations described there have now been completed. This report describes the programme that has now been prepared for the remainder of the site investigation. The points of departure are the general goals for the Deep Repository Project during the site investigation phase, the data needed for evaluation of the site, plus experience and results from the work to date. The programme has been prepared with the support of investigation data as of August 2004. The investigations described here will, as before, be conducted with great consideration given to residents, property owners and natural and cultural values so that they are not unnecessarily exposed to impact or disturbances. Just as before, the programme will be continuously adapted to the knowledge that is gradually accumulated on the site. All important changes will be reported to the authorities and other concerned parties. The investigations that have been conducted (as of August 2004) and their results can be summarized in the following points: The surface characterization

  14. Forsmark site investigation. Programme for further investigations of geosphere and biosphere

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2005-01-01

    Since the beginning of 2002, SKB (the Swedish Nuclear Fuel and Waste Management Co) has been conducting a site investigation in Forsmark in the municipality of Oesthammar for siting of the deep repository for spent nuclear fuel. An equivalent investigation is also being conducted at Simpevarp and Laxemar in Oskarshamn Municipality. SKB's goal is to submit an application under the Environmental Code and the Nuclear Activities Act for siting of the deep repository at one of these sites by the end of 2008/beginning of 2009. When the application is submitted, everything of importance for the deep repository's safety, constructability and environmental impact shall have been investigated and analyzed. The investigations shall also provide data as a basis for selecting a site and configuring the facility to suit conditions on the site.SKB submitted a programme for the initial site investigation in Forsmark at the end of 2001. The investigations described there have now been completed. This report describes the programme that has now been prepared for the remainder of the site investigation. The points of departure are the general goals for the Deep Repository Project during the site investigation phase, the data needed for evaluation of the site, plus experience and results from the work to date. The programme has been prepared with the support of investigation data as of August 2004. The investigations described here will, as before, be conducted with great consideration given to residents, property owners and natural and cultural values so that they are not unnecessarily exposed to impact or disturbances. Just as before, the programme will be continuously adapted to the knowledge that is gradually accumulated on the site. All important changes will be reported to the authorities and other concerned parties. The investigations that have been conducted (as of August 2004) and their results can be summarized in the following points: The surface characterization of the

  15. Summary report of the experiences from TVO's site investigations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oehberg, A.; Saksa, P.; Ahokas, H.; Ruotsalainen, P.; Snellman, M.

    1994-05-01

    Teollisuuden Voima Oy (TVO) has completed preliminary site investigations at five sites in Finland. At the end of 1992 TVO presented the final report to the authorities. The preliminary site investigation phase 1986-1992 was conducted according to the investigation programme compiled by TVO. The aim of this report was to compile a report on experiences from TVOs site investigations. The main interest was focused on investigation strategies and the most important investigation methods for the conceptual modelling. The objective of the preliminary site investigations was to obtain data on the bedrock properties in order to evaluate the areas. The programme was divided into four stages, each stage having its own sub-objective. The site-specific investigation programme for each site included a large common part and a small site-specific part. The strategies (objectives) and experiences from different disciplines, geology, hydrogeochemistry, geophysics and geohydrology, are presented in the report. The conceptual modelling work procedure including both bedrock and groundwater modelling is described briefly using the Olkiluoto site as an example. Each of the other areas has undergone similar phases of work. The uncertainties associated with conceptual modelling are also discussed. The usefulness of the investigation strategy and the investigation methods for conceptual modelling is discussed in the report. Some new equipment, methods or enhancements that have not yet been used in TVOs site investigations have become new tools in site characterisation and are briefly presented in the report. 52 refs, 35 figs, 1 tab

  16. Geochemical investigation of UMTRAP designated site at Grand Junction, Colorado

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Markos, G.; Bush, K.J.

    1983-09-01

    This report is the result of a geochemical investigation of the former uranium mill and tailings site at Grand Junction, Colorado. The objectives of the investigation are to characterize the geochemistry, to determine the contaminant distribution resulting from the former milling activities and tailings, and to infer chemical pathways and transport mechanisms from the contaminant distribution. The results should be used to model contaminant migration and to develop criteria for long-term containment media, such as a cover system which is impermeable to contaminant migration. This report assumes a familiarity with the hydrologic conditions of the site and the geochemical concepts underlying the investigation. The results reported are based on a sampling of waters in two seasons and solid material from the background, the area adjacent to the site, and the site. The solid samples were water extracted to remove easily soluble salts and acid extracted to remove carbonates and hydroxides. The water extracts and solid samples were analyzed for the major and trace elements. A limited number of samples were analyzed for radiological components. The report includes the methods of sampling, sample processing, analysis, and data interpretation. Four major conclusions are: (1) trace element concentrations in shallow subsurface waters adjacent to the tailings temporally vary up to an order of magnitude; (2) the riverbank soils and borehole waters are contaminated with uranium, radium, and trace elements from discharge of tailings solids and solutions during the active time of the mill; however, the movement of contaminants toward the Colorado River does not appear to be significant; (3) the Colorado River adjacent to the tailings is not contaminated; and (4) trace metals have accumulated at both the tailings/cover and tailings/soil interface because of precipitation reactions caused by chemical differences between the two materials

  17. Active Site Engineering in Electrocatalysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Verdaguer Casadevall, Arnau; Stephens, Ifan; Chorkendorff, Ib

    on nanostructured electrodes.• Oxygen reduction to water has been carried out on Pt-rare earth alloys, which outperformed the activity of Pt by as much as a factor of five while showing promising stability. The increase in activity can be attributed to compressive strain of the Pt overlayer formed under reaction......, which greatly enhanced selectivity to H2O2 during oxygen reduction. Compared to state-of-theart Au-based catalysts, Pt-Hg and Pd-Hg alloys present over 20 and 100 times increase in mass activity respectively. It was proven that activity for this reaction is controlled by the binding energy of the sole...... reaction intermediate. • CO2 and CO electroreduction studies have attempted to understand the unprecedented activity of oxide-derived Cu recently reported in the literature. Temperature programmed desorption measurements reveal very strong CO binding at these surfaces, inexistent in other forms of Cu...

  18. Oskarshamn site investigation. Monitoring of shallow groundwater chemistry 2009

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ericsson, Ulf (Medins Biologi AB, Moelnlycke (Sweden))

    2010-06-15

    In 2009 sampling of shallow ground water in water wells in soil has been performed in a regular programme at eight sites within the site investigation area at Oskarshamn. The purpose of the activity is to monitor (long term observation) and characterise the shallow ground water in the site investigation area. Some physical and chemical parameters were measured directly in the field but most parameters were analysed at different laboratories. The ground water sampling activity consisted of one programme, chemical programme class 5 (reduced). The large number of sites and parameters analysed have generated a large amount of data, which will later be used for advanced analysis and modelling. In this report the evaluation aims to give a simple overview of the results and to describe the quality of the data sampled 2009. As an addition radon activity was measured at fourteen sites in the area. Seven of these sites were the same as in the regular programme. The results showed a large variation between the wells. The concentrations of major ions and conductivity ranged from low to high or very high values. The concentration of HCO{sub 3} also varied extensively throughout the investigation area, but since the concentrations were above 60 mg/l in most wells the results indicate a good ground water quality with respect to acidification. The concentration of heavy metals and trace elements also varied. High concentration of Pb in some of the wells indicated pollution. Since Pb had a similar relation to Al as most other elements it was argued that high concentrations of lead probably can be explained by the natural composition of minerals within the site investigation area. The ratio of delta18O showed a good relationship with the conductivity. The activity of tritium (3H) was markedly lower in two of the wells. This might be an indication of older groundwater in these wells. The average hydrogen isotope ratio of deuterium (delta2H) varied with similar values in most wells

  19. Oskarshamn site investigation. Monitoring of shallow groundwater chemistry 2009

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ericsson, Ulf

    2010-06-01

    In 2009 sampling of shallow ground water in water wells in soil has been performed in a regular programme at eight sites within the site investigation area at Oskarshamn. The purpose of the activity is to monitor (long term observation) and characterise the shallow ground water in the site investigation area. Some physical and chemical parameters were measured directly in the field but most parameters were analysed at different laboratories. The ground water sampling activity consisted of one programme, chemical programme class 5 (reduced). The large number of sites and parameters analysed have generated a large amount of data, which will later be used for advanced analysis and modelling. In this report the evaluation aims to give a simple overview of the results and to describe the quality of the data sampled 2009. As an addition radon activity was measured at fourteen sites in the area. Seven of these sites were the same as in the regular programme. The results showed a large variation between the wells. The concentrations of major ions and conductivity ranged from low to high or very high values. The concentration of HCO 3 also varied extensively throughout the investigation area, but since the concentrations were above 60 mg/l in most wells the results indicate a good ground water quality with respect to acidification. The concentration of heavy metals and trace elements also varied. High concentration of Pb in some of the wells indicated pollution. Since Pb had a similar relation to Al as most other elements it was argued that high concentrations of lead probably can be explained by the natural composition of minerals within the site investigation area. The ratio of δ 18 O showed a good relationship with the conductivity. The activity of tritium ( 3 H) was markedly lower in two of the wells. This might be an indication of older groundwater in these wells. The average hydrogen isotope ratio of deuterium (δ 2 H) varied with similar values in most wells. The

  20. Good clinical practice regulatory inspections: Lessons for Indian investigator sites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R Marwah

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Regulatory inspections are important to evaluate the integrity of the data submitted to health authorities (HAs, protect patient safety, and assess adequacy of site/sponsor quality systems to achieve the same. Inspections generally occur after submission of data for marketing approval of an investigational drug. In recent years, there has been a significant increase in number of inspections by different HAs, including in India. The assessors/inspectors generally do a thorough review of site data before inspections. All aspects of ICH-GCP, site infrastructure, and quality control systems are assessed during the inspection. Findings are discussed during the close out meeting and a detailed inspection report issued afterward, which has to be responded to within 15-30 days with effective Corrective and Preventive Action Plan (CAPA. Protocol noncompliance, inadequate/inaccurate records, inadequate drug accountability, informed consent issues, and adverse event reporting were some of the most common findings observed during recent Food and Drug Administration (FDA inspections. Drug development is being increasingly globalized and an increased number of patients enrolled in studies submitted as part of applications come from all over the world including India. Because of the steep increase in research activity in the country, inexperienced sites, and more stakeholders, increased efforts will be required to ensure continuous quality and compliance. HAs have also made clear that enforcement will be increased and be swift, aggressive, and effective.

  1. Site Investigation for Detection of KIJANG Reactor Core Center

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kwon, Tae-Hyun; Kim, Jun Yeon; Kim, Jeeyoung [KAERI, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-05-15

    It was planned for the end of March 2017 and extended to April 2018 according to the government budget adjustment. The KJRR project is intended for filling the self-sufficiency of RI demand including Mo-99, increasing the NTD capacity and developing technologies related to the research reactor. In project, site investigation is the first activity that defines seismologic and related geologic aspects of the site. Site investigation was carried out from Oct. 2012 to Jan. 2014 and this study is intended to describe detail procedures in locating the reactor core center. The location of the reactor core center was determined by collectively reviewing not only geological information but also information from architects engineering. EL 50m was selected as ground level by levering construction cost. Four recommended locations (R-1a - R-1d) are displayed for the reactor core center. R-1a was found optimal in consideration of medium rock contour, portion of medium rock covering reactor buildings, construction cost, physical protection and electrical resistivity. It is noted that engineering properties of the medium rock is TCR/RQD 100/53, elastic modulus 7,710 - 8,720MPa, permeability coefficient 2.92E-06cm/s, and S-wave velocity 1,380m/s, sound for foundations of reactor buildings.

  2. Sternoe study site. Scope of activities and main results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahlbom, K.; Andersson, J.E.; Nordqvist, R.; Tiren, S.; Ljunggren, C.; Voss, C.

    1992-01-01

    During the period from 1977-1986 SKB (Swedish Nuclear Fuel and Waste Management Co) performed surface and borehole investigations of 14 study sites for the purpose of assessing their suitability for a repository of spent nuclear fuel. The next phase in the SKB site selection programme will be to perform detailed characterization, including characterization from shafts and/or tunnels, of two or three sites. The detailed investigations will continue over several years to provide all the data needed for a licensing application to build a repository. Such an application is foreseen to be given to the authorities around the year 2003. It is presently not clear if anyone of the previously investigated study sites will be selected as a site for detailed characterization. Other sites with geological and/or socio-economical characteristics judged more favourable may very well be the ones selected. However, as a part of the background documentation needed for the site selection studies to come, summary reports will be prepared for most study sites. These reports will include scope of activities, main results, uncertainties and need of complementary investigations. This report concerns the Sternoe study site. This site was one of the first sites to be investigated by SKB . The studies at Sternoe were made under severe time-constraints and with prototype borehole instrumentations. These limitations should be kept in mind when reading the report. (41 refs., 16 figs., 12 tabs.) (au)

  3. Efficient oxygen electrocatalysis on special active sites

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Halck, Niels Bendtsen

    throughout this thesis to understand these local structure effects and their influence on surface reactions. The concept of these special active sites is used to explain how oxygen evolution reaction (OER) catalysts can have activities beyond the limits of what was previously thought possible. The concept...... stored in these bonds in an eco-friendly fashion in fuel cells. This thesis explores catalysts for oxygen electrocatalysis and how carefully designed local structures on catalysts surfaces termed special active sites can influence the activity. Density functional theory has been used as a method...... is used to explain the increase in activity observed for the OER catalyst ruthenium dioxide when it is mixed with nickel or cobalt. Manganese and cobalt oxides when in the vicinity of gold also display an increase in OER activity which can be explained by locally created special active sites. Density...

  4. Contaminated site investigation using nuclear technique: a case study of temporary transformer storage sites in Ghana

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sanu, J. K.

    2013-07-01

    2000DX PCB/ Chloride analyser and Instrumentatal Neutron Activation Analysis (INAA) to analyse extractable organochloriine from the soil samples indicated that the nuclear technique is a better analytical technique for contaminated site investigation due to its high sensitivity, selectivity, fast and non-destructive nature. The INAA and gamma spectroscopy using HPGe detector coupled with MAESTRO 32 software provided a fast and efficient way to analyse possible PCB contamination in the soil samples and therefore proved to be very reliable method that could be conveniently used for contaminated site investigation. (au)

  5. Guideline for environmental site investigations in Manitoba : June 1998

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1998-06-01

    The procedures for the investigation and characterization of contaminated sites in Manitoba are described in an effort to provide a baseline for developing applicable risk-based remedial action and management plans. This document presents information regarding the methods and protocols for sites where the quality of groundwater, surface water, sediments or soil may have been affected by pollutants as a result of past or present usage of the site. The 1998 document focuses on petroleum impacted sites and also includes the requirements for the investigation of sites potentially impacted by other pollutants. It is based on the principles established by the Canadian Council of Ministers of the Environment for the management of sites in Canada and the requirements of the Manitoba Contaminated Sites Remediation and Consequential Amendments Act. Manitoba's petroleum storage program and the hazardous waste management program, including the disposal or treatment of contaminated soils are also summarized

  6. Promoter proximal polyadenylation sites reduce transcription activity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Pia Kjølhede; Lykke-Andersen, Søren; Jensen, Torben Heick

    2012-01-01

    Gene expression relies on the functional communication between mRNA processing and transcription. We previously described the negative impact of a point-mutated splice donor (SD) site on transcription. Here we demonstrate that this mutation activates an upstream cryptic polyadenylation (CpA) site......, which in turn causes reduced transcription. Functional depletion of U1 snRNP in the context of the wild-type SD triggers the same CpA event accompanied by decreased RNA levels. Thus, in accordance with recent findings, U1 snRNP can shield premature pA sites. The negative impact of unshielded pA sites...... on transcription requires promoter proximity, as demonstrated using artificial constructs and supported by a genome-wide data set. Importantly, transcription down-regulation can be recapitulated in a gene context devoid of splice sites by placing a functional bona fide pA site/transcription terminator within ∼500...

  7. The Lusi eruption site: insights from surface and subsurface investigations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazzini, A.

    2017-12-01

    The Indonesian Lusi eruption has been spewing boiling water, gas, and sediments since the 29th of May 2006. Initially, numerous aligned eruptions sites appeared along the Watukosek fault system (WFS) that was reactivated after the Yogyakarta earthquake occurring the 27th of May in the Java Island. Within weeks several villages were submerged by boiling mud. The most prominent eruption site was named Lusi. To date Lusi is still active and an area of 7 km2is covered by mud. Since its birth Lusi erupted with a pulsating behaviour. In the framework of the ERC grant "Lusi Lab" we conducted several years of monitoring and regional investigations coupling surface sampling and subsurface imaging in the region around Lusi. Ambient noise tomography studies, obtained with a local network of 31 stations, revealed for the first time subsurface images of the Lusi region and the adjacent Arjuno-Welirang (AW) volcanic complex. Results show that below the AW volcanic complex are present 5km deep magma chambers that are connected, through a defined corridor, with the roots of the Lusi eruption site. The Lusi subsurface shows the presence of a defined vertical hydrothermal plume that extends to at least 5km. Chemical analyses of the seeping fluids sampled from 1) the Lusi plume (using a specifically designed drone), 2) the region around Lusi, and 3) the fumaroles and the hydro thermal springs of AW, revealed striking similarities. More specifically a mantellic signature of the Lusi fluids confirms the scenario that Lusi represents a magmatic-driven hydrothermal system hosted in sedimentary basin. Seismic profiles interpretation, surface mapping, and fluid sampling show that the WFS, connecting AW and extending towards the NE of Java, acted as a preferential pathway for the igneous intrusion and fluids migration towards the subsurface. Petrography and dating of the clasts erupted at Lusi record high temperatures and indicate that the roots of the active conduit extend to at least 5km

  8. Corrective Action Investigation Plan for Corrective Action Unit 137: Waste Disposal Sites, Nevada Test Site, Nevada, Rev. No.:0

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wickline, Alfred

    2005-12-01

    This Corrective Action Investigation Plan (CAIP) contains project-specific information including facility descriptions, environmental sample collection objectives, and criteria for conducting site investigation activities at Corrective Action Unit (CAU) 137: Waste Disposal Sites. This CAIP has been developed in accordance with the ''Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order'' (FFACO) (1996) that was agreed to by the State of Nevada, the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), and the U.S. Department of Defense. Corrective Action Unit 137 contains sites that are located in Areas 1, 3, 7, 9, and 12 of the Nevada Test Site (NTS), which is approximately 65 miles (mi) northwest of Las Vegas, Nevada (Figure 1-1). Corrective Action Unit 137 is comprised of the eight corrective action sites (CASs) shown on Figure 1-1 and listed below: (1) CAS 01-08-01, Waste Disposal Site; (2) CAS 03-23-01, Waste Disposal Site; (3) CAS 03-23-07, Radioactive Waste Disposal Site; (4) CAS 03-99-15, Waste Disposal Site; (5) CAS 07-23-02, Radioactive Waste Disposal Site; (6) CAS 09-23-07, Radioactive Waste Disposal Site; (7) CAS 12-08-01, Waste Disposal Site; and (8) CAS 12-23-07, Waste Disposal Site. The Corrective Action Investigation (CAI) will include field inspections, radiological surveys, geophysical surveys, sampling of environmental media, analysis of samples, and assessment of investigation results, where appropriate. Data will be obtained to support corrective action alternative evaluations and waste management decisions. The CASs in CAU 137 are being investigated because hazardous and/or radioactive constituents may be present in concentrations that could potentially pose a threat to human health and the environment. Existing information on the nature and extent of potential contamination is insufficient to evaluate and recommend corrective action alternatives for the CASs. Additional information will be generated by conducting a CAI before evaluating and selecting

  9. A summary of INSITE activities in tracking SKB's spent fuel repository site investigations from 2002-2009 and of advice provided to the regulatory authorities on the status of site understanding at the end of the surface-based investigations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chapman, Neil (Chapman Consulting (Switzerland)); Bath, Adrian (Intellisci Ltd, (United Kingdom)); Geier, Joel (Clearwater Hardrock Consulting (United States)); Ove Stephansson (Steph Rock Consulting AB (Sweden)); Tiren, Sven (Geosigma (Sweden)); Tsang, Chin-Fu (Berkeley Geohydrophysics SP (United States))

    2010-11-15

    SSM and its predecessor SKI employed a team of earth scientists who followed and reviewed SKB's investigations of the potential spent nuclear fuel repository sites at Forsmark and Laxemar. This group was named INSITE (INdependent Site Investigation Tracking and Evaluation) and began its work in 2002 and completed its task with the review of the final versions SKB's site descriptive models, SDM-Site, in 2009. This report is a summary of INSITE's work over the eight-and-a-half year period of the site investigations and the lead-in and the wind-down to the work. It is intended to provide an outline and a record of how INSITE has worked and how its advice was generated and provided to SKI and, latterly, to SSM. Together with all the other documentation generated by INSITE, this report is intended to support the regulatory review of SKB's licence application for a spent nuclear fuel repository

  10. Klipperaas study site. Scope of activities and main results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahlbom, K.; Andersson, J.E.; Andersson, Peter; Ittner, T.; Tiren, S.; Ljunggren, C.

    1992-09-01

    During the period from 1977 - 1986 SKB (Swedish Nuclear Fuel and Waste Management Co.) performed surface and borehole investigations of 14 study sites for the purpose of assessing their suitability for a repository of spent nuclear fuel. The next phase in the SKB site selection rpogramme will be to perform detailed characterisation, including characterization from shafts and/or tunnels, of two or three sites. The detailed investigations will continue over several years to provide all the data needed for a licensing application to build a repository. Such an application is foreseen to be given to the authorities around the year 2003. It is presently not clear if any of the study sites will be selected as a site for detailed characterization. Other sites with geological and/or socio-economical characteristics judged more favorable may very well be the ones selected. However, as a part of the background documentation needed for the site selection studies to come, summary reports will be prepared for most study sites. These reports will include scope of activities, main results, uncertainties and need of complementary investigations. This report concern the Klipperaas study site. The main topics are the scope of activities, geologic model, geohydrological model, groundwater chemistry, assessment of solute transport, and rock mechanics

  11. Hydrogeochemical site descriptive model - a strategy for the model development during site investigations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smellie, John; Laaksoharju, Marcus; Tullborg, Eva-Lena

    2002-12-01

    the overall aim of providing sufficient and reliable scientific knowledge to describe adequately and accurately the hydrogeochemical conditions at the site. In addition to these constraints, certain priorities have to be listed and addressed because of the size and complexity of the site investigation programme. Such priorities may be planned prior to field activities, whilst others will result from an on-going evaluation of field activities and scientific or modelling needs under the direction of the SKB Site Analysis Team. This team will liaise closely with those responsible field personnel. Based on past experience, identified priorities include: minimising groundwater contamination in the collected samples; sampling end member groundwater conditions (e.g. recharge/discharge conditions, or high/low topographic locations and shorelines) to define important boundary conditions for hydrogeochemical and hydrodynamic modelling; sampling of end member water compositions rather than groundwater mixtures; sampling groundwaters close to repository depth; understanding the spatial variation of chemical parameters closely integrated with hydrogeological conditions; measuring a large number of spatially strategic points (including time series measurements) distributed vertically and laterally over a large area; simultaneous sampling from many boreholes to produce accurate, time-related 3D interpolated snap shots of important groundwater parameters. Sampling of low permeable rocks and fracture zones of low transmissivities will be allocated greater priority. Some five classes of chemical analyses are available to characterise the collected groundwater samples. The choice of class will depend on the hydrogeochemical information required, the location to be sampled and the sampling method used. The major hydrogeochemical output data from a site characterisation will refer mainly to chemistry, isotopes, dissolved gas contents, redox potential conditions, presence of organic

  12. Active site - a site of binding of affinity inhibitors in baker's yeast inorganic pyrophosphatase

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Svyato, I.E.; Sklyankina, V.A.; Avaeva, S.M.

    1986-01-01

    The interaction of the enzyme-substrate complex with methyl phosphate, O-phosphoethanolamine, O-phosphopropanolamine, N-acetylphosphoserine, and phosphoglyolic acid, as well as pyrophosphatase, modified by monoesters of phosphoric acid, with pyrophosphate and tripolyphosphate, was investigated. It was shown that the enzyme containing the substrate in the active site does not react with monophosphates, but modified pyrophosphatase entirely retains the ability to bind polyanions to the regulatory site. It is concluded that the inactivation of baker's yeast inorganic pyrophosphatase by monoesters of phosphoric acid, which are affinity inhibitors of it, is the result of modification of the active site of the enzyme

  13. Parameters of importance to determine during geoscientific site investigation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Andersson, Johan [QuantiSci AB (Sweden); Almen, K.E. [KEA GEO-Konsult AB (Sweden); Ericsson, Lars O.; Karlsson, Fred; Stroem, A. [Swedish Nuclear Fuel and Waste Management Co., Stockholm (Sweden); Fredriksson, Anders [ADG Grundteknik AB (Sweden); Stanfors, R. [Roy Stanfors Consulting AB (Sweden)

    1998-06-01

    This document identifies and describes geo-scientific parameters that are of importance in order to carry out performance and safety assessments of a deep repository for spent nuclear fuel, based on the information that can be obtained from a site investigation. The document also discusses data needs for planning and design of the rock works and for description of other environmental aspects. Evaluation of the different parameters is discussed in the document as well. The document was produced by a working group consisting of the authors and various SKB staff and consultants, and comprises a step in the planning of a geo-scientific investigation programme at the sites where site investigations will be conducted. The goals of the work presented in this report can be derived directly from SKBs ongoing RD and D Programme. The programme stipulates that a geo-scientific site investigation programme must be available before a site investigation begins. This programme is supposed to specify the goals, measurement methods and evaluation methodology, as well as the acceptance criteria against which the site is evaluated. It is pointed out that site evaluation is a collective term for an interactive process consisting of different parts 65 refs, 15 figs, 12 tabs

  14. Execution programme for the initial site investigations at Simpevarp

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2002-10-01

    In the feasibility studies that were completed in 2001, eight sites were identified as potentially suitable for hosting a repository. All the identified sites meet the safety requirements with respect to bedrock conditions that could be checked at that time. The feasibility studies have revealed good potential when it comes to the technical and environmental aspects as well. Based on an integrated evaluation SKB proposed to start site investigations with test drillings at three sites; Simpevarp, Forsmark, and Tierp north. The site investigations have started at Simpevarp and Forsmark. The municipal council of Tierp rejected a site investigation in April 2002. The site investigations are divided into two main phases; initial and complete investigations. Initial Site Investigation is performed to identify the site within a specified area that is deemed to be most suitable for a deep repository and to determine whether the feasibility study's judgement of the suitability of the area holds up in the light of borehole data from repository depth. The Initial Site Investigation is expected to take about 3 years. If the assessment shows that the site has good potential to host a repository, Complete Site Investigation will follow for an expected duration of another 3 years. The purpose of the Complete Site Investigation is to gather all information required to select one of the sites as the main alternative and to apply for a permit for construction of the deep repository at that site. The site-specific programme gives an overview of the whole site investigation phase as well as a detailed description of the initial stage. The results of the initial investigations will determine whether Simpevarp is appropriate for further investigation, i.e. the Complete Site Investigation. This document summarizes the investigations that will be carried out at Simpevarp during the Initial Site Investigations. The document is a working document, which will be successively updated as

  15. Execution programme for the initial site investigations at Simpevarp

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2002-10-01

    In the feasibility studies that were completed in 2001, eight sites were identified as potentially suitable for hosting a repository. All the identified sites meet the safety requirements with respect to bedrock conditions that could be checked at that time. The feasibility studies have revealed good potential when it comes to the technical and environmental aspects as well. Based on an integrated evaluation SKB proposed to start site investigations with test drillings at three sites; Simpevarp, Forsmark, and Tierp north. The site investigations have started at Simpevarp and Forsmark. The municipal council of Tierp rejected a site investigation in April 2002. The site investigations are divided into two main phases; initial and complete investigations. Initial Site Investigation is performed to identify the site within a specified area that is deemed to be most suitable for a deep repository and to determine whether the feasibility study's judgement of the suitability of the area holds up in the light of borehole data from repository depth. The Initial Site Investigation is expected to take about 3 years. If the assessment shows that the site has good potential to host a repository, Complete Site Investigation will follow for an expected duration of another 3 years. The purpose of the Complete Site Investigation is to gather all information required to select one of the sites as the main alternative and to apply for a permit for construction of the deep repository at that site. The site-specific programme gives an overview of the whole site investigation phase as well as a detailed description of the initial stage. The results of the initial investigations will determine whether Simpevarp is appropriate for further investigation, i.e. the Complete Site Investigation. This document summarizes the investigations that will be carried out at Simpevarp during the Initial Site Investigations. The document is a working document, which will be successively updated as

  16. Hydrogeological Site Descriptive Model - a strategy for its development during Site Investigations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rhen, Ingvar [SWECO VIAK AB, Goeteborg (Sweden); Follin, Sven [SF GeoLogic AB, Stockholm (Sweden); Hermanson, Jan [Golder Associates, Stockholm (Sweden)

    2003-04-01

    The report is to present a strategy for the development of the Site Descriptive Hydrogeological Model within the SKB Site Investigation Programme. The report, and similar reports from the Geology, Rock Mechanics, Thermal properties, Hydrogeochemistry, Transport Properties and Surface Ecosystem disciplines are intended to guide SKB Site Descriptive Modelling but also to provide the authorities with an overview of how the modelling should be performed. Thus the objectives of this report are to: provide guidelines for the modelling of different sites resulting in consistent handling of modelling issues during the Site Investigations, provide a structure for the modelling sequence that is suitable for the establishment of a Site Descriptive model and provide some necessary details that should be considered in a Site Descriptive model.

  17. Hydrogeological Site Descriptive Model - a strategy for its development during Site Investigations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rhen, Ingvar; Follin, Sven; Hermanson, Jan

    2003-04-01

    The report is to present a strategy for the development of the Site Descriptive Hydrogeological Model within the SKB Site Investigation Programme. The report, and similar reports from the Geology, Rock Mechanics, Thermal properties, Hydrogeochemistry, Transport Properties and Surface Ecosystem disciplines are intended to guide SKB Site Descriptive Modelling but also to provide the authorities with an overview of how the modelling should be performed. Thus the objectives of this report are to: provide guidelines for the modelling of different sites resulting in consistent handling of modelling issues during the Site Investigations, provide a structure for the modelling sequence that is suitable for the establishment of a Site Descriptive model and provide some necessary details that should be considered in a Site Descriptive model

  18. New geochemical investigations in Platanares and Azacualpa geothermal sites (Honduras)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barberi, Franco; Carapezza, Maria Luisa; Cioni, Roberto; Lelli, Matteo; Menichini, Matia; Ranaldi, Massimo; Ricci, Tullio; Tarchini, Luca

    2013-05-01

    Platanares and Azacualpa geothermal sites of Honduras are located in an inner part of the Caribbean Plate far from the active volcanic front of Central America. Here geology indicates that there are not the conditions for the occurrence of shallow magmatic heat sources for high-enthalpy geothermal resources. Geothermal perspectives are related to the possibility of a deep circulation of meteoric water along faults and the storage of the heated fluid in fractured permeable reservoirs. Geochemical geothermometers indicate a temperature for the deeper part of the geothermal reservoir close to 200 °C for Platanares and of 150-170 °C for Azacualpa. Calcite scaling, with subordinate silica deposition has to be expected in both sites. CO2 soil flux investigations have been carried out in both areas and reveal the presence of positive anomalies likely corresponding to the presence at depth of fractured degassing geothermal reservoirs. Compared with the geothermal areas of Central Italy whose reservoirs are hosted in carbonate rocks, e.g. Latera (Chiodini et al., 2007), the CO2 soil flux measured in Honduras is significantly lower (mean of 17 g/m2day at Platanares and of 163 g/m2day at Azacualpa) probably because of the dominant silicate nature of the deep reservoirs.

  19. Hydrogeochemical investigation of six geothermal sites in Honduras, Central America

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goff, F.E.; Truesdell, A.H.; Grigsby, C.O.; Janik, C.J.; Shevenell, L.A.; Paredes, J.R.; Gutierrez, J.W.; Trujillo, Jr.; Counce, D.A.

    1987-06-01

    We conducted detailed hydrogeochemical investigations at six geothermal sites in western Honduras: Azacualpa, El Olivar, Pavana, Platanares, Sambo Creek, and San Ignacio. None of the sites is associated with Quaternary silicic volcanism, although El Olivar lies adjacent to a small Quaternary basalt field and Pavana is part of a belt of hot spring activity parallel to and 35 km east of the Central American volcanic arc. None of the sites contains acid-sulfate waters indicative of vapor-dominated conditions. Thermal fluids are characterized by pH between 7 and 10, Cl<125 mg/l, HCO/sub 3/>Cl, SO/sub 4/greater than or equal toCl, Bless than or equal to17 mg/l, Liless than or equal to4 mg/l, and Asless than or equal to1.25 mg/l. Stable isotope analyses of the water show that recharge to the geothermal systems generally occurs from areas of higher elevation adjacent to the sites. Tritium contents of apparently undiluted thermal fluids range from 0 to 0.4 T.U., indicating residence times of fluids in the systems of more than 500 y. Various geochemical indicators show that mixing of hot and cold end-member fluids occurs in the system at Platanares and, to a lesser degree, in the systems at San Ignacio and Azacualpa. No mixing is apparent in the fluids discharging at Pavana, Sambo Creek, or El Olivar. Boiling is the dominant process responsible for subtle geochemical variations at Azacualpa and, possibly, San Ignacio. Our best estimates of subsurface reservoir temperatures are 225/sup 0/C at Platanares, 190/sup 0/C at San Ignacio, 185/sup 0/C at Azacualpa, 155/sup 0/C at Sambo Creek, 150/sup 0/C at Pavana, and 120/sup 0/C at El Olivar. The estimated power output of the three hottest sites is 45 thermal megawatts at Platanares, 14 thermal megawatts at San Ignacio, and 13 thermal megawatts at Azacualpa.

  20. Site investigation - equipment for geological, geophysical, hydrogeological and hydrochemical characterization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Almen, K.E.; Fridh, B.; Johansson, B.E.; Sehlstedt, M.

    1986-11-01

    The investigations are performed within a site investigation program. In total about 60,000 m of cored 56 mm boreholes have been drilled and investigated at eight study sites. A summarized description of the main investigation methods is included. Instruments for geophysical investigations contains equipment for ground measurements as well as for borehole logging. The Geophysical investigations including the borehole radar measurements, are indirect methods for the geological and hydrogeological characterization of the rock formation. Great effort has been laid on the development of hydrogeological instruments for hydraulic tests and groundwater head measurements. In order to obtain hydrochemical investigations with high quality, a complete system for sampling and analysis of ground water has been developed. (orig./PW)

  1. Oskarshamn site investigation. Programme for further investigations of bedrock, soil, water and environment in Laxemar subarea

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2006-03-15

    SKB (the Swedish Nuclear Fuel and Waste Management Co), has been conducting a site investigation at Simpevarp and Laxemar in Oskarshamn for siting of a final repository for spent nuclear fuel. An equivalent investigation is being conducted in Forsmark in Ohmmeter's. The initial part of the site investigations had been completed for the both of the subareas Simpevarp and Laxemar in the autumn of 2004. Based on the results of these investigations, SKB preliminarily prioritized the Laxemar subarea for further investigations. A programme was presented for the first stage of the complete site investigation in the Laxemar subarea, along with the main features of the remainder of the site investigation. The programme included investigations up until the summer of 2005 and was particularly aimed at obtaining answers to several vital questions so that the subsequent investigations could be focused on the rock areas judged to be most suitable for a final repository. These investigations have now been completed. This report presents the programme for the remainder of the site investigation. The points of departure are the general goals for the Deep Repository Project during the site investigation phase, analyses and evaluations of data from completed investigations, and the needs for additional data to be able to evaluate the site as a siting alternative for the final repository. The account mainly covers the investigations on the site. All other work - analyses, site descriptive modelling, facility design, safety assessments and studies and assessments of consequences for the environment, human health and society - are only mentioned to the extent necessary in order to place the investigations in their context. The direction of the site investigation in Oskarshamn and the investigation programme presented in this report is based on SKB's preliminary decision to prioritize the Laxemar subarea for further investigations. A final decision on the direction of the site

  2. Oskarshamn site investigation. Programme for further investigations of bedrock, soil, water and environment in Laxemar subarea

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2006-03-01

    SKB (the Swedish Nuclear Fuel and Waste Management Co), has been conducting a site investigation at Simpevarp and Laxemar in Oskarshamn for siting of a final repository for spent nuclear fuel. An equivalent investigation is being conducted in Forsmark in Ohmmeter's. The initial part of the site investigations had been completed for the both of the subareas Simpevarp and Laxemar in the autumn of 2004. Based on the results of these investigations, SKB preliminarily prioritized the Laxemar subarea for further investigations. A programme was presented for the first stage of the complete site investigation in the Laxemar subarea, along with the main features of the remainder of the site investigation. The programme included investigations up until the summer of 2005 and was particularly aimed at obtaining answers to several vital questions so that the subsequent investigations could be focused on the rock areas judged to be most suitable for a final repository. These investigations have now been completed. This report presents the programme for the remainder of the site investigation. The points of departure are the general goals for the Deep Repository Project during the site investigation phase, analyses and evaluations of data from completed investigations, and the needs for additional data to be able to evaluate the site as a siting alternative for the final repository. The account mainly covers the investigations on the site. All other work - analyses, site descriptive modelling, facility design, safety assessments and studies and assessments of consequences for the environment, human health and society - are only mentioned to the extent necessary in order to place the investigations in their context. The direction of the site investigation in Oskarshamn and the investigation programme presented in this report is based on SKB's preliminary decision to prioritize the Laxemar subarea for further investigations. A final decision on the direction of the site

  3. Gideaa study site. Scope of activities and main results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahlbom, K.; Andersson, J.E.; Nordqvist, R.; Ljunggren, C.; Tiren, S.; Voss, C.

    1991-10-01

    During the period from 1977-1986 SKB (Swedish Nuclear Fuel and Waste Management Co) performed surface and borehole investigations of 14 study sites for the purpose of assessing their suitability for a repository of spent nuclear fuel. The next phase in the SKB site selection programme will be to perform detailed characterization, including characterization from shafts and/or tunnels, of two or three sites. The detailed investigations will continue over several years to provide all the data needed for a licensing application to build a repository. Such an application is foreseen to be given to the authorities around the year 2003. It is presently not clear if anyone of the study sites will be selected as a site for detailed characterization. Other site with geological and/or socio-economical characteristics judged more favourable may very well be the ones selected. However, as a part of the background documentation needed for the site selection studies to come, summary reports will be prepared for most study sites. These reports will include scope of activities, main results, uncertainties and need of complementary investigations. This report concerns the Gideaa study site. (au)

  4. Kamlunge study site. Scope of activities and main results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahlbom, K.; Andersson, J.E.; Andersson, P.; Ittner, T.; Tiren, S.; Ljunggren, C.

    1992-05-01

    During the period from 1977-1986 SKB (Swedish nuclear Fuel and Waste Management Co.) performed surface and borehole investigations of 14 study sites for the purpose of assessing their suitability for a repository of spent nuclear fuel. The next phase in the SKB site selection programme will be to perform detailed characterization, including characterization from shafts and/or tunnels, of two or three sites. The detailed investigations will continue over several years to provide all the data needed for a licensing application to build a repository. Such an application is foreseen to be given to the authorities around the year 2003. It is presently not clear if anyone of the study sites will be selected as a site for detailed characterization. Other sites with geological and/or socio-economical characteristics judged more favourable may very well be selected. However, as a part of the background documentation needed for the site selection studies to come, summary reports will be prepared for most study sites. These reports will include scope of activities, main results, uncertainties and need of complementary investigations. This report concerns the Kamlunge study site. (79 refs.) (au)

  5. Fjaellveden study site. Scope of activities and main results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahlbom, K.; Andersson, J.E.; Nordqvist, R.; Ljunggren, C.; Tiren, S.; Voss, C.

    1991-10-01

    During the period from 1977-1986 SKB (Swedish Nuclear Fuel and Waste Management CO) performed surface and borehole investigations of 14 study sites for the purpose of assessing their suitability for a repository of spent nuclear fuel. The next phase in the SKB site selection programme will be to perform detailed characterization, including characterization from shafts and/or tunnels, of two or three sites. The detailed investigations will continue over several years to provide all the data needed for a licensing application to build repository. Such an application is foreseen to be given to the authorities around the year 2003. It is presently not clear if anyone of the study sites will be selected as a site for detailed characterization. Other sites with geological and/or socio-economical characteristics judged more favourable may very well be the ones selected. However, as a part of the background documentation needed for the site selection studies to come, summary reports will be prepared for most study sites. These reports will include scope of activities, main results, uncertainties and need for complementary investigations. This report concerns the Fjaellveden study site. (au)

  6. A geotechnical investigation of a deep ocean site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Freeman, T.J.; Schuttenhelm, R.T.E.

    1990-01-01

    A site investigation in deep water often relies solely on laboratory tests to evaluate the geotechnical properties of the sediments. This imposes two fundamental limitations on the investigation: The maximum depth to which the properties can be profiled and the uncertainty of sample disturbance and de-pressurization effects on the measured data. This paper uses results from investigations performed in a water depth of 5.4 km at an abyssal plain site, Great Meteor East (GME), to illustrate how ambiguities can arise in laboratory measurements of strength, and discusses how a simple in-situ test, the expendable penetrator, can be used to corroborate the laboratory data

  7. Final work plan : environmental site investigation at Sylvan Grove, Kansas.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    LaFreniere, L. M. (Environmental Science Division)

    2012-07-15

    what future CCC/USDA actions may be necessary, with the ultimate goal of achieving classification of the Sylvan Grove site at no further action status. The proposed activities are to be performed on behalf of the CCC/USDA by the Environmental Science Division of Argonne National Laboratory, a nonprofit, multidisciplinary research center operated by the UChicago Argonne, LLC, for the U.S. Department of Energy. Argonne provides technical assistance to the CCC/USDA concerning environmental site characterization and remediation at former grain storage facilities. Argonne issued a Master Work Plan (Argonne 2002) that has been approved by the KDHE. The Master Work Plan describes the general scope of all investigations at former CCC/USDA facilities in Kansas and provides guidance for these investigations. That document should be consulted for the complete details of plans for work associated with the former CCC/USDA facility at Sylvan Grove.

  8. Hydrogeochemical site descriptive model - a strategy for the model development during site investigations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smellie, John [Conterra AB, Uppsala (Sweden); Laaksoharju, Marcus [GeoPoint AB, Sollentuna (Sweden); Tullborg, Eva-Lena [Terralogica AB, Graabo (Sweden)

    2002-12-01

    detrimentally affect the overall aim of providing sufficient and reliable scientific knowledge to describe adequately and accurately the hydrogeochemical conditions at the site. In addition to these constraints, certain priorities have to be listed and addressed because of the size and complexity of the site investigation programme. Such priorities may be planned prior to field activities, whilst others will result from an on-going evaluation of field activities and scientific or modelling needs under the direction of the SKB Site Analysis Team. This team will liaise closely with those responsible field personnel. Based on past experience, identified priorities include: minimising groundwater contamination in the collected samples; sampling end member groundwater conditions (e.g. recharge/discharge conditions, or high/low topographic locations and shorelines) to define important boundary conditions for hydrogeochemical and hydrodynamic modelling; sampling of end member water compositions rather than groundwater mixtures; sampling groundwaters close to repository depth; understanding the spatial variation of chemical parameters closely integrated with hydrogeological conditions; measuring a large number of spatially strategic points (including time series measurements) distributed vertically and laterally over a large area; simultaneous sampling from many boreholes to produce accurate, time-related 3D interpolated snap shots of important groundwater parameters. Sampling of low permeable rocks and fracture zones of low transmissivities will be allocated greater priority. Some five classes of chemical analyses are available to characterise the collected groundwater samples. The choice of class will depend on the hydrogeochemical information required, the location to be sampled and the sampling method used. The major hydrogeochemical output data from a site characterisation will refer mainly to chemistry, isotopes, dissolved gas contents, redox potential conditions, presence of

  9. WAG 2 remedial investigation and site investigation site-specific work plan/health and safety checklist for the sediment transport modeling task

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Holt, V.L.; Baron, L.A.

    1994-05-01

    This site-specific Work Plan/Health and Safety Checklist (WP/HSC) is a supplement to the general health and safety plan (HASP) for Waste Area Grouping (WAG) 2 remedial investigation and site investigation (WAG 2 RI ampersand SI) activities [Health and Safety Plan for the Remedial Investigation and Site Investigation of Waste Area Grouping 2 at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, Tennessee (ORNL/ER-169)] and provides specific details and requirements for the WAG 2 RI ampersand SI Sediment Transport Modeling Task. This WP/HSC identifies specific site operations, site hazards, and any recommendations by Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) health and safety organizations [i.e., Industrial Hygiene (IH), Health Physics (HP), and/or Industrial Safety] that would contribute to the safe completion of the WAG 2 RI ampersand SI. Together, the general HASP for the WAG 2 RI ampersand SI (ORNL/ER-169) and the completed site-specific WP/HSC meet the health and safety planning requirements specified by 29 CFR 1910.120 and the ORNL Hazardous Waste Operations and Emergency Response (HAZWOPER) Program Manual. In addition to the health and safety information provided in the general HASP for the WAG 2 RI ampersand SI, details concerning the site-specific task are elaborated in this site-specific WP/HSC, and both documents, as well as all pertinent procedures referenced therein, will be reviewed by all field personnel prior to beginning operations

  10. Quantum mechanical design of enzyme active sites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xiyun; DeChancie, Jason; Gunaydin, Hakan; Chowdry, Arnab B; Clemente, Fernando R; Smith, Adam J T; Handel, T M; Houk, K N

    2008-02-01

    The design of active sites has been carried out using quantum mechanical calculations to predict the rate-determining transition state of a desired reaction in presence of the optimal arrangement of catalytic functional groups (theozyme). Eleven versatile reaction targets were chosen, including hydrolysis, dehydration, isomerization, aldol, and Diels-Alder reactions. For each of the targets, the predicted mechanism and the rate-determining transition state (TS) of the uncatalyzed reaction in water is presented. For the rate-determining TS, a catalytic site was designed using naturalistic catalytic units followed by an estimation of the rate acceleration provided by a reoptimization of the catalytic site. Finally, the geometries of the sites were compared to the X-ray structures of related natural enzymes. Recent advances in computational algorithms and power, coupled with successes in computational protein design, have provided a powerful context for undertaking such an endeavor. We propose that theozymes are excellent candidates to serve as the active site models for design processes.

  11. The Nirex Sellafield site investigation: the role of geophysical interpretation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Muir Wood, R.; Woo, G.; MacMillan, G.

    1992-01-01

    This report reviews the methods by which geophysical data are interpreted, and used to characterize the 3-D geology of a site for potential storage of radioactive waste. The report focuses on the NIREX site investigation at Sellafield, for which geophysical observations provide a significant component of the structural geological understanding. In outlining the basic technical principles of seismic data processing and interpretation, and borehole logging, an attempt has been made to identify errors, uncertainties, and the implicit use of expert judgement. To enhance the reliability of a radiological probabilistic risk assessment, recommendations are proposed for independent use of the primary NIREX geophysical site investigation data in characterizing the site geology. These recommendations include quantitative procedures for undertaking an uncertainty audit using a combination of statistical analysis and expert judgement. (author)

  12. Integrated site investigation and groundwater monitoring in an urban environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weatherl, R. K.

    2017-12-01

    Understanding groundwater dynamics around cities and other areas of human influence is of crucial importance for water resource management and protection, especially in a time of environmental and societal change. The human environment presents a unique challenge in terms of hydrological characterization, as the water cycle is generally artificialized and emissions of treated waste and chemical products into the surface- and groundwater system tend to disrupt the natural aqueous signature in significant ways. This project presents an integrated approach for robust characterization and monitoring of an urban aquifer which is actively exploited for municipal water supply. The study is carried out in the town of Fehraltorf, in the canton of Zürich, Switzerland. This particular town encompasses industrial and agricultural zones in addition to its standard urban setting. A minimal amount of data exist at this site, and the data that do exist are spatially and temporally sparse. Making use of traditional hydrogeological methods alongside evolving and emerging technologies, we aim to identify sources of contamination and to define groundwater flow and solute transport through space and time. Chemical and physical indicator parameters are identified for tracing contaminations including micropollutants and plant nutrients. Wireless sensors are installed for continuous on-line monitoring of essential parameters (electrical conductivity, temperature, water level). A wireless sensor network has previously been installed in the sewer system of the study site, facilitating investigation into interactions between sewer water and groundwater. Our approach illustrates the relations between land use, climate, rainfall dynamics, and the groundwater signature through time. At its conclusion, insights gained from this study will be used by municipal authorities to refine protective zones around pumping wells and to direct resources towards updating practices and replacing

  13. Site investigations for repositories for solid radioactive wastes in shallow ground

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1982-01-01

    This report provides an overview and technical guidelines for investigations on a national level for the selection and confirmation of a repository site that will provide adequately safe performance for disposal of solid radioactive wastes that are low- or intermediate-level and short-lived. It also provides basic information on technical activities to be undertaken and on techniques that are available for such investigations in the various steps in selecting suitable sites. The report supplements the information given in Shallow Ground Disposal of Radioactive Wastes: A Guidebook, IAEA Safety Series No. 53 (1981). This report focuses mainly on different aspects of earth sciences and the various investigative techniques relative to earth sciences that may be necessary for site investigations. Some major related studies in other fields are discussed briefly. It is assumed that no previous investigations have been undertaken, and the report proceeds through area site selection to the stage when the site is confirmed as suitable for a waste repository

  14. Site investigations for repositories for solid radioactive wastes in shallow ground

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1982-01-01

    This report provides an overview and technical guidelines for investigations on a national level for the selection and confirmation of a repository site that will provide adequately safe performance for disposal of solid radioactive wastes that are low- or intermediate-level and short-lived. It also provides basic information on technical activities to be undertaken and on techniques that are available for such investigations in the various steps in selecting suitable sites. The report supplements the information given in Shallow Ground Disposal of Radioactive Wastes: A Guidebook, IAEA Safety Series No. 53 (1981). This report focuses mainly on different aspects of earth sciences and the various investigative techniques relative to earth sciences that may be necessary for site investigations. Some major related studies in other fields are discussed briefly. It is assumed that no previous investigations have been undertaken, and the report proceeds through area site selection to the stage when the site is confirmed as suitable for a waste repository.

  15. Planning for investigation and evaluation of potential repository sites in Sweden

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Almen, K.E.; Stroem, A.

    1998-01-01

    The present stage of siting of the Swedish Deep Repository for spent nuclear fuel involves general siting studies on national and regional scales and feasibility studies on a municipal scale. Based on these studies, two areas will be selected for surface-based site investigations. The geoscientific site information will be used in the site evaluation process, in which performance and safety assessments and design studies are the major activities, in combination with geoscientific characterization. The safety report and EIA document from the site investigation stage will be the most important documents in the application for the siting permit and the permit to construct the deep repository. Detailed characterization will then verify the suitability of the selected site. The programme for geoscientific site investigations is based on experience from more than 20 years of field studies in several SKB projects, such as the Study Site Investigations , the Stripa Project, and the Aespoe Hard Rock Laboratory. The strategies and methodologies developed, implemented and verified within the Aespoe HRL are a very important source of information and know-how for the development of the site investigation programme. The investigations will produce geoscientific models that include all information needed to analyze the long-term safety of a deep repository located in and adapted to the geological conditions of the rock. The type of geoscientific information needed for performance and safety assessment, layout and design, environmental studies and for fundamental geoscientific understanding has been specified and compiled in a 'parameter' report. The general strategy is that performance assessment, layout and design studies will be conducted in parallel with the geoscientific investigations. Information will be transferred at logical occasions, when decisions have to be taken and when feedback is desirable for new investigation steps. The role of the geoscientific evaluation is to

  16. Geological and geotechnical investigations for nuclear power plants sites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alves, P.R.R.

    1984-09-01

    This dissertation presents a general methodology for the tasks of geological and geotechnical investigations, to be performed in the proposed sites for construction of nuclear Power Plants. In this work, items dealing with the standards applied to licensing of Nuclear Power Plants, with the selection process of sites and identification of geological and geotechnical parameters needed for the regional and local characterization of the area being studied, were incorporated. This dissertation also provides an aid to the writing of Technical Reports, which are part of the documentation an owner of a Nuclear Power Plant needs to submit to the Comissao Nacional de Energia Nuclear, to fulfill the nuclear installation licensing requirements. Moreover, this work can contribute to the planning of field and laboratory studies, needed to determine the parameters of the area under investigation, for the siting of Nuclear Power Plants. (Author) [pt

  17. Getting ready for inspection of investigational site at short notice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rajendra Talele

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available India is becoming an attractive destination for drug development and clinical research. This is evidenced by the three fold increment in clinical trial applications in last four years to the office of Drugs Controller General of India (DCGI. This upward trend is collaborative efforts of all stake holders and the quality of Indian data. Therefore to sustain this trend, it is important that stake holders such as Regulators, Sponsor, CRO, Monitor, Investigators and trial subjects required maintaining high standards of data and conduct of clinical trials. Indian regulations and the role of DCGI in quality check for Indian clinical trials is always a topic of discussion in various forums. A recent move by DCGI for conducting random inspections of investigational sites and companies at short notice, checking their compliance in accordance with the guidelines, and taking action against non-complier is welcomed. This will certainly increase over quality of the clinical trials. Quality of clinical trial conduct is measured on essential documents for their appropriateness and its correctness. It is observed that the stakeholders engaged in multitasking often overlook the requirements or appropriateness of the document due to their focused approach on a specific activity which is on priority. This can lead to serious quality problem and issues. Understanding of the process and documents reviewed by auditor is important to maintain such high quality. The proper planning and time management working on essential documents can minimize the quality issues, and we can be always ready for any type of inspection, announced or unannounced, or "short notice".

  18. Integrated account of method, site selection and programme prior to the site investigation phase

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2000-12-01

    In order to dispose of the spent nuclear fuel in a safe manner, SKB plans to site a deep repository and an encapsulation plant with associated canister fabrication and transportation system. After an integrated evaluation of feasibility studies and other material, SKB will proceed with investigations of the rock and studies regarding establishment of the deep disposal system in the municipality of Oskarshamn or in Northern Uppland. The plans also include further study of the prospects for a deep repository in the municipality of Nykoeping. In the municipality of Oskarshamn, SKB plans further studies of a siting of the deep repository at Simpevarp. There SKB wants to initiate site investigations with test drilling. For the encapsulation plant, SKB wants to continue studying a siting at CLAB. In Northern Uppland, SKB plans to study two siting alternatives for the deep repository. One is Forsmark in the municipality of Oesthammar, where SKB wants to initiate a site investigation with test drilling. The other is Tierp north of Skutskaer, where SKB intends to start test drilling in an area north of Tierp. First, however, a suitable drilling area with possible transport solutions needs to be defined. This alternative requires the participation of the municipalities of both Tierp and Aelvkarleby. A siting of the encapsulation plant in Northern Uppland will also be studied. For the municipality of Nykoeping, SKB plans to conduct a new safety assessment for the Fjaellveden area, based on data from previous investigations as well as additional studies of how a deep repository could be arranged. SKB will thereby gather data from yet another geographic and geological region beyond those that are prioritized. No test drilling is planned in Nykoeping. The goal of the site investigation phase is to obtain all permits needed to build the planned facilities. It will take an estimated 7 - 8 years to assemble the requisite supporting material, carry out consultations, compile siting

  19. Ecological investigations at the Pantex Plant Site, 1992

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cushing, C.E.; Mazaika, R.R.; Phillips, R.C.

    1993-09-01

    In 1992, Pantex requested that Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) conduct a series of ecological surveys to provide baseline information for designing detailed ecological studies on the various ecosystems present at the Pantex plant site near Amarillo, Texas. To this end, PNL scientist and technicians visited the site at different times to conduct investigations and collect samples: July 6--13: birds, small mammals, general habitat assessment; August 10--14: wetland vegetation, birds, small mammals, Playa invertebrates; and September 7--11: birds, small mammals. This report presents the results of these three surveys

  20. Corrective Action Investigation Plan for Corrective Action Unit 554: Area 23 Release Site, Nevada Test Site, Nevada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boehlecke, Robert F.

    2004-01-01

    This Corrective Action Investigation Plan (CAIP) contains project-specific information for conducting site investigation activities at Corrective Action Unit (CAU) 554: Area 23 Release Site, Nevada Test Site, Nevada. Information presented in this CAIP includes facility descriptions, environmental sample collection objectives, and criteria for the selection and evaluation of environmental samples. Corrective Action Unit 554 is located in Area 23 of the Nevada Test Site, which is 65 miles northwest of Las Vegas, Nevada. Corrective Action Unit 554 is comprised of one Corrective Action Site (CAS), which is: 23-02-08, USTs 23-115-1, 2, 3/Spill 530-90-002. This site consists of soil contamination resulting from a fuel release from underground storage tanks (USTs). Corrective Action Site 23-02-08 is being investigated because existing information on the nature and extent of potential contamination is insufficient to evaluate and recommend corrective action alternatives. Additional information will be obtained by conducting a corrective action investigation prior to evaluating corrective action alternatives and selecting the appropriate corrective action for this CAS. The results of the field investigation will support a defensible evaluation of viable corrective action alternatives that will be presented in the Corrective Action Decision Document for CAU 554. Corrective Action Site 23-02-08 will be investigated based on the data quality objectives (DQOs) developed on July 15, 2004, by representatives of the Nevada Division of Environmental Protection; U.S. Department of Energy, National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Site Office; and contractor personnel. The DQO process was used to identify and define the type, amount, and quality of data needed to develop and evaluate appropriate corrective actions for CAU 554. Appendix A provides a detailed discussion of the DQO methodology and the DQOs specific to CAS 23-02-08. The scope of the corrective action investigation

  1. Role of active site rigidity in activity: MD simulation and fluorescence study on a lipase mutant.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Md Zahid Kamal

    Full Text Available Relationship between stability and activity of enzymes is maintained by underlying conformational flexibility. In thermophilic enzymes, a decrease in flexibility causes low enzyme activity while in less stable proteins such as mesophiles and psychrophiles, an increase in flexibility is associated with enhanced enzyme activity. Recently, we identified a mutant of a lipase whose stability and activity were enhanced simultaneously. In this work, we probed the conformational dynamics of the mutant and the wild type lipase, particularly flexibility of their active site using molecular dynamic simulations and time-resolved fluorescence techniques. In contrast to the earlier observations, our data show that active site of the mutant is more rigid than wild type enzyme. Further investigation suggests that this lipase needs minimal reorganization/flexibility of active site residues during its catalytic cycle. Molecular dynamic simulations suggest that catalytically competent active site geometry of the mutant is relatively more preserved than wild type lipase, which might have led to its higher enzyme activity. Our study implies that widely accepted positive correlation between conformation flexibility and enzyme activity need not be stringent and draws attention to the possibility that high enzyme activity can still be accomplished in a rigid active site and stable protein structures. This finding has a significant implication towards better understanding of involvement of dynamic motions in enzyme catalysis and enzyme engineering through mutations in active site.

  2. Site investigations for final disposal of high-level nuclear waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aeikaes, T.; Laine, T.

    1982-12-01

    Research concerning disposal of high-level nuclear waste of the Industrial Power Company Ltd has focused on deep underground disposal in Finnish precambrian bedrock. The present target is to have a repository for high-level waste in operation by 2020. Selection of the repository site is based on site investigations. In addition to geosciences, selection of appropriate site includes many branches of studies; engineering, safety analysis, ecology, transport, demography etc. The investigations required for site selection for high-level waste have been arranged in a sequence of four phases. The aim of the phases is that investigations become more and more detailed as the selection process continues. Phase I of the investigations is the characterization of potential areas. This comprises establishment of criteria for site selection and identification of areas that meet selection criteria. Objective of these studies is to determine areas for phase II field investigations. The studies are largely made by reviewing existing data and remote-sensing techniques. Phase II field investigations will be undertaken between 1986-1992. The number of potential candidates for repository site is reduced to few preferred areas by preceeding generic study. The site selection process culminates in phase III in site confirmation studies carried out at 2...3 most suitable sites during 1992-2010. This is then followed by phase IV, which comprises very detailed investigations at the selected site. An alternative for these investigations is to undertake them by using pilot shaft and drifts. Active development is taking place in all phases concerning investigation methods, criteria, parameters, data processing and modelling. The applicability of the various investigation methods and techniques is tested in a deep borehole in phase I. The co-operation with countries with similar geological conditions makes it possible to compare results obtained by different techniques

  3. Prioritization to limit sampling and drilling in site investigations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burton, J.C.

    1992-01-01

    One of the major goals of the Environmental Research Division of Argonne National Laboratory is to develop and provide governmental agencies with technically sound, cost-effective frameworks for environmental site characterization and remedial programs. An example of the development of such a framework for preremedial site characterization is presented in this paper. Specifically, this paper presents portions of an expanded site investigation program developed for landfills suspected of containing hazardous waste. The work was sponsored by the New Mexico State Office of the US Department of Interior's Bureau of Land Management (BLM). The emphasis of the BLM program was on identifying initial characterization procedures that would decrease the need for sampling and drilling on a random grid

  4. Corrective Action Investigation Plan for Corrective Action Unit 139: Waste Disposal Sites, Nevada Test Site, Nevada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grant Evenson

    2006-01-01

    Corrective Action Unit (CAU) 139 is located in Areas 3, 4, 6, and 9 of the Nevada Test Site, which is 65 miles northwest of Las Vegas, Nevada. Corrective Action Unit 139 is comprised of the seven corrective action sites (CASs) listed below: (1) 03-35-01, Burn Pit; (2) 04-08-02, Waste Disposal Site; (3) 04-99-01, Contaminated Surface Debris; (4) 06-19-02, Waste Disposal Site/Burn Pit; (5) 06-19-03, Waste Disposal Trenches; (6) 09-23-01, Area 9 Gravel Gertie; and (7) 09-34-01, Underground Detection Station. These sites are being investigated because existing information on the nature and extent of potential contamination is insufficient to evaluate and recommend corrective action alternatives with the exception of CASs 09-23-01 and 09-34-01. Regarding these two CASs, CAS 09-23-01 is a gravel gertie where a zero-yield test was conducted with all contamination confined to below ground within the area of the structure, and CAS 09-34-01 is an underground detection station where no contaminants are present. Additional information will be obtained by conducting a corrective action investigation (CAI) before evaluating corrective action alternatives and selecting the appropriate corrective action for the other five CASs where information is insufficient. The results of the field investigation will support a defensible evaluation of viable corrective action alternatives that will be presented in the Corrective Action Decision Document. The sites will be investigated based on the data quality objectives (DQOs) developed on January 4, 2006, by representatives of the Nevada Division of Environmental Protection; U.S. Department of Energy, National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Site Office; Stoller-Navarro Joint Venture; and Bechtel Nevada. The DQO process was used to identify and define the type, amount, and quality of data needed to develop and evaluate appropriate corrective actions for CAU 139

  5. Investigation of tritium in groundwater at Site 300

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Buddemeier, R.W.

    1985-01-01

    In 1984, landfill monitoring wells at Site 300, a Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) explosive test site, revealed the presence of groundwater contaminated with tritium. These tritium levels were in excess of the State of California drinking water standard. A major investigation was initiated that included a search of records concerning tritium use, disposal, and previous analyses, and a survey of tritium levels in soil, vegetation, and water in contaminated and potentially contaminated areas. Over 50 boreholes were drilled for this investigation to characterize the local hydrogeology and tritium distributions, and a network of soil moisture and groundwater monitoring points was installed. This report presents the work completed through the end of September 1985: the records search; records for drilling completed as part of this study; characterization of the geology, hydrology, and tritium distributions in the contaminated area; and an initial assessment of the probable tritium sources, pathways, and migration rates. 19 refs

  6. Investigation of tritium in groundwater at Site 300

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Buddemeier, R.W.

    1985-12-30

    In 1984, landfill monitoring wells at Site 300, a Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) explosive test site, revealed the presence of groundwater contaminated with tritium. These tritium levels were in excess of the State of California drinking water standard. A major investigation was initiated that included a search of records concerning tritium use, disposal, and previous analyses, and a survey of tritium levels in soil, vegetation, and water in contaminated and potentially contaminated areas. Over 50 boreholes were drilled for this investigation to characterize the local hydrogeology and tritium distributions, and a network of soil moisture and groundwater monitoring points was installed. This report presents the work completed through the end of September 1985: the records search; records for drilling completed as part of this study; characterization of the geology, hydrology, and tritium distributions in the contaminated area; and an initial assessment of the probable tritium sources, pathways, and migration rates. 19 refs.

  7. Active chemisorption sites in functionalized ionic liquids for carbon capture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cui, Guokai; Wang, Jianji; Zhang, Suojiang

    2016-07-25

    Development of novel technologies for the efficient and reversible capture of CO2 is highly desired. In the last decade, CO2 capture using ionic liquids has attracted intensive attention from both academia and industry, and has been recognized as a very promising technology. Recently, a new approach has been developed for highly efficient capture of CO2 by site-containing ionic liquids through chemical interaction. This perspective review focuses on the recent advances in the chemical absorption of CO2 using site-containing ionic liquids, such as amino-based ionic liquids, azolate ionic liquids, phenolate ionic liquids, dual-functionalized ionic liquids, pyridine-containing ionic liquids and so on. Other site-containing liquid absorbents such as amine-based solutions, switchable solvents, and functionalized ionic liquid-amine blends are also investigated. Strategies have been discussed for how to activate the existent reactive sites and develop novel reactive sites by physical and chemical methods to enhance CO2 absorption capacity and reduce absorption enthalpy. The carbon capture mechanisms of these site-containing liquid absorbents are also presented. Particular attention has been paid to the latest progress in CO2 capture in multiple-site interactions by amino-free anion-functionalized ionic liquids. In the last section, future directions and prospects for carbon capture by site-containing ionic liquids are outlined.

  8. Site descriptive modeling as a part of site characterization in Sweden - Concluding the surface based investigations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andersson, Johan; Winberg, Anders; Skagius, Kristina; Stroem, Anders; Lindborg, Tobias

    2007-01-01

    The Swedish Nuclear Fuel and Waste Management Co., SKB, is currently finalizing its surface based site investigations for the final repository for spent nuclear fuel in the municipalities of Oestharmnar (the Forsmark area) and Oskarshamn (the Simpevar/Laxemar area). The investigation data are assessed into a Site Descriptive Model, constituting a synthesis of geology, rock mechanics, thermal properties, hydrogeology, hydro-geochemistry, transport properties and a surface system description. Site data constitute a wide range of different measurement results. These data both need to be checked for consistency and to be interpreted into a format more amenable for three-dimensional modeling. The three-dimensional modeling (i.e. estimating the distribution of parameter values in space) is made in a sequence where the geometrical framework is taken from the geological models and in turn used by the rock mechanics, thermal and hydrogeological modeling. These disciplines in turn are partly interrelated, and also provide feedback to the geological modeling, especially if the geological description appears unreasonable when assessed together with the other data. Procedures for assessing the uncertainties and the confidence in the modeling have been developed during the course of the site modeling. These assessments also provide key input to the completion of the site investigation program. (authors)

  9. Modelling of water-rock interaction at TVO investigation sites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pitkaenen, P.; Leino-Forsman, H.

    1992-12-01

    The geochemistry of the groundwater at the Kivetty, Syyry and Olkiluoto site investigation areas in Finland for nuclear waste disposal is evaluated. The hydrogeological data is collected from boreholes drilled down to 100-m depth into crystalline bedrock. The interpretation is based on groundwater chemistry and isotope data, mineralogical data, and the structure and hydrology of the bedrock, using correlation diagrams and the thermodynamic calculations (PHREEQE,EQ3NR). The hydrogeochemistry and major processes controlling the groundwater chemistry are discussed

  10. Energy transfer at the active sites of heme proteins

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dlott, D.D.; Hill, J.R.

    1995-01-01

    Experiments using a picosecond pump-probe apparatus at the Picosecond Free-electron Laser Center at Stanford University, were performed to investigate the relaxation of carbon monoxide bound to the active sites of heme proteins. The significance of these experiments is two-fold: (1) they provide detailed information about molecular dynamics occurring at the active sites of proteins; and (2) they provide insight into the nature of vibrational relaxation processes in condensed matter. Molecular engineering is used to construct various molecular systems which are studied with the FEL. We have studied native proteins, mainly myoglobin obtained from different species, mutant proteins produced by genetic engineering using recombinant DNA techniques, and a variety of model systems which mimic the structures of the active sites of native proteins, which are produced using molecular synthesis. Use of these different systems permits us to investigate how specific molecular structural changes affect dynamical processes occurring at the active sites. This research provides insight into the problems of how different species needs are fulfilled by heme proteins which have greatly different functionality, which is induced by rather small structural changes

  11. MX Siting Investigation. MX System Siting Summary Report. General Introduction. Volume I. Part I.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1982-01-18

    LINEAR CONNECT CRN MIX SITING INVESTIGATION DEPARTMENT OF THE AIR FORCE VOUTS USING VALLEY CLUSTERING CONCEPT IN IOC, BMO/AFRCE- wIX VOUTS IN DRY LAKE...species, such as the jackrabbit, may be the center of important food webs , and a decrease in its numbers may greatly affect many other species. The

  12. Site characterization and validation - Borehole radar investigations stage 3

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sandberg, E.; Olsson, O.; Falk, L.

    1989-11-01

    The borehole radar investigation program Stage 3 of the SCV-site has comprised single hole reflection measurements with centre frequencies of 22 and 60 MHz. Single hole reflection measurement with both omni-directional and directional antennas have been performed in the boreholes C1, C2, C3 and the D-holes. Crosshole tomographic measurements as well as cross- hole reflection measurement have been made between the bore- holes C1-C2, W1-C1 and W1-C2. The range obtained in the single hole reflection measurements was approximately 100 m for the lower frequency and about 60-70 m for the centre frequency 60 MHz. In the crosshole measurements transmitter-receiver separations from 20 to 120 m have been used. The Stage 3 radar investigations have essentially confirmed the three dimensional description of the structures at the SCV-site. The conceptual model of the site which was produced based on the Stage 1 data included three major zones, two minor zones and a circular feature. The major features are considered to be the most significant at the site and are all observed in the Stage 3 boreholes close to their predicted locations. The circular feature has also been found in two of the additional tomograms at the predicted location. The results indicate that the zones are not homogeneous but rather that they are highly irregular containing parts of considerably increased fracturing and parts where their contrast to the background rock is quite small. The zones appear to be approximately planar at least at the scale of the site. At a smaller scale the zones can appear quite irregular

  13. WAG 2 remedial investigation and site investigation site-specific work plan/health and safety checklist for the soil and sediment task

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Holt, V.L.; Burgoa, B.B.

    1993-12-01

    This document is a site-specific work plan/health and safety checklist (WP/HSC) for a task of the Waste Area Grouping 2 Remedial Investigation and Site Investigation (WAG 2 RI ampersand SI). Title 29 CFR Part 1910.120 requires that a health and safety program plan that includes site- and task-specific information be completed to ensure conformance with health- and safety-related requirements. To meet this requirement, the health and safety program plan for each WAG 2 RI ampersand SI field task must include (1) the general health and safety program plan for all WAG 2 RI ampersand SI field activities and (2) a WP/HSC for that particular field task. These two components, along with all applicable referenced procedures, must be kept together at the work site and distributed to field personnel as required. The general health and safety program plan is the Health and Safety Plan for the Remedial Investigation and Site Investigation of Waste Area Grouping 2 at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, Tennessee (ORNL/ER-169). The WP/HSCs are being issued as supplements to ORNL/ER-169

  14. Geochemical investigation of UMTRAP designated site at Canonsburg, Pennsylvania

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Markos, G.; Bush, K.J.; Freeman, T.

    1981-05-01

    UMTRAP is an acronym for Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action Project. The Canonsburg, Pennsylvania site was utilized from 1911 to 1922 and from 1930 to 1942, first to remove radium from sedimentary uranium ore, and later to remove uranium from ore as well as process various materials, ceasing operations in 1957. Of the three areas, Area A is the former mill site and is occupied in part by present industrial activities. Area B is comprised of mill residues mixed with sediment dredged from Chartiers Creek, a disturbed terrace along Chartiers Creek, and a ditch on the north side. The ditch contains water with the highest concentrations of contaminants measured in the Canonsburg site. It is believed that unprocessed ore is deposited here and effluent from leaks in a sewer line across the north edge of Areas A and B carry contaminants from heavily contaminated drains in the buildings of Area A. Area C contains the former liquid disposal lagoon, and the central part of the area is highly contaminated to a depth of about 3 meters. Area C contains the most concentrated waste material with maximum levels (except for the ditch on the north side of Area B) of all the contaminants distributed throughout the area. Contamination outside the site is limited. The presence of contaminants in the ditches, in the soils on the river bank, and below the tailings pile is not attributed to migration processes, but rather to the presence of ore materials and concentrated wastes mechanically dispersed throughout the area

  15. Site characterization and validation - hydrochemical investigations. Stage 3

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Laaksoharju, M.

    1990-02-01

    The objective for the Stage 3 hydrochemical investigations was to classify groundwater and to determine the different flow paths within the investigated SCV-site by using water analyses from the C and D boreholes. The water was divided into three classes shallow (A), mixed (B) and deep groundwater (C) based on Cl and HCO 3 concentration. The local geohydrological situation in the SCV-site can be divided into a disturbed situation and an undisturbed situation. Opening of the boreholes and smapling causes a disturbance of hydrochemical conditions. Three water types were found in the important water conductors, the GB and the GH zones. Shallow water (A-type) is flowing downwards while deep groundwater (C-type) is flowing upwards driven by the pumping of the mine. Where the two water types meet a zone of approximately 30 m thickness with mixed (B-type) water is formed. The flow situation is revealed by the geohydrological measurements. At undisturbed conditions shallow water (A-type) is flowing down in the investigated zones. The B and C water types are then found at a deeper level than during disturbed conditions. A regional model can be constructed based on the described chemical and geohydrological investigations. Shallow water from the top and deep groundwater from below are drawn towards the mine by the pumping. Where these waters meet mixed water is formed. (orig./HP)

  16. Forsmark site investigation. Investigation of marine and lacustrine sediment in lakes. Field data 2003

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hedenstroem, Anna [SGU, Uppsala (Sweden)

    2003-04-01

    The aim of this activity is to describe the aerial and stratigraphical distribution of marine and lacustrine sediment i.e. sediment overlaying the glacial till and/or bedrock surface, in lakes in the Forsmark area. The investigation is carried out within areas where mapping of unconsolidated Quaternary deposits is presently carried out. Since small and shallow lakes cover a large part of the region, this work will give important information on the distribution and stratigraphy of sedimentary deposits not included in the regular mapping of unconsolidated Quaternary deposits within the site investigation programme. Samples were also collected for laboratory analyses of grain size distribution, mineralogical composition as well as the total content of C, N and S and calcium carbonate. The analyses will be carried out on selected samples of representative sedimentary units in order to characterise the chemical and physical properties of the unconsolidated deposits. The analytical data will be useful for the hydrogeological modelling and for models of the Quaternary evolution of the area. The mineralogical analyses of clay may provide information on the origin of the clay particles. One stratigraphic sequence from Lake Eckarfjaerden will be stored for later analyses, e.g. pollen analysis. This report includes field data from spring 2003. Together, the field data and the forthcoming results from the laboratory analyses will form the basis for construction of stratigraphical profiles to be presented in a following report in the fall 2003.

  17. Forsmark site investigation. Investigation of marine and lacustrine sediment in lakes. Field data 2003

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hedenstroem, Anna

    2003-04-01

    The aim of this activity is to describe the aerial and stratigraphical distribution of marine and lacustrine sediment i.e. sediment overlaying the glacial till and/or bedrock surface, in lakes in the Forsmark area. The investigation is carried out within areas where mapping of unconsolidated Quaternary deposits is presently carried out. Since small and shallow lakes cover a large part of the region, this work will give important information on the distribution and stratigraphy of sedimentary deposits not included in the regular mapping of unconsolidated Quaternary deposits within the site investigation programme. Samples were also collected for laboratory analyses of grain size distribution, mineralogical composition as well as the total content of C, N and S and calcium carbonate. The analyses will be carried out on selected samples of representative sedimentary units in order to characterise the chemical and physical properties of the unconsolidated deposits. The analytical data will be useful for the hydrogeological modelling and for models of the Quaternary evolution of the area. The mineralogical analyses of clay may provide information on the origin of the clay particles. One stratigraphic sequence from Lake Eckarfjaerden will be stored for later analyses, e.g. pollen analysis. This report includes field data from spring 2003. Together, the field data and the forthcoming results from the laboratory analyses will form the basis for construction of stratigraphical profiles to be presented in a following report in the fall 2003

  18. Solution 1H NMR investigation of the active site molecular and electronic structures of substrate-bound, cyanide-inhibited HmuO, a bacterial heme oxygenase from Corynebacterium diphtheriae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yiming; Syvitski, Ray T; Chu, Grace C; Ikeda-Saito, Masao; Mar, Gerd N La

    2003-02-28

    The molecular structure and dynamic properties of the active site environment of HmuO, a heme oxygenase (HO) from the pathogenic bacterium Corynebacterium diphtheriae, have been investigated by (1)H NMR spectroscopy using the human HO (hHO) complex as a homology model. It is demonstrated that not only the spatial contacts among residues and between residues and heme, but the magnetic axes that can be related to the direction and magnitude of the steric tilt of the FeCN unit are strongly conserved in the two HO complexes. The results indicate that very similar contributions of steric blockage of several meso positions and steric tilt of the attacking ligand are operative. A distal H-bond network that involves numerous very strong H-bonds and immobilized water molecules is identified in HmuO that is analogous to that previously identified in hHO (Li, Y., Syvitski, R. T., Auclair, K., Wilks, A., Ortiz de Montellano, P. R., and La Mar, G. N. (2002) J. Biol. Chem. 277, 33018-33031). The NMR results are completely consistent with the very recent crystal structure of the HmuO.substrate complex. The H-bond network/ordered water molecules are proposed to orient the distal water molecule near the catalytically key Asp(136) (Asp(140) in hHO) that stabilizes the hydroperoxy intermediate. The dynamic stability of this H-bond network in HmuO is significantly greater than in hHO and may account for the slower catalytic rate in bacterial HO compared with mammalian HO.

  19. Seismic and geologic investigations of the Sandia Livermore Laboratory site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1978-01-01

    This report describes results of a seismic and geologic investigation in the vicinity of Sandia Laboratories property and Sandia's Tritium Building at Livermore, California. The investigation was done to define any seismically capable faults in the immediate area and to obtain necessary information to support estimates of future possible or probable ground motions. The work included a variety of geophysical measurements, trenching, seismologic studies, geologic examination, and evaluation of possible ground surface rupture at the site. Ground motions due to the maximum potential earthquake are estimated, and probability of exceedance for various levels of peak ground acceleration is calculated. Descriptions of the various calculations and investigative techniques used and the data obtained are presented. Information obtained from other sources relevant to subsurface geology and faulting is also given. Correlation and evaluation of the various lines of evidence and conclusions regarding the seismic hazard to the Tritium Building are included

  20. The value of DCIP geophysical surveys for contaminated site investigations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Balbarini, Nicola; Rønde, Vinni Kampman; Maurya, Pradip Kumar

    an old factory site by combining traditional geological, hydrological, and contaminant concentration data with DCIP surveys. The plume consisted of xenobiotic organic compounds and inorganics. The study assesses benefits and limitations of DCIP geophysics for contaminated site investigations. A 3D......Geophysical methods are increasingly being used in contaminant hydrogeology to map lithology, hydraulic properties, and contaminant plumes with a high ionic strength. Advances in the Direct Current resistivity and Induced Polarization (DCIP) method allow the collection of high resolution three...... water and below the streambed. Surface DCIP surveys supported the characterization of the spatial variability in geology, hydraulic conductivity and contaminant concentration. Though DCIP data interpretation required additional borehole data, the DCIP survey reduced the number of boreholes required...

  1. Geochemical investigations at Maxey Flats radioactive waste disposal site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dayal, R.; Pietrzak, R.F.; Clinton, J.

    1984-09-01

    As part of the NRC efforts to develop a data base on source term characteristics for low level wastes, Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL) has produced and analyzed a large amount of data on trench leachate chemistry at existing shallow land burial sites. In this report, we present the results of our investigations at the Maxey Flats, Kentucky disposal site. In particular, data on trench leachate chemistry are reviewed and discussed in terms of mechanisms and processes controlling the composition of trench solutes. Particular emphasis is placed on identifying both intra- and extra-trench factors and processes contributing to source term characteristics, modifications, and uncertainties. BNL research on the Maxey Flats disposal site has provided important information not only on the source term characteristics and the factors contributing to uncertainties in the source term but also some generic insights into such geochemical processes and controls as the mechanics of leachate formation, microbial degradation and development of anoxia, organic complexation and radionuclide mobility, redox inversion and modification of the source term, solubility constraints on solute chemistry, mineral authigenesis, corrosion products and radionuclide scavenging, and the role of organic complexants in geochemical partitioning of radionuclides. A knowledge of such processes and controls affecting the geochemical cycling of radionuclides as well as an understanding of the important factors that contribute to variability and uncertainties in the source term is essential for evaluating the performance of waste package and the site, making valid predictions of release for dose calculations, and for planning site performance monitoring as well as remedial actions. 43 references, 47 figures, 30 tables

  2. Main phases of siting for nuclear power plants with review of required investigations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Malbasa, N.

    1984-01-01

    The purpose of the article is a short description of the main phases in the process of siting for nuclear power plants as interpreted and applied by the Institut za elektroprivredu, Zagreb in the screening, comparison and evaluation of the sites for NPPs in the SR of Croatia. The scope and purpose, as well as review of required data and investigations for each particular phase are given. Common used methods for the comparison of sites are described and example of rejection criteria applicable for early phases of the siting is proposed. It is given a list of the most important activities which detailed analysis id indispensable for ending of the evaluation and getting a site permit from the regulatory body. A legal and regulatory basis for carrying out the siting process is also described. (author)

  3. 2015 Advanced Site Investigation and Monitoring Report Riverton, Wyoming, Processing Site September 2016

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Frazier, William [U.S. Dept. of Energy, Washington, DC (United States). Office of Legacy Management (LM); Campbell, Sam [Navarro Research and Engineering, Inc., Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

    2016-09-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy conducted initial groundwater characterization of the Riverton, Wyoming, Processing Site in the 1990s. The characterization culminated in a Site Observational Work Plan in 1998 that recommended a natural flushing compliance strategy. Results of verification monitoring indicated that natural flushing was generally progressing as expected until June 2010, when significant increases in contaminant concentrations were measured in several monitoring wells downgradient of the site after the area flooded. In response to the unexpected results following the flood, an enhanced characterization of the surficial aquifer was conducted in 2012, which included installation of 103 boreholes along nine transects with a Geoprobe, collection of 103 water samples and 65 soil samples, laboratory tests on the soil samples, and additional groundwater modeling. This advanced site investigation report summarizes additional investigation in 2015 through the use of backhoe trenching, sonic drilling, multilevel monitoring wells, direct-push drilling, and temporary well points to collect soil and groundwater samples. Additional surface water measurements were made included the installation of a stilling well and the measurement of stream elevation along the Wind River to approximate upgradient groundwater heads. Groundwater sampling included the addition of geochemical constituents and isotopes that have not been sampled in the past to better understand post-flood conditions and the possibility of additional or ongoing contaminant sources. This sampling was performed to (1) better define the contaminant plumes, (2) verify the occurrence of persistent secondary contaminant sources, (3) better understand the reason for the contaminant spikes after a 2010 flood, and (4) assess contaminant plume stagnation near the Little Wind River. This report provides data analyses and interpretations for the 2015 site investigation that addresses these issues and provides

  4. Perspectives of investigation and development of Semipalatinsk Test Site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kadyrzhanov, K.K.; Lukashenko, S.N.

    2008-01-01

    Full text: Since the Semipalatinsk Test Site has been stopped and up until now, National Nuclear Center of the Republic of Kazakhstan (NNC RK) in cooperation with other specialist from Kazakhstan and international scientific community have accumulated large scope of information about current radiological situation at Semipalatinsk Nuclear Test Site (SNTS) and adjacent territories. There were revealed all important spots of radioactive contamination, identified main pathways and mechanisms for present and potential proliferation of radioactive substances. Obtained data assure us that present-day SNTS provides no negative impact on population on adjacent to the Site territories excluding people in the water basin of the river Shagan. Compliance with regulatory requirements and special rules for SNTS territory assures radiation safety at commercial activities on the Site. At the same time, the radiological situation does not remain stable; there were revealed the processes of radionuclide migration what requires regular monitoring of radiological situation at SNTS. Taking into account the scale of the Site and the variety of tests performed there, the information available about SNTS can not be completely exhaustive but enables us to propose a scientifically grounded plan for further research and practical measures aimed at remediation and reclamation of lands. implementation of such measures should return up to 80% of the lands to commercial use. SNTS is one of the world largest nuclear test sites with decisive contribution to creation and development of nuclear weapon. To considerable extent, these were works at SNTS which established nuclear parity between the superpowers one of the crucial factors in the history of human civilization in the 20 century. Also taking into account the interest to SNTS paid by international organizations, it is reasonable to initiate a procedure and recognize SNTS as a landmark including it in the UNESCO List of Cultural and Nature

  5. Techniques for site investigations for underground disposal of radioactive wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1985-01-01

    The report provides a more detailed description of the capabilities and applications of the various earth science investigation techniques outlined in the IAEA Technical Reports Series Nos. 177, 215 and 216. These methods are generally appropriate during at least one of the stages of the assessment or selection of a site for any type of waste disposal facility, in shallow ground or in deep geological formations. This report is addressed to technical authorities responsible for or involved in planning, approving, executing and reviewing national waste disposal programmes. It may also help administrative authorities in this field to select appropriate techniques for obtaining the majority of the required information at minimum cost

  6. Geological Site Descriptive Model. A strategy for the model development during site investigations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Munier, Raymond; Stenberg, Leif; Stanfors, Roy; Milnes, Allan Geoffrey; Hermanson, Jan; Triumf, Carl-Axel

    2003-04-01

    The Swedish Nuclear Fuel and Waste Management Company (SKB) is at present conducting site investigations as a preliminary to building an underground nuclear waste disposal facility in Sweden. This report presents a methodology for constructing, visualising and presenting 3-dimensional geological models, based on data from the site investigations. The methodology integrates with the overall work-flow of the site investigations, from the collection of raw data to the complete site description, as proposed in several earlier technical reports. Further, it is specifically designed for interaction with SICADA - SKB's Site Characterisation Database - and RVS - SKB's Rock Visualisation System. This report is one in a series of strategy documents intended to demonstrate how modelling is to be performed within each discipline. However, it also has a wider purpose, since the geological site descriptive model provides the basic geometrical framework for all the other disciplines. Hence, the wider aim is to present a practical and clear methodology for the analysis and interpretation of input data for use in the construction of the geology-based 3D geometrical model. In addition to the various aspects of modelling described above, the methodology presented here should therefore also provide: guidelines and directives on how systematic interpretation and integration of geo-scientific data from the different investigation methods should be carried out; guidelines on how different geometries should be created in the geological models; guidelines on how the assignment of parameters to the different geological units in RVS should be accomplished; guidelines on the handling of uncertainty at different points in the interpretation process. In addition, it should clarify the relation between the geological model and other models used in the processes of site characterisation, repository layout and safety analysis. In particular, integration and transparency should be promoted. The

  7. Geological Site Descriptive Model. A strategy for the model development during site investigations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Munier, Raymond; Stenberg, Leif [Swedish Nuclear Fuel and Waste Management Co., Stockholm (Sweden); Stanfors, Roy [Roy Stanfors Consulting, Lund (Sweden); Milnes, Allan Geoffrey [GEA Consulting, Uppsala (Sweden); Hermanson, Jan [Golder Associates, Stockholm (Sweden); Triumf, Carl-Axel [Geovista, Luleaa (Sweden)

    2003-04-01

    The Swedish Nuclear Fuel and Waste Management Company (SKB) is at present conducting site investigations as a preliminary to building an underground nuclear waste disposal facility in Sweden. This report presents a methodology for constructing, visualising and presenting 3-dimensional geological models, based on data from the site investigations. The methodology integrates with the overall work-flow of the site investigations, from the collection of raw data to the complete site description, as proposed in several earlier technical reports. Further, it is specifically designed for interaction with SICADA - SKB's Site Characterisation Database - and RVS - SKB's Rock Visualisation System. This report is one in a series of strategy documents intended to demonstrate how modelling is to be performed within each discipline. However, it also has a wider purpose, since the geological site descriptive model provides the basic geometrical framework for all the other disciplines. Hence, the wider aim is to present a practical and clear methodology for the analysis and interpretation of input data for use in the construction of the geology-based 3D geometrical model. In addition to the various aspects of modelling described above, the methodology presented here should therefore also provide: guidelines and directives on how systematic interpretation and integration of geo-scientific data from the different investigation methods should be carried out; guidelines on how different geometries should be created in the geological models; guidelines on how the assignment of parameters to the different geological units in RVS should be accomplished; guidelines on the handling of uncertainty at different points in the interpretation process. In addition, it should clarify the relation between the geological model and other models used in the processes of site characterisation, repository layout and safety analysis. In particular, integration and transparency should be

  8. Geoscientific programme for investigation and evaluation of sites for the deep repository

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2000-08-01

    is ensured for the planned deep repository based on reported investigation results and the proposed repository layout. The safety assessment includes analyses of technical, hydraulic, mechanical and chemical processes around a deep repository as well as calculations of radionuclide transport. Data after completed site investigation should serve as a basis for an assessment of at least the same scope as the SR 97 safety assessment. The methodology in SR 97 hereby comprises a basis for the methodology to be used in future safety assessments. The need for data is the primary factor that will guide field activities during the site investigations. What is possible and suitable to do is, however, also determined to a great extent by environmental conditions on the site. Measurements will be made from the air, from the ground and in boreholes. To enable the measurements to be performed quickly and conveniently, some small roads may have to be built and power lines run up to the drilling sites. Drilling is the 'heaviest' activity during the site investigations. Protected areas will be avoided wherever possible. The same applies to other areas that may be sensitive to disturbances, such as breeding areas for unusual bird species and localities with rare plants. With good knowledge concerning the study site's flora and fauna, the field activities can be adapted so that any disturbances will be limited. The initial site investigations are estimated to take around 2 years. The time required is projected to be different for the different sites because the conditions and level of knowledge are different. To enable the resources to be utilized efficiently, the timetables for the investigations at the different sites will be somewhat staggered. The complete site investigations include several drilling stages, where 3-4 deep core boreholes are drilled simultaneously. This is followed by measurements and evaluation of the results. Each drilling stage is estimated to take around one

  9. Geoscientific programme for investigation and evaluation of sites for the deep repository

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2000-08-01

    -term safety is ensured for the planned deep repository based on reported investigation results and the proposed repository layout. The safety assessment includes analyses of technical, hydraulic, mechanical and chemical processes around a deep repository as well as calculations of radionuclide transport. Data after completed site investigation should serve as a basis for an assessment of at least the same scope as the SR 97 safety assessment. The methodology in SR 97 hereby comprises a basis for the methodology to be used in future safety assessments. The need for data is the primary factor that will guide field activities during the site investigations. What is possible and suitable to do is, however, also determined to a great extent by environmental conditions on the site. Measurements will be made from the air, from the ground and in boreholes. To enable the measurements to be performed quickly and conveniently, some small roads may have to be built and power lines run up to the drilling sites. Drilling is the 'heaviest' activity during the site investigations. Protected areas will be avoided wherever possible. The same applies to other areas that may be sensitive to disturbances, such as breeding areas for unusual bird species and localities with rare plants. With good knowledge concerning the study site's flora and fauna, the field activities can be adapted so that any disturbances will be limited. The initial site investigations are estimated to take around 2 years. The time required is projected to be different for the different sites because the conditions and level of knowledge are different. To enable the resources to be utilized efficiently, the timetables for the investigations at the different sites will be somewhat staggered. The complete site investigations include several drilling stages, where 3-4 deep core boreholes are drilled simultaneously. This is followed by measurements and evaluation of the results. Each drilling stage is estimated to

  10. Review of data types for the SKB site investigation programme

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Klos, Richard

    2002-11-01

    SKB is currently undertaking a detailed site investigation programme (SIP) to characterise the geology and surface ecosystems in areas around potential sites for a planned repository for spent nuclear fuel. This report reviews site specific and generic data types needed to characterise biosphere processes relevant to the evaluation of long-term radiological safety in the context of assessments of future impacts arising from the deep geologic disposal of spent nuclear fuel. Focus is on the types of data that make up the different elements of radiological assessment models and how the data used relate to site-specific characteristics. The relevance of the SIP to the development of assessment models for long-term assessment is addressed, including the representation of the geosphere-biosphere interface. Reference to SKB's programme is made in order to determine how well the current programme will meet the needs of assessment models that will be developed and used in the assessment of long-term safety. The review also provides SSI with a basis for the planning of further SSI R and D work. The process, by which site-specific information is converted into a form suitable for use in numerical assessment models, can be quite complex. An overview of assessment model concepts is provided and the links between these and real-word site information considered. Focusing on the needs of assessment models, the review provides a summary of the main types of analyses and site-specific models that are needed for safety evaluations. Review of the SIP indicates that information from the programme feeds into a set of detailed site description models. However there is a gap between the descriptive components and the detailed model descriptions needed to configure numerical assessment models. Details of system evolution are not clearly dealt with in the programme. The SIP focuses on a detailed description of the site the present day. However, radiological impacts are not expected to

  11. Review of data types for the SKB site investigation programme

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Klos, Richard

    2002-11-01

    SKB is currently undertaking a detailed site investigation programme (SIP) to characterise the geology and surface ecosystems in areas around potential sites for a planned repository for spent nuclear fuel. This report reviews site specific and generic data types needed to characterise biosphere processes relevant to the evaluation of long-term radiological safety in the context of assessments of future impacts arising from the deep geologic disposal of spent nuclear fuel. Focus is on the types of data that make up the different elements of radiological assessment models and how the data used relate to site-specific characteristics. The relevance of the SIP to the development of assessment models for long-term assessment is addressed, including the representation of the geosphere-biosphere interface. Reference to SKB's programme is made in order to determine how well the current programme will meet the needs of assessment models that will be developed and used in the assessment of long-term safety. The review also provides SSI with a basis for the planning of further SSI R and D work. The process, by which site-specific information is converted into a form suitable for use in numerical assessment models, can be quite complex. An overview of assessment model concepts is provided and the links between these and real-word site information considered. Focusing on the needs of assessment models, the review provides a summary of the main types of analyses and site-specific models that are needed for safety evaluations. Review of the SIP indicates that information from the programme feeds into a set of detailed site description models. However there is a gap between the descriptive components and the detailed model descriptions needed to configure numerical assessment models. Details of system evolution are not clearly dealt with in the programme. The SIP focuses on a detailed description of the site the present day. However, radiological impacts are not expected to reach

  12. Phase I Source Investigation, Heckathorn Superfund Site, Richmond, California

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kohn, Nancy P; Evans, Nathan R

    2002-12-18

    This report represents Phase I of a multi-phase approach to a source investigation of DDT at the Heckathorn Superfund Site, Richmond, California, the former site of a pesticide packaging plant, and the adjacent waterway, the Lauritzen Channel. Potential identified sources of contamination were from sloughed material from undredged areas (such as side banks) and from outfall pipes. Objectives of Phase I included the (1) evaluation of pesticide concentrations associated with discharge from outfalls, (2) identification of additional outfalls in the area, (3) identification of type, quantity, and distribution of sediment under the Levin pier, (4) quantification of pesticide concentrations in sediment under the pier, and (5) evaluation of sediment structure and slope stability under the pier. Field operations included the collection of sediment directly from inside the mouths of outfall pipes, when possible, or the deployment of specially designed particle traps where direct sampling was problematic. Passive water samplers were placed at the end of known outfall pipes and analyzed for DDT and other pesticides of concern. Underwater dive surveys were conducted beneath the Levin pier to document type, slope, and thickness of sediment. Samples were collected at locations of interest and analyzed for contaminants. Also sampled was soil from bank areas, which were suspected of potentially contributing to continued DDT contamination of the Lauritzen Channel through erosion and groundwater leaching. The Phase I Source Investigation was successful in identifying significant sources of DDT contamination to Lauritzen Channel sediment. Undredged sediment beneath the Levin pier that has been redistributed to the channel is a likely source. Two outfalls tested bear further investigation. Not as well-defined are the contributions of bank erosional material and groundwater leaching. Subsequent investigations will be based on the results of this first phase.

  13. Site characterization investigations at Oak Ridge National Laboratory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ketelle, R.H.

    1985-01-01

    The geologic and geohydrologic characterization and assessment techniques currently used at ORNL are integrated into a systematic approach. The investigations are multi-faceted, and involve investigators with a variety of expertise. Characterization studies are designed to obtain the data requirements of pathways analysis and facility design in addition to the detailed site description. The approach effectively minimizes the redundancy and lack of coordination which often arise when the study is broken down into totally independent tasks. The geologic environment of the Oak Ridge Reservation is one of structural and stratigraphic complexity which requires a comprehensive and systematic approach to characterize. Recent characterization studies have included state-of-the-science techniques in the areas of unsaturated zone testing, geochemical tests to determine attenuation properties of soils, and numerical analyses of site performance. The results of these studies and analyses are changing the technology of shallow land burial by indicating that chemically stable waste forms are required to limit radionuclide migration to acceptable levels. 11 refs., 1 tab

  14. A Hypothesis-Driven Approach to Site Investigation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nowak, W.

    2008-12-01

    Variability of subsurface formations and the scarcity of data lead to the notion of aquifer parameters as geostatistical random variables. Given an information need and limited resources for field campaigns, site investigation is often put into the context of optimal design. In optimal design, the types, numbers and positions of samples are optimized under case-specific objectives to meet the information needs. Past studies feature optimal data worth (balancing maximum financial profit in an engineering task versus the cost of additional sampling), or aim at a minimum prediction uncertainty of stochastic models for a prescribed investigation budget. Recent studies also account for other sources of uncertainty outside the hydrogeological range, such as uncertain toxicity, ingestion and behavioral parameters of the affected population when predicting the human health risk from groundwater contaminations. The current study looks at optimal site investigation from a new angle. Answering a yes/no question under uncertainty directly requires recasting the original question as a hypothesis test. Otherwise, false confidence in the resulting answer would be pretended. A straightforward example is whether a recent contaminant spill will cause contaminant concentrations in excess of a legal limit at a nearby drinking water well. This question can only be answered down to a specified chance of error, i.e., based on the significance level used in hypothesis tests. Optimal design is placed into the hypothesis-driven context by using the chance of providing a false yes/no answer as new criterion to be minimized. Different configurations apply for one-sided and two-sided hypothesis tests. If a false answer entails financial liability, the hypothesis-driven context can be re-cast in the context of data worth. The remaining difference is that failure is a hard constraint in the data worth context versus a monetary punishment term in the hypothesis-driven context. The basic principle

  15. Review of Investigations on Site Selection for Nuclear Power Plants in Croatia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Malbasa, N.

    2008-01-01

    A review of site investigation for nuclear facilities in the Republic of Croatia that had been performed from 1964, when investigation started for the first nuclear power plant, to 1994 when the activities were stopped, is presented therein. Brief results of the main investigation were presented including the Tanja site on the Danube upstream of Vukovar. It is the best of all the investigated locations for nuclear power plant in Croatia. The review of results for site selection of low and intermediate level of radioactive waste disposal is also given. The position of nuclear power plants in the strategic documents of the Republic of Croatia was analysed. It is concluded that the status of nuclear facilities in the main strategic documents must be improved because the energy future in Croatia - as almost in all European countries - could hardly be successful without any further development of nuclear energy.(author)

  16. Review of Investigations on Site Selection for Nuclear Power Plants in Croatia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Malbasa, N [Ekonerg, Zagreb (Croatia)

    2008-07-01

    A review of site investigation for nuclear facilities in the Republic of Croatia that had been performed from 1964, when investigation started for the first nuclear power plant, to 1994 when the activities were stopped, is presented therein. Brief results of the main investigation were presented including the Tanja site on the Danube upstream of Vukovar. It is the best of all the investigated locations for nuclear power plant in Croatia. The review of results for site selection of low and intermediate level of radioactive waste disposal is also given. The position of nuclear power plants in the strategic documents of the Republic of Croatia was analysed. It is concluded that the status of nuclear facilities in the main strategic documents must be improved because the energy future in Croatia - as almost in all European countries - could hardly be successful without any further development of nuclear energy.(author)

  17. Communication activities for NUMO's site selection process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takeuchi, Mitsuo; Okuyama, Shigeru; Kitayama, Kazumi; Kuba, Michiyoshi

    2004-01-01

    A siting program for geological disposal of high-level radioactive waste (HLW) in Japan has just started and is moving into a new stage of communication with the public. A final repository site will be selected via a stepwise process, as stipulated in the Specified Radioactive Waste Final Disposal Act promulgated in June 2000. Based on the Act, the site selection process of the Nuclear Waste Management Organization of Japan (NUMO, established in October 2000) will be carried out in the three steps: selection of Preliminary Investigation Areas (PIAs), selection of Detailed Investigation Areas (DIAs) and selection of the Repository Site. The Act also defines NUMO's responsibilities in terms of implementing the HLW disposal program in an open and transparent manner. NUMO fully understands the importance of public participation in its activities and is aiming to promote public involvement in the process of site selection based on a fundamental policy, which consists of 'adopting a stepwise approach', 'respecting the initiative of municipalities' and 'ensuring transparency in information disclosure'. This policy is clearly reflected in the adoption of an open solicitation approach for volunteer municipalities for Preliminary Investigation Areas (PIAs). NUMO made the official announcement of the start of its open solicitation program on 19 December 2002. This paper outlines how NUMO's activities are currently carried out with a view to encouraging municipalities to volunteer as PIAs and how public awareness of the safety of the HLW disposal is evaluated at this stage

  18. Literacies for Surveillance: Social Network Sites and Background Investigations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarah Jackson Young

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available In September 2013, civilian contractor Aaron Alexis entered the Washington Navy Yard and murdered twelve people before being fatally shot by police. This incident, together with an incident three months earlier involving Edward Snowden, caused the U.S. government to critically examine their background investigation (BI process; because both Snowden and Alexis had supposedly slipped through the cracks of their investigations, there must be some flaw in the BI procedure. The U.S. Committee on Oversight and Reform concluded that rules forbidding “background checkers from looking at the Internet or social media when performing checks” was one of the main factors contributing to defective BIs (Report, 2014. Since the report’s release, the Director of National Intelligence has been debating and trialing whether information from the Internet should be used to form a data double for BIs (Kopp, 2014; Rockwell, 2014. Using this conversation as a discussion catalyst, I argue that due to the nature of the data double, if the United States were to adopt the use of social networking sites (SNSs for security clearance purposes, neglecting to take into account basic principles of SNSs into the process of BIs may lead to misinformation and unfavorable adjudication. Ultimately, being literate about the social practices involved in SNSs and surveillance would benefit not only investigators, but anyone, including academics, looking at individuals in online spaces.

  19. Geologic investigations of drill hole sloughing problems, Nevada Test Site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Drellack, S.L. Jr.; Davies, W.J.; Gonzales, J.L.; Hawkins, W.L.

    1983-01-01

    Severe sloughing zones encountered while drilling large diameter emplacement holes in Yucca Flat, Nevada Test Site, have been identified, correlated and predicted through detailed geologic investigations. In central and southeastern Area 7 and in northern Area 3, the unstable zones are a very fine-grained, well-sorted, unconsolidated sand deposit, probably eolian in origin, which will readily flow into large diameter drill holes. Other areas exhibit hole erosion related to poor induration or extensive zeolitization of the Tertiary tuff units which are very friable and porous. By examining drill hole samples, geophysical logs, caliper logs and drilling histories, these problem zones can be characterized, correlated and then projected into nearby sites. Maps have been generated to show the depth, thickness and areal extent of these strata. In some cases, they are local and have a lenticular geometry, while in others they are quite extensive. The ability to predict such features can enhance the quality of the hole construction and completion operations to avoid costly delays and the loss of valuable testing real estate. The control of hole enlargements will also eliminate related containment concerns, such as stemming uncertainties

  20. Oskarshamn site investigation. Bedrock geology - overview and excursion guide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wahlgren, Carl-Henric (Geological Survey of Sweden, Uppsala (Sweden))

    2010-09-15

    Bearing in mind the significance of the bedrock data from the ground surface for the geological 3D modelling work, SKB decided to present excursion guides that serve in the demonstration of the bedrock geology at the ground surface in both the Forsmark and Laxemar-Simpevarp (this guide) areas. An excursion guide is also available for the Olkiluoto area in south-western Finland, which has been selected for the construction of a repository for the disposal of highly radioactive, spent nuclear fuel. The current excursion guide presents the bedrock geology and describes in detail the character of the bedrock at eight representative outcrops or outcrop areas at the ground surface in the site investigation area at Laxemar-Simpevarp and at one locality north of this area, i.e. at a total of nine localities

  1. Forsmark site investigation. Bedrock geology - overview and excursion guide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stephens, Michael B. (Geological Survey of Sweden, Uppsala (Sweden))

    2010-09-15

    Bearing in mind the significance of the bedrock data from the ground surface for the geological 3D modelling work, SKB decided to present excursion guides that serve in the demonstration of the bedrock geology at the ground surface in both the Forsmark (this guide) and Laxemar-Simpevarp areas. An excursion guide is also available for the Olkiluoto area in south-western Finland, which has been selected for the construction of a repository for the disposal of highly radioactive, spent nuclear fuel in Finland. The current excursion guide presents the bedrock geology and describes in detail the character of the bedrock at ten representative outcrops or outcrop areas at the ground surface in the site investigation area at Forsmark. All localities are located within or immediately adjacent to the proposed repository volume selected by SKB

  2. Forsmark site investigation. Bedrock geology - overview and excursion guide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stephens, Michael B.

    2010-09-01

    Bearing in mind the significance of the bedrock data from the ground surface for the geological 3D modelling work, SKB decided to present excursion guides that serve in the demonstration of the bedrock geology at the ground surface in both the Forsmark (this guide) and Laxemar-Simpevarp areas. An excursion guide is also available for the Olkiluoto area in south-western Finland, which has been selected for the construction of a repository for the disposal of highly radioactive, spent nuclear fuel in Finland. The current excursion guide presents the bedrock geology and describes in detail the character of the bedrock at ten representative outcrops or outcrop areas at the ground surface in the site investigation area at Forsmark. All localities are located within or immediately adjacent to the proposed repository volume selected by SKB

  3. The development and site investigation of fume diluter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Bok Youn; Kang, Chang Hee; Jo, Young Do; Lim, Sang Taek [Korea Institute of Geology Mining and Materials, Taejon (Korea, Republic of)

    1996-12-01

    It is third project year on `Application of mobile diesel equipment in underground mines` for providing appropriate measures to improve underground working environment contaminated by the diesel exhaust pollutants. For reducing the exhaust temperature bellow 70 deg. C to prevent production of the governing pollutant (NO{sub 2}), the fume diluter is verified the most effective device through the site investigation. Therefore, the fume diluter is strongly recommended instead of catalytic converter which is employed presently. The performances derived from the tests are as follows; 1) This device increased air flow to 6.7-8.4 times of the original exhaust, 2) Exhaust temperature can be reduced to 66 deg. C from 161 deg. C, 3) All the pollutants can be reduced to bellow than 30 % of exhaust concentration, 4) This device requires less cost and no maintenance. (author). 4 tabs., 4 figs.

  4. Oskarshamn site investigation. Bedrock geology - overview and excursion guide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wahlgren, Carl-Henric

    2010-09-01

    Bearing in mind the significance of the bedrock data from the ground surface for the geological 3D modelling work, SKB decided to present excursion guides that serve in the demonstration of the bedrock geology at the ground surface in both the Forsmark and Laxemar-Simpevarp (this guide) areas. An excursion guide is also available for the Olkiluoto area in south-western Finland, which has been selected for the construction of a repository for the disposal of highly radioactive, spent nuclear fuel. The current excursion guide presents the bedrock geology and describes in detail the character of the bedrock at eight representative outcrops or outcrop areas at the ground surface in the site investigation area at Laxemar-Simpevarp and at one locality north of this area, i.e. at a total of nine localities

  5. Seismic tomography investigation of the Down Ampney fault research site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jackson, P.D.; Greenwood, P.G.; Raines, M.G.; Rainsbury, M.P.

    1991-01-01

    High resolution tomographic cross-hole seismic surveys have been designed and undertaken for fault characterisation in mudrocks at a higher resolution than is currently used in site investigations. Compressional waves were generated at a frequency of 1.04 kHz and a wavelength of 1.6 m in the formation, and were used to tomographically image a normally faulted clay sequence (Oxford Clay and Kellaways Beds) overlying limestone. The fault plane and lithologies are clearly visible in the tomograms, a 10% difference in velocity between the Oxford Clay and Kellaways Beds, being particularly prominent. A zone of 5% lower ''tomographic - velocity'' was observed to correspond with the fault zone within the Oxford Clay (as predicted from the geological logging of the core) which indicates substantial alteration that could be fluid affected. Geological constraints were found to be a crucial imput to the tomographic inversion, and examples show erroneous results that can arise. Seismic attenuation was very low (reflection observed from 80 m depth) and larger ranges could have been used to investigate larger scale geological structures. (author)

  6. Site investigation SFR. Vegetation in streams in the Forsmark area

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andersson, Eva; Aquilonius, Karin; Sivars Becker, Lena; Borgiel, Mikael

    2011-09-01

    The streams in the model area of Forsmark have previously been thoroughly investigated regarding water chemistry, hydrology, bottom substrate, flooding, percentage coverage of macrophytes and fish migration. Retention of radionuclides in a stream ecosystem is assumed to occur by sorption to sediments or by uptake of radionuclides by macrophytes and it is therefore of interest to know the biomass and production of macrophytes in the streams included in a safety assessment. The general aim of this study was to examine the relation between biomass and the percentage cover of vegetation in streams in the Forsmark area. In this study streams within and nearby the candidate area in Forsmark was investigated. The somewhat larger streams Forsmarksaan and Olandsaan nearby the candidate area, are assumed to be more similar to future streams developing in Forsmark due to landrise, than the smaller streams present in the candidate area today. In total 22 vegetation samples were gathered in order to estimate the biomass at the sites. Percentage coverage of macrophytes, and dominating species were noted and the above ground macrophytes were sampled for biomass analysis. In the smaller streams, the biomass varied between 6 and almost 358 g dry weight per square metre. In the larger streams, the dry biomass varied between 0 and 247 g dry weight per square meter. There were no significant difference between macrophyte biomass in smaller and the larger stream. In total 13 macrophyte species were found. The biomass dry weight at 100% covering degree varied depending on macrophyte species. Although this was a rather small study, it is evident that the biomasses do vary a wide range between sampling squares in the area. However, although it may be difficult to use this data set to estimate the biomass in a specific square meter in the stream section, the relation between biomass weight and covering degree is sufficient to be used when fitting biomass to macrophyte coverage for entire

  7. Site investigation SFR. Vegetation in streams in the Forsmark area

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Andersson, Eva (Svensk Nuclear Fuel and Waste Management Co. (Sweden)); Aquilonius, Karin; Sivars Becker, Lena (Studsvik Nuclear AB (Sweden)); Borgiel, Mikael (Sveriges Vattenekologer AB (Sweden))

    2011-09-15

    The streams in the model area of Forsmark have previously been thoroughly investigated regarding water chemistry, hydrology, bottom substrate, flooding, percentage coverage of macrophytes and fish migration. Retention of radionuclides in a stream ecosystem is assumed to occur by sorption to sediments or by uptake of radionuclides by macrophytes and it is therefore of interest to know the biomass and production of macrophytes in the streams included in a safety assessment. The general aim of this study was to examine the relation between biomass and the percentage cover of vegetation in streams in the Forsmark area. In this study streams within and nearby the candidate area in Forsmark was investigated. The somewhat larger streams Forsmarksaan and Olandsaan nearby the candidate area, are assumed to be more similar to future streams developing in Forsmark due to landrise, than the smaller streams present in the candidate area today. In total 22 vegetation samples were gathered in order to estimate the biomass at the sites. Percentage coverage of macrophytes, and dominating species were noted and the above ground macrophytes were sampled for biomass analysis. In the smaller streams, the biomass varied between 6 and almost 358 g dry weight per square metre. In the larger streams, the dry biomass varied between 0 and 247 g dry weight per square meter. There were no significant difference between macrophyte biomass in smaller and the larger stream. In total 13 macrophyte species were found. The biomass dry weight at 100% covering degree varied depending on macrophyte species. Although this was a rather small study, it is evident that the biomasses do vary a wide range between sampling squares in the area. However, although it may be difficult to use this data set to estimate the biomass in a specific square meter in the stream section, the relation between biomass weight and covering degree is sufficient to be used when fitting biomass to macrophyte coverage for entire

  8. Hanford site past practice investigation strategy: Lessons learned

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thompson, K. Michael

    1992-01-01

    The U. S. Department of Energy (DOE), U. S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), and the Washington State Department of Ecology (Ecology) have negotiated a strategy for performing Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation and Liability Act (CERCLA) and Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) Past Practice investigations in a more streamlined manner with a bias-for-action. This strategy provides new concepts for 1) accelerating decision-making by maximizing the use of existing data consistent with data quality objectives and 2) undertaking expedited response actions and/or interim remedial measures as appropriate to either remove threats to human health and welfare and the environment or to reduce risk by reducing toxicity, mobility or volume of contaminants. Since the goal of the program is cleanup, much more emphasis will be placed on initiating and completing waste site cleanups through interim measures. While investigations and studies are important in meeting long-range goals, there is now agreement by the parties that an appropriate and significant portion of the near-term funding resources can and should be dedicated to remedial work, where there is sufficient information from which to plan and implement interim remedial measures. The initial stages of Hanford clean-up will optimize the use of interim cleanup actions when justified and practicable. Existing data will be evaluated as the initial basis for decision-making. If the data are found to be insufficient, additional essential data will be collected to support the IRM in a limited field investigation (LFI). Only data needed to formulate a conceptual model (source to pathway to receptor) and qualitative risk assessment would be obtained. The data quality objectives of the LFI will be established based on the use of the data in deciding on IRMs. The data might not need to be of the same quality needed to support final RODs, since the IRM itself would yield valuable information for

  9. INVESTIGATION OF ANTIFUNGAL ACTIVITY OF QUINOLINIUM DERIVATIVES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. A. Alexandrova

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract. Antifungal activity (Candida albicans, Candida krusei of some substituted quinolinium derivatives has been investigated. It was established that the most perspective compound for detail investigation of antifungal activity by labeled biomarkers method was N-phenylbenzoquinaldinium tetrafluoroborate.

  10. Multiagency radiation survey and site investigation manual (MARSSIM): Survey design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abelquist, E.W.; Berger, J.D.

    1996-01-01

    This paper describes the MultiAgency Radiation Survey and Site Investigation Manual (MARSSIM) strategy for designing a final status survey. The purpose of the final status survey is to demonstrate that release criteria established by the regulatory agency have been met. Survey design begins with identification of the contaminants and determination of whether the radionuclides of concern exist in background. The decommissioned site is segregated into Class 1, Class 2, and Class 3 areas, based on contamination potential, and each area is further divided into survey units. Appropriate reference areas for indoor and outdoor background measurements are selected. Survey instrumentation and techniques are selected in order to assure that the instrumentation is capable of detecting the contamination at the derived concentration guideline level (DCGL). Survey reference systems are established and the number of survey data points is determined-with the required number of data points distributed on a triangular grid Pattern. Two suitistical tests are used to evaluate data from final status surveys. For contaminants that are b, present in background, the Wilcoxon Rank Sum test is used; for contaminants that are not present in background, the Wilcoxon Signed Rank (or Sign) test is used. The number of data points needed to satisfy these nonparametric tests is based on the contaminant DCGL value, the expected Standard deviation of the contaminant in background and in the survey unit, and the acceptable probability of making Type I and Type II decision errors. The MARSSIM also requires a reasonable level of assurance that any small areas of elevated residual radioactivity that could be significant relative to regulatory limits are not missed during the final status survey. Measurements and sampling on a specified grid size are used to obtain an adequate assurance level that small locations of elevated radioactivity will Still satisfy DCGLs-applicable to small areas

  11. Activities on the site during construction phase

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fickel, O.F.

    1977-01-01

    A survey is given of the work done on the site from site-opening till turn over of the plant to the client. After a short introduction to time schedules, manpower on site, site facilities and civil work and constructions, the commissioning and trial operation phase is discussed in detail. This phase begins with finishing the assembly of individual systems and components and ends with the trial operation and the acceptance measurement. During this period the subsystems are started-up in a useful sequence, first from cold, then from hot conditions and are finally operated as a total with nuclear energy. The single steps are: a) commissioning of indivudal systems; b) hot functional test 1 (without fuels) c) baseline inspection at the reactor pressure vessel; d) hot functional test 2 (with fuels); e) preparation for first criticality; f) postcriticality test program; g) trial operation: h) acceptance measurement. (HP) [de

  12. In Silico Investigation of the Neurotensin Receptor 1 Binding Site

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lückmann, Michael; Holst, Birgitte; Schwartz, Thue W.

    2016-01-01

    structure of NTSR1 in complex with NTS8-13 has been detd., providing novel insights into peptide ligand recognition by 7TM receptors. SR48692, a potent and selective small mol. antagonist has previously been used extensively as a tool compd. to study NTSR1 receptor signaling properties. To investigate......The neurotensin receptor 1 (NTSR1) belongs to the family of 7TM, G protein-coupled receptors, and is activated by the 13-amino-acid peptide neurotensin (NTS) that has been shown to play important roles in neurol. disorders and the promotion of cancer cells. Recently, a high-resoln. x-ray crystal...

  13. Engineering rock mass classification of the Olkiluoto investigation site

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aeikaes, K. [ed.; Hagros, A.; Johansson, E. [Saanio and Riekkola Consulting Engineers, Helsinki (Finland)] [and others

    2000-06-01

    Olkiluoto in Eurajoki is being investigated as a possible site for the final disposal of spent nuclear fuel from the Finnish nuclear power plants. The selection of the depth, placement and layout of the repository is affected by the constructability of the bedrock. The constructability, in turn, is influenced by several properties of the host rock, such as its Ethology, the extent of fracturing, its hydrogeological properties and rock engineering characteristics and also by the magnitude and orientation of the in situ stresses and the chemistry of the groundwater. The constructability can be evaluated by the application of a rock classification system in which the properties of the host rock are assessed against common rock engineering judgements associated with underground construction. These judgements are based partly on measurements of in situ stresses and the properties of the bedrock determined from rock samples, but an important aspect is also the practical experience which has been gained during underground excavation in similar conditions and rock types. The aim of the engineering rock mass classification was to determine suitable bedrock volumes for the construction of the repository and has used data from the site characterisation programme carried out at Olkiluoto, which consisted of both surface studies and borehole investigations. The classification specifies three categories of constructability - normal, demanding and very demanding. In addition, rock mass quality has also been classified according to the empirical Q-system to enable a comparison to be made. The rock mass parameters that determine the constructability of the bedrock at Olkiluoto depend primarily on the depth and the Ethology, as well as on whether construction takes place in intact or in fractured rock. The differences in the characteristics of intact rock within a single rock type have been shown to be small. The major lithological unit at Olkiluoto, the mica gneiss, lies in the

  14. Corrective Action Investigation Plan for Corrective Action Unit 190: Contaminated Waste Sites Nevada Test Site, Nevada, Rev. No.: 0

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wickline, Alfred

    2006-01-01

    Corrective Action Unit (CAU) 190 is located in Areas 11 and 14 of the Nevada Test Site, which is 65 miles northwest of Las Vegas, Nevada. Corrective Action Unit 190 is comprised of the four Corrective Action Sites (CASs) listed below: (1) 11-02-01, Underground Centrifuge; (2) 11-02-02, Drain Lines and Outfall; (3) 11-59-01, Tweezer Facility Septic System; and (4) 14-23-01, LTU-6 Test Area. These sites are being investigated because existing information is insufficient on the nature and extent of potential contamination to evaluate and recommend corrective action alternatives. Additional information will be obtained before evaluating corrective action alternatives and selecting the appropriate corrective action for each CAS by conducting a corrective action investigation (CAI). The results of the field investigation will support a defensible evaluation of viable corrective action alternatives that will be presented in the Corrective Action Decision Document. The sites will be investigated based on the data quality objectives (DQOs) developed on August 24, 2006, by representatives of the Nevada Division of Environmental Protection; U.S. Department of Energy, National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Site Office; Stoller-Navarro Joint Venture, and National Security Technologies, LLC. The DQO process was used to identify and define the type, amount, and quality of data needed to develop and evaluate appropriate corrective actions for CAU 190. The scope of the CAU 190 CAI includes the following activities: (1) Move surface debris and/or materials, as needed, to facilitate sampling; (2) Conduct radiological and geophysical surveys; (3) Perform field screening; (4) Collect and submit environmental samples for laboratory analysis to determine whether contaminants of concern (COCs) are present; (5) If COCs are present, collect additional step-out samples to define the lateral and vertical extent of the contamination; (6) Collect samples of source material, if present

  15. Site investigations for repositories for solid radioactive wastes in deep continental geological formations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1982-01-01

    This report reviews the earth-science investigations and associated scientific studies that may be needed to select a repository site and confirm that its characteristics are such that it will provide a safe confinement for solidified high-level and alpha-bearing and certain other solid radioactive wastes. Site investigations, as used in this report, cover earth sciences and associated safety analyses. Other site-investigation activities are identified but not otherwise considered here. The repositories under consideration are those consisting of mined cavities in deep continental rocks for accepting wastes in the solid and packaged form. The term deep as used in this report is used solely to emphasize the distinction between the repositories discussed in this report and those for shallow-ground disposal. In general, depths under consideration here are greater than 200 metres. The term continental refers to those geological formations that occur either beneath present-day land masses and adjoining islands or beneath the shallow seas. One of the objectives of site investigations is to collect the site-specific data necessary for the different evaluations, such as modelling required to assess the long-term safety of an underground repository

  16. Site investigations for repositories for solid radioactive wastes in deep continental geological formations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1982-01-01

    This report reviews the earth-science investigations and associated scientific studies that may be needed to select a repository site and confirm that its characteristics are such that it will provide a safe confinement for solidified high-level and alpha-bearing and certain other solid radioactive wastes. Site investigations, as used in this report, cover earth sciences and associated safety analyses. Other site-investigation activities are identified but not otherwise considered here. The repositories under consideration are those consisting of mined cavities in deep continental rocks for accepting wastes in the solid and packaged form. The term deep as used in this report is used solely to emphasize the distinction between the repositories discussed in this report and those for shallow-ground disposal. In general, depths under consideration here are greater than 200 metres. The term continental refers to those geological formations that occur either beneath present-day land masses and adjoining islands or beneath the shallow seas. One of the objectives of site investigations is to collect the site-specific data necessary for the different evaluations, such as modelling required to assess the long-term safety of an underground repository.

  17. Corrective Action Investigation Plan for Corrective Action Unit 366: Area 11 Plutonium Valley Dispersion Sites, Nevada National Security Site, Nevada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matthews, Patrick

    2011-01-01

    associated with the nuclear tests, it was determined that CASs 11-23-02, 11-23-03, and 11-23-04 will be investigated as one release site. The three test areas associated with these CASs are in close proximity; the devices tested were all composed of plutonium and enriched uranium; and the ground zeroes are all posted high contamination areas (HCAs). Because the device tested at CAS 11-23-01 was composed primarily of enriched uranium and the ground zero is not a posted HCA, the CAS will be investigated as a separate release. The DQO process also resulted in an assumption that TED within the HCAs and contaminated waste dumps exceeds the FAL and requires corrective action. A field investigation will be performed to define where TED exceeds the FAL and to determine whether other contaminants of concern are present at the site associated with other activities that took place at the site or from spills or waste discovered during the investigation. The presence and nature of contamination from other types of releases (such as migration and any potential releases discovered during the investigation) will be evaluated using soil samples collected from the locations most likely containing contamination, if present. Appendix A provides a detailed discussion of the DQO methodology and the DQOs specific to each CAS.

  18. Site investigation equipment developed by Teollisuuden Voima Oy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oehberg, A.

    1991-02-01

    Teollisuuden Voima Oy (TVO) carries out site investigations in Finland for final disposal of nuclear high level waste during 1987-2000. In order to carry out the investigations some essential equipment have been designed and constructed. The biggest insufficiency among different measuring methods was among water sampling and hydraulic testing. There are some common specifications which all of these equipment has to fulfil. The two most important are that they have to be operatable in deep slim boreholes down to 1000 meters depth with 56 mm in diameter. The main purpose of the Hydraulic Testing Unit is to determine hydraulic conductivity in crystalline rock, where water can flow primarily through fractures. In most commonly used configurations, measurement range is from 10 - 11 to 10 - 5 m/s with constant-head method. Although constant-head method is principally used, almost any known hydraulic method is possible with existing hardware. Most functions are controlled by the computer. The whole system is built into an electrically heated trailer. The system consists of inflatable packers, stainless steel rods, pressure transducers and datalogging devices. The maximum number of monitoring sections is seven. In addition to that as many blind sections as is needed to prevent vertical flow in boreholes can be installed. Water sampling is possible either with a double packer method or in conjunction with the hydraulic head monitoring equipment. The first possibility involves using the laboratory trailer and the second one using a separate pumping unit plus the laboratory trailer in a later phase when sampling is to be conducted. In the laboratory trailer there are all the measuring devices needed to control different chemical parameters (pH, Eh, pS, O 2 , conductivity and temperature) during pumping

  19. Investigation of user behavior on social networking sites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waheed, Hajra; Anjum, Maria; Rehman, Mariam; Khawaja, Amina

    2017-01-01

    Social networking sites (SNS) are used for social and professional interaction with people. SNS popularity has encouraged researchers to analyze the relationship of activities performed on SNS with user behavior. In doing so, the term "user behavior" is rather used ambiguously with different interpretations, which makes it difficult to identify studies on user behavior in relation to SNS. This phenomenon has encouraged this thorough research on the characteristics of user behavior being discussed in the literature. Therefore, in this study, we aim to identify, analyze, and classify the characteristics associated with user behavior to answer the research questions designed to conduct this research. A mapping study (also called scoping study), which is a type of systematic literature review, is employed to identify potential studies from digital databases through a developed protocol. Thematic analysis is carried out for the classification of user behavior. We identified 116 primary studies for full analysis. This study found seven characteristics associated with behavior that have direct influence on SNS use and nine factors that have an indirect effect. All studies were conducted largely under seven areas that set the context of these studies. Findings show that the research on SNS is still in its early stage. The range of topics covered in the analyzed studies is quite expansive, although the depth in terms of number of studies under each topic is quite limited. This study reports that activities performed on SNS are either associated with user behavior or reflect personality characteristics. The findings of this study could be used by practitioners to evaluate their SNS platforms and develop more user-centered applications. These studies can also help organizations to understand better the needs of their employees.

  20. Investigation of user behavior on social networking sites.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hajra Waheed

    Full Text Available Social networking sites (SNS are used for social and professional interaction with people. SNS popularity has encouraged researchers to analyze the relationship of activities performed on SNS with user behavior. In doing so, the term "user behavior" is rather used ambiguously with different interpretations, which makes it difficult to identify studies on user behavior in relation to SNS. This phenomenon has encouraged this thorough research on the characteristics of user behavior being discussed in the literature. Therefore, in this study, we aim to identify, analyze, and classify the characteristics associated with user behavior to answer the research questions designed to conduct this research. A mapping study (also called scoping study, which is a type of systematic literature review, is employed to identify potential studies from digital databases through a developed protocol. Thematic analysis is carried out for the classification of user behavior. We identified 116 primary studies for full analysis. This study found seven characteristics associated with behavior that have direct influence on SNS use and nine factors that have an indirect effect. All studies were conducted largely under seven areas that set the context of these studies. Findings show that the research on SNS is still in its early stage. The range of topics covered in the analyzed studies is quite expansive, although the depth in terms of number of studies under each topic is quite limited. This study reports that activities performed on SNS are either associated with user behavior or reflect personality characteristics. The findings of this study could be used by practitioners to evaluate their SNS platforms and develop more user-centered applications. These studies can also help organizations to understand better the needs of their employees.

  1. Seismic activity parameters of the Finnish potential repository sites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saari, J.

    2000-10-01

    Posiva Oy has started a project for estimating the possible earthquake induced rock movements on the deposition holes containing canisters of spent nuclear fuel. These estimates will be made for the four investigation sites, Romuvaara, Kivetty, Olkiluoto and Haestholmen. This study deals with the current and future seismicity associated with the above mentioned sites. Seismic belts that participate the seismic behaviour of the studied sites have been identified and the magnitude-frequency distributions of these belts have been estimated. The seismic activity parameters of the sites have been deduced from the characteristics of the seismic belts in order to forecast the seismicity during the next 100,000 years. The report discusses the possible earthquakes induced by future glaciation. The seismic interpretation seems to indicate that the previous postglacial faults in Finnish Lapland have been generated in compressional environment. The orientation of the rather uniform compression has been NW-SE, which coincide with the current stress field. It seems that, although the impact of postglacial crustal rebound must have been significant, the impact of plate tectonics has been dominant. A major assumption of this study has been that future seismicity will generally resemble the current seismicity. However, when the postglacial seismicity is concerned, the magnitude-frequency distribution is likely different and the expected maximum magnitude will be higher. Maximum magnitudes of future postglacial earthquakes have been approximated by strain release examinations. Seismicity has been examined within the framework of the lineament maps, in order to associate the future significant earthquakes with active fault zones in the vicinity of the potential repository sites. (orig.)

  2. Waste site grouping for 200 Areas soil investigations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1997-01-01

    The purpose of this document is to identify logical waste site groups for characterization based on criteria established in the 200 Areas Soil Remediation Strategy (DOE-RL 1996a). Specific objectives of the document include the following: finalize waste site groups based on the approach and preliminary groupings identified in the 200 Areas Soil Remediation Strategy; prioritize the waste site groups based on criteria developed in the 200 Areas Soil Remediation Strategy; select representative site(s) that best represents typical and worse-case conditions for each waste group; develop conceptual models for each waste group. This document will serve as a technical baseline for implementing the 200 Areas Soil Remediation Strategy. The intent of the document is to provide a framework, based on waste site groups, for organizing soil characterization efforts in the 200 Areas and to present initial conceptual models

  3. Development of METAL-ACTIVE SITE and ZINCCLUSTER tool to predict active site pockets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ajitha, M; Sundar, K; Arul Mugilan, S; Arumugam, S

    2018-03-01

    The advent of whole genome sequencing leads to increasing number of proteins with known amino acid sequences. Despite many efforts, the number of proteins with resolved three dimensional structures is still low. One of the challenging tasks the structural biologists face is the prediction of the interaction of metal ion with any protein for which the structure is unknown. Based on the information available in Protein Data Bank, a site (METALACTIVE INTERACTION) has been generated which displays information for significant high preferential and low-preferential combination of endogenous ligands for 49 metal ions. User can also gain information about the residues present in the first and second coordination sphere as it plays a major role in maintaining the structure and function of metalloproteins in biological system. In this paper, a novel computational tool (ZINCCLUSTER) is developed, which can predict the zinc metal binding sites of proteins even if only the primary sequence is known. The purpose of this tool is to predict the active site cluster of an uncharacterized protein based on its primary sequence or a 3D structure. The tool can predict amino acids interacting with a metal or vice versa. This tool is based on the occurrence of significant triplets and it is tested to have higher prediction accuracy when compared to that of other available techniques. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  4. Animal investigation program 1974 annual report: Nevada Test Site and vicinity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, D.D.; Giles, K.R.; Bernhardt, D.E.; Brown, K.R.

    1977-06-01

    Data are presented from the radioanalysis of tissues collected from cattle, deer, desert bighorn sheep, and other wildlife that resided on or near the Nevada Test Site during 1974. Routine activities and special investigations of the Animal Investigation Program are also discussed. Other than the naturally occurring potassium-40, gamma-emitting radionuclides were detected infrequently. For example, cesium-137 was found only in the muscle tissues from 3 of the 12 Nevada Test Site cattle sampled during 1974. Tritium concentrations in the tissues from most of the animals sampled are at background levels. Animals from the experimental farm tended to have slightly higher concentrations than those sampled at other locations on the Nevada Test Site. Strontium-90 levels in bones from deer, desert bighorn sheep, and cattle were slightly lower than those reported for the preceding year. A graph depicts the average levels found in the bones of the three species from 1956 through 1974

  5. Geophysical investigations of the Olonium Roman site (Northern Como Lake)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arlsan, Ermanno; Biella, Giancarlo; Boniolo, Graziano; Caporusso, Donatella; de Franco, Roberto; Lozej, Alfredo; Veronese, Luigi

    1999-03-01

    The study area is located at S. Agata (Gera Lario), a small center at the northern end of Como Lake, near the junction of Valchiavenna and Valtellina Valleys. This site played a strategic role since ancient times, providing the control on the communications routes to both the Como Lake and the Spluga and Septimer alpine passes. Since the end of the last century archaeological findings are reported in literature, also supported, from the early XI century, by archival documents confirming the existence of the `Olonium' settlement, an administrative and fiscal center of primary importance, as well as a parish amongst the most influential in the Como Lake area. Within an area of 45,000 m 2 an electrical survey has been carried out in conjunction with magnetic and GPR investigations. These studies have indicated the presence of a number of sub-areas characterized by significant anomalies defined by the overlapping of the results obtained from two or more geophysical methods. In two of such sub-areas, excavation tests have been conducted, which have brought to light a number of archaeological findings of interest. In one of the two sub-areas, which is characterized by the superimposition of electrical and radar anomalies, a deposit of large pebbles has been found. The origin of this deposit has not been ascertained, whether it is of fluvial origin, related to the deviation of the Adda river in the Pian di Spagna region in Roman times, or it is part of reclamation works, still of Roman times, of paleolacustrine marshes. The overlapping stratigraphy, however, suggests the development of fluvial channels between Roman and Low-Medieval times. In the other sub-area, excavations were carried out on sites defined by electrical and radar anomalies, and confirmed by the results from magnetic survey. The excavations brought to light, below the fluvial deposits, a large medieval edifice, which could be identified as the S. Stefano church abandoned in 1444. The church is built on

  6. Metal active site elasticity linked to activation of homocysteine in methionine synthases

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koutmos, Markos; Pejchal, Robert; Bomer, Theresa M.; Matthews, Rowena G.; Smith, Janet L.; Ludwig, Martha L. (Michigan)

    2008-04-02

    Enzymes possessing catalytic zinc centers perform a variety of fundamental processes in nature, including methyl transfer to thiols. Cobalamin-independent (MetE) and cobalamin-dependent (MetH) methionine synthases are two such enzyme families. Although they perform the same net reaction, transfer of a methyl group from methyltetrahydrofolate to homocysteine (Hcy) to form methionine, they display markedly different catalytic strategies, modular organization, and active site zinc centers. Here we report crystal structures of zinc-replete MetE and MetH, both in the presence and absence of Hcy. Structural investigation of the catalytic zinc sites of these two methyltransferases reveals an unexpected inversion of zinc geometry upon binding of Hcy and displacement of an endogenous ligand in both enzymes. In both cases a significant movement of the zinc relative to the protein scaffold accompanies inversion. These structures provide new information on the activation of thiols by zinc-containing enzymes and have led us to propose a paradigm for the mechanism of action of the catalytic zinc sites in these and related methyltransferases. Specifically, zinc is mobile in the active sites of MetE and MetH, and its dynamic nature helps facilitate the active site conformational changes necessary for thiol activation and methyl transfer.

  7. Corrective Action Investigation Plan for Corrective Action Unit 573: Alpha Contaminated Sites, Nevada National Security Site, Nevada, Revision 0

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Matthews, Patrick

    2014-05-01

    Corrective Action Unit (CAU) 573 is located in Area 5 of the Nevada National Security Site, which is approximately 65 miles northwest of Las Vegas, Nevada. CAU 573 is a grouping of sites where there has been a suspected release of contamination associated with non-nuclear experiments and nuclear testing. This document describes the planned investigation of CAU 573, which comprises the following corrective action sites (CASs): • 05-23-02, GMX Alpha Contaminated Area • 05-45-01, Atmospheric Test Site - Hamilton These sites are being investigated because existing information on the nature and extent of potential contamination is insufficient to evaluate and recommend corrective action alternatives.

  8. Active site loop conformation regulates promiscuous activity in a lactonase from Geobacillus kaustophilus HTA426.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu Zhang

    Full Text Available Enzyme promiscuity is a prerequisite for fast divergent evolution of biocatalysts. A phosphotriesterase-like lactonase (PLL from Geobacillus kaustophilus HTA426 (GkaP exhibits main lactonase and promiscuous phosphotriesterase activities. To understand its catalytic and evolutionary mechanisms, we investigated a "hot spot" in the active site by saturation mutagenesis as well as X-ray crystallographic analyses. We found that position 99 in the active site was involved in substrate discrimination. One mutant, Y99L, exhibited 11-fold improvement over wild-type in reactivity (kcat/Km toward the phosphotriesterase substrate ethyl-paraoxon, but showed 15-fold decrease toward the lactonase substrate δ-decanolactone, resulting in a 157-fold inversion of the substrate specificity. Structural analysis of Y99L revealed that the mutation causes a ∼6.6 Å outward shift of adjacent loop 7, which may cause increased flexibility of the active site and facilitate accommodation and/or catalysis of organophosphate substrate. This study provides for the PLL family an example of how the evolutionary route from promiscuity to specificity can derive from very few mutations, which promotes alteration in the conformational adjustment of the active site loops, in turn draws the capacity of substrate binding and activity.

  9. Savannah River Site prioritization of transition activities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Finley, R.H.

    1993-11-01

    Effective management of SRS conversion from primarily a production facility to other missions (or Decontamination and Decommissioning (D ampersand D)) requires a systematic and consistent method of prioritizing the transition activities. This report discusses the design of a prioritizing method developed to achieve systematic and consistent methods of prioritizing these activities

  10. Analysis and radiological assessment of residues containing NORM materials resulting from earlier activities including modelling of typical industrial residues. Pt. 1. Historical investigation of the radiological relevance of NORM residues and concepts for site identification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reichelt, Andreas; Niedermayer, Matthias; Sitte, Beate; Hamel, Peter Michael

    2007-01-01

    Natural radionuclides are part of the human environment and of the raw materials used. Technical processes may cause their accumulation in residues, and the result will be so-called NORM materials (Naturally occurring radioactive material). The amended Radiation Protection Ordinance (StrlSchV 2001) specifies how the public should be protected, but there are also residues dating back before the issuing of the StrlSchV 2001, the so-called NORM residues. The project intended to assess the risks resulting from these residues. It comprises four parts. Part 1 was for clarification of the radiological relevance of NORM residues and for the development of concepts to detect them. The criterion for their radiological relevance was their activity per mass unit and the material volume accumulated through the centuries. The former was calculated from a wide bibliographic search in the relevant literature on radiation protection, while the mass volume was obtained by a detailed historical search of the consumption of materials that may leave NORM residues. These are, in particular, residues from coal and ore mining and processing. To identify concrete sites, relevant data sources were identified, and a concept for identification of concrete NORM residues was developed on this basis. (orig.) [de

  11. Probing the active sites for CO dissociation on ruthenium nanoparticles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Strebel, Christian Ejersbo; Murphy, Shane; Nielsen, Rasmus Munksgård

    2012-01-01

    affect the CO dissociation activity. The Ru nanoparticles were synthesized in a UHV chamber by gas-aggregation magnetron sputtering in the size range from 3 to 15 nm and the morphology was investigated in situ by scanning tunneling microscopy and ex situ by high resolution transmission electron...... microscopy. Surprisingly, it was found that larger particles were more active per surface area for CO dissociation. It is suggested that this is due to larger particles exposing a more rough surface than the smaller particles, giving rise to a higher relative amount of under-coordinated adsorption sites...... on the larger particles. The induced surface roughness is proposed to be a consequence of the growth processes in the gas-aggregation chamber....

  12. Final report : Hanover environmental site investigation, 2009-2010.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    LaFreniere, L. M. (Environmental Science Division)

    2011-06-07

    The Commodity Credit Corporation (CCC), an agency of the U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA), operated a grain storage facility at the northeastern edge of the city of Hanover, Kansas, from 1950 until the early 1970s. During this time, commercial grain fumigants containing carbon tetrachloride were in common use by the grain storage industry to preserve grain in their facilities. In February 1998, trace to low levels of carbon tetrachloride were detected in two private lawn and garden wells near the former grain storage facility at Hanover, as part of a statewide USDA private well sampling program that was implemented by the Kansas Department of Health and Environment (KDHE) near former CCC/USDA facilities. In July 2007, the CCC/USDA sampled indoor air at nine residences on or adjacent to its former facility to address the residents concerns. Low levels of carbon tetrachloride were detected at four of the nine homes. Consequently, the CCC/USDA has conducted investigations, under the direction of the KDHE, to determine the source and extent of the carbon tetrachloride contamination that might be associated with the former facility. In July 2007, the CCC/USDA sampled indoor air at nine residences on or adjacent to its former facility to address the residents concerns regarding vapor intrusion (VI). Low levels of carbon tetrachloride were detected at four of the nine homes. Because carbon tetrachloride found in private wells and indoor air at Hanover might be linked to historical use of fumigants containing carbon tetrachloride at its former grain storage facility, the CCC/USDA has conducted investigations to determine the source and extent of the carbon tetrachloride contamination that may be associated with the former facility. The results of the comprehensive investigation at Hanover indicate that no unacceptable risk to human health currently exists from exposure to surface and subsurface soils by either ingestion, inhalation or dermal contact. No risk is

  13. Safety Oversight of Decommissioning Activities at DOE Nuclear Sites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zull, Lawrence M.; Yeniscavich, William

    2008-01-01

    The Defense Nuclear Facilities Safety Board (Board) is an independent federal agency established by Congress in 1988 to provide nuclear safety oversight of activities at U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) defense nuclear facilities. The activities under the Board's jurisdiction include the design, construction, startup, operation, and decommissioning of defense nuclear facilities at DOE sites. This paper reviews the Board's safety oversight of decommissioning activities at DOE sites, identifies the safety problems observed, and discusses Board initiatives to improve the safety of decommissioning activities at DOE sites. The decommissioning of former defense nuclear facilities has reduced the risk of radioactive material contamination and exposure to the public and site workers. In general, efforts to perform decommissioning work at DOE defense nuclear sites have been successful, and contractors performing decommissioning work have a good safety record. Decommissioning activities have recently been completed at sites identified for closure, including the Rocky Flats Environmental Technology Site, the Fernald Closure Project, and the Miamisburg Closure Project (the Mound site). The Rocky Flats and Fernald sites, which produced plutonium parts and uranium materials for defense needs (respectively), have been turned into wildlife refuges. The Mound site, which performed R and D activities on nuclear materials, has been converted into an industrial and technology park called the Mound Advanced Technology Center. The DOE Office of Legacy Management is responsible for the long term stewardship of these former EM sites. The Board has reviewed many decommissioning activities, and noted that there are valuable lessons learned that can benefit both DOE and the contractor. As part of its ongoing safety oversight responsibilities, the Board and its staff will continue to review the safety of DOE and contractor decommissioning activities at DOE defense nuclear sites

  14. Thermal Site Descriptive Model. A strategy for the model development during site investigations. Version 1.0

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sundberg, Jan

    2003-04-01

    Site investigations are in progress for the siting of a deep repository for spent nuclear fuel. As part of the planning work, strategies are developed for site descriptive modelling regarding different disciplines, amongst them the thermal conditions. The objective of the strategy for a thermal site descriptive model is to guide the practical implementation of evaluating site specific data during the site investigations. It is understood that further development may be needed. The model describes the thermal properties and other thermal parameters of intact rock, fractures and fracture zones, and of the rock mass. The methodology is based on estimation of thermal properties of intact rock and discontinuities, using both empirical and theoretical/numerical approaches, and estimation of thermal processes using mathematical modelling. The methodology will be used and evaluated for the thermal site descriptive modelling at the Aespoe Hard Rock Laboratory

  15. Corrective Action Investigation Plan for Corrective Action Unit 551: Area 12 Muckpiles, Nevada Test Site, Nevada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boehlecke, Robert F.

    2004-01-01

    This Corrective Action Investigation Plan (CAIP) contains project-specific information including facility descriptions, environmental sample collection objectives, and criteria for conducting site investigation activities at Corrective Action Unit (CAU) 551, Area 12 muckpiles, Nevada Test Site (NTS), Nevada. This CAIP has been developed in accordance with the 'Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order' (FFACO) (1996) that was agreed to by the State of Nevada, the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), and the U.S. Department of Defense. Corrective Action Unit 551 is located in Area 12 of the NTS, which is approximately 110 miles (mi) northwest of Las Vegas, Nevada (Figure 1-1). Area 12 is approximately 40 miles beyond the main gate to the NTS. Corrective Action Unit 551 is comprised of the four Corrective Action Sites (CASs) shown on Figure 1-1 and listed below: (1) 12-01-09, Aboveground Storage Tank and Stain; (2) 12-06-05, Muckpile; (3) 12-06-07, Muckpile; and (4) 12-06-08, Muckpile. Corrective Action Site 12-01-09 is located in Area 12 and consists of an above ground storage tank (AST) and associated stain. Corrective Action Site 12-06-05 is located in Area 12 and consists of a muckpile associated with the U12 B-Tunnel. Corrective Action Site 12-06-07 is located in Area 12 and consists of a muckpile associated with the U12 C-, D-, and F-Tunnels. Corrective Action Site 12-06-08 is located in Area 12 and consists of a muckpile associated with the U12 B-Tunnel. In keeping with common convention, the U12B-, C-, D-, and F-Tunnels will be referred to as the B-, C-, D-, and F-Tunnels. The corrective action investigation (CAI) will include field inspections, radiological surveys, and sampling of media, where appropriate. Data will also be obtained to support waste management decisions

  16. Alternative DFN model based on initial site investigations at Simpevarp

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Darcel, C. [Itasca Consultants, Ecully (France); Davy, S.A.P.; Bour, O.; Dreuzy, J.R. de [Geosciences, Rennes (France)

    2004-12-01

    In this report, we provide a first-order analysis of the fracture network at the Simpevarp site. The first order model is the fracture distribution function, noted, fdf, which provides the number of fractures having a given orientation and length, and belonging to a given volume of observation. The first-order distribution model does not describe higher-order correlation between fracture parameters, such as a possible dependency of fracture length distribution with orientations. We also check that most of the information is contained in this 1st-order distribution model, and that dividing the fracture networks into different sets do not bring a better statistical description. The fracture distribution function contains 3 main distributions: the probability distribution of fracture orientations, the dependency on the size of the sampling domain that may exhibit non-trivial scaling in case of fractal correlations, and the fracture-length density distribution, which appears to be well fitted by a power law. The main scaling parameters are the fractal dimension and the power-law exponent of the fracture length distribution. The former was found to be about equal to the embedding dimension, meaning that fractal correlations are weak and can be neglected in the DFN model. The latter depends on geology, that is either lithology or grain size, with values that ranges from 3.2 for granite-like outcrops to 4 for diorite or monzodiorite outcrops, as well as for the large-scale lineament maps. When analyzing the consistency of the different datasets (boreholes, outcrops, lineament maps), we found that two different DFNs can be described: the first one is derived from the fdf of the outcrop with fine-grained size lithology, and is valid across all scales investigated in this study, from the highly-fractured cores to large-scale maps; the second one is derived from the fdf of the outcrops with coarse-grained size lithology, and is found consistent with cores that present the

  17. Geochemical investigation of UMTRAP designated site at Salt Lake City, Utah

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Markos, G.; Bush, K.J.

    1983-09-01

    This report is the result of a geochemical investigation of the former uranium mill and tailings site at Salt Lake City, Utah. This is one in a series of site specific geochemical investigations performed on the inactive uranium mill tailings included in the Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action Project. The objectives of the investigation are to characterize the geochemistry, to determine the contaminant distribution resulting from the former milling activities and tailings, and to infer chemical pathways and transport mechanisms from the contaminant distribution. The results will be used to model contaminant migration and to develop criteria for long-term containment media such as a cover system which is impermeable to contaminant migration. This report assumes a familiarity with the hydrologic conditions of the site and the geochemical concepts underlying the investigation. The results reported are based on a one-time sampling of waters and solid material from the background, the area adjacent to the site, and the site. The solid samples were water extracted to remove easily soluble salts and acid extracted to remove carbonates and hydroxides. The water extracts and solid samples were anlyzed for the major and trace elements. The report includes the methods of sampling, sample processing, analysis, and data interpretation. Four major conclusions are: (1) sediments in the ditches and creeks adjacent to the site contain tailings, however, the waters were generally not contaminated; (2) tailings are mixed with the soils within a meter below the tailings in some locations, however, water-soluble contaminants decrease to below background levels within 30 cm below the tailings; (3) there has not been significant acid seepage into the soils below the tailings; and (4) salt crusts on the tailings contain trace elements, with the elements that form chloride complexes having the greatest accumulation

  18. Dry-run of site investigation planning using the manual for preliminary investigation in Japan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Akamura, Shigeki; Miwa, Tadashi; Tanaka, Tatsuya; Shiratsuchi, Hiroshi; Horio, Atsushi

    2011-01-01

    A stepwise site selection process has been adopted for geological disposal of HLW in Japan. Literature surveys, followed by preliminary investigations (PI) and, finally, detailed investigations in underground facilities will be carried out in the successive selection stages. In the PI stage, surface-based investigations such as borehole surveys and geophysical prospecting will be implemented. In order to conduct the PI appropriately and efficiently within a restricted timeframe and budget, planning and management of PI are very important. NUMO therefore compiled existing knowledge and experience in the planning and managing of investigations in the form of manuals to be used to improve and maintain internal expertise. The first editions of the two manuals were prepared on the basis of experience overseas, and then they were revised by taking technological environment, laws and regulation in Japan into consideration. This paper introduces the procedure of PI planning using manual as well as the results of the dry-run, with the Yokosuka area as a hypothetical PI area, where the monstraction study is under way. Based on the dry-run, applicability of the manual is checked and, at the same time, further revisions are made to improve the content. (author)

  19. Preliminary site investigation for LL and IL radwaste disposal for Qinshan NPP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huang Yawen; Chen Zhangru

    1993-01-01

    With the purpose of selecting a disposal site for the low- and intermediate-level radwastes arising from Qinshan NPP, site investigations were carried out in several districts of Zhejiang Province. Investigation objectives included the circumstances of geology, hydrogeology, environmental ecology, and social economy. On the basis of collected data, five possible sites were recommended for policy-making reference and further investigation

  20. Report of Animal Investigation Program activities for the Baneberry Event

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, D.D.; Black, S.C.; Giles, K.R.; Moghissi, A.A.

    1975-11-01

    On December 18, 1970, an underground nuclear test, conducted at the Nevada Test Site, released radioactive materials into the atmosphere with resultant on-site and off-site contamination. The Animal Investigation Program of the National Environmental Research Center, Las Vegas developed studies to document the distribution of fission and activation products in the tissue of domestic and wild animals residing within contaminated areas on and surrounding the Nevada Test Site. A study of radioiodine secretion in milk from cows at the experimental dairy farm, including urine and fecal excretion from four of them, was started about 24 hours after the venting. A grazing intake study, which utilized fistulated steers, was also carried out. The analytical data collected from these studies are presented in this report

  1. Thermal site descriptive model. A strategy for the model development during site investigations - version 2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Back, Paer-Erik; Sundberg, Jan [Geo Innova AB (Sweden)

    2007-09-15

    This report presents a strategy for describing, predicting and visualising the thermal aspects of the site descriptive model. The strategy is an updated version of an earlier strategy applied in all SDM versions during the initial site investigation phase at the Forsmark and Oskarshamn areas. The previous methodology for thermal modelling did not take the spatial correlation fully into account during simulation. The result was that the variability of thermal conductivity in the rock mass was not sufficiently well described. Experience from earlier thermal SDMs indicated that development of the methodology was required in order describe the spatial distribution of thermal conductivity in the rock mass in a sufficiently reliable way, taking both variability within rock types and between rock types into account. A good description of the thermal conductivity distribution is especially important for the lower tail. This tail is important for the design of a repository because it affects the canister spacing. The presented approach is developed to be used for final SDM regarding thermal properties, primarily thermal conductivity. Specific objectives for the strategy of thermal stochastic modelling are: Description: statistical description of the thermal conductivity of a rock domain. Prediction: prediction of thermal conductivity in a specific rock volume. Visualisation: visualisation of the spatial distribution of thermal conductivity. The thermal site descriptive model should include the temperature distribution and thermal properties of the rock mass. The temperature is the result of the thermal processes in the repository area. Determination of thermal transport properties can be made using different methods, such as laboratory investigations, field measurements, modelling from mineralogical composition and distribution, modelling from density logging and modelling from temperature logging. The different types of data represent different scales, which has to be

  2. Thermal site descriptive model. A strategy for the model development during site investigations - version 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Back, Paer-Erik; Sundberg, Jan

    2007-09-01

    This report presents a strategy for describing, predicting and visualising the thermal aspects of the site descriptive model. The strategy is an updated version of an earlier strategy applied in all SDM versions during the initial site investigation phase at the Forsmark and Oskarshamn areas. The previous methodology for thermal modelling did not take the spatial correlation fully into account during simulation. The result was that the variability of thermal conductivity in the rock mass was not sufficiently well described. Experience from earlier thermal SDMs indicated that development of the methodology was required in order describe the spatial distribution of thermal conductivity in the rock mass in a sufficiently reliable way, taking both variability within rock types and between rock types into account. A good description of the thermal conductivity distribution is especially important for the lower tail. This tail is important for the design of a repository because it affects the canister spacing. The presented approach is developed to be used for final SDM regarding thermal properties, primarily thermal conductivity. Specific objectives for the strategy of thermal stochastic modelling are: Description: statistical description of the thermal conductivity of a rock domain. Prediction: prediction of thermal conductivity in a specific rock volume. Visualisation: visualisation of the spatial distribution of thermal conductivity. The thermal site descriptive model should include the temperature distribution and thermal properties of the rock mass. The temperature is the result of the thermal processes in the repository area. Determination of thermal transport properties can be made using different methods, such as laboratory investigations, field measurements, modelling from mineralogical composition and distribution, modelling from density logging and modelling from temperature logging. The different types of data represent different scales, which has to be

  3. Investigation of anatomical anomalies in Hanford Site mule deer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tiller, B.L.; Cadwell, L.L.; Poston, T.M. [and others

    1997-03-01

    Rocky Mountain mule deer (Odocoileus hemionus hemionus), common residents of the Hanford Site, are an important part of the shrub-steppe ecosystem as well as being valued for aesthetics and hunting. Because mule deer have been protected from hunting on the Site for 50 years, the herd has developed unique population characteristics, including a large number of old animals and males with either large or atypically developed antlers, in contrast to other herds in the semi-arid regions of the Northwest. Hanford Site mule deer have been studied since 1991 because of the herd`s unique nature and high degree of public interest. A special study of the mule deer herd was initiated in 1993 after observations were made of a relatively large number of male deer with atypical, velvet-covered antlers. This report specifically describes our analyses of adult male deer found on the Site with atypical antlers. The report includes estimates of population densities and composition; home ranges, habitat uses, and dietary habits; natural and human-induced causes of mortality; and the herd`s overall health and reproductive status.

  4. Investigation of anatomical anomalies in Hanford Site mule deer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tiller, B.L.; Cadwell, L.L.; Poston, T.M.

    1997-03-01

    Rocky Mountain mule deer (Odocoileus hemionus hemionus), common residents of the Hanford Site, are an important part of the shrub-steppe ecosystem as well as being valued for aesthetics and hunting. Because mule deer have been protected from hunting on the Site for 50 years, the herd has developed unique population characteristics, including a large number of old animals and males with either large or atypically developed antlers, in contrast to other herds in the semi-arid regions of the Northwest. Hanford Site mule deer have been studied since 1991 because of the herd's unique nature and high degree of public interest. A special study of the mule deer herd was initiated in 1993 after observations were made of a relatively large number of male deer with atypical, velvet-covered antlers. This report specifically describes our analyses of adult male deer found on the Site with atypical antlers. The report includes estimates of population densities and composition; home ranges, habitat uses, and dietary habits; natural and human-induced causes of mortality; and the herd's overall health and reproductive status

  5. Robotics at Savannah River site: activity report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Byrd, J.S.

    1984-09-01

    The objectives of the Robotics Technology Group at the Savannah River Laboratory are to employ modern industrial robots and to develop unique automation and robotic systems to enhance process operations at the Savannah River site (SRP and SRL). The incentives are to improve safety, reduce personnel radiation exposure, improve product quality and productivity, and to reduce operating costs. During the past year robotic systems have been installed to fill chemical dilution vials in a SRP laboratory at 772-F and remove radioactive waste materials in the SRL Californium Production Facility at 773-A. A robotic system to lubricate an extrusion press has been developed and demonstrated in the SRL robotics laboratory and is scheduled for installation at the 321-M fuel fabrication area. A mobile robot was employed by SRP for a radiation monitoring task at a waste tank top in H-Area. Several other robots are installed in the SRL robotics laboratories and application development programs are underway. The status of these applications is presented in this report

  6. Maxey Flats low-level waste disposal site closure activities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haight, C.P.; Mills, D.; Razor, J.E.

    1987-01-01

    The Maxey Flats Radioactive Waste Disposal Facility in Fleming County, Kentucky is in the process of being closed. The facility opened for commercial business in the spring of 1963 and received approximately 4.75 million cubic feet of radioactive waste by the time it was closed in December of 1977. During fourteen years of operation approximately 2.5 million curies of by-product material, 240,000 kilograms of source material, and 430 kilograms of special nuclear material were disposed. The Commonwealth purchased the lease hold estate and rights in May 1978 from the operating company. This action was taken to stabilize the facility and prepare it for closure consisting of passive care and monitoring. To prepare the site for closure, a number of remedial activities had to be performed. The remediation activities implemented have included erosion control, surface drainage modifications, installation of a temporary plastic surface cover, leachate removal, analysis, treatment and evaporation, US DOE funded evaporator concentrates solidification project and their on-site disposal in an improved disposal trench with enhanced cover for use in a humid environment situated in a fractured geology, performance evaluation of a grout injection demonstration, USGS subsurface geologic investigation, development of conceptual closure designs, and finally being added to the US EPA National Priority List for remediation and closure under Superfund. 13 references, 3 figures

  7. Remedial Investigation of Hanford Site Releases to the Columbia River - 13603

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lerch, J.A.; Hulstrom, L.C. [Washington Closure Hanford, LLC, Richland, Washington 99354 (United States); Sands, J.P. [U.S Department of Energy, Richland Operations Office, Richland, Washington 99352 (United States)

    2013-07-01

    In south-central Washington State, the Columbia River flows through the U.S. Department of Energy Hanford Site. A primary objective of the Hanford Site cleanup mission is protection of the Columbia River, through remediation of contaminated soil and groundwater that resulted from its weapons production mission. Within the Columbia River system, surface water, sediment, and biota samples related to potential Hanford Site hazardous substance releases have been collected since the start of Hanford operations. The impacts from release of Hanford Site radioactive substances to the Columbia River in areas upstream, within, and downstream of the Hanford Site boundary have been previously investigated as mandated by the U.S. Department of Energy requirements under the Atomic Energy Act. The Remedial Investigation Work Plan for Hanford Site Releases to the Columbia River [1] was issued in 2008 to initiate assessment of the impacts under the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act of 1980 [2]. The work plan established a phased approach to characterize contaminants, assess current risks, and determine whether or not there is a need for any cleanup actions. Field investigation activities over a 120-mile stretch of the Columbia River began in October 2008 and were completed in 2010. Sampled media included surface water, pore water, surface and core sediment, island soil, and fish (carp, walleye, whitefish, sucker, small-mouth bass, and sturgeon). Information and sample results from the field investigation were used to characterize current conditions within the Columbia River and assess whether current conditions posed a risk to ecological or human receptors that would merit additional study or response actions under CERCLA. The human health and ecological risk assessments are documented in reports that were published in 2012 [3, 4]. Conclusions from the risk assessment reports are being summarized and integrated with remedial investigation

  8. Active sites environmental monitoring Program - Program Plan: Revision 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morrissey, C.M.; Hicks, D.S.; Ashwood, T.L.; Cunningham, G.R.

    1994-05-01

    The Active Sites Environmental Monitoring Program (ASEMP), initiated in 1989, provides early detection and performance monitoring of active low-level-waste (LLW) and transuranic (TRU) waste facilities at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL). Several changes have recently occurred in regard to the sites that are currently used for waste storage and disposal. These changes require a second set of revisions to the ASEMP program plan. This document incorporates those revisions. This program plan presents the organization and procedures for monitoring the active sites. The program plan also provides internal reporting levels to guide the evaluation of monitoring results

  9. Tritium activities in selected wells on the Nevada Test Site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lyles, B.F.

    1993-05-01

    Literature and data were reviewed related to radionuclides in groundwater on and near the Nevada Test Site. No elevated tritium activities have been reported outside of the major testing regions of the Nevada Test Site. Three wells were identified as having water with above-background (>50 pCi/l) tritium activities: UE-15d Water Well; USGS Water Well A; and USGS Test Well B Ex. Although none of these wells have tritium activities greater than the Nevada State Drinking Water standard (20,000 pCi/l), their time-series tritium trends may be indicative to potential on-site radionuclide migration

  10. The investigation of leukaemia incidence around sites of special interest

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Urquhart, J.

    1991-01-01

    The study of the incidence of leukaemia and non-Hodgkin's lymphoma around sites of special interest has created many methodological and philosophical problems. Not least of these is the construction of boundaries of space and time to delineate areas of study around a point source of interest. Studies such as those of the incidence of childhood leukaemia around Dounreay have made use of arbitrarily selected fixed geographic boundaries. The Poisson maximum method proposed by Stone and Bithell provides an alternative approach in which no prior selection of geographic boundaries is required. The application of an adaptation of this method to each of the Scottish nuclear sites confirmed the results found for Dounreay by other methods. No excess incidence was observed around the Hunterston Nuclear Installation and an observed excess incidence around Chapelcross was not statistically significant. The further development of statistical techniques which do not require the arbitrary selection of boundaries will facilitate the monitoring of the incidence of disease around sites of special interest and perhaps permit it to be carried out in a less combative climate than has hitherto been the case. (author)

  11. Site description of the SFR area at Forsmark at completion of the site investigation phase. SDM-PSU Forsmark

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2013-05-15

    The site descriptive model (SDM) presented in this report is an integrated model for bedrock geology, rock mechanics, bedrock hydrogeology and bedrock hydrogeochemistry of the site investigated in the SFR extension project (PSU). A description of the surface system is also included in the report. However, the surface system is not integrated with the other disciplines as new data regarding the surface system will not be available until after the completion of SDM-PSU. It is noted that SDM-PSU does not include all disciplines handled in SDM-Site Forsmark (SKB 2008b), the focus is to produce a site description that meets the needs of the SFR extension project. The overall objective of the SFR extension project is to have the application for the extension ready by 2013. This report presents an integrated site model incorporating the historic data acquired from the investigations for and construction of the existing SFR facility (1980-1986), as well as from the recent investigations for the planned extension of SFR (2008-2009). It also provides a summary of the abundant underlying data and the discipline-specific models that support the integrated site model. The description relies heavily on background reports concerning detailed data analyses and modelling in the different disciplines. It is noteworthy that the investigations conducted during the SFR extension project were guided by the choice of site prior to the investigations, which was based on the experience gained during the construction of the existing SFR facility.

  12. Site description of the SFR area at Forsmark at completion of the site investigation phase. SDM-PSU Forsmark

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2013-05-01

    The site descriptive model (SDM) presented in this report is an integrated model for bedrock geology, rock mechanics, bedrock hydrogeology and bedrock hydrogeochemistry of the site investigated in the SFR extension project (PSU). A description of the surface system is also included in the report. However, the surface system is not integrated with the other disciplines as new data regarding the surface system will not be available until after the completion of SDM-PSU. It is noted that SDM-PSU does not include all disciplines handled in SDM-Site Forsmark (SKB 2008b), the focus is to produce a site description that meets the needs of the SFR extension project. The overall objective of the SFR extension project is to have the application for the extension ready by 2013. This report presents an integrated site model incorporating the historic data acquired from the investigations for and construction of the existing SFR facility (1980-1986), as well as from the recent investigations for the planned extension of SFR (2008-2009). It also provides a summary of the abundant underlying data and the discipline-specific models that support the integrated site model. The description relies heavily on background reports concerning detailed data analyses and modelling in the different disciplines. It is noteworthy that the investigations conducted during the SFR extension project were guided by the choice of site prior to the investigations, which was based on the experience gained during the construction of the existing SFR facility

  13. Active site architecture of a sugar N-oxygenase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thoden, James B; Branch, Megan C; Zimmer, Alex L; Bruender, Nathan A; Holden, Hazel M

    2013-05-14

    KijD3 is a flavin-dependent N-oxygenase implicated in the formation of the nitro-containing sugar d-kijanose, found attached to the antibiotic kijanimicin. For this investigation, the structure of KijD3 in complex with FMN and its dTDP-sugar substrate was solved to 2.1 Å resolution. In contrast to the apoenzyme structure, the C-terminus of the protein becomes ordered and projects into the active site cleft [Bruender, N. A., Thoden, J. B., and Holden, H. M. (2010) Biochemistry 49, 3517-3524]. The amino group of the dTDP-aminosugar that is oxidized is located 4.9 Å from C4a of the flavin ring. The model provides a molecular basis for understanding the manner in which KijD3 catalyzes its unusual chemical transformation.

  14. The national plan of radioactive materials and wastes management. ASN's notice about the choice of the sites to be investigated in view of the setting up of a disposal facility for low activity/long living wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2009-07-01

    This short presentation, given by the national safety authority (ASN) at the meeting of July 1, 2009 of the high committee for the nuclear safety transparency and information (HCTISN), presents, first, the second French national plan of radioactive materials and wastes management (PNGMDR) with its main priorities, and then, the choice of the sites to survey in view of the setting up of a disposal facility for low level/long living wastes. The ASN expresses its opinion about the criteria retained by the ANDRA (the national agency of radioactive waste management) to select the most suitable sites. (J.S.)

  15. Investigating a high ozone episode in a rural mountain site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Monteiro, A.; Strunk, A.; Carvalho, A.; Tchepel, O.; Miranda, A.I.; Borrego, C.; Saavedra, S.; Rodríguez, A.; Souto, J.; Casares, J.; Friese, E.; Elbern, H.

    2012-01-01

    A very high ozone episode with observed hourly values above 350 μg m −3 occurred in July 2005 at the Lamas d’Olo air quality monitoring station, located in a mountainous area in the north of Portugal. Aiming to identify the origin and formation of this ozone-rich episode, a statistical analysis and a modelling approach were applied. A cross-spectrum analysis in the frequency domain and a synoptic analysis of the meteorological and air quality time series were performed. In order to go further in this analysis, a numerical modelling approach was applied. The results indicate that the transport of ozone and its precursors is the main responsible for the high ozone concentrations. Together with the local mountain breeze and subsidence conditions, the sea-breeze circulation transporting pollutants from the coastal urban and industrialized areas that reach the site during late afternoon turn out to be the driving forces for the ozone peaks. - Highlights: ► A very high ozone episode occurred in a rural mountain site of Portugal in 2004. ► Data cross-spectrum analysis in the frequency domain was performed. ► A numerical modelling approach was also applied. ► The sea-breeze circulation transported pollutants from the urban and industrialized coast. ► The mountain breeze and subsidence conditions were also driving forces for ozone peaks. - The sea-breeze transporting pollutants from the coast, the mountain breeze and subsidence conditions, were the driving forces for the ozone episode occurred in a rural mountain site.

  16. Half-of-the-sites reactivity of outer-membrane phospholipase A against an active-site-directed inhibitor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ubarretxena-Belandia, I; Cox, R C; Dijkman, R; Egmond, M R; Verheij, H M; Dekker, N

    1999-03-01

    The reaction of a novel active-site-directed phospholipase A1 inhibitor with the outer-membrane phospholipase A (OMPLA) was investigated. The inhibitor 1-p-nitrophenyl-octylphosphonate-2-tridecylcarbamoyl-3-et hanesulfonyl -amino-3-deoxy-sn-glycerol irreversibly inactivated OMPLA. The inhibition reaction did not require the cofactor calcium or an unprotonated active-site His142. The inhibition of the enzyme solubilized in hexadecylphosphocholine micelles was characterized by a rapid (t1/2 = 20 min) and complete loss of enzymatic activity, concurrent with the covalent modification of 50% of the active-site serines, as judged from the amount of p-nitrophenolate (PNP) released. Modification of the remaining 50% occurred at a much lower rate, indicative of half-of-the-sites reactivity against the inhibitor of this dimeric enzyme. Inhibition of monomeric OMPLA solubilized in hexadecyl-N,N-dimethyl-1-ammonio-3-propanesulfonate resulted in an equimolar monophasic release of PNP, concurrent with the loss of enzymatic activity (t1/2 = 14 min). The half-of-the-sites reactivity is discussed in view of the dimeric nature of this enzyme.

  17. Integrated site investigation procedure for environment protection toward sustainable development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Omar, R C; Roslan, R; Baharuddin, I N Z

    2013-01-01

    The spatial configuration of cities and their relationship to the urban environment has recently been the subject of empirical, theoretical and policy research. An awareness of environmental issues can assist policy makers, planners, developers and others to recognize the constraints imposed upon development due the physical environment especially in areas, which are susceptible to erosion, flooding and landslide. This paper highlights the key requirements for considering an assessment to protect our urban environment by incorporating three main factor i.e. policy practice, planning process and engineering investigation. Base on this three main factor the framework of the assessment is carried out. The assessment can be divided into three different categories, namely as investigation for planning, investigation for urban development and specialized investigation and mitigation. The minimum requirements for the planning and urban development investigation are listed. These guidelines suggest the level at which the various types of investigation should be carried out as well as the range of application, the scope and methodology to be used for different investigation. It is hoped that this procedure will provide guidance in the establishment and protection of urban ecosystem toward sustainable development.

  18. Investigations at the former sites of raw phosphate processing in Germany

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reichelt, Andreas; Weiss, Dietmar; Feige, Sebastian; Wiegand, Jens; Gerler, Juergen

    2008-01-01

    Raw phosphates have been processed in an industrial scale in Germany approximately since the middle of the 19th century. During the centuries, huge amounts of residues with high mass specific activities have been accumulated. Within the framework of a historical study, we have determined the accumulated radionuclide inventory from 1865 to 2005. The consumption amounts to approx. 150 million tons raw phosphates (corresponds to approx. 2.22*10 14 Bq U-238) with a fraction of national production of approx. 1 million tons. A production of approx. 3 million tons of elemental phosphorus (calcium silicate slag: 3.6*10 13 Bq Ra-226) and approx. 12 million tons of phosphoric acid (phosphogypsum: 2.7*10 13 Bq Ra-226) had been achieved. In the next step, we have looked for the former sites with legacies of the raw phosphate processing industry. 92 sites of former production of phosphate fertilizers, 3 sites of former production of elemental phosphorus and 10 sites of former production of phosphoric acid had been identified. Some of them were selected for more detailed researches regarding the accumulated radionuclide inventory and on-site/laboratory radiological investigations. (author)

  19. Corrective Action Investigation Plan for Corrective Action Unit 571: Area 9 Yucca Flat Plutonium Dispersion Sites, Nevada National Security Site, Nevada, Revision 0

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bailey, Bernadine; Matthews, Patrick

    2013-07-01

    CAU 571 is a grouping of sites where there has been a suspected release of contamination associated with nuclear testing. This document describes the planned investigation of CAU 571, which comprises the following corrective action sites (CASs): • 09-23-03, Atmospheric Test Site S-9F • 09-23-04, Atmospheric Test Site T9-C • 09-23-12, Atmospheric Test Site S-9E • 09-23-13, Atmospheric Test Site T-9D • 09-45-01, Windrows Crater These sites are being investigated because existing information on the nature and extent of potential contamination is insufficient to evaluate and recommend corrective action alternatives (CAAs). Additional information will be obtained by conducting a corrective action investigation before evaluating CAAs and selecting the appropriate corrective action for each CAS. The results of the field investigation will support a defensible evaluation of viable CAAs that will be presented in the investigation report. The sites will be investigated based on the data quality objectives (DQOs) developed on March 6, 2013, by representatives of the Nevada Division of Environmental Protection and the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Site Office (now the Nevada Field Office). The DQO process was used to identify and define the type, amount, and quality of data needed to develop and evaluate appropriate corrective actions for CAU 571. The site investigation process will also be conducted in accordance with the Soils Activity Quality Assurance Plan, which establishes requirements, technical planning, and general quality practices to be applied to this activity. The potential contamination sources associated with CAU 571 CASs are from nuclear testing activities. The DQO process resulted in an assumption that total effective dose (TED) within a default contamination boundary exceeds the final action level (FAL) and requires corrective action. The presence and nature of contamination outside the default

  20. Active serine involved in the stabilization of the active site loop in the Humicola lanuginosa lipase

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Peters, Günther H.j.; Svendsen, A.; Langberg, H.

    1998-01-01

    We have investigated the binding properties of and dynamics in Humicola lanuginosa lipase (HII) and the inactive mutant S146A (active Ser146 substituted with Ala) using fluorescence spectroscopy and molecular dynamics simulations, respectively. Hll and S146A show significantly different binding......, whereas only small changes are observed for I-Ill suggesting that the active site Lid in the latter opens more easily and hence more lipase molecules are bound to the liposomes. These observations are in agreement with molecular dynamics simulations and subsequent essential dynamics analyses. The results...... to substantial conformational alterations in the H. lanuginosa Lipase and different binding affinities....

  1. Nuclear waste: Status of DOE's nuclear waste site characterization activities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1987-01-01

    Three potential nuclear waste repository sites have been selected to carry out characterization activities-the detailed geological testing to determine the suitability of each site as a repository. The sites are Hanford in south-central Washington State, Yucca Mountain in southern Nevada, and Deaf Smith in the Texas Panhandle. Two key issues affecting the total program are the estimations of the site characterization completion data and costs and DOE's relationship with the Nuclear Regulatory Commission which has been limited and its relations with affected states and Indian tribes which continue to be difficult

  2. Review of the ANSTO submission on the site geological investigations for the RRR at Lucas Heights

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2002-01-01

    Preliminary Safety Analysis Report (PSAR) and ANSTO's Consolidated Seismic Report were reviewed by ARPANSA's Regulatory Branch, and by an IAEA consultant to ARPANSA. It included a recommendation by the IAEA Peer Review Team (June 2001) that an additional study be undertaken for the Lucas Heights site in accordance with IAEA Safety Guide 50-SG-S1. In particular this related to regional and local investigations to determine whether there exists a potential for surface faulting at the site area, to formulate the investigations that should be used to determine whether or not any faults in the area should be considered capable. The CEO of ARPANSA requested ANSTO to undertake such a task. The reviews that have been undertaken by experts from Geoscience Australia and the IAEA expert contracted by ARPANSA give confidence that the seismic design of the reactor structures, systems, and components important for safety should not be affected by the fault through the excavations for the foundations of the reactor building. The basis is the conclusions reached by these experts that the fault discovered is very old and not capable under either the USNRC Criteria or the IAEA Criteria. It is not now active, has not been active in the geologically recent past and is unlikely to re-activate within the foreseeable lifespan of the proposed facility. Consequently, this pre-existing fault presents no greater risk than the surrounding unfaulted material. Thus, the replacement reactor need not be designed for such displacement. The existence of this 'incapable' fault does not impact on the probabilistic seismic hazard assessment from which the seismic design basis for the reactor was derived. Therefore, the existing design response spectrum accepted in the Regulatory Assessment Report as the basis for seismic design of structures, systems and components, and approved in the Construction Licence, has not changed and remains adequately conservative with regard to vibratory motion at the site

  3. Strategies for ensuring quality data from Indian investigational sites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antal K Hajos

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The topic of ensuring quality and compliance is and must be a top priority in the conduct of clinical trials, as warranted by regulatory guidelines as well as the inherent responsibility of the professionals conducting such research. Fast-growing emerging clinical geographies such as India demand special attention due to rapid growth and associated factors that may put study quality at risk. In this paper, we used the basic principle of PDCA (Plan, Do, Check, and Adjust to structure the processes of a clinical trial from protocol to final analysis in order to highlight the interactive nature of involved people and processes required to ensure quality of data and site functioning.

  4. Unsaturated zone investigation at the radioactive waste storage facility site

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Skuratovic, Zana; Mazeika, Jonas; Petrosius, Rimantas; Jakimaviciute-Maseliene, Vaidote [Nature Research Centre, Akademijos St. 2, LT-08412, Vilnius (Lithuania); Klizas, Petras; Mokrik, Robert [Vilnius University, M.K. Ciurlionio St. 21/27, LT-03101 Vilnius (Lithuania)

    2014-07-01

    Unsaturated zone is an important part of water circulation cycle and an integral part of many hydrological and hydrogeological factors and processes. The soils of unsaturated zone are regarded as the first natural barrier to a large extent able to limit the spread of contaminants. Nuclear waste disposal site (Maisiagala radioactive waste storage facility site) was analysed in terms of the moisture movement through the unsaturated zone. Extensive data sets of the hydraulic properties, water content and isotope composition have been collected and summarized. The main experimental and observational tasks included the collection of soil samples; determination of the physical properties and the hydraulic conductivity values of soil samples, moisture extraction from the soil sample for isotopic studies; observation of the groundwater dynamics at the Maisiagala piezometer; groundwater sampling for isotopic analysis ({sup 3}H, {sup 18}O/{sup 16}O, {sup 2}H/{sup 1}H ); and monthly precipitation isotopic analysis. Distribution features of globally widespread radionuclide tritium ({sup 3}H) and the water molecule tracer isotopes in precipitation, unsaturated zone soil moisture profiles and groundwater were determined. It was used the well-known unsaturated flow and transport model of HYDRUS-1D (Simunek et al., 2008). In this study, van Genuchten equations for the retention and conductivity estimations have been used. The retention characteristics and van Genuchten model parameters were estimated internally by HYDRUS based on the empirical equations involved in the program. Basic inputs of the tritium transport simulation are the tritium input function and meteorological variables (precipitation and potential evapotranspiration). In order to validate the representativeness of the hydraulic parameters, the model has been used to estimate the tritium distribution in the unsaturated zone, which properly represents the dynamics of the unsaturated zone. The uniformity of the daily

  5. Preliminary data report of investigations conducted at the Salmon Site, Lamar County, Mississippi

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-04-01

    The US Department of Energy (DOE) conducted ecological studies at the Salmon Site (SS), Lamar County, Mississippi, from the middle of June 1992 to the end of April 1993. The studies are part of the Remedial Investigation and Feasibility Study (RI/FS) being conducted by the DOE. The RI/FS is the methodology under the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act of 1980, as amended by the Superfund Amendments and Reauthorization Act of 1986 (CERCLA/SARA) for evaluating hazardous waste sites on the National Priorities List (NPL). The Salmon Site is not listed on the NPL but DOE has voluntarily elected to conduct the evaluation of the SS in accordance with CERCLA/SARA. As part of the remedial investigation, baseline human health and ecological risk assessments will be conducted. These baseline risk assessments will evaluate the potential impact on human health and the environment if remedial actions are not conducted, identify locations where additional information needs to be collected, help determine whether remedial actions are necessary, and provide justification for performing remedial actions. This report describes the sampling activities conducted between February and April 1993 to aid in evaluating the possible environmental impacts at the SS tailored to the specific circumstances and conditions found there. The initial investigations included identification of the flora and fauna in and around the SS, with particular emphasis on identifying sensitive environments, endangered species and their habitats, and those species consumed by humans or found in human food chains

  6. Investigation of Imbalanced Activated Carbon Electrode Supercapacitors

    OpenAIRE

    Tieshi He; Xue Ren; Junping Nie; Jun Ying; Kedi Cai

    2015-01-01

    Imbalanced supercapacitor was constructed by using various ratio of activated carbon (AC) of positive to negative electrode. The electrochemical behavior of imbalanced supercapacitor was investigated using 1.0 M spiro-(1,1′)-bipyrrolidinium tetrafluoroborate electrolyte in propylene carbonate. The results showed that there are some factors that influenced the imbalanced supercapacitor with different AC ratio of positive to negative electrode, the utilization of AC, electrode potential distrib...

  7. Available climatological and oceanographical data for site investigation program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lindell, S.; Ambjoern, C.; Juhlin, B.; Larsson-McCann, S.; Lindquist, K.

    2000-03-01

    Information on available data, measurements and models for climate, meteorology, hydrology and oceanography for six communities have been analysed and studied. The six communities are Nykoeping, Oesthammar, Oskarshamn, Tierp, Hultsfred and Aelvkarleby all of them selected by Svensk Kaernbraenslehantering AB, SKB, for a pre-study on possibilities for deep disposal of used nuclear fuel. For each of them a thorough and detailed register of available climatological data together with appropriate statistical properties are listed. The purpose is to compare the six communities concerning climatological and oceanographical data available and analyse the extent of new measurements or model applications needed for all of the selected sites. Statistical information on precipitation, temperature and runoff has good coverage in all of the six communities. If new information concerning any of these variables is needed in sites where no data collection exist today new installation can be made. Data on precipitation in form of snow and days with snow coverage is also available but to a lesser extent. This concerns also days with ground frost and average ground frost level where there is no fully representation of data. If more information is wanted concerning these variables new measurements or model calculations must be initiated. Data on freeze and break-up of ice on lakes is also insufficient but this variable can be calculated with good result by use of one-dimensional models. Data describing air pressure tendency and wind velocity and direction is available for all communities and this information should be sufficient for the purpose of SKB. This is also valid for the variables global radiation and duration of sunshine where no new data should be needed. Measured data on evaporation is normally not available in Sweden more than in special research basins. Actual evaporation is though a variable that easily can be calculated by use of models. There are many lakes in the six

  8. Available climatological and oceanographical data for site investigation program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lindell, S.; Ambjoern, C.; Juhlin, B.; Larsson-McCann, S.; Lindquist, K. [Swedish Meteorological and Hydrological Inst., Norrkoeping (Sweden)

    2000-03-15

    Information on available data, measurements and models for climate, meteorology, hydrology and oceanography for six communities have been analysed and studied. The six communities are Nykoeping, Oesthammar, Oskarshamn, Tierp, Hultsfred and Aelvkarleby all of them selected by Svensk Kaernbraenslehantering AB, SKB, for a pre-study on possibilities for deep disposal of used nuclear fuel. For each of them a thorough and detailed register of available climatological data together with appropriate statistical properties are listed. The purpose is to compare the six communities concerning climatological and oceanographical data available and analyse the extent of new measurements or model applications needed for all of the selected sites. Statistical information on precipitation, temperature and runoff has good coverage in all of the six communities. If new information concerning any of these variables is needed in sites where no data collection exist today new installation can be made. Data on precipitation in form of snow and days with snow coverage is also available but to a lesser extent. This concerns also days with ground frost and average ground frost level where there is no fully representation of data. If more information is wanted concerning these variables new measurements or model calculations must be initiated. Data on freeze and break-up of ice on lakes is also insufficient but this variable can be calculated with good result by use of one-dimensional models. Data describing air pressure tendency and wind velocity and direction is available for all communities and this information should be sufficient for the purpose of SKB. This is also valid for the variables global radiation and duration of sunshine where no new data should be needed. Measured data on evaporation is normally not available in Sweden more than in special research basins. Actual evaporation is though a variable that easily can be calculated by use of models. There are many lakes in the six

  9. Coordination Environment of Copper Sites in Cu-CHA Zeolite Investigated by Electron Paramagnetic Resonance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Godiksen, Anita; Stappen, Frederick N.; Vennestrøm, Peter N. R.

    2014-01-01

    Cu-CHA combines high activity for the selective catalytic reduction (SCR) reaction with better hydrothermal stability and selectivity compared to other copper-substituted zeolites. At the same time Cu-CHA offers an opportunity for unraveling the coordination environment of the copper centers since...... the zeolite framework is very simple with only one crystallographically independent tetrahedral site (T-site). In this study the results of an X-band electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) investigation of ion-exchanged Cu-CHA zeolite with a Si/Al ratio of 14 ± 1 is presented. Different dehydration treatments...... of the EPR silent monomeric Cu2+ in copper-substituted zeolites is suggested to be copper species with an approximate trigonal coordination sphere appearing during the dehydration. After complete dehydration at 250 °C the majority of the EPR silent Cu2+ is suggested to exist as Cu2+–OH– coordinated to two...

  10. Dashboard applications to monitor experiment activities at sites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Andreeva, Julia; Gaidioz, Benjamin; Grigoras, Costin; Kokoszkiewicz, Lukasz; Lanciotti, Elisa; Rocha, Ricardo; Saiz, Pablo; Santinelli, Roberto; Sidorova, Irina; Sciaba, Andrea [CERN, European Organization for Nuclear Research (Switzerland); Belforte, Stefano [INFN Trieste (Italy); Boehm, Max [EDS, an HP Company, Plano, TX (United States); Casajus, Adrian [Universitat de Barcelona (Spain); Flix, Josep [PIC, Port d' Informacio CientIfica, Bellaterra (Spain); Tsaregorodtsev, Andrei, E-mail: Elisa.Lanciotti@cern.c, E-mail: Pablo.Saiz@cern.c [CPPM Marseille (France)

    2010-04-01

    In the framework of a distributed computing environment, such as WLCG, monitoring has a key role in order to keep under control activities going on in sites located in different countries and involving people based in many different sites. To be able to cope with such a large scale heterogeneous infrastructure, it is necessary to have monitoring tools providing a complete and reliable view of the overall performance of the sites. Moreover, the structure of a monitoring system critically depends on the object to monitor and on the users it is addressed to. In this article we will describe two different monitoring systems both aimed to monitor activities and services provided in the WLCG framework, but designed in order to meet the requirements of different users: Site Status Board has an overall view of the services available in all the sites supporting an experiment, whereas Siteview provides a complete view of all the activities going on at a site, for all the experiments supported by the site.

  11. Dashboard applications to monitor experiment activities at sites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andreeva, Julia; Gaidioz, Benjamin; Grigoras, Costin; Kokoszkiewicz, Lukasz; Lanciotti, Elisa; Rocha, Ricardo; Saiz, Pablo; Santinelli, Roberto; Sidorova, Irina; Sciaba, Andrea; Belforte, Stefano; Boehm, Max; Casajus, Adrian; Flix, Josep; Tsaregorodtsev, Andrei

    2010-01-01

    In the framework of a distributed computing environment, such as WLCG, monitoring has a key role in order to keep under control activities going on in sites located in different countries and involving people based in many different sites. To be able to cope with such a large scale heterogeneous infrastructure, it is necessary to have monitoring tools providing a complete and reliable view of the overall performance of the sites. Moreover, the structure of a monitoring system critically depends on the object to monitor and on the users it is addressed to. In this article we will describe two different monitoring systems both aimed to monitor activities and services provided in the WLCG framework, but designed in order to meet the requirements of different users: Site Status Board has an overall view of the services available in all the sites supporting an experiment, whereas Siteview provides a complete view of all the activities going on at a site, for all the experiments supported by the site.

  12. Activation analysis by filtered neutrons. Preliminary investigation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Skarnemark, G.; Rodinson, T.; Skaalberg, M.; Tokay, R.K.

    1986-01-01

    In order to investigate if measuring sensibility and precision by epithermal neutron activation analysis may be improved, different types of geological and biologic test samples were radiated. The test samples were enclosed in an extra filter of tungsten or sodium in order to reduce the flux of those neutrons that otherwise would induce interfering activity in the sample. The geological test samples consist of granites containing lanthanides which had been crushed in tung- sten carbide grinder. Normally such test samples show a interferins 1 87W-activity. By use of a tungsten filter the activity was reduced by up to 60%, which resulted in a considerable improvement of sensibility and precision of the measurement. The biologic test samples consisted of evaporated urine from patients treated with the cell poison cis-platinol. A reliable method to measure the platinum content has not existed so far. This method, however, enables platinum contents as low as about 0.1 ppm to be determined which is quite adequate. To sum up this preliminary study has demonstrated that activation analysis using filtered neutrons, correctly applied, is a satisfactory method of reducing interferences without complicated and time-consuming chemical separation procedures. (O.S.)

  13. Improving Sampling, Analysis, and Data Management for Site Investigation and Cleanup

    Science.gov (United States)

    The United States Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) supports the adoption of streamlined approaches to sampling, analysis, and data management activities conducted during site assessment, characterization, and cleanup.

  14. Active sites environmental monitoring program FY 1997 annual report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morrissey, C.M.; Marshall, D.S.; Cunningham, G.R.

    1998-03-01

    This report summarizes the activities conducted by the Active Sites Environmental Monitoring Program (ASEMP) from October 1996 through September 1997. The purpose of the program is to provide early detection and performance monitoring at active low-level waste (LLW) disposal sites in Solid Waste Storage Area (SWSA) 6 and transuranic (TRU) waste storage sites in SWSA 5 North. This report continues a series of annual and semiannual reports that present the results of ASEMP monitoring activities. This report details monitoring results for fiscal year (FY) 1997 from SWSA 6, including the Interim Waste Management Facility (IWMF) and the Hillcut Disposal Test Facility (HDTF), and (2) TRU-waste storage areas in SWSA 5 N. This report presents a summary of the methodology used to gather data for each major area along with the FY 1997 results. Figures referenced in the text are found in Appendix A and data tables are presented in Appendix B

  15. Final Report: Results of Environmental Site Investigation at Sylvan Grove, Kansas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    LaFreniere, Lorraine M [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States)

    2014-09-01

    Sylvan Grove is located in western Lincoln County, approximately 60 mi west of Salina, Kansas (Figure 1.1). From 1954 to 1966, the Commodity Credit Corporation (CCC), an agency of the U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA), operated a grain storage facility at the northeastern edge of Sylvan Grove. During this time, commercial grain fumigants containing carbon tetrachloride were in common use to preserve grain in storage. In 1998, the Kansas Department of Health and Environment (KDHE) found carbon tetrachloride above the maximum contaminant level (MCL) of 5 μg/L in groundwater from one private well used for livestock and lawn and garden watering. The 1998 KDHE sampling at Sylvan Grove was conducted under the USDA private well sampling program. To determine whether the former CCC/USDA facility at Sylvan Grove is a potential contaminant source and its possible relationship to the contamination in groundwater, the CCC/USDA proposed to conduct an environmental site investigation, in accordance with the Intergovernmental Agreement between the KDHE and the Farm Service Agency (FSA) of the USDA. Argonne National Laboratory, on behalf of the CCC/USDA, developed a work plan (Argonne 2012) for the site investigation and a supplemental work plan for indoor and ambient air sampling (Appendix A). The proposed work was approved by the KDHE (2012a, 2013). The investigations were performed by the Environmental Science Division of Argonne National Laboratory, on behalf of the CCC/USDA. The main activities for the site investigation were conducted in June 2012, and indoor and ambient air sampling was performed in February 2013. This report presents the findings of the investigations at Sylvan Grove.

  16. Investigation of the site selection examples adopted local participation. The site selection processes in Belgium, UK and Switzerland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kageyama, Hitoshi; Suzuki, Shinji; Hirose, Ikuro; Yoshioka, Tatsuji

    2014-06-01

    In late years, local participation policies are being adopted in foreign countries at site selection for the disposal of the radioactive waste. We performed documents investigation about the examples of the site selection processes of Belgium, the U.K., and Switzerland to establish the site selection policy in Japan. In Belgium, after the failure of the site selection for the disposal of short-lived low and intermediate level radioactive waste (LILW) in an early stage, the idea of the local partnership (LP) was developed and three independent LPs were established between the implementing body and each municipality. About 7 years later, one site was decided as the disposal site in the cabinet meeting of the federal government. In the U.K., after the failure of the site selection for the rock characterization facility, the government policy was changed and the consultation process comprised of six phases was started. Though the process had been carried out for over 4 years since one combined partnership was established between the implementing body and the municipalities involved, they had to withdraw from the consulting process because a county council had not accepted that the process would step forward to the 4th phase. In Switzerland, the implementing body selected one site for LILW disposal at an early stage, but the project was denied by the referendum in the Canton having jurisdiction over the site area. After that the Federal Parliament established new Nuclear Energy Act and Nuclear Energy Ordinance precluding the veto of Canton. Now the site selection project is being carried out according to the process comprised of three phases with local participation policy. Reviewing the merits and demerits of each example through this investigation, we confirmed if we are to adopt local participation policy in our country in future, further prudent study would be necessary, considering current and future social conditions in Japan. (author)

  17. Field site investigation: Effect of mine seismicity on groundwater hydrology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ofoegbu, G.I.; Hsiung, S.; Chowdhury, A.H.

    1995-04-01

    The results of a field investigation on the groundwater-hydrologic effect of mining-induced earthquakes are presented in this report. The investigation was conducted at the Lucky Friday Mine, a silver-lead-zinc mine in the Coeur d'Alene Mining District of Idaho. The groundwater pressure in sections of three fracture zones beneath the water table was monitored over a 24-mo period. The fracture zones were accessed through a 360-m-long inclined borehole, drilled from the 5,700 level station of the mine. The magnitude, source location, and associated ground motions of mining-induced seismic events were also monitored during the same period, using an existing seismic instrumentation network for the mine, augmented with additional instruments installed specifically for the project by the center for Nuclear Waste Regulatory Analyses (CNWRA). More than 50 seismic events of Richter magnitude 1.0 or larger occurred during the monitoring period. Several of these events caused the groundwater pressure to increase, whereas a few caused it to decrease. Generally, the groundwater pressure increased as the magnitude of seismic event increased; for an event of a given magnitude, the groundwater pressure increased by a smaller amount as the distance of the observation point from the source of the event increased. The data was examined using regression analysis. Based on these results, it is suggested that the effect of earthquakes on groundwater flow may be better understood through mechanistic modeling. The mechanical processes and material behavior that would need to be incorporated in such a model are examined. They include a description of the effect of stress change on the permeability and water storage capacity of a fracture rock mass; transient fluid flow; and the generation and transmission of seismic waves through the rock mass

  18. Preliminary site characterization radiological monitoring plan for the Nevada Nuclear Waste Storage Investigations Project, Yucca Mountain Site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1987-03-01

    The activities described in this plan occur in the early phases of site characterization. This document presents the Preliminary Site Characterization Radiological Monitoring Plan (PSCRMP) for collecting and evaluating data in support of the NNWSI Project. The PSCRMP defines and identifies control procedures for the monitoring activities. The PSCRMP activity will utilize integrating radon monitoring devices, a continuous radon monitor, and a particulate air sampler. These instruments will be used to establish the baseline radioactivity and/or radioactivity released due to early site characterization activities. The sections that follow provide a general project description, the specifics of the monitoring program, and the practices that will be employed to ensure the validity of the collected data by integrating quality assurance into all activities. Section 2 of this document describes the regulatory base of this document. Section 3 describes the site characterization activities which may lead to release of radioactivity. Section 4 provides a description of the potential sources of radioactivity that site characterization could generate. Section 5 summarizes the sampling and monitoring methodology, which will be used to monitor the potential sources of radioactivity. The network of sampling and monitoring equipment is described in Section 6, and Section 7 summarizes the systems operation activities. The data reporting activities are described in Section 8. Finally, a description of the Quality Assurance (QA) and Quality Control (QC) activities is provided in Section 9. Appendix A contains a summary of the procedures to be used in this program, and Appendix B contains technical specification on equipment and services. 20 refs., 11 figs., 2 tabs

  19. Volatile Organic Compound Investigation Results, 300 Area, Hanford Site, Washington

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peterson, Robert E.; Williams, Bruce A.; Smith, Ronald M.

    2008-07-07

    Unexpectedly high concentrations of volatile organic compounds (VOC) were discovered while drilling in the unconfined aquifer beneath the Hanford Site’s 300 Area during 2006. The discovery involved an interval of relatively finer-grained sediment within the unconfined aquifer, an interval that is not sampled by routine groundwater monitoring. Although VOC contamination in the unconfined aquifer has been identified and monitored, the concentrations of newly discovered contamination are much higher than encountered previously, with some new results significantly higher than the drinking water standards. The primary contaminant is trichloroethene, with lesser amounts of tetrachloroethene. Both chemicals were used extensively as degreasing agents during the fuels fabrication process. A biological degradation product of these chemicals, 1,2-dichloroethene, was also detected. To further define the nature and extent of this contamination, additional characterization drilling was undertaken during 2007. Four locations were drilled to supplement the information obtained at four locations drilled during the earlier investigation in 2006. The results of the combined drilling indicate that the newly discovered contamination is limited to a relatively finer-grained interval of Ringold Formation sediment within the unconfined aquifer. The extent of this contamination appears to be the area immediately east and south of the former South Process Pond. Samples collected from the finer-grained sediment at locations along the shoreline confirm the presence of the contamination near the groundwater/river interface. Contamination was not detected in river water that flows over the area where the river channel potentially incises the finer-grained interval of aquifer sediment. The source for this contamination is not readily apparent. A search of historical documents and the Hanford Waste Information Data System did not provide definitive clues as to waste disposal operations and

  20. Corrective Action Investigation Plan for Corrective Action Unit 570: Area 9 Yucca Flat Atmospheric Test Sites Nevada National Security Site, Nevada, Revision 0

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Patrick Matthews

    2012-08-01

    CAU 570 comprises the following six corrective action sites (CASs): • 02-23-07, Atmospheric Test Site - Tesla • 09-23-10, Atmospheric Test Site T-9 • 09-23-11, Atmospheric Test Site S-9G • 09-23-14, Atmospheric Test Site - Rushmore • 09-23-15, Eagle Contamination Area • 09-99-01, Atmospheric Test Site B-9A These sites are being investigated because existing information on the nature and extent of potential contamination is insufficient to evaluate and recommend corrective action alternatives (CAAs). Additional information will be obtained by conducting a corrective action investigation before evaluating CAAs and selecting the appropriate corrective action for each CAS. The results of the field investigation will support a defensible evaluation of viable CAAs that will be presented in the Corrective Action Decision Document. The sites will be investigated based on the data quality objectives (DQOs) developed on April 30, 2012, by representatives of the Nevada Division of Environmental Protection and the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Site Office. The DQO process was used to identify and define the type, amount, and quality of data needed to develop and evaluate appropriate corrective actions for CAU 570. The site investigation process will also be conducted in accordance with the Soils Activity Quality Assurance Plan, which establishes requirements, technical planning, and general quality practices to be applied to this activity. The presence and nature of contamination at CAU 570 will be evaluated based on information collected from a field investigation. Radiological contamination will be evaluated based on a comparison of the total effective dose at sample locations to the dose-based final action level. The total effective dose will be calculated as the total of separate estimates of internal and external dose. Results from the analysis of soil samples will be used to calculate internal radiological

  1. Preliminary safety evaluation for the Laxemar subarea. Based on data and site descriptions after the initial site investigation stage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Andersson, Johan [JA Streamflow AB, Aelvsjoe (Sweden)

    2006-03-15

    The main objectives of this Preliminary Safety Evaluation (PSE) of the Laxemar subarea have been to determine, with limited efforts, whether the feasibility study's judgement of the suitability of the candidate area with respect to long-term safety holds up in the light of the actual site investigation data; to provide feedback to continued site investigations and site-specific repository design and to identify site-specific scenarios and geoscientific issues for further analyses. The PSE focuses on comparing the attained knowledge of the sites with the suitability criteria as set out by SKB in 2000. These criteria both concern properties of the site judged to be necessary for safety and engineering (requirements) and properties judged to be beneficial (preferences). The findings are then evaluated in order to provide feedback to continued investigations and design work. The PSE does not aim at comparing sites and does not assess compliance with safety and radiation protection criteria. The latter is eventually done in coming Safety Assessments. This preliminary safety evaluation shows that, according to existing data, the Laxemar subarea meets all safety requirements. The evaluation also shows that the Laxemar subarea meets most of the safety preferences, but for some aspects of the site description further reduction of the uncertainties would enhance the safety case. Despite the stated concerns, there is no reason, from a safety point of view, not to continue the Site Investigations at the Laxemar subarea. There are uncertainties to resolve and the safety would eventually need to be verified through a proper safety assessment. Only some of the uncertainties noted in the Site Descriptive Model have safety implications and need further resolution for this reason. Furthermore, uncertainties may need resolving for other reasons, such as giving an adequate assurance of site understanding or assisting in optimising design. Notably, there are questions about the

  2. Preliminary safety evaluation for the Laxemar subarea. Based on data and site descriptions after the initial site investigation stage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andersson, Johan

    2006-03-01

    The main objectives of this Preliminary Safety Evaluation (PSE) of the Laxemar subarea have been to determine, with limited efforts, whether the feasibility study's judgement of the suitability of the candidate area with respect to long-term safety holds up in the light of the actual site investigation data; to provide feedback to continued site investigations and site-specific repository design and to identify site-specific scenarios and geoscientific issues for further analyses. The PSE focuses on comparing the attained knowledge of the sites with the suitability criteria as set out by SKB in 2000. These criteria both concern properties of the site judged to be necessary for safety and engineering (requirements) and properties judged to be beneficial (preferences). The findings are then evaluated in order to provide feedback to continued investigations and design work. The PSE does not aim at comparing sites and does not assess compliance with safety and radiation protection criteria. The latter is eventually done in coming Safety Assessments. This preliminary safety evaluation shows that, according to existing data, the Laxemar subarea meets all safety requirements. The evaluation also shows that the Laxemar subarea meets most of the safety preferences, but for some aspects of the site description further reduction of the uncertainties would enhance the safety case. Despite the stated concerns, there is no reason, from a safety point of view, not to continue the Site Investigations at the Laxemar subarea. There are uncertainties to resolve and the safety would eventually need to be verified through a proper safety assessment. Only some of the uncertainties noted in the Site Descriptive Model have safety implications and need further resolution for this reason. Furthermore, uncertainties may need resolving for other reasons, such as giving an adequate assurance of site understanding or assisting in optimising design. Notably, there are questions about the

  3. Corrective Action Investigation Plan for Corrective Action Unit 139: Waste Disposal Sites, Nevada Test Site, Nevada, Rev. No.: 0

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grant Evenson

    2006-04-01

    Corrective Action Unit (CAU) 139 is located in Areas 3, 4, 6, and 9 of the Nevada Test Site, which is 65 miles northwest of Las Vegas, Nevada. Corrective Action Unit 139 is comprised of the seven corrective action sites (CASs) listed below: (1) 03-35-01, Burn Pit; (2) 04-08-02, Waste Disposal Site; (3) 04-99-01, Contaminated Surface Debris; (4) 06-19-02, Waste Disposal Site/Burn Pit; (5) 06-19-03, Waste Disposal Trenches; (6) 09-23-01, Area 9 Gravel Gertie; and (7) 09-34-01, Underground Detection Station. These sites are being investigated because existing information on the nature and extent of potential contamination is insufficient to evaluate and recommend corrective action alternatives with the exception of CASs 09-23-01 and 09-34-01. Regarding these two CASs, CAS 09-23-01 is a gravel gertie where a zero-yield test was conducted with all contamination confined to below ground within the area of the structure, and CAS 09-34-01 is an underground detection station where no contaminants are present. Additional information will be obtained by conducting a corrective action investigation (CAI) before evaluating corrective action alternatives and selecting the appropriate corrective action for the other five CASs where information is insufficient. The results of the field investigation will support a defensible evaluation of viable corrective action alternatives that will be presented in the Corrective Action Decision Document. The sites will be investigated based on the data quality objectives (DQOs) developed on January 4, 2006, by representatives of the Nevada Division of Environmental Protection; U.S. Department of Energy, National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Site Office; Stoller-Navarro Joint Venture; and Bechtel Nevada. The DQO process was used to identify and define the type, amount, and quality of data needed to develop and evaluate appropriate corrective actions for CAU 139.

  4. Active Sites Environmental Monitoring Program: Mid-FY 1991 report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ashwood, T.L.; Wickliff, D.S.; Morrissey, C.M.

    1991-10-01

    This report summarizes the activities of the Active Sites Environmental Monitoring Program (ASEMP) from October 1990 through March 1991. The ASEMP was established in 1989 by Solid Waste Operations and the Environmental Sciences Division to provide early detection and performance monitoring at active low-level radioactive waste (LLW) disposal sites in Solid Waste Storage Area (SWSA) 6 and transuranic (TRU) waste storage sites in SWSA 5 as required by chapters II and III of US Department of Energy Order 5820.2A. Monitoring results continue to demonstrate the no LLW is being leached from the storage vaults on the tumulus pads. Loading of vaults on Tumulus II began during this reporting period and 115 vaults had been loaded by the end of March 1991.

  5. Geometric investigation of a gaming active device

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menna, Fabio; Remondino, Fabio; Battisti, Roberto; Nocerino, Erica

    2011-07-01

    3D imaging systems are widely available and used for surveying, modeling and entertainment applications, but clear statements regarding their characteristics, performances and limitations are still missing. The VDI/VDE and the ASTME57 committees are trying to set some standards but the commercial market is not reacting properly. Since many new users are approaching these 3D recording methodologies, clear statements and information clarifying if a package or system satisfies certain requirements before investing are fundamental for those users who are not really familiar with these technologies. Recently small and portable consumer-grade active sensors came on the market, like TOF rangeimaging cameras or low-cost triangulation-based range sensor. A quite interesting active system was produced by PrimeSense and launched on the market thanks to the Microsoft Xbox project with the name of Kinect. The article reports the geometric investigation of the Kinect active sensors, considering its measurement performances, the accuracy of the retrieved range data and the possibility to use it for 3D modeling application.

  6. Verification study on technology for site investigation for geological disposal. Confirmation of the applicability of survey methods through establishing site descriptive models in accordance with stepwise investigation approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kondo, Hirofumi; Suzuki, Koichi; Hasegawa, Takuma; Hamada, Takaomi; Yoshimura, Kimitaka

    2014-01-01

    The Yokosuka Demonstration and Validation Project, which uses the Yokosuka Central Research Institute of Electric Power Industry (CRIEPI) site, a Neogene sedimentary and coastal environment, has been conducted since the 2006 fiscal year as a cooperative research project between NUMO (Nuclear Waste Management Organization of Japan) and CRIEPI. The objectives of this project were to examine and refine the basic methodology of the investigation and assessment in accordance with the conditions of geological environment at each stage of investigations from the surface (Preliminary Investigation and the first half of Detailed Investigation conducted by NUMO) for high level radioactive waste geological disposal. Within investigation technologies at these early stages, a borehole survey is an important means of directly obtaining various properties of the deep geological environment. On the other hand, surface geophysical prospecting data provide information about the geological and resistivity structures at depth for planning borehole surveys. During the 2006-2009 fiscal years, a series of on-site surveys and tests, including borehole surveys of YDP-1 (depth: 350 m) and YDP-2 (depth: 500 m), were conducted in this test site. Furthermore, seismic surveys (including seismic reflection method) and electromagnetic surveys (including magnetotelluric method) were conducted within the expanded CRIEPI site in the 2010 fiscal year to obtain information about the geological structure, and the resistivity structure reflecting the distribution of the salt water/fresh water boundary, respectively, to a depth of over several hundred meters. The validity of existing survey and testing methods for stepwise investigations (from surface to borehole surveys) for obtaining properties of the geological environment (in various conditions relating to differences in the properties of the Miura and the Hayama Groups at this site) was confirmed through establishing site descriptive models based on

  7. Development of the web-based site investigation flow diagram in repository development program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamamoto, Shuichi; Yoshimura, Kimitaka; Ohuchi, Jin; Tsuboya, Takao; Ando, Kenichi

    2005-01-01

    In siting a repository for high level radioactive wastes (HLW), it is essential for consensus building intelligibly and visually present why and how the area is selected as a suitable site. However 'information asymmetry' exists especially between society and an implementation body because various types of investigation, analysis and assessment are implemented in site characterization on the basis of a wide variety of advanced science and technology. Communication between experts (e.g. surveyors and modelers) is also important for efficient and reliable site investigation/ characterization. The Web-based Site Investigation Flow Diagram (SIFD) has been developed as a tool for information sharing among stake holders and society-jointed decision making. To test applicability of the SIFD, virtual site characterization ('dry run') is performed using the existing site investigation data. It is concluded that the web-based SIFD enhance traceability and transparency of the site investigation/ characterization, and therefore it would be a powerful communication tool among experts for efficient and reliable site investigation/characterization and among stake holders for consensus building

  8. Animal investigation program: Nevada test site and vicinity. Annual report, 1977

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, D.D.; Crockett, A.B.; Bernhardt, D.E.; Giles, K.R.; Kinnison, R.R.

    1979-07-01

    Data are presented from the radioanalysis of tissues collected from cattle, mule deer, desert bighorn sheep, rabbits, feral horses, and other wildlife that resided on or near the Nevada Test Site. Routine activities and special investigations of the Animal Investigation Program are also discussed. Other than potassium-40, gamma-emitting radionuclides were detected infrequently. Strontium-90 concentrations in bones from deer, cattle, and desert bighorn sheep continued the downward trend of recent years. Tritium concentrations were generally within expected environmental limits with the exception of animals exposed to sources of contamination. Radionuclide tissue concentrations were generally higher in the tissues of animals residing in Area 15 than in other areas. Statistical analyses made of plutonium-239 levels reported in cattle tissue collected from 1971 through 1977 reveal that activity levels in lungs, liver, and bone are significantly related to age. Activity levels did not change significantly in the ingesta and lungs during this time but did tend to increase for bone and liver. Activity levels in the ingesta are significantly higher in the fall than in the spring. Hypothetical dose estimates to man were calculated on the basis of liver or muscle from animals that contained peak radionuclide levels. The highest postulated dose was 8.6 millirems for tritium in tissues from a mule deer. The movements of 17 mule deer were monitored on a weekly basis.During the winter months, all deer left their summer range on the mesas of the Nevada Test Site and migrated 40 to 60 kilometers south and west. A statistical estimate was made of the deer population in selected areas utilizing the marked deer as a basis for this estimate. No gross or microscopic lesions were found in necropsied animals that could be directly attributed to the effects of ionizing radiation

  9. “Doing the Wrong Things Right” Site Investigations in Soft Soil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jamilus, M. H.; Lim, A. J. M. S.; Azhar, A. T. S.; Azmi, M. A. M.

    2016-11-01

    Site investigation is a very important process by which geotechnical, geological and other relevant information which might affect the construction or performance of a civil engineering or building project is acquired. However, common practice in site investigations is not always in accordance to the standard that has been defined. Reliability on the information obtained depends upon several factors that involves correct procedures and competent workers and also supervision. Several examples on site investigation methods are discussed in this paper. Explanation on the difference between the site investigation methods used for real practices in the field and how it should be done are discussed in detail. Therefore, it is hoped that site investigation should always be uniquely planned and should be an interactive and flexible process of discovery and changes according to the condition of the soil.

  10. Different integrated geophysical approaches to investigate archaeological sites in urban and suburban area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piro, Salvatore; Papale, Enrico; Zamuner, Daniela

    2016-04-01

    Geophysical methods are frequently used in archaeological prospection in order to provide detailed information about the presence of structures in the subsurface as well as their position and their geometrical reconstruction, by measuring variations of some physical properties. Often, due to the limited size and depth of an archaeological structure, it may be rather difficult to single out its position and extent because of the generally low signal-to-noise ratio. This problem can be overcome by improving data acquisition, processing techniques and by integrating different geophysical methods. In this work, two sites of archaeological interest, were investigated employing several methods (Ground Penetrating Radar (GPR), Electrical Resistivity Tomography (ERT), Fluxgate Differential Magnetic) to obtain precise and detailed maps of subsurface bodies. The first site, situated in a suburban area between Itri and Fondi, in the Aurunci Natural Regional Park (Central Italy), is characterized by the presence of remains of past human activity dating from the third century B.C. The second site, is instead situated in an urban area in the city of Rome (Basilica di Santa Balbina), where historical evidence is also present. The methods employed, allowed to determine the position and the geometry of some structures in the subsurface related to this past human activity. To have a better understanding of the subsurface, we then performed a qualitative and quantitative integration of this data, which consists in fusing the data from all the methods used, to have a complete visualization of the investigated area. Qualitative integration consists in graphically overlaying the maps obtained by the single methods; this method yields only images, not new data that may be subsequently analyzed. Quantitative integration is instead performed by mathematical and statistical solutions, which allows to have a more accurate reconstruction of the subsurface and generates new data with high

  11. Corrective Action Investigation Plan for Corrective Action Unit 105: Area 2 Yucca Flat Atmospheric Test Sites Nevada National Security Site, Nevada, Revision 0

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Patrick Matthews

    2012-09-01

    Corrective Action Unit (CAU) 105 is located in Area 2 of the Nevada National Security Site, which is approximately 65 miles northwest of Las Vegas, Nevada. CAU 105 is a geographical grouping of sites where there has been a suspected release of contamination associated with atmospheric nuclear testing. This document describes the planned investigation of CAU 105, which comprises the following corrective action sites (CASs): • 02-23-04, Atmospheric Test Site - Whitney • 02-23-05, Atmospheric Test Site T-2A • 02-23-06, Atmospheric Test Site T-2B • 02-23-08, Atmospheric Test Site T-2 • 02-23-09, Atmospheric Test Site - Turk These sites are being investigated because existing information on the nature and extent of potential contamination is insufficient to evaluate and recommend corrective action alternatives (CAAs). Additional information will be obtained by conducting a corrective action investigation before evaluating CAAs and selecting the appropriate corrective action for each CAS. The results of the field investigation will support a defensible evaluation of viable CAAs that will be presented in the Corrective Action Decision Document. The sites will be investigated based on the data quality objectives (DQOs) developed on April 30, 2012, by representatives of the Nevada Division of Environmental Protection and the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Site Office. The DQO process was used to identify and define the type, amount, and quality of data needed to develop and evaluate appropriate corrective actions for CAU 105. The site investigation process will also be conducted in accordance with the Soils Activity Quality Assurance Plan, which establishes requirements, technical planning, and general quality practices to be applied to this activity. The potential contamination sources associated with all CAU 105 CASs are from atmospheric nuclear testing activities. The presence and nature of contamination at CAU

  12. Animal Investigation Program 1973 annual report: Nevada Test Site and vicinity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, D.D.; Giles, K.R.; Bernhardt, D.E.

    1977-05-01

    Data are presented from the radioanalysis of tissues collected from cattle, deer, desert bighorn sheep, and other wildlife that resided on or near the Nevada Test Site during 1973. Routine activities and special investigations are discussed. Iodine-131 was detected in the thyroid of a Nevada Test Site mule deer. The postulated source was worldwide fallout from a nuclear detonation conducted by the People's Republic of China. Other than the naturally occurring potassium-40, cesium-137 was the only gamma-emitting radionuclide detected with any consistency in soft tissues. Nine muscle samples from the Nevada Test Site beef herd contained levels of cesium-137 ranging from 14 to 50 pCi/kilogram. Muscle from two deer contained 20 and 30 pCi/kilogram. Rabbit muscle contained 200 pCi/kilogram and muscle from a feral horse contained 40 pCi/kilogram. Tritium levels in all animal tissues sampled were at background except for animals residing at the Area 15 farm and for a feral horse. Postulated sources of these exposures are discussed. The strontium content in bones continued the downward trend observed during recent years

  13. Investigation of Imbalanced Activated Carbon Electrode Supercapacitors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tieshi He

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Imbalanced supercapacitor was constructed by using various ratio of activated carbon (AC of positive to negative electrode. The electrochemical behavior of imbalanced supercapacitor was investigated using 1.0 M spiro-(1,1′-bipyrrolidinium tetrafluoroborate electrolyte in propylene carbonate. The results showed that there are some factors that influenced the imbalanced supercapacitor with different AC ratio of positive to negative electrode, the utilization of AC, electrode potential distribution, and life cycle. The imbalanced supercapacitor with an AC weight ratio of 80 : 120 of positive to negative electrode has an average potential distribution in each electrode, and it revealed the best electrochemical performance: specific capacitor was 39.6 F·g−1, while the charge-discharge efficiency was 97.2% after 2000 life cycle tests.

  14. Preliminary site description Laxemar stage 2.1. Feedback for completion of the site investigation including input from safety assessment and repository engineering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2006-09-15

    with the assessment possible on the basis of Laxemar 1.2 data. The list of site-specific critical issues is largely considered being covered by the complete site investigation programme. The added discipline-wise activities are expected to answer up to these issues/uncertainties. Many of the findings, some being of tentative nature, will be followed up more closely in the ensuing modelling steps.

  15. Preliminary site description Laxemar stage 2.1. Feedback for completion of the site investigation including input from safety assessment and repository engineering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2006-09-01

    assessment possible on the basis of Laxemar 1.2 data. The list of site-specific critical issues is largely considered being covered by the complete site investigation programme. The added discipline-wise activities are expected to answer up to these issues/uncertainties. Many of the findings, some being of tentative nature, will be followed up more closely in the ensuing modelling steps

  16. The nature of the active site in heterogeneous metal catalysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nørskov, Jens Kehlet; Bligaard, Thomas; Larsen, Britt Hvolbæk

    2008-01-01

    This tutorial review, of relevance for the surface science and heterogeneous catalysis communities, provides a molecular-level discussion of the nature of the active sites in metal catalysis. Fundamental concepts such as "Bronsted-Evans-Polanyi relations'' and "volcano curves'' are introduced...

  17. Active Sites Environmental Monitoring Program: FY 1990 annual report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wickliff, D.S.; Morrissey, C.M.; Ashwood, T.L.

    1991-10-01

    Chapter 3 of US Department of Energy (DOE) Order 5820.2A (DOE 1988) sets forth requirements for environmental monitoring of active low-level waste (LLW) disposal sites. Active sites are defined as those LLW facilities that were in use on or after the date of the order (September 1988). The transuranic (TRU) waste storage areas in Solid Waste Storage Area (SWSA) 5 North are covered by Chap. 2 of the order. In both chapters, monitoring is required to provide for early warning of leaks before those leaks pose a threat to human health or the environment. Chapter 3 also requires that monitoring be conducted to evaluate the short- and long-term performance of LLW disposal facilities. In accordance with this order, the Solid Waste Operations Department at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) has established an Active Sites Environmental Monitoring Program (ASEMP) that is implemented by staff of the Environmental Sciences Division (ESD) at ORNL. This report summarizes data from ASEMP monitoring activities for the final 6 months of FY 1990. A brief summary of the monitoring methodology for each site is presented also

  18. Leachate characterization of active and closed dump sites in Port ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study characterizes the leachate quality of both active and closed dump sites in Port Harcourt City. Leachates were sampled from the base of the dum psites and analysed, pH, dissolved oxygen (DO), electrical conductivity and total dissolved solids were determined on the samples in-situ. While chloride, sulphate ...

  19. WAG 2 remedial investigation and site investigation site-specific work plan/health and safety checklist for the ecological assessment task, Kingfisher Study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Holt, V.L.; Baron, L.A.

    1994-05-01

    This report provides specific details and requirements for the WAG 2 remedial investigation and site investigation Ecological Assessment Task, Kingfisher Study, including information that will contribute to safe completion of the project. The report includes historical background; a site map; project organization; task descriptions and hazard evaluations; controls; and monitoring, personal protective equipment, decontamination, and medical surveillance program requirements. The report also includes descriptions of site personnel and their certifications as well as suspected WAG 2 contaminants and their characteristics. The primary objective of the WAG 2 Kingfisher Study is to assess the feasibility of using kingfishers as biological monitors of contaminants on the Oak Ridge Reservation (ORR). Kingfisher sample collection will be used to determine the levels of contaminants and degree of bioaccumulation within a common piscivorous bird feeding on contaminated fish from streams on the ORR

  20. WSSRAP chemical plant geotechnical investigations for the Weldon Spring Site Remedial Action Project, Weldon Spring, Missouri

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1990-12-01

    This document has been prepared for the United states Department of Energy (DOE) Weldon Spring Site Remedial Action Project (WSSRAP) by the Project Management Contractor (PMC), which consists of MK-Ferguson Company (MKF) and Morrison Knudsen Corporation Environmental Services Group (MKES) with Jacobs Engineering Group (JEG) as MKF's predesignated subcontractor. This report presents the results of site geotechnical investigations conducted by the PMC in the vicinity of the Weldon Spring chemical plant and raffinate pits (WSCP/RP) and in potential on-site and off-site clayey material borrow sources. The WSCP/RP is the proposed disposal cell (DC) site. 39 refs., 24 figs., 12 tabs

  1. Direct instrumental identification of catalytically active surface sites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pfisterer, Jonas H. K.; Liang, Yunchang; Schneider, Oliver; Bandarenka, Aliaksandr S.

    2017-09-01

    The activity of heterogeneous catalysts—which are involved in some 80 per cent of processes in the chemical and energy industries—is determined by the electronic structure of specific surface sites that offer optimal binding of reaction intermediates. Directly identifying and monitoring these sites during a reaction should therefore provide insight that might aid the targeted development of heterogeneous catalysts and electrocatalysts (those that participate in electrochemical reactions) for practical applications. The invention of the scanning tunnelling microscope (STM) and the electrochemical STM promised to deliver such imaging capabilities, and both have indeed contributed greatly to our atomistic understanding of heterogeneous catalysis. But although the STM has been used to probe and initiate surface reactions, and has even enabled local measurements of reactivity in some systems, it is not generally thought to be suited to the direct identification of catalytically active surface sites under reaction conditions. Here we demonstrate, however, that common STMs can readily map the catalytic activity of surfaces with high spatial resolution: we show that by monitoring relative changes in the tunnelling current noise, active sites can be distinguished in an almost quantitative fashion according to their ability to catalyse the hydrogen-evolution reaction or the oxygen-reduction reaction. These data allow us to evaluate directly the importance and relative contribution to overall catalyst activity of different defects and sites at the boundaries between two materials. With its ability to deliver such information and its ready applicability to different systems, we anticipate that our method will aid the rational design of heterogeneous catalysts.

  2. Cavola experiment site: geophysical investigations and deployment of a dense seismic array on a landslide

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Martelli

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Geophysical site investigations have been performed in association with deployment of a dense array of 95 3-component seismometers on the Cavola landslide in the Northern Apennines. The aim of the array is to study propagation of seismic waves in the heterogeneous medium through comparison of observation and modelling. The small-aperture array (130 m×56 m operated continuously for three months in 2004. Cavola landslide consists of a clay body sliding over mudstone-shale basement, and has a record of historical activity, including destruction of a small village in 1960. The site investigations include down-hole logging of P- and S-wave travel times at a new borehole drilled within the array, two seismic refraction lines with both P-wave profiling and surface-wave analyses, geo-electrical profiles and seismic noise measurements. From the different approaches a consistent picture of the depths and seismic velocities for the landslide has emerged. Their estimates agree with resonance frequencies of seismic noise, and also with the logged depths to basement of 25 m at a new borehole and of 44 m at a pre-existing borehole. Velocities for S waves increase with depth, from 230 m/s at the surface to 625 m/s in basement immediately below the landslide.

  3. Work plan for the remedial investigation/feasibility study-environmental assessment for the Colonie site, Colonie, New York

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1990-06-01

    This work plan has been prepared to document the scoping and planning process performed by the US Department of Energy (DOE) to support remedial action activities at the Colonie site. The site is located in eastern New York State in the town of Colonie near the city of Albany. Remedial action of the Colonie site is being planned as part of DOE's Formerly Utilized Sites Remedial Action Program. The DOE is responsible for controlling the release of all radioactive and chemical contaminants from the site. Under the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA), a remedial investigation/feasibility study (RI/FS) must be prepared to support the decision-making process for evaluating remedial action alternatives. This work plan contains a summary of information known about the site as of January 1988, presents a conceptual site model that identifies potential routes of human exposure to site containments, identifies data gaps, and summarizes the process and proposed studies that will be used to fill the data gaps. In addition, DOE activities must be conducted in compliance with the National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA), which requires consideration of the environmental consequences of a proposed action as part of its decision-making process. This work also describes the approach that will be used to evaluate potential remedial action alternatives and includes a description of the organization, project controls, and task schedules that will be employed to fulfill the requirements of both CERCLA and NEPA. 48 refs., 18 figs., 25 tabs

  4. Anoxic degradation of nitrogenous heterocyclic compounds by activated sludge and their active sites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Peng; Han, Hongjun; Zhuang, Haifeng; Hou, Baolin; Jia, Shengyong; Wang, Dexin; Li, Kun; Zhao, Qian

    2015-05-01

    The potential for degradation of five nitrogenous heterocyclic compounds (NHCs), i.e., imidazole, pyridine, indole, quinoline, and carbazole, was investigated under anoxic conditions with acclimated activated sludge. Results showed that NHCs with initial concentration of 50 mg/L could be completely degraded within 60 hr. The degradation of five NHCs was dependent upon the chemical structures with the following sequence: imidazole>pyridine>indole>quinoline>carbazole in terms of their degradation rates. Quantitative structure-biodegradability relationship studies of the five NHCs showed that the anoxic degradation rates were correlated well with highest occupied molecular orbital. Additionally, the active sites of NHCs identified by calculation were confirmed by analysis of intermediates using gas chromatography and mass spectrometry. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  5. Corrective Action Investigation Plan for Corrective Action Unit 145: Wells and Storage Holes, Nevada Test Site, Nevada, Rev. No.: 0

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    David A. Strand

    2004-09-01

    This Corrective Action Investigation Plan (CAIP) contains project-specific information for conducting site investigation activities at Corrective Action Unit (CAU) 145: Wells and Storage Holes. Information presented in this CAIP includes facility descriptions, environmental sample collection objectives, and criteria for the selection and evaluation of environmental samples. Corrective Action Unit 145 is located in Area 3 of the Nevada Test Site, which is 65 miles northwest of Las Vegas, Nevada. Corrective Action Unit 145 is comprised of the six Corrective Action Sites (CASs) listed below: (1) 03-20-01, Core Storage Holes; (2) 03-20-02, Decon Pad and Sump; (3) 03-20-04, Injection Wells; (4) 03-20-08, Injection Well; (5) 03-25-01, Oil Spills; and (6) 03-99-13, Drain and Injection Well. These sites are being investigated because existing information on the nature and extent of potential contamination is insufficient to evaluate and recommend corrective action alternatives. Additional information will be obtained by conducting a corrective action investigation (CAI) prior to evaluating corrective action alternatives and selecting the appropriate corrective action for each CAS. The results of the field investigation will support a defensible evaluation of viable corrective action alternatives that will be presented in the Corrective Action Decision Document. One conceptual site model with three release scenario components was developed for the six CASs to address all releases associated with the site. The sites will be investigated based on data quality objectives (DQOs) developed on June 24, 2004, by representatives of the Nevada Division of Environmental Protection; U.S. Department of Energy, National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Site Office; Stoller-Navarro Joint Venture; and Bechtel Nevada. The DQOs process was used to identify and define the type, amount, and quality of data needed to develop and evaluate appropriate corrective actions for CAU 145.

  6. SRP baseline hydrogeologic investigation: Aquifer characterization. Groundwater geochemistry of the Savannah River Site and vicinity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Strom, R.N.; Kaback, D.S.

    1992-03-31

    An investigation of the mineralogy and chemistry of the principal hydrogeologic units and the geochemistry of the water in the principal aquifers at Savannah River Site (SRS) was undertaken as part of the Baseline Hydrogeologic Investigation. This investigation was conducted to provide background data for future site studies and reports and to provide a site-wide interpretation of the geology and geochemistry of the Coastal Plain Hydrostratigraphic province. Ground water samples were analyzed for major cations and anions, minor and trace elements, gross alpha and beta, tritium, stable isotopes of hydrogen, oxygen, and carbon, and carbon-14. Sediments from the well borings were analyzed for mineralogy and major and minor elements.

  7. Final Phase II report : QuickSite(R) investigation, Everest, Kansas.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    LaFreniere, L. M. (Environmental Research)

    2003-11-01

    field work at Everest. The main session of field work for the Phase II QuickSite{reg_sign} investigation of the Everest site began on March 6, 2001. Work was suspended at the site on April 6, 2001, (1) because of access limitations to key properties, located north and west of the former CCC/USDA facility, imposed by the private owners at the onset of the spring planting season and (2) to permit further documentation by Argonne, at the request of the CCC/USDA, of the land use and ownership history of the Nigh property as a precursor to completion of the field work. This period is termed the second session of Phase II field work at Everest. Investigation of the Nigh property history was prompted by groundwater contamination evidence obtained during the second session of Phase II field activities (discussed in Section 3.7).

  8. Corrective Action Investigation Plan for Corrective Action Unit 542: Disposal Holes, Nevada Test Site, Nevada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Laura Pastor

    2006-01-01

    Corrective Action Unit (CAU) 542 is located in Areas 3, 8, 9, and 20 of the Nevada Test Site, which is 65 miles northwest of Las Vegas, Nevada. Corrective Action Unit 542 is comprised of eight corrective action sites (CASs): (1) 03-20-07, ''UD-3a Disposal Hole''; (2) 03-20-09, ''UD-3b Disposal Hole''; (3) 03-20-10, ''UD-3c Disposal Hole''; (4) 03-20-11, ''UD-3d Disposal Hole''; (5) 06-20-03, ''UD-6 and UD-6s Disposal Holes''; (6) 08-20-01, ''U-8d PS No.1A Injection Well Surface Release''; (7) 09-20-03, ''U-9itsy30 PS No.1A Injection Well Surface Release''; and (8) 20-20-02, ''U-20av PS No.1A Injection Well Surface Release''. These sites are being investigated because existing information on the nature and extent of potential contamination is insufficient to evaluate and recommend corrective action alternatives. Additional information will be obtained by conducting a corrective action investigation before evaluating corrective action alternatives and selecting the appropriate corrective action for each CAS. The results of the field investigation will support a defensible evaluation of viable corrective action alternatives that will be presented in the Corrective Action Decision Document. The sites will be investigated based on the data quality objectives (DQOs) developed on January 30, 2006, by representatives of the Nevada Division of Environmental Protection; U.S. Department of Energy, National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Site Office; Stoller-Navarro Joint Venture; and Bechtel Nevada. The DQO process was used to identify and define the type, amount, and quality of data needed to develop and evaluate appropriate corrective actions for CAU 542. Appendix A provides a detailed discussion of the DQO methodology and the DQOs specific to each CAS. The scope of the CAI for CAU 542 includes the following activities: (1) Move surface debris and/or materials, as needed, to facilitate sampling. (2) Conduct radiological surveys. (3) Conduct geophysical surveys to

  9. Confined Site Construction: A qualitative investigation of critical issues affecting management of Health and Safety

    OpenAIRE

    Spillane, John P.; Oyedele, Lukumon O.; Von Meding, Jason; Konanahalli, Ashwini; Jaiyeoba, Babatunde E.; Tijani, Iyabo K.

    2011-01-01

    The construction industry is inherently risky, with a significant number of accidents and disasters occurring, particularly on confined construction sites. This research investigates and identifies the various issues affecting successful management of health and safety in confined construction sites. The rationale is that identifying the issues would assist the management of health and safety particularly in inner city centres which are mostly confined sites. Using empiricism epistemology, th...

  10. Animal investigation program 1980 annual report: Nevada Test Site and vicinity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, D.D.; Bernhardt, D.E.; Giles, K.R.

    1982-07-01

    This report summarizes the data collected through the Animal Investigation Program during 1980. A major goal of the Program is to assess the radionuclide burden in the tissues of wild and domesticated animals around the Nevada Test Site and to detect pathological effects resulting from the burdens. Other than naturally occurring potassium-40, gamma emitting radionuclides were detected infrequently. Strontium-90 and plutonium concentrations in tissues from deer, cattle, and desert bighorn sheep were similar to those found in samples collected during recent years. Lesions found in necropsied animals were similar to those found in animals from other areas of the U.S. and would not be attributable to ionizing radiation exposure. The report also describes other activities of the program, including the deer migration study and census

  11. Investigation of surface and underground waters about the Blayais nuclear site - 2010

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Migeon, A.; Bernollin, A.; Dunand, E.; Barbey, P.; Boilley, D.; Josset, M.

    2011-01-01

    This investigation aims at proposing a first assessment of the impact of releases on surface and underground waters around the Blayais nuclear power station, i.e. the assessment of the (mainly radiological) quality of waters. The report identifies the various pollution sources: old sources (like atmospheric nuclear tests, nuclear accidents), incidents in the Blayais station, and potential sources for the present contamination. Different radionuclides are searched like tritium, carbon 14, gamma radioactivity (from different elements), some beta emitters, radon as well as some chemicals related to the station activity (hydrazine, boric acid, EDTA, lithium, morpholine). Sampling sites are presented (estuary, canals, reservoirs). Radiological and chemical analysis are reported and commented. Significant presence of Tritium and Nickel-63 are noticed

  12. Corrective Action Investigation Plan for the CNTA Subsurface Sites (CAU Number 443), Revision 1; FINAL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1999-01-01

    This Corrective Action Investigation Plan (CAIP) describes the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE's) planned environmental investigation of the subsurface Central Nevada Test Area (CNTA) Corrective Action Unit (CAU) No. 443. The CNTA is located in Hot Creek Valley in Nye County, Nevada, adjacent to U.S. Highway 6, about 48 kilometers (km) (30 miles[mi]) north of Warm Springs, Nevada. The CNTA was the site of Project Faultless, a nuclear device detonated in the subsurface by the U.S. Atomic Energy Commission (AEC) in January 1968. The purposes of this test were to gauge the seismic effects of a relatively large, high-yield detonation completed in Hot Creek Valley (outside the Nevada Test Site) and to determine the suitability of the site for future large detonations. The yield of the Faultless test was between 200 kilotons and 1 megaton. Two similar tests were planned for the CNTA, but neither of them was completed. Based on the general definition of a corrective action investigation (CAI) from Section IV.14 of the Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order (FFACO), the purpose of the CAI is ''to gather data sufficient to characterize the nature, extent, and rate of migration or potential rate of migration from releases or discharges of pollutants or contaminants and/or potential releases or discharges from corrective action units identified at the facilities''. For CNTA CAU 443 the concepts developed for the Underground Test Area (UGTA) CAUs will be applied on a limited scale. For the UGTA CAUs, ''the objective of the CAI process is to define boundaries around each UGTA CAU that establish areas that contain water that may be unsafe for domestic and municipal use,'' as stated in Appendix VI of the FFACO (1996). Based on this strategy the CAI for CAU 443 will start with modeling using existing data. New data collection activities are generally contingent upon the results of the modeling and may or may not be part of the CAI. Specific objectives of the CAI ar e as

  13. Mapping the active site of vaccinia virus RNA triphosphatase

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gong Chunling; Shuman, Stewart

    2003-01-01

    The RNA triphosphatase component of vaccinia virus mRNA capping enzyme (the product of the viral D1 gene) belongs to a family of metal-dependent phosphohydrolases that includes the RNA triphosphatases of fungi, protozoa, Chlorella virus, and baculoviruses. The family is defined by two glutamate-containing motifs (A and C) that form the metal-binding site. Most of the family members resemble the fungal and Chlorella virus enzymes, which have a complex active site located within the hydrophilic interior of a topologically closed eight-stranded β barrel (the so-called ''triphosphate tunnel''). Here we queried whether vaccinia virus capping enzyme is a member of the tunnel subfamily, via mutational mapping of amino acids required for vaccinia triphosphatase activity. We identified four new essential side chains in vaccinia D1 via alanine scanning and illuminated structure-activity relationships by conservative substitutions. Our results, together with previous mutational data, highlight a constellation of six acidic and three basic amino acids that likely compose the vaccinia triphosphatase active site (Glu37, Glu39, Arg77, Lys107, Glu126, Asp159, Lys161, Glu192, and Glu194). These nine essential residues are conserved in all vertebrate and invertebrate poxvirus RNA capping enzymes. We discerned no pattern of clustering of the catalytic residues of the poxvirus triphosphatase that would suggest structural similarity to the tunnel proteins (exclusive of motifs A and C). We infer that the poxvirus triphosphatases are a distinct lineage within the metal-dependent RNA triphosphatase family. Their unique active site, which is completely different from that of the host cell's capping enzyme, recommends the poxvirus RNA triphosphatase as a molecular target for antipoxviral drug discovery

  14. Why Do You Adopt Social Networking Sites? Investigating the Driving Factors through Structural Equation Modelling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jan, Muhammad Tahir

    2017-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to investigate those factors that are associated with the adoption of social networking sites from the perspective of Muslim users residing in Malaysia. Design/methodology/approach: A complete self-administered questionnaire was collected from 223 Muslim users of social networking sites in Malaysia. Both…

  15. Sorption of radionuclides on geological samples from the Bradwell, Elstow, Fulbeck and Killingholme site investigations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berry, J.A.; Coates, H.A.; Green, A.; Littleboy, A.K.

    1988-06-01

    The sorption of chloride, caesium, calcium, nickel and americium on geological samples collected during the site investigations at Bradwell, Elstow, Fulbeck and Killingholme has been studied. Through-diffusion and batch sorption techniques were used and experiments were designed to give a direct comparison between the sorptive behaviour of material from each site. (author)

  16. Data Summary Report for teh Remedial Investigation of Hanford Site Releases to the Columbia River, Hanford Site, Washington

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hulstrom, L.

    2011-02-07

    This data summary report summarizes the investigation results to evaluate the nature and distribution of Hanford Site-related contaminants present in the Columbia River. As detailed in DOE/RL-2008-11, more than 2,000 environmental samples were collected from the Columbia River between 2008 and 2010. These samples consisted of island soil, sediment, surface water, groundwater upwelling (pore water, surface water, and sediment), and fish tissue.

  17. The role of historical operations information for supporting remedial investigation work at the former Harshaw Chemical Site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johnson, R.; Peterson, J.; Picel, K.; Kolhoff, A.; Devaughn, J.

    2008-01-01

    In the early stages of hazardous, toxic, and radioactive waste (HTRW) site investigations, basic record searches are performed to help direct the agencies investigating contaminated sites to areas of concern and to identify contaminants of interest (COI). Plans developed on the basis of this preliminary research alone are often incomplete and result in unexpected discoveries either while in the field investigating the site or after the reports have been written. Many of the sites investigated under the Formerly Utilized Sites Remedial Action program (FUSRAP) have complex histories that are slowly uncovered over the life of the project. Because of programmatic constraints, nuances of these sites are often discovered late in their programs and result in increased expenditures in order to fully characterize the site, perform a robust feasibility study, and recommend appropriate alternatives for remediation. By identifying resources for public records, classified records, historic aerial photographs, and other sources of site-specific historical information, a process can be established to optimize the collection of information and to develop efficient and complete project plans. In many cases, interviews with past site employees are very useful tools. In combining what is found in the records, observed on historic aerial photographs, and heard from former employees and family members, teams investigating these sites can begin to compile sound and more complete conceptual site models (CSMs). The former Harshaw Chemical Site (HCS) illustrates this discovery process. HCS is part of FUSRAP. Preliminary investigations by the US Department of Energy (DOE) in the 1970s provided an initial CSM of activities that had taken place that may have resulted in contamination. The remedial investigation (RI) conducted by the US Army Corps of Engineers (USACE) was designed around this CSM. The RI work, however, identified a number of site conditions that were unexpected, including new

  18. Decommissioning and decontamination activity, Gnome Site, Eddy County, New Mexico

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1978-10-01

    The purpose of this assessment is to present a brief description of the proposed activity and its potential impacts on the environment. This assessment will constitute an evaluation as to whether or not a formal Environmental Statement need be prepared. As background to the proposed activity, Project Gnome was an underground nuclear test conducted in December 1961 as part of the PLOWSHARE Program. The project site is located about 25 miles southeast of Carlsbad, New Mexico. By means of an excavated shaft and tunnel, a 3-kiloton nuclear explosive was emplaced and detonated in a salt bed about 1200 feet below the surface. The uncontaminated rock and salt muck from the original excavation and subsequent contaminated muck and minor construction debris from reentry activities into the nuclear cavity is commingled and stored in a pile near the Gnome/Coach Shaft. Other areas on the site are known to have been contaminated. In 1969, a program was conducted to cleanup and dispose of all surface contamination to whatever depth it occurred in excess of 0.1 mR/hr. Contaminated materials and soil were collected and disposed into the Gnome shaft, which was filled and sealed. Since then, NV has proposed to DOE/HQ much lower criteria for residual radioactive contamination for the Gnome Site. These proposed criteria were to collect and dispose of surficial materials which contain more than 2 x 10 -5 microcuries per gram of soil for beta/gamma emitters and 3 x 10 -2 microcuries per milliliter of tritium in soil moisture. According to the latest reconnaissance in 1972, low concentrations of Cs-137, Sr-90 and tritium were present at various locations on the site in excess of these proposed guidelines. Other operational areas within the site are suspected of containing radioactive contamination in much lesser volume, which are to be determined by careful probing and monitoring, as described in the next section

  19. Numerical modeling and experimental investigation of the local hydrology of a porous concrete site.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-01

    Although porous pavement use has been accepted as a successful stormwater management practice in warm climates, application in regions with colder climates, like New England, is still under investigation. The Randolph Park and Ride Site, which is the...

  20. Phase 2 environmental site investigation procedures and technologies for property transfer and PS and E development

    Science.gov (United States)

    1999-05-01

    The purpose of this project is to provide TxDOT with an improved procedure for conducting environmental site investigations at various stages during transportation infrastructure development. The project seeks to identify modern assessment technologi...

  1. Methodology for contaminated sites of military activity territories restoration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khrushchov, D. P.; Yushchenko, Yu. V.; Shekhunova, S. B.

    2002-01-01

    Major part of Eastern Europe countries meet environmental problems related to sites of military activity. Major part of these sites is characterised with degradation of natural landscapes and contamination of geological environment with toxic and hazardous waste representing actual and potential danger for population and environment. Actual danger is caused with localisation of toxic waste, hazardous materials and waste which are preventing normal land use. Potential danger is related to successive dispersion of contamination in biosphere as well as origin of new derivatives and products having toxic and hazardous properties. The list of such sites and objects comprises bases of land, air and naval forces. These objects include a network of infrastructures: storages of fuels and lubricants (surface, underground), filling stations, pipe lines, reparation stations, garages, decontamination stations, underground storages of different purposes, depots (for ammunition, chemical products), hospitals, constructions, firing grounds (tank, artillery, aircraft bombing etc.) and waste disposal sites. Special programs aimed at military industries and bases contaminated sites remediation have been carrying out in developed countries (USA, United Kingdom, Germany etc.). This experience was used in the frames of joint programs having been founded in several countries of Central and Eastern Europe (Chesh Republic, Slovakia, Lithuania etc.). (author)

  2. Installation restoration program site investigation. Gulfport Field Training Site, Mississippi Air National Guard Gulfport-Biloxi Regional Airport Gulfport, Mississippi. Volume 2. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1992-12-01

    Site Investigation Report, Volume: 2. A Site Investigation was performed at 3 sites at the Combat Readiness Training Center, Gulfport-Bolixi. The 3 sites investigated are the: Former Fire Training Area (Site 1), the Former JP-4 Bulk Storage Area, Mill Road (Site 2), and the Motor Pool Above-Ground Diesel Fuel Storage Tank Area (Site 3). The findings of this investigation recommended further investigation at the Fire Training Area and the JP-4 Bulk Storage Tank. At Site 3 the levels of contamination did not represent a risk to human health or the environment; therefore, no further action was recommended. Volume two of this report consisted of the following Appendixes: Site Photographs (A), Well Inventory (B), Boring Logs (C), CSL Technical Memorandum (D), Data Review and Validation (E), GPS Memorandum (F), Level C Analytical Data Summary Tables (G), Slug Test (H), Special-Status Species (I), and Representative Species of Less Mobile Fish and Wildlife (J).

  3. Corrective Action Investigation Plan for Corrective Action Unit 321: Area 22 Weather Station Fuel Storage, Nevada Test Site, Nevada; TOPICAL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1999-01-01

    This Corrective Action Investigation Plan (CAIP) has been developed in accordance with the Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order (FFACO) that was agreed to by the US Department of Energy, Nevada Operations Office (DOE/NV); the State of Nevada Division of Environmental Protection (NDEP); and the US Department of Defense (FFACO, 1996). The CAIP is a document that provides or references all of the specific information for investigation activities associated with Corrective Action Units (CAUs) or Corrective Action Sites (CASs). According to the FFACO (1996), CASs are sites potentially requiring corrective action(s) and may include solid waste management units or individual disposal or release sites. A CAU consists of one or more CASs grouped together based on geography, technical similarity, or agency responsibility for the purpose of determining corrective actions. This CAIP contains the environmental sample collection objectives and the criteria for conducting site investigation activities at the CAU 321 Area 22 Weather Station Fuel Storage, CAS 22-99-05 Fuel Storage Area. For purposes of this discussion, this site will be referred to as either CAU 321 or the Fuel Storage Area. The Fuel Storage Area is located in Area 22 of the Nevada Test Site (NTS). The NTS is approximately 105 kilometers (km) (65 miles[mi]) northwest of Las Vegas, Nevada (Figure 1-1) (DOE/NV, 1996a). The Fuel Storage Area (Figure 1-2) was used to store fuel and other petroleum products necessary for motorized operations at the historic Camp Desert Rock facility which was operational from 1951 to 1958 at the Nevada Test Site, Nevada. The site was dismantled after 1958 (DOE/NV, 1996a)

  4. Investigation of nonlinear dynamic soil property at the Savannah River Site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, R.C.

    2000-01-01

    This document summarizes laboratory dynamic soil testing investigations conducted by the University of Texas at Austin (UTA) for the Savannah River Site (SRS) (Stokoe et al., 1995a, Stokoe et al., 1995b, Sponseller and Stokoe, 1995). The purpose of the investigation is to provide an evaluation of past testing results in the context of new test data and the development of consistent site wide models of material strain dependencies based upon geologic formation, depth, and relevant index properties

  5. Active Sites Environmental Monitoring Program. FY 1993: Annual report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morrissey, C.M.; Ashwood, T.L.; Hicks, D.S.; Marsh, J.D.

    1994-08-01

    This report continues a series of annual and semiannual reports that present the results of the Active Sites Environmental Monitoring Program (ASEMP) monitoring activities. The report details monitoring data for fiscal year (FY) 1993 and is divided into three major areas: SWSA 6 [including tumulus pads, Interim Waste Management Facility (IWMF), and other sites], the low-level Liquid-Waste Solidification Project (LWSP), and TRU-waste storage facilities in SWSA 5 N. The detailed monitoring methodology is described in the second revision of the ASEMP program plan. This report also presents a summary of the methodology used to gather data for each major area along with the results obtained during FY 1993

  6. Active sites in char gasification: Final technical report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wojtowicz, M.; Lilly, W.D.; Perkins, M.T.; Hradil, G.; Calo, J.M.; Suuberg, E.M.

    1987-09-01

    Among the key variables in the design of gasifiers and combustors is the reactivity of the chars which must be gasified or combusted. Significant loss of unburned char is unacceptable in virtually any process; the provision of sufficient residence time for complete conversion is essential. A very wide range of reactivities are observed, depending upon the nature of the char in a process. The current work focuses on furthering the understanding of gasification reactivities of chars. It has been well established that the reactivity of char to gasification generally depends upon three principal factors: (1) the concentration of ''active sites'' in the char; (2) mass transfer within the char; and (3) the type and concentration of catalytic impurities in the char. The present study primarily addresses the first factor. The subject of this research is the origin, nature, and fate of active sites in chars derived from parent hydrocarbons with coal-like structure. The nature and number of the active sites and their reactivity towards oxygen are examined in ''model'' chars derived from phenol-formaldehyde type resins. How the active sites are lost by the process of thermal annealing during heat treatment of chars are studied, and actual rate for the annealing process is derived. Since intrinsic char reactivities are of primary interest in the present study, a fair amount of attention was given to the model char synthesis and handling so that the effect of catalytic impurities and oxygen-containing functional groups in the chemical structure of the material were minimized, if not completely eliminated. The project would not be considered complete without comparing characteristic features of synthetic chars with kinetic behavior exhibited by natural chars, including coal chars.

  7. Delta Learning Rule for the Active Sites Model

    OpenAIRE

    Lingashetty, Krishna Chaithanya

    2010-01-01

    This paper reports the results on methods of comparing the memory retrieval capacity of the Hebbian neural network which implements the B-Matrix approach, by using the Widrow-Hoff rule of learning. We then, extend the recently proposed Active Sites model by developing a delta rule to increase memory capacity. Also, this paper extends the binary neural network to a multi-level (non-binary) neural network.

  8. Exploiting Innocuous Activity for Correlating Users Across Sites

    OpenAIRE

    Goga , Oana; Lei , Howard; Parthasarathi , Sree Hari Krishnan; Friedland , Gerald; Sommer , Robin; Teixeira , Renata

    2013-01-01

    International audience; We study how potential attackers can identify accounts on different social network sites that all belong to the same user, exploiting only innocuous activity that inherently comes with posted content. We examine three specific features on Yelp, Flickr, and Twitter: the geo-location attached to a user's posts, the timestamp of posts, and the user's writing style as captured by language models. We show that among these three features the location of posts is the most powe...

  9. Influenza B viruses with mutation in the neuraminidase active site, North Carolina, USA, 2010-11.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sleeman, Katrina; Sheu, Tiffany G; Moore, Zack; Kilpatrick, Susan; Garg, Shikha; Fry, Alicia M; Gubareva, Larisa V

    2011-11-01

    Oseltamivir is 1 of 2 antiviral medications available for the treatment of influenza B virus infections. We describe and characterize a cluster of influenza B viruses circulating in North Carolina with a mutation in the neuraminidase active site that may reduce susceptibility to oseltamivir and the investigational drug peramivir but not to zanamivir.

  10. Site characterization techniques used in environmental remediation activities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kostelnik, K.M.

    2000-01-01

    As a result of decades of nuclear energy research, weapons production, as well as ongoing operations, a significant amount of radioactive contamination has occurred throughout the United States Department of Energy (DOE) complex. DOE facility are in the process of assessing and potentially remediating various sites according to the regulations imposed by a Federal Facility Agreement and Consent order (FFA/CO) between DOE, the state in which the facility is located, and the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). In support of these active site remediation efforts, the DOE has devoted considerable resources towards the development of innovative site characterization techniques that support environmental restoration activities. These resources and efforts have focused on various aspects of this complex problem. Research and technology development conducted at the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL) has resulted in the ability and state-of-the-art equipment required to obtain real-time, densely spaced, in situ characterization data (i.e. detection, speciation, and location) of various radionuclides and contaminants. The Remedial Action Monitoring System (RAMS), developed by the INEEL, consists of enhanced sensor technology, measurement modeling and interpretation techniques, and a suite of deployment platforms which can be interchanged to directly support remedial cleanup and site verification operations. In situ characterization techniques have advanced to the point where they are being actively deployed in support of remedial operations. The INEEL has deployed its system at various DOE and international sites. The deployment of in situ characterization systems during environmental restoration operations has shown that this approach results in several significant benefits versus conventional sampling techniques. A flexible characterization system permits rapid modification to satisfy physical site conditions, available site resources

  11. Preliminary safety evaluation for the Simpevarp subarea. Based on data and site descriptions after the initial site investigation stage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2005-04-01

    The main objectives of this Preliminary safety evaluation (PSE) of the Simpevarp subarea are: to determine, whether the feasibility study's judgement of the suitability of the candidate area with respect to long-term safety holds up in the light of the site investigation data; to provide feedback to continued site investigations and site-specific repository design and to identify site specific scenarios and geoscientific issues for further analyses. The PSE focuses on comparing the attained knowledge of the sites with the suitability criteria as set out by SKB in the report SKB-TR--00-12. These criteria both concern properties of the site judged to be necessary for safety and engineering (requirements) and properties judged to be beneficial (preferences). The findings are then evaluated in order to provide feedback to continued investigations and design work. The PSE does not aim at comparing sites and does not assess compliance with safety and radiation protection criteria. The evaluation shows that even considering remaining uncertainties, the Simpevarp subarea meets all safety requirements and most of the safety preferences. Consequently, from a safety point of view, there is no reason not to continue the Site Investigations of the Simpevarp subarea. There are still uncertainties to resolve and the safety would eventually need to be verified through a full safety assessment. Still, this Preliminary Safety Evaluation demonstrates that it is likely that a safe repository for spent nuclear fuel of the KBS-3 type could be constructed at the site. The following feedback is provided to the site investigations and the associated site modelling: Reducing the uncertainty on the deformation zone geometry within the Simpevarp subarea would allow for a more specified layout, although the sensitivity analysis shows that the space needed is rather robust with respect to uncertainties in the zones. There is substantial uncertainty in the discrete fracture network (DFN) model

  12. Investigation of well redevelopment techniques for the MWD Well Field, Savannah River Site, South Carolina

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kroening, D.E.; Snipes, D.S.; Falta, R.W.; Benson, S.M.

    1994-01-01

    Clemson University, in cooperation with the Savannah River Site (SRS) is investigating well treatment techniques at the Mixed Waste Disposal (MWD) Well Field at SRS. This well field consists of fifteen wells screened in three aquifers with a downward trending head gradient. Based on aquifer performance tests of the MWD wells, it has been determined that many of the wells exhibit low well efficiencies and high skin factors, indicative of damaged wells. Bacterial investigations show that the biological activity in these wells is low, probably due to a high pH environment. Evaluation of the Calcite Saturation Index for each well indicates that nearly all of the MWD wells have the potential for precipitating calcite and calcite deposits have been observed on downhole equipment. The calcite deposits may occur due to the dissolution of the grout mixtures by waters infiltrating down the well annulus driven by the downward head gradient with subsequent precipitation of calcite in the higher pH sand pack. Well rehabilitation techniques currently under investigation include acidification, hydraulic fracturing and traditional physical methods. In addition to treating the wells at MWD, the authors plan to perform aquifer performance tests and evaluate post-treatment skin factors. Further research into the long term effects of well treatment will be conducted, focusing on long term chemical changes brought about by the treatments

  13. Recent drilling program to investigate radionuclide migration at the Nevada Test Site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, D.K.

    1997-01-01

    Recent drilling affords new opportunities to investigate the occurrence, distribution and transport of radionuclides in the unsaturated and saturated zone at the Nevada Test Site (NTS), Nye County, Nevada. This program is unique becmise of the elevated activities of radionuclides encountered during drilling (> 3.7E+6 Bq/L 3H), extreme completion depths (> 950 m), the expense of constructing new wells (> $IE+6/borehole), and collaboration of government, academic, and industrial partners in the planning and execution of the program. The recent chilling is significant because it substantively augments earlier field of radionuclide migration at NTS, most notably the 1974 CAMBRIC RNM experiment Sites of five nuclear tests fired below or adjacent to the saturated zone have been drilled. Three of the events were fired in Yucca Flat which is a hydrologically closed basin and two were fired in fractured volcanics of Pahute Mesa. Results from Yucca Flat indicate that volatile and refractory radionuclides, fractionated at zero time, we not highly mobile under sawmted conditions. In contrast, borcholes completed on Pahute Mesa indicate Wgh concentrations of tritium (> 3.7E+6 Bq/L 3H) and other radionuclides may be rted more than 300 m from event cavities as dissolved species or as colloids

  14. Correlated compositional and mineralogical investigations at the Chang′e-3 landing site

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ling, Zongcheng; Jolliff, Bradley L.; Wang, Alian; Li, Chunlai; Liu, Jianzhong; Zhang, Jiang; Li, Bo; Sun, Lingzhi; Chen, Jian; Xiao, Long; Liu, Jianjun; Ren, Xin; Peng, Wenxi; Wang, Huanyu; Cui, Xingzhu; He, Zhiping; Wang, Jianyu

    2015-01-01

    The chemical compositions of relatively young mare lava flows have implications for the late volcanism on the Moon. Here we report the composition of soil along the rim of a 450-m diameter fresh crater at the Chang′e-3 (CE-3) landing site, investigated by the Yutu rover with in situ APXS (Active Particle-induced X-ray Spectrometer) and VNIS (Visible and Near-infrared Imaging Spectrometer) measurements. Results indicate that this region's composition differs from other mare sample-return sites and is a new type of mare basalt not previously sampled, but consistent with remote sensing. The CE-3 regolith derived from olivine-normative basaltic rocks with high FeO/(FeO+MgO). Deconvolution of the VNIS data indicates abundant high-Ca ferropyroxene (augite and pigeonite) plus Fe-rich olivine. We infer from the regolith composition that the basaltic source rocks formed during late-stage magma-ocean differentiation when dense ferropyroxene-ilmenite cumulates sank and mixed with deeper, relatively ferroan olivine and orthopyroxene in a hybridized mantle source. PMID:26694712

  15. Correlated compositional and mineralogical investigations at the Chang'e-3 landing site.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ling, Zongcheng; Jolliff, Bradley L; Wang, Alian; Li, Chunlai; Liu, Jianzhong; Zhang, Jiang; Li, Bo; Sun, Lingzhi; Chen, Jian; Xiao, Long; Liu, Jianjun; Ren, Xin; Peng, Wenxi; Wang, Huanyu; Cui, Xingzhu; He, Zhiping; Wang, Jianyu

    2015-12-22

    The chemical compositions of relatively young mare lava flows have implications for the late volcanism on the Moon. Here we report the composition of soil along the rim of a 450-m diameter fresh crater at the Chang'e-3 (CE-3) landing site, investigated by the Yutu rover with in situ APXS (Active Particle-induced X-ray Spectrometer) and VNIS (Visible and Near-infrared Imaging Spectrometer) measurements. Results indicate that this region's composition differs from other mare sample-return sites and is a new type of mare basalt not previously sampled, but consistent with remote sensing. The CE-3 regolith derived from olivine-normative basaltic rocks with high FeO/(FeO+MgO). Deconvolution of the VNIS data indicates abundant high-Ca ferropyroxene (augite and pigeonite) plus Fe-rich olivine. We infer from the regolith composition that the basaltic source rocks formed during late-stage magma-ocean differentiation when dense ferropyroxene-ilmenite cumulates sank and mixed with deeper, relatively ferroan olivine and orthopyroxene in a hybridized mantle source.

  16. Animal Investigation Program: Nevada Test Site and Vicinity. Annual report, 1979

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, D.D.; Giles, Jr.; Bernhardt, D.E.

    1981-05-01

    Data are presented from the radioanalyses of tissues collected from cattle, mule deer, desert bighorn sheep, rabbits, chukar, golden eagles, and other wildlife that resided on or near the Nevada Test Site during 1979. Routine and special activities of the Animal Investigation Program are also discussed. Other than the naturally occurring potassium-40, gamma-emitting radionuclides were detected infrequently. Strontium-90 concentrations in bones from deer, cattle, and desert bighorn sheep were lower than those of recent years. Tritium concentrations were generally within expected environmental limits with the exception of animals exposed to known sources of contamination; e.g., drainage ponds from Area 12 tunnels or the Sedan Crater. Plutonium levels in all tissues from all species showed little variation to those levels in samples collected in recent years. Radionuclide tissue concentrations were generally higher in the tissues of animals residing in Area 15 than in similar animals collected from other Nevada Test Site areas. Hypothetical annual dose estimates to man were calculated on the basis of the daily consumption of 0.5 kilogra of liver or muscle from animals that contained peak radionuclide levels. The movements of 25 mule deer outfitted with collars containing a radio transmitter unit were monitored on a weekly basis. No gross or microscopic lesions were found in necropsied animals that could be directly attributed to the effects of ionizing radiation

  17. Recent drilling program to investigate radionuclide migration at the Nevada Test Site

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smith, D.K.

    1997-04-01

    Recent drilling affords new opportunities to investigate the occurrence, distribution and transport of radionuclides in the unsaturated and saturated zone at the Nevada Test Site (NTS), Nye County, Nevada. This program is unique becmise of the elevated activities of radionuclides encountered during drilling (> 3.7E+6 Bq/L 3H), extreme completion depths (> 950 m), the expense of constructing new wells (> $IE+6/borehole), and collaboration of government, academic, and industrial partners in the planning and execution of the program. The recent chilling is significant because it substantively augments earlier field of radionuclide migration at NTS, most notably the 1974 CAMBRIC RNM experiment Sites of five nuclear tests fired below or adjacent to the saturated zone have been drilled. Three of the events were fired in Yucca Flat which is a hydrologically closed basin and two were fired in fractured volcanics of Pahute Mesa. Results from Yucca Flat indicate that volatile and refractory radionuclides, fractionated at zero time, we not highly mobile under sawmted conditions. In contrast, borcholes completed on Pahute Mesa indicate Wgh concentrations of tritium (> 3.7E+6 Bq/L 3H) and other radionuclides may be rted more than 300 m from event cavities as dissolved species or as colloids.

  18. House Church: Investigating Chinese Urban Christians’ Choice of Religious Practicing Site in Wuhan, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Junqiang Han

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we discuss the reasons why urban Christians choose certain sites for religious activities and explain the rapid development of house churches in urban areas in China from the perspective of individual Christians, through survey data obtained by the Chinese Urban Research Center for Ethnic and Religious Affairs Management in the city of Wuhan. We found that Christians who attend religious activities in urban house churches are generally younger in age, higher in education level, and more likely to be working in independent, private, or foreign-invested enterprises. Further investigation reveals that “Three-Self churches” are few in number and poorly planned geographically, resulting in very limited service abilities, thus being far from satisfactory for all believers. Moreover, the activities of such churches are unvaried and lack attractiveness. On the other hand, in house churches, Christians are able to build tight-knit social networks and house churches are more competitively aware in the “religious market”, leading some urban Christians to choose house churches, thereby inciting the fast development of house churches in Chinese urban areas.

  19. Remedial investigation for the chemical plant area of the Weldon Spring Site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-11-01

    The US Department of Energy (DOE) is responsible for management of the Weldon Spring Site Remedial Action Project (WSSRAP) under its Environmental Restoration and Waste Management Program. Major goals include eliminating potential public and environmental hazards due to site contamination and releasing the property for alternate uses to the maximum extent practicable. The purpose of the remedial investigation described in this report was to determine the extent of contamination associated with the portion of the Weldon Spring site known as the chemical plant and raffinate pit area. The DOE has assumed responsibility for investigating and remediating all on-site soil contamination and off-site soil which is radiologically contaminated as a result of uranium and thorium processing operations. The DOE has also assumed the responsibility for radiologically contaminated groundwater on and off site. The Weldon Spring site remedial investigation also involved the evaluation of the sources, nature and extent, and environmental fate and transport of contaminants to provide a basis for defining the risks that the contaminants may pose to human health and the environment. Data are included in this report to support the screening of remedial technologies and to permit the development and detailed analysis of alternatives for remedial action at the site during the feasibility study process

  20. Surface radiological investigations at the 0816 Site, Waste Area Grouping 13, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, Tennessee

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tiner, P.F.; Uziel, M.S.

    1994-12-01

    A surface radiological investigation was conducted intermittently from July through September 1994 at the 0816 site, located within Waste Area Grouping (WAG) 13. The survey was performed by members of the Measurement Applications and Development Group, Health Sciences Research Division, Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) at the request of ORNL Site Environmental Restoration Program Facility Management. The purpose of the survey was to ascertain and document the surface radiological condition of the site subsequent to remedial action activities completed in May 1994. The survey was designed to determine whether any residual surface sod contamination in excess of 120 pCi/g 137 Cs (Specified by the Interim Record of Decision) remained at the site

  1. Detailed imaging of flowing structures at depth using microseismicity: a tool for site investigation?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pytharouli, S.; Lunn, R. J.; Shipton, Z. K.

    2011-12-01

    Field evidence shows that faults and fractures can act as focused pathways or barriers for fluid migration. This is an important property for modern engineering problems, e.g., CO2 sequestration, geological radioactive waste disposal, geothermal energy exploitation, land reclamation and remediation. For such applications the detailed characterization of the location, orientation and hydraulic properties of existing fractures is necessary. These investigations are expensive, requiring the hire of expensive equipment (excavator or drill rigs), which incur standing charges when not in use. In addition, they only provide information for discrete sample 'windows'. Non-intrusive methods have the ability to gather information across an entire area. Methods including electrical resistivity/conductivity and ground penetrating radar (GRP), have been used as tools for site investigations. Their imaging ability is often restricted due to unfavourable on-site conditions e.g. GRP is not useful in cases where a layer of clay or reinforced concrete is present. Our research has shown that high quality seismic data can be successfully used in the detailed imaging of sub-surface structures at depth; using induced microseismicity data recorded beneath the Açu reservoir in Brazil we identified orientations and values of average permeability of open shear fractures at depths up to 2.5km. Could microseismicity also provide information on the fracture width in terms of stress drops? First results from numerical simulations showed that higher stress drop values correspond to narrower fractures. These results were consistent with geological field observations. This study highlights the great potential of using microseismicity data as a supplementary tool for site investigation. Individual large-scale shear fractures in large rock volumes cannot currently be identified by any other geophysical dataset. The resolution of the method is restricted by the detection threshold of the local

  2. Active site mutations change the cleavage specificity of neprilysin.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Travis Sexton

    Full Text Available Neprilysin (NEP, a member of the M13 subgroup of the zinc-dependent endopeptidase family is a membrane bound peptidase capable of cleaving a variety of physiological peptides. We have generated a series of neprilysin variants containing mutations at either one of two active site residues, Phe(563 and Ser(546. Among the mutants studied in detail we observed changes in their activity towards leucine(5-enkephalin, insulin B chain, and amyloid β(1-40. For example, NEP(F563I displayed an increase in preference towards cleaving leucine(5-enkephalin relative to insulin B chain, while mutant NEP(S546E was less discriminating than neprilysin. Mutants NEP(F563L and NEP(S546E exhibit different cleavage site preferences than neprilysin with insulin B chain and amyloid ß(1-40 as substrates. These data indicate that it is possible to alter the cleavage site specificity of neprilysin opening the way for the development of substrate specific or substrate exclusive forms of the enzyme with enhanced therapeutic potential.

  3. Corrective Action Investigation Plan for Corrective Action Unit 567: Miscellaneous Soil Sites, Nevada National Security Site, Nevada, with ROTC 1 Revision 0

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Matthews, Patrick K.

    2013-07-01

    Corrective Action Unit (CAU) 567 is located in Areas 1, 3, 5, 20, and 25 of the Nevada National Security Site, which is approximately 65 miles northwest of Las Vegas, Nevada. CAU 567 is a grouping of sites where there has been a suspected release of contamination associated with nuclear testing. This document describes the planned investigation of CAU 567, which comprises the following corrective action sites (CASs): • 01-23-03, Atmospheric Test Site T-1 • 03-23-25, Seaweed E Contamination Area • 05-23-07, A5b RMA • 20-23-08, Colby Mud Spill • 25-23-23, J-11 Soil RMA These sites are being investigated because existing information on the nature and extent of potential contamination is insufficient to evaluate and recommend corrective action alternatives (CAAs). Additional information will be obtained by conducting a corrective action investigation before evaluating CAAs and selecting the appropriate corrective action for each CAS. The results of the field investigation will support a defensible evaluation of viable CAAs that will be presented in the investigation report. The sites will be investigated based on the data quality objectives (DQOs) developed on May 6, 2013, by representatives of the Nevada Division of Environmental Protection and the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Field Office. The DQO process was used to identify and define the type, amount, and quality of data needed to develop and evaluate appropriate corrective actions for CAU 567. The site investigation process will also be conducted in accordance with the Soils Activity Quality Assurance Plan, which establishes requirements, technical planning, and general quality practices to be applied to this activity. The potential contamination sources associated with CAU 567 releases are nuclear test operations and other NNSS operations. The DQO process resulted in an assumption that total effective dose (TED) within a default contamination boundary

  4. Current activities handbook: formerly utilized sites remedial action program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1981-02-27

    This volume is one of a series produced under contract with the DOE, by Politech Corporation to develop a legislative and regulatory data base to assist the FUSRAP management in addressing the institutional and socioeconomic issues involved in carrying out the Formerly Utilized Sites Remedial Action Program. This Information Handbook series contains information about all relevant government agencies at the Federal and state levels, the pertinent programs they administer, each affected state legislature, and current Federal and state legislative and regulatory initiatives. This volume is a compilation of information about the activities each of the thirteen state legislatures potentially affected by the Formerly Utilized Sites Remedial Action Program. It contains a description of the state legislative procedural rules and a schedule of each legislative session; a summary of pending relevant legislation; the name and telephone number of legislative and state agency contacts; and the full text of all bills identified.

  5. Current activities handbook: formerly utilized sites remedial action program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1981-01-01

    This volume is one of a series produced under contract with the DOE, by Politech Corporation to develop a legislative and regulatory data base to assist the FUSRAP management in addressing the institutional and socioeconomic issues involved in carrying out the Formerly Utilized Sites Remedial Action Program. This Information Handbook series contains information about all relevant government agencies at the Federal and state levels, the pertinent programs they administer, each affected state legislature, and current Federal and state legislative and regulatory initiatives. This volume is a compilation of information about the activities each of the thirteen state legislatures potentially affected by the Formerly Utilized Sites Remedial Action Program. It contains a description of the state legislative procedural rules and a schedule of each legislative session; a summary of pending relevant legislation; the name and telephone number of legislative and state agency contacts; and the full text of all bills identified

  6. Investigative studies for the use of an inactive asbestos mine as a disposal site for asbestos wastes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gidarakos, Evangelos; Anastasiadou, Kalliopi; Koumantakis, Emmanuil; Nikolaos, Stappas

    2008-05-30

    Although, according to European legislation the use of Asbestos Containing Materials is forbidden, many buildings in Greece still contain asbestos products, which must be removed at some point in the near future. Therefore, suitable disposal sites must be found within Greece, so that the unverified disposal of asbestos waste in municipal waste Landfills is brought to an end. In the present work, an innovative approach to the disposal problem of asbestos wastes in Greece has been examined, through a risk assessment analysis of the inactive asbestos mine of Northern Greece and an evaluation of its suitability as a disposal site for asbestos wastes in the future. According to the research carried out, two areas (Site 1 and Site 2) inside the mine area are suitable for the construction of a disposal site for asbestos wastes. The geological investigations showed that in Site 1 and Site 2 ultrabasic rocks of ophiolite complex were prevalent, which have been intensely serpentinized and converted into the fibrous shape of serpentine (asbestos). Concentrations of hazardous substances such as heavy metals in the soil of Site 1 and Site 2 oscillate at low levels, with the exception of the concentrations of nickel and chrome which are high. The investigative work also included the collection of meteorological data and the monitoring of the water level of the artificial lake, which has developed inside the open mine. The main aim is to safely dispose asbestos wastes inside the mine, to minimize any pollution of the wider vicinity of the mine, as well as to engage in restoration activities.

  7. Investigation of prototypal MOFs consisting of polyhedral cages with accessible Lewis-acid sites for quinoline synthesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Wen-Yang; Leng, Kunyue; Cash, Lindsay; Chrzanowski, Matthew; Stackhouse, Chavis A; Sun, Yinyong; Ma, Shengqian

    2015-03-21

    A series of prototypal metal-organic frameworks (MOFs) consisting of polyhedral cages with accessible Lewis-acid sites, have been systematically investigated for Friedländer annulation reaction, a straightforward approach to synthesizing quinoline and its derivatives. Amongst them MMCF-2 demonstrates significantly enhanced catalytic activity compared with the benchmark MOFs, HKUST-1 and MOF-505, as a result of a high-density of accessible Cu(II) Lewis acid sites and large window size in the cuboctahedral cage-based nanoreactor of MMCF-2.

  8. Preliminary safety evaluation for the Forsmark area. Based on data and site descriptions after the initial site investigation stage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andersson, Johan

    2005-08-01

    The main objectives of this Preliminary Safety Evaluation (PSE) of the Forsmark area have been to determine, with limited efforts, whether the feasibility study's judgement of the suitability of the candidate area with respect to long-term safety holds up in the light of the actual site investigation data; to provide feedback to continued site investigations and site-specific repository design and to identify site-specific scenarios and geoscientific issues for further analyses. The PSE focuses on comparing the attained knowledge of the sites with the suitability criteria as set out by SKB. The PSE does not aim at comparing sites and does not assess compliance with safety and radiation protection criteria. The evaluation shows that, even considering remaining uncertainties, the Forsmark area meets all stated safety requirements and preferences. Consequently, from a safety point of view, there is no reason not to continue the Site Investigations of the Forsmark area. There are still uncertainties to resolve and the safety would eventually need to be verified through a full safety assessment. Nevertheless, this Preliminary Safety Evaluation demonstrates that it is likely that a safe repository for spent nuclear fuel of the KBS-3 type could be constructed at the site. The following feedback is provided to the site investigations and the associated site modelling: Reducing the uncertainty on the deformation zone geometry inside the target area would be needed to more firmly define locations of the suitable deposition volumes. There is substantial uncertainty in the Discrete Fracture Network model. Further reduction of the uncertainties, if needed, would probably only be possible from the underground, detailed investigation phase. Efforts need also be spent on improving the DFN-modelling. There are assumptions made in current models that could be challenged and there seems to be room for better use of the borehole information. It is particularly important to provide

  9. Preliminary safety evaluation for the Forsmark area. Based on data and site descriptions after the initial site investigation stage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Andersson, Johan [JA Streamflow AB, Aelvsjoe (Sweden)

    2005-08-01

    The main objectives of this Preliminary Safety Evaluation (PSE) of the Forsmark area have been to determine, with limited efforts, whether the feasibility study's judgement of the suitability of the candidate area with respect to long-term safety holds up in the light of the actual site investigation data; to provide feedback to continued site investigations and site-specific repository design and to identify site-specific scenarios and geoscientific issues for further analyses. The PSE focuses on comparing the attained knowledge of the sites with the suitability criteria as set out by SKB. The PSE does not aim at comparing sites and does not assess compliance with safety and radiation protection criteria. The evaluation shows that, even considering remaining uncertainties, the Forsmark area meets all stated safety requirements and preferences. Consequently, from a safety point of view, there is no reason not to continue the Site Investigations of the Forsmark area. There are still uncertainties to resolve and the safety would eventually need to be verified through a full safety assessment. Nevertheless, this Preliminary Safety Evaluation demonstrates that it is likely that a safe repository for spent nuclear fuel of the KBS-3 type could be constructed at the site. The following feedback is provided to the site investigations and the associated site modelling: Reducing the uncertainty on the deformation zone geometry inside the target area would be needed to more firmly define locations of the suitable deposition volumes. There is substantial uncertainty in the Discrete Fracture Network model. Further reduction of the uncertainties, if needed, would probably only be possible from the underground, detailed investigation phase. Efforts need also be spent on improving the DFN-modelling. There are assumptions made in current models that could be challenged and there seems to be room for better use of the borehole information. It is particularly important to

  10. Animal investigation program 1975 annual report: Nevada Test Site and vicinity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, D.D.; Giles, K.R.; Bernhardt, D.E.; Brown, K.W.

    1978-02-01

    Data are presented from the radioanalysis of tissues collected from cattle, deer, desert bighorn sheep, and other wildlife that resided on or near the Nevada Test Site during 1975. Routine activities and special investigations of the Animal Investigation Program are also discussed. Other than the naturally occurring potassium-40, gamma-emitting radionuclides are detected infrequently. Tritium concentrations in the tissues from most of the animals sampled were at background levels. Strontium-90 levels in bones from deer and cattle were slightly lower than those reported for the preceding year while levels in desert bighorn sheep bones were elevated. A graph depicts the average levels found in the bones of the three species from 1956 through 1975. The gross and microscopic lesions found in necropsied animals are discussed. In general, these lesions are consistent with the physical condition of the animal and type of population sampled. No gross or microscopic lesions were detected that could be directly attributed to the effects of ionizing radiation

  11. An interdisciplinary geoscientific investigation of a proposed site for radioactive waste disposal in Austria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Holzer, H.; Stumpfl, E.; Weber, F.; Oszuszky, F.; Rudan, P.

    1980-01-01

    A geological reconnaissance of potentially suitable formations for long-term storage of highly active radioactive waste in Austria showed that such formations could be expected within the Bohemian Massif. Careful interpretation of LANDSAT imagery and available air-photo coverage led to the selection of an unfaulted area, approximately in the centre of a large body of granodiorite. Field geology confirmed the homogeneity of granodiorite; hydrologic investigations revealed the absence of a groundwater table except for small amounts of surface water in the soil cover and weathering zone. A morphological analysis showed that erosional processes are minimal at present and will remain so in the foreseeable geological future. Geophysical investigations included, amongst others, magnetic measurements (vertical intensity). The area chosen for further investigation is situated in a region of positive measurements of vertical intensity. Some minor flat anomalies are due to higher magnetite content of the granodiorite, which has magnetic susceptibilities of (4.0-5.8)x10 -4 (SI) or (32-46)x10 -6 (CGS). Well-logging demonstrated high electric resistivities (some 1000 ohm.m) in fresh rock; these values are reduced to about 100 ohm.m in weathered and fractured rock. Temperature logs reveal undisturbed increase with depth; the average temperature gradient (to 90 m depth) is 0.018 0 C/m. There is no microscopic evidence of tectonism or fracturing. In conclusion, the large-scale regional features which indicate stability and lack of tectonism, and geophysical data, are supported by a detailed petrological investigation of the granodiorite. The chosen area and site seem to be well suited to meet the containment and isolation requirements for disposal of all sorts of radioactive waste to be expected. (author)

  12. Corrective Action Investigation Plan for Corrective Action Unit 552: Area 12 Muckpile and Ponds, Nevada Test Site, Nevada: Revision 0

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    U.S. Department of Energy, National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Site Office

    2004-04-06

    This Corrective Action Investigation Plan contains the U.S. Department of Energy, National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Site Office's approach for collecting the data necessary to evaluate corrective action alternatives appropriate for the closure of Corrective Action Unit (CAU) 552: Area 12 Muckpile and Ponds, Nevada Test Site (NTS), Nevada, under the Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order. Located in Area 12 on the NTS, CAU 552 consists of two Corrective Action Sites (CASs): 12-06-04, Muckpile; 12-23-05, Ponds. Corrective Action Site 12-06-04 in Area 12 consists of the G-Tunnel muckpile, which is the result of tunneling activities. Corrective Action Site 12-23-05 consists of three dry ponds adjacent to the muckpile. The toe of the muckpile extends into one of the ponds creating an overlap of two CASs. The purpose of the investigation is to ensure that adequate data are collected to provide sufficient and reliable information to identify, evaluate, and select technic ally viable corrective actions. The results of the field investigation will support a defensible evaluation of corrective action alternatives in the corrective action decision document.

  13. Transport processes investigation: A necessary first step in site scale characterization plans

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roepke, C.; Glass, R.J.; Brainard, J.; Mann, M.; Kriel, K.; Holt, R.; Schwing, J.

    1995-01-01

    We propose an approach, which we call the Transport Processes Investigation or TPI, to identify and verify site-scale transport processes and their controls. The TPI aids in the formulation of an accurate conceptual model of flow and transport, an essential first step in the development of a cost effective site characterization strategy. The TPI is demonstrated in the highly complex vadose zone of glacial tills that underlie the Fernald Environmental Remediation Project (FEMP) in Fernald, Ohio. As a result of the TPI, we identify and verify the pertinent flow processes and their controls, such as extensive macropore and fracture flow through layered clays, which must be included in an accurate conceptual model of site-scale contaminant transport. We are able to conclude that the classical modeling and sampling methods employed in some site characterization programs will be insufficient to characterize contaminant concentrations or distributions at contaminated or hazardous waste facilities sited in such media

  14. Remedial investigation/feasibility study for the David Witherspoon, Inc., 901 Site, Knoxville, Tennessee: Volume 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-10-01

    This remedial investigation (RI)/feasibility study (FS) supports the selection of remedial actions for the David Witherspoon, Inc. 901 Maryville Pike Site in Knoxville, Tennessee. Operations at the site, used as a recycling center, have resulted in past, present, and potential future releases of hazardous substances in to the environment. This Site is a Tennessee Superfund site. A phased approach was planned to (1) gather existing data from previous investigations managed by the Tenn. Dept. of Environment and Conservation; (2) perform a preliminary RI, including risk assessments, and an FS with existing data to identify areas where remedial action may be necessary; (3) gather additional field data to adequately define the nature and extent of risk-based contaminants that present identifiable threats to human and/or ecological receptors; and (4) develop remedial action alternatives to reduce risks to acceptable levels.

  15. Remedial investigation for the 200-BP-1 operable unit, Hanford Site, Richland, Washington

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Buckmaster, M.A.

    1991-01-01

    The Hanford Site, Richland, Washington, contains over 1500 identified waste sites that will be characterized and remediated over the next 30 years. In support of the ''Hanford Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order,'' the US Department of Energy has initiated a remedial investigation/feasibility study (RI/FS) at the 200-BP-1 operable unit. The 200-BP-1 RI is the first Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA) investigation on the Hanford Site that involves drilling into highly radioactive and chemically contaminated soils. The initial phase of the site characterization is oriented toward determining the nature and extent of any contamination present in the vicinity of the 200-BP-1 operable unit. The major focus of the Phase I RI is the drilling and sampling of 10 inactive waste disposal units which received low level radioactive liquid waste

  16. Remedial investigation/feasibility study for the David Witherspoon, Inc., 901 Site, Knoxville, Tennessee: Volume 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1996-10-01

    This remedial investigation (RI)/feasibility study (FS) supports the selection of remedial actions for the David Witherspoon, Inc. 901 Maryville Pike Site in Knoxville, Tennessee. Operations at the site, used as a recycling center, have resulted in past, present, and potential future releases of hazardous substances in to the environment. This Site is a Tennessee Superfund site. A phased approach was planned to (1) gather existing data from previous investigations managed by the Tenn. Dept. of Environment and Conservation; (2) perform a preliminary RI, including risk assessments, and an FS with existing data to identify areas where remedial action may be necessary; (3) gather additional field data to adequately define the nature and extent of risk-based contaminants that present identifiable threats to human and/or ecological receptors; and (4) develop remedial action alternatives to reduce risks to acceptable levels

  17. An investigation of site diversity and comparison with ITU-R recommendations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Callaghan, S. A.; Boyes, B.; Couchman, A.; Waight, J.; Walden, C. J.; Ventouras, S.

    2008-08-01

    Earth-space radio systems operating at frequencies of 10 GHz and above are badly attenuated by rain, cloud, and atmospheric gases. As the frequencies of operational systems increase, it becomes increasingly uneconomic to compensate for the effects of fading through the use of a fixed fade margin, hence the implementation of fade mitigation techniques (FMT). The spatial and temporal variation of rain provides the justification for the use of site diversity as an FMT. Site diversity employs two or more ground stations receiving the same satellite signal with a separation distance such that the sites encounter intense rainfall at different times, and switching to the site experiencing the least fading improves system performance considerably. Measurements of the 20.7 GHz beacon carried as part of the Global Broadcast Service (GBS) payload on the U.S. Department of Defense satellite UFO-9 have been made at three sites: two are located in the South of England (˜8 km apart), and the third receiver was located in Scotland. These beacon measurements have produced long term attenuation exceedance and site diversity gain and improvement statistics. This attenuation time series data can simulate the performance of an Earth-space system using site diversity, indicating the optimum method of implementing this FMT. In this paper, unbalanced site diversity is investigated, as this is a more likely scenario than the balanced site diversity modeled by the ITU-R recommendations. This paper also investigates the implementation of site diversity from a commercial context, including cost-benefit analysis and technical feasibility.

  18. Investigation of the metal binding site in methionine aminopeptidase by density functional theory

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Anne Techau; Norrby, Per-Ola; Liljefors, Tommy

    2002-01-01

    All methionine aminopeptidases exhibit the same conserved metal binding site. The structure of this site with either Co2+ ions or Zn2+ ions was investigated using density functional theory. The calculations showed that the structure of the site was not influenced by the identity of the metal ions....... This was the case for both of the systems studied; one based on the X-ray structure of the human methionine aminopeptidase type 2 (hMetAP-2) and the other based on the X-ray structure of the E. coli methionine aminopeptidase type 1 (eMetAP-1). Another important structural issue is the identity of the bridging...

  19. Hydrologic investigations to evaluate a potential site for a nuclear-waste repository, Yucca Mountain, Nevada Test Site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wilson, W.E.

    1985-01-01

    Yucca Mountain, Nevada Test Site, is being evaluated by the U.S. Department of Energy for its suitability as a site for a mined geologic respository for high-level nuclear wastes. The repository facility would be constructed in densely welded tuffs in the unsaturated zone. In support of the evaluation, the U.S. Geological Survey is conducting hydrologic investigations of both the saturated and unsaturated zones, as well as paleohydrologic studies. Investigation in saturated-zone hydrology will help define one component of ground-water flow paths and travel times to the accessible environment. A two-dimensional, steady-state, finite-element model was developed to describe the regional hydrogeologic framework. The unsaturated zone is 450 to 700 meters thick at Yucca Mountain; precipitation averages about 150 millimeters per year. A conceptual hydrologic model of the unsaturated zone incorporates the following features: minimal net infiltration, variable distribution of flux, lateral flow, potential for perched-water zones, fracture and matrix flow, and flow along faults. The conceptual model is being tested primarily by specialized test drilling; plans also are being developed for in-situ testing in a proposed exploratory shaft. Quaternary climatic and hydrologic conditions are being evaluated to develop estimates of the hydrologic effects of potential climatic changes during the next 10,000 years. Evaluation approaches include analysis of plant macrofossils in packrat middens, evaluation of lake and playa sediments, infiltration tests, and modeling effects of potential increased recharge on the potentiometric surface

  20. Corrective Action Investigation Plan for Corrective Action Unit 487: Thunderwell Site, Tonopah Test Range, Nevada (Rev. No.: 0, January 2001)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    DOE/NV

    2001-01-02

    This Corrective Action Investigation Plan contains the U.S. Department of Energy, Nevada Operations Office's (DOE/NV's) approach to collect the data necessary to evaluate corrective action alternatives (CAAs) appropriate for the closure of Corrective Action Unit (CAU) 487, Thunderwell Site, Tonopah Test Range (TTR), Nevada, under the Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order. Corrective Action Unit 487 consists of a single Corrective Action Site (CAS), RG 26-001-RGRV, Thunderwell Site. The site is located in the northwest portion of the TTR, Nevada, approximately five miles northwest of the Area 3 Control Point and closest to the Cactus Flats broad basin. Historically, Sandia National Laboratories in New Mexico used CAU 487 in the early to mid-1960s for a series of high explosive tests detonated at the bottom of large cylindrical steel tubes. Historical photographs indicate that debris from these tests and subsequent operations may have been scattered and buried throughout the site. A March 2000 walk-over survey and a July 2000 geophysical survey indicated evidence of buried and surface debris in dirt mounds and areas throughout the site; however, a radiological drive-over survey also performed in July 2000 indicated that no radiological hazards were identified at this site. Based on site history, the scope of this plan is to resolve the problem statement identified during the Data Quality Objectives process that detonation activities at this CAU site may have resulted in the release of contaminants of concern into the surface/subsurface soil including total volatile and total semivolatile organic compounds, total Resource Conservation and Recovery Act metals, radionuclides, total petroleum hydrocarbons, and high explosives. Therefore, the scope of corrective action field investigation will involve excavation, drilling, and extensive soil sampling and analysis activities to determine the extent (if any) of both the lateral and vertical contamination

  1. Preliminary safety evaluation, based on initial site investigation data. Planning document

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hedin, Allan

    2002-12-01

    This report is a planning document for the preliminary safety evaluations (PSE) to be carried out at the end of the initial stage of SKBs ongoing site investigations for a deep repository for spent nuclear fuel. The main purposes of the evaluations are to determine whether earlier judgements of the suitability of the candidate area for a deep repository with respect to long-term safety holds up in the light of borehole data and to provide feed-back to continued site investigations and site specific repository design. The preliminary safety evaluations will be carried out by a safety assessment group, based on a site model, being part of a site description, provided by a site modelling group and a repository layout within that model suggested by a repository engineering group. The site model contains the geometric features of the site as well as properties of the host rock. Several alternative interpretations of the site data will likely be suggested. Also the biosphere is included in the site model. A first task for the PSE will be to compare the rock properties described in the site model to previously established criteria for a suitable host rock. This report gives an example of such a comparison. In order to provide more detailed feedback, a number of thermal, hydrological, mechanical and chemical analyses of the site will also be included in the evaluation. The selection of analyses is derived from the set of geosphere and biosphere analyses preliminarily planned for the comprehensive safety assessment named SR-SITE, which will be based on a complete site investigation. The selection is dictated primarily by the expected feedback to continued site investigations and by the availability of data after the PSE. The repository engineering group will consider several safety related factors in suggesting a repository layout: Thermal calculations will be made to determine a minimum distance between canisters avoiding canister surface temperatures above 100 deg C

  2. Corrective Action Investigation Plan for Corrective Action Unit 232: Area 25 Sewage Lagoons Nevada Test Site, Nevada

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    DOE/NV Operations Office

    1999-05-01

    This Corrective Action Investigation Plan (CAIP) has been developed in accordance with the Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order (FFACO) (1996) that was agreed to by the US Department of Energy, Nevada Operations Office (DOE/NV); the State of Nevada Division of Environmental Protection (NDEP); and the US Department of Defense. The CAIP is a document that provides or references all of the specific information for investigation activities associated with Corrective Action Units (CAUs) or Corrective Action Sites (CASs). According to the FFACO, CASs are sites potentially requiring corrective action(s) and may include solid waste management units or individual disposal or release sites. A CAU consists of one or more CASs grouped together based on geography, technical similarity, or agency responsibility for the purpose of determining corrective actions. This CAIP contains the environmental sample collection objectives and criteria for conducting site investigation activities at CAU 232, Area 25 Sewage Lagoons. Corrective Action Unit 232 consists of CAS 25-03-01, Sewage Lagoon, located in Area 25 of the Nevada Test Site (NTS). The NTS is approximately 65 miles (mi) northwest of Las Vegas, Nevada (Figure 1-1) (DOE/NV, 1996a). The Area 25 Sewage Lagoons (Figure 1-2) (IT, 1999b) are located approximately 0.3 mi south of the Test Cell 'C' (TCC) Facility and were used for the discharge of sanitary effluent from the TCC facility. For purposes of this discussion, this site will be referred to as either CAU 232 or the sewage lagoons.

  3. Single-Site Palladium(II) Catalyst for Oxidative Heck Reaction: Catalytic Performance and Kinetic Investigations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Duan, Hui; Li, Mengyang; Zhang, Guanghui; Gallagher, James R.; Huang, Zhiliang; Sun, Yu; Luo, Zhong; Chen, Hongzhong; Miller, Jeffrey T.; Zou, Ruqiang; Lei, Aiwen; Zhao, Yanli

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT: The development of organometallic single-site catalysts (SSCs) has inspired the designs of new heterogeneous catalysts with high efficiency. Nevertheless, the application of SSCs in certain modern organic reactions, such as C-C bond formation reactions, has still been less investigated. In this study, a single-site Pd(II) catalyst was developed, where 2,2'-bipyridine-grafted periodic mesoporous organosilica (PMO) was employed as the support of a Pd(II) complex. The overall performance of the single-site Pd(II) catalyst in the oxidative Heck reaction was then investigated. The investigation results show that the catalyst displays over 99% selectivity for the product formation with high reaction yield. Kinetic profiles further confirm its high catalytic efficiency, showing that the rate constant is nearly 40 times higher than that for the free Pd(II) salt. X-ray absorption spectroscopy reveals that the catalyst has remarkable lifetime and recyclability.

  4. Stereospecific suppression of active site mutants by methylphosphonate substituted substrates reveals the stereochemical course of site-specific DNA recombination

    OpenAIRE

    Rowley, Paul A.; Kachroo, Aashiq H.; Ma, Chien-Hui; Maciaszek, Anna D.; Guga, Piotr; Jayaram, Makkuni

    2015-01-01

    Tyrosine site-specific recombinases, which promote one class of biologically important phosphoryl transfer reactions in DNA, exemplify active site mechanisms for stabilizing the phosphate transition state. A highly conserved arginine duo (Arg-I; Arg-II) of the recombinase active site plays a crucial role in this function. Cre and Flp recombinase mutants lacking either arginine can be rescued by compensatory charge neutralization of the scissile phosphate via methylphosphonate (MeP) modificati...

  5. AECL strategy for surface-based investigations of potential disposal sites and the development of a geosphere model for a site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Whitaker, S.H.; Brown, A.; Davison, C.C.; Gascoyne, M.; Lodha, G.S.; Stevenson, D.R.; Thorne, G.A.; Tomsons, D.

    1994-05-01

    The objective of this report is to summarize AECL's strategy for surface-based geotechnical site investigations used in screening and evaluating candidate areas and candidate sites for a nuclear fuel waste repository and for the development of geosphere models of sites. The report is one of several prepared by national nuclear fuel waste management programs for the Swedish Nuclear Fuel and Waste Management Co. (SKB) to provide international background on site investigations for SKB's R and D programme on siting.The scope of the report is limited to surface-based investigations of the geosphere, those done at surface or in boreholes drilled from surface. The report discusses AECL's investigation strategy and the methods proposed for use in surface-based reconnaissance and detailed site investigations at potential repository sites. Site investigations done for AECL's Underground Research Laboratory are used to illustrate the approach. The report also discusses AECL's strategy for developing conceptual and mathematical models of geological conditions at sites and the use of these models in developing a model (Geosphere Model) for use in assessing the performance of the disposal system after a repository is closed. Models based on the site data obtained at the URL are used to illustrate the approach. Finally, the report summarizes the lessons learned from AECL's R and D program on site investigations and mentions some recent developments in the R and D program. 120 refs, 33 figs, 7 tabs

  6. AECL strategy for surface-based investigations of potential disposal sites and the development of a geosphere model for a site

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Whitaker, S H; Brown, A; Davison, C C; Gascoyne, M; Lodha, G S; Stevenson, D R; Thorne, G A; Tomsons, D [AECL Research, Whiteshell Labs., Pinawa, MB (Canada)

    1994-05-01

    The objective of this report is to summarize AECL`s strategy for surface-based geotechnical site investigations used in screening and evaluating candidate areas and candidate sites for a nuclear fuel waste repository and for the development of geosphere models of sites. The report is one of several prepared by national nuclear fuel waste management programs for the Swedish Nuclear Fuel and Waste Management Co. (SKB) to provide international background on site investigations for SKB`s R and D programme on siting.The scope of the report is limited to surface-based investigations of the geosphere, those done at surface or in boreholes drilled from surface. The report discusses AECL`s investigation strategy and the methods proposed for use in surface-based reconnaissance and detailed site investigations at potential repository sites. Site investigations done for AECL`s Underground Research Laboratory are used to illustrate the approach. The report also discusses AECL`s strategy for developing conceptual and mathematical models of geological conditions at sites and the use of these models in developing a model (Geosphere Model) for use in assessing the performance of the disposal system after a repository is closed. Models based on the site data obtained at the URL are used to illustrate the approach. Finally, the report summarizes the lessons learned from AECL`s R and D program on site investigations and mentions some recent developments in the R and D program. 120 refs, 33 figs, 7 tabs.

  7. Investigations of MHD activity in ASDEX discharges

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stambaugh, R.; Gernhardt, J.; Klueber, O.; Wagner, F.

    1984-06-01

    This report makes a strong attempt to relate some specific observations of MHD activity in ADEX discharges to observations made on the Doublet III and PDX tokamaks and to theoretical work on high β MHD modes at GA and PPPL. Three topics are discussed. The first topic is the detailed analysis of the time history of MHD activity in a β discharge. The β limit discharge in ASDEX is identified as a discharge in which, during constant neutral beam power, β reaches a maximum and then decreases, often to a lower steady level if the heating pulse is long enough. During the L phase of this discharge, the MHD activity observed in the B coils is both a continuous and bursting coupled m >= 1 mode of the 'fishbone' type. When β is rising in the H phase, this mode disappears; only ELMs are present. At βsub(max), a different mode appears, the m=2, n=1 tearing mode, which grows rapidly as β decreases. The second topic is the very new observation of the fishbone-like mode in a discharge heated by combined neutral beam and ion cyclotron heating power. The mode characteristics are modulated by sawtooth oscillations in a manner consistent with the importance of q(0) in the stability of this mode. The third topic is the search for ELM precursors in discharges designed to have no other competing and complicating MHD activity. In these cases nonaxisymmetric precursors to the Hsub(α) spike were observed. Hence, it appears that an MHD mode, rather than an energy balance problem, must be the origin of the ELM. (orig./GG)

  8. Study the active site of flavonoid applying radiation chemistry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wu Jilan; Sun Gang; Zhang Fugen; He Yongke; Li Jiuqiang [Department of Technical Physics, Peking Univ., Beijing (China)

    2000-03-01

    Flavonoid are a large and important class of naturally occurring, low molecular weight benzo-{gamma}-pyrone derivatives which are reported to have a myriad of biological activities, but the study on the active sites of flavonoids is still ambiguous. In this paper, rutin, quercetin and baicalin have been selected as model compounds. It is well known that rutin is used in inhibiting arteriosclerosis and baicalin is antibacterial and antiviral. They have similar basic structure, but their medicinal properties are so different, why? As most flavonoids contain carbonyl group, which can capture electron effectively, we predict that flavonoids can capture electron to form radical anion. The formation of anion radical may have influence on the mitochondrial electron transport chain. The difference in the ability of forming anion radical may cause the difference in their medicinal effects. (author)

  9. Study the active site of flavonoid applying radiation chemistry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu Jilan; Sun Gang; Zhang Fugen; He Yongke; Li Jiuqiang

    2000-01-01

    Flavonoid are a large and important class of naturally occurring, low molecular weight benzo-γ-pyrone derivatives which are reported to have a myriad of biological activities, but the study on the active sites of flavonoids is still ambiguous. In this paper, rutin, quercetin and baicalin have been selected as model compounds. It is well known that rutin is used in inhibiting arteriosclerosis and baicalin is antibacterial and antiviral. They have similar basic structure, but their medicinal properties are so different, why? As most flavonoids contain carbonyl group, which can capture electron effectively, we predict that flavonoids can capture electron to form radical anion. The formation of anion radical may have influence on the mitochondrial electron transport chain. The difference in the ability of forming anion radical may cause the difference in their medicinal effects. (author)

  10. Evaluation of the state of stress at the Forsmark site. Preliminary site investigation Forsmark area - version 1.2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sjoeberg, Jonny; Lindfors, Ulf; Perman, Fredrik; Ask, Daniel [SwedPower AB, Stockholm (Sweden)

    2005-09-15

    horizontal stress was found in gneissic rock. Aside from this, clear correlations between rock type and measured stresses were also lacking, as well as confirmatory evidence of a low-stress environment in the superficial, more fractured bedrock. Assessment of a representative stress state for the Forsmark site was based on different subsets of the total data set of stress measurements. Linear stress profiles were assumed for the horizontal and vertical stress components, with each stress profile being representative of the conditions within the tectonic lens. These stress profiles define the lower and upper limit of the stress state based on the data considered reliable for each stress component. The resulting stress profiles are: Maximum horizontal stress ({sigma}H) applicable for 230-450 m vertical depth (z): Lower limit: {sigma}H = 0.085z (MPa), Upper limit: {sigma}H = 13+0.095z (MPa), Alternative upper limit: {sigma}H 29+0.050z (MPa). Orientation: 140 deg (clockwise from North). Minimum horizontal stress ({sigma}h) applicable for 0-1,000 m vertical depth (z): Lower limit: {sigma}h = 0.022z (MPa), Upper limit: {sigma}h 5.5+0.0265z (MPa). Vertical stress ({sigma}v) applicable for 0-800 m vertical depth (z): {sigma}v = 0.0265z (MPa). Future measurements and activities should be planned to address the gaps indicated by the present data set. It is recommended that new overcoring measurements are conducted, starting already at approximately 100 m depth below the ground surface, and continued as deep as possible - until the method is no longer applicable (extensive core damage and/or core discing inhibiting correct installation and/or overcoring of the measurement probe). Furthermore, any observations on core discing should be logged in detail to provide confirmatory evidence of stress magnitudes. If core discing of solid core is observed, pilot hole drilling with subsequent overcoring (without installation of the measurement probe) should be considered to induce ring discing

  11. Evaluation of the state of stress at the Forsmark site. Preliminary site investigation Forsmark area - version 1.2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sjoeberg, Jonny; Lindfors, Ulf; Perman, Fredrik; Ask, Daniel

    2005-09-01

    gneissic rock. Aside from this, clear correlations between rock type and measured stresses were also lacking, as well as confirmatory evidence of a low-stress environment in the superficial, more fractured bedrock. Assessment of a representative stress state for the Forsmark site was based on different subsets of the total data set of stress measurements. Linear stress profiles were assumed for the horizontal and vertical stress components, with each stress profile being representative of the conditions within the tectonic lens. These stress profiles define the lower and upper limit of the stress state based on the data considered reliable for each stress component. The resulting stress profiles are: Maximum horizontal stress (σH) applicable for 230-450 m vertical depth (z): Lower limit: σH = 0.085z (MPa), Upper limit: σH = 13+0.095z (MPa), Alternative upper limit: σH 29+0.050z (MPa). Orientation: 140 deg (clockwise from North). Minimum horizontal stress (σh) applicable for 0-1,000 m vertical depth (z): Lower limit: σh = 0.022z (MPa), Upper limit: σh 5.5+0.0265z (MPa). Vertical stress (σv) applicable for 0-800 m vertical depth (z): σv = 0.0265z (MPa). Future measurements and activities should be planned to address the gaps indicated by the present data set. It is recommended that new overcoring measurements are conducted, starting already at approximately 100 m depth below the ground surface, and continued as deep as possible - until the method is no longer applicable (extensive core damage and/or core discing inhibiting correct installation and/or overcoring of the measurement probe). Furthermore, any observations on core discing should be logged in detail to provide confirmatory evidence of stress magnitudes. If core discing of solid core is observed, pilot hole drilling with subsequent overcoring (without installation of the measurement probe) should be considered to induce ring discing of a hollow core. Having two observations of different core geometries can

  12. Corrective action investigation plan for Corrective Action Unit 342: Area 23 Mercury Fire Training Pit, Nevada Test Site, Nevada

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-03-01

    This Corrective Action Investigation Plan (CAIP) has been developed in accordance with the Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order (FFACO) that was agreed to by the US Department of Energy, Nevada Operations Office (DOE/NV); the State of Nevada Division of Environmental Protection (NDEP); and the US Department of Defense (FFACO, 1996). The CAIP is a document that provides or references all of the specific information for investigation activities associated with Corrective Action Units (CAUs) or Corrective Action Sites (CASs). According to the FFACO, CASs are sites potentially requiring corrective action(s) and may include solid waste management units or individual disposal or release sites (FFACO, 1996). Corrective Action Units consist of one or more CASs grouped together based on geography, technical similarity, or agency responsibility for the purpose of determining corrective actions. This CAIP contains the environmental sample collection objectives and the criteria for conducting site investigation activities at CAU 342, the Area 23 Mercury Fire Training Pit (FTP), which is located in Area 23 at the Nevada Test Site (NTS). The NTS is approximately 88 km (55 mi) northwest of Las Vegas, Nevada. Corrective Action Unit 342 is comprised of CAS 23-56-01. The FTP is an area approximately 100 m by 140 m (350 ft by 450 ft) located west of the town of Mercury, Nevada, which was used between approximately 1965 and 1990 to train fire-fighting personnel (REECo, 1991; Jacobson, 1991). The surface and subsurface soils in the FTP have likely been impacted by hydrocarbons and other contaminants of potential concern (COPC) associated with burn activities and training exercises in the area.

  13. Recent Experience Using Active Love Wave Techniques to Characterize Seismographic Station Sites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, A. J.; Yong, A.; Salomone, L.

    2014-12-01

    Active-source Love waves recorded by the multi-channel analysis of surface wave (MASLW) technique were recently analyzed in two site characterization projects. Between 2010 and 2011, the 2009 American Recovery and Reinvestment Act (ARRA) funded GEOVision to conduct geophysical investigations at 189 seismographic stations—185 in California and 4 in the Central Eastern U.S. (CEUS). The original project plan was to utilize active and passive Rayleigh wave-based techniques to obtain shear-wave velocity (VS) profiles to a minimum depth of 30 m and the time-averaged VS of the upper 30 meters (VS30). Early in the investigation it became evident that Rayleigh wave techniques, such as multi-channel analysis of surface waves (MASRW), were not effective at characterizing all sites. Shear-wave seismic refraction and MASLW techniques were therefore applied. The MASLW technique was deployed at a total of 38 sites, in addition to other methods, and used as the primary technique to characterize 22 sites, 5 of which were also characterized using Rayleigh wave techniques. In 2012, the Electric Power Research Institute funded characterization of 33 CEUS station sites. Based on experience from the ARRA investigation, both MASRW and MASLW data were acquired by GEOVision at 24 CEUS sites—the remaining 9 sites and 2 overlapping sites were characterized by University of Texas, Austin. Of the 24 sites characterized by GEOVision, 16 were characterized using MASLW data, 4 using both MASLW and MASRW data and 4 using MASRW data. Love wave techniques were often found to perform better, or at least yield phase velocity data that could be more readily modeled using the fundamental mode assumption, at shallow rock sites, sites with steep velocity gradients, and, sites with a thin, low velocity, surficial soil layer overlying stiffer sediments. These types of velocity structure often excite dominant higher modes in Rayleigh wave data, but not in Love wave data. At such sites, it may be possible

  14. Threatened and endangered wildlife species of the Hanford Site related to CERCLA characterization activities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fitzner, R.E. [Pacific Northwest Lab., Richland, WA (United States); Weiss, S.G.; Stegen, J.A. [Westinghouse Hanford Co., Richland, WA (United States)

    1994-06-01

    The US Department of Energy`s (DOE) Hanford Site has been placed on the National Priorities List, which requires that it be remediated under the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA) or Superfund. Potentially contaminated areas of the Hanford Site were grouped into operable units, and detailed characterization and investigation plans were formulated. The DOE Richland Operations Office requested Westinghouse Hanford Company (WHC) to conduct a biological assessment of the potential impact of these characterization activities on the threatened, endangered, and sensitive wildlife species of the Hanford Site. Additional direction for WHC compliances with wildlife protection can be found in the Environmental Compliance Manual. This document is intended to meet these requirements, in part, for the CERCLA characterization activities, as well as for other work comparable in scope. This report documents the biological assessment and describes the pertinent components of the Hanford Site as well as the planned characterization activities. Also provided are accounts of endangered, threatened, and federal candidate wildlife species on the Hanford Site and information as to how human disturbances can affect these species. Potential effects of the characterization activities are described with recommendations for mitigation measures.

  15. Animal investigation program 1978 annual report: Nevada Test Site and vicinity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, D.D.; Bernhardt, D.E.; Giles, K.R.

    1980-12-01

    Data are presented from the radioanalyses of tissues collected from cattle, mule deer, desert bighorn sheep, rabbits, golden eagles, and other wildlife that resided on or near the Nevada Test Site during 1978. Routine and special activities of the Animal Investigation Program are also discussed. Other than the naturally occurring Potassium-40, gamma-emitting radionuclides were detected infrequently with the exception of short-lived radionuclides found in samples from animals collected soon after March 14 (the date of a nuclear test by the People's Republic of China). Strontium-90 concentrations in bones from deer, cattle, and desert bighorn sheep were consistent with those of recent years. Tritium concentrations were generally within expected environmental limits with the exception of animals exposed to sources of contamination; e.g., drainage ponds from Area 12 tunnels. Plutonium levels in all tissues from all species showed little variation from recent years. However, cattle tissue sampled in the fall were higher than those collected in the spring. Radionuclide tissue concentrations were generally higher in the tissues of animals residing in Area 15 than in similar animals collected from other Nevada Test Site areas. Hypothetical dose estimates to man were calculated on the basis of the daily consumption of 0.5 kilogram of liver or muscle from animals that contained peak radionuclide levels. The movements of 13 mule deer outfitted with collars containing a radio transmitter unit were monitored on a weekly basis. No gross or microscopic lesions were found in necropsied animals that could be directly attributed to the effects of ionizing radiation

  16. Animal investigation program 1980 annual report: Nevada Test Site and vicinity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, D.D.; Giles, K.R.; Bernhardt, D.E.

    1982-08-01

    Data are presented from the radioanalyses of tissues collected from cattle, mule deer, desert bighorn sheep, rabbits, and a horse that resided on or near the Nevada Test Site during 1980. Routine and special activities of the Animal Investigation Program are also discussed. Other than the naturally occurring 40 K, gamma-emitting radionuclides were detected infrequently. 131 I was found in the thyroid of a deer 3 weeks after a nuclear test by the People's Republic of China. Concentrations of 90 Sr in bones from deer, cattle, and desert bighorn sheep were similar to those of recent years. Plutonium levels in all tissues from all species showed little variation from those levels in samples collected in recent years. Radionuclide concentrations were generally higher in the tissues of animals residing in Area 15 than in similar animals collected from other Nevada Test Site areas. Surface soil samples from the Area 15 farm contained 238 Pu and 239 Pu in nanocurie per kilogram concentrations. Hypothetical annual dose estimates to man were calculated on the basis of the daily consumption of 0.5 kilogram of liver or muscle from animals that contained peak radionuclide levels. The highest postulated dose was 0.4 millirems to whole body for 137 Cs in muscle obtained from cattle. This dose is about 0.1 percent of the 500 millirems per year radiation protection guide for individuals in the general population. All other postulated doses for consumption of tissues containing other radionuclides were less than 0.1 percent of the standard

  17. Drilling to investigate processes in active tectonics and magmatism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shervais, J.; Evans, J.; Toy, V.; Kirkpatrick, J.; Clarke, A.; Eichelberger, J.

    2014-12-01

    Coordinated drilling efforts are an important method to investigate active tectonics and magmatic processes related to faults and volcanoes. The US National Science Foundation (NSF) recently sponsored a series of workshops to define the nature of future continental drilling efforts. As part of this series, we convened a workshop to explore how continental scientific drilling can be used to better understand active tectonic and magmatic processes. The workshop, held in Park City, Utah, in May 2013, was attended by 41 investigators from seven countries. Participants were asked to define compelling scientific justifications for examining problems that can be addressed by coordinated programs of continental scientific drilling and related site investigations. They were also asked to evaluate a wide range of proposed drilling projects, based on white papers submitted prior to the workshop. Participants working on faults and fault zone processes highlighted two overarching topics with exciting potential for future scientific drilling research: (1) the seismic cycle and (2) the mechanics and architecture of fault zones. Recommended projects target fundamental mechanical processes and controls on faulting, and range from induced earthquakes and earthquake initiation to investigations of detachment fault mechanics and fluid flow in fault zones. Participants working on active volcanism identified five themes: the volcano eruption cycle; eruption sustainability, near-field stresses, and system recovery; eruption hazards; verification of geophysical models; and interactions with other Earth systems. Recommended projects address problems that are transferrable to other volcanic systems, such as improved methods for identifying eruption history and constraining the rheological structure of shallow caldera regions. Participants working on chemical geodynamics identified four major themes: large igneous provinces (LIPs), ocean islands, continental hotspot tracks and rifts, and

  18. Human population and activities in Forsmark. Site description

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miliander, Sofia; Punakivi, Mari; Kylaekorpi, Lasse; Rydgren, Bernt [SwedPower AB, Stockholm (Sweden)

    2004-12-01

    The Swedish Nuclear Fuel and Waste Management Co (SKB) is in the process of selecting a safe and environmentally acceptable location for a deep repository of radioactive waste. Two alternative locations are under investigation. These are Forsmark, Oesthammars kommun (kommun = municipality) and Simpevarp/Laxemar, Oskarshamns kommun. SKB has expressed the importance of describing the humans and their activities in these areas and therefore has this synthesis concerning the human population in Forsmark been produced.The description is a statistical synthesis, mainly based upon statistical data from SCB (Statistics Sweden) that has been collected, processed and analysed. The statistical data has not been verified through site inspections and interviews. When using statistical data, it is advisable to note that the data becomes more unreliable if the areas are small, with small populations.The data in this description is essential for future evaluations of the impact on the environment and its human population (Environmental Impact Assessments). The data is also important when modelling the potential flows of radio nuclides and calculating the risk of exposure in future safety assessments.The actual area for the study is in this report called 'the Forsmark area', an area of 19.5 km{sup 2} near Forsmark nuclear power plant. The land use in the Forsmark area differs notably from the land use in Uppsala laen (laen = county). Only 0.04% of the total area is developed (built-up) compared to 4.9% in Uppsala laen and only 4% is agricultural land compared to 25% in the county. Furthermore, there are far more forest, wetlands and water areas in the Forsmark area. The forest area represents as much as 72.5% of the total area.The Forsmark area is uninhabited, and its surroundings are very sparsely populated. In 2002, the population density in Forsmark was 1.8 inhabitants per square kilometre, which was 24 times lower than in Uppsala laen. The population density in the

  19. Human population and activities in Forsmark. Site description

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miliander, Sofia; Punakivi, Mari; Kylaekorpi, Lasse; Rydgren, Bernt

    2004-12-01

    The Swedish Nuclear Fuel and Waste Management Co (SKB) is in the process of selecting a safe and environmentally acceptable location for a deep repository of radioactive waste. Two alternative locations are under investigation. These are Forsmark, Oesthammars kommun (kommun = municipality) and Simpevarp/Laxemar, Oskarshamns kommun. SKB has expressed the importance of describing the humans and their activities in these areas and therefore has this synthesis concerning the human population in Forsmark been produced.The description is a statistical synthesis, mainly based upon statistical data from SCB (Statistics Sweden) that has been collected, processed and analysed. The statistical data has not been verified through site inspections and interviews. When using statistical data, it is advisable to note that the data becomes more unreliable if the areas are small, with small populations.The data in this description is essential for future evaluations of the impact on the environment and its human population (Environmental Impact Assessments). The data is also important when modelling the potential flows of radio nuclides and calculating the risk of exposure in future safety assessments.The actual area for the study is in this report called 'the Forsmark area', an area of 19.5 km 2 near Forsmark nuclear power plant. The land use in the Forsmark area differs notably from the land use in Uppsala laen (laen = county). Only 0.04% of the total area is developed (built-up) compared to 4.9% in Uppsala laen and only 4% is agricultural land compared to 25% in the county. Furthermore, there are far more forest, wetlands and water areas in the Forsmark area. The forest area represents as much as 72.5% of the total area.The Forsmark area is uninhabited, and its surroundings are very sparsely populated. In 2002, the population density in Forsmark was 1.8 inhabitants per square kilometre, which was 24 times lower than in Uppsala laen. The population density in the parish has been

  20. Eel calcitonin binding site distribution and antinociceptive activity in rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guidobono, F.; Netti, C.; Sibilia, V.; Villa, I.; Zamboni, A.; Pecile, A.

    1986-01-01

    The distribution of binding site for [ 125 I]-eel-calcitonin (ECT) to rat central nervous system, studied by an autoradiographic technique, showed concentrations of binding in the diencephalon, the brain stem and the spinal cord. Large accumulations of grains were seen in the hypothalamus, the amygdala, in the fasciculus medialis prosencephali, in the fasciculus longitudinalis medialis, in the ventrolateral part of the periventricular gray matter, in the lemniscus medialis and in the raphe nuclei. The density of grains in the reticular formation and in the nucleus tractus spinalis nervi trigemini was more moderate. In the spinal cord, grains were scattered throughout the dorsal horns. Binding of the ligand was displaced equally by cold ECT and by salmon CT(sCT), indicating that both peptides bind to the same receptors. Human CT was much weaker than sCT in displacing [ 125 I]-ECT binding. The administration of ECT into the brain ventricles of rats dose-dependently induced a significant and long-lasting enhancement of hot-plate latencies comparable with that obtained with sCT. The antinociceptive activity induced by ECT is compatible with the topographical distribution of binding sites for the peptide and is a further indication that fish CTs are active in the mammalian brain

  1. Active catalytic sites in the ammoxidation of propane and propene over V-Sb-O catalysts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Buchholz, S.A.; Zanthoff, H.W. [Bochum Univ. (Germany). Lehrstuhl fuer Technische Chemie

    1998-12-31

    The ammoxidation of propane over VSb{sub y}O{sub x} catalysts (y=1, 2, 5) was investigated with respect to the role of different oxygen species in the selective and non selective reaction steps using transient experiments in the Temporal Analysis of Products (TAP) reactor. Only lattice oxygen is involved in the oxidation reactions. Using isotopic labelled oxygen it is shown that two different active sites exist on the surface. On site A, which can be reoxidized faster by gas phase oxygen compared to site B, mainly CO is formed. On site B CO{sub 2} and acrolein as well as NO and N{sub 2}O in the presence of ammonia in the feed gas are formed and reoxidation mainly occurs with bulk lattice oxygen. (orig.)

  2. Investigation on Anticataract Activity of Triphala Ghrita

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. N. Mahajan

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Lab prepared Triphala ghrita was studied for its possible anticataract activity on galactose induced cataract in Swiss albino rats. Administration of Triphala ghrita at a dose of 216 mg/200 g, 1080 mg/200 g and 2160 mg/200 g of rat orally offered significant dose dependent protection against galactose induced cataract and delayed the onset and progression of cataract. It was seen that the dose of 1080 mg of Triphala ghrita did not show stage II cataract in 14 days and stage III in 21 days. It did not show even stage III and stage IV cataract after 30 days whereas group B and group C showed stage III and stage IV cataracts. Dose of 2160 mg did not showed stage IV cataract after 30 days but showed stage III cataract. Dose of 1080 mg of Triphala ghrita offered significant protection against delaying the onset and progression of cataract in comparison to other doses. This effect may be attributed to the antioxidant activity of gallic acid, ellagic acid and ascorbic acid which shows their presence in Triphala ghrita. This preliminary study was encouraging but further studies are required to extrapolate the clinical usefulness of this formulation.

  3. Corrective Action Investigation Plan for Corrective Action Unit 366: Area 11 Plutonium Valley Dispersion Sites, Nevada National Security Site, Nevada, Revision 0

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Patrick Matthews

    2011-09-01

    associated with the nuclear tests, it was determined that CASs 11-23-02, 11-23-03, and 11-23-04 will be investigated as one release site. The three test areas associated with these CASs are in close proximity; the devices tested were all composed of plutonium and enriched uranium; and the ground zeroes are all posted high contamination areas (HCAs). Because the device tested at CAS 11-23-01 was composed primarily of enriched uranium and the ground zero is not a posted HCA, the CAS will be investigated as a separate release. The DQO process also resulted in an assumption that TED within the HCAs and contaminated waste dumps exceeds the FAL and requires corrective action. A field investigation will be performed to define where TED exceeds the FAL and to determine whether other contaminants of concern are present at the site associated with other activities that took place at the site or from spills or waste discovered during the investigation. The presence and nature of contamination from other types of releases (such as migration and any potential releases discovered during the investigation) will be evaluated using soil samples collected from the locations most likely containing contamination, if present. Appendix A provides a detailed discussion of the DQO methodology and the DQOs specific to each CAS.

  4. The use of desk studies, remote sensing and surface geological and geophysical techniques in site investigations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mather, J.D.

    1984-02-01

    The geoscientific investigations required to characterise a site for the underground disposal of radioactive wastes involve a wide range of techniques and expertise. Individual national investigations need to be planned with the specific geological environment and waste form in mind. However, in any investigation there should be a planned sequence of operations leading through desk studies and surface investigations to the more expensive and sophisticated sub-surface investigations involving borehole drilling and the construction of in situ test facilities. Desk studies are an important and largely underestimated component of site investigations. Most developed countries have archives of topographical, geological and environmental data within government agencies, universities, research institutes and learned societies. Industry is another valuable source but here confidentiality can be a problem. However, in developing countries and in some regions of developed countries the amount of basic data, which needs to be collected over many decades, will not be as extensive. In such regions remote sensing offers a rapid method of examining large areas regardless of land access, vegetation or geological setting, rapidly and at relatively low cost. It can also be used to examine features, such as discontinuity patterns, over relatively small areas in support of intensive ground investigations. Examples will be given of how remote sensing has materially contributed to site characterisation in a number of countries, particularly those such as Sweden, Canada and the United Kingdom where the major effort has concentrated on crystalline rocks. The main role of desk studies and surface investigations is to provide basic data for the planning and execution of more detailed subsurface investigations. However, such studies act as a valuable screening mechanism and if they are carried out correctly can enable adverse characteristics of a site to be identified at an early stage before

  5. Active hydrothermal and non-active massive sulfide mound investigation using a new multiparameter chemical sensor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, C.; Wu, G.; Qin, H.; Wang, Z.

    2012-12-01

    Investigation of active hydrothermal mound as well as non-active massive sulfide mound are studied recently. However, there is still lack of in-situ detection method for the non-active massive sulfide mound. Even though Transient ElectroMagnetic (TEM) and Electric Self-potential (SP) methods are good, they both are labour, time and money cost work. We proposed a new multiparameter chemical sensor method to study the seafloor active hydrothermal mound as well as non-active massive sulfide mound. This sensor integrates Eh, S2- ions concentration and pH electrochemical electrodes together, and could found chemical change caused by the active hydrothermal vent, even weak chemical abnormalities by non-active massive sulfide hydrothermal mound which MARP and CTD sometimes cannot detect. In 2012, the 1st Leg of the Chinese 26th cruise, the multiparameter chemical sensor was carried out with the deepsea camera system over the Carlsberg Ridge in Indian Ocean by R/V DAYANGYIHAO. It was shown small Eh and S2- ions concentration abnormal around a site at Northwest Indian ridge. This site was also evidenced by the TV grab. In the 2nd Leg of the same cruise in June, this chemical sensor was carried out with TEM and SP survey system. The chemical abnormalities are matched very well with both TEM and SP survey results. The results show that the multiparameter chemical sensor method not only can detect active hydrothermal mound, but also can find the non-active massive sulfide hydrothermal mound.

  6. Site-specific investigations of aquifer thermal energy storage for space and process cooling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brown, D.R.

    1991-01-01

    This paper reports on the Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) that has completed three preliminary site-specific feasibility studies that investigated aquifer thermal energy storage (ATES) for reducing space and process cooling costs. Chilled water stored in an ATES system could be used to meet all or part of the process and/or space cooling loads at the three facilities investigated. Seasonal or diurnal chill ATES systems could be significantly less expensive than a conventional electrically-driven, load-following chiller system at one of the three sites, depending on the cooling water loop return temperature and presumed future electricity escalation rate. For the other two sites investigated, a chill ATES system would be economically competitive with conventional chillers if onsite aquifer characteristics were improved. Well flow rates at one of the sites were adequate, but the expected thermal recovery efficiency was too low. The reverse of this situation was found at the other site, where the thermal recovery efficiency was expected to be adequate, but well flow rates were too low

  7. Preliminary Investigation of an Active PLZT Lens

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lightsey, W. D.; Peters, B. R.; Reardon, P. J.; Wong, J. K.

    2001-01-01

    The design, analysis and preliminary testing of a prototype Adjustable Focus Optical Correction Lens (AFOCL) is described. The AFOCL is an active optical component composed of solid state lead lanthanum-modified zirconate titanate (PLZT) ferroelectric ceramic with patterned indium tin oxide (ITO) transparent surface electrodes that modulate the refractive index of the PLZT to function as an electro-optic lens. The AFOCL was developed to perform optical re-alignment and wavefront correction to enhance the performance of Ultra-Lightweight Structures and Space Observatories (ULSSO). The AFOCL has potential application as an active optical component within a larger optical system. As such, information from a wavefront sensor would be processed to provide input to the AFOCL to drive the sensed wavefront to the desired shape and location. While offering variable and rapid focussing capability (controlled wavefront manipulation) similar to liquid crystal based spatial light modulators (SLM), the AFOCL offers some potential advantages because it is a solid-state, stationary, low-mass, rugged, and thin optical element that can produce wavefront quality comparable to the solid refractive lens it replaces. The AFOCL acts as a positive or negative lens by producing a parabolic phase-shift in the PLZT material through the application of a controlled voltage potential across the ITO electrodes. To demonstrate the technology, a 4 mm diameter lens was fabricated to produce 5-waves of optical power operating at 2.051 micrometer wavelength. Optical metrology was performed on the device to measure focal length, optical quality, and efficiency for a variety of test configurations. The data was analyzed and compared to theoretical data available from computer-based models of the AFOCL.

  8. Argonne's Expedited Site Characterization: An integrated approach to cost- and time-effective remedial investigation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burton, J.C.; Walker, J.L.; Aggarwal, P.K.; Meyer, W.T.

    1995-01-01

    Argonne National Laboratory has developed a methodology for remedial site investigation that has proven to be both technically superior to and more cost- and time-effective than traditional methods. This methodology is referred to as the Argonne Expedited Site Characterization (ESC). Quality is the driving force within the process. The Argonne ESC process is abbreviated only in time and cost and never in terms of quality. More usable data are produced with the Argonne ESC process than with traditional site characterization methods that are based on statistical-grid sampling and multiple monitoring wells. This paper given an overview of the Argonne ESC process and compares it with traditional methods for site characterization. Two examples of implementation of the Argonne ESC process are discussed to illustrate the effectiveness of the process in CERCLA (Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act) and RCRA (Resource Conservation and Recovery Act) programs

  9. Savannah River Site RCRA Facility Investigation plan: Road A Chemical Basin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1989-06-01

    The nature of wastes disposed of at the Road A Chemical Basin (RACB) is such that some degree of soil contamination is probable. Lead has also been detected in site monitoring wells at concentrations above SRS background levels. A RCRA Facility Investigation (RFI) is proposed for the RACB and will include a ground penetrating radar (GPR) survey, collection and chemical and radiological analyses of soil cores, installation of groundwater monitoring wells, collection and chemical and radiological analyses of groundwater samples, and collection of chemical and radiological analyses of surface water and sediment samples. Upon completion of the proposed RFI field work and chemical and radiological analyses, and RFI report should be prepared to present conclusions on the nature and extent of contamination at the site, and to make recommendations for site remediation. If contamination is detected at concentrations above SRS background levels, a receptor analysis should be done to evaluate potential impacts of site contamination on nearby populations

  10. Animal investigation program, 1981 annual report: Nevada Test Site and vicinity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, D.D.; Giles, K.R.

    1982-01-01

    Data are presented from the radioanalysis of tissues, collected from animals that resided on or near the Nevada Test Site (NTS). Other than naturally occurring potassium-40, cesium-137 was the only gamma-emitting radionuclide frequently detected and was within a narrow range of activity. For example, 12 of 14 cattle muscle samples contained 15 to 65 pCi of cesium-137 per kilogram. Strontium-90 and plutonium-238 or -239 tissue concentrations were similar to those of recent years. Nanocurie levels of tritium were found in tissue from two deer that drank contaminated water draining from the tunnel test areas. Annual dose estimates to man were calculated based on the daily consumption of 0.5 kg of tissue with peak radionuclide levels. The highest postulated dose was 45 millirems to the whole body from ingestion of deer muscle that drank from the tritium contaminated waters. This dose is about 9% of the radiation protection guide. Movement of deer on the NTS is discussed. In general, deer from Pahute Mesa winter in the Timber Mt. area with some movement off the NTS, while deer from Rainier Mesa winter in the Shoshone Mt. area. The sudden death of an offsite goat kid was investigated and death was attributed to enterotoxemia. No gross or microscopic lesions in necropsied animals were found that could be attributed to the effect of ionizing radiation

  11. Differential active site loop conformations mediate promiscuous activities in the lactonase SsoPox.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julien Hiblot

    Full Text Available Enzymes are proficient catalysts that enable fast rates of Michaelis-complex formation, the chemical step and products release. These different steps may require different conformational states of the active site that have distinct binding properties. Moreover, the conformational flexibility of the active site mediates alternative, promiscuous functions. Here we focused on the lactonase SsoPox from Sulfolobus solfataricus. SsoPox is a native lactonase endowed with promiscuous phosphotriesterase activity. We identified a position in the active site loop (W263 that governs its flexibility, and thereby affects the substrate specificity of the enzyme. We isolated two different sets of substitutions at position 263 that induce two distinct conformational sampling of the active loop and characterized the structural and kinetic effects of these substitutions. These sets of mutations selectively and distinctly mediate the improvement of the promiscuous phosphotriesterase and oxo-lactonase activities of SsoPox by increasing active-site loop flexibility. These observations corroborate the idea that conformational diversity governs enzymatic promiscuity and is a key feature of protein evolvability.

  12. Unraveling the Nature of Sites Active toward Hydrogen Peroxide Reduction in Fe?N?C Catalysts

    OpenAIRE

    Choi, Chang Hyuck; Choi, Won Seok; Kasian, Olga; Mechler, Anna K.; Sougrati, Moulay Tahar; Br?ller, Sebastian; Strickland, Kara; Jia, Qingying; Mukerjee, Sanjeev; Mayrhofer, Karl J. J.; Jaouen, Fr?d?ric

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Fe?N?C catalysts with high O2 reduction performance are crucial for displacing Pt in low?temperature fuel cells. However, insufficient understanding of which reaction steps are catalyzed by what sites limits their progress. The nature of sites were investigated that are active toward H2O2 reduction, a key intermediate during indirect O2 reduction and a source of deactivation in fuel cells. Catalysts comprising different relative contents of FeN x C y moieties and Fe particles encapsu...

  13. Geo-scientific basis for the investigation site Oberbauenstock. Volume 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schneider, T.R.; Kappeler, S.W.

    1984-12-01

    The geological and hydrogeological conditions prevailing in the region of the investigation site Oberbauen Stock have been chosen as model data-set, in the frame of project Gewaehr 1985, for a type B (low and intermediate level) waste repository. The report, in its capacity as a reference report for project Gewaehr presents all available, relevant site data applicable to modeling of the site. The sources of the data are presented. Geological studies and investigations, boreholes and geophysical investigations prior to the construction of the Seelisberg tunnel (as well as all underground facilities pertaining to the said tunnel) are described. In the section devoted to geology, the stratigraphy and the tectonics of the helvetic nappes in the area of the site are described. Further, the host rock, the neighbouring formations and the local tectonics are presented. In conclusion the geological boundary conditions of the area are summarized. The section devoted to hydrogeology deals with the observations and measurements carried out at the surface and in the underground facilities. As well, the present state of knowledge concerning the water chemistry is described. The section also includes a description of the regional hydrogeology. Concerning rock mechanics a summary and discussion of all available parameters and excavation classes is presented. A description of all the experiences acquired during construction follows as a second part. The section ends with a presentation of the observations and measurements of the gas content of the host rock and other formations. A section concerning long-term behaviour concludes the report. Possible future changes of the geology and the climate are investigated. The consequences for the model site are discussed. It is concluded that a negative impact to a repository on the site is improbable on a timescale of 10 5 years. (author)

  14. ERDA test facilities, East Mesa Test Site. Geothermal resource investigations, Imperial Valley, California

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1976-01-01

    Detailed specifications which must be complied with in the construction of the ERDA Test Facilities at the East Mesa Site for geothermal resource investigations in Imperial Valley, California are presented for use by prospective bidders for the construction contract. The principle construction work includes a 700 gpm cooling tower with its associated supports and equipment, pipelines from wells, electrical equipment, and all earthwork. (LCL)

  15. Remedial investigation and feasibility study for the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory Site 300 Pit 7 Complex

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Taffet, M.J. (Lawrence Livermore National Lab., CA (USA)); Oberdorfer, J.A. (San Jose State Univ., CA (USA)); McIlvride, W.A. (Weiss Associates, Oakland, CA (USA))

    1989-10-01

    This report summarizes the results and conclusions of the investigation of tritium and other compounds in ground water in the vicinity of landfills at the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) Site 300 Pit 7 Complex. 91 refs., 110 figs., 43 tabs.

  16. Investigation of ground water aquifer at Tlogorejo Site Karangawen District, Demak Regency, Central Java

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lilik Subiantoro; Priyo Sularto; Slamet Sudarto

    2009-01-01

    Demak is one of regency are placed at north beach central Java. Some part of this area especially Tlogorejo site Karangawen have the problem of fresh water availability. Conditions of insufficient Standard Water have been recognized in some part of the region, those are Karangrowo area, Undaan District. The problem of clean water in this area is caused by sea water trapped in sedimentary material during sedimentation process, so the trapped ground water character is brine or brackish. One of the alternatives to overcome water problem is election or delineated of the prospect area for exploiting of ground water. Referring to those problems Pusbang Geologi Nuklir BATAN means to conduct investigation of ground water in some location which has problem of clean water. The ground investigation activity is to get information about the geology, hydrogeology and sub surface geophysical characteristic, which is needed to identification of ground water aquifer. To obtain those targets, conducted by topographic measurement in 1:5000 scale maps, measurement of soil radioactivity, geology and hydrogeology mapping, geo-electrical 2-D image measurement Base on observation, analysis, evaluation and discussion was identified the existence of potential confined aquifer that happened at the layer sand that is trapped in the in impermeable layer of clay, which is potential for confined aquifer. Potency of aquifer with the best condition from bad, there are placed on geophysical measurement is ''Sand Aquifer Layer-1'' are located at RB 1 (TLG-5), RB 2 (TLG-4) and RB 3 (TLG-22). Physical characterized of aquifer: resistivity 22-46 Ωm, the depth of surface water 110 to 146 meter. (author)

  17. Aespoe Hard Rock Laboratory - feasibility and usefulness of site investigation methods. Experiences from the pre-investigation phase

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Almen, K E [ed.; KEA GEO-Konsult (Sweden); Olsson, Paer [SKANSKA, (Sweden); Rhen, I [VBB VIAK AB, Malmoe (Sweden); Stanfors, R [RS Consulting, (Sweden); Wikberg, P [Swedish Nuclear Fuel and Waste Management Co., Stockholm (Sweden)

    1994-08-01

    One of the main goals set up by SKB for the Aespoe HRL project is to `test the quality and appropriateness of different methods for characterizing the bedrock with respect to conditions of importance for a final repository`. An extensive investigation programme was carried out during the projects pre-investigation phase that in part was based in experience from SKBs previous site investigations and in part entailed the testing of new or other unestablished methods. Previous technical reports have described the methods that have been used and the results, models and predictions that have been produced. All the methods used are discussed in the present report in terms of how they have contributed in different analysis stages to the total geoscientific characterization of the rock at Aespoe. The usefulness of each method for modelling and prediction in different scales is evaluated, and aspects of the practical execution of the methods under different conditions are discussed. The report sheds light on the importance of dividing large investigation programmes such as this one into suitable stages to get an opportunity to evaluate the results obtained and plan in detail the investigations in the next stage. Furthermore, the way in which the characterization/modelling work in different geometric scales has been done for the different investigation stages is discussed, along with whether this has been found to be a suitable approach. The importance of pursuing an interdisciplinary strategy throughout the pre-investigation process cannot be overemphasized. For the planning, execution, analysis and reporting of the results of the pre-investigations, this has been guaranteed by an organization in which an interdisciplinary group has been in charge of the investigations, together with the project manager. 52 refs, numerous tabs and figs.

  18. Neutron activation analysis: a powerful tool in provenance investigations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meloni, Sandro; Oddone, Massimo

    2002-01-01

    It is well known that neutron activation analysis (NAA), both instrumental and destructive, allows the simultaneous determination of a number of elements, mostly trace elements, with high levels of precision and accuracy. These peculiar properties of NAA are very useful when applied to provenance studies, i.e. to the identification of the origin of raw materials with which artifacts had been manufactured in ancient times. Data reduction by statistical procedures, especially multivariate analysis techniques, provides a statistical 'fingerprint' of investigated materials, both raw materials and archaeological artifacts, that, upon comparison, allows the identification of the provenance of prime matters used for artifact manufacturing. Thus information on quarries and flows exploitation in the antiquity, on technological raw materials processing, on trade routes and about the circulation of fakes, can be obtained. In the present paper two case studies are reported. The first one deals with the identification of the provenance of clay used to make ceramic materials, mostly bricks and tiles, recovered from the excavation of a Roman 'villa' in Lomello (Roman name Laumellum) and of Roman settlings in Casteggio (Roman name Clastidium). Both sites are located in the Province of Pavia in areas called Lomellina and Oltrepo respectively. The second one investigates the origin of the white marble used to build medieval arks, Carolingian age, located in the church of San Felice, now property of the University of Pavia. Experimental set-up, analytical results and data reduction procedures are presented and discussed. (author)

  19. Geophysical and geological borehole investigations for the characterization of a site for radioactive waste disposal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Olsson, O.; Ahlbom, K.

    1984-02-01

    In the Swedish program for site investigations detailed geological and geophysical investigations are performed at areas of 4-6 km 2 at the surface. Normally around 10 deep core bore holes are drilled. The length of the holes is normally from 600 to 1000 m. The holes are drilled to verify the location of fracture zones and to investigate the physical and hydraulic properties of the fracture zones at large depths. Investigations have been performed in a number of sites with mainly granitic and gneissic rocks. The core from these boreholes is logged with the aid of a microcomputer system. The cores are mapped with respect to rock type, structure, fractures and fracture minerals. Indications of water flow, shearing and core-discing are also studied. The boreholes are logged with a suite of geophysical logs. Several different electrical logs are used and have been found to be good indicators of fracture zones. Normally the electrical logs in combination with the fracture frequency are used to define the limits of fracture zones crossing the borehole. The temperature log and the salinity log have proved to be good indicators of permeable zones. The data from each hole is correlated with data obtained from the other holes and the surface investigations to build a fracture zone model which is used for the hydraulic modelling of the site. In order to verify the extension of the fracture zones at a distance from the borehole cross-hole techniques have been applied. At the Swedish test site Finnsjoe and in the Stripa mine the suitability of the mise a la masse technique for mapping of fracture zones was tested. At the Finnsjoe site it was possible to map a fairly complex fracture system over distances up to 150 m. In the Stripa mine the object was to follow the extent of a major fracture zone for distances up to 600 m. It was possible to obtain an indication of the orientation of the fracture zone

  20. Remedial investigation/feasibility study work plan for the 300-FF-1 operable unit, Hanford Site, Richland, Washington

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1990-03-01

    Over 1,400 waste facilities have been identified on the Hanford Site. Most of the waste facilities are located within geographic areas on the Hanford Site that are referred to as the 100, 200, 300, 400, and 1100 areas. The purpose of this work plan is to document the project scoping process and to outline all remedial investigation/feasibility study (RI/FS) activities, to determine the nature and extent of the threat presented by releases of hazardous substances from the operable unit, and to evaluate proposed remedies for such releases. The goal of the 300-FF-1 remedial investigation (RI) is to provide sufficient information needed to conduct the feasibility study (FS), by determining the nature and extent of the threat to public health and the environment posed by releases of hazardous substances from 300-FF-1, and the performance of specific remedial technologies. 62 refs., 28 figs., 48 tabs

  1. Geological status of NWTS repository siting activities in the paradox basin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Frazier, N.A.; Conwell, F.R.

    1981-01-01

    Emplacement of waste packages in mined geological repositories is one method being evaluated for isolating high-level nuclear wastes. Granite, dome salt, tuff, basalt and bedded salt are among the rock types being investigated. Described in this paper is the status of geological activities in the Paradox Basin of Utah and Colorado, one region being explored as a part of the National Waste Terminal Storage (NWTS) program to site a geological repository in bedded salt

  2. Site investigation SFR. Water-rock interaction and mixing modelling in the SFR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gimeno, Maria J.; Auque, Luis F.; Gomez, Javier B.; Acero, Patricia (University of Zaragoza (Spain))

    2011-10-15

    During 2008, the Swedish Nuclear Fuel and Waste Management Company (SKB) initiated an investigation programme for a future expansion of the final repository for low and medium level radioactive operational waste, SFR, located about 150 km north of Stockholm. The purpose of the investigations was to define and characterise a bedrock volume large enough to allow further storage of operational waste from existing Swedish nuclear power plants and future waste from the decommissioning and dismantling of nuclear power plant reactors (SKB 2008). Of several alternatives, a selected location was investigated southwest of the present SFR tunnel system. As part of the SFR Site Descriptive Model, the objective of the hydrogeochemical site description is to describe the chemistry, origin and distribution of groundwaters in the bedrock and the hydrogeochemical processes involved in their evolution. Hydrogeochemical information (salinity distribution, groundwater residence time, palaeohydrogeochemical input, etc.) are also of importance to help constrain the hydrogeological descriptive model. The hydrogeochemical modelling work has been performed in three steps, resulting in three model versions (0.1, 0.2 and 1.0). In versions 0.1 and 0.2, explorative analyses using traditional geochemical approaches (trend plots, x-y scatter plots, 3D visualisations, etc.) were performed to describe the data and to provide an early insight and understanding of the site. The final hydrogeochemical site description version 1.0 (Nilsson et al. 2011) includes data from the previous versions, as well as subsequent complementary data from the SFR extension project, and all these data are further evaluated using additional modelling approaches and techniques. In this context, the present report gives a more detailed analysis of the available data for some hydrogeochemical systems and a detailed description of the results of the geochemical and statistical modelling. One of the main aims is to establish

  3. Site investigation SFR. Water-rock interaction and mixing modelling in the SFR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gimeno, Maria J.; Auque, Luis F.; Gomez, Javier B.; Acero, Patricia

    2011-10-01

    During 2008, the Swedish Nuclear Fuel and Waste Management Company (SKB) initiated an investigation programme for a future expansion of the final repository for low and medium level radioactive operational waste, SFR, located about 150 km north of Stockholm. The purpose of the investigations was to define and characterise a bedrock volume large enough to allow further storage of operational waste from existing Swedish nuclear power plants and future waste from the decommissioning and dismantling of nuclear power plant reactors (SKB 2008). Of several alternatives, a selected location was investigated southwest of the present SFR tunnel system. As part of the SFR Site Descriptive Model, the objective of the hydrogeochemical site description is to describe the chemistry, origin and distribution of groundwaters in the bedrock and the hydrogeochemical processes involved in their evolution. Hydrogeochemical information (salinity distribution, groundwater residence time, palaeohydrogeochemical input, etc.) are also of importance to help constrain the hydrogeological descriptive model. The hydrogeochemical modelling work has been performed in three steps, resulting in three model versions (0.1, 0.2 and 1.0). In versions 0.1 and 0.2, explorative analyses using traditional geochemical approaches (trend plots, x-y scatter plots, 3D visualisations, etc.) were performed to describe the data and to provide an early insight and understanding of the site. The final hydrogeochemical site description version 1.0 (Nilsson et al. 2011) includes data from the previous versions, as well as subsequent complementary data from the SFR extension project, and all these data are further evaluated using additional modelling approaches and techniques. In this context, the present report gives a more detailed analysis of the available data for some hydrogeochemical systems and a detailed description of the results of the geochemical and statistical modelling. One of the main aims is to establish

  4. Functional properties of the two redox-active sites in yeast protein disulphide isomerase in vitro and in vivo

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Westphal, V; Darby, N J; Winther, Jakob R.

    1999-01-01

    to that of human PDI, both in rearrangement and oxidation reactions. However, while the a domain active site of the human enzyme is more active than the a'-site, the reverse is the case for yPDI. This prompted us to set up an assay to investigate whether the situation would be different with a native yeast......-site to be most important. We furthermore show that the apparent difference between in vivo and in vitro activities is not due to catalytic contributions from the other PDI homologues found in yeast....

  5. Supplemental site inspection for Air Force Plant 59, Johnson City, New York, Volume 1: Investigation report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nashold, B.; Rosenblatt, D.; Hau, J. [and others

    1995-08-01

    This summary describes a Supplemental Site Inspection (SSI) conducted by Argonne National Laboratory (ANL) at Air Force Plant 59 (AFP 59) in Johnson City, New York. All required data pertaining to this project were entered by ANL into the Air Force-wide Installation Restoration Program Information System (IRPIMS) computer format and submitted to an appropriate authority. The work was sponsored by the United States Air Force as part of its Installation Restoration Program (IRP). Previous studies had revealed the presence of contaminants at the site and identified several potential contaminant sources. Argonne`s study was conducted to answer questions raised by earlier investigations.

  6. Intermediary report on the 1994/95 investigations at the Wellenberg site (Community of Wolfenschiessen, NW)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1996-01-01

    Following submission of the application for a general licence by GNW in June 1994, Nagra continued as planned with the field work at the Wellenberg site and with analysis of available data. In view of the delay in procedure brought about by the cantonal vote of 25th June 1995, the Federal Office of Energy requested GNW to review the geological content of the general license application in the light of more recent investigation results in order to give HSK (the Swiss Federal Nuclear Safety Inspectorate) access to the most up-to-date information when preparing its opinion. This is the purpose of the present report, which discusses the current status of ongoing analyses. The report concentrates on the main results only and is correspondingly concise; it is in no way intended to anticipate the final report on the Wellenberg investigations. The report begins by ountlining the aims of the site investigations of 1994/95 and goes on to discuss the field work performed at the site. The raw data available from the field investigations are also presented. The main section of the report discusses the first analyses of the data; these are then summarised into a set of geological conclusions which are complemented by a preliminary safety analysis. The resulting conceptualisations and parameter values clearly lie within the confines of the geological dataset used for the general licence application. It can therefore be concluded that the field investigations and complementary studies performed since the submission of the general licence application confirm the validity of the basic findings of the reference reports which formed the background to the application: the selected site is suitable for continuing investigations with a view to construction of a L/ILW repository. (author) figs., tabs., refs

  7. Zymogen Activation and Subcellular Activity of Subtilisin Kexin Isozyme 1/Site 1 Protease*

    Science.gov (United States)

    da Palma, Joel Ramos; Burri, Dominique Julien; Oppliger, Joël; Salamina, Marco; Cendron, Laura; de Laureto, Patrizia Polverino; Seidah, Nabil Georges; Kunz, Stefan; Pasquato, Antonella

    2014-01-01

    The proprotein convertase subtilisin kexin isozyme 1 (SKI-1)/site 1 protease (S1P) plays crucial roles in cellular homeostatic functions and is hijacked by pathogenic viruses for the processing of their envelope glycoproteins. Zymogen activation of SKI-1/S1P involves sequential autocatalytic processing of its N-terminal prodomain at sites B′/B followed by the herein newly identified C′/C sites. We found that SKI-1/S1P autoprocessing results in intermediates whose catalytic domain remains associated with prodomain fragments of different lengths. In contrast to other zymogen proprotein convertases, all incompletely matured intermediates of SKI-1/S1P showed full catalytic activity toward cellular substrates, whereas optimal cleavage of viral glycoproteins depended on B′/B processing. Incompletely matured forms of SKI-1/S1P further process cellular and viral substrates in distinct subcellular compartments. Using a cell-based sensor for SKI-1/S1P activity, we found that 9 amino acid residues at the cleavage site (P1–P8) and P1′ are necessary and sufficient to define the subcellular location of processing and to determine to what extent processing of a substrate depends on SKI-1/S1P maturation. In sum, our study reveals novel and unexpected features of SKI-1/S1P zymogen activation and subcellular specificity of activity toward cellular and pathogen-derived substrates. PMID:25378398

  8. Geological, geophysical investigations and seismotectonic analysis with reference to selection of site for nuclear power plants: a review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chaki, Anjan

    2014-01-01

    Geological, geophysical investigations and seismotectonic analysis play a major role in qualifying a proposed site for establishment of nuclear power plants. In an area, it is important to understand the aspects such as regional and local geology, geomorphology, tectonic settings, presence of active faults/capable faults, earthquake history and earthquake proneness, neotectonic activity, slope instability, subsidence, liquefaction, seismically induced flooding, tsunami and geohydrological conditions. Geological investigations comprise use of remote sensing and ground validation followed by geological mapping, identification of faults, near surface geological studies for foundation conditions, stratigraphic drilling, palaeoseismology, studies on engineering properties of rock and soil. Geophysical investigations provide insight into subsurface geology including concealed faults, elastic constants and hydrological conditions. Radon emanometry is a valuable tool in the initial stage to decipher subsurface active weak zones/fault lines. Seismotectonic analysis identifies the provinces of tectonic significance and their earthquake potential, thereby designating lineaments of consequence leading to their evaluation. This, in turn, determines the design basis earthquake parameter for the estimation of vibratory ground motion. This article provides certain measures to evaluate the suitability of the sites for the establishment of nuclear power plants in terms of geological, geophysical investigations and seismotectonic status. Atomic Minerals Directorate for Exploration and Research (AMD) had carried out seismotectonic analysis of the area around Kaiga, Narora, Kalpakkam, Kakrapar, Tarapur, Kudankulam and Rawatbhata Nuclear Power Projects, which were either in operation or under expansion and construction. Such analysis was extended to a number of proposed sites for establishing nuclear power plants in West Bengal, Bihar, Orissa, Andhra Pradesh, Gujrat, Madhya Pradesh

  9. Human population and activities at Simpevarp. Site description

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miliander, Sofia; Punakivi, Mari; Kylaekorpi, Lasse; Rydgren, Bernt

    2004-12-01

    The Swedish Nuclear Fuel and Waste Management Co (SKB) is in the process of selecting a safe and environmentally acceptable location for a deep repository of radioactive waste. Two alternative locations are under investigation. These are Forsmark, Oesthammars kommun (kommun = municipality) and Simpevarp/Laxemar, Oskarshamns kommun. SKB has expressed the importance of describing the humans and their activities in these areas and therefore has this synthesis concerning the human population in Forsmark been produced. The description is a statistical synthesis, mainly based upon statistical data from SCB (Statistics Sweden) that has been collected, processed and analysed. The statistical data has not been verified through site inspections and interviews. When using statistical data, it is advisable to note that the data becomes more unreliable if the areas are small, with small populations. The data in this description is essential for future evaluations of the impact on the environment and its human population (environmental impacts assessments). The data is also important when modelling the potential flows of radio nuclides and calculating the risk of exposure in future safety assessments. The actual area for the study is in this report called 'the Simpevarp area', an area of 127.0 km 2 near Oskarshamn nuclear power plant. The land use in Simpevarp area differs notably from the land use in Kalmar laen. The forest area is far more dominating in Simpevarp area than in Kalmar laen and it represents as much as 89% compared to 63% of the total area. Only 4.4% of the area is arable land compared to 11.6% in Kalmar laen and only 0.3% is of other type (wetlands, bare rock, quarries, pites etc) compared to 15.6% in the county. The main observation is that Simpevarp area is a sparsely populated area located in a relatively lightly populated county. In 2002, the population density was 7.4 inhabitants/km 2 , three times lower than in Kalmar laen. The demography statistics show

  10. Human population and activities at Simpevarp. Site description

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miliander, Sofia; Punakivi, Mari; Kylaekorpi, Lasse; Rydgren, Bernt [SwedPower AB, Stockholm (Sweden)

    2004-12-01

    The Swedish Nuclear Fuel and Waste Management Co (SKB) is in the process of selecting a safe and environmentally acceptable location for a deep repository of radioactive waste. Two alternative locations are under investigation. These are Forsmark, Oesthammars kommun (kommun = municipality) and Simpevarp/Laxemar, Oskarshamns kommun. SKB has expressed the importance of describing the humans and their activities in these areas and therefore has this synthesis concerning the human population in Forsmark been produced. The description is a statistical synthesis, mainly based upon statistical data from SCB (Statistics Sweden) that has been collected, processed and analysed. The statistical data has not been verified through site inspections and interviews. When using statistical data, it is advisable to note that the data becomes more unreliable if the areas are small, with small populations. The data in this description is essential for future evaluations of the impact on the environment and its human population (environmental impacts assessments). The data is also important when modelling the potential flows of radio nuclides and calculating the risk of exposure in future safety assessments. The actual area for the study is in this report called 'the Simpevarp area', an area of 127.0 km{sup 2} near Oskarshamn nuclear power plant. The land use in Simpevarp area differs notably from the land use in Kalmar laen. The forest area is far more dominating in Simpevarp area than in Kalmar laen and it represents as much as 89% compared to 63% of the total area. Only 4.4% of the area is arable land compared to 11.6% in Kalmar laen and only 0.3% is of other type (wetlands, bare rock, quarries, pites etc) compared to 15.6% in the county. The main observation is that Simpevarp area is a sparsely populated area located in a relatively lightly populated county. In 2002, the population density was 7.4 inhabitants/km{sup 2}, three times lower than in Kalmar laen. The

  11. A review of geophysical investigations at the site of Chalk River Nuclear Laboratories, Ontario

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thomas, M.D.; Hayles, J.G.

    1988-01-01

    The site of the Chalk River Nuclear Laboratories was one of the first research areas located on crystalline rocks to be extensively investigated under the Canadian Nuclear Fuel Waste Management Program. A large contribution to meeting the geoscientific objectives of the program has been made using a suite of geophysical techniques. Many of them are standard, though sometimes modified in terms of instrumentation and/or experimental and/or analytical procedures, to meet the particular needs of the waste management program. Relatively new techniques have also been employed. Much of the early evaluation and development of the various techniques took place at the Chalk River site. Standard methods such as gravity, magnetics and seismic sounding have been used to investigate bedrock structure, and the seismic method has also been used to estimate overburden thickness. Standard geophysical borehole logging has been used to obtain in situ estimates of physical properties, to locate fracture zones and to make hole to hole correlations that have helped define local structure. Several standard electrical (e.g. resitivity) and electromagnetic (e.g. VLF-EM) techniques have proven successful in identifying water-filled fractures and faults. Relatively new techniques introduced into the geophysics at Chalk River were: ground probing radar; to investigate overburden; borehole TV and acoustic televiewer and VLF-EM, to locate fractures; studies of seismic tube-waves, well tides and temperature logs, to investigate fracture location and permeability. Most of these methods have been successful and are now routinely employed at other research sites

  12. Corrective Action Investigation Plan for Corrective Action Unit 528: Polychlorinated Biphenyls Contamination, Nevada Test Site, Nevada, Rev. 0

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    U.S. Department of Energy, National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Site Office

    2003-05-08

    This Corrective Action Investigation Plan contains the U.S. Department of Energy, National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Site Office's approach to collect the data necessary to evaluate corrective action alternatives appropriate for the closure of Corrective Action Unit (CAU) 528, Polychlorinated Biphenyls Contamination (PCBs), Nevada Test Site (NTS), Nevada, under the Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order. Located in the southwestern portion of Area 25 on the NTS in Jackass Flats (adjacent to Test Cell C [TCC]), CAU 528 consists of Corrective Action Site 25-27-03, Polychlorinated Biphenyls Surface Contamination. Test Cell C was built to support the Nuclear Rocket Development Station (operational between 1959 and 1973) activities including conducting ground tests and static firings of nuclear engine reactors. Although CAU 528 was not considered as a direct potential source of PCBs and petroleum contamination, two potential sources of contamination have nevertheless been identified from an unknown source in concentrations that could potentially pose an unacceptable risk to human health and/or the environment. This CAU's close proximity to TCC prompted Shaw to collect surface soil samples, which have indicated the presence of PCBs extending throughout the area to the north, east, south, and even to the edge of the western boundary. Based on this information, more extensive field investigation activities are being planned, the results of which are to be used to support a defensible evaluation of corrective action alternatives in the corrective action decision document.

  13. Site investigation report for Waste Area Grouping 4 at Oak Ridge National Laboratory. Volume 1, Text: Environmental Restoration Program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-08-01

    Waste Area Grouping (WAG) 4 is one of 17 WAGs within and associated with Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL). WAG 4 is located south of the main facility along Lagoon Road. WAG 4 consists of three separate areas: Solid Waste Storage Area (SWSA) 4, a shallow-land-burial ground containing radioactive and potentially hazardous wastes; an experimental Pilot Pit Area, which includes a pilot-scale testing pit; and sections of two abandoned underground pipelines used for transporting liquid, low-level, radioactive waste. SWSA 4 is the largest site at WAG 4, covering approximately 23 acres. In the 1950s, SWSA 4 received a variety of low- and high-activity wastes, including transuranic wastes, all buried in trenches and auger holes. Recent surface water data, collected during monitoring of the tributary to White Oak Creek as part of WAG 2 investigations as well as during previous studies conducted at WAG 4, indicate that a significant amount of 90 Sr is being released from the old burial trenches in SWSA 4. This release represents a significant portion of the ORNL off-site risk (DOE 1993). With recent corrective measures the proportion of the release has increased in 1995. A detailed discussion of the site history and previous investigations is presented in the WAG 4 Preliminary Assessment Report, ORNL/ER-271 (Energy Systems 1994b). In an effort to control the sources of the 90 Sr release and to reduce the off-site risk, a site investigation was initiated to pinpoint those trenches that are the most prominent 90 Sr sources

  14. Supplemental Investigation Plan for FFACO Use Restrictions, Nevada Test Site, Nevada, Revision 0

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lynn Kidman

    2008-02-01

    This document is part of an effort to re-evaluate all FFACO URs against the current RBCA criteria (referred to in this document as the Industrial Sites [IS] RBCA process) as defined in the Industrial Sites Project Establishment of Final Action Levels (NNSA/NSO, 2006a). After reviewing all of the existing FFACO URs, the 12 URs addressed in this Supplemental Investigation Plan (SIP) could not be evaluated against the current RBCA criteria as sufficient information about the contamination at each site was not available. This document presents the plan for conducting field investigations to obtain the needed information. This SIP includes URs from Corrective Action Units (CAUs) 326, 339, 358, 452, 454, 464, and 1010, located in Areas 2, 6, 12, 19, 25, and 29 of the Nevada Test Site, which is approximately 65 miles northwest of Las Vegas, Nevada; and CAU 403, located in Area 3 of the Tonopah Test Range, which is approximately 165 miles north of Las Vegas, Nevada.

  15. Status of site investigation for L/ILW facilities in the Philippines - 59262

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Palattao, Maria V.; Nohay, Carl; Reyes, Rolando; Singayan, Alfonso; Mallants, Dirk

    2012-01-01

    Document available in abstract form only. Full text of publication follows: Radioactive waste in the Philippines is generated from the various applications of radioactive materials in medicine, industries and research. The Philippine Nuclear Research Institute (PNRI) currently manages these wastes through its centralized treatment and storage facilities on site. Radioactive wastes that are received at the Institute are of different types ranging from contaminated solid and liquid materials to spent sealed sources, including radium. Treated and conditioned wastes are temporarily stored in simple roofed above ground concrete bunkers. The Philippine government through the Inter-agency Subcommittee on Radioactive Waste Management is committed to the development of a national repository for the country's radioactive waste. This policy has been recognized in spite of the relatively small volume of radioactive waste compared with countries that have a nuclear power program. To date, a potential site has been identified for detailed investigation with the assistance of the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA). The site is located in the northern part of the Philippine archipelago and has about 34 hectares for potential development. A drilling program that aimed to investigate the geologic, hydrogeologic and hydrologic properties of the site has been implemented

  16. A field strategy to monitor radioactivity associated with investigation derived wastes returned from deep drilling sites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rego, J.H.; Smith, D.K.; Friensehner, A.V.

    1995-01-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy, Nevada Operations Office, Underground Test Area Operable Unit (UGTA) is drilling deep (>1500m) monitoring wells that penetrate both unsaturated (vadose) and saturated zones potentially contaminated by sub-surface nuclear weapons testing at the Nevada Test Site, Nye County, Nevada. Drill site radiological monitoring returns data on drilling effluents to make informed management decisions concerning fluid management. Because of rapid turn-around required for on-site monitoring, a representative sample will be analyzed simultaneously for α, β and γ emitters by instrumentation deployed on-site. For the purposes of field survey, accurate and precise data is returned, in many cases, with minimal sample treatment. A 30% efficient high purity germanium detector and a discriminating liquid scintillation detector are being evaluated for γ and α/β monitoring respectively. Implementation of these detector systems complements a successful on-site tritium monitoring program. Residual radioactivity associated with underground nuclear tests include tritium, activation products, fission products and actinides. Pulse shape discrimination (PSD) is used in α/β liquid scintillation counting and is a function of the time distribution of photon emission. In particular, we hope to measure 241 Am produced from 241 Pu by β decay. Because 241 Pu is depleted in fissile bomb fuels, maximum PSD resolution will be required. The high purity germanium detector employs a multichannel analyzer to count gamma emitting radionuclides; we will designate specific window configurations to selectively monitor diagnostic fission product radionuclides (i.e., 137 Cs)

  17. Three dimensional investigation of oceanic active faults. A demonstration survey

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nakao, Seizo; Kishimoto, Kiyoyuki; Kuramoto, Shinichi; Sato, Mikio [Geological Survey of Japan, Tsukuba, Ibaraki (Japan)

    1998-02-01

    In order to upgrade probability of activity and action potential evaluation of oceanic active faults which have some important effects on nuclear facilities, trench type oceanic active fault was investigated three dimensionally. Contents of the investigation were high precision sea bottom topographic survey and sea bottom back scattering wave image data observation by using a sea bottom topography acoustic imaginator. And, by high resolution earthquake wave survey, high precision survey of an active fault under sea bottom was conducted to detect oceanic active faults three-dimensionally. Furthermore, the generally issued data were summarized to promote to construct a data base for evaluating the active faults. (G.K.)

  18. Three dimensional investigation of oceanic active faults. A demonstration survey

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakao, Seizo; Kishimoto, Kiyoyuki; Kuramoto, Shinichi; Sato, Mikio

    1998-01-01

    In order to upgrade probability of activity and action potential evaluation of oceanic active faults which have some important effects on nuclear facilities, trench type oceanic active fault was investigated three dimensionally. Contents of the investigation were high precision sea bottom topographic survey and sea bottom back scattering wave image data observation by using a sea bottom topography acoustic imaginator. And, by high resolution earthquake wave survey, high precision survey of an active fault under sea bottom was conducted to detect oceanic active faults three-dimensionally. Furthermore, the generally issued data were summarized to promote to construct a data base for evaluating the active faults. (G.K.)

  19. Ground-penetrating radar investigations conducted in the 100 areas, Hanford Site: Fiscal Year 1992

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bergstrom, K.A.

    1994-01-01

    During Fiscal Year 1992, the Geophysics Group conducted forty- five Ground-Penetrating Radar (GPR) surveys in the 100 Areas (Figure 1) - Objectives for the investigations varied, from locating cribs, trenches and septic systems to helping site boreholes. The results of each investigation were delivered to clients in the form of a map that summarized the interpretation of a given site. No formal reports were prepared. The purpose of this document is to show where and why each of the surveys was conducted. The data and interpretation of each survey are available by contacting the Westinghouse Hanford Company, Geophysics Group. A map showing the location and basic parameters of each survey can be found in the Appendices of this report

  20. Investigating motives for preservation of Jewish heritage sites: the case of Macedonia

    OpenAIRE

    Petrevska, Biljana; Collins-Kreiner, Noga; Krakover, Shaul

    2017-01-01

    The study investigates the main motives for preservation of sites of Jewish heritage tourism (JHT) by studying three locations in Macedonia: Skopje (the capital), Štip (the largest city in the east part of Macedonia) and Bitola (the largest city in the southwest part of Macedonia). The article assesses the presence of several motivations, like: (i) Guilt; (ii) Interest in national history; (iii) Revival of a glorious Past; (iv) Economic benefits; (v) Display of sympathy; and (vi) Dark tourism...

  1. Savannah River Site RCRA/CERCLA/NEPA integrated investigation case study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clark, D.R.; Thomas, R.; Wilson, M.P.

    1992-01-01

    The Savannah River Site (SRS) is a US Department of Energy facility placed on the Superfund National Priority List in 1989. Numerous past disposal facilities and contaminated areas are undergoing the integrated regulatory remediation process detailed in the draft SRS Federal Facility Agreement. This paper will discuss the integration of these requirements by highlighting the investigation of the D-Area Burning/Rubble Pits, a typical waste unit at SRS

  2. Cavola experiment site: geophysical investigations and deployment of a dense seismic array on a landslide

    OpenAIRE

    L. Martelli; M. Cercato; P. Augliera; G. Di Giulio; G. Milana; J. Haines; P. Bordoni; F. Cara; undefined Cavola Experiment Team

    2007-01-01

    Geophysical site investigations have been performed in association with deployment of a dense array of 95 3-component seismometers on the Cavola landslide in the Northern Apennines. The aim of the array is to study propagation of seismic waves in the heterogeneous medium through comparison of observation and modelling. The small-aperture array (130 m×56 m) operated continuously for three months in 2004. Cavola landslide consists of a clay body sliding over mudstone-shale b...

  3. Expansion of access tunnels and active-site cavities influence activity of haloalkane dehalogenases in organic cosolvents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stepankova, Veronika; Khabiri, Morteza; Brezovsky, Jan; Pavelka, Antonin; Sykora, Jan; Amaro, Mariana; Minofar, Babak; Prokop, Zbynek; Hof, Martin; Ettrich, Rudiger; Chaloupkova, Radka; Damborsky, Jiri

    2013-05-10

    The use of enzymes for biocatalysis can be significantly enhanced by using organic cosolvents in the reaction mixtures. Selection of the cosolvent type and concentration range for an enzymatic reaction is challenging and requires extensive empirical testing. An understanding of protein-solvent interaction could provide a theoretical framework for rationalising the selection process. Here, the behaviour of three model enzymes (haloalkane dehalogenases) was investigated in the presence of three representative organic cosolvents (acetone, formamide, and isopropanol). Steady-state kinetics assays, molecular dynamics simulations, and time-resolved fluorescence spectroscopy were used to elucidate the molecular mechanisms of enzyme-solvent interactions. Cosolvent molecules entered the enzymes' access tunnels and active sites, enlarged their volumes with no change in overall protein structure, but surprisingly did not act as competitive inhibitors. At low concentrations, the cosolvents either enhanced catalysis by lowering K(0.5) and increasing k(cat), or caused enzyme inactivation by promoting substrate inhibition and decreasing k(cat). The induced activation and inhibition of the enzymes correlated with expansion of the active-site pockets and their occupancy by cosolvent molecules. The study demonstrates that quantitative analysis of the proportions of the access tunnels and active-sites occupied by organic solvent molecules provides the valuable information for rational selection of appropriate protein-solvent pair and effective cosolvent concentration. Copyright © 2013 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  4. Learning of the subject: Methodology of investigation by means of a Site Web.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yolanda Margarita Carbonell Cabarga

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Results of an investigation are presented having as an objective: the design of a Web Site for the learning of Methodology of Investigation subject in Psychology Bachelor of the Municipal University of Sancti Spíritus. This study was carried out in students of psychology career who were facing first year. Methods of the theoretical and empiric level were applied as well as the Mathematical Statistic. In the diagnosis was possible to appreciate the ignorance regarding the use of the methodology in the therorical methodological design of an investigation, also the difficulties in the study of the subject and violations in the application of orientations from the professors at the time of doing the research papers, so an interactive Web Site was obtained and applied which allow the teaching of the subject. The site was validated by means of a quasi-experiment, the obtained information was processed with the use of the statistical inferentia, results were in general highly significant for the feasibility of the proposal.

  5. Corrective Action Investigation Plan for Corrective Action Unit 166: Storage Yards and Contaminated Materials, Nevada Test Site, Nevada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    David Strand

    2006-01-01

    Corrective Action Unit 166 is located in Areas 2, 3, 5, and 18 of the Nevada Test Site, which is 65 miles northwest of Las Vegas, Nevada. Corrective Action Unit (CAU) 166 is comprised of the seven Corrective Action Sites (CASs) listed below: (1) 02-42-01, Cond. Release Storage Yd - North; (2) 02-42-02, Cond. Release Storage Yd - South; (3) 02-99-10, D-38 Storage Area; (4) 03-42-01, Conditional Release Storage Yard; (5) 05-19-02, Contaminated Soil and Drum; (6) 18-01-01, Aboveground Storage Tank; and (7) 18-99-03, Wax Piles/Oil Stain. These sites are being investigated because existing information on the nature and extent of potential contamination is insufficient to evaluate and recommend corrective action alternatives. Additional information will be obtained by conducting a corrective action investigation (CAI) before evaluating corrective action alternatives and selecting the appropriate corrective action for each CAS. The results of the field investigation will support a defensible evaluation of viable corrective action alternatives that will be presented in the Corrective Action Decision Document. The sites will be investigated based on the data quality objectives (DQOs) developed on February 28, 2006, by representatives of the Nevada Division of Environmental Protection; U.S. Department of Energy, National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Site Office; Stoller-Navarro Joint Venture; and Bechtel Nevada. The DQO process was used to identify and define the type, amount, and quality of data needed to develop and evaluate appropriate corrective actions for CAU 166. Appendix A provides a detailed discussion of the DQO methodology and the DQOs specific to each CAS. The scope of the CAI for CAU 166 includes the following activities: (1) Move surface debris and/or materials, as needed, to facilitate sampling. (2) Conduct radiological surveys. (3) Perform field screening. (4) Collect and submit environmental samples for laboratory analysis to determine if

  6. Corrective Action Investigation Plan for Corrective Action Unit 555: Septic Systems Nevada Test Site, Nevada, Rev. No.: 0 with Errata

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pastor, Laura

    2005-01-01

    This Corrective Action Investigation Plan (CAIP) contains project-specific information including facility descriptions, environmental sample collection objectives, and criteria for conducting site investigation activities at Corrective Action Unit (CAU) 555: Septic Systems, Nevada Test Site (NTS), Nevada. This CAIP has been developed in accordance with the ''Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order'' (FFACO) (1996) that was agreed to by the State of Nevada, the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), and the U.S. Department of Defense. Corrective Action Unit 555 is located in Areas 1, 3 and 6 of the NTS, which is approximately 65 miles (mi) northwest of Las Vegas, Nevada, and is comprised of the five corrective action sites (CASs) shown on Figure 1-1 and listed below: (1) CAS 01-59-01, Area 1 Camp Septic System; (2) CAS 03-59-03, Core Handling Building Septic System; (3) CAS 06-20-05, Birdwell Dry Well; (4) CAS 06-59-01, Birdwell Septic System; and (5) CAS 06-59-02, National Cementers Septic System. An FFACO modification was approved on December 14, 2005, to include CAS 06-20-05, Birdwell Dry Well, as part of the scope of CAU 555. The work scope was expanded in this document to include the investigation of CAS 06-20-05. The Corrective Action Investigation (CAI) will include field inspections, radiological surveys, geophysical surveys, sampling of environmental media, analysis of samples, and assessment of investigation results, where appropriate. Data will be obtained to support corrective action alternative evaluations and waste management decisions. The CASs in CAU 555 are being investigated because hazardous and/or radioactive constituents may be present in concentrations that could potentially pose a threat to human health and the environment. Existing information on the nature and extent of potential contamination is insufficient to evaluate and recommend corrective action alternatives for the CASs. Additional information will be generated by conducting a CAI

  7. Characterization of Active Site Residues of Nitroalkane Oxidase†

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valley, Michael P.; Fenny, Nana S.; Ali, Shah R.; Fitzpatrick, Paul F.

    2010-01-01

    The flavoenzyme nitroalkane oxidase catalyzes the oxidation of primary and secondary nitrolkanes to the corresponding aldehydes and ketones plus nitrite. The structure of the enzyme shows that Serl71 forms a hydrogen bond to the flavin N5, suggesting that it plays a role in catalysis. Cys397 and Tyr398 were previously identified by chemical modification as potential active site residues. To more directly probe the roles of these residues, the S171A, S171V, S171T, C397S, and Y398F enzymes have been characterized with nitroethane as substrate. The C397S and Y398 enzymes were less stable than the wild-type enzyme, and the C397S enzyme routinely contained a substoichiometric amount of FAD. Analysis of the steady-state kinetic parameters for the mutant enzymes, including deuterium isotope effects, establishes that all of the mutations result in decreases in the rate constants for removal of the substrate proton by ~5-fold and decreases in the rate constant for product release of ~2-fold. Only the S171V and S171T mutations alter the rate constant for flavin oxidation. These results establish that these residues are not involved in catalysis, but rather are required for maintaining the protein structure. PMID:20056514

  8. Characterization of active site residues of nitroalkane oxidase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valley, Michael P; Fenny, Nana S; Ali, Shah R; Fitzpatrick, Paul F

    2010-06-01

    The flavoenzyme nitroalkane oxidase catalyzes the oxidation of primary and secondary nitroalkanes to the corresponding aldehydes and ketones plus nitrite. The structure of the enzyme shows that Ser171 forms a hydrogen bond to the flavin N5, suggesting that it plays a role in catalysis. Cys397 and Tyr398 were previously identified by chemical modification as potential active site residues. To more directly probe the roles of these residues, the S171A, S171V, S171T, C397S, and Y398F enzymes have been characterized with nitroethane as substrate. The C397S and Y398 enzymes were less stable than the wild-type enzyme, and the C397S enzyme routinely contained a substoichiometric amount of FAD. Analysis of the steady-state kinetic parameters for the mutant enzymes, including deuterium isotope effects, establishes that all of the mutations result in decreases in the rate constants for removal of the substrate proton by approximately 5-fold and decreases in the rate constant for product release of approximately 2-fold. Only the S171V and S171T mutations alter the rate constant for flavin oxidation. These results establish that these residues are not involved in catalysis, but rather are required for maintaining the protein structure. 2009 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Disturbance opens recruitment sites for bacterial colonization in activated sludge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vuono, David C; Munakata-Marr, Junko; Spear, John R; Drewes, Jörg E

    2016-01-01

    Little is known about the role of immigration in shaping bacterial communities or the factors that may dictate success or failure of colonization by bacteria from regional species pools. To address these knowledge gaps, the influence of bacterial colonization into an ecosystem (activated sludge bioreactor) was measured through a disturbance gradient (successive decreases in the parameter solids retention time) relative to stable operational conditions. Through a DNA sequencing approach, we show that the most abundant bacteria within the immigrant community have a greater probability of colonizing the receiving ecosystem, but mostly as low abundance community members. Only during the disturbance do some of these bacterial populations significantly increase in abundance beyond background levels and in few cases become dominant community members post-disturbance. Two mechanisms facilitate the enhanced enrichment of immigrant populations during disturbance: (i) the availability of resources left unconsumed by established species and (ii) the increased availability of niche space for colonizers to establish and displace resident populations. Thus, as a disturbance decreases local diversity, recruitment sites become available to promote colonization. This work advances our understanding of microbial resource management and diversity maintenance in complex ecosystems. © 2015 Society for Applied Microbiology and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  10. Active site labeling of the guanine-7-methyltransferase

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Streaker, E.; Sitz, T.O.

    1992-01-01

    Studies on the guanine-7-methyltransferase have defined three domains in the active site: the S-adenosylmethionine (SAM) region, the cap region (GpppG), and the RNA binding domain (--NpNpNpNpNp---). The authors attempted to label the SAM binding domain by a photoaffinity label using 8-azido-SAM and another method using 3 H-SAM and long exposures to uv-light. Neither method was successful. The next approach was to attempt to label the cap-RNA binding domain (GpppGpNpNpNpNpN) by synthesizing RNA containing 8-azido-Ap using an in vitro transcription system and T7 RNA polymerase. The 8-azido-ATP inhibited the T7 RNA polymerase preventing the synthesis of RNA. As they were unable to synthesize the photoaffinity label, they next tried to synthesize an end labeled RNA and directly label by long exposures to uv-light. When the enzyme was incubated with 32 P-labeled RNA for 15 min at 37 degrees and then exposed to a germicidal lamp for various times at O degrees, optimal labeling occurred after 45 min. Various enzyme preparations were labeled by this method and two polypeptides were found to specifically bind the non-methylated mRNA analog. This labeling method should allow characterization of the subunit structure and generate information about the nature of the RNA binding domain

  11. Corrective Action Investigation Plan for Corrective Action Unit 561: Waste Disposal Areas, Nevada Test Site, Nevada, Revision 0

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grant Evenson

    2008-01-01

    Corrective Action Unit (CAU) 561 is located in Areas 1, 2, 3, 5, 12, 22, 23, and 25 of the Nevada Test Site, which is approximately 65 miles northwest of Las Vegas, Nevada. Corrective Action Unit 561 is comprised of the 10 corrective action sites (CASs) listed below: (1) 01-19-01, Waste Dump; (2) 02-08-02, Waste Dump and Burn Area; (3) 03-19-02, Debris Pile; (4) 05-62-01, Radioactive Gravel Pile; (5) 12-23-09, Radioactive Waste Dump; (6) 22-19-06, Buried Waste Disposal Site; (7) 23-21-04, Waste Disposal Trenches; (8) 25-08-02, Waste Dump; (9) 25-23-21, Radioactive Waste Dump; and (10) 25-25-19, Hydrocarbon Stains and Trench. These sites are being investigated because existing information on the nature and extent of potential contamination is insufficient to evaluate and recommend corrective action alternatives. Additional information will be obtained by conducting a corrective action investigation before evaluating corrective action alternatives and selecting the appropriate corrective action for each CAS. The results of the field investigation will support a defensible evaluation of viable corrective action alternatives that will be presented in the Corrective Action Decision Document. The sites will be investigated based on the data quality objectives (DQOs) developed on April 28, 2008, by representatives of the Nevada Division of Environmental Protection; U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Site Office; Stoller-Navarro Joint Venture; and National Security Technologies, LLC. The DQO process was used to identify and define the type, amount, and quality of data needed to develop and evaluate appropriate corrective actions for CAU 561. Appendix A provides a detailed discussion of the DQO methodology and the DQOs specific to each CAS. The scope of the Corrective Action Investigation for CAU 561 includes the following activities: (1) Move surface debris and/or materials, as needed, to facilitate sampling. (2) Conduct

  12. Use of the Multi-Agency Radiological Laboratory Analytical Protocols Manual (MARLAP) for site cleanup activities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Griggs, J.

    1999-01-01

    MARLAP is being developed as a multi-agency guidance manual for project managers and radioanalytical laboratories. The document uses a performance based approach and will provide guidance and a framework to assure that laboratory radioanalytical data meets the specific project or program needs and requirements. MARLAP supports a wide range of data collection activities including site characterization and compliance demonstration activities. Current participants include: US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), US Department of Energy (DOE), US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC), US Department of Defense (DoD), US National Institutes of Standards and Technology (NIST), US Geologic Survey (USGS), US Food and Drug Administration (FDA), Commonwealth of Kentucky, and the State of California. MARLAP is the radioanalytical laboratory counterpart to the Multi-Agency Radiological Survey and Site Investigation Manual (MARSSIM). MARLAP is currently in a preliminary draft stage. (author)

  13. Visualization of the Differential Transition State Stabilization within the Active Site Environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jerzy Leszczynski

    2004-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract: Increasing interest in the enzymatic reaction mechanisms and in the nature of catalytic effects in enzymes causes the need of appropriate visualization methods. A new interactive method to investigate catalytic effects using differential transition state stabilization approach (DTSS [1, 2] is presented. The catalytic properties of the active site of cytidine deaminase (E.C. 3.5.4.5 is visualized in the form of differential electrostatic properties. The visualization was implemented using scripting interface of VMD [3]. Cumulative Atomic Multipole Moments (CAMM [4,5,6] were utilized for efficient yet accurate evaluation of the electrostatic properties. The implementation is efficient enough for interactive presentation of catalytic effects in the active site of the enzyme due to transition state or substrate movement. This system of visualization of DTTS approach can be potentially used to validate hypotheses regarding the catalytic mechanism or to study binding properties of transition state analogues.

  14. Finnsjoen study site. Scope of activities and main results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahlbom, K.; Andersson, J.E.; Andersson, Peter; Ittner, T.; Tiren, S.; Ljunggren, C.

    1992-12-01

    The Finnsjoen study site was selected in 1977 to provide input to the KBS-1 and KBS-2 performance assessments. The site was later used as a test site for testing new instruments and new site characterization methods, as well as a research site for studying mainly groundwater flow and groundwater transport. All together, the Finnsjoen studies have involved 11 cored boreholes, down to max 700 m depth, and extensive borehole geophysical, geochemical and geohydraulic measurements, as well as rock stress measurements and tracer tests. This report presents the scope of the Finnsjoen studies together with main results. Conceptual uncertainties in assumptions and models are discussed with emphasis on the models used for the performance assessment SKB91. Of special interest for the Finnsjoen study site is the strong influence caused by a subhorizontal fracture zone on groundwater flow, transport and chemistry

  15. A descriptive ecosystem model - a strategy for model development during site investigations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Loefgren, Anders

    2003-09-01

    This report describes a strategy for the development of a site descriptive model for the surface ecosystem on the potential deep repository sites. The surface ecosystem embraces many disciplines, and these have to be identified, described and integrated in order to construct a descriptive ecosystem model that describes and quantifies biotic and abiotic patterns and processes of importance for the ecosystem on the site. The descriptive model includes both present day conditions and historical information. The descriptive ecosystem model will be used to supply input data for the safety assessment and to serve as the baseline model for devising a monitoring program to detect short-term disturbances caused first by the site investigations and later by the construction of the deep repository. Furthermore, it will serve as a reference for future comparisons to determine more long-term effects or changes caused by the deep repository. The report adopts a non-site-specific approach focusing on the following aims: 1. To present and define the properties that will constitute the descriptive ecosystem model. 2. To present a methodology for determining those properties. 3. To describe and develop the framework for the descriptive ecosystem model by integrating the different properties. 4. To present vital data from other site descriptive models such as those for geology or hydrogeology that interacts with and affects the descriptive ecosystem model. The properties are described under four different sections: general physical properties of the landscape, the terrestrial system, the limnic system and the marine system. These headings are further subdivided into entities that integrate properties in relation to processes

  16. A descriptive ecosystem model - a strategy for model development during site investigations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Loefgren, Anders [Stockholm Univ. (Sweden). Dept. of Botany; Lindborg, Tobias [Swedish Nuclear Fuel and Waste Management Co., Stockholm (Sweden)

    2003-09-01

    This report describes a strategy for the development of a site descriptive model for the surface ecosystem on the potential deep repository sites. The surface ecosystem embraces many disciplines, and these have to be identified, described and integrated in order to construct a descriptive ecosystem model that describes and quantifies biotic and abiotic patterns and processes of importance for the ecosystem on the site. The descriptive model includes both present day conditions and historical information. The descriptive ecosystem model will be used to supply input data for the safety assessment and to serve as the baseline model for devising a monitoring program to detect short-term disturbances caused first by the site investigations and later by the construction of the deep repository. Furthermore, it will serve as a reference for future comparisons to determine more long-term effects or changes caused by the deep repository. The report adopts a non-site-specific approach focusing on the following aims: 1. To present and define the properties that will constitute the descriptive ecosystem model. 2. To present a methodology for determining those properties. 3. To describe and develop the framework for the descriptive ecosystem model by integrating the different properties. 4. To present vital data from other site descriptive models such as those for geology or hydrogeology that interacts with and affects the descriptive ecosystem model. The properties are described under four different sections: general physical properties of the landscape, the terrestrial system, the limnic system and the marine system. These headings are further subdivided into entities that integrate properties in relation to processes.

  17. Evaluation of the geologic relations and seismotectonic stability of the Yucca Mountain Area Nevada Nuclear Waste Site Investigation (NNWSI)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-01-01

    This report provides a summary of progress for the project open-quotes Evaluation of the Geologic Relations and Seismotectonic Stability of the Yucca Mountain Area, Nevada Nuclear Waste Site Investigation (NNWSI).close quotes A similar report was previously provided for the period of 1 October 1993 to 30 September 1994. The report initially covers the activities of the General Task and is followed by sections that describe the progress of the other ongoing Tasks which are listed below. Task 1: Quaternary Tectonics Task 3: Mineral Deposits, Volcanic Geology Task 4: Seismology Task 5: Tectonics Task 8: Basinal Studies

  18. Investigation of radionuclides and anthropic tracer migration in groundwater at the Chernobyl site

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le Gal La Salle, Corinnne; Simonucci, Caroline; Roux, Céline; Bugai, Dmitry; Aquilina, Luc; Fourré, Elise; Jean-Baptiste, Philippe; Labasque, Thierry; Michelot, Jean-Luc; Fifield, Keith; Team Aster Team; Van Meir, Nathalie; Kashparov, Valeriy; Diez, Olivier; Bassot, Sylvain; Lancelot, Joel

    2013-04-01

    Following the reactor 4 explosion of the Chernobyl Nuclear Power Plant (ChNPP), at least 1019 Bq of radionuclides (RN) were released in the environment. In order to protect workers and prevent further atmospheric RN dispersion in the area adjacent to the ChNPP, contaminated wastes including fuel particles, topsoil layer and forest remains were buried in approximately 800 shallow trenches in the sand formation in the Red Forest waste dump site [1]. No containment measures were taken, and since then RN have leaked to the unsaturated zone and to the groundwater. Since 1999, migration of RN in the vicinity of the trench 22 at Red Forest site has been investigated within the frame of the EPIC program carried out by IRSN in collaboration with UIAR and IGS [2, 3]. A plume of 90Sr was shown downgradient from the trench 22 with activites reaching 3750 Bq/L [2]. In 2008, further studies were initiated through the TRASSE research group, based on a collaboration between IRSN and CNRS. These programs aim at combining groundwater dating with RN migration monitoring studies in order to constrain RN transport models [3]. Groundwater residence time was investigated based on 3H/He and CFC. Both tracers led to ages ranging from modern (1-3 y) at 2 m depth below the groundwater table to significantly higher apparent ages of 50-60 y at 27 m below the groundwater table [3]. 36Cl/Cl ratios 2 to 4 orders of magnitude higher than the theoretical natural ratio are measured in groundwater. Similarly, SF6 shows concentrations as high as 1200 pptv while natural concentrations are in the order of 6-7 pptv. Based on apparent groundwater ages, both contaminations are linked to the Chernobyl explosion. Hence those tracers show excellent potential to constrain conservative and reactive transport, respectively. In contrast, 238U/235U ratio down gradient from trench 22 remains similar to the natural ratio. This suggests that either most of the U contained in the trench is in a non soluble form

  19. Corrective Action Investigation Plan for Corrective Action Unit 550: Smoky Contamination Area Nevada National Security Site, Nevada, Revision 0

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grant Evenson

    2012-05-01

    on January 31, 2012, by representatives of the Nevada Division of Environmental Protection and the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Site Office. The DQO process was used to identify and define the type, amount, and quality of data needed to develop and evaluate appropriate corrective actions for CAU 550. The potential contamination sources associated with the study groups are from nuclear testing activities conducted at CAU 550. The DQO process resulted in an assumption that the total effective dose (TED) within the default contamination boundary of CAU 550 exceeds the final action level and requires corrective action. The presence and nature of contamination outside the default contamination boundary at CAU 550 will be evaluated based on information collected from a field investigation. Radiological contamination will be evaluated based on a comparison of the TED at sample locations to the dose-based final action level. The TED will be calculated as the total of separate estimates of internal and external dose. Results from the analysis of soil samples will be used to calculate internal radiological dose. Thermoluminescent dosimeters placed at the center of each sample location will be used to measure external radiological dose. Appendix A provides a detailed discussion of the DQO methodology and the DQOs specific to each group of CASs.

  20. Corrective Action Investigation Plan for Corrective Action Unit 550: Smoky Contamination Area Nevada National Security Site, Nevada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Evenson, Grant

    2012-01-01

    on January 31, 2012, by representatives of the Nevada Division of Environmental Protection and the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Site Office. The DQO process was used to identify and define the type, amount, and quality of data needed to develop and evaluate appropriate corrective actions for CAU 550. The potential contamination sources associated with the study groups are from nuclear testing activities conducted at CAU 550. The DQO process resulted in an assumption that the total effective dose (TED) within the default contamination boundary of CAU 550 exceeds the final action level and requires corrective action. The presence and nature of contamination outside the default contamination boundary at CAU 550 will be evaluated based on information collected from a field investigation. Radiological contamination will be evaluated based on a comparison of the TED at sample locations to the dose-based final action level. The TED will be calculated as the total of separate estimates of internal and external dose. Results from the analysis of soil samples will be used to calculate internal radiological dose. Thermoluminescent dosimeters placed at the center of each sample location will be used to measure external radiological dose. Appendix A provides a detailed discussion of the DQO methodology and the DQOs specific to each group of CASs.

  1. Surface binding sites in carbohydrate active enzymes: An emerging picture of structural and functional diversity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Svensson, Birte; Cockburn, Darrell

    2013-01-01

    is not universal and is in fact rare among some families of enzymes. In some cases an alternative to possessing a CBM is for the enzyme to bind to the substrate at a site on the catalytic domain, but away from the active site. Such a site is termed a surface (or secondary) binding site (SBS). SBSs have been...

  2. Geological and hydrological investigations at Sidi Kreir Site, west of Alexandria, Egypt

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    El-Shazly, E.M.; Shehata, W.M.; Somaida, M.A.

    1978-01-01

    Sidi-Kreir site lies along the Mediterranean Sea coast at km 30 to km 33 westwards from the center of the city of Alexandria. The studied site covers approximately 10 km 2 from the Mediterranean Sea northward to Mallehet (Lake) Maryut southward. This study includes the results of geological investigation of the site both structurally and stratigraphically, and the groundwater conditions, in relation to the erection of a nuclear power station in the site. The surface geology has been mapped using aerial photographs on scale of 1:20,000. Twenty-five drillholes were core-drilled in order to outline the subsurface geology and to observe the groundwater fluctuations. Selected core samples and soil samples were tested geologically in thin sections, physically and mechanically. Water samples were also collected and tested for total dissolved solids and specific weight. Groundwater level fluctuations were observed for a period of one year in 75 wells and drillholes. Furthermore three pumping tests were conducted to estimate the hydraulic properties of the freshwater aquifer. These properties were also calculated using the core samples data

  3. The use of small diameter probing equipment for contaminated site investigation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Christy, T.M.; Spradlin, S.C.

    1992-01-01

    The past decade has witnessed a dramatic increase in the number of contaminated sites being investigated in the United States. This increase in subsurface investigation has spurred a corresponding increase in the development of subsurface sampling tools and methods. The past five years, in particular, have seen the development of small diameter (1 double-prime to 1.4 double-prime O.D.) percussion driven probing tools which can be used for the recovery of soil vapor, soil core and groundwater samples. This development has placed heretofore unavailable tools at the disposal of site investigators. Mechanized, vehicle mounted soil probe systems apply both static force and hydraulically powered percussion hammers for tool placement. Static down forces up to 3,000 lbs combined with percussion hammers of eight (8) horsepower continuous output are typical on equipment available to the field investigator. Using these energies, probing tools have been used for sampling a variety of media at depths exceeding 70 feet. Advantages of probing equipment which have contributed to its increasing usage in recent years include: ease of mobilization, absence of borehole cuttings, minimization of surface disturbance, and speed of sample collection. This paper focuses on the field application of hydraulic probing equipment including: the suitability of probing operations with respect to various Boil types and lithologies to probing operations; sampler types and recovery quantities for various media, and innovative probing applications presently being tested

  4. River and river-related drainage area parameters for site investigation program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blomqvist, P.; Brunberg, A.K.; Brydsten, L.

    2001-05-01

    In this paper, a number of parameters of importance to a determination of the function of running waters as transport channels for material from the continents to the sea are presented. We have assumed that retention mechanisms of material in the river and in the riparian zone will be covered by special investigations but tried to create a platform for such investigations by quantification of the extension of different main habitats. The choice of parameters has been made so that also the nature conservation value of the river can be preliminary established, and includes a general description of the river type and the inherent ecosystem. The material links directly to that presented in a previous report concerning site investigation programmes for lakes. The parameters have been divided into five groups: 1) The location of the object relative important gradients in the surrounding nature; 2) The river catchment area and its major constituents; 3) The river morphometry; 4) The river ecosystem; 5) Human-induced damages to the river ecosystem. The first two groups, principally based on the climate, hydrology, geology and vegetation of the catchment area, represent parameters that can be used to establish the rarity and representativity of the system, and will in the context of site investigation program be used as a basis for generalisation of the results. The third group, the river morphometry parameters, are standard parameters for the outline of sampling programmes and for calculations of the physical extension of key habitats in the system. The fourth group, the ecosystem of the river, includes physical, chemical and biological parameters required for determination of the influence from the terrestrial ecosystem of the catchment area, nutrient status, distribution of different habitats, and presence of fish in the system. In the context of site investigation program, the parameters in these two groups will be used for budget calculations of the flow of energy and

  5. River and river-related drainage area parameters for site investigation program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blomqvist, P.; Brunberg, A.K. [Uppsala Univ. (Sweden). Dept. of Limnology; Brydsten, L. [Umeaa Univ. (Sweden). Dept. of Ecology and Environmental Science

    2001-05-01

    In this paper, a number of parameters of importance to a determination of the function of running waters as transport channels for material from the continents to the sea are presented. We have assumed that retention mechanisms of material in the river and in the riparian zone will be covered by special investigations but tried to create a platform for such investigations by quantification of the extension of different main habitats. The choice of parameters has been made so that also the nature conservation value of the river can be preliminary established, and includes a general description of the river type and the inherent ecosystem. The material links directly to that presented in a previous report concerning site investigation programmes for lakes. The parameters have been divided into five groups: 1) The location of the object relative important gradients in the surrounding nature; 2) The river catchment area and its major constituents; 3) The river morphometry; 4) The river ecosystem; 5) Human-induced damages to the river ecosystem. The first two groups, principally based on the climate, hydrology, geology and vegetation of the catchment area, represent parameters that can be used to establish the rarity and representativity of the system, and will in the context of site investigation program be used as a basis for generalisation of the results. The third group, the river morphometry parameters, are standard parameters for the outline of sampling programmes and for calculations of the physical extension of key habitats in the system. The fourth group, the ecosystem of the river, includes physical, chemical and biological parameters required for determination of the influence from the terrestrial ecosystem of the catchment area, nutrient status, distribution of different habitats, and presence of fish in the system. In the context of site investigation program, the parameters in these two groups will be used for budget calculations of the flow of energy and

  6. Widely available active sites on Ni2P for electrochemical hydrogen evolution - insights from first principles calculations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Martin Hangaard; Stern, Lucas-Alexandre; Feng, Ligang

    2015-01-01

    We present insights into the mechanism and the active site for hydrogen evolution on nickel phosphide (Ni2P). Ni2P was recently discovered to be a very active non-precious hydrogen evolution catalyst. Current literature attributes the activity of Ni2P to a particular site on the (0001) facet....... In the present study, using Density Functional Theory (DFT) calculations, we show that several widely available low index crystal facets on Ni2P have better properties for a high catalytic activity. DFT calculations were used to identify moderately bonding nickel bridge sites and nickel hollow sites for hydrogen...... adsorption and to calculate barriers for the Tafel pathway. The investigated surfaces in this study were the (10 (1) over bar0), ((1) over bar(1) over bar 20), (11 (2) over bar0), (11 (2) over bar1) and (0001) facets of the hexagonal Ni2P crystal. In addition to the DFT results, we present experiments on Ni2...

  7. Vadose zone investigations at the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory Superfund Site: An overview

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iovenitti, J.L.; Nitao, J.J.; Bishop, D.J.

    1992-09-01

    Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL)is investigating the fate and transport of vadose zone contaminants at their Livermore site in Livermore, California. The principal objectives of this work are to identify potential source areas at the Livermore site which require remediation, to prioritize those areas, and finally, to optimize the remediation process. Primary contaminants of interest for this investigation are volatile organic compounds (VOCs) and tritium. A fully integrated, three-part program, consisting of quantitative modeling, field studies, and laboratory measurements, is in progress. To evaluate and predict vadose zone contaminant migration, quantitative modeling is used. Our modeling capabilities are being enhanced through the development of a multicomponent,three-dimensional,nonaqueous phase liquid-liquid-vapor,nonisothermal flow and transport computer code. This code will be also used to evaluate vadose zone remediation requirements. Field studies to acquire LLNL site-specific soil (sediment) characteristics for computer code calibration and validation include subsurf ace lithologic and contaminant profiling, in situ soil moisture content, ground surface emission flux of VOCs and tritium, transpiration of tritium, and ground surface evapotranspiration of water. Multilevel vadose zone monitoring devices are used to monitor the gaseous and aqueous transport of contaminants

  8. Geologic and hydrologic investigations of a potential nuclear waste disposal site at Yucca Mountain, southern Nevada

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carr, M.D.; Yount, J.C. (eds.)

    1988-12-31

    Yucca Mountain in southern Nye County, Nevada, has been selected by the United States Department of Energy as one of three potential sites for the nation`s first high-level nuclear waste repository. Its deep water table, closed-basin ground-water flow, potentially favorable host rock, and sparse population have made the Yucca Mountain area a viable candidate during the search for a nuclear waste disposal site. Yucca Mountain, however, lies within the southern Great Basin, a region of known contemporary tectonism and young volcanic activity, and the characterization of tectonism and volcanism remains as a fundamental problem for the Yucca Mountain site. The United States Geological Survey has been conducting extensive studies to evaluate the geologic setting of Yucca Mountain, as well as the timing and rates of tectonic and volcanic activity in the region. A workshop was convened by the Geologic Survey in Denver, Colorado, on August 19, 20, and 21, 1985, to review the scientific progress and direction of these studies. Considerable debate resulted. This collection of papers represents the results of some of the studies presented at the workshop, but by no means covers all of the scientific results and viewpoints presented. Rather, the volume is meant to serve as a progress report on some of the studies within the Geological Survey`s continuing research program toward characterizing the tectonic framework of Yucca Mountain. Individual papers were processed separately for the data base.

  9. Geologic and hydrologic investigations of a potential nuclear waste disposal site at Yucca Mountain, southern Nevada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carr, M.D.; Yount, J.C.

    1988-01-01

    Yucca Mountain in southern Nye County, Nevada, has been selected by the United States Department of Energy as one of three potential sites for the nation's first high-level nuclear waste repository. Its deep water table, closed-basin ground-water flow, potentially favorable host rock, and sparse population have made the Yucca Mountain area a viable candidate during the search for a nuclear waste disposal site. Yucca Mountain, however, lies within the southern Great Basin, a region of known contemporary tectonism and young volcanic activity, and the characterization of tectonism and volcanism remains as a fundamental problem for the Yucca Mountain site. The United States Geological Survey has been conducting extensive studies to evaluate the geologic setting of Yucca Mountain, as well as the timing and rates of tectonic and volcanic activity in the region. A workshop was convened by the Geologic Survey in Denver, Colorado, on August 19, 20, and 21, 1985, to review the scientific progress and direction of these studies. Considerable debate resulted. This collection of papers represents the results of some of the studies presented at the workshop, but by no means covers all of the scientific results and viewpoints presented. Rather, the volume is meant to serve as a progress report on some of the studies within the Geological Survey's continuing research program toward characterizing the tectonic framework of Yucca Mountain. Individual papers were processed separately for the data base

  10. Poisoning Experiments Aimed at Discriminating Active and Less-Active Sites of Silica-Supported Tantalum Hydride for Alkane Metathesis

    KAUST Repository

    Saggio, Guillaume; Taoufik, Mostafa; Basset, Jean-Marie; Thivolle-Cazat, Jean

    2010-01-01

    Only 50% of the silica-supported tantalum hydride sites are active in the metathesis of propane. Indeed, more than 45% of the tantalum hydride can be eliminated by a selective oxygen poisoning of inactive sites with no significant decrease

  11. Robotics and Automation Activities at the Savannah River Site: A Site Report for SUBWOG 39F

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Teese, G.D.

    1995-01-01

    The Savannah River Site has successfully used robots, teleoperators, and remote video to reduce exposure to ionizing radiation, improve worker safety, and improve the quality of operations. Previous reports have described the use of mobile teleoperators in coping with a high level liquid waste spill, the removal of highly contaminated equipment, and the inspection of nuclear reactor vessels. This report will cover recent applications at the Savannah River, as well as systems which SRS has delivered to other DOE site customers

  12. Site characterization activities at Stripa and other Swedish projects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahlstroehm, P.E.

    1991-01-01

    The Swedish research programme concerning spent nuclear fuel disposal aims for submitting a siting license application around the year 2000. An important step towards that goal will be the detailed characterization of at least two potential sites in late 1990s. In preparation for such characterization several research projects are conducted. One is the international Stripa Project that includes a site characterization and validation project for a small size granite rock body. The Stripa work also includes further development of instrumentation and measurement techniques. Another project is the Finnsjoen Fracture Zone Project, which is characterizing a subhorizontal zone at depths from 100 to 350 meters. The third project is the new Swedish Hard Rock Laboratory planned at the site of the Oskarshamn nuclear power plant. The preinvestigations and construction of this laboratory include major efforts in development, application and validation of site characterization methodology. (author) 6 figs., 9 refs

  13. Using Carbohydrate Interaction Assays to Reveal Novel Binding Sites in Carbohydrate Active Enzymes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cockburn, Darrell; Wilkens, Casper; Dilokpimol, Adiphol

    2016-01-01

    Carbohydrate active enzymes often contain auxiliary binding sites located either on independent domains termed carbohydrate binding modules (CBMs) or as so-called surface binding sites (SBSs) on the catalytic module at a certain distance from the active site. The SBSs are usually critical...

  14. Corrective Action Investigation Plan for Corrective Action Unit 214: Bunkers and Storage Areas Nevada Test Site, Nevada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2003-01-01

    This Corrective Action Investigation Plan contains the U.S. Department of Energy, National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Site Office's approach to collect the data necessary to evaluate corrective action alternatives appropriate for the closure of Corrective Action Unit (CAU) 214 under the Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order. Located in Areas 5, 11, and 25 of the Nevada Test Site, CAU 214 consists of nine Corrective Action Sites (CASs): 05-99-01, Fallout Shelters; 11-22-03, Drum; 25-99-12, Fly Ash Storage; 25-23-01, Contaminated Materials; 25-23-19, Radioactive Material Storage; 25-99-18, Storage Area; 25-34-03, Motor Dr/Gr Assembly (Bunker); 25-34-04, Motor Dr/Gr Assembly (Bunker); and 25-34-05, Motor Dr/Gr Assembly (Bunker). These sites are being investigated because existing information on the nature and extent of potential contamination is insufficient to evaluate and recommend corrective action alternatives (CAAs). The suspected contaminants and critical analyte s for CAU 214 include oil (total petroleum hydrocarbons-diesel-range organics [TPH-DRO], polychlorinated biphenyls [PCBs]), pesticides (chlordane, heptachlor, 4,4-DDT), barium, cadmium, chronium, lubricants (TPH-DRO, TPH-gasoline-range organics [GRO]), and fly ash (arsenic). The land-use zones where CAU 214 CASs are located dictate that future land uses will be limited to nonresidential (i.e., industrial) activities. The results of this field investigation will support a defensible evaluation of viable corrective action alternatives that will be presented in the corrective action decision document

  15. Anti-nuclear activities and critics concerning nuclear power plant sites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rhee, We-Beg

    2000-01-01

    Korea has dynamic nuclear power expansion programs, operating 16 nuclear units producing 13710 MW in total located on 4 different sites. Last year, nuclear power supplied over 40 % of national total electricity demands. In 1998, Korean government initiated re-designation work investigating circumstance changes to rule out the unnecessary sites in consideration of a long-term power supply. Korean government has determined to expand the Ulchin site and to designate one point of Woolju county as a new candidate site, and ruled out the rest candidate sites at the end of 1998. About such a governmental measure, the two areas show different reactions. Ulchin where nuclear power plant has been operated safely for about 10 years was likely to accept the governmental determination in spite of some opposition and called for several financial supports for local development. WooIju county, however, showed a strong opposition among local environmental groups and autonomous politicians, and they presented a variety of anti-nuclear activities including demonstrations mainly at the neighbouring metropolis, Ulsan city

  16. Distribution and mobility of metals in contaminated sites. chemometric investigation of pollutant profiles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abollino, Ornella; Aceto, Maurizio; Malandrino, Mery; Mentasti, Edoardo; Sarzanini, Corrado; Barberis, Renzo

    2002-01-01

    The distribution and mobility of heavy metals in the soils of two contaminated sites in Piedmont (Italy) was investigated, evaluating the horizontal and vertical profiles of 15 metals, namely Al, Cd, Cu, Cr, Fe. La, Mn, Ni, Pb, Sc, Ti, V, Y, Zn and Zr. The concentrations in the most polluted areas of the sites were higher than the acceptable limits reported in Italian and Dutch legislations for soil reclamation. Chemometric elaboration of the results by pattern recognition techniques allowed us to identify groups of samples with similar characteristics and to find correlations among the variables. The pollutant mobility was studied by extraction with water, dilute acetic acid and EDTA and by applying Tessier's procedure. The fraction of mobile species, which potentially is the most harmful for the environment, was found to be higher than the one normally present in unpolluted soils, where heavy metals are, to a higher extent, strongly bound to the matrix.

  17. From 3D to 2D Co and Ni Oxyhydroxide Catalysts: Elucidation of the Active Site and Influence of Doping on the Oxygen Evolution Activity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tripkovic, Vladimir; Hansen, Heine Anton; Vegge, Tejs

    2017-01-01

    Layered oxyhydroxides (ox-hys) of Ni and Co are among the most active catalysts for oxygen evolution in alkaline media. Their activities can be further tuned by delamination into single-layer oxide sheets or by means of doping. The active site for the reaction and how doping and delamination...... investigate the role of terrace and edge sites and use stability, catalytic activity, and electronic conductivity as evaluation criteria to pinpoint the best catalysts. We arrive at several important conclusions: the ox-hy surface is fully oxidized under oxygen evolution conditions, bulk terraces...

  18. FInal Report: Site Investigation Results, 2009-2011, at Inman, Kansas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    LaFreniere, Lorraine M. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States). Environmental Sciences Div.

    2015-05-01

    The Commodity Credit Corporation of the U.S. Department of Agriculture (CCC/USDA) operated a grain storage facility at the southern edge of the city of Inman, Kansas, from 1954 to 1965. During this time, commercial grain fumigants containing carbon tetrachloride were in common use by the grain storage industry to preserve grain in their facilities. In 1997, trace to low levels of carbon tetrachloride (below the maximum contamination level [MCL] of 5.0 μg/L) were detected in three private wells near the former grain storage facility at Inman, as part of a statewide USDA private well sampling program that was implemented by the Kansas Department of Health and Environment (KDHE) near former CCC/USDA facilities. No public water supply wells were identified in 1998 by the KDHE within 1 mi of the town. Carbon tetrachloride is the contaminant of primary concern at sites associated with grain storage operations. To determine whether the former CCC/USDA facility at Inman is a potential contaminant source and its possible relationship to the contamination in groundwater, the CCC/USDA agreed to conduct investigations at Inman. The investigations were performed by the Environmental Science Division of Argonne National Laboratory in accordance with the Intergovernmental Agreement between the KDHE and the Farm Service Agency of the USDA. Argonne, on behalf of the CCC/USDA, developed a Work Plan (Argonne 2007) and subsequently a Summary of Investigation Results and Proposed Work Plan (Appendix A) for a phased site investigation. The proposed work was approved by the KDHE (2007, 2011). The investigations were conducted from November 2009 to September 2011, as proposed in the two work plans. This report presents the findings of the 2009-2011 investigations at Inman.

  19. Neutron activation and radiometric investigation of Kazakhstan soils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gwozdz, R.; Popov, J.V.; Shishkov, I.A.; Poznyak, V.; Solodukhin, V.P.

    2001-01-01

    Full text: Great diversity of radio-ecological problems requires measurement of materials with vastly differing chemical composition and density, and varying volume. In case of gamma spectrometry such variation in composition, density and volume changes the response of a measuring system quite drastically. A necessary correction is usually achieved by applying one of the four correction methods. The first one is applying a standard with composition as close to the measured sample as possible. The second method needs some previous knowledge about the chemical composition of the sample and a subsequent calculation of the mass absorption coefficient. The third method, an intensity ratio of two gamma lines, can only be applied when an isotope in the investigated sample has two measurable gamma lines. The fourth method consists in an additional gamma transmission measurement, using an isotopic source. Application of the first two methods to samples collected in Kazakhstan is evaluated and the results achieved are described. Instrumental neutron activation analysis by either long, or short irradiation was applied to three groups of samples. The first 15 samples were from the Semipalatinsk area, the next 15 from the area north for the Kara-Tau range. The third group of 5 samples was from the Syr-Darya valley. The Kara-Tau and Syr-Darya samples originate from the area adjacent to an uranium mining site. Only two samples are collected at cultivated soil, all the other are collected at the steppe or semi-desert areas, In the additional group measured there were ten sub-samples of the environmental soil standard, prepared at the Institute of Nuclear Physics. Activation analysis was applied as well to Soil-6 and Soil IAEA-375, two reference materials distributed by IAEA. Determination of concentration of about 40 elements in very sample enabled computation of mass absorption coefficients for all the investigated samples. Results of calculation and experimental testing prove

  20. Radiological survey following decontamination activities near the TA-45 site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gunderson, T.; Buhl, T.; Romero, R.; Salazar, J.

    1983-07-01

    Three areas at the site of a former radioactive liquid waste treatment plant at Los Alamos National Laboratory were decontaminated during 1982 by Bechtel Corporation, with health physics support provided by Eberline Instrument Corporation, under the Department of Energy's Formerly Utilized Sites Remedial Action Program (FUSRAP). Before decontamination, there were above-background concentrations of gross alpha, gross beta, 238 Pu, 239 240 Pu, 241 Am, 90 Sr, and 137 Cs in the surface soils. These combined concentrations were above operational decontamination guidelines for surface soil contamination. After cleanup operations, radionuclide concentrations in surface soils at all three sites were within decontamination guidelines

  1. Developing a programmatic approach to investigating and remediating many unrelated comprehensive environmental response, compensation, and liability act sites at Kelly Air Force Base

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kamp, G.; Regan, P.; Ninesteel, R.; Martin, R.

    1988-01-01

    Kelly Air Force Base (AFB), which was founded in 1917, is involved in logistics and maintenance activities supporting the Air Logistics Command. In addition, Kelly AFB hosts over 50 tenant organizations representing the Air Force, Department of Defense, and other government agencies. Over the years waste disposal from this complex was conducted in a manner that led to the identification of over 30 sites to be included in the Installation Restoration Program (IRP) after the Phase 1 investigation. A methodology was needed to prioritize the Remedial Investigations and Feasibility Study (RI/FS) activities for the sites. A Strategy Plan was developed that involved reviewing and interpreting existing data, identifying data voids relative to site specific RI/FS activities, and developing methodology to prioritize activities. Sites were prioritized, and a comprehensive IRP planning document was developed. One data deficiency was revealed -- the lack of understanding of the Basewide hydrogeologic conditions necessary to establish an effective restoration program. A Hydrogeologic Investigation was initiated to provide this data. This data will allow better interpretation of the interaction of the sites, particularly those in close proximity, and improved planning of remediation activities

  2. Nest predation increases with parental activity: separating nest site and parental activity effects.

    OpenAIRE

    Martin, T E; Scott, J; Menge, C

    2000-01-01

    Alexander Skutch hypothesized that increased parental activity can increase the risk of nest predation. We tested this hypothesis using ten open-nesting bird species in Arizona, USA. Parental activity was greater during the nestling than incubation stage because parents visited the nest frequently to feed their young during the nestling stage. However, nest predation did not generally increase with parental activity between nesting stages across the ten study species. Previous investigators h...

  3. Disulfide bond within mu-calpain active site inhibits activity and autolysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lametsch, René; Lonergan, Steven; Huff-Lonergan, Elisabeth

    2008-09-01

    Oxidative processes have the ability to influence mu-calpain activity. In the present study the influence of oxidation on activity and autolysis of mu-calpain was examined. Furthermore, LC-MS/MS analysis was employed to identify and characterize protein modifications caused by oxidation. The results revealed that the activity of mu-calpain is diminished by oxidation with H2O2 in a reversible manner involving cysteine and that the rate of autolysis of mu-calpain concomitantly slowed. The LC-MS/MS analysis of the oxidized mu-calpain revealed that the amino acid residues 105-133 contained a disulfide bond between Cys(108) and Cys(115). The finding that the active site cysteine in mu-calpain is able to form a disulfide bond has, to our knowledge, not been reported before. This could be part of a unique oxidation mechanism for mu-calpain. The results also showed that the formation of the disulfide bond is limited in the control (no oxidant added), and further limited in a concentration-dependent manner when beta-mercaptoethanol is added. However, the disulfide bond is still present to some extent in all conditions indicating that the active site cysteine is potentially highly susceptible to the formation of this intramolecular disulfide bond.

  4. Calpain 3 Is Activated through Autolysis within the Active Site and Lyses Sarcomeric and Sarcolemmal Components

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taveau, Mathieu; Bourg, Nathalie; Sillon, Guillaume; Roudaut, Carinne; Bartoli, Marc; Richard, Isabelle

    2003-01-01

    Calpain 3 (Capn3) is known as the skeletal muscle-specific member of the calpains, a family of intracellular nonlysosomal cysteine proteases. This enigmatic protease has many unique features among the calpain family and, importantly, mutations in Capn3 have been shown to be responsible for limb girdle muscular dystrophy type 2A. Here we demonstrate that the Capn3 activation mechanism is similar to the universal activation of caspases and corresponds to an autolysis within the active site of the protease. We undertook a search for substrates in immature muscle cells, as several lines of evidence suggest that Capn3 is mostly in an inactive state in muscle and needs a signal to be activated. In this model, Capn3 proteolytic activity leads to disruption of the actin cytoskeleton and disorganization of focal adhesions through cleavage of several endogenous proteins. In addition, we show that titin, a previously identified Capn3 partner, and filamin C are further substrates of Capn3. Finally, we report that Capn3 colocalizes in vivo with its substrates at various sites along cytoskeletal structures. We propose that Capn3-mediated cleavage produces an adaptive response of muscle cells to external and/or internal stimuli, establishing Capn3 as a muscle cytoskeleton regulator. PMID:14645524

  5. Corrective Action Investigation Plan for Corrective Action Unit 104: Area 7 Yucca Flat Atmospheric Test Sites, Nevada National Security Site, Nevada, Revision 0

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Patrick Matthews

    2011-08-01

    CAU 104 comprises the 15 CASs listed below: (1) 07-23-03, Atmospheric Test Site T-7C; (2) 07-23-04, Atmospheric Test Site T7-1; (3) 07-23-05, Atmospheric Test Site; (4) 07-23-06, Atmospheric Test Site T7-5a; (5) 07-23-07, Atmospheric Test Site - Dog (T-S); (6) 07-23-08, Atmospheric Test Site - Baker (T-S); (7) 07-23-09, Atmospheric Test Site - Charlie (T-S); (8) 07-23-10, Atmospheric Test Site - Dixie; (9) 07-23-11, Atmospheric Test Site - Dixie; (10) 07-23-12, Atmospheric Test Site - Charlie (Bus); (11) 07-23-13, Atmospheric Test Site - Baker (Buster); (12) 07-23-14, Atmospheric Test Site - Ruth; (13) 07-23-15, Atmospheric Test Site T7-4; (14) 07-23-16, Atmospheric Test Site B7-b; (15) 07-23-17, Atmospheric Test Site - Climax These sites are being investigated because existing information on the nature and extent of potential contamination is insufficient to evaluate and recommend corrective action alternatives (CAAs). Additional information will be obtained by conducting a corrective action investigation before evaluating CAAs and selecting the appropriate corrective action for each CAS. The results of the field investigation will support a defensible evaluation of viable CAAs that will be presented in the Corrective Action Decision Document. The sites will be investigated based on the data quality objectives (DQOs) developed on April 28, 2011, by representatives of the Nevada Division of Environmental Protection and the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Site Office. The DQO process was used to identify and define the type, amount, and quality of data needed to develop and evaluate appropriate corrective actions for CAU 104. The releases at CAU 104 consist of surface-deposited radionuclides from 30 atmospheric nuclear tests. The presence and nature of contamination at CAU 104 will be evaluated based on information collected from a field investigation. Radiological contamination will be evaluated based on a comparison

  6. Geotechnical investigation for seismic issues for K-reactor area at Savannah River Site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Castro, G.; Reeves, C.Q.

    1991-01-01

    A geotechnical investigation has been completed at Savannah River Site to characterize the foundation conditions in K-Reactor Area and confirm soil design properties for use in seismic qualification of structures. The scope of field work included ten soil borings to a 200-foot depth with split-spoon and undisturbed sampling. Additionally, 42 cone penetrometer tests were performed with seismic down-hole measurements. Three cross-hole shear wave velocity tests were also completed to confirm the assumed dynamic properties which had been used in preliminary seismic analysis

  7. Improvement of worker safety through the investigation of the site response to rockbursts.

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Durrheim, RJ

    1997-12-01

    Full Text Available Committee DRAFT FINAL REPORT Improvement of worker safety through the investigation of the site response to rockbursts R J Durrheim, A M Milev, S M Spottiswoode, and B Vakalisa Research agency CSIR: Division of Mining Technology Project number GAP2OI... in the application of current technology, such as numerical modelling for mine design, were also identified. It was also found that published guidelines, e.g. for pillar design, have limitations which are not explicitly stated. The performance of new technologies...

  8. Using Activity Theory as a Base for Investigating Language Teacher ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Using Activity Theory as a Base for Investigating Language Teacher Education through Digital Technology. ... Log in or Register to get access to full text downloads. ... how the platform has created tensions, contradictions and transformations.

  9. Investigations of antioxidant and antibacterial activity of leaf extracts ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Sulav

    2Padmashree Institute of Management and Sciences, Bangalore, India. Received 20 June, 2015; Accepted 5 November, 2015. Active ingredients of ..... investigation is needed to exploit the bioactive principles of A. indica for therapeutic utility.

  10. Corrective Action Investigation Plan for Corrective Action Unit 541: Small Boy Nevada National Security Site and Nevada Test and Training Range, Nevada with ROTC 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Matthews, Patrick [Navarro-Intera, LLC (N-I), Las Vegas, NV (United States)

    2014-09-01

    Corrective Action Unit (CAU) 541 is co-located on the boundary of Area 5 of the Nevada National Security Site and Range 65C of the Nevada Test and Training Range, approximately 65 miles northwest of Las Vegas, Nevada. CAU 541 is a grouping of sites where there has been a suspected release of contamination associated with nuclear testing. This document describes the planned investigation of CAU 541, which comprises the following corrective action sites (CASs): 05-23-04, Atmospheric Tests (6) - BFa Site; 05-45-03, Atmospheric Test Site - Small Boy. These sites are being investigated because existing information on the nature and extent of potential contamination is insufficient to evaluate and recommend corrective action alternatives (CAAs). Additional information will be obtained by conducting a corrective action investigation before evaluating CAAs and selecting the appropriate corrective action for each CAS. The results of the field investigation will support a defensible evaluation of viable CAAs that will be presented in the investigation report. The sites will be investigated based on the data quality objectives (DQOs) developed on April 1, 2014, by representatives of the Nevada Division of Environmental Protection; U.S. Air Force; and the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Field Office. The DQO process was used to identify and define the type, amount, and quality of data needed to develop and evaluate appropriate corrective actions for CAU 541. The site investigation process also will be conducted in accordance with the Soils Activity Quality Assurance Plan, which establishes requirements, technical planning, and general quality practices to be applied to this activity. The potential contamination sources associated with CASs 05-23-04 and 05-45-03 are from nuclear testing activities conducted at the Atmospheric Tests (6) - BFa Site and Atmospheric Test Site - Small Boy sites. The presence and nature of

  11. Corrective Action Investigation Plan for Corrective Action Unit 568: Area 3 Plutonium Dispersion Sites Nevada National Security Site, Nevada, Revision 0

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Matthews, Patrick

    2014-01-01

    CAU 568 is a grouping of sites where there has been a suspected release of contamination associated with nuclear testing. This document describes the planned investigation of CAU 568, which comprises the following corrective action sites (CASs): • 03-23-17, S-3I Contamination Area • 03-23-19, T-3U Contamination Area • 03-23-20, Otero Contamination Area • 03-23-22, Platypus Contamination Area • 03-23-23, San Juan Contamination Area • 03-23-26, Shrew/Wolverine Contamination Area These sites are being investigated because existing information on the nature and extent of potential contamination is insufficient to evaluate and recommend corrective action alternatives (CAAs). Additional information will be obtained by conducting a corrective action investigation before evaluating CAAs and selecting the appropriate corrective action for each CAS. The results of the field investigation will support a defensible evaluation of viable CAAs that will be presented in the investigation report.

  12. Altering the spectrum of immunoglobulin V gene somatic hypermutation by modifying the active site of AID.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Meng; Rada, Cristina; Neuberger, Michael S

    2010-01-18

    High-affinity antibodies are generated by somatic hypermutation with nucleotide substitutions introduced into the IgV in a semirandom fashion, but with intrinsic mutational hotspots strategically located to optimize antibody affinity maturation. The process is dependent on activation-induced deaminase (AID), an enzyme that can deaminate deoxycytidine in DNA in vitro, where its activity is sensitive to the identity of the 5'-flanking nucleotide. As a critical test of whether such DNA deamination activity underpins antibody diversification and to gain insight into the extent to which the antibody mutation spectrum is dependent on the intrinsic substrate specificity of AID, we investigated whether it is possible to change the IgV mutation spectrum by altering AID's active site such that it prefers a pyrimidine (rather than a purine) flanking the targeted deoxycytidine. Consistent with the DNA deamination mechanism, B cells expressing the modified AID proteins yield altered IgV mutation spectra (exhibiting a purine-->pyrimidine shift in flanking nucleotide preference) and altered hotspots. However, AID-catalyzed deamination of IgV targets in vitro does not yield the same degree of hotspot dominance to that observed in vivo, indicating the importance of features beyond AID's active site and DNA local sequence environment in determining in vivo hotspot dominance.

  13. Further investigations on the inorganic phosphate binding site of beef heart mitochondrial F1-ATPase

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pougeois, R.; Lauquin, G.J.

    1985-01-01

    The possibility that 4-azido-2-nitrophenyl phosphate (ANPP), a photoreactive derivative of inorganic phosphate (P /sub i/ ), could mimic ATP was investigated. ANPP was hydrolyzed in the dark by sarcoplasmic reticulum Ca 2+ -ATPase in the presence of Ca 2+ but not in the presence of ethylene glycol bis(beta-aminoethyl ether)-N,N,N',N'-tetraacetic acid. ANPP was not hydrolyzed by purified mitochondrial F1-ATPase; however, ADP and ATP protected F1-ATPase against ANPP photoinactivation. On the other hand, the trinitrophenyl nucleotide analogues (TNP-ADP, TNP-ATP, and TNP-AMP-PNP), which bind specifically at the two catalytic sites of F1-ATPase, abolished P /sub i/ binding on F1-ATPase; they do not protect F1-ATPase against ANPP photoinactivation. Furthermore, ANPP-photoinactivated F1-ATPase binds the TNP analogues in the same way as the native enzyme. The Pi binding site of F1-ATPase, which is shown to be photolabeled by ANPP, does not appear to be at the gamma-phosphate position of the catalytic sites

  14. Geoarchaeological investigation at Al-Khiday (central Sudan): late Quaternary palaeoenvironment and site formation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zerboni, Andrea; Usai, Donatella; Salvatori, Sandro

    2010-05-01

    The micromorphological investigation on several pluristratified archaeological sites in central Sudan (Al-Khiday, left bank of the White Nile, Khartoum region, Sudan) permitted to elucidate depositional and post-depositional processes playing a role in the formation and preservation of the archaeological record. At Al-Khiday sites are located at the top of small mounds, representing the remains of Pleistocene sandy fluvial bars, and were attended since the beginning of the Holocene. The first occupation of the area corresponds to a pre-Mesolithic cemetery; than Mesolithic groups lived upon the mounds and their occupation is testified by several archaeological features: pits filled by ash and bones and living floors. Preserved Neolithic features are scarce and limited to few graves (V millennium BC). After this phase, a long gap in human attendance is registered, during which wind continued to dismantling the mounds and the sites; at ca. 2000 years BP Meroitic/Post-Meroitic groups built their tombs at the top of the archaeological sequences and altered most of the stratigraphic record. Thanks to micromorphology, it was possible to distinguish between archaeological strata still in situ and those disturbed by natural and anthropic processes; furthermore, this approach allowed to interpret the significance of several archaeological features (living floors, fireplaces, and garbage pits). In this case micromorphology of archaeological deposits was a key tool to reconstruct the depositional and post-depositional processes that contributed to the formation and preservation of the archaeological record.

  15. Preliminary investigation Area 12 fleet operations steam cleaning discharge area Nevada Test Site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1996-07-01

    This report documents the characterization activities and findings of a former steam cleaning discharge area at the Nevada Test Site. The former steam cleaning site is located in Area 12 east of Fleet Operations Building 12-16. The characterization project was completed as a required condition of the ''Temporary Water Pollution Control Permit for the Discharge From Fleet Operations Steam Cleaning Facility'' issued by the Nevada Division of Environmental Protection. The project objective was to collect shallow soil samples in eight locations in the former surface discharge area. Based upon field observations, twelve locations were sampled on September 6, 1995 to better define the area of potential impact. Samples were collected from the surface to a depth of approximately 0.3 meters (one foot) below land surface. Discoloration of the surface soil was observed in the area of the discharge pipe and in localized areas in the natural drainage channel. The discoloration appeared to be consistent with the topographically low areas of the site. Hydrocarbon odors were noted in the areas of discoloration only. Samples collected were analyzed for bulk asbestos, Toxicity Characteristic Leaching Procedure (TCLP) metals, total petroleum hydrocarbons (TPHs), volatile organic compounds (VOCs), semi-volatile organic compounds (Semi-VOCs), and gamma scan

  16. Investigation of the dynamics of radiation pollution at the former Semipalatinsk nuclear test site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Belyashov, L.; Yushkov, A.; Grinshtein, Yu.; Makarenko, N.

    1996-01-01

    Main Tasks: - To perform aerial gamma-spectrometric shooting of the whole territory of the Semipalatinsk test site in a scale 1:200,000 with registration of the total spectrum; - The same in a scale 1:10,000 for the Balapan region; - To construct the physical-mathematical forecasting models of the dynamics of radionuclide contamination at the STS area. Scientific and Technical Means, Methods, Approaches - Aerial gamma-spectroscopy on a base of the crystals of Iodine Sodium, activated by Thallium, volume 25 I, with registration of the total spectrum; - A set of the software and computational means along with the data bases; - The aerial gamma-spectrometric standard testing site 'irtysh' - for Cesium-137 and the testing sites 'Kora' and 'Aidarly' - for natural radio-nucli