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Sample records for singular nouns implications

  1. OVERGENERALIZATION IN SINGULAR/PLURAL NOUNS AND SUFFIXED NOUNS OF IELTS COURSE STUDENTS

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    Gharizi Matiini

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available This study aims to investigate the morphological overgeneralization of IELTS students. It focuses on the singular/plural nouns and suffixed nouns that are overgeneralized by those students. Three students are chosen as the participants of the study by collecting their writing exercises. Three writing texts are gathered taken from several weeks and materials. The writings are analyzed by sorting the nouns they produced and categorizing them according to the singular/plural nouns and suffixed nouns. The results reveal that the students over extended the rules of singular/plural nouns and suffixed nouns. However, recovery occurs very varied in both singular/plural nouns and suffixed nouns. They tend to be better in mentioning singular/plural nouns, yet they are being selective and careful in writing suffixed nouns. In conclusion, even though the language learners can mark their overgeneralization, it is still difficult for them to recover their errors. It is recommended here that longitudinal study that has more time to examine students recovery from overgeneralization can be conducted for the further study to give more detail evidence in students’ overgeneralizations. Keywords: overgeneralization, singular/plural nouns, suffixed nouns

  2. Usage-Based Account of the Acquisition of Liaison: Evidence from Sensitivity to the Singular/Plural Orientation of Nouns

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dugua, Celine; Spinelli, Elsa; Chevrot, Jean-Pierre; Fayol, Michel

    2009-01-01

    This study investigates whether children's production and recognition of obligatory liaison sequences in French depend on the singular/plural orientation of nouns. Certain nouns occur more frequently in the plural (e.g., "arbre" "tree"), whereas others are found more often in the singular (e.g., "arc-en-ciel" "rainbow"). In the input, children…

  3. Count Nouns - Mass Nouns, Neat Nouns - Mess Nouns

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    Fred Landman

    2010-12-01

    . 1975. ‘Non-singular reference. Some preliminaries’. In Philosophia 5. Reprinted in Francis Jeffry Pelletier (ed., 1979, Mass Terms. Some Philosophical Problems, Kluwer, Dordrecht.Pelletier, F. J. & Schubert, L. 1989/2002. ‘Mass Expressions’. In Dov Gabbay & Franz Guenthner (eds. ‘The Handbook of Philosophical Logic’, 387–453. Kluwer, Dordrecht.Rothstein, S. 1992. ‘Types of plural individuals’. Journal of Semantics 15: 641–675.Rothstein, S. 2009a. ‘Bare noun semantics’. Talk presented at the workshop on ‘Bare Nouns: Syntactic Projections and their Interpretations’, Paris, November 2009.Rothstein, S. 2009b. ‘Stubborn distributivity, multiparticipant nouns and the count/mass distinction’. To appear in: Proceedings of NELS 39.Rothstein, S. 2010. ‘Counting and the mass-count distinction’. Journal of Semantics 27: 343–397.http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/jos/ffq007Sybesma, R. 2009. Het Chinees en het Nederlands zijn eigenlijk hetzelfde. Het Spectum, Houten.ter Meulen, A. 1980. Substances, Quantities and Individuals. Ph.D. thesis, Stanford University

  4. Non-Adherence to Study Time Management Strategies among NOUN Students and Implications for Academic Stress

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    Okopi, Fidel O.

    2011-01-01

    The study was designed to investigate the NOUN students' non-adherence to their time management strategies (TMS) during the course of their studies. The researcher also wanted to find out whether their gender, age, marital and employment statuses have influence on their adherence/non-adherence to the plan or not. The researcher also examined the…

  5. An analysis of Pitch Patterns of English Adjective + Noun Pharases in Model Reading and Some Educational Implications

    OpenAIRE

    Iwai, Mie; Yamada, Jun

    2009-01-01

    A basic English accent rule for a noun phrase consisting of an adjective and a noun is that the head,o r noun,is accented unless the adjective is contrastively focused in the context. A question of interest for Japanese learners of English is to what extent this basic principle is observed in model reading to which the learners may be exposed in their English classrooms. This study measured F0 values of adjectives and nouns in noun phrases which appeared in model English reading on commercial...

  6. Unpacking Noun-Noun Compounds

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Smith, Viktor; Barratt, Daniel; Zlatev, Jordan

    2014-01-01

    In two complementary experiments we took an integrated approach to a set of tightly interwoven, yet rarely combined questions concerning the spontaneous interpretation of novel (unfamiliar) noun-noun compounds (NNCs) when encountered in isolation, and possible (re)interpretations of novel as well...... concerning the relations between semantics and pragmatics, as well as system and usage, and psycholinguistic issues concerning the processing of NNCs. New insights and methodological tools are also provided for supporting future best practices in the field of food naming and labelling...

  7. Metric dimensional reduction at singularities with implications to Quantum Gravity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stoica, Ovidiu Cristinel

    2014-01-01

    A series of old and recent theoretical observations suggests that the quantization of gravity would be feasible, and some problems of Quantum Field Theory would go away if, somehow, the spacetime would undergo a dimensional reduction at high energy scales. But an identification of the deep mechanism causing this dimensional reduction would still be desirable. The main contribution of this article is to show that dimensional reduction effects are due to General Relativity at singularities, and do not need to be postulated ad-hoc. Recent advances in understanding the geometry of singularities do not require modification of General Relativity, being just non-singular extensions of its mathematics to the limit cases. They turn out to work fine for some known types of cosmological singularities (black holes and FLRW Big-Bang), allowing a choice of the fundamental geometric invariants and physical quantities which remain regular. The resulting equations are equivalent to the standard ones outside the singularities. One consequence of this mathematical approach to the singularities in General Relativity is a special, (geo)metric type of dimensional reduction: at singularities, the metric tensor becomes degenerate in certain spacetime directions, and some properties of the fields become independent of those directions. Effectively, it is like one or more dimensions of spacetime just vanish at singularities. This suggests that it is worth exploring the possibility that the geometry of singularities leads naturally to the spontaneous dimensional reduction needed by Quantum Gravity. - Highlights: • The singularities we introduce are described by finite geometric/physical objects. • Our singularities are accompanied by dimensional reduction effects. • They affect the metric, the measure, the topology, the gravitational DOF (Weyl = 0). • Effects proposed in other approaches to Quantum Gravity are obtained naturally. • The geometric dimensional reduction obtained

  8. NOUN CLASSIFICATION IN ESAHIE

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The present work deals with noun classification in Esahie (Kwa, Niger ... phonological information influences the noun (form) class system of Esahie. ... between noun classes and (grammatical) Gender is interrogated (in the light of ..... the (A) argument6 precedes the verb and the (P) argument7 follows the verb in a simple.

  9. Are French -ité Suffixed Nouns Property Nouns?

    OpenAIRE

    Koehl, Aurore

    2008-01-01

    International audience; The aim of this paper is to analyse French deadjectival –ité nouns construction (AitéN), from a lexematic point of view. –ité nouns are the most frequent deadjectival nouns stored in French dictionaries. Most of the time, these nouns are analysed as denoting properties. The present analysis will show that it is not always the case. We propose here a study conducted on 499 AitéN coined on denominal adjectives. We will make use of both syntactic and semantic adjectival p...

  10. On flexible and rigid nouns

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rijkhoff, Jan

    2008-01-01

    Studies in Language 32-3 (2008), 727-752. Special issue: Parts of Speech: Descriptive tools, theoretical constructs Jan Rijkhoff - On flexible and rigid nouns This article argues that in addition to the flexible lexical categories in Hengeveld’s classification of parts-of-speech systems (Contentive......, Non-Verb, Modifier), there are also flexible word classes within the rigid lexical category Noun (Set Noun, Sort Noun, General Noun). Members of flexible word classes are characterized by their vague semantics, which in the case of nouns means that values for the semantic features Shape...... and Homogeneity are either left undetermined or they are specified in such a way that they do not quite match the properties of the kind of entity denoted by the flexible item in the external world. I will then argue that flexible word classes constitute a proper category (i.e. they are not the result of a merger...

  11. Problem of the Classification of Quantitative Noun in the German Language

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    Elvira L. Shubina

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This work is dedicated to the semantic classification of quantitative noun on the basis of a structural study (Nquant + (Adj +N (ein Glas frisches Wasser, since this model reveals the greatest variety of grammatical formulation. These word combinations can form by the genitive government eine Tasse starken Kaffees by the grammatical agreement ein Eimer kaltes Wasser, or by the adjunction mit einem Korb reife Apfel. The suggested classification of the noun performing the function of the first components is based on the form of the noun acting as the first component. Types of the first components fall into three groups: 1. The nouns, which specify quantitative characteristics of objects and substances. Two subgroups are also distingshed: word combinations with a noun in a singular form Nquant1a as the second component and word combinations with a noun in a plural form as the second component Nquant1b; 2. The nouns defining a group of living beings and objects Nquant2; 3. The nouns which formation is grounded on quantitative nouns Nquant3. Normative recommendations on the choice of subordinate connection type should be connected at least at the present stage of existence of German literary language, exactly with the semantics of the nouns which are the first components in these word combinations. The article illustrates that all types of constructions (organizes whether on the basis of government, agreement and or adjunction are connected with the completely specific semantic characteristics of the name, i.e., these nouns belong to one of three groups of noun - first components.

  12. On flexible and rigid nouns

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rijkhoff, Jan

    2010-01-01

    classes. Finally this article wants to claim that the distinction between rigid and flexible noun categories (a) adds a new dimension to current classifications of parts of speech systems, (b) correlates with certain grammatical phenomena (e.g. so-called number discord), and (c) helps to explain the parts......This article argues that in addition to the major flexible lexical categories in Hengeveld’s classification of parts of speech systems (Contentive, Non-Verb, Modifier), there are also flexible word classes within the rigid lexical category Noun (Set Noun, Sort Noun, General Noun). Members...... by the flexible item in the external world. I will then argue that flexible word classes constitute a proper category (i.e. they are not the result of a merger of some rigid word classes) in that members of flexible word categories display the same properties regarding category membership as members of rigid word...

  13. Noun Countability; Count Nouns and Non-count Nouns, What are the Syntactic Differences Between them?

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    Azhar A. Alkazwini

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Words that function as the subjects of verbs, objects of verbs or prepositions and which can have a plural form and possessive ending are known as nouns. They are described as referring to persons, places, things, states, or qualities and might also be used as an attributive modifier. In this paper, classes and subclasses of nouns shall be presented, then, noun countability branching into count and non-count nous shall be discussed. A number of present examples illustrating differences between count and non-count nouns and this includes determiner-head-co-occurrence restrictions of number, subject-verb agreement, in addition to some exceptions to this agreement rule shall be discussed. Also, the lexically inherent number in nouns and how inherently plural nouns are classified in terms of (+/- count are illustrated. This research will discuss partitive construction of count and non-count nouns, nouns as attributive modifier and, finally, conclude with the fact that there are syntactic difference between count and non-count in the English Language.

  14. Space-time slicing in Horndeski theories and its implications for non-singular bouncing solutions

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    Ijjas, Anna

    2018-02-01

    In this paper, we show how the proper choice of gauge is critical in analyzing the stability of non-singular cosmological bounce solutions based on Horndeski theories. We show that it is possible to construct non-singular cosmological bounce solutions with classically stable behavior for all modes with wavelengths above the Planck scale where: (a) the solution involves a stage of null-energy condition violation during which gravity is described by a modification of Einstein's general relativity; and (b) the solution reduces to Einstein gravity both before and after the null-energy condition violating stage. Similar considerations apply to galilean genesis scenarios.

  15. Noun morphophonemics and noun class restructuring: The case of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The article seeks to address the plural forms of class 11/10 nouns in Meru dialects. These are Bantu dialects spoken in the eastern province of Kenya. The dialects build the plural forms in this class in various ways. Sometimes the entire word is treated as a root and in other cases the word is considered to have two parts: a ...

  16. The Noun Phrase

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rijkhoff, Jan

    of modifier categories. He introduces the notion of Seinsart or ‘mode of being’ as the nominal counterpart of Aktionsart or ‘mode of action’ in lexical verb semantics. He furthermore proposes a new grammatical category of nominal aspect (cf. verbal aspect) and an implicational universal concerning...

  17. FUNCTIONAL IMPLICATIONS OF A SINGULAR PENGUIN SCAPULA (AVES, SPHENISCIFORMES FROM THE EOCENE OF ANTARCTICA

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    CAROLINA ACOSTA HOSPITALECHE

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Penguins have peculiar modifications in their skeletal anatomy as a consequence of their extremely specialized diving habit. Morphological specialization is particularly evident in the forelimb. However, the kinematics of the pectoral girdle appears to be key to the locomotion of penguins. Penguin scapulae have an unusual morphology among birds. Modern penguins have a very large (especially broad scapula, whereas this bone is long but narrower in basal fossil species. The recent finding of an incomplete scapula with a singular acromion in the Upper Eocene Submeseta Allomember of the La Meseta Formation in the Antarctic Peninsula reveals a scapula proportionally narrower than those of modern penguins but similar to that of Waimanu and possibly other Eocene species. Osteological comparisons and muscular dissections of modern penguins show that the most striking feature is the curvature of the acromion, and the consequent enlargement of the facies articularis clavicularis. The configuration of the acromion and the corpus scapula reflects a lack of functional optimization in terms of the resistance to forces transverse to the body axis. The scapula´s general morphology suggests it belonged to a medium to large-sized penguin species with no so specialized diving skills. 

  18. Verb-Noun Collocation Proficiency and Academic Years

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    Fatemeh Ebrahimi-Bazzaz

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Generally vocabulary and collocations in particular have significant roles in language proficiency. A collocation includes two words that are frequently joined concurrently in the memory of native speakers. There have been many linguistic studies trying to define, to describe, and to categorise English collocations. It contains grammatical collocations and lexical collocations which include nouns, adjectives, verbs, and adverb. In the context of a foreign language environment such as Iran, collocational proficiency can be useful because it helps the students improve their language proficiency. This paper investigates the possible relationship between verb-noun collocation proficiency among students from one academic year to the next. To reach this goal, a test of verb-noun collocations was administered to Iranian learners. The participants in the study were 212 Iranian students in an Iranian university. They were selected from the second term of freshman, sophomore, junior, and senior years. The students’ age ranged from 18 to 35.The results of ANOVA showed there was variability in the verb-noun collocations proficiency within each academic year and between the four academic years. The results of a post hoc multiple comparison tests demonstrated that the means are significantly different between the first year and the third and fourth years, and between the third and the fourth academic year; however, students require at least two years to show significant development in verb-noun collocation proficiency. These findings provided a vital implication that lexical collocations are learnt and developed through four academic years of university, but requires at least two years showing significant development in the language proficiency.

  19. Nouns in apposition : Portuguese data

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    Graça Rio-Torto

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The nature of N1N2 constructions, or nouns in apposition, is controversial: depending on the theoretical framework, they can be considered as compounds or as syntactic constructions. Indeed, nouns in apposition function as a hybrid category, in a double way: (i the same lexical structure in apposition is viewed either as a coordinative construction, as a subordinative or as an attributive construction. (ii N2 functions as a modifier or as an attributive item of N1; in Portuguese, when plural is syntactically mandatory, N1 (the head is systematically pluralized; N2 either rejects inflection or behaves as a predicator, allowing inflectional marks. We claim that Romance NN behave as a specific type of compounds. This assumption is grounded on their behaviour by contrast with phrasal properties. Portuguese compounds are characterized by a narrow relationship between internal structure, headness and inflectional patterns. In Portuguese, by default, the head of compound is inflected. NN related by an attributive semantic link are nowadays particularly unstable and problematic regarding inflection. Inflectional variation — widely attested — helps in determining the status of NN in apposition: as two inflectional patterns are available, we must verify if they correspond to two different constructions or to one structure with two readings. The analysis addressed is supported by empirical data of contemporary Portuguese language extracted from Brazilian and European databases, and requires the theoretical articulation of a double predicative class of N2 (holistic and partitive with inflectional fluctuation of attributive N2 in the second situation: performing a continuum, double inflection is close to holistic predication and single inflection (of N1 is close to partitive predication; systematic double inflection is close to coordination and inflectional oscillation is close to attribution. The predicative power of nouns in apposition supports their

  20. THE COMMON AND PROPER NOUNS BETWEEN ALBANIAN AND ENGLISH

    OpenAIRE

    Shkelqim Millaku

    2017-01-01

    The noun in Albanian language classified as common and proper. The common nouns in turn divide into countable and uncountable. Collective nouns and substance nouns are subclasses of the other classes. The structure of noun formation between Albanian and English on the general aspect of morphology and syntax still didn’t study in the way of comparative, contrast and generative. Those fields are our object of study. In Albanian and English we find some concepts of studies for noun for exam...

  1. An Analysis of Noun Definition in Cantonese

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    To, Carol Kit Sum; Stokes, Stephanie; Man, Yonnie; T'Sou, Benjamin

    2013-01-01

    This study investigated the noun definitions given by Cantonese speakers at different ages. Definitional responses on six concrete nouns from 1075 children aged 4;10 to 12;01 and 15 adults were analyzed with reference to the semantic content and the syntactic form. Results showed that conventional definitions produced by Cantonese adult speakers…

  2. Explaining word order in the noun phrase

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rijkhoff, Jan

    1990-01-01

    This article argues that word order in the noun phrase is largely determined by three iconic principles of constituent ordering. The patterns that these principles predict for simple noun phrases are tested against data from various existing samples. It appears that the predicted patterns are all...

  3. Layers of root nouns in Germanic

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Bjarne Simmelkjær Sandgaard

    2017-01-01

    The root-noun declension became productive in early Germanic, containing (I) inherited root nouns, (IIa) original substrate or loan words, and transitions from other declensions in (IIb) Proto-Germanic and (III) North Germanic. As ablaut was abolished, the inherited type would display ablaut grades...

  4. Noun and verb processing in aphasia: Behavioural profiles and neural correlates

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    Reem S.W. Alyahya

    Full Text Available The behavioural and neural processes underpinning different word classes, particularly nouns and verbs, have been a long-standing area of interest in psycholinguistic, neuropsychology and aphasiology research. This topic has theoretical implications concerning the organisation of the language system, as well as clinical consequences related to the management of patients with language deficits. Research findings, however, have diverged widely, which might, in part, reflect methodological differences, particularly related to controlling the psycholinguistic variations between nouns and verbs. The first aim of this study, therefore, was to develop a set of neuropsychological tests that assessed single-word production and comprehension with a matched set of nouns and verbs. Secondly, the behavioural profiles and neural correlates of noun and verb processing were explored, based on these novel tests, in a relatively large cohort of 48 patients with chronic post-stroke aphasia. A data-driven approach, principal component analysis (PCA, was also used to determine how noun and verb production and comprehension were related to the patients' underlying fundamental language domains. The results revealed no performance differences between noun and verb production and comprehension once matched on multiple psycholinguistic features including, most critically, imageability. Interestingly, the noun-verb differences found in previous studies were replicated in this study once un-matched materials were used. Lesion-symptom mapping revealed overlapping neural correlates of noun and verb processing along left temporal and parietal regions. These findings support the view that the neural representation of noun and verb processing at single-word level are jointly-supported by distributed cortical regions. The PCA generated five fundamental language and cognitive components of aphasia: phonological production, phonological recognition, semantics, fluency, and

  5. The roles of word-form frequency and phonological neighbourhood density in the acquisition of Lithuanian noun morphology.

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    Savičiūtė, Eglė; Ambridge, Ben; Pine, Julian M

    2018-05-01

    Four- and five-year-old children took part in an elicited familiar and novel Lithuanian noun production task to test predictions of input-based accounts of the acquisition of inflectional morphology. Two major findings emerged. First, as predicted by input-based accounts, correct production rates were correlated with the input frequency of the target form, and with the phonological neighbourhood density of the noun. Second, the error patterns were not compatible with the systematic substitution of target forms by either (a) the most frequent form of that noun or (b) a single morphosyntactic default form, as might be predicted by naive versions of a constructivist and generativist account, respectively. Rather, most errors reflected near-miss substitutions of singular for plural, masculine for feminine, or nominative/accusative for a less frequent case. Together, these findings provide support for an input-based approach to morphological acquisition, but are not adequately explained by any single account in its current form.

  6. Verb-Noun Collocations in Written Discourse of Iranian EFL Learners

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    Fatemeh Ebrahimi-Bazzaz

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available When native speakers of English write, they employ both grammatical rules and collocations. Collocations are words that are present in the memory of native speakers as ready-made prefabricated chunks. Non-native speakers who wish to acquire native-like fluency should give appropriate attention to collocations in writing in order not to produce sentences that native speakers may consider odd. The present study tries to explore the use of verb-noun collocations in written discourse of English as foreign language (EFL among Iranian EFL learners from one academic year to the next in Iran. To measure the use of verb-noun collocations in written discourse, there was a 60-minute task of writing story  based on a series of six pictures whereby for each picture, three verb-noun collocations were measured, and nouns were provided to limit the choice of collocations. The results of the statistical analysis of ANOVA for the research question indicated that there was a significant difference in the use of lexical verb-noun collocations in written discourse both between and within the four academic years. The results of a post hoc multiple comparison tests confirmed that the means are significantly different between the first year and the third and fourth years, between the second and the fourth, and between the third and the fourth academic year which indicate substantial development in verb-noun collocation proficiency.  The vital implication is that the learners could use verb-noun collocations in productive skill of writing.

  7. Noun complement clauses as referential modifiers

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    Carlos de Cuba

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available A number of recent analyses propose that so-called noun complement clauses should be analyzed as a type of relative clause. In this paper, I present a number of complications for any analysis that equates noun complement clauses to relative clauses, and conclude that this type of analysis is on the wrong track. I present cross-linguistic evidence showing that the syntactic behavior of noun complement clauses does not pattern with relative clauses. Patterns of complementizer choice and complementizer drop as well as patterns involving main clause phenomena and extraction differ in the two constructions, which I argue is unexpected under a relative clause analysis that involves operator movement. Instead I present an alternative analysis in which I propose that the referentiality of a noun complement clause is linked to its syntactic behavior. Following recent work, I claim that referential clauses have a syntactically truncated left-periphery, and this truncation can account for the lack of main clause phenomena in noun complement clauses. I argue that the truncation analysis is also able to accommodate complementizer data patterns more easily than relative clause analyses that appeal to operator movement.

  8. Old Romanian pluralized mass and abstract nouns

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    Gabriela Pană Dindelegan

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available The analysis of a rich old Romanian corpus shows that the ‘pluralization’ of mass and abstract nouns is extremely frequent in old Romanian. The semantic effects of pluralization are similar for mass and abstract nouns, consisting in the creation of denotative and/or connotative semantic variants. Of the plural endings, –uri is specialized for the pluralization of mass nouns in Daco-Romanian. The evolution of the ending –uri illustrates the specific process by which a grammatical (plural morpheme is converted into a lexical morpheme (the so-called ‘lexical plurals’. ‘Lexical plurals’ have isolated occurrences in other Romance languages, but they have not reached the spread and regularity they display in Romanian.

  9. Grammatical-gender effects in noun-noun compound production: Evidence from German.

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    Lorenz, Antje; Mädebach, Andreas; Jescheniak, Jörg D

    2018-05-01

    We examined how noun-noun compounds and their syntactic properties are lexically stored and processed in speech production. Using gender-marked determiner primes ( der masc , die fem , das neut [the]) in a picture naming task, we tested for specific effects from determiners congruent with either the modifier or the head of the compound target (e.g., Tee masc kanne fem [teapot]) to examine whether the constituents are processed independently at the syntactic level. Experiment 1 assessed effects of auditory gender-marked determiner primes in bare noun picture naming, and Experiment 2 assessed effects of visual gender-marked determiner primes in determiner-noun picture naming. Three prime conditions were implemented: (a) head-congruent determiner (e.g., die fem ), (b) modifier-congruent determiner (e.g., der masc ), and (c) incongruent determiner (e.g., das neuter ). We observed a facilitation effect of head congruency but no effect of modifier congruency. In Experiment 3, participants produced novel noun-noun compounds in response to two pictures, demanding independent processing of head and modifier at the syntactic level. Now, head and modifier congruency effects were obtained, demonstrating the general sensitivity of our task. Our data support the notion of a single-lemma representation of lexically stored compound nouns in the German production lexicon.

  10. Noun combination in interlanguage typology effects in complex determiner phrases

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    Bongartz, Christiane

    2002-01-01

    This study examines effects of L1 typology on the interlanguage of L2 learners of English. Czech learners use phrasal constructs (the song about love) significantly more often than Chinese learners, who prefer noun+noun compounds (the love song). Determiner properties and the process of noun incorporation systematically relate both options.

  11. Semantic and syntactic forces in noun phrase production

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vigliocco, G.; Lauer, M.; Damian, M.F.; Levelt, W.J.M.

    2002-01-01

    Three experiments investigated semantic and syntactic effects in the production of phrases in Dutch. Bilingual participants were presented with English nouns and were asked to produce an adjective + noun phrase in Dutch including the translation of the noun. In 2 experiments, the authors blocked

  12. Learning to categorize verbs and nouns : studies on Dutch

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Erkelens, M.A.

    2009-01-01

    Verbs and nouns are elementary notions in linguistics, so the question how children learn to categorize verbs and nouns in their first language is an intriguing one. Children not only have to learn to identify verbs and nouns as belonging to different categories based on perception, they also have

  13. Simultaneous Processing of Noun Cue and to-be-Produced Verb in Verb Generation Task: Electromagnetic Evidence

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    Anna V. Butorina

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available A long-standing but implicit assumption is that words strongly associated with a presented cue are automatically activated in the memory through rapid spread of activation within brain semantic networks. The current study was aimed to provide direct evidence of such rapid access to words’ semantic representations and to investigate its neural sources using magnetoencephalography (MEG and distributed source localization technique. Thirty-three neurotypical subjects underwent the MEG recording during verb generation task, which was to produce verbs related to the presented noun cues. Brain responses evoked by the noun cues were examined while manipulating the strength of association between the noun and the potential verb responses. The strong vs. weak noun-verb association led to a greater noun-related neural response at 250–400 ms after cue onset, and faster verb production. The cortical sources of the differential response were localized in left temporal pole, previously implicated in semantic access, and left ventrolateral prefrontal cortex (VLPFC, thought to subserve controlled semantic retrieval. The strength of the left VLPFC’s response to the nouns with strong verb associates was positively correlated to the speed of verbs production. Our findings empirically validate the theoretical expectation that in case of a strongly connected noun-verb pair, successful access to target verb representation may occur already at the stage of lexico-semantic analysis of the presented noun. Moreover, the MEG results suggest that contrary to the previous conclusion derived from fMRI studies left VLPFC supports selection of the target verb representations, even if they were retrieved from semantic memory rapidly and effortlessly. The discordance between MEG and fMRI findings in verb generation task may stem from different modes of neural activation captured by phase-locked activity in MEG and slow changes of blood-oxygen-level-dependent (BOLD signal

  14. Heavy noun phrase constructions in the Afrikaans novel 'n Ander ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Heavy noun phrase constructions in the Afrikaans novel 'n Ander Land: a cognitive account of a stylistic feature. Luna Beard. Abstract. This article focusses on one grammatical construction, namely heavy noun phrase (NP) constructions in Afrikaans, and more specifically on those instances encountered in the Afrikaans ...

  15. Noun-Verb Ambiguity in Chronic Undifferentiated Schizophrenia

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    Goldfarb, Robert; Bekker, Natalie

    2009-01-01

    This study investigated noun-verb retrieval patterns of 30 adults with chronic undifferentiated schizophrenia and 67 typical adults, to determine if schizophrenia affected nouns (associated with temporal lobe function) differently from verbs (associated with frontal lobe function). Stimuli were homophonic homographic homonyms, balanced according…

  16. Broohm: Noun Classification in Esahie | Broohm | Ghana Journal of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Tano, Kwa, Niger-Congo). It contends that, though the noun class system of Esahie per se is morpho-syntactically vestigial, hence differing from other African languages (e.g. most Bantu languages) where noun classes can be assimilated with ...

  17. Exploring Noun Bias in Filipino-English Bilingual Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lucas, Rochelle Irene G.; Bernardo, Allan B. I.

    2008-01-01

    Researchers have suggested that there is a noun bias in children's early vocabularies brought about by features of adults' child-directed utterances, which may vary across languages (E. V. Bates et al., 1994; D. Gentner, 1982). In the present study, the authors explored noun bias in 60 Filipino-English bilingual children whose 2 languages differed…

  18. Iceberg Semantics For Count Nouns And Mass Nouns: Classifiers, measures and portions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fred Landman

    2016-12-01

    It is the analysis of complex NPs and their mass-count properties that is the focus of the second part of this paper. There I develop an analysis of English and Dutch pseudo- partitives, in particular, measure phrases like three liters of wine and classifier phrases like three glasses of wine. We will study measure interpretations and classifier interpretations of measures and classifiers, and different types of classifier interpretations: container interpretations, contents interpretations, and - indeed - portion interpretations. Rothstein 2011 argues that classifier interpretations (including portion interpretations of pseudo partitives pattern with count nouns, but that measure interpretations pattern with mass nouns. I will show that this distinction follows from the very basic architecture of Iceberg semantics.

  19. The Noun Phrase in Functional Discourse Grammar

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    reintroduce Dik’s idea of Dynamic Term Construction and extend the current ontology of entities. The result would be a more cogent treatment of scope and NP syntax, which does not force the theory to abandon any of its fundamental methodological principles. Evelien Keizer (University of Amsterdam...... can account for NP-internal agreement phenomena, including speech errors, as attested in a large corpus of spoken German. Daniel García Velasco (University of Oviedo) examines the so-called Complex Noun Phrase Constraint within the context of FDG. The existence of restrictions on the displacement......, with regard to both form and content. Daniel García Velasco also wishes to acknowledge the financial support of the Dept. of Anglogermanic and French Studies and the Research Vice-Rectorate of the University of Oviedo....

  20. THE GENDER OF COUNTABLE AND UNCOUNTABLE NOUNS

    OpenAIRE

    Shkelqim Millaku; Xhevahire Topanica

    2016-01-01

    In Albanian and English we have three kinds of gender: masculine, feminine and neuter. In Albanian language we have this concept for gender: “Gjinia është një nga kategoritë gramatikore më karakteristikë për emrat në gjuhën shqipe. Nga natyra e saj, ajo dallohet nga kategoritë e tjera të emrit, nga numri, rasa dhe nga kategoritë e shquarsisë dhe të pashquarsisë, sepse i kundërvihet mashkullore-femërore dhe asnjanëse...”[1], it’s same and with English: “a grouping of nouns and pronouns into c...

  1. Singular stochastic differential equations

    CERN Document Server

    Cherny, Alexander S

    2005-01-01

    The authors introduce, in this research monograph on stochastic differential equations, a class of points termed isolated singular points. Stochastic differential equations possessing such points (called singular stochastic differential equations here) arise often in theory and in applications. However, known conditions for the existence and uniqueness of a solution typically fail for such equations. The book concentrates on the study of the existence, the uniqueness, and, what is most important, on the qualitative behaviour of solutions of singular stochastic differential equations. This is done by providing a qualitative classification of isolated singular points, into 48 possible types.

  2. The Intonation of Noun Phrase Subjects and Clause- Modifying ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    FIRST LADY

    Oladipupo, Rotimi O. - Centre for Foundation Education, Bells University of. Technology ... native Englishes, especially at the level of phonology, this study investigates ... Keywords: Intonation tunes, Nigerian English, Noun Phrase Subjects,.

  3. Nicht-referentielle Nominalphrasen (Non-Referential Noun Phrases)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leys, Odo

    1973-01-01

    Appeared as Working Report No. 21 of the Linguistic Institute of the University of Cologne; critical observations on S. Kuno's Some Properties of Non-Refential Noun Phrases,'' in Studies in General and Oriental Linguistics, 1970. (RS)

  4. Topological Signals of Singularities in Ricci Flow

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul M. Alsing

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available We implement methods from computational homology to obtain a topological signal of singularity formation in a selection of geometries evolved numerically by Ricci flow. Our approach, based on persistent homology, produces precise, quantitative measures describing the behavior of an entire collection of data across a discrete sample of times. We analyze the topological signals of geometric criticality obtained numerically from the application of persistent homology to models manifesting singularities under Ricci flow. The results we obtain for these numerical models suggest that the topological signals distinguish global singularity formation (collapse to a round point from local singularity formation (neckpinch. Finally, we discuss the interpretation and implication of these results and future applications.

  5. Quantum evolution across singularities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Craps, Ben; Evnin, Oleg

    2008-01-01

    Attempts to consider evolution across space-time singularities often lead to quantum systems with time-dependent Hamiltonians developing an isolated singularity as a function of time. Examples include matrix theory in certain singular time-dependent backgounds and free quantum fields on the two-dimensional compactified Milne universe. Due to the presence of the singularities in the time dependence, the conventional quantum-mechanical evolution is not well-defined for such systems. We propose a natural way, mathematically analogous to renormalization in conventional quantum field theory, to construct unitary quantum evolution across the singularity. We carry out this procedure explicitly for free fields on the compactified Milne universe and compare our results with the matching conditions considered in earlier work (which were based on the covering Minkowski space)

  6. Introduction to singularities

    CERN Document Server

    Ishii, Shihoko

    2014-01-01

    This book is an introduction to singularities for graduate students and researchers. It is said that algebraic geometry originated in the seventeenth century with the famous work Discours de la méthode pour bien conduire sa raison, et chercher la vérité dans les sciences by Descartes. In that book he introduced coordinates to the study of geometry. After its publication, research on algebraic varieties developed steadily. Many beautiful results emerged in mathematicians’ works. Most of them were about non-singular varieties. Singularities were considered “bad” objects that interfered with knowledge of the structure of an algebraic variety. In the past three decades, however, it has become clear that singularities are necessary for us to have a good description of the framework of varieties. For example, it is impossible to formulate minimal model theory for higher-dimensional cases without singularities. Another example is that the moduli spaces of varieties have natural compactification, the boundar...

  7. COGNITIVE LEARNING STRATEGIES OF NON-ENGLISH DEPARTMENT STUDENTS ON NOUN STRUCTURE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shierly Novalita Yappy

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Learning English for non-English department students is not as easy as it seems. Besides, as much as it is necessary to know how successful learners learn, not less important is to know how less successful learners learn. Using think aloud method, this study aims at finding out the cognitive strategies used by the engineering department students in answering incorrectly problems on TOEFL noun structure-the grammar point in which students made the most errors. Findings uncover the students' strategies and reasoning upon which pedagogical implications can be put forth so that more effective and fruitful instruction can be tailored.

  8. The Treatment of Borrowed Nouns in Isichazamazwi SesiNdebele and Isichazamazwi SezoMculo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eventhough Ndlovu

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract: This article focuses on the lemmatisation of vowel-commencing borrowed nouns and the allo-cation of borrowed nouns to noun class prefixes in Isichazamazwi SesiNdebele, the first monolingual general-purpose Ndebele dictionary, and Isichazamazwi SezoMculo, the first specialised Ndebele dictionary of musical terms. It adopts a comparative approach, also highlighting the controversies surrounding the status of the initial vowel of the prefix or the pre-prefix in Ndebele and other Nguni languages. It further looks at the challenges and limitations of lemmatising the noun using either the initial vowel of the prefix or the initial letter of the noun stem. It is found that there are some inconsistencies in the lemmatisation of vowel-com-mencing borrowed nouns and the allocation of borrowed nouns to noun class prefixes in the two dictionar-ies. These inconsistencies impact negatively on the standardisation and treatment of borrowed nouns.

  9. Properties of kinematic singularities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Coley, A A [Department of Mathematics and Statistics, Dalhousie University, Halifax, Nova Scotia B3H 3J5 (Canada); Hervik, S [Department of Mathematics and Natural Sciences, University of Stavanger, N-4036 Stavanger (Norway); Lim, W C [Albert-Einstein-Institut, Am Muehlenberg 1, D-14476 Potsdam (Germany); MacCallum, M A H, E-mail: aac@mathstat.dal.c, E-mail: sigbjorn.hervik@uis.n, E-mail: wclim@aei.mpg.d, E-mail: m.a.h.maccallum@qmul.ac.u [School of Mathematical Sciences, Queen Mary University of London, E1 4NS (United Kingdom)

    2009-11-07

    The locally rotationally symmetric tilted perfect fluid Bianchi type V cosmological model provides examples of future geodesically complete spacetimes that admit a 'kinematic singularity' at which the fluid congruence is inextendible but all frame components of the Weyl and Ricci tensors remain bounded. We show that for any positive integer n there are examples of Bianchi type V spacetimes admitting a kinematic singularity such that the covariant derivatives of the Weyl and Ricci tensors up to the nth order also stay bounded. We briefly discuss singularities in classical spacetimes.

  10. Nouns and verbs in the vocabulary acquisition of Italian children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Odorico, Laura; Fasolo, Mirco

    2007-11-01

    The vocabulary development of 24 Italian children aged between 1;4 and 1;6 at the beginning of the study was longitudinally monitored on a monthly basis using the Italian version of the MacArthur Communicative Development Inventory drawn up by their mothers. This study analyzes data from children for whom two sampling stages were available; the first corresponding to a vocabulary size as close as possible to 200 words (mean 217, range 167-281), the second to a vocabulary size ranging from 400 to 650 words (mean 518, range 416-648). The children's vocabulary composition was analyzed by calculating, for each sampling stage, the percentage of common nouns, verbs and closed-class words. The increase in percentage points of the various lexical items between the first and second sampling stages was also analyzed. Data confirmed the predominance of nouns over verbs and closed-class words at both sampling stages, while verbs and closed-class words showed a higher percentage increase than nouns. The results provide evidence that children who reached the first sampling point at an earlier age had a higher percentage of nouns than children who reached the same stage at an older age. However, in the passage from the first to the second sampling point no relationship emerged between a style of acquisition based on the acquisition of nouns and an increase in the rate of vocabulary growth.

  11. Nonlinear singular elliptic equations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dong Minh Duc.

    1988-09-01

    We improve the Poincare inequality, the Sobolev imbedding theorem and the Trudinger imbedding theorem and prove a Mountain pass theorem. Applying these results we study a nonlinear singular mixed boundary problem. (author). 22 refs

  12. Coloured phase singularities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berry, M.V.

    2002-01-01

    For illumination with white light, the spectra near a typical isolated phase singularity (nodal point of the component wavelengths) can be described by a universal function of position, up to linear distortion and a weak dependence on the spectrum of the source. The appearance of the singularity when viewed by a human observer is predicted by transforming the spectrum to trichromatic variables and chromaticity coordinates, and then rendering the colours, scaled to constant luminosity, on a computer monitor. The pattern far from the singularity is a white that depends on the source temperature, and the centre of the pattern is flanked by intensely coloured 'eyes', one orange and one blue, separated by red, and one of the eyes is surrounded by a bright white circle. Only a small range of possible colours appears near the singularity; in particular, there is no green. (author)

  13. The Big Bang Singularity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ling, Eric

    The big bang theory is a model of the universe which makes the striking prediction that the universe began a finite amount of time in the past at the so called "Big Bang singularity." We explore the physical and mathematical justification of this surprising result. After laying down the framework of the universe as a spacetime manifold, we combine physical observations with global symmetrical assumptions to deduce the FRW cosmological models which predict a big bang singularity. Next we prove a couple theorems due to Stephen Hawking which show that the big bang singularity exists even if one removes the global symmetrical assumptions. Lastly, we investigate the conditions one needs to impose on a spacetime if one wishes to avoid a singularity. The ideas and concepts used here to study spacetimes are similar to those used to study Riemannian manifolds, therefore we compare and contrast the two geometries throughout.

  14. Surface Plasmon Singularities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriel Martínez-Niconoff

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available With the purpose to compare the physical features of the electromagnetic field, we describe the synthesis of optical singularities propagating in the free space and on a metal surface. In both cases the electromagnetic field has a slit-shaped curve as a boundary condition, and the singularities correspond to a shock wave that is a consequence of the curvature of the slit curve. As prototypes, we generate singularities that correspond to fold and cusped regions. We show that singularities in free space may generate bifurcation effects while plasmon fields do not generate these kinds of effects. Experimental results for free-space propagation are presented and for surface plasmon fields, computer simulations are shown.

  15. Timelike naked singularity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goswami, Rituparno; Joshi, Pankaj S.; Vaz, Cenalo; Witten, Louis

    2004-01-01

    We construct a class of spherically symmetric collapse models in which a naked singularity may develop as the end state of collapse. The matter distribution considered has negative radial and tangential pressures, but the weak energy condition is obeyed throughout. The singularity forms at the center of the collapsing cloud and continues to be visible for a finite time. The duration of visibility depends on the nature of energy distribution. Hence the causal structure of the resulting singularity depends on the nature of the mass function chosen for the cloud. We present a general model in which the naked singularity formed is timelike, neither pointlike nor null. Our work represents a step toward clarifying the necessary conditions for the validity of the Cosmic Censorship Conjecture

  16. Algorithms in Singular

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hans Schonemann

    1996-12-01

    Full Text Available Some algorithms for singularity theory and algebraic geometry The use of Grobner basis computations for treating systems of polynomial equations has become an important tool in many areas. This paper introduces of the concept of standard bases (a generalization of Grobner bases and the application to some problems from algebraic geometry. The examples are presented as SINGULAR commands. A general introduction to Grobner bases can be found in the textbook [CLO], an introduction to syzygies in [E] and [St1]. SINGULAR is a computer algebra system for computing information about singularities, for use in algebraic geometry. The basic algorithms in SINGULAR are several variants of a general standard basis algorithm for general monomial orderings (see [GG]. This includes wellorderings (Buchberger algorithm ([B1], [B2] and tangent cone orderings (Mora algorithm ([M1], [MPT] as special cases: It is able to work with non-homogeneous and homogeneous input and also to compute in the localization of the polynomial ring in 0. Recent versions include algorithms to factorize polynomials and a factorizing Grobner basis algorithm. For a complete description of SINGULAR see [Si].

  17. Numerical method of singular problems on singular integrals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhao Huaiguo; Mou Zongze

    1992-02-01

    As first part on the numerical research of singular problems, a numerical method is proposed for singular integrals. It is shown that the procedure is quite powerful for solving physics calculation with singularity such as the plasma dispersion function. Useful quadrature formulas for some class of the singular integrals are derived. In general, integrals with more complex singularities can be dealt by this method easily

  18. Order in the noun phrase of the languages of Europe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rijkhoff, Jan

    1998-01-01

    The current investigation of the word order characteristics of the constituents of the noun phrase (NP) differs from other typological investigations of the issue in two major respects. First of all, it does not take for granted the existence of NPs or of the various NP-internal categories...... that it also has noun phrases: it may use a string of appositives rather than a proper, integral NP. The existence of NPs and the presence of various NP-internal categories is not an issue that has received considerable attention in typological word order studies. Yet how can we hope to establish the cross...... in a representative sample of European languages (Appendix 1), we first need to devote some attention to such basic questions as: Do all European languages have nouns? Do all European languages have proper NPs? Which NP-internal modifiers are attested in the European languages, and which are absent? These issues...

  19. Designing a noun guesser for part of speech tagging in Northern ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    AFRICAN JOURNALS ONLINE (AJOL) · Journals · Advanced Search · USING ... used to recognize nouns that are not contained in the noun lexicon of the system. ... Our implementation is a symbolic, voting-based process: together, all tests ...

  20. Translation of Japanese Noun Compounds at Super-Function Based MT System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Xin; Ren, Fuji; Kuroiwa, Shingo

    Noun compounds are frequently encountered construction in nature language processing (NLP), consisting of a sequence of two or more nouns which functions syntactically as one noun. The translation of noun compounds has become a major issue in Machine Translation (MT) due to their frequency of occurrence and high productivity. In our previous studies on Super-Function Based Machine Translation (SFBMT), we have found that noun compounds are very frequently used and difficult to be translated correctly, the overgeneration of noun compounds can be dangerous as it may introduce ambiguity in the translation. In this paper, we discuss the challenges in handling Japanese noun compounds in an SFBMT system, we present a shallow method for translating noun compounds by using a word level translation dictionary and target language monolingual corpus.

  1. Shell Nouns as Cohesive Devices in Published and ESL Student Writing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aktas, Rahime Nur; Cortes, Viviana

    2008-01-01

    This paper analyzes the use of a special type of unspecific noun, called "shell nouns" [Hunston, S., & Francis, G. (1999). "Pattern grammar". Amsterdam: Benjamins; Schmid, H. (2000). "English abstract nouns as conceptual shells: From corpus to cognition". Berlin: Walter de Gruyter], which are frequently used as cohesive devices, in the written…

  2. Categorical Structure among Shared Features in Networks of Early-Learned Nouns

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hills, Thomas T.; Maouene, Mounir; Maouene, Josita; Sheya, Adam; Smith, Linda

    2009-01-01

    The shared features that characterize the noun categories that young children learn first are a formative basis of the human category system. To investigate the potential categorical information contained in the features of early-learned nouns, we examine the graph-theoretic properties of noun-feature networks. The networks are built from the…

  3. A Common Mechanism in Verb and Noun Naming Deficits in Alzheimer's Patients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almor, Amit; Aronoff, Justin M.; MacDonald, Maryellen C.; Gonnerman, Laura M.; Kempler, Daniel; Hintiryan, Houri; Hayes, UnJa L.; Arunachalam, Sudha; Andersen, Elaine S.

    2009-01-01

    We tested the ability of Alzheimer's patients and elderly controls to name living and non-living nouns, and manner and instrument verbs. Patients' error patterns and relative performance with different categories showed evidence of graceful degradation for both nouns and verbs, with particular domain-specific impairments for living nouns and…

  4. Singularities in FLRW spacetimes

    Science.gov (United States)

    het Lam, Huibert; Prokopec, Tomislav

    2017-12-01

    We point out that past-incompleteness of geodesics in FLRW spacetimes does not necessarily imply that these spacetimes start from a singularity. Namely, if a test particle that follows such a trajectory has a non-vanishing velocity, its energy was super-Planckian at some time in the past if it kept following that geodesic. That indicates a breakdown of the particle's description, which is why we should not consider those trajectories for the definition of an initial singularity. When one only considers test particles that do not have this breakdown of their trajectory, it turns out that the only singular FLRW spacetimes are the ones that have a scale parameter that vanishes at some initial time.

  5. The Contrastive Study of Igbo and English Denominal Nouns ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The teaching of nominalization has not been all smooth for an Igbo second language learner of English language. That is why this study is set to contrast English and Igbo Denominal nouns. The objective is to find out the similarities and differences between the nominalization process in Igbo and that of the English ...

  6. National open university of Nigeria (noun) students' perception of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper studied the perception and challenges of students of open and distance learning (ODL) mode. ODL is a welcome development in Nigeria educational system. Participants in this study were 500 NOUN students that were randomly selected from Abuja study center. A well structured and validated questionnaire ...

  7. Exploring Atypical Verb+Noun Combinations in Learner Technical Writing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luzon Marco, Maria Jose

    2011-01-01

    Professional and academic discourse is characterised by a specific phraseology, which usually poses problems for students. This paper investigates atypical verb+noun collocations in a corpus of English technical writing of Spanish students. I focus on the type of verbs that most frequently occurred in these awkward or questionable combinations and…

  8. Collocations of High Frequency Noun Keywords in Prescribed Science Textbooks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menon, Sujatha; Mukundan, Jayakaran

    2012-01-01

    This paper analyses the discourse of science through the study of collocational patterns of high frequency noun keywords in science textbooks used by upper secondary students in Malaysia. Research has shown that one of the areas of difficulty in science discourse concerns lexis, especially that of collocations. This paper describes a corpus-based…

  9. Lemmatisation of Vowel Commencing Borrowed Nouns and the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Riette Ruthven

    its noun class prefixes, the presence of the initial vowel or pre-prefix, or the augment, as ..... Grammatical information has to be as accurate as the defini- ... achieve a semantic ordering of entries gives the impression that language con- sists of ...

  10. Nouns cut slices: Effects of linguistic forms on intergroup bias

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Graf, Sylvie; Bilewicz, M.; Finell, E.; Geschke, D.

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 32, č. 1 (2013), s. 46-61 ISSN 0261-927X R&D Projects: GA ČR GA13-25656S Institutional support: RVO:68081740 Keywords : nouns * adjectives * intergroup bias * intergroup attitudes Subject RIV: AN - Psychology Impact factor: 0.872, year: 2013

  11. Pseudospherical surfaces with singularities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brander, David

    2017-01-01

    We study a generalization of constant Gauss curvature −1 surfaces in Euclidean 3-space, based on Lorentzian harmonic maps, that we call pseudospherical frontals. We analyse the singularities of these surfaces, dividing them into those of characteristic and non-characteristic type. We give methods...

  12. Supersymmetry in singular spaces

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bergshoeff, Eric

    2002-01-01

    We discuss supersymmetry in spaces with a boundary, i.e. singular spaces. In particular, we discuss the situation in ten and five dimensions. In both these cases we review the construction of supersymmetric domain wall actions situated at the boundary. These domain walls act as sources inducing a

  13. Singularities in FLRW Spacetimes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lam, Huibert het; Prokopec, Tom

    2017-01-01

    We point out that past-incompleteness of geodesics in FLRW spacetimes does not necessarily imply that these spacetimes start from a singularity. Namely, if a test particle that follows such a trajectory has a non-vanishing velocity, its energy was super-Planckian at some time in the past if it kept

  14. Charged singularities: repulsive effects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    De Felice, F; Nobili, L [Padua Univ. (Italy). Ist. di Fisica; Calvani, M [Padua Univ. (Italy). Ist. di Astronomia

    1980-07-01

    The repulsive phenomena which a particle experiences in the vicinity of a naked singularity are investigated in the Kerr-Newman space-time. The aim is to extend the knowledge of this fact to charged solutions and to have a direct indication of how, in these situations, the gravitational and electrostatic interactions are competing.

  15. Papapetrou's naked singularity is a strong curvature singularity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hollier, G.P.

    1986-01-01

    Following Papapetrou [1985, a random walk in General Relativity ed. J. Krishna-Rao (New Delhi: Wiley Eastern)], a spacetime with a naked singularity is analysed. This singularity is shown to be a strong curvature singularity and thus a counterexample to a censorship conjecture. (author)

  16. Singular potentials in quantum mechanics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aguilera-Navarro, V.C.; Koo, E. Ley

    1995-10-01

    This paper is a review of some mathematical methods as recently developed and applied to deal with singular potentials in Quantum Mechanics. Regular and singular perturbative methods as well as variational treatments are considered. (author). 25 refs

  17. Singularities: the Brieskorn anniversary volume

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Brieskorn, Egbert; Arnolʹd, V. I; Greuel, G.-M; Steenbrink, J. H. M

    1998-01-01

    ...... . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2 Main theorem ... 3 Ideals of ideal-unimodal plane curve singularities. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . References ... Gert-Martin Greuel and Gerhard Pfister...

  18. Investigating differences between proper and common nouns using novel word learning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anastasiya Romanova

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Empirical studies have shown higher rates of tip-of-the-tongue states for proper nouns, in comparison to common nouns, in non-brain-damaged speakers (e.g., Valentine & Moore, 1995, and higher retrieval failure rates for proper nouns relative to common nouns in people with aphasia (e.g., Semenza, 2009. Some authors suggest the source of these differences lies in logical properties (e.g., Semenza, 2009. That is, common nouns refer to a category of beings or objects that share certain semantic properties, while proper nouns designate specific individual beings or objects with unique features. Other authors attribute the distinction in processing to a number of statistical properties that differ across common and proper nouns (Kay, Hanley, & Miles, 2001. The aims of the present study were: 1 to dissociate the effects of logical and statistical properties by using novel words with equal statistical properties; 2 to determine whether people with aphasia show disproportionate impairments in learning proper nouns relative to common nouns, compared to aged-matched subjects. Methods We tested young (n=16 and elderly (n=14 adult non-brain-damaged participants and people with aphasia (n=2. Items-to-be-learnt were given as representatives of an unknown species (n=10 in the common noun condition, or as individual creatures (n=10 in the proper noun condition. The experiment consisted of 5 sessions. Each session included a learning phase and a test phase with naming and word-picture verification tasks. Results and Discussion Preliminary analysis showed learning of both common and proper nouns for both younger (F(4=140.68, p<.01 and elderly (F(4=34.87, p<.01 non-brain-damaged participants, with learning being significantly better for the younger group (F(4=6.5, p<.01. Contrary to expectations, performance on proper nouns was better than that for common nouns for both young and elderly subjects (F(1=6.47, p=.02 and F(1=9.75, p<.01, respectively, possibly due to

  19. String theory and cosmological singularities

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Well-known examples are singularities inside black holes and initial or final singularities in expanding or contracting universes. In recent times, string theory is providing new perspectives of such singularities which may lead to an understanding of these in the standard framework of time evolution in quantum mechanics.

  20. Holographic complexity and spacetime singularities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barbón, José L.F. [Instituto de Física Teórica IFT UAM/CSIC,C/ Nicolás Cabrera 13, Campus Universidad Autónoma de Madrid,Madrid 28049 (Spain); Rabinovici, Eliezer [Racah Institute of Physics, The Hebrew University,Jerusalem 91904 (Israel); Laboratoire de Physique Théorique et Hautes Energies, Université Pierre et Marie Curie, 4 Place Jussieu, 75252 Paris Cedex 05 (France)

    2016-01-15

    We study the evolution of holographic complexity in various AdS/CFT models containing cosmological crunch singularities. We find that a notion of complexity measured by extremal bulk volumes tends to decrease as the singularity is approached in CFT time, suggesting that the corresponding quantum states have simpler entanglement structure at the singularity.

  1. Are naked singularities really visible

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Calvani, M [Padua Univ. (Italy). Ist. di Astronomia; De Felice, F [Alberta Univ., Edmonton (Canada); Nobili, L [Padua Univ. (Italy). Ist. di Fisica

    1978-12-09

    The question whether a Kerr naked singularity is actually visible from infinity is investigated; it is shown that in fact any signal which could be emitted from the singularity is infinitely red-shifted. This implies that naked singularities would be indistinguishable from a black hole.

  2. Holographic complexity and spacetime singularities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barbón, José L.F.; Rabinovici, Eliezer

    2016-01-01

    We study the evolution of holographic complexity in various AdS/CFT models containing cosmological crunch singularities. We find that a notion of complexity measured by extremal bulk volumes tends to decrease as the singularity is approached in CFT time, suggesting that the corresponding quantum states have simpler entanglement structure at the singularity.

  3. The cosmological singularity

    CERN Document Server

    Belinski, Vladimir

    2018-01-01

    Written for researchers focusing on general relativity, supergravity, and cosmology, this is a self-contained exposition of the structure of the cosmological singularity in generic solutions of the Einstein equations, and an up-to-date mathematical derivation of the theory underlying the Belinski–Khalatnikov–Lifshitz (BKL) conjecture on this field. Part I provides a comprehensive review of the theory underlying the BKL conjecture. The generic asymptotic behavior near the cosmological singularity of the gravitational field, and fields describing other kinds of matter, is explained in detail. Part II focuses on the billiard reformulation of the BKL behavior. Taking a general approach, this section does not assume any simplifying symmetry conditions and applies to theories involving a range of matter fields and space-time dimensions, including supergravities. Overall, this book will equip theoretical and mathematical physicists with the theoretical fundamentals of the Big Bang, Big Crunch, Black Hole singula...

  4. Deformations of surface singularities

    CERN Document Server

    Szilárd, ágnes

    2013-01-01

    The present publication contains a special collection of research and review articles on deformations of surface singularities, that put together serve as an introductory survey of results and methods of the theory, as well as open problems, important examples and connections to other areas of mathematics. The aim is to collect material that will help mathematicians already working or wishing to work in this area to deepen their insight and eliminate the technical barriers in this learning process. This also is supported by review articles providing some global picture and an abundance of examples. Additionally, we introduce some material which emphasizes the newly found relationship with the theory of Stein fillings and symplectic geometry.  This links two main theories of mathematics: low dimensional topology and algebraic geometry. The theory of normal surface singularities is a distinguished part of analytic or algebraic geometry with several important results, its own technical machinery, and several op...

  5. Multiscale singularity trees

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Somchaipeng, Kerawit; Sporring, Jon; Johansen, Peter

    2007-01-01

    We propose MultiScale Singularity Trees (MSSTs) as a structure to represent images, and we propose an algorithm for image comparison based on comparing MSSTs. The algorithm is tested on 3 public image databases and compared to 2 state-of-theart methods. We conclude that the computational complexity...... of our algorithm only allows for the comparison of small trees, and that the results of our method are comparable with state-of-the-art using much fewer parameters for image representation....

  6. Dyslexia singular brain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Habis, M.; Robichon, F.; Demonet, J.F.

    1996-01-01

    Of late ten years, neurologists are studying the brain of the dyslectics. The cerebral imagery (NMR imaging, positron computed tomography) has allowed to confirm the anatomical particularities discovered by some of them: asymmetry default of cerebral hemispheres, size abnormally large of the white substance mass which connect the two hemispheres. The functional imagery, when visualizing this singular brain at work, allows to understand why it labors to reading. (O.M.)

  7. A proposal of methodology for automatic indexation using noun phrases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renato Rocha Souza

    2006-07-01

    Full Text Available It can be noticed that the indexing and representation strategies nowadays seems to be near the exhaustion, and it is worth to investigate new approaches to the indexing and information retrieving systems. Among these, a branch tries to consider the intrinsic semantics of the textual documents using noun phrases as descriptors instead of single keywords. We present in this article a methodology that was developed in the scope of a doctorate research.

  8. Acquisition of noun derivation in Estonian and Russian L1

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reili Argus

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Acquisition of derivation is not a well-studied area in first language research and a comparative approach to the acquisition of derivation in different languages doesn’t exist. There is no information on how a child acquires derivation in a language with a rich and regular system of derivational patterns, or in a language where derivation is productive, but the system of derivational patterns is opaque. According to general ideas of complexity in a language, the child should start to use simplex stems first and, only after that, complex ones, that is, complexity should increase in the course of acquisition. Our paper is intended to address these issues, based on longitudinal child data from typologically different languages, Estonian and Russian. The results revealed significant differences in the acquisition of noun derivation in the two languages under observation. The system of noun derivation is acquired at a faster pace in Russian, while Estonian children have far fewer noun derivatives in their speech and they use different derivation suffixes with less regularity. Even so, the so-called building block model may be applied for both languages only partially.

  9. Danish children's acquisition of noun plurals: the role of methodology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjærbæk, Laila; Basbøll, Hans

    In an earlier study we investigated the development of noun plurals in Danish children aged 0-10 years using a multi method research approach comparing five different data types: 1) lexical data; 2) reported data; 3) naturalistic spontaneous child language input and output; 4) semi-naturalistic/s......In an earlier study we investigated the development of noun plurals in Danish children aged 0-10 years using a multi method research approach comparing five different data types: 1) lexical data; 2) reported data; 3) naturalistic spontaneous child language input and output; 4) semi...... the experimental data and we therefore predict a lower percentage of incorrectly produced PL forms in the semi-naturalistic/semi-experimental than in the experimental data. 3) In the experimental data the children are to produce the PL form of nouns given by the investigator. We expect children to produce a large...... amount of sg. instead of PL forms, either as a repetition of the sg. form given by the investigator or as a PL error form irreguralizing the “Ø” PL marker (pure zero, e.g. sg. mus ‘mouse’ – PL mus ‘mice’). 4) The experimental data is based on a fixed number of specific pre-selected items and we therefore...

  10. Rule-based Approach on Extraction of Malay Compound Nouns in Standard Malay Document

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abu Bakar, Zamri; Kamal Ismail, Normaly; Rawi, Mohd Izani Mohamed

    2017-08-01

    Malay compound noun is defined as a form of words that exists when two or more words are combined into a single syntax and it gives a specific meaning. Compound noun acts as one unit and it is spelled separately unless an established compound noun is written closely from two words. The basic characteristics of compound noun can be seen in the Malay sentences which are the frequency of that word in the text itself. Thus, this extraction of compound nouns is significant for the following research which is text summarization, grammar checker, sentiments analysis, machine translation and word categorization. There are many research efforts that have been proposed in extracting Malay compound noun using linguistic approaches. Most of the existing methods were done on the extraction of bi-gram noun+noun compound. However, the result still produces some problems as to give a better result. This paper explores a linguistic method for extracting compound Noun from stand Malay corpus. A standard dataset are used to provide a common platform for evaluating research on the recognition of compound Nouns in Malay sentences. Therefore, an improvement for the effectiveness of the compound noun extraction is needed because the result can be compromised. Thus, this study proposed a modification of linguistic approach in order to enhance the extraction of compound nouns processing. Several pre-processing steps are involved including normalization, tokenization and tagging. The first step that uses the linguistic approach in this study is Part-of-Speech (POS) tagging. Finally, we describe several rules-based and modify the rules to get the most relevant relation between the first word and the second word in order to assist us in solving of the problems. The effectiveness of the relations used in our study can be measured using recall, precision and F1-score techniques. The comparison of the baseline values is very essential because it can provide whether there has been an improvement

  11. Stochastic singular optics

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Roux, FS

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Roux Presented at the International Conference on Correlation Optics 2013 Chernivtsi, Ukraine 18-20 September 2013 CSIR National Laser Centre, Pretoria, South Africa – p. 1/24 Contents ⊲ Defining Stochastic Singular Optics (SSO) ⊲ Tools of Stochastic... of vortices: topological charge ±1 (higher order are unstable). Positive and negative vortex densities np(x, y, z) and nn(x, y, z) ⊲ Vortex density: V = np + nn ⊲ Topological charge density: T = np − nn – p. 4/24 Subfields of SSO ⊲ Homogeneous, normally...

  12. Cosmological models without singularities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Petry, W.

    1981-01-01

    A previously studied theory of gravitation in flat space-time is applied to homogeneous and isotropic cosmological models. There exist two different classes of models without singularities: (i) ever-expanding models, (ii) oscillating models. The first class contains models with hot big bang. For these models there exist at the beginning of the universe-in contrast to Einstein's theory-very high but finite densities of matter and radiation with a big bang of very short duration. After short time these models pass into the homogeneous and isotropic models of Einstein's theory with spatial curvature equal to zero and cosmological constant ALPHA >= O. (author)

  13. Plane waves with weak singularities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    David, Justin R.

    2003-03-01

    We study a class of time dependent solutions of the vacuum Einstein equations which are plane waves with weak null singularities. This singularity is weak in the sense that though the tidal forces diverge at the singularity, the rate of divergence is such that the distortion suffered by a freely falling observer remains finite. Among such weak singular plane waves there is a sub-class which does not exhibit large back reaction in the presence of test scalar probes. String propagation in these backgrounds is smooth and there is a natural way to continue the metric beyond the singularity. This continued metric admits string propagation without the string becoming infinitely excited. We construct a one parameter family of smooth metrics which are at a finite distance in the space of metrics from the extended metric and a well defined operator in the string sigma model which resolves the singularity. (author)

  14. Residues and duality for singularity categories of isolated Gorenstein singularities

    OpenAIRE

    Murfet, Daniel

    2009-01-01

    We study Serre duality in the singularity category of an isolated Gorenstein singularity and find an explicit formula for the duality pairing in terms of generalised fractions and residues. For hypersurfaces we recover the residue formula of the string theorists Kapustin and Li. These results are obtained from an explicit construction of complete injective resolutions of maximal Cohen-Macaulay modules.

  15. Recently learned foreign abstract and concrete nouns are represented in distinct cortical networks similar to the native language.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayer, Katja M; Macedonia, Manuela; von Kriegstein, Katharina

    2017-09-01

    In the native language, abstract and concrete nouns are represented in distinct areas of the cerebral cortex. Currently, it is unknown whether this is also the case for abstract and concrete nouns of a foreign language. Here, we taught adult native speakers of German 45 abstract and 45 concrete nouns of a foreign language. After learning the nouns for 5 days, participants performed a vocabulary translation task during functional magnetic resonance imaging. Translating abstract nouns in contrast to concrete nouns elicited responses in regions that are also responsive to abstract nouns in the native language: the left inferior frontal gyrus and the left middle and superior temporal gyri. Concrete nouns elicited larger responses in the angular gyri bilaterally and the left parahippocampal gyrus than abstract nouns. The cluster in the left angular gyrus showed psychophysiological interaction (PPI) with the left lingual gyrus. The left parahippocampal gyrus showed PPI with the posterior cingulate cortex. Similar regions have been previously found for concrete nouns in the native language. The results reveal similarities in the cortical representation of foreign language nouns with the representation of native language nouns that already occur after 5 days of vocabulary learning. Furthermore, we showed that verbal and enriched learning methods were equally suitable to teach foreign abstract and concrete nouns. Hum Brain Mapp 38:4398-4412, 2017. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  16. Singular Poisson tensors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Littlejohn, R.G.

    1982-01-01

    The Hamiltonian structures discovered by Morrison and Greene for various fluid equations were obtained by guessing a Hamiltonian and a suitable Poisson bracket formula, expressed in terms of noncanonical (but physical) coordinates. In general, such a procedure for obtaining a Hamiltonian system does not produce a Hamiltonian phase space in the usual sense (a symplectic manifold), but rather a family of symplectic manifolds. To state the matter in terms of a system with a finite number of degrees of freedom, the family of symplectic manifolds is parametrized by a set of Casimir functions, which are characterized by having vanishing Poisson brackets with all other functions. The number of independent Casimir functions is the corank of the Poisson tensor J/sup ij/, the components of which are the Poisson brackets of the coordinates among themselves. Thus, these Casimir functions exist only when the Poisson tensor is singular

  17. Merger of noun classes 3 and 1: A case study with bilingual isiXhosa ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Class reduction (the loss of a noun class) in Southern Bantu languages is an acknowledged but under-researched phenomenon. A recent study of isiXhosa concords suggests an incipient merger of noun classes 11 and 5, but no research to date has examined other possible concord mergers or concord flux in the ...

  18. Onondaga Noun Incorporation: Some Notes on the Interdependence of Syntax and Semantics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woodbury, Hanni

    1975-01-01

    In Onondaga and all northern Iroquoian languages, nouns can be incorporated into verbs. The function of this is semantic as well as syntactic. It is semantic in that the sense of an incorporated noun will be narrower than its unincorporated counterpart regardless of modifiers. Incorporation changes the transformational structure of the sentence.…

  19. A developmental analysis of generic nouns in Southern Peruvian Quechua.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mannheim, Bruce; Gelman, Susan A; Escalante, Carmen; Huayhua, Margarita; Puma, Rosalía

    2010-01-01

    Generic noun phrases (e.g., "Cats like to drink milk") are a primary means by which adults express generalizations to children, yet they pose a challenging induction puzzle for learners. Although prior research has established that English speakers understand and produce generic noun phrases by preschool age, little is known regarding the cross-cultural generality of generic acquisition. Southern Peruvian Quechua provides a valuable comparison because, unlike English, it is a highly inflected language in which generics are marked by the absence rather than the presence of any linguistic markers. Moreover, Quechua is spoken in a cultural context that differs markedly from the highly educated, middle-class contexts within which earlier research on generics was conducted. We presented participants from 5 age groups (3-6, 7-9, 10-12, 14-35, and 36-90 years of age) with two tasks that examined the ability to distinguish generic from non-generic utterances. In Study 1, even the youngest children understood generics as applying broadly to a category (like "all") and distinct from indefinite reference ("some"). However, there was a developmental lag before children understood that generics, unlike "all", can include exceptions. Study 2 revealed that generic interpretations are more frequent for utterances that (a) lack specifying markers and (b) are animate. Altogether, generic interpretations are found among the youngest participants, and may be a default mode of quantification. These data demonstrate the cross-cultural importance of generic information in linguistic expression.

  20. Naked singularities are not singular in distorted gravity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garattini, Remo, E-mail: Remo.Garattini@unibg.it [Università degli Studi di Bergamo, Facoltà di Ingegneria, Viale Marconi 5, 24044 Dalmine (Bergamo) (Italy); I.N.F.N. – sezione di Milano, Milan (Italy); Majumder, Barun, E-mail: barunbasanta@iitgn.ac.in [Indian Institute of Technology Gandhinagar, Ahmedabad, Gujarat 382424 (India)

    2014-07-15

    We compute the Zero Point Energy (ZPE) induced by a naked singularity with the help of a reformulation of the Wheeler–DeWitt equation. A variational approach is used for the calculation with Gaussian Trial Wave Functionals. The one loop contribution of the graviton to the ZPE is extracted keeping under control the UltraViolet divergences by means of a distorted gravitational field. Two examples of distortion are taken under consideration: Gravity's Rainbow and Noncommutative Geometry. Surprisingly, we find that the ZPE is no more singular when we approach the singularity.

  1. Naked singularities are not singular in distorted gravity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garattini, Remo; Majumder, Barun

    2014-07-01

    We compute the Zero Point Energy (ZPE) induced by a naked singularity with the help of a reformulation of the Wheele-DeWitt equation. A variational approach is used for the calculation with Gaussian Trial Wave Functionals. The one loop contribution of the graviton to the ZPE is extracted keeping under control the UltraViolet divergences by means of a distorted gravitational field. Two examples of distortion are taken under consideration: Gravity's Rainbow and Noncommutative Geometry. Surprisingly, we find that the ZPE is no more singular when we approach the singularity.

  2. Naked singularities are not singular in distorted gravity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garattini, Remo; Majumder, Barun

    2014-01-01

    We compute the Zero Point Energy (ZPE) induced by a naked singularity with the help of a reformulation of the Wheeler–DeWitt equation. A variational approach is used for the calculation with Gaussian Trial Wave Functionals. The one loop contribution of the graviton to the ZPE is extracted keeping under control the UltraViolet divergences by means of a distorted gravitational field. Two examples of distortion are taken under consideration: Gravity's Rainbow and Noncommutative Geometry. Surprisingly, we find that the ZPE is no more singular when we approach the singularity

  3. Singularity Structure of Maximally Supersymmetric Scattering Amplitudes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Arkani-Hamed, Nima; Bourjaily, Jacob L.; Cachazo, Freddy

    2014-01-01

    We present evidence that loop amplitudes in maximally supersymmetric (N=4) Yang-Mills theory (SYM) beyond the planar limit share some of the remarkable structures of the planar theory. In particular, we show that through two loops, the four-particle amplitude in full N=4 SYM has only logarithmic ...... singularities and is free of any poles at infinity—properties closely related to uniform transcendentality and the UV finiteness of the theory. We also briefly comment on implications for maximal (N=8) supergravity theory (SUGRA)....

  4. Loop quantum cosmology and singularities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Struyve, Ward

    2017-08-15

    Loop quantum gravity is believed to eliminate singularities such as the big bang and big crunch singularity. This belief is based on studies of so-called loop quantum cosmology which concerns symmetry-reduced models of quantum gravity. In this paper, the problem of singularities is analysed in the context of the Bohmian formulation of loop quantum cosmology. In this formulation there is an actual metric in addition to the wave function, which evolves stochastically (rather than deterministically as the case of the particle evolution in non-relativistic Bohmian mechanics). Thus a singularity occurs whenever this actual metric is singular. It is shown that in the loop quantum cosmology for a homogeneous and isotropic Friedmann-Lemaître-Robertson-Walker space-time with arbitrary constant spatial curvature and cosmological constant, coupled to a massless homogeneous scalar field, a big bang or big crunch singularity is never obtained. This should be contrasted with the fact that in the Bohmian formulation of the Wheeler-DeWitt theory singularities may exist.

  5. Singularity resolution in quantum gravity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Husain, Viqar; Winkler, Oliver

    2004-01-01

    We examine the singularity resolution issue in quantum gravity by studying a new quantization of standard Friedmann-Robertson-Walker geometrodynamics. The quantization procedure is inspired by the loop quantum gravity program, and is based on an alternative to the Schroedinger representation normally used in metric variable quantum cosmology. We show that in this representation for quantum geometrodynamics there exists a densely defined inverse scale factor operator, and that the Hamiltonian constraint acts as a difference operator on the basis states. We find that the cosmological singularity is avoided in the quantum dynamics. We discuss these results with a view to identifying the criteria that constitute 'singularity resolution' in quantum gravity

  6. The theory of singular perturbations

    CERN Document Server

    De Jager, E M

    1996-01-01

    The subject of this textbook is the mathematical theory of singular perturbations, which despite its respectable history is still in a state of vigorous development. Singular perturbations of cumulative and of boundary layer type are presented. Attention has been given to composite expansions of solutions of initial and boundary value problems for ordinary and partial differential equations, linear as well as quasilinear; also turning points are discussed. The main emphasis lies on several methods of approximation for solutions of singularly perturbed differential equations and on the mathemat

  7. Van Hove singularities revisited

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dzyaloshinskii, I.

    1987-07-01

    Beginning with the work of Hirsch and Scalapino the importance of ln 2 -Van Hove singularity in T c -enhancement in La 2 CuO 4 -based compounds was realized, which is nicely reviewed by Rice. However, the theoretical treatment carried out before is incomplete. Two things were apparently not paid due attention to: interplay of particle-particle and particle-hole channels and Umklapp processes. In what follows a two-dimensional weak coupling model of LaCuO 4 will be solved exactly in the ln 2 -approximation. The result in the Hubbard limit (one bare charge) is that the system is unstable at any sign of interaction. Symmetry breaking moreover is pretty peculiar. Of course, there are separate singlet superconducting pairings in the pp-channel (attraction) and SDW (repulsion) and CDW (attraction) in the ph-channel. It is natural that Umklapps produce an SDW + CDW mixture at either sign of the interaction. What is unusual is that both the pp-ph interplay and the Umklapps give rise to a monster-coherent SS + SDW + CDW mixture, again at either sign of the bare charge. In the general model where all 4 charges involved are substantially different, the system might remain metallic. A more realistic approach which takes into account dopping in La-M-Cu-O and interlayer interaction provides at least a qualitative understanding of the experimental picture. 10 refs, 5 figs

  8. Singularity: Raychaudhuri equation once again

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Cosmology; Raychaudhuri equation; Universe; quantum gravity; loop quan- tum gravity ... than the observation verifying the prediction of theory. This gave .... which was now expanding, would have had a singular beginning in a hot Big Bang.

  9. Inflection of modern Icelandic nouns, adjectives and adverbs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janez Orešnik

    1976-12-01

    Full Text Available The present paper is a list of Modern Icelandic nouns, adjectives, and adverbs, analysed into their respective stems and endings; the declension of the suffixed definite article is also included. Under each item it is stated which rules, if any, apply in the derivation of its grammatical forms. The following items of the list should be consulted for new phonological rules: (3, (11, (12, and (133. A grammatical innovation has been implemented in the list, namely the so-called REPLACING ENDINGS. These are not added after the last segment of the stem, as endings usually are, but replace the last segment(s of the stem. More is said on replacing endings in the Introduction.

  10. Comparison of single-word and adjective-noun phrase production using event-related brain potentials

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lange, Violaine Michel

    2015-01-01

    stimuli varying in complexity -black and white line drawings, coloured line drawings, and arrays of drawings-in participants producing single nouns. Whilst naming latencies were similar for single noun production between visual stimuli conditions, ERPs differed between drawing arrays and single drawings...... in a time-window extending beyond early visual analysis. In a second experiment, different participants were asked to produce either single noun or adjective-noun dual-word phrases to black-and-white and coloured line drawings, respectively. Adjective-noun phrase production (2W) resulted in naming latencies...

  11. Nouns referring to tools and natural objects differentially modulate the motor system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gough, Patricia M; Riggio, Lucia; Chersi, Fabian; Sato, Marc; Fogassi, Leonardo; Buccino, Giovanni

    2012-01-01

    While increasing evidence points to a critical role for the motor system in language processing, the focus of previous work has been on the linguistic category of verbs. Here we tested whether nouns are effective in modulating the motor system and further whether different kinds of nouns - those referring to artifacts or natural items, and items that are graspable or ungraspable - would differentially modulate the system. A Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation (TMS) study was carried out to compare modulation of the motor system when subjects read nouns referring to objects which are Artificial or Natural and which are Graspable or Ungraspable. TMS was applied to the primary motor cortex representation of the first dorsal interosseous (FDI) muscle of the right hand at 150 ms after noun presentation. Analyses of Motor Evoked Potentials (MEPs) revealed that across the duration of the task, nouns referring to graspable artifacts (tools) were associated with significantly greater MEP areas. Analyses of the initial presentation of items revealed a main effect of graspability. The findings are in line with an embodied view of nouns, with MEP measures modulated according to whether nouns referred to natural objects or artifacts (tools), confirming tools as a special class of items in motor terms. Additionally our data support a difference for graspable versus non graspable objects, an effect which for natural objects is restricted to initial presentation of items. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Local and nonlocal space-time singularities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Konstantinov, M.Yu.

    1985-01-01

    The necessity to subdivide the singularities into two classes: local and nonlocal, each of them to be defined independently, is proved. Both classes of the singularities are defined, and the relation between the definitions introduced and the standard definition of singularities, based on space-time, incompleteness, is established. The relation between definitions introduced and theorems on the singularity existence is also established

  13. Descriptive and discourse-referential modifiers in a layered model of the noun phrase

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rijkhoff, Jan

    2008-01-01

    This article argues that adnominal modifiers in a layered model of the noun phrase can be divided into two major subcategories: descriptive modifiers and discourse-referential modifiers. Whereas descriptive modifiers can be subdivided into classifying, qualifying, quantifying and localizing...... modifiers (section 2), discourse-referential modifiers in the noun phrase are concerned with the status of entities as referents in the world of discourse (section 3). I will pay particular attention to three issues: (i) formal reflections of the layered, semantic structure of the noun phrase (section 4...

  14. On the singularities of solutions to singular perturbation problems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fruchard, A; Schaefke, R

    2005-01-01

    We consider a singularly perturbed complex first order ODE εu ' Φ(x, u, a, ε), x, u element of C, ε > 0 is a small complex parameter and a element of C is a control parameter. It is proven that the singularities of some solutions are regularly spaced and that they move from one to the next as a runs about a loop of index one around a value of overstability. This gives a positive answer to a question of J. L. Callot

  15. On the singularities of solutions to singular perturbation problems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fruchard, A [Laboratoire de Mathematiques, Informatique et Applications, Faculte des Sciences et Techniques, Universite de Haute Alsace, 4 rue des Freres Lumiere, 68093 Mulhouse cedex (France); Schaefke, R [Departement de Mathematiques, Universite Louis Pasteur, 7 rue Rene-Descartes, 67084 Strasbourg cedex (France)

    2005-01-01

    We consider a singularly perturbed complex first order ODE {epsilon}u ' {phi}(x, u, a, {epsilon}), x, u element of C, {epsilon} > 0 is a small complex parameter and a element of C is a control parameter. It is proven that the singularities of some solutions are regularly spaced and that they move from one to the next as a runs about a loop of index one around a value of overstability. This gives a positive answer to a question of J. L. Callot.

  16. High-frequency collocations of nouns in research articles across eight disciplines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthew Peacock

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes a corpus-based analysis of the distribution of the high-frequency collocates of abstract nouns in 320 research articles across eight disciplines: Chemistry, Computer Science, Materials Science, Neuroscience, Economics, Language and Linguistics, Management, and Psychology. Disciplinary variation was also examined – very little previous research seems to have investigated this. The corpus was analysed using WordSmith Tools. The 16 highest-frequency nouns across all eight disciplines were identified, followed by the highest-frequency collocates for each noun. Five disciplines showed over 50% variance from the overall results. Conclusions are that the differing patterns revealed are disciplinary norms and represent standard terminology within the disciplines arising from the topics discussed, research methods, and content of discussions. It is also concluded that the collocations are an important part of the meanings and functions of the nouns, and that this evidence of sharp discipline differences underlines the importance of discipline-specific collocation research.

  17. Differential Impairment of Noun and Verb Consequent to LH Lesions in Persian Aphasic Patients

    OpenAIRE

    Dr. Reza Nilipour; Rabeeh Ariaei; Dr. Hassan Ashayeri

    2003-01-01

    The major focus of this research is on the differential disruption of language abilities subsequent to brain damages as they relate to site and size of lesion, especially left hemisphere lesions which disrupt the production and processing of "Nouns" vs. "Verbs" as two functionally different lexical categories. Several clinical as well as experimental studies reported on different language have shown that nouns and verbs can be independently disrupted due to brain damage. A prevalent impairmen...

  18. Noun and verb differences in picture naming: past studies and new evidence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mätzig, Simone; Druks, Judit; Masterson, Jackie; Vigliocco, Gabriella

    2009-06-01

    We re-examine the double dissociation view of noun-verb differences by critically reviewing past lesion studies reporting selective noun or verb deficits in picture naming, and reporting the results of a new picture naming study carried out with aphasic patients and comparison participants. Since there are theoretical arguments and empirical evidence that verb processing is more demanding than noun processing, in the review we distinguished between cases that presented with large and small differences between nouns and verbs. We argued that the latter cases may be accounted for in terms of greater difficulty in processing verbs than nouns. For the cases reporting large differences between nouns and verbs we assessed consistency in lesion localization and consistency in diagnostic classification. More variability both in terms of diagnostic category and lesion sites was found among the verb impaired than the noun impaired patients. In the experimental study, nine aphasic patients and nine age matched neurologically unimpaired individuals carried out a picture naming study that used a large set of materials matched for age of acquisition and in addition to accuracy measures, latencies were also recorded. Despite the patients' variable language deficits, diagnostic category and the matched materials, all patients performed faster and more accurately in naming the object than the action pictures. The comparison participants performed similarly. We also carried out a qualitative analysis of the errors patients made and showed that different types of errors were made in response to object and action pictures. We concluded that action naming places more and different demands on the language processor than object naming. The conclusions of the literature review and the results of the experimental study are discussed in relation to claims previous studies have made on the basis of the double dissociation found between nouns and verbs. We argue that these claims are only

  19. Is the cosmological singularity compulsory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bekenstein, J.D.; Meisels, A.

    1980-01-01

    The cosmological singularity is inherent in all conventional general relativistic cosmological models. There can be no question that it is an unphysical feature; yet there does not seem to be any convervative way of eliminating it. Here we present singularity-free isotropic cosmological models which are indistinguishable from general relativistic ones at late times. They are based on the general theory of variable rest masses that we developed recently. Outside cosmology this theory simulates general relativity well. Thus it provides a framework incorporating those features which have made geneal relativity so sucessful while providing a way out of singularity dilemma. The cosmological models can be made to incorporate Dirac's large numbers hypothesis. G(now)/G(0)approx.10 -38

  20. A 1 + 5-dimensional gravitational-wave solution. Curvature singularity and spacetime singularity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, Yu-Zhu [Tianjin University, Department of Physics, Tianjin (China); Li, Wen-Du [Tianjin University, Department of Physics, Tianjin (China); Nankai University, Theoretical Physics Division, Chern Institute of Mathematics, Tianjin (China); Dai, Wu-Sheng [Nankai University, Theoretical Physics Division, Chern Institute of Mathematics, Tianjin (China); Nankai University and Tianjin University, LiuHui Center for Applied Mathematics, Tianjin (China)

    2017-12-15

    We solve a 1 + 5-dimensional cylindrical gravitational-wave solution of the Einstein equation, in which there are two curvature singularities. Then we show that one of the curvature singularities can be removed by an extension of the spacetime. The result exemplifies that the curvature singularity is not always a spacetime singularity; in other words, the curvature singularity cannot serve as a criterion for spacetime singularities. (orig.)

  1. Singularities in geodesic surface congruence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cho, Yong Seung; Hong, Soon-Tae

    2008-01-01

    In the stringy cosmology, we investigate singularities in geodesic surface congruences for the timelike and null strings to yield the Raychaudhuri type equations possessing correction terms associated with the novel features owing to the strings. Assuming the stringy strong energy condition, we have a Hawking-Penrose type inequality equation. If the initial expansion is negative so that the congruence is converging, we show that the expansion must pass through the singularity within a proper time. We observe that the stringy strong energy conditions of both the timelike and null string congruences produce the same inequality equation.

  2. Singular perturbation of simple eigenvalues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Greenlee, W.M.

    1976-01-01

    Two operator theoretic theorems which generalize those of asymptotic regular perturbation theory and which apply to singular perturbation problems are proved. Application of these theorems to concrete problems is involved, but the perturbation expansions for eigenvalues and eigenvectors are developed in terms of solutions of linear operator equations. The method of correctors, as well as traditional boundary layer techniques, can be used to apply these theorems. The current formulation should be applicable to highly singular ''hard core'' potential perturbations of the radial equation of quantum mechanics. The theorems are applied to a comparatively simple model problem whose analysis is basic to that of the quantum mechanical problem

  3. Singularity Theory and its Applications

    CERN Document Server

    Stewart, Ian; Mond, David; Montaldi, James

    1991-01-01

    A workshop on Singularities, Bifuraction and Dynamics was held at Warwick in July 1989, as part of a year-long symposium on Singularity Theory and its applications. The proceedings fall into two halves: Volume I mainly on connections with algebraic geometry and volume II on connections with dynamical systems theory, bifurcation theory and applications in the sciences. The papers are original research, stimulated by the symposium and workshop: All have been refereed and none will appear elsewhere. The main topic of volume II is new methods for the study of bifurcations in nonlinear dynamical systems, and applications of these.

  4. Ambient cosmology and spacetime singularities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Antoniadis, Ignatios; Cotsakis, Spiros

    2015-01-01

    We present a new approach to the issues of spacetime singularities and cosmic censorship in general relativity. This is based on the idea that standard 4-dimensional spacetime is the conformal infinity of an ambient metric for the 5-dimensional Einstein equations with fluid sources. We then find that the existence of spacetime singularities in four dimensions is constrained by asymptotic properties of the ambient 5-metric, while the non-degeneracy of the latter crucially depends on cosmic censorship holding on the boundary. (orig.)

  5. Ambient cosmology and spacetime singularities

    CERN Document Server

    Antoniadis, Ignatios

    2015-01-01

    We present a new approach to the issues of spacetime singularities and cosmic censorship in general relativity. This is based on the idea that standard 4-dimensional spacetime is the conformal infinity of an ambient metric for the 5-dimensional Einstein equations with fluid sources. We then find that the existence of spacetime singularities in four dimensions is constrained by asymptotic properties of the ambient 5-metric, while the non-degeneracy of the latter crucially depends on cosmic censorship holding on the boundary.

  6. Singular moduli and Arakelov intersection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weng Lin.

    1994-05-01

    The value of the modular function j(τ) at imaginary quadratic arguments τ in the upper half plane is usually called singular moduli. In this paper, we use Arakelov intersection to give the prime factorizations of a certain combination of singular moduli, coming from the Hecke correspondence. Such a result may be considered as the degenerate one of Gross and Zagier on Heegner points and derivatives of L-series in their paper [GZ1], and is parallel to the result in [GZ2]. (author). 2 refs

  7. Singularities in minimax optimization of networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Kaj; Schjær-Jacobsen, Hans

    1976-01-01

    A theoretical treatment of singularities in nonlinear minimax optimization problems, which allows for a classification in regular and singular problems, is presented. A theorem for determining a singularity that is present in a given problem is formulated. A group of problems often used in the li......A theoretical treatment of singularities in nonlinear minimax optimization problems, which allows for a classification in regular and singular problems, is presented. A theorem for determining a singularity that is present in a given problem is formulated. A group of problems often used...

  8. A CONTRASTIVE ANALYSIS OF ARABIC AND ENGLISH NOUN PLURAL MARKERS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aliyatul Himmah

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper is attempting to explore the plural markers in both Arabic and English. The data collected qualitatively are sorted to meet the scope of this paper. Through contrastive analysis, it is discovered that there are numerous significant differences rather than similarities in terms of syllable count start, patterns of plural nouns in relation to gender, regularity, regular vs irregular plural and internal vowel change. Moreover, Arabic has some uniqueness in its plural marking system. Being well informed on all of these might pave the way for second or foreign language learners to comprehensively understand the plural marking system in Arabic and English.   Tulisan ini mencoba untuk mengeksplorasi penanda jamak dalam bahasa Arab dan bahasa Inggris. Data yang dikumpulkan secara kualitatif diurutkan untuk memenuhi cakupan makalah ini. Melalui analisis kontrastif, ditemukan banyak perbedaan yang signifikan daripada kesamaan dalam segi jumlah awal suku kata, pola kata benda jamak dalam kaitannya dengan gender, keteraturan dan ketidakteraturan jamak, serta perubahan vokal. Selain itu, bahasa Arab memiliki beberapa keunikan dalam sistem menandai jamaknya. Memahami informasi hal tersebut dengan baik mungkin memudahkan pembelajar bahasa kedua atau asing untuk memahami secara komprehensif sistem penanda jamak dalam bahasa Arab dan Inggris

  9. The prosody of Swedish underived nouns: No lexical tones required

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bruce Morén-Duolljá

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available This paper provides a detailed representational analysis of the morpho-prosodic system of underived nouns in a dialect of Swedish.  It shows that the morphology, stress and tonal patterns are not as complex as they first appear once the data are looked at in sufficient detail.  Further, it shows that the renowned Swedish "lexical pitch accent" is not the result of lexical tones/tonemes.  Rather, Swedish is like all other languages and uses tones to mark the edges of prosodic constituents on the surface. "Accent 2" occurs when tones mark the edge of a structural uneven trochee (i.e. recursive foot and "accent 1" occurs elsewhere. This analysis is counter all other treatments of North Germanic tones and denies the almost unquestioned assumption that there is an underlying tone specification on roots and/or affixes in many North Germanic varieties. At the same time, it unifies the intuitions behind the three previous approaches found in the literature.

  10. String theory and cosmological singularities

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    recent times, string theory is providing new perspectives of such singularities which .... holes appear as stacks of a large number of D-branes wrapped in internal .... results into a well-known measure factor which makes the wave function into a.

  11. Charged singularities: the causality violation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    De Felice, F; Nobili, L [Padua Univ. (Italy). Ist. di Fisica; Calvani, M [Padua Univ. (Italy). Ist. di Astronomia

    1980-12-01

    A search is made for examples of particle trajectories which, approaching a naked singularity from infinity, make up for lost time before going back to infinity. In the Kerr-Newman metric a whole family of such trajectories is found showing that the causality violation is indeed a non-avoidable pathology.

  12. Interval matrices: Regularity generates singularity

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Rohn, Jiří; Shary, S.P.

    2018-01-01

    Roč. 540, 1 March (2018), s. 149-159 ISSN 0024-3795 Institutional support: RVO:67985807 Keywords : interval matrix * regularity * singularity * P-matrix * absolute value equation * diagonally singilarizable matrix Subject RIV: BA - General Mathematics Impact factor: 0.973, year: 2016

  13. Computation at a coordinate singularity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prusa, Joseph M.

    2018-05-01

    Coordinate singularities are sometimes encountered in computational problems. An important example involves global atmospheric models used for climate and weather prediction. Classical spherical coordinates can be used to parameterize the manifold - that is, generate a grid for the computational spherical shell domain. This particular parameterization offers significant benefits such as orthogonality and exact representation of curvature and connection (Christoffel) coefficients. But it also exhibits two polar singularities and at or near these points typical continuity/integral constraints on dependent fields and their derivatives are generally inadequate and lead to poor model performance and erroneous results. Other parameterizations have been developed that eliminate polar singularities, but problems of weaker singularities and enhanced grid noise compared to spherical coordinates (away from the poles) persist. In this study reparameterization invariance of geometric objects (scalars, vectors and the forms generated by their covariant derivatives) is utilized to generate asymptotic forms for dependent fields of interest valid in the neighborhood of a pole. The central concept is that such objects cannot be altered by the metric structure of a parameterization. The new boundary conditions enforce symmetries that are required for transformations of geometric objects. They are implemented in an implicit polar filter of a structured grid, nonhydrostatic global atmospheric model that is simulating idealized Held-Suarez flows. A series of test simulations using different configurations of the asymptotic boundary conditions are made, along with control simulations that use the default model numerics with no absorber, at three different grid sizes. Typically the test simulations are ∼ 20% faster in wall clock time than the control-resulting from a decrease in noise at the poles in all cases. In the control simulations adverse numerical effects from the polar

  14. Remarks on gauge variables and singular Lagrangians

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chela-Flores, J.; Janica-de-la-Torre, R.; Kalnay, A.J.; Rodriguez-Gomez, J.; Rodriguez-Nunez, J.; Tascon, R.

    1977-01-01

    The relevance is discussed of gauge theory, based on a singular Lagrangian density, to the foundations of field theory. The idea that gauge transformations could change the physics of systems where the Lagrangian is singular is examined. (author)

  15. Singular multiparameter dynamic equations with distributional ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Singular multiparameter dynamic equations with distributional potentials on time scales. ... In this paper, we consider both singular single and several multiparameter ... multiple function which is of one sign and nonzero on the given time scale.

  16. Morpho-semantic properties of Serbian nouns: Animacy and gender pairs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Radanović Jelena

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available In this study we investigated whether and how the cognitive system uses morphological markedness of animacy and gender pairs. In the Serbian language masculine nouns are marked for animacy (i.e., genitive-accusative syncretism, while for feminine nouns the animacy distinction is purely semantic. Thus, in Experiment 1 we used this natural, linguistic differentiation to test whether morphological markedness of animacy influences lexical processing. In the same experiment, we tested whether the cognitive system is sensitive to the fact that some animate nouns have a sibling in the other gender (e.g., dečak /”boy”/ - devojčica /”girl”/, while others do not have it (e.g., vojnik /”soldier”/ or žirafa /”giraffe”/. We labeled this indicator sibling presence. The analysis did not confirm the effect of animacy, neither between nor within genders. However, animate nouns with a sibling were processed faster than those without a sibling. Since the majority of sibling nouns are morphologically related (like konobar /”waiter”/ - konobarica /”waitress”/, while the rest are not (e.g., petao /”rooster”/ - kokoška /”hen”/, in Experiment 2 we tested whether morphological relatedness contributed to the effect of sibling presence. Results showed that this is not the case: morphologically related and unrelated masculine-feminine pairs of nouns (siblings were processed equally fast. Furthermore, an interaction between the target’s frequency and the frequency of its sibling was observed: nouns with a more frequent sibling benefited more from their own frequency than those with a less frequent sibling. We argue that sibling support is realized through semantic, not morphological relations. Taken together, our findings suggest that morphological markedness is not used in lexical processing, which is in line with an amorphous approach to lexical processing.

  17. Analysis of singularity in redundant manipulators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Watanabe, Koichi

    2000-03-01

    In the analysis of arm positions and configurations of redundant manipulators, the singularity avoidance problems are important themes. This report presents singularity avoidance computations of a 7 DOF manipulator by using a computer code based on human-arm models. The behavior of the arm escaping from the singular point can be identified satisfactorily through the use of 3-D plotting tools. (author)

  18. Emotional noun processing: an ERP study with rapid serial visual presentation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shengnan Yi

    Full Text Available Reading is an important part of our daily life, and rapid responses to emotional words have received a great deal of research interest. Our study employed rapid serial visual presentation to detect the time course of emotional noun processing using event-related potentials. We performed a dual-task experiment, where subjects were required to judge whether a given number was odd or even, and the category into which each emotional noun fit. In terms of P1, we found that there was no negativity bias for emotional nouns. However, emotional nouns elicited larger amplitudes in the N170 component in the left hemisphere than did neutral nouns. This finding indicated that in later processing stages, emotional words can be discriminated from neutral words. Furthermore, positive, negative, and neutral words were different from each other in the late positive complex, indicating that in the third stage, even different emotions can be discerned. Thus, our results indicate that in a three-stage model the latter two stages are more stable and universal.

  19. Emotional noun processing: an ERP study with rapid serial visual presentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yi, Shengnan; He, Weiqi; Zhan, Lei; Qi, Zhengyang; Zhu, Chuanlin; Luo, Wenbo; Li, Hong

    2015-01-01

    Reading is an important part of our daily life, and rapid responses to emotional words have received a great deal of research interest. Our study employed rapid serial visual presentation to detect the time course of emotional noun processing using event-related potentials. We performed a dual-task experiment, where subjects were required to judge whether a given number was odd or even, and the category into which each emotional noun fit. In terms of P1, we found that there was no negativity bias for emotional nouns. However, emotional nouns elicited larger amplitudes in the N170 component in the left hemisphere than did neutral nouns. This finding indicated that in later processing stages, emotional words can be discriminated from neutral words. Furthermore, positive, negative, and neutral words were different from each other in the late positive complex, indicating that in the third stage, even different emotions can be discerned. Thus, our results indicate that in a three-stage model the latter two stages are more stable and universal.

  20. Viewing photos and reading nouns of natural graspable objects similarly modulate motor responses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barbara FM Marino

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available It is well known that the observation of graspable objects recruits the same motor representations involved in their actual manipulation. Recent evidence suggests that the presentation of nouns referring to graspable objects may exert similar effects. So far, however, it is not clear to what extent the modulation of the motor system during object observation overlaps with that related to noun processing. To address this issue, 2 behavioral experiments were carried out using a go-no go paradigm. Healthy participants were presented with photos and nouns of graspable and non-graspable natural objects. Also scrambled images and pseudowords obtained from the original stimuli were used. At a go-signal onset (150 ms after stimulus presentation participants had to press a key when the stimulus referred to a real object, using their right (Experiment 1 or left (Experiment 2 hand, and refrain from responding when a scrambled image or a pseudoword was presented. Slower responses were found for both photos and nouns of graspable objects as compared to non-graspable objects, independent of the responding hand. These findings suggest that processing seen graspable objects and written nouns referring to graspable objects similarly modulates the motor system.

  1. A three-dimensional approach to the gender/sex of nouns in Biblical Hebrew

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. H. Kroeze

    1994-05-01

    Full Text Available The phenomenon of the gender/sex of nouns is normally handled two-dimensionally. Two levels are distinguished: (grammatical gender and sex. Gender refers to the morphological and syntactic features of the noun, sex to the extralingual reality. This use of the term gender rests on the assumption that the morphological and syntactic features o f a noun are normally consistent. This assumption is tested and the results show that a three-dimensional approach would he better. In the relevant literature, there are indications of such a three-dimensional differentiation, where gender is used to indicate only the syntactic features of a noun. In this article it is proposed that morphological gender, syntactic gender and semantic gender (sex should be distinguished consistently. A list of 23 different combinations were found among nouns occurring most frequently. These combinations are illustrated with examples. Morphological, syntactic and semantic statistics are also given which illustrate the unique characteristics of the three levels.

  2. Infants use known verbs to learn novel nouns: evidence from 15- and 19-month-olds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferguson, Brock; Graf, Eileen; Waxman, Sandra R

    2014-04-01

    Fluent speakers' representations of verbs include semantic knowledge about the nouns that can serve as their arguments. These "selectional restrictions" of a verb can in principle be recruited to learn the meaning of a novel noun. For example, the sentence He ate the carambola licenses the inference that carambola refers to something edible. We ask whether 15- and 19-month-old infants can recruit their nascent verb lexicon to identify the referents of novel nouns that appear as the verbs' subjects. We compared infants' interpretation of a novel noun (e.g., the dax) in two conditions: one in which dax is presented as the subject of animate-selecting construction (e.g., The dax is crying), and the other in which dax is the subject of an animacy-neutral construction (e.g., The dax is right here). Results indicate that by 19months, infants use their representations of known verbs to inform the meaning of a novel noun that appears as its argument. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Energy conditions and spacetime singularities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tipler, F.J.

    1978-01-01

    In this paper, a number of theorems are proven which collectively show that singularities will occur in spacetime under weaker energy conditions than the strong energy condition. In particular, the Penrose theorem, which uses only the weak energy condition but which applies only to open universes, is extended to all closed universes which have a Cauchy surface whose universal covering manifold is not a three-sphere. Furthermore, it is shown that the strong energy condition in the Hawking-Penrose theorem can be replaced by the weak energy condition and the assumption that the strong energy condition holds only on the average. In addition, it is demonstrated that if the Universe is closed, then the existence of singularities follows from the averaged strong energy condition alone. It is argued that any globally hyperbolic spacetime which satisfies the weak energy condition and which contains a black hole must be null geodesically incomplete

  4. Multidimensional singular integrals and integral equations

    CERN Document Server

    Mikhlin, Solomon Grigorievich; Stark, M; Ulam, S

    1965-01-01

    Multidimensional Singular Integrals and Integral Equations presents the results of the theory of multidimensional singular integrals and of equations containing such integrals. Emphasis is on singular integrals taken over Euclidean space or in the closed manifold of Liapounov and equations containing such integrals. This volume is comprised of eight chapters and begins with an overview of some theorems on linear equations in Banach spaces, followed by a discussion on the simplest properties of multidimensional singular integrals. Subsequent chapters deal with compounding of singular integrals

  5. Fundamental solutions of singular SPDEs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Selesi, Dora

    2011-01-01

    Highlights: → Fundamental solutions of linear SPDEs are constructed. → Wick-convolution product is introduced for the first time. → Fourier transformation maps Wick-convolution into Wick product. → Solutions of linear SPDEs are expressed via Wick-convolution with fundamental solutions. → Stochastic Helmholtz equation is solved. - Abstract: This paper deals with some models of mathematical physics, where random fluctuations are modeled by white noise or other singular Gaussian generalized processes. White noise, as the distributional derivative od Brownian motion, which is the most important case of a Levy process, is defined in the framework of Hida distribution spaces. The Fourier transformation in the framework of singular generalized stochastic processes is introduced and its applications to solving stochastic differential equations involving Wick products and singularities such as the Dirac delta distribution are presented. Explicit solutions are obtained in form of a chaos expansion in the Kondratiev white noise space, while the coefficients of the expansion are tempered distributions. Stochastic differential equations of the form P(ω, D) ◊ u(x, ω) = A(x, ω) are considered, where A is a singular generalized stochastic process and P(ω, D) is a partial differential operator with random coefficients. We introduce the Wick-convolution operator * which enables us to express the solution as u = s*A ◊ I ◊(-1) , where s denotes the fundamental solution and I is the unit random variable. In particular, the stochastic Helmholtz equation is solved, which in physical interpretation describes waves propagating with a random speed from randomly appearing point sources.

  6. Why the Singularity Cannot Happen

    OpenAIRE

    Modis, Theodore

    2012-01-01

    The concept of a Singularity as described in Ray Kurzweil's book cannot happen for a number of reasons. One reason is that all natural growth processes that follow exponential patterns eventually reveal themselves to be following S-curves thus excluding runaway situations. The remaining growth potential from Kurzweil's ''knee'', which could be approximated as the moment when an S-curve pattern begins deviating from the corresponding exponential, is a factor of only one order of magnitude grea...

  7. Black holes, singularities and predictability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wald, R.M.

    1984-01-01

    The paper favours the view that singularities may play a central role in quantum gravity. The author reviews the arguments leading to the conclusion, that in the process of black hole formation and evaporation, an initial pure state evolves to a final density matrix, thus signaling a breakdown in ordinary quantum dynamical evolution. Some related issues dealing with predictability in the dynamical evolution, are also discussed. (U.K.)

  8. On singularities of lattice varieties

    OpenAIRE

    Mukherjee, Himadri

    2013-01-01

    Toric varieties associated with distributive lattices arise as a fibre of a flat degeneration of a Schubert variety in a minuscule. The singular locus of these varieties has been studied by various authors. In this article we prove that the number of diamonds incident on a lattice point $\\a$ in a product of chain lattices is more than or equal to the codimension of the lattice. Using this we also show that the lattice varieties associated with product of chain lattices is smooth.

  9. Quantum propagation across cosmological singularities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gielen, Steffen; Turok, Neil

    2017-05-01

    The initial singularity is the most troubling feature of the standard cosmology, which quantum effects are hoped to resolve. In this paper, we study quantum cosmology with conformal (Weyl) invariant matter. We show that it is natural to extend the scale factor to negative values, allowing a large, collapsing universe to evolve across a quantum "bounce" into an expanding universe like ours. We compute the Feynman propagator for Friedmann-Robertson-Walker backgrounds exactly, identifying curious pathologies in the case of curved (open or closed) universes. We then include anisotropies, fixing the operator ordering of the quantum Hamiltonian by imposing covariance under field redefinitions and again finding exact solutions. We show how complex classical solutions allow one to circumvent the singularity while maintaining the validity of the semiclassical approximation. The simplest isotropic universes sit on a critical boundary, beyond which there is qualitatively different behavior, with potential for instability. Additional scalars improve the theory's stability. Finally, we study the semiclassical propagation of inhomogeneous perturbations about the flat, isotropic case, at linear and nonlinear order, showing that, at least at this level, there is no particle production across the bounce. These results form the basis for a promising new approach to quantum cosmology and the resolution of the big bang singularity.

  10. Singularities in Free Surface Flows

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thete, Sumeet Suresh

    Free surface flows where the shape of the interface separating two or more phases or liquids are unknown apriori, are commonplace in industrial applications and nature. Distribution of drop sizes, coalescence rate of drops, and the behavior of thin liquid films are crucial to understanding and enhancing industrial practices such as ink-jet printing, spraying, separations of chemicals, and coating flows. When a contiguous mass of liquid such as a drop, filament or a film undergoes breakup to give rise to multiple masses, the topological transition is accompanied with a finite-time singularity . Such singularity also arises when two or more masses of liquid merge into each other or coalesce. Thus the dynamics close to singularity determines the fate of about-to-form drops or films and applications they are involved in, and therefore needs to be analyzed precisely. The primary goal of this thesis is to resolve and analyze the dynamics close to singularity when free surface flows experience a topological transition, using a combination of theory, experiments, and numerical simulations. The first problem under consideration focuses on the dynamics following flow shut-off in bottle filling applications that are relevant to pharmaceutical and consumer products industry, using numerical techniques based on Galerkin Finite Element Methods (GFEM). The second problem addresses the dual flow behavior of aqueous foams that are observed in oil and gas fields and estimates the relevant parameters that describe such flows through a series of experiments. The third problem aims at understanding the drop formation of Newtonian and Carreau fluids, computationally using GFEM. The drops are formed as a result of imposed flow rates or expanding bubbles similar to those of piezo actuated and thermal ink-jet nozzles. The focus of fourth problem is on the evolution of thinning threads of Newtonian fluids and suspensions towards singularity, using computations based on GFEM and experimental

  11. Concreteness and relational effects on recall of adjective-noun pairs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paivio, A; Khan, M; Begg, I

    2000-09-01

    Extending previous research on the problem, we studied the effects of concreteness and relatedness of adjective-noun pairs on free recall, cued recall, and memory integration. Two experiments varied the attributes in paired associates lists or sentences. Consistent with predictions from dual coding theory and prior results with noun-noun pairs, both experiments showed that the effects of concreteness were strong and independent of relatedness in free recall and cued recall. The generally positive effects of relatedness were absent in the case of free recall of sentences. The two attributes also had independent (additive) effects on integrative memory as measured by conditionalized free recall of pairs. Integration as measured by the increment from free to cued recall occurred consistently only when pairs were high in both concreteness and relatedness. Explanations focused on dual coding and relational-distinctiveness processing theories as well as task variables that affect integration measures.

  12. Exploring atypical verb+noun combinations in learner technical writing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María José Luzón Marco

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Professional and academic discourse is characterised by a specific phraseology, which usually poses problems for students. This paper investigates atypical verb+noun collocations in a corpus of English technical writing of Spanish students. I focus on the type of verbs that most frequently occurred in these awkward or questionable combinations and attempt to explore the reasons why the learners deviate from NS's norms. The analysis indicates that these learners tend to have problems with a set of sub-technical and high-frequency verbs. Deviant combinations involving these verbs are frequently the result of a deficient knowledge of the phraseology of academic and technical discourse. The unawareness of collocations that are typical of this discourse often leads students to create V+N combinations by relying on the “Open Choice Principle” (Sinclair, 1991 or by using patterns from their mother tongue.El discurso profesional y académico se caracteriza por una fraseología específica, que suele plantear problemas a los estudiantes. Este artículo investiga colocaciones de verbo+nombre atípicas en un corpus de textos técnicos en inglés escritos por estudiantes españoles. El estudio se centra en los verbos que más frecuentemente aparecen en estas combinaciones atípicas y explora las razones por las que los estudiantes se desvían de la norma. El análisis indica que estos estudiantes suelen tener problemas con un grupo de verbos sub-técnicos y verbos de alta frecuencia. Las combinaciones atípicas en las que estos verbos aparecen son frecuentemente el resultado de un conocimiento deficiente de la fraseología del discurso académico y técnico. El desconocimiento de colocaciones que son típicas de este discurso a menudo lleva a los estudiantes a crear combinaciones basándose en el “principio de opción abierta” (Sinclair, 1991 o a usar colocaciones prestadas de su lengua materna.

  13. Invariant identification of naked singularities in spherically symmetric spacetimes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Torres, R

    2012-01-01

    The study of generic naked singularities and their implications for the cosmic censorship conjecture is still an open issue in the framework of general relativity. One of the obstacles can be traced to the procedures for identifying naked singularities. Usually, the methods applied are not only model and coordinate dependent, but they very often rely in some strong assumptions on the degree of differentiability of the physical magnitudes of the model (such as the mass, density, etc) in the singularity. In this paper, we present a coordinate independent framework for identifying naked singularities based on invariants which is also devoid of strong differentiability requirements. The approach is intended to analyse whole families of models and to provide general results related to the cosmic censorship conjecture. Moreover, since the framework has a strict geometrical nature it can be used with alternative theories of gravitation as long as they assume the existence of a Lorentzian manifold. We exemplify its strength by applying it to the study of the collapse of radiation in radiative coordinates and the collapse of dust in comoving coordinates. (paper)

  14. Mathematical models with singularities a zoo of singular creatures

    CERN Document Server

    Torres, Pedro J

    2015-01-01

    The book aims to provide an unifying view of a variety (a 'zoo') of mathematical models with some kind of singular nonlinearity, in the sense that it becomes infinite when the state variable approaches a certain point. Up to 11 different concrete models are analyzed in separate chapters. Each chapter starts with a discussion of the basic model and its physical significance. Then the main results and typical proofs are outlined, followed by open problems. Each chapter is closed by a suitable list of references. The book may serve as a guide for researchers interested in the modelling of real world processes.

  15. Why Are Verbs so Hard to Remember? Effects of Semantic Context on Memory for Verbs and Nouns

    Science.gov (United States)

    Earles, Julie L.; Kersten, Alan W.

    2017-01-01

    Three experiments test the theory that verb meanings are more malleable than noun meanings in different semantic contexts, making a previously seen verb difficult to remember when it appears in a new semantic context. Experiment 1 revealed that changing the direct object noun in a transitive sentence reduced recognition of a previously seen verb,…

  16. How Do Children Ascribe Gender to Nouns? A Study of Spanish-Speaking Children with and without Specific Language Impairment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Raquel T.; Lockowitz, Alison

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this investigation was to identify how Spanish-speaking preschool children with and without specific language impairment (SLI) use the various cues available for ascribing a noun's inherent gender in the language. Via an invented word task, four types of cues were isolated and presented to each child: (1) two types of noun-internal…

  17. On important precursor of singular optics (tutorial)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polyanskii, Peter V.; Felde, Christina V.; Bogatyryova, Halina V.; Konovchuk, Alexey V.

    2018-01-01

    The rise of singular optics is usually associated with the seminal paper by J. F. Nye and M. V. Berry [Proc. R. Soc. Lond. A, 336, 165-189 (1974)]. Intense development of this area of modern photonics has started since the early eighties of the XX century due to invention of the interfrence technique for detection and diagnostics of phase singularities, such as optical vortices in complex speckle-structured light fields. The next powerful incentive for formation of singular optics into separate area of the science on light was connectected with discovering of very practical technique for creation of singular optical beams of various kinds on the base of computer-generated holograms. In the eghties and ninetieth of the XX century, singular optics evolved, almost entirely, under the approximation of complete coherency of light field. Only at the threshold of the XXI century, it has been comprehended that the singular-optics approaches can be fruitfully expanded onto partially spatially coherent, partially polarized and polychromatic light fields supporting singularities of new kinds, that has been resulted in establishing of correlation singular optics. Here we show that correlation singular optics has much deeper roots, ascending to "pre-singular" and even pre-laser epoch and associated with the concept of partial coherence and polarization. It is remarcable that correlation singular optics in its present interpretation has forestalled the standard coherent singular optics. This paper is timed to the sixtieth anniversary of the most profound precursor of modern correlation singular optics [J. Opt. Soc. Am., 47, 895-902 (1957)].

  18. Analysis of the Word-Initial Segment with Reference to Lemmatising Zulu Nasal Nouns

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.H. Mpungose

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available

    The process of lemmatising nasal nouns in the Zulu lexicon is problematic. The traditional method is to lemmatise a Zulu lexical noun by etymological noun-stem. This practice creates difficulties in harmonising lexical nouns with their syntactic application. Most authors and dictionary-makers are inconsistent in identifying the word-initial segment which determines the letter of the alphabet under which the lexical noun should be included. Consequently, dictionary users do not find Zulu dictionaries user-friendly. This article therefore proposes the principle of "a noun without initial vowel" as a method for lemmatising Zulu nasal nouns. It concludes that it is not necessary to delve into the derivational history of a lexical noun, but rather to focus on the product of the operation of morphophonological rules. The article also suggests the need to identify the distinctiveness of the segments of a syllable and to acknowledge that identical forms of a segment do occur at different segmental positions (initial, medial and final. Finally it is argued that the Zulu nasal noun class prefix is constructed according to an open syllable pattern defined by a general CV-formula based on a VCV noun prefix open syllable pattern.

    Keywords: adjoined letter; compound; composite; consonant; element; etymological; evolutionary; homorganic; initial; intravowel; lemma; lemmatise; lexical; morphophonological; nasal; noun class prefix; segment; syllable; vowel

     

    Die proses van lemmatisering van nasale naamwoorde in die Zoeloeleksikon is problematies. Die tradisionele metode is om leksikale selfstandige naamwoorde in Zoeloe volgens die etimologiese naamwoordstam te lemmatiseer. Hierdie gebruik veroorsaak moeilikhede by die harmonisering van leksikale selfstandige naamwoorde met hul sintaktiese toepassing. Die meeste outeurs en leksikograwe is inkonsekwent in die identifisering van die woordinisiële segment wat die letter van die alfabet bepaal

  19. Symmetry generators in singular theories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lavrov, P.M.; Tyutin, I.V.

    1989-01-01

    It is proved that in the singular nondegenerate theories any symmetry of the lagrangian under non-point transformations of lagrangian variables with the open (in the general case) algebra in the hamiltonian approach generates corresponding transformations of canonical variables the generator of which is the Noether charge with respect to the Dirac brackets. On the surface of all constraints these transformations leave the hamiltonian invariant and the algebra of the Noether charges is closed. As a consequence it is shown that the nilpotent BRST charge operator always exists in gauge theories of the general form (if possible anomalies are not taken into account)

  20. Topological resolution of gauge theory singularities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saracco, Fabio; Tomasiello, Alessandro; Torroba, Gonzalo

    2013-08-01

    Some gauge theories with Coulomb branches exhibit singularities in perturbation theory, which are usually resolved by nonperturbative physics. In string theory this corresponds to the resolution of timelike singularities near the core of orientifold planes by effects from F or M theory. We propose a new mechanism for resolving Coulomb branch singularities in three-dimensional gauge theories, based on Chern-Simons interactions. This is illustrated in a supersymmetric SU(2) Yang-Mills-Chern-Simons theory. We calculate the one-loop corrections to the Coulomb branch of this theory and find a result that interpolates smoothly between the high-energy metric (that would exhibit the singularity) and a regular singularity-free low-energy result. We suggest possible applications to singularity resolution in string theory and speculate a relationship to a similar phenomenon for the orientifold six-plane in massive IIA supergravity.

  1. Topological resolution of gauge theory singularities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saracco, Fabio; Tomasiello, Alessandro; Torroba, Gonzalo

    2013-08-21

    Some gauge theories with Coulomb branches exhibit singularities in perturbation theory, which are usually resolved by nonperturbative physics. In string theory this corresponds to the resolution of timelike singularities near the core of orientifold planes by effects from F or M theory. We propose a new mechanism for resolving Coulomb branch singularities in three-dimensional gauge theories, based on Chern-Simons interactions. This is illustrated in a supersymmetric S U ( 2 ) Yang-Mills-Chern-Simons theory. We calculate the one-loop corrections to the Coulomb branch of this theory and find a result that interpolates smoothly between the high-energy metric (that would exhibit the singularity) and a regular singularity-free low-energy result. We suggest possible applications to singularity resolution in string theory and speculate a relationship to a similar phenomenon for the orientifold six-plane in massive IIA supergravity.

  2. Singularities of Type-Q ABS Equations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James Atkinson

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available The type-Q equations lie on the top level of the hierarchy introduced by Adler, Bobenko and Suris (ABS in their classification of discrete counterparts of KdV-type integrable partial differential equations. We ask what singularities are possible in the solutions of these equations, and examine the relationship between the singularities and the principal integrability feature of multidimensional consistency. These questions are considered in the global setting and therefore extend previous considerations of singularities which have been local. What emerges are some simple geometric criteria that determine the allowed singularities, and the interesting discovery that generically the presence of singularities leads to a breakdown in the global consistency of such systems despite their local consistency property. This failure to be globally consistent is quantified by introducing a natural notion of monodromy for isolated singularities.

  3. The geometry of warped product singularities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stoica, Ovidiu Cristinel

    In this article, the degenerate warped products of singular semi-Riemannian manifolds are studied. They were used recently by the author to handle singularities occurring in General Relativity, in black holes and at the big-bang. One main result presented here is that a degenerate warped product of semi-regular semi-Riemannian manifolds with the warping function satisfying a certain condition is a semi-regular semi-Riemannian manifold. The connection and the Riemann curvature of the warped product are expressed in terms of those of the factor manifolds. Examples of singular semi-Riemannian manifolds which are semi-regular are constructed as warped products. Applications include cosmological models and black holes solutions with semi-regular singularities. Such singularities are compatible with a certain reformulation of the Einstein equation, which in addition holds at semi-regular singularities too.

  4. The dominant balance at cosmological singularities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cotsakis, Spiros; Barrow, John D

    2007-01-01

    We define the notion of a finite-time singularity of a vector field and then discuss a technique suitable for the asymptotic analysis of vector fields and their integral curves in the neighborhood of such a singularity. Having in mind the application of this method to cosmology, we also provide an analysis of the time singularities of an isotropic universe filled with a perfect fluid in general relativity

  5. Exact solutions and singularities in string theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Horowitz, G.T.; Tseytlin, A.A.

    1994-01-01

    We construct two new classes of exact solutions to string theory which are not of the standard plane wave of gauged WZW type. Many of these solutions have curvature singularities. The first class includes the fundamental string solution, for which the string coupling vanishes near the singularity. This suggests that the singularity may not be removed by quantum corrections. The second class consists of hybrids of plane wave and gauged WZW solutions. We discuss a four-dimensional example in detail

  6. Dressing up a Kerr naked singularity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Calvani, M [Padua Univ. (Italy). Ist. di Astronomia; Nobili, L [Padua Univ. (Italy). Ist. di Fisica

    1979-06-11

    The evolution of a naked singularity surrounded by an accreting disk of matter is studied; two kinds of disks are considered: the standard thin-disk model and the thick barytropic model, for several initial conditions. It is shown that any Kerr naked singularity slows down in a finite time to a maximal Kerr black hole. The final mass, the luminosity and the time of evolution of the singularity are evaluated.

  7. Wentzel-Bardeen singularity in coupled Luttinger liquids: Transport properties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martin, T.

    1994-01-01

    The recent progress on 1 D interacting electrons systems and their applications to study the transport properties of quasi one dimensional wires is reviewed. We focus on strongly correlated elections coupled to low energy acoustic phonons in one dimension. The exponents of various response functions are calculated, and their striking sensitivity to the Wentzel-Bardeen singularity is discussed. For the Hubbard model coupled to phonons the equivalent of a phase diagram is established. By increasing the filling factor towards half filling the WB singularity is approached. This in turn suppresses antiferromagnetic fluctuations and drives the system towards the superconducting regime, via a new intermediate (metallic) phase. The implications of this phenomenon on the transport properties of an ideal wire as well as the properties of a wire with weak or strong scattering are analyzed in a perturbative renormalization group calculation. This allows to recover the three regimes predicted from the divergence criteria of the response functions

  8. Naked singularity, firewall, and Hawking radiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Hongsheng

    2017-06-21

    Spacetime singularity has always been of interest since the proof of the Penrose-Hawking singularity theorem. Naked singularity naturally emerges from reasonable initial conditions in the collapsing process. A recent interesting approach in black hole information problem implies that we need a firewall to break the surplus entanglements among the Hawking photons. Classically, the firewall becomes a naked singularity. We find some vacuum analytical solutions in R n -gravity of the firewall-type and use these solutions as concrete models to study the naked singularities. By using standard quantum theory, we investigate the Hawking radiation emitted from the black holes with naked singularities. Here we show that the singularity itself does not destroy information. A unitary quantum theory works well around a firewall-type singularity. We discuss the validity of our result in general relativity. Further our result demonstrates that the temperature of the Hawking radiation still can be expressed in the form of the surface gravity divided by 2π. This indicates that a naked singularity may not compromise the Hakwing evaporation process.

  9. Spacetime averaging of exotic singularity universes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dabrowski, Mariusz P.

    2011-01-01

    Taking a spacetime average as a measure of the strength of singularities we show that big-rips (type I) are stronger than big-bangs. The former have infinite spacetime averages while the latter have them equal to zero. The sudden future singularities (type II) and w-singularities (type V) have finite spacetime averages. The finite scale factor (type III) singularities for some values of the parameters may have an infinite average and in that sense they may be considered stronger than big-bangs.

  10. On local invariants of singular symplectic forms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Domitrz, Wojciech

    2017-04-01

    We find a complete set of local invariants of singular symplectic forms with the structurally stable Martinet hypersurface on a 2 n-dimensional manifold. In the C-analytic category this set consists of the Martinet hypersurface Σ2, the restriction of the singular symplectic form ω to TΣ2 and the kernel of ω n - 1 at the point p ∈Σ2. In the R-analytic and smooth categories this set contains one more invariant: the canonical orientation of Σ2. We find the conditions to determine the kernel of ω n - 1 at p by the other invariants. In dimension 4 we find sufficient conditions to determine the equivalence class of a singular symplectic form-germ with the structurally smooth Martinet hypersurface by the Martinet hypersurface and the restriction of the singular symplectic form to it. We also study the singular symplectic forms with singular Martinet hypersurfaces. We prove that the equivalence class of such singular symplectic form-germ is determined by the Martinet hypersurface, the canonical orientation of its regular part and the restriction of the singular symplectic form to its regular part if the Martinet hypersurface is a quasi-homogeneous hypersurface with an isolated singularity.

  11. Early Acquisition of Gender Agreement in the Spanish Noun Phrase: Starting Small

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mariscal, Sonia

    2009-01-01

    Nativist and constructivist accounts differ in their characterization of children's knowledge of grammatical categories. In this paper we present research on the process of acquisition of a particular grammatical system, gender agreement in the Spanish noun phrase, in children under three years of age. The design of the longitudinal study employed…

  12. Prosodic Disambiguation of Noun/Verb Homophones in Child-Directed Speech

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conwell, Erin

    2017-01-01

    One strategy that children might use to sort words into grammatical categories such as noun and verb is distributional bootstrapping, in which local co-occurrence information is used to distinguish between categories. Words that can be used in more than one grammatical category could be problematic for this approach. Using naturalistic corpus…

  13. Nouns, verbs, objects, actions, and abstractions: local fMRI activity indexes semantics, not lexical categories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moseley, Rachel L; Pulvermüller, Friedemann

    2014-05-01

    Noun/verb dissociations in the literature defy interpretation due to the confound between lexical category and semantic meaning; nouns and verbs typically describe concrete objects and actions. Abstract words, pertaining to neither, are a critical test case: dissociations along lexical-grammatical lines would support models purporting lexical category as the principle governing brain organisation, whilst semantic models predict dissociation between concrete words but not abstract items. During fMRI scanning, participants read orthogonalised word categories of nouns and verbs, with or without concrete, sensorimotor meaning. Analysis of inferior frontal/insula, precentral and central areas revealed an interaction between lexical class and semantic factors with clear category differences between concrete nouns and verbs but not abstract ones. Though the brain stores the combinatorial and lexical-grammatical properties of words, our data show that topographical differences in brain activation, especially in the motor system and inferior frontal cortex, are driven by semantics and not by lexical class. Copyright © 2014 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Difference between Written and Spoken Czech: The Case of Verbal Nouns Denoting an Action

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kolářová, V.; Kolář, Jan; Mikulová, M.

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 107, č. 1 (2017), s. 19-38 ISSN 0032-6585 Institutional support: RVO:67985840 Keywords : written Czech * spoken Czech * verbal nouns Subject RIV: AI - Linguistics OBOR OECD: Pure mathematics https://www.degruyter.com/view/j/pralin.2017.107.issue-1/pralin-2017-0002/pralin-2017-0002.xml

  15. Does Lexical Stress Influence 17-Month-Olds' Mapping of Verbs and Nouns?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell, Jennifer; Mihalicz, Patrick; Thiessen, Erik; Curtin, Suzanne

    2018-01-01

    English-learning infants attend to lexical stress when learning new words. Attention to lexical stress might be beneficial for word learning by providing an indication of the grammatical class of that word. English disyllabic nouns commonly have trochaic (strong-weak) stress, whereas English disyllabic verbs commonly have iambic (weak-strong)…

  16. The Role of Sustained Attention in the Production of Conjoined Noun Phrases: An Individual Differences Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jongman, Suzanne R; Meyer, Antje S; Roelofs, Ardi

    2015-01-01

    It has previously been shown that language production, performed simultaneously with a nonlinguistic task, involves sustained attention. Sustained attention concerns the ability to maintain alertness over time. Here, we aimed to replicate the previous finding by showing that individuals call upon sustained attention when they plan single noun phrases (e.g., "the carrot") and perform a manual arrow categorization task. In addition, we investigated whether speakers also recruit sustained attention when they produce conjoined noun phrases (e.g., "the carrot and the bucket") describing two pictures, that is, when both the first and second task are linguistic. We found that sustained attention correlated with the proportion of abnormally slow phrase-production responses. Individuals with poor sustained attention displayed a greater number of very slow responses than individuals with better sustained attention. Importantly, this relationship was obtained both for the production of single phrases while performing a nonlinguistic manual task, and the production of noun phrase conjunctions in referring to two spatially separated objects. Inhibition and updating abilities were also measured. These scores did not correlate with our measure of sustained attention, suggesting that sustained attention and executive control are distinct. Overall, the results suggest that planning conjoined noun phrases involves sustained attention, and that language production happens less automatically than has often been assumed.

  17. Acute cortisol effects on immediate free recall and recognition of nouns depend on stimulus valence

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tops, M.; van der Pompe, G.; Baas, D; Mulder, L.J.M.; Den Boer, J.A.; Meijman, T.F.; Korf, J

    The present study investigated the acute effects of cortisol administration in normal healthy male volunteers on immediate free recall and recognition of pleasant, unpleasant, and neutral nouns using a between-subjects double-blind design. Two hours after cortisol (10 mg) or placebo administration,

  18. Subsequent to suppression: Downstream comprehension consequences of noun/verb ambiguity in natural reading

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stites, Mallory C.; Federmeier, Kara D.

    2015-01-01

    We used eye-tracking to investigate the downstream processing consequences of encountering noun/verb (NV) homographs (i.e., park) in semantically neutral but syntactically constraining contexts. Target words were followed by a prepositional phrase containing a noun that was plausible for only one meaning of the homograph. Replicating previous work, we found increased first fixation durations on NV homographs compared to unambiguous words, which persisted into the next sentence region. At the downstream noun, we found plausibility effects following ambiguous words that were correlated with the size of a reader's first fixation effect, suggesting that this effect reflects the recruitment of processing resources necessary to suppress the homograph's context-inappropriate meaning. Using these same stimuli, Lee and Federmeier (2012) found a sustained frontal negativity to the NV homographs, and, on the downstream noun, found a plausibility effect that was also positively correlated with the size of a reader's ambiguity effect. Together, these findings suggest that when only syntactic constraints are available, meaning selection recruits inhibitory mechanisms that can be measured in both first fixation slowdown and ERP ambiguity effects. PMID:25961358

  19. Noun or Verb? Adult Readers' Sensitivity to Spelling Cues to Grammatical Category in Word Endings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kemp, Nenagh; Nilsson, Jodi; Arciuli, Joanne

    2009-01-01

    The spelling of many disyllabic English word endings holds cues to their grammatical category, beyond obvious inflectional endings such as "-ing" for verbs. For example, some letter sequences are clearly associated with nouns (e.g., "-oon") and others with verbs (e.g., "-erge"). This study extended recent research by Arciuli and Cupples (2006),…

  20. Dissociable intrinsic functional networks support noun-object and verb-action processing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Huichao; Lin, Qixiang; Han, Zaizhu; Li, Hongyu; Song, Luping; Chen, Lingjuan; He, Yong; Bi, Yanchao

    2017-12-01

    The processing mechanism of verbs-actions and nouns-objects is a central topic of language research, with robust evidence for behavioral dissociation. The neural basis for these two major word and/or conceptual classes, however, remains controversial. Two experiments were conducted to study this question from the network perspective. Experiment 1 found that nodes of the same class, obtained through task-evoked brain imaging meta-analyses, were more strongly connected with each other than nodes of different classes during resting-state, forming segregated network modules. Experiment 2 examined the behavioral relevance of these intrinsic networks using data from 88 brain-damaged patients, finding that across patients the relative strength of functional connectivity of the two networks significantly correlated with the noun-object vs. verb-action relative behavioral performances. In summary, we found that verbs-actions and nouns-objects are supported by separable intrinsic functional networks and that the integrity of such networks accounts for the relative noun-object- and verb-action-selective deficits. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Distributional structure in language: contributions to noun-verb difficulty differences in infant word recognition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willits, Jon A; Seidenberg, Mark S; Saffran, Jenny R

    2014-09-01

    What makes some words easy for infants to recognize, and other words difficult? We addressed this issue in the context of prior results suggesting that infants have difficulty recognizing verbs relative to nouns. In this work, we highlight the role played by the distributional contexts in which nouns and verbs occur. Distributional statistics predict that English nouns should generally be easier to recognize than verbs in fluent speech. However, there are situations in which distributional statistics provide similar support for verbs. The statistics for verbs that occur with the English morpheme -ing, for example, should facilitate verb recognition. In two experiments with 7.5- and 9.5-month-old infants, we tested the importance of distributional statistics for word recognition by varying the frequency of the contextual frames in which verbs occur. The results support the conclusion that distributional statistics are utilized by infant language learners and contribute to noun-verb differences in word recognition. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  2. Decomposition into Multiple Morphemes during Lexical Access: A Masked Priming Study of Russian Nouns

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kazanina, Nina; Dukova-Zheleva, Galina; Geber, Dana; Kharlamov, Viktor; Tonciulescu, Keren

    2008-01-01

    The study reports the results of a masked priming experiment with morphologically complex Russian nouns. Participants performed a lexical decision task to a visual target that differed from its prime in one consonant. Three conditions were included: (1) "transparent," in which the prime was morphologically related to the target and contained the…

  3. Translating Proper Nouns: A Case Study on English Translation of Hafez's Lyrics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shirinzadeh, Seyed Alireza; Mahadi, Tengku Sepora Tengku

    2014-01-01

    Proper nouns are regarded so simple that they might be taken for granted in translation explorations. Some may believe that they should not be translated in transmitting source texts to target texts. But, it is not the case; if one looks at present translations, he will notice that different strategies might be applied for translating proper…

  4. Difference between Written and Spoken Czech: The Case of Verbal Nouns Denoting an Action

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kolářová, V.; Kolář, Jan; Mikulová, M.

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 107, č. 1 (2017), s. 19-38 ISSN 0032-6585 Institutional support: RVO:67985840 Keywords : written Czech * spoken Czech * verbal nouns Subject RIV: AI - Linguistics OBOR OECD: Pure mathematics https://www.degruyter.com/view/j/pralin.2017.107.issue-1/pralin-2017-0002/pralin-2017-0002. xml

  5. An analysis of the status of the secondary noun prefixes in Ndebele ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The article probes into the nature of secondary noun class prefixes in the morphology of some Nguni languages and Ndebele in particular. The secondary prefixes are known as commentary prefixes mainly because they carry overtones of sarcasm, criticism and caricature among other elements, through loading an implied ...

  6. Processing graspable object images and their nouns is impaired in Parkinson's disease patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buccino, Giovanni; Dalla Volta, Riccardo; Arabia, Gennarina; Morelli, Maurizio; Chiriaco, Carmelina; Lupo, Angela; Silipo, Franco; Quattrone, Aldo

    2018-03-01

    According to embodiment, the recruitment of the motor system is necessary to process language material expressing a motor content. Coherently, an impairment of the motor system should affect the capacity to process language items with a motor content. The aim of the present study was to assess the capacity to process graspable objects and their nouns in Parkinson's disease (PD) patients and healthy controls. Participants saw photos and nouns depicting graspable and non-graspable objects. Scrambled images and pseudo-words served as control stimuli. At 150 msec after stimulus presentation, they had to respond when the stimulus referred to a real object, and refrain from responding when it was meaningless (go-no go paradigm). In the control group, participants gave slower motor responses for stimuli (both photos and nouns) related to graspable objects as compared to non-graspable ones. This in keeping with data obtained in a previous study with young healthy participants. In the PD group, motor responses were similar for both graspable and non-graspable items. Moreover, error number was significantly greater than in controls. These findings support the notion that when the motor circuits are lesioned, like in PD, patients do not show the typical modulation of motor responses and have troubles in processing graspable objects and their nouns. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  7. ABSTRACT NOUNS IN THE SPEECH OF THE EMGLISHMEN (BASED ON FICTION WORKS AND BRITISH NATIONAL CORPUS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natalia Veniaminovna Khokhlova

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The research aimed at studying the use of abstract nouns in the Englishmen’s speech from the standpoint of sociolinguistics. The article introduces a new, sociolinguistic, approach to research of abstract nouns; it is also the first time they are studied in a language corpus. The first stage of the research was based on fiction literary works: abstract nouns were extracted of analysis from the statements of the characters belonging to the opposite social classes. Later, these data was compared with the results of the original corpus research based on the British national corpus: sentences with nouns were selected out of the conversational subcorpus of BNC and were further sorted into abstract, concrete and words denoting people. Then, their frequency and vocabulary was studied with regards to speakers’ age, gender and social standing. The results revealed that abstract words are used more often that concrete ones regardless of the speaker’s social characteristics, however, the size and content of vocabulary is different (it is generally more substantial in the speech of women and representatives of higher social classes. The results of this research can be used in elaborating a course of the English language or in teaching general linguistics, sociolinguistics and country studies. 

  8. ZHE: [Noun] Undefined--An Interview with Performers Antonia Kemi Coker and Tonderai Munyevu

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaskan, Victoria

    2013-01-01

    In February 2012, London-based theatre company Collective Artistes previewed "ZHE: [noun] Undefined," a new play created by director Chuck Mike and performers Tonderai Munyevu and Antonia Kemi Coker. The play follows the true life stories of the two performers, both British Africans, living at the intersections of culture, nationality, gender and…

  9. Machine translation of noun phrases from English to Igala using the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Due to the structural differences between English and Igala, noun phrases coupled with the non- availability of large amount of parallel aligned corpus for English and Igala language, the rule based technology was adopted to develop the model. The model was implemented using VB.net programming language as front ...

  10. The production and processing of determiner-noun agreement in child L2 Dutch

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Blom, E.; Vasić, N.

    2011-01-01

    Recent research has shown that children who learn Dutch as their second language (L2) have difficulties with Dutch grammatical gender. This study shows that six to nine year old L2 Dutch children whose first language (L1) is Turkish noticed incorrect gender agreement between determiner and noun only

  11. Problems in the acquisition of Noun Class 11 among Xhosa children ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    While there has been research on the partial or complete merger of Noun Classes 5 and 11 in a number of Bantu languages, no study has focused specifically on the acquisition of Cl. 11 by Xhosa-speaking children. In this paper we test our hypothesis that Xhosa-speaking children in both urban and rural areas no longer, ...

  12. Vantage Theory and the Use of English Demonstrative Determiners with Proper Nouns

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riddle, Elizabeth M.

    2010-01-01

    This article discusses some apparently paradoxical behavior of the English demonstratives "this/these" and "that/those" as determiners of proper nouns and as metaphorical signals of epistemic and affective stance within the proximal-distal opposition. It is argued that the apparent paradoxes are actually cases of shifting perspectives or points of…

  13. Coupled singular and non singular thermoelastic system and double lapalce decomposition methods

    OpenAIRE

    Hassan Gadain; Hassan Gadain

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, the double Laplace decomposition methods are applied to solve the non singular and singular one dimensional thermo-elasticity coupled system and. The technique is described and illustrated with some examples

  14. EEG source reconstruction evidence for the noun-verb neural dissociation along semantic dimensions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Bin; Dang, Jianwu; Zhang, Gaoyan

    2017-09-17

    One of the long-standing issues in neurolinguistic research is about the neural basis of word representation, concerning whether grammatical classification or semantic difference causes the neural dissociation of brain activity patterns when processing different word categories, especially nouns and verbs. To disentangle this puzzle, four orthogonalized word categories in Chinese: unambiguous nouns (UN), unambiguous verbs (UV), ambiguous words with noun-biased semantics (AN), and ambiguous words with verb-biased semantics (AV) were adopted in an auditory task for recording electroencephalographic (EEG) signals from 128 electrodes on the scalps of twenty-two subjects. With the advanced current density reconstruction (CDR) algorithm and the constraint of standardized low-resolution electromagnetic tomography, the spatiotemporal brain dynamics of word processing were explored with the results that in multiple time periods including P1 (60-90ms), N1 (100-140ms), P200 (150-250ms) and N400 (350-450ms), noun-verb dissociation over the parietal-occipital and frontal-central cortices appeared not only between the UN-UV grammatical classes but also between the grammatically identical but semantically different AN-AV pairs. The apparent semantic dissociation within one grammatical class strongly suggests that the semantic difference rather than grammatical classification could be interpreted as the origin of the noun-verb neural dissociation. Our results also revealed that semantic dissociation occurs from an early stage and repeats in multiple phases, thus supporting a functionally hierarchical word processing mechanism. Copyright © 2017 IBRO. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Lexical development of noun and predicate comprehension and production in isiZulu.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicolas, Ramona Kunene; Ahmed, Saaliha

    2016-07-28

    This study seeks to investigate the development of noun and predicate comprehension and production in isiZulu-speaking children between the ages of 25 and 36 months. It compares lexical comprehension and production in isiZulu, using an Italian developed and validated vocabulary assessment tool: The Picture Naming Game (PiNG) developed by Bello, Giannantoni, Pettenati, Stefanini and Caselli (2012). The PiNG tool includes four subtests, one each for subnoun comprehension (NC), noun production (NP), predicate comprehension (PC), and predicate production (PP). Children are shown these lexical items and then asked to show comprehension and produce certain lexical items. After adaptation into the South African context, the adapted version of PiNG was used to directly assess the lexical development of isiZulu with the three main objectives to (1) test the efficiency of the adaptation of a vocabulary tool to measure isiZulu comprehension and production development, (2) test previous findings done in many cross-linguistic comparisons that have found that both comprehension and production performance increase with age for a lesser-studied language, and (3) present our findings around the comprehension and production of the linguistic categories of nouns and predicates. An analysis of the results reported in this study show an age effect throughout the entire sample. Across all the age groups, the comprehension of the noun and predicate subtests was better performed than the production of noun and predicate subtests. With regard to lexical items, the responses of children showed an influence of various factors, including the late acquisition of items, possible problems with stimuli presented to them, and the possible input received by the children from their home environment.

  16. Lexical development of noun and predicate comprehension and production in isiZulu

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramona Kunene Nicolas

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available This study seeks to investigate the development of noun and predicate comprehension and production in isiZulu-speaking children between the ages of 25 and 36 months. It compares lexical comprehension and production in isiZulu, using an Italian developed and validated vocabulary assessment tool: The Picture Naming Game (PiNG developed by Bello, Giannantoni, Pettenati, Stefanini and Caselli (2012. The PiNG tool includes four subtests, one each for subnoun comprehension (NC, noun production (NP, predicate comprehension (PC, and predicate production (PP. Children are shown these lexical items and then asked to show comprehension and produce certain lexical items. After adaptation into the South African context, the adapted version of PiNG was used to directly assess the lexical development of isiZulu with the three main objectives to (1 test the efficiency of the adaptation of a vocabulary tool to measure isiZulu comprehension and production development, (2 test previous findings done in many cross-linguistic comparisons that have found that both comprehension and production performance increase with age for a lesser-studied language, and (3 present our findings around the comprehension and production of the linguistic categories of nouns and predicates. An analysis of the results reported in this study show an age effect throughout the entire sample. Across all the age groups, the comprehension of the noun and predicate subtests was better performed than the production of noun and predicate subtests. With regard to lexical items, the responses of children showed an influence of various factors, including the late acquisition of items, possible problems with stimuli presented to them, and the possible input received by the children from their home environment.

  17. Papapetrou's naked singularity is a strong curvature singularity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hollier, G.P.

    1986-11-01

    Following Papapetrou (1985, a random walk in General Relativity ed. J. Krishna-Rao (New Delhi: Wiley Eastern)), a spacetime with a naked singularity is analysed. This singularity is shown to be a strong curvature singularity and thus a counterexample to a censorship conjecture.

  18. The Semantics of Plurals: A Defense of Singularism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Florio, Salvatore

    2010-01-01

    In this dissertation, I defend "semantic singularism", which is the view that syntactically plural terms, such as "they" or "Russell and Whitehead", are semantically singular. A semantically singular term is a term that denotes a single entity. Semantic singularism is to be distinguished from "syntactic singularism", according to which…

  19. Stable singularities in string theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aspinwall, P.S.; Morrison, D.R.; Gross, M.

    1996-01-01

    We study a topological obstruction of a very stringy nature concerned with deforming the target space of an N=2 non-linear σ-model. This target space has a singularity which may be smoothed away according to the conventional rules of geometry, but when one studies the associated conformal field theory one sees that such a deformation is not possible without a discontinuous change in some of the correlation functions. This obstruction appears to come from torsion in the homology of the target space (which is seen by deforming the theory by an irrelevant operator). We discuss the link between this phenomenon and orbifolds with discrete torsion as studied by Vafa and Witten. (orig.). With 3 figs

  20. Economías singulares

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elvio Alccinelli

    2001-07-01

    Full Text Available En este artículo pretendemos mostrar que le conjunto de las economías singulares, si bien pequeño desde el punto de vista de la topología y/o desde el punto de vista de la teoría de la medida, tiene importantes efectos en el desarrollo de los regímenes económicos. Es el responsable de los cambios abruptos en los estados de equilibrio y de la multiplicidad de tales estados. Permite además establecer a partir de los tipos de singularidades posibles, una partición del conjunto de economías según tenga lugar uno u otro tipo de singularidad cuya presencia o no, caracteriza el comportamiento posible de la economía en cuestión.

  1. Quantum transitions through cosmological singularities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bramberger, Sebastian F.; Lehners, Jean-Luc [Max Planck Institute for Gravitational Physics (Albert Einstein Institute), 14476 Potsdam-Golm (Germany); Hertog, Thomas; Vreys, Yannick, E-mail: sebastian.bramberger@aei.mpg.de, E-mail: thomas.hertog@kuleuven.be, E-mail: jlehners@aei.mpg.de, E-mail: yannick.vreys@kuleuven.be [Institute for Theoretical Physics, KU Leuven, 3001 Leuven (Belgium)

    2017-07-01

    In a quantum theory of cosmology spacetime behaves classically only in limited patches of the configuration space on which the wave function of the universe is defined. Quantum transitions can connect classical evolution in different patches. Working in the saddle point approximation and in minisuperspace we compute quantum transitions connecting inflationary histories across a de Sitter like throat or a singularity. This supplies probabilities for how an inflating universe, when evolved backwards, transitions and branches into an ensemble of histories on the opposite side of a quantum bounce. Generalising our analysis to scalar potentials with negative regions we identify saddle points describing a quantum transition between a classically contracting, crunching ekpyrotic phase and an inflationary universe.

  2. Coulomb branches with complex singularities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Argyres, Philip C.; Martone, Mario

    2018-06-01

    We construct 4d superconformal field theories (SCFTs) whose Coulomb branches have singular complex structures. This implies, in particular, that their Coulomb branch coordinate rings are not freely generated. Our construction also gives examples of distinct SCFTs which have identical moduli space (Coulomb, Higgs, and mixed branch) geometries. These SCFTs thus provide an interesting arena in which to test the relationship between moduli space geometries and conformal field theory data. We construct these SCFTs by gauging certain discrete global symmetries of N = 4 superYang-Mills (sYM) theories. In the simplest cases, these discrete symmetries are outer automorphisms of the sYM gauge group, and so these theories have lagrangian descriptions as N = 4 sYM theories with disconnected gauge groups.

  3. Quantum transitions through cosmological singularities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bramberger, Sebastian F.; Lehners, Jean-Luc; Hertog, Thomas; Vreys, Yannick

    2017-01-01

    In a quantum theory of cosmology spacetime behaves classically only in limited patches of the configuration space on which the wave function of the universe is defined. Quantum transitions can connect classical evolution in different patches. Working in the saddle point approximation and in minisuperspace we compute quantum transitions connecting inflationary histories across a de Sitter like throat or a singularity. This supplies probabilities for how an inflating universe, when evolved backwards, transitions and branches into an ensemble of histories on the opposite side of a quantum bounce. Generalising our analysis to scalar potentials with negative regions we identify saddle points describing a quantum transition between a classically contracting, crunching ekpyrotic phase and an inflationary universe.

  4. Discrete variable representation for singular Hamiltonians

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schneider, B. I.; Nygaard, Nicolai

    2004-01-01

    We discuss the application of the discrete variable representation (DVR) to Schrodinger problems which involve singular Hamiltonians. Unlike recent authors who invoke transformations to rid the eigenvalue equation of singularities at the cost of added complexity, we show that an approach based...

  5. Building Reproducible Science with Singularity Containers

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN. Geneva

    2018-01-01

    Michael Bauer first began working with containers at GSI national lab in Darmstadt, Germany, in 2017 while taking a semester off of school at the University of Michigan. Michael met Greg Kurtzer, project lead of Singularity, during his time at GSI and he began contributing heavily to the Singularity project. At the start of summer 2017, Greg hired Michael to work at the ...

  6. Reasons for singularity in robot teleoperation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Marhenke, Ilka; Fischer, Kerstin; Savarimuthu, Thiusius Rajeeth

    2014-01-01

    In this paper, the causes for singularity of a robot arm in teleoperation for robot learning from demonstration are analyzed. Singularity is the alignment of robot joints, which prevents the configuration of the inverse kinematics. Inspired by users' own hypotheses, we investigated speed and dela...

  7. The Geometry of Black Hole Singularities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ovidiu Cristinel Stoica

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Recent results show that important singularities in General Relativity can be naturally described in terms of finite and invariant canonical geometric objects. Consequently, one can write field equations which are equivalent to Einstein's at nonsingular points but, in addition remain well-defined and smooth at singularities. The black hole singularities appear to be less undesirable than it was thought, especially after we remove the part of the singularity due to the coordinate system. Black hole singularities are then compatible with global hyperbolicity and do not make the evolution equations break down, when these are expressed in terms of the appropriate variables. The charged black holes turn out to have smooth potential and electromagnetic fields in the new atlas. Classical charged particles can be modeled, in General Relativity, as charged black hole solutions. Since black hole singularities are accompanied by dimensional reduction, this should affect Feynman's path integrals. Therefore, it is expected that singularities induce dimensional reduction effects in Quantum Gravity. These dimensional reduction effects are very similar to those postulated in some approaches to make Quantum Gravity perturbatively renormalizable. This may provide a way to test indirectly the effects of singularities, otherwise inaccessible.

  8. Singularities in the nonisotropic Boltzmann equation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garibotti, C.R.; Martiarena, M.L.; Zanette, D.

    1987-09-01

    We consider solutions of the nonlinear Boltzmann equation (NLBE) with anisotropic singular initial conditions, which give a simplified model for the penetration of a monochromatic beam on a rarified target. The NLBE is transformed into an integral equation which is solved iteratively and the evolution of the initial singularities is discussed. (author). 5 refs

  9. Cold atoms in singular potentials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Denschlag, J. P.

    1998-09-01

    We studied both theoretically and experimentally the interaction between cold Li atoms from a magnetic-optical trap (MOT) and a charged or current-carrying wire. With this system, we were able to realize 1/r 2 and 1/r potentials in two dimensions and to observe the motion of cold atoms in both potentials. For an atom in an attractive 1/r 2 potential, there exist no stable trajectories, instead there is a characteristic class of trajectories for which atoms fall into the singularity. We were able to observe this falling of atoms into the center of the potential. Moreover, by probing the singular 1/r 2 potential with atomic clouds of varying size and temperature we extracted scaling properties of the atom-wire interaction. For very cold atoms, and very thin wires the motion of the atoms must be treated quantum mechanically. Here we predict that the absorption cross section for the 1/r 2 potential should exhibit quantum steps. These quantum steps are a manifestation of the quantum mechanical decomposition of plane waves into partial waves. For the second part of this work, we realized a two dimensional 1/r potential for cold atoms. If the potential is attractive, the atoms can be bound and follow Kepler-like orbits around the wire. The motion in the third dimension along the wire is free. We were able to exploit this property and constructed a novel cold atom guide, the 'Kepler guide'. We also demonstrated another type of atom guide (the 'side guide'), by combining the magnetic field of the wire with a homogeneous offset magnetic field. In this case, the atoms are held in a potential 'tube' on the side of the wire. The versatility, simplicity, and scaling properties of this guide make it an interesting technique. (author)

  10. An adaptive singular ES-FEM for mechanics problems with singular field of arbitrary order

    OpenAIRE

    Nguyen-Xuan, H.; Liu, G. R.; Bordas, Stéphane; Natarajan, S.; Rabczuk, T.

    2013-01-01

    This paper presents a singular edge-based smoothed finite element method (sES-FEM) for mechanics problems with singular stress fields of arbitrary order. The sES-FEM uses a basic mesh of three-noded linear triangular (T3) elements and a special layer of five-noded singular triangular elements (sT5) connected to the singular-point of the stress field. The sT5 element has an additional node on each of the two edges connected to the singular-point. It allows us to represent simple and efficient ...

  11. A singularity extraction technique for computation of antenna aperture fields from singular plane wave spectra

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cappellin, Cecilia; Breinbjerg, Olav; Frandsen, Aksel

    2008-01-01

    An effective technique for extracting the singularity of plane wave spectra in the computation of antenna aperture fields is proposed. The singular spectrum is first factorized into a product of a finite function and a singular function. The finite function is inverse Fourier transformed...... numerically using the Inverse Fast Fourier Transform, while the singular function is inverse Fourier transformed analytically, using the Weyl-identity, and the two resulting spatial functions are then convolved to produce the antenna aperture field. This article formulates the theory of the singularity...

  12. Biclustering via Sparse Singular Value Decomposition

    KAUST Repository

    Lee, Mihee

    2010-02-16

    Sparse singular value decomposition (SSVD) is proposed as a new exploratory analysis tool for biclustering or identifying interpretable row-column associations within high-dimensional data matrices. SSVD seeks a low-rank, checkerboard structured matrix approximation to data matrices. The desired checkerboard structure is achieved by forcing both the left- and right-singular vectors to be sparse, that is, having many zero entries. By interpreting singular vectors as regression coefficient vectors for certain linear regressions, sparsity-inducing regularization penalties are imposed to the least squares regression to produce sparse singular vectors. An efficient iterative algorithm is proposed for computing the sparse singular vectors, along with some discussion of penalty parameter selection. A lung cancer microarray dataset and a food nutrition dataset are used to illustrate SSVD as a biclustering method. SSVD is also compared with some existing biclustering methods using simulated datasets. © 2010, The International Biometric Society.

  13. One dimensional systems with singular perturbations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alvarez, J J; Gadella, M; Nieto, L M; Glasser, L M; Lara, L P

    2011-01-01

    This paper discusses some one dimensional quantum models with singular perturbations. Eventually, a mass discontinuity is added at the points that support the singular perturbations. The simplest model includes an attractive singular potential with a mass jump both located at the origin. We study the form of the only bound state. Another model exhibits a hard core at the origin plus one or more repulsive deltas with mass jumps at the points supporting these deltas. We study the location and the multiplicity of these resonances for the case of one or two deltas and settle the basis for a generalization. Finally, we consider the harmonic oscillator and the infinite square well plus a singular potential at the origin. We see how the energy of bound states is affected by the singular perturbation.

  14. Noncrossing timelike singularities of irrotational dust collapse

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liang, E.P.T.

    1979-01-01

    Known naked singularities in spherical dust collapse are either due to shell-crossing or localized to the central world line. They will probably be destroyed by pressure gradients or blue-shift instabilities. To violate the cosmic censorship hypothesis in a more convincing and general context, collapse solutions with naked singularities that are at least nonshell-crossing and nonlocalized need to be constructed. Some results concerning the probable structure of a class of nonshellcrossing and nonlocalized timelike singularities are reviewed. The cylindrical dust model is considered but this model is not asymptotically flat. To make these noncrossing singularities viable counter examples to the cosmic censorship hypothesis, the occurrence of such singularities in asymptotically flat collapse needs to be demonstrated. (UK)

  15. Singularities in and stability of Ooguri-Vafa-Verlinde cosmologies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McInnes, B.

    2005-04-01

    Ooguri, Vafa, and Verlinde have recently proposed an approach to string cosmology which is based on the idea that cosmological string moduli should be selected by a Hartle-Hawking wave function. They are led to consider a certain Euclidean space which has two different Lorentzian interpretations, one of which is a model of an accelerating cosmology. We describe in detail how to implement this idea without resorting to a 'complex metric'. We show that the four-dimensional version of the OVV cosmology is null geodesically incomplete but has no curvature singularity; also that it is (barely) stable against the Seiberg-Witten process (nucleation of brane pairs). The introduction of matter satisfying the Null Energy Condition has the paradoxical effect of both stabilizing the spacetime and rendering it genuinely singular. We show however that it is possible to arrange for an effective violation of the NEC in such a way that the singularity is avoided and yet the spacetime remains stable. The possible implications for the early history of these cosmologies are discussed. (author)

  16. Towards realistic string vacua from branes at singularities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conlon, Joseph P.; Maharana, Anshuman; Quevedo, Fernando

    2009-05-01

    We report on progress towards constructing string models incorporating both realistic D-brane matter content and moduli stabilisation with dynamical low-scale supersymmetry breaking. The general framework is that of local D-brane models embedded into the LARGE volume approach to moduli stabilisation. We review quiver theories on del Pezzo n (dPn) singularities including both D3 and D7 branes. We provide supersymmetric examples with three quark/lepton families and the gauge symmetries of the Standard, Left-Right Symmetric, Pati-Salam and Trinification models, without unwanted chiral exotics. We describe how the singularity structure leads to family symmetries governing the Yukawa couplings which may give mass hierarchies among the different generations. We outline how these models can be embedded into compact Calabi-Yau compactifications with LARGE volume moduli stabilisation, and state the minimal conditions for this to be possible. We study the general structure of soft supersymmetry breaking. At the singularity all leading order contributions to the soft terms (both gravity- and anomaly-mediation) vanish. We enumerate subleading contributions and estimate their magnitude. We also describe model-independent physical implications of this scenario. These include the masses of anomalous and non-anomalous U(1)'s and the generic existence of a new hyperweak force under which leptons and/or quarks could be charged. We propose that such a gauge boson could be responsible for the ghost muon anomaly recently found at the Tevatron's CDF detector.

  17. Minimal solution for inconsistent singular fuzzy matrix equations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Nikuie

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available The fuzzy matrix equations $Ailde{X}=ilde{Y}$ is called a singular fuzzy matrix equations while the coefficients matrix of its equivalent crisp matrix equations be a singular matrix. The singular fuzzy matrix equations are divided into two parts: consistent singular matrix equations and inconsistent fuzzy matrix equations. In this paper, the inconsistent singular fuzzy matrix equations is studied and the effect of generalized inverses in finding minimal solution of an inconsistent singular fuzzy matrix equations are investigated.

  18. The Singular Universe and the Reality of Time

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mangabeira Unger, Roberto; Smolin, Lee

    2015-01-01

    Introduction; Part I. Roberto Mangabeira Unger: 1. The science of the one universe in time; 2. The context and consequences of the argument; 3. The singular existence of the universe; 4. The inclusive reality of time; 5. The mutability of the laws of nature; 6. The selective realism of mathematics; Part II. Lee Smolin: 1. Cosmology in crisis; 2. Principles for a cosmological theory; 3. The setting: the puzzles of contemporary cosmology; 4. Hypotheses for a new cosmology; 5. Mathematics; 6. Approaches to solving the metalaw dilemma; 7. Implications of temporal naturalism for philosophy of mind; 8. An agenda for science; 9. Concluding remarks; A note concerning disagreements between our views.

  19. Quantum cosmology and late-time singularities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kamenshchik, A Yu

    2013-01-01

    The development of dark energy models has stimulated interest to cosmological singularities, which differ from the traditional Big Bang and Big Crunch singularities. We review a broad class of phenomena connected with soft cosmological singularities in classical and quantum cosmology. We discuss the classification of singularities from the geometrical point of view and from the point of view of the behavior of finite size objects, crossing such singularities. We discuss in some detail quantum and classical cosmology of models based on perfect fluids (anti-Chaplygin gas and anti-Chaplygin gas plus dust), of models based on the Born–Infeld-type fields and of the model of a scalar field with a potential inversely proportional to the field itself. We dwell also on the phenomenon of the phantom divide line crossing in the scalar field models with cusped potentials. Then we discuss the Friedmann equations modified by quantum corrections to the effective action of the models under considerations and the influence of such modification on the nature and the existence of soft singularities. We review also quantum cosmology of models, where the initial quantum state of the universe is presented by the density matrix (mixed state). Finally, we discuss the exotic singularities arising in the braneworld cosmological models. (topical review)

  20. Adaptation of Proper Nouns in Czech-American Periodicals at the End of the 19th Century

    OpenAIRE

    Burdová, Kateřina

    2016-01-01

    The bachelor's thesis focuses on the process of adaptation of proper nouns in chosen periodicals of the end of the 19th century that were published in the USA by Czech immigrants. Based on the analysis of periodicals collected from the Library of the Naprstek Museum of Prague there originated a list of proper nouns that has been studied from various points of view, namely the phonetics and phonology, morphology including the word-class competition (Cedar Rapidský - Cedar Rapids), translatedan...

  1. A Study on Noun Suffixes: Accounting for the Vernacularisation of English in Late Medieval Medical Texts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Begoña Crespo

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper seeks to contribute to the study of the vernacularisation process in late Middle English by measuring up to what an extent concrete and abstract noun suffixes (in line with Dalton-Puffer 1996 attach to either Germanic or Romance bases in the medical texts extracted from the MEMT (Middle English Medical Texts corpus. The findings obtained have been further described according to text type or genre and to target audience/readership. The description of these suffixes in relation to all the parameters already mentioned has confirmed the predominance of abstract suffixes of Romance origin although Germanic abstract suffixes are also abundant. More hybrid formations have been found with Germanic noun suffixes than with Romance ones which might be indicative of their versatility towards vernacularisation.

  2. Initial singularity and pure geometric field theories

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wanas, M. I.; Kamal, Mona M.; Dabash, Tahia F.

    2018-01-01

    In the present article we use a modified version of the geodesic equation, together with a modified version of the Raychaudhuri equation, to study initial singularities. These modified equations are used to account for the effect of the spin-torsion interaction on the existence of initial singularities in cosmological models. Such models are the results of solutions of the field equations of a class of field theories termed pure geometric. The geometric structure used in this study is an absolute parallelism structure satisfying the cosmological principle. It is shown that the existence of initial singularities is subject to some mathematical (geometric) conditions. The scheme suggested for this study can be easily generalized.

  3. Discrete variable representation for singular Hamiltonians

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schneider, B. I.; Nygaard, Nicolai

    2004-01-01

    We discuss the application of the discrete variable representation (DVR) to Schrodinger problems which involve singular Hamiltonians. Unlike recent authors who invoke transformations to rid the eigenvalue equation of singularities at the cost of added complexity, we show that an approach based...... solely on an orthogonal polynomial basis is adequate, provided the Gauss-Lobatto or Gauss-Radau quadrature rule is used. This ensures that the mesh contains the singular points and by simply discarding the DVR functions corresponding to those points, all matrix elements become well behaved. the boundary...

  4. Transmutation of singularities in optical instruments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tyc, Tomas [Institute of Theoretical Physics and Astrophysics, Masaryk University, Kotlarska 2, 61137 Brno (Czech Republic); Leonhardt, Ulf [School of Physics and Astronomy, University of St Andrews, North Haugh, St Andrews KY16 9SS (United Kingdom)], E-mail: tomtyc@physics.muni.cz

    2008-11-15

    We propose a method for eliminating a class of singularities in optical media where the refractive index goes to zero or infinity at one or more isolated points. Employing transformation optics, we find a refractive index distribution equivalent to the original one that is nonsingular but shows a slight anisotropy. In this way, the original singularity is 'transmuted' into another, weaker type of singularity where the permittivity and permeability tensors are discontinuous at one point. The method is likely to find applications in designing and improving optical devices by making them easier to implement or to operate in a broad band of the spectrum.

  5. Quantum dress for a naked singularity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marc Casals

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available We investigate semiclassical backreaction on a conical naked singularity space–time with a negative cosmological constant in (2+1-dimensions. In particular, we calculate the renormalized quantum stress–energy tensor for a conformally coupled scalar field on such naked singularity space–time. We then obtain the backreacted metric via the semiclassical Einstein equations. We show that, in the regime where the semiclassical approximation can be trusted, backreaction dresses the naked singularity with an event horizon, thus enforcing (weak cosmic censorship.

  6. Singular mean-filed games

    KAUST Repository

    Cirant, Marco; Gomes, Diogo A.; Pimentel, Edgard A.; Sá nchez-Morgado, Hé ctor

    2016-01-01

    Here, we prove the existence of smooth solutions for mean-field games with a singular mean-field coupling; that is, a coupling in the Hamilton-Jacobi equation of the form $g(m)=-m^{-\\alpha}$. We consider stationary and time-dependent settings. The function $g$ is monotone, but it is not bounded from below. With the exception of the logarithmic coupling, this is the first time that MFGs whose coupling is not bounded from below is examined in the literature. This coupling arises in models where agents have a strong preference for low-density regions. Paradoxically, this causes the agents to spread and prevents the creation of solutions with a very-low density. To prove the existence of solutions, we consider an approximate problem for which the existence of smooth solutions is known. Then, we prove new a priori bounds for the solutions that show that $\\frac 1 m$ is bounded. Finally, using a limiting argument, we obtain the existence of solutions. The proof in the stationary case relies on a blow-up argument and in the time-dependent case on new bounds for $m^{-1}$.

  7. Singular mean-filed games

    KAUST Repository

    Cirant, Marco

    2016-11-22

    Here, we prove the existence of smooth solutions for mean-field games with a singular mean-field coupling; that is, a coupling in the Hamilton-Jacobi equation of the form $g(m)=-m^{-\\\\alpha}$. We consider stationary and time-dependent settings. The function $g$ is monotone, but it is not bounded from below. With the exception of the logarithmic coupling, this is the first time that MFGs whose coupling is not bounded from below is examined in the literature. This coupling arises in models where agents have a strong preference for low-density regions. Paradoxically, this causes the agents to spread and prevents the creation of solutions with a very-low density. To prove the existence of solutions, we consider an approximate problem for which the existence of smooth solutions is known. Then, we prove new a priori bounds for the solutions that show that $\\\\frac 1 m$ is bounded. Finally, using a limiting argument, we obtain the existence of solutions. The proof in the stationary case relies on a blow-up argument and in the time-dependent case on new bounds for $m^{-1}$.

  8. A Scandinavian Island in a Slavonic Linguistic Environment. The Dialect of Gammalsvenskby: Nouns (Paper 2

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander E. Mankov

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available This paper continues the series of publications on the morphology of the dialect of Staroshvedskoye (Sw. Gammalsvenskby, which is the only surviving Scandinavian dialect in the territory of the former Soviet Union. The village of Staroshvedskoye is located in the Kherson region, Ukraine. Its Swedish dialect historically belongs to the group of Swedish dialects of Estonia and goes back to the dialect of the island of Dagö (Hiiumaa. The dialect of Gammalsvenskby is of interest to slavists as an example of a language island in the Slavonic environment. From around the 1950s, the main spoken language of all village residents, including dialect speakers, has been surzhik. Due to the complete lack of studies of the present-day dialect and because of the severe endangerment in which the dialect is currently situated, the most urgent task is to collect, classify, and publish the factual material. This paper introduces comprehensive material on nouns in the conservative variety of the present-day dialect. It lists all masculine nouns of types 1b, c, d, and e together with their cognates from Estonian Swedish dialects; comments on the history of the forms are given as well. The sources for the material presented here are interviews with speakers of the conservative variety of the dialect recorded by the author during fieldwork in the village from 2004 to 2013. We plan to publish nouns of other types in later articles.

  9. Semantic markup of nouns and adjectives for the Electronic corpus of texts in Tuvan language

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bajlak Ch. Oorzhak

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The article examines the progress of semantic markup of the Electronic corpus of texts in Tuvan language (ECTTL, which is another stage of adding Tuvan texts to the database and marking up the corpus. ECTTL is a collaborative project by researchers from Tuvan State University (Research and Education Center of Turkic Studies and Department of Information Technologies. Semantic markup of Tuvan lexis will come as a search engine and reference system which will help users find text snippets containing words with desired meanings in ECTTL. The first stage of this process is setting up databases of basic lexemes of Tuvan language. All meaningful lexemes were classified into the following semantic groups: humans, animals, objects, natural objects and phenomena, and abstract concepts. All Tuvan object nouns, as well as both descriptive and relative adjectives, were assigned to one of these lexico-semantic classes. Each class, sub-class and descriptor is tagged in Tuvan, Russian and English; these tags, in turn, will help automatize searching. The databases of meaningful lexemes of Tuvan language will also outline their lexical combinations. The automatized system will contain information on semantic combinations of adjectives with nouns, adverbs with verbs, nouns with verbs, as well as on the combinations which are semantically incompatible.

  10. The Enunciation of the Subject: Sharing Jean-Luc Nancy's Singular Plural in the Classroom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collins, Ashok

    2015-01-01

    This article seeks to explore the implications of Jean-Luc Nancy's reading of the subject for educational philosophy by connecting his re-interpretation of Descartes to his later thinking on what he names the ontological singular plural. Nancy's re-imagining of the Cogito coalesces around the figure of the mouth ("la bouche") through…

  11. Singularities in cosmologies with interacting fluids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cotsakis, Spiros; Kittou, Georgia

    2012-01-01

    We study the dynamics near finite-time singularities of flat isotropic universes filled with two interacting but otherwise arbitrary perfect fluids. The overall dynamical picture reveals a variety of asymptotic solutions valid locally around the spacetime singularity. We find the attractor of all solutions with standard decay, and for ‘phantom’ matter asymptotically at early times. We give a number of special asymptotic solutions describing universes collapsing to zero size and others ending at a big rip singularity. We also find a very complicated singularity corresponding to a logarithmic branch point that resembles a cyclic universe, and give an asymptotic local series representation of the general solution in the neighborhood of infinity.

  12. Singularities: the state of the art

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clarke, C.J.S.; Schmidt, B.G.

    1977-01-01

    A brief, but precise and unified account is given of the results that have been rigorously established at the time of writing concerning the existence and nature of singularities in classical relativity. (author)

  13. Technological Singularity: What Do We Really Know?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexey Potapov

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available The concept of the technological singularity is frequently reified. Futurist forecasts inferred from this imprecise reification are then criticized, and the reified ideas are incorporated in the core concept. In this paper, I try to disentangle the facts related to the technological singularity from more speculative beliefs about the possibility of creating artificial general intelligence. I use the theory of metasystem transitions and the concept of universal evolution to analyze some misconceptions about the technological singularity. While it may be neither purely technological, nor truly singular, we can predict that the next transition will take place, and that the emerged metasystem will demonstrate exponential growth in complexity with a doubling time of less than half a year, exceeding the complexity of the existing cybernetic systems in few decades.

  14. Algunas aclaraciones acerca del conocimiento del singular.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Llano Cifuentes

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Llano tries to explain the main purpose of El Conocimiento del Singular, showing how the individuals about which the book is concerned are basically human individuals: people as decision makers.

  15. Asymptotic safety, singularities, and gravitational collapse

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Casadio, Roberto; Hsu, Stephen D.H.; Mirza, Behrouz

    2011-01-01

    Asymptotic safety (an ultraviolet fixed point with finite-dimensional critical surface) offers the possibility that a predictive theory of quantum gravity can be obtained from the quantization of classical general relativity. However, it is unclear what becomes of the singularities of classical general relativity, which, it is hoped, might be resolved by quantum effects. We study dust collapse with a running gravitational coupling and find that a future singularity can be avoided if the coupling becomes exactly zero at some finite energy scale. The singularity can also be avoided (pushed off to infinite proper time) if the coupling approaches zero sufficiently rapidly at high energies. However, the evolution deduced from perturbation theory still implies a singularity at finite proper time.

  16. Stable computation of generalized singular values

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Drmac, Z.; Jessup, E.R. [Univ. of Colorado, Boulder, CO (United States)

    1996-12-31

    We study floating-point computation of the generalized singular value decomposition (GSVD) of a general matrix pair (A, B), where A and B are real matrices with the same numbers of columns. The GSVD is a powerful analytical and computational tool. For instance, the GSVD is an implicit way to solve the generalized symmetric eigenvalue problem Kx = {lambda}Mx, where K = A{sup {tau}}A and M = B{sup {tau}}B. Our goal is to develop stable numerical algorithms for the GSVD that are capable of computing the singular value approximations with the high relative accuracy that the perturbation theory says is possible. We assume that the singular values are well-determined by the data, i.e., that small relative perturbations {delta}A and {delta}B (pointwise rounding errors, for example) cause in each singular value {sigma} of (A, B) only a small relative perturbation {vert_bar}{delta}{sigma}{vert_bar}/{sigma}.

  17. On Borel singularities in quantum field theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chadha, S.; Olesen, P.

    1977-10-01

    The authors consider the effective one-loop Lagrangian in a constant electric field. It is shown that perturbation theory behaves as n factorial giving rise to singularities in the Borel plane. Comparing with the known exact result it is shown how to integrate these singularities. It is suggested that renormalons in QED and QCD should be integrated in a similar way. A speculation is made on a possible interpretation of this integration. (Auth.)

  18. Singularity theorems from weakened energy conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fewster, Christopher J; Galloway, Gregory J

    2011-01-01

    We establish analogues of the Hawking and Penrose singularity theorems based on (a) averaged energy conditions with exponential damping; (b) conditions on local stress-energy averages inspired by the quantum energy inequalities satisfied by a number of quantum field theories. As particular applications, we establish singularity theorems for the Einstein equations coupled to a classical scalar field, which violates the strong energy condition, and the nonminimally coupled scalar field, which also violates the null energy condition.

  19. Differential Impairment of Noun and Verb Consequent to LH Lesions in Persian Aphasic Patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dr. Reza Nilipour

    2003-08-01

    Full Text Available The major focus of this research is on the differential disruption of language abilities subsequent to brain damages as they relate to site and size of lesion, especially left hemisphere lesions which disrupt the production and processing of "Nouns" vs. "Verbs" as two functionally different lexical categories. Several clinical as well as experimental studies reported on different language have shown that nouns and verbs can be independently disrupted due to brain damage. A prevalent impairment in naming actions (Producing verbs is reported in non-fluent aphasic patients, with lesions involving left frontal lobe, whereas a selective in naming objects (Producing nouns has been observed in amnesic patients, with lesions involving the temporal lobe and the temporal lobe and the posterior association aresas. This research is a theoretical and fundamental based on descriptive and analytical method. The aphasic data in this research were obtained by assessing each patient's aphasic symptoms using a standard Persian aphasia test (Paradis, Nilipoure, Paribakht, 1989 as well as post-test analysis of each patient' connected descriptive speech. The subjects were selected form among aphasics who referred to speech therapy centers in Tehran during a pe5iod of one year since autumn 1999. The subjects selected in the study were a homogenous group with left hemisphere lesions due to CVA. They were educated adult right handed. Speakers of Persian without any risk factor such as nicotine, alcohol or any addiction and diabetes with no gross depression or anxiety problems or face and oral paralysis and hemiaopsia. The subjects in this study comprised to adults ranging between 33 and 76 years of age. The results indicated that there are significant correlation between: 1 The production of nouns and left hemisphere lesion. 2 The production of verbs and left hemisphere lesion. 3 Brain lesion and language deficits. 4 The site of lesion and language abilities

  20. Observational constraints on cosmological future singularities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beltran Jimenez, Jose [Aix Marseille Univ, Universite de Toulon CNRS, CPT, Marseille (France); Lazkoz, Ruth [Euskal Herriko Unibertsitatea, Fisika Teorikoaren eta Zientziaren Historia Saila, Zientzia eta Teknologia Fakultatea, Bilbao (Spain); Saez-Gomez, Diego [Faculdade de Ciencias da Universidade de Lisboa, Departamento de Fisica, Instituto de Astrofisica e Ciencias do Espaco, Lisbon (Portugal); Salzano, Vincenzo [University of Szczecin, Institute of Physics, Szczecin (Poland)

    2016-11-15

    In this work we consider a family of cosmological models featuring future singularities. This type of cosmological evolution is typical of dark energy models with an equation of state violating some of the standard energy conditions (e.g. the null energy condition). Such a kind of behavior, widely studied in the literature, may arise in cosmologies with phantom fields, theories of modified gravity or models with interacting dark matter/dark energy. We briefly review the physical consequences of these cosmological evolution regarding geodesic completeness and the divergence of tidal forces in order to emphasize under which circumstances the singularities in some cosmological quantities correspond to actual singular spacetimes. We then introduce several phenomenological parameterizations of the Hubble expansion rate to model different singularities existing in the literature and use SN Ia, BAO and H(z) data to constrain how far in the future the singularity needs to be (under some reasonable assumptions on the behavior of the Hubble factor). We show that, for our family of parameterizations, the lower bound for the singularity time cannot be smaller than about 1.2 times the age of the universe, what roughly speaking means ∝2.8 Gyrs from the present time. (orig.)

  1. Observational constraints on cosmological future singularities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beltran Jimenez, Jose; Lazkoz, Ruth; Saez-Gomez, Diego; Salzano, Vincenzo

    2016-01-01

    In this work we consider a family of cosmological models featuring future singularities. This type of cosmological evolution is typical of dark energy models with an equation of state violating some of the standard energy conditions (e.g. the null energy condition). Such a kind of behavior, widely studied in the literature, may arise in cosmologies with phantom fields, theories of modified gravity or models with interacting dark matter/dark energy. We briefly review the physical consequences of these cosmological evolution regarding geodesic completeness and the divergence of tidal forces in order to emphasize under which circumstances the singularities in some cosmological quantities correspond to actual singular spacetimes. We then introduce several phenomenological parameterizations of the Hubble expansion rate to model different singularities existing in the literature and use SN Ia, BAO and H(z) data to constrain how far in the future the singularity needs to be (under some reasonable assumptions on the behavior of the Hubble factor). We show that, for our family of parameterizations, the lower bound for the singularity time cannot be smaller than about 1.2 times the age of the universe, what roughly speaking means ∝2.8 Gyrs from the present time. (orig.)

  2. Naked singularities and cosmic censorship: comment on the current situation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seifert, H.J.

    1979-01-01

    The current discussion is mainly concerned with how, or indeed, whether space-times possessing naked singularities can be ruled out as being too unrealistic or not being singular at all. The present position is summarized, with references, under the following headings: the Hawking-Penrose existence theorems, hydrodynamical singularities and the strength of naked singularities. (UK)

  3. Cosmologies with quasiregular singularities. II. Stability considerations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Konkowski, D.A.; Helliwell, T.M.

    1985-01-01

    The stability properties of a class of spacetimes with quasiregular singularities is discussed. Quasiregular singularities are the end points of incomplete, inextendible geodesics at which the Riemann tensor and its derivatives remain at least bounded in all parallel-propagated orthonormal (PPON) frames; observers approaching such a singularity would find that their world lines come to an end in a finite proper time. The Taub-NUT (Newman-Unti-Tamburino)-type cosmologies investigated are R 1 x T 3 and R 3 x S 1 flat Kasner spacetimes, the two-parameter family of spatially homogeneous but anisotropic Bianchi type-IX Taub-NUT spacetimes, and an infinite-dimensional family of Einstein-Rosen-Gowdy spacetimes studied by Moncrief. The behavior of matter near the quasiregular singularity in each of these spacetimes is explored through an examination of the behavior of the stress-energy tensors and scalars for conformally coupled and minimally coupled, massive and massless scalar waves as observed in both coordinate and PPON frames. A conjecture is postulated concerning the stability of the nature of the singularity in these spacetimes. The conjecture for a Taub-NUT-type background spacetime is that if a test-field stress-energy tensor evaluated in a PPON frame mimics the behavior of the Riemann tensor components which indicate a particular type of singularity (quasiregular, nonscalar curvature, or scalar curvature), then a complete nonlinear backreaction calculation, in which the fields are allowed to influence the geometry, would show that this type of singularity actually occurs. Evidence supporting the conjecture is presented for spacetimes whose symmetries are unchanged when fields with the same symmetries are added

  4. Generalized teleparallel cosmology and initial singularity crossing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Awad, Adel; Nashed, Gamal, E-mail: Adel.Awad@bue.edu.eg, E-mail: gglnashed@sci.asu.edu.eg [Center for Theoretical Physics, the British University in Egypt, Suez Desert Road, Sherouk City 11837 (Egypt)

    2017-02-01

    We present a class of cosmological solutions for a generalized teleparallel gravity with f ( T )= T +α̃ (− T ) {sup n} , where α̃ is some parameter and n is an integer or half-integer. Choosing α̃ ∼ G {sup n} {sup −1}, where G is the gravitational constant, and working with an equation of state p = w ρ, one obtains a cosmological solution with multiple branches. The dynamics of the solution describes standard cosmology at late times, but the higher-torsion correction changes the nature of the initial singularity from big bang to a sudden singularity. The milder behavior of the sudden singularity enables us to extend timelike or lightlike curves, through joining two disconnected branches of solution at the singularity, leaving the singularity traversable. We show that this extension is consistent with the field equations through checking the known junction conditions for generalized teleparallel gravity. This suggests that these solutions describe a contracting phase a prior to the expanding phase of the universe.

  5. Nouns and verbs in Chintang: children's usage and surrounding adult speech

    OpenAIRE

    Stoll, Sabine; Bickel, Balthasar; Lieven, Elena; Banjade, Goma; Bhatta, Toya Nath; Gaenszle, Martin; Paudyal, Netra P; Pettigrew, Judith; Rai, Ichchha Purna; Rai, Manoj; Rai, Novel Kishore

    2012-01-01

    peer-reviewed Analyzing the development of the noun-to-verb ratio in a longitudinal corpus of four Chintang (Sino-Tibetan) children, we find that up to about age four, children have a significantly higher ratio than adults. Previous cross-linguistic research rules out an explanation of this in [*] This research was made by possible by Grant Nos. BI 799/1-2 and II/81 961 from the Volkswagen Foundation (DoBeS program). Author contributions: Stoll designed the study; Bickel ...

  6. Phantom cosmology without Big Rip singularity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Astashenok, Artyom V. [Baltic Federal University of I. Kant, Department of Theoretical Physics, 236041, 14, Nevsky st., Kaliningrad (Russian Federation); Nojiri, Shin' ichi, E-mail: nojiri@phys.nagoya-u.ac.jp [Department of Physics, Nagoya University, Nagoya 464-8602 (Japan); Kobayashi-Maskawa Institute for the Origin of Particles and the Universe, Nagoya University, Nagoya 464-8602 (Japan); Odintsov, Sergei D. [Department of Physics, Nagoya University, Nagoya 464-8602 (Japan); Institucio Catalana de Recerca i Estudis Avancats - ICREA and Institut de Ciencies de l' Espai (IEEC-CSIC), Campus UAB, Facultat de Ciencies, Torre C5-Par-2a pl, E-08193 Bellaterra (Barcelona) (Spain); Tomsk State Pedagogical University, Tomsk (Russian Federation); Yurov, Artyom V. [Baltic Federal University of I. Kant, Department of Theoretical Physics, 236041, 14, Nevsky st., Kaliningrad (Russian Federation)

    2012-03-23

    We construct phantom energy models with the equation of state parameter w which is less than -1, w<-1, but finite-time future singularity does not occur. Such models can be divided into two classes: (i) energy density increases with time ('phantom energy' without 'Big Rip' singularity) and (ii) energy density tends to constant value with time ('cosmological constant' with asymptotically de Sitter evolution). The disintegration of bound structure is confirmed in Little Rip cosmology. Surprisingly, we find that such disintegration (on example of Sun-Earth system) may occur even in asymptotically de Sitter phantom universe consistent with observational data. We also demonstrate that non-singular phantom models admit wormhole solutions as well as possibility of Big Trip via wormholes.

  7. Radioanatomy of the singular nerve canal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Muren, C. [Dept. of Diagnostic Radiology, Sabbatsbergs Hospital, Stockholm (Sweden); Wadin, K. [University Hospital, Uppsala (Sweden); Dimopoulos, P. [University Hospital, Uppsala (Sweden)

    1991-08-01

    The singular canal conveys vestibular nerve fibers from the ampulla of the posterior semicircular canal to the posteroinferior border of the internal auditory meatus. Radiographic identification of this anatomic structure helps to distinguish it from a fracture. It is also a landmark in certain surgical procedures. Computed tomography (CT) examinations of deep-frozen temporal bone specimens were compared with subsequently prepared plastic casts of these bones, showing good correlation between the anatomy and the images. The singular canal and its variable anatomy were studied in CT examinations of 107 patients. The singular canal could be identified, in both the axial and in the coronal planes. Its point of entry into the internal auditory meatus varied considerably. (orig.)

  8. Enveloping branes and brane-world singularities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Antoniadis, Ignatios; Cotsakis, Spiros [CERN-Theory Division, Department of Physics, Geneva 23 (Switzerland); Klaoudatou, Ifigeneia [University of the Aegean, Research Group of Geometry, Dynamical Systems and Cosmology, Department of Information and Communication Systems Engineering, Samos (Greece)

    2014-12-01

    The existence of envelopes is studied for systems of differential equations in connection with the method of asymptotic splittings which allows one to determine the singularity structure of the solutions. The result is applied to brane-worlds consisting of a 3-brane in a five-dimensional bulk, in the presence of an analog of a bulk perfect fluid parameterizing a generic class of bulk matter. We find that all flat brane solutions suffer from a finite-distance singularity contrary to previous claims. We then study the possibility of avoiding finite-distance singularities by cutting the bulk and gluing regular solutions at the position of the brane. Further imposing physical conditions such as finite Planck mass on the brane and positive energy conditions on the bulk fluid, excludes, however, this possibility as well. (orig.)

  9. Phantom cosmology without Big Rip singularity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Astashenok, Artyom V.; Nojiri, Shin'ichi; Odintsov, Sergei D.; Yurov, Artyom V.

    2012-01-01

    We construct phantom energy models with the equation of state parameter w which is less than -1, w<-1, but finite-time future singularity does not occur. Such models can be divided into two classes: (i) energy density increases with time (“phantom energy” without “Big Rip” singularity) and (ii) energy density tends to constant value with time (“cosmological constant” with asymptotically de Sitter evolution). The disintegration of bound structure is confirmed in Little Rip cosmology. Surprisingly, we find that such disintegration (on example of Sun-Earth system) may occur even in asymptotically de Sitter phantom universe consistent with observational data. We also demonstrate that non-singular phantom models admit wormhole solutions as well as possibility of Big Trip via wormholes.

  10. Global embeddings for branes at toric singularities

    CERN Document Server

    Balasubramanian, Vijay; Braun, Volker; García-Etxebarria, Iñaki

    2012-01-01

    We describe how local toric singularities, including the Toric Lego construction, can be embedded in compact Calabi-Yau manifolds. We study in detail the addition of D-branes, including non-compact flavor branes as typically used in semi-realistic model building. The global geometry provides constraints on allowable local models. As an illustration of our discussion we focus on D3 and D7-branes on (the partially resolved) (dP0)^3 singularity, its embedding in a specific Calabi-Yau manifold as a hypersurface in a toric variety, the related type IIB orientifold compactification, as well as the corresponding F-theory uplift. Our techniques generalize naturally to complete intersections, and to a large class of F-theory backgrounds with singularities.

  11. Holographic subregion complexity for singular surfaces

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bakhshaei, Elaheh [Isfahan University of Technology, Department of Physics, Isfahan (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Mollabashi, Ali [Institute for Research in Fundamental Sciences (IPM), School of Physics, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Shirzad, Ahmad [Isfahan University of Technology, Department of Physics, Isfahan (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Institute for Research in Fundamental Sciences (IPM), School of Particles and Accelerators, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2017-10-15

    Recently holographic prescriptions were proposed to compute the quantum complexity of a given state in the boundary theory. A specific proposal known as 'holographic subregion complexity' is supposed to calculate the complexity of a reduced density matrix corresponding to a static subregion. We study different families of singular subregions in the dual field theory and find the divergence structure and universal terms of holographic subregion complexity for these singular surfaces. We find that there are new universal terms, logarithmic in the UV cut-off, due to the singularities of a family of surfaces including a kink in (2 + 1) dimensions and cones in even dimensional field theories. We also find examples of new divergent terms such as squared logarithm and negative powers times the logarithm of the UV cut-off parameter. (orig.)

  12. Singularity hypotheses a scientific and philosophical assessment

    CERN Document Server

    Moor, James; Søraker, Johnny; Steinhart, Eric

    2012-01-01

    Singularity Hypotheses: A Scientific and Philosophical Assessment offers authoritative, jargon-free essays and critical commentaries on accelerating technological progress and the notion of technological singularity. It focuses on conjectures about the intelligence explosion, transhumanism, and whole brain emulation. Recent years have seen a plethora of forecasts about the profound, disruptive impact that is likely to result from further progress in these areas. Many commentators however doubt the scientific rigor of these forecasts, rejecting them as speculative and unfounded. We therefore invited prominent computer scientists, physicists, philosophers, biologists, economists and other thinkers to assess the singularity hypotheses. Their contributions go beyond speculation, providing deep insights into the main issues and a balanced picture of the debate.

  13. Singularities in four-body final-state amplitudes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adhikari, S.K.

    1978-01-01

    Like three-body amplitudes, four-body amplitudes have subenergy threshold singularities over and above total-energy singularities. In the four-body problem we encounter a new type of subenergy singularity besides the usual two- and three-body subenergy threshold singularities. This singularity will be referred to as ''independent-pair threshold singularity'' and involves pair-subenergy threshold singularities in each of the two independent pair subenergies in four-body final states. We also study the particularly interesting case of resonant two- and three-body interactions in the four-body isobar model and the rapid (singular) dependence of the isobar amplitudes they generate in the four-body phase space. All these singularities are analyzed in the multiple-scattering formalism and it is shown that they arise from the ''next-to-last'' rescattering and hence may be represented correctly by an approximate amplitude which has that rescattering

  14. Endpoint singularities in unintegrated parton distributions

    CERN Document Server

    Hautmann, F

    2007-01-01

    We examine the singular behavior from the endpoint region x -> 1 in parton distributions unintegrated in both longitudinal and transverse momenta. We identify and regularize the singularities by using the subtraction method, and compare this with the cut-off regularization method. The counterterms for the distributions with subtractive regularization are given in coordinate space by compact all-order expressions in terms of eikonal-line operators. We carry out an explicit calculation at one loop for the unintegrated quark distribution. We discuss the relation of the unintegrated parton distributions in subtractive regularization with the ordinary parton distributions.

  15. Characteristic classes, singular embeddings, and intersection homology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cappell, S E; Shaneson, J L

    1987-06-01

    This note announces some results on the relationship between global invariants and local topological structure. The first section gives a local-global formula for Pontrjagin classes or L-classes. The second section describes a corresponding decomposition theorem on the level of complexes of sheaves. A final section mentions some related aspects of "singular knot theory" and the study of nonisolated singularities. Analogous equivariant analogues, with local-global formulas for Atiyah-Singer classes and their relations to G-signatures, will be presented in a future paper.

  16. Cosmic censorship and the strengths of singularities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Newman, R.P.

    1986-01-01

    This paper considers the principal definitions concerning limiting curvature strength on geodesics, and on non-spacelike geodesics in particular. They are formulated in terms of focussing conditions. Two definitions suggest themselves, and these are given in terms of a concept of a generalized Jacobi field. An historical survey is presented on some important developments concerning examples of naked singularities. The historical context is recalled in which these models, and cosmic censorship in general, have arisen. It is the author's opinion that one can expect to obtain theoretical limitations on the strengths of any naked singularities which do occur

  17. Switching Between Noun and Verb Agreement Rules Comes at a Cost: Cross-Sectional and Interventional Studies in a Developmental Sample

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Van Reybroeck Marie

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available This study clarifies the impact of switching context between noun and verb number agreement rules in written language production. In Experiment 1, children from grade 3 to 6 were asked to fill in sentences with nouns and verbs in either a switching condition (noun followed by verb or a repeating condition (noun followed by noun. The results showed that third- and fourth-grade children produced more erroneous agreements in the switching condition than in the repeating condition, showing that switching between rules comes at a cost, whereas fifth- and sixth-grade participants’ performance was not affected by the switching context. Based on these findings, Experiment 2 aimed to assess whether a switching treatment offers a greater opportunity to improve the acquisition of grammatical agreement production, as compared to a simple treatment. Teachers from grade 3 gave either a switching treatment (mixed noun and verb exercises or a simple treatment (noun exercises followed by verb exercises. The results show that children learned better from the switching treatment than from the simple treatment. These findings highlight the cost of switching between noun and verb agreement rules during the acquisition of grammatical number agreement and also how grammatical spelling acquisition can be improved at school.

  18. Towards the study of color naming in Portuguese: structure and meaning of constructed nouns and adjectives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Margarita Correia

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Color naming is a central study subject in Lexicology, although its systematic morphological description in Portuguese is still lacking. In this study we describe the morphological and semantic aspects of complex nouns and adjectives constructed on the basis of the basic color terms from the Portuguese language. We focus on a description of the internal structure of these complex words, as well as on aspects concerning the productivity of the morphological processes, and attempt to associate those aspects with the referential capacities of the studied words. Lexicographical data were used, collected from the Vocabulário Ortográfico do Português, and the theoretical framework of this research is SILEX’s constructional model of Morphology. We verified that suffixation is the most productive process, followed by composition. Prefixation is rather unproductive. There are differences in the way that derived nouns and adjectives, on the one hand, and compounds, on the other, may name color tones and degrees of saturation. Derived words give rise to the naming of tones in a very imprecise manner, while compounds are much more effective and precise in the way they may name them, and composition is the most efficient resource available to denote degrees of brightness.

  19. Student Assessment of Quality of Access at the National Open University of Nigeria (NOUN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juliet Obhajajie Inegbedion

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a study conducted by Inegbedion, Adu and Ofulue from the National Open University of Nigeria. The study focused on the quality of access (admission and registration at NOUN from a student perspective. A survey design was used for the study while a multi-stage sampling technique was used to select the sample size. All the 78,555 registered students in all the 61 Study Centres of the University at the time of the study formed the population; out of which 3,060 students were sampled. The questionnaire instrument is the Institutional Internal QA Tools and Instrument developed by the African Council for Distance Education (ACDE as a regulatory mechanism. The data collected were analyzed using simple statistics. The result showed that 66% of the students confirmed that NOUN has published clear policies on the admission and registration of students. About 29.1% of the students were not satisfied with the transparency of the admission process. In conclusion, the study revealed high quality of access and some deficiencies in website and Internet connectivity.

  20. Singular Linear Differential Equations in Two Variables

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Braaksma, B.L.J.; Put, M. van der

    2008-01-01

    The formal and analytic classification of integrable singular linear differential equations has been studied among others by R. Gerard and Y. Sibuya. We provide a simple proof of their main result, namely: For certain irregular systems in two variables there is no Stokes phenomenon, i.e. there is no

  1. Singular continuous spectrum for palindromic Schroedinger operators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hof, A.; Knill, O.; Simon, B.

    1995-01-01

    We give new examples of discrete Schroedinger operators with potentials taking finitely many values that have purely singular continuous spectrum. If the hull X of the potential is strictly ergodic, then the existence of just one potential x in X for which the operator has no eigenvalues implies that there is a generic set in X for which the operator has purely singular continuous spectrum. A sufficient condition for the existence of such an x is that there is a z element of X that contains arbitrarily long palindromes. Thus we can define a large class of primitive substitutions for which the operators are purely singularly continuous for a generic subset in X. The class includes well-known substitutions like Fibonacci, Thue-Morse, Period Doubling, binary non-Pisot and ternary non-Pisot. We also show that the operator has no absolutely continuous spectrum for all x element of X if X derives from a primitive substitution. For potentials defined by circle maps, x n =l J (θ 0 +nα), we show that the operator has purely singular continuous spectrum for a generic subset in X for all irrational α and every half-open interval J. (orig.)

  2. 'Footballs', conical singularities, and the Liouville equation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Redi, Michele

    2005-01-01

    We generalize the football shaped extra dimensions scenario to an arbitrary number of branes. The problem is related to the solution of the Liouville equation with singularities, and explicit solutions are presented for the case of three branes. The tensions of the branes do not need to be tuned with each other but only satisfy mild global constraints

  3. Mobile communications technology: The singular factor responsible ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper investigated the factors responsible for the growth of Internet usage on the African continent. The principal finding was that increasing growth of Internet usage is also down to one singular factor: mobile communications technology. The proliferation of mobile phone usage in Africa has resulted in the sustained ...

  4. Diamagnetism of quantum gases with singular potentials

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Briet, Philippe; Cornean, Horia; Savoie, Baptiste

    2010-01-01

    We consider a gas of quasi-free quantum particles confined to a finite box, subjected to singular magnetic and electric fields. We prove in great generality that the finite volume grand-canonical pressure is analytic with respect to the chemical potential and the intensity of the external magnetic...

  5. Supersymmetric quantum mechanics under point singularities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Uchino, Takashi; Tsutsui, Izumi

    2003-01-01

    We provide a systematic study on the possibility of supersymmetry (SUSY) for one-dimensional quantum mechanical systems consisting of a pair of lines R or intervals [-l, l] each having a point singularity. We consider the most general singularities and walls (boundaries) at x = ±l admitted quantum mechanically, using a U(2) family of parameters to specify one singularity and similarly a U(1) family of parameters to specify one wall. With these parameter freedoms, we find that for a certain subfamily the line systems acquire an N = 1 SUSY which can be enhanced to N = 4 if the parameters are further tuned, and that these SUSY are generically broken except for a special case. The interval systems, on the other hand, can accommodate N = 2 or N = 4 SUSY, broken or unbroken, and exhibit a rich variety of (degenerate) spectra. Our SUSY systems include the familiar SUSY systems with the Dirac δ(x)-potential, and hence are extensions of the known SUSY quantum mechanics to those with general point singularities and walls. The self-adjointness of the supercharge in relation to the self-adjointness of the Hamiltonian is also discussed

  6. A singularity theorem based on spatial averages

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    journal of. July 2007 physics pp. 31–47. A singularity theorem based on spatial ... In this paper I would like to present a result which confirms – at least partially – ... A detailed analysis of how the model fits in with the .... Further, the statement that the spatial average ...... Financial support under grants FIS2004-01626 and no.

  7. Symmetries and singularities in Hamiltonian systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miranda, Eva

    2009-01-01

    This paper contains several results concerning the role of symmetries and singularities in the mathematical formulation of many physical systems. We concentrate in systems which find their mathematical model on a symplectic or Poisson manifold and we present old and new results from a global perspective.

  8. Singular interactions supported by embedded curves

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaynak, Burak Tevfik; Turgut, O Teoman

    2012-01-01

    In this work, singular interactions supported by embedded curves on Riemannian manifolds are discussed from a more direct and physical perspective, via the heat kernel approach. We show that the renormalized problem is well defined, the ground state is finite and the corresponding wavefunction is positive. The renormalization group invariance of the model is also discussed. (paper)

  9. Resolving curvature singularities in holomorphic gravity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mantz, C.L.M.; Prokopec, T.

    2011-01-01

    We formulate a holomorphic theory of gravity and study how the holomorphy symmetry alters the two most important singular solutions of general relativity: black holes and cosmology. We show that typical observers (freely) falling into a holomorphic black hole do not encounter a curvature

  10. Classical resolution of singularities in dilaton cosmologies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bergshoeff, EA; Collinucci, A; Roest, D; Russo, JG; Townsend, PK

    2005-01-01

    For models of dilaton gravity with a possible exponential potential, such as the tensor-scalar sector of ITA supergravity, we show how cosmological solutions correspond to trajectories in a 2D Milne space (parametrized by the dilaton and the scale factor). Cosmological singularities correspond to

  11. Normal forms of Hopf-zero singularity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gazor, Majid; Mokhtari, Fahimeh

    2015-01-01

    The Lie algebra generated by Hopf-zero classical normal forms is decomposed into two versal Lie subalgebras. Some dynamical properties for each subalgebra are described; one is the set of all volume-preserving conservative systems while the other is the maximal Lie algebra of nonconservative systems. This introduces a unique conservative–nonconservative decomposition for the normal form systems. There exists a Lie-subalgebra that is Lie-isomorphic to a large family of vector fields with Bogdanov–Takens singularity. This gives rise to a conclusion that the local dynamics of formal Hopf-zero singularities is well-understood by the study of Bogdanov–Takens singularities. Despite this, the normal form computations of Bogdanov–Takens and Hopf-zero singularities are independent. Thus, by assuming a quadratic nonzero condition, complete results on the simplest Hopf-zero normal forms are obtained in terms of the conservative–nonconservative decomposition. Some practical formulas are derived and the results implemented using Maple. The method has been applied on the Rössler and Kuramoto–Sivashinsky equations to demonstrate the applicability of our results. (paper)

  12. Normal forms of Hopf-zero singularity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gazor, Majid; Mokhtari, Fahimeh

    2015-01-01

    The Lie algebra generated by Hopf-zero classical normal forms is decomposed into two versal Lie subalgebras. Some dynamical properties for each subalgebra are described; one is the set of all volume-preserving conservative systems while the other is the maximal Lie algebra of nonconservative systems. This introduces a unique conservative-nonconservative decomposition for the normal form systems. There exists a Lie-subalgebra that is Lie-isomorphic to a large family of vector fields with Bogdanov-Takens singularity. This gives rise to a conclusion that the local dynamics of formal Hopf-zero singularities is well-understood by the study of Bogdanov-Takens singularities. Despite this, the normal form computations of Bogdanov-Takens and Hopf-zero singularities are independent. Thus, by assuming a quadratic nonzero condition, complete results on the simplest Hopf-zero normal forms are obtained in terms of the conservative-nonconservative decomposition. Some practical formulas are derived and the results implemented using Maple. The method has been applied on the Rössler and Kuramoto-Sivashinsky equations to demonstrate the applicability of our results.

  13. A Systolic Architecture for Singular Value Decomposition,

    Science.gov (United States)

    1983-01-01

    Presented at the 1 st International Colloquium on Vector and Parallel Computing in Scientific Applications, Paris, March 191J Contract N00014-82-K.0703...Gene Golub. Private comunication . given inputs x and n 2 , compute 2 2 2 2 /6/ G. H. Golub and F. T. Luk : "Singular Value I + X1 Decomposition

  14. Sporadic simple groups and quotient singularities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cheltsov, I A; Shramov, C A

    2013-01-01

    We show that if a faithful irreducible representation of a central extension of a sporadic simple group with centre contained in the commutator subgroup gives rise to an exceptional (resp. weakly exceptional but not exceptional) quotient singularity, then that simple group is the Hall-Janko group (resp. the Suzuki group)

  15. Singularity is the Future of ICT Research

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    PROF. OLIVER OSUAGWA

    2014-06-01

    Jun 1, 2014 ... innovation if the black race are not to be left one hundred years ... aspects of innovation in mechatronics design philosophy which illustrate the benefits obtainable by an a priori ..... An overview of models of technological singularity ... the Singularity—representing a profound and disruptive transformation in.

  16. Regularization of the big bang singularity with random perturbations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belbruno, Edward; Xue, BingKan

    2018-03-01

    We show how to regularize the big bang singularity in the presence of random perturbations modeled by Brownian motion using stochastic methods. We prove that the physical variables in a contracting universe dominated by a scalar field can be continuously and uniquely extended through the big bang as a function of time to an expanding universe only for a discrete set of values of the equation of state satisfying special co-prime number conditions. This result significantly generalizes a previous result (Xue and Belbruno 2014 Class. Quantum Grav. 31 165002) that did not model random perturbations. This result implies that the extension from a contracting to an expanding universe for the discrete set of co-prime equation of state is robust, which is a surprising result. Implications for a purely expanding universe are discussed, such as a non-smooth, randomly varying scale factor near the big bang.

  17. Generalized Parton Distributions and their Singularities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anatoly Radyushkin

    2011-04-01

    A new approach to building models of generalized parton distributions (GPDs) is discussed that is based on the factorized DD (double distribution) Ansatz within the single-DD formalism. The latter was not used before, because reconstructing GPDs from the forward limit one should start in this case with a very singular function $f(\\beta)/\\beta$ rather than with the usual parton density $f(\\beta)$. This results in a non-integrable singularity at $\\beta=0$ exaggerated by the fact that $f(\\beta)$'s, on their own, have a singular $\\beta^{-a}$ Regge behavior for small $\\beta$. It is shown that the singularity is regulated within the GPD model of Szczepaniak et al., in which the Regge behavior is implanted through a subtracted dispersion relation for the hadron-parton scattering amplitude. It is demonstrated that using proper softening of the quark-hadron vertices in the regions of large parton virtualities results in model GPDs $H(x,\\xi)$ that are finite and continuous at the "border point'' $x=\\xi$. Using a simple input forward distribution, we illustrate the implementation of the new approach for explicit construction of model GPDs. As a further development, a more general method of regulating the $\\beta=0$ singularities is proposed that is based on the separation of the initial single DD $f(\\beta, \\alpha)$ into the "plus'' part $[f(\\beta,\\alpha)]_{+}$ and the $D$-term. It is demonstrated that the "DD+D'' separation method allows to (re)derive GPD sum rules that relate the difference between the forward distribution $f(x)=H(x,0)$ and the border function $H(x,x)$ with the $D$-term function $D(\\alpha)$.

  18. São Carlos Workshop on Real and Complex Singularities

    CERN Document Server

    Ruas, Maria

    2007-01-01

    The São Carlos Workshop on Real and Complex Singularities is the longest running workshop in singularities. It is held every two years and is a key international event for people working in the field. This volume contains papers presented at the eighth workshop, held at the IML, Marseille, July 19–23, 2004. The workshop offers the opportunity to establish the state of the art and to present new trends, new ideas and new results in all of the branches of singularities. This is reflected by the contributions in this book. The main topics discussed are equisingularity of sets and mappings, geometry of singular complex analytic sets, singularities of mappings, characteristic classes, classification of singularities, interaction of singularity theory with some of the new ideas in algebraic geometry imported from theoretical physics, and applications of singularity theory to geometry of surfaces in low dimensional euclidean spaces, to differential equations and to bifurcation theory.

  19. Singularly perturbed Burger-Huxley equation: Analytical solution ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    user

    solutions of singularly perturbed nonlinear differential equations. ... for solving generalized Burgers-Huxley equation but this equation is not singularly ...... Solitary waves solutions of the generalized Burger Huxley equations, Journal of.

  20. EDITORIAL: The plurality of optical singularities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berry, Michael; Dennis, Mark; Soskin, Marat

    2004-05-01

    This collection of papers arose from an Advanced Research Workshop on Singular Optics, held at the Bogolyubov Institute in Kiev, Ukraine, during 24-28 June 2003. The workshop was generously financed by NATO, with welcome additional support from Institute of Physics Publishing and the National Academy of Sciences of Ukraine. There had been two previous international meetings devoted to singular optics, in Crimea in 1997 and 2000, reflecting the strong involvement of former Soviet Union countries in this research. Awareness of singular optics is growing within the wider optics community, indicated by symposia on the subject at several general optics meetings. As the papers demonstrate, the field of singular optics has reached maturity. Although the subject originated in an observation on ultrasound, it has been largely theory-driven until recently. Now, however, there is close contact between theory and experiment, and we speculate that this is one reason for its accelerated development. To single out particular papers for mention here would be invidious, and since the papers speak for themselves it is not necessary to describe them all. Instead, we will confine ourselves to a brief description of the main areas included in singular optics, to illustrate the broad scope of the subject. Optical vortices are lines of phase singularity: nodal lines where the intensity of the light, represented by a complex scalar field, vanishes. The subject has emerged from flatland, where the vortices are points characterized by topological charges, into the much richer world of vortex lines in three dimensions. By combining Laguerre-Gauss or Bessel beams, or reflecting light from plates with spiral steps, intricate arrangements can be generated, with vortices that are curved, looped, knotted, linked or braided. With light whose state of polarization varies with position, different singularities occur, associated with the vector nature of light. These are also lines, on which the

  1. When memorized instances compete with rules: the case of number-noun agreement in written French.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Largy, Pierre; Cousin, Marie-Paule; Bryant, Peter; Fayol, Michel

    2007-05-01

    It is claimed by Totereau, Thévenin & Fayol (1997) that French children understand the rule for spelling the plural inflection very early on. However, no evidence contradicts the alternative that they learn the spelling of a word's singular and plural forms by treating the two forms as entirely different words. We tested this by asking French first and second graders (85 six-year-old and 89 seven-year-old children, respectively) to read and write rare words, either in just the singular or in just the plural, and then testing their spelling. The children tended to attach plural inflections to words which they had encountered only as plural and to omit them from words encountered before only as singular.

  2. On Weakly Singular Versions of Discrete Nonlinear Inequalities and Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kelong Cheng

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Some new weakly singular versions of discrete nonlinear inequalities are established, which generalize some existing weakly singular inequalities and can be used in the analysis of nonlinear Volterra type difference equations with weakly singular kernels. A few applications to the upper bound and the uniqueness of solutions of nonlinear difference equations are also involved.

  3. THE EXT RACORPOREAL FERTILIZATION TECHNOLOGIES AND THE SINGULARITY PROBLEMS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. V. Denysenko

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available The peculiarities of modern medicine development connected with the technological and informative singularity are analyzed. The risks of realization of extracorporeal fertilization are examined from positions of development of informative singularity. The warning problems of origin of singularity are discussed on t h e base of t h e newest technologies development.

  4. On the nature of naked singularities in Vaidya spacetimes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dwivedi, I.H. (Aligarh Muslim Univ. (India). Dept. of Physics); Joshi, P.S. (Tata Inst. of Fundamental Research, Bombay (India))

    1989-11-01

    The Vaidya-Papapetrou model containing a naked singularity is analysed for outgoing causal geodesics joining the singularity. The curvature growth along these trajectories is examined to show that this is a strong curvature singularity, providing a counter-example to certain forms of cosmic censorship hypotheses. (author).

  5. On the nature of naked singularities in Vaidya spacetimes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dwivedi, I.H.

    1989-01-01

    The Vaidya-Papapetrou model containing a naked singularity is analysed for outgoing causal geodesics joining the singularity. The curvature growth along these trajectories is examined to show that this is a strong curvature singularity, providing a counter-example to certain forms of cosmic censorship hypotheses. (author)

  6. 7 CFR 1200.50 - Words in the singular form.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Words in the singular form. 1200.50 Section 1200.50 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (MARKETING....50 Words in the singular form. Words in this subpart in the singular form shall be deemed to import...

  7. 7 CFR 900.1 - Words in the singular form.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Words in the singular form. 900.1 Section 900.1 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing... Words in the singular form. Words in this subpart in the singular form shall be deemed to import the...

  8. 7 CFR 900.20 - Words in the singular form.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Words in the singular form. 900.20 Section 900.20 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing... § 900.20 Words in the singular form. Words in this subpart in the singular form shall be deemed to...

  9. 7 CFR 900.36 - Words in the singular form.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Words in the singular form. 900.36 Section 900.36 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing... Marketing Orders § 900.36 Words in the singular form. Words in this subpart in the singular form shall be...

  10. 7 CFR 900.100 - Words in the singular form.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Words in the singular form. 900.100 Section 900.100 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing... Words in the singular form. Words in this subpart in the singular form shall be deemed to import the...

  11. 7 CFR 46.1 - Words in singular form.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Words in singular form. 46.1 Section 46.1 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing... Words in singular form. Words in this part in the singular form shall be deemed to import the plural...

  12. 7 CFR 900.50 - Words in the singular form.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Words in the singular form. 900.50 Section 900.50 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing... Words in the singular form. Words in this subpart in the singular form shall be deemed to import the...

  13. 7 CFR 61.1 - Words in singular form.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Words in singular form. 61.1 Section 61.1 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards... Words in singular form. Words used in the regulations in this subpart in the singular form shall be...

  14. Singularities and the geometry of spacetime

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hawking, Stephen

    2014-11-01

    The aim of this essay is to investigate certain aspects of the geometry of the spacetime manifold in the General Theory of Relativity with particular reference to the occurrence of singularities in cosmological solutions and their relation with other global properties. Section 2 gives a brief outline of Riemannian geometry. In Section 3, the General Theory of Relativity is presented in the form of two postulates and two requirements which are common to it and to the Special Theory of Relativity, and a third requirement, the Einstein field equations, which distinguish it from the Special Theory. There does not seem to be any alternative set of field equations which would not have some undeseriable features. Some exact solutions are described. In Section 4, the physical significance of curvature is investigated using the deviation equation for timelike and null curves. The Riemann tensor is decomposed into the Ricci tensor which represents the gravitational effect at a point of matter at that point and the Welyl tensor which represents the effect at a point of gravitational radiation and matter at other points. The two tensors are related by the Bianchi identities which are presented in a form analogous to the Maxwell equations. Some lemmas are given for the occurrence of conjugate points on timelike and null geodesics and their relation with the variation of timelike and null curves is established. Section 5 is concerned with properties of causal relations between points of spacetime. It is shown that these could be used to determine physically the manifold structure of spacetime if the strong causality assumption held. The concepts of a null horizon and a partial Cauchy surface are introduced and are used to prove a number of lemmas relating to the existence of a timelike curve of maximum length between two sets. In Section 6, the definition of a singularity of spacetime is given in terms of geodesic incompleteness. The various energy assumptions needed to prove

  15. Pontryagin-Thom-Szucs type construction for non-positive codimensional singular maps with prescribed singular fibers

    OpenAIRE

    Kalmar, Boldizsar

    2006-01-01

    We give a Pontryagin-Thom-Szucs type construction for non-positive codimensional singular maps, and obtain results about cobordism and bordism groups of -1 codimensional stable maps with prescribed singular fibers.

  16. Mothers' Talk to Children with Down Syndrome, Language Impairment, or Typical Development about Familiar and Unfamiliar Nouns and Verbs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bird, Elizabeth Kay-Raining; Cleave, Patricia

    2016-01-01

    This study investigated how forty-six mothers modified their talk about familiar and unfamiliar nouns and verbs when interacting with their children with Down Syndrome (DS), language impairment (LI), or typical development (TD). Children (MLUs < 2·7) were group-matched on expressive vocabulary size. Mother-child dyads were recorded playing with…

  17. Friedmann-like cosmological models without singularity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuchowicz, B.

    1978-01-01

    The Einstein-Cartan theory of gravitation ('general relativity with spin') provides a specific spin-spin contact interaction of matter, in addition to the usual long-range gravity. This new interaction enables us to prevent singularities in cosmological models. it is shown how this mechanism works in the case when the standard Einstein-Cartan equations are valid at a micro-physical level, and some spin-spin terms remain from the averaging procedure for randomly distributed spins. In contrast with the case of aligned spin distributions, it is possible to take over the isotropic and spatially homogeneous (i.e., Friedmannian) models into the Einstein-Cartan theory. These models can be made free from singularity, thanks to the self-interaction of spinning fluid. (author)

  18. Singularities in the general theory of relativity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Treder, H.J.

    1980-01-01

    'Regular solutions of Einstein's equations' mean very different things. In the case of the empty-space equations, Rsub(ik) = o, such solutions must be metrics gsub(ik)(xsup(l)) without additionaly singular 'field sources' (Einstein's 'Particle problem'). However the 'phenomenological matter' is defined by the Einstein equations Rsub(ik) - 1/2gsub(ik)R = -kappaTsub(ik) itselves. Therefore if 10 regular functions gsub(ik)(xsup(l)) are given (which the inequalities of Lorentz-signature fulfil) then these gsub(ik) define 10 functions Tsub(ik)(xsup(l)) without singularities. But, the matter-tensor Tsub(ik) must fulfil the two inequalities T >= o, T 0 0 >= 1/2 T only and therefore the Einstein-equations with 'phenomenological matter' mean the two inequalities R >= o, R 0 0 <= o which are incompatible with a permanently regular metric with Lorentz-signature, generally. (author)

  19. Singularity theory and equivariant symplectic maps

    CERN Document Server

    Bridges, Thomas J

    1993-01-01

    The monograph is a study of the local bifurcations of multiparameter symplectic maps of arbitrary dimension in the neighborhood of a fixed point.The problem is reduced to a study of critical points of an equivariant gradient bifurcation problem, using the correspondence between orbits ofa symplectic map and critical points of an action functional. New results onsingularity theory for equivariant gradient bifurcation problems are obtained and then used to classify singularities of bifurcating period-q points. Of particular interest is that a general framework for analyzing group-theoretic aspects and singularities of symplectic maps (particularly period-q points) is presented. Topics include: bifurcations when the symplectic map has spatial symmetry and a theory for the collision of multipliers near rational points with and without spatial symmetry. The monograph also includes 11 self-contained appendices each with a basic result on symplectic maps. The monograph will appeal to researchers and graduate student...

  20. Dirac operator on spaces with conical singularities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chou, A.W.

    1982-01-01

    The Dirac operator on compact spaces with conical singularities is studied via the separation of variables formula and the functional calculus of the Dirac Laplacian on the cone. A Bochner type vanishing theorem which gives topological obstructions to the existence of non-negative scalar curvature k greater than or equal to 0 in the singular case is proved. An index formula relating the index of the Dirac operator to the A-genus and Eta-invariant similar to that of Atiyah-Patodi-Singer is obtained. In an appendix, manifolds with boundary with non-negative scalar curvature k greater than or equal to 0 are studied, and several new results on constructing complete metrics with k greater than or equal to on them are obtained

  1. Further holographic investigations of big bang singularities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Engelhardt, Netta [Department of Physics, UCSB,Santa Barbara, CA 93106 (United States); Hertog, Thomas [Institute for Theoretical Physics, KU Leuven,3001 Leuven (Belgium); Horowitz, Gary T. [Department of Physics, UCSB,Santa Barbara, CA 93106 (United States)

    2015-07-09

    We further explore the quantum dynamics near past cosmological singularities in anisotropic Kasner-AdS solutions using gauge/gravity duality. The dual description of the bulk evolution involves N=4 super Yang-Mills on the contracting branch of an anisotropic de Sitter space and is well defined. We compute two-point correlators of Yang-Mills operators of large dimensions using spacelike geodesics anchored on the boundary. The correlator between two points separated in a direction with negative Kasner exponent p always exhibits a pole at horizon scales, in any dimension, which we interpret as a dual signature of the classical bulk singularity. This indicates that the geodesic approximation selects a non-normalizable Yang-Mills state.

  2. Further holographic investigations of big bang singularities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Engelhardt, Netta; Hertog, Thomas; Horowitz, Gary T.

    2015-07-01

    We further explore the quantum dynamics near past cosmological singularities in anisotropic Kasner-AdS solutions using gauge/gravity duality. The dual description of the bulk evolution involves super Yang-Mills on the contracting branch of an anisotropic de Sitter space and is well defined. We compute two-point correlators of Yang-Mills operators of large dimensions using spacelike geodesics anchored on the boundary. The correlator between two points separated in a direction with negative Kasner exponent p always exhibits a pole at horizon scales, in any dimension, which we interpret as a dual signature of the classical bulk singularity. This indicates that the geodesic approximation selects a non-normalizable Yang-Mills state.

  3. Singular tachyon kinks from regular profiles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Copeland, E.J.; Saffin, P.M.; Steer, D.A.

    2003-01-01

    We demonstrate how Sen's singular kink solution of the Born-Infeld tachyon action can be constructed by taking the appropriate limit of initially regular profiles. It is shown that the order in which different limits are taken plays an important role in determining whether or not such a solution is obtained for a wide class of potentials. Indeed, by introducing a small parameter into the action, we are able circumvent the results of a recent paper which derived two conditions on the asymptotic tachyon potential such that the singular kink could be recovered in the large amplitude limit of periodic solutions. We show that this is explained by the non-commuting nature of two limits, and that Sen's solution is recovered if the order of the limits is chosen appropriately

  4. Cognitive categories and noun classification. Romance neuter: from [passivity] to [indifference

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria M. Manoliu

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The present contribution aims to reveal the ways in which the evolution of the grammatical category of gender from Latin to Romance reflects the dramatic changes undergone by its semantic domains. Arguments for the hypothesis that Latin gender oppositions were determined by the important role played by activeness (and not animacy in the interpretation of the state of affairs are brought into the picture in order to explain the subcategorization of nouns in both Latin and in Romance. The term activeness is to be understood as a reflection of the ‘capacity of referents for influencing human life in positive or negative ways’. The changes undergone by grammatical gender in Romance languages were triggered not only by a morpho-syntactic reorganization of case and number, but also by social and pragmatic factors that triggered a reorganization of cognitive categories and their linguistic encoding

  5. Clustering, Hierarchical Organization, and the Topography of Abstract and Concrete Nouns

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joshua eTroche

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The empirical study of language has historically relied heavily upon concrete word stimuli. By definition, concrete words evoke salient perceptual associations that fit well within feature-based, sensorimotor models of word meaning. In contrast, many theorists argue that abstract words are disembodied in that their meaning is mediated through language. We investigated word meaning as distributed in multidimensional space using hierarchical cluster analysis. Participants (N=365 rated target words (n=400 English nouns across 12 cognitive dimensions (e.g., polarity, ease of teaching, emotional valence. Factor reduction revealed three latent factors, corresponding roughly to perceptual salience, affective association, and magnitude. We plotted the original 400 words for the three latent factors. Abstract and concrete words showed overlap in their topography but also differentiated themselves in semantic space. This topographic approach to word meaning offers a unique perspective to word concreteness.

  6. Clustering, hierarchical organization, and the topography of abstract and concrete nouns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Troche, Joshua; Crutch, Sebastian; Reilly, Jamie

    2014-01-01

    The empirical study of language has historically relied heavily upon concrete word stimuli. By definition, concrete words evoke salient perceptual associations that fit well within feature-based, sensorimotor models of word meaning. In contrast, many theorists argue that abstract words are "disembodied" in that their meaning is mediated through language. We investigated word meaning as distributed in multidimensional space using hierarchical cluster analysis. Participants (N = 365) rated target words (n = 400 English nouns) across 12 cognitive dimensions (e.g., polarity, ease of teaching, emotional valence). Factor reduction revealed three latent factors, corresponding roughly to perceptual salience, affective association, and magnitude. We plotted the original 400 words for the three latent factors. Abstract and concrete words showed overlap in their topography but also differentiated themselves in semantic space. This topographic approach to word meaning offers a unique perspective to word concreteness.

  7. The technological singularity and exponential medicine

    OpenAIRE

    Iraj Nabipour; Majid Assadi

    2016-01-01

    The "technological singularity" is forecasted to occur in 2045. It is a point when non-biological intelligence becomes more intelligent than humans and each generation of intelligent machines re-designs itself smarter. Beyond this point, there is a symbiosis between machines and humans. This co-existence will produce incredible impacts on medicine that its sparkles could be seen in healthcare industry and the future medicine since 2025. Ray Kurzweil, the great futurist, suggested th...

  8. Non-singular spiked harmonic oscillator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aguilera-Navarro, V.C.; Guardiola, R.

    1990-01-01

    A perturbative study of a class of non-singular spiked harmonic oscillators defined by the hamiltonian H = d sup(2)/dr sup(2) + r sup(2) + λ/r sup(α) in the domain [0,∞] is carried out, in the two extremes of a weak coupling and a strong coupling regimes. A path has been found to connect both expansions for α near 2. (author)

  9. Singular reduction of Nambu-Poisson manifolds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Das, Apurba

    The version of Marsden-Ratiu Poisson reduction theorem for Nambu-Poisson manifolds by a regular foliation have been studied by Ibáñez et al. In this paper, we show that this reduction procedure can be extended to the singular case. Under a suitable notion of Hamiltonian flow on the reduced space, we show that a set of Hamiltonians on a Nambu-Poisson manifold can also be reduced.

  10. The Morphosyntactic Structure of the Noun and Verb Phrases in Dholuo/Kiswahili Code Switching

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jael Anyango Ojanga

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Code switching, the use of any two or more languages or dialects interchangeably in a single communication context, is a common linguistic practice owing to the trend of multilingualism in the world today. In many situations of language in contact, constituents of one language can be found within the constituents of another language in a number of linguistic phenomenon namely lexical borrowing, transferring, interference, code switching and diffusion (Annamalai, 1989. Codeswitching is one of the linguistic phenomenon claimed to be the most prevalent and common mode of interaction among multilingual speakers. Brock and Eastman (1971 suggest that topic discussed influences the choice of the language. Nouns and verbs have been found to be the most code switched elements in bilingual exchange. The study took a qualitative approach with the descriptive research design. It was guided by the Matrix Language Frame Model which was formulated by Myers-Scotton in1993. This model expounds on the realization and structure of the major word classes as used in code switching. Data was collected in Nyangeta Zone, Winam Division of Kisumu East District. Winam Division is mostly inhabited by elite Dholuo L1 speakers. A sample of twenty four teachers was purposively selected to provide data needed for the study. Focus group discussion was used to collect a corpus of Dholuo/Kiswahili data which was recorded through audio taping. The recorded data was then analyzed morphosyntactaically using the Matrix Language Frame Model. The data revealed that the noun and verb phrases were realized under three categories: Matrix Language Island constituent (ML Island ML+EL and Embedded Language Island (EL Island. Keywords: Code switching, multilingualism, morphosyntactic

  11. Inter-subject variability modulates phonological advance planning in the production of adjective-noun phrases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michel Lange, Violaine; Laganaro, Marina

    2014-01-01

    The literature on advance phonological planning in adjective-noun phrases (NPs) presents diverging results: while many experimental studies suggest that the entire NP is encoded before articulation, other results favor a span of encoding limited to the first word. Although cross-linguistic differences in the structure of adjective-NPs may account for some of these contrasting results, divergences have been reported even among similar languages and syntactic structures. Here we examined whether inter-individual differences account for variability in the span of phonological planning in the production of French NPs, where previous results indicated encoding limited to the first word. The span of phonological encoding is tested with the picture-word interference (PWI) paradigm using phonological distractors related to the noun or to the adjective of the NPs. In Experiment 1, phonological priming effects were limited to the first word in adjective NPs whichever the position of the adjective (pre-nominal or post-nominal). Crucially, phonological priming effects on the second word interacted with speakers' production speed suggesting different encoding strategies for participants. In Experiment 2, we tested this hypothesis further with a larger group of participants. Results clearly showed that slow and fast initializing participants presented different phonological priming patterns on the last element of adjective-NPs: while the first word was primed by a distractor for all speakers, only the slow speaker group presented a priming effect on the second element of the NP. These results show that the span of phonological encoding is modulated by inter-individual strategies: in experimental paradigms some speakers plan word by word whereas others encode beyond the initial word. We suggest that the diverging results reported in the literature on advance phonological planning may partly be reconciled in light of the present results.

  12. Tracking the time course of multi-word noun phrase production with ERPs or on when (and why) cat is faster than the big cat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bürki, Audrey; Laganaro, Marina

    2014-01-01

    Words are rarely produced in isolation. Yet, our understanding of multi-word production, and especially its time course, is still rather poor. In this research, we use event-related potentials to examine the production of multi-word noun phrases in the context of overt picture naming. We track the processing costs associated with the production of these noun phrases as compared with the production of bare nouns, from picture onset to articulation. Behavioral results revealed longer naming latencies for French noun phrases with determiners and pre-nominal adjectives (D-A-N, the big cat) than for noun phrases with a determiner (D-N, the cat), or bare nouns (N, cat). The spatio-temporal analysis of the ERPs revealed differences in the duration of stable global electrophysiological patterns as a function of utterance format in two time windows, from ~190 to 300 ms after picture onset, and from ~530 ms after picture onset to 100 ms before articulation. These findings can be accommodated in the following model. During grammatical encoding (here from ~190 to 300 ms), the noun and adjective lemmas are accessed in parallel, followed by the selection of the gender-agreeing determiner. Phonological encoding (after ~530 ms) operates sequentially. As a consequence, the phonological encoding process is longer for longer utterances. In addition, when determiners are repeated across trials, their phonological encoding can be anticipated or primed, resulting in a shortened encoding process.

  13. Tracking the time course of multi-word noun phrase production with ERPs or on when (and why cat is faster than the big cat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Audrey eBürki

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Words are rarely produced in isolation. Yet, our understanding of multi-word production, and especially its time course, is still rather poor. In this research, we use event-related potentials to examine the production of multi-word noun phrases in the context of overt picture naming. We track the processing costs associated with the production of these noun phrases as compared with the production of bare nouns, from picture onset to articulation. Behavioral results revealed longer naming latencies for French noun phrases with determiners and pre-nominal adjectives (D-A-N, the big cat than for noun phrases with a determiner (D-N, the cat or bare nouns (N, cat. The spatio-temporal analysis of the ERPs revealed differences in the duration of stable global electrophysiological patterns as a function of utterance format in two time windows, from ~190 ms to 300 ms after picture onset, and from ~530 ms after picture onset to 100 ms before articulation. These findings can be accommodated in the following model. During grammatical encoding (here from ~190 ms to 300 ms, the noun and adjective lemmas are accessed in parallel, followed by the selection of the gender-agreeing determiner. Phonological encoding (after ~530 ms operates sequentially. As a consequence, the phonological encoding process is longer for longer utterances. In addition, when determiners are repeated across trials, their phonological encoding can be anticipated or primed, resulting in a shortened encoding process.

  14. Constraint theory, singular lagrangians and multitemporal dynamics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lusanna, L.

    1988-01-01

    Singular Lagrangians and constraint theory permeate theoretical physics, as shown by the relevance of gauge theories, string models and general relativity. Their study used finite---dimensional models as a guide to develop the theory, but their main use was in classical field theory, due to the necessity of understanding their quantization. The covariant quantization of singular Lagrangians led to the BRST approach and to the theory of the effective action. On the other hand their phase---space formulation, culminated with the BFV approach for first class, second class and reducible constraints. It, in turn, gave new insights in the theory of singular Lagrangians and constraints and in their cohomological aspects. However the Hamiltonian approach to field theory is highly nontrivial, is open to criticism due to its problems with locality, geometry and manifest covariance and its canonical quantization has still to be developed, because there is no proof of the renormalizability of the Schroedinger representation of field theory. This paper discusses how, notwithstanding these developments, there is still a big amount of ambiguity at every level of the theory

  15. An Exact Solution of the Binary Singular Problem

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Baiqing Sun

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Singularity problem exists in various branches of applied mathematics. Such ordinary differential equations accompany singular coefficients. In this paper, by using the properties of reproducing kernel, the exact solution expressions of dual singular problem are given in the reproducing kernel space and studied, also for a class of singular problem. For the binary equation of singular points, I put it into the singular problem first, and then reuse some excellent properties which are applied to solve the method of solving differential equations for its exact solution expression of binary singular integral equation in reproducing kernel space, and then obtain its approximate solution through the evaluation of exact solutions. Numerical examples will show the effectiveness of this method.

  16. A theoretical analysis of the feasibility of a singularity-induced micro-electroporation system.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gregory D Troszak

    Full Text Available Electroporation, the permeabilization of the cell membrane lipid bilayer due to a pulsed electric field, has important implications in the biotechnology, medicine, and food industries. Traditional macro and micro-electroporation devices have facing electrodes, and require significant potential differences to induce electroporation. The goal of this theoretical study is to investigate the feasibility of singularity-induced micro-electroporation; an electroporation configuration aimed at minimizing the potential differences required to induce electroporation by separating adjacent electrodes with a nanometer-scale insulator. In particular, this study aims to understand the effect of (1 insulator thickness and (2 electrode kinetics on electric field distributions in the singularity-induced micro-electroporation configuration. A non-dimensional primary current distribution model of the micro-electroporation channel shows that while increasing insulator thickness results in smaller electric field magnitudes, electroporation can still be performed with insulators thick enough to be made with microfabrication techniques. Furthermore, a secondary current distribution model of the singularity-induced micro-electroporation configuration with inert platinum electrodes and water electrolyte indicates that electrode kinetics do not inhibit charge transfer to the extent that prohibitively large potential differences are required to perform electroporation. These results indicate that singularity-induced micro-electroporation could be used to develop an electroporation system that consumes minimal power, making it suitable for remote applications such as the sterilization of water and other liquids.

  17. Singular Spectrum Near a Singular Point of Friedrichs Model Operators of Absolute Type

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iakovlev, Serguei I.

    2006-01-01

    In L 2 (R) we consider a family of self adjoint operators of the Friedrichs model: A m =|t| m +V. Here |t| m is the operator of multiplication by the corresponding function of the independent variable t element of R, and (perturbation) is a trace-class integral operator with a continuous Hermitian kernel ν(t,x) satisfying some smoothness condition. These absolute type operators have one singular point of order m>0. Conditions on the kernel ν(t,x) are found guaranteeing the absence of the point spectrum and the singular continuous one of such operators near the origin. These conditions are actually necessary and sufficient. They depend on the finiteness of the rank of a perturbation operator and on the order of singularity. The sharpness of these conditions is confirmed by counterexamples

  18. Spectral asymptotics for nonsmooth singular Green operators

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grubb, Gerd

    2014-01-01

    is a singular Green operator. It is well-known in smooth cases that when G is of negative order −t on a bounded domain, its eigenvalues ors-numbers have the behavior (*)s j (G) ∼ cj −t/(n−1) for j → ∞, governed by the boundary dimension n − 1. In some nonsmooth cases, upper estimates (**)s j (G) ≤ Cj −t/(n−1...

  19. Singularity spectrum of self-organized criticality

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Canessa, E.

    1992-10-01

    I introduce a simple continuous probability theory based on the Ginzburg-Landau equation that provides for the first time a common analytical basis to relate and describe the main features of two seemingly different phenomena of condensed-matter physics, namely self-organized criticality and multifractality. Numerical support is given by a comparison with reported simulation data. Within the theory the origin of self-organized critical phenomena is analysed in terms of a nonlinear singularity spectrum different form the typical convex shape due to multifractal measures. (author). 29 refs, 5 figs

  20. The Singularity May Never Be Near

    OpenAIRE

    Walsh, Toby

    2017-01-01

    There is both much optimisim and pessimism around artificial intelligence (AI) today. The optimists are investing millions of dollars, and even in some cases billions of dollars into AI. The pessimists, on the other hand, predict that AI will end many things: jobs, warfare, and even the human race. Both the optimists and the pessimists often appeal to the idea of a technological singularity, a point in time where machine intelligence starts to run away, and a new, more in- telligent “species”...

  1. Compacted dimensions and singular plasmonic surfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pendry, J. B.; Huidobro, Paloma Arroyo; Luo, Yu; Galiffi, Emanuele

    2017-11-01

    In advanced field theories, there can be more than four dimensions to space, the excess dimensions described as compacted and unobservable on everyday length scales. We report a simple model, unconnected to field theory, for a compacted dimension realized in a metallic metasurface periodically structured in the form of a grating comprising a series of singularities. An extra dimension of the grating is hidden, and the surface plasmon excitations, though localized at the surface, are characterized by three wave vectors rather than the two of typical two-dimensional metal grating. We propose an experimental realization in a doped graphene layer.

  2. Beyond the singularity of the 2-D charged black hole

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Giveon, Amit; Rabinovici, Eliezer; Sever, Amit

    2003-01-01

    Two dimensional charged black holes in string theory can be obtained as exact SL(2,R) x U(1)/U(1) quotient CFTs. The geometry of the quotient is induced from that of the group, and in particular includes regions beyond the black hole singularities. Moreover, wavefunctions in such black holes are obtained from gauge invariant vertex operators in the SL(2,R) CFT, hence their behavior beyond the singularity is determined. When the black hole is charged we find that the wavefunctions are smooth at the singularities. Unlike the uncharged case, scattering waves prepared beyond the singularity are not fully reflected; part of the wave is transmitted through the singularity. Hence, the physics outside the horizon of a charged black hole is sensitive to conditions set behind the past singularity. (author)

  3. Logarithmic of mass singularities theorem in non massive quantum electrodynamics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mares G, R.; Luna, H.

    1997-01-01

    We give an explicit example of the use of dimensional regularization to calculate in a unified approach, all the ultraviolet, infrared and mass singularities, by considering the LMS (logarithms of mass singularities) theorem in the frame of massless QED (Quantum electrodynamics). In the calculation of the divergent part of the cross section, all singularities are found to cancel provided soft and hard photon emission are both taken into account. (Author)

  4. Singular vectors of Malikov-Fagin-Fux in topological theories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Semikhatov, A.M.

    1993-01-01

    Coincidence of singular vectors in relation to the sl(2) Katza-Mudi algebra and the algebra of the N=2 (twisted) supersymmetry is established. On the base of the Kazama-Suzuki simplest model is obtained a representation for the sl(2) currents in terms of an interacting with mater gravitation. From the Malikov-Fagin-Fux formulae for the sl(2) singular currents is obtained the general expression for singular vectors in topological theories

  5. Observer-dependent sign inversions of polarization singularities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freund, Isaac

    2014-10-15

    We describe observer-dependent sign inversions of the topological charges of vector field polarization singularities: C points (points of circular polarization), L points (points of linear polarization), and two virtually unknown singularities we call γ(C) and α(L) points. In all cases, the sign of the charge seen by an observer can change as she changes the direction from which she views the singularity. Analytic formulas are given for all C and all L point sign inversions.

  6. Transmutation of planar media singularities in a conformal cloak.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yichao; Mukhtar, Musawwadah; Ma, Yungui; Ong, C K

    2013-11-01

    Invisibility cloaking based on optical transformation involves materials singularity at the branch cut points. Many interesting optical devices, such as the Eaton lens, also require planar media index singularities in their implementation. We show a method to transmute two singularities simultaneously into harmless topological defects formed by anisotropic permittivity and permeability tensors. Numerical simulation is performed to verify the functionality of the transmuted conformal cloak consisting of two kissing Maxwell fish eyes.

  7. Deficiency indices and singular boundary conditions in quantum mechanics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bulla, W.

    1984-01-01

    We consider Schroedinger operators H in L 2 (Rsup(n)), n from IN, with countably infinitely many local singularities of the potential which are separated from each other by a positive distance. It is proved that due to locality each singularity yields a separate contribution to the deficiency index of H. In the special case where the singularities are pointlike and the potential exhibits certain symmetries near these points we give an explicit construction of self-adjoint boundary conditions

  8. Naked singularities in self-similar spherical gravitational collapse

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ori, A.; Piran, T.

    1987-01-01

    We present general-relativistic solutions of self-similar spherical collapse of an adiabatic perfect fluid. We show that if the equation of state is soft enough (Γ-1<<1), a naked singularity forms. The singularity resembles the shell-focusing naked singularities that arise in dust collapse. This solution increases significantly the range of matter fields that should be ruled out in order that the cosmic-censorship hypothesis will hold

  9. 7 CFR 900.80 - Words in the singular form.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Words in the singular form. 900.80 Section 900.80....C. 608b(b) and 7 U.S.C. 608e Covering Fruits, Vegetables, and Nuts § 900.80 Words in the singular form. Words in this subpart in the singular form shall be deemed to import the plural, and vice versa...

  10. AHP 1:A RESPONSE TO WAYS AND THE SYNTAX OF NOUN PHRASES IN QĪNGHĂI CHINESE DIALECTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Keith Dede

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available In the course of offering a review of Zhāng Chéngcái's Ways, this paper describes the syntax of noun phrases in the Chinese dialect of Huángshuĭ, in Qīnghăi Province. Unlike other Chinese dialects, this dialect employs several postpositions for indicating syntactic nominal relationships. The origin of this phenomenon in contact with non-Sinitic languages in the region and its significance are also explored.

  11. Symbolic Play and Novel Noun Learning in Deaf and Hearing Children: Longitudinal Effects of Access to Sound on Early Precursors of Language

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quittner, Alexandra L.; Cejas, Ivette; Wang, Nae-Yuh; Niparko, John K.; Barker, David H.

    2016-01-01

    In the largest, longitudinal study of young, deaf children before and three years after cochlear implantation, we compared symbolic play and novel noun learning to age-matched hearing peers. Participants were 180 children from six cochlear implant centers and 96 hearing children. Symbolic play was measured during five minutes of videotaped, structured solitary play. Play was coded as "symbolic" if the child used substitution (e.g., a wooden block as a bed). Novel noun learning was measured in 10 trials using a novel object and a distractor. Cochlear implant vs. normal hearing children were delayed in their use of symbolic play, however, those implanted before vs. after age two performed significantly better. Children with cochlear implants were also delayed in novel noun learning (median delay 1.54 years), with minimal evidence of catch-up growth. Quality of parent-child interactions was positively related to performance on the novel noun learning, but not symbolic play task. Early implantation was beneficial for both achievement of symbolic play and novel noun learning. Further, maternal sensitivity and linguistic stimulation by parents positively affected noun learning skills, although children with cochlear implants still lagged in comparison to hearing peers. PMID:27228032

  12. Symbolic Play and Novel Noun Learning in Deaf and Hearing Children: Longitudinal Effects of Access to Sound on Early Precursors of Language.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quittner, Alexandra L; Cejas, Ivette; Wang, Nae-Yuh; Niparko, John K; Barker, David H

    2016-01-01

    In the largest, longitudinal study of young, deaf children before and three years after cochlear implantation, we compared symbolic play and novel noun learning to age-matched hearing peers. Participants were 180 children from six cochlear implant centers and 96 hearing children. Symbolic play was measured during five minutes of videotaped, structured solitary play. Play was coded as "symbolic" if the child used substitution (e.g., a wooden block as a bed). Novel noun learning was measured in 10 trials using a novel object and a distractor. Cochlear implant vs. normal hearing children were delayed in their use of symbolic play, however, those implanted before vs. after age two performed significantly better. Children with cochlear implants were also delayed in novel noun learning (median delay 1.54 years), with minimal evidence of catch-up growth. Quality of parent-child interactions was positively related to performance on the novel noun learning, but not symbolic play task. Early implantation was beneficial for both achievement of symbolic play and novel noun learning. Further, maternal sensitivity and linguistic stimulation by parents positively affected noun learning skills, although children with cochlear implants still lagged in comparison to hearing peers.

  13. Quantum singularities in the FRW universe revisited

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Letelier, Patricio S.; Pitelli, Joao Paulo M.

    2010-01-01

    The components of the Riemann tensor in the tetrad basis are quantized and, through the Einstein equation, we find the local expectation value in the ontological interpretation of quantum mechanics of the energy density and pressure of a perfect fluid with equation of state p=(1/3)ρ in the flat Friedmann-Robertson-Walker quantum cosmological model. The quantum behavior of the equation of state and energy conditions are then studied, and it is shown that the energy conditions are violated since the singularity is removed with the introduction of quantum cosmology, but in the classical limit both the equation of state and the energy conditions behave as in the classical model. We also calculate the expectation value of the scale factor for several wave packets in the many-worlds interpretation in order to show the independence of the nonsingular character of the quantum cosmological model with respect to the wave packet representing the wave function of the Universe. It is also shown that, with the introduction of nonnormalizable wave packets, solutions of the Wheeler-DeWitt equation, the singular character of the scale factor, can be recovered in the ontological interpretation.

  14. Finite-time singularity signature of hyperinflation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sornette, D.; Takayasu, H.; Zhou, W.-X.

    2003-07-01

    We present a novel analysis extending the recent work of Mizuno et al. (Physica A 308 (2002) 411) on the hyperinflations of Germany (1920/1/1-1923/11/1), Hungary (1945/4/30-1946/7/15), Brazil (1969-1994), Israel (1969-1985), Nicaragua (1969-1991), Peru (1969-1990) and Bolivia (1969-1985). On the basis of a generalization of Cagan's model of inflation based on the mechanism of “inflationary expectation” of positive feedbacks between realized growth rate and people's expected growth rate, we find that hyperinflations can be characterized by a power law singularity culminating at a critical time tc. Mizuno et al.'s double-exponential function can be seen as a discrete time-step approximation of our more general non-linear ODE formulation of the price dynamics which exhibits a finite-time singular behavior. This extension of Cagan's model, which makes natural the appearance of a critical time tc, has the advantage of providing a well-defined end of the clearly unsustainable hyperinflation regime. We find an excellent and reliable agreement between theory and data for Germany, Hungary, Peru and Bolivia. For Brazil, Israel and Nicaragua, the super-exponential growth seems to be already contaminated significantly by the existence of a cross-over to a stationary regime.

  15. Consideration on Singularities in Learning Theory and the Learning Coefficient

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miki Aoyagi

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available We consider the learning coefficients in learning theory and give two new methods for obtaining these coefficients in a homogeneous case: a method for finding a deepest singular point and a method to add variables. In application to Vandermonde matrix-type singularities, we show that these methods are effective. The learning coefficient of the generalization error in Bayesian estimation serves to measure the learning efficiency in singular learning models. Mathematically, the learning coefficient corresponds to a real log canonical threshold of singularities for the Kullback functions (relative entropy in learning theory.

  16. Identification of discrete chaotic maps with singular points

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. G. Akishin

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available We investigate the ability of artificial neural networks to reconstruct discrete chaotic maps with singular points. We use as a simple test model the Cusp map. We compare the traditional Multilayer Perceptron, the Chebyshev Neural Network and the Wavelet Neural Network. The numerical scheme for the accurate determination of a singular point is also developed. We show that combining a neural network with the numerical algorithm for the determination of the singular point we are able to accurately approximate discrete chaotic maps with singularities.

  17. Numerical investigation of stress singularities in cracked bimaterial body

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Náhlík, Luboš; Šestáková, Lucie; Hutař, Pavel

    2008-01-01

    Roč. 385-387, - (2008), s. 125-128 ISSN 1013-9826. [International Conference on Fracture and Damage Mechanics /7./. Seoul, 09.09.2008-11.09.2008] R&D Projects: GA AV ČR(CZ) KJB200410803; GA ČR GP106/06/P239; GA ČR GA106/08/1409 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z20410507 Keywords : bimaterial interface * stress singularity exponent * corner singularity * vertex singularity * general singular stress concentrator Subject RIV: JL - Materials Fatigue, Friction Mechanics

  18. The road to singularities, and the roses on the way

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Collins, C.B.

    1978-01-01

    A survey of current investigations of space-time singularities is given. The different approaches adopted by various research schools is discussed, and an analogy is drawn between this study and the mounting of an expedition that sets out on a long trail of discovery. A heuristic discussion is given of the latest classification of singularities and some brief comments are made on how physically relevant each type of singularity is. Roughly speaking, it seems that the milder types (at which quantities remain well behaved) are pathological cases, whereas the crude 'big-bang' type of singularity is more generic. (author)

  19. Can non-commutativity resolve the big-bang singularity?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maceda, M.; Madore, J. [Laboratoire de Physique Theorique, Universite de Paris-Sud, Batiment 211, 91405, Orsay (France); Manousselis, P. [Department of Engineering Sciences, University of Patras, 26110, Patras (Greece); Physics Department, National Technical University, Zografou Campus, 157 80, Zografou, Athens (Greece); Zoupanos, G. [Physics Department, National Technical University, Zografou Campus, 157 80, Zografou, Athens (Greece); Theory Division, CERN, 1211, Geneva 23 (Switzerland)

    2004-08-01

    A possible way to resolve the singularities of general relativity is proposed based on the assumption that the description of space-time using commuting coordinates is not valid above a certain fundamental scale. Beyond that scale it is assumed that the space-time has non-commutative structure leading in turn to a resolution of the singularity. As a first attempt towards realizing the above programme a modification of the Kasner metric is constructed which is commutative only at large time scales. At small time scales, near the singularity, the commutation relations among the space coordinates diverge. We interpret this result as meaning that the singularity has been completely delocalized. (orig.)

  20. Tools for language: patterned iconicity in sign language nouns and verbs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Padden, Carol; Hwang, So-One; Lepic, Ryan; Seegers, Sharon

    2015-01-01

    When naming certain hand-held, man-made tools, American Sign Language (ASL) signers exhibit either of two iconic strategies: a handling strategy, where the hands show holding or grasping an imagined object in action, or an instrument strategy, where the hands represent the shape or a dimension of the object in a typical action. The same strategies are also observed in the gestures of hearing nonsigners identifying pictures of the same set of tools. In this paper, we compare spontaneously created gestures from hearing nonsigning participants to commonly used lexical signs in ASL. Signers and gesturers were asked to respond to pictures of tools and to video vignettes of actions involving the same tools. Nonsigning gesturers overwhelmingly prefer the handling strategy for both the Picture and Video conditions. Nevertheless, they use more instrument forms when identifying tools in pictures, and more handling forms when identifying actions with tools. We found that ASL signers generally favor the instrument strategy when naming tools, but when describing tools being used by an actor, they are significantly more likely to use more handling forms. The finding that both gesturers and signers are more likely to alternate strategies when the stimuli are pictures or video suggests a common cognitive basis for differentiating objects from actions. Furthermore, the presence of a systematic handling/instrument iconic pattern in a sign language demonstrates that a conventionalized sign language exploits the distinction for grammatical purpose, to distinguish nouns and verbs related to tool use. Copyright © 2014 Cognitive Science Society, Inc.

  1. Mechanical quadrature method as applied to singular integral equations with logarithmic singularity on the right-hand side

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amirjanyan, A. A.; Sahakyan, A. V.

    2017-08-01

    A singular integral equation with a Cauchy kernel and a logarithmic singularity on its righthand side is considered on a finite interval. An algorithm is proposed for the numerical solution of this equation. The contact elasticity problem of a П-shaped rigid punch indented into a half-plane is solved in the case of a uniform hydrostatic pressure occurring under the punch, which leads to a logarithmic singularity at an endpoint of the integration interval. The numerical solution of this problem shows the efficiency of the proposed approach and suggests that the singularity has to be taken into account in solving the equation.

  2. A vida singular de um jovem militante

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Áurea Maria Guimarães

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Esse artigo é fruto de uma pesquisa realizada no período de 2007 a 2010, junto a jovens militantes da cidade de Campinas, com o objetivo de compreender as diferentes maneiras que conduziam esses jovens tanto a reproduzir um modelo de vida quanto a criar outras possibilidades de militância na relação com esse modelo. Entre as histórias orais de vida narradas por jovens que militavam em diferentes grupos ou instituições, escolhi a vida de Biula, representante do movimento estudantil secundarista, procurando evidenciar que a singularidade desta vida, como também e a de outros jovens, estava conectada à problematização que faziam no interior de certas práticas, histórica e culturalmente constituídas, possibilitando a criação de novas formas de subjetivação nas quais se modificava a experiência que tinham deles mesmos na relação com os seus heróis ou modelos de referência. Palavras-chave: história oral – transcriação – heróis – resistência - processos de singularização.   THE SINGULAR LIFE OF A YOUNG MILITANT ABSTRACT   This article is the result of a research carried out from 2007 to 2010 with   young militants in the city of Campinas, aiming to understand the different ways which conducted these youngsters to both reproduce a life model and create other possibilities of militancy in the relationship with this model. Among oral stories narrated by young militants from different groups or institutions, I have chosen the life of Biula, a representative of the secondary students’ movement, trying to show that the singularity of this life and other youngsters’ lives was connected to the problematization they promoted within certain practices, historically and culturally built, thus enabling the creation of new subjectification modes in which the experience they had of themselves in the relationship with their heroes or reference models has changed. Key words: oral history -  transcreation – heroes

  3. The technological singularity and exponential medicine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iraj Nabipour

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The "technological singularity" is forecasted to occur in 2045. It is a point when non-biological intelligence becomes more intelligent than humans and each generation of intelligent machines re-designs itself smarter. Beyond this point, there is a symbiosis between machines and humans. This co-existence will produce incredible impacts on medicine that its sparkles could be seen in healthcare industry and the future medicine since 2025. Ray Kurzweil, the great futurist, suggested that three revolutions in science and technology consisting genetic and molecular science, nanotechnology, and robotic (artificial intelligence provided an exponential growth rate for medicine. The "exponential medicine" is going to create more disruptive technologies in healthcare industry. The exponential medicine shifts the paradigm of medical philosophy and produces significant impacts on the healthcare system and patient-physician relationship.   

  4. Dual Vector Spaces and Physical Singularities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rowlands, Peter

    Though we often refer to 3-D vector space as constructed from points, there is no mechanism from within its definition for doing this. In particular, space, on its own, cannot accommodate the singularities that we call fundamental particles. This requires a commutative combination of space as we know it with another 3-D vector space, which is dual to the first (in a physical sense). The combination of the two spaces generates a nilpotent quantum mechanics/quantum field theory, which incorporates exact supersymmetry and ultimately removes the anomalies due to self-interaction. Among the many natural consequences of the dual space formalism are half-integral spin for fermions, zitterbewegung, Berry phase and a zero norm Berwald-Moor metric for fermionic states.

  5. String wave function across a Kasner singularity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Copeland, Edmund J.; Niz, Gustavo; Turok, Neil

    2010-01-01

    A collision of orbifold planes in 11 dimensions has been proposed as an explanation of the hot big bang. When the two planes are close to each other, the winding membranes become the lightest modes of the theory, and can be effectively described in terms of fundamental strings in a ten-dimensional background. Near the brane collision, the 11-dimensional metric is a Euclidean space times a 1+1-dimensional Milne universe. However, one may expect small perturbations to lead into a more general Kasner background. In this paper we extend the previous classical analysis of winding membranes to Kasner backgrounds, and using the Hamiltonian equations, solve for the wave function of loops with circular symmetry. The evolution across the singularity is regular, and explained in terms of the excitement of higher oscillation modes. We also show there is finite particle production and unitarity is preserved.

  6. Branes at Singularities in Type 0 String Theory

    OpenAIRE

    Alishahiha, M; Brandhuber, A; Oz, Y

    1999-01-01

    We consider Type 0B D3-branes placed at conical singularities and analyze in detail the conifold singularity. We study the non supersymmetric gauge theories on their worldvolume and their conjectured dual gravity descriptions. In the ultraviolet the solutions exhibit a logarithmic running of the gauge coupling. In the infrared we find confining solutions and IR fixed points.

  7. Eigenstructure of of singular systems. Perturbation analysis of simple eigenvalues

    OpenAIRE

    García Planas, María Isabel; Tarragona Romero, Sonia

    2014-01-01

    The problem to study small perturbations of simple eigenvalues with a change of parameters is of general interest in applied mathematics. After to introduce a systematic way to know if an eigenvalue of a singular system is simple or not, the aim of this work is to study the behavior of a simple eigenvalue of singular linear system family

  8. Singularities of elastic scattering amplitude by long-range potentials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kvitsinsky, A.A.; Komarov, I.V.; Merkuriev, S.P.

    1982-01-01

    The angular peculiarities and the zero energy singularities of the elastic scattering amplitude by a long-range potential are described. The singularities of the elastic (2 → 2) scattering amplitude for a system of three Coulomb particles are considered [ru

  9. Singularly perturbed volterra integro-differential equations | Bijura ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Several investigations have been made on singularly perturbed integral equations. This paper aims at presenting an algorithm for the construction of asymptotic solutions and then provide a proof asymptotic correctness to singularly perturbed systems of Volterra integro-differential equations. Mathematics Subject

  10. Non-uniqueness of the source for singular gauge fields

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lanyi, G.; Pappas, R.

    1977-01-01

    It is shown that the singular Wu-Yang solution for SU(2) gauge fields may be interpreted as due to a point source at the origin. However, the electric or magnetic nature of the source depends on whether one approaches the singularity by means of a 'smeared' potential or a 'smeared' field strength. (Auth.)

  11. Solitary wave solution to a singularly perturbed generalized Gardner ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    2017-03-24

    Mar 24, 2017 ... Abstract. This paper is concerned with the existence of travelling wave solutions to a singularly perturbed gen- eralized Gardner equation with nonlinear terms of any order. By using geometric singular perturbation theory and based on the relation between solitary wave solution and homoclinic orbits of the ...

  12. K3-fibered Calabi-Yau threefolds II, singular fibers

    OpenAIRE

    Hunt, Bruce

    1999-01-01

    In part I of this paper we constructed certain fibered Calabi-Yaus by a quotient construction in the context of weighted hypersurfaces. In this paper look at the case of K3 fibrations more closely and study the singular fibers which occur. This differs from previous work since the fibrations we discuss have constant modulus, and the singular fibers have torsion monodromy.

  13. Some BMO estimates for vector-valued multilinear singular integral ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    R. Narasimhan (Krishtel eMaging) 1461 1996 Oct 15 13:05:22

    the multilinear operator related to some singular integral operators is obtained. The main purpose of this paper is to establish the BMO end-point estimates for some vector-valued multilinear operators related to certain singular integral operators. First, let us introduce some notations [10,16]. Throughout this paper, Q = Q(x,r).

  14. Infinite derivative gravity : non-singular cosmology & blackhole solutions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mazumdar, Anupam

    2017-01-01

    Both Einstein's theory of General Relativity and Newton's theory of gravity possess a short dis- tance and small time scale catastrophe. The blackhole singularity and cosmological Big Bang singularity problems highlight that current theories of gravity are incomplete description at early times and

  15. A Note on Inclusion Intervals of Matrix Singular Values

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shu-Yu Cui

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available We establish an inclusion relation between two known inclusion intervals of matrix singular values in some special case. In addition, based on the use of positive scale vectors, a known inclusion interval of matrix singular values is also improved.

  16. Simpson's neutrino and the singular see-saw

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Allen, T.J.; Johnson, R.; Ranfone, S.; Schechter, J.; Walle, J.W.F.

    1991-01-01

    The authors of this paper derive explicit forms for the neutrino and lepton mixing-matrices which describe the generic singular see-saw model. The dependence on the hierarchy parameter is contrasted with the non-singular case. Application is made to Simpson's 17 keV neutrino

  17. On reliability of singular-value decomposition in attractor reconstruction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Palus, M.; Dvorak, I.

    1990-12-01

    Applicability of singular-value decomposition for reconstructing the strange attractor from one-dimensional chaotic time series, proposed by Broomhead and King, is extensively tested and discussed. Previously published doubts about its reliability are confirmed: singular-value decomposition, by nature a linear method, is only of a limited power when nonlinear structures are studied. (author). 29 refs, 9 figs

  18. One Critical Case in Singularly Perturbed Control Problems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sobolev, Vladimir

    2017-02-01

    The aim of the paper is to describe the special critical case in the theory of singularly perturbed optimal control problems. We reduce the original singularly perturbed problem to a regularized one such that the existence of slow integral manifolds can be established by means of the standard theory. We illustrate our approach by an example of control problem.

  19. 7 CFR 1200.1 - Words in the singular form.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Words in the singular form. 1200.1 Section 1200.1 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (MARKETING... Governing Proceedings To Formulate and Amend an Order § 1200.1 Words in the singular form. Words in this...

  20. Periodic solutions to second-order indefinite singular equations

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Hakl, Robert; Zamora, M.

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 263, č. 1 (2017), s. 451-469 ISSN 0022-0396 Institutional support: RVO:67985840 Keywords : degree theory * indefinite singularity * periodic solution * singular differential equation Subject RIV: BA - General Mathematics OBOR OECD: Pure mathematics Impact factor: 1.988, year: 2016 http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0022039617301134

  1. Non-singular cosmologies in the conformally invariant gravitation theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kembhavi, A.K.

    1976-01-01

    It is shown that in the framework of a conformally invariant gravitation theory, the singularity which is present in some anisotropic universes in general relativity is due to a wrong choice of conformal frame. Frames exist in which these models can be made singularity free. (author)

  2. A numerical method for solving singular De`s

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mahaver, W.T.

    1996-12-31

    A numerical method is developed for solving singular differential equations using steepest descent based on weighted Sobolev gradients. The method is demonstrated on a variety of first and second order problems, including linear constrained, unconstrained, and partially constrained first order problems, a nonlinear first order problem with irregular singularity, and two second order variational problems.

  3. ANALYTICAL SOLUTIONS OF SINGULAR ISOTHERMAL QUADRUPOLE LENS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chu Zhe; Lin, W. P.; Yang Xiaofeng

    2013-01-01

    Using an analytical method, we study the singular isothermal quadrupole (SIQ) lens system, which is the simplest lens model that can produce four images. In this case, the radial mass distribution is in accord with the profile of the singular isothermal sphere lens, and the tangential distribution is given by adding a quadrupole on the monopole component. The basic properties of the SIQ lens have been studied in this Letter, including the deflection potential, deflection angle, magnification, critical curve, caustic, pseudo-caustic, and transition locus. Analytical solutions of the image positions and magnifications for the source on axes are derived. We find that naked cusps will appear when the relative intensity k of quadrupole to monopole is larger than 0.6. According to the magnification invariant theory of the SIQ lens, the sum of the signed magnifications of the four images should be equal to unity, as found by Dalal. However, if a source lies in the naked cusp, the summed magnification of the left three images is smaller than the invariant 1. With this simple lens system, we study the situations where a point source infinitely approaches a cusp or a fold. The sum of the magnifications of the cusp image triplet is usually not equal to 0, and it is usually positive for major cusps while negative for minor cusps. Similarly, the sum of magnifications of the fold image pair is usually not equal to 0 either. Nevertheless, the cusp and fold relations are still equal to 0 in that the sum values are divided by infinite absolute magnifications by definition.

  4. Singular Null Hypersurfaces in General Relativity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dray, T

    2006-01-01

    Null hypersurfaces are a mathematical consequence of the Lorentzian signature of general relativity; singularities in mathematical models usually indicate where the interesting physics takes place. This book discusses what happens when you combine these ideas. Right from the preface, this is a no-nonsense book. There are two principal approaches to singular shells, one distributional and the other 'cut and paste'; both are treated in detail. A working knowledge of GR is assumed, including familiarity with null tetrads, differential forms, and 3 + 1 decompositions. Despite my own reasonably extensive, closely related knowledge, there was material unfamiliar to me already in chapter 3, although I was reunited with some old friends in later chapters. The exposition is crisp, with a minimum of transition from chapter to chapter. In fact, my main criticism is that there is no clear statement of the organization of the book, nor is there an index. Everything is here, and the story is compelling if you know what to look for, although it is less easy to follow the story if you are not already familiar with it. But this is really a book for experts, and the authors certainly qualify, having played a significant role in developing and extending the results they describe. It is also entirely appropriate that the book is dedicated to Werner Israel, who pioneered the thin-shell approach to (non-null) singular surfaces and later championed the use of similar methods for analysing null shells. After an introductory chapter on impulsive signals, the authors show how the Bianchi identities can be used to classify spacetimes with singular null hypersurfaces. This approach, due to the authors, generalizes the framework originally proposed by Penrose. While astrophysical applications are discussed only briefly, the authors point out that detailed physical characteristics of signals from isolated sources can be determined in this manner. In particular, they describe the behaviour of

  5. Complexity, Analysis and Control of Singular Biological Systems

    CERN Document Server

    Zhang, Qingling; Zhang, Xue

    2012-01-01

    Complexity, Analysis and Control of Singular Biological Systems follows the control of real-world biological systems at both ecological and phyisological levels concentrating on the application of now-extensively-investigated singular system theory. Much effort has recently been dedicated to the modelling and analysis of developing bioeconomic systems and the text establishes singular examples of these, showing how proper control can help to maintain sustainable economic development of biological resources. The book begins from the essentials of singular systems theory and bifurcations before tackling  the use of various forms of control in singular biological systems using examples including predator-prey relationships and viral vaccination and quarantine control. Researchers and graduate students studying the control of complex biological systems are shown how a variety of methods can be brought to bear and practitioners working with the economics of biological systems and their control will also find the ...

  6. Managing focal fields of vector beams with multiple polarization singularities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Lei; Liu, Sheng; Li, Peng; Zhang, Yi; Cheng, Huachao; Gan, Xuetao; Zhao, Jianlin

    2016-11-10

    We explore the tight focusing behavior of vector beams with multiple polarization singularities, and analyze the influences of the number, position, and topological charge of the singularities on the focal fields. It is found that the ellipticity of the local polarization states at the focal plane could be determined by the spatial distribution of the polarization singularities of the vector beam. When the spatial location and topological charge of singularities have even-fold rotation symmetry, the transverse fields at the focal plane are locally linearly polarized. Otherwise, the polarization state becomes a locally hybrid one. By appropriately arranging the distribution of the polarization singularities in the vector beam, the polarization distributions of the focal fields could be altered while the intensity maintains unchanged.

  7. Workshop on Singularities in Geometry, Topology, Foliations and Dynamics

    CERN Document Server

    Lê, Dung; Oka, Mutsuo; Snoussi, Jawad

    2017-01-01

    This book features state-of-the-art research on singularities in geometry, topology, foliations and dynamics and provides an overview of the current state of singularity theory in these settings. Singularity theory is at the crossroad of various branches of mathematics and science in general. In recent years there have been remarkable developments, both in the theory itself and in its relations with other areas. The contributions in this volume originate from the “Workshop on Singularities in Geometry, Topology, Foliations and Dynamics”, held in Merida, Mexico, in December 2014, in celebration of José Seade’s 60th Birthday. It is intended for researchers and graduate students interested in singularity theory and its impact on other fields.

  8. Cusp singularities in f(R) gravity: pros and cons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, Pisin; Yeom, Dong-han

    2015-01-01

    We investigate cusp singularities in f(R) gravity, especially for Starobinsky and Hu-Sawicki dark energy models. We illustrate that, by using double-null numerical simulations, a cusp singularity can be triggered by gravitational collapses. This singularity can be cured by adding a quadratic term, but this causes a Ricci scalar bump that can be observed by an observer outside the event horizon. Comparing with cosmological parameters, it seems that it would be difficult to see super-Planckian effects by astrophysical experiments. On the other hand, at once there exists a cusp singularity, it can be a mechanism to realize a horizon scale curvature singularity that can be interpreted by a firewall

  9. Fold points and singularity induced bifurcation in inviscid transonic flow

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marszalek, Wieslaw

    2012-01-01

    Transonic inviscid flow equation of elliptic–hyperbolic type when written in terms of the velocity components and similarity variable results in a second order nonlinear ODE having several features typical of differential–algebraic equations rather than ODEs. These features include the fold singularities (e.g. folded nodes and saddles, forward and backward impasse points), singularity induced bifurcation behavior and singularity crossing phenomenon. We investigate the above properties and conclude that the quasilinear DAEs of transonic flow have interesting properties that do not occur in other known quasilinear DAEs, for example, in MHD. Several numerical examples are included. -- Highlights: ► A novel analysis of inviscid transonic flow and its similarity solutions. ► Singularity induced bifurcation, singular points of transonic flow. ► Projection method, index of transonic flow DAEs, linearization via matrix pencil.

  10. Crack initiation criteria for singular stress concentrations Part I: A universal assessment of singular stress concentrations

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Knésl, Zdeněk; Klusák, Jan; Náhlík, Luboš

    2007-01-01

    Roč. 14, č. 6 (2007), s. 399-408 ISSN 1802-1484 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA101/05/0320; GA ČR GA101/05/0227 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z20410507 Keywords : fracture mechanics * stability criteria * singular stress concentrations * crack initiation * critical stress Subject RIV: JL - Materials Fatigue, Friction Mechanics

  11. Early sensitivity of left perisylvian cortex to relationality in nouns and verbs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Adina; Reddigari, Samir; Pylkkänen, Liina

    2017-06-01

    The ability to track the relationality of concepts, i.e., their capacity to encode a relationship between entities, is one of the core semantic abilities humans possess. In language processing, we systematically leverage this ability when computing verbal argument structure, in order to link participants to the events they participate in. Previous work has converged on a large region of left posterior perisylvian cortex as a locus for such processing, but the wide range of experimental stimuli and manipulations has yielded an unclear picture of the region's exact role(s). Importantly, there is a tendency for effects of relationality in single-word studies to localize to posterior temporo-parietal cortex, while argument structure effects in sentences appear in left superior temporal cortex. To characterize these sensitivities, we designed two MEG experiments that cross the factors relationality and eventivity. The first used minimal noun phrases and tested for an effect of semantic composition, while the second employed full sentences and a manipulation of grammatical category. The former identified a region of the left inferior parietal lobe sensitive to relationality, but not eventivity or combination, beginning at 170ms. The latter revealed a similarly-timed effect of relationality in left mid-superior temporal cortex, independent of eventivity and category. The results suggest that i) multiple sub-regions of perisylvian cortex are sensitive to the relationality carried by concepts even in the absence of arguments, ii) linguistic context modulates the locus of this sensitivity, consistent with prior studies, and iii) relationality information is accessed early - before 200ms - regardless of the concept's event status or syntactic category. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. 3rd Singularity Theory Meeting of Northeast region & the Brazil-Mexico 2nd Meeting on Singularities

    CERN Document Server

    Neto, Aurélio; Mond, David; Saia, Marcelo; Snoussi, Jawad; BMMS 2/NBMS 3; ENSINO; Singularities and foliations geometry, topology and applications

    2018-01-01

    This proceedings book brings selected works from two conferences, the 2nd Brazil-Mexico Meeting on Singularity and the 3rd Northeastern Brazilian Meeting on Singularities, that were hold in Salvador, in July 2015. All contributions were carefully peer-reviewed and revised, and cover topics like Equisingularity, Topology and Geometry of Singularities, Topological Classification of Singularities of Mappings, and more. They were written by mathematicians from several countries, including Brazil, Spain, Mexico, Japan and the USA, on relevant topics on Theory of Singularity, such as studies on deformations, Milnor fibration, foliations, Catastrophe theory, and myriad applications. Open problems are also introduced, making this volume a must-read both for graduate students and active researchers in this field.

  13. A comment on form factor mass singularities in flavor-changing neutral currents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sanchis, M.A.; Centro Mixto Valencia Univ./CSIC, Valencia

    1991-01-01

    Flavor-changing effective vertices q l q h V 0 , where V 0 represents a neutral gauge boson (γ,Z 0 ,g), involving a heavy external quark, are discussed within the standard model at one-loop level and second-order approximation in external momenta and masses: the logarithmic singular terms in the form factors at vanishing mass of the internal quark in the loop have to be replaced by pieces coming from next order in external momenta. Implications in the b→d+X penguin transitions are commented. (orig.)

  14. Spectral singularities, threshold gain, and output intensity for a slab laser with mirrors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doğan, Keremcan; Mostafazadeh, Ali; Sarısaman, Mustafa

    2018-05-01

    We explore the consequences of the emergence of linear and nonlinear spectral singularities in TE modes of a homogeneous slab of active optical material that is placed between two mirrors. We use the results together with two basic postulates regarding the behavior of laser light emission to derive explicit expressions for the laser threshold condition and output intensity for these modes of the slab and discuss their physical implications. In particular, we reveal the details of the dependence of the threshold gain and output intensity on the position and properties of the mirrors and on the real part of the refractive index of the gain material.

  15. Children's grammatical categories of verb and noun: a comparative look at children with specific language impairment (SLI) and normal language (NL).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skipp, Amy; Windfuhr, Kirsten L; Conti-Ramsden, Gina

    2002-01-01

    The study investigated the development of grammatical categories (noun and verb) in young language learners. Twenty-eight children with specific language impairment (SLI) with a mean language age of 35 months and 28 children with normal language (NL) with a mean language age of 34 months were exposed to four novel verbs and four novel nouns during 10 experimental child-directed play sessions. The lexical items were modelled with four experimentally controlled argument structures. Both groups of children showed little productivity with syntactic marking of arguments in the novel verb conditions. Thus, both groups of children mostly followed the surface structure of the model presented to them, regardless of the argument they were trying to express. Therefore, there was little evidence of verb-general processes. In contrast, both groups used nouns in semantic roles that had not been modelled for them. Importantly, however, children with SLI still appeared to be more input dependent than NL children. This suggests that children with NL were working with a robust noun schema, whereas children with SLI were not. Taken together, the findings suggest that neither group of children had a grammatical category of verb, but demonstrated a general knowledge of the grammatical category of noun. These findings are discussed in relation to current theories of normal and impaired language development.

  16. Stereotype or grammar? The representation of gender when two-year-old and three-year-old French-speaking toddlers listen to role nouns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lévy, Arik; Gygax, Pascal; Gabriel, Ute; Zesiger, Pascal

    2016-11-01

    Using a preferential looking paradigm, the current study examined the role that grammatical gender plays when preschool French-speaking toddlers process role nouns in the masculine form (e.g., chanteurs masculine 'singers'). While being auditorily prompted with "Look at the 'a role noun'!", two- and three-year-olds were presented with two pictures of two characters ('boy-boy' versus 'girl-boy') with attributes of the given role noun (e.g., singers with microphone and music notes). All role nouns were presented in the masculine plural form, which, despite its use to refer to mixed-gender groups, can be interpreted as referring to men. We expected toddlers to be biased by stereotypes, yet when non-stereotypical role nouns were presented, toddlers were not influenced by grammatical gender, but by their own sex (even more so for three-year-old toddlers). The absence of sensitivity to grammatical cues for either age group is discussed in terms of the developmental awareness of grammatical gender.

  17. Virtual Singular Scattering of Electromagnetic Waves in Transformation Media Concept

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Y. Barabanenkov

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available If a scatterer and an observation point (receive both approach the so-called near field zone of a source of electromagnetic waves, the scattering process becomes singular one which is mathematically attributed to the spatial singularity of the free space Green function at the origin. Starting from less well known property of left-handed material slab to transfer the singularity of the free space Green function by implementing coordinate transformation, we present a phenomenon of virtual singular scattering of electromagnetic wave on an inhomogeneity located in the volume of left – handed material slab. Virtual singular scattering means that a scatterer is situated only virtually in the near field zone of a source, being, in fact, positioned in the far field zone. Such a situation is realized if a scatterer is embedded into a flat Veselago’s lens and approaches the lens’s inner focus because a slab of Veselago medium produces virtual sources inside and behind the slab and virtual scatterer (as a source of secondary waves from both slab sides. Considering a line-like dielectric scatterer we demonstrate that the scattering efficiency is proportional to product of singular quasistatic parts of two empty space Green functions that means a multiplicative quasistatic singularity of the Green function for a slab of inhomogeneous Veselago medium. We calculate a resonance value of the scattering amplitude in the regime similar to the known Mie resonance scattering.

  18. Solutions of dissimilar material singularity and contact problems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang, Y.

    2003-09-01

    Due to the mismatch of the material properties of joined components, after a homogeneous temperature change or under a mechanical loading, very high stresses occur near the intersection of the interface and the outer surface, or near the intersection of two interfaces. For most material combinations and joint geometries, there exists even a stress singularity. These high stresses may cause fracture of the joint. The investigation of the stress situation near the singular point, therefore, is of great interest. Especially, the relationship between the singular stress exponent, the material data and joint geometry is important for choosing a suitable material combination and joint geometry. In this work, the singular stress field is described analytically in case of the joint having a real and a complex eigenvalue. Solutions of different singularity problems are given, which are two dissimilar materials joint with free edges; dissimilar materials joint with edge tractions; joint with interface corner; joint with a given displacement at one edge; cracks in dissimilar materials joint; contact problem in dissimilar materials and logarithmic stress singularity. For an arbitrary joint geometry and material combination, the stress singular exponent, the angular function and the regular stress term can be calculated analytically. The stress intensity factors for a finite joint can be determined applying numerical methods, e.g. the finite element method (FEM). The method to determine more than one stress intensity factor is presented. The characteristics of the eigenvalues and the stress intensity factors are shown for different joint conditions. (orig.)

  19. Boundary singularities produced by the motion of soap films.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldstein, Raymond E; McTavish, James; Moffatt, H Keith; Pesci, Adriana I

    2014-06-10

    Recent work has shown that a Möbius strip soap film rendered unstable by deforming its frame changes topology to that of a disk through a "neck-pinching" boundary singularity. This behavior is unlike that of the catenoid, which transitions to two disks through a bulk singularity. It is not yet understood whether the type of singularity is generally a consequence of the surface topology, nor how this dependence could arise from an equation of motion for the surface. To address these questions we investigate experimentally, computationally, and theoretically the route to singularities of soap films with different topologies, including a family of punctured Klein bottles. We show that the location of singularities (bulk or boundary) may depend on the path of the boundary deformation. In the unstable regime the driving force for soap-film motion is the mean curvature. Thus, the narrowest part of the neck, associated with the shortest nontrivial closed geodesic of the surface, has the highest curvature and is the fastest moving. Just before onset of the instability there exists on the stable surface the shortest closed geodesic, which is the initial condition for evolution of the neck's geodesics, all of which have the same topological relationship to the frame. We make the plausible conjectures that if the initial geodesic is linked to the boundary, then the singularity will occur at the boundary, whereas if the two are unlinked initially, then the singularity will occur in the bulk. Numerical study of mean curvature flows and experiments support these conjectures.

  20. Quantum healing of classical singularities in power-law spacetimes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Helliwell, T M [Department of Physics, Harvey Mudd College, Claremont, CA 91711 (United States); Konkowski, D A [Department of Mathematics, US Naval Academy, Annapolis, MD 21402 (United States)

    2007-07-07

    We study a broad class of spacetimes whose metric coefficients reduce to powers of a radius r in the limit of small r. Among these four-parameter 'power-law' metrics, we identify those parameters for which the spacetimes have classical singularities as r {yields} 0. We show that a large set of such classically-singular spacetimes is nevertheless non-singular quantum mechanically, in that the Hamiltonian operator is essentially self-adjoint, so that the evolution of quantum wave packets lacks the ambiguity associated with scattering off singularities. Using these metrics, the broadest class yet studied to compare classical with quantum singularities, we explore the physical reasons why some that are singular classically are 'healed' quantum mechanically, while others are not. We show that most (but not all) of the remaining quantum-mechanically singular spacetimes can be excluded if either the weak energy condition or the dominant energy condition is invoked, and we briefly discuss the effect of this work on the strong cosmic censorship conjecture.

  1. Tangled nonlinear driven chain reactions of all optical singularities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vasil'ev, V. I.; Soskin, M. S.

    2012-03-01

    Dynamics of polarization optical singularities chain reactions in generic elliptically polarized speckle fields created in photorefractive crystal LiNbO3 was investigated in details Induced speckle field develops in the tens of minutes scale due to photorefractive 'optical damage effect' induced by incident beam of He-Ne laser. It was shown that polarization singularities develop through topological chain reactions of developing speckle fields driven by photorefractive nonlinearities induced by incident laser beam. All optical singularities (C points, optical vortices, optical diabolos,) are defined by instantaneous topological structure of the output wavefront and are tangled by singular optics lows. Therefore, they have develop in tangled way by six topological chain reactions driven by nonlinear processes in used nonlinear medium (photorefractive LiNbO3:Fe in our case): C-points and optical diabolos for right (left) polarized components domains with orthogonally left (right) polarized optical vortices underlying them. All elements of chain reactions consist from loop and chain links when nucleated singularities annihilated directly or with alien singularities in 1:9 ratio. The topological reason of statistics was established by low probability of far enough separation of born singularities pair from existing neighbor singularities during loop trajectories. Topology of developing speckle field was measured and analyzed by dynamic stokes polarimetry with few seconds' resolution. The hierarchy of singularities govern scenario of tangled chain reactions was defined. The useful space-time data about peculiarities of optical damage evolution were obtained from existence and parameters of 'islands of stability' in developing speckle fields.

  2. From Fourier Transforms to Singular Eigenfunctions for Multigroup Transport

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ganapol, B.D.

    2001-01-01

    A new Fourier transform approach to the solution of the multigroup transport equation with anisotropic scattering and isotropic source is presented. Through routine analytical continuation, the inversion contour is shifted from the real line to produce contributions from the poles and cuts in the complex plane. The integrand along the branch cut is then recast in terms of matrix continuum singular eigenfunctions, demonstrating equivalence of Fourier transform inversion and the singular eigenfunction expansion. The significance of this paper is that it represents the initial step in revealing the intimate connection between the Fourier transform and singular eigenfunction approaches as well as serves as a basis for a numerical algorithm

  3. Repulsive and attractive timelike singularities in vacuum cosmologies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miller, B.D.

    1979-01-01

    Spherically symmetric cosmologies whose big bang is partially spacelike and partially timelike are constrained to occur only in the presence of certain types of matter, and in such cosmologies the timelike part of the big bang is a negative-mass singularity. In this paper examples are given of cylindrically symmetric cosmologies whose big bang is partially spacelike and partially timelike. These cosmologies are vacuum. In some of them, the timelike part of the big bang is clearly a (generalized) negative-mass singularity, while in others it is a (generalized) positive-mass singularity

  4. On the singular perturbations for fractional differential equation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atangana, Abdon

    2014-01-01

    The goal of this paper is to examine the possible extension of the singular perturbation differential equation to the concept of fractional order derivative. To achieve this, we presented a review of the concept of fractional calculus. We make use of the Laplace transform operator to derive exact solution of singular perturbation fractional linear differential equations. We make use of the methodology of three analytical methods to present exact and approximate solution of the singular perturbation fractional, nonlinear, nonhomogeneous differential equation. These methods are including the regular perturbation method, the new development of the variational iteration method, and the homotopy decomposition method.

  5. An investigation of singular Lagrangians as field systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rabei, E.M.

    1995-07-01

    The link between the treatment of singular Lagrangians as field systems and the general approach is studied. It is shown that singular Lagrangians as field systems are always in exact agreement with the general approach. Two examples and the singular Lagrangian with zero rank Hessian matrix are studied. The equations of motion in the field systems are equivalent to the equations which contain acceleration, and the constraints are equivalent to the equations which do not contain acceleration in the general approach treatment. (author). 10 refs

  6. Singularity, initial conditions and quantum tunneling in modern cosmology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khalatnikov, I M; Kamenshchik, A Yu

    1998-01-01

    The key problems of modern cosmology, such as the cosmological singularity, initial conditions, and the quantum tunneling hypothesis, are discussed. The relationship between the latest cosmological trends and L D Landau's old ideas is analyzed. Particular attention is given to the oscillatory approach to singularity; quantum tunneling processes determining wave function of the Universe in the presence of a compex scalar field; and the role of quantum corrections in these processes. The classical dynamics of closed models with a real scalar field is investigated from the standpoint of chaotic, fractal, and singularity-avoiding properties. (special issue)

  7. On the Singular Perturbations for Fractional Differential Equation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdon Atangana

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The goal of this paper is to examine the possible extension of the singular perturbation differential equation to the concept of fractional order derivative. To achieve this, we presented a review of the concept of fractional calculus. We make use of the Laplace transform operator to derive exact solution of singular perturbation fractional linear differential equations. We make use of the methodology of three analytical methods to present exact and approximate solution of the singular perturbation fractional, nonlinear, nonhomogeneous differential equation. These methods are including the regular perturbation method, the new development of the variational iteration method, and the homotopy decomposition method.

  8. Finger image quality based on singular point localization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wang, Jinghua; Olsen, Martin A.; Busch, Christoph

    2014-01-01

    Singular points are important global features of fingerprints and singular point localization is a crucial step in biometric recognition. Moreover the presence and position of the core point in a captured fingerprint sample can reflect whether the finger is placed properly on the sensor. Therefore...... and analyze the importance of singular points on biometric accuracy. The experiment is based on large scale databases and conducted by relating the measured quality of a fingerprint sample, given by the positions of core points, to the biometric performance. The experimental results show the positions of core...

  9. Naked singularities in higher dimensional Vaidya space-times

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ghosh, S. G.; Dadhich, Naresh

    2001-01-01

    We investigate the end state of the gravitational collapse of a null fluid in higher-dimensional space-times. Both naked singularities and black holes are shown to be developing as the final outcome of the collapse. The naked singularity spectrum in a collapsing Vaidya region (4D) gets covered with the increase in dimensions and hence higher dimensions favor a black hole in comparison to a naked singularity. The cosmic censorship conjecture will be fully respected for a space of infinite dimension

  10. Singular Value Decomposition and Ligand Binding Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    André Luiz Galo

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Singular values decomposition (SVD is one of the most important computations in linear algebra because of its vast application for data analysis. It is particularly useful for resolving problems involving least-squares minimization, the determination of matrix rank, and the solution of certain problems involving Euclidean norms. Such problems arise in the spectral analysis of ligand binding to macromolecule. Here, we present a spectral data analysis method using SVD (SVD analysis and nonlinear fitting to determine the binding characteristics of intercalating drugs to DNA. This methodology reduces noise and identifies distinct spectral species similar to traditional principal component analysis as well as fitting nonlinear binding parameters. We applied SVD analysis to investigate the interaction of actinomycin D and daunomycin with native DNA. This methodology does not require prior knowledge of ligand molar extinction coefficients (free and bound, which potentially limits binding analysis. Data are acquired simply by reconstructing the experimental data and by adjusting the product of deconvoluted matrices and the matrix of model coefficients determined by the Scatchard and McGee and von Hippel equation.

  11. Singular limits in thermodynamics of viscous fluids

    CERN Document Server

    Feireisl, Eduard

    2017-01-01

    This book is about singular limits of systems of partial differential equations governing the motion of thermally conducting compressible viscous fluids. "The main aim is to provide mathematically rigorous arguments how to get from the compressible Navier-Stokes-Fourier system several less complex systems of partial differential equations used e.g. in meteorology or astrophysics. However, the book contains also a detailed introduction to the modelling in mechanics and thermodynamics of fluids from the viewpoint of continuum physics. The book is very interesting and important. It can be recommended not only to specialists in the field, but it can also be used for doctoral students and young researches who want to start to work in the mathematical theory of compressible fluids and their asymptotic limits." Milan Pokorný (zbMATH) "This book is of the highest quality from every point of view. It presents, in a unified way, recent research material of fundament al importance. It is self-contained, thanks to Chapt...

  12. Singularity fitting in hydrodynamical calculations II

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Richtmyer, R.D.; Lazarus, R.B.

    1975-09-01

    This is the second report in a series on the development of techniques for the proper handling of singularities in fluid-dynamical calculations; the first was called Progress Report on the Shock-Fitting Project. This report contains six main results: derivation of a free-surface condition, which relates the acceleration of the surface with the gradient of the square of the sound speed just behind it; an accurate method for the early and middle stages of the development of a rarefaction wave, two orders of magnitude more accurate than a simple direct method used for comparison; the similarity theory of the collapsing free surface, where it is shown that there is a two-parameter family of self-similar solutions for γ = 3.9; the similarity theory for the outgoing shock, which takes into account the entropy increase; a ''zooming'' method for the study of the asymptotic behavior of solutions of the full initial boundary-value problem; comparison of two methods for determining the similarity parameter delta by zooming, which shows that the second method is preferred. Future reports in the series will contain discussions of the self-similar solutions for this problem, and for that of the collapsing shock, in more detail and for the full range (1, infinity) of γ; the values of certain integrals related to neutronic and thermonuclear rates near collapse; and methods for fitting shocks, contact discontinuities, interfaces, and free surfaces in two-dimensional flows

  13. Singular perturbation in the physical sciences

    CERN Document Server

    Neu, John C

    2015-01-01

    This book is the testimony of a physical scientist whose language is singular perturbation analysis. Classical mathematical notions, such as matched asymptotic expansions, projections of large dynamical systems onto small center manifolds, and modulation theory of oscillations based either on multiple scales or on averaging/transformation theory, are included. The narratives of these topics are carried by physical examples: Let's say that the moment when we "see" how a mathematical pattern fits a physical problem is like "hitting the ball." Yes, we want to hit the ball. But a powerful stroke includes the follow-through. One intention of this book is to discern in the structure and/or solutions of the equations their geometric and physical content. Through analysis, we come to sense directly the shape and feel of phenomena. The book is structured into a main text of fundamental ideas and a subtext of problems with detailed solutions. Roughly speaking, the former is the initial contact between mathematics and p...

  14. Finite-time future singularities in modified Gauss-Bonnet and F(R,G) gravity and singularity avoidance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bamba, Kazuharu; Odintsov, Sergei D.; Sebastiani, Lorenzo; Zerbini, Sergio

    2010-01-01

    We study all four types of finite-time future singularities emerging in the late-time accelerating (effective quintessence/phantom) era from F(R,G)-gravity, where R and G are the Ricci scalar and the Gauss-Bonnet invariant, respectively. As an explicit example of F(R,G)-gravity, we also investigate modified Gauss-Bonnet gravity, so-called F(G)-gravity. In particular, we reconstruct the F(G)-gravity and F(R,G)-gravity models where accelerating cosmologies realizing the finite-time future singularities emerge. Furthermore, we discuss a possible way to cure the finite-time future singularities in F(G)-gravity and F(R,G)-gravity by taking into account higher-order curvature corrections. The example of non-singular realistic modified Gauss-Bonnet gravity is presented. It turns out that adding such non-singular modified gravity to singular Dark Energy makes the combined theory a non-singular one as well. (orig.)

  15. Use of nouns and verbs in the oral narrative of individuals with hearing impairment and normal hearing between 5 and 11 years of age

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erica Endo Amemiya

    Full Text Available CONTEXT AND OBJECTIVE: Nouns and verbs indicate actions in oral communication. However, hearing impairment can compromise the acquisition of oral language to such an extent that appropriate use of these can be challenging. The objective of this study was to compare the use of nouns and verbs in the oral narrative of hearing-impaired and hearing children. DESIGN AND SETTING: Analytical cross-sectional study at the Department of Speech-Language and Hearing Sciences, Universidade Federal de São Paulo. METHODS: Twenty-one children with moderate to profound bilateral neurosensory hearing impairment and twenty-one with normal hearing (controls were matched according to sex, school year and school type. A board showing pictures was presented to each child, to elicit a narrative and measure their performance in producing nouns and verbs. RESULTS: Twenty-two (52.4% of the subjects were males. The mean age was 8 years (standard deviation, SD = 1.5. Comparing averages between the groups of boys and girls, we did not find any significant difference in their use of nouns, but among verbs, there was a significant difference regarding use of the imperative (P = 0.041: more frequent among boys (mean = 2.91. There was no significant difference in the use of nouns and verbs between deaf children and hearers, in relation to school type. Regarding use of the indicative, there was a nearly significant trend (P = 0.058. CONCLUSION: Among oralized hearing-impaired children who underwent speech therapy, their performance regarding verbs and noun use was similar to that of their hearing counterparts.

  16. How Are ‘Barack Obama’ and ‘President Elect’ Differentially Stored in the Brain? An ERP Investigation on the Processing of Proper and Common Noun Pairs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Proverbio, Alice Mado; Mariani, Serena; Zani, Alberto; Adorni, Roberta

    2009-01-01

    Background One of the most debated issues in the cognitive neuroscience of language is whether distinct semantic domains are differentially represented in the brain. Clinical studies described several anomic dissociations with no clear neuroanatomical correlate. Neuroimaging studies have shown that memory retrieval is more demanding for proper than common nouns in that the former are purely arbitrary referential expressions. In this study a semantic relatedness paradigm was devised to investigate neural processing of proper and common nouns. Methodology/Principal Findings 780 words (arranged in pairs of Italian nouns/adjectives and the first/last names of well known persons) were presented. Half pairs were semantically related (“Woody Allen” or “social security”), while the others were not (“Sigmund Parodi” or “judicial cream”). All items were balanced for length, frequency, familiarity and semantic relatedness. Participants were to decide about the semantic relatedness of the two items in a pair. RTs and N400 data suggest that the task was more demanding for common nouns. The LORETA neural generators for the related-unrelated contrast (for proper names) included the left fusiform gyrus, right medial temporal gyrus, limbic and parahippocampal regions, inferior parietal and inferior frontal areas, which are thought to be involved in the conjoined processing a familiar face with the relevant episodic information. Person name was more emotional and sensory vivid than common noun semantic access. Conclusions/Significance When memory retrieval is not required, proper name access (conspecifics knowledge) is not more demanding. The neural generators of N400 to unrelated items (unknown persons and things) did not differ as a function of lexical class, thus suggesting that proper and common nouns are not treated differently as belonging to different grammatical classes. PMID:19774070

  17. How are 'Barack Obama' and 'President Elect' differentially stored in the brain? An ERP investigation on the processing of proper and common noun pairs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Proverbio, Alice Mado; Mariani, Serena; Zani, Alberto; Adorni, Roberta

    2009-09-23

    One of the most debated issues in the cognitive neuroscience of language is whether distinct semantic domains are differentially represented in the brain. Clinical studies described several anomic dissociations with no clear neuroanatomical correlate. Neuroimaging studies have shown that memory retrieval is more demanding for proper than common nouns in that the former are purely arbitrary referential expressions. In this study a semantic relatedness paradigm was devised to investigate neural processing of proper and common nouns. 780 words (arranged in pairs of Italian nouns/adjectives and the first/last names of well known persons) were presented. Half pairs were semantically related ("Woody Allen" or "social security"), while the others were not ("Sigmund Parodi" or "judicial cream"). All items were balanced for length, frequency, familiarity and semantic relatedness. Participants were to decide about the semantic relatedness of the two items in a pair. RTs and N400 data suggest that the task was more demanding for common nouns. The LORETA neural generators for the related-unrelated contrast (for proper names) included the left fusiform gyrus, right medial temporal gyrus, limbic and parahippocampal regions, inferior parietal and inferior frontal areas, which are thought to be involved in the conjoined processing a familiar face with the relevant episodic information. Person name was more emotional and sensory vivid than common noun semantic access. When memory retrieval is not required, proper name access (conspecifics knowledge) is not more demanding. The neural generators of N400 to unrelated items (unknown persons and things) did not differ as a function of lexical class, thus suggesting that proper and common nouns are not treated differently as belonging to different grammatical classes.

  18. Singularly perturbed Burger-Huxley equation: Analytical solution ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    user

    numbers, Navier-Stokes flows with large Reynolds numbers, chemical reactor ... It is to observe the layer behavior of the solution for smaller values of ε leading to singular ...... Burger equation, momentum gas equation and heat equation.

  19. Coulomb singularity effects in tunnelling spectroscopy of individual impurities

    OpenAIRE

    Arseyev, P. I.; Maslova, N. S.; Panov, V. I.; Savinov, S. V.

    2002-01-01

    Non-equilibrium Coulomb effects in resonant tunnelling processes through deep impurity states are analyzed. It is shown that Coulomb vertex corrections to the tunnelling transfer amplitude lead to a power-law singularity in current- voltage characteristics

  20. Singularities of robot mechanisms numerical computation and avoidance path planning

    CERN Document Server

    Bohigas, Oriol; Ros, Lluís

    2017-01-01

    This book presents the singular configurations associated with a robot mechanism, together with robust methods for their computation, interpretation, and avoidance path planning. Having such methods is essential as singularities generally pose problems to the normal operation of a robot, but also determine the workspaces and motion impediments of its underlying mechanical structure. A distinctive feature of this volume is that the methods are applicable to nonredundant mechanisms of general architecture, defined by planar or spatial kinematic chains interconnected in an arbitrary way. Moreover, singularities are interpreted as silhouettes of the configuration space when seen from the input or output spaces. This leads to a powerful image that explains the consequences of traversing singular configurations, and all the rich information that can be extracted from them. The problems are solved by means of effective branch-and-prune and numerical continuation methods that are of independent interest in themselves...

  1. M theory and singularities of exceptional holonomy manifolds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Acharya, Bobby S.; Gukov, Sergei

    2004-12-01

    M theory compactifications on G 2 holonomy manifolds, whilst supersymmetric, require singularities in order to obtain non-Abelian gauge groups, chiral fermions and other properties necessary for a realistic model of particle physics. We review recent progress in understanding the physics of such singularities. Our main aim is to describe the techniques which have been used to develop our understanding of M theory physics near these singularities. In parallel, we also describe similar sorts of singularities in Spin(7) holonomy manifolds which correspond to the properties of three dimensional field theories. As an application, we review how various aspects of strongly coupled gauge theories, such as confinement, mass gap and non-perturbative phase transitions may be given a simple explanation in M theory. (author)

  2. Dark energy and dark matter perturbations in singular universes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Denkiewicz, Tomasz

    2015-01-01

    We discuss the evolution of density perturbations of dark matter and dark energy in cosmological models which admit future singularities in a finite time. Up to now geometrical tests of the evolution of the universe do not differentiate between singular universes and ΛCDM scenario. We solve perturbation equations using the gauge invariant formalism. The analysis shows that the detailed reconstruction of the evolution of perturbations within singular cosmologies, in the dark sector, can exhibit important differences between the singular universes models and the ΛCDM cosmology. This is encouraging for further examination and gives hope for discriminating between those models with future galaxy weak lensing experiments like the Dark Energy Survey (DES) and Euclid or CMB observations like PRISM and CoRE

  3. Quantum gravitational collapse: non-singularity and non-locality

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Greenwood, Eric; Stojkovic, Dejan

    2008-01-01

    We investigate gravitational collapse in the context of quantum mechanics. We take primary interest in the behavior of the collapse near the horizon and near the origin (classical singularity) from the point of view of an infalling observer. In the absence of radiation, quantum effects near the horizon do not change the classical conclusions for an infalling observer, meaning the horizon is not an obstacle for him. However, quantum effects are able to remove the classical singularity at the origin, since the wave function is non-singular at the origin. Also, near the classical singularity, some non-local effects become important. In the Schrodinger equation describing behavior near the origin, derivatives of the wave function at one point are related to the value of the wave function at some other distant point.

  4. Phase Singularities and Termination of Spiral Wave Reentry

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Eason, James

    2001-01-01

    In order to elucidate the mechanisms by which a strong shock terminates reentrant wavefronts, we employed phase analysis techniques to study phase singularity dynamics in a finite element model of cardiac tissue...

  5. A singular value sensitivity approach to robust eigenstructure assignment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Søgaard-Andersen, Per; Trostmann, Erik; Conrad, Finn

    1986-01-01

    A design technique for improving the feedback properties of multivariable state feedback systems designed using eigenstructure assignment is presented. Based on a singular value analysis of the feedback properties a design parameter adjustment procedure is outlined. This procedure allows...

  6. Normal families and isolated singularities of meromorphic functions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chee, P.S.; Subramaniam, A.

    1985-06-01

    Based on the criterion of Zalcman for normal families, a generalization of a well-known result relating normal families and isolated essential singularities of meromorphic functions is proved, using a theorem of Lehto and Virtanen on normal functions. (author)

  7. Singularity confinement for maps with the Laurent property

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hone, A.N.W.

    2007-01-01

    The singularity confinement test is very useful for isolating integrable cases of discrete-time dynamical systems, but it does not provide a sufficient criterion for integrability. Quite recently a new property of the bilinear equations appearing in discrete soliton theory has been noticed: The iterates of such equations are Laurent polynomials in the initial data. A large class of non-integrable mappings of the plane are presented which both possess this Laurent property and have confined singularities

  8. On the collinear singularity problem of hot QCD

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Candelpergher, B.; Grandou, T.

    2002-01-01

    The collinear singularity problem of hot QCD is revisited within a perturbative resummation scheme (PR) of the leading thermal fluctuations. On the basis of actual calculations, new aspects are discovered concerning the origin of the singularity plaguing the soft real photon emission rate out of a quark-gluon plasma at thermal equilibrium, when the latter is calculated by means of the Resummation Program (RP)

  9. Classical resolution of black hole singularities via wormholes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Olmo, Gonzalo J. [Universidad de Valencia, Departamento de Fisica Teorica and IFIC, Centro Mixto Universidad de Valencia-CSIC, Valencia (Spain); Universidade Federal da Paraiba, Departamento de Fisica, Joao Pessoa, Paraiba (Brazil); Rubiera-Garcia, D. [Universidade de Lisboa, Faculdade de Ciencias, Instituto de Astrofisica e Ciencias do Espaco, Lisbon (Portugal); Fudan University, Department of Physics, Center for Field Theory and Particle Physics, Shanghai (China); Sanchez-Puente, A. [Universidad de Valencia, Departamento de Fisica Teorica and IFIC, Centro Mixto Universidad de Valencia-CSIC, Valencia (Spain)

    2016-03-15

    In certain extensions of General Relativity, wormholes generated by spherically symmetric electric fields can resolve black hole singularities without necessarily removing curvature divergences. This is shown by studying geodesic completeness, the behavior of time-like congruences going through the divergent region, and by means of scattering of waves off the wormhole. This provides an example of the logical independence between curvature divergences and space-time singularities, concepts very often identified with each other in the literature. (orig.)

  10. Dimension counts for singular rational curves via semigroups

    OpenAIRE

    Cotterill, Ethan; Feital, Lia; Martins, Renato Vidal

    2015-01-01

    We study singular rational curves in projective space, deducing conditions on their parametrizations from the value semigroups $\\sss$ of their singularities. In particular, we prove that a natural heuristic for the codimension of the space of nondegenerate rational curves of arithmetic genus $g>0$ and degree $d$ in $\\mb{P}^n$, viewed as a subspace of all degree-$d$ rational curves in $\\mb{P}^n$, holds whenever $g$ is small.

  11. Modified Differential Transform Method for Two Singular Boundary Values Problems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yinwei Lin

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper deals with the two singular boundary values problems of second order. Two singular points are both boundary values points of the differential equation. The numerical solutions are developed by modified differential transform method (DTM for expanded point. Linear and nonlinear models are solved by this method to get more reliable and efficient numerical results. It can also solve ordinary differential equations where the traditional one fails. Besides, we give the convergence of this new method.

  12. Propagation of singularities for linearised hybrid data impedance tomography

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bal, Guillaume; Hoffmann, Kristoffer; Knudsen, Kim

    2017-01-01

    For a general formulation of linearised hybrid inverse problems in impedance tomography, the qualitative properties of the solutions are analysed. Using an appropriate scalar pseudo-differential formulation, the problems are shown to permit propagating singularities under certain non-elliptic con......For a general formulation of linearised hybrid inverse problems in impedance tomography, the qualitative properties of the solutions are analysed. Using an appropriate scalar pseudo-differential formulation, the problems are shown to permit propagating singularities under certain non...

  13. Singular f-sum rule for superfluid 4He

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wong, V.K.

    1979-01-01

    The validity and applicability to inelastic neutron scattering of a singular f-sum rule for superfluid helium, proposed by Griffin to explain the rhosub(s) dependence in S(k, ω) as observed by Woods and Svensson, are examined in the light of similar sum rules rigorously derived for anharmonic crystals and Bose liquids. It is concluded that the singular f-sum rules are only of microscopic interest. (Auth,)

  14. The Notion of 'Singularity' in the Work of Gilles Deleuze

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Borum, Peter

    2017-01-01

    In Deleuze, singularity replaces generality in the economy of thought. A Deleuzian singularity is an event, but the notion comprises the effectuation of the event into form. The triptych émission–distribution–répartition itself distributes the dimensions of the passage from form-giving event to t......-drama-different/ciation’. The essay concludes that it is art that may let us consciously contemplate our pre-individual differences....

  15. On singular interaction potentials in classical statistical mechanics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zagrebnov, V.A.; Pastur, L.A.

    1978-01-01

    A classical system of particles with stable two-body interaction potential is considered. It is shown that for a certain class of highly singular stable two-body potentials a cut-off procedure preserves the stability of the potential. The thermodynamical potentials (pressure and free energy density) and correlation functions are proved to have the property of asymptotic independence with respect to the continuation of the interaction potentials near singularity

  16. Multifractal signal reconstruction based on singularity power spectrum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xiong, Gang; Yu, Wenxian; Xia, Wenxiang; Zhang, Shuning

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • We propose a novel multifractal reconstruction method based on singularity power spectrum analysis (MFR-SPS). • The proposed MFR-SPS method has better power characteristic than the algorithm in Fraclab. • Further, the SPS-ISE algorithm performs better than the SPS-MFS algorithm. • Based on the proposed MFR-SPS method, we can restructure singularity white fractal noise (SWFN) and linear singularity modulation (LSM) multifractal signal, in equivalent sense, similar with the linear frequency modulation(LFM) signal and WGN in the Fourier domain. - Abstract: Fractal reconstruction (FR) and multifractal reconstruction (MFR) can be considered as the inverse problem of singularity spectrum analysis, and it is challenging to reconstruct fractal signal in accord with multifractal spectrum (MFS). Due to the multiple solutions of fractal reconstruction, the traditional methods of FR/MFR, such as FBM based method, wavelet based method, random wavelet series, fail to reconstruct fractal signal deterministically, and besides, those methods neglect the power spectral distribution in the singular domain. In this paper, we propose a novel MFR method based singularity power spectrum (SPS). Supposing the consistent uniform covering of multifractal measurement, we control the traditional power law of each scale of wavelet coefficients based on the instantaneous singularity exponents (ISE) or MFS, simultaneously control the singularity power law based on the SPS, and deduce the principle and algorithm of MFR based on SPS. Reconstruction simulation and error analysis of estimated ISE, MFS and SPS show the effectiveness and the improvement of the proposed methods compared to those obtained by the Fraclab package.

  17. Les oasis de l'Oued Noun : dégradation du milieu naturel et perspectives de développement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    EL MAHJOUB CHMOURK

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available The oases of Oued Noun: degradation of the natural environment and perspectives of development. An oasis is considered as a vital space and a fundamental natural resource in the Oued Noun area. Irrigation water scarcity, desertification, terminal illnesses of different civilizations, space division and tininess of farms are all natural and economic constraints providing the oasis area from growing and developing. Officials have to be aware of those constraints and they need to urgently recommend solutions in the process of updating the local territory and in its potentialities valorisation.

  18. Research Notes ~ Combating HIV/AIDS Epidemic in Nigeria: Responses from National Open University of Nigeria (NOUN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Terhemba Nom Ambe-Uva

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available Universities have come under serious attack because of their lackluster response to HIV/AIDS. This article examines the response of National Open University of Nigeria (NOUN and its strategic responses in combating HIV/AIDS epidemic. This is achieved by examining NOUN’s basic structures that position the University to respond to the epidemic; and second, by assessing HIV/AIDS strategies and policy framework the University has put in place. An interpretative epistemological stance was used for this study, and a qualitative research involving focus group discussion (FGD and analysis of secondary data was carried out. Results showed that NOUN has identified the impact the epidemic has on the university, although it has yet to institutionalize an HIV/AIDS policy. NOUN’s Draft Service Charter, however, has identified the fight against HIV/AIDS as a core mandate of the University, and the introduction of HIV/AIDS certification programs can be viewed as proactive policies in response to the epidemic. Results of this study are discussed in terms of their relevance to future research and the impact such policy frameworks may have on combating the epidemic, both within the University and the wider community.

  19. Removal of apparent singularity in grid computations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jakubovics, J.P.

    1993-01-01

    A self-consistency test for magnetic domain wall models was suggested by Aharoni. The test consists of evaluating the ratio S = var-epsilon wall /var-epsilon wall , where var-epsilon wall is the wall energy, and var-epsilon wall is the integral of a certain function of the direction cosines of the magnetization, α, β, γ over the volume occupied by the domain wall. If the computed configuration is a good approximation to one corresponding to an energy minimum, the ratio is close to 1. The integrand of var-epsilon wall contains terms that are inversely proportional to γ. Since γ passes through zero at the centre of the domain wall, these terms have a singularity at these points. The integral is finite and its evaluation does not usually present any problems when the direction cosines are known in terms of continuous functions. In many cases, significantly better results for magnetization configurations of domain walls can be obtained by computations using finite element methods. The direction cosines are then only known at a set of discrete points, and integration over the domain wall is replaced by summation over these points. Evaluation of var-epsilon wall becomes inaccurate if the terms in the summation are taken to be the values of the integrand at the grid points, because of the large contribution of points close to where γ changes sign. The self-consistency test has recently been generalised to a larger number of cases. The purpose of this paper is to suggest a method of improving the accuracy of the evaluation of integrals in such cases. Since the self-consistency test has so far only been applied to two-dimensional magnetization configurations, the problem and its solution will be presented for that specific case. Generalisation to three or more dimensions is straight forward

  20. Singular vectors, predictability and ensemble forecasting for weather and climate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Palmer, T N; Zanna, Laure

    2013-01-01

    The local instabilities of a nonlinear dynamical system can be characterized by the leading singular vectors of its linearized operator. The leading singular vectors are perturbations with the greatest linear growth and are therefore key in assessing the system’s predictability. In this paper, the analysis of singular vectors for the predictability of weather and climate and ensemble forecasting is discussed. An overview of the role of singular vectors in informing about the error growth rate in numerical models of the atmosphere is given. This is followed by their use in the initialization of ensemble weather forecasts. Singular vectors for the ocean and coupled ocean–atmosphere system in order to understand the predictability of climate phenomena such as ENSO and meridional overturning circulation are reviewed and their potential use to initialize seasonal and decadal forecasts is considered. As stochastic parameterizations are being implemented, some speculations are made about the future of singular vectors for the predictability of weather and climate for theoretical applications and at the operational level. This article is part of a special issue of Journal of Physics A: Mathematical and Theoretical devoted to ‘Lyapunov analysis: from dynamical systems theory to applications’. (review)

  1. Singular spectrum analysis of sleep EEG in insomnia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aydın, Serap; Saraoǧlu, Hamdi Melih; Kara, Sadık

    2011-08-01

    In the present study, the Singular Spectrum Analysis (SSA) is applied to sleep EEG segments collected from healthy volunteers and patients diagnosed by either psycho physiological insomnia or paradoxical insomnia. Then, the resulting singular spectra computed for both C3 and C4 recordings are assigned as the features to the Artificial Neural Network (ANN) architectures for EEG classification in diagnose. In tests, singular spectrum of particular sleep stages such as awake, REM, stage1 and stage2, are considered. Three clinical groups are successfully classified by using one hidden layer ANN architecture with respect to their singular spectra. The results show that the SSA can be applied to sleep EEG series to support the clinical findings in insomnia if ten trials are available for the specific sleep stages. In conclusion, the SSA can detect the oscillatory variations on sleep EEG. Therefore, different sleep stages meet different singular spectra. In addition, different healthy conditions generate different singular spectra for each sleep stage. In summary, the SSA can be proposed for EEG discrimination to support the clinical findings for psycho-psychological disorders.

  2. Curing Black Hole Singularities with Local Scale Invariance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Predrag Dominis Prester

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available We show that Weyl-invariant dilaton gravity provides a description of black holes without classical space-time singularities. Singularities appear due to the ill behaviour of gauge fixing conditions, one example being the gauge in which theory is classically equivalent to standard General Relativity. The main conclusions of our analysis are as follows: (1 singularities signal a phase transition from broken to unbroken phase of Weyl symmetry; (2 instead of a singularity, there is a “baby universe” or a white hole inside a black hole; (3 in the baby universe scenario, there is a critical mass after which reducing mass makes the black hole larger as viewed by outside observers; (4 if a black hole could be connected with white hole through the “singularity,” this would require breakdown of (classical geometric description; (5 the singularity of Schwarzschild BH solution is nongeneric and so it is dangerous to rely on it in deriving general results. Our results may have important consequences for resolving issues related to information loss puzzle. Though quantum effects are still crucial and may change the proposed classical picture, a position of building quantum theory around essentially regular classical solutions normally provides a much better starting point.

  3. Segmentation of singularity maps in the context of soil porosity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin-Sotoca, Juan J.; Saa-Requejo, Antonio; Grau, Juan; Tarquis, Ana M.

    2016-04-01

    Geochemical exploration have found with increasingly interests and benefits of using fractal (power-law) models to characterize geochemical distribution, including concentration-area (C-A) model (Cheng et al., 1994; Cheng, 2012) and concentration-volume (C-V) model (Afzal et al., 2011) just to name a few examples. These methods are based on the singularity maps of a measure that at each point define areas with self-similar properties that are shown in power-law relationships in Concentration-Area plots (C-A method). The C-A method together with the singularity map ("Singularity-CA" method) define thresholds that can be applied to segment the map. Recently, the "Singularity-CA" method has been applied to binarize 2D grayscale Computed Tomography (CT) soil images (Martin-Sotoca et al, 2015). Unlike image segmentation based on global thresholding methods, the "Singularity-CA" method allows to quantify the local scaling property of the grayscale value map in the space domain and determinate the intensity of local singularities. It can be used as a high-pass-filter technique to enhance high frequency patterns usually regarded as anomalies when applied to maps. In this work we will put special attention on how to select the singularity thresholds in the C-A plot to segment the image. We will compare two methods: 1) cross point of linear regressions and 2) Wavelets Transform Modulus Maxima (WTMM) singularity function detection. REFERENCES Cheng, Q., Agterberg, F. P. and Ballantyne, S. B. (1994). The separation of geochemical anomalies from background by fractal methods. Journal of Geochemical Exploration, 51, 109-130. Cheng, Q. (2012). Singularity theory and methods for mapping geochemical anomalies caused by buried sources and for predicting undiscovered mineral deposits in covered areas. Journal of Geochemical Exploration, 122, 55-70. Afzal, P., Fadakar Alghalandis, Y., Khakzad, A., Moarefvand, P. and Rashidnejad Omran, N. (2011) Delineation of mineralization zones in

  4. Singularity kinematics principle and position-singularity analyses of the 6-3 Stewart-Gough parallel manipulators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cao, Yi; Zhou, Hui; Li, Baokun; Shen, Long

    2011-01-01

    This paper presents a new principle and method of kinematics to analyze the singularity of Stewart-Gough parallel manipulators and addresses the property identification of the position-singularity loci of the 6-3 Stewart-Gough manipulators for special orientations. Based on the kinematic relationship of a rigid body, a necessary and sufficient condition that three velocities of three non-collinear points in a moving rigid body can determine a screw motion is addressed and some typical singular configurations of the 6-3 Stewart-Gough parallel manipulators are also addressed in detail. With the above-mentioned condition, a symbolic analytical polynomial expression of degree three in the moving platform position parameters, representing the position-singularity locus of the 6-3 Stewart-Gough manipulators for special orientations, is derived: and the property identification of the position-singularity loci of the 6-3 Stewart-Gough manipulator for these special orientations is investigated at length. It is shown that position-singularity loci of the 6-3 Stewart-Gough parallel manipulator for these special orientations will be a plane and a hyperbolic paraboloid, even three intersecting planes

  5. Functional categories in the noun phrase: on jacks-of-all-trades and one-trick-ponies in Danish, Dutch and German

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rijkhoff, Jan

    2010-01-01

    This paper deals with functionally defined modifier categories of the noun phrase in some Germanic languages, in particular Danish, Dutch and German. It is argued that functional categories, unlike semantic or form-based categories, are the only categories that can be applied within and across...... in German: attitudinal arm (e.g. Der arme Junge! ‘The poor boy!’)....

  6. Singular value correlation functions for products of Wishart random matrices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Akemann, Gernot; Kieburg, Mario; Wei, Lu

    2013-01-01

    We consider the product of M quadratic random matrices with complex elements and no further symmetry, where all matrix elements of each factor have a Gaussian distribution. This generalizes the classical Wishart–Laguerre Gaussian unitary ensemble with M = 1. In this paper, we first compute the joint probability distribution for the singular values of the product matrix when the matrix size N and the number M are fixed but arbitrary. This leads to a determinantal point process which can be realized in two different ways. First, it can be written as a one-matrix singular value model with a non-standard Jacobian, or second, for M ⩾ 2, as a two-matrix singular value model with a set of auxiliary singular values and a weight proportional to the Meijer G-function. For both formulations, we determine all singular value correlation functions in terms of the kernels of biorthogonal polynomials which we explicitly construct. They are given in terms of the hypergeometric and Meijer G-functions, generalizing the Laguerre polynomials for M = 1. Our investigation was motivated from applications in telecommunication of multi-layered scattering multiple-input and multiple-output channels. We present the ergodic mutual information for finite-N for such a channel model with M − 1 layers of scatterers as an example. (paper)

  7. Singularity detection by wavelet approach: application to electrocardiogram signal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jalil, Bushra; Beya, Ouadi; Fauvet, Eric; Laligant, Olivier

    2010-01-01

    In signal processing, the region of abrupt changes contains the most of the useful information about the nature of the signal. The region or the points where these changes occurred are often termed as singular point or singular region. The singularity is considered to be an important character of the signal, as it refers to the discontinuity and interruption present in the signal and the main purpose of the detection of such singular point is to identify the existence, location and size of those singularities. Electrocardiogram (ECG) signal is used to analyze the cardiovascular activity in the human body. However the presence of noise due to several reasons limits the doctor's decision and prevents accurate identification of different pathologies. In this work we attempt to analyze the ECG signal with energy based approach and some heuristic methods to segment and identify different signatures inside the signal. ECG signal has been initially denoised by empirical wavelet shrinkage approach based on Steins Unbiased Risk Estimate (SURE). At the second stage, the ECG signal has been analyzed by Mallat approach based on modulus maximas and Lipschitz exponent computation. The results from both approaches has been discussed and important aspects has been highlighted. In order to evaluate the algorithm, the analysis has been done on MIT-BIH Arrhythmia database; a set of ECG data records sampled at a rate of 360 Hz with 11 bit resolution over a 10mv range. The results have been examined and approved by medical doctors.

  8. Using noun phrases for navigating biomedical literature on Pubmed: how many updates are we losing track of?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Srikrishna, Devabhaktuni; Coram, Marc A

    2011-01-01

    Author-supplied citations are a fraction of the related literature for a paper. The "related citations" on PubMed is typically dozens or hundreds of results long, and does not offer hints why these results are related. Using noun phrases derived from the sentences of the paper, we show it is possible to more transparently navigate to PubMed updates through search terms that can associate a paper with its citations. The algorithm to generate these search terms involved automatically extracting noun phrases from the paper using natural language processing tools, and ranking them by the number of occurrences in the paper compared to the number of occurrences on the web. We define search queries having at least one instance of overlap between the author-supplied citations of the paper and the top 20 search results as citation validated (CV). When the overlapping citations were written by same authors as the paper itself, we define it as CV-S and different authors is defined as CV-D. For a systematic sample of 883 papers on PubMed Central, at least one of the search terms for 86% of the papers is CV-D versus 65% for the top 20 PubMed "related citations." We hypothesize these quantities computed for the 20 million papers on PubMed to differ within 5% of these percentages. Averaged across all 883 papers, 5 search terms are CV-D, and 10 search terms are CV-S, and 6 unique citations validate these searches. Potentially related literature uncovered by citation-validated searches (either CV-S or CV-D) are on the order of ten per paper--many more if the remaining searches that are not citation-validated are taken into account. The significance and relationship of each search result to the paper can only be vetted and explained by a researcher with knowledge of or interest in that paper.

  9. Geometric singular perturbation analysis of systems with friction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bossolini, Elena

    This thesis is concerned with the application of geometric singular perturbation theory to mechanical systems with friction. The mathematical background on geometric singular perturbation theory, on the blow-up method, on non-smooth dynamical systems and on regularization is presented. Thereafter......, two mechanical problems with two different formulations of the friction force are introduced and analysed. The first mechanical problem is a one-dimensional spring-block model describing earthquake faulting. The dynamics of earthquakes is naturally a multiple timescale problem: the timescale...... scales. The action of friction is generally explained as the loss and restoration of linkages between the surface asperities at the molecular scale. However, the consequences of friction are noticeable at much larger scales, like hundreds of kilometers. By using geometric singular perturbation theory...

  10. Body frames and frame singularities for three-atom systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Littlejohn, R.G.; Mitchell, K.A.; Aquilanti, V.; Cavalli, S.

    1998-01-01

    The subject of body frames and their singularities for three-particle systems is important not only for large-amplitude rovibrational coupling in molecular spectroscopy, but also for reactive scattering calculations. This paper presents a geometrical analysis of the meaning of body frame conventions and their singularities in three-particle systems. Special attention is devoted to the principal axis frame, a certain version of the Eckart frame, and the topological inevitability of frame singularities. The emphasis is on a geometrical picture, which is intended as a preliminary study for the more difficult case of four-particle systems, where one must work in higher-dimensional spaces. The analysis makes extensive use of kinematic rotations. copyright 1998 The American Physical Society

  11. Identity and singularity: Metastability and morphogenesis in light of Deleuze

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barison Marcello

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The question of life is inextricably connected with the problem of identification and with the fact that each identification process includes the acquisition of a form. Nevertheless, it appears that at the biological level, that is, for what concerns a morphogenetic description of the status of the living being, the term singularity comes into play right there where you would expect to get into the notion of identity. According to Christian De Duve, the organic form has no identity, but it expresses - and is an expression of - a singularity. Given these observations, this is the object of the paper: to explain in a clear and consistent way how these terms - namely identity and singularity - differ and whether it is possible to ground their distinction in a coherent theoretical manner.

  12. Preventing singularities in the Einstein-Cartan cosmology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuchowicz, B.

    1977-01-01

    The singularity in expanding cosmological models is an undesirable consequence of general relativity. It may be removed in the Einstein-Cartan theory of gravitation which is an extension of general relativity (''general relativity with spin''). In the Einstein-Cartan theory there appears a characteristic spin-spin interaction which counteracts the contraction of matter above a certain critical density, and thus prevents any singularity. Generalizations of homogeneous cosmological models may contain either locally aligned spins (along an asymmetry axis) or randomly distributed spins (and then only the mean spin density square is macroscopically meaningful). In both cases the singularity can be removed, if only the spin density does increase at a sufficiently fast rate with the contraction of matter. (author)

  13. Analytic Evolution of Singular Distribution Amplitudes in QCD

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Radyushkin, Anatoly V. [Old Dominion University, Norfolk, VA (United States); Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility, Newport News, VA (United States); Tandogan Kunkel, Asli [Old Dominion University, Norfolk, VA (United States); Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility, Newport News, VA (United States)

    2014-03-01

    We describe a method of analytic evolution of distribution amplitudes (DA) that have singularities, such as non-zero values at the end-points of the support region, jumps at some points inside the support region and cusps. We illustrate the method by applying it to the evolution of a flat (constant) DA, anti-symmetric at DA and then use it for evolution of the two-photon generalized distribution amplitude. Our approach has advantages over the standard method of expansion in Gegenbauer polynomials, which requires infinite number of terms in order to accurately reproduce functions in the vicinity of singular points, and over a straightforward iteration of an initial distribution with evolution kernel. The latter produces logarithmically divergent terms at each iteration, while in our method the logarithmic singularities are summed from the start, which immediately produces a continuous curve, with only one or two iterations needed afterwards in order to get rather precise results.

  14. Quantum no-singularity theorem from geometric flows

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alsaleh, Salwa; Alasfar, Lina; Faizal, Mir; Ali, Ahmed Farag

    2018-04-01

    In this paper, we analyze the classical geometric flow as a dynamical system. We obtain an action for this system, such that its equation of motion is the Raychaudhuri equation. This action will be used to quantize this system. As the Raychaudhuri equation is the basis for deriving the singularity theorems, we will be able to understand the effects and such a quantization will have on the classical singularity theorems. Thus, quantizing the geometric flow, we can demonstrate that a quantum space-time is complete (nonsingular). This is because the existence of a conjugate point is a necessary condition for the occurrence of singularities, and we will be able to demonstrate that such conjugate points cannot occur due to such quantum effects.

  15. Hidden singularities in non-abelian gauge fields

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bollini, C.G.; Giambiagi, J.J.; Tiomno, J.

    1978-01-01

    It is shown that the potential (and field) of a non-abelian gauge theory is not well determined when it has a singular point. When this is the cause, it is important to specify the regularization procedure used to give a precise definition of physical quantities at the singularity at any stage of the computation. The fact that a certain A sub(μ) (associated with the given regularization) represents the vacuum when F sub(μν) is a zero distribution not only on the global space but also in all its projections to arbitrary subspaces is discussed. The example used as a base for the discussion is A vetor = i (sigma vetor Λ r vetor / r 2 ). For this example it is shown that different regularizations give the same field in the global space but they give different distributions when projected to subspaces containing the singular point [pt

  16. Singular ways to search for the Higgs boson

    CERN Document Server

    De Rújula, A

    2012-01-01

    The discovery or exclusion of the fundamental standard scalar is a hot topic, given the data of LEP, the Tevatron and the LHC, as well as the advanced status of the pertinent theoretical calculations. With the current statistics at the hadron colliders, the workhorse decay channel, at all relevant H masses, is H to WW, followed by W to light leptons. Using phase-space singularity techniques, we construct and study a plethora of "singularity variables" meant to facilitate the difficult tasks of separating signal and backgrounds and of measuring the mass of a putative signal. The simplest singularity variables are not invariant under boosts along the collider's axes and the simulation of their distributions requires a good understanding of parton distribution functions, perhaps not a serious shortcoming during the boson hunting season. The derivation of longitudinally boost-invariant variables, which are functions of the four charged-lepton observables that share this invariance, is quite elaborate. But their u...

  17. TRUST MODEL FOR SOCIAL NETWORK USING SINGULAR VALUE DECOMPOSITION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Davis Bundi Ntwiga

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available For effective interactions to take place in a social network, trust is important. We model trust of agents using the peer to peer reputation ratings in the network that forms a real valued matrix. Singular value decomposition discounts the reputation ratings to estimate the trust levels as trust is the subjective probability of future expectations based on current reputation ratings. Reputation and trust are closely related and singular value decomposition can estimate trust using the real valued matrix of the reputation ratings of the agents in the network. Singular value decomposition is an ideal technique in error elimination when estimating trust from reputation ratings. Reputation estimation of trust is optimal at the discounting of 20 %.

  18. Two-scale approach to oscillatory singularly perturbed transport equations

    CERN Document Server

    Frénod, Emmanuel

    2017-01-01

    This book presents the classical results of the two-scale convergence theory and explains – using several figures – why it works. It then shows how to use this theory to homogenize ordinary differential equations with oscillating coefficients as well as oscillatory singularly perturbed ordinary differential equations. In addition, it explores the homogenization of hyperbolic partial differential equations with oscillating coefficients and linear oscillatory singularly perturbed hyperbolic partial differential equations. Further, it introduces readers to the two-scale numerical methods that can be built from the previous approaches to solve oscillatory singularly perturbed transport equations (ODE and hyperbolic PDE) and demonstrates how they can be used efficiently. This book appeals to master’s and PhD students interested in homogenization and numerics, as well as to the Iter community.

  19. Singularities in x-ray spectra of metals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mahan, G.D.

    1987-08-01

    The x-ray spectroscopies discussed are absorption, emission, and photoemission. The singularities show up in each of them in a different manner. In absorption and emission they show up as power law singularities at the thresholds frequencies. This review will emphasize two themes. First a simple model is proposed to describe this phenomena, which is now called the MND model after MAHAN-NOZIERES-DeDOMINICIS. Exact analytical solutions are now available for this model for the three spectroscopies discussed above. These analytical models can be evaluated numerically in a simple way. The second theme of this review is that great care must be used when comparing the theory to experiment. A number of factors influence the edge shapes in x-ray spectroscopy. The edge singularities play an important role, and are observed in many matals. Quantitative fits of the theory to experiment require the consideration of other factors. 51 refs

  20. Symposium on Singularities, Representation of Algebras, and Vector Bundles

    CERN Document Server

    Trautmann, Günther

    1987-01-01

    It is well known that there are close relations between classes of singularities and representation theory via the McKay correspondence and between representation theory and vector bundles on projective spaces via the Bernstein-Gelfand-Gelfand construction. These relations however cannot be considered to be either completely understood or fully exploited. These proceedings document recent developments in the area. The questions and methods of representation theory have applications to singularities and to vector bundles. Representation theory itself, which had primarily developed its methods for Artinian algebras, starts to investigate algebras of higher dimension partly because of these applications. Future research in representation theory may be spurred by the classification of singularities and the highly developed theory of moduli for vector bundles. The volume contains 3 survey articles on the 3 main topics mentioned, stressing their interrelationships, as well as original research papers.

  1. Polarization singularities of the object field of skin surface

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Angelsky, O V; Ushenko, A G; Ushenko, Yu A; Ushenko, Ye G

    2006-01-01

    The paper deals with the investigation of formation mechanisms of laser radiation polarization structure scattered by an optically thin surface layer of human skin in two registration zones: a boundary field and a far zone of Fraunhofer diffraction. The conditions of forming polarization singularities by such an object in the scattered radiation field have been defined. Statistical and fractal polarization structure of object fields of physiologically normal and pathologically changed skin has been studied. It has been shown that polarization singularities of radiation scattered by physiologically normal skin samples have a fractal coordinate structure. It is characteristic for fields of pathologically changed skin to have a statistical coordinate structure of polarization singularities in all diffraction zones

  2. Singular perturbations introduction to system order reduction methods with applications

    CERN Document Server

    Shchepakina, Elena; Mortell, Michael P

    2014-01-01

    These lecture notes provide a fresh approach to investigating singularly perturbed systems using asymptotic and geometrical techniques. It gives many examples and step-by-step techniques, which will help beginners move to a more advanced level. Singularly perturbed systems appear naturally in the modelling of many processes that are characterized by slow and fast motions simultaneously, for example, in fluid dynamics and nonlinear mechanics. This book’s approach consists in separating out the slow motions of the system under investigation. The result is a reduced differential system of lesser order. However, it inherits the essential elements of the qualitative behaviour of the original system. Singular Perturbations differs from other literature on the subject due to its methods and wide range of applications. It is a valuable reference for specialists in the areas of applied mathematics, engineering, physics, biology, as well as advanced undergraduates for the earlier parts of the book, and graduate stude...

  3. Breakdown of predictability: an investigation on the nature of singularities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tahir Shah, K.

    1980-12-01

    When relations are extrapolated beyond their premises of discovery, the operation sometimes results in an undefined object, i.e., one which cannot be identified within the given structure. The thesis is put forth that the occurrence of singularities is due to ''incompleteness'' in knowledge. An intuitive answer on how to deal with singularities (in, for instance, the real number system, space-time, quantum field theory) is presented first. Then a quasi-formalistic approach, e.g. non-standard models in higher-order languages and Lawvere's axiomatic formulation of categories, is set out. The independence of singularity with respect to other primitive notions of the Universe of knowledge is noted

  4. Fermi-edge singularity and the functional renormalization group

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kugler, Fabian B.; von Delft, Jan

    2018-05-01

    We study the Fermi-edge singularity, describing the response of a degenerate electron system to optical excitation, in the framework of the functional renormalization group (fRG). Results for the (interband) particle-hole susceptibility from various implementations of fRG (one- and two-particle-irreducible, multi-channel Hubbard–Stratonovich, flowing susceptibility) are compared to the summation of all leading logarithmic (log) diagrams, achieved by a (first-order) solution of the parquet equations. For the (zero-dimensional) special case of the x-ray-edge singularity, we show that the leading log formula can be analytically reproduced in a consistent way from a truncated, one-loop fRG flow. However, reviewing the underlying diagrammatic structure, we show that this derivation relies on fortuitous partial cancellations special to the form of and accuracy applied to the x-ray-edge singularity and does not generalize.

  5. Exact solutions, finite time singularities and non-singular universe models from a variety of Λ(t) cosmologies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Supriya

    2018-01-01

    Cosmological models with time-dependent Λ (read as Λ(t)) have been investigated widely in the literature. Models that solve background dynamics analytically are of special interest. Additionally, the allowance of past or future singularities at finite cosmic time in a specific model signals for a generic test on its viabilities with the current observations. Following these, in this work we consider a variety of Λ(t) models focusing on their evolutions and singular behavior. We found that a series of models in this class can be exactly solved when the background universe is described by a spatially flat Friedmann-Lemaître-Robertson-Walker (FLRW) line element. The solutions in terms of the scale factor of the FLRW universe offer different universe models, such as power-law expansion, oscillating, and the singularity free universe. However, we also noticed that a large number of the models in this series permit past or future cosmological singularities at finite cosmic time. At last we close the work with a note that the avoidance of future singularities is possible for certain models under some specific restrictions.

  6. Supervisory and Routine Processes in Noun and Verb Generation in Nondemented Patients with Parkinson's Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crescentini, Cristiano; Mondolo, Federica; Biasutti, Emanuele; Shallice, Tim

    2008-01-01

    Despite the increased comprehension of the role of the basal ganglia in cognitive functions such as learning, attention, and executive functions, the exact implication of these structures in language remains unclear. A specific role of basal ganglia in language has been proposed. Nonetheless, a recent hypothesis gives the basal ganglia a…

  7. Hilbert schemes of points on some classes surface singularities

    OpenAIRE

    Gyenge, Ádám

    2016-01-01

    We study the geometry and topology of Hilbert schemes of points on the orbifold surface [C^2/G], respectively the singular quotient surface C^2/G, where G is a finite subgroup of SL(2,C) of type A or D. We give a decomposition of the (equivariant) Hilbert scheme of the orbifold into affine space strata indexed by a certain combinatorial set, the set of Young walls. The generating series of Euler characteristics of Hilbert schemes of points of the singular surface of type A or D is computed in...

  8. Three dimensional nilpotent singularity and Sil'nikov bifurcation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Xindan; Liu Haifei

    2007-01-01

    In this paper, by using the normal form, blow-up theory and the technique of global bifurcations, we study the singularity at the origin with threefold zero eigenvalue for nonsymmetric vector fields with nilpotent linear part and 4-jet C ∼ -equivalent toy-bar -bar x+z-bar -bar y+ax 3 y-bar -bar z,with a 0, and analytically prove the existence of Sil'nikov bifurcation, and then of the strange attractor for certain subfamilies of the nonsymmetric versal unfoldings of this singularity under some conditions

  9. Singularities and n-dimensional black holes in torsion theories

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cembranos, J.A.R.; Valcarcel, J. Gigante; Torralba, F.J. Maldonado, E-mail: cembra@fis.ucm.es, E-mail: jorgegigante@ucm.es, E-mail: fmaldo01@ucm.es [Departamento de Física Teórica I, Universidad Complutense de Madrid, E-28040 Madrid (Spain)

    2017-04-01

    In this work we have studied the singular behaviour of gravitational theories with non symmetric connections. For this purpose we introduce a new criteria for the appearance of singularities based on the existence of black/white hole regions of arbitrary codimension defined inside a spacetime of arbitrary dimension. We discuss this prescription by increasing the complexity of the particular torsion theory under study. In this sense, we start with Teleparallel Gravity, then we analyse Einstein-Cartan theory, and finally dynamical torsion models.

  10. Surface singularities in Eddington-inspired Born-Infeld gravity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pani, Paolo; Sotiriou, Thomas P

    2012-12-21

    Eddington-inspired Born-Infeld gravity was recently proposed as an alternative to general relativity that offers a resolution of spacetime singularities. The theory differs from Einstein's gravity only inside matter due to nondynamical degrees of freedom, and it is compatible with all current observations. We show that the theory is reminiscent of Palatini f(R) gravity and that it shares the same pathologies, such as curvature singularities at the surface of polytropic stars and unacceptable Newtonian limit. This casts serious doubt on its viability.

  11. Harnack's Inequality for Degenerate and Singular Parabolic Equations

    CERN Document Server

    DiBenedetto, Emmanuele; Vespri, Vincenzo

    2012-01-01

    Degenerate and singular parabolic equations have been the subject of extensive research for the last 25 years. Despite important achievements, the issue of the Harnack inequality for non-negative solutions to these equations, both of p-Laplacian and porous medium type, while raised by several authors, has remained basically open. Recently considerable progress has been made on this issue, to the point that, except for the singular sub-critical range, both for the p-laplacian and the porous medium equations, the theory is reasonably complete. It seemed therefore timely to trace a comprehensive

  12. Kalman Filtering for Delayed Singular Systems with Multiplicative Noise

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xiao Lu; Linglong Wang; Haixia Wang; Xianghua Wang

    2016-01-01

    Kalman filtering problem for singular systems is dealt with, where the measurements consist of instantaneous measurements and delayed ones, and the plant includes multiplicative noise. By utilizing standard singular value decomposition, the restricted equivalent delayed system is presented, and the Kalman filters for the restricted equivalent system are given by using the well-known re-organization of innovation analysis lemma. The optimal Kalman filter for the original system is given based on the above Kalman filter by recursive Riccati equations, and a numerical example is presented to show the validity and efficiency of the proposed approach, where the comparison between the filter and predictor is also given.

  13. Special relativity with a discrete spectrum of singular velocities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gonzales Gascon, F.

    1977-01-01

    The introduction of real transformation formulae containing a whole discrete spectrum of singularities is suggested. Some phenomenological hypotheses are introduced and the group property is substituted by weaker conditions. The first singular speed (c 1 =c) is invariant with respect to the measures of it from subluminal frames, but the remaining speeds are not invariant. The proposed transformations do not form a closed set (for the superluminal speeds) and, therefore, the problem of having (within this framework) a principle of relativity valid for any velocity remains open

  14. Shocks, singularities and oscillations in nonlinear optics and fluid mechanics

    CERN Document Server

    Santo, Daniele; Lannes, David

    2017-01-01

    The book collects the most relevant results from the INdAM Workshop "Shocks, Singularities and Oscillations in Nonlinear Optics and Fluid Mechanics" held in Rome, September 14-18, 2015. The contributions discuss recent major advances in the study of nonlinear hyperbolic systems, addressing general theoretical issues such as symmetrizability, singularities, low regularity or dispersive perturbations. It also investigates several physical phenomena where such systems are relevant, such as nonlinear optics, shock theory (stability, relaxation) and fluid mechanics (boundary layers, water waves, Euler equations, geophysical flows, etc.). It is a valuable resource for researchers in these fields. .

  15. Einstein equation solutions with axial symmetry, conical and essential singularities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oliveira, S.R. de.

    1986-01-01

    New classes of exact solutions to the Einstein equations of a static axisymetric space-time associated with rings and disks are found. Also, the solutions associated to a axisymetric superposition of punctual bodies, bars, rings and disks are obtained. These solutions have a strut singularities to keep the bodies apart. When one of the bodies of the superposition is a ring, the ring interior is covered with a membrane that serve as a support for the strut that hold the other body. Furthermore, the curvature singularities for different solutions ae analised. (author) [pt

  16. Propagation of singularities for linearised hybrid data impedance tomography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bal, Guillaume; Hoffmann, Kristoffer; Knudsen, Kim

    2018-02-01

    For a general formulation of linearised hybrid inverse problems in impedance tomography, the qualitative properties of the solutions are analysed. Using an appropriate scalar pseudo-differential formulation, the problems are shown to permit propagating singularities under certain non-elliptic conditions, and the associated directions of propagation are precisely identified relative to the directions in which ellipticity is lost. The same result is found in the setting for the corresponding normal formulation of the scalar pseudo-differential equations. A numerical reconstruction procedure based of the least squares finite element method is derived, and a series of numerical experiments visualise exactly how the loss of ellipticity manifests itself as propagating singularities.

  17. Tensor renormalization group with randomized singular value decomposition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morita, Satoshi; Igarashi, Ryo; Zhao, Hui-Hai; Kawashima, Naoki

    2018-03-01

    An algorithm of the tensor renormalization group is proposed based on a randomized algorithm for singular value decomposition. Our algorithm is applicable to a broad range of two-dimensional classical models. In the case of a square lattice, its computational complexity and memory usage are proportional to the fifth and the third power of the bond dimension, respectively, whereas those of the conventional implementation are of the sixth and the fourth power. The oversampling parameter larger than the bond dimension is sufficient to reproduce the same result as full singular value decomposition even at the critical point of the two-dimensional Ising model.

  18. Microlocal study of S-matrix singularity structure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kawai, Takahiro; Kyoto Univ.; Stapp, H.P.

    1975-01-01

    Support is adduced for two related conjectures of simplicity of the analytic structure of the S-matrix and related function; namely, Sato's conjecture that the S-matrix is a solution of a maximally over-determined system of pseudo-differential equations, and our conjecture that the singularity spectrum of any bubble diagram function has the conormal structure with respect to a canonical decomposition of the solutions of the relevant Landau equations. This latter conjecture eliminates the open sets of allowed singularities that existing procedures permit. (orig.) [de

  19. Gauge invariance properties and singularity cancellations in a modified PQCD

    CERN Document Server

    Cabo-Montes de Oca, Alejandro; Cabo, Alejandro; Rigol, Marcos

    2006-01-01

    The gauge-invariance properties and singularity elimination of the modified perturbation theory for QCD introduced in previous works, are investigated. The construction of the modified free propagators is generalized to include the dependence on the gauge parameter $\\alpha $. Further, a functional proof of the independence of the theory under the changes of the quantum and classical gauges is given. The singularities appearing in the perturbative expansion are eliminated by properly combining dimensional regularization with the Nakanishi infrared regularization for the invariant functions in the operator quantization of the $\\alpha$-dependent gauge theory. First-order evaluations of various quantities are presented, illustrating the gauge invariance-properties.

  20. The eigenvalue problem for a singular quasilinear elliptic equation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benjin Xuan

    2004-02-01

    Full Text Available We show that many results about the eigenvalues and eigenfunctions of a quasilinear elliptic equation in the non-singular case can be extended to the singular case. Among these results, we have the first eigenvalue is associated to a $C^{1,alpha}(Omega$ eigenfunction which is positive and unique (up to a multiplicative constant, that is, the first eigenvalue is simple. Moreover the first eigenvalue is isolated and is the unique positive eigenvalue associated to a non-negative eigenfunction. We also prove some variational properties of the second eigenvalue.

  1. Singular charge density at the center of the pion?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miller, Gerald A.

    2009-01-01

    We relate the three-dimensional infinite momentum frame spatial charge density of the pion to its electromagnetic form factor F π (Q 2 ). Diverse treatments of the measured form factor data including phenomenological fits, nonrelativistic quark models, the application of perturbative quantum chromodynamics (QCD), QCD sum rules, holographic QCD, and the Nambu-Jona-Lasinio (NJL) model all lead to the result that the charge density at the center of the pion has a logarithmic divergence. Relativistic constituent quark models do not display this singularity. Future measurements planned for larger values of Q 2 may determine whether or not a singularity actually occurs.

  2. Can noncommutativity resolve the Big-Bang singularity?

    CERN Document Server

    Maceda, M; Manousselis, P; Zoupanos, George

    2004-01-01

    A possible way to resolve the singularities of general relativity is proposed based on the assumption that the description of space-time using commuting coordinates is not valid above a certain fundamental scale. Beyond that scale it is assumed that the space-time has noncommutative structure leading in turn to a resolution of the singularity. As a first attempt towards realizing the above programme a noncommutative version of the Kasner metric is constructed which is nonsingular at all scales and becomes commutative at large length scales.

  3. A singular enzymatic megacomplex from Bacillus subtilis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Straight, Paul D; Fischbach, Michael A; Walsh, Christopher T; Rudner, David Z; Kolter, Roberto

    2007-01-02

    Nonribosomal peptide synthetases (NRPS), polyketide synthases (PKS), and hybrid NRPS/PKS are of particular interest, because they produce numerous therapeutic agents, have great potential for engineering novel compounds, and are the largest enzymes known. The predicted masses of known enzymatic assembly lines can reach almost 5 megadaltons, dwarfing even the ribosome (approximately 2.6 megadaltons). Despite their uniqueness and importance, little is known about the organization of these enzymes within the native producer cells. Here we report that an 80-kb gene cluster, which occupies approximately 2% of the Bacillus subtilis genome, encodes the subunits of approximately 2.5 megadalton active hybrid NRPS/PKS. Many copies of the NRPS/PKS assemble into a single organelle-like membrane-associated complex of tens to hundreds of megadaltons. Such an enzymatic megacomplex is unprecedented in bacterial subcellular organization and has important implications for engineering novel NRPS/PKSs.

  4. The singular weapon. What remains from the atomic age?; Die Singulaere Waffe. Was bleibt vom Atomzeitalter?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eisenbart, Constanze (ed.) [Forschungsstaette der Evangelischen Studiengemeinschaft (FEST), Heidelberg (Germany)

    2012-07-01

    The book contains the following contributions: Why do we talk about the atomic age? The language of the atomic myth - comments to a protestant debate. Nuclear singularity between fiction and reality. Only one can get through: military singularity of nuclear weapons. Physical singularity of nuclear weapons. Nuclear weapons test and fall-out. Quantitative disarmament and qualitative rearmament. Do mini nukes neutralize the singularity? The vulnerability of the industrial society by the nuclear electromagnetic momentum. Nuclear weapons as national status symbol - the example of India. The general regulations of international laws and the singularity of nuclear weapons. The construction of normative singularity - development and change of the nuclear taboo.

  5. Fractional charge and inter-Landau-level states at points of singular curvature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biswas, Rudro R; Son, Dam Thanh

    2016-08-02

    The quest for universal properties of topological phases is fundamentally important because these signatures are robust to variations in system-specific details. Aspects of the response of quantum Hall states to smooth spatial curvature are well-studied, but challenging to observe experimentally. Here we go beyond this prevailing paradigm and obtain general results for the response of quantum Hall states to points of singular curvature in real space; such points may be readily experimentally actualized. We find, using continuum analytical methods, that the point of curvature binds an excess fractional charge and sequences of quantum states split away, energetically, from the degenerate bulk Landau levels. Importantly, these inter-Landau-level states are bound to the topological singularity and have energies that are universal functions of bulk parameters and the curvature. Our exact diagonalization of lattice tight-binding models on closed manifolds demonstrates that these results continue to hold even when lattice effects are significant. An important technological implication of these results is that these inter-Landau-level states, being both energetically and spatially isolated quantum states, are promising candidates for constructing qubits for quantum computation.

  6. Stability of naked singularity arising in gravitational collapse of Type ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    particular case of radial pressure pr(r) has been illustrated in details to get a ... In §2, we briefly summarize the analysis given in [3] and state the conditions on ...... taken for other shells to reach the singularity can be determined from the Taylor.

  7. Singularly perturbed Burger-Huxley equation: Analytical solution ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The work presented considers the initial boundary value problem for nonlinear singularly perturbed time dependent Burger- Huxley equation. The equation contains two terms with nonlinearities, the cubic term and the advection term. Generally, the severe difficulties of two types encounter in solving this problem. The first ...

  8. Non-perturbative string theories and singular surfaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bochicchio, M.

    1990-01-01

    Singular surfaces are shown to be dense in the Teichmueller space of all Riemann surfaces and in the grasmannian. This happens because a regular surface of genus h, obtained identifying 2h disks in pairs, can be approximated by a very large genus singular surface with punctures dense in the 2h disks. A scale ε is introduced and the approximate genus is defined as half the number of connected regions covered by punctures of radius ε. The non-perturbative partition function is proposed to be a scaling limit of the partition function on such infinite genus singular surfaces with a weight which is the coupling constant g raised to the approximate genus. For a gaussian model in any space-time dimension the regularized partition function on singular surfaces of infinite genus is the partition function of a two-dimensional lattice gas of charges and monopoles. It is shown that modular invariance of the partition function implies a version of the Dirac quantization condition for the values of the e/m charges. Before the scaling limit the phases of the lattice gas may be classified according to the 't Hooft criteria for the condensation of e/m operators. (orig.)

  9. On p dependent boundedness of singular integral operators

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Honzík, Petr

    2011-01-01

    Roč. 267, 3-4 (2011), s. 931-937 ISSN 0025-5874 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10190503 Keywords : singular integral operators Subject RIV: BA - General Mathematics Impact factor: 0.749, year: 2011 http://www.springerlink.com/content/k507g30163351250/

  10. Discrete singular convolution for the generalized variable-coefficient ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Numerical solutions of the generalized variable-coefficient Korteweg-de Vries equation are obtained using a discrete singular convolution and a fourth order singly diagonally implicit Runge-Kutta method for space and time discretisation, respectively. The theoretical convergence of the proposed method is rigorously ...

  11. Classical Liouville action on the sphere with three hyperbolic singularities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hadasz, Leszek E-mail: hadasz@th.if.uj.edu.pl; Jaskolski, Zbigniew E-mail: jask@ift.uniwroc.pl

    2004-08-30

    The classical solution to the Liouville equation in the case of three hyperbolic singularities of its energy-momentum tensor is derived and analyzed. The recently proposed classical Liouville action is explicitly calculated in this case. The result agrees with the classical limit of the three-point function in the DOZZ solution of the quantum Liouville theory.

  12. Classical Liouville action on the sphere with three hyperbolic singularities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hadasz, Leszek; Jaskólski, Zbigniew

    2004-08-01

    The classical solution to the Liouville equation in the case of three hyperbolic singularities of its energy-momentum tensor is derived and analyzed. The recently proposed classical Liouville action is explicitly calculated in this case. The result agrees with the classical limit of the three-point function in the DOZZ solution of the quantum Liouville theory.

  13. Classical Liouville action on the sphere with three hyperbolic singularities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hadasz, Leszek; Jaskolski, Zbigniew

    2004-01-01

    The classical solution to the Liouville equation in the case of three hyperbolic singularities of its energy-momentum tensor is derived and analyzed. The recently proposed classical Liouville action is explicitly calculated in this case. The result agrees with the classical limit of the three-point function in the DOZZ solution of the quantum Liouville theory

  14. SINGULAR SPECTRUM ANALYSIS: METHODOLOGY AND APPLICATION TO ECONOMICS DATA

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hossein HASSANI; Anatoly ZHIGLJAVSKY

    2009-01-01

    This paper describes the methodology of singular spectrum analysis (SSA) and demonstrate that it is a powerful method of time series analysis and forecasting, particulary for economic time series. The authors consider the application of SSA to the analysis and forecasting of the Iranian national accounts data as provided by the Central Bank of the Islamic Republic of lran.

  15. Singular limit analysis of a model for earthquake faulting

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bossolini, Elena; Brøns, Morten; Kristiansen, Kristian Uldall

    2017-01-01

    In this paper we consider the one dimensional spring-block model describing earthquake faulting. By using geometric singular perturbation theory and the blow-up method we provide a detailed description of the periodicity of the earthquake episodes. In particular, the limit cycles arise from...

  16. Singularity free non-rotating cosmological solutions for perfect fluids ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Singularity free cosmological solutions of the type stated in the title known so far are of a very special class and have the following characteristics: (a) The space time is cylindrically symmetric. (b) In case the metric is diagonal, the μ's are of the form μ = a function of time multiplied by a function of the radial coordinate.

  17. Singular problems in shell theory. Computing and asymptotics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sanchez-Palencia, Evariste [Institut Jean Le Rond d' Alembert, Paris (France); Millet, Olivier [La Rochelle Univ. (France). LEPTIAB; Bechet, Fabien [Metz Univ. (France). LPMM

    2010-07-01

    It is known that deformations of thin shells exhibit peculiarities such as propagation of singularities, edge and internal layers, piecewise quasi inextensional deformations, sensitive problems and others, leading in most cases to numerical locking phenomena under several forms, and very poor quality of computations for small relative thickness. Most of these phenomena have a local and often anisotropic character (elongated in some directions), so that efficient numerical schemes should take them in consideration. This book deals with various topics in this context: general geometric formalism, analysis of singularities, numerical computing of thin shell problems, estimates for finite element approximation (including non-uniform and anisotropic meshes), mathematical considerations on boundary value problems in connection with sensitive problems encountered for very thin shells; and others. Most of numerical computations presented here use an adaptive anisotropic mesh procedure which allows a good computation of the physical peculiarities on one hand, and the possibility to perform automatic computations (without a previous mathematical description of the singularities) on the other. The book is recommended for PhD students, postgraduates and researchers who want to improve their knowledge in shell theory and in particular in the areas addressed (analysis of singularities, numerical computing of thin and very thin shell problems, sensitive problems). The lecture of the book may not be continuous and the reader may refer directly to the chapters concerned. (orig.)

  18. Long Range Prospects of Education – from Now until Singularity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vatroslav Zovko

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available This work describes key characteristics and genesis of educational system today. As it is considered that we live in information society, presented are major goals of information society education and the school system in general in relation to the labour market. Briefly is described the concept of singularity and how it will make a quantum leap in the history of human development. Education is briefly put in the singularity framework and the concept of future society that is more technologically advanced. This paper also discusses the chronology of future technological development until the singularity age. It is argued that once we reach the singularity age the consequence will be the shift away from economic centered education and employment and toward humanities research. Ultimately, the goal of this paper is to open up a discussion about the different possible future scenarios of education, its long term perspective and the role in society rather than making a precise forecast about the education in mid-21st century.

  19. Spatial Behaviour of Singularities in Fractal- and Gaussian Speckle Fields

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Angelsky, Oleg V.; Maksimyak, Alexander P.; Maksimyak, Peter P.

    2009-01-01

    Peculiarities of the spatial behaviour of the dislocation lines resulting from scattering of coherent radiation from random and fractal rough surfaces are studied. The technique of optical correlation is proposed for diagnostics of phase singularities in a complex speckle field by comparing...

  20. Singular instantons in Eddington-inspired-Born-Infeld gravity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arroja, Frederico; Chen, Che-Yu; Chen, Pisin; Yeom, Dong-han, E-mail: arroja@phys.ntu.edu.tw, E-mail: b97202056@gmail.com, E-mail: pisinchen@phys.ntu.edu.tw, E-mail: innocent.yeom@gmail.com [Leung Center for Cosmology and Particle Astrophysics, National Taiwan University, Taipei, 10617, Taiwan (China)

    2017-03-01

    In this work, we investigate O (4)-symmetric instantons within the Eddington-inspired-Born-Infeld gravity theory (EiBI) . We discuss the regular Hawking-Moss instanton and find that the tunneling rate reduces to the General Relativity (GR) value, even though the action value is different by a constant. We give a thorough analysis of the singular Vilenkin instanton and the Hawking-Turok instanton with a quadratic scalar field potential in the EiBI theory. In both cases, we find that the singularity can be avoided in the sense that the physical metric, its scalar curvature and the scalar field are regular under some parameter restrictions, but there is a curvature singularity of the auxiliary metric compatible with the connection. We find that the on-shell action is finite and the probability does not reduce to its GR value. We also find that the Vilenkin instanton in the EiBI theory would still cause the instability of the Minkowski space, similar to that in GR, and this is observationally inconsistent. This result suggests that the singularity of the auxiliary metric may be problematic at the quantum level and that these instantons should be excluded from the path integral.

  1. Quantum jump from singularity to outside of black hole

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dündar, Furkan Semih [Physics and Mathematics Departments, Sakarya University, 54050, Sakarya (Turkey); Hajian, Kamal [School of Physics, Institute for Research in Fundamental Sciences, P.O. Box 19395-5531, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Department of Physics, Sharif University of Technology, P.O. Box 11365-8639, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2016-02-26

    Considering the role of black hole singularity in quantum evolution, a resolution to the firewall paradox is presented. It is emphasized that if an observer has the singularity as a part of his spacetime, then the semi-classical evolution would be non-unitary as viewed by him. Specifically, a free-falling observer inside the black hole would have a Hilbert space with non-unitary evolution; a quantum jump for particles encountering the singularity to outside of the horizon as late Hawking radiations. The non-unitarity in the jump resembles the one in collapse of wave function, but preserves entanglements. Accordingly, we elaborate the first postulate of black hole complementarity: freely falling observers who pass through the event horizon would have non-unitary evolution, while it does not have physically measurable effects for them. Besides, no information would be lost in the singularity. Taking the modified picture into account, the firewall paradox can be resolved, respecting No Drama. A by-product of our modification is that roughly half of the entropy of the black hole is released close to the end of evaporation in the shape of very hot Hawking radiation.

  2. A parabolic singular perturbation problem with an internal layer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Grasman, J.; Shih, S.D.

    2004-01-01

    A method is presented to approximate with singular perturbation methods a parabolic differential equation for the quarter plane with a discontinuity at the corner. This discontinuity gives rise to an internal layer. It is necessary to match the local solution in this layer with the one in a corner

  3. A novel singular pattern in the sine-Gordon equation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huang, Debin

    2003-01-01

    By the scatter problem and the Backlund transformation of the sine-Gordon equation, we find a novel solution with the singularity of jumping phenomenon, which displays pattern structure similar respectively to soliton, kink, anti-kink and double pole solution with the different choice of the purely imaginary spectrum of the sine-Gordon equation

  4. Transcendental smallness in singularly perturbed equations of volterra type

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bijura, Angelina M.

    2003-11-01

    The application of different limit processes to a physical problem is an important tool in layer type techniques. Hence the study of initial layer correction functions is of central importance for understanding layer-type problems. It is shown that for singularly perturbed problems of Volterra type, the concept of transcendental smallness is an asymptotic one. Transcendentally small terms may be numerically important. (author)

  5. Singularity-free interpretation of the thermodynamics of supercooled water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sastry, S.; Debenedetti, P.G.; Sciortino, F.; Stanley, H.E.

    1996-01-01

    The pronounced increases in isothermal compressibility, isobaric heat capacity, and in the magnitude of the thermal expansion coefficient of liquid water upon supercooling have been interpreted either in terms of a continuous, retracing spinodal curve bounding the superheated, stretched, and supercooled states of liquid water, or in terms of a metastable, low-temperature critical point. Common to these two scenarios is the existence of singularities associated with diverging density fluctuations at low temperature. We show that the increase in compressibility upon lowering the temperature of a liquid that expands on cooling, like water, is not contingent on any singular behavior, but rather is a thermodynamic necessity. We perform a thermodynamic analysis for an anomalous liquid (i.e., one that expands when cooled) in the absence of a retracing spinodal and show that one may in general expect a locus of compressibility extrema in the anomalous regime. Our analysis suggests that the simplest interpretation of the behavior of supercooled water consistent with experimental observations is free of singularities. We then develop a waterlike lattice model that exhibits no singular behavior, while capturing qualitative aspects of the thermodynamics of water. copyright 1996 The American Physical Society

  6. Analysis of the essential spectrum of singular matrix differential operators

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Ibrogimov, O. O.; Siegl, Petr; Tretter, C.

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 260, č. 4 (2016), s. 3881-3926 ISSN 0022-0396 Institutional support: RVO:61389005 Key words : essential spectrum * system of singular differential equations * operator matrix * Schur complement * magnetohydrodynamics * Stellar equilibrium model Subject RIV: BE - Theoretical Physics Impact factor: 1.988, year: 2016

  7. From Singularity Theory to Finiteness of Walrasian Equilibria

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Castro, Sofia B.S.D.; Dakhlia, Sami F.; Gothen, Peter

    The paper establishes that for an open and dense subset of smooth exchange economies, the number of Walrasian equilibria is finite. In particular, our results extend to non-regular economies; it even holds when restricted to the subset of critical ones. The proof rests on concepts from singularity...... theory....

  8. A generalization of the virial theorem for strongly singular potentials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gesztesy, F.; Pittner, L.

    1978-09-01

    Using scale transformations the authors prove a generalization of the virial theorem for the eigenfunctions of non-relativistic Schroedinger Hamiltonians which are defined as the Friedrichs extension of strongly singular differential operators. The theorem also applies to situations where the ground state has divergent kinetic and potential energy and thus the usual version of the virial theorem becomes meaningless. (Auth.)

  9. Remarks on the Schroedinger operator with singular complex potentials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brezis, Haim; Kato, Tosio

    1979-01-01

    To describe this method in a simple case Section 2 begin with real valued potentials. The main results in Section 2 are essentially known. In Section 3 the case of complex potentials is exposed. Schroedinger operators with complex potentials have been studied by Nelson. This results were extended. Here more general singularities are exposed

  10. Quantum jump from singularity to outside of black hole

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dündar, Furkan Semih; Hajian, Kamal

    2016-01-01

    Considering the role of black hole singularity in quantum evolution, a resolution to the firewall paradox is presented. It is emphasized that if an observer has the singularity as a part of his spacetime, then the semi-classical evolution would be non-unitary as viewed by him. Specifically, a free-falling observer inside the black hole would have a Hilbert space with non-unitary evolution; a quantum jump for particles encountering the singularity to outside of the horizon as late Hawking radiations. The non-unitarity in the jump resembles the one in collapse of wave function, but preserves entanglements. Accordingly, we elaborate the first postulate of black hole complementarity: freely falling observers who pass through the event horizon would have non-unitary evolution, while it does not have physically measurable effects for them. Besides, no information would be lost in the singularity. Taking the modified picture into account, the firewall paradox can be resolved, respecting No Drama. A by-product of our modification is that roughly half of the entropy of the black hole is released close to the end of evaporation in the shape of very hot Hawking radiation.

  11. Formation and morphological transformation of polarization singularities: hunting the monstar

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kumar, Vijay; Philip, Geo M; Viswanathan, Nirmal K

    2013-01-01

    The theoretical formalism and experimental measurements to form and transform between the three morphologies of the polarization singular patterns—star, lemon and monstar—are presented here. The monstar is statistically rare in isotropic random fields but its controllable realization is achieved by tuning the field anisotropy in three-beam interference. (paper)

  12. Singular points in moduli spaces of Yang-Mills fields

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ticciati, R.

    1984-01-01

    This thesis investigates the metric dependence of the moduli spaces of Yang-Mills fields of an SU(2) principal bundle P with chern number -1 over a four-dimensional, simply-connected, oriented, compact smooth manifold M with positive definite intersection form. The purpose of this investigation is to suggest that the surgery class of the moduli space of irreducible connections is, for a generic metric, a Z 2 topological invariant of the smooth structure on M. There are three main parts. The first two parts are local analysis of singular points in the moduli spaces. The last part is global. The first part shows that the set of metrics for which the moduli space of irreducible connections has only non-degenerate singularities has codimension at least one in the space of all metrics. The second part shows that, for a one-parameter family of moduli spaces in a direction transverse to the set of metrics for which the moduli spaces have singularities, passing through a non-degenerate singularity of the simplest type changes the moduli space by a cobordism. The third part shows that generic one-parameter families of metrics give rise to six-dimensional manifolds, the corresponding family of moduli spaces of irreducible connections. It is shown that when M is homeomorphic to S 4 the six-dimensional manifold is a proper cobordism, thus establishing the independence of the surgery class of the moduli space on the metric on M

  13. Robust regularized singular value decomposition with application to mortality data

    KAUST Repository

    Zhang, Lingsong; Shen, Haipeng; Huang, Jianhua Z.

    2013-01-01

    We develop a robust regularized singular value decomposition (RobRSVD) method for analyzing two-way functional data. The research is motivated by the application of modeling human mortality as a smooth two-way function of age group and year. The Rob

  14. Boundary triples for Schrodinger operators with singular interactions on hypersurfaces

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Behrndt, J.; Langer, M.; Lotoreichik, Vladimir

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 7, č. 2 (2016), s. 290-302 ISSN 2220-8054 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA14-06818S Institutional support: RVO:61389005 Keywords : boundary triple * Weyl function * Schrodinger operator * singular potential * delta-interaction * hypersurface Subject RIV: BE - Theoretical Physics

  15. A Connection between Singular Stochastic Control and Optimal Stopping

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Espen Benth, Fred; Reikvam, Kristin

    2003-01-01

    We show that the value function of a singular stochastic control problem is equal to the integral of the value function of an associated optimal stopping problem. The connection is proved for a general class of diffusions using the method of viscosity solutions

  16. Do sewn up singularities falsify the Palatini cosmology?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Szydlowski, Marek [Astronomical Observatory, Jagiellonian University, Krakow (Poland); Mark Kac Complex Systems Research Centre, Jagiellonian University, Krakow (Poland); Stachowski, Aleksander [Astronomical Observatory, Jagiellonian University, Krakow (Poland); Borowiec, Andrzej [University of Wroclaw, Institute for Theoretical Physics, Wroclaw (Poland); Wojnar, Aneta [University of Wroclaw, Institute for Theoretical Physics, Wroclaw (Poland); Universita di Napoli Federico II, Complesso Universitario di Monte S. Angelo, Dipartimento di Fisica, Naples (Italy)

    2016-10-15

    We investigate further (cf. Borowiec et al. JCAP 1601(01):040, 2016) the Starobinsky cosmological model R + γR{sup 2} in the Palatini formalism with a Chaplygin gas and baryonic matter as a source in the context of singularities. The dynamics reduces to the 2D sewn dynamical system of a Newtonian type (a piece-wise-smooth dynamical system). We demonstrate that the presence of a sewn up freeze singularity (glued freeze type singularities) for the positive γ is, in this case, a generic feature of the early evolution of the universe. It is demonstrated that γ equal zero is a bifurcation parameter and the dynamics qualitatively changes as the γ sign is changing. On the other side for the case of negative γ instead of the big bang the sudden bounce singularity of a finite scale factor does appear and there is a generic class of bouncing solutions. While the Ω{sub γ} > 0 is favored by data only very small values of Ω{sub γ} parameter are allowed if we require agreement with the ΛCDM model. From the statistical analysis of astronomical observations, we deduce that the case of only very small negative values of Ω{sub γ} cannot be rejected. Therefore, observation data favor the universe without the ghost states (f{sup '}(R) > 0) and tachyons (f''(R) > 0). (orig.)

  17. New singularities in nonrelativistic coupled channel scattering. II. Fourth order

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khuri, N.N.; Tsun Wu, T.

    1997-01-01

    We consider a two-channel nonrelativistic potential scattering problem, and study perturbation theory in fourth order for the forward amplitude. The main result is that the new singularity demonstrated in second order in the preceding paper I also occurs at the same point in fourth order. Its strength is again that of a pole. copyright 1997 The American Physical Society

  18. Relating hard QCD processes through universality of mass singularities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Amati, D.; Petronzio, R.; Veneziano, G.

    1978-01-01

    Hard QCD processes involving final jets are studied and compared by means of a simple approach to mass singularities. This is based on the Lee-Nauenberg-Kinoshita theorem and on a rather subtle use of gauge invariance in hard collinear gluon bremsstrahlung. One-loop results are easily derived for processes involving any number of initial quarks and/or currents. The method greatly simplifies the computation of higher-order loops at the leading log level and the preliminary results allow one to conclude that the crucial features encountered at the one-loop level will persist. The authors are thus able to relate different hard processes and to show that suitable ratios of cross sections, being free from mass singularities, can be computed perturbatively, as usually assumed in QCD-inspired parton models. It is also possible to relate the universal leading mass singularities to leading scaling violations and to extend therefor the results of the operator product expansion method to processes outside the range of the light-cone analysis. Some delicate points caused by confinement-related singularities (e.g. narrow resonance poles) are also discussed. (Auth.)

  19. Transitions of the Multi-Scale Singularity Trees

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Somchaipeng, Kerawit; Sporring, Jon; Kreiborg, Sven

    2005-01-01

    Multi-Scale Singularity Trees(MSSTs) [10] are multi-scale image descriptors aimed at representing the deep structures of images. Changes in images are directly translated to changes in the deep structures; therefore transitions in MSSTs. Because MSSTs can be used to represent the deep structure...

  20. Image Denoising Using Singular Value Difference in the Wavelet Domain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Min Wang

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Singular value (SV difference is the difference in the singular values between a noisy image and the original image; it varies regularly with noise intensity. This paper proposes an image denoising method using the singular value difference in the wavelet domain. First, the SV difference model is generated for different noise variances in the three directions of the wavelet transform and the noise variance of a new image is used to make the calculation by the diagonal part. Next, the single-level discrete 2-D wavelet transform is used to decompose each noisy image into its low-frequency and high-frequency parts. Then, singular value decomposition (SVD is used to obtain the SVs of the three high-frequency parts. Finally, the three denoised high-frequency parts are reconstructed by SVD from the SV difference, and the final denoised image is obtained using the inverse wavelet transform. Experiments show the effectiveness of this method compared with relevant existing methods.