WorldWideScience

Sample records for singlet oxygen luminescence

  1. A pulse radiolysis based singlet oxygen luminescence facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gorman, A.A.; Hamblett, I.; Land, E.J.

    1989-01-01

    In this paper the authors report the first successful time-resolved detection of singlet oxygen, O 2 ( 1 Δ g ), luminescence using the pulse radiolysis technique. The use of this technique (a) to produce high concentrations of solute (S) triplet states in aerated benzene (B) via a combination of channels 1-4 and (b) to subsequently form O 2 ( 1 Δ g ) via channel 5 has already been described. The method complements direct pulsed laser excitation of S in that formation of 3 S*, and therefore of O 2 ( 1 Δ g ), is still efficient in those instances where intersystem crossing (channel 4) is unimportant. In the latter situation a laser-based experiment would require an additional light-absorbing sensitizer which could subsequently transfer triplet energy to high concentrations of S. Such experiments, certainly of a quantitative nature, are usually doomed to failure because of competitive light absorption problems. No such problems exist with pulse radiolysis, and the high available triplet energy of 3 B* (84 kcal mol -1 ) ensures that virtually any solute of interest, in the O 2 ( 1 Δ g ) context, will be efficiently promoted to its triplet state

  2. Highly sensitive time resolved singlet oxygen luminescence detection using LEDs as the excitation source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hackbarth, S; Schlothauer, J; Preuss, A; Röder, B

    2013-01-01

    For the first time singlet oxygen luminescence kinetics in living cells were detected at high precision using LED light for excitation. As LED technology evolves, the light intensity emitted by standard LEDs allows photosensitized singlet oxygen luminescence detection in solution and cell suspensions. We present measurements superior to those of most actual laser powered setups regarding precision of singlet oxygen kinetics in solutions and cell suspensions. Data presented here show that LED based setups allow the determination of the photosensitizer triplet and singlet oxygen decay times in vitro with an accuracy of 0.1 μs. This enables monitoring of the photosensitizer efficiency and interaction with the cellular components using illumination doses small enough not to cause cell death. (letter)

  3. Development of Singlet Oxygen Luminescence Kinetics during the Photodynamic Inactivation of Green Algae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tobias Bornhütter

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Recent studies show the feasibility of photodynamic inactivation of green algae as a vital step towards an effective photodynamic suppression of biofilms by using functionalized surfaces. The investigation of the intrinsic mechanisms of photodynamic inactivation in green algae represents the next step in order to determine optimization parameters. The observation of singlet oxygen luminescence kinetics proved to be a very effective approach towards understanding mechanisms on a cellular level. In this study, the first two-dimensional measurement of singlet oxygen kinetics in phototrophic microorganisms on surfaces during photodynamic inactivation is presented. We established a system of reproducible algae samples on surfaces, incubated with two different cationic, antimicrobial potent photosensitizers. Fluorescence microscopy images indicate that one photosensitizer localizes inside the green algae while the other accumulates along the outer algae cell wall. A newly developed setup allows for the measurement of singlet oxygen luminescence on the green algae sample surfaces over several days. The kinetics of the singlet oxygen luminescence of both photosensitizers show different developments and a distinct change over time, corresponding with the differences in their localization as well as their photosensitization potential. While the complexity of the signal reveals a challenge for the future, this study incontrovertibly marks a crucial, inevitable step in the investigation of photodynamic inactivation of biofilms: it shows the feasibility of using the singlet oxygen luminescence kinetics to investigate photodynamic effects on surfaces and thus opens a field for numerous investigations.

  4. Mitochondria Targetable Time-Gated Luminescence Probe for Singlet Oxygen Based on a β-Diketonate-Europium Complex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Jingyan; Song, Bo; Ye, Zhiqiang; Yuan, Jingli

    2015-12-21

    Singlet oxygen ((1)O2) plays a key role in the photodynamic therapy (PDT) technique of neoplastic diseases. In this work, by using a 9,10-dimethyl-2-anthryl-containing β-diketone, 1,1,1,2,2-pentafluoro-5-(9',10'-dimethyl-2'-anthryl)-3,5-pentanedione (Hpfdap), as a (1)O2-recognition ligand, a novel β-diketonate-europium(III) complex that can act as a luminescence probe for (1)O2, [Eu(pfdap)3(tpy)] (tpy = 2,2',2″-terpyridine), has been designed and synthesized for the time-gated luminescence detection of (1)O2 in living cells. The complex is weakly luminescent due to the quenching effect of 9,10-dimethyl-2-anthryl groups. After reaction with (1)O2, accompanied by the formation of endoperoxides of 9,10-dimethyl-2-anthryl groups, the luminescence quenching disappears, so that the long-lived luminescence of the europium(III) complex is switched on. The complex showed highly selective luminescence response to (1)O2 with a remarkable luminescence enhancement. Combined with the time-gated luminescence imaging technique, the complex was successfully used as a luminescent probe for the monitoring of the time-dependent generation of (1)O2 in 5-aminolevulinic acid (a PDT drug) loaded HepG2 cells during the photodynamic process. In addition, by coloading the complex and a mitochondrial indicator, Mito-Tracker Green, into HepG2 cells, the specific localization of [Eu(pfdap)3(tpy)] molecules in mitochondria of HepG2 cells was demonstrated by confocal fluorescence imaging measurements.

  5. Influence of pulse-height discrimination threshold for photon counting on the accuracy of singlet oxygen luminescence measurement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lin, Huiyun; Chen, Defu; Wang, Min; Lin, Juqiang; Li, Buhong; Xie, Shusen

    2011-01-01

    Direct measurement of near-infrared (NIR) luminescence around 1270 nm is the golden standard of singlet oxygen ( 1 O 2 ) identification. In this study, the influence of pulse-height discrimination threshold on measurement accuracy of the 1 O 2 luminescence that is generated from the photoirradiation of meso-tetra (N-methyl-4-pyridyl) morphine tetra-tosylate (TMPyP) in aqueous solution was investigated by using our custom-developed detection system. Our results indicate that the discrimination threshold has a significant influence on the absolute 1 O 2 luminescence counts, and the optimal threshold for our detection system is found to be about − 41.2 mV for signal discrimination. After optimization, the derived triplet-state and 1 O 2 lifetimes of TMPyP in aqueous solution are found to be 1.73 ± 0.03 and 3.70 ± 0.04 µs, respectively, and the accuracy of measurement was further independently demonstrated using the laser flash photolysis technique

  6. A Singlet Oxygen Photogeneration and Luminescence Study of Unsymmetrically Substituted Mesoporphyrinic Compounds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anabela Sousa Oliveira

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper deals with a series of new unsymmetrically substituted mesoporphyrins: 5-(2-hydroxyphenyl-10,15,20-tris-phenyl-21,23-H-porphyrin (TPPOHO, 5-(3-hydroxyphenyl-10,15,20-tris-phenyl-21,23-H-porphyrin (TPPOHM, 5-(4-hydroxyphenyl-10,15,20-tris-phenyl-21,23-H-porphyrin (TPPOHP, 5-(2-hydroxyphenyl-10,15,20-tris-butyl-21,23-H-porphyrin (TBPOHO, and their parent nonsubstituted compounds, respectively, 5,10,15,20-tetrakis-phenyl-21,23-H-porphyrin (TPP and 5,10,15,20-tetrakis-butyl-21,23-H-porphyrin (TBP. Several photophysical studies were carried out to access the influence of the unsymmetrical substitution at the porphyrinic macrocycle on porthyrin's photophysical properties, especially porthyrin's efficiency as singlet oxygen sensitizers. The quantum yields of singlet oxygen generation were determined in benzene (ΦΔ(TPP = 0.66 ± 0.05; ΦΔ(TPPOHO = 0.69 ± 0.04; ΦΔ(TPPOHM = 0.62 ± 0.04; ΦΔ(TPPOHP = 0.73 ± 0.03; ΦΔ(TBP = 0.76 ± 0.03; ΦΔ(TBPOHO = 0.73 ± 0.02 using the 5,10,15,20-tetraphenyl-21,23-H-porphine (ΦΔ(TPP = 0.66 and Phenazine (ΦΔ(Phz = 0.83 as reference compounds. Their fluorescence quantum yields were found to be (Φf(TPPOHO = 0.10 ± 0.04; Φf(TPPOHM = 0.09 ± 0.03; Φf(TPPOHP = 0.13 ± 0.02; Φf(TBP = 0.08 ± 0.03 and Φf(TBPOHO = 0.08 ± 0.02 using 5,10,15,20-tetraphenyl-21,23-H-porphine as reference Φf(TPP = 0.13. Singlet state lifetimes were also determined in the same solvent. All the porphyrins presented very similar fluorescence lifetimes (mean values of τS (with O2, air equilibrated = 9.6 ± 0.3 nanoseconds and (without O2, argon purged = 10.1 ± 0.6 nanoseconds, resp.. The phosphorescence emission was found to be negligible for this series of unsymmetrically substituted mesoporphyrins, but an E-type, thermally activated, delayed fluorescence process was proved to occur at room temperature.

  7. Correlation of in vivo tumor response and singlet oxygen luminescence detection in mTHPC-mediated photodynamic therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brian C. Wilson

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Excited-state singlet oxygen (1O2, generated during photodynamic therapy (PDT, is believed to be the primary cytotoxic agent with a number of clinically approved photosensitizers. Its relative concentration in cells or tissues can be measured directly through its near-infrared (NIR luminescence emission, which has correlated well with in vitro cell and in vivo normal skin treatment responses. Here, its correlation with the response of tumor tissue in vivo is examined, using the photosensitizer meso-tetrahydroxyphenylchlorin (mTHPC in an animal model comprising luciferase- and green fluorescent protein (GFP-transduced gliosarcoma grown in a dorsal window chamber. The change in the bioluminescence signal, imaged pretreatment and at 2, 5 and 9 d post treatment, was used as a quantitative measure of the tumor response, which was classified in individual tumors as "non", "moderate" and "strong" in order to reduce the variance in the data. Plotting the bioluminescence-based response vs the 1O2 counts demonstrated clear correlation, indicating that 1O2 luminescence provides a valid dosimetric technique for PDT in tumor tissue.

  8. Chemical luminescence measurement of singlet oxygen generated by photodynamic therapy in solutions in real time

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Shiming; Xing, Da; Zhou, Jing; Qin, Yanfang; Chen, Qun

    2005-04-01

    Photodynamic therapy (PDT) is a cancer therapy that utilizes optical energy to activate a photosensitizer drug in a target tissue. Reactive oxygen species (ROS), such as 1O2 and superoxide, are believed to be the major cytotoxic agents involved in PDT. Although current PDT dosimetry mostly involves measurements of light and photosensitizer doses delivered to a patient, the quantification of ROS production during a treatment would be the ultimate dosimetry of PDT. Technically, it is very difficult and expensive to directly measure the fluorescence from 1O2, due to its extreme short lifetime and weak signal strength. In this paper, Photofrin(R) and 635nm laser were used to generate 1O2 and superoxide in a PDT in solution. Compound 3,7- dihydro-6-{4-[2-(N"-(5-fluoresceinyl) thioureido) ethoxy] phenyl}-2- methylimidazo{1,2-a} pyrazin-3-one sodium salt,an Cyp- ridina luciferin analog commonly referred as FCLA, was used as a chemical reporter of ROS. The 532nm chemiluminescence (CL) from the reaction of the FCLA and ROS was detected with a photon multiplier tube (PMT) system operating at single photon counting mode. With the setup, we have made detections of ROS generated by PDT in real time. By varying the amount of conventional PDT dosage (photosensitizer concentration, light irradiation fluence and its delivery rate) and the amount of FCLA, the intensity of CL and its consumption rate were investigated. The results show that the intensity and temporal profile of CL are highly related to the PDT treatment parameters. This suggests that FCLA CL may provide a highly potential alternative for ROS detection during PDT.

  9. Efficient and selective singlet oxygen sensitized NIR luminescence of a neodymium(III) complex and its application in biological imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lo, Wai-Sum [Department of Applied Biology and Chemical Technology, The Hong Kong Polytechnic University, Hong Kong Special Administrative Region (Hong Kong); Li, Hongguang [Department of Chemistry, Hong Kong Baptist University, Kowloon Tong, Hong Kong Special Administrative Region (Hong Kong); Law, Ga-Lai, E-mail: ga-lai.law@polyu.edu.hk [Department of Applied Biology and Chemical Technology, The Hong Kong Polytechnic University, Hong Kong Special Administrative Region (Hong Kong); Wong, Wing-Tak, E-mail: bcwtwong@polyu.edu.hk [Department of Applied Biology and Chemical Technology, The Hong Kong Polytechnic University, Hong Kong Special Administrative Region (Hong Kong); Wong, Ka-Leung, E-mail: klwong@hkbu.edu.hk [Department of Chemistry, Hong Kong Baptist University, Kowloon Tong, Hong Kong Special Administrative Region (Hong Kong)

    2016-01-15

    A responsive neodymium NIR emission ({sup 4}F{sub 3/2}→{sup 4}I{sub 11/2,} {sub 9/2}) was recorded upon binding with singlet oxygen (K{sub B}=1.79×10{sup 6} M{sup −1}) via the anthracene moiety. The motif ytterbium analog served as a negative control with no significant NIR enhancement/quenching with the addition of the same amount of singlet oxygen. Our complex was also found to react with {sup 1}O{sub 2} generated by a known photosensitizer TMPyP inside HeLa cells without inducing cell death and display no significant cytotoxicity. - Highlights: • A turn-on NIR-emissive {sup 1}O{sub 2} probe has been synthesized for potential biological applications. • It has a binding constant of 1.9×10{sup 6} M{sup −1} and the emission intensity has a 5-fold increase upon binding. • The probe was also found to quench singlet oxygen in vitro generated by known photosensitizer TMPyP.

  10. Luminescence spectroscopic observation of singlet oxygen formation in extra virgin olive oil as affected by irradiation light wavelengths, 1,4-diazabicyclo[2.2.2]octane, irradiation time, and oxygen bubbling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, Mun Y; Choi, Dong S; Park, Ki H; Lee, Bosoon; Min, David B

    2011-01-01

    A spectrofluorometer equipped with a highly sensitive near-IR InGaAs detector was used for the direct visualization of singlet oxygen emission at 1268 nm in olive oil during light irradiation with various different wavelengths. The virgin olive oil in methylene chloride (20% w/v, oxygen saturated) was irradiated at the 301, 417, 454, 483, and 668 nm, then the emission at 1268 nm, singlet oxygen dimole decaying was observed. The result showed the highest production of (1)O(2) with light irradiation at 417 nm, and followed by at 668 nm in virgin olive oil, indicating that pheophytin a and chlorophyll a were the most responsible components for the production of singlet oxygen. The UV light irradiations at the wavelength of 200, 250, and 300 nm did not induce any detectable luminescence emission at 1268 nm, but 350 nm produced weak emission at 1269 nm. The quantity of (1)O(2) produced with excitation at 350 nm was about 1/6 of that of irradiation at 417 nm. Addition of an efficient (1)O(2) quencher, 1,4-diazabicyclo[2.2.2]octane, in virgin olive oil in methylene chloride greatly decreased the luminescence emission at 1268 nm, confirming the singlet oxygen production in olive oil. Singlet oxygen production was more efficient in oxygen-purged virgin olive oil than in oxygen non-purged olive oil. This represents first report on the direct observation of singlet oxygen formation in olive oil as well as in real-food system after visible light illumination. Practical Application: The present results show the positive evidence of the singlet oxygen involvement in rapid oxidative deterioration of virgin olive oil under visible light. This paper also shows the effects of different wavelength of light irradiation on the formation of singlet oxygen in olive oil. The present results would provide important information for the understanding of the mechanism involved in rapid oxidative quality deterioration of virgin olive oil under light illumination and for searching the

  11. Singlet Oxygen at the Laundromat

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keeports, David

    1995-09-01

    Singlet molecular oxygen is an interesting molecule both visually and theoretically, since its red chemiluminescence can be analyzed by the application of simple molecular orbital theory. It can be produced from the reaction of hydrogen peroxide from either chlorine gas or hypochlorite ion from household bleach. Here we demostrate how to produce it using simple laundry cleansers.

  12. Glow discharge in singlet oxygen

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vagin, N.P.; Ionin, A.A.; Klimachev, Yu.M.; Sinitsyn, D.V.; Yuryshev, N.N.; Kochetov, I.V.; Napartovich, A.P.

    2003-01-01

    Currently, there is no experimental data on the plasma balance in gas mixtures with a high content of singlet delta oxygen O 2 ( 1 Δ g ). These data can be obtained by studying the parameters of an electric discharge in singlet oxygen produced by a chemical generator. The O 2 ( 1 Δ g ) molecules significantly change the kinetics of electrons and negative ions in plasma. Hence, the discharge conditions at low and high O 2 ( 1 Δ g ) concentrations are very different. Here, the parameters of the positive column of a glow discharge in a gas flow from a chemical singlet-oxygen generator are studied. It is experimentally shown that, at an O 2 ( 1 Δ g ) concentration of 50% and at pressures of 1.5 and 2 torr, the electric field required to sustain the discharge is considerably lower than in the case when all of the oxygen molecules are in the ground state. A theoretical model of the glow discharge is proposed whose predictions are in good agreement with the experimental data

  13. Singlet oxygen: photosensitized generation, detection and reaction with organic molecules

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barik, Atanu; Indira Priyadarsini, K; Mohan, Hari; Bajaj, P N; Sapre, A V; Mittal, J P; Mukherjee, T [Radiation and Photochemistry Div., Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Mumbai (India)

    2006-10-15

    Singlet molecular oxygen ({sup 1}O{sub 2}) is an excited state of molecular oxygen, having antiparallel spin in the same {pi} antibonding orbital. The study of singlet oxygen production and reactivity has emerged as a rich and diverse area, with implication in diverse fields, such as synthetic chemistry, polymer chemistry, photodynamic therapy, etc. There are several known methods to produce singlet oxygen, and also various techniques employed to detect it. Out of these, photosensitization method is the most popular one. In this article, photosensitized production of singlet oxygen from triplet oxygen and photosensitizers in presence of light, and its detection by the infrared luminescence at 1270 nm have been presented. Further, some results using different types of photosensitizers, effect of solvent on singlet oxygen quantum yields and lifetime have been discussed. The quenching rate constants of singlet oxygen have been determined with different types of organic molecules such as derivatives of thiourea and its analogues, hydroxy indoles and antioxidants and the results have been presented. (author)

  14. Singlet oxygen: photosensitized generation, detection and reaction with organic molecules

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barik, Atanu; Indira Priyadarsini, K.; Hari Mohan; Bajaj, P.N.; Sapre, A.V.; Mittal, J.P.; Mukherjee, T.

    2006-10-01

    Singlet molecular oxygen ( 1 O 2 ) is an excited state of molecular oxygen, having antiparallel spin in the same π antibonding orbital. The study of singlet oxygen production and reactivity has emerged as a rich and diverse area, with implication in diverse fields, such as synthetic chemistry, polymer chemistry, photodynamic therapy, etc. There are several known methods to produce singlet oxygen, and also various techniques employed to detect it. Out of these, photosensitization method is the most popular one. In this article, photosensitized production of singlet oxygen from triplet oxygen and photosensitizers in presence of light, and its detection by the infrared luminescence at 1270 nm have been presented. Further, some results using different types of photosensitizers, effect of solvent on singlet oxygen quantum yields and lifetime have been discussed. The quenching rate constants of singlet oxygen have been determined with different types of organic molecules such as derivatives of thiourea and its analogues, hydroxy indoles and antioxidants and the results have been presented. (author)

  15. Singlet oxygen quenching by oxygen in tetraphenyl-porphyrin solutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dedic, Roman; Korinek, Miloslav; Molnar, Alexander; Svoboda, Antonin; Hala, Jan

    2006-01-01

    Time-resolved measurement of singlet oxygen infrared phosphorescence is a powerful tool for determination of quantum yields and kinetics of its photosensitization. This technique was employed to investigate in detail the previously observed effect of singlet oxygen quenching by oxygen. The question whether the singlet oxygen is quenched by oxygen in ground or in excited state was addressed by study of two complementary dependencies of singlet oxygen lifetimes: on dissolved oxygen concentration and on excitation intensity. Oxygen concentration dependence study of meso-tetra(4-sulphonato)phenylporphyrin (TPPS 4 ) phosphorescence kinetics showed linearity of the dependence of TPPS 4 triplet state rate-constant. Corresponding bimolecular quenching constant of (1.5±0.1)x10 9 l/mol s was obtained. On the other hand, rate constants of singlet oxygen depopulation exhibit nonlinear dependence on oxygen concentration. Comparison of zero oxygen concentration-extrapolated value of singlet oxygen lifetime of (6.5±0.4) μs to (3.7±0.1) μs observed under air-saturated conditions indicates importance of the effect of quenching of singlet oxygen by oxygen. Upward-sloping dependencies of singlet oxygen depopulation rate-constant on excitation intensity evidence that singlet oxygen is predominantly quenched by oxygen in excited singlet state

  16. Singlet Oxygen Sensor Green: Photochemical Behavior in Solution and in a Mammalian Cell

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gollmer, Anita; Arnbjerg, Jacob; Blaikie, Frances Helen

    2011-01-01

    The development of efficient and selective luminescent probes for reactive oxygen species, particularly for singlet molecular oxygen, is currently of great importance. In this study, the photochemical behavior of Singlet Oxygen Sensor Green® (SOSG), a commercially available fluorescent probe...... of the reaction between SOSG and singlet oxygen is, itself, an efficient singlet oxygen photosensitizer. Second, SOSG appears to efficiently bind to proteins which, in turn, can influence uptake by a cell as well as behavior in the cell. As such, incorrect use of SOSG can yield misleading data on yields...

  17. Advanced Singlet Oxygen Generator for a COIL

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Kodymova, Jarmila; Zagidullin, M; Nikolaev, V; Svistun, M; Khvatov, N; Hruby, J; Spalek, O; Jirasek, V; Censsky, M

    2005-01-01

    This report results from a contract tasking Academy of Sciences as follows: The Grantee will develop new and radically different ideas for a high performance, advanced singlet oxygen generator for driving a supersonic COIL...

  18. Holographic monitoring of spatial distributions of singlet oxygen in water

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belashov, A. V.; Bel'tyukova, D. M.; Vasyutinskii, O. S.; Petrov, N. V.; Semenova, I. V.; Chupov, A. S.

    2014-12-01

    A method for monitoring spatial distributions of singlet oxygen in biological media has been developed. Singlet oxygen was generated using Radachlorin® photosensitizer, while thermal disturbances caused by nonradiative deactivation of singlet oxygen were detected by the holographic interferometry technique. Processing of interferograms yields temperature maps that characterize the deactivation process and show the distribution of singlet oxygen species.

  19. Singlet Oxygen Sensor Green: Photochemical Behavior in Solution and in a Mammalian Cell

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gollmer, Anita; Arnbjerg, Jacob; Blaikie, Frances Helen

    2011-01-01

    The development of efficient and selective luminescent probes for reactive oxygen species, particularly for singlet molecular oxygen, is currently of great importance. In this study, the photochemical behavior of Singlet Oxygen Sensor Green® (SOSG), a commercially available fluorescent probe...... for singlet oxygen, was examined. Despite published claims to the contrary, the data presented herein indicate that SOSG can, in fact, be incorporated into a living mammalian cell. However, for a number of reasons, caution must be exercised when using SOSG. First, it is shown that the immediate product...... of the reaction between SOSG and singlet oxygen is, itself, an efficient singlet oxygen photosensitizer. Second, SOSG appears to efficiently bind to proteins which, in turn, can influence uptake by a cell as well as behavior in the cell. As such, incorrect use of SOSG can yield misleading data on yields...

  20. Singlet oxygen in the low-temperature plasma of an electron-beam-sustained discharge

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vagin, N. P.; Ionin, A. A.; Klimachev, Yu. M.; Kotkov, A. A.; Kochetov, I. V.; Napartovich, A. P.; Podmar'kov, Yu. P.; Rulev, O. A.; Seleznev, L. V.; Sinitsyn, D. V.; Frolov, M. P.; Yuryshev, N. N.

    2006-01-01

    Results are presented from experimental and theoretical studies of the production of singlet delta oxygen in a pulsed electron-beam-sustained discharge ignited in a large (∼18-1) volume at a total gas mixture pressure of up to 210 Torr. The measured yield of singlet oxygen reaches 10.5%. It is found that varying the reduced electric field from ∼2 to ∼11 kV/(cm atm) slightly affects singlet oxygen production. It is shown experimentally that an increase in the gas mixture pressure or the specific input energy reduces the duration of singlet oxygen luminescence. The calculated time evolution of the singlet oxygen concentration is compared with experimental results

  1. Bromorhodamines - new singlet oxygen photosensitizers for oxidative water and wastewater treatment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Slivka, L.; Alekseeva, V.; Kuznetsova, N.; Marinina, L.; Savvina, L.; Kaliya, O.; Lukyanets, E.; Vorozhtsov, G. [Organic Intermediates and Dyes Inst., Moscow (Russian Federation); Krasnovsky, A.; Butorina, D. [Inst. of Biochemistry RAS, Moscow (Russian Federation)

    2003-07-01

    The cationic mono-, di- and tetrabromoderivatives of rhodamine 123 have been synthesized and studied as sensitizers for singlet oxygen formation in application for oxidative water treatment. Singlet oxygen quantum yields for compounds under investigation have been determined by using its near IR luminescence at 1270 nm. Bromorhodamines123 have been shown to sensitize the formation of singlet oxygen in aqueous solution with high quantum yields. Efficient oxidation of tryptophan in aqueous solutions sensitized by dibromorhodamine 123 has been demonstrated. This dye was tested as sensitizer for photodynamic treatment of water contaminated with coliform bacteria. It was shown to participate in the photosensitization of coliform bacteria, resulting in their efficient killing. (orig.)

  2. High-power generator of singlet oxygen

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Jirásek, Vít; Čenský, Miroslav; Špalek, Otomar; Kodymová, Jarmila

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 36, č. 10 (2013), s. 1755-1763 ISSN 0930-7516 Grant - others:Laser Science and Technology Centre(IN) LASTEC/FE/RKT/54/10-11 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10100523 Keywords : high-pressure singlet oxygen generator * spray generator * centrifugal separation Subject RIV: BH - Optics, Masers, Lasers Impact factor: 2.175, year: 2013

  3. Molecular and Cell Mechanisms of Singlet Oxygen Effect on Biosystems

    OpenAIRE

    Martusevich А.А.; Peretyagin S.P.; Martusevich А.К.

    2012-01-01

    There has been considered a poorly studied form of activated oxygensinglet oxygen. Its physicochemical properties (electron configuration of a molecule, reactive capacity, features) are analyzed, and enzymic and nonenzymic ways of singlet oxygen generation in body are specified. There are shown in detail biological effects of the compound as a regulator of cell activity including that determining the mechanism of apoptosis initiation. The relation of singlet oxygen and photodynamic effect ...

  4. The development of efficient two-photon singlet oxygen sensitizers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Christian Benedikt

    The development of efficient two-photon singlet oxygen sensitizers is addressed focusing on organic synthesis. Photophysical measurements were carried out on new lipophilic molecules, where two-photon absorption cross sections and singlet oxygen quantumyields were measured. Design principles...... for making efficient two-photon singlet oxygen sensitizers were then constructed from these results. Charge-transfer in the excited state of the prepared molecules was shown to play a pivotal role in the generationof singlet oxygen. This was established through studies of substituent effects on both...... the singlet oxygen yield and the two-photon absorption cross section, where it was revealed that a careful balancing of the amount of charge transfer present in theexcited state of the sensitizer is necessary to obtain both a high singlet oxygen quantum yield and a high two-photon cross section. An increasing...

  5. Exposure of vitamins to UVB and UVA radiation generates singlet oxygen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knak, Alena; Regensburger, Johannes; Maisch, Tim; Bäumler, Wolfgang

    2014-05-01

    Deleterious effects of UV radiation in tissue are usually attributed to different mechanisms. Absorption of UVB radiation in cell constituents like DNA causes photochemical reactions. Absorption of UVA radiation in endogenous photosensitizers like vitamins generates singlet oxygen via photosensitized reactions. We investigated two further mechanisms that might be involved in UV mediated cell tissue damage. Firstly, UVB radiation and vitamins also generate singlet oxygen. Secondly, UVB radiation may change the chemical structure of vitamins that may change the role of such endogenous photosensitizers in UVA mediated mechanisms. Vitamins were irradiated in solution using monochromatic UVB (308 nm) or UVA (330, 355, or 370 nm) radiation. Singlet oxygen was directly detected and quantified by its luminescence at 1270 nm. All investigated molecules generated singlet oxygen with a quantum yield ranging from 0.007 (vitamin D3) to 0.64 (nicotinamide) independent of the excitation wavelength. Moreover, pre-irradiation of vitamins with UVB changed their absorption in the UVB and UVA spectral range. Subsequently, molecules such as vitamin E and vitamin K1, which normally exhibit no singlet oxygen generation in the UVA, now produce singlet oxygen when exposed to UVA at 355 nm. This interplay of different UV sources is inevitable when applying serial or parallel irradiation with UVA and UVB in experiments in vitro. These results should be of particular importance for parallel irradiation with UVA and UVB in vivo, e.g. when exposing the skin to solar radiation.

  6. Singlet oxygen-mediated protein oxidation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wright, Adam; Bubb, William A; Hawkins, Clare Louise

    2002-01-01

    Singlet oxygen (1O2) is generated by a number of enzymes as well as by UV or visible light in the presence of a sensitizer and has been proposed as a damaging agent in a number of pathologies including cataract, sunburn, and skin cancers. Proteins, and Cys, Met, Trp, Tyr and His side chains...... in particular, are major targets for 1O2 as a result of their abundance and high rate constants for reaction. In this study it is shown that long-lived peroxides are formed on free Tyr, Tyr residues in peptides and proteins, and model compounds on exposure to 1O2 generated by both photochemical and chemical....... These studies demonstrate that long-lived Tyr-derived peroxides are formed on proteins exposed to 1O2 and that these may promote damage to other targets via further radical generation....

  7. Optical detection of singlet oxygen from single cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Snyder, John; Skovsen, Esben; Lambert, John D. C.

    2006-01-01

    The lowest excited electronic state of molecular oxygen, singlet molecular oxygen, O2(a 1g), is a reactive species involved in many chemical and biological processes. To better understand the roles played by singlet oxygen in biological systems, particularly at the sub-cellular level, optical tools...... including across the cell membrane into the extracellular environment. On one hand, these results demonstrate that the behavior of singlet oxygen in an intact cell can be significantly different from that inferred from model bulk studies. More generally, these results provide a new perspective...

  8. Singlet oxygen-mediated damage to proteins and its consequences

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Davies, Michael Jonathan

    2003-01-01

    by the transfer of energy to ground state (triplet) molecular oxygen by either protein-bound, or other, chromophores. Singlet oxygen can also be generated by a range of other enzymatic and non-enzymatic reactions including processes mediated by heme proteins, lipoxygenases, and activated leukocytes, as well...... the absorption of UV radiation by the protein, or bound chromophore groups, thereby generating excited states (singlet or triplets) or radicals via photo-ionisation. The second major process involves indirect oxidation of the protein via the formation and subsequent reactions of singlet oxygen generated...... as radical termination reactions. This paper reviews the data available on singlet oxygen-mediated protein oxidation and concentrates primarily on the mechanisms by which this excited state species brings about changes to both the side-chains and backbone of amino acids, peptides, and proteins. Recent work...

  9. Singlet-oxygen therapy. Scientific and methodological materials

    OpenAIRE

    Chukhraiev, N.; Chukhraieva, E.; Gun'ko, M.; Kurik, L.; Lomeiko, S.; Marushko, Y.; Samosyuk, N.; Tkalina, A.; Vladimirov, A.; Unichenko, A.; Zavorotnaya, R.; Zukow, W.

    2018-01-01

    Radomska Szkoła Wyższa w Radomiu MEDICAL INNOVATIVE TECHNOLOGIES SINGLET-OXYGEN THERAPY Scientific and methodological materials 2018 This edition had extended and translated from ukrainian Edited by Chukhraiev N., Vladimirov A., Zukow W. Radom, Kyiv Radomska Szkoła Wyższa w Radomiu MEDICAL INNOVATIVE TECHNOLOGIES SINGLET-OXYGEN THERAPY Scientific and methodological materials 2018 This edition had extended and translated from ukrainian Edited by ...

  10. In-vivo singlet oxygen threshold doses for PDT.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Timothy C; Kim, Michele M; Liang, Xing; Finlay, Jarod C; Busch, Theresa M

    2015-02-01

    Dosimetry of singlet oxygen ( 1 O 2 ) is of particular interest because it is the major cytotoxic agent causing biological effects for type-II photosensitizers during photodynamic therapy (PDT). An in-vivo model to determine the singlet oxygen threshold dose, [ 1 O 2 ] rx,sh , for PDT was developed. An in-vivo radiation-induced fibrosarcoma (RIF) tumor mouse model was used to correlate the radius of necrosis to the calculation based on explicit PDT dosimetry of light fluence distribution, tissue optical properties, and photosensitizer concentrations. Inputs to the model include five photosensitizer-specific photochemical parameters along with [ 1 O 2 ] rx,sh . Photosensitizer-specific model parameters were determined for benzoporphyrin derivative monoacid ring A (BPD) and compared with two other type-II photosensitizers, Photofrin ® and m-tetrahydroxyphenylchlorin (mTHPC) from the literature. The mean values (standard deviation) of the in-vivo [ 1 O 2 ] rx,sh are approximately 0.56 (0.26) and 0.72 (0.21) mM (or 3.6×10 7 and 4.6×10 7 singlet oxygen per cell to reduce the cell survival to 1/e) for Photofrin ® and BPD, respectively, assuming that the fraction of generated singlet oxygen that interacts with the cell is 1. While the values for the photochemical parameters (ξ, σ, g , β) used for BPD were preliminary and may need further refinement, there is reasonable confidence for the values of the singlet oxygen threshold doses. In comparison, the [ 1 O 2 ] rx,sh value derived from in-vivo mouse study was reported to be 0.4 mM for mTHPC-PDT. However, the singlet oxygen required per cell is reported to be 9×10 8 per cell per 1/ e fractional kill in an in-vitro mTHPC-PDT study on a rat prostate cancer cell line (MLL cells) and is reported to be 7.9 mM for a multicell in-vitro EMT6/Ro spheroid model for mTHPC-PDT. A theoretical analysis is provided to relate the number of in-vitro singlet oxygen required per cell to reach cell killing of 1/ e to in-vivo singlet

  11. Singlet oxygen production and quenching mechanisms in travelling microwave discharges

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Savin, Yu V; Goryachev, L V; Adamenkov, Yu A; Rakhimova, T V; Mankelevich, Yu A; Popov, N A; Adamenkov, A A; Egorov, V V; Ilyin, S P; Kolobyanin, Yu V; Kudryashov, E A; Rogozhnikov, G S; Vyskubenko, B A

    2004-01-01

    Experimental and theoretical studies of singlet oxygen excitation in travelling microwave (TMW) discharges are presented. Singlet oxygen O 2 (a 1 Δ g ) concentrations and atomic oxygen mole fraction have been measured for different pressures, input powers and distances from the MW resonator. It was shown that a steady-state TMW discharge with a coaxial cavity resonator could provide a maximal O 2 (a 1 Δ g ) yield of 22% for 2 Torr of pure oxygen and 27-30% for He : O 2 = 1 : 1 mixture. The two-dimensional (r, z) model developed for calculations of plasma-chemical kinetics, heat and mass transfer was used for simulation of processes in the TMW discharge under study. Effects of gas pressure, gas flow rate and input power are studied and compared with experimental measurements of O 2 (a 1 Δ g ) concentrations and atomic oxygen mole fractions

  12. The effect of gold nanoparticles on exchange processes in collision complexes of triplet and singlet oxygen molecules with excited eosin molecules

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bryukhanov, V. V.; Minaev, B. M.; Tsibul'nikova, A. V.; Slezhkin, V. A.

    2015-07-01

    We have studied exchange processes in contact complexes of triplet eosin molecules with oxygen molecules in the triplet (3Σ{/g -}) and singlet (1Δ g ) states in thin polyvinylbutyral films in the presence of gold nanoparticles. Upon resonant excitation of surface plasmons in gold nanoparticles into the absorption band of eosin molecules-singlet oxygen sensitizers-we have obtained an increase in the intensity of the delayed fluorescence and an increase in the lifetime of the dye with simultaneous quenching of the luminescence of singlet oxygen. The kinetics of the delayed fluorescence of the dye as a result of singlet-triplet annihilation of triplet eosin molecules with singlet oxygen molecules has been investigated. To compare theoretical and experimental data, we have numerically simulated energy transfer processes. Rate constants of energy transfer and of singlet-triplet annihilation, as well as quenching constants of triplet states of the dye by molecular oxygen, have been calculated. Luminescence quantum yield 1Δ g of polyvinylbutyral has been estimated. We have analyzed quantum-chemically electronic mechanisms of singlet-triplet annihilation of oxygen and eosin.

  13. Singlet oxygen reactions with flavonoids. A theoretical-experimental study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morales, Javier; Günther, Germán; Zanocco, Antonio L; Lemp, Else

    2012-01-01

    Detection of singlet oxygen emission, λ(max) = 1270 nm, following laser excitation and steady-state methods were employed to measure the total reaction rate constant, k(T), and the reactive reaction rate constant, k(r), for the reaction between singlet oxygen and several flavonoids. Values of k(T) determined in deuterated water, ranging from 2.4×10(7) M(-1) s(-1) to 13.4×10(7) M(-1) s(-1), for rutin and morin, respectively, and the values measured for k(r), ranging from 2.8×10(5) M(-1) s(-1) to 65.7×10(5) M(-1) s(-1) for kaempferol and morin, respectively, being epicatechin and catechin chemically unreactive. These results indicate that all the studied flavonoids are good quenchers of singlet oxygen and could be valuable antioxidants in systems under oxidative stress, in particular if a flavonoid-rich diet was previously consumed. Analysis of the dependence of rate constant values with molecular structure in terms of global descriptors and condensed Fukui functions, resulting from electronic structure calculations, supports the formation of a charge transfer exciplex in all studied reactions. The fraction of exciplex giving reaction products evolves through a hydroperoxide and/or an endoperoxide intermediate produced by singlet oxygen attack on the double bond of the ring C of the flavonoid.

  14. Singlet oxygenation in microemulsion catalysed by vanadium chloroperoxidase

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Renirie, R.; Pierlot, C.; Wever, R.; Aubry, J.-M.

    2009-01-01

    Non-ionic microemulsions compatible with the enzyme vanadium chloroperoxidase were designed to perform singlet oxygenation of apolar substrates. The media were based on mono- and polydisperse ethoxylated fatty alcohols (CiEj). octane and aqueous buffer. "Fish" diagrams were determined to identify

  15. Label-free electrochemical detection of singlet oxygen protein damage

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Vargová, Veronika; Gimenez, R.E.; Černocká, Hana; Trujillo, D.C.; Tulli, F.; Zanini, V.I.P.; Paleček, Emil; Borsarelli, C.D.; Ostatná, Veronika

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 187, JAN 2016 (2016), s. 662-669 ISSN 0013-4686 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA13-00956S Institutional support: RVO:68081707 Keywords : singlet oxygen protein damage * surface-attached protein stability * mercury and carbon electrodes Subject RIV: BO - Biophysics Impact factor: 4.798, year: 2016

  16. Singlet Oxygen Reactions with Flavonoids. A Theoretical – Experimental Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morales, Javier; Günther, Germán; Zanocco, Antonio L.; Lemp, Else

    2012-01-01

    Detection of singlet oxygen emission, λmax = 1270 nm, following laser excitation and steady-state methods were employed to measure the total reaction rate constant, kT, and the reactive reaction rate constant, kr, for the reaction between singlet oxygen and several flavonoids. Values of kT determined in deuterated water, ranging from 2.4×107 M−1s−1 to 13.4×107 M−1s−1, for rutin and morin, respectively, and the values measured for kr, ranging from 2.8×105 M−1s−1 to 65.7×105 M−1s−1 for kaempferol and morin, respectively, being epicatechin and catechin chemically unreactive. These results indicate that all the studied flavonoids are good quenchers of singlet oxygen and could be valuable antioxidants in systems under oxidative stress, in particular if a flavonoid-rich diet was previously consumed. Analysis of the dependence of rate constant values with molecular structure in terms of global descriptors and condensed Fukui functions, resulting from electronic structure calculations, supports the formation of a charge transfer exciplex in all studied reactions. The fraction of exciplex giving reaction products evolves through a hydroperoxide and/or an endoperoxide intermediate produced by singlet oxygen attack on the double bond of the ring C of the flavonoid. PMID:22802966

  17. Singlet oxygen reactions with flavonoids. A theoretical-experimental study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Javier Morales

    Full Text Available Detection of singlet oxygen emission, λ(max = 1270 nm, following laser excitation and steady-state methods were employed to measure the total reaction rate constant, k(T, and the reactive reaction rate constant, k(r, for the reaction between singlet oxygen and several flavonoids. Values of k(T determined in deuterated water, ranging from 2.4×10(7 M(-1 s(-1 to 13.4×10(7 M(-1 s(-1, for rutin and morin, respectively, and the values measured for k(r, ranging from 2.8×10(5 M(-1 s(-1 to 65.7×10(5 M(-1 s(-1 for kaempferol and morin, respectively, being epicatechin and catechin chemically unreactive. These results indicate that all the studied flavonoids are good quenchers of singlet oxygen and could be valuable antioxidants in systems under oxidative stress, in particular if a flavonoid-rich diet was previously consumed. Analysis of the dependence of rate constant values with molecular structure in terms of global descriptors and condensed Fukui functions, resulting from electronic structure calculations, supports the formation of a charge transfer exciplex in all studied reactions. The fraction of exciplex giving reaction products evolves through a hydroperoxide and/or an endoperoxide intermediate produced by singlet oxygen attack on the double bond of the ring C of the flavonoid.

  18. Reversible Photochemical Control of Singlet Oxygen Generation Using Diarylethene Photochromic Switches

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hou, Lili; Zhang, Xiaoyan; Pijper, Thomas C.; Browne, Wesley R.; Feringa, Bernard

    2014-01-01

    Reversible noninvasive control over the generation of singlet oxygen is demonstrated in a bicomponent system comprising a diarylethene photochromic switch and a porphyrin photosensitizer by selective irradiation at distinct wavelengths. The efficient generation of singlet oxygen by the

  19. Photorelease of triplet and singlet oxygen from dioxygen complexes

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Wagnerová, Dana Marie; Lang, Kamil

    2011-01-01

    Roč. 255, 23-24 (2011), s. 2904-2911 ISSN 0010-8545 R&D Projects: GA ČR GAP207/10/1447; GA ČR GAP208/10/1678 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40320502 Keywords : singlet oxygen * triplet oxygen * photochemical elimination * photorelease * Dioxygen complex Subject RIV: CA - Inorganic Chemistry Impact factor: 12.110, year: 2011

  20. Spray generator of singlet oxygen for a chemical oxygen-iodine laser

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Jirásek, Vít; Hrubý, Jan; Špalek, Otomar; Čenský, Miroslav; Kodymová, Jarmila

    2010-01-01

    Roč. 100, č. 4 (2010), s. 779-791 ISSN 0946-2171 Grant - others:European Office of Aerospace R&D(US) FA8655-09-1-3091 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10100523; CEZ:AV0Z20760514 Keywords : spray generator of singlet oxygen * singlet oxygen * chemical oxygen-iodine laser Subject RIV: BH - Optics, Masers, Lasers Impact factor: 2.239, year: 2010

  1. Influence of nitrogen oxides NO and NO2 on singlet delta oxygen production in pulsed discharge

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ionin, A A; Klimachev, Yu M; Kozlov, A Yu; Kotkov, A A; Rulev, O A; Seleznev, L V; Sinitsyn, D V; Vagin, N P; Yuryshev, N N; Kochetov, I V; Napartovich, A P

    2009-01-01

    The influence of nitrogen oxides NO and NO 2 on the specific input energy (SIE) and the time behaviour of singlet delta oxygen (SDO) luminescence excited by a pulsed e-beam sustained discharge in oxygen were experimentally and theoretically studied. NO and NO 2 addition into oxygen results in a small increase and decrease in the SIE, respectively, the latter being connected with a large energy of electron affinity to NO 2 . The addition of 0.1-0.3% nitrogen oxides was experimentally and theoretically demonstrated to result in a notable enhancement of the SDO lifetime, which is related to a decrease in the atomic oxygen concentration in afterglow. It was experimentally demonstrated that to get a high SDO concentration at the gas pressure 30-60 Torr for a time interval of less than ∼0.5 s one needs to add not less than 0.2% nitrogen oxides into oxygen. The temperature dependence of the relaxation constant for SDO quenching by unexcited oxygen was estimated by using experimental data on the time behaviour of SDO luminescence.

  2. Single Cell Responses to Spatially Controlled Photosensitized Production of Extracellular Singlet Oxygen

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Brian Wett; Sinks, Louise E.; Breitenbach, Thomas

    2011-01-01

    The response of individual HeLa cells to extracellularly produced singlet oxygen was examined. The spatial domain of singlet oxygen production was controlled using the combination of a membrane-impermeable Pd porphyrin-dendrimer, which served as a photosensitizer, and a focused laser, which served...... to localize the sensitized production of singlet oxygen. Cells in close proximity to the domain of singlet oxygen production showed morphological changes commonly associated with necrotic cell death. The elapsed post-irradiation “waiting period” before necrosis became apparent depended on (a) the distance...... between the cell membrane and the domain irradiated, (b) the incident laser fluence and, as such, the initial concentration of singlet oxygen produced, and (c) the lifetime of singlet oxygen. The data imply that singlet oxygen plays a key role in this process of light-induced cell death. The approach...

  3. Singlet oxygen treatment of tumor cells triggers extracellular singlet oxygen generation, catalase inactivation and reactivation of intercellular apoptosis-inducing signaling☆

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riethmüller, Michaela; Burger, Nils; Bauer, Georg

    2015-01-01

    Intracellular singlet oxygen generation in photofrin-loaded cells caused cell death without discrimination between nonmalignant and malignant cells. In contrast, extracellular singlet oxygen generation caused apoptosis induction selectively in tumor cells through singlet oxygen-mediated inactivation of tumor cell protective catalase and subsequent reactivation of intercellular ROS-mediated apoptosis signaling through the HOCl and the NO/peroxynitrite signaling pathway. Singlet oxygen generation by extracellular photofrin alone was, however, not sufficient for optimal direct inactivation of catalase, but needed to trigger the generation of cell-derived extracellular singlet oxygen through the interaction between H2O2 and peroxynitrite. Thereby, formation of peroxynitrous acid, generation of hydroxyl radicals and formation of perhydroxyl radicals (HO2.) through hydroxyl radical/H2O2 interaction seemed to be required as intermediate steps. This amplificatory mechanism led to the formation of singlet oxygen at a sufficiently high concentration for optimal inactivation of membrane-associated catalase. At low initial concentrations of singlet oxygen, an additional amplification step needed to be activated. It depended on singlet oxygen-dependent activation of the FAS receptor and caspase-8, followed by caspase-8-mediated enhancement of NOX activity. The biochemical mechanisms described here might be considered as promising principle for the development of novel approaches in tumor therapy that specifically direct membrane-associated catalase of tumor cells and thus utilize tumor cell-specific apoptosis-inducing ROS signaling. PMID:26225731

  4. Singlet oxygen treatment of tumor cells triggers extracellular singlet oxygen generation, catalase inactivation and reactivation of intercellular apoptosis-inducing signaling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riethmüller, Michaela; Burger, Nils; Bauer, Georg

    2015-12-01

    Intracellular singlet oxygen generation in photofrin-loaded cells caused cell death without discrimination between nonmalignant and malignant cells. In contrast, extracellular singlet oxygen generation caused apoptosis induction selectively in tumor cells through singlet oxygen-mediated inactivation of tumor cell protective catalase and subsequent reactivation of intercellular ROS-mediated apoptosis signaling through the HOCl and the NO/peroxynitrite signaling pathway. Singlet oxygen generation by extracellular photofrin alone was, however, not sufficient for optimal direct inactivation of catalase, but needed to trigger the generation of cell-derived extracellular singlet oxygen through the interaction between H2O2 and peroxynitrite. Thereby, formation of peroxynitrous acid, generation of hydroxyl radicals and formation of perhydroxyl radicals (HO2(.)) through hydroxyl radical/H2O2 interaction seemed to be required as intermediate steps. This amplificatory mechanism led to the formation of singlet oxygen at a sufficiently high concentration for optimal inactivation of membrane-associated catalase. At low initial concentrations of singlet oxygen, an additional amplification step needed to be activated. It depended on singlet oxygen-dependent activation of the FAS receptor and caspase-8, followed by caspase-8-mediated enhancement of NOX activity. The biochemical mechanisms described here might be considered as promising principle for the development of novel approaches in tumor therapy that specifically direct membrane-associated catalase of tumor cells and thus utilize tumor cell-specific apoptosis-inducing ROS signaling. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. New strategies to produce and detect singlet oxygen in a cell

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gollmer, Anita

    2012-01-01

    of the general methodology to generate and detect singlet oxygen is currently of great importance in order to better understand the roles played by singlet oxygen in photo-induced cell death. From a mechanistic perspective, experiments performed at the level of a single cell provide unique insight......Singlet oxygen, the first excited electronic state of molecular oxygen, plays a major role in oxygen-dependent photo-induced cell death. In such systems, singlet oxygen is generally produced in a photosensitized process wherein light is absorbed by a molecule (the so-called sensitizer) which......, and that is the perspective of this study. Although the direct optical detection of singlet oxygen by its near IR phosphorescence is the ideal way to monitor this species, it suffers from the problem of weak signal intensity. Fluorescent probes can be a more sensitive way to detect singlet oxygen. The photochemical behavior...

  6. Singlet oxygen-mediated formation of protein peroxides within cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wright, A.; Policarpio, V.

    2003-01-01

    Full text: Singlet oxygen is generated by a number of cellular, enzymatic and chemical reactions as well as by exposure to UV, or visible light in the presence of a sensitizer; as a consequence this oxidant has been proposed as a damaging agent in a number of pathologies including photo-aging and skin cancer. Proteins are major targets for singlet oxygen as a result of their abundance and high rate constants for reaction. In this study it is shown that illumination of viable, sensitizer-loaded, THP-1 (human monocyte-like) cells with visible light gives rise to intra-cellular protein-derived peroxides. The peroxide yield increases with illumination time, requires the presence of the sensitizer, is enhanced in D 2 O, and decreased by azide; these data are consistent with the mediation of singlet oxygen. The concentration of peroxides detected, which is not affected by glucose or ascorbate loading of the cells, corresponds to ca. 1.5 nmoles peroxide per 10 6 cells using rose bengal as sensitizer, or 10 nmoles per mg cell protein and account for up to ca. 15% of the O 2 consumed by the cells. Similar peroxides have been detected on isolated cellular proteins exposed to light in the presence of rose bengal and oxygen. After cessation of illumination, the cellular protein peroxide levels decreases with t 1/2 ca. 4 hrs at 37 deg C, and this is associated with increased cell lysis. Decomposition of protein peroxides formed within cells, or on isolated cellular proteins, by metal ions, gives rise to radicals as detected by EPR spin trapping. These protein peroxides, and radicals derived from them, can inactivate key cellular enzymes (including caspases, GAPDH and glutathione reductase) and induce DNA base oxidation, strand breaks and DNA-protein cross-links. These studies demonstrate that exposure of intact cells to visible light in the presence of a sensitizer gives rise to novel long-lived, but reactive, intra-cellular protein peroxides via singlet oxygen

  7. Reactive species formed on proteins exposed to singlet oxygen

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Davies, Michael Jonathan

    2004-01-01

    Singlet oxygen ((1)O(2)) is believed to be generated in biological systems by a range of endogenous processes (e.g. enzymatic and chemical reactions) and exogenous stimuli (e.g. UV or visible light in the presence of a sensitiser). Kinetic data is consistent with proteins being a major target...... hydroperoxides, which can be reduced to the corresponding alcohols; other products arising from radical intermediates can also be generated, particularly in the presence of UV light and metal ions. With His side-chains, poorly characterised peroxides are also formed. Reaction with Met and Cys has been proposed...

  8. Detection of Singlet Oxygen Formation inside Photoactive Biohybrid Composite Material

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kata Hajdu

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Photosynthetic reaction center proteins (RCs are the most efficient light energy converter systems in nature. The first steps of the primary charge separation in photosynthesis take place in these proteins. Due to their unique properties, combining RCs with nano-structures promising applications can be predicted in optoelectronic systems. In the present work RCs purified from Rhodobacter sphaeroides purple bacteria were immobilized on multiwalled carbon nanotubes (CNTs. Carboxyl—and amine-functionalised CNTs were used, so different binding procedures, physical sorption and chemical sorption as well, could be applied as immobilization techniques. Light-induced singlet oxygen production was measured in the prepared photoactive biocomposites in water-based suspension by histidine mediated chemical trapping. Carbon nanotubes were applied under different conditions in order to understand their role in the equilibration of singlet oxygen concentration in the suspension. CNTs acted as effective quenchers of 1O2 either by physical (resonance energy transfer or by chemical (oxidation reaction and their efficiency showed dependence on the diffusion distance of 1O2.

  9. Singlet Oxygen Detection Using Red Wine Extracts as Photosensitizers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lagunes, Irene; Vázquez-Ortega, Fernanda; Trigos, Ángel

    2017-09-01

    Moderate consumption of red wine provides beneficial effects to health. This is attributed to polyphenol compounds present in wine such as resveratrol, quercetin, gallic acid, rutin, and vanillic acid. The amount of these antioxidants is variable; nevertheless, the main beneficial effects of red wine are attributed to resveratrol. However, it has been found that resveratrol and quercetin are able to photosensitize singlet oxygen generation and conversely, gallic acid acts as quencher. Therefore, and since resveratrol and quercetin are some of the most important antioxidants reported in red wines, the aim of this research was to evaluate the photosensitizing ability of 12 red wine extracts through photo-oxidation of ergosterol. The presence of 1 O 2 was detected by ergosterol conversion into peroxide of ergosterol through 1 H NMR analysis. Our results showed that 10 wine extracts were able to act as photosensitizers in the generation of singlet oxygen. The presence of 1 O 2 can damage other compounds of red wine and cause possible organoleptic alterations. Finally, although the reaction conditions employed in this research do not resemble the inherent conditions in wine making processing or storing, or even during its consumption, this knowledge could be useful to prevent possible pro-oxidant effects and avoid detrimental effects in red wines. © 2017 Institute of Food Technologists®.

  10. X-ray induced singlet oxygen generation by nanoparticle-photosensitizer conjugates for photodynamic therapy: determination of singlet oxygen quantum yield

    OpenAIRE

    Clement, Sandhya; Deng, Wei; Camilleri, Elizabeth; Wilson, Brian C.; Goldys, Ewa M.

    2016-01-01

    Singlet oxygen is a primary cytotoxic agent in photodynamic therapy. We show that CeF3 nanoparticles, pure as well as conjugated through electrostatic interaction with the photosensitizer verteporfin, are able to generate singlet oxygen as a result of UV light and 8?keV X-ray irradiation. The X-ray stimulated singlet oxygen quantum yield was determined to be 0.79???0.05 for the conjugate with 31 verteporfin molecules per CeF3 nanoparticle, the highest conjugation level used. From this result ...

  11. Non-self-sustained electric discharge in oxygen gas mixtures: singlet delta oxygen production

    CERN Document Server

    Ionin, A A; Kotkov, A A; Kochetov, I V; Napartovich, A P; Seleznev, L V; Sinitsyn, D V; Hager, G D

    2003-01-01

    The possibility of obtaining a high specific input energy in an electron-beam sustained discharge ignited in oxygen gas mixtures O sub 2 : Ar : CO (or H sub 2) at the total gas pressures of 10-100 Torr was experimentally demonstrated. The specific input energy per molecular component exceeded approx 6 kJ l sup - sup 1 atm sup - sup 1 (150 kJ mol sup - sup 1) as a small amount of carbon monoxide was added into a gas mixture of oxygen and argon. It was theoretically demonstrated that one might expect to obtain a singlet delta oxygen yield of 25% exceeding its threshold value needed for an oxygen-iodine laser operation at room temperature, when maintaining a non-self-sustained discharge in oxygen gas mixtures with molecular additives CO, H sub 2 or D sub 2. The efficiency of singlet delta oxygen production can be as high as 40%.

  12. Kinetics of oxygen species in an electrically driven singlet oxygen generator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azyazov, V. N.; Torbin, A. P.; Pershin, A. A.; Mikheyev, P. A.; Heaven, M. C.

    2015-12-01

    The kinetics of oxygen species in the gaseous medium of a discharge singlet oxygen generator has been revisited. Vibrationally excited ozone O3(υ) formed in O + O2 recombination is thought to be a significant agent in the deactivation of singlet oxygen O2(a1Δ), oxygen atom removal and ozone formation. It is shown that the process O3(υ ⩾ 2) + O2(a1Δ) → 2O2 + O is the main O2(a1Δ) deactivation channel in the post-discharge zone. If no measures are taken to decrease the oxygen atom concentration, the contribution of this process to the overall O2(a1Δ) removal is significant, even in the discharge zone. A simplified model for the kinetics of vibrationally excited ozone is proposed. Calculations based on this model yield results that are in good agreement with the experimental data.

  13. Singlet oxygen oxygenation of enol ethers; the synthesis of optically active 1,2-dioxetanes. II

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meijer, E.W.; Wynberg, H.

    1979-01-01

    (+)-(Methoxymethylene)fenchane I (R = H, R1 = OMe) on singlet O oxidn. gave dioxetanes II and III, which on thermal decompn. underwent chemiluminescence in which (+)-fenchone was the only chemiluminescent species at lmax 420 nm. Photosensitized oxygenation of I (R = OMe, R1 = H) also gave 2 isomeric

  14. In-vitro singlet oxygen threshold dose at PDT with Radachlorin photosensitizer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klimenko, V. V.; Shmakov, S. V.; Kaydanov, N. E.; Knyazev, N. A.; Kazakov, N. V.; Rusanov, A. A.; Bogdanov, A. A.; Dubina, M. V.

    2017-07-01

    In this present study we investigate the Radachlorin photosensitizer accumulation in K562 cells and Hela cells and determined the cell viability after PDT. Using the macroscopic singlet oxygen modeling and cellular photosensitizer concentration the singlet oxygen threshold doses for K562 cells and Hela cells were calculated.

  15. Centrifugal spray generator of singlet oxygen for a chemical oxygen-iodine laser

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Špalek, Otomar; Hrubý, Jan; Čenský, Miroslav; Jirásek, Vít; Kodymová, Jarmila

    2010-01-01

    Roč. 100, č. 4 (2010), s. 793-802 ISSN 0946-2171 Grant - others:European Office of Aerospace R&D(US) FA8655-09-1-3091 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10100523; CEZ:AV0Z20760514 Keywords : centrifugal generator of singlet oxygen * chemical oxygen-iodine laser Subject RIV: BH - Optics, Masers, Lasers Impact factor: 2.239, year: 2010

  16. Singlet oxygen feedback delayed fluorescence of protoporphyrin IX in organic solutions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vinklárek, Ivo S; Scholz, Marek; Dědic, Roman; Hála, Jan

    2017-04-12

    Delayed fluorescence (DF) of protoporphyrin IX (PpIX) has been recently proposed as a tool for monitoring of mitochondrial oxygen tension in vivo as well as for observation of the effectiveness of photodynamic therapy (PDT) [E. G. Mik, Anesth. Analg., 2013, 117, 834-346; F. Piffaretti et al., J. Biomed. Opt., 2012, 17, 115007]. However, the efficiency of the mechanism of thermal activation (E-type DF), which was considered in the papers, is limited due to a large energy gap between the first excited singlet and the first triplet state of PpIX at room or body temperatures. Moreover, the energy gap is roughly equal to other porphyrinoid photosensitizers that generate DF mostly through the Singlet Oxygen Feedback-Induced mechanism (SOFDF) under certain conditions [M. Scholz and R. Dědic, Singlet Oxygen: Applications in Biosciences and Nanosciences, 2016, vol. 2, pp. 63-81]. The mechanisms of delayed fluorescence of PpIX dissolved either in dimethylformamide (DMF) or in the mixture of DMF with ethylene glycol (EG) were investigated at atmospheric partial pressure of oxygen by means of a simultaneous time-resolved detection of 1 O 2 phosphorescence and PpIX DF which makes a direct comparison of the kinetics and lifetimes of both the luminescence channels possible. Samples of PpIX (100 μM) exhibit concave DF kinetics, which is a typical footprint of the SOFDF mechanism. The dramatic decrease in the DF intensity after adding a selective 1 O 2 quencher sodium azide (NaN 3 , 10 mM) proves that >90% of DF is indeed generated through SOFDF. Moreover, the analysis of the DF kinetics in the presence of NaN 3 implies that the second significant mechanism of DF generation is the triplet-triplet annihilation (P-type DF). The bimolecular mechanism of DF was further confirmed by the decrease of the DF intensity in the more viscous mixture DMF/EG and by the increase of the ratio of DF to the prompt fluorescence (PF) intensity with the increasing excitation intensity. These results

  17. Photo-excitation of carotenoids causes cytotoxicity via singlet oxygen production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoshii, Hiroshi; Yoshii, Yukie; Asai, Tatsuya; Furukawa, Takako; Takaichi, Shinichi; Fujibayashi, Yasuhisa

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► Some photo-excited carotenoids have photosensitizing ability. ► They are able to produce ROS. ► Photo-excited fucoxanthin can produce singlet oxygen through energy transfer. -- Abstract: Carotenoids, natural pigments widely distributed in algae and plants, have a conjugated double bond system. Their excitation energies are correlated with conjugation length. We hypothesized that carotenoids whose energy states are above the singlet excited state of oxygen (singlet oxygen) would possess photosensitizing properties. Here, we demonstrated that human skin melanoma (A375) cells are damaged through the photo-excitation of several carotenoids (neoxanthin, fucoxanthin and siphonaxanthin). In contrast, photo-excitation of carotenoids that possess energy states below that of singlet oxygen, such as β-carotene, lutein, loroxanthin and violaxanthin, did not enhance cell death. Production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) by photo-excited fucoxanthin or neoxanthin was confirmed using a reporter assay for ROS production with HeLa Hyper cells, which express a fluorescent indicator protein for intracellular ROS. Fucoxanthin and neoxanthin also showed high cellular penetration and retention. Electron spin resonance spectra using 2,2,6,6-tetramethil-4-piperidone as a singlet oxygen trapping agent demonstrated that singlet oxygen was produced via energy transfer from photo-excited fucoxanthin to oxygen molecules. These results suggest that carotenoids such as fucoxanthin, which are capable of singlet oxygen production through photo-excitation and show good penetration and retention in target cells, are useful as photosensitizers in photodynamic therapy for skin disease.

  18. Mechanism of singlet oxygen deactivation in an electric discharge oxygen – iodine laser

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Azyazov, V N; Mikheyev, P A; Torbin, A P [Samara Branch of the P.N. Lebedev Physical Institute, Russian Academy of Sciences, Samara (Russian Federation); Pershin, A A [S.P. Korolev Samara State Aerospace University, Samara (Russian Federation); Heaven, M C [Emory University, Atlanta, GA, 30322 (United States)

    2014-12-31

    We have determined the influence of the reaction of molecular singlet oxygen with a vibrationally excited ozone molecule O{sub 2}(a {sup 1}Δ) + O{sub 3}(ν) → 2O{sub 2} + O on the removal rate of O{sub 2}(a {sup 1}Δ) in an electric-discharge-driven oxygen – iodine laser. This reaction has been shown to be a major channel of O{sub 2}(a {sup 1}Δ) loss at the output of an electric-discharge singlet oxygen generator. In addition, it can also contribute significantly to the loss of O{sub 2}(a {sup 1}Δ) in the discharge region of the generator. (lasers)

  19. Preliminary study on singlet oxygen production using CeF.sub.3./sub.:Tb.sup.3+./sup.@SiO.sub.2./sub.-PpIX.

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Popovich, K.; Procházková, L.; Pelikánová, I.T.; Vlk, M.; Palkovský, M.; Jarý, Vítězslav; Nikl, Martin; Múčka, V.; Mihóková, Eva; Čuba, V.

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 90, Jul (2016), s. 325-328 ISSN 1350-4487. [International Conference on Luminescent Detectors and Transformers of Ionizing Radiation (LUMDETR). Tartu (Estonsko), 20.09.2015-25.09.2015] R&D Projects: GA ČR GA13-09876S; GA ČR GA13-28721S Institutional support: RVO:68378271 Keywords : singlet oxygen * cerium fluoride * photodynamic therapy * biofunctionalization * scintillator Subject RIV: BM - Solid Matter Physics ; Magnetism Impact factor: 1.442, year: 2016

  20. Cytotoxicity But No Mutagenicity In Bacteria With Externally Generated Singlet Oxygen

    Science.gov (United States)

    Midden, W. Robert; Dahl, Thomas A.; Hartman, Philip E.

    1988-02-01

    Singlet oxygen is believed to be an important intermediate responsible for the cytotoxicity of HpD phototherapy. It has been recognized as a possible intermediate in photosensitization for more than 20 years. However, it has been difficult to obtain conclusive evidence of its biological characteristics in the past because most of the methods available for its generation that are compatible with biological systems also generate other reactive intermediates whose effects are difficult to distinguish from singlet oxygen. We have used a recently devised separated-surface-sensi-tizer (S-S-S) system for singlet oxygen generation' to measure the cytotoxicity and mutagenicity of singlet oxygen in bacteria. The S-S-S system employs rose bengal as a sensitizer immobilized on one surface of a glass plate. The glass plate is placed sensitizer-side down a small distance (plate is illuminated from above to generate singlet oxygen at the surface of the sensitizer. The singlet oxygen thus generated can diffuse the short dis-tance to the surface of the membrane to react with the bacteria. Because of the short lifetime of singlet oxygen in air, increasing the distance between the sensitizer and the membrane causes a decline in the amount of singlet oxygen reaching the membrane according to a function derived from the Einstein-Smoluchowski equation for net displacement by diffusion. Plotting the log of the effect measured (e.g., cytotoxicity) vs. the square of the distance gives a straight line. The slope of this line can be used to calculate the gas phase half life of the intermediate responsible for the observed effects. We have found that bacteria are rapidly killed in the illuminated S-S-S system and that the gas phase half life of the agent responsible for cell killing is the same as that of singlet oxygen. This observation and other simple chemical tests have conclusively estab-lished that singlet oxygen is responsible for the cytotoxicity observed with bacteria. Dosimetry

  1. Wavelength dependence of the efficiency of singlet oxygen generation upon photoexcitation of photosensitizers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Starukhin A.

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The dependence of the efficiency of singlet oxygen (1Δg generation upon excitation of photosensitizer at different wavelength was observed for several derivatives of palladium porphyrin in carbon tetrachloride. The efficiency of singlet oxygen generation upon excitation in a blue region of the spectrum (Soret band exceeds by several times the efficiency at excitation in the red spectral region (Q band. The effect of enhancement of singlet oxygen generation upon CW photoexcitation to Soret band of photosensitizer may be explained by influence of high laying triplet states of a donor molecule on the triplet-triplet energy transfer.

  2. Regulation of singlet oxygen-induced apoptosis by cytosolic NADP+-dependent isocitrate dehydrogenase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Sun Yee; Lee, Su Min; Tak, Jean Kyoung; Choi, Kyeong Sook; Kwon, Taeg Kyu; Park, Jeen-Woo

    2007-08-01

    Singlet oxygen is a highly reactive form of molecular oxygen that may harm living systems by oxidizing critical cellular macromolecules and it also promotes deleterious processes such as cell death. Recently, we demonstrated that the control of redox balance and the cellular defense against oxidative damage are the primary functions of cytosolic NADP(+)-dependent isocitrate dehydrogenase (IDPc) through supplying NADPH for antioxidant systems. In this report, we demonstrate that modulation of IDPc activity in HL-60 cells regulates singlet oxygen-induced apoptosis. When we examined the protective role of IDPc against singlet oxygen-induced apoptosis with HL-60 cells transfected with the cDNA for mouse IDPc in sense and antisense orientations, a clear inverse relationship was observed between the amount of IDPc expressed in target cells and their susceptibility to apoptosis. The results suggest that IDPc plays an important protective role in apoptosis of HL-60 cells induced by singlet oxygen.

  3. Pallidol, a resveratrol dimer from red wine, is a selective singlet oxygen quencher

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    He Shan; Jiang Liyan; Wu Bin; Pan Yuanjiang; Sun Cuirong

    2009-01-01

    Pallidol is a naturally occurring resveratrol dimer from red wine with antioxidant and antifungal activities. In this report, with the use of the EPR spin-trapping technique, the scavenging and quenching effects of pallidol on reactive oxygen species (ROS) were investigated. The results demonstrated that pallidol showed strong quenching effects on singlet oxygen at very low concentrations, but it was ineffective to scavenge hydroxyl radicals or superoxide anions. Further kinetic study revealed that the reaction of pallidol with singlet oxygen had an extremely high rate constant (k a = 1.71 x 10 10 ). Therefore, pallidol is a potent and selective singlet oxygen quencher in aqueous systems. It may be used in singlet oxygen-mediated diseases as a pharmacological agent, which may contribute to the health beneficial effects of red wine.

  4. Label-free electrochemical detection of singlet oxygen protein damage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vargová, Veronika; Giménez, Rodrigo E.; Černocká, Hana; Trujillo, Diana Chito; Tulli, Fiorella; Zanini, Verónica I. Paz; Paleček, Emil; Borsarelli, Claudio D.; Ostatná, Veronika

    2016-01-01

    Oxidative damage of proteins results in changes of their structures and functions. In this work, the singlet oxygen ( 1 O 2 )-mediated oxidation of bovine serum albumin (BSA) and urease by blue-light photosensitization of the tris(2,2′-bipyridine)ruthenium(II) cation [Ru(bpy) 3 ] 2+ was studied by square wave voltammetry at glassy carbon electrode and by constant current chronopotentiometry at mercury electrode. Small changes in voltammetric oxidation Tyr and Trp peaks did not indicate significant changes in the BSA structure after photo-oxidation at carbon electrode. On the other hand chronopotentiometric peak H of BSA at HMDE increased during blue-light photosensitization, indicating that photo-oxidized BSA was more susceptible to the electric field-induced denaturation than non-oxidized native BSA. Similar results were obtained for urease, where enzymatic activity was also evaluated. The present results show the capability of label- and reagent-free electrochemical methods to detect oxidative changes in proteins. We believe that these methods will become important tools for detection of various protein damages.

  5. Singlet oxygen-induced oxidation of alkylthiocarboxylic acids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Celuch, M.; Pogocki, D.; Enache, M.

    2006-01-01

    Singlet oxygen ( 1 O 2 ) could be generated in biological systems by endogenous and exogenous processes (e.g. enzymatic and chemical reactions, UV or visible light in the presence of a sensitizer). Numerous data show that proteins are the major targets of 1 O 2 -induced damage in the living cells. In particular, reaction of 1 O 2 with thioether sulphur of methionine (Met) leads to the formation of persulphoxide >S (+) O-O (-) which is in equilibrium with superoxide radical-anion (O 2 ·- ) and respective sulphur-centered-radical-cation >S ·+ . In presented work, investigation the mechanisms of deprotonation and decarboxylation of the S ·+ - the irreversible processes, which competes with the formation of sulphoxide. Using thioethers dissevering by the number and positions of carboxylate groups it has been shown that efficiency of both decarboxylation and deprotonation could be influenced by various factors such as neighbouring group participation and environmental effects. The observed influence of carboxylate groups in β-position relative to the sulphur on the efficiency of decarboxylation suggests furthermore that they may also catalyze decarboxylation of α-positioned carboxylate in a manner similar to hydroxide anion

  6. Kinetics of oxygen species in an electrically driven singlet oxygen generator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Azyazov, V.N.; Torbin, A.P.; Pershin, A.A.; Mikheyev, P.A.; Heaven, M.C.

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Vibrational excitation of O_3 increases the rate constant for O_3 + O_2(a) → 2O_2(X) + O. • Vibrationally excited O_3 is produced by the O + O_2(X) + M → O_3 + M reaction. • Ozone concentrations are impacted by the reactions of vibrationally excited O_3. • Relevant to ozone concentrations in oxygen discharges and the upper atmosphere. - Abstract: The kinetics of oxygen species in the gaseous medium of a discharge singlet oxygen generator has been revisited. Vibrationally excited ozone O_3(υ) formed in O + O_2 recombination is thought to be a significant agent in the deactivation of singlet oxygen O_2(a"1Δ), oxygen atom removal and ozone formation. It is shown that the process O_3(υ ⩾ 2) + O_2(a"1Δ) → 2O_2 + O is the main O_2(a"1Δ) deactivation channel in the post-discharge zone. If no measures are taken to decrease the oxygen atom concentration, the contribution of this process to the overall O_2(a"1Δ) removal is significant, even in the discharge zone. A simplified model for the kinetics of vibrationally excited ozone is proposed. Calculations based on this model yield results that are in good agreement with the experimental data.

  7. Singlet Delta Oxygen: A Quantitative Analysis Using Off-Axis Integrated-Cavity-Output-Spectroscopy (ICOS)

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Gallagher, Jeffrey E

    2006-01-01

    .... The method is based on off-axis integrated-cavity-output spectroscopy (ICOS). The primary goal for this research effort is to utilize the ICOS technique and demonstrate its ability to provide quantitative data of singlet delta oxygen...

  8. Molecular Tuning of Phenylene-Vinylene Derivatives for Two-Photon Photosensitized Singlet Oxygen Production

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Christian B.; Arnbjerg, Jacob; Johnsen, Mette

    2009-01-01

    Substituent-dependent features and properties of the sensitizer play an important role in the photosensitized production of singlet oxygen, O2(a1Δg). In this work, we systematically examine the effect of molecular changes in the sensitizer on the efficiency of singlet oxygen production using......, as the sensitizer, oligophenylene-vinylene derivatives designed to optimally absorb light in a nonlinear two-photon process. We demonstrate that one cannot always rely on rule-of-thumb guidelines when attempting to construct efficient two-photon singlet oxygen sensitizers. Rather, as a consequence of behavior...... that can deviate from the norm, a full investigation of the photophysical properties of the system is generally required. For example, it is acknowledged that the introduction of a ketone moiety to the sensitizer chromophore often results in more efficient production of singlet oxygen. However, we show...

  9. Spatial and temporal distribution of singlet oxygen in Lake Superior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peterson, Britt M; McNally, Ann M; Cory, Rose M; Thoemke, John D; Cotner, James B; McNeill, Kristopher

    2012-07-03

    A multiyear field study was undertaken on Lake Superior to investigate singlet oxygen ((1)O(2)) photoproduction. Specifically, trends within the lake were examined, along with an assessment of whether correlations existed between chromophoric dissolved organic matter (CDOM) characteristics and (1)O(2) production rates and quantum yields. Quantum yield values were determined and used to estimate noontime surface (1)O(2) steady-state concentrations ([(1)O(2)](ss)). Samples were subdivided into three categories based on their absorbance properties (a300): riverine, river-impacted, or open lake sites. Using calculated surface [(1)O(2)](ss), photochemical half-lives under continuous summer sunlight were calculated for cimetidine, a pharmaceutical whose reaction with (1)O(2) has been established, to be on the order of hours, days, and a week for the riverine, river-impacted, and open lake waters, respectively. Of the CDOM properties investigated, it was found that dissolved organic carbon (DOC) and a300 were the best parameters for predicting production rates of [(1)O(2)](ss). For example, given the correlations found, one could predict [(1)O(2)](ss) within a factor of 4 using a300 alone. Changes in the quantum efficiency of (1)O(2) production upon dilution of river water samples with lake water samples demonstrated that the CDOM found in the open lake is not simply diluted riverine organic matter. The open lake pool was characterized by low absorption coefficient, low fluorescence, and low DOC, but more highly efficient (1)O(2) production and predominates the Lake Superior system spatially. This study establishes that parameters that reflect the quantity of CDOM (e.g., a300 and DOC) correlate with (1)O(2) production rates, while parameters that characterize the absorbance spectrum (e.g., spectral slope coefficient and E2:E3) correlate with (1)O(2) production quantum yields.

  10. Kinetics of oxygen species in an electrically driven singlet oxygen generator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Azyazov, V.N., E-mail: azyazov@fian.smr.ru [Samara State Aerospace University, 443086 (Russian Federation); Lebedev Physical Institute of RAS, Samara 443011 (Russian Federation); Torbin, A.P.; Pershin, A.A. [Samara State Aerospace University, 443086 (Russian Federation); Lebedev Physical Institute of RAS, Samara 443011 (Russian Federation); Mikheyev, P.A., E-mail: mikheyev@fian.smr.ru [Samara State Aerospace University, 443086 (Russian Federation); Lebedev Physical Institute of RAS, Samara 443011 (Russian Federation); Heaven, M.C., E-mail: mheaven@emory.edu [Emory University, Atlanta, GA 30322 (United States)

    2015-12-16

    Highlights: • Vibrational excitation of O{sub 3} increases the rate constant for O{sub 3} + O{sub 2}(a) → 2O{sub 2}(X) + O. • Vibrationally excited O{sub 3} is produced by the O + O{sub 2}(X) + M → O{sub 3} + M reaction. • Ozone concentrations are impacted by the reactions of vibrationally excited O{sub 3}. • Relevant to ozone concentrations in oxygen discharges and the upper atmosphere. - Abstract: The kinetics of oxygen species in the gaseous medium of a discharge singlet oxygen generator has been revisited. Vibrationally excited ozone O{sub 3}(υ) formed in O + O{sub 2} recombination is thought to be a significant agent in the deactivation of singlet oxygen O{sub 2}(a{sup 1}Δ), oxygen atom removal and ozone formation. It is shown that the process O{sub 3}(υ ⩾ 2) + O{sub 2}(a{sup 1}Δ) → 2O{sub 2} + O is the main O{sub 2}(a{sup 1}Δ) deactivation channel in the post-discharge zone. If no measures are taken to decrease the oxygen atom concentration, the contribution of this process to the overall O{sub 2}(a{sup 1}Δ) removal is significant, even in the discharge zone. A simplified model for the kinetics of vibrationally excited ozone is proposed. Calculations based on this model yield results that are in good agreement with the experimental data.

  11. Cellular defense against singlet oxygen-induced oxidative damage by cytosolic NADP+-dependent isocitrate dehydrogenase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Sun Yee; Park, Jeen-Woo

    2003-03-01

    Singlet oxygen (1O2) is a highly reactive form of molecular oxygen that may harm living systems by oxidizing critical cellular macromolecules. Recently, we have shown that NADP+-dependent isocitrate dehydrogenase is involved in the supply of NADPH needed for GSH production against cellular oxidative damage. In this study, we investigated the role of cytosolic form of NADP+-dependent isocitrate dehydrogenase (IDPc) against singlet oxygen-induced cytotoxicity by comparing the relative degree of cellular responses in three different NIH3T3 cells with stable transfection with the cDNA for mouse IDPc in sense and antisense orientations, where IDPc activities were 2.3-fold higher and 39% lower, respectively, than that in the parental cells carrying the vector alone. Upon exposure to singlet oxygen generated from photoactivated dye, the cells with low levels of IDPc became more sensitive to cell killing. Lipid peroxidation, protein oxidation, oxidative DNA damage and intracellular peroxide generation were higher in the cell-line expressing the lower level of IDPc. However, the cells with the highly over-expressed IDPc exhibited enhanced resistance against singlet oxygen, compared to the control cells. The data indicate that IDPc plays an important role in cellular defense against singlet oxygen-induced oxidative injury.

  12. Phenomenological model of photoluminescence degradation and photoinduced defect formation in silicon nanocrystal ensembles under singlet oxygen generation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gongalsky, Maxim B., E-mail: mgongalsky@gmail.com; Timoshenko, Victor Yu. [Faculty of Physics, Moscow State M.V. Lomonosov University, 119991 Moscow (Russian Federation)

    2014-12-28

    We propose a phenomenological model to explain photoluminescence degradation of silicon nanocrystals under singlet oxygen generation in gaseous and liquid systems. The model considers coupled rate equations, which take into account the exciton radiative recombination in silicon nanocrystals, photosensitization of singlet oxygen generation, defect formation on the surface of silicon nanocrystals as well as quenching processes for both excitons and singlet oxygen molecules. The model describes well the experimentally observed power law dependences of the photoluminescence intensity, singlet oxygen concentration, and lifetime versus photoexcitation time. The defect concentration in silicon nanocrystals increases by power law with a fractional exponent, which depends on the singlet oxygen concentration and ambient conditions. The obtained results are discussed in a view of optimization of the photosensitized singlet oxygen generation for biomedical applications.

  13. Parabanic acid is the singlet oxygen specific oxidation product of uric acid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iida, Sayaka; Ohkubo, Yuki; Yamamoto, Yorihiro; Fujisawa, Akio

    2017-11-01

    Uric acid quenches singlet oxygen physically or reacts with it, but the oxidation product has not been previously characterized. The present study determined that the product is parabanic acid, which was confirmed by LC/TOFMS analysis. Parabanic acid was stable at acidic pH (acid at neutral or alkaline pH. The total yields of parabanic acid and oxaluric acid based on consumed uric acid were ~100% in clean singlet oxygen production systems such as UVA irradiation of Rose Bengal and thermal decomposition of 3-(1,4-dihydro-1,4-epidioxy-4-methyl-1-naphthyl)propionic acid. However, the ratio of the amount of uric acid consumed to the total amount of singlet oxygen generated was less than 1/180, indicating that most of the singlet oxygen was physically quenched. The total yields of parabanic acid and oxaluric acid were high in the uric acid oxidation systems with hydrogen peroxide plus hypochlorite or peroxynitrite. They became less than a few percent in peroxyl radical-, hypochlorite- or peroxynitrite-induced oxidation of uric acid. These results suggest that parabanic acid could be an in vivo probe of singlet oxygen formation because of the wide distribution of uric acid in human tissues and extracellular spaces. In fact, sunlight exposure significantly increased human skin levels of parabanic acid.

  14. Microscopic time-resolved imaging of singlet oxygen by delayed fluorescence in living cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scholz, Marek; Dědic, Roman; Hála, Jan

    2017-11-08

    Singlet oxygen is a highly reactive species which is involved in a number of processes, including photodynamic therapy of cancer. Its very weak near-infrared emission makes imaging of singlet oxygen in biological systems a long-term challenge. We address this challenge by introducing Singlet Oxygen Feedback Delayed Fluorescence (SOFDF) as a novel modality for semi-direct microscopic time-resolved wide-field imaging of singlet oxygen in biological systems. SOFDF has been investigated in individual fibroblast cells incubated with a well-known photosensitizer aluminium phthalocyanine tetrasulfonate. The SOFDF emission from the cells is several orders of magnitude stronger and much more readily detectable than the very weak near-infrared phosphorescence of singlet oxygen. Moreover, the analysis of SOFDF kinetics enables us to estimate the lifetimes of the involved excited states. Real-time SOFDF images with micrometer spatial resolution and submicrosecond temporal-resolution have been recorded. Interestingly, a steep decrease in the SOFDF intensity after the photodynamically induced release of a photosensitizer from lysosomes has been demonstrated. This effect could be potentially employed as a valuable diagnostic tool for monitoring and dosimetry in photodynamic therapy.

  15. Cytometric quantification of singlet oxygen in the human malaria parasite Plasmodium falciparum

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Butzloff, Sabine; Groves, Matthew R; Wrenger, Carsten; Müller, Ingrid B

    The malaria parasite Plasmodium falciparum proliferates within human erythrocytes and is thereby exposed to a variety of reactive oxygen species (ROS) such as hydrogen peroxide, hydroxyl radical, superoxide anion, and highly reactive singlet oxygen ((1)O(2)). While most ROS are already well studied

  16. Photosensitized production of singlet oxygen: spatially-resolved optical studies in single cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Breitenbach, Thomas; Kuimova, Marina; Gbur, Peter

    2009-01-01

    be monitored using viability assays. Time- and spatially-resolved optical measurements of both singlet oxygen and its precursor, the excited state sensitizer, reflect the complex and dynamic morphology of the cell. These experiments help elucidate photoinduced, oxygen-dependent events that compromise cell...

  17. Bactericidal action of photogenerated singlet oxygen from photosensitizers used in plaque disclosing agents.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kirika Ishiyama

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Photodynamic therapy (PDT has been suggested as an efficient clinical approach for the treatment of dental plaque in the field of dental care. In PDT, once the photosensitizer is irradiated with light of a specific wavelength, it transfers the excitation energy to molecular oxygen, which gives rise to singlet oxygen. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Since plaque disclosing agents usually contain photosensitizers such as rose bengal, erythrosine, and phloxine, they could be used for PTD upon photoactivation. The aim of the present study is to compare the ability of these three photosensitizers to produce singlet oxygen in relation to their bactericidal activity. The generation rates of singlet oxygen determined by applying an electron spin resonance technique were in the order phloxine > erythrosine ≒ rose bengal. On the other hand, rose bengal showed the highest bactericidal activity against Streptococcus mutans, a major causative pathogen of caries, followed by erythrosine and phloxine, both of which showed activity similar to each other. One of the reasons for the discrepancy between the singlet oxygen generating ability and bactericidal activity was the incorporation efficiency of the photosensitizers into the bacterial cells. The incorporation rate of rose bengal was the highest among the three photosensitizers examined in the present study, likely leading to the highest bactericidal activity. Meanwhile, the addition of L-histidine, a singlet oxygen quencher, cancelled the bactericidal activity of any of the three photoactivated photosensitizers, proving that singlet oxygen was responsible for the bactericidal action. CONCLUSIONS: It is strongly suggested that rose bengal is a suitable photosensitizer for the plaque disclosing agents as compared to the other two photosensitizers, phloxine and erythrosine, when used for PDT.

  18. Singlet Oxygen and Free Radical Reactions of Retinoids and Carotenoids—A Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Truscott, T. George

    2018-01-01

    We report on studies of reactions of singlet oxygen with carotenoids and retinoids and a range of free radical studies on carotenoids and retinoids with emphasis on recent work, dietary carotenoids and the role of oxygen in biological processes. Many previous reviews are cited and updated together with new data not previously reviewed. The review does not deal with computational studies but the emphasis is on laboratory-based results. We contrast the ease of study of both singlet oxygen and polyene radical cations compared to neutral radicals. Of particular interest is the switch from anti- to pro-oxidant behavior of a carotenoid with change of oxygen concentration: results for lycopene in a cellular model system show total protection of the human cells studied at zero oxygen concentration, but zero protection at 100% oxygen concentration. PMID:29301252

  19. Inactivation of Neurospora crassa conidia by singlet molecular oxygen generated by a photosensitized reaction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shimizu, M.; Egashira, T.; Takahama, U.

    1979-01-01

    Photodynamic damage of Neurospora crassa conidia was studied in the presence of the photosensitizing dye, toluidine blue O. Conidia which germinated to form colonies decreased in number as irradiation time became longer. The photoinactivation of conidia was suppressed by azide, bovine serum albumin, and histidine, and was stimulated in deuterium oxide. Wild-type conidia were less sensitive to the irradiation that albino conidia. In the wild type, carotenoid-enriched conidia were more resistant against the lethal damage than the conidia which contained small amounts of carotenoids. These results suggest that singlet molecular oxygen causes photodynamic lethal damage to N. crassa conidia and that singlet molecular oxygen is quenched by endogenous carotenoids

  20. Singlet oxygen produced by quasi-continuous photo-excitation of hypericin in dimethyl-sulfoxide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Varchola, J.; Želonková, K. [Department of Biophysics, Faculty of Science, P. J. Šafárik University, Jesenná 5, 041 54 Košice (Slovakia); Chorvat Jr, D. [International Laser Centre, Ilkovicova 3, 841 05 Bratislava (Slovakia); Jancura, D. [Department of Biophysics, Faculty of Science, P. J. Šafárik University, Jesenná 5, 041 54 Košice (Slovakia); Center for Interdisciplinary Biosciences, Faculty of Science, P. J. Šafárik University, Jesenná 5, 041 54 Košice (Slovakia); Miskovsky, P. [Department of Biophysics, Faculty of Science, P. J. Šafárik University, Jesenná 5, 041 54 Košice (Slovakia); International Laser Centre, Ilkovicova 3, 841 05 Bratislava (Slovakia); Center for Interdisciplinary Biosciences, Faculty of Science, P. J. Šafárik University, Jesenná 5, 041 54 Košice (Slovakia); and others

    2016-09-15

    Singlet oxygen (O{sub 2}({sup 1}Δ{sub g})) production by photo-excited hypericin (Hyp) dissolved in dimethyl-sulfoxide (DMSO) was studied by means of time-resolved phosphorescence measurements. In order to minimize photo-bleaching, the samples were excited in quasi-continuous mode using long-pulse (35 μs) laser excitation. The measured lifetime of singlet oxygen is τ{sub Δ}=5.5±0.3 μs. This result helps to resolve the discrepancy existing in the literature concerning singlet oxygen lifetime in DMSO. The obtained quantum yield of singlet oxygen photosensitized by Hyp in air-saturated DMSO is Φ{sub Δ}=0.4±0.03. The rate constant for Hyp triplet state depopulation in reaction with ground state molecular oxygen is measured to be k{sub q}=1.6±0.3×10{sup 9} M{sup −1} s{sup −1}.

  1. Irradiation- and Sensitizer-Dependent Changes in the Lifetime of Intracellular Singlet Oxygen Produced in a Photosensitized Process

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Silva, Elsa; Pedersen, Brian Wett; Breitenbach, Thomas

    2012-01-01

    Singlet oxygen, O2(a1Δg), was produced upon pulsed-laser irradiation of an intracellular photosensitizer and detected by its 1275 nm O2(a1Δg) →O2(X3Σg-) phosphorescence in time-resolved experiments using (1) individual mammalian cells on the stage of a microscope and (2) suspensions of mammalian...... cells in a 1 cm cuvette. Data were recorded using hydrophilic and, independently, hydrophobic sensitizers. The microscope-based single cell results are consistent with a model in which the behavior of singlet oxygen reflects the environment in which it is produced; nevertheless, the data also indicate...... that a significant fraction of a given singlet oxygen population readily crosses barriers between phase-separated intracellular domains. The singlet oxygen phosphorescence signals reflect the effects of singlet-oxygen-mediated damage on cell components which, at the limit, mean that data were collected from dead...

  2. BODIPY-Au(I): A Photosensitizer for Singlet Oxygen Generation and Photodynamic Therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Üçüncü, Muhammed; Karakuş, Erman; Kurulgan Demirci, Eylem; Sayar, Melike; Dartar, Suay; Emrullahoğlu, Mustafa

    2017-05-19

    Upon complexation with Au(I), a photoinactive BODIPY derivative was transformed into a highly photoactive triplet sensitizer. Along with high efficiency in singlet oxygen generation (Φ Δ = 0.84), the new BODIPY-Au(I) skeleton showed excellent photocytotoxic activity against cancer cell lines (EC 50 = 2.5 nM).

  3. Laser-induced generation of singlet oxygen and its role in the cerebrovascular physiology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Semyachkina-Glushkovskaya, O. V.; Sokolovski, S. G.; Goltsov, A.; Gekaluyk, A. S.; Saranceva, E. I.; Bragina, O. A.; Tuchin, V. V.; Rafailov, E. U.

    2017-09-01

    For over 55 years, laser technology has expanded from laboratory research to widespread fields, for example telecommunication and data storage amongst others. Recently application of lasers in biology and medicine presents itself as one of the emerging areas. In this review, we will outline the recent advances in using lasers for the generation of singlet oxygen, traditionally used to kill tumour cells or induce thrombotic stroke model due to damage vascular effects. Over the last two decade, completely new results on cerebrovascular effects of singlet oxygen generated during photodynamic therapy (PDT) have been shown alongside promising applications for delivery of drugs and nanoparticles into the brain for therapy of brain cancer. Furthermore, a ;gold key; has been found to overcome the limitations of PDT, such as low light penetration and high toxicity of photosensitizers, by direct generation of singlet oxygen using quantum-dot laser diodes emitting in the near infrared (NIR) spectral range. It is our motivation to highlight these pioneering results in this review, to improve understanding of the biological role of singlet oxygen and to provide new perspectives for improving clinical application of laser based therapy in further research.

  4. Singlet oxygen generator for a solar powered chemically pumped iodine laser

    Science.gov (United States)

    Busch, G. E.

    1984-01-01

    The potential of solid phase endoperoxides as a means to produce single-delta oxygen in the gas phase in concentrations useful to chemical oxygen-iodine lasers was investigated. The 1,4 - endoperoxide of ethyl 3- (4-methyl - 1-naphthyl) propanoate was deposited over an indium-oxide layer on a glass plate. Single-delta oxygen was released from the endoperoxide upon heating the organic film by means of an electrical discharge through the conductive indium oxide coating. The evolution of singlet-delta oxygen was determined by measuring the dimol emission signal at 634 nm. Comparison of the measured signal with an analytic model leads to two main conclusions: virtually all the oxygen being evolved is in the singlet-delta state and in the gas phase, and there is no significant quenching other than energy pooling on the time scale of the experiment (approximately 10 msec). The use of solid phase endoperoxide as a singlet-delta oxygen generator for an oxygen-iodine laser appears promising.

  5. Impact of photosensitized oxidation and singlet oxygen on degradation of stabilized polymers

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Pospíšil, Jan; Nešpůrek, Stanislav; Pilař, Jan

    2008-01-01

    Roč. 93, č. 9 (2008), s. 1681-1688 ISSN 0141-3910 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR IAA100100622; GA AV ČR KAN400720701; GA AV ČR IAA400500804 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40500505 Keywords : photosensitized oxidation * singlet molecular oxygen * oxygenation Subject RIV: CD - Macromolecular Chemistry Impact factor: 2.320, year: 2008

  6. Real-Time Monitoring of Singlet Oxygen and Oxygen Partial Pressure During the Deep Photodynamic Therapy In Vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Weitao; Huang, Dong; Zhang, Yan; Liu, Yangyang; Gu, Yueqing; Qian, Zhiyu

    2016-09-01

    Photodynamic therapy (PDT) is an effective noninvasive method for the tumor treatment. The major challenge in current PDT research is how to quantitatively evaluate therapy effects. To our best knowledge, this is the first time to combine multi-parameter detection methods in PDT. More specifically, we have developed a set of system, including the high-sensitivity measurement of singlet oxygen, oxygen partial pressure and fluorescence image. In this paper, the detection ability of the system was validated by the different concentrations of carbon quantum dots. Moreover, the correlation between singlet oxygen and oxygen partial pressure with laser irradiation was observed. Then, the system could detect the signal up to 0.5 cm tissue depth with 660 nm irradiation and 1 cm tissue depth with 980 nm irradiation by using up-conversion nanoparticles during PDT in vitro. Furthermore, we obtained the relationship among concentration of singlet oxygen, oxygen partial pressure and tumor cell viability under certain conditions. The results indicate that the multi-parameter detection system is a promising asset to evaluate the deep tumor therapy during PDT. Moreover, the system might be potentially used for the further study in biology and molecular imaging.

  7. Production of Singlet Oxygen in a Non-Self-Sustained Discharge

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vasil'eva, A.N.; Klopovskii, K.S.; Kovalev, A.S.; Lopaev, D.V.; Mankelevich, Yu.A.; Popov, N.A.; Rakhimov, A.T.; Rakhimova, T.V.

    2005-01-01

    The production of O 2 (a 1 Δ g ) singlet oxygen in non-self-sustained discharges in pure oxygen and mixtures of oxygen with noble gases (Ar or He) was studied experimentally. It is shown that the energy efficiency of O 2 (a 1 Δ g ) production can be optimized with respect to the reduced electric field E/N. It is shown that the optimal E/N values correspond to electron temperatures of 1.2-1.4 eV. At these E/N values, a decrease in the oxygen percentage in the mixture leads to an increase in the excitation rate of singlet oxygen because of the increase in the specific energy deposition per O 2 molecule. The onset of discharge instabilities not only greatly reduces the energy efficiency of singlet oxygen production but also makes it impossible to achieve high energy deposition in a non-self-sustained discharge. A model of a non-self-sustained discharge in pure oxygen is developed. It is shown that good agreement between the experimental and computed results for a discharge in oxygen over a wide range of reduced electric fields can be achieved only by taking into account the ion component of the discharge current. The cross section for the electron-impact excitation of O 2 (a 1 Δ g ) and the kinetic scheme of the discharge processes with the participation of singlet oxygen are verified by comparing the experimental and computed data on the energy efficiency of the production of O 2 (a 1 Δ g ) and the dynamics of its concentration. It is shown that, in the dynamics of O 2 (a 1 Δ g ) molecules in the discharge afterglow, an important role is played by their deexcitation in a three-body reaction with the participation of O( 3 P) atoms. At high energy depositions in a non-self-sustained discharge, this reaction can reduce the maximal attainable concentration of singlet oxygen. The effect of a hydrogen additive to an Ar : O 2 mixture is analyzed based on the results obtained using the model developed. It is shown that, for actual electron beam current densities, a

  8. Scope and limitations of the TEMPO/EPR method for singlet oxygen detection: the misleading role of electron transfer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nardi, Giacomo; Manet, Ilse; Monti, Sandra; Miranda, Miguel A; Lhiaubet-Vallet, Virginie

    2014-12-01

    For many biological and biomedical studies, it is essential to detect the production of (1)O2 and quantify its production yield. Among the available methods, detection of the characteristic 1270-nm phosphorescence of singlet oxygen by time-resolved near-infrared (TRNIR) emission constitutes the most direct and unambiguous approach. An alternative indirect method is electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) in combination with a singlet oxygen probe. This is based on the detection of the TEMPO free radical formed after oxidation of TEMP (2,2,6,6-tetramethylpiperidine) by singlet oxygen. Although the TEMPO/EPR method has been widely employed, it can produce misleading data. This is demonstrated by the present study, in which the quantum yields of singlet oxygen formation obtained by TRNIR emission and by the TEMPO/EPR method are compared for a set of well-known photosensitizers. The results reveal that the TEMPO/EPR method leads to significant overestimation of singlet oxygen yield when the singlet or triplet excited state of the photosensitizer is efficiently quenched by TEMP, acting as electron donor. In such case, generation of the TEMP(+) radical cation, followed by deprotonation and reaction with molecular oxygen, gives rise to an EPR-detectable TEMPO signal that is not associated with singlet oxygen production. This knowledge is essential for an appropriate and error-free application of the TEMPO/EPR method in chemical, biological, and medical studies. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Quantum Dot-Based Luminescent Oxygen Channeling Assay for Potential Application in Homogeneous Bioassays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhuang, Si-Hui; Guo, Xin-Xin; Wu, Ying-Song; Chen, Zhen-Hua; Chen, Yao; Ren, Zhi-Qi; Liu, Tian-Cai

    2016-01-01

    The unique photoproperties of quantum dots are promising for potential application in bioassays. In the present study, quantum dots were applied to a luminescent oxygen channeling assay. The reaction system developed in this study was based on interaction of biotin with streptavidin. Carboxyl-modified polystyrene microspheres doped with quantum dots were biotinylated and used as acceptors. Photosensitizer-doped carboxyl-modified polystyrene microspheres were conjugated with streptavidin and used as donors. The results indicated that the singlet oxygen that was released from the donor beads diffused into the acceptor beads. The acceptor beads were then exited via thioxene, and were subsequently fluoresced. To avoid generating false positives, a high concentration (0.01 mg/mL) of quantum dots is required for application in homogeneous immunoassays. Compared to a conventional luminescent oxygen channeling assay, this quantum dots-based technique requires less time, and would be easier to automate and miniaturize because it requires no washing to remove excess labels.

  10. Highly efficient oxidation of amines to imines by singlet oxygen and its application in Ugi-type reactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Gaoxi; Chen, Jian; Huang, Jie-Sheng; Che, Chi-Ming

    2009-10-15

    A variety of secondary benzylic amines were oxidized to imines in 90% to >99% yields by singlet oxygen generated from oxygen and a porphyrin photosensitizer. On the basis of these reactions, a protocol was developed for oxidative Ugi-type reactions with singlet oxygen as the oxidant. This protocol has been used to synthesize C1- and N-functionalized benzylic amines in up to 96% yields.

  11. Singlet oxygen production by combining erythrosine and halogen light for photodynamic inactivation of Streptococcus mutans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fracalossi, Camila; Nagata, Juliana Yuri; Pellosi, Diogo Silva; Terada, Raquel Sano Suga; Hioka, Noboru; Baesso, Mauro Luciano; Sato, Francielle; Rosalen, Pedro Luiz; Caetano, Wilker; Fujimaki, Mitsue

    2016-09-01

    Photodynamic inactivation of microorganisms is based on a photosensitizing substance which, in the presence of light and molecular oxygen, produces singlet oxygen, a toxic agent to microorganisms and tumor cells. This study aimed to evaluate singlet oxygen quantum yield of erythrosine solutions illuminated with a halogen light source in comparison to a LED array (control), and the photodynamic effect of erythrosine dye in association with the halogen light source on Streptococcus mutans. Singlet oxygen quantum yield of erythrosine solutions was quantified using uric acid as a chemical-probe in an aqueous solution. The in vitro effect of the photodynamic antimicrobial activity of erythrosine in association with the halogen photopolimerizing light on Streptococcus mutans (UA 159) was assessed during one minute. Bacterial cultures treated with erythrosine alone served as negative control. Singlet oxygen with 24% and 2.8% degradation of uric acid in one minute and a quantum yield of 0.59 and 0.63 was obtained for the erythrosine samples illuminated with the halogen light and the LED array, respectively. The bacterial cultures with erythrosine illuminated with the halogen light presented a decreased number of CFU mL(-1) in comparison with the negative control, with minimal inhibitory concentrations between 0.312 and 0.156mgmL(-1). The photodynamic response of erythrosine induced by the halogen light was capable of killing S. mutans. Clinical trials should be conducted to better ascertain the use of erythrosine in association with halogen light source for the treatment of dental caries. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Metal bacteriochlorins which act as dual singlet oxygen and superoxide generators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fukuzumi, Shunichi; Ohkubo, Kei; Zheng, Xiang; Chen, Yihui; Pandey, Ravindra K; Zhan, Riqiang; Kadish, Karl M

    2008-03-06

    A series of stable free-base, Zn(II) and Pd(II) bacteriochlorins containing a fused six- or five-member diketo- or imide ring have been synthesized as good candidates for photodynamic therapy sensitizers, and their electrochemical, photophysical, and photochemical properties were examined. Photoexcitation of the palladium bacteriochlorin affords the triplet excited state without fluorescence emission, resulting in formation of singlet oxygen with a high quantum yield due to the heavy atom effect of palladium. Electrochemical studies revealed that the zinc bacteriochlorin has the smallest HOMO-LUMO gap of the investigated compounds, and this value is significantly lower than the triplet excited-state energy of the compound in benzonitrile. Such a small HOMO-LUMO gap of the zinc bacteriochlorin enables intermolecular photoinduced electron transfer from the triplet excited state to the ground state to produce both the radical cation and the radical anion. The radical anion thus produced can transfer an electron to molecular oxygen to produce superoxide anion which was detected by electron spin resonance. The same photosensitizer can also act as an efficient singlet oxygen generator. Thus, the same zinc bacteriochlorin can function as a sensitizer with a dual role in that it produces both singlet oxygen and superoxide anion in an aprotic solvent (benzonitrile).

  13. Single Molecule Atomic Force Microscopy Studies of Photosensitized Singlet Oxygen Behavior on a DNA Origami Template

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Helmig, Sarah Wendelboe; Rotaru, Alexandru; Arian, Dumitru

    2010-01-01

    DNA origami, the folding of a long single-stranded DNA sequence (scaffold strand) by hundreds of short synthetic oligonucleotides (staple strands) into parallel aligned helices, is a highly efficient method to form advanced self-assembled DNA-architectures. Since molecules and various materials can...... be conjugated to each of the short staple strands, the origami method offers a unique possibility of arranging molecules and materials in well-defined positions on a structured surface. Here we combine the action of light with AFM and DNA nanostructures to study the production of singlet oxygen from a single...... photosensitizer molecule conjugated to a selected DNA origami staple strand on an origami structure. We demonstrate a distance-dependent oxidation of organic moieties incorporated in specific positions on DNA origami by singlet oxygen produced from a single photosensitizer located at the center of each origami....

  14. Singlet oxygen reactivity in water-rich solvent mixtures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristina Sousa

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The 3-methylindole (3MI oxygenation sensitized by psoralen (PSO has been investigated in 100%, 20% and 5% O2-saturated water/dioxane (H2O/Dx mixtures. The lowering of the ¹O2* chemical rate when water (k chem∆3MI = 1.4 × 109 M-1 s-1 is replaced by deuterated water (k chem∆3MI = 1.9 × 108 M-1 s-1 suggests that hydrogen abstraction is involved in the rate determining step. A high dependence of the chemical rate constant on water concentration in H2O/Dx mixtures was found showing that water molecules are absolutely essential for the success of the 3MI substrate oxidation by ¹O2* in water-rich solvent mixtures.

  15. Characterization of photoactivated singlet oxygen damage in single-molecule optical trap experiments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Landry, Markita P; McCall, Patrick M; Qi, Zhi; Chemla, Yann R

    2009-10-21

    Optical traps or "tweezers" use high-power, near-infrared laser beams to manipulate and apply forces to biological systems, ranging from individual molecules to cells. Although previous studies have established that optical tweezers induce photodamage in live cells, the effects of trap irradiation have yet to be examined in vitro, at the single-molecule level. In this study, we investigate trap-induced damage in a simple system consisting of DNA molecules tethered between optically trapped polystyrene microspheres. We show that exposure to the trapping light affects the lifetime of the tethers, the efficiency with which they can be formed, and their structure. Moreover, we establish that these irreversible effects are caused by oxidative damage from singlet oxygen. This reactive state of molecular oxygen is generated locally by the optical traps in the presence of a sensitizer, which we identify as the trapped polystyrene microspheres. Trap-induced oxidative damage can be reduced greatly by working under anaerobic conditions, using additives that quench singlet oxygen, or trapping microspheres lacking the sensitizers necessary for singlet state photoexcitation. Our findings are relevant to a broad range of trap-based single-molecule experiments-the most common biological application of optical tweezers-and may guide the development of more robust experimental protocols.

  16. Theoretical study of singlet oxygen molecule generation via an exciplex with valence-excited thiophene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sumita, Masato; Morihashi, Kenji

    2015-02-05

    Singlet-oxygen [O2((1)Δg)] generation by valence-excited thiophene (TPH) has been investigated using multireference Møller-Plesset second-order perturbation (MRMP2) theory of geometries optimized at the complete active space self-consistent field (CASSCF) theory level. Our results indicate that triplet TPH(1(3)B2) is produced via photoinduced singlet TPH(2(1)A1) because 2(1)A1 TPH shows a large spin-orbit coupling constant with the first triplet excited state (1(3)B2). The relaxed TPH in the 1(3)B2 state can form an exciplex with O2((3)Σg(-)) because this exciplex is energetically more stable than the relaxed TPH. The formation of the TPH(1(3)B2) exciplex with O2((3)Σg(-)) whose total spin multiplicity is triplet (T1 state) increases the likelihood of transition from the T1 state to the singlet ground or first excited singlet state. After the transition, O2((1)Δg) is emitted easily although the favorable product is that from a 2 + 4 cycloaddition reaction.

  17. PHOTOGENERATION OF SINGLET OXYGEN AND FREE RADICALS IN DISSOLVED ORGANIC MATTER ISOLATED FROM THE MISSISSIPPI AND ATCHAFALAYA RIVER PLUMES

    Science.gov (United States)

    The photoreactivity to UV light of ultrafiltered dissolved organic matter (DOM) collected during cruises along salinity transects in the Mississippi and Atchafalaya River plumes was examined by measuring photogenerated free radicals and singlet molecular oxygen (1O2) photosensiti...

  18. Pulsed electron-beam-sustained discharge in oxygen-containing gas mixtures: electrical characteristics, spectroscopy,and singlet oxygen yield

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vagin, Nikolai P; Ionin, Andrei A; Klimachev, Yu M; Kotkov, A A; Podmar'kov, Yu P; Seleznev, L V; Sinitsyn, D V; Frolov, M P; Yuryshev, Nikolai N; Kochetov, Igor' V; Napartovich, A P; Hager, G D

    2004-01-01

    The electrical and spectroscopic characteristics of electron-beam-sustained discharge (EBSD) in oxygen and oxygen-containing gas mixtures are studied experimentally under gas pressures up to 100 Torr in a large excitation volume (∼18 L). It is shown that the EBSD in pure oxygen and its mixtures with inert gases is unstable and is characterised by a small specific energy contribution. The addition of small amounts (∼1%-10%) of carbon monoxide or hydrogen to oxygen or its mixtures with inert gases considerably improves the stability of the discharge, while the specific energy contribution W increases by more then an order of magnitude, achieving ∼6.5 kJ L -1 atm -1 per molecular component of the gas mixture. A part of the energy supplied to the EBSD is spent to excite vibrational levels of molecular additives. This was demonstrated experimentally by the initiation of a CO laser based on the O 2 : Ar : CO = 1 : 1 : 0.1 mixture. Experimental results on spectroscopy of the excited electronic states O 2 (a 1 Δ g ) and O 2 (b 1 Σ g + ), of oxygen formed in the EBSD are presented. A technique was worked out for measuring the concentration of singlet oxygen in the O 2 (a 1 Δ g ) state in the afterglow of the pulsed EBSD by comparing with the radiation intensity of singlet oxygen of a given concentration produced in a chemical generator. Preliminary measurements of the singlet-oxygen yield in the EBSD show that its value ∼3% for W ∼ 1.0 kJ L -1 atm -1 is in agreement with the theoretical estimate. Theoretical calculations performed for W ∼ 6.5 kJ L -1 atm -1 at a fixed temperature show that the singlet-oxygen yield may be ∼20%, which is higher than the value required to achieve the lasing threshold in an oxygen-iodine laser at room temperature. (laser applications and other topics in quantum electronics)

  19. BODIPY-pyrene and perylene dyads as heavy atom-free singlet oxygen sensitizers

    KAUST Repository

    Filatov, Mikhail A.

    2018-02-23

    Dyads combining BODIPY as an electron acceptor and pyrene or perylene as electron donor subunits were prepared and studied their photophysical properties studied by steady-state and transient spectroscopy. Depending on the structure of the subunits and polarity of the media, the dyads show either bright fluorescence or photo-induced electron transfer (PeT) in solution. Charge-transfer (CT) states formed as a result of PeT and were found to yield triplet excited states of the BODIPY. In the presence of molecular oxygen, the dyads sensitize singlet oxygen (1O2) with quantum yields of up to 0.75.

  20. BODIPY-pyrene and perylene dyads as heavy atom-free singlet oxygen sensitizers

    KAUST Repository

    Filatov, Mikhail A.; Karuthedath, Safakath; Polestshuk, Pavel M.; Callaghan, Susan; Flanagan, Keith J.; Wiesner, Thomas; Laquai, Fré dé ric; Senge, Mathias O.

    2018-01-01

    Dyads combining BODIPY as an electron acceptor and pyrene or perylene as electron donor subunits were prepared and studied their photophysical properties studied by steady-state and transient spectroscopy. Depending on the structure of the subunits and polarity of the media, the dyads show either bright fluorescence or photo-induced electron transfer (PeT) in solution. Charge-transfer (CT) states formed as a result of PeT and were found to yield triplet excited states of the BODIPY. In the presence of molecular oxygen, the dyads sensitize singlet oxygen (1O2) with quantum yields of up to 0.75.

  1. Singlet oxygen generation during the oxidation of L-tyrosine and L-dopa with mushroom tyrosinase

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miyaji, Akimitsu [Department of Environmental Chemistry and Engineering, Tokyo Institute of Technology, 4259-G1-14, Nagatsuta-cho, Midori-ku, Yokohama 226-8502 (Japan); Kohno, Masahiro [Department of Bioscience and Biotechnology, Tokyo Institute of Technology, 4259-G1-25 Nagatsuta-cho, Midori-ku, Yokohama 226-8502 (Japan); Inoue, Yoshihiro [Showa Pharmaceutical University, 3-3165 Higashi-tamagawagakuen, Machida, Tokyo 194-8543 (Japan); Baba, Toshihide, E-mail: tbaba@chemenv.titech.ac.jp [Department of Environmental Chemistry and Engineering, Tokyo Institute of Technology, 4259-G1-14, Nagatsuta-cho, Midori-ku, Yokohama 226-8502 (Japan)

    2016-03-18

    The generation of singlet oxygen during the oxidation of tyrosine and L-dopa using mushroom tyrosinase in a phosphate buffer (pH 7.4), the model of melanin synthesis in melanocytes, was examined. The reaction was performed in the presence of 2,2,6,6-tetramethyl-4-piperidone (4-oxo-TEMP), an acceptor of singlet oxygen and the electron spin resonance (ESR) of the spin adduct, 4-oxo-2,2,6,6-tetramethyl-1-piperidinyloxy (4-oxo-TEMPO), was measured. An increase in the ESR signal attributable to 4-oxo-TEMPO was observed during the oxidation of tyrosine and L-dopa with tyrosinase, indicating the generation of singlet oxygen. The results suggest that {sup 1}O{sub 2} generation via tyrosinase-catalyzed melanin synthesis occurs in melanocyte. - Highlights: • Generation of singlet oxygen was observed during tyrosinase-catalyzed tyrosine oxidation. • The singlet oxygen generated when tyrosine was converted into dopachrome. • The amount of singlet oxygen is not sufficient for cell toxicity. • It decreased when the hydroxyl radicals and/or superoxide anions were trapped.

  2. Deletion of CGLD1 Impairs PSII and Increases Singlet Oxygen Tolerance of Green Alga Chlamydomonas reinhardtii

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiale Xing

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The green alga Chlamydomonas reinhardtii is a key model organism for studying photosynthesis and oxidative stress in unicellular eukaryotes. Using a forward genetics approach, we have identified and characterized a mutant x32, which lacks a predicted protein named CGLD1 (Conserved in Green Lineage and Diatom 1 in GreenCut2, under normal and stress conditions. We show that loss of CGLD1 resulted in minimal photoautotrophic growth and PSII activity in the organism. We observed reduced amount of PSII complex and core subunits in the x32 mutant based on blue-native (BN/PAGE and immunoblot analysis. Moreover, x32 exhibited increased sensitivity to high-light stress and altered tolerance to different reactive oxygenic species (ROS stress treatments, i.e., decreased resistance to H2O2/or tert-Butyl hydroperoxide (t-BOOH and increased tolerance to neutral red (NR and rose bengal (RB that induce the formation of singlet oxygen, respectively. Further analysis via quantitative real-time PCR (qRT-PCR indicated that the increased singlet-oxygen tolerance of x32 was largely correlated with up-regulated gene expression of glutathione-S-transferases (GST. The phenotypical and physiological implications revealed from our experiments highlight the important roles of CGLD1 in maintaining structure and function of PSII as well as in protection of Chlamydomonas under photo-oxidative stress conditions.

  3. Singlet Oxygen-Mediated Oxidation during UVA Radiation Alters the Dynamic of Genomic DNA Replication.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dany Graindorge

    Full Text Available UVA radiation (320-400 nm is a major environmental agent that can exert its deleterious action on living organisms through absorption of the UVA photons by endogenous or exogenous photosensitizers. This leads to the production of reactive oxygen species (ROS, such as singlet oxygen (1O2 and hydrogen peroxide (H2O2, which in turn can modify reversibly or irreversibly biomolecules, such as lipids, proteins and nucleic acids. We have previously reported that UVA-induced ROS strongly inhibit DNA replication in a dose-dependent manner, but independently of the cell cycle checkpoints activation. Here, we report that the production of 1O2 by UVA radiation leads to a transient inhibition of replication fork velocity, a transient decrease in the dNTP pool, a quickly reversible GSH-dependent oxidation of the RRM1 subunit of ribonucleotide reductase and sustained inhibition of origin firing. The time of recovery post irradiation for each of these events can last from few minutes (reduction of oxidized RRM1 to several hours (replication fork velocity and origin firing. The quenching of 1O2 by sodium azide prevents the delay of DNA replication, the decrease in the dNTP pool and the oxidation of RRM1, while inhibition of Chk1 does not prevent the inhibition of origin firing. Although the molecular mechanism remains elusive, our data demonstrate that the dynamic of replication is altered by UVA photosensitization of vitamins via the production of singlet oxygen.

  4. Efficiency factors of singlet oxygen generation from core-modified expanded porphyrin: tetrathiarubyrin in ethanol

    CERN Document Server

    Ha, J H; Kim, Y R; Jung, G Y; Lee, Y H; Shin, K

    2001-01-01

    The photophysical properties and the singlet oxygen generation efficiency of tetrathiarubyrin have been investigated to elucidate the possibility of its use as a photodynamic therapy (PDT) photosensitizer by steady-state and time-resolved spectroscopic methods. The observed photophysical properties were affected by various molecular aspects, such as extended pi conjugation, structural distortion, and internal heavy atom. The steady-state electronic absorption spectrum was red-shifted due to the extended pi-conjugation, and the spin orbital coupling was enhanced by the structural distortion and the internal heavy atom effect. As a result of the enhanced spin orbital coupling, the triplet quantum yield increased to 0.90 +- 0.10 and the triplet state lifetime was shortened to 7.0 +- 1.2 mu s. Since the triplet state decays at a relatively faster rate, the efficiency of the oxygen quenching of the triplet state decreases. The singlet oxygen quantum yield was estimated to be 0.52 +- 0.02, which is somewhat lower t...

  5. Singlet Oxygen-Mediated Oxidation during UVA Radiation Alters the Dynamic of Genomic DNA Replication

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graindorge, Dany; Martineau, Sylvain; Machon, Christelle; Arnoux, Philippe; Guitton, Jérôme; Francesconi, Stefania; Frochot, Céline; Sage, Evelyne; Girard, Pierre-Marie

    2015-01-01

    UVA radiation (320–400 nm) is a major environmental agent that can exert its deleterious action on living organisms through absorption of the UVA photons by endogenous or exogenous photosensitizers. This leads to the production of reactive oxygen species (ROS), such as singlet oxygen (1O2) and hydrogen peroxide (H2O2), which in turn can modify reversibly or irreversibly biomolecules, such as lipids, proteins and nucleic acids. We have previously reported that UVA-induced ROS strongly inhibit DNA replication in a dose-dependent manner, but independently of the cell cycle checkpoints activation. Here, we report that the production of 1O2 by UVA radiation leads to a transient inhibition of replication fork velocity, a transient decrease in the dNTP pool, a quickly reversible GSH-dependent oxidation of the RRM1 subunit of ribonucleotide reductase and sustained inhibition of origin firing. The time of recovery post irradiation for each of these events can last from few minutes (reduction of oxidized RRM1) to several hours (replication fork velocity and origin firing). The quenching of 1O2 by sodium azide prevents the delay of DNA replication, the decrease in the dNTP pool and the oxidation of RRM1, while inhibition of Chk1 does not prevent the inhibition of origin firing. Although the molecular mechanism remains elusive, our data demonstrate that the dynamic of replication is altered by UVA photosensitization of vitamins via the production of singlet oxygen. PMID:26485711

  6. The participation of singlet oxygen in a photocitotoxicity of extract from amazon plant to cancer cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tcibulnikova, Anna V.; Degterev, Igor A.; Bryukhanov, Valery V.; Roberto, Mantuanelly M.; Campos Pereira, F. D.; Marin-Morales, M. A.; Slezhkin, Vasily A.; Samusev, Ilya G.

    2018-01-01

    We have been searching for new photosensitizers (PS) for photodynamic therapy (PDT) of cancer based on extracts from Amazonian plants since 2009. In this paper, we demonstrate that, under certain conditions, the extract from fruits of the Amazonian palm Euterpe oleraceae (popular name Açaí) can serve as a PS for PDT treatment of murine breast cancer cells (4T1 cell line). We have been first to show directly that the photodynamic effect of plant PS is due to singlet oxygen.

  7. Layered Double Hydroxides with Intercalated Porphyrins as Photofunctional Materials: Subtle Structural Changes Modify Singlet Oxygen Production

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Lang, Kamil; Bezdička, Petr; Bourdelande, J.L.; Hernando, J.; Jirka, Ivan; Káfuňková, Eva; Kubát, Pavel; Mosinger, Jiří; Wagnerová, Dana Marie

    2007-01-01

    Roč. 19, č. 15 (2007), s. 3822-3829 ISSN 0897-4756 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA203/06/1244; GA ČR GA203/07/1424; GA AV ČR KAN100500651 Grant - others:MESS(ES) CTQ2006-01040 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40320502; CEZ:AV0Z40400503 Keywords : singlet oxygen Subject RIV: CA - Inorganic Chemistry Impact factor: 4.883, year: 2007

  8. UVA Photoirradiation of Oxygenated Benz[a]anthracene and 3-Methylcholanthene - Generation of Singlet Oxygen and Induction of Lipid Peroxidation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diógenes Herreño Sáenz

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs are widespread genotoxic environmental pollutants and potentially pose a health risk to humans. Although the biological and toxicological activities, including metabolism, mutagenicity, and carcinogenicity, of PAHs have been thoroughly studied, their phototoxicity and photo-induced biological activity have not been well examined. We have long been interested in phototoxicity of PAHs and their derivatives induced by irradiation with UV light. In this paper we report the photoirradiation of a series of oxygenated benz[a]anthracene (BA and 3-methylcholanthene (3-MC by UVA light in the presence of a lipid, methyl linoleate. The studied PAHs include 2-hydroxy-BA (2-OH-BA, 3-hydroxy-BA (3-OH-BA, 5-hydroxymethyl-BA (5-CH2OH-BA, 7-hydroxymethyl-BA (7-CH2OH-BA, 12-hydroxymethyl-BA (12-CH2OH-BA, 7-hydroxymethyl-12-methyl-BA (7-CH2OH-12-MBA, 5-formyl-BA (5-CHO-BA, BA 5,6-cis-dihydrodiol (BA 5,6-cis-diol, 1-hydroxy-3- methylcholanthene (1-OH-3-MC, 1-keto-3-methylcholanthene (1-keto-3-MC, and 3-MC 1,2-diol. The results indicate that upon photoirradiation by UVA at 7 and 21 J/cm2, respectively all these compounds induced lipid peroxidation and exhibited a relationship between the dose of the light and the level of lipid peroxidation induced. To determine whether or not photoirradiation of these compounds by UVA light produces ROS, an ESR spin-trap technique was employed to provide direct evidence. Photoirradiation of 3-keto-3-MC by UVA (at 389 nm in the presence of 2,2,6,6-tetramethylpiperidine (TEMP, a specific probe for singlet oxygen, resulted in the formation of TEMPO, indicating that singlet oxygen was generated. These overall results suggest that UVA photoirradiation of oxygenated BA and 3-methylcholanthrene generates singlet oxygen, one of the reactive oxygen species (ROS, which induce lipid peroxidation.

  9. Continuous-flow oxidative cyanation of primary and secondary amines using singlet oxygen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ushakov, Dmitry B; Gilmore, Kerry; Kopetzki, Daniel; McQuade, D Tyler; Seeberger, Peter H

    2014-01-07

    Primary and secondary amines can be rapidly and quantitatively oxidized to the corresponding imines by singlet oxygen. This reactive form of oxygen was produced using a variable-temperature continuous-flow LED-photoreactor with a catalytic amount of tetraphenylporphyrin as the sensitizer. α-Aminonitriles were obtained in good to excellent yields when trimethylsilyl cyanide served as an in situ imine trap. At 25°C, primary amines were found to undergo oxidative coupling prior to cyanide addition and yielded secondary α-aminonitriles. Primary α-aminonitriles were synthesized from the corresponding primary amines for the first time, by an oxidative Strecker reaction at -50 °C. This atom-economic and protecting-group-free pathway provides a route to racemic amino acids, which was exemplified by the synthesis of tert-leucine hydrochloride from neopentylamine. Copyright © 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  10. Influence of clay minerals on curcumin properties: Stability and singlet oxygen generation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonçalves, Joyce L. S.; Valandro, Silvano R.; Poli, Alessandra L.; Schmitt, Carla C.

    2017-09-01

    Curcumin (CUR) has showed promising photophysical properties regarding to biological and chemical sciences. However, the main barrier for those applications are their low solubility and stability in aqueous solution. The effects of two different clay minerals, the montmorillonite (SWy-2) and the Laponite RD (Lap) nanoclay, on the stabilization of Curcumin were investigated. Their effects were compared with two well-established environments (acidic and neutral aqueous media). CUR/clay hybrids were prepared using a simple and fast method, where CUR solution was added into clay suspensions, to obtain well dispersed hybrids in water. The degradation process of CUR and CUR/clays hybrids was investigated using UV-Vis spectroscopic. For both studied hybrids, the CUR degradation process was suppressed by the presence of the clay particles. Furthermore, the Lap showed a great stabilization effect than SWy-2. This behavior was due to the smaller particle size and higher exfoliation ability of Lap, providing a large surface for CUR adsorption compared to SWy-2. The degradation process of CUR solutions and CUR/clay hybrids was also studied in the presence of light. CUR photodegradation process was faster not only in the aqueous solution but also in the clay suspension compared to those studied in the dark. The presence of clay particles accelerated the photodegradation of CUR due to the products formation in the reactions between CUR and oxygen radicals. Our results showed that the singlet oxygen quantum yield (ΦΔ) of CUR were about 59% higher in the clay suspensions than CUR in aqueous solution. Therefore, the formation of CUR/clay hybrids, in particularly with Lap, suppressed the degradation in absence light of CUR and increased the singlet oxygen generation, which makes this hybrids of CUR/clay a promising material to enlarge the application of CUR in the biological sciences.

  11. Stability of O/W Emulsion with Synthetic Perfumes Oxidized by Singlet Oxygen

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naoki Watabe

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available We prepared O/W emulsion composed of a synthetic perfume, n-dodecane, protoporphyrin IX disodium salt (PpIX-2Na, sodium dodecyl sulfate, and water and investigated oxidative decomposition of the synthetic perfume in the emulsion and change in the stability of the emulsion by singlet oxygen (1O2 generated by photosensitization of PpIX-2Na. We used eugenol, linalool, benzyl acetate, α-ionone, α-hexylcinnamaldehyde, and d-limonene as a synthetic perfume. The stability of the O/W emulation including eugenol and linalool significantly decreased with increasing light irradiation time. The decrease in the emulsion stability may be attributable to oxidative decomposition of eugenol and linalool by 1O2 and enlargement of the oil droplet size.

  12. Factors influencing the regioselectivity of the oxidation of asymmetric secondary amines with singlet oxygen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ushakov, Dmitry B; Plutschack, Matthew B; Gilmore, Kerry; Seeberger, Peter H

    2015-04-20

    Aerobic amine oxidation is an attractive and elegant process for the α functionalization of amines. However, there are still several mechanistic uncertainties, particularly the factors governing the regioselectivity of the oxidation of asymmetric secondary amines and the oxidation rates of mixed primary amines. Herein, it is reported that singlet-oxygen-mediated oxidation of 1° and 2° amines is sensitive to the strength of the α-C-H bond and steric factors. Estimation of the relative bond dissociation energy by natural bond order analysis or by means of one-bond C-H coupling constants allowed the regioselectivity of secondary amine oxidations to be explained and predicted. In addition, the findings were utilized to synthesize highly regioselective substrates and perform selective amine cross-couplings to produce imines. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  13. Gold nanoring-enhanced generation of singlet oxygen: an intricate correlation with surface plasmon resonance and polyelectrolyte bilayers

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Hu, Y.; Kaňka, Jiří; Liu, K.; Yang, Y.; Wang, H.; Du, H.

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 6, č. 106 (2016), s. 104819-104826 ISSN 2046-2069 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GBP205/12/G118 Institutional support: RVO:67985882 Keywords : Singlet oxygen * Fluorescence * Gold nanorings Subject RIV: JA - Electronics ; Optoelectronics, Electrical Engineering Impact factor: 3.108, year: 2016

  14. Irradiation- and Sensitizer-Dependent Changes in the Lifetime of Intracellular Singlet Oxygen Produced in a Photosensitized Process

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Silva, Elsa; Pedersen, Brian Wett; Breitenbach, Thomas

    2012-01-01

    Singlet oxygen, O2(a1Δg), was produced upon pulsed-laser irradiation of an intracellular photosensitizer and detected by its 1275 nm O2(a1Δg) →O2(X3Σg-) phosphorescence in time-resolved experiments using (1) individual mammalian cells on the stage of a microscope and (2) suspensions of mammalian...

  15. Fluorescent proteins as singlet oxygen photosensitizers: mechanistic studies in photodynamic inactivation of bacteria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruiz-González, Rubén.; White, John H.; Cortajarena, Aitziber L.; Agut, Montserrat; Nonell, Santi; Flors, Cristina

    2013-02-01

    Antimicrobial photodynamic therapy (aPDT) combines a photosensitizer, light and oxygen to produce reactive oxygen species (ROS), mainly singlet oxygen (1O2), to photo-oxidize important biomolecules and induce cell death. aPDT is a promising alternative to standard antimicrobial strategies, but its mechanisms of action are not well understood. One of the reasons for that is the lack of control of the photosensitizing drugs location. Here we report the use of geneticallyencoded fluorescent proteins that are also 1O2 photosensitizers to address the latter issue. First, we have chosen the red fluorescent protein TagRFP as a photosensitizer, which unlike other fluorescent proteins such as KillerRed, is able to produce 1O2 but not other ROS. TagRFP photosensitizes 1O2 with a small, but not negligible, quantum yield. In addition, we have used miniSOG, a more efficient 1O2 photosensitizing fluorescent flavoprotein that has been recently engineered from phototropin 2. We have genetically incorporated these two photosensitizers into the cytosol of E. coli and demonstrated that intracellular 1O2 is sufficient to kill bacteria. Additional assays have provided further insight into the mechanism of cell death. Photodamage seems to occur primarily in the inner membrane, and extends to the outer membrane if the photosensitizer's efficiency is high enough. These observations are markedly different to those reported for external photosensitizers, suggesting that the site where 1O2 is primarily generated proves crucial for inflicting different types of cell damage.

  16. Physics and engineering of singlet delta oxygen production in low-temperature plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ionin, A A; Kochetov, I V; Napartovich, A P; Yuryshev, N N

    2007-01-01

    An overview is presented of experimental and theoretical research in the field of physics and engineering of singlet delta oxygen (SDO) production in low-temperature plasma of various electric discharges. Attention is paid mainly to the SDO production with SDO yield adequate for the development of an electric discharge oxygen-iodine laser (DOIL). The review comprises a historical sketch describing the main experimental results on SDO physics in low-temperature plasma obtained since the first detection of SDO in electric discharge in the 1950s and the first attempt to launch a DOIL in the 1970s up to the mid-1980s when several research groups started their activity aimed at DOIL development, stimulated by success in the development of a chemical oxygen-iodine laser (COIL). A detailed analysis of theoretical and experimental research on SDO production in electric discharge from the mid-1980s to the present, when the first DOIL has been launched, is given. Different kinetic models of oxygen low-temperature plasma are compared with the model developed by the authors. The latter comprises electron kinetics based on the accompanying solution of the electron Boltzmann equation, plasma chemistry including reactions of excited molecules and numerous ion-molecular reactions, thermal energy balance and electric circuit equation. The experimental part of the overview is focused on the experimental methods of SDO detection including experiments on the measurements of the Einstein coefficient for SDO transition a 1 Δ g - X 3 Σ g - and experimental procedures of SDO production in self-sustained and non-self-sustained discharges and analysis of different plasma-chemical processes occurring in oxygen low-temperature plasma which brings limitation to the maximum SDO yield and to the lifetime of the SDO in an electric discharge and its afterglow. Quite recently obtained results on gain and output characteristics of DOIL and some projects aimed at the development of high-power DOIL

  17. The generation of singlet oxygen (o(2)) by the nitrodiphenyl ether herbicide oxyfluorfen is independent of photosynthesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haworth, P; Hess, F D

    1988-03-01

    The mechanism of action of the p-nitrodiphenyl ether herbicides has remained ambiguous because of conflicting reports in the literature. The diphenyl ether herbicide oxyfluorfen causes a light induced consumption of oxygen which resembles the electron acceptor reaction of paraquat. However, this reaction is not linked to the transport of electrons through photosystem I. This conclusion is based on the observation that the rate of oxygen consumption, in the presence of oxyfluorfen, does not demonstrate a first order rate dependence on light intensity. Using the bleaching of N,N-dimethyl p-nitrosoaniline as a specific detector of singlet oxygen, we demonstrate that oxyfluorfen is a potent generator of this toxic radical. The production of singlet oxygen occurs in the presence of inhibitors of photosynthetic electron transport (oxyfluorfen at 10(-4) molar and paraquat) and also under temperature conditions (3 degrees C) which prevent electron transport. This light induced reaction results in oxygen consumption and is the primary cause of lethality for oxyfluorfen. The production of singlet oxygen occurs rapidly and at low herbicide concentrations (10(-9) molar). The reaction occurs without photosynthetic electron transport but does require an intact thylakoid membrane.

  18. The Generation of Singlet Oxygen (1O2) by the Nitrodiphenyl Ether Herbicide Oxyfluorfen Is Independent of Photosynthesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haworth, Phil; Hess, F. Dan

    1988-01-01

    The mechanism of action of the p-nitrodiphenyl ether herbicides has remained ambiguous because of conflicting reports in the literature. The diphenyl ether herbicide oxyfluorfen causes a light induced consumption of oxygen which resembles the electron acceptor reaction of paraquat. However, this reaction is not linked to the transport of electrons through photosystem I. This conclusion is based on the observation that the rate of oxygen consumption, in the presence of oxyfluorfen, does not demonstrate a first order rate dependence on light intensity. Using the bleaching of N,N-dimethyl p-nitrosoaniline as a specific detector of singlet oxygen, we demonstrate that oxyfluorfen is a potent generator of this toxic radical. The production of singlet oxygen occurs in the presence of inhibitors of photosynthetic electron transport (oxyfluorfen at 10−4 molar and paraquat) and also under temperature conditions (3°C) which prevent electron transport. This light induced reaction results in oxygen consumption and is the primary cause of lethality for oxyfluorfen. The production of singlet oxygen occurs rapidly and at low herbicide concentrations (10−9 molar). The reaction occurs without photosynthetic electron transport but does require an intact thylakoid membrane. PMID:16665968

  19. High-sensitivity imaging method of singlet oxygen and superoxide anion in photodynamic and sonodynamic actions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xing, Da; He, Yonghong; Hao, Min; Chen, Qun

    2004-07-01

    A novel method of photodynamic diagnosis (PDD) of cancer mediated by chemiluminescence (CL) probe is presented. The mechanism for photodynamic therapy (PDT) involves reactive oxygen species (ROS), such as singlet oxygen (1O2) and superoxide (O2-), generated by during the photochemical process. Both 1O2 and O2- can react with Cypridina luciferin analogue (FCLA), a highly selective CL probe for detecting the ROS. Chemiluminescence from the reaction of FCLA with the ROS, at about 530 nm, was detected by a highly sensitive ICCD system. The CL was markedly inhibited by the addition of 10 mmol/L sodium azide (NaN3) in a sample solution. Similar phenomena, with lesser extents of changes, were observed at the additions of 10 μmol/L superoxide dismutase (SOD), 10 mmol/L mannitol, and 100 μg/mL catalase, respectively. This indicates that the detected CL signals were mainly from ROS generated during the photosensitization reactions. Also, the chemiluminescence method was used to detect the ROS during sonodynamic action, both in vitro and in vivo. ROS formation during sonosensitizations of HpD and ATX-70 were detected using our newly-developed imaging technique, in real time, on tumor bearing animals. This method can provide a new means in clinics for tumor diagnosis.

  20. Singlet oxygen explicit dosimetry to predict local tumor control for HPPH-mediated photodynamic therapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Penjweini, Rozhin; Kim, Michele M.; Ong, Yi Hong; Zhu, Timothy C.

    2017-02-01

    This preclinical study examines four dosimetric quantities (light fluence, photosensitizer photobleaching ratio, PDT dose, and reacted singlet oxygen ([1O2]rx)) to predict local control rate (LCR) for 2-(1-Hexyloxyethyl)-2-devinyl pyropheophorbide (HPPH)-mediated photodynamic therapy (PDT). Mice bearing radiation-induced fibrosarcoma (RIF) tumors were treated with different in-air fluences (135, 250 and 350 J/cm2) and in-air fluence rates (50, 75 and 150 mW/cm2) at 0.25 mg/kg HPPH and a drug-light interval of 24 hours using a 1 cm diameter collimated laser beam at 665 nm wavelength. A macroscopic model was used to calculate ([1O2]rx)) based on in vivo explicit dosimetry of the initial tissue oxygenation, photosensitizer concentration, and tissue optical properties. PDT dose was defined as a temporal integral of drug concentration and fluence rate (φ) at a 3 mm tumor depth. Light fluence rate was calculated throughout the treatment volume based on Monte-Carlo simulation and measured tissue optical properties. The tumor volume of each mouse was tracked for 30 days after PDT and Kaplan-Meier analyses for LCR were performed based on a tumor volume <=100 mm3, for four dose metrics: fluence, HPPH photobleaching rate, PDT dose, and ([1O2]rx)). The results of this study showed that ([1O2]rx)) is the best dosimetric quantity that can predict tumor response and correlate with LCR.

  1. Activation of transcription factor AP-2 mediates UVA radiation- and singlet oxygen-induced expression of the human intercellular adhesion molecule 1 gene

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grether-Beck, S.; Olaizola-Horn, S.; Schmitt, H.; Grewe, M.

    1996-01-01

    UVA radiation is the major component of the UV solar spectrum that reaches the earth, and the therapeutic application of UVA radiation is increasing in medicine. Analysis of the cellular effects of UVA radiation has revealed that exposure of human cells to UVA radiation at physiological doses leads to increased gene expression and that this UVA response is primarily mediated through the generation of singlet oxygen. In this study, the mechanisms by which UVA radiation induces transcriptional activation of the human intercellular adhesion molecule 1 (ICAM-1) were examined. UVA radiation was capable of inducing activation of the human ICAM-1 promoter and increasing OCAM-1 mRNA and protein expression. These UVA radiation effects were inhibited by singlet oxygen quenchers, augmented by enhancement of singlet oxygen life-time, and mimicked in unirradiated cells by a singlet oxygen-generating system. UVA radiation as well as singlet oxygen-induced ICAM-1 promoter activation required activation of the transcription factor AP-2. Accordingly, both stimuli activated AP-2, and deletion of the putative AP-2-binding site abrogated ICAM-1 promoter activation in this system. This study identified the AP-2 site as the UVA radiation- and singlet oxygen-responsive element of the human ICAM-1 gene. The capacity of UVA radiation and/or singlet oxygen to induce human gene expression through activation of AP-2 indicates a previously unrecognized role of this transcription factor in the mammalian stress response. 38 refs., 3 figs., 3 tabs

  2. Singlet oxygen generation in a high pressure non-self-sustained electric discharge

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hicks, Adam; Norberg, Seth; Shawcross, Paul; Lempert, Walter R; Rich, J William; Adamovich, Igor V

    2005-01-01

    This paper presents results of singlet oxygen generation experiments in a high-pressure, non-self-sustained crossed discharge. The discharge consists of a high-voltage, short pulse duration, high repetition rate pulsed discharge, which produces ionization in the flow, and a low-voltage dc discharge which sustains current in a decaying plasma between the pulses. The sustainer voltage can be independently varied to maximize the energy input into electron impact excitation of singlet delta oxygen (SDO). The results demonstrate operation of a stable and diffuse crossed discharge in O 2 -He mixtures at static pressures of at least up to P 0 = 380 Torr and sustainer discharge powers of at least up to 1200 W, achieved at P 0 = 120 Torr. The reduced electric field in the positive column of the sustainer discharge varies from E/N = 0.3 x 10 -16 to 0.65 X 10 -16 V cm 2 , which is significantly lower than E/N in self-sustained discharges and close to the theoretically predicted optimum value for O 2 (a 1 Δ) excitation. Measurements of visible emission spectra O 2 (b 1 Σ → X 3 Σ) in the discharge afterglow show the O 2 (b 1 Σ) concentration to increase with the sustainer discharge power and to decrease as the O 2 fraction in the flow is increased. Rotational temperatures inferred from these spectra in 10% O 2 -90% He flows at P 0 = 120 Torr and mass flow rates of m-dot = 2.2 are 365-465 K. SDO yield at these conditions, 1.7% to 4.4%, was inferred from the integrated intensity of the (0, 0) band of the O 2 (a 1 Δ → X 3 Σ) infrared emission spectra calibrated using a blackbody source. The yield remains nearly constant in the discharge afterglow, up to at least 15 cm distance from the discharge. Kinetic modelling calculations using a quasi-one-dimensional nonequilibrium pulser-sustainer discharge model coupled with the Boltzmann equation for plasma electrons predict gas temperature rise in the discharge in satisfactory agreement with the experimental measurements

  3. Formation of singlet oxygen by decomposition of protein hydroperoxide in photosystem II.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vinay Pathak

    Full Text Available Singlet oxygen (1O2 is formed by triplet-triplet energy transfer from triplet chlorophyll to O2 via Type II photosensitization reaction in photosystem II (PSII. Formation of triplet chlorophyll is associated with the change in spin state of the excited electron and recombination of triplet radical pair in the PSII antenna complex and reaction center, respectively. Here, we have provided evidence for the formation of 1O2 by decomposition of protein hydroperoxide in PSII membranes deprived of Mn4O5Ca complex. Protein hydroperoxide is formed by protein oxidation initiated by highly oxidizing chlorophyll cation radical and hydroxyl radical formed by Type I photosensitization reaction. Under highly oxidizing conditions, protein hydroperoxide is oxidized to protein peroxyl radical which either cyclizes to dioxetane or recombines with another protein peroxyl radical to tetroxide. These highly unstable intermediates decompose to triplet carbonyls which transfer energy to O2 forming 1O2. Data presented in this study show for the first time that 1O2 is formed by decomposition of protein hydroperoxide in PSII membranes deprived of Mn4O5Ca complex.

  4. Singlet Oxygen Production by Illuminated Road Dust and Winter Street Sweepings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schneider, S.; Gan, L.; Gao, S.; Hoy, K. S.; Kwasny, J. R.; Styler, S. A.

    2017-12-01

    Road dust is an important urban source of primary particulate matter, especially in cities where sand and other traction materials are applied to roadways in winter. Although the composition and detrimental health effects of road dust are reasonably well characterized, little is currently known regarding its chemical behaviour. Motivated by our previous work, in which we showed that road dust is a photochemical source of singlet oxygen (1O2), we investigated 1O2 production by bulk winter street sweepings and by road dust collected in a variety of urban, industrial, and suburban locations in both autumn and spring. In all cases, the production of 1O2 by road dust was greater than that by Arizona test dust and desert-sourced dust, which highlights the unique photochemical environment afforded by this substrate. Mechanistically, we observed correlations between 1O2 production and the UV absorbance properties of dust extracts, which suggests the involvement of chromophoric dissolved organic matter in the observed photochemistry. Taken together, this work provides evidence that road dust-mediated photochemistry may influence the environmental lifetime of pollutants that react via 1O2-mediated pathways, including polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons.

  5. Fluorescence behavior and singlet oxygen generating abilities of aluminum phthalocyanine in the presence of anisotropic gold nanoparticles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mthethwa, Thandekile; Nyokong, Tebello, E-mail: t.nyokong@ru.ac.za

    2015-01-15

    Gold nanoparticles (spheres, rods and bipyramids) were synthesized. The nanocrystals were characterized by UV–visible spectrometry, transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and X-ray diffractometry (XRD). The as prepared gold nanoparticles were then conjugated to a quaternized 2,(3)-tetra [2-(dimethylamino) ethanethio] substituted Al(OH) phthalocyanine (complex 1). The conjugation of phthalocyanines with gold nanoparticles resulted in a decrease in the fluorescence quantum yields and lifetimes. Conversely, an increase in the singlet oxygen quantum yields was observed for the conjugated complex 1 in the presence of AuNPs. - Highlights: • Gold nanoparticles (spheres, rods and bipyramids) were synthesized. • Gold nanoparticles were then conjugated to a quaternized ClAl phthalocyanine. • Conjugation of phthalocyanines with gold nanoparticles resulted in a decrease in the fluorescence quantum yields. • An increase in the singlet oxygen quantum yields was observed for the phthalocyanine in the presence of nanoparticles.

  6. One-Pot Synthesis of (+)-Nootkatone via Dark Singlet Oxygenation of Valencene: The Triple Role of the Amphiphilic Molybdate Catalyst

    OpenAIRE

    Bing Hong; Raphaël Lebeuf; Stéphanie Delbaere; Paul L. Alsters; Véronique Nardello-Rataj

    2016-01-01

    Efficient one-pot catalytic synthesis of (+)-nootkatone was performed from (+)-valencene using only hydrogen peroxide and amphiphilic molybdate ions. The process required no solvent and proceeded in three cascade reactions: (i) singlet oxygenation of valencene according to the ene reaction; (ii) Schenck rearrangement of one hydroperoxide into the secondary β-hydroperoxide; and (iii) dehydration of the hydroperoxide into the desired (+)-nootkatone. The solvent effect on the hydroperoxide rearr...

  7. Pharmaceutical micelles featured with singlet oxygen-responsive cargo release and mitochondrial targeting for enhanced photodynamic therapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xin; Yan, Qi; Naer Mulatihan, Di; Zhu, Jundong; Fan, Aiping; Wang, Zheng; Zhao, Yanjun

    2018-06-01

    The efficacy of nanoparticulate photodynamic therapy is often compromised by the short life time and limited diffusion radius of singlet oxygen as well as uncontrolled intracellular distribution of photosensitizer. It was hypothesized that rapid photosensitizer release upon nanoparticle internalization and its preferred accumulation in mitochondria would address the above problems. Hence, the aim of this study was to engineer a multifunctional micellar nanosystem featured with singlet oxygen-responsive cargo release and mitochondria-targeting. An imidazole-bearing amphiphilic copolymer was employed as the micelle building block to encapsulate triphenylphosphonium-pyropheophorbide a (TPP-PPa) conjugate or PPa. Upon laser irradiation, the singlet oxygen produced by TPP-PPa/PPa oxidized the imidazole moiety to produce hydrophilic urea, leading to micelle disassembly and rapid cargo release. The co-localization analysis showed that the TPP moiety significantly enhanced the photosensitizer uptake by mitochondria, improved mitochondria depolarization upon irradiation, and hence boosted the cytotoxicity in 4T1 cells. The targeting strategy also dramatically reduced the intracellular ATP concentration as a consequence of mitochondria injury. The mitochondria damage was accompanied with the activation of the apoptosis signals (caspase 3 and caspase 9), whose level was directly correlated to the apoptosis extent. The current work provides a facile and robust means to enhance the efficacy of photodynamic therapy.

  8. Oxidative damage of U937 human leukemic cells caused by hydroxyl radical results in singlet oxygen formation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marek Rác

    Full Text Available The exposure of human cells to oxidative stress leads to the oxidation of biomolecules such as lipids, proteins and nuclei acids. In this study, the oxidation of lipids, proteins and DNA was studied after the addition of hydrogen peroxide and Fenton reagent to cell suspension containing human leukemic monocyte lymphoma cell line U937. EPR spin-trapping data showed that the addition of hydrogen peroxide to the cell suspension formed hydroxyl radical via Fenton reaction mediated by endogenous metals. The malondialdehyde HPLC analysis showed no lipid peroxidation after the addition of hydrogen peroxide, whereas the Fenton reagent caused significant lipid peroxidation. The formation of protein carbonyls monitored by dot blot immunoassay and the DNA fragmentation measured by comet assay occurred after the addition of both hydrogen peroxide and Fenton reagent. Oxidative damage of biomolecules leads to the formation of singlet oxygen as conformed by EPR spin-trapping spectroscopy and the green fluorescence of singlet oxygen sensor green detected by confocal laser scanning microscopy. It is proposed here that singlet oxygen is formed by the decomposition of high-energy intermediates such as dioxetane or tetroxide formed by oxidative damage of biomolecules.

  9. On the factors influencing the performance of solar reactors for water disinfection with photosensitized singlet oxygen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manjón, Francisco; Villén, Laura; García-Fresnadillo, David; Orellana, Guillermo

    2008-01-01

    Two solar reactors based on compound parabolic collectors (CPCs) were optimized for water disinfection by photosensitized singlet oxygen (1O2) production in the heterogeneous phase. Sensitizing materials containing Ru(II) complexes immobilized on porous silicone were produced, photochemically characterized, and successfully tested for the inactivation of up to 10(4) CFU mL(-1) of waterborne Escherichia coli (gram-negative) or Enterococcus faecalis (gram-positive) bacteria. The main factors determining the performance of the solar reactors are the type of photosensitizing material, the sensitizer loading, the CPC collector geometry (fin- vs coaxial-type), the fluid rheology, and the balance between concurrent photothermal--photolytic and 1O2 effects on the microorganisms' inactivation. In this way, at the 40 degrees N latitude of Spain, water can be disinfected on a sunny day (0.6-0.8 MJ m(-2) L(-1) accumulated solar radiation dose in the 360-700 nm range, typically 5-6 h of sunlight) with a fin-type reactor containing 0.6 m2 of photosensitizing material saturated with tris(4,7-diphenyl-1,10-phenanthroline)ruthenium(II) (ca. 2.0 g m(-2)). The optimum rheological conditions require laminar-to-transitional water flow in both prototypes. The fin-type system showed better inactivation efficiency than the coaxial reactor due to a more important photolytic contribution. The durability of the sensitizing materials was tested and the operational lifetime of the photocatalyst is at least three months without any reduction in the bacteria inactivation efficiency. Solar water disinfection with 1O2-generating films is demonstrated to be an effective technique for use in isolated regions of developing countries with high yearly average sunshine.

  10. Investigation of the generation of singlet oxygen in ensembles of photoexcited silicon nanocrystals by electron paramagnetic resonance spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Konstantinova, E. A.; Demin, V. A.; Timoshenko, V. Yu.

    2008-01-01

    The generation of singlet oxygen is investigated and its concentration upon photoexcitation of silicon nanocrystals in porous silicon layers is determined using electron paramagnetic resonance spectroscopy. The relaxation times of spin centers, i.e., silicon dangling bonds, in vacuum and in an oxygen atmosphere in the dark and under illumination of the samples are measured for the first time. It is revealed that the spin-lattice relaxation in porous silicon is retarded as compared to that in a single-crystal substrate. From analyzing experimental data, a microscopic model is proposed for interaction of oxygen molecules in the triplet state and spin centers at the surface of silicon nanocrystals. The results obtained have demonstrated that porous silicon holds promise for the use as a photosensitizer of molecular oxygen in biomedical applications

  11. A mechanistic study on the phototoxicity of atorvastatin: singlet oxygen generation by a phenanthrene-like photoproduct.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montanaro, Sara; Lhiaubet-Vallet, Virginie; Iesce, MariaRosaria Iesce; Previtera, Lucio; Miranda, Miguel Angel

    2009-01-01

    Atorvastatin calcium (ATV) is one of the most frequently prescribed drugs worldwide. Among the adverse effects observed for this lipid-lowering agent, clinical cases of cutaneous adverse reactions have been reported and associated with photosensitivity disorders. Previous work dealing with ATV photochemistry has shown that exposure to natural sunlight in aqueous solution leads to photoproducts resulting from oxidation of the pyrrole ring and from cyclization to a phenanthrene derivative. Laser flash photolysis of ATV, at both 266 and 308 nm, led to a transient spectrum with two maxima at lambda= 360 and lambda= 580 nm (tau= 41 micro), which was assigned to the primary intermediate of the stilbene-like photocyclization. On the basis of the absence of a triplet-triplet absorption, the role of the parent drug as singlet oxygen photosensitizer can be discarded. By contrast, a stable phenanthrene-like photoproduct would be a good candidate to play this role. Laser flash photolysis of this compound showed a triplet-triplet transient absorption at lambdamax = 460 nm with a lifetime of 26 micro, which was efficiently quenched by oxygen (kq = 3 (+/-0.2) x 10(9) M(-1) s(-1)). Its potential to photosensitize formation of singlet oxygen was confirmed by spin trapping experiments, through conversion of TEMP to the stable free radical TEMPO. The photoreactivity of the phenanthrene-like photoproduct was investigated using Trp as a marker. The disappearance of the amino acid fluorescence (lambdamax = 340 nm) after increasing irradiation times at 355 nm was taken as a measurement of photodynamic oxidation. To confirm the involvement of a type II mechanism, the same experiment was also performed in D2O; this resulted in a significant enhancement of the reaction rate. On the basis of the obtained photophysical and photochemical results, the phototoxicity of atorvastatin can be attributed to singlet oxygen formation with the phenanthrene-like photoproduct as a photosensitizer.

  12. Time-resolved EPR study of singlet oxygen in the gas phase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruzzi, Marco; Sartori, Elena; Moscatelli, Alberto; Khudyakov, Igor V; Turro, Nicholas J

    2013-06-27

    X-band EPR spectra of singlet O2((1)Δg) and triplet O2((3)Σg(-)) were observed in the gas phase under low molecular-oxygen pressures PO2 = 0.175-0.625 Torr, T = 293-323 K. O2((1)Δg) was produced by quenching of photogenerated triplet sensitizers naphthalene C8H10, perdeuterated naphthalene, and perfluoronaphthalene in the gas phase. The EPR spectrum of O2((1)Δg) was also observed under microwave discharge. Integrated intensities and line widths of individual components of the EPR spectrum of O2((3)Σg(-)) were used as internal standards for estimating the concentration of O2 species and PO2 in the EPR cavity. Time-resolved (TR) EPR experiments of C8H10 were the main focus of this Article. Pulsed irradiation of C8H10 in the presence of O2((3)Σg(-)) allowed us to determine the kinetics of formation and decay for each of the four components of the O2((1)Δg) EPR signal, which lasted for only a few seconds. We found that the kinetics of EPR-component decay fit nicely to a biexponential kinetics law. The TR EPR 2D spectrum of the third component of the O2((1)Δg) EPR spectrum was examined in experiments using C8H10. This spectrum vividly presents the time evolution of an EPR component. The largest EPR signal and the longest lifetime of O2((1)Δg), τ = 0.4 s, were observed at medium pressure PO2 = 0.4 Torr, T = 293 K. The mechanism of O2((1)Δg) decay in the presence of photosensitizers is discussed. EPR spectra of O2((1)Δg) evidence that the spin-rotational states of O2((1)Δg) are populated according to Boltzmann distribution in the studied time range of 10-100 ms. We believe that this is the first report dealing with the dependence of O2((1)Δg) EPR line width on PO2 and T.

  13. Study of the metastable singlet of molecular nitrogen and of oxygen atoms in discharges and post-discharges

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Magne, Lionel

    1991-01-01

    Whereas discharges in nitrogen, in oxygen and in their mixtures are used in many different industrial processes (surface treatment, nitridation, oxidation, and so on), in order to get a better knowledge on nitrogen electronic states, this research thesis reports the study of the metastable singlet state of molecular nitrogen, and of oxygen atoms in their fundamental state. The molecular metastable has been observed by far-UV optical emission spectroscopy, in the positive column of a continuous discharge and in time post-discharge. As far as continuous discharge is concerned, the author measured the vibrational distribution of this state. A kinetic model has been developed, and calculated vibrational distributions are in good agreement with measurements. The density of oxygen atoms in fundamental state in time post-discharge has been measured by far-UV absorption optical spectroscopy. The probability of atom re-association of glass walls is deduced from the obtained results [fr

  14. A comparative study of the processes of generation of singlet oxygen upon irradiation of aqueous preparations on the basis of chlorin e6 and coproporphyrin III

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bagrov, I. V.; Belousova, I. M.; Gorelov, S. I.; Dobrun, M. V.; Kiselev, V. M.; Kislyakov, I. M.; Kris'ko, A. V.; Kris'ko, T. K.

    2017-02-01

    The photosensitizing ability of an agent based on chlorin e6 (Photoditazin), which is used for photodynamic diagnosis and therapy, is compared with that of a new preparation on the basis of coproporphyrin III in the environment of a phosphate buffer and a simulated biological environment (albumin solution). The efficiency of singlet-oxygen production was estimated by EPR spectroscopy and spectroscopy in the UV and visible ranges with the use of "chemical traps" of singlet oxygen. By irradiating drugs with LED emission centered at λmax = 520 nm, we determined the quantum yield of singlet-oxygen production in a buffer solution; the obtained values are 0.60 and 0.37 for chlorine and coproporphyrin, respectively. The steady-state concentration of singlet oxygen upon irradiation of solutions of the studied photosensitizers with concentrations of 12-43 μM and the density of radiation power within the 6-96 W/cm2 region was found to be in the region of 1010-1011 molecules/cm3. It is shown that the introduction into the solution of egg albumin (0.1%) reduces the sensitizing properties of the two drugs by two to three times, while the efficiencies of the preparations with respect to singlet-oxygen production become almost identical (0.19 and 0.17).

  15. Light-triggered liposomal cargo delivery platform incorporating photosensitizers and gold nanoparticles for enhanced singlet oxygen generation and increased cytotoxicity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kautzka, Zofia; Clement, Sandhya; Goldys, Ewa M.; Deng, Wei

    2018-02-01

    We developed light-triggered liposomes incorporating gold nanoparticles and Rose Bengal (RB), a well-known photosensitizer used for photodynamic therapy. Singlet oxygen generated by these liposomes with 532 nm light illumination was characterized by adjusting the molar ratio of lipids and gold nanoparticles while keeping the amount of RB constant. Gold nanoparticles were found to enhance the singlet oxygen generation rate, with a maximum enhancement factor of 1.75 obtained for the molar ratio of HSPC: PE-NH2: gold of 57:5:17 compared with liposomes loaded with RB alone. The experimental results could be explained by the local electric field enhancement caused by gold nanoparticles. We further assessed cellular cytotoxicity of these liposomes by encapsulating an antitumor drug, doxorubicin (Dox); such Dox loaded liposomes were applied to human colorectal cancer cells, HCT116, and exposed to light. Gold-loaded liposomes containing RB and Dox where Dox release was triggered by light were found to exhibit higher cytotoxicity, compared to the liposomes loaded with RB and Dox alone. Our results indicate that gold-loaded liposomes incorporating photosensitizers may have improved therapeutic efficacy in photodynamic therapy and chemotherapy.

  16. Photogeneration of singlet oxygen by the phenothiazine derivatives covalently bound to the surface-modified glassy carbon

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blacha-Grzechnik, Agata, E-mail: agata.blacha@polsl.pl [Faculty of Chemistry, Silesian University of Technology, Strzody 9, 44-100 Gliwice (Poland); Piwowar, Katarzyna; Krukiewicz, Katarzyna [Faculty of Chemistry, Silesian University of Technology, Strzody 9, 44-100 Gliwice (Poland); Koscielniak, Piotr; Szuber, Jacek [Institute of Electronics, Silesian University of Technology, Akademicka 16, 44-100 Gliwice (Poland); Zak, Jerzy K. [Faculty of Chemistry, Silesian University of Technology, Strzody 9, 44-100 Gliwice (Poland)

    2016-05-15

    Highlights: • The selected group of four NH{sub 2}-derivatives of phenothiazine was grafted to Glassy Carbon (GC) surface. • The grafted phenothiazines are able to generate {sup 1}O{sub 2} when activated by the radiation. • Such modified solid surfaces may find their application in the wastewater treatment. - Abstract: The selected group of four amine-derivatives of phenothiazine was covalently grafted to the glassy carbon surface in the four-step procedure consisting of the electrochemical reduction of the diazonium salt followed by the electrochemical and chemical post-modification steps. The proposed strategy involves the bonding of linker molecule to which the photosensitizer is attached. The synthesized organic layers were characterized by means of cyclic voltammetry, XPS and Raman Spectroscopy. It was shown that the phenothiazines immobilized via proposed strategy retain their photochemical properties and are able to generate {sup 1}O{sub 2} when activated by the laser radiation. The effectiveness of in situ singlet oxygen generation by those new solid photoactive materials was determined by means of UVVis spectroscopy. The reported, covalently modified solid surfaces may find their application as the singlet oxygen photogenerators in the fine chemicals’ synthesis or in the wastewater treatment.

  17. Light absorption and the photoformation of hydroxyl radical and singlet oxygen in fog waters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaur, R.; Anastasio, C.

    2017-09-01

    The atmospheric aqueous-phase is a rich medium for chemical transformations of organic compounds, in part via photooxidants generated within the drops. Here we measure light absorption, photoformation rates and steady-state concentrations of two photooxidants - hydroxyl radical (•OH) and singlet molecular oxygen (1O2*) - in 8 illuminated fog waters from Davis, California and Baton Rouge, Louisiana. Mass absorption coefficients for dissolved organic compounds (MACDOC) in the samples are large, with typical values of 10,000-15,000 cm2 g-C-1 at 300 nm, and absorption extends to wavelengths as long as 450-600 nm. While nitrite and nitrate together account for an average of only 1% of light absorption, they account for an average of 70% of •OH photoproduction. Mean •OH photoproduction rates in fogs at the two locations are very similar, with an overall mean of 1.2 (±0.7) μM h-1 under Davis winter sunlight. The mean (±1σ) lifetime of •OH is 1.6 (±0.6) μs, likely controlled by dissolved organic compounds. Including calculated gas-to-drop partitioning of •OH, the average aqueous concentration of •OH is approximately 2 × 10-15 M (midday during Davis winter), with aqueous reactions providing approximately one-third of the hydroxyl radical source. At this concentration, calculated lifetimes of aqueous organics are on the order of 10 h for compounds with •OH rate constants of 1 × 1010 M-1 s-1 or higher (e.g., substituted phenols such as syringol (6.4 h) and guaiacol (8.4 h)), and on the order of 100 h for compounds with rate constants near 1 × 109 M-1 s-1 (e.g., isoprene oxidation products such as glyoxal (152 h), glyoxylic acid (58 h), and pyruvic acid (239 h)). Steady-state concentrations of 1O2* are approximately 100 times higher than those of •OH, in the range of (0.1-3.0) × 10-13 M. Since 1O2* is a more selective oxidant than •OH, it will only react appreciably with electron-rich species such as dimethyl furan (lifetime of 2.0 h) and

  18. Novel approaches to singlet oxygen photosensitization in the nano- and bio-era

    OpenAIRE

    Planas Marquès, Oriol

    2017-01-01

    En aquesta tesis es detallen noves aproximacions nano- i biomoleculars amb l’objectiu de millorar la fotosensibilització i detecció d’oxigen singlet en medi biològic. En primer lloc es presenta una nova reacció fluoro- i cromogènica pel marcatge de proteïnes i nanopartícules amb derivats de porficè. Concretament, la reacció de porficens isotiocianat amb amines primàries i secundaries generen 2-aminotiazolo[4,5-c]poricè derivats amb un desplaçament concomitant en els seus espectres d’absor...

  19. Luminescence property and lowest excited singlet state level of various carotenes; Shuju no karochinrui no hako tokusei to saitei reiki -juko jotai jun'i

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ito, T. [Miyagi Midical Univ., Miyagi (Japan)

    2000-01-01

    Specification of the lowest excited singlet state (S{sub l}) of the butadiene which is the simplest {pi} electron conjugated system molecule has not sufficiently clarified at present. Recently, Andersson et al. found the weak light emission which was considered to be the S{sub 1} fluorescence in a near infrared region in a room temperature solution of {beta}- carotene (n=11), and specified the S{sub 1} level in 14,200{+-}500cm {sup -1}. And, Fujii et al. reported the S{sub 1} fluorescence of spheroidine (n=10). In very recent, Christensen et al. measured the comparatively clear fluorescence spectrum of carotenes n=5 to 11 separated by HPLC in EPA glass at 77K, and systematically examined the unique luminescence property observed in polyene. Christensen et al. issued the warning for the rough conventional method that the S{sub 1} level was estimated from the S{sub 1} fluorescence lifetime of the polyene molecule using the comprehensive energy gap law, because the ratio of quantum yield of the S{sub 1} and S{sub 2} fluorescence is different by the substituent type of the polyene end even if n is same. (NEDO)

  20. One-Pot Synthesis of (+-Nootkatone via Dark Singlet Oxygenation of Valencene: The Triple Role of the Amphiphilic Molybdate Catalyst

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bing Hong

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Efficient one-pot catalytic synthesis of (+-nootkatone was performed from (+-valencene using only hydrogen peroxide and amphiphilic molybdate ions. The process required no solvent and proceeded in three cascade reactions: (i singlet oxygenation of valencene according to the ene reaction; (ii Schenck rearrangement of one hydroperoxide into the secondary β-hydroperoxide; and (iii dehydration of the hydroperoxide into the desired (+-nootkatone. The solvent effect on the hydroperoxide rearrangement is herein discussed. The amphiphilic dimethyldioctyl ammonium molybdate, which is also a balanced surfactant, played a triple role in this process, as molybdate ions catalyzed at both Step 1 and Step 3 and it allowed the rapid formation of a three-phase microemulsion system that highly facilitates product recovery. Preparative synthesis of the high added value (+-nootkatone was thus performed at room temperature with an isolated yield of 46.5%. This is also the first example of a conversion of allylic hydroperoxides into ketones catalyzed by molybdate ions.

  1. Eclipta yellow vein virus enhances chlorophyll destruction, singlet oxygen production and alters endogenous redox status in Andrographis paniculata.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Asifa; Luqman, Suaib; Masood, Nusrat; Singh, Dhananjay Kumar; Saeed, Sana Tabanda; Samad, Abdul

    2016-07-01

    The infection of Eclipta yellow vein virus [EcYVV-IN, Accession No. KC476655], recently reported for the first time, on Andrographis paniculata was studied for redox-mediated alteration mechanism in infected plants. A. paniculata, an important medicinal plant, is used in traditional Indian, Chinese and modern system of medicine. Andrographolide, one of the foremost components of this plant, is known for its varied pharmacological properties. Our investigation provides insight into the effect of virus-induced changes in the singlet oxygen quenching due to the alteration in pigment content (chlorophyll and carotenoids) as well as activation of plant secondary metabolism along with defense activation leading to changes in enzymatic and non-enzymatic redox status. Due to infection, a reduction in carotenoid content was observed which leads to reduced quenching of singlet oxygen. An increased level of enzymatic (SOD and APX) and non-enzymatic antioxidant (DPPH, FRAP, RP, NO, TAC and TP) activities were also observed in virus-infected plants with a positive correlation (>0.9). However, CAT activity was diminished which could be either due to its proteolytic degradation or inactivation by superoxide anions (O(2-.)), NO or peroxynitrite radicals. A significant (p < 0.05) increase in total phenolic content was observed in the infected plants while no considerable difference was seen in the total flavonoid content. Our results highlighted the alteration in redox status caused by virus-induced biotic stress on the plants and could be useful for understanding the after effects of viral infection This study could also be helpful in developing biomimetic methods for improving the production of secondary metabolites of pharmaceutical importance. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  2. Kinetic and mechanisms of methanimine reactions with singlet and triplet molecular oxygen: Substituent and catalyst effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asgharzadeh, Somaie; Vahedpour, Morteza

    2018-06-01

    Methanimine reaction with O2 on singlet and triplet potential energy surfaces are investigated using B3PW91, M06-2X, MP2 and CCSD(T) methods. Thermodynamic and kinetic parameters are calculated at M06-2X method. The most favorable channel involves H-abstraction of CH2NH+O2 to the formation of HCN + H2O2 products via low level energy barrier. The catalytic effect of water molecule on HCN + H2O2 products pathway are investigated. Result shows that contribution of water molecule using complex formation with methanimine can decreases barrier energy of transition state and the reaction rate increases. Also, substituent effect of fluorine atom as deactivating group are investigated on the main reaction pathway.

  3. Two-Photon Irradiation of an Intracellular Singlet Oxygen Photosensitizer: Achieving Localized Sub-Cellular Excitation in Spatially-Resolved Experiments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Brian Wett; Breitenbach, Thomas; Redmond, Robert W.

    2010-01-01

    The response of a given cell to spatially-resolved sub-cellular irradiation of a singlet oxygen photosensitizer (protoporphyrin IX, PpIX) using a focused laser was assessed. In these experiments, incident light was scattered over a volume greater than that defi ned by the dimensions of the laser...

  4. Preliminary study on singlet oxygen production using CeF.sub.3./sub.:Tb.sup.3+./sup.@SiO.sub.2./sub.-PpIX

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Popovich, K.; Procházková, L.; Pelikánová, I.T.; Vlk, M.; Palkovský, M.; Jarý, Vítězslav; Nikl, Martin; Múčka, V.; Mihóková, Eva; Čuba, V.

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 90, Jul (2016), s. 325-328 ISSN 1350-4487 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA13-09876S; GA ČR GA13-28721S Institutional support: RVO:68378271 Keywords : singlet oxygen * cerium fluoride * photodynamic therapy * biofunctionalization * scintillator Subject RIV: BM - Solid Matter Physics ; Magnetism Impact factor: 1.442, year: 2016

  5. Effective photo-enhancement of cellular activity of fluorophore-octaarginine antisense PNA conjugates correlates with singlet oxygen formation, endosomal escape and chromophore lipophilicity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yarani, Reza; Shiraishi, Takehiko; Nielsen, Peter E.

    2018-01-01

    Photochemical internalization (PCI) is a cellular drug delivery method based on the generation of light-induced reactive oxygen species (ROS) causing damage to the endosomal membrane and thereby resulting in drug release to the cytoplasm. In our study a series of antisense fluorophore octaarginin...... indicate that efficient photodynamic endosomal escape is strongly dependent on the quantum yield for photochemical singlet oxygen formation, photostability as well as the lipophilicity of the chromophore....

  6. Singlet oxygen explicit dosimetry to predict long-term local tumor control for Photofrin-mediated photodynamic therapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Penjweini, Rozhin; Kim, Michele M.; Ong, Yi Hong; Zhu, Timothy C.

    2017-02-01

    Although photodynamic therapy (PDT) is an established modality for the treatment of cancer, current dosimetric quantities do not account for the variations in PDT oxygen consumption for different fluence rates (φ). In this study we examine the efficacy of reacted singlet oxygen concentration ([1O2]rx) to predict long-term local control rate (LCR) for Photofrin-mediated PDT. Radiation-induced fibrosarcoma (RIF) tumors in the right shoulders of female C3H mice are treated with different in-air fluences of 225-540 J/cm2 and in-air fluence rate (φair) of 50 and 75 mW/cm2 at 5 mg/kg Photofrin and a drug-light interval of 24 hours using a 1 cm diameter collimated laser beam at 630 nm wavelength. [1O2]rx is calculated by using a macroscopic model based on explicit dosimetry of Photofrin concentration, tissue optical properties, tissue oxygenation and blood flow changes during PDT. The tumor volume of each mouse is tracked for 90 days after PDT and Kaplan-Meier analyses for LCR are performed based on a tumor volume defined as a temporal integral of photosensitizer concentration and Φ at a 3 mm tumor depth. φ is calculated throughout the treatment volume based on Monte-Carlo simulation and measured tissue optical properties. Our preliminary studies show that [1O2]rx is the best dosimetric quantity that can predict tumor response and correlate with LCR. Moreover, [1O2]rx calculated using the blood flow changes was in agreement with [1O2]rx calculated based on the actual tissue oxygenation.

  7. Decontamination of chemical-warfare agent simulants by polymer surfaces doped with the singlet oxygen generator zinc octaphenoxyphthalocyanine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gephart, Raymond T; Coneski, Peter N; Wynne, James H

    2013-10-23

    Using reactive singlet oxygen (1O2), the oxidation of chemical-warfare agent (CWA) simulants has been demonstrated. The zinc octaphenoxyphthalocyanine (ZnOPPc) complex was demonstrated to be an efficient photosensitizer for converting molecular oxygen (O2) to 1O2 using broad-spectrum light (450-800 nm) from a 250 W halogen lamp. This photosensitization produces 1O2 in solution as well as within polymer matrices. The oxidation of 1-naphthol to naphthoquinone was used to monitor the rate of 1O2 generation in the commercially available polymer film Hydrothane that incorporates ZnOPPc. Using electrospinning, nanofibers of ZnOPPc in Hydrothane and polycarbonate were formed and analyzed for their ability to oxidize demeton-S, a CWA simulant, on the surface of the polymers and were found to have similar reactivity as their corresponding films. The Hydrothane films were then used to oxidize CWA simulants malathion, 2-chloroethyl phenyl sulfide (CEPS), and 2-chloroethyl ethyl sulfide (CEES). Through this oxidation process, the CWA simulants are converted into less toxic compounds, thus decontaminating the surface using only O2 from the air and light.

  8. Oxygen influence on luminescence properties of rare-earth doped NaLaF{sub 4}

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tuomela, A., E-mail: anu.tuomela@oulu.fi [Research Center of Molecular Materials, University of Oulu, P.O. Box 3000, FIN-90014 (Finland); Pankratov, V., E-mail: vladimirs.pankratovs@oulu.fi [Research Center of Molecular Materials, University of Oulu, P.O. Box 3000, FIN-90014 (Finland); Sarakovskis, A.; Doke, G.; Grinberga, L. [Institute of Solid State Physics, University of Latvia, 8 Kengaraga, LV-1063 Riga (Latvia); Vielhauer, S. [Institute of Physics, University of Tartu, Riia 142, Tartu 51014 (Estonia); Huttula, M. [Research Center of Molecular Materials, University of Oulu, P.O. Box 3000, FIN-90014 (Finland)

    2016-11-15

    Luminescence properties of erbium and europium doped NaLaF{sub 4} with different oxygen content have been studied. Vacuum ultraviolet (VUV) excitation luminescence spectroscopy technique has been applied by using synchrotron radiation excitation. It was found that oxygen impurity leads to significant degradation of Er{sup 3+} or Eu{sup 3+} emission under VUV excitation. The intensive O{sup 2−}–Er{sup 3+} charge transfer excitation band has been detected from oxygen abundant NaLaF{sub 4} in the 150–165 nm spectral range. This band reveals a competing absorption mechanism in oxygen containing NaLaF{sub 4}. It is clearly demonstrated that one reason for the Er{sup 3+} emission degradation in oxygen abundant NaLaF{sub 4} is strong suppression of 4f–5d transitions in Er{sup 3+} ion. The degradation of the Eu{sup 3+} emission under VUV excitation was explained by diminishing of F{sup −}–Eu{sup 3+} charge transfer absorption band as well as by competing relaxation centers in the oxygen abundant NaLaF{sub 4}.

  9. Experimental and theoretical studies of nuclear generation of ozone and its photolysis into singlet delta oxygen

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Elsayed-Ali, H.E.

    1985-01-01

    The radiation chemistry of oxygen discharges is better-studied system. The discharges were made by irradiation with high energy helium and lithium ions created by a neutron-induced reaction in boron (10). A detailed numerical model and a simplified analytical model of oxygen radiolysis have been developed to interpret the data. A summary of the data on the ozone yield from irradiation of He-O2, Ne-O2 and Ar-O2 is presented. Dose rates are also indicated. The present work appears to be the first to measure the steady state ozone concentration in noble gas-oxygen discharges and the effect of SF6 on this steady state concentration. 106 refs

  10. Singlet oxygen explicit dosimetry to predict long-term local tumor control for BPD-mediated photodynamic therapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Michele M.; Penjweini, Rozhin; Ong, Yi Hong; Zhu, Timothy C.

    2017-02-01

    Photodynamic therapy (PDT) is a well-established treatment modality for cancer and other malignant diseases; however, quantities such as light fluence, photosensitizer photobleaching rate, and PDT dose do not fully account for all of the dynamic interactions between the key components involved. In particular, fluence rate (Φ) effects are not accounted for, which has a large effect on the oxygen consumption rate. In this preclinical study, reacted singlet oxygen [1O2]rx was investigated as a dosimetric quantity for PDT outcome. The ability of [1O2]rx to predict the long-term local tumor control rate (LCR) for BPD-mediated PDT was examined. Mice bearing radioactivelyinduced fibrosarcoma (RIF) tumors were treated with different in-air fluences (250, 300, and 350 J/cm2) and in-air ϕ (75, 100, and150 mW/cm2) with a BPD dose of 1 mg/kg and a drug-light interval of 3 hours. Treatment was delivered with a collimated laser beam of 1 cm diameter at 690 nm. Explicit dosimetry of initial tissue oxygen concentration, tissue optical properties, and BPD concentration was used to calculate [1O2]rx. Φ was calculated for the treatment volume based on Monte-Carlo simulations and measured tissue optical properties. Kaplan-Meier analyses for LCR were done for an endpoint of tumor volume defined as the product of the timeintegral of photosensitizer concentration and Φ at a 3 mm tumor depth. Preliminary studies show that [1O2]rx better correlates with LCR and is an effective dosimetric quantity that can predict treatment outcome.

  11. Antibacterial nitric oxide- and singlet oxygen-releasing polystyrene nanoparticles responsive to light and temperature triggers

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Dolanský, Jiří; Henke, P.; Malá, Z.; Žárská, L.; Kubát, Pavel; Mosinger, Jiří

    2018-01-01

    Roč. 10, č. 5 (2018), s. 2639-2648 ISSN 2040-3364 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA16-15020S Institutional support: RVO:61388980 ; RVO:61388955 Keywords : nanofiber materials * porphyrin photosensitizers * photophysical properties * reactive oxygen Subject RIV: CA - Inorganic Chemistry; CF - Physical ; Theoretical Chemistry (UFCH-W) OBOR OECD: Inorganic and nuclear chemistry; Physical chemistry (UFCH-W) Impact factor: 7.367, year: 2016

  12. Influence of gamma radiation and singlet oxygen on nucleic acid constituents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Balland, Alain.

    1979-10-01

    The action of single oxygen on nucleosides proved to be extremely specific of deoxy-2' guanosine. The use of high performance liquid chromatography and spectrometric techniques (IR, mass and NMR) made it possible to isolate and characterise five main products of degradation. Ionizing radiations act mainly through radical species resulting from the radiolysis of water. The effects of the presence of DNA nucleosides in irradiated aqueous solutions of thymidine were investigated. It would appear, in these conditions, that the change in radio-sensitivity of thymidine in oxygenated solution can be explained essentially in terms of the competition of hydroxyl radicals. A study of the action of gamma rays on aqueous solutions of deoxy-2' guanilyl thymidine was carried out in the absence and presence of oxygen. The significant action of neutral radical species on the 'osidic' fragment explaining the break in the phosphodiester bond was noticed. The radio-induced modifications on the substrate were characterised indirectly by enzime hydrolysis (phosphodiesterasis). In an aerated aqueous solution, the monophosphate dinucleosides modified on the thymidine motive were identified by comparison with the substances obtained by synthesis. The characterisation of new substances and the study of synthetic ones required the use of NMR. Hence the configuration study of modified nucleosides was given much room [fr

  13. Singlet oxygen autoxidation of vegetable oils: evidences for lack of synergy between β-carotene and tocopherols.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smyk, Bogdan

    2015-09-01

    The synergy between β-carotene and tocopherols--antioxidants protecting oils from oxidation, was analyzed in a model system. The model used stripped borage and evening primrose oils. A chlorophyll extract, β-carotene and one of the tocopherols were added together or separately to the oils. Oil oxidation was initiated by singlet oxygen that was produced by chlorophylls irradiated with the use of a xenon lamp equipped with the cut-off 600 nm filter. Experiments were carried out at two mole ratios of tocopherols to β-carotene, i.e. at 1:1 and 23:1. Analyses were performed using absorption and fluorescence spectra in the UV+Vis region. The results demonstrated an antagonistic action of the antioxidants. The protective effect of unsaturated fatty acids was significantly better in the case of β-carotene compared to the tocopherols. Furthermore, tocopherols were less effective in protecting the oils in the presence of β-carotene than without it. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Ultrasound-assisted interaction between chlorin-e6 and human serum albumin: pH dependence, singlet oxygen production, and formulation effect

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mocanu, Mihaela N.; Yan, Fei

    2018-02-01

    The interaction between chlorin e6 (Ce6) and human serum albumin (HSA) in the presence and absence of ultrasound have been investigated by ultraviolet-visible absorption spectroscopy and fluorescence spectroscopy. Ce6 is found to bind strongly to HSA at or near physiological pH conditions, but the strength of the binding is significantly weakened at lower pHs. The intrinsic fluorescence of HSA is incrementally quenched with increasing concentration of Ce6, and the quenching is enhanced after exposure to high-frequency ultrasound. Our experimental results suggest that Ce6-induced sonodynamic oxidation of HSA is mainly mediated by singlet oxygen. The formulation of Ce6 by high molecular weight polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP) increased its stability in aqueous solutions and its quantum yield of singlet oxygen under ultrasound irradiation.

  15. Interaction of singlet oxygen with bovine serum albumin and the role of the protein nano-compartmentalization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giménez, Rodrigo E; Vargová, Veronika; Rey, Valentina; Turbay, M Beatriz Espeche; Abatedaga, Inés; Morán Vieyra, Faustino E; Paz Zanini, Verónica I; Mecchia Ortiz, Juan H; Katz, Néstor E; Ostatná, Veronika; Borsarelli, Claudio D

    2016-05-01

    Singlet molecular oxygen ((1)O2) contributes to protein damage triggering biophysical and biochemical changes that can be related with aging and oxidative stress. Serum albumins, such as bovine serum albumin (BSA), are abundant proteins in blood plasma with different biological functions. This paper presents a kinetic and spectroscopic study of the (1)O2-mediated oxidation of BSA using the tris(2,2'-bipyridine)ruthenium(II) cation [Ru(bpy)3](2+) as sensitizer. BSA quenches efficiently (1)O2 with a total (chemical+physical interaction) rate constant kt(BSA)=7.3(±0.4)×10(8)M(-1)s(-1), where the chemical pathway represented 37% of the interaction. This efficient quenching by BSA indicates the participation of several reactive residues. MALDI-TOF MS analysis of intact BSA confirmed that after oxidation by (1)O2, the mass protein increased the equivalent of 13 oxygen atoms. Time-resolved emission spectra analysis of BSA established that Trp residues were oxidized to N'-formylkynurenine, being the solvent-accessible W134 preferentially oxidized by (1)O2 as compared with the buried W213. MS confirmed oxidation of at least two Tyr residues to form dihydroxyphenylalanine, with a global reactivity towards (1)O2 six-times lower than for Trp residues. Despite the lack of MS evidences, kinetic and chemical analysis also suggested that residues other than Trp and Tyr, e.g. Met, must react with (1)O2. Modeling of the 3D-structure of BSA indicated that the oxidation pattern involves a random distribution of (1)O2 into BSA; allowing also the interaction of (1)O2 with buried residues by its diffusion from the bulk solvent through interconnected internal hydrophilic and hydrophobic grooves. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Luminescent sensing and imaging of oxygen: fierce competition to the Clark electrode.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolfbeis, Otto S

    2015-08-01

    Luminescence-based sensing schemes for oxygen have experienced a fast growth and are in the process of replacing the Clark electrode in many fields. Unlike electrodes, sensing is not limited to point measurements via fiber optic microsensors, but includes additional features such as planar sensing, imaging, and intracellular assays using nanosized sensor particles. In this essay, I review and discuss the essentials of (i) common solid-state sensor approaches based on the use of luminescent indicator dyes and host polymers; (ii) fiber optic and planar sensing schemes; (iii) nanoparticle-based intracellular sensing; and (iv) common spectroscopies. Optical sensors are also capable of multiple simultaneous sensing (such as O2 and temperature). Sensors for O2 are produced nowadays in large quantities in industry. Fields of application include sensing of O2 in plant and animal physiology, in clinical chemistry, in marine sciences, in the chemical industry and in process biotechnology. © 2015 The Author. Bioessays published by WILEY Periodicals, Inc.

  17. Role of oxygen concentration distribution and microstructure in luminescent properties of laser-irradiated silicon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhu, Min; Li, Xiaohong; Li, Guoqiang; Xie, Changxin; Qiu, Rong; Li, Jiawen; Huang, Wenhao

    2015-01-01

    Graphical abstract: Photoluminescence (PL) of monocrystalline silicon irradiated by femtosecond laser pulses was studied. The visible blue luminescence is observed both from the deionized water and air. The position and shape of emission luminescence peaks in the visible range are same at 330 nm. The PL is confirmed to be not merely induced by the oxygen defects or quantum confinement effects, but is commonly decided by the concentration distribution of SiO x and the depth of the surface microstructure. The PL gets strongest only when depth of the surface microstructure is not deeper and the distribution of the shallow SiO x is more intensive. - Highlights: • Different morphologies and compositions of the surface microstructures are formed. • The SiO x concentration and surface microstructure depth commonly decide the PL. • The PL intensity can be controlled by changing the experimental conditions. - Abstract: We study the photoluminescence (PL) of monocrystalline silicon irradiated by femtosecond laser pulses in different environments (deionized water and air) and energy intensities. The fluorescence spectroscopy measurement results indicate that the visible blue luminescence is observed both from the silicon surfaces ablated in the deionized water and air. The more interesting phenomenon is that the position and shape of the emission luminescence peaks in the visible range are substantially the same at the same excitation wavelength 330 nm. Compared with the granular-like microstructure generated on the silicon surface in air, the smaller and stripe-like microstructure is formed in the deionized water as the field emission scanning electron microscope (FESEM) measures. The results of the energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDS) show that silicon and oxygen is the main elemental composition on laser-induced silicon surfaces, and the oxygen content on the sample surfaces formed in air is nearly four times more than that in the deionized water. The studies confirm

  18. Singlet oxygen mediated apoptosis by anthrone involving lysosomes and mitochondria at ambient UV exposure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mujtaba, Syed Faiz [Photobiology Division, (CSIR)-Indian Institute of Toxicology Research, Post Box No. 80, M.G. Marg, Lucknow 226001, Uttar Pradesh (India); College of Pharmacy, Faculty of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Pt. B.D.S University of Health Sciences, Rohtak, Haryana (India); Dwivedi, Ashish; Yadav, Neera [Photobiology Division, (CSIR)-Indian Institute of Toxicology Research, Post Box No. 80, M.G. Marg, Lucknow 226001, Uttar Pradesh (India); Ray, R.S., E-mail: ratanray.2011@rediffmail.com [Photobiology Division, (CSIR)-Indian Institute of Toxicology Research, Post Box No. 80, M.G. Marg, Lucknow 226001, Uttar Pradesh (India); Singh, Gajendra [College of Pharmacy, Faculty of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Pt. B.D.S University of Health Sciences, Rohtak, Haryana (India)

    2013-05-15

    Highlights: ► Photomodification of anthrone at ambient environmental intensities of UV-radiation. ► Phototoxicity of anthrone through type-II photodynamic reaction by generating {sup 1}O{sub 2}. ► Role of DNA damage and lipid peroxidation in anthrone phototoxicity. ► Apototic cell death and involvement of lysosomes and mitochondria. ► Up-regulation of p21 and bax concomitantly down regulation of bcl2 genes expression. -- Abstract: Anthrone a tricyclic aromatic hydrocarbon which is toxic environmental pollutant comes in the environment through photooxidation of anthracene. We have studied the photomodification of anthrone under environmental conditions. Anthrone generates reactive oxygen species (ROS) like {sup 1}O{sub 2} through Type-II photodynamic reaction. Significant intracellular ROS generation was measured through dichlorohydrofluorescein fluorescence intensity. The generation of {sup 1}O{sub 2} was further substantiated by using specific quencher like sodium azide. UV induced photodegradation of 2-deoxyguanosine and photoperoxidation of linoleic acid accorded the involvement of {sup 1}O{sub 2} in the manifestation of anthrone phototoxicity. Phototoxicity of anthrone was done on human keratinocytes (HaCaT) through 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyl tetrazolium bromide and neutral red uptake assays. Anthrone induced cell cycle arrest (G2/M-phase) and DNA damage in a concentration dependent manner. We found apoptosis as a pattern of cell death which was confirmed through sub-G1 fraction, morphological changes, caspase-3 activation, acridine orange/ethidium bromide staining and phosphatidylserine translocation. Mitochondrial depolarization and lysosomal destabilization was parallel to apoptotic process. Our RT-PCR results strongly supports our view point of apoptotic cell death through up-regulation of pro-apoptotic genes p21 and Bax, and down regulation of anti-apoptotic gene Bcl{sub 2}. Therefore, much attention should be paid to concomitant

  19. Modelling the size and polydispersity of magnetic hybrid nanoparticles for luminescent sensing of oxygen

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marín-Suárez, Marta; Arias-Martos, María C.; Fernández-Sánchez, Jorge F.; Fernández-Gutiérrez, Alberto; Galeano-Díaz, Teresa

    2013-01-01

    We report on a strategy to model both the size (d) and the polydispersity (PdI) of magnetic oxygen-sensitive nanoparticles with a typical size of 200 nm in order to increase the surface area. The strategy is based on experimental design and Response Surface Methodology. Nanoparticles were prepared by mini emulsion solvent evaporation of solutions of poly(styrene-co-maleic anhydride). Features of this strategy include (1) a quick selection of the most important variables that govern d and PdI; (2) a better understanding of the parameters that affect the performance of the polymer; and (3) optimized conditions for the synthesis of nanoparticles of targeted d and PdI. The results were used to produce nanoparticles in sizes that range from 100 to 300 nm and with small polydispersity. The addition of a platinum porphyrin complex that acts as a luminescent probe for oxygen and of magnetite (Fe 3 O 4 ) to the polymeric particles, did not affect d and PdI, thus demonstrating that this strategy simplifies their synthesis. The resulting luminescent and magnetic sensor nanoparticles respond to dissolved oxygen with sensitivity (Stern-Volmer constant) of around 35 bar −1 . (author)

  20. Experimental and theoretical studies of nuclear generation of ozone and its photolysis into singlet delta oxygen

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Elsayed-Ali, H.E.

    1985-01-01

    A series of measurements of O 3 yield in nuclear induced O 2 and O 2 -SF 6 discharges created by bombardment with energetic particles from the 10 B(n,α) 7 Li reaction are reported. Continuous irradiation at dose ratios of 10 15 -10 17 eV.cm -3 .s -1 and pulsed irradiation (approx.10 ms FWHM) at a peak dose rate of approx.10 20 eV.cm -3 .s -1 were conducted. At the lower dose rates, SF 6 addition generally increased the ozone yield, which at the high dose rates, SF 6 addition decreased the observed ozone concentration. A numerical model was developed and applied to experimental conditions. The steady-state ozone concentration was found to be limited by the reaction O 3 - + O 3 → 2O 2 + O 2 - . A simplified analytical model of steady-state conditions was used to predict model sensitivity to various parameters. In addition to dose rate effects, pressure and temperature effect on ozone production were discussed. The present study was extended to noble gas (He, Ne, and Ar)-O 2 and noble gas - O 2 -SF 6 mixtures. Without SF 6 , steady-state ozone concentrations were found to be about an order of magnitude lower than that observed for oxygen at similar dose rates. Addition of SF 6 was found to significantly increase the steady-state ozone concentration (3-6 times) in noble gas-O 2 mixtures. The developed models were amended to study noble gas-O 2 discharges. A detailed computer model of ultraviolet irradiation of O 3 -O 2 -noble gas mixtures was presented. Dependence of O 2 (a 1 Δ/sub g/) yield on various parameters was investigated. Conditions needed to create O 2 (a 1 Δ/sub g/) concentrations sufficient for pumping an atomic iodine laser were identified. The model was tested by applying it to date on quantum yield of ozone decomposition for various mixtures and by observation of the absolute O 2 (a 1 Δ/sub g/) concentration generated under various conditions

  1. A Possible Role for Singlet Oxygen in the Degradation of Various Antioxidants. A Meta-Analysis and Review of Literature Data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Athinoula L. Petrou

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available The thermodynamic parameters Eact, ΔH≠, ΔS≠, and ΔG≠ for various processes involving antioxidants were calculated using literature kinetic data (k, T. The ΔG≠ values of the antioxidants’ processes vary in the range 91.27–116.46 kJmol−1 at 310 K. The similarity of the ΔG≠ values (for all of the antioxidants studied is supported to be an indication that a common mechanism in the above antioxidant processes may be taking place. A value of about 10–30 kJmol−1 is the activation energy for the diffusion of reactants depending on the reaction and the medium. The energy 92 kJmol−1 is needed for the excitation of O2 from the ground to the first excited state (1Δg, singlet oxygen. We suggest the same role of the oxidative stress and specifically of singlet oxygen to the processes of antioxidants as in the processes of proteinaceous diseases. We therefore suggest a competition between the various antioxidants and the proteins of proteinaceous diseases in capturing singlet oxygen’s empty π* orbital. The concentration of the antioxidants could be a crucial factor for the competition. Also, the structures of the antioxidant molecules play a significant role since the various structures have a different number of regions of high electron density.

  2. Quantifying oxygen in paper-based cell cultures with luminescent thin film sensors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boyce, Matthew W; Kenney, Rachael M; Truong, Andrew S; Lockett, Matthew R

    2016-04-01

    Paper-based scaffolds are an attractive material for generating 3D tissue-like cultures because paper is readily available and does not require specialized equipment to pattern, cut, or use. By controlling the exchange of fresh culture medium with the paper-based scaffolds, we can engineer diffusion-dominated environments similar to those found in spheroids or solid tumors. Oxygen tension directly regulates cellular phenotype and invasiveness through hypoxia-inducible transcription factors and also has chemotactic properties. To date, gradients of oxygen generated in the paper-based cultures have relied on cellular response-based readouts. In this work, we prepared a luminescent thin film capable of quantifying oxygen tensions in apposed cell-containing paper-based scaffolds. The oxygen sensors, which are polystyrene films containing a Pd(II) tetrakis(pentafluorophenyl)porphyrin dye, are photostable, stable in culture conditions, and not cytotoxic. They have a linear response for oxygen tensions ranging from 0 to 160 mmHg O2, and a Stern-Volmer constant (K sv) of 0.239 ± 0.003 mmHg O2 (-1). We used these oxygen-sensing films to measure the spatial and temporal changes in oxygen tension for paper-based cultures containing a breast cancer line that was engineered to constitutively express a fluorescent protein. By acquiring images of the oxygen-sensing film and the fluorescently labeled cells, we were able to approximate the oxygen consumption rates of the cells in our cultures.

  3. Singlet oxygen generation in O2 flow excited by RF discharge: I. Homogeneous discharge mode: α-mode

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Braginskiy, O V; Vasilieva, A N; Klopovskiy, K S; Kovalev, A S; Lopaev, D V; Proshina, O V; Rakhimova, T V; Rakhimov, A T

    2005-01-01

    The production and transport dynamics of O 2 (a 1 Δ g ) and O 2 (b 1 Σ g + ) molecules as well as O( 3 P) atoms has been studied in an O 2 flow excited by a 13.56 MHz RF discharge in a quartz tube at pressures of 1-20 Torr. It has been shown that the densities of O 2 (a 1 Δ g ) and O( 3 P) are saturated with increasing energy input into the discharge. The maximum yield of singlet oxygen (SO) and the O 2 dissociation degree drops with pressure. It is demonstrated that depending on the energy input the RF discharge can exist in three modes: I-in the spatially homogeneous mode or α-mode; III-in the substantially inhomogeneous mode, when plasma jets are present outside the discharge; and II-in the transient mode between modes I and III. In this paper only the homogeneous mode of RF discharge in the O 2 flow is considered in detail. A self-consistent model of the α-mode is developed, that allows us to analyse elementary processes responsible for the production and loss of O 2 (a 1 Δ g ) and O 2 (b 1 Σ g + ) molecules as well as O( 3 P) atoms in detail. To verify both the kinetic scheme of the model and the conclusions, some experiments have been carried out at lower flow velocities and higher pressures (≥10 Torr), when the stationary densities of O 2 (a 1 Δ g ), O 2 (b 1 Σ g + ) and O( 3 P) in the discharge area were established not by the escape of particles but by the losses due to the volumetric and surface reactions. The O 2 (b 1 Σ g + ) density under these conditions is determined by the balance of O 2 (b 1 Σ g + ) production by both direct electron impact and electronic excitation transfer from metastable O( 1 D) atoms and deactivation by oxygen atoms and tube walls, including quenching by ozone in the afterglow. The O( 3 P) density is determined by the balance between the production through O 2 dissociation by electron impact and heterogeneous loss at the wall recombination. The stationary density of O 2 (a 1 Δ g ) is provided by the processes of O

  4. Singlet Oxygen Production and Biological Activity of Hexanuclear Chalcocyanide Rhenium Cluster Complexes [{Re(6)Q(8)}(CN)(6)](4-) (Q = S, Se, Te)

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Solovieva, A.O.; Kirakci, Kaplan; Ivanov, A.; Kubát, Pavel; Pozmogova, T.N.; Miroshnichenko, S.M.; Vorontsova, E.V.; Chechushkov, A.V.; Trifonova, K.E.; Fufaeva, M.S.; Kretov, E.I.; Mironov, Y.V.; Poveshchenko, A.F.; Lang, Kamil; Shestopalov, M.A.

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 56, č. 21 (2017), s. 13491-13499 ISSN 0020-1669 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA16-15020S Institutional support: RVO:61388980 ; RVO:61388955 Keywords : photophysical properties * silica nanoparticles * molecular-oxygen * iodide cluster * luminescence Subject RIV: CA - Inorganic Chemistry; CF - Physical ; Theoretical Chemistry (UFCH-W) OBOR OECD: Inorganic and nuclear chemistry; Physical chemistry (UFCH-W) Impact factor: 4.857, year: 2016

  5. Effects of light irradiation upon photodynamic therapy based on 5-aminolevulinic acid–gold nanoparticle conjugates in K562 cells via singlet oxygen generation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xu H

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Hao Xu, Chen Liu, Jiansheng Mei, Cuiping Yao, Sijia Wang, Jing Wang, Zheng Li, Zhenxi ZhangKey Laboratory of Biomedical Information Engineering of Education Ministry, Institute of Biomedical Analytical Technology and Instrumentation, School of Life Science and Technology, Xi’an Jiaotong University, Xi’an, Shannxi, People’s Republic of ChinaPurpose: As a precursor of the potent photosensitizer protoporphyrin IX (PpIX, 5-aminolevulinic acid (5-ALA, was conjugated onto cationic gold nanoparticles (GNPs to improve the efficacy of photodynamic therapy (PDT.Methods: Cationic GNPs reduced by branched polyethyleneimine and 5-ALA were conjugated onto the cationic GNPs by creating an electrostatic interaction at physiological pH. The efficacy of ALA-GNP conjugates in PDT was investigated under irradiation with a mercury lamp (central wavelength of 395 nm and three types of light-emitting diode arrays (central wavelengths of 399, 502, and 621 nm, respectively. The impacts of GNPs on PDT were then analyzed by measuring the intracellular PpIX levels in K562 cells and the singlet oxygen yield of PpIX under irradiation.Results: The 2 mM ALA-GNP conjugates showed greater cytotoxicity against K562 cells than ALA alone. Light-emitting diode (505 nm irradiation of the conjugates caused a level of K562 cell destruction similar to that with irradiation by a mercury lamp, although it had no adverse effects on drug-free control cells. These results may be attributed to the singlet oxygen yield of PpIX, which can be enhanced by GNPs.Conclusion: Under irradiation with a suitable light source, ALA-GNP conjugates can effectively destroy K562 cells. The technique offers a new strategy of PDT.Keywords: nonradiative energy transfer, photodamage, protoporphyrin IX, selective destruction, singlet oxygen sensor green reagent, surface plasmon resonance

  6. Protection by DABCO against inactivation of transforming DNA by near-ultraviolet light: action spectra and implications for involvement of singlet oxygen

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peak, J.G.; Peak, M.J.; Foote, C.S.

    1981-01-01

    Diazobicyclo (2.2.2) octane (DABCO) protects the genetic activity of purified transforming Bacillus subtilis DNA against inactivation by near-, but not far-, UV light. The maximum dose-modifying factor is 0.4, at 0.1 M DABCO. Maximal protection is at about 350 nm and no protection occurs below 313 nm. The spectrum for protection is similar to that described for 2-aminoethylisothiouronium bromide hydrobromide. The relevance of these observations with regard to the role of singlet oxygen in near-UV effects is discussed. (author)

  7. Influence of singlet oxygen (1O2) generated by a lipophilic photosensitizer (Pyropheophorbide-a, PPa) on membrane and firing properties of cultured hippocampus neurons

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Breitenbach, Thomas; Ogilby, Peter Remsen; Lambert, John D. C.

    2008-01-01

    . The spiking pattern was altered significantly, reflected by changes in spike threshold, frequency and tendency for fast APs to be followed by a plateau phase. These effects were correlated with the intensity and/or duration of illumination. Since we have previously documented that the lifetime and diffusion...... range of singlet oxygen are very small, its effects will be restricted. The intra-membrane generated 1O2 alters the composition of the lipid and also proteins or channels. This is reflected both in the immediate response to low irradiation-dose and in formation of long plateaus, which could be caused...

  8. Singlet Energy Transfer as the Main Pathway in the Sensitization of Near-Infrared Nd3+ Luminescence by Dansyl and Lissamine Dyes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hebbink, G.A.; Klink, S.I.; Grave, Lennart; Oude Alink, Patrick G.B.; van Veggel, F.C.J.M.

    2002-01-01

    general, sensitization of lanthanide(III) ions by organic sensitizers is regarded to take place via the triplet state of the sensitizers. Herein, we show that in dansyl- and lissamine-functionalized Nd3+ complexes energy transfer occurs from the singlet state of the sensitizers to the Nd3+ center.

  9. Investigation of the singlet delta oxygen and ozone yields from the pulsed radiolysis of oxygen and oxygen-noble gas mixtures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zediker, M.S.

    1984-01-01

    The experiments discussed herein were performed with a flowing gas apparatus coupled to the University of Illinois TRIGA reactor. The detectors (lambda = 1.27 μ 634 nm) were calibrated with a novel NO 2 titration scheme and the absorbed dose was estimated from the ozone concentrations measured in pure oxygen. The results of these experiments revealed an O 2 (a 1 Δ) production efficiency of 0.14% for direct nuclear pumping in an argon-oxygen mixture. Extensive modeling of the oxygen and argon-oxygen mixtures were benchmarked against these and other experiments. However, good agreement over a broad absorbed dose range was only possible if the O 4 + + O 4 - neutralization reaction was assumed to be nondissociative. In a second set of experiments with a nuclear sustained electrical discharge (low E/N), the O 2 (a 1 Δ) production efficiency was approx.0.40% for the electrical power densities examined. In addition, the O 2 (a 1 Δ) was observed to scale with the square root of the electrical power deposition but was independent of the oxygen concentration. A simple analytic model was developed which explains this behavior as a characteristic of an externally sustained discharge involving an electron attaching gas such as oxygen. The results of these experiments and the modeling of the chemical kinetics are discussed with an emphasis on optimizing the O 2 (a 1 Δ) and O 3 yields

  10. Relationship between symmetry of porphyrinic pi-conjugated systems and singlet oxygen (1Delta g) yields: low-symmetry tetraazaporphyrin derivatives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishii, Kazuyuki; Itoya, Hatsumi; Miwa, Hideya; Fujitsuka, Mamoru; Ito, Osamu; Kobayashi, Nagao

    2005-07-07

    We have investigated the excited-state properties and singlet oxygen ((1)Delta(g)) generation mechanism in phthalocyanines (4M; M = H(2), Mg, or Zn) and in low-symmetry metal-free, magnesium, and zinc tetraazaporphyrins (TAPs), that is, monobenzo-substituted (1M), adjacently dibenzo-substituted (2AdM), oppositely dibenzo-substituted (2OpM), and tribenzo-substituted (3M) TAP derivatives, whose pi conjugated systems were altered by fusing benzo rings. The S(1)(x) and S(1)(y) states (these lowest excited singlet states are degenerate in D(4)(h) symmetry) split in the low-symmetry TAP derivatives. The excited-state energies were quantitatively determined from the electronic absorption spectra. The lowest excited triplet (T(1)(x)) energies were also determined from phosphorescence spectra, while the second lowest excited triplet (T(1)(y)) states were evaluated by using the energy splitting between the T(1)(x) and T(1)(y) states previously reported (Miwa, H.; Ishii, K.; Kobayashi, N. Chem. Eur. J. 2004, 10, 4422-4435). The singlet oxygen quantum yields (Phi(Delta)) are strongly dependent on the pi conjugated system. In particular, while the Phi(Delta) value of 2AdH(2) is smallest in our system, that of 2OpH(2), an isomer of 2AdH(2), is larger than that of 4Zn, in contrast to the heavy atom effect. The relationship between the molecular structure and Phi(Delta) values can be transformed into a relationship between the S(1)(x) --> T(1)(y) intersystem crossing rate constant (k(ISC)) and the energy difference between the S(1)(x) and T(1)(y) states (DeltaE(S)(x)(T)(y)). In each of the Zn, Mg, and metal-free compounds, the Phi(Delta)/tau(F) values (tau(F): fluorescence lifetime), which are related to the k(ISC) values, are proportional to exp(-DeltaE(S)(x)(T)(y)), indicating that singlet oxygen ((1)Delta(g)) is produced via the T(1)(y) state and that the S(1)(x) --> T(1)(y) ISC process follows the energy-gap law. From the viewpoint of photodynamic therapy, our methodology

  11. First experience with a novel luminescence-based optical sensor for measurement of oxygenation in tumors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jarm, T.; Miklavcic, D.; Lesnicar, H.; Sersa, G.

    2001-01-01

    Background. The purpose of this preliminary study was to evaluate a novel luminescence-based fiber-optic sensor (OxyLite system) for the measurement of partial pressure of oxygen (pO 2 ) in tumors and for the detection of changes in pO 2 as a function of time. The new method was used simultaneously with the laser Doppler flowmetry method for the measurement of relative tissue perfusion. Materials and methods. Blood perfusion and pO 2 were measured continuously via fiber-optic sensors inserted into SA-1 tumors in anesthetized A/J mice. The changes in blood flow and oxygenation of tumors were induced by transient changes of the parameters of anesthesia and by injection of a vasoactive drug hydralazine. Results. Both optical methods used in the study successfully detected the induced changes in blood flow and pO 2 . The measurements of pO 2 were well correlated with measurements of microcirculatory blood perfusion. In the majority of pO 2 measurements, we observed an unexpected behavior of the signal during the stabilization process immediately after the insertion of the probe into tumor. This behaviour of the pO 2 signal was most probably caused by local tissue damage induced by the insertion of the probe. Conclusion. The novel luminescence-based optical oximetry can reliably detect local pO 2 changes in tumors as a function of time but some aspects of prolonged pO 2 measurement by this method require further investigation. (author)

  12. X-ray Inducible Luminescence and Singlet Oxygen Sensitization by an Octahedral Molybdenum Cluster Compound: A New Class of Nanoscintillators

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kirakci, Kaplan; Kubát, Pavel; Fejfarová, Karla; Martinčík, Jiří; Nikl, Martin; Lang, Kamil

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 55, č. 2 (2016), s. 803-809 ISSN 0020-1669 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA13-05114S Institutional support: RVO:61388980 ; RVO:61388955 ; RVO:68378271 Keywords : photodynamic therapy * nanoparticles * cancer-treatment Subject RIV: CA - Inorganic Chemistry; CF - Physical ; Theoretical Chemistry (FZU-D); CF - Physical ; Theoretical Chemistry (UFCH-W) Impact factor: 4.857, year: 2016

  13. Generation of Triplet Excited States via Photoinduced Electron Transfer in meso-anthra-BODIPY: Fluorogenic Response toward Singlet Oxygen in Solution and in Vitro

    KAUST Repository

    Filatov, Mikhail A.; Karuthedath, Safakath; Polestshuk, Pavel M.; Savoie, Huguette; Flanagan, Keith J.; Sy, Cindy; Sitte, Elisabeth; Telitchko, Maxime; Laquai, Fré dé ric; Boyle, Ross W.; Senge, Mathias O.

    2017-01-01

    Heavy atom-free BODIPY-anthracene dyads (BADs) generate locally excited triplet states by way of photoinduced electron transfer (PeT), followed by recombination of the resulting charge-separated states (CSS). Subsequent quenching of the triplet states by molecular oxygen produces singlet oxygen (1O2), which reacts with the anthracene moiety yielding highly fluorescent species. The steric demand of the alkyl substituents in the BODIPY subunit defines the site of 1O2 addition. Novel bis- and tetraepoxides and bicyclic acetal products, arising from rearrangements of anthracene endoperoxides were isolated and characterized. 1O2 generation by BADs in living cells enables visualization of the dyads distribution, promising new imaging applications.

  14. Generation of Triplet Excited States via Photoinduced Electron Transfer in meso-anthra-BODIPY: Fluorogenic Response toward Singlet Oxygen in Solution and in Vitro

    KAUST Repository

    Filatov, Mikhail A.

    2017-04-14

    Heavy atom-free BODIPY-anthracene dyads (BADs) generate locally excited triplet states by way of photoinduced electron transfer (PeT), followed by recombination of the resulting charge-separated states (CSS). Subsequent quenching of the triplet states by molecular oxygen produces singlet oxygen (1O2), which reacts with the anthracene moiety yielding highly fluorescent species. The steric demand of the alkyl substituents in the BODIPY subunit defines the site of 1O2 addition. Novel bis- and tetraepoxides and bicyclic acetal products, arising from rearrangements of anthracene endoperoxides were isolated and characterized. 1O2 generation by BADs in living cells enables visualization of the dyads distribution, promising new imaging applications.

  15. Singlet oxygen and ROS in a new light: low-dose subcellular photodynamic treatment enhances proliferation at the single cell level.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blázquez-Castro, Alfonso; Breitenbach, Thomas; Ogilby, Peter R

    2014-09-01

    Two-photon excitation of a sensitizer with a focused laser beam was used to create a spatially-localized subcellular population of reactive oxygen species, ROS, in single HeLa cells. The sensitizer used was protoporphyrin IX, PpIX, endogenously derived from 5-aminolevulinic acid delivered to the cells. Although we infer that singlet oxygen, O2(a(1)Δg), is one ROS produced upon irradiation of PpIX under these conditions, it is possible that the superoxide ion, O2(-˙), may also play a role in this system. With a "high" dose of PpIX-sensitized ROS, the expected death of the cell was observed. However, under "low dose" conditions, clear signs of cell proliferation were observed. The present results facilitate studies of ROS-mediated signalling in imaging-based single cell experiments.

  16. Modulation of the Singlet Oxygen Generation from the Double Strand DNA-SYBR Green I Complex Mediated by T-Melamine-T Mismatch for Visual Detection of Melamine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Hao; Zhang, Jinyi; Ding, Yu; Zhang, Xinfeng; Xu, Kailai; Hou, Xiandeng; Wu, Peng

    2017-05-02

    Singlet oxygen ( 1 O 2 ), generated via photosensitization, has been proved to oxidize chromogenic substrates with neither H 2 O 2 oxidation nor enzyme (horseradish peroxidase, HRP) catalysis. Of the various methods for modulation of the 1 O 2 generation, DNA-controlled photosensitization received great attention. Therefore, integration of the formation/deformation DNA structures with DNA-controlled photosensitization will be extremely appealing in visual biosensor developments. Here, the stable melamine-thymine complex was explored in combination with DNA-controlled photosensitization for visual detection of melamine. A T-rich single stand DNA was utilized as the recognition unit. Upon the formation of the T-M-T complex, double stand DNA was formed, which was ready for the binding of SYBR Green I and activated the photosensitization. Subsequent oxidation of TMB allowed visual detection of melamine in dairy products, with spike-recoveries ranging from 94% to 106%.

  17. C60 and Sc3N@C80(TMB-PPO derivatives as constituents of singlet oxygen generating, thiol-ene polymer nanocomposites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ashli R. Toles

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Numerous functionalization methods have been employed to increase the solubility, and therefore, the processability of fullerenes in composite structures, and of these radical addition reactions continue to be an important methodology. C60 and Sc3N@C80 derivatives were prepared via radical addition of the photodecomposition products from the commercial photoinitiator TMB-PPO, yielding C60(TMB-PPO5 and Sc3N@C80(TMB-PPO3 as preferred soluble derivatives obtained in high yields. Characterization of the mixture of isomers using standard techniques suggests an overall 1PPO:6TMB ratio of addends, reflecting the increased reactivity of the carbon radical. Although, a higher percentage of PPO is observed in the Sc3N@C80(TMB-PPO3 population, perhaps due to reverse electronic requirements of the substrate. Visually dispersed thiol-ene nanocomposites with low extractables were prepared using two monomer compositions (PETMP:TTT and TMPMP:TMPDE with increasing fullerene derivative loading to probe network structure-property relationships. Thermal stability of the derivatives and the resulting networks decreased with increased functionality and at high fullerene loadings, respectively. TMPMP:TMPDE composite networks show well-dispersed derivatives via TEM imaging, and increasing Tg’s with fullerene loading, as expected for the incorporation of a more rigid network component. PETMP:TTT composites show phase separation in TEM, which is supported by the observed Tg’s. Singlet oxygen generation of the derivatives decreases with increased functionality; however, this is compensated for by the tremendous increase in solubility in organic solvents and miscibility with monomers. Most importantly, singlet oxygen generation from the composites increased with fullerene derivative loading, with good photostability of the networks.

  18. Luminescence of Ce doped oxygen crystalline compounds based on Hf and Ba

    CERN Document Server

    Borisevich, A E; Lecoq, P

    2003-01-01

    The luminescence properties of the Ce-doped hafnium and barium compounds have been investigated to determine their potential as heavy scintillation materials. Compounds have been prepared by solid state synthesis. All of them have shown a bright luminescence attributed to trivalent cerium. Emission bands are peaked in the 425-475nm spectral region at room temperature.

  19. Roles of singlet oxygen and triplet excited state of dissolved organic matter formed by different organic matters in bacteriophage MS2 inactivation

    KAUST Repository

    Rosado-Lausell, Sahid L.; Wang, Hanting; Gutié rrez, Leonardo A.; Romero-Maraccini, Ofelia C.; Niu, Xi-Zhi; Gin, Karina; Croue, Jean-Philippe; Nguyen, Thanh Ha

    2013-01-01

    Inactivation of bacteriophage MS2 by reactive oxygen species (ROS) and triplet excited state of dissolved organic matter (3DOM*) produced by irradiation of natural and synthetic sensitizers with simulated sunlight of wavelengths greater than 320nm was investigated. Natural sensitizers included purified DOM isolates obtained from wastewater and river waters, and water samples collected from Singapore River, Stamford Canal, and Marina Bay Reservoir in Singapore. Linear correlations were found between MS2 inactivation rate constants (kobs) and the photo-induced reaction rate constants of 2,4,6-trimethylphenol (TMP), a probe compound shown to react mainly with 3DOM*. Linear correlations between MS2 kobs and singlet oxygen (1O2) concentrations were also found for both purified DOM isolates and natural water samples. These correlations, along with data from quenching experiments and experiments with synthetic sensitizers, Rose Bengal (RB), 3'-methoxyacetophenone (3'-MAP), and nitrite (NO2-), suggest that 1O2, 3DOM*, and hydroxyl radicals (•OH) could inactivate bacteriophage MS2. Linear correlations between MS2 kobs and Specific Ultraviolet Absorption determined at 254nm (SUVA254) were also found for both purified DOM isolates and natural samples. These results suggest the potential use of TMP as a chemical probe and SUVA254 as an indicator for virus inactivation in natural and purified DOM water samples. © 2013 Elsevier Ltd.

  20. Roles of singlet oxygen and triplet excited state of dissolved organic matter formed by different organic matters in bacteriophage MS2 inactivation

    KAUST Repository

    Rosado-Lausell, Sahid L.

    2013-09-01

    Inactivation of bacteriophage MS2 by reactive oxygen species (ROS) and triplet excited state of dissolved organic matter (3DOM*) produced by irradiation of natural and synthetic sensitizers with simulated sunlight of wavelengths greater than 320nm was investigated. Natural sensitizers included purified DOM isolates obtained from wastewater and river waters, and water samples collected from Singapore River, Stamford Canal, and Marina Bay Reservoir in Singapore. Linear correlations were found between MS2 inactivation rate constants (kobs) and the photo-induced reaction rate constants of 2,4,6-trimethylphenol (TMP), a probe compound shown to react mainly with 3DOM*. Linear correlations between MS2 kobs and singlet oxygen (1O2) concentrations were also found for both purified DOM isolates and natural water samples. These correlations, along with data from quenching experiments and experiments with synthetic sensitizers, Rose Bengal (RB), 3\\'-methoxyacetophenone (3\\'-MAP), and nitrite (NO2-), suggest that 1O2, 3DOM*, and hydroxyl radicals (•OH) could inactivate bacteriophage MS2. Linear correlations between MS2 kobs and Specific Ultraviolet Absorption determined at 254nm (SUVA254) were also found for both purified DOM isolates and natural samples. These results suggest the potential use of TMP as a chemical probe and SUVA254 as an indicator for virus inactivation in natural and purified DOM water samples. © 2013 Elsevier Ltd.

  1. Interaction of singlet oxygen with bovine serum albumin and the role of the protein nano-compartmentalization

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Gimenez, R.E.; Vargová, Veronika; Rey, V.; Turbay, M.B.E.; Abatedaga, I.; Vieyra, F.E.M.; Zanini, V.I.P.; Ortiz, J.H.M.; Katz, N. E.; Ostatná, Veronika; Borsarelli, C.D.

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 94, MAY2016 (2016), s. 99-109 ISSN 0891-5849 R&D Projects: GA ČR GBP206/12/G151 Institutional support: RVO:68081707 Keywords : oxidative stress * molecular-oxygen * amino - acids Subject RIV: BO - Biophysics Impact factor: 5.606, year: 2016

  2. Redox-Triggered Bonding-Induced Emission of Thiol-Functionalized Gold Nanoclusters for Luminescence Turn-On Detection of Molecular Oxygen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ao, Hang; Feng, Hui; Zhao, Mengting; Zhao, Meizhi; Chen, Jianrong; Qian, Zhaosheng

    2017-11-22

    Most optical sensors for molecular oxygen were developed based on the quenching effect of the luminescence of oxygen-sensitive probes; however, the signal turn-off mode of these probes is undesirable to quantify and visualize molecular oxygen. Herein, we report a novel luminescence turn-on detection strategy for molecular oxygen via the specific oxygen-triggered bonding-induced emission of thiol-functionalized gold nanoclusters. Thiol-functionalized gold nanoclusters were prepared by a facile one-step synthesis, and as-prepared gold nanoclusters possess significant aggregation-induced emission (AIE) property. It is the first time to discover the oxygen-triggered bonding-induced emission (BIE) behavior of gold nanoclusters, which results in disulfide-linked covalent bonding assemblies with intensely red luminescence. This specific redox-triggered BIE is capable of quantitatively detecting dissolved oxygen in aqueous solution in a light-up manner, and trace amount of dissolved oxygen at ppb level is achieved based on this detection method. A facile and convenient test strip for oxygen detection was also developed to monitor molecular oxygen in a gas matrix. Covalent bonding-induced emission is proven to be a more efficient way to attain high brightness of AIEgens than a physical aggregation-induced emission process, and provides a more convenient and desirable detection method for molecular oxygen than the previous sensors.

  3. Monte Carlo modeling of in vivo protoporphyrin IX fluorescence and singlet oxygen production during photodynamic therapy for patients presenting with superficial basal cell carcinomas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valentine, Ronan M.; Brown, C. Tom A.; Moseley, Harry; Ibbotson, Sally; Wood, Kenny

    2011-04-01

    We present protoporphyrin IX (PpIX) fluorescence measurements acquired from patients presenting with superficial basal cell carcinoma during photodynamic therapy (PDT) treatment, facilitating in vivo photobleaching to be monitored. Monte Carlo (MC) simulations, taking into account photobleaching, are performed on a three-dimensional cube grid, which represents the treatment geometry. Consequently, it is possible to determine the spatial and temporal changes to the origin of collected fluorescence and generated singlet oxygen. From our clinical results, an in vivo photobleaching dose constant, β of 5-aminolaevulinic acid-induced PpIX fluorescence is found to be 14 +/- 1 J/cm2. Results from our MC simulations suggest that an increase from our typical administered treatment light dose of 75-150 J/cm2 could increase the effective PDT treatment initially achieved at a depth of 2.7-3.3 mm in the tumor, respectively. Moreover, this increase reduces the surface PpIX fluorescence from 0.00012 to 0.000003 of the maximum value recorded before treatment. The recommendation of administrating a larger light dose, which advocates an increase in the treatment time after surface PpIX fluorescence has diminished, remains valid for different sets of optical properties and therefore should have a beneficial outcome on the total treatment effect.

  4. Correlation among Singlet-Oxygen Quenching, Free-Radical Scavenging, and Excited-State Intramolecular-Proton-Transfer Activities in Hydroxyflavones, Anthocyanidins, and 1-Hydroxyanthraquinones.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagaoka, Shin-Ichi; Bandoh, Yuki; Nagashima, Umpei; Ohara, Keishi

    2017-10-26

    Singlet-oxygen ( 1 O 2 ) quenching, free-radical scavenging, and excited-state intramolecular proton-transfer (ESIPT) activities of hydroxyflavones, anthocyanidins, and 1-hydroxyanthraquinones were studied by means of laser, stopped-flow, and steady-state spectroscopies. In hydroxyflavones and anthocyanidins, the 1 O 2 quenching activity positively correlates to the free-radical scavenging activity. The reason for this correlation can be understood by considering that an early step of each reaction involves electron transfer from the unfused phenyl ring (B-ring), which is singly bonded to the bicyclic chromen or chromenylium moiety (A- and C-rings). Substitution of an electron-donating OH group at B-ring enhances the electron transfer leading to activation of the 1 O 2 quenching and free-radical scavenging. In 3-hydroxyflavones, the OH substitution at B-ring reduces the activity of ESIPT within C-ring, which can be explained in terms of the nodal-plane model. As a result, the 1 O 2 quenching and free-radical scavenging activities negatively correlate to the ESIPT activity. A catechol structure at B-ring is another factor that enhances the free-radical scavenging in hydroxyflavones. In contrast to these hydroxyflavones, 1-hydroxyanthraquinones having an electron-donating OH substituent adjacent to the O-H---O═C moiety susceptible to ESIPT do not show a simple correlation between their 1 O 2 quenching and ESIPT activities, because the OH substitution modulates these reactions.

  5. Ligand-based photooxidations of dithiomaltolato complexes of Ru(II) and Zn(II): photolytic CH activation and evidence of singlet oxygen generation and quenching.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruner, Britain; Walker, Malin Backlund; Ghimire, Mukunda M; Zhang, Dong; Selke, Matthias; Klausmeyer, Kevin K; Omary, Mohammad A; Farmer, Patrick J

    2014-08-14

    The complex [Ru(bpy)2(ttma)](+) (bpy = 2,2'-bipyridine; ttma = 3-hydroxy-2-methyl-thiopyran-4-thionate, 1, has previously been shown to undergo an unusual C-H activation of the dithiomaltolato ligand upon outer-sphere oxidation. The reaction generated alcohol and aldehyde products 2 and 3 from C-H oxidation of the pendant methyl group. In this report, we demonstrate that the same products are formed upon photolysis of 1 in presence of mild oxidants such as methyl viologen, [Ru(NH3)6](3+) and [Co(NH3)5Cl](2+), which do not oxidize 1 in the dark. This reactivity is engendered only upon excitation into an absorption band attributed to the ttma ligand. Analogous experiments with the homoleptic Zn(ttma)2, 4, also result in reduction of electron acceptors upon excitation of the ttma absorption band. Complexes 1 and 4 exhibit short-lived visible fluorescence and long-lived near-infrared phosphorescence bands. Singlet oxygen is both generated and quenched during aerobic excitation of 1 or 4, but is not involved in the C-H activation process.

  6. Effects of the cryptochrome CryB from Rhodobacter sphaeroides on global gene expression in the dark or blue light or in the presence of singlet oxygen.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sebastian Frühwirth

    Full Text Available Several regulators are controlling the formation of the photosynthetic apparatus in the facultatively photosynthetic bacterium Rhodobacter sphaeroides. Among the proteins affecting photosynthesis gene expression is the blue light photoreceptor cryptochrome CryB. This study addresses the effect of CryB on global gene expression. The data reveal that CryB does not only influence photosynthesis gene expression but also genes for the non-photosynthetic energy metabolism like citric acid cycle and oxidative phosphorylation. In addition several genes involved in RNA processing and in transcriptional regulation are affected by a cryB deletion. Although CryB was shown to undergo a photocycle it does not only affect gene expression in response to blue light illumination but also in response to singlet oxygen stress conditions. While there is a large overlap in these responses, some CryB-dependent effects are specific for blue-light or photooxidative stress. In addition to protein-coding genes some genes for sRNAs show CryB-dependent expression. These findings give new insight into the function of bacterial cryptochromes and demonstrate for the first time a function in the oxidative stress response.

  7. A Highly Luminescent Hexanuclear Molybdenum Cluster - A Promising Candidate toward Photoactive Materials

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kirakci, Kaplan; Kubát, Pavel; Dušek, Michal; Fejfarová, Karla; Šícha, Václav; Mosinger, Jiří; Lang, Kamil

    2012-01-01

    Roč. 2012, č. 19 (2012), s. 3107-3111 ISSN 1434-1948 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GAP204/11/0809; GA ČR GAP208/10/1678 Institutional support: RVO:61388980 ; RVO:61388955 ; RVO:68378271 Keywords : cluster compounds * luminescence * molybdenum * organic-inorganic hybrid composites * singlet oxygen Subject RIV: CA - Inorganic Chemistry Impact factor: 3.120, year: 2012

  8. Singlet molecular oxygen generation by light-activated DHN-melanin of the fungal pathogen Mycosphaerella fijiensis in black Sigatoka disease of bananas.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miguel J Beltrán-García

    Full Text Available In pathogenic fungi, melanin contributes to virulence, allowing tissue invasion and inactivation of the plant defence system, but has never been implicated as a factor for host cell death, or as a light-activated phytotoxin. Our research shows that melanin synthesized by the fungal banana pathogen Mycosphaerella fijiensis acts as a virulence factor through the photogeneration of singlet molecular oxygen O2 (1Δg. Using analytical tools, including elemental analysis, ultraviolet/infrared absorption spectrophometry and MALDI-TOF mass spectrometry analysis, we characterized both pigment content in mycelia and secreted to the culture media as 1,8-dihydroxynaphthalene (DHN-melanin type compound. This is sole melanin-type in M. fijiensis. Isolated melanins irradiated with a Nd:YAG laser at 532 nm produced monomol light emission at 1270 nm, confirming generation of O2 (1Δg, a highly reactive oxygen specie (ROS that causes cellular death by reacting with all cellular macromolecules. Intermediary polyketides accumulated in culture media by using tricyclazole and pyroquilon (two inhibitors of DHN-melanin synthesis were identified by ESI-HPLC-MS/MS. Additionally, irradiation at 532 nm of that mixture of compounds and whole melanized mycelium also generated O2 (1Δg. A pigmented-strain generated more O2 (1Δg than a strain with low melanin content. Banana leaves of cultivar Cavendish, naturally infected with different stages of black Sigatoka disease, were collected from field. Direct staining of the naturally infected leaf tissues showed the presence of melanin that was positively correlated to the disease stage. We also found hydrogen peroxide (H2O2 but we cannot distinguish the source. Our results suggest that O2 (1Δg photogenerated by DHN-melanin may be involved in the destructive effects of Mycosphaerella fijiensis on banana leaf tissues. Further studies are needed to fully evaluate contributions of melanin-mediated ROS to microbial pathogenesis.

  9. Singlet molecular oxygen generation by light-activated DHN-melanin of the fungal pathogen Mycosphaerella fijiensis in black Sigatoka disease of bananas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beltrán-García, Miguel J; Prado, Fernanda M; Oliveira, Marilene S; Ortiz-Mendoza, David; Scalfo, Alexsandra C; Pessoa, Adalberto; Medeiros, Marisa H G; White, James F; Di Mascio, Paolo

    2014-01-01

    In pathogenic fungi, melanin contributes to virulence, allowing tissue invasion and inactivation of the plant defence system, but has never been implicated as a factor for host cell death, or as a light-activated phytotoxin. Our research shows that melanin synthesized by the fungal banana pathogen Mycosphaerella fijiensis acts as a virulence factor through the photogeneration of singlet molecular oxygen O2 (1Δg). Using analytical tools, including elemental analysis, ultraviolet/infrared absorption spectrophometry and MALDI-TOF mass spectrometry analysis, we characterized both pigment content in mycelia and secreted to the culture media as 1,8-dihydroxynaphthalene (DHN)-melanin type compound. This is sole melanin-type in M. fijiensis. Isolated melanins irradiated with a Nd:YAG laser at 532 nm produced monomol light emission at 1270 nm, confirming generation of O2 (1Δg), a highly reactive oxygen specie (ROS) that causes cellular death by reacting with all cellular macromolecules. Intermediary polyketides accumulated in culture media by using tricyclazole and pyroquilon (two inhibitors of DHN-melanin synthesis) were identified by ESI-HPLC-MS/MS. Additionally, irradiation at 532 nm of that mixture of compounds and whole melanized mycelium also generated O2 (1Δg). A pigmented-strain generated more O2 (1Δg) than a strain with low melanin content. Banana leaves of cultivar Cavendish, naturally infected with different stages of black Sigatoka disease, were collected from field. Direct staining of the naturally infected leaf tissues showed the presence of melanin that was positively correlated to the disease stage. We also found hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) but we cannot distinguish the source. Our results suggest that O2 (1Δg) photogenerated by DHN-melanin may be involved in the destructive effects of Mycosphaerella fijiensis on banana leaf tissues. Further studies are needed to fully evaluate contributions of melanin-mediated ROS to microbial pathogenesis.

  10. Luminescence materials for pH and oxygen sensing in microbial cells - structures, optical properties, and biological applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zou, Xianshao; Pan, Tingting; Chen, Lei; Tian, Yanqing; Zhang, Weiwen

    2017-09-01

    Luminescence including fluorescence and phosphorescence sensors have been demonstrated to be important for studying cell metabolism, and diagnosing diseases and cancer. Various design principles have been employed for the development of sensors in different formats, such as organic molecules, polymers, polymeric hydrogels, and nanoparticles. The integration of the sensing with fluorescence imaging provides valuable tools for biomedical research and applications at not only bulk-cell level but also at single-cell level. In this article, we critically reviewed recent progresses on pH, oxygen, and dual pH and oxygen sensors specifically for their application in microbial cells. In addition, we focused not only on sensor materials with different chemical structures, but also on design and applications of sensors for better understanding cellular metabolism of microbial cells. Finally, we also provided an outlook for future materials design and key challenges in reaching broad applications in microbial cells.

  11. Singlet oxygen sensitizing materials based on porous silicone: photochemical characterization, effect of dye reloading and application to water disinfection with solar reactors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manjón, Francisco; Santana-Magaña, Montserrat; García-Fresnadillo, David; Orellana, Guillermo

    2010-06-01

    Photogeneration of singlet molecular oxygen ((1)O(2)) is applied to organic synthesis (photooxidations), atmosphere/water treatment (disinfection), antibiofouling materials and in photodynamic therapy of cancer. In this paper, (1)O(2) photosensitizing materials containing the dyes tris(4,4'-diphenyl-2,2'-bipyridine)ruthenium(II) (1, RDB(2+)) or tris(4,7-diphenyl-1,10-phenanthroline)ruthenium(II) (2, RDP(2+)), immobilized on porous silicone (abbreviated RDB/pSil and RDP/pSil), have been produced and tested for waterborne Enterococcus faecalis inactivation using a laboratory solar simulator and a compound parabolic collector (CPC)-based solar photoreactor. In order to investigate the feasibility of its reuse, the sunlight-exposed RDP/pSil sensitizing material (RDP/pSil-a) has been reloaded with RDP(2+) (RDP/pSil-r). Surprisingly, results for bacteria inactivation with the reloaded material have demonstrated a 4-fold higher efficiency compared to those of either RDP/pSil-a, unused RDB/pSil and the original RDP/pSil. Surface and bulk photochemical characterization of the new material (RDP/pSil-r) has shown that the bactericidal efficiency enhancement is due to aggregation of the silicone-supported photosensitizer on the surface of the polymer, as evidenced by confocal fluorescence lifetime imaging microscopy (FLIM). Photogenerated (1)O(2) lifetimes in the wet sensitizer-doped silicone have been determined to be ten times longer than in water. These facts, together with the water rheology in the solar reactor and the interfacial production of the biocidal species, account for the more effective disinfection observed with the reloaded photosensitizing material. These results extend and improve the operational lifetime of photocatalytic materials for point-of-use (1)O(2)-mediated solar water disinfection.

  12. On the role of non-bridging oxygen centers in the red luminescence emission from silicon nanocrystals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Borsella, Elisabetta; D' Amato, Rosaria; Fabbri, Fabio [ENEA, C. R. Frascati, via E. Fermi 45, 00044 Frascati, Roma (Italy); Falconieri, Mauro [ENEA, C. R. Casaccia, via Anguillarese 301, 00123 Roma (Italy); Trave, Enrico [Physical Chemistry Department, Universita Ca' Foscari Venezia, Dorsoduro 2137, 30123 Venezia (Italy); Bello, Valentina; Mattei, Giovanni [Physics Department, Universita degli Studi di Padova, Via Marzolo 8, 35131 Padova (Italy); Nie, Yaru; Wang, Dayang [Max Planck Institute of Colloids and Interfaces, 14424 Potsdam (Germany)

    2011-03-15

    The process responsible for visible-near infrared luminescence emission in Si nanostructures has been generating significant controversy for years. The debate has focused on whether light emission is originated by recombination of quantum confined excitons or by defects located at the surface. It is experimentally difficult to distinguish the two contributions since both are size-dependent. Moreover, all the studies were performed on different systems and consequently the comparisons were not free from ambiguities. Here we relate the spectroscopic properties of pyrolytic Si nanocrystals, aged in air, and after complete conversion to amorphous silica by alkali etching-assisted oxidation. The strong resemblance of the spectral and time decay behavior of the red PL emission in both systems (surface oxidized nanocrystalline Si and amorphous silica sample) indicates that this emission is dominated by defects in the silicon oxide. The strongly non-exponential time behavior of the photo-luminescence emission in both systems can be modeled as the sum of exponential decays from the emitting defects, thus ruling out the interpretation in terms of the so-called ''stretched exponential'' decay. Using this model we also obtained the emission energy and inhomogeneous linewidth of the luminescent defects, allowing us to identify them as the non-bridging oxygen hole centers. The emission energy of these defects depends strongly on their physical and chemical environment and can produce a shift apparently due to the size effect. (copyright 2011 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim) (orig.)

  13. Porous silicon for photosensitized formation of singlet oxygen in water and in simulated body fluid: two methods of modification by undecylenic acid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pastor, Ester; Balaguer, Maria; Bychto, Leszek; Salonen, Jarno; Lehto, Vesa-Pekka; Matveeva, Eugenia; Chirvony, Vladimir

    2009-06-01

    Initially H-terminated and therefore hydrophobic surface of electrochemically prepared luminescent porous silicon (PSi) powder was transformed to the hydrophilic one by means of surface modification by undecylenic acid. Physical adsorption of undecylenic acid as a non-ionic surfactant and its chemical binding through C[triple bond]C bond opening and Si-C bond formation were applied as two different methods of PSi surface modification, physical and chemical modification, respectively. Luminescence of aqueous suspensions of the both types of modified PSi powders in merely water and in simulated body fluid physiological electrolyte was measured as a function of time. Many-fold (up to 20 times) building-up of the luminescence intensity was observed for PSi aqueous suspensions during the first few days, the growth was followed by a slower (a week and more) luminescence intensity decay. As it is evidenced by FTIR spectra and SEM images, the effect of the luminescence growth and decay of PSi suspension in water can be in part attributed to the PSi surface oxidation accompanied by its dissolution and de-aggregation of large PSi particles. It is concluded also from the experiments on PSi luminescence reversible quenching by O2 that SiO-related surface states with the excitation energy about 2.2 eV are formed during water-assisted oxidation of Si nanocrystal surface. An appearance of a large number of such surface states can be also responsible for the observed PSi luminescence building-up.

  14. Measuring a 10,000-fold enhancement of singlet molecular oxygen (1O2*) concentration on illuminated ice relative to the corresponding liquid solution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bower, Jonathan P.; Anastasio, Cort

    2013-08-01

    Much attention has focused on the highly reactive hydroxyl radical in the oxidation of trace organic compounds on snow and ice (and subsequent release of volatile organics to the atmospheric boundary layer) but other oxidants are likely also important in this processing. Here we examine the ice chemistry of singlet molecular oxygen (1O2*), which can be significant in atmospheric water drops but has not been examined in ice or snow. To examine 1O2* on ice we illuminate laboratory ices containing Rose Bengal (RB) as the source of 1O2*, furfuryl alcohol (FFA) as the probe, and Na2SO4 to control the total solute concentration. We find that the 1O2*-mediated loss of FFA (and, thus, the 1O2* concentration) is up to 11,000 times greater on ice than in the equivalent liquid sample at the same photon flux. We attribute this large increase in the 1O2* steady-state concentration to the freeze-concentration of solutes into liquid-like regions (LLRs) in/on ice: compared to the initial solution, in the LLRs of ice the sources for 1O2* are highly concentrated, while the concentration of the dominant sink for 1O2* (i.e., water) remains largely unchanged. Similar to results expected in liquid solution, rates of FFA loss in ice depend on both the initial sensitizer concentration and temperature, providing evidence that these reactions occur in LLRs. However, we find that the enhancement in 1O2* concentrations on ice does not follow predictions from freezing-point depression, likely because experiments were conducted below the eutectic temperature for sodium sulfate, where all of the salt should have precipitated. We also explore a method for separating 1O2* and rad OH contributions to FFA oxidation in laboratory ices and show its application to two natural snow samples. We find that 1O2* concentrations in these snows are approximately 100 times higher than observed in polluted, mid-latitude fog waters, showing that the enhancement of 1O2* on ice is environmentally relevant and that

  15. Interrogation of metabolic and oxygen states of tumors with fiber-based luminescence lifetime spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lukina, Maria; Orlova, Anna; Shirmanova, Marina; Shirokov, Daniil; Pavlikov, Anton; Neubauer, Antje; Studier, Hauke; Becker, Wolfgang; Zagaynova, Elena; Yoshihara, Toshitada; Tobita, Seiji; Shcheslavskiy, Vladislav

    2017-02-15

    The study of metabolic and oxygen states of cells in a tumor in vivo is crucial for understanding of the mechanisms responsible for tumor development and provides background for the relevant tumor's treatment. Here, we show that a specially designed implantable fiber-optic probe provides a promising tool for optical interrogation of metabolic and oxygen states of a tumor in vivo. In our experiments, the excitation light from a ps diode laser source is delivered to the sample through an exchangeable tip via a multimode fiber, and the emission light is transferred to the detector by another multimode fiber. Fluorescence lifetime of a nicotinamid adenine dinucleotide (NAD(P)H) and phosphorescence lifetime of an oxygen sensor based on an iridium (III) complex of enzothienylpyridine (BTPDM1) are explored both in model experiment in solutions and in living mice.

  16. Microvascular and mitochondrial PO 2 simultaneously measured by oxygen-dependent delayed luminescence

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    S.I.A. Bodmer (Sander I. A.); G. Balestra (Gianmarco); F.A. Harms (Floor A.); T. Johannes (Tanja); N.J.H. Raat (Nicolaas); R.J. Stolker (Robert); E.G. Mik (Egbert)

    2012-01-01

    textabstractMeasurement of tissue oxygenation is a complex task and various techniques have led to a wide range of tissue PO 2 values and contradictory results. Tissue is compartmentalized in microcirculation, interstitium and intracellular space and current techniques are biased towards a certain

  17. A prototype of an electric-discharge gas flow oxygen−iodine laser: I. Modeling of the processes of singlet oxygen generation in a transverse cryogenic slab RF discharge

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vagin, N. P.; Ionin, A. A.; Kochetov, I. V.; Napartovich, A. P.; Sinitsyn, D. V.; Yuryshev, N. N.

    2017-01-01

    The existing kinetic model describing self-sustained and electroionization discharges in mixtures enriched with singlet oxygen has been modified to calculate the characteristics of a flow RF discharge in molecular oxygen and its mixtures with helium. The simulations were performed in the gas plug-flow approximation, i.e., the evolution of the plasma components during their motion along the channel was represented as their evolution in time. The calculations were carried out for the O 2 : He = 1: 0, 1: 1, 1: 2, and 1: 3 mixtures at an oxygen partial pressure of 7.5 Torr. It is shown that, under these conditions, volumetric gas heating in a discharge in pure molecular oxygen prevails over gas cooling via heat conduction even at an electrode temperature as low as ~100 K. When molecular oxygen is diluted with helium, the behavior of the gas temperature changes substantially: heat removal begins to prevail over volumetric gas heating, and the gas temperature at the outlet of the discharge zone drops to ~220–230 K at room gas temperature at the inlet, which is very important in the context of achieving the generation threshold in an electric-discharge oxygen−iodine laser based on a slab cryogenic RF discharge.

  18. A prototype of an electric-discharge gas flow oxygen−iodine laser: I. Modeling of the processes of singlet oxygen generation in a transverse cryogenic slab RF discharge

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vagin, N. P.; Ionin, A. A., E-mail: aion@sci.lebedev.ru; Kochetov, I. V.; Napartovich, A. P.; Sinitsyn, D. V., E-mail: dsinit@sci.lebedev.ru; Yuryshev, N. N. [Russian Academy of Sciences, Lebedev Physical Institute (Russian Federation)

    2017-03-15

    The existing kinetic model describing self-sustained and electroionization discharges in mixtures enriched with singlet oxygen has been modified to calculate the characteristics of a flow RF discharge in molecular oxygen and its mixtures with helium. The simulations were performed in the gas plug-flow approximation, i.e., the evolution of the plasma components during their motion along the channel was represented as their evolution in time. The calculations were carried out for the O{sub 2}: He = 1: 0, 1: 1, 1: 2, and 1: 3 mixtures at an oxygen partial pressure of 7.5 Torr. It is shown that, under these conditions, volumetric gas heating in a discharge in pure molecular oxygen prevails over gas cooling via heat conduction even at an electrode temperature as low as ~100 K. When molecular oxygen is diluted with helium, the behavior of the gas temperature changes substantially: heat removal begins to prevail over volumetric gas heating, and the gas temperature at the outlet of the discharge zone drops to ~220–230 K at room gas temperature at the inlet, which is very important in the context of achieving the generation threshold in an electric-discharge oxygen−iodine laser based on a slab cryogenic RF discharge.

  19. Down-conversion luminescence from (Ce, Yb) co-doped oxygen-rich silicon oxides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heng, C. L.; Wang, T.; Su, W. Y.; Wu, H. C.; Yin, P. G.; Finstad, T. G.

    2016-01-01

    We have studied down-conversion photoluminescence (PL) from (Ce, Yb) co-doped “oxygen rich” silicon oxide films prepared by sputtering and annealing. The Ce"3"+ ∼510 nm PL is sensitive to the Ce concentration of the films and is much stronger for 3 at. % Ce than for 2 at. % Ce after annealing at 1200 °C. The PL emission and excitation spectroscopy results indicate that the excitation of Yb"3"+ is mainly through an energy transfer from Ce"3"+ to Yb"3"+, oxide defects also play a role in the excitation of Yb"3"+ after lower temperature (∼800 °C) annealing. The Ce"3"+ 510 nm photon excites mostly only one Yb"3"+ 980 nm photon. Temperature-dependent PL measurements suggest that the energy transfer from Ce"3"+ to Yb"3"+ is partly thermally activated.

  20. A New Optic Technology for Measuring Oxygen Dissolved in Water: Luminescence Dissolved Oxygen (LDO); Nueva tecnologia optica para la medicion de oxigeno disuelto en agua: oxigeno disuelto por luminiscencia (LDO)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2003-07-01

    Continual measurement of oxygen in the active sludge tank is a very important parameter is the biological treatment of waste waters. Traditional electrochemical sensors are based on polarographic or galvanic cells, a technique which produces electrolyte consumption and progressive deterioration of the anode. Both effects inevitable lead to a drift in the measurement signal, which requires periodical calibration. Lange has developed a completely new technique for its new LDO sensor for measuring oxygen concentration in waste waters. This technique is based on the luminescent radiation of a luminescent substance (luminophore) and reduces the determination to the purely physical measurement of time, so that, in theory it is free of drift and there is no need for the use to calibrate the sensor. (Author)

  1. The role of oxygen in photochemical transformations of the anthraquinone solutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Akylbaev, Zh.S.; Karitskaya, S.G.; Kobzev, G.I.

    2001-01-01

    The analysis of possible spin conditions of reaction key product reagents proceeding in anthraquinone solution has been conducted. It is shown that photoproduct molecules of anthraquinone with excited electrons appear in the solution as a result of interaction of triplet anthraquinone molecules with alcohol molecules. The considerable influence of singlet oxygen on quenching the photoproduct luminescence and its ability to reduce anthraquinone solution into the triplet condition are shown. (author)

  2. Water-soluble octahedral molybdenum cluster compounds Na2[Mo6I8(N3)6] and Na2[Mo6I8(NCS)6]: Syntheses, luminescence, and in vitro studies

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kirakci, Kaplan; Kubát, Pavel; Kučeráková, Monika; Šícha, Václav; Gbelcová, H.; Lovecká, P.; Grznárová, P.; Ruml, T.; Lang, Kamil

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 441, FEB (2016), s. 42-49 ISSN 0020-1693 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA13-05114S Institutional support: RVO:61388980 ; RVO:61388955 ; RVO:68378271 Keywords : Cluster compounds * Luminescence * Singlet oxygen * Toxicity Subject RIV: CA - Inorganic Chemistry; CF - Physical ; Theoretical Chemistry (UFCH-W); CF - Physical ; Theoretical Chemistry (FZU-D) Impact factor: 2.002, year: 2016

  3. Singlet Ground State Magnetism:

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Loidl, A.; Knorr, K.; Kjems, Jørgen

    1979-01-01

    The magneticGamma 1 –Gamma 4 exciton of the singlet ground state system TbP has been studied by inelastic neutron scattering above the antiferromagnetic ordering temperature. Considerable dispersion and a pronounced splitting was found in the [100] and [110] directions. Both the band width...

  4. Oxygen negative glow: reactive species and emissivity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sahli, Khaled

    1991-01-01

    This research thesis addresses the study of a specific type of oxygen plasma created by electron beams (1 keV, 20 mA/cm"2), negative glow of a luminescent discharge in abnormal regime. The objective is to test the qualities of this plasma as source of two 'active' species of oxygen (singlet molecular oxygen and atomic oxygen) which are useful in applications. The experiment mainly bears on the use of VUV (120 to 150 nm) absorption spectroscopy measurements of concentrations of these both species, and on the recording of plasma emissivity space profiles in the visible region (450 to 850 nm). It appears that low concentrations of singlet oxygen definitely exclude this type of discharge for iodine laser applications. On the contrary, concentrations measured for atomic oxygen show it is a good candidate for the oxidation of large surfaces by sheets of beams. The satisfying comparison of emissivity results with a published model confirm the prevailing role of fast electrons, and gives evidence of an important effect of temperature: temperature can reach 1000 K, and this is in agreement with the presented measurement [fr

  5. Small CAB-like proteins prevent formation of singlet oxygen in the damaged photosystem II complex of the cyanobacterium Synechocystis sp PCC 6803

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Sinha, R. K.; Komenda, Josef; Knoppová, Jana; Sedlářová, M.; Pospíšil, P.

    2012-01-01

    Roč. 35, č. 4 (2012), s. 806-818 ISSN 0140-7791 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) ED2.1.00/03.0110; GA ČR(CZ) GAP501/11/0377 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50200510 Keywords : oxidative stress * photoinhibition * reactive oxygen species Subject RIV: EE - Microbiology, Virology Impact factor: 5.135, year: 2012

  6. Synthesis, singlet-oxygen photogeneration, two-photon absorption, photo-induced DNA cleavage and cytotoxic properties of an amphiphilic β-Schiff-base linked Ru(II) polypyridyl–porphyrin conjugate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ke, Hanzhong; Ma, Wanpeng; Wang, Hongda; Cheng, Guoe; Yuan, Han; Wong, Wai-Kwok; Kwong, Daniel W.J.; Tam, Hoi-Lam; Cheah, Kok-Wai; Chan, Chi-Fai; Wong, Ka-Leung

    2014-01-01

    A novel porphyrin–polypyridyl ruthenium(II) conjugate (TPP–Ru), in which the ruthenium(II) polypyridyl moiety is linked to the β-position of the tetraphenylporphyrin via a Schiff base linkage, has been synthesized and characterized by 1 H NMR, HRMS and UV–visible spectroscopy. The relative singlet oxygen quantum yield and two-photon absorption cross-section of this conjugate, together with its photo-induced DNA cleavage and cytotoxic activities were measured. The results show that the amphiphilic ruthenium(II) polypyridyl–porphyrin conjugate is an effective DNA photocleavage agent, with potential application in one- and two-photon absorption anti-cancer photodynamic therapy. - Highlights: • New porphyrin–ruthenium(II) polypyridyl complexes (TTP–Ru) have been synthesized. • The TTP–Ru shows substantial two-photon absorption cross-section (σ 2 =391 GM). • The TTP–Ru exhibits a substantial 1 O 2 quantum yield (0.64±0.13). • The TTP–Ru exhibits a strong DNA cleavage activity upon photo-excitation. • The TTP–Ru is available for in vitro imaging and as a photodynamic therapy agent

  7. Synthesis, singlet-oxygen photogeneration, two-photon absorption, photo-induced DNA cleavage and cytotoxic properties of an amphiphilic β-Schiff-base linked Ru(II) polypyridyl–porphyrin conjugate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ke, Hanzhong, E-mail: kehanz@163.com [Faculty of Material Science and Chemistry, China University of Geosciences, Wuhan, Hubei 430074 (China); Ma, Wanpeng; Wang, Hongda; Cheng, Guoe [Faculty of Material Science and Chemistry, China University of Geosciences, Wuhan, Hubei 430074 (China); Yuan, Han [Department of Chemistry, Hong Kong Baptist University, Kowloon Tong, Hong Kong SAR (China); Wong, Wai-Kwok, E-mail: wkwong@hkbu.edu.hk [Department of Chemistry, Hong Kong Baptist University, Kowloon Tong, Hong Kong SAR (China); Institute of Advanced Materials, Hong Kong Baptist University, Kowloon Tong, Hong Kong SAR (China); Kwong, Daniel W.J. [Department of Chemistry, Hong Kong Baptist University, Kowloon Tong, Hong Kong SAR (China); Tam, Hoi-Lam; Cheah, Kok-Wai [Department of Physics, Hong Kong Baptist University, Kowloon Tong, Hong Kong SAR (China); Institute of Advanced Materials, Hong Kong Baptist University, Kowloon Tong, Hong Kong SAR (China); Chan, Chi-Fai; Wong, Ka-Leung [Department of Chemistry, Hong Kong Baptist University, Kowloon Tong, Hong Kong SAR (China)

    2014-10-15

    A novel porphyrin–polypyridyl ruthenium(II) conjugate (TPP–Ru), in which the ruthenium(II) polypyridyl moiety is linked to the β-position of the tetraphenylporphyrin via a Schiff base linkage, has been synthesized and characterized by {sup 1}H NMR, HRMS and UV–visible spectroscopy. The relative singlet oxygen quantum yield and two-photon absorption cross-section of this conjugate, together with its photo-induced DNA cleavage and cytotoxic activities were measured. The results show that the amphiphilic ruthenium(II) polypyridyl–porphyrin conjugate is an effective DNA photocleavage agent, with potential application in one- and two-photon absorption anti-cancer photodynamic therapy. - Highlights: • New porphyrin–ruthenium(II) polypyridyl complexes (TTP–Ru) have been synthesized. • The TTP–Ru shows substantial two-photon absorption cross-section (σ{sub 2}=391 GM). • The TTP–Ru exhibits a substantial {sup 1}O{sub 2} quantum yield (0.64±0.13). • The TTP–Ru exhibits a strong DNA cleavage activity upon photo-excitation. • The TTP–Ru is available for in vitro imaging and as a photodynamic therapy agent.

  8. Oxygen toxicity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. A. van der Westhuizen

    1990-07-01

    Full Text Available Oxygen has been discovered about 200 years ago. Since then the vital physiological involvement of oxygen in various biologi­cal processes, mainly energy production, has been established. However, in the body molecular oxygen can be converted to toxic oxygen metabolites such as superoxide anion, hydrogen peroxide, the hydroxyl radical and singlet oxygen. These toxic metabolites are produced mainly in the mitochondria, plasma membranes and endoplasmic reticulum.

  9. Real-time monitoring of luminescent lifetime changes of PtOEP oxygen sensing film with LED/photodiode-based time-domain lifetime device.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ji, Shaomin; Wu, Wanhua; Wu, Yubo; Zhao, Taiyang; Zhou, Fuke; Yang, Yubin; Zhang, Xin; Liang, Xiaofen; Wu, Wenting; Chi, Lina; Wang, Zhonggang; Zhao, Jianzhang

    2009-05-01

    A cost-effective LED/photodiode(PD)-based time-domain luminescent lifetime measuring device with rugged electronics and simplified algorithms was assembled and successfully used to characterize oxygen sensing films, by continuously monitoring phosphorescence lifetime changes of phosphorescent platinum octaethylporphyrin (PtOEP) in cardo poly(aryl ether ketone) polymer (IMPEK-C) vs. variation of the oxygen partial pressure in a gas mixture (O(2)/N(2)). The results determined by both phosphorescence lifetime and intensity monitoring were compared and the lifetime mode gave results which are in good agreement with the intensity mode. The lifetime-based linear Stern-Volmer plot indicates that the PtOEP molecules are nearly homogeneously distributed in the sensing film. The phosphorescent lifetime of the PtOEP film changes from 75 micros in neat N(2) to less than 2 micros in neat O(2). The sensing system (by combination of the PtOEP sensing film with the home-assembled lifetime device) gives a high lifetime-based O(2) sensing resolution, e.g. about 2 micros Torr(-1) for low O(2) concentration (below 3.5% O(2), V/V). This feasible lifetime device configuration is affordable to most sensor laboratories and the device may facilitate the study of O(2) sensing material with the continuous lifetime monitoring method.

  10. Photochemical characterization of water samples from Minnesota and Vermont sites with malformed frogs: potential influence of photosensitization by singlet molecular oxygen (1O2) and free radicals on aquatic toxicity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bilski, P.; Burkhart, J.G.; Chignell, C.F.

    2003-01-01

    Environmental pollutants activated by UV sunlight may have contributed to the recent decline in frog populations and the concomitant increase in malformations in the USA and abroad. UV radiation is able to mutate DNA and to initiate photosensitization processes that generate mutagenic and biologically disruptive oxygen transients. We have examined water from selected sites in Minnesota and Vermont using singlet molecular oxygen ( 1 O 2 ), detected by its phosphorescence and free radicals detected by spin trapping, as markers for photosensitization. Water from a pond in Minnesota with malformed frogs, which also causes malformations in the laboratory, photosensitized more 1 O 2 , even though it absorbed less UV light compared to water from a site that did not cause malformations. This suggested that unknown natural or pollutant agents were present, and that photosensitization may be involved. Although UV irradiation of the two Minnesota water samples in the presence of the spin trap 5,5-dimethyl-1-pyrroline N-oxide (DMPO) revealed the presence of the DMPO/·OH, DMPO/·H(e aq - ) and DMPO/·C(unknown) adducts there were no qualitative or quantitative differences between them. We also examined water samples from several sites in Vermont, and compared them by measuring the quantum yield of 1 O 2 photosensitization. While all the Vermont samples produced a small amount of 1 O 2 , there was no clear correlation with the incidence of frog malformations. However, the samples differed strongly in absorption spectra and the ability to quench 1 O 2 . These factors may determine how much UV light is absorbed and converted into chemical reactions. Our results show that photochemical characterization of 1 O 2 photosensitization is possible in untreated natural water samples. Photosensitization falls into the category of global factors that may be closely associated with the effects of UV irradiation of the Earth's environments. Thus, photosensitization might be an important

  11. Photochemical characterization of water samples from Minnesota and Vermont sites with malformed frogs: potential influence of photosensitization by singlet molecular oxygen ({sup 1}O{sub 2}) and free radicals on aquatic toxicity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bilski, P.; Burkhart, J.G.; Chignell, C.F

    2003-11-19

    Environmental pollutants activated by UV sunlight may have contributed to the recent decline in frog populations and the concomitant increase in malformations in the USA and abroad. UV radiation is able to mutate DNA and to initiate photosensitization processes that generate mutagenic and biologically disruptive oxygen transients. We have examined water from selected sites in Minnesota and Vermont using singlet molecular oxygen ({sup 1}O{sub 2}), detected by its phosphorescence and free radicals detected by spin trapping, as markers for photosensitization. Water from a pond in Minnesota with malformed frogs, which also causes malformations in the laboratory, photosensitized more {sup 1}O{sub 2}, even though it absorbed less UV light compared to water from a site that did not cause malformations. This suggested that unknown natural or pollutant agents were present, and that photosensitization may be involved. Although UV irradiation of the two Minnesota water samples in the presence of the spin trap 5,5-dimethyl-1-pyrroline N-oxide (DMPO) revealed the presence of the DMPO/{center_dot}OH, DMPO/{center_dot}H(e{sub aq}{sup -}) and DMPO/{center_dot}C(unknown) adducts there were no qualitative or quantitative differences between them. We also examined water samples from several sites in Vermont, and compared them by measuring the quantum yield of {sup 1}O{sub 2} photosensitization. While all the Vermont samples produced a small amount of {sup 1}O{sub 2}, there was no clear correlation with the incidence of frog malformations. However, the samples differed strongly in absorption spectra and the ability to quench {sup 1}O{sub 2}. These factors may determine how much UV light is absorbed and converted into chemical reactions. Our results show that photochemical characterization of {sup 1}O{sub 2} photosensitization is possible in untreated natural water samples. Photosensitization falls into the category of global factors that may be closely associated with the effects of

  12. Singlets of fermionic gauge symmetries

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bergshoeff, E.A.; Kallosh, R.E.; Rahmanov, M.A.

    1989-01-01

    We investigate under which conditions singlets of fermionic gauge symmetries which are "square roots of gravity" can exist. Their existence is non-trivial because there are no fields neutral in gravity. We tabulate several examples of singlets of global and local supersymmetry and κ-symmetry and

  13. Luminescence nanothermometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaque, Daniel; Vetrone, Fiorenzo

    2012-07-01

    The current status of luminescence nanothermometry is reviewed in detail. Based on the main parameters of luminescence including intensity, bandwidth, bandshape, polarization, spectral shift and lifetime, we initially describe and compare the different classes of luminescence nanothermometry. Subsequently, the various luminescent materials used in each case are discussed and the mechanisms at the root of the luminescence thermal sensitivity are described. The most important results obtained in each case are summarized and the advantages and disadvantages of these approaches are discussed.The current status of luminescence nanothermometry is reviewed in detail. Based on the main parameters of luminescence including intensity, bandwidth, bandshape, polarization, spectral shift and lifetime, we initially describe and compare the different classes of luminescence nanothermometry. Subsequently, the various luminescent materials used in each case are discussed and the mechanisms at the root of the luminescence thermal sensitivity are described. The most important results obtained in each case are summarized and the advantages and disadvantages of these approaches are discussed. This work was supported by the Universidad Autónoma de Madrid and Comunidad Autónoma de Madrid (Project S2009/MAT-1756), by the Spanish Ministerio de Educacion y Ciencia (MAT2010-16161) and by Caja Madrid Foundation.

  14. Luminescent Oxygen Gas Sensors Based on Nanometer-Thick Hybrid Films of Iridium Complexes and Clay Minerals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hisako Sato

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The use of Ir(III complexes in photo-responsive molecular devices for oxygen gas sensing is reviewed. Attention is focused on the immobilization of Ir(III complexes in organic or inorganic host materials such as polymers, silica and clays in order to enhance robustness and reliability. Our recent works on constructing nanometer-thick films comprised of cyclometalated cationic Ir(III complexes and clay minerals are described. The achievement of multi-emitting properties in response to oxygen pressure is demonstrated.

  15. Gaugino mass without singlets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Giudice, Gian F.; Luty, Markus A.; Murayama, Hitoshi; Rattazzi, Riccardo

    1998-01-01

    In models with dynamical supersymmetry breaking in the hidden sector, the gaugino masses in the observable sector have been believed to be extremely suppressed (below 1 keV), unless there is a gauge singlet in the hidden sector with specific couplings to the observable sector gauge multiplets. We point out that there is a pure supergravity contribution to gaugino masses at the quantum level arising from the superconformal anomaly. Our results are valid to all orders in perturbation theory and are related to the ''exact'' beta functions for soft terms. There is also an anomaly contribution to the A terms proportional to the beta function of the corresponding Yukawa coupling. The gaugino masses are proportional to the corresponding gauge beta functions, and so do not satisfy the usual GUT relations

  16. Singlet-triplet annihilation in single LHCII complexes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gruber, J.M.; Chmeliov, J.; Kruger, T.P.J.; Valkunas, L.; van Grondelle, R.

    2015-01-01

    In light harvesting complex II (LHCII) of higher plants and green algae, carotenoids (Cars) have an important function to quench chlorophyll (Chl) triplet states and therefore avoid the production of harmful singlet oxygen. The resulting Car triplet states lead to a non-linear self-quenching

  17. Search for Singlet Fission Chromophores

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Havlas, Z.; Akdag, A.; Smith, M. B.; Dron, P.; Johnson, J. C.; Nozik, A. J.; Michl, J.

    2012-01-01

    Singlet fission, in which a singlet excited chromophore shares its energy with a ground-state neighbor and both end up in their triplet states, is of potential interest for solar cells. Only a handful of compounds, mostly alternant hydrocarbons, are known to perform efficiently. In view of the large number of conditions that a successful candidate for a practical cell has to meet, it appears desirable to extend the present list of high performers to additional classes of compounds. We have (i) identified design rules for new singlet fission chromophores and for their coupling to covalent dimers, (ii) synthesized them, and (iii) evaluated their performance as neat solids or covalent dimers.

  18. Luminescence dating

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rieser, U.

    2009-01-01

    The luminescence techniques have evolved over the last 40 years to a powerful dating instrument in archaeology and geoscience. Depending on how the luminescence is stimulated, one distinguishes the phenomena of thermoluminescence (TL), optically stimulated luminescence (OSL) and infrared stimulated luminescence (IRSL). Each of these phenomena has its specific potential for dating various archaeological materals in the time range from medieval back to palaeolithic periods, or, speaking in geological terms, for dating of Holocene and late Pleistocene objects. The OSL and IRSL techniques are sometimes treated together as 'optical dating'. The luminescence techniques differ from other major dating techniques, such as 14 C, essentially by their applicability to inorganic materials, their wide age-range from about 100 years to more than 100,000 years and the kind of datable events which are the last exposure to heat or to light. (author). 10 refs., 3 figs.

  19. Luminescence dating

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rieser, U.

    2008-01-01

    The luminescence techniques have evolved over the last 40 years to a powerful dating instrument in archaeology and geoscience. Depending on how the luminescence is stimulated, one distinguishes the phenomena of thermoluminescence (TL), optically stimulated luminescence (OSL) and infrared stimulated luminescence (IRSL). Each of these phenomena has its specific potential for dating various archaeological materals in the time range from medieval back to palaeolithic periods, or, speaking in geological terms, for dating of Holocene and late Pleistocene objects. The OSL and IRSL techniques are sometimes treated together as 'optical dating'. The luminescence techniques differ from other major dating techniques, such as 14 C, essentially by their applicability to inorganic materials, their wide age-range from about 100 years to more than 100,000 years and the kind of datable events which are the last exposure to heat or to light. (author). 10 refs., 3 figs

  20. Luminescence dating

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rieser, U.

    2012-01-01

    The luminescence techniques have evolved over the last 40 years to a powerful dating instrument in archaeology and geoscience. Depending on how the luminescence is stimulated, one distinguishes the phenomena of thermoluminescence (TL), optically stimulated luminescence (OSL) and infrared stimulated luminescence (IRSL). Each of these phenomena has its specific potential for dating various archaeological materials in the time range from medieval back to palaeolithic periods, or, speaking in geological terms, for dating of Holocene and late Pleistocene objects. The OSL and IRSL techniques are sometimes treated together as 'optical dating'. The luminescence techniques differ from other major dating techniques, such as 14 C, essentially by their applicability to inorganic materials, their wide age-range from about 100 years to more than 100,000 years and the kind of datable events which are the last exposure to heat or to light. (author). 10 refs., 3 figs.

  1. Luminescence dating

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rieser, U.

    2009-01-01

    The luminescence techniques have evolved over the last 40 years to a powerful dating instrument in archaeology and geoscience. Depending on how the luminescence is stimulated, one distinguishes the phenomena of thermoluminescence (TL), optically stimulated luminescence (OSL) and infrared stimulated luminescence (IRSL). Each of these phenomena has its specific potential for dating various archaeological materals in the time range from medieval back to palaeolithic periods, or, speaking in geological terms, for dating of Holocene and late Pleistocene objects. The OSL and IRSL techniques are sometimes treated together as 'optical dating'. The luminescence techniques differ from other major dating techniques, such as 14 C, essentially by their applicability to inorganic materials, their wide age-range from about 100 years to more than 100,000 years and the kind of datable events which are the last exposure to heat or to light. (author). 10 refs., 3 figs

  2. Luminescence dating

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rieser, U.

    2013-01-01

    The luminescence techniques have evolved over the last 40 years to a powerful dating instrument in archaeology and geoscience. Depending on how the luminescence is stimulated, one distinguishes the phenomena of thermoluminescence (TL), optically stimulated luminescence (OSL) and infrared stimulated luminescence (IRSL). Each of these phenomena has its specific potential for dating various archaeological materials in the time range from medieval back to palaeolithic periods, or, speaking in geological terms, for dating of Holocene and late Pleistocene objects. The OSL and IRSL techniques are sometimes treated together as 'optical dating'. The luminescence techniques differ from other major dating techniques, such as 14 C, essentially by their applicability to inorganic materials, their wide age-range from about 100 years to more than 100,000 years and the kind of datable events which are the last exposure to heat or to light. (author). 10 refs., 3 figs.

  3. luminescence properties

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    1Faculty of Science and Arts, Department of Chemistry, Bozok University, Yozgat 66900, Turkey. 2Faculty of Science, Department of Chemistry, Erciyes ... synthesized by the conventional solid-state reaction method, their crystal structures and luminescence properties were investigated. X-ray diffraction patterns (XRD) ...

  4. Luminescent properties of composite scintillators based on PPO and o-POPOP doped SiO{sub 2} xerogel matrices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Viagin, O., E-mail: viagin@isma.kharkov.ua [Institute for Scintillation Materials of NAS of Ukraine, 60 Science Ave., 61001 Kharkiv (Ukraine); Masalov, A.; Bespalova, I.; Zelenskaya, O.; Tarasov, V.; Seminko, V.; Voloshina, L. [Institute for Scintillation Materials of NAS of Ukraine, 60 Science Ave., 61001 Kharkiv (Ukraine); Zorenko, Yu. [Institute of Physics of Kazimierz Wielki University of Bydgoszcz, 2 Powstańców Wielkopolskich str., 85-090 Bydgoszcz (Poland); Malyukin, Yu. [Institute for Scintillation Materials of NAS of Ukraine, 60 Science Ave., 61001 Kharkiv (Ukraine)

    2016-11-15

    New composite scintillation detectors were obtained by incorporation of PPO and o-POPOP organic scintillators into porous sol–gel silica matrices. Composites possess high photoluminescence intensity and decay time in nanosecond range. The absolute light yield of composite scintillators at excitation by alpha-radiation is about 4000–5000 photons/MeV and the pulse–height resolution is about 30%. The investigations of time-resolved luminescence of composites performed under excitation by synchrotron radiation in the 3.7–25 eV range have shown that the non-radiative energy transfer between host matrix and dopant molecules occurs via singlet states of SiO{sub 2} oxygen-deficient centers.

  5. A spin exchange model for singlet fission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yago, Tomoaki; Wakasa, Masanobu

    2018-03-01

    Singlet fission has been analyzed with the Dexter model in which electron exchange occurs between chromophores, conserving the spin for each electron. In the present study, we propose a spin exchange model for singlet fission. In the spin exchange model, spins are exchanged by the exchange interaction between two electrons. Our analysis with simple spin functions demonstrates that singlet fission is possible by spin exchange. A necessary condition for spin exchange is a variation in exchange interactions. We also adapt the spin exchange model to triplet fusion and triplet energy transfer, which often occur after singlet fission in organic solids.

  6. Luminescent screens

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lu, C.-I.

    1982-01-01

    Luminescent screens which are useful for such purposes as intensifying screens for radiographs are comprised of a support bearing a layer of finely divided particles of a phosphor dispersed in a cross-linked polymeric matrix formed by heat-curing of a coating composition comprising an unsaturated cross-linkable polymer, a polymerizable acrylic monomer, a thermoplastic polyurethane elastomer, and a heat-activatable polymerization initiator. The phosphor layer includes voids formed by evaporation of an evaporable component which is present in the coating composition from which such layer is formed. (author)

  7. Radiative lifetime measurements of the singlet-G states of H2 and the 4p35p and 4d5D0 states of neutral oxygen atom

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Day, R.L.

    1981-01-01

    The present work reports measurements of the mean radiative lifetime for the G 1 μ/sub g/ + (v' = 0,1,2,3) and l 1 II/sub g/ + (v' = 0) Rydberg states and the K 1 μ/sub g/ + (v' = 0,1,2),M 1 μ/sub g/ + (v' = 0) and N 1 μ/sub g/ + (v' - 1,2) doubly excited of the H 2 molecule. In particular, the resulting radiative transitions G 1 μ/sub g/ + (v' = 0,1,2,3) → B 1 μ/sub u/ + (v'' = 0,1,3,5,7), l 1 II/sub g/ + (v' = 0) → B 1 μ/sub u/ + (v'' = 0), K 1 μ/sub g/ + (v' = 0,1,2) → B 1 μ/sub u/ + (v'' = 0,1), M 1 μ/sub g/ + (v' = 0) → B 1 μ/sub u/ + (v'' = 0) and N 1 μ/sub g/ + (v' = 1,2) → B 1 μ/sub u/ + (v'' = 0,2) are observed using time-resolved techniques. Radiative lifetime measurements in the range approx. 21 to 70 ns are obtained at 50 eV incident electron energy and approx. 30 mtorr H 2 gas pressure. In addition, H 2 - H 2 * quenching rate data are obtained for several rovibronic levels of the singlet-g states over the pressure range approx. 10 to 400 mtorr. In addition, time-resolved techniques are also used to observe the 4p 5 P → 3s 5 S 0 , 4p 3 P → 3s 3 S 0 , and 4d 5 D 0 → 3p 3 P multiplet transitions of the Ol spectrum occurring at lambda = 3947 A, lambda = 4368 A, and lambda = 6157 A, respectively. The excited atomic states are produced through dissociative-excitation of O 2 target gas by a pulsed electron beam of approx. 0.5 and 2 μs pulse width and 100 eV incident energy. The mean radiative lifetimes of the 4p 5 P, 4p 3 P and 4d 5 D 0 multiplets are obtained from analysis of the resulting radiative decay over the pressure range approx. 20 - 100 mtorr, and are reported as 194 ns, 161 ns, and 95 ns, respectively. The corresponding collisional deactivation cross sections for the multiplets are also obtained from the lifetime versus pressure measurements and are reported as 3.2 x 10 - 15 cm 2 , 7.7 x 10 - 15 cm 2 , and 1.6 x 10 - 15 cm 2 , respectively

  8. Colour singlets in perturbative QCD

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bassetto, A.

    1979-01-01

    In the axial gauge and at the leading log level, a definite and consistent picture seems to emerge of a parton decay into states in which many partons are found just before confinement should take place. They are grouped into colourless clusters in a number sufficient to exhaust the ''final'' state, still possessing a finite average mass. This result is peculiar of QCD, in particular of its non-abelian nature. Large transverse momenta or more generally average invariant quantities of partons are mainly due to the multiplicities involved in the branching processes. If eventually confinement would convert these clusters into hadrons (and this is of course the main issue which has still to be proven) without a large rearrangement of the colour lines, the picture we have found for colour singlets could apply to the real hadronic world. (author)

  9. Singlet fission in pentacene dimers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zirzlmeier, Johannes; Lehnherr, Dan; Coto, Pedro B.; Chernick, Erin T.; Casillas, Rubén; Basel, Bettina S.; Thoss, Michael; Tykwinski, Rik R.; Guldi, Dirk M.

    2015-01-01

    Singlet fission (SF) has the potential to supersede the traditional solar energy conversion scheme by means of boosting the photon-to-current conversion efficiencies beyond the 30% Shockley–Queisser limit. Here, we show unambiguous and compelling evidence for unprecedented intramolecular SF within regioisomeric pentacene dimers in room-temperature solutions, with observed triplet quantum yields reaching as high as 156 ± 5%. Whereas previous studies have shown that the collision of a photoexcited chromophore with a ground-state chromophore can give rise to SF, here we demonstrate that the proximity and sufficient coupling through bond or space in pentacene dimers is enough to induce intramolecular SF where two triplets are generated on one molecule. PMID:25858954

  10. Luminescence properties of some food dye-stuffs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Astanov, S.Kh.; Muminova, Z.A.; Urunov, R.G.

    2004-01-01

    The luminescence properties of the natural food dye-stuffs and vitamins in temperature range of 300-5.2 K are studied. On the basis of experimental data on quantum yields of the fluorescence, trans-cis-isomerization and luminescence of the molecular oxygen the main ways of the inactivation of electronic excitations in researching compounds have been defined. (author)

  11. Spin nematics next to spin singlets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yokoyama, Yuto; Hotta, Chisa

    2018-05-01

    We provide a route to generate nematic order in a spin-1/2 system. Unlike the well-known magnon-binding mechanism, our spin nematics requires neither the frustration effect nor spin polarization in a high field or in the vicinity of a ferromagnet, but instead appears next to the spin singlet phase. We start from a state consisting of a quantum spin-1/2 singlet dimer placed on each site of a triangular lattice, and show that interdimer ring exchange interactions efficiently dope the SU(2) triplets that itinerate and interact, easily driving a stable singlet state to either Bose-Einstein condensates or a triplet crystal, some hosting a spin nematic order. A variety of roles the ring exchange serves includes the generation of a bilinear-biquadratic interaction between nearby triplets, which is responsible for the emergent nematic order separated from the singlet phase by a first-order transition.

  12. Signatures for exotic quark singlets from superstrings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barger, V.; Deshpande, N.G.; Gunion, J.F.

    1986-09-01

    We consider various scenarios, at Superconducting Super Collider energy and luminosity, for detection of the extra colored, weak isospin singlet, charge -1/3 heavy fermion resulting from E 6 compactification in superstring theories

  13. Feldspar, Infrared Stimulated Luminescence

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jain, Mayank

    2014-01-01

    This entry primarily concerns the characteristics and the origins of infrared-stimulated luminescence in feldspars.......This entry primarily concerns the characteristics and the origins of infrared-stimulated luminescence in feldspars....

  14. Singlet fermionic dark matter with Veltman conditions

    OpenAIRE

    Kim, Yeong Gyun; Lee, Kang Young; Nam, Soo-hyeon

    2018-01-01

    We reexamine a renormalizable model of a fermionic dark matter with a gauge singlet Dirac fermion and a real singlet scalar which can ameliorate the scalar mass hierarchy problem of the Standard Model (SM). Our model setup is the minimal extension of the SM for which a realistic dark matter (DM) candidate is provided and the cancellation of one-loop quadratic divergence to the scalar masses can be achieved by the Veltman condition (VC) simultaneously. This model extension, although renormaliz...

  15. Singlet axial constant from QCD sum rules

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Belitskij, A.V.; Teryaev, O.V.

    1995-01-01

    We analyze the singlet axial form factor of the proton for small momentum transferred in the framework of QCD sum rules using the interpolating nucleon current which explicitly accounts for the gluonic degrees of freedom. As the result we come to the quantitative prediction of the singlet axial constant. It is shown that the bilocal power corrections play the most important role in the analysis. 21 refs., 3 figs

  16. Quenching of porous silicon photoluminescence by molecular oxygen and dependence of this phenomenon on storing media and method of preparation of pSi photosensitizer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balaguer, María; Matveeva, Eugenia

    2010-10-01

    The quenching of porous silicon photoluminescence (pSi PL) by molecular oxygen has been studied in different storing media in an attempt to clarify the mechanism of the energy transfer from the silicon photosensitizer to the oxygen acceptor. Luminescent materials have been prepared by two methods: electrochemical anodizing and chemical etching. Different structural forms were used: porous layers on silicon wafer and two kinds of differently prepared powder. Dry air and liquid water were employed as storing media; quenching behaviour was under observation until total degradation of quenching properties. Singlet oxygen molecules generation through energy transfer from photoluminescent pSi was the only photosensitizing mechanism observed under dry gas conditions. This PL quenching process was preferentially developed at 760 nm (1.63 eV) that corresponds to the formation of the 1Σ singlet oxygen state. Oxidation of the pSi photosensitizer was the main factor that led to its total deactivation in a time scale of few weeks. Regarding water medium, different photosensitizing behaviour was observed. In watery conditions, two preferred energy levels were found: the one detected in dry gas and another centred at approximately 2.2 eV (550 nm). Formation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) different from singlet oxygen, such as superoxide anion or superoxide radical, can be responsible for the second one. This second quenching process developed gradually after the initial contact of pSi photosensitizer with water and then degraded. The process lasted only several hours. Therefore, functionalization of the pSi photosensitizer is probably required to stabilize its PL and quenching properties in the watery physiological conditions required for biomedical applications.

  17. Quenching of porous silicon photoluminescence by molecular oxygen and dependence of this phenomenon on storing media and method of preparation of pSi photosensitizer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Balaguer, Maria, E-mail: mabara@itq.upv.e [Technical University of Valencia, Nanophotonics Technology Center (Spain); Matveeva, Eugenia, E-mail: eumat@em-silicon.co [EM-Silicon Nano-Technologies, S.L. (Spain)

    2010-10-15

    The quenching of porous silicon photoluminescence (pSi PL) by molecular oxygen has been studied in different storing media in an attempt to clarify the mechanism of the energy transfer from the silicon photosensitizer to the oxygen acceptor. Luminescent materials have been prepared by two methods: electrochemical anodizing and chemical etching. Different structural forms were used: porous layers on silicon wafer and two kinds of differently prepared powder. Dry air and liquid water were employed as storing media; quenching behaviour was under observation until total degradation of quenching properties. Singlet oxygen molecules generation through energy transfer from photoluminescent pSi was the only photosensitizing mechanism observed under dry gas conditions. This PL quenching process was preferentially developed at 760 nm (1.63 eV) that corresponds to the formation of the {sup 1{Sigma}} singlet oxygen state. Oxidation of the pSi photosensitizer was the main factor that led to its total deactivation in a time scale of few weeks. Regarding water medium, different photosensitizing behaviour was observed. In watery conditions, two preferred energy levels were found: the one detected in dry gas and another centred at approximately 2.2 eV (550 nm). Formation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) different from singlet oxygen, such as superoxide anion or superoxide radical, can be responsible for the second one. This second quenching process developed gradually after the initial contact of pSi photosensitizer with water and then degraded. The process lasted only several hours. Therefore, functionalization of the pSi photosensitizer is probably required to stabilize its PL and quenching properties in the watery physiological conditions required for biomedical applications.

  18. Effect of oxygen pressure on the structure and luminescence of Eu-doped Gd{sub 2}O{sub 3} thin films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wellenius, Patrick; Muth, John F. [Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, NC State University, Raleigh, NC 27606 (United States); Smith, Eric R. [Kratos Defense and Security Solutions, Inc., 5030 Bradford Dr., Huntsville, AL 35805 (United States); Wu, Pae C [Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, Duke University, Durham, NC 27708 (United States); Everitt, Henry O. [Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, Duke University, Durham, NC 27708 (United States); Army Aviation and Missile RD and E Center, Redstone Arsenal, AL 35898 (United States)

    2010-08-15

    Europium-doped gadolinium oxide (Gd{sub 2}O{sub 3}) thin films were deposited on sapphire substrates by pulsed laser deposition (PLD). The effect of oxygen pressure during deposition on the structure of the thin films, investigated by transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and X-ray diffraction (XRD), was correlated to photoluminescence spectra. The polycrystalline films, like the one deposited in 5 mTorr oxygen environment, were primarily monoclinic phase; however the rarer cubic phase was achieved at 50 mTorr pressure. Time-integrated and time-resolved photoluminescence (TIPL and TRPL) spectra of the bright {sup 5}D{sub 0} to {sup 7}F{sub 2} radiative transition revealed how the differing host material phases altered the local environment of the Eu dopants. (Abstract Copyright [2010], Wiley Periodicals, Inc.)

  19. Chemisorptive luminescence on γ-irradiated magnesium oxide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Breakspere, R.J.; Read, R.L.

    1976-01-01

    The intensity of a chemisorptive luminescence produced on MgO by oxygen at room temperature is increased by prior γ-irradiation of the MgO, under vacuum, before adsorption. This enhancement of the luminescence increases with radiation dose up to 1.9 x 10 6 rad and is attributed to the interaction between the F + sub (s) centres produced by the radiation and oxygen molecules arriving at the surface from the gas phase. In this work, the spectrum of the emitted luminescence could not be measured. (author)

  20. Luminescence and energy transfer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blasse, G; Bleijenberg, K C; Powell, R C

    1980-01-01

    This paper deals with the luminescence of uranate centres in solids. The luminescence properties are influenced by the coordination number of the hexavalent uranium ion and by the crystallographic surroundings of the uranate centre. Transitions playing a role in the luminescence processes within the octahedral UO/sub 6//sup 6 -/ group are discussed using the results from both theoretical and experimental studies on another octahedral uranium complex: UF/sub 6/. The luminescence of the octahedral uranate group in oxidic compounds is discussed. Attention is paid to the vibrational structure, which is observed in the luminescence spectra at low temperatures and to the temperature quenching of the luminescence. The temperature quenching of the uranate luminescence in uranium-doped tungstates with ordered perovskite structure can be described in terms of a three state single configurational coordinate diagram. The complicated luminescence spectra of uranium-activated sodium fluoride (NaF-U) crystals have been unraveled using chemical variation of the crystal compositions and using site selective laser excitation techniques. Four different luminescent uranate centres have been observed in NaF-U. A model for the configurations of the luminescent centres has been deduced using the results from ionic conductivity experiments.

  1. Non-diagonal processes of singlet and ordinary quark production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bejlin, V.A.; Vereshkov, G.M.; Kuksa, V.I.

    1995-01-01

    Non-diagonal processes of singlet and ordinary quark production are analyzed in the model where the down singlet quark mixes with the ordinary ones. The possibility of experimental selection of h-quark effects is demonstrated

  2. Virucidal Nanofiber Textiles Based on Photosensitized Production of Singlet Oxygen

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Lhotáková, Y.; Plištil, L.; Morávková, A.; Kubát, Pavel; Lang, Kamil; Forstová, J.; Mosinger, J.

    2012-01-01

    Roč. 7, č. 11 (2012), e49226 E-ISSN 1932-6203 R&D Projects: GA ČR GAP208/10/1678 Institutional support: RVO:61388955 ; RVO:61388980 Keywords : photosynthesis * biomaterials * nanofiber textiles Subject RIV: CF - Physical ; Theoretical Chemistry Impact factor: 3.730, year: 2012

  3. Luminescent beam stop

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bryant, Diane; Morton, Simon A.

    2017-10-25

    This disclosure provides systems, methods, and apparatus related to beam stops. In one aspect, a device comprises a luminescent material, a beam stop plate, and an optical fiber. The luminescent material is a parallelepiped having a first side and a second side that are squares and having a third side that is a rectangle or a square. The first side and the second side are perpendicular to the third side. The beam stop plate is attached to the first side of the luminescent material. The optical fiber has a first end and a second end, with the first end of the optical fiber attached to the third side of the luminescent material.

  4. Luminescence detection of shellfish

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sanderson, D.C.W.; Carmichael, L.A.; Spencer, J.Q.; Naylor, J.D.

    1996-01-01

    The Scottish Universities Research and Reactor Centre (SURRC) has been active in the development and application of luminescence techniques in the detection of irradiated foods, in support of UK legislation. Thermoluminescence (TL), photostimulated luminescence (PSL) and photo-transfer luminescence (PTTL) are radiation-specific phenomena which arise due to energy stored by trapped charge carriers following irradiation. The energy released following stimulation is accompanied by detectable luminescence. The TL method involves preparation of pure silicate extracts from the sample and subsequent TL analysis, whereas PSL uses stimulation by electromagnetic radiation (visible, or near visible wavelengths) thus avoiding heating the sample. (author)

  5. Afterglow luminescence in sol-gel/Pechini grown oxide materials: persistence or phosphorescence process? (Conference Presentation)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sontakke, Atul; Ferrier, Alban; Viana, Bruno

    2017-03-01

    Persistent luminescence and phosphorescence, both yields afterglow luminescence, but are completely different mechanisms. Persistent luminescence involves a slow thermal release of trapped electrons stored in defect states, whereas the phosphorescence is caused due to triplet to singlet transition [1,2]. Many persistent luminescence phosphors are based on oxide inorganic hosts, and exhibit long afterglow luminescence after ceasing the excitation. We observed intense and long afterglow luminescence in sol-gel/pechini grown inorganic oxides, and as a first interpretation thought to be due to persistence mechanism. However, some of these materials do not exhibit defect trap centers, and a detailed investigation suggested it is due to phosphorescence, but not the persistence. Phosphorescence is not common in inorganic solids, and that too at room temperature, and therefore usually misinterpreted as persistence luminescence [3]. Here we present a detailed methodology to distinguish phosphorescence from persistence luminescence in inorganic solids, and the process to harvest highly efficient long phosphorescence afterglow at room temperature. 1. Jian Xu, Setsuhisa Tanabe, Atul D. Sontakke, Jumpei Ueda, Appl. Phys. Lett. 107, 081903 (2015) 2. Sebastian Reineke, Marc A. Baldo, Scientific Reports, 4, 3797 (2014) 3. Pengchong Xue, Panpan Wang, Peng Chen, Boqi Yao, Peng Gong, Jiabao Sun, Zhenqi Zhang, Ran Lu, Chem. Sci. (2016) DOI: 10.1039/C5SC03739E

  6. Recycling and imaging of nuclear singlet hyperpolarization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pileio, Giuseppe; Bowen, Sean; Laustsen, Christoffer

    2013-01-01

    observation of the same batch of polarized nuclei over a period of 30 min and more. We report a recycling protocol in which the enhanced nuclear polarization achieved by dissolution-DNP is observed with full intensity and then returned to singlet order. MRI experiments may be run on a portion of the available...

  7. Singlet fermionic dark matter with Veltman conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Yeong Gyun; Lee, Kang Young; Nam, Soo-hyeon

    2018-07-01

    We reexamine a renormalizable model of a fermionic dark matter with a gauge singlet Dirac fermion and a real singlet scalar which can ameliorate the scalar mass hierarchy problem of the Standard Model (SM). Our model setup is the minimal extension of the SM for which a realistic dark matter (DM) candidate is provided and the cancellation of one-loop quadratic divergence to the scalar masses can be achieved by the Veltman condition (VC) simultaneously. This model extension, although renormalizable, can be considered as an effective low-energy theory valid up to cut-off energies about 10 TeV. We calculate the one-loop quadratic divergence contributions of the new scalar and fermionic DM singlets, and constrain the model parameters using the VC and the perturbative unitarity conditions. Taking into account the invisible Higgs decay measurement, we show the allowed region of new physics parameters satisfying the recent measurement of relic abundance. With the obtained parameter set, we predict the elastic scattering cross section of the new singlet fermion into target nuclei for a direct detection of the dark matter. We also perform the full analysis with arbitrary set of parameters without the VC as a comparison, and discuss the implication of the constraints by the VC in detail.

  8. Update on scalar singlet dark matter

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cline, J.M.; Scott, P.; Kainulainen, K.; Weniger, C.

    2013-01-01

    One of the simplest models of dark matter is where a scalar singlet field S comprises some or all of the dark matter and interacts with the standard model through an vertical bar H vertical bar S-2(2) coupling to the Higgs boson. We update the present limits on the model from LHC searches for

  9. Raman scattering and luminescence of high-Tc superconducting oxides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eremenko, V.V.; Gnezdilov, V.P.; Fomin, V.I.; Fugol', I.Ya.; Samovarov, V.N.

    1989-01-01

    Raman and luminescence spectra of high-T c superconducting oxides are summarized, mainly YBa 2 Cu 3 O 7-σ and partly La 2-x Ba x CuO 4-σ . In raman spectra we succeeded to distinguish electron scattering to define the energy gap Δ in the superconducting state. The luminescence spectra are due to the emission of oxygen and interaction with conduction electrons. 70 refs.; 13 figs

  10. Magnetic properties of singlet ground state systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Diederix, K.M.

    1979-01-01

    Experiments are described determining the properties of a magnetic system consisting of a singlet ground state. Cu(NO 3 ) 2 .2 1/2H 2 O has been studied which is a system of S = 1/2 alternating antiferromagnetic Heisenberg chains. The static properties, spin lattice relaxation time and field-induced antiferromagnetically ordered state measurements are presented. Susceptibility and magnetic cooling measurements of other compounds are summarised. (Auth.)

  11. Positron-Induced Luminescence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stenson, E. V.; Hergenhahn, U.; Stoneking, M. R.; Pedersen, T. Sunn

    2018-04-01

    We report on the observation that low-energy positrons incident on a phosphor screen produce significantly more luminescence than electrons do. For two different wide-band-gap semiconductor phosphors (ZnS:Ag and ZnO:Zn), we compare the luminescent response to a positron beam with the response to an electron beam. For both phosphors, the positron response is significantly brighter than the electron response, by a factor that depends strongly on incident energy (0-5 keV). Positrons with just a few tens of electron-volts of energy (for ZnS:Ag) or less (for ZnO:Zn) produce as much luminescence as is produced by electrons with several kilo-electron-volts. We attribute this effect to valence band holes and excited electrons produced by positron annihilation and subsequent Auger processes. These results demonstrate a valuable approach for addressing long-standing questions about luminescent materials.

  12. Probing color-singlet exchange at D0

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abbott, B.; Abolins, M.; Acharya, B.S.

    1997-07-01

    We present latest preliminary results on hard color-singlet exchange in proton-antiproton collisions. The fraction of dijet events produced via color-singlet exchange is measured as a function of jet transverse energy, dijet pseudorapidity separation, and proton-antiproton center-of-mass energy. These results are qualitatively consistent with a color-singlet fraction that increases with increasing quark-initiated processes

  13. Deep inelastic singlet structure functions and scaling violation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wen-zhu, Li; Bing-xun, Hu

    1984-02-01

    The flavour singlet structure functions of deep inelastic scattering processes can yield more decisive tests of QCD than the non-singlet. We give analytical expression for flavour singlet structure functions through analysing the lepton-nucleon deep inelastic scattering processes by means of QCD and using Jacobi polynomials. This expression contains 4 to 5 parameters and shows the changes of the singlet structure functions with x and Q/sup 2/ very well. In QCD leading order, the conclusion is in reasonable agreement with experimental data.

  14. Astrophysical constraints on singlet scalars at LHC

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hertzberg, Mark P.; Masoumi, Ali

    2017-04-01

    We consider the viability of new heavy gauge singlet scalar particles at colliders such as the LHC . Our original motivation for this study came from the possibility of a new heavy particle of mass ~ TeV decaying significantly into two photons at colliders, such as LHC, but our analysis applies more broadly. We show that there are significant constraints from astrophysics and cosmology on the simplest UV complete models that incorporate such new particles and its associated collider signal. The simplest and most obvious UV complete model that incorporates such signals is that it arises from a new singlet scalar (or pseudo-scalar) coupled to a new electrically charged and colored heavy fermion. Here we show that these new fermions (and anti-fermions) would be produced in the early universe, then form new color singlet heavy mesons with light quarks, obtain a non-negligible freeze-out abundance, and remain in kinetic equilibrium until decoupling. These heavy mesons possess interesting phenomenology, dependent on their charge, including forming new bound states with electrons and protons. We show that a significant number of these heavy states would survive for the age of the universe and an appreciable number would eventually be contained within the earth and solar system. We show that this leads to detectable consequences, including the production of highly energetic events from annihilations on earth, new spectral lines, and, spectacularly, the destabilization of stars. The lack of detection of these consequences rules out such simple UV completions, putting pressure on the viability of such new particles at LHC . To incorporate such a scalar would require either much more complicated UV completions or even further new physics that provides a decay channel for the associated fermion.

  15. Astrophysical constraints on singlet scalars at LHC

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hertzberg, Mark P.; Masoumi, Ali, E-mail: mark.hertzberg@tufts.edu, E-mail: ali@cosmos.phy.tufts.edu [Institute of Cosmology, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Tufts University, Medford, MA 02155 (United States)

    2017-04-01

    We consider the viability of new heavy gauge singlet scalar particles at colliders such as the LHC . Our original motivation for this study came from the possibility of a new heavy particle of mass ∼ TeV decaying significantly into two photons at colliders, such as LHC, but our analysis applies more broadly. We show that there are significant constraints from astrophysics and cosmology on the simplest UV complete models that incorporate such new particles and its associated collider signal. The simplest and most obvious UV complete model that incorporates such signals is that it arises from a new singlet scalar (or pseudo-scalar) coupled to a new electrically charged and colored heavy fermion. Here we show that these new fermions (and anti-fermions) would be produced in the early universe, then form new color singlet heavy mesons with light quarks, obtain a non-negligible freeze-out abundance, and remain in kinetic equilibrium until decoupling. These heavy mesons possess interesting phenomenology, dependent on their charge, including forming new bound states with electrons and protons. We show that a significant number of these heavy states would survive for the age of the universe and an appreciable number would eventually be contained within the earth and solar system. We show that this leads to detectable consequences, including the production of highly energetic events from annihilations on earth, new spectral lines, and, spectacularly, the destabilization of stars. The lack of detection of these consequences rules out such simple UV completions, putting pressure on the viability of such new particles at LHC . To incorporate such a scalar would require either much more complicated UV completions or even further new physics that provides a decay channel for the associated fermion.

  16. Singlet exciton interactions in crystalline naphthalene

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heisel, F.; Miehe, J.A.; Sipp, B.

    1978-01-01

    The decay of prompt fluorescence in crystalline naphthalene at 300 K, excited by picosecond 266 nm pulse, has been studied as a function of excitation intensity. Experimental decay curves can be fitted only when the exponential distribution in depth of excitation and the radial (gaussian) intensity profile of the excitation are both taken into account. From analysis of decay at early time ( -10 cm 3 s -1 . If the reaction is diffusion-limited, this rate implies an average singlet diffusivity Dsub(S)=(2+-1)10 -4 cm 2 s -1

  17. Singlet deflected anomaly/gauge mediation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blas, J. de; Delgado, A.

    2012-01-01

    We study an extension of the standard anomaly/gauge mediation scenario where the messenger fields have direct interactions with an extra gauge singlet. This realizes a phenomenologically viable NMSSM-like scenario free of the μ-b μ problem. Current cosmological constraints imply a small size for the anomaly-mediation contributions, unless some source of R-parity violation is permitted. In the latter case the allowed regions in the parameter space can be substantially larger than in the corresponding gauge-mediation scenario.

  18. Intramolecular singlet-singlet energy transfer in antenna-substituted azoalkanes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pischel, Uwe; Huang, Fang; Nau, Werner M

    2004-03-01

    Two novel azoalkane bichromophores and related model compounds have been synthesised and photophysically characterised. Dimethylphenylsiloxy (DPSO) or dimethylnaphthylsiloxy (DNSO) serve as aromatic donor groups (antenna) and the azoalkane 2,3-diazabicyclo[2.2.2]oct-2-ene (DBO) as the acceptor. The UV spectral window of DBO (250-300 nm) allows selective excitation of the donor. Intramolecular singlet-singlet energy transfer to DBO is highly efficient and proceeds with quantum yields of 0.76 with DPSO and 0.99 with DNSO. The photophysical and spectral properties of the bichromophoric systems suggest that energy transfer occurs through diffusional approach of the donor and acceptor within a van der Waals contact at which the exchange mechanism is presumed to dominate. Furthermore, akin to the behaviour of electron-transfer systems in the Marcus inverted region, a rate of energy transfer 2.5 times slower was observed for the system with the more favourable energetics, i.e. singlet-singlet energy transfer from DPSO proceeded slower than from DNSO, although the process is more exergonic for DPSO (-142 kJ mol(-1) for DPSO versus-67 kJ mol(-1) for DNSO).

  19. Effects of the Oxygenation level on Formation of Different Reactive Oxygen Species During Photodynamic Therapy

    OpenAIRE

    Price, Michael; Heilbrun, Lance; Kessel, David

    2013-01-01

    We examined the effect of the oxygenation level on efficacy of two photosensitizing agents, both of which target lysosomes for photodamage but via different photochemical pathways. Upon irradiation, the chlorin termed NPe6 forms singlet oxygen in high yield while the bacteriopheophorbide WST11 forms only oxygen radicals (in an aqueous environment). Photokilling efficacy by WST11 in cell culture was impaired when the atmospheric oxygen concentration was reduced from 20% to 1%, while photokilli...

  20. Stability of singlet and triplet trions in carbon nanotubes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ronnow, Troels F.; Pedersen, Thomas G.; Cornean, Horia D.

    2009-01-01

    We investigate singlet and triplet trion states in semiconducting carbon nanotubes using a one-dimensional model. It is concluded that singlet trion states in bind up to 13.6% stronger than exciton states, and that they lower the optical transition energy with up to 50% of the tight binding band gap energy.

  1. Stability of singlet and triplet trions in carbon nanotubes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rønnow, Troels Frimodt; Pedersen, Thomas Garm; Cornean, Horia

    2009-01-01

    We investigate singlet and triplet trion states in semiconducting carbon nanotubes using a one-dimensional model. It is concluded that singlet trion states in bind up to 13.5% stronger than exciton states, and that they lower the optical transition energy with up to 50% of the tight binding band...

  2. Magnetic excitons in singlet-ground-state ferromagnets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Birgeneau, R.J.; Als-Nielsen, Jens Aage; Bucher, E.

    1971-01-01

    The authors report measurements of the dispersion of singlet-triplet magnetic excitons as a function of temperature in the singlet-ground-state ferromagnets fcc Pr and Pr3Tl. Well-defined excitons are observed in both the ferromagnetic and paramagnetic regions, but with energies which are nearly...

  3. Magnetism of singlet - singlet ions interacting with an electron gas: application to PrAl2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Palermo, L.

    1986-01-01

    Various magnetic quantities are investigated for a system consisting of singlet-singlet ions interacting with an electron gas. In obtaining the magnetic state equations, the molecular field approximation is used. At T=0, an onset magnetic order condition in function of crystal field and exchange parameters and eletronic density of states at Fermi level is derived. A parametric study of the model is performed numerically. Main results are shown on diagrams. From the experimental data existent in the literature for magnetisation, susceptibility and magnetic specific heat of the PrAl 2 , a fitting with the model predictions is obtained using the following parameters: exchange interaction: 611meV; crystal field parameters: 2,5 meV; band with: 10 eV (of a rectangular density of states with 0,8 el/atom). (author) [pt

  4. Complex singlet extension of the standard model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barger, Vernon; McCaskey, Mathew; Langacker, Paul; Ramsey-Musolf, Michael; Shaughnessy, Gabe

    2009-01-01

    We analyze a simple extension of the standard model (SM) obtained by adding a complex singlet to the scalar sector (cxSM). We show that the cxSM can contain one or two viable cold dark matter candidates and analyze the conditions on the parameters of the scalar potential that yield the observed relic density. When the cxSM potential contains a global U(1) symmetry that is both softly and spontaneously broken, it contains both a viable dark matter candidate and the ingredients necessary for a strong first order electroweak phase transition as needed for electroweak baryogenesis. We also study the implications of the model for discovery of a Higgs boson at the Large Hadron Collider.

  5. Singlet versus Triplet Excited State Mediated Photoinduced Dehalogenation Reactions of Itraconazole in Acetonitrile and Aqueous Solutions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Ruixue; Li, Ming-de; Du, Lili; Phillips, David Lee

    2017-04-06

    Photoinduced dehalogenation of the antifungal drug itraconazole (ITR) in acetonitrile (ACN) and ACN/water mixed solutions was investigated using femtosecond and nanosecond time-resolved transient absorption (fs-TA and ns-TA, respectively) and nanosecond time-resolved resonance Raman spectroscopy (ns-TR 3 ) experiments. An excited resonance energy transfer is found to take place from the 4-phenyl-4,5-dihydro-3H-1,2,4-triazol-3-one part of the molecule to the 1,3-dichlorobenzene part of the molecule when ITR is excited by ultraviolet light. This photoexcitation is followed by a fast carbon-halogen bond cleavage that leads to the generation of radical intermediates via either triplet and/or singlet excited states. It is found that the singlet excited state-mediated carbon-halogen cleavage is the predominant dehalogenation process in ACN solvent, whereas a triplet state-mediated carbon-halogen cleavage prefers to occur in the ACN/water mixed solutions. The singlet-to-triplet energy gap is decreased in the ACN/water mixed solvents and this helps facilitate an intersystem crossing process, and thus, the carbon-halogen bond cleavage happens mostly through an excited triplet state in the aqueous solutions examined. The ns-TA and ns-TR 3 results also provide some evidence that radical intermediates are generated through a homolytic carbon-halogen bond cleavage via predominantly the singlet excited state pathway in ACN but via mainly the triplet state pathway in the aqueous solutions. In strong acidic solutions, protonation at the oxygen and/or nitrogen atoms of the 1,2,4-triazole-3-one group appears to hinder the dehalogenation reactions. This may offer the possibility that the phototoxicity of ITR due to the generation of aryl or halogen radicals can be reduced by protonation of certain moieties in suitably designed ITR halogen-containing derivatives.

  6. Luminescence study of spodumene

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Isotani, S.; Fujii, A.T.; Antonini, R.; Pontuschka, W.M.; Rabani, S.R.; Furtado, W.W.

    1990-02-01

    A comparative study is made of the luminescence of five kinds of spodumene from Minas Gerais, Brazil, studied previously by optical absorption spectroscopy. Natural gemstones are used which, in the course of the experiments, were irradiated with X-rays. (L.C.) [pt

  7. Silicon: electrochemistry and luminescence

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kooij, Ernst Stefan

    1997-01-01

    The electrochemistry of crystalline and porous silicon and the luminescence from porous silicon has been studied. One chapter deals with a model for the anodic dissolution of silicon in HF solution. In following chapters both the electrochemistry and various ways of generating visible

  8. Effects of the oxygenation level on formation of different reactive oxygen species during photodynamic therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Price, Michael; Heilbrun, Lance; Kessel, David

    2013-01-01

    We examined the effect of the oxygenation level on efficacy of two photosensitizing agents, both of which target lysosomes for photodamage, but via different photochemical pathways. Upon irradiation, the chlorin termed NPe6 forms singlet oxygen in high yield while the bacteriopheophorbide WST11 forms only oxygen radicals (in an aqueous environment). Photokilling efficacy by WST11 in cell culture was impaired when the atmospheric oxygen concentration was reduced from 20% to 1%, while photokilling by NPe6 was unaffected. Studies in a cell-free system revealed that the rates of photobleaching of these agents, as a function of the oxygenation level, were correlated with results described above. Moreover, the rate of formation of oxygen radicals by either agent was more sensitive to the level of oxygenation than was singlet oxygen formation by NPe6. These data indicate that the photochemical process that leads to oxygen radical formation is more dependent on the oxygenation level than is the pathway leading to formation of singlet oxygen. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Photochemistry and Photobiology © 2013 The American Society of Photobiology.

  9. The electroweak phase transition in models with gauge singlets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahriche, A.

    2007-01-01

    A strong first order phase transition is needed for generating the baryon asymmetry; and also to save it during the electroweak phase transition (EWPT). However this condition is not fulfilled within the Standard Model (SM), but in its extensions. It is widely believed that the existence of singlet scalars in some Standard Model extensions can easily make the EWPT strongly first order. In this work, we will examine the strength of the EWPT in the simplest extension of the SM with a real gauge singlet using the sphaleron energy at the critical temperature. We find that the phase transition is stronger by adding a singlet; and also that the criterion for a strong phase transition Ω(T c )/T c >or similar 1, where Ω = (v 2 + (x - x 0 ) 2 ) ( 1)/(2) and x(x 0 ) is the singlet vacuum expectation value in the broken (symmetric) phase, is not valid for models containing singlets, even though often used in the literature. The usual condition v c /T c >or similar 1 is more meaningful, and it is satisfied for the major part of the parameter space for physically allowed Higgs masses. Then it is convenient to study the EWPT in models with singlets that couple only to the Higgs doublets, by replacing the singlets by their vevs. (orig.)

  10. The electroweak phase transition in models with gauge singlets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ahriche, A.

    2007-04-18

    A strong first order phase transition is needed for generating the baryon asymmetry; and also to save it during the electroweak phase transition (EWPT). However this condition is not fulfilled within the Standard Model (SM), but in its extensions. It is widely believed that the existence of singlet scalars in some Standard Model extensions can easily make the EWPT strongly first order. In this work, we will examine the strength of the EWPT in the simplest extension of the SM with a real gauge singlet using the sphaleron energy at the critical temperature. We find that the phase transition is stronger by adding a singlet; and also that the criterion for a strong phase transition {omega}(T{sub c})/T{sub c} >or similar 1, where {omega} = (v{sup 2} + (x - x{sub 0}){sup 2}){sup (}1)/(2) and x(x{sub 0}) is the singlet vacuum expectation value in the broken (symmetric) phase, is not valid for models containing singlets, even though often used in the literature. The usual condition v{sub c}/T{sub c} >or similar 1 is more meaningful, and it is satisfied for the major part of the parameter space for physically allowed Higgs masses. Then it is convenient to study the EWPT in models with singlets that couple only to the Higgs doublets, by replacing the singlets by their vevs. (orig.)

  11. Singlet Extensions of the MSSM with ℤ4R Symmetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ratz, Michael; Vaudrevange, Patrick K. S.

    2015-01-01

    We discuss singlet extensions of the MSSM with ℤ 4 R symmetry. We show that holomorphic zeros can avoid a potentially large coefficient of the term linear in the singlet. The emerging model has both an effective μ term and a supersymmetric mass term for the singlet μ N which are controlled by the gravitino mass. The μ term turns out to be suppressed against μ N by about one or two orders of magnitude. We argue that this class of models might provide us with a solution to the little hierarchy problem of the MSSM

  12. Photochemical Dynamics of Intramolecular Singlet Fission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Zhou; Iwasaki, Hikari; Van Voorhis, Troy

    2017-06-01

    Singlet fission (SF) converts a singlet exciton (S_1) into a pair of triplet ones (T_1) via a ``multi-exciton'' (ME) intermediate: S_1 \\longleftrightarrow ^1ME \\longleftrightarrow ^1(T_1T_1) \\longrightarrow 2T_1. In exothermic cases, e.g., crystalline pentacene or its derivatives, the quantum yield of SF can reach 200%. With SF doubling the electric current generated by an incident high-energy photon, the solar conversion efficiency in pentacene-based organic photovoltaics (OPVs) can exceed the Shockley-Queisser limit of 33.7%. The ME state is popularly considered to be a dimeric state with significant charge transfer (CT) character that is strongly coupled to both S_1 and ^1(T_1T_1), while this local model lacks strong support from full quantum dynamics studies. Intramolecular SF (ISF) occurring to covalently-bound dimers in the solution phase is an excellent model for a straightforward dynamics simulation of local excitons. In the present study, we investigate the ISF mechanisms for three covalently-bound dimers of pentacene derivatives, including ortho-, meta-, and para-bis(6,13-bis(triisopropylsilylethynyl)pentacene)benzene, in non-protic solvents. Specifically, we propagate the real-time, non-adiabatic quantum mechanical/molecular mechanical (QM/MM) dynamics on the potential energy surfaces associated with the states of S_1, ^1(T_1T_1) and CT. We explore how the energies of these ISF-relevant states and the non-adiabatic couplings between each other fluctuate with time and the instantaneous molecular configuration (e.g., intermonomer distance and orientation). We also quantitatively compare Condon and non-Condon ISF dynamics with solution-phase spectroscopic data. Our results allow us to understand the roles of CT energy levels in the ISF mechanism and propose a design strategy to maximize ISF efficiency. M. B. Smith and J. Michl, Chem. Rev. 110, 6891 (2010). W. Shockley and H. J. Queisser, J. Appl. Phys. 32, 510 (1961). T. C. Berkelbach, M. S. Hybertsen

  13. Hyperpolarized singlet NMR on a small animal imaging system

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Laustsen, Christoffer; Pileio, Giuseppe; Tayler, Michael C. D.

    2012-01-01

    Nuclear spin hyperpolarization makes a significant advance toward overcoming the sensitivity limitations of in vivo magnetic resonance imaging, particularly in the case of low-gamma nuclei. The sensitivity may be improved further by storing the hyperpolarization in slowly relaxing singlet...... populations of spin- 1/2 pairs. Here, we report hyperpolarized 13C spin order transferred into and retrieved from singlet spin order using a small animal magnetic resonance imaging scanner. For spins in sites with very similar chemical shifts, singlet spin order is sustained in high magnetic field without...... requiring strong radiofrequency irradiation. The demonstration of robust singlet-to-magnetization conversion, and vice versa, on a small animal scanner, is promising for future in vivo and clinical deployments....

  14. Microscopic theory of singlet exciton fission. III. Crystalline pentacene

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berkelbach, Timothy C.; Reichman, David R.; Hybertsen, Mark S.

    2014-01-01

    We extend our previous work on singlet exciton fission in isolated dimers to the case of crystalline materials, focusing on pentacene as a canonical and concrete example. We discuss the proper interpretation of the character of low-lying excited states of relevance to singlet fission. In particular, we consider a variety of metrics for measuring charge-transfer character, conclusively demonstrating significant charge-transfer character in the low-lying excited states. The impact of this electronic structure on the subsequent singlet fission dynamics is assessed by performing real-time master-equation calculations involving hundreds of quantum states. We make direct comparisons with experimental absorption spectra and singlet fission rates, finding good quantitative agreement in both cases, and we discuss the mechanistic distinctions that exist between small isolated aggregates and bulk systems

  15. Microscopic theory of singlet exciton fission. III. Crystalline pentacene

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Berkelbach, Timothy C., E-mail: tcb2112@columbia.edu; Reichman, David R., E-mail: drr2103@columbia.edu [Department of Chemistry, Columbia University, 3000 Broadway, New York, New York 10027 (United States); Hybertsen, Mark S., E-mail: mhyberts@bnl.gov [Center for Functional Nanomaterials, Brookhaven National Laboratory, Upton, New York 11973-5000 (United States)

    2014-08-21

    We extend our previous work on singlet exciton fission in isolated dimers to the case of crystalline materials, focusing on pentacene as a canonical and concrete example. We discuss the proper interpretation of the character of low-lying excited states of relevance to singlet fission. In particular, we consider a variety of metrics for measuring charge-transfer character, conclusively demonstrating significant charge-transfer character in the low-lying excited states. The impact of this electronic structure on the subsequent singlet fission dynamics is assessed by performing real-time master-equation calculations involving hundreds of quantum states. We make direct comparisons with experimental absorption spectra and singlet fission rates, finding good quantitative agreement in both cases, and we discuss the mechanistic distinctions that exist between small isolated aggregates and bulk systems.

  16. 2HDM portal for Singlet-Doublet Dark Matter

    OpenAIRE

    Arcadi, Giorgio

    2018-01-01

    We present an extensive analysis of a model in which the (Majorana) Dark Matter candidate is a mixture between a SU(2) singlet and two SU(2) doublets. This kind of setup takes the name of singlet-doublet model. We will investigate in detail an extension of this model in which the Dark Matter sector interactions with a 2-doublet Higgs sector enforcing the complementarity between Dark Matter phenomenology and searches of extra Higgs bosons.

  17. Singlet Fission in Rubrene Derivatives: Impact of Molecular Packing

    KAUST Repository

    Sutton, Christopher

    2017-03-13

    We examine the properties of six recently synthesized rubrene derivatives (with substitutions on the side phenyl rings) that show vastly different crystal structures. In order to understand how packing in the solid state affects the excited states and couplings relevant for singlet fission, the lowest excited singlet (S), triplet (T), multiexciton (TT), and charge-transfer (CT) states of the rubrene derivatives are compared to known singlet fission materials [tetracene, pentacene, 5,12-diphenyltetracene (DPT), and rubrene itself]. While a small difference of less than 0.2 eV is calculated for the S and TT energies, a range of 0.50 to 1.2 eV in the CT energies and nearly 3 orders of magnitude in the electronic couplings are computed for the rubrene derivatives in their crystalline packings, which strongly affects the role of the CT state in facilitating SF. To rationalize experimental observations of singlet fission occurring in amorphous phases of rubrene, DPT, and tetracene, we use molecular dynamics (MD) simulations to assess the impact of molecular packing and orientations and to gain a better understanding of the parameters that control singlet fission in amorphous films compared to crystalline packings. The MD simulations point to a crystalline-like packing for thin films of tetracene; on the other hand, DPT, rubrene, and the rubrene derivatives all show various degrees of disorder with a number of sites that have larger electronic couplings than in the crystal, which can facilitate singlet fission in such thin films. Our analysis underlines the potential of these materials as promising candidates for singlet fission and helps understand how various structural motifs affect the critical parameters that control the ability of a system to undergo singlet fission.

  18. Luminescent solar concentrator

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tugce Tosun

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Luminescent solar concentrator (LSC is a device that has luminescent molecules embedding or topping polymeric or glass waveguide to generate electricity from sunlight with a photovoltaic cell attachment. LSCs can be employed both in small and large scale projects, independent on the direction or angle of the surface with respect to the sun, promising more freedom for integration in urban environments compared to the traditional PV systems. The aim of the SEB&C PDEng project is to investigate the applicability of this innovative technology in the built environment and to bridge the gap of knowledge linking societal, design and technological aspects. The final goal is to exhibit potential application concepts of LSC developed by co-creative methods at SPARK campus which is a hub for open innovation in built environment. Necessity of a paradigm shift towards sustainable and smart cities came into being due to the significant increase in energy demand of the buildings. The challenge is to increase renewable sources in the energy mix while designing aesthetic environments. Thus, building integrated renewable energy technologies represent a great opportunity to help overcome this current challenge. Smart energy, energy efficiency and use of renewable sources are key aspects to be considered nowadays and many innovative technologies need further exploitation to be commercially viable, such as luminescent solar concentrator.

  19. Quantitative luminescence imaging system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erwin, David N.; Kiel, Johnathan L.; Batishko, Charles R.; Stahl, Kurt A.

    1990-01-01

    The QLIS images and quantifies low-level chemiluminescent reactions in an electromagnetic field. It is capable of real time nonperturbing measurement and simultaneous recording of many biochemical and chemical reactions such as luminescent immunoassays or enzyme assays. The system comprises image transfer optics, a low-light level digitizing camera with image intensifying microchannel plates, an image process or, and a control computer. The image transfer optics may be a fiber image guide with a bend, or a microscope, to take the light outside of the RF field. Output of the camera is transformed into a localized rate of cumulative digitalized data or enhanced video display or hard-copy images. The system may be used as a luminescent microdosimetry device for radiofrequency or microwave radiation, as a thermal dosimeter, or in the dosimetry of ultra-sound (sonoluminescence) or ionizing radiation. It provides a near-real-time system capable of measuring the extremely low light levels from luminescent reactions in electromagnetic fields in the areas of chemiluminescence assays and thermal microdosimetry, and is capable of near-real-time imaging of the sample to allow spatial distribution analysis of the reaction. It can be used to instrument three distinctly different irradiation configurations, comprising (1) RF waveguide irradiation of a small Petri-dish-shaped sample cell, (2) RF irradiation of samples in a microscope for the microscopie imaging and measurement, and (3) RF irradiation of small to human body-sized samples in an anechoic chamber.

  20. Electron-Impact Excitation of Uracil Luminescence on a Ceramic Surface

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shafranyosh, I. I.; Mitropolskiy, I. E.; Kuzma, V. V.; Svyda, Yu. Yu.; Sukhoviya, M. I.

    2018-03-01

    Photoelectron spectroscopy was applied to pyrimidine nitrogenous bases, an important class of six-membered heterocyclic compounds incorporated into nucleic acids. The emission spectrum of uracil adsorbed on a ceramic surface that was obtained by bombardment with 600-eV electrons in a high vacuum was analyzed. Broad bands with maxima at 335, 435, and 495 nm were observed in the UV and visible regions. The strongest band (λ = 335 nm) was attributed to fluorescence and corresponded to a singlet-singlet transition from the first excited electronic state into the molecular ground state. Electronic transitions from a triplet T1 into the ground state formed a weaker phosphorescence band (λ = 435 nm). The nature of the band maximum at 495 nm is discussed. The obtained luminescence spectrum was compared with photoluminescence spectra in various phases.

  1. Luminescence and photosensitivity of PbI2 crystals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Novosad, S.S.; Novosad, I.S.; Matviishin, I.M.

    2002-01-01

    One studied effect of temperature treatment and storage conditions on spectra features of PbI 2 crystals grown by the Bridgman-Stockbarger method from salt additionally purified by directed crystallization. Spectra of X-ray luminescence, photoluminescence and thermostimulated luminescence were investigated within 85-295 K temperature range under stationary X-ray excitation and emission of N 2 -laser. One studied photoelectret properties of those crystals under 85 K. Luminescence of PbI 2 crystals with maximum within 595 nm region observed following their thermal annealing under 475-495 K temperature and typical for near-the-surface section of specimens may be caused by oxygen-containing centres [ru

  2. Accurate simulation of geometry, singlet-singlet and triplet-singlet excitation of cyclometalated iridium(III) complex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jian; Bai, Fu-Quan; Xia, Bao-Hui; Zhang, Hong-Xing; Cui, Tian

    2014-03-01

    In the current contribution, we present a critical study of the theoretical protocol used for the determination of the electronic spectra properties of luminescent cyclometalated iridium(III) complex, [Ir(III)(ppy)₂H₂dcbpy]⁺ (where, ppy = 2-phenylpyridine, H₂dcbpy = 2,2'-bipyridine-4,4'-dicarboxylic acid), considered as a representative example of the various problems related to the prediction of electronic spectra of transition metal complex. The choice of the exchange-correlation functional is crucial for the validity of the conclusions that would be drawn from the numerical results. The influence of the exchange-correlation on geometry parameter and absorption/emission band, the role of solvent effects on time-dependent density function theory (TD-DFT) calculations, as well as the importance of the chosen proper procedure to optimize triplet excited geometry, have been thus examined in detail. From the obtained results, some general conclusions and guidelines are presented: i) PBE0 functional is the most accurate in prediction of ground state geometry; ii) the well-established B3LYP, B3P86, PBE0, and X3LYP have similar accuracy in calculation of absorption spectrum; and iii) the hybrid approach TD-DFT//CIS gives out excellent agreement in the evaluation of triplet excitation energy.

  3. The effect of oxygen exposure on pentacene electronic structure

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vollmer, A; Jurchescu, OD; Arfaoui, [No Value; Salzmann, [No Value; Palstra, TTM; Rudolf, P; Niemax, J; Pflaum, J; Rabe, JP; Koch, N; Arfaoui, I.; Salzmann, I.

    We use ultraviolet photoelectron spectroscopy to investigate the effect of oxygen and air exposure on the electronic structure of pentacene single crystals and thin films. it is found that O-2 and water do not react noticeably with pentacene, whereas singlet oxygen/ozone readily oxidize the organic

  4. Luminescence dating of Netherland's sediments

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wallinga, J.; Davids, F.; Dijkmans, J.W.A.

    2007-01-01

    Over the last decades luminescence dating techniques have been developed that allow earth scientists to determine the time of deposition of sediments. In this contribution we revity: 1) the development of the methodology, 2) tests of the reliability of luminescence dating on Netherlands' sediments;

  5. Luminescence from metals and insulators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Crawford, O.H.

    1985-01-01

    The term luminescence is normally applied to light emission that is not explainable by the mechanisms discussed by the other speakers in this meeting. Specifically, it is not transition radiation, surface plasmon radiation, or bremsstrahlung. One normally thinks of luminescence as arising from one-electron transitions within a medium. This talk consists of an overview of luminescence from condensed matter under irradiation by either energetic particles or photons. The author begins with organic molecules, where luminescence is best understood, and then discusses inorganic insulators and metals. Finally, the dependence of yield upon projectile species and velocity is discussed, and predictions are made concerning the relative effectiveness of electrons, protons, and hydrogen atoms in exciting luminescence

  6. A luminescent nisin biosensor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Immonen, Nina; Karp, Matti

    2006-02-01

    Nisin is a lantibiotic, an antibacterial peptide produced by certain Lactococcus lactis strains that kills or inhibits the growth of other bacteria. Nisin is widely used as a food preservative, and its long-time use suggests that it can be generally regarded as safe. We have developed a method for determining the amount of nisin in food samples that is based on luminescent biosensor bacteria. Bacterial luciferase operon luxABCDE was inserted into plasmid pNZ8048, and the construct was transformed by electroporation into Lc. lactis strain NZ9800, whose ability to produce nisin has been erased by deletion of the gene nisA. The operon luxABCDE has been modified to be functional in gram-positive bacteria to confer a bioluminescent phenotype without the requirement of adding an exogenous substrate. In the plasmid pNZ8048, the operon was placed under control of the nisin-inducible nisA promoter. The chromosomal nisRK genes of Lc. lactis NZ9800 allow it to sense nisin in the environment and relay this signal via signal transduction proteins NisK and NisR to initiate transcription from nisA promoter. In the case of our sensor bacteria, this leads to production of luciferase and, thus, luminescence that can be directly measured from living bacteria. Luminescence can be detected as early as within minutes of induction. The nisin assay described here provides a detection limit in the sub-picogram level per ml, and a linear area between 1 - 1000 pg/ml. The sensitivity of this assay exceeds the performance of all previously published methods.

  7. LUMINESCENCE DETERMINATION OF ETODOLAC

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. V. Yegorova

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available A highly sensitive, simple and rapid method for determination of non-steroidal anti- inflammatory drug – etodolac (Et in washings from surfaces of pharmaceutical equipment have been proposed. The intensity of native luminescence of water-n-propanol solutions of etodolac (λex= 274 nm; λlum= 350 nm was used as the analytical signal. The calibration graph is linear in the concentration range 0.014-2.3 μg/ml, the limit of detection is 0.5 ng/ml.

  8. Luminescence dating in archaeology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wintle, A.G.

    2001-01-01

    Thermoluminescence (TL) dating is routinely applied to burnt lithic material. Simple fires are capable of enabling stones weighing a few hundred grams to reach 450 o C, thus zeroing the TL signal. TL dates have been obtained for Upper and Lower Paleolithic sites in Europe and the Near East. TL dating continues to be used for dating pottery and for authentification of ceramic works of art. Some recent studies report the use of optically stimulated luminescence (OSL) (also know as photoluminescence) for dating very small samples of quartz, e.g. from small pieces of pottery or frm metallurgical slag The major recent advance has been in the development of a reliable laboratory procedure for using the OSL signal from quartz to obtain the past radiation exposure. The quartz OSL signal is extremely sensitive to light and is reduced to a negligible level on exposure to direct sunlight for radionuclides during burial, signal to date san.sized quartz grains extracted from sediments, The OSL signal is stimulated by 470 nm light from emitting diodes and the detected using flirters centred on 340 nm A similar signal can be obtained from feldspar grain when are exposed to infrared wavelengths around 880 nm. The infrared stimulated luminescence (IRSL) signals is also rapidly depleted by exposure to sunlight, and dating of colluvial deposits from archaeological sites has been reported

  9. LUMINESCENT PROPERTIES OF SILICATE GLASSES WITH CERIUM IONS AND ANTIMONY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. M. Klykova

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available The paper deals with the results of an experimental study of luminescence excitation spectra and luminescence of silicate glasses containing cerium ions and antimony. The aim of this work was to study the features of the luminescence and the effect of UV irradiation and heat treatment on luminescence and the state of cerium ions and antimony in glass. We investigated glass system Na2O-ZnO-Al2O3-SiO2-NaF-NaBr with additives CeO2 and Sb2O3. Synthesis was carried out in platinum crucibles in the air at 14500C. The samples were polished glass plates with a thickness of 0.5-1 mm. UV irradiation was carried out with a mercury lamp having a wide range of radiation in the spectral range 240-390 nm. It was conducted in a Nabertherm muffle furnaces. Luminescence spectra and excitation spectra were measured using a spectrofluorimeter MPF-44A (PerkinElmer at the room temperature. Measured luminescence spectra were corrected in view of the spectral sensitivity of the photodetector for spectrofluorimeter. Adjustment of the excitation spectra for the spectral dependence of the intensity of the excitation source was not carried out. During the experiments it was found that in silicate glasses Sb3+ ions can exist in two energy states, which corresponds to a different environment with oxygen ions. Heat treatment of these glasses in an oxidizing atmosphere leads to an increase in ion concentration of Sb3+ ions with a greater amount of oxygen in the environment. In glasses containing antimony and cerium ions, ultraviolet irradiation causes a change in the valence of cerium ions and antimony, which is accompanied by luminescence quenching. Subsequent heat treatment of glass leads to the inverse processes and restore luminescence excitation spectra. The study of fluorescent properties of silicate glasses with cerium and antimony ions led to the conclusion of the practical significance of this work. Promising multifunctional materials can be created on the basis of

  10. Luminescent lanthanide coordination polymers synthesized via in-situ hydrolysis of dimethyl-3,4-furandicarboxylate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Greig, Natalie E.; Einkauf, Jeffrey D.; Clark, Jessica M.; Corcoran, Eric J.; Karram, Joseph P.; Kent, Charles A.; Eugene, Vadine E.; Chan, Benny C.; Lill, Daniel T. de

    2015-01-01

    Dimethyl-3,4-furandicarboxylate undergoes hydrolysis under hydrothermal conditions with lanthanide (Ln) ions to form two-dimensional coordination polymers, [Ln(C 6 H 2 O 5 )(C 6 H 3 O 5 )(H 2 O)] n (Ln=Sm, Eu, Gd, Tb, Dy, Ho, Er, Tm, Yb, Lu). The resulting materials exhibit luminescent properties with quantum yields and lifetimes for the Eu(III) and Tb(III) compounds of 1.1±0.3% and 0.387±0.0001 ms, and 3.3±0.8% and 0.769±0.006 ms, respectively. Energy values for the singlet and triplet states were determined for dimethyl-3,4-furandicarboxylate and 3,4-furandicarboxylic acid. Excited state dynamics and structural features are examined to explicate the reported quantum yields. A series of other FDC structures is briefly presented. - Graphical abstract: A new two-dimensional coordination polymer derived from the in-situ hydrolysis of a furan dimethyl ester with lanthanide(III) ions was obtained in order to study its photophysical behavior when constructed from trivalent Eu and Tb. Quantum yields, lifetime measurements, and singlet/triplet state energies values were obtained. The nature of the material's excited state dynamics is examined and correlated to its structure in order to explain the overall luminescent efficiency of the system. - Highlights: • A new lanthanide–furandicarboxylate coordination polymer is presented. • Eu and Tb compounds display luminescent properties, albeit with low quantum yields. • Photophysical behavior explained through the compound's triplet state and structure. • Nonradiative deactivation of luminescence through high-energy oscillators was noted. • Molecular modeling of the organic moiety was conducted

  11. Luminescent lanthanide coordination polymers synthesized via in-situ hydrolysis of dimethyl-3,4-furandicarboxylate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Greig, Natalie E.; Einkauf, Jeffrey D.; Clark, Jessica M.; Corcoran, Eric J.; Karram, Joseph P.; Kent, Charles A.; Eugene, Vadine E. [Department of Chemistry & Biochemistry, Florida Atlantic University, 777 Glades Road, Boca Raton, FL 33431 (United States); Chan, Benny C. [Department of Chemistry, The College of New Jersey, 2000 Pennington Road, Ewing, NJ 08628 (United States); Lill, Daniel T. de, E-mail: ddelill@fau.edu [Department of Chemistry & Biochemistry, Florida Atlantic University, 777 Glades Road, Boca Raton, FL 33431 (United States)

    2015-05-15

    Dimethyl-3,4-furandicarboxylate undergoes hydrolysis under hydrothermal conditions with lanthanide (Ln) ions to form two-dimensional coordination polymers, [Ln(C{sub 6}H{sub 2}O{sub 5})(C{sub 6}H{sub 3}O{sub 5})(H{sub 2}O)]{sub n} (Ln=Sm, Eu, Gd, Tb, Dy, Ho, Er, Tm, Yb, Lu). The resulting materials exhibit luminescent properties with quantum yields and lifetimes for the Eu(III) and Tb(III) compounds of 1.1±0.3% and 0.387±0.0001 ms, and 3.3±0.8% and 0.769±0.006 ms, respectively. Energy values for the singlet and triplet states were determined for dimethyl-3,4-furandicarboxylate and 3,4-furandicarboxylic acid. Excited state dynamics and structural features are examined to explicate the reported quantum yields. A series of other FDC structures is briefly presented. - Graphical abstract: A new two-dimensional coordination polymer derived from the in-situ hydrolysis of a furan dimethyl ester with lanthanide(III) ions was obtained in order to study its photophysical behavior when constructed from trivalent Eu and Tb. Quantum yields, lifetime measurements, and singlet/triplet state energies values were obtained. The nature of the material's excited state dynamics is examined and correlated to its structure in order to explain the overall luminescent efficiency of the system. - Highlights: • A new lanthanide–furandicarboxylate coordination polymer is presented. • Eu and Tb compounds display luminescent properties, albeit with low quantum yields. • Photophysical behavior explained through the compound's triplet state and structure. • Nonradiative deactivation of luminescence through high-energy oscillators was noted. • Molecular modeling of the organic moiety was conducted.

  12. Oxygen diffusion in bilayer polymer films

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Poulsen, Lars; Zebger, Ingo; Tofte, Jannik Pentti

    2004-01-01

    Experiments to quantify oxygen diffusion have been performed on polymer samples in which a film of poly(ethylene-co-norbornene) was cast onto a film of polystyrene which, in turn, was cast onto an oxygen-impermeable substrate. In the technique employed, the time evolution of oxygen transport...... through the film of poly(ethylene-co-norbornene) and into the polystyrene film was monitored using the phosphorescence of singlet oxygen as a spectroscopic probe. To analyze the data, it was necessary to solve Fick's second law of diffusion for both polymer films. Tractable analytical and numerical...

  13. Singlet fission efficiency in tetracene-based organic solar cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu, Tony C.; Thompson, Nicholas J.; Congreve, Daniel N.; Hontz, Eric; Yost, Shane R.; Van Voorhis, Troy; Baldo, Marc A.

    2014-01-01

    Singlet exciton fission splits one singlet exciton into two triplet excitons. Using a joint analysis of photocurrent and fluorescence modulation under a magnetic field, we determine that the triplet yield within optimized tetracene organic photovoltaic devices is 153% ± 5% for a tetracene film thickness of 20 nm. The corresponding internal quantum efficiency is 127% ± 18%. These results are used to prove the effectiveness of a simplified triplet yield measurement that relies only on the magnetic field modulation of fluorescence. Despite its relatively slow rate of singlet fission, the measured triplet yields confirm that tetracene is presently the best candidate for use with silicon solar cells

  14. Singlet channel coupling in deuteron elastic scattering at intermediate energies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Al-Khalili, J.S.; Tostevin, J.A.; Johnson, R.C.

    1990-01-01

    Intermediate energy deuteron elastic scattering is investigated in a three-body model incorporating relativistic kinematics. The effects of deuteron breakup to singlet spin intermediate states, on the elastic scattering observables for the 58 Ni(d vector, d) 58 Ni reaction at 400 and 700 MeV, are studied quantitatively. The singlet-breakup contributions to the elastic amplitude are estimated within an approximate two-step calculation. The calculation makes an adiabatic approximation in the intermediate states propagator which allows the use of closure over the np intermediate states continuum. The singlet channel coupling is found to produce large effects on the calculated reaction tensor analysing power A yy , characteristic of a dynamically induced second-rank tensor interaction. By inspection of the calculated breakup amplitudes we show this induced interaction to be of the T L tensor type. (orig.)

  15. Development of QCD jets emitted by color-singlet sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ellis, R.K.; Gunion, J.F.; Kalinowski, J.; Webber, B.R.

    1985-01-01

    We compare the angular-ordering approximation to QCD jet development with full calculations to order αsub(s) in the following cases: emission of quark jets by a color-singlet vector source (as in e + e - annihilation) and emission of gluon jets by a color-singlet scalar (Fsup(a)sub(μν)Fsup(aμν)) source. In contrast to the case of a color-octet (gluon) source, we find that the approximation is good in those regions of phase space where the next-to-leading corrections to the amplitude are large. (orig.)

  16. Thermo-luminescent dosimetry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reither, M; Schorn, B; Schneider, E

    1981-01-01

    The development of paediatric radiology which began in the late 195O's has been characterised by the need to limit the dose of ionising radiation to which the child is subjected. The aim has been to keep radiation exposure as low as possible by the introduction of suitable techniques and by the development of new methods. It is therefore surprising that studies in dosimetry in the paediaytric age range have only been carried out in recent years. One reason for this may have been the fact that a suitable technique of measurement was not available at the time. The introduction of solid state dosimetry based on thermo-luminescence, first into radiotherapy (1968) and subsequently into radiodiagnosis, has made it possible to abandon the previously widely used ionisation chamber. The purpose of the present paper is to indicate the suitability of this form of dose measurement for paediatric radiological purposes and to stimulate its application in this field.

  17. Persistent luminescence nanothermometers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martín Rodríguez, Emma; López-Peña, Gabriel; Montes, Eduardo; Lifante, Ginés; García Solé, José; Jaque, Daniel; Diaz-Torres, Luis Armando; Salas, Pedro

    2017-08-01

    Persistent phosphorescence nanoparticles emitting in the red and near-infrared spectral regions are strongly demanded as contrast nanoprobes for autofluorescence free bioimaging and biosensing. In this work, we have developed Sr4Al14O25:Eu2+, Cr3+, Nd3+ nanopowders that produce persistent red phosphorescence peaking at 694 nm generated by Cr3+ ions. This emission displays temperature sensitivity in the physiological temperature range (20-60 °C), which makes these nanoparticles potentially useful as fluorescence (contactless) nanothermometers operating without requiring optical excitation. Nd3+ ions, which act as shallow electron traps for the red Cr3+ persistent emission, also display infrared emission bands, extending the fluorescence imaging capability to the second biological window. This unique combination of properties makes these nanoparticles multifunctional luminescent probes with great potential applications in nanomedicine.

  18. Singlet Exciton Lifetimes in Conjugated Polymer Films for Organic Solar Cells

    KAUST Repository

    Dimitrov, Stoichko; Schroeder, Bob; Nielsen, Christian; Bronstein, Hugo; Fei, Zhuping; McCulloch, Iain; Heeney, Martin; Durrant, James

    2016-01-01

    The lifetime of singlet excitons in conjugated polymer films is a key factor taken into account during organic solar cell device optimization. It determines the singlet exciton diffusion lengths in polymer films and has a direct impact

  19. Robust singlet fission in pentacene thin films with tuned charge transfer interactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Broch, K; Dieterle, J; Branchi, F; Hestand, N J; Olivier, Y; Tamura, H; Cruz, C; Nichols, V M; Hinderhofer, A; Beljonne, D; Spano, F C; Cerullo, G; Bardeen, C J; Schreiber, F

    2018-03-05

    Singlet fission, the spin-allowed photophysical process converting an excited singlet state into two triplet states, has attracted significant attention for device applications. Research so far has focused mainly on the understanding of singlet fission in pure materials, yet blends offer the promise of a controlled tuning of intermolecular interactions, impacting singlet fission efficiencies. Here we report a study of singlet fission in mixtures of pentacene with weakly interacting spacer molecules. Comparison of experimentally determined stationary optical properties and theoretical calculations indicates a reduction of charge-transfer interactions between pentacene molecules with increasing spacer molecule fraction. Theory predicts that the reduced interactions slow down singlet fission in these blends, but surprisingly we find that singlet fission occurs on a timescale comparable to that in pure crystalline pentacene. We explain the observed robustness of singlet fission in such mixed films by a mechanism of exciton diffusion to hot spots with closer intermolecular spacings.

  20. Reflection measurements for luminescent powders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kroon, R. E.

    2018-04-01

    Luminescent materials are useful in applications varying from lighting and display technologies to document security features and medical research, amongst many others. Measurement of the excitation range is an important consideration, and absorption bands are often determined from a decrease in the measured diffuse reflectance of the material using a ultraviolet-visible (UV-vis) spectrophotometer with an integrating sphere. Such a system may provide questionable results when used to measure the reflectance of a luminescence material, which is demonstrated for a Tb doped silica phosphor, because the system cannot differentiate between the reflected light and luminescence. It is shown that more reliable results are achieved for this phosphor by measuring the reflectance using a synchronous zero-offset scan in a fluorescence spectrometer equipped with an integrating sphere. This method is therefore recommended instead of traditional reflectance measurements using a UV-vis spectrophotometer for luminescent powders.

  1. Luminescence enhancement in irradiated polyethylene

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Charlesby, A.; Owen, G.P.

    1976-01-01

    Results are presented for the luminescence decay in polyethylene following irradiation at liquid nitrogen temperature and its enhancement on application of an electric field. It is found that both the luminescence enhancement and its subsequent decay may be described by a model involving electron tunnelling from a monoenergetic trap distribution to the parent positive ion. The possible nature of the trap is briefly discussed. (author)

  2. Modeling the oxygen microheterogeneity of tumors for photodynamic therapy dosimetry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pogue, Brian W.; Paulsen, Keith D.; O'Hara, Julia A.; Hoopes, P. Jack; Swartz, Harold

    2000-03-01

    Photodynamic theory of tumors uses optical excitation of a sensitizing drug within tissue to produce large deposits of singlet oxygen, which are thought to ultimately cause the tumor destruction. Predicting dose deposition of singlet oxygen in vivo is challenging because measurement of this species in vivo is not easily achieved. But it is possible to follow the concentration of oxygen in vivo, and so measuring the oxygen concentration transients during PDT may provide a viable method of estimating the delivered dose of singlet oxygen. However modeling the microscopic heterogeneity of the oxygen distribution within a tumor is non-trivial, and predicting the microscopic dose deposition requires further study, but this study present the framework and initial calibration needed or modeling oxygen transport in complex geometries. Computational modeling with finite elements provides a versatile structure within which oxygen diffusion and consumption can be modeled within realistic tissue geometries. This study develops the basic tools required to simulate a tumor region, and examines the role of (i) oxygen supply and consumption rates, (ii) inter- capillary spacing, (iii) photosensitizer distribution, and (iv) differences between simulated tumors and those derived directly from histology. The result of these calculations indicate that realistic tumor tissue capillary networks can be simulated using the finite element method, without excessive computational burden for 2D regions near 1 mm2, and 3D regions near 0.1mm3. These simulations can provide fundamental information about tissue and ways to implement appropriate oxygen measurements. These calculations suggest that photodynamic therapy produces the majority of singlet oxygen in and near the blood vessels, because these are the sites of highest oxygen tension. These calculations support the concept that tumor vascular regions are the major targets for PDT dose deposition.

  3. First-Principle Characterization for Singlet Fission Couplings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Chou-Hsun; Hsu, Chao-Ping

    2015-05-21

    The electronic coupling for singlet fission, an important parameter for determining the rate, has been found to be too small unless charge-transfer (CT) components were introduced in the diabatic states, mostly through perturbation or a model Hamiltonian. In the present work, the fragment spin difference (FSD) scheme was generalized to calculate the singlet fission coupling. The largest coupling strength obtained was 14.8 meV for two pentacenes in a crystal structure, or 33.7 meV for a transition-state structure, which yielded a singlet fission lifetime of 239 or 37 fs, generally consistent with experimental results (80 fs). Test results with other polyacene molecules are similar. We found that the charge on one fragment in the S1 diabatic state correlates well with FSD coupling, indicating the importance of the CT component. The FSD approach is a useful first-principle method for singlet fission coupling, without the need to include the CT component explicitly.

  4. 1,3-Diphenylisobenzofuran: a Model Chromophore for Singlet Fission

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Johnson, J. C.; Michl, Josef

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 375, č. 5 (2017), č. článku 80. ISSN 2365-0869 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA15-19143S Institutional support: RVO:61388963 Keywords : 1,3-diphenylisobenzofuran * photophysics * solar energy * singlet fission * covalent dimers Subject RIV: CF - Physical ; Theoretical Chemistry OBOR OECD: Physical chemistry Impact factor: 4.033, year: 2016

  5. Status of the scalar singlet dark matter model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Athron, Peter; Balazs, Csaba [Monash University, School of Physics and Astronomy, Melbourne, VIC (Australia); Australian Research Council Centre of Excellence for Particle Physics at the Tera-scale (Australia); Bringmann, Torsten; Dal, Lars A.; Krislock, Abram; Raklev, Are [University of Oslo, Department of Physics, Oslo (Norway); Buckley, Andy [University of Glasgow, SUPA, School of Physics and Astronomy, Glasgow (United Kingdom); Chrzaszcz, Marcin [Universitaet Zuerich, Physik-Institut, Zurich (Switzerland); Polish Academy of Sciences, H. Niewodniczanski Institute of Nuclear Physics, Krakow (Poland); Conrad, Jan; Edsjoe, Joakim; Farmer, Ben [AlbaNova University Centre, Oskar Klein Centre for Cosmoparticle Physics, Stockholm (Sweden); Stockholm University, Department of Physics, Stockholm (Sweden); Cornell, Jonathan M. [McGill University, Department of Physics, Montreal, QC (Canada); Jackson, Paul; White, Martin [Australian Research Council Centre of Excellence for Particle Physics at the Tera-scale (Australia); University of Adelaide, Department of Physics, Adelaide, SA (Australia); Kahlhoefer, Felix [DESY, Hamburg (Germany); Kvellestad, Anders; Savage, Christopher [NORDITA, Stockholm (Sweden); McKay, James; Scott, Pat [Imperial College London, Department of Physics, Blackett Laboratory, London (United Kingdom); Mahmoudi, Farvah [Univ. Lyon, Univ. Lyon 1, ENS de Lyon, CNRS, Centre de Recherche Astrophysique de Lyon UMR5574, Saint-Genis-Laval (France); CERN, Theoretical Physics Department, Geneva (Switzerland); Martinez, Gregory D. [University of California, Physics and Astronomy Department, Los Angeles, CA (United States); Putze, Antje [LAPTh, Universite de Savoie, CNRS, Annecy-le-Vieux (France); Rogan, Christopher [Harvard University, Department of Physics, Cambridge, MA (United States); Saavedra, Aldo [Australian Research Council Centre of Excellence for Particle Physics at the Tera-scale (Australia); The University of Sydney, Centre for Translational Data Science, Faculty of Engineering and Information Technologies, School of Physics, Sydney, NSW (Australia); Serra, Nicola [Universitaet Zuerich, Physik-Institut, Zurich (Switzerland); Weniger, Christoph [University of Amsterdam, GRAPPA, Institute of Physics, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Collaboration: The GAMBIT Collaboration

    2017-08-15

    One of the simplest viable models for dark matter is an additional neutral scalar, stabilised by a Z{sub 2} symmetry. Using the GAMBIT package and combining results from four independent samplers, we present Bayesian and frequentist global fits of this model. We vary the singlet mass and coupling along with 13 nuisance parameters, including nuclear uncertainties relevant for direct detection, the local dark matter density, and selected quark masses and couplings. We include the dark matter relic density measured by Planck, direct searches with LUX, PandaX, SuperCDMS and XENON100, limits on invisible Higgs decays from the Large Hadron Collider, searches for high-energy neutrinos from dark matter annihilation in the Sun with IceCube, and searches for gamma rays from annihilation in dwarf galaxies with the Fermi-LAT. Viable solutions remain at couplings of order unity, for singlet masses between the Higgs mass and about 300 GeV, and at masses above ∝ 1 TeV. Only in the latter case can the scalar singlet constitute all of dark matter. Frequentist analysis shows that the low-mass resonance region, where the singlet is about half the mass of the Higgs, can also account for all of dark matter, and remains viable. However, Bayesian considerations show this region to be rather fine-tuned. (orig.)

  6. Generation of deviation parameters for amino acid singlets, doublets ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    We present a new method, secondary structure prediction by deviation parameter (SSPDP) for predicting the secondary structure of proteins from amino acid sequence. Deviation parameters (DP) for amino acid singlets, doublets and triplets were computed with respect to secondary structural elements of proteins based on ...

  7. Flavor-singlet spectrum in multi-flavor QCD

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aoki, Yasumichi; Aoyama, Tatsumi; Bennett, Ed; Kurachi, Masafumi; Maskawa, Toshihide; Miura, Kohtaroh; Nagai, Kei-ichi; Ohki, Hiroshi; Rinaldi, Enrico; Shibata, Akihiro; Yamawaki, Koichi; Yamazaki, Takeshi

    2018-03-01

    Studying SU(3) gauge theories with increasing number of light fermions is relevant both for understanding the strong dynamics of QCD and for constructing strongly interacting extensions of the Standard Model (e.g. UV completions of composite Higgs models). In order to contrast these many-flavors strongly interacting theories with QCD, we study the flavor-singlet spectrum as an interesting probe. In fact, some composite Higgs models require the Higgs boson to be the lightest flavor-singlet scalar in the spectrum of a strongly interacting new sector with a well defined hierarchy with the rest of the states. Moreover, introducing many light flavors at fixed number of colors can influence the dynamics of the lightest flavor-singlet pseudoscalar. We present the on-going study of these flavor-singlet channels using multiple interpolating operators on high-statistics ensembles generated by the LatKMI collaboration and we compare results with available data obtained by the Lattice Strong Dynamics collaboration. For the theory with 8 flavors, the two collaborations have generated configurations that complement each others with the aim to tackle the massless limit using the largest possible volumes.

  8. Flavor-singlet spectrum in multi-flavor QCD

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aoki, Yasamichi; Rinaldi, Enrico

    2017-06-18

    Studying SU(3) gauge theories with increasing number of light fermions is relevant both for understanding the strong dynamics of QCD and for constructing strongly interacting extensions of the Standard Model (e.g. UV completions of composite Higgs models). In order to contrast these many-flavors strongly interacting theories with QCD, we study the flavor-singlet spectrum as an interesting probe. In fact, some composite Higgs models require the Higgs boson to be the lightest flavor-singlet scalar in the spectrum of a strongly interacting new sector with a well defined hierarchy with the rest of the states. Moreover, introducing many light flavors at fixed number of colors can influence the dynamics of the lightest flavor-singlet pseudoscalar. We present the on-going study of these flavor-singlet channels using multiple interpolating operators on high-statistics ensembles generated by the LatKMI collaboration and we compare results with available data obtained by the Lattice Strong Dynamics collaboration. For the theory with 8 flavors, the two collaborations have generated configurations that complement each others with the aim to tackle the massless limit using the largest possible volumes.

  9. Status of the scalar singlet dark matter model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Athron, Peter; Balázs, Csaba; Bringmann, Torsten; Buckley, Andy; Chrząszcz, Marcin; Conrad, Jan; Cornell, Jonathan M.; Dal, Lars A.; Edsjö, Joakim; Farmer, Ben; Jackson, Paul; Kahlhoefer, Felix; Krislock, Abram; Kvellestad, Anders; McKay, James; Mahmoudi, Farvah; Martinez, Gregory D.; Putze, Antje; Raklev, Are; Rogan, Christopher; Saavedra, Aldo; Savage, Christopher; Scott, Pat; Serra, Nicola; Weniger, Christoph; White, Martin

    2017-08-01

    One of the simplest viable models for dark matter is an additional neutral scalar, stabilised by a Z_2 symmetry. Using the GAMBIT package and combining results from four independent samplers, we present Bayesian and frequentist global fits of this model. We vary the singlet mass and coupling along with 13 nuisance parameters, including nuclear uncertainties relevant for direct detection, the local dark matter density, and selected quark masses and couplings. We include the dark matter relic density measured by Planck, direct searches with LUX, PandaX, SuperCDMS and XENON100, limits on invisible Higgs decays from the Large Hadron Collider, searches for high-energy neutrinos from dark matter annihilation in the Sun with IceCube, and searches for gamma rays from annihilation in dwarf galaxies with the Fermi-LAT. Viable solutions remain at couplings of order unity, for singlet masses between the Higgs mass and about 300 GeV, and at masses above ˜ 1 TeV. Only in the latter case can the scalar singlet constitute all of dark matter. Frequentist analysis shows that the low-mass resonance region, where the singlet is about half the mass of the Higgs, can also account for all of dark matter, and remains viable. However, Bayesian considerations show this region to be rather fine-tuned.

  10. Sea quark matrix elements and flavor singlet spectroscopy on the lattice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lagae, J.F.

    1996-01-01

    I summarize the results of three recent lattice studies which use stochastic estimator techniques in order to investigate the flavor singlet dynamics in QCD. These include a measurement of the pion-nucleon σ-term, the computation of the flavor singlet axial coupling constant of the nucleon and a determination of flavor singlet meson screening lengths in finite temperature QCD

  11. Singlet exciton fission in polycrystalline pentacene: from photophysics toward devices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Mark W B; Rao, Akshay; Ehrler, Bruno; Friend, Richard H

    2013-06-18

    Singlet exciton fission is the process in conjugated organic molecules bywhich a photogenerated singlet exciton couples to a nearby chromophore in the ground state, creating a pair of triplet excitons. Researchers first reported this phenomenon in the 1960s, an event that sparked further studies in the following decade. These investigations used fluorescence spectroscopy to establish that exciton fission occurred in single crystals of several acenes. However, research interest has been recently rekindled by the possibility that singlet fission could be used as a carrier multiplication technique to enhance the efficiency of photovoltaic cells. The most successful architecture to-date involves sensitizing a red-absorbing photoactive layer with a blue-absorbing material that undergoes fission, thereby generating additional photocurrent from higher-energy photons. The quest for improved solar cells has spurred a drive to better understand the fission process, which has received timely aid from modern techniques for time-resolved spectroscopy, quantum chemistry, and small-molecule device fabrication. However, the consensus interpretation of the initial studies using ultrafast transient absorption spectroscopy was that exciton fission was suppressed in polycrystalline thin films of pentacene, a material that would be otherwise expected to be an ideal model system, as well as a viable candidate for fission-sensitized photovoltaic devices. In this Account, we review the results of our recent transient absorption and device-based studies of polycrystalline pentacene. We address the controversy surrounding the assignment of spectroscopic features in transient absorption data, and illustrate how a consistent interpretation is possible. This work underpins our conclusion that singlet fission in pentacene is extraordinarily rapid (∼80 fs) and is thus the dominant decay channel for the photoexcited singlet exciton. Further, we discuss our demonstration that triplet excitons

  12. Effects of Intermolecular Coupling on Excimer Formation and Singlet Fission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mauck, Catherine McKay

    The development of organic photovoltaic devices benefits from understanding the fundamental processes underlying charge generation in thin films of organic semiconductors. This dissertation exploits model systems of pi-stacked chromophores such as perylene-3,4:9,10-bis(dicarboximide) (PDI) and 3,6-bis(aryl)diketopyrrolopyrrole (DPP) to study these processes using ultrafast electronic and vibrational spectroscopy. In particular, the characterization of covalent molecular dimers, thin films, and solution aggregates can reveal how supramolecular order affects photophysical properties. PDI and DPP are organic semiconductors that have been widely studied in organic photovoltaics, due to their strong visible absorption and excellent chemical stability. As solution-phase monomers, they are highly fluorescent, but in the thin film environment of photovoltaic devices these planar aromatic molecules couple to one another, stacking largely through pi-pi interactions. In self-assembled stacks of PDI, strong interchromophore coupling may disrupt charge separation through the formation of excimer states, preventing the generation of free carriers. By studying molecular dimers of PDI with different pi-stacked geometry, femtosecond visible pump mid-infrared probe spectroscopy allows direct observation of the structural dynamics associated with excimer state relaxation, showing that this low-energy state is primarily coupled to the core modes that shift as planarization and rotation lead to the most stable excimer geometry. PDI is also able to undergo singlet fission in thin films and aggregates. Singlet fission is the process in which a singlet excited state is downconverted into two triplet excitons, when the energy of its first singlet excited state is at least twice the energy of the lowest triplet state in an appropriately coupled molecular system. This spin-allowed, ultrafast process enables a theoretical yield of two charge carriers per incident photon, making it a

  13. The effect of thermal oxidation on the luminescence properties of nanostructured silicon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Lijia; Sham, Tsun-Kong

    2012-08-06

    Herein is reported a detailed study of the luminescence properties of nanostructured Si using X-ray excited optical luminescence (XEOL) in combination with X-ray absorption near-edge structures (XANES). P-type Si nanowires synthesized via electroless chemical etching from Si wafers of different doping levels and porous Si synthesized using electrochemical method are examined under X-ray excitation across the Si K-, L(3,2) -, and O K-edges. It is found that while as-prepared Si nanostructures are weak light emitters, intense visible luminescence is observed from thermally oxidized Si nanowires and porous Si. The luminescence mechanism of Si upon oxidation is investigated by oxidizing nanostructured Si at different temperatures. Interestingly, the two luminescence bands observed show different response with the variation of absorption coefficient upon Si and O core-electron excitation in elemental silicon and silicon oxide. A correlation between luminescence properties and electronic structures is thus established. The implications of the finding are discussed in terms of the behavior of the oxygen deficient center (OCD) and non-bridging oxygen hole center (NBOHC). Copyright © 2012 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  14. Novel lanthanide doped micro- and mesoporous solids. Characterization of ion-host-interactions, species distribution and luminescence properties using time-resolved luminescence spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gessner, Andre

    2010-12-01

    In this work lanthanide-doped microporous zeolites, microporous-mesoporous hybrid materials and mesoporous silicates were investigated regarding their luminescence properties and the ion-host-interactions using time-resolved luminescence spectroscopy. Thereby, time-resolved emission spectra (TRES) provide information in the wavelength and time domain. For the analysis of the TRES a broad set of analytic methods was applied and thus a corresponding ''toolbox'' developed. Fitting of the luminescence decays was performed with a discrete number of exponentials and supported by luminescence decay times distributions. Time-resolved area normalized emission spectra (TRANES), an advancement of TRES, could be used for the determination of the number of emissive lanthanide species in porous materials for the first time. Calculation of the decay-associated spectra (DAS) allowed the correlation of spectral information with luminescence decay times and thus delivered the luminescence spectra of the different europium species. For europium(III) we could use in addition the time-dependent asymmetry ratio and spectral evolution of the 5 D 0 - 7 F 0 -transition with time to obtain further information about the distribution of the lanthanide ions in the host material. Luminescence decay times and spectra allowed conclusions on the number of OH-oscillators in and the symmetry of the first coordination sphere. For the microporous and microporous-mesoporous materials were found different lanthanide species, which were characterized by the above mentioned methods. These lanthanide species can be found on different positions in the host material. One position is located deep in the pore system. Here, lanthanide ions are hardly accessible for water and mainly coordinated by framework oxygens. This results in long luminescence decay times and distorted coordination spheres. The second position can be found near or on the outer surface or in the mesopores. Lanthanide ions located here, are

  15. Defect-Induced Luminescence of a Self-Activated Borophosphate Phosphor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Bing; Liu, Beibei; Dai, Yazhou; Zhang, Jie

    2018-05-01

    A self-activated borophosphate phosphor Ba3BPO7 was prepared via typical solid-state reaction in thermal-carbon reduction atmosphere. The structural and luminescence properties were investigated using x-ray powder diffraction (XRD), Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy, and photoluminescence spectroscopy. Upon excitation with ultraviolet (UV) light, the as-prepared phosphor shows bright greenish-yellow emission with a microsecond-level fluorescence lifetime, which could result from the oxygen vacancies produced in the process of solid-state synthesis. The possible luminescence mechanism is proposed. Through the introduction of defects in the host, this work realizes visible luminescence in a pure borophosphate compound that does not contain any rare earth or transition metal activators, so it is helpful to develop defect-related luminescent materials in view of energy conservation and environmental protection for sustainable development.

  16. Lithium-Oxygen Batteries: At a Crossroads?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vegge, Tejs; García Lastra, Juan Maria; Siegel, Donald Jason

    2017-01-01

    In this current opinion, we critically review and discuss some of the most important recent findings in the field of rechargeable lithium-oxygen batteries. We discuss recent discoveries like the evolution of reactive singlet oxygen and the use of organic additives to bypass reactive LiO2 reaction...... intermediates, and their possible implications on the potential for commercialization of lithium-oxygen batteries. Finally, we perform a critical assessment of lithium-superoxide batteries and the reversibility of lithium-hydroxide batteries....

  17. Goldenphilicity: Luminescent gold compounds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sansores, L.E.

    2002-01-01

    In the solids and molecules different types of bonds are presented depending on the involved atoms, covalent bonds are common among elements of open shell, where more bond orbitals are filled than anti bond orbitals. It is expected that ionic bonds among closed shell atoms which have charges of opposite sign. Bonds type Van der Waals are presented among molecules which have a bipolar moment. It would not be expected bonds among zero charge species, or more generally with the same nominal charge and in any case the attractive forces would be very small. In fact it is expected that two metallic cations to be repelled each other. There recently is evidence that in organic or organometallic compounds could exist attractive interactions between two cations of the d 8 -d 10 -s 2 families. These bonds are weak but stronger than those of Van der Waals. They are compared with the hydrogen bonds. In this work it was reviewed some examples in which the goldenphilicity plays an important role in the luminescence that the gold complexes present. Examples of mono, bi and trinuclear and the structures that these organometallic compounds could take are examined. (Author)

  18. A CMOS Luminescence Intensity and Lifetime Dual Sensor Based on Multicycle Charge Modulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, Guoqing; Sonkusale, Sameer R

    2018-06-01

    Luminescence plays an important role in many scientific and industrial applications. This paper proposes a novel complementary metal-oxide-semiconductor (CMOS) sensor chip that can realize both luminescence intensity and lifetime sensing. To enable high sensitivity, we propose parasitic insensitive multicycle charge modulation scheme for low-light lifetime extraction benefiting from simplicity, accuracy, and compatibility with deeply scaled CMOS process. The designed in-pixel capacitive transimpedance amplifier (CTIA) based structure is able to capture the weak luminescence-induced voltage signal by accumulating photon-generated charges in 25 discrete gated 10-ms time windows and 10-μs pulsewidth. A pinned photodiode on chip with 1.04 pA dark current is utilized for luminescence detection. The proposed CTIA-based circuitry can achieve 2.1-mV/(nW/cm 2 ) responsivity and 4.38-nW/cm 2 resolution at 630 nm wavelength for intensity measurement and 45-ns resolution for lifetime measurement. The sensor chip is employed for measuring time constants and luminescence lifetimes of an InGaN-based white light-emitting diode at different wavelengths. In addition, we demonstrate accurate measurement of the lifetime of an oxygen sensitive chromophore with sensitivity to oxygen concentration of 7.5%/ppm and 6%/ppm in both intensity and lifetime domain. This CMOS-enabled oxygen sensor was then employed to test water quality from different sources (tap water, lakes, and rivers).

  19. Luminescence sensitivity changes in quartz

    CERN Document Server

    Wintle, A G

    1999-01-01

    In the luminescence dating of sedimentary or heated quartz, some heat treatment is usually applied to the sample immediately prior to the measurement of the optically stimulated luminescence. In this paper we report experiments on a 30,000-year-old sedimentary quartz, in which we use the luminescence response to a test dose to monitor the changes in sensitivity that are caused by holding the quartz at temperatures from 160 to 280 deg. C for times from 10 s to 22 h. For an optically bleached sample, the monitoring is by both optically stimulated luminescence and the 110 deg. C TL peak; both luminescence signals are shown to have the same sensitisation (i.e. activation energy) characteristics. For natural or laboratory irradiated samples only the 110 deg. C TL peak can be used; sensitivity increases of up to a factor of 1.3 and 3 are observed for the natural and laboratory irradiated aliquots, respectively. Up to four exponential components are used to deconvolve the sensitivity change data; the dominant compon...

  20. Luminescence in medical image science

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kandarakis, I.S., E-mail: kandarakis@teiath.gr

    2016-01-15

    Radiation detection in Medical Imaging is mostly based on the use of luminescent materials (scintillators and phosphors) coupled to optical sensors. Materials are employed in the form of granular screens, structured (needle-like) crystals and single crystal transparent blocks. Storage phosphors are also incorporated in some x-ray imaging plates. Description of detector performance is currently based on quality metrics, such as the Luminescence efficiency, the Modulation Transfer Function (MTF), the Noise Power Spectrum (NPS) and the Detective Quantum Efficiency (DQE) can be defined and evaluated. The aforementioned metrics are experimental evaluated for various materials in the form of screens. A software was designed (MINORE v1) to present image quality measurements in a graphical user interface (GUI) environment. Luminescence efficiency, signal and noise analysis are valuable tools for the evaluation of luminescent materials as candidates for medical imaging detectors. - Highlights: • Luminescence based medical imaging detectors. • Image science: MTF, NPS, DQE. • Phosphors screens light emission efficiency experimental evaluation. • Theoretical models for estimation of phosphor screen properties. • Software for medical image quality metrics.

  1. Luminescence quenching by heavy metal ions of probes based on anthracene, pyrene, and eosin in human serum albumin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naumova, E. V.; Melnikov, A. G.; Melnikov, G. V.

    2013-05-01

    Fluorescence and phosphorescence quenching processes of polar and non-polar luminescent probes associated with human serum albumin (HSA) in phosphate buffer at pH 7.4 were studied. Stern-Volmer quenching constants of anthracene and pyrene fluorescence and eosin phosphorescence and rate constants for quenching of eosin triplet states were determined. The polarity index of pyrene bound to HSA was obtained as a function of thallium nitrate concentration. The influences of structural changes in the proteins that were stimulated by heavy-metal salts and of screening of protein charges by salt ions on quenching processes of singlet and triplet states of the probes were found.

  2. Confinement sensitivity in quantum dot singlet-triplet relaxation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wesslén, C. J.; Lindroth, E.

    2017-11-01

    Spin-orbit mediated phonon relaxation in a two-dimensional quantum dot is investigated using different confining potentials. Elliptical harmonic oscillator and cylindrical well results are compared to each other in the case of a two-electron GaAs quantum dot subjected to a tilted magnetic field. The lowest energy set of two-body singlet and triplet states are calculated including spin-orbit and magnetic effects. These are used to calculate the phonon induced transition rate from the excited triplet to the ground state singlet for magnetic fields up to where the states cross. The roll of the cubic Dresselhaus effect, which is found to be much more important than previously assumed, and the positioning of ‘spin hot-spots’ are discussed and relaxation rates for a few different systems are exhibited.

  3. Trap-induced photoconductivity in singlet fission pentacene diodes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Qiao, Xianfeng, E-mail: qiaoxianfeng@hotmail.com; Zhao, Chen; Chen, Bingbing; Luan, Lin [WuHan National Laboratory for Optoelectronics and School of Optical and Electronic Information, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wu Han 430074 (China)

    2014-07-21

    This paper reports a trap-induced photoconductivity in ITO/pentacene/Al diodes by using current-voltage and magneto-conductance measurements. The comparison of photoconductivity between pentacene diodes with and without trap clearly shows that the traps play a critical role in generating photoconductivity. It shows that no observable photoconductivity is detected for trap-free pentacene diodes, while significant photoconductivity is observed in diodes with trap. This is because the initial photogenerated singlet excitons in pentacene can rapidly split into triplet excitons with higher binding energy prior to dissociating into free charge carriers. The generated triplet excitons react with trapped charges to release charge-carriers from traps, leading to a trap-induced photoconductivity in the single-layer pentacene diodes. Our studies elucidated the formation mechanisms of photoconductivity in pentacene diodes with extremely fast singlet fission rate.

  4. Luminescent lanthanide coordination polymers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ma, L.; Evans, O.R.; Foxman, B.M.; Lin, W.

    1999-12-13

    One-dimensional lanthanide coordination polymers with the formula Ln(isonicotinate){sub 3}(H{sub 2}O){sub 2} (Ln = Ce, Pr, Nd, Sm, Eu, Tb; 1a-f) were synthesized by treating nitrate or perchlorate salts of Ln(III) with 4-pyridinecarboxaldehyde under hydro(solvo)thermal conditions. Single-crystal and powder X-ray diffraction studies indicate that these lanthanide coordination polymers adopt two different structures. While Ce(III), Pr(III), and Nd(III) complexes adopt a chain structure with alternating Ln-(carboxylate){sub 2}-Ln and Ln-(carboxylate){sub 4}-Ln linkages, Sm(III), Eu(III), and Tb(III) complexes have a doubly carboxylate-bridged infinite-chain structure with one chelating carboxylate group on each metal center. In both structures, the lanthanide centers also bind to two water molecules to yield an eight-coordinate, square antiprismatic geometry. The pyridine nitrogen atoms of the isonicotinate groups do not coordinate to the metal centers in these lanthanide(III) complexes; instead, they direct the formation of Ln(III) coordination polymers via hydrogen bonding with coordinated water molecules. Photoluminescence measurements show that Tb(isonicotinate){sub 3}(H{sub 2}O){sub 2} is highly emissive at room temperature with a quantum yield of {approximately}90%. These results indicate that highly luminescent lanthanide coordination polymers can be assembled using a combination of coordination and hydrogen bonds. Crystal data for 1a: monoclinic space group P2{sub 1}/c, a = 9.712(2) {angstrom}, b = 19.833(4) {angstrom}, c = 11.616(2) {angstrom}, {beta} = 111.89(3){degree}, Z = 4. Crystal data for 1f: monoclinic space group C2/c, a = 20.253(4) {angstrom}, b = 11.584(2) {angstrom}, c = 9.839(2) {angstrom}, {beta} = 115.64(3){degree}, Z = 8.

  5. Stability of mass hierarchy in models with a sliding singlet

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smirnov, A.Yu.; Tainov, E.A.

    1986-01-01

    In the broad class of models with a heavy sliding singlet and softly broken supersymmetry (e.g. by the effects of N=1 supergravity) it is shown that the doublet-triplet hierarchy obtained at the tree level is not destroyed by quantum correction at any loop order. As an example the simplest SU(5) model with a stable doublet-triplet hierarchy is proposed. The necessary and sufficient conditions of the hierarchy stability are discussed. (orig.)

  6. Standard Model with a real singlet scalar and inflation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Enqvist, Kari; Nurmi, Sami; Tenkanen, Tommi; Tuominen, Kimmo, E-mail: kari.enqvist@helsinki.fi, E-mail: sami.nurmi@helsinki.fi, E-mail: tommi.tenkanen@helsinki.fi, E-mail: kimmo.i.tuominen@helsinki.fi [University of Helsinki and Helsinki Institute of Physics, P.O. Box 64, FI-00014, Helsinki (Finland)

    2014-08-01

    We study the post-inflationary dynamics of the Standard Model Higgs and a real singlet scalar s, coupled together through a renormalizable coupling λ{sub sh}h{sup 2}s{sup 2}, in a Z{sub 2} symmetric model that may explain the observed dark matter abundance and/or the origin of baryon asymmetry. The initial values for the Higgs and s condensates are given by inflationary fluctuations, and we follow their dissipation and relaxation to the low energy vacua. We find that both the lowest order perturbative and the non-perturbative decays are blocked by thermal effects and large background fields and that the condensates decay by two-loop thermal effects. Assuming instant reheating at T=10{sup 16} GeV, the characteristic temperature for the Higgs condensate thermalization is found to be T{sub h} ∼ 10{sup 14} GeV, whereas s thermalizes typically around T{sub s} ∼ 10{sup 6} GeV. By that time, the amplitude of the singlet is driven very close to the vacuum value by the expansion of the universe, unless the portal coupling takes a value λ{sub sh}∼< 10{sup -7} and the singlet s never thermalizes. With these values of the coupling, it is possible to slowly produce a sizeable fraction of the observed dark matter abundance via singlet condensate fragmentation and thermal Higgs scattering. Physics also below the electroweak scale can therefore be affected by the non-vacuum initial conditions generated by inflation.

  7. On luminescence lifetimes in quartz

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chithambo, M.L.; Galloway, R.B.

    2000-01-01

    In this paper we present results of investigations concerning the time dependence of luminescence emission relative to the time of stimulation in quartz. Measurements of time-resolved spectra were performed on a new versatile pulsed light emitting diode system using 525 nm stimulation, an 11 μs duration pulse, a repetition rate of 11 kHz and a 64 μs dynamic range. Effects on luminescence lifetime resulting from sample treatments such as optical stimulation, irradiation, and preheating, are reported

  8. Luminescent materials and their applications

    CERN Document Server

    Virk, Hardev Singh

    2015-01-01

    It is pertinent to note that Luminescence phenomenon has once again occupied a central stage with the announcement of Nobel Prize in October 2014 to three Japanese scientists. The discovery of Galium Nitride proved to be a revolutionary step forward in creation of Blue LEDs. With the advent of LED lamps we now have more long-lasting and more efficient alternatives to older light sources. The Volume under reference consists of 9 Chapters, written by experts in the area of Luminescent Materials. First 5 Chapters are contributed as Review Papers and the last 4 are based on Research Papers.Chapter

  9. Singlet-paired coupled cluster theory for open shells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gomez, John A.; Henderson, Thomas M.; Scuseria, Gustavo E.

    2016-06-01

    Restricted single-reference coupled cluster theory truncated to single and double excitations accurately describes weakly correlated systems, but often breaks down in the presence of static or strong correlation. Good coupled cluster energies in the presence of degeneracies can be obtained by using a symmetry-broken reference, such as unrestricted Hartree-Fock, but at the cost of good quantum numbers. A large body of work has shown that modifying the coupled cluster ansatz allows for the treatment of strong correlation within a single-reference, symmetry-adapted framework. The recently introduced singlet-paired coupled cluster doubles (CCD0) method is one such model, which recovers correct behavior for strong correlation without requiring symmetry breaking in the reference. Here, we extend singlet-paired coupled cluster for application to open shells via restricted open-shell singlet-paired coupled cluster singles and doubles (ROCCSD0). The ROCCSD0 approach retains the benefits of standard coupled cluster theory and recovers correct behavior for strongly correlated, open-shell systems using a spin-preserving ROHF reference.

  10. Singlet-paired coupled cluster theory for open shells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gomez, John A.; Henderson, Thomas M.; Scuseria, Gustavo E.

    2016-01-01

    Restricted single-reference coupled cluster theory truncated to single and double excitations accurately describes weakly correlated systems, but often breaks down in the presence of static or strong correlation. Good coupled cluster energies in the presence of degeneracies can be obtained by using a symmetry-broken reference, such as unrestricted Hartree-Fock, but at the cost of good quantum numbers. A large body of work has shown that modifying the coupled cluster ansatz allows for the treatment of strong correlation within a single-reference, symmetry-adapted framework. The recently introduced singlet-paired coupled cluster doubles (CCD0) method is one such model, which recovers correct behavior for strong correlation without requiring symmetry breaking in the reference. Here, we extend singlet-paired coupled cluster for application to open shells via restricted open-shell singlet-paired coupled cluster singles and doubles (ROCCSD0). The ROCCSD0 approach retains the benefits of standard coupled cluster theory and recovers correct behavior for strongly correlated, open-shell systems using a spin-preserving ROHF reference.

  11. Reactive oxygen species produced by irradiation of some phthalocyanine derivatives

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Černý, J.; Karásková, M.; Rakušan, J.; Nešpůrek, Stanislav

    2010-01-01

    Roč. 210, č. 1 (2010), s. 82-88 ISSN 1010-6030 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR KAN400720701 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40500505 Keywords : singlet oxygen * photosensitizer * phthalocyanine Subject RIV: CG - Electrochemistry Impact factor: 2.243, year: 2010

  12. Advantages and disadvantages of luminescence dosimetry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Olko, Pawel, E-mail: Pawel.Olko@ifj.edu.p [Institute of Nuclear Physics Polish Academy of Science (IFJ PAN), Krakow (Poland)

    2010-03-15

    Owing to their excellent dosimetric properties, luminescence detectors of ionizing radiation are now extensively applied in individual dosimetry services. The most frequently used personal dosemeters are based on Optically Stimulated Luminescence (OSL), radiophotoluminescence (RPL) or thermoluminescence (TL). Luminescence detectors have also found several applications in clinical dosimetry, especially around new radiation modalities in radiotherapy, such as Intensity Modulated Radiotherapy (IMRT) or ion beam radiotherapy. Requirements of luminescence detectors applied in individual and clinical dosimetry and some recent developments in luminescence of detectors and techniques leading to significant improvements of the functionality and accuracy of dosimetry systems are reviewed and discussed.

  13. Biocompatible ZnS:Mn quantum dots for reactive oxygen generation and detection in aqueous media

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diaz-Diestra, Daysi; Beltran-Huarac, Juan; Bracho-Rincon, Dina P.; González-Feliciano, José A.; González, Carlos I.; Weiner, Brad R.; Morell, Gerardo

    2015-12-01

    We report here the versatility of Mn-doped ZnS quantum dots (ZnS:Mn QDs) synthesized in aqueous medium for generating reactive oxygen species and for detecting cells. Our experiments provide evidence leading to the elimination of Cd-based cores in CdSe/ZnS systems by substitution of Mn-doped ZnS. Advanced electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction, and optical spectroscopy were applied to elucidate the formation, morphology, and dispersion of the products. We study for the first time the ability of ZnS:Mn QDs to act as immobilizing agents for Tyrosinase (Tyr) enzyme. It was found that ZnS:Mn QDs show no deactivation of Tyr enzyme, which efficiently catalyzed the hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) oxidation and its eventual reduction (-0.063 V vs. Ag/AgCl) on the biosensor surface. The biosensor showed a linear response in the range of 12 μmol/L-0.1 mmol/L at low operation potential. Our observations are explained in terms of a catalase-cycled kinetic mechanism based on the binding of H2O2 to the axial position of one of the active copper sites of the oxy-Tyr during the catalase cycle to produce deoxy-Tyr. A singlet oxygen quantum yield of 0.62 in buffer and 0.54 in water was found when ZnS:Mn QDs were employed as a photosensitizer in the presence of a chemical scavenger and a standard dye. These results are consistent with a chemical trapping energy transfer mechanism. Our results also indicate that ZnS:Mn QDs are well tolerated by HeLa Cells reaching cell viabilities as high as 88 % at 300 µg/mL of QDs for 24 h of incubation. The ability of ZnS:Mn QDs as luminescent nanoprobes for bioimaging is also discussed.

  14. Benchmarking singlet and triplet excitation energies of molecular semiconductors for singlet fission: Tuning the amount of HF exchange and adjusting local correlation to obtain accurate functionals for singlet-triplet gaps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brückner, Charlotte; Engels, Bernd

    2017-01-01

    Vertical and adiabatic singlet and triplet excitation energies of molecular p-type semiconductors calculated with various DFT functionals and wave-function based approaches are benchmarked against MS-CASPT2/cc-pVTZ reference values. A special focus lies on the singlet-triplet gaps that are very important in the process of singlet fission. Singlet fission has the potential to boost device efficiencies of organic solar cells, but the scope of existing singlet-fission compounds is still limited. A computational prescreening of candidate molecules could enlarge it; yet it requires efficient methods accurately predicting singlet and triplet excitation energies. Different DFT formulations (Tamm-Dancoff approximation, linear response time-dependent DFT, Δ-SCF) and spin scaling schemes along with several ab initio methods (CC2, ADC(2)/MP2, CIS(D), CIS) are evaluated. While wave-function based methods yield rather reliable singlet-triplet gaps, many DFT functionals are shown to systematically underestimate triplet excitation energies. To gain insight, the impact of exact exchange and correlation is in detail addressed.

  15. Hydrothermal synthesis, characterization and luminescent ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Bulletin of Materials Science; Volume 39; Issue 4. Hydrothermal synthesis, characterization and luminescent properties of lanthanide-doped NaLaF 4 nanoparticles. JIGMET LADOL HEENA KHAJURIA SONIKA KHAJURIA ... Keywords. Citric acid; X-ray diffraction; down-conversion emission; energy transfer.

  16. Hydrothermal synthesis, characterization and luminescent ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    that nanoparticles have cylindrical shape and crystalline nature of nanoparticles was confirmed by SAED patterns. Down- conversion (DC) luminescent properties of doped NaLaF4 were also .... Figure 1 shows the XRPD patterns of undoped NaLaF4 and .... which can be assigned to the transitions from the 7F6 ground.

  17. A portable luminescence dating instrument

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kook, M.H.; Murray, A.S.; Lapp, Torben

    2011-01-01

    We describe a portable luminescence reader suitable for use in remote localities in the field. The instrument weighs about 8kg and is based around a 30mm bialkali photomultiplier detecting signals through a glass filter centered on 340nm. Stimulation is by 470nm blue LEDs (24W in total) operating...

  18. Advances in luminescence instrument systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bøtter-Jensen, L.; Bulur, E.; Duller, G.A.T.

    2000-01-01

    We report on recent advances in the development of luminescence measurement systems and techniques at Riso. These include: (1) optical stimulation units based on new-generation powerful blue light (470 nm) emitting diodes providing up to 28 mW/cm(2) for OSL measurements; (2) an infrared (830 nm...

  19. Origin of green luminescence in hydrothermally grown ZnO single crystals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Čížek, J., E-mail: jakub.cizek@mff.cuni.cz; Hruška, P.; Melikhova, O.; Procházka, I. [Department of Low-Temperature Physics, Charles University in Prague, V Holešovičkách 2, CZ-180 00, Prague 8 (Czech Republic); Valenta, J. [Department of Chemical Physics and Optics, Charles University in Prague, Ke Karlovu 3, CZ-121 16, Prague 2 (Czech Republic); Novotný, M.; Bulíř, J. [Academy of Science of the Czech Republic, Institute of Physics, Na Slovance 2, CZ-182 21 Praha 8 (Czech Republic)

    2015-06-22

    Combining photoluminescence and positron annihilation studies of hydrothermally grown ZnO crystals with stoichiometry varied by controlled annealing enabled us to clarify the origin of green luminescence. It was found that green luminescence in ZnO has multiple origins and consists of a band at 2.3(1) eV due to recombination of electrons of the conduction band by zinc vacancy acceptors coupled with hydrogen and a band at 2.47(2) eV related to oxygen vacancies. The as-grown ZnO crystals contain zinc vacancies associated with hydrogen and exhibit a green luminescence at 2.3(1) eV. Annealing in Zn vapor removed zinc vacancies and introduced oxygen vacancies. This led to disappearance of the green luminescence band at 2.3(1) eV and appearance of a green emission at higher energy of 2.47(2) eV. Moreover, the color of the crystal was changed from colorless to dark red. In contrast, annealing of the as-grown crystal in Cd vapor did not remove zinc vacancies and did not cause any significant change of green luminescence nor change in coloration.

  20. Origin of green luminescence in hydrothermally grown ZnO single crystals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Čížek, J.; Hruška, P.; Melikhova, O.; Procházka, I.; Valenta, J.; Novotný, M.; Bulíř, J.

    2015-01-01

    Combining photoluminescence and positron annihilation studies of hydrothermally grown ZnO crystals with stoichiometry varied by controlled annealing enabled us to clarify the origin of green luminescence. It was found that green luminescence in ZnO has multiple origins and consists of a band at 2.3(1) eV due to recombination of electrons of the conduction band by zinc vacancy acceptors coupled with hydrogen and a band at 2.47(2) eV related to oxygen vacancies. The as-grown ZnO crystals contain zinc vacancies associated with hydrogen and exhibit a green luminescence at 2.3(1) eV. Annealing in Zn vapor removed zinc vacancies and introduced oxygen vacancies. This led to disappearance of the green luminescence band at 2.3(1) eV and appearance of a green emission at higher energy of 2.47(2) eV. Moreover, the color of the crystal was changed from colorless to dark red. In contrast, annealing of the as-grown crystal in Cd vapor did not remove zinc vacancies and did not cause any significant change of green luminescence nor change in coloration

  1. Origin of green luminescence in hydrothermally grown ZnO single crystals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Čížek, J.; Valenta, J.; Hruška, P.; Melikhova, O.; Procházka, I.; Novotný, M.; Bulíř, J.

    2015-06-01

    Combining photoluminescence and positron annihilation studies of hydrothermally grown ZnO crystals with stoichiometry varied by controlled annealing enabled us to clarify the origin of green luminescence. It was found that green luminescence in ZnO has multiple origins and consists of a band at 2.3(1) eV due to recombination of electrons of the conduction band by zinc vacancy acceptors coupled with hydrogen and a band at 2.47(2) eV related to oxygen vacancies. The as-grown ZnO crystals contain zinc vacancies associated with hydrogen and exhibit a green luminescence at 2.3(1) eV. Annealing in Zn vapor removed zinc vacancies and introduced oxygen vacancies. This led to disappearance of the green luminescence band at 2.3(1) eV and appearance of a green emission at higher energy of 2.47(2) eV. Moreover, the color of the crystal was changed from colorless to dark red. In contrast, annealing of the as-grown crystal in Cd vapor did not remove zinc vacancies and did not cause any significant change of green luminescence nor change in coloration.

  2. MEKANISME DAN KINETIKA QUENCHING OKSIGEN SINGLET DARI SENYAWA FENOLIK DAUN CENGKEH TERHADAP FOTOKSIDASI YANG DISENSITASI OLEH ERITROSIN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edi Suryanto

    2012-02-01

    isolate phenolic compound of clove leaves and to study the mechanism and kinetic of singlet oxygen quenching. Clove leaves was extracted by steam distillation using water for 6 hours. Crude clove leaves oil was purifi ed by distillation under reduced pressure. Isolated fractions were determined its structure by infrared (IR, nuclear magnetic resonance (1H-NMR, and mass spectrometry (MS techniques. The effects of 0, 500, 1000 and 1500 ppm isolated compound on the photooxidation of linoleic acid (0,03M containing 15 ppm erythrosine in ethanol were studied by measuring peroxide value of the oil. The quenching mechanism and kinetics of eugenol were studied by the steady-state kinetic method. Samples of 0; 0,06 x 10-4; 0,12 x 10-4; 0,24 x 10-4 dan 0,48x 10-4 mM eugenol prepared in water contained 0; 17,05 x10-4; 34,10 x 10-4; 68,19 x 10-4 and 136,39 x 10-4 mM of erythrosine stored under fl uorescent light (4000 lux at room temperature for 15 hours. The result indicated that eugenol content of clove oil, F1, F2, F3 and F4 were 49.68; 54.32; 87.16 and 73.65%, respectively. The structure of F3 was identifi ed by IR spectrometry which shows strong absorption at 3448 cm-1 indicating hydroxyl group from the phenolic compound and the 1H NMR spectra showed that the number of proton ring was 3 hydrogen while the mass spectrometry showed the molecular ion peak at m/e = 164 as base peak and the absence of peak at (M-41+ as the indicator of eugenol. The result showed that eugenol had antiphotooxidation activity on erythrosine sensitized photooxidation of oil. The mechanism of singlet oxygen quenching on erythrosine photodegradation showed that eugenol only quenched singlet oxygen. The total quenching rate constant of eugenol was 4,42 x 108/M/s. Keywords: Clove leave, eugenol, quencher, erythrosine, singlet oxygen

  3. Unitarity constraints in the standard model with a singlet scalar field

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kang, Sin Kyu; Park, Jubin

    2015-01-01

    Motivated by the discovery of a new scalar field and amelioration of the electroweak vacuum stability ascribed to a singlet scalar field embedded in the standard model (SM), we examine the implication of the perturbative unitarity in the SM with a singlet scalar field. Taking into account the full contributions to the scattering amplitudes, we derive unitarity conditions on the scattering matrix which can be translated into bounds on the masses of the scalar fields. In the case that the singlet scalar field develops vacuum expectation value (VEV), we get the upper bound on the singlet scalar mass varying with the mixing between the singlet and Higgs scalars. On the other hand, the mass of the Higgs scalar can be constrained by the unitarity condition in the case that the VEV of the singlet scalar is not generated. Applying the upper bound on the Higgs mass to the scenario of the unitarized Higgs inflation, we discuss how the unitarity condition can constrain the Higgs inflation. The singlet scalar mass is not constrained by the unitarity itself when we impose Z 2 in the model because of no mixing with the Higgs scalar. But, regarding the singlet scalar field as a cold dark matter candidate, we derive upper bound on the singlet scalar mass by combining the observed relic abundance with the unitarity condition.

  4. Toward Singlet-Triplet Bistable Nonalternant Kekulé Hydrocarbons: Azulene-to-Naphthalene Rearrangement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Das, Soumyajit; Wu, Jishan

    2015-12-04

    Recent developments of open-shell singlet diradicaloids motivated the search for stable singlet-triplet bistable nonalternant polycyclic hydrocarbons. During the synthesis of this type of molecule, such as the dibenzo-cyclohepta[def]fluorene 3, an unexpected azulene-to-naphthalene rearrangement was observed at room temperature, which resulted in new nonalternant hydrocarbons 8a/8b with a closed-shell singlet ground state. These studies provided insight into the unique chemistry of azulene and challenges for the synthesis of singlet-triplet bistable polycyclic hydrocarbons.

  5. Entanglement and Metrology with Singlet-Triplet Qubits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shulman, Michael Dean

    Electron spins confined in semiconductor quantum dots are emerging as a promising system to study quantum information science and to perform sensitive metrology. Their weak interaction with the environment leads to long coherence times and robust storage for quantum information, and the intrinsic tunability of semiconductors allows for controllable operations, initialization, and readout of their quantum state. These spin qubits are also promising candidates for the building block for a scalable quantum information processor due to their prospects for scalability and miniaturization. However, several obstacles limit the performance of quantum information experiments in these systems. For example, the weak coupling to the environment makes inter-qubit operations challenging, and a fluctuating nuclear magnetic field limits the performance of single-qubit operations. The focus of this thesis will be several experiments which address some of the outstanding problems in semiconductor spin qubits, in particular, singlet-triplet (S-T0) qubits. We use these qubits to probe both the electric field and magnetic field noise that limit the performance of these qubits. The magnetic noise bath is probed with high bandwidth and precision using novel techniques borrowed from the field of Hamiltonian learning, which are effective due to the rapid control and readout available in S-T 0 qubits. These findings allow us to effectively undo the undesired effects of the fluctuating nuclear magnetic field by tracking them in real-time, and we demonstrate a 30-fold improvement in the coherence time T2*. We probe the voltage noise environment of the qubit using coherent qubit oscillations, which is partially enabled by control of the nuclear magnetic field. We find that the voltage noise bath is frequency-dependent, even at frequencies as high as 1MHz, and it shows surprising and, as of yet, unexplained temperature dependence. We leverage this knowledge of the voltage noise environment, the

  6. Quadrupole singlet focusing for achromatic parallel-to-parallel devices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brown, K.L.

    1983-01-01

    A first order achromatic magnetic deflection system for use in conjunction with a charged particle accelerator is realized from a stepped gap magnet wherein charged particles propagating through the system are subject to at least two adjacent homogeneous magnetic fields in adjacent regions in traversing one-half of a symmetric trajectory through the system. A quadrupole singlet element Q of adjustable focal length disposed substantially at the entrance plane of such a symmetric system makes possible the coincidence of the waists of the beam in both the vertical (transverse) and (radial) bending planes. (author)

  7. Radiation-induced luminescence from dry and hydrated DNA and related macromolecules

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Al-Kazwini, A.T.; O'Neill, P.; Fielden, E.M.; Adams, G.E.

    1988-01-01

    The radiation-induced luminescence from three types of fibrous DNA and a series of polydeoxynucleotides was measured under vacuum or in the presence of oxygen at 77 and 293K. The in-pulse emission spectra, generated by electrons with energies 50% water by wt (1.2:1 w/w, H 2 O/DNA), the in-pulse luminescence spectrum is similar to that of dry DNA. These findings are discussed in terms of energy or charge migration induced in DNA upon irradiation and the possible effects of conformational changes, caused by hydration, on charge migration. (author)

  8. Uranyl fluoride luminescence in acidic aqueous solutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beitz, J.V.; Williams, C.W.

    1996-01-01

    Luminescence emission spectra and decay rates are reported for uranyl species in acidic aqueous solutions containing HF or added NaF. The longest luminescence lifetime, 0.269 ± 0.006 ms, was observed from uranyl in 1 M HF + 1 M HClO 4 at 296 K and decreased with increasing temperature. Based on a luminescence dynamics model that assumes equilibrium among electronically excited uranyl fluoride species and free fluoride ion, this long lived uranyl luminescence in aqueous solution is attributed primarily to UO 2 F 2 . Studies on the effect of added LiNO 3 or Na 2 WO 4 ·2H 2 O showed relatively weak quenching of uranyl fluoride luminescence which suggests that high sensitivity determination of the UF 6 content of WF 6 gas should be feasible via uranyl luminescence analysis of hydrolyzed gas samples of impure WF 6

  9. Luminescence of LiH(D):Ru monocrystals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sabirzyanov, A.A.; Oparin, D.V.; Pilipenko, G.I.; Gavrilov, F.F.

    1993-01-01

    Luminescence of lithium hydride (deuteride) activated by ruthenium is recorded for the first time. The features connected with the structure and oscillations of the basic lattice are detected in luminescence spectrum. The qualitative model of luminescence spectrum is suggested

  10. Luminescence centers in bismuth orthogermanate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bordun, O.M.

    2001-01-01

    The luminescence and photoexcitation spectra of single crystals,ceramics,and thin films of Bi 4 Ce 3 O 1 2 are studied.The decomposition of the luminescence spectra into elementary components by the Alentsev-Fock method showed that they consist of three bands with maxima at 2.7,2.4,and 2.05 eV.The bands with maxima at 2.7 and 2.4 eV are assigned to the emission of self-trapped Frenkel excitons describing the excited state of a (BiO 6 ) 9- molecular ion. Emission bands with maxima at 2.0 5 eV are assigned to recombination on traps caused by structural defects

  11. X-ray luminescent glasses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takahashi, T.; Yamada, O.

    1981-01-01

    X-ray luminescent glasses comprising a divalent cation such as an alkaline earth metal or other divalent cations such as pb, cd, or zn, and certain rare earth metaphosphates are suitable as vitreous, x-ray phosphors or x-ray luminescent glass fibers in an x-ray intensifying screen. The glasses have the composition n(Mo X p2o5)((1-y)tb2o3 X yce2o3 X 3p2o5) wherein N is greater than zero but less than or equal to 16, M is an alkaline earth metal or other divalent cation such as pb, cd, or zn, and Y is greater than or equal to zero but less than one

  12. Identification of yellow luminescence centers in Be-doped GaN through pressure-dependent studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teisseyre, Henryk; Lyons, John L.; Kaminska, Agata; Jankowski, Dawid; Jarosz, Dawid; Boćkowski, Michał; Suchocki, Andrzej; Van de Walle, Chris G.

    2017-06-01

    Effective acceptor doping of wide-band-gap semiconductors is still an outstanding problem. Beryllium has been suggested as a shallow acceptor in GaN, but despite sporadic announcements, Be-induced p-type doping has never been practically realized. Be-doped GaN possesses two luminescence bands; one at 3.38 eV and a second near 2.2 eV at an energy close to that of the parasitic yellow luminescence often found in undoped GaN crystals. We have performed high hydrostatic pressure studies of bulk, Be-doped gallium nitride crystals using the diamond anvil cell technique. We observed a splitting of the yellow luminescence line under hydrostatic pressure into two components, one which is strongly dependent on applied pressure and another whose pressure dependence is more modest. Together with hybrid functional calculations, we attribute the strongly-varying component to the beryllium-oxygen complex. The second component of the yellow luminescence possesses very similar pressure behavior to the yellow luminescence observed in undoped samples grown by the same method, behavior which we find consistent with the CN acceptor. At higher pressure, we observe the vanishing of yellow luminescence and a rapid increase in luminescence intensity of the UV line. We explain this as the pressure-induced transformation of the Be-O complex from a highly localized state with large lattice relaxation to a delocalized state with limited lattice relaxation.

  13. Apparatus for reducing solvent luminescence background emissions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Affleck, Rhett L. (Los Alamos, NM); Ambrose, W. Patrick (Los Alamos, NM); Demas, James N. (Charlottesville, VA); Goodwin, Peter M. (Jemez Springs, NM); Johnson, Mitchell E. (Pittsburgh, PA); Keller, Richard A. (Los Alamos, NM); Petty, Jeffrey T. (Los Alamos, NM); Schecker, Jay A. (Sante Fe, NM); Wu, Ming (Los Alamos, NM)

    1998-01-01

    The detectability of luminescent molecules in solution is enhanced by reducing the background luminescence due to impurity species also present in the solution. A light source that illuminates the solution acts to photolyze the impurities so that the impurities do not luminesce in the fluorescence band of the molecule of interest. Molecules of interest may be carried through the photolysis region in the solution or may be introduced into the solution after the photolysis region.

  14. Modern luminescence spectroscopy of minerals and materials

    CERN Document Server

    Gaft, Michael; Panczer, Gerard

    2005-01-01

    Luminescence Spectroscopy of Minerals and Materials presents an overview of the general concepts in luminescence spectroscopy as well as experimental methods and their interpretation. Special emphasis is laid on the fluorescence lifetime and the determination of time-resolved spectra. This method enables the exposure of new luminescence in minerals previously hidden by more intensive centers. Specialists in the fields of solid state physics, chemistry and spectroscopy will find a wealth of new information in this unique book.

  15. Material for a luminescent solar concentrator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrews, L.J.

    1984-01-01

    A material for use in a luminescent solar concentrator, formed by ceramitizing the luminescent ion Cr/sup 3 +/ with a transparent ceramic glass containing mullite. The resultant material has tiny Cr/sup 3 +/-bearing crystallites dispersed uniformly through an amorphous glass. The invention combines the high luminescent efficiency of Cr/sup 3 +/ in the crystalline phase with the practical and economical advantages of glass technology.

  16. Handbook of luminescent semiconductor materials

    CERN Document Server

    Bergman, Leah

    2011-01-01

    Photoluminescence spectroscopy is an important approach for examining the optical interactions in semiconductors and optical devices with the goal of gaining insight into material properties. With contributions from researchers at the forefront of this field, Handbook of Luminescent Semiconductor Materials explores the use of this technique to study semiconductor materials in a variety of applications, including solid-state lighting, solar energy conversion, optical devices, and biological imaging. After introducing basic semiconductor theory and photoluminescence principles, the book focuses

  17. Electrostatic probes in luminescent discharges

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cunha Raposo, C. da.

    1980-01-01

    A system to produce luminescent type plasma by continuos discharge and ionization by high frequency was constructed. The ionization was done in the air and in the argon under pressures from 3 to 10 mmHg. The parameters of a non magnetized collisional plasma and the parameters of a magnetized plasma such as, density, eletron temperature and potential, using a Langmuir probe with plane geometry, were determined. (M.C.K.) [pt

  18. Luminescence studies on phosphor screens

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Panayiotakis, G.; Nomikos, C.; Bakas, A.; Proimos, B.

    1994-01-01

    We report our results on x-ray phosphor screens prepared of some new materials focusing attention on their efficiency under fluoroscopy conditions, on optimization conditions and on comparisons among the various materials. All data are presented in absolute values. A theoretical model is presented, that takes into account the granular structure of the screens, permitting the explanation and prediction of the luminescence properties of the screens. (authors)

  19. Luminescence studies on phosphor screens

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Panayiotakis, G; Nomikos, C; Bakas, A; Proimos, B [Medical Physics Department, University of Patras, 265 00 Patras, Greece (Greece)

    1994-12-31

    We report our results on x-ray phosphor screens prepared of some new materials focusing attention on their efficiency under fluoroscopy conditions, on optimization conditions and on comparisons among the various materials. All data are presented in absolute values. A theoretical model is presented, that takes into account the granular structure of the screens, permitting the explanation and prediction of the luminescence properties of the screens. (authors). 12 refs, 3 figs.

  20. Online analysis of oxygen inside silicon-glass microreactors with integrated optical sensors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ehgartner, Josef; Sulzer, Philipp; Burger, Tobias

    2016-01-01

    A powerful online analysis set-up for oxygen measurements within microfluidic devices is presented. It features integration of optical oxygen sensors into microreactors, which enables contactless, accurate and inexpensive readout using commercially available oxygen meters via luminescent lifetime...... monitoring of enzyme transformations, including d-alanine or d-phenylalanine oxidation by d-amino acid oxidase, and glucose oxidation by glucose oxidase....

  1. Optical stimulated luminescence (OSL) dating

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Banerjee, D.

    1999-01-01

    Since the pioneering work by Huntley et al. (1985), optical dating is being increasingly recognised as an important technique for establishing a time frame of deposition of sediments (Aitken, 1998). Optical dating differs from thermoluminescence (TL) dating in that visible/infrared light from lasers or LEDs (light-emitting-diodes) is used as a means of stimulation, in contrast to thermal stimulation. It has several advantages over TL dating: (i) the resetting of the OSL (optically stimulated luminescence) clock is more effective than that of TL clock; for sediments transported under water or in other situations where the sediment grains have undergone inhomogeneous bleaching, this property ensures that ages based on optical dating are generally more reliable than TL ages, (ii) the optical dating technique is non-destructive, and multiple readouts of the optical signal is possible; this feature has resulted in the development of single-aliquot and single-grain protocols (Murray and Wintle, 1999; Banerjee et al. 1999), (iii) the sample is not heated as in TL; thus, spurious luminescence is avoided and there is a significant reduction in blackbody radiation. Dating of materials which change phase on heating is also practical, and finally, (iv) thermal quenching of luminescence is negligible, allowing accurate estimation of kinetic parameters using standard techniques and providing access to deep OSL traps. This characteristic may be helpful in extending the limits of optical dating beyond the last 150 ka from a global point of view

  2. Methods of producing luminescent images

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Broadhead, P.; Newman, G.A.

    1977-01-01

    A method is described for producing a luminescent image in a layer of a binding material in which is dispersed a thermoluminescent material. The layer is heated uniformly to a temperature of 80 to 300 0 C and is exposed to luminescence inducing radiation whilst so heated. The preferred exposing radiation is X-rays and preferably the thermoluminescent material is insensitive to electromagnetic radiation of wavelength longer than 300 mm. Information concerning preparation of the luminescent material is given in BP 1,347,672; this material has the advantage that at elevated temperatures it shows increased sensitivity compared with room temperature. At temperatures in the range 80 to 150 0 C the thermoluminescent material exhibits 'afterglow', allowing the image to persist for several seconds after the X-radiation has ceased, thus allowing the image to be retained for visual inspection in this temperature range. At higher temperatures, however, there is negligible 'afterglow'. The thermoluminescent layers so produced are particularly useful as fluoroscopic screens. The preferred method of heating the thermoluminescent material is described in BP 1,354,149. An example is given of the application of the method. (U.K.)

  3. Singlet vs Nonsinglet Perturbative Renormalization factors of Staggered Fermion Bilinears

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panagopoulos, Haralambos; Spanoudes, Gregoris

    2018-03-01

    In this paper we present the perturbative computation of the difference between the renormalization factors of flavor singlet (Σfψ¯fΓψf', f : flavor index) and nonsinglet (ψ¯f1Γψf2,f1 ≠ f2) bilinear quark operators (where Γ = 𝟙, γ5, γ µ, γ5 γ µ, γ5 σµv on the lattice. The computation is performed to two loops and to lowest order in the lattice spacing, using Symanzik improved gluons and staggered fermions with twice stout-smeared links. The stout smearing procedure is also applied to the definition of bilinear operators. A significant part of this work is the development of a method for treating some new peculiar divergent integrals stemming from the staggered formalism. Our results can be combined with precise simulation results for the renormalization factors of the nonsinglet operators, in order to obtain an estimate of the renormalization factors for the singlet operators. The results have been published in Physical Review D [1].

  4. Discrete R symmetries for the MSSM and its singlet extensions

    CERN Document Server

    Lee, Hyun Min; Ratz, Michael; Ross, Graham G; Schieren, Roland; Schmidt-Hoberg, Kai; Vaudrevange, Patrick K S

    2011-01-01

    We determine the anomaly free discrete R symmetries, consistent with the MSSM, that commute with SU(5) and suppress the $\\mu$ parameter and nucleon decay. We show that the order M of such $Z_M^R$ symmetries has to divide 24 and identify 5 viable symmetries. The simplest possibility is a $Z_4^R$ symmetry which commutes with SO(10). We present a string-derived model with this $Z_4^R$ symmetry and the exact MSSM spectrum below the GUT scale; in this model $Z_4^R$ originates from the Lorentz symmetry of compactified dimensions. We extend the discussion to include the singlet extensions of the MSSM and find $Z_4^R$ and $Z_8^R$ are the only possible symmetries capable of solving the $\\mu$ problem in the NMSSM. We also show that a singlet extension of the MSSM based on a $Z_{24}^R$ symmetry can provide a simultaneous solution to the $\\mu$ and strong CP problem with the axion coupling in the favoured window.

  5. Singlet structure function F_1 in double-logarithmic approximation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ermolaev, B. I.; Troyan, S. I.

    2018-03-01

    The conventional ways to calculate the perturbative component of the DIS singlet structure function F_1 involve approaches based on BFKL which account for the single-logarithmic contributions accompanying the Born factor 1 / x. In contrast, we account for the double-logarithmic (DL) contributions unrelated to 1 / x and because of that they were disregarded as negligibly small. We calculate the singlet F_1 in the double-logarithmic approximation (DLA) and account at the same time for the running α _s effects. We start with a total resummation of both quark and gluon DL contributions and obtain the explicit expression for F_1 in DLA. Then, applying the saddle-point method, we calculate the small- x asymptotics of F_1, which proves to be of the Regge form with the leading singularity ω _0 = 1.066. Its large value compensates for the lack of the factor 1 / x in the DLA contributions. Therefore, this Reggeon can be identified as a new Pomeron, which can be quite important for the description of all QCD processes involving the vacuum (Pomeron) exchanges at very high energies. We prove that the expression for the small- x asymptotics of F_1 scales: it depends on a single variable Q^2/x^2 only instead of x and Q^2 separately. Finally, we show that the small- x asymptotics reliably represent F_1 at x ≤ 10^{-6}.

  6. Natural NMSSM with a light singlet Higgs and singlino LSP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Potter, C.T.

    2016-01-01

    Supersymmetry (SUSY) is an attractive extension of the Standard Model (SM) of particle physics which solves the SM hierarchy problem. Motivated by the theoretical μ-term problem of the Minimal Supersymmetric Model (MSSM), the Next-to MSSM (NMSSM) can also account for experimental deviations from the SM like the anomalous muon magnetic moment and the dark matter relic density. Natural SUSY, motivated by naturalness considerations, exhibits small fine tuning and a characteristic phenomenology with light higgsinos, stops, and gluinos. We describe a scan in NMSSM parameter space motivated by Natural SUSY and guided by the phenomenology of an NMSSM with a slightly broken Peccei-Quinn symmetry and a lightly coupled singlet. We identify a scenario which survives experimental constraints with a light singlet Higgs and a singlino lightest SUSY particle. We then discuss how the scenario is not presently excluded by searches at the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) and which channels are promising for discovery at the LHC and International Linear Collider. (orig.)

  7. Resonance-shifting luminescent solar concentrators

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Giebink, Noel Christopher; Wiederrecht, Gary P.; Wasielewski, Michael R.

    2018-01-23

    An optical system and method to overcome luminescent solar concentrator inefficiencies by resonance-shifting, in which sharply directed emission from a bi-layer cavity into a glass substrate returns to interact with the cavity off-resonance at each subsequent reflection, significantly reducing reabsorption loss en route to the edges. In one embodiment, the system comprises a luminescent solar concentrator comprising a transparent substrate, a luminescent film having a variable thickness; and a low refractive index layer disposed between the transparent substrate and the luminescent film.

  8. Discuss on luminescence dose data analysis technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ma Xinhua; Xiao Wuyun; Ai Xianyun; Shi Zhilan; Liu Ying

    2009-01-01

    This article describes the development of luminescence dose data measurement and processing technology. General design planning of luminescence dose data measurement and processing technology is put forward with the diverse demands. The emphasis is focused on dose data processing method, luminescence curve analysis method, using of network, mechanics of communication among computers, data base management system of individual dose in this paper. The main methods and skills used in this technology as well as their advantages are also discussed. And it offers general design references for development luminescence dose data processing software. (authors)

  9. Magnetic enhancement of photoluminescence from blue-luminescent graphene quantum dots

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Qi; Shi, Chentian; Zhang, Chunfeng; Pu, Songyang; Wang, Rui; Wu, Xuewei; Wang, Xiaoyong; Xue, Fei; Pan, Dengyu; Xiao, Min

    2016-02-01

    Graphene quantum-dots (GQDs) have been predicted and demonstrated with fascinating optical and magnetic properties. However, the magnetic effect on the optical properties remains experimentally unexplored. Here, we conduct a magneto-photoluminescence study on the blue-luminescence GQDs at cryogenic temperatures with magnetic field up to 10 T. When the magnetic field is applied, a remarkable enhancement of photoluminescence emission has been observed together with an insignificant change in circular polarization. The results have been well explained by the scenario of magnetic-field-controlled singlet-triplet mixing in GQDs owing to the Zeeman splitting of triplet states, which is further verified by temperature-dependent experiments. This work uncovers the pivotal role of intersystem crossing in GQDs, which is instrumental for their potential applications such as light-emitting diodes, photodynamic therapy, and spintronic devices.

  10. Luminescent properties of terbium complexes with catecholamines and their application in analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kravchenko, T.B.; Bel'tyukova, S.V.; Kononenko, L.I.; Poluehktov, N.S.

    1982-01-01

    Tb complexing with a representative of catecholamines - adrenaline - is studied using the luminescence method. It is found, that the complexing takes place in alkaline medium (pH 12.0). To prevent from compound oxidation with air oxygen and to create the necessary pH in solution sodium borohydride is used. The highest luminescence intensity is achieved when the reaction occurs in aqueous-isopropanol solutions. It is established that in the complexes formed the ratio of components is the following: Tb:adrenaline=1:3. Luminescent properties of Tb complex with adrenaline are used to determine the latter. The least detectable amount of adrenaline constitutes 0.02 μg, the determination error does not exceed 5.5% [ru

  11. Luminescence characterization of a sodium rich feldspar

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Correcher, V.; Sanchez M, L.; Garcia G, J.; Rivera, T.

    2006-01-01

    This paper reports on the radioluminescence (RL) and thermoluminescence (TL) properties of a sodium rich feldspar ((Na,K)[AlSi 3 O 8 ]) with a mean molecular composition of orthoclase (Or) and albite (Ab) of Or 1 Ab 99 . Despite the complexity of the luminescence signals of the sample, it is possible to determine six different emission bands at about 300, 380, 420, 460, 550 and 680 nm. The 300 nm emission can be associated to structural defects related to the recombination process in which the Na + ion diffusion-limited is involved. The UV-blue emission band at (i) 380 nm is characteristic of mineral phases containing SiO 4 tetrahedral and could be related to intrinsic defects in the lattice, (ii) the 420 nm band could be associated to the presence of Cu (II) ions placed next to the hole traps or the recombination on a centre formed from a hole-oxygen atom adjacent to two Al atoms (Al-O-Al) and (iii) the 460 nm waveband could be due to the presence of Ti 4+ . The green and red emissions are respectively associated to the presence of Mn 2+ and Fe 3+ ions. The ratio between the relative intensities, peaked at 290 (the more intense waveband) and 550 nm is about 10:1 in both TL and RL; this fact indicates that the efficiency of recombination centres does no changes regardless on the type of the process. (Author)

  12. Search for Colour Singlet and Colour Reconnection Effects in Hadronic Z Decays at LEP

    CERN Document Server

    Achard, P; Aguilar-Benítez, M; Alcaraz, J; Alemanni, G; Allaby, James V; Aloisio, A; Alviggi, M G; Anderhub, H; Andreev, V P; Anselmo, F; Arefev, A; Azemoon, T; Aziz, T; Bagnaia, P; Bajo, A; Baksay, G; Baksay, L; Baldew, S V; Banerjee, S; Banerjee, Sw; Barczyk, A; Barillère, R; Bartalini, P; Basile, M; Batalova, N; Battiston, R; Bay, A; Becattini, F; Becker, U; Behner, F; Bellucci, L; Berbeco, R; Berdugo, J; Berges, P; Bertucci, B; Betev, B L; Biasini, M; Biglietti, M; Biland, A; Blaising, J J; Blyth, S C; Bobbink, Gerjan J; Böhm, A; Boldizsar, L; Borgia, B; Bottai, S; Bourilkov, D; Bourquin, Maurice; Braccini, S; Branson, J G; Brochu, F; Burger, J D; Burger, W J; Cai, X D; Capell, M; Cara Romeo, G; Carlino, G; Cartacci, A M; Casaus, J; Cavallari, F; Cavallo, N; Cecchi, C; Cerrada, M; Chamizo-Llatas, M; Chang, Y H; Chemarin, M; Chen, A; Chen, G; Chen, G M; Chen, H F; Chen, H S; Chiefari, G; Cifarelli, Luisa; Cindolo, F; Clare, I; Clare, R; Coignet, G; Colino, N; Costantini, S; de la Cruz, B; Cucciarelli, S; van Dalen, J A; De Asmundis, R; Déglon, P L; Debreczeni, J; Degré, A; Dehmelt, K; Deiters, K; Della Volpe, D; Delmeire, E; Denes, P; De Notaristefani, F; De Salvo, A; Diemoz, M; Dierckxsens, M; Dionisi, C; Dittmar, M; Doria, A; Dova, M T; Duchesneau, D; Duda, M; Echenard, B; Eline, A; El-Hage, A; El-Mamouni, H; Engler, A; Eppling, F J; Extermann, P; Falagán, M A; Falciano, S; Favara, A; Fay, J; Fedin, O; Felcini, M; Ferguson, T; Fesefeldt, H S; Fiandrini, E; Field, J H; Filthaut, F; Fisher, P H; Fisher, W; Fisk, I; Forconi, G; Freudenreich, Klaus; Furetta, C; Galaktionov, Yu; Ganguli, S N; García-Abia, P; Gataullin, M; Gentile, S; Giagu, S; Gong, Z F; Grenier, G; Grimm, O; Grünewald, M W; Guida, M; van Gulik, R; Gupta, V K; Gurtu, A; Gutay, L J; Haas, D; Hatzifotiadou, D; Hebbeker, T; Hervé, A; Hirschfelder, J; Hofer, H; Hohlmann, M; Holzner, G; Hou, S R; Hu, Y; Jin, B N; Jones, L W; de Jong, P; Josa-Mutuberria, I; Käfer, D; Kaur, M; Kienzle-Focacci, M N; Kim, J K; Kirkby, Jasper; Kittel, E W; Klimentov, A; König, A C; Kopal, M; Koutsenko, V F; Kräber, M H; Krämer, R W; Krüger, A; Kunin, A; Ladrón de Guevara, P; Laktineh, I; Landi, G; Lebeau, M; Lebedev, A; Lebrun, P; Lecomte, P; Lecoq, P; Le Coultre, P; Le Goff, J M; Leiste, R; Levtchenko, M; Levchenko, P M; Li, C; Likhoded, S; Lin, C H; Lin, W T; Linde, Frank L; Lista, L; Liu, Z A; Lohmann, W; Longo, E; Lü, Y S; Luci, C; Luminari, L; Lustermann, W; Ma Wen Gan; Malgeri, L; Malinin, A; Maña, C; Mans, J; Martin, J P; Marzano, F; Mazumdar, K; McNeil, R R; Mele, S; Merola, L; Meschini, M; Metzger, W J; Mihul, A; Milcent, H; Mirabelli, G; Mnich, J; Mohanty, G B; Muanza, G S; Muijs, A J M; Musicar, B; Musy, M; Nagy, S; Natale, S; Napolitano, M; Nessi-Tedaldi, F; Newman, H; Nisati, A; Novák, T; Nowak, H; Ofierzynski, R A; Organtini, G; Pal, I; Palomares, C; Paolucci, P; Paramatti, R; Passaleva, G; Patricelli, S; Paul, T; Pauluzzi, M; Paus, C; Pauss, Felicitas; Pedace, M; Pensotti, S; Perret-Gallix, D; Petersen, B; Piccolo, D; Pierella, F; Pioppi, M; Piroué, P A; Pistolesi, E; Plyaskin, V; Pohl, M; Pozhidaev, V; Pothier, J; Prokofev, D; Prokofiev, D O; Quartieri, J; Rahal-Callot, G; Rahaman, M A; Raics, P; Raja, N; Ramelli, R; Rancoita, P G; Ranieri, R; Raspereza, A V; Razis, P A; Ren, D; Rescigno, M; Reucroft, S; Riemann, S; Riles, K; Roe, B P; Romero, L; Rosca, A; Rosier-Lees, S; Roth, S; Rosenbleck, C; Rubio, J A; Ruggiero, G; Rykaczewski, H; Sakharov, A; Saremi, S; Sarkar, S; Salicio, J; Sánchez, E; Schäfer, C; Shchegelskii, V; Schopper, Herwig Franz; Schotanus, D J; Sciacca, C; Servoli, L; Shevchenko, S; Shivarov, N; Shoutko, V; Shumilov, E; Shvorob, A V; Son, D; Souga, C; Spillantini, P; Steuer, M; Stickland, D P; Stoyanov, B; Strässner, A; Sudhakar, K; Sultanov, G G; Sun, L Z; Sushkov, S; Suter, H; Swain, J D; Szillási, Z; Tang, X W; Tarjan, P; Tauscher, Ludwig; Taylor, L; Tellili, B; Teyssier, D; Timmermans, C; Ting, Samuel C C; Ting, S M; Tonwar, S C; Tóth, J; Tully, C; Tung, K L; Ulbricht, J; Valente, E; Van de Walle, R T; Vásquez, R; Veszpremi, V; Vesztergombi, G; Vetlitskii, I; Vicinanza, D; Viertel, Gert M; Villa, S; Vivargent, M; Vlachos, S; Vodopyanov, I; Vogel, H; Vogt, H; Vorobev, I; Vorobyov, A A; Wadhwa, M; Wang, Q; Wang, X L; Wang, Z M; Weber, M; Wienemann, P; Wilkens, H; Wynhoff, S; Xia, L; Xu, Z Z; Yamamoto, J; Yang, B Z; Yang, C G; Yang, H J; Yang, M; Yeh, S C; Zalite, A; Zalite, Yu; Zhang, Z P; Zhao, J; Zhu, G Y; Zhu, R Y; Zhuang, H L; Zichichi, A; Zimmermann, B; Zöller, M

    2004-01-01

    A search is performed in symmetric 3-jet hadronic Z decay events for evidence of colour singlet production or colour reconnection effects. Asymmetries in the angular separation of particles are found to be sensitive indicators of such effects. Upper limits on the level of colour singlet production and colour reconnection effects are established for a variety of models.

  13. Design of porphyrin-based conjugated microporous polymers with enhanced singlet oxygen productivity

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Hynek, Jan; Rathouský, Jiří; Demel, Jan; Lang, Kamil

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 6, č. 50 (2016), s. 44279-44287 ISSN 2046-2069 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA16-15020S Institutional support: RVO:61388980 ; RVO:61388955 Keywords : Conjugated microporous polymers * Crystalline materials * Metal organic framework * biomimetic catalysis Subject RIV: CA - Inorganic Chemistry; CF - Physical ; Theoretical Chemistry (UFCH-W) Impact factor: 3.108, year: 2016

  14. A Gas-Solid Singlet Delta Oxygen Generator for the Chemical Iodine Laser

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Alfano, Angelo

    2002-01-01

    ... at 1.27 microns by passing chlorine gas through aqueous, basic hydrogen peroxide (H2O2/OH). Unfortunately, the process of nonradiative relaxation used in COIL results in the creation of undesired heat and not the desired light emission...

  15. Ultrafast intramolecular charge transfer in tetrapyrazinoporphyrazines controls the quantum yields of fluorescence and singlet oxygen

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Nováková, V.; Zimčík, P.; Miletín, M.; Váchová, L.; Kopecký, K.; Lang, Kamil; Chábera, P.; Polívka, T.

    2010-01-01

    Roč. 12, č. 11 (2010), s. 2555-2563 ISSN 1463-9076 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA203/07/1424 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40320502 Keywords : photoinduced electron-transfer * phthalocyanine -fullerene ensembles * nonlinear-optical properties Subject RIV: CA - Inorganic Chemistry Impact factor: 3.454, year: 2010

  16. Magnetic field protects plants against high light by slowing down production of singlet oxygen

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Hakala-Yatkin, M.; Sarvikas, P.; Paturi, P.; Mattila, H.; Tyystjärvi, T.; Nedbal, Ladislav; Tyystjärvi, E.

    2011-01-01

    Roč. 142, č. 1 (2011), s. 26-34 ISSN 0031-9317 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60870520 Keywords : photosynthetic reaction-center * Photosystem-II * alpha-tocopherol * environmental-stress * manganese complex * evolving complex * oxidative stress Subject RIV: EH - Ecology, Behaviour Impact factor: 3.112, year: 2011

  17. Solar photolysis of ozone to singlet D oxygen atoms, O(1D)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blackburn, T.E.

    1984-01-01

    Ground level solar photolysis rate coefficients (jO 3 ) were measured for the photolysis of ozone by sunlight, (O 3 + hnu( 2 + O( 1 D)). The O( 1 D) atoms produced react with nitrous oxide (N 2 O) carrier gas to form higher oxides of nitrogen (NOx). Computer model predictions show that these are mainly N 2 O 5 and NO 3 . Seventy five days of data were taken during the summer of 1983, at Ann Arbor, Michigan, and are presented in the appendix. Over 390 clear air jO 3 values are correlated with effective ozone column densities, and 500 nm aerosol optical depths. The solar direct beam component of ozone photolysis was measured for the different aerosol optical depths, over two entire days from sun-up to sun-down. Temperature dependence of jO 3 was measured from 10 0 C to 39 0 C with good agreement to models. Comparison of jO 3 versus global and ultraviolet radiation are made under various ozone column densities and aerosol optical depths. A jO 3 -photometer was built using an interference filter to pass only ozone photolyzing light. Improvements to instrumental parts are shown for balloon and aircraft flyable payloads

  18. Protective mechanisms against peptide and protein peroxides generated by singlet oxygen

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Morgan, Philip E; Dean, Roger T; Davies, Michael Jonathan

    2004-01-01

    or detoxify such peroxides. It is shown that catalase, horseradish peroxidase, and Cu/Zn superoxide dismutase do not react rapidly with these peroxides. Oxymyoglobin and oxyhemoglobin, but not the met (Fe3+) forms of these proteins, react with peptide but not protein, peroxides with oxidation of the heme iron...

  19. Porous Silicon Nanoparticle Photosensitizers for Singlet Oxygen and Their Phototoxicity Against Cancer Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Ling; Gu, Luo; Howell, Stephen B.; Sailor, Michael J.

    2011-01-01

    Porous Si nanoparticles, prepared from electrochemically etched single crystal Si wafers, function as photosensitizers to generate 1O2 in ethanol and in aqueous media. The preparation conditions for the porous Si nanoparticles were optimized to maximize (1) the yield of material; (2) its quantum yield of 1O2 production; and (3) its in vitro degradation properties. The optimal formulation was determined to consist of nanoparticles 146 ± 7 nm in diameter, with nominal pore sizes of 12 ± 4 nm. The quantum yield for 1O2 production is 0.10 ± 0.02 in ethanol and 0.17 ± 0.01 in H2O. HeLa or NIH-3T3 cells treated with 100 µg/mL porous Si nanoparticles and exposed to 60 J/cm2 white light (infrared filtered, 100 mW/cm2 for 10 min) exhibit ~ 45% cell death, while controls containing no nanoparticles show 10% or 25% cell death, respectively. The dark control experiment yields < 10% cytotoxicity for either cell type. PMID:21452822

  20. Persistent luminescence of Eu, Mn, Dy doped calcium phosphates for in-vivo optical imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rosticher, Céline [UPMC Univ Paris 06, CNRS, UMR 7574, Chimie de la Matière Condensée de Paris, Collège de France, 11 place Marcelin Berthelot, 75231 Paris Cedex 05 (France); Viana, Bruno, E-mail: bruno.viana@chimie-paristech.fr [PSL Research University, Chimie ParisTech-CNRS, Institut de Recherche de Chimie Paris, 11 rue Pierre et Marie Curie, 75005 Paris (France); Maldiney, Thomas; Richard, Cyrille [Unité de Technologies Chimiques et Biologiques pour la Santé, CNRS, UMR 8258, Paris Cedex F-75270 (France); Inserm U1022, Paris Cedex F-75270 (France); Faculté des Sciences Pharmaceutiques et Biologiques, Université Paris Descartes, Sorbonne Paris Cité, Paris Cedex F-75270 (France); Chanéac, Corinne, E-mail: corinne.chaneac@upmc.fr [UPMC Univ Paris 06, CNRS, UMR 7574, Chimie de la Matière Condensée de Paris, Collège de France, 11 place Marcelin Berthelot, 75231 Paris Cedex 05 (France)

    2016-02-15

    Biocompatible nanoparticles possessing persistent luminescence properties offer attractive possibilities for in vivo imaging applications as it allows an excitation of the sensors outside the animal before injection and a long-lasting emission of light. Here we report the development of highly biocompatible calcium phosphate nanoparticles doped with europium, Mn{sup 2+} and Ln{sup 3+} (Ln{sup 3+}=Dy{sup 3+}, Pr{sup 3+}) ions synthesized by hydrothermal route and tailored to present red-near infrared persistent luminescence after UV excitation. Nanosize biphasic HAp/β-TCP compounds with sphere and rod-shaped were obtained. Two emission bands in the red-near infrared range were observed and attributed to {sup 4}T{sub 1}→{sup 6}A{sub 1} transitions of Mn{sup 2+} ions in HAp/β-TCP. An annealing treatment in reductive atmosphere post-synthesis was essential to reveal persistent luminescence properties. Indeed, such thermal treatment allows reducing Eu{sup 3+} ions in Eu{sup 2+} ions and generating required defaults as oxygen vacancies in the crystal necessary for red emission in accordance with persistent luminescence mechanism. These nanoparticles have been tested for the first time for in vivo imaging on small animal as proof of concept of prospective highly biocompatible nanoprobes. - Highlights: • Biocompatible HAp/b-TCP nanoparticles with persistent luminescence are investigated. • Reducing step induced persistent luminescence. • Nanoparticles have been tested for the first time for in vivo imaging. • Persistent luminescence is observed after 10 min in vivo.

  1. Controlling Long-Lived Triplet Generation from Intramolecular Singlet Fission in the Solid State

    KAUST Repository

    Pace, Natalie A.

    2017-11-30

    The conjugated polymer poly(benzothiophene dioxide) (PBTDO1) has recently been shown to exhibit efficient intramolecular singlet fission in solution. In this paper, we investigate the role of intermolecular interactions in triplet separation dynamics after singlet fission. We use transient absorption spectroscopy to determine the singlet fission rate and triplet yield in two polymers differing only by side chain motif in both solution and the solid state. Whereas solid-state films show singlet fission rates identical to those measured in solution, the average lifetime of the triplet population increases dramatically, and is strongly dependent on side-chain identity. These results show that it may be necessary to carefully engineer the solid-state microstructure of these “singlet fission polymers” in order to produce the long-lived triplets needed to realize efficient photovoltaic devices.

  2. Controlling Long-Lived Triplet Generation from Intramolecular Singlet Fission in the Solid State

    KAUST Repository

    Pace, Natalie A.; Zhang, Weimin; Arias, Dylan H.; McCulloch, Iain; Rumbles, Garry; Johnson, Justin C.

    2017-01-01

    The conjugated polymer poly(benzothiophene dioxide) (PBTDO1) has recently been shown to exhibit efficient intramolecular singlet fission in solution. In this paper, we investigate the role of intermolecular interactions in triplet separation dynamics after singlet fission. We use transient absorption spectroscopy to determine the singlet fission rate and triplet yield in two polymers differing only by side chain motif in both solution and the solid state. Whereas solid-state films show singlet fission rates identical to those measured in solution, the average lifetime of the triplet population increases dramatically, and is strongly dependent on side-chain identity. These results show that it may be necessary to carefully engineer the solid-state microstructure of these “singlet fission polymers” in order to produce the long-lived triplets needed to realize efficient photovoltaic devices.

  3. WIMP Dark Matter and Unitarity-Conserving Inflation via a Gauge Singlet Scalar

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kahlhoefer, Felix; McDonald, John

    2015-07-01

    A gauge singlet scalar with non-minimal coupling to gravity can drive inflation and later freeze out to become cold dark matter. We explore this idea by revisiting inflation in the singlet direction (S-inflation) and Higgs Portal Dark Matter in light of the Higgs discovery, limits from LUX and observations by Planck. We show that large regions of parameter space remain viable, so that successful inflation is possible and the dark matter relic abundance can be reproduced. Moreover, the scalar singlet can stabilise the electroweak vacuum and at the same time overcome the problem of unitarity-violation during inflation encountered by Higgs Inflation, provided the singlet is a real scalar. The 2-σ Planck upper bound on n s imposes that the singlet mass is below 2 TeV, so that almost the entire allowed parameter range can be probed by XENON1T.

  4. Unified model for singlet fission within a non-conjugated covalent pentacene dimer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basel, Bettina S.; Zirzlmeier, Johannes; Hetzer, Constantin; Phelan, Brian T.; Krzyaniak, Matthew D.; Reddy, S. Rajagopala; Coto, Pedro B.; Horwitz, Noah E.; Young, Ryan M.; White, Fraser J.; Hampel, Frank; Clark, Timothy; Thoss, Michael; Tykwinski, Rik R.; Wasielewski, Michael R.; Guldi, Dirk M.

    2017-01-01

    When molecular dimers, crystalline films or molecular aggregates absorb a photon to produce a singlet exciton, spin-allowed singlet fission may produce two triplet excitons that can be used to generate two electron–hole pairs, leading to a predicted ∼50% enhancement in maximum solar cell performance. The singlet fission mechanism is still not well understood. Here we report on the use of time-resolved optical and electron paramagnetic resonance spectroscopy to probe singlet fission in a pentacene dimer linked by a non-conjugated spacer. We observe the key intermediates in the singlet fission process, including the formation and decay of a quintet state that precedes formation of the pentacene triplet excitons. Using these combined data, we develop a single kinetic model that describes the data over seven temporal orders of magnitude both at room and cryogenic temperatures. PMID:28516916

  5. Femtosecond stimulated Raman evidence for charge-transfer character in pentacene singlet fission.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hart, Stephanie M; Silva, W Ruchira; Frontiera, Renee R

    2018-02-07

    Singlet fission is a spin-allowed process in which an excited singlet state evolves into two triplet states. We use femtosecond stimulated Raman spectroscopy, an ultrafast vibrational technique, to follow the molecular structural evolution during singlet fission in order to determine the mechanism of this process. In crystalline pentacene, we observe the formation of an intermediate characterized by pairs of excited state peaks that are red- and blue-shifted relative to the ground state features. We hypothesize that these features arise from the formation of cationic and anionic species due to partial transfer of electron density from one pentacene molecule to a neighboring molecule. These observations provide experimental evidence for the role of states with significant charge-transfer character which facilitate the singlet fission process in pentacene. Our work both provides new insight into the singlet fission mechanism in pentacene and demonstrates the utility of structurally-sensitive time-resolved spectroscopic techniques in monitoring ultrafast processes.

  6. Luminescent converter of neodymium laser radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ryba-Romanowski, W.; Golab, S.

    1992-01-01

    The new luminescent converter of neodymium laser radiation has been worked out. Activated inorganic compounds of ytterbium and erbium ions has been used as luminescent agent. The multi-component inorganic glass containing tellurium oxide as well as boron, sodium, magnesium and zinc oxides has been applied as a converter matrix

  7. Receptor-Targeted Luminescent Silver Bionanoparticles

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bunschoten, Anton; Chin, Patrick T.K.; Buckle, Tessa; Linden, van der Marte; Barendregt, Arjan; Verheijen, Marcel A.; Leeuwen, van Fijs W.B.

    2016-01-01

    Luminescent Ag nanoclusters (Ag-NC) provide the next generation in bionanoparticles, wherein the luminescence (650 nm) and large Stokes shift of these inorganic nanoclusters are favorable for biological imaging. By combining these characteristics with those of human serum albumin (HSA; a protein

  8. Kinetics of infrared stimulated luminescence from feldspars

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jain, Mayank; Sohbati, Reza; Guralnik, Benny

    2015-01-01

    thermal and optical, of the infrared stimulated luminescence signal from feldspar. Based on the application of this model, it is concluded that different infra-red stimulated luminescence emissions (UV, blue, yellow and far-red) follow the same kinetics, and, therefore, involve participation of the same...

  9. Application of luminescence techniques in retrospective dosimetry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bøtter-Jensen, L.; Jungner, H.

    1999-01-01

    Luminescence signals measured from minerals within bricks or ceramic samples can provide information about the absorbed radiation dose. This feature has for several years been used in dating archaeological and geological samples and recently luminescence techniques have been intensively used far ...

  10. Discrete Visible Luminescence of Helium Atoms and Molecules Desorbing from Helium Clusters: The Role of Electronic, Vibrational, and Rotational Energy Transfer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    von Haeften, K.; von Pietrowski, R.; Moeller, T.; Joppien, M.; Moussavizadeh, L.; de Castro, A.R.

    1997-01-01

    Discrete visible and near-infrared luminescence of a beam of photoexcited helium clusters is reported. The emission lines are attributed to free helium atoms and molecules desorbing from clusters in electronically excited states. Depending on the excitation energy, various atomic and molecular singlet and triplet states are involved in the relaxation process. With increasing cluster size the intensity of molecular transitions becomes dominant. The temperature of ejected molecules could be estimated to T vib ∼2500 K and T rot ∼450 K and is much higher than that of the cluster itself. copyright 1997 The American Physical Society

  11. A rigorous nonorthogonal configuration interaction approach for the calculation of electronic couplings between diabatic states applied to singlet fission

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wibowo, Meilani; Broer, Ria; Havenith, Remco W. A.

    2017-01-01

    For the design of efficient singlet fission chromophores, knowledge of the factors that govern the singlet fission rate is important. This rate is approximately proportional to the electronic coupling between the lowest (diabatic) spin singlet state that is populated following photoexcitation state

  12. Evolution of truncated moments of singlet parton distributions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Forte, S.; Magnea, L.; Piccione, A.; Ridolfi, G.

    2001-01-01

    We define truncated Mellin moments of parton distributions by restricting the integration range over the Bjorken variable to the experimentally accessible subset x 0 ≤x≤1 of the allowed kinematic range 0≤x≤1. We derive the evolution equations satisfied by truncated moments in the general (singlet) case in terms of an infinite triangular matrix of anomalous dimensions which couple each truncated moment to all higher moments with orders differing by integers. We show that the evolution of any moment can be determined to arbitrarily good accuracy by truncating the system of coupled moments to a sufficiently large but finite size, and show how the equations can be solved in a way suitable for numerical applications. We discuss in detail the accuracy of the method in view of applications to precision phenomenology

  13. Resummation of singlet parton evolution at small x

    CERN Document Server

    Altarelli, Guido; Forte, Stefano; Altarelli, Guido; Ball, Richard D.; Forte, Stefano

    2000-01-01

    We propose an improvement of the splitting functions at small x which overcomes the apparent problems encountered by the BFKL approach. We obtain a stable expansion for the x-evolution function chi(M) near M=0 by including in it a sequence of terms derived from the one- and two-loop anomalous dimension gamma. The requirement of momentum conservation is always satisfied. The residual ambiguity on the splitting functions is effectively parameterized in terms of the value of lambda, which fixes the small x asymptotic behaviour x^-lambda of the singlet parton distributions. We derive from this improved evolution function an expansion of the splitting function which leads to good apparent convergence, and to a description of scaling violations valid both at large and small x.

  14. Generation of macroscopic singlet states in atomic ensembles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tóth, Géza; Mitchell, Morgan W.

    2010-05-01

    We study squeezing of the spin uncertainties by quantum non-demolition (QND) measurement in non-polarized spin ensembles. Unlike the case of polarized ensembles, the QND measurements can be performed with negligible back-action, which allows, in principle, perfect spin squeezing as quantified by Tóth et al (2007 Phys. Rev. Lett. 99 250405). The generated spin states approach many-body singlet states and contain a macroscopic number of entangled particles even when individual spin is large. We introduce the Gaussian treatment of unpolarized spin states and use it to estimate the achievable spin squeezing for realistic experimental parameters. Our proposal might have applications for magnetometry with a high spatial resolution or quantum memories storing information in decoherence free subspaces.

  15. Signal for a light singlet scalar at the LHC

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, We-Fu; Modak, Tanmoy; Ng, John N.

    2018-03-01

    In the general Higgs portal-like models, the extra neutral scalar, S , can mix with the Standard Model (SM) Higgs boson, H . We perform an exploratory study focusing on the direct search for such a light singlet S at the Large Hadron Collider (LHC). After careful study of the SM background, we find the process p p →t t ¯ S followed by S →b b ¯ can be used to investigate S with mass in the 20 Higgs factories. With similar luminosity, the current Large Electron-Positron Collider (LEP) limits on the mixing between S and H can be improved by at least one or two order of magnitudes.

  16. Color-singlet production at NNLO in MCFM

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boughezal, Radja [Argonne National Laboratory, High Energy Physics Division, Argonne, IL (United States); Campbell, John M.; Giele, Walter [Fermilab, P.O.Box 500, Batavia, IL (United States); Ellis, R.K. [University of Durham, Department of Physics, Institute for Particle Physics Phenomenology, Durham (United Kingdom); Focke, Christfried [Northwestern University, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Evanston, IL (United States); Liu, Xiaohui [University of Maryland, Maryland Center for Fundamental Physics, College Park, Maryland (United States); Petriello, Frank [Argonne National Laboratory, High Energy Physics Division, Argonne, IL (United States); Northwestern University, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Evanston, IL (United States); Williams, Ciaran [University at Buffalo, The State University of New York, Department of Physics, Buffalo (United States)

    2017-01-15

    We present the implementation of several color-singlet final-state processes at Next-to-Next-to Leading Order (NNLO) accuracy in QCD to the publicly available parton-level Monte Carlo program MCFM. Specifically we discuss the processes pp → H, pp → Z, pp → W, pp → HZ, pp → HW and pp → γγ. Decays of the unstable bosons are fully included, resulting in a flexible fully differential Monte Carlo code. The NNLO corrections have been calculated using the non-local N-jettiness subtraction approach. Special attention is given to the numerical aspects of running MCFM for these processes at this order. We pay particular attention to the systematic uncertainties due to the power corrections induced by the N-jettiness regularization scheme and the evaluation time needed to run the hybrid openMP/MPI version of MCFM at NNLO on multi-processor systems. (orig.)

  17. Two-singlet model for light cold dark matter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abada, Abdessamad; Ghaffor, Djamal; Nasri, Salah

    2011-01-01

    We extend the standard model by adding two gauge-singlet Z 2 -symmetric scalar fields that interact with visible matter only through the Higgs particle. One is a stable dark matter WIMP, and the other one undergoes a spontaneous breaking of the symmetry that opens new channels for the dark matter annihilation, hence lowering the mass of the WIMP. We study the effects of the observed dark matter relic abundance on the WIMP annihilation cross section and find that in most regions of the parameters' space, light dark matter is viable. We also compare the elastic-scattering cross section of our dark matter candidate off a nucleus with existing (CDMSII and XENON100) and projected (SuperCDMS and XENON1T) experimental exclusion bounds. We find that most of the allowed mass range for light dark matter will be probed by the projected sensitivity of the XENON1T experiment.

  18. Device-independent parallel self-testing of two singlets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Xingyao; Bancal, Jean-Daniel; McKague, Matthew; Scarani, Valerio

    2016-06-01

    Device-independent self-testing offers the possibility of certifying the quantum state and measurements, up to local isometries, using only the statistics observed by querying uncharacterized local devices. In this paper we study parallel self-testing of two maximally entangled pairs of qubits; in particular, the local tensor product structure is not assumed but derived. We prove two criteria that achieve the desired result: a double use of the Clauser-Horne-Shimony-Holt inequality and the 3 ×3 magic square game. This demonstrate that the magic square game can only be perfectly won by measuring a two-singlet state. The tolerance to noise is well within reach of state-of-the-art experiments.

  19. Singlet Higgs phenomenology and the electroweak phase transition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Profumo, Stefano; Ramsey-Musolf, Michael J.; Shaughnessy, Gabe

    2007-01-01

    We study the phenomenology of gauge singlet extensions of the Standard Model scalar sector and their implications for the electroweak phase transition. We determine the conditions on the scalar potential parameters that lead to a strong first order phase transition as needed to produce the observed baryon asymmetry of the universe. We analyze the constraints on the potential parameters derived from Higgs boson searches at LEP and electroweak precision observables. For models that satisfy these constraints and that produce a strong first order phase transition, we discuss the prospective signatures in future Higgs studies at the Large Hadron Collider and a Linear Collider. We argue that such studies will provide powerful probes of phase transition dynamics in models with an extended scalar sector

  20. Theory of singlet-doublet excitations in praseodymium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bak, P.

    1975-10-01

    The magnetic excitation spectrum in a paramagnetic singlet-doublet system is calculated using a diagrammatic high density expansion technique. The lowest order diagrams, which correspond to the random phase approximation (RPA), give a detailed description of the wave vector and temperature dependence of the four exciton modes in praseodymium in terms of a Hamiltonian including isotropic Heisenberg exchange interactions and anisotropic, dipolar-like interactions. The leading contributions to the linewidths of the excitations are obtained by extending the 1/Z expansion of the generalized susceptibility propagators one order beyond the random phase approximation. This damping corresponds to spin wave scattering on single-site fluctuations. The theoretical spectral functions are in detailed agreement with experiment

  1. Time-resolved measurements of luminescence

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Collier, Bradley B. [Department of Biomedical Engineering, 408 Mechanical Engineering Office Building, Spence Street, Texas A and M University, College Station, TX 77843 (United States); McShane, Michael J., E-mail: mcshane@tamu.edu [Department of Biomedical Engineering, 408 Mechanical Engineering Office Building, Spence Street, Texas A and M University, College Station, TX 77843 (United States); Materials Science and Engineering Program, 408 Mechanical Engineering Office Building, Spence Street, Texas A and M University, College Station, TX 77843 (United States)

    2013-12-15

    Luminescence sensing and imaging has become more widespread in recent years in a variety of industries including the biomedical and environmental fields. Measurements of luminescence lifetime hold inherent advantages over intensity-based response measurements, and advances in both technology and methods have enabled their use in a broader spectrum of applications including real-time medical diagnostics. This review will focus on recent advances in analytical methods, particularly calculation techniques, including time- and frequency-domain lifetime approaches as well as other time-resolved measurements of luminescence. -- Highlights: • Developments in technology have led to widespread use of luminescence lifetime. • Growing interest for sensing and imaging applications. • Recent advances in approaches to lifetime calculations are reviewed. • Advantages and disadvantages of various methods are weighed. • Other methods for measurement of luminescence lifetime also described.

  2. Time-resolved measurements of luminescence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Collier, Bradley B.; McShane, Michael J.

    2013-01-01

    Luminescence sensing and imaging has become more widespread in recent years in a variety of industries including the biomedical and environmental fields. Measurements of luminescence lifetime hold inherent advantages over intensity-based response measurements, and advances in both technology and methods have enabled their use in a broader spectrum of applications including real-time medical diagnostics. This review will focus on recent advances in analytical methods, particularly calculation techniques, including time- and frequency-domain lifetime approaches as well as other time-resolved measurements of luminescence. -- Highlights: • Developments in technology have led to widespread use of luminescence lifetime. • Growing interest for sensing and imaging applications. • Recent advances in approaches to lifetime calculations are reviewed. • Advantages and disadvantages of various methods are weighed. • Other methods for measurement of luminescence lifetime also described

  3. Metal plasmon enhanced europium complex luminescence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Feng; Aldea, Gabriela; Nunzi, Jean-Michel

    2010-01-01

    The plasmon enhanced luminescence of a rare-earth complex Tris(6, 6, 7, 7, 8, 8, 8-heptafluoro-2, 2-dimethyl-3, 5-octanedionato) europium (Eu(fod) 3 ) was investigated. A polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) thin film was successfully adopted as a spacer to separate the Eu complex from the silver island film (SIF), and five-fold enhancement of the radiative decay rate of the Eu complex on SIF was demonstrated based on the luminescence intensity and lifetime measurement. Investigation of the distance dependent luminescence indicates that 7 nm is an optimal distance for SIF enhanced Eu luminescence. Plasmon enhanced rare-earth luminescence based on an organic film spacer would find potential applications in plasmon enhanced organic light emitting diode (OLED) devices.

  4. Luminescence detection of irradiated foods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sanderson, D.C.W.

    1990-01-01

    The need for forensic tests to identify irradiated foods has been widely recognised at a time of growing international trade in such products and impending changes in UK and EEC legislation to control the process. This paper outlines the requirements for and of such tests, and discusses recent developments in luminescence approaches aimed at meeting the needs of public analysts, retailers and consumers. Detecting whether or not food has been irradiated, and if so to what dose, is one of the challenges which food irradiation poses to the scientist. (author)

  5. Rupture luminescence from natural fibers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, W.; Haneman, D.

    1999-12-01

    Fibers of cotton and wool, and samples of paper, have been ruptured in tension in vacuum and in air, and give detectable luminescence in the visible range. All have a common emission peak at around 2.0 eV, which is ascribed to the deexcitation of states excited by the rupture of organic chain molecule bonds. Rubber bands give stronger emission in air, but no emission in vacuum, suggesting the material breaks only at weak interchain bonds. Mohair, cat, and horse hair also give emission in air. The phenomena reveal effects that would occur widely in nature.

  6. Anodic luminescence, structural, photoluminescent, and photocatalytic properties of anodic oxide films grown on niobium in phosphoric acid

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stojadinović, Stevan, E-mail: sstevan@ff.bg.ac.rs [University of Belgrade, Faculty of Physics, Studentski trg 12-16, 11000 Belgrade (Serbia); Tadić, Nenad [University of Belgrade, Faculty of Physics, Studentski trg 12-16, 11000 Belgrade (Serbia); Radić, Nenad [University of Belgrade, Institute of Chemistry, Technology and Metallurgy, Department of Catalysis and Chemical Engineering, Njegoševa 12, 11000 Belgrade (Serbia); Stefanov, Plamen [Institute of General and Inorganic Chemistry, Bulgarian Academy of Sciences, Acad. G. Bonchev Str., Block 11, 1113 Sofia (Bulgaria); Grbić, Boško [University of Belgrade, Institute of Chemistry, Technology and Metallurgy, Department of Catalysis and Chemical Engineering, Njegoševa 12, 11000 Belgrade (Serbia); Vasilić, Rastko [University of Belgrade, Faculty of Physics, Studentski trg 12-16, 11000 Belgrade (Serbia)

    2015-11-15

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • Anodic luminescence is correlated to the existence of morphological defects in the oxide. • Spectrum under spark discharging reveals only oxygen and hydrogen lines. • Oxide films formed under spark discharging are crystallized and composed of Nb{sub 2}O{sub 5}. • Photocatalytic activity and photoluminescence of Nb{sub 2}O{sub 5} films increase with time. - Abstract: This article reports on properties of oxide films obtained by anodization of niobium in phosphoric acid before and after the dielectric breakdown. Weak anodic luminescence of barrier oxide films formed during the anodization of niobium is correlated to the existence of morphological defects in the oxide layer. Small sized sparks generated by dielectric breakdown of formed oxide film cause rapid increase of luminescence intensity. The luminescence spectrum of obtained films on niobium under spark discharging is composed of continuum radiation and spectral lines caused by electronic spark discharging transitions in oxygen and hydrogen atoms. Oxide films formed before the breakdown are amorphous, while after the breakdown oxide films are partly crystalline and mainly composed of Nb{sub 2}O{sub 5} hexagonal phase. The photocatalytic activity of obtained oxide films after the breakdown was investigated by monitoring the degradation of methyl orange. Increase of the photocatalytic activity with time is related to an increase of oxygen vacancy defects in oxide films formed during the process. Also, higher concentration of oxygen vacancy defects in oxide films results in higher photoluminescence intensity.

  7. On the behaviour of non-singlet structure functions at small x

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bluemlein, J.

    1995-10-01

    The resummation of O(α s l+1 ln 2l x) terms in the evolution kernels of non-singlet combinations of unpolarized and polarized structure functions is investigated. The agreement with complete calculations up to order α s 2 is demonstrated, and the leading small-x contributions to the three-loop non-singlet splitting functions P ± are derived. The additional contributions due to the resummed terms are studied numerically for the most important non-singlet structure functions. They are found to be about 1% or smaller in the kinematical regions accessible at present and in the forseeable future. (orig.)

  8. Comparison of the luminescent properties of Lu3Al5O12:Pr crystals and films under synchrotron radiation excitation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zorenko, Yu.; Gorbenko, V.; Zorenko, T.; Voznyak, T.; Nizankovskiy, S.

    2016-01-01

    The work is dedicated to comparative investigation of the luminescent properties of Lu 3 Al 5 O 12 :Pr(LuAG:Pr) single crystals and single crystalline films using excitation by synchrotron radiation with an energy of 3.7–25 eV in the exciton range of LuAG host. We have found that the differences in the excitation spectra and luminescence decay kinetics of LuAG:Pr crystals and films are caused by involving the LuAl antisite defects and oxygen vacancies in the crystals and Pb 2+ flux related dopants in the films in the excitation processes of the Pr 3+ luminescence. Taking into account these differences, we have determined the energy structure of the Pr 3+ ions in LuAG host and estimated the differences in the energies of creation of excitons bound with the isolated Pr 3+ ions in LuAG:Pr films and the dipole Pr–LuAl antisite defect centers in the crystal counterpart. - Highlights: • Comparison of the luminescent properties of LuAG:Pr single crystals and films. • Superposition of the Pr 3+ and defect centers luminescence of LuAG:Pr crystal. • Different creation energies of an excitons bound with the Pr 3+ in LuAG:Pr crystals and films. • More faster decay kinetics of the Pr 3+ luminescence in LuAG:Pr films. • Low content of slow emission component in LuAG:Pr films.

  9. Investigation into scanning tunnelling luminescence microscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Manson-Smith, S.K.

    2001-01-01

    This work reports on the development of a scanning tunnelling luminescence (STL) microscope and its application to the study of Ill-nitride semiconductor materials used in the production of light emitting devices. STL microscopy is a technique which uses the high resolution topographic imaging capabilities of the scanning tunnelling microscope (STM) to generate high resolution luminescence images. The STM tunnelling current acts as a highly localised source of electrons (or holes) which generates luminescence in certain materials. Light generated at the STM tunnelling junction is collected concurrently with the height variation of the tunnelling probe as it is scanned across a sample surface, producing simultaneous topographic and luminescence images. Due to the very localised excitation source, high resolution luminescence images can be obtained. Spectroscopic resolution can be obtained by using filters. Additionally, the variation of luminescence intensity with tunnel current and with bias voltage can provide information on recombination processes and material properties. The design and construction of a scanning tunnelling luminescence microscope is described in detail. Operating under ambient conditions, the microscope has several novel features, including a new type of miniature inertial slider-based approach motor, large solid-angle light collection optical arrangement and a tip-height regulation system which requires the minimum of operator input. (author)

  10. Polymeric Luminescent Compositions Doped with Beta-Diketonates Boron Difluoride as Material for Luminescent Solar Concentrator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khrebtov, A. A.; Fedorenko, E. V.; Reutov, V. A.

    2017-11-01

    In this paper we investigated polymeric luminescent compositions based on polystyrene doped with beta diketonates boron difluoride. Transparent films with effective absorption in the ultraviolet and blue regions of the spectrum were obtained. Polymeric luminescent compositions based on the mixture of dyes allow expanding the absorption region and increase the radiation shift. A luminescent solar concentrator consisting of a glass plate coated with such film can be used for photovoltaic window application.

  11. A role of copper(II) ions in the enhancement of visible and near-infrared lanthanide(III) luminescence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eliseeva, Svetlana V.; Golovach, Iurii P.; Liasotskyi, Valerii S.; Antonovich, Valery P.; Petoud, Stéphane; Meshkova, Svetlana B.

    2016-01-01

    Most of the existing optical methods for Cu II detection rely on a “turn-off” approach using visible lanthanide(III) luminescence. In this work we present an innovative molecular systems where the podands bis(2-hydrazinocarbonylphenyl) ethers of ethylene glycol (L1) and diethylene glycol (L2) have been designed, synthesised and tested with an ultimate goal to create a "turn-on" lanthanide(III)-based molecular probe for the specific detection of Cu II ions based on both visible (Tb III , Eu III ) and near-infrared (Nd III , Yb III ) emission. Quantum yields of the characteristic Ln III emission signals increases by at least two-orders of magnitude upon addition of Cu II into water/acetonitrile (9/1) solutions of LnL (L=L1, L2) complexes. A detailed investigation of ligand-centred photophysical properties of water/acetonitrile (9/1) solutions of CuL, GdL and GdCuL complexes revealed that the presence of Cu II ions does not significantly affect the energy positions of the singlet (32,260 cm −1 ) and triplet (25,640–25,970 cm −1 ) states, but partially or fully eliminates the singlet state quenching through an electron transfer mechanism. This effect increases the probability of intersystem crossing leading to enhanced triplet-to-singlet emission ratio and to longer triplet state lifetimes. The redox activity of hydrazine moieties and their ability to reduce Cu II to Cu I has been indicated by a qualitative assay with neocuproine. Finally, the probe demonstrates a good selectivity towards Cu II over other transition metal ions: the addition of divalent Zn II , Cd II , Pd II , Ni II , Co II or trivalent Fe III , Ga III , In III ion salts into solutions of TbL either does not affect emission intensity or increases it to a maximum of 2–3 times, while, under similar experimental conditions, the presence of Cu II results in a 20- to 30-times lanthanide luminescence enhancement. This new strategy results in a versatile and selective optical platform for the

  12. A role of copper(II) ions in the enhancement of visible and near-infrared lanthanide(III) luminescence

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eliseeva, Svetlana V., E-mail: svetlana.eliseeva@cnrs-orleans.fr [Centre de Biophysique Moléculaire CNRS UPR 4301, Rue Charles Sadron, 45071 Orléans Cedex 2 (France); Le Studium, Loire Valley Institute for Advanced Studies, 1 Rue Dupanloup, 45000 Orléans (France); Golovach, Iurii P.; Liasotskyi, Valerii S. [I.I.Mechnikov Odessa National University, 2 Dvoryanska street, 65082 Odessa (Ukraine); Antonovich, Valery P. [A.V. Bogatsky Physico-Chemical Institute of the National Academy of Sciences of Ukraine, 86 Lustdorfskaya doroga, 65080 Odessa (Ukraine); Petoud, Stéphane, E-mail: stephane.petoud@inserm.fr [Centre de Biophysique Moléculaire CNRS UPR 4301, Rue Charles Sadron, 45071 Orléans Cedex 2 (France); Meshkova, Svetlana B., E-mail: s_meshkova@ukr.net [A.V. Bogatsky Physico-Chemical Institute of the National Academy of Sciences of Ukraine, 86 Lustdorfskaya doroga, 65080 Odessa (Ukraine)

    2016-03-15

    Most of the existing optical methods for Cu{sup II} detection rely on a “turn-off” approach using visible lanthanide(III) luminescence. In this work we present an innovative molecular systems where the podands bis(2-hydrazinocarbonylphenyl) ethers of ethylene glycol (L1) and diethylene glycol (L2) have been designed, synthesised and tested with an ultimate goal to create a 'turn-on' lanthanide(III)-based molecular probe for the specific detection of Cu{sup II} ions based on both visible (Tb{sup III}, Eu{sup III}) and near-infrared (Nd{sup III}, Yb{sup III}) emission. Quantum yields of the characteristic Ln{sup III} emission signals increases by at least two-orders of magnitude upon addition of Cu{sup II} into water/acetonitrile (9/1) solutions of LnL (L=L1, L2) complexes. A detailed investigation of ligand-centred photophysical properties of water/acetonitrile (9/1) solutions of CuL, GdL and GdCuL complexes revealed that the presence of Cu{sup II} ions does not significantly affect the energy positions of the singlet (32,260 cm{sup −1}) and triplet (25,640–25,970 cm{sup −1}) states, but partially or fully eliminates the singlet state quenching through an electron transfer mechanism. This effect increases the probability of intersystem crossing leading to enhanced triplet-to-singlet emission ratio and to longer triplet state lifetimes. The redox activity of hydrazine moieties and their ability to reduce Cu{sup II} to Cu{sup I} has been indicated by a qualitative assay with neocuproine. Finally, the probe demonstrates a good selectivity towards Cu{sup II} over other transition metal ions: the addition of divalent Zn{sup II}, Cd{sup II}, Pd{sup II}, Ni{sup II}, Co{sup II} or trivalent Fe{sup III}, Ga{sup III}, In{sup III} ion salts into solutions of TbL either does not affect emission intensity or increases it to a maximum of 2–3 times, while, under similar experimental conditions, the presence of Cu{sup II} results in a 20- to 30-times

  13. Effect of High-Temperature Annealing on Yellow and Blue Luminescence of Undoped GaN

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chai Xu-Zhao; Zhou Dong; Liu Bin; Xie Zi-Li; Han Ping; Xiu Xiang-Qian; Chen Peng; Lu Hai; Zhang Rong; Zheng You-Dou

    2015-01-01

    The effect of high-temperature annealing on the yellow and blue luminescence of the undoped GaN is investigated by photoluminescence (PL) and x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). It is found that the band-edge emission in the GaN apparently increases, and the yellow luminescence (YL) and blue luminescence (BL) bands dramatically decrease after annealing at 700°C. At the annealing temperature higher than 900°C, the YL and BL intensities show an enhancement for the nitrogen annealed GaN. This fact should be attributed to the increment of the Ga and N vacancies in the GaN decomposition. However, the integrated PL intensity of the oxygen annealed GaN decreases at the temperature ranging from 900°C to 1000°C. This results from the capture of many photo-generated holes by high-density surface states. XPS characterization confirms that the high-density surface states mainly originate from the incorporation of oxygen atoms into GaN at the high annealing temperature, and even induces the 0.34eV increment of the upward band bending for the oxygen annealed GaN at 1000°C. (paper)

  14. The influence of vacuum and annealing on the visible luminescence in ZnO nanoparticles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    P R, Chithira; Theresa John, Teny, E-mail: teny@goa.bits-pilani.ac.in

    2017-05-15

    The ZnO nanoparticles synthesized by a simple solution based chemical bath deposition method were characterized using different experimental techniques. Photoluminescence (PL) studies were performed in ambient as well as in vacuum conditions. The emission spectra exhibit two bands corresponding to UV emission at 380 nm and a wide visible luminescence centered at 571 nm due to surface defects in ambient conditions. Under vacuum condition, the spectra show a reduction in the intensity of the wide visible luminescence and an enhancement in the UV emission. These nanoparticles were annealed at high temperatures in air. The wide visible luminescence remains at the same intensity in both ambient and in vacuum condition for the annealed samples indicating that some of the surface adsorbed defects are removed due to annealing. Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR) and Electron Spin Resonance (ESR) results reveal the presence of [OH{sup -}] related groups on the surface of the samples. An analysis of the O1s peak in ZnO using X-ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy (XPS) measurement confirms the presence of intrinsic defects such as oxygen related vacancies and adsorbed oxygen species in the sample. Our investigation shows that the green emission observed in ZnO samples is primarily due to oxygen vacancies.

  15. The influence of vacuum and annealing on the visible luminescence in ZnO nanoparticles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    P R, Chithira; Theresa John, Teny

    2017-01-01

    The ZnO nanoparticles synthesized by a simple solution based chemical bath deposition method were characterized using different experimental techniques. Photoluminescence (PL) studies were performed in ambient as well as in vacuum conditions. The emission spectra exhibit two bands corresponding to UV emission at 380 nm and a wide visible luminescence centered at 571 nm due to surface defects in ambient conditions. Under vacuum condition, the spectra show a reduction in the intensity of the wide visible luminescence and an enhancement in the UV emission. These nanoparticles were annealed at high temperatures in air. The wide visible luminescence remains at the same intensity in both ambient and in vacuum condition for the annealed samples indicating that some of the surface adsorbed defects are removed due to annealing. Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR) and Electron Spin Resonance (ESR) results reveal the presence of [OH - ] related groups on the surface of the samples. An analysis of the O1s peak in ZnO using X-ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy (XPS) measurement confirms the presence of intrinsic defects such as oxygen related vacancies and adsorbed oxygen species in the sample. Our investigation shows that the green emission observed in ZnO samples is primarily due to oxygen vacancies.

  16. A two-component dark matter model with real singlet scalars ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    2016-01-05

    component dark matter model with real singlet scalars confronting GeV -ray excess from galactic centre and Fermi bubble. Debasish Majumdar Kamakshya Prasad Modak Subhendu Rakshit. Special: Cosmology Volume 86 Issue ...

  17. Spin-singlet quantum Hall states and Jack polynomials with a prescribed symmetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Estienne, Benoit; Bernevig, B. Andrei

    2012-01-01

    We show that a large class of bosonic spin-singlet Fractional Quantum Hall model wavefunctions and their quasihole excitations can be written in terms of Jack polynomials with a prescribed symmetry. Our approach describes new spin-singlet quantum Hall states at filling fraction ν=(2k)/(2r-1) and generalizes the (k,r) spin-polarized Jack polynomial states. The NASS and Halperin spin-singlet states emerge as specific cases of our construction. The polynomials express many-body states which contain configurations obtained from a root partition through a generalized squeezing procedure involving spin and orbital degrees of freedom. The corresponding generalized Pauli principle for root partitions is obtained, allowing for counting of the quasihole states. We also extract the central charge and quasihole scaling dimension, and propose a conjecture for the underlying CFT of the (k,r) spin-singlet Jack states.

  18. Interference effects of two scalar boson propagators on the LHC search for the singlet fermion DM

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ko, P., E-mail: pko@kias.re.kr; Li, Jinmian, E-mail: jmli@kias.re.kr

    2017-02-10

    A gauge invariant UV-completion for singlet fermion DM interacting with the standard model (SM) particles involves a new singlet scalar. Therefore the model contains two scalar mediators, mixtures of the SM Higgs boson and a singlet scalar boson. Collider phenomenology of the interference effect between these two scalar propagators is studied in this work. This interference effect can be either constructive or destructive in the DM production cross section depending on both singlet scalar and DM masses, and it will soften the final state jets in the full mass region. Applying the CMS mono-jet search to our model, we find the interference effect plays a very important role in the DM search sensitivity, and the DM production cross section of our model is more than one order of magnitude below the LHC sensitivity at current stage.

  19. The low-lying electronic states of pentacene and their roles in singlet fission.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeng, Tao; Hoffmann, Roald; Ananth, Nandini

    2014-04-16

    We present a detailed study of pentacene monomer and dimer that serves to reconcile extant views of its singlet fission. We obtain the correct ordering of singlet excited-state energy levels in a pentacene molecule (E (S1) pentacene, we use a well-developed diabatization scheme to characterize the six low-lying singlet states of a pentacene dimer that approximates the unit cell structure of crystalline pentacene. The local, single-excitonic diabats are not directly coupled with the important multiexcitonic state but rather mix through their mutual couplings with one of the charge-transfer configurations. We analyze the mixing of diabats as a function of monomer separation and pentacene rotation. By defining an oscillator strength measure of the coherent population of the multiexcitonic diabat, essential to singlet fission, we find this population can, in principle, be increased by small compression along a specific crystal direction.

  20. Oxygen Therapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... their breathing to dangerously low levels. Will I need oxygen when I sleep? Usually if you use supplemental oxygen during the ... your health care provider tells you you only need to use oxygen for exercise or sleep. Even if you feel “fine” off of your ...

  1. Analyzing of singlet fermionic dark matter via the updated direct detection data

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ettefaghi, M.M.; Moazzemi, R. [University of Qom, Department of Physics, Qom (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2017-05-15

    We revisit the parameter space of singlet fermionic cold dark matter model in order to determine the role of the mixing angle between the standard model Higgs and a new singlet one. Furthermore, we restudy the direct detection constraints with the updated and new experimental data. As an important conclusion, this model is completely excluded by recent XENON100, PandaX II and LUX data. (orig.)

  2. Modeling temperature dependent singlet exciton dynamics in multilayered organic nanofibers

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Sousa, Leonardo Evaristo; de Oliveira Neto, Pedro Henrique; Kjelstrup-Hansen, Jakob; da Silva Filho, Demétrio Antônio

    2018-05-01

    Organic nanofibers have shown potential for application in optoelectronic devices because of the tunability of their optical properties. These properties are influenced by the electronic structure of the molecules that compose the nanofibers and also by the behavior of the excitons generated in the material. Exciton diffusion by means of Förster resonance energy transfer is responsible, for instance, for the change with temperature of colors in the light emitted by systems composed of different types of nanofibers. To study in detail this mechanism, we model temperature dependent singlet exciton dynamics in multilayered organic nanofibers. By simulating absorption and emission spectra, the possible Förster transitions are identified. Then, a kinetic Monte Carlo model is employed in combination with a genetic algorithm to theoretically reproduce time-resolved photoluminescence measurements for several temperatures. This procedure allows for the obtainment of different information regarding exciton diffusion in such a system, including temperature effects on the Förster transfer efficiency and the activation energy of the Förster mechanism. The method is general and may be employed for different systems where exciton diffusion plays a role.

  3. A Simple Singlet Fermionic Dark-Matter Model Revisited

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Qin Hong-Yi; Wang Wen-Yu; Xiong Zhao-Hua

    2011-01-01

    We evaluate the spin-independent elastic dark matter-nucleon scattering cross section in the framework of the simple singlet fermionic dark matter extension of the standard model and constrain the model parameter space with the following considerations: (i) new dark matter measurement, in which, apart from WMAP and CDMS, the results from the XENON experiment are also used in constraining the model; (ii) new fitted value of the quark fractions in nucleons, in which the updated value of f T s from the recent lattice simulation is much smaller than the previous one and may reduce the scattering rate significantly; (iii) new dark matter annihilation channels, in which the scenario where top quark and Higgs pairs produced by dark matter annihilation was not included in the previous works. We find that unlike in the minimal supersymmetric standard model, the cross section is just reduced by a factor of about 1/4 and dark matter lighter than 100 GeV is not favored by the WMAP, CDMS and XENON experiments. (the physics of elementary particles and fields)

  4. The nature of singlet excitons in oligoacene molecular crystals

    KAUST Repository

    Yamagata, H.; Norton, J.; Hontz, E.; Olivier, Y.; Beljonne, D.; Brédas, J. L.; Silbey, R. J.; Spano, F. C.

    2011-01-01

    A theory for polarized absorption in crystalline oligoacenes is presented, which includes Frenkel exciton coupling, the coupling between Frenkel and charge-transfer (CT) excitons, and the coupling of all neutral and ionic excited states to the dominant ring-breathing vibrational mode. For tetracene, spectra calculated using all Frenkel couplings among the five lowest energy molecular singlet states predict a Davydov splitting (DS) of the lowest energy (0-0) vibronic band of only -32cm-1, far smaller than the measured value of 631cm-1 and of the wrong sign-a negative sign indicating that the polarizations of the lower and upper Davydov components are reversed from experiment. Inclusion of Frenkel-CT coupling dramatically improves the agreement with experiment, yielding a 0-0 DS of 601cm-1 and a nearly quantitative reproduction of the relative spectral intensities of the 0-n vibronic components. Our analysis also shows that CT mixing increases with the size of the oligoacenes. We discuss the implications of these results on exciton dissociation and transport. © 2011 American Institute of Physics.

  5. Luminescence properties of uranyl-acetate species

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brinkmann, Hannes; Moll, Henry [Helmholtz-Zentrum Dresden-Rossendorf e.V., Dresden (Germany). Inst. of Resource Ecology; Stumpf, Thorsten [Helmholtz-Zentrum Dresden-Rossendorf e.V., Dresden (Germany). Biogeochemistry

    2017-06-01

    Time-resolved laser-induced fluorescence spectroscopy (TRLFS) was applied to characterize uranium(VI)- acetate species based on their luminescence properties. In contrast to previous interpretations, no indications were detected for the existence of the 1: 3 complex.

  6. Calibration beads containing luminescent lanthanide ion complexes

    Science.gov (United States)

    The reliability of lanthanide luminescence measurements, by both flow cytometry and digital microscopy, will be enhanced by the availability of narrow-band emitting lanthanide calibration beads. These beads can also be used to characterize spectrographic instruments, including mi...

  7. Towards Luminescence Dating Of Mosaic Glass

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galli, A.; Martini, M.; Sibila, E.; Villa, I.

    The possibility of dating archaeological glass by means of luminescent techniques has been investigated in recent years, despite the difficulties of this application, mainly linked to the amorphous structure of the material. We focused in particular on mosaic glass, after the encouraging results obtained on byzantine and medieval samples. Further studies were devoted to the comprehension of the luminescent mechanisms in silica glasses, and to the investigation of the relationships between luminescence, colouring or opacifier ions and crystalline phase of the vitreous matrix. The results of a study on the dosimetric characteristics of thermoluminescence (TL) and Optically Stimulated Luminescence (OSL) of a few medieval blue-green mosaic glasses from the San Lorenzo church (Milan) are presented, and the experimental protocols established to identify their suitability for dating are discussed.

  8. Controlled fabrication of luminescent and magnetic nanocomposites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Yingxin; Zhong, Yucheng; Fan, Jing; Huang, Weiren

    2018-03-01

    Luminescent and magnetic multifunctional nanocomposite is in high demand and widely used in many scales, such as drug delivery, bioseparation, chemical/biosensors, and so on. Although lots of strategies have been successfully developed for the demand of multifunctional nanocomposites, it is not easy to prepare multifunctional nanocomposites by using a simple method, and satisfy all kinds of demands simultaneously. In this work, via a facile and versatile method, luminescent nanocrystals and magnetic nanoparticles were successfully synthesized through self-assembly under vigorous stirring and ultrasonic treatment. These multifunctional nanocomposites are not only water stable but also find wide application such as magnetic separation and concentration with a series of moderate speed, multicolor fluorescence at different emission wavelength, high efficiency of the excitation and emission, and so on. By changing different kinds of luminescent nanocrystals and controlling the amount of luminescent and magnetic nanoparticles, a train of multifunctional nanocomposites was successfully fabricated via a versatile and robust method.

  9. Synthesis, crystal structure, theoretical study and luminescence ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    and Material Engineering, Jiangnan University, Wuxi 214122, P. R. China. cChina-Australia Joint ... School of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Nanjing University, Nanjing, 210093, P. R. China e-mail: ..... The title complex is luminescent.

  10. Recent developments in luminescent solar concentrators

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Sark, W. G. J. H. M.

    2014-10-01

    High efficiency photovoltaic devices combine full solar spectrum absorption and effective generation and collection of charge carriers, while commercial success depends on cost effectiveness in manufacturing. Spectrum modification using down shifting has been demonstrated in luminescent solar concentrators (LSCs) since the 1970s, as a cheap alternative for standard c-Si technology. LSCs consist of a highly transparent plastic plate, in which luminescent species are dispersed, which absorb incident light and emit light at a red-shifted wavelength, with high quantum efficiency. Material issues have hampered efficiency improvements, in particular re-absorption of light emitted by luminescent species and stability of these species. In this contribution, approaches are reviewed on minimizing re-absorption, which should allow surpassing the 10% luminescent solar concentrator efficiency barrier.

  11. Luminescence basic concepts, applications and instrumentation

    CERN Document Server

    Virk, Hardev Singh

    2014-01-01

    The word luminescence was first used by a German physicist, Eilhardt Wiedemann, in 1888. He also classified luminescence into six kinds according to the method of excitation. No better basis of classification is available today. He recognized photoluminescence, thermoluminescence, electroluminescence, crystalloluminescence, triboluminescence, and chemiluminescence. The designations are obvious, characterized by the prefix. This Volume consists of 9 Chapters, including 8 Review Papers and one Case Study. The first two papers are based on OLEDs. Organic light emitting diodes (OLEDs) have been th

  12. Dynamics of Singlet Fission and Electron Injection in Self-Assembled Acene Monolayers on Titanium Dioxide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johnson, Justin C [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Pace, Natalie A [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Arias, Dylan H [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Christensen, Steven T [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Granger, Devin B. [University of Kentucky; Anthony, John E. [University of Kentucky

    2018-02-26

    We employ a combination of linear spectroscopy, electrochemistry, and transient absorption spectroscopy to characterize the interplay between electron transfer and singlet fission dynamics in polyacene-based dyes attached to nanostructured TiO2. For triisopropyl silylethynyl (TIPS)-pentacene, we find that the singlet fission time constant increases to 6.5 ps on a nanostructured TiO2 surface relative to a thin film time constant of 150 fs, and that triplets do not dissociate after they are formed. In contrast, TIPS-tetracene singlets quickly dissociate in 2 ps at the molecule/TiO2 interface, and this dissociation outcompetes the relatively slow singlet fission process. The addition of an alumina layer slows down electron injection, allowing the formation of triplets from singlet fission in 40 ps. However, the triplets do not inject electrons, which is likely due to a lack of sufficient driving force for triplet dissociation. These results point to the critical balance required between efficient singlet fission and appropriate energetics for interfacial charge transfer.

  13. Review of present trends in luminescence research

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Williams, F.; Delaware Univ., Newark

    1981-01-01

    The difficulties of a comprehensive review of the broad and diverse branches of molecular and solid-state luminescence research are noted. This review is thus limited to selective topics. Some general concepts and trends are then introduced, including: luminescence excitation as a collective excitation of a many-body problem, encompassing in some cases the source and probe in its formulation; continuing trends towards extremal conditions of experiments and towards inhomogeneous and structured materials, from man-made superlattices to biological materials; and increased attention to applications of luminescence research to lamps, displays, solar devices and biological research. Representative recent and new specific research areas include: site selection spectroscopy and 'hole burning'; picosecond delayed coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering; computer simulation of dynamical processes in luminescence; electron-hole expansion from the Fermi pressure of e-h plasmas; and hot electron phenomena and hot luminescence. Finally some pending problems in luminescence research, such as reconciling the configuration coordinate model and the electronic band theory and clarifying multi-phonon non-radiative processes, are discussed. (orig.)

  14. Plasmon-enhanced optically stimulated luminescence

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guidelli, E. J.; Baffa, O. [Universidade de Sao Paulo, Faculdade de Filosofia, Ciencias e Letras de Ribeirao Preto, Departamento de Fisica, Av. Bandeirantes 3900, 14040-901 Ribeirao Preto, Sao Paulo (Brazil); Ramos, A. P., E-mail: ederguidelli@gmail.com [Universidade de Sao Paulo, Faculdade de Filosofia, Ciencias e Letras de Ribeirao Preto, Departamento de Quimica, Av. Bandeirantes 3900, 14040-901 Ribeirao Preto, Sao Paulo (Brazil)

    2015-10-15

    Full text: Optically Stimulated Luminescence dosimeters (OSLD) have been largely used for personal, medical, and industrial radiation dosimetry. Developing highly sensitive and small-sized radiation detectors and dosimeters is essential for improving spatial resolution and consequently diagnosis quality and treatment efficacy in the case of applications in radiodiagnosis and radiation therapy, for instance. Conventional methods to improve the OSLD sensitivity consist of doping and co-doping the host materials with atoms of other elements, thereby increasing the amount of trapping and/or luminescent centers. Our group is researching on the use of the plasmon properties of noble metal nanoparticles to increase OSL intensity. Upon incidence of a light beam with appropriate resonant wavelengths, the oscillation of the free electrons at the nanoparticle surface originates the Localized Surface Plasmons (LSP) and the consequent plasmon resonance band. The interaction between the LSP and the surrounding luminescent material leads to new optical properties largely employed for enhancing several luminescent processes. Here we will show our results regarding the use of LSP to increase OSLD sensitivity. The interaction between the traps/luminescent centers and the plasmons depends on the distance between them, on the plasmon resonance band intensity and position, as well as on the surrounding medium. Therefore, the plasmon-enhanced luminescence is a promising tool to develop more sensitive and miniaturized OSLD. (Author)

  15. Plasmon-enhanced optically stimulated luminescence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guidelli, E. J.; Baffa, O.; Ramos, A. P.

    2015-10-01

    Full text: Optically Stimulated Luminescence dosimeters (OSLD) have been largely used for personal, medical, and industrial radiation dosimetry. Developing highly sensitive and small-sized radiation detectors and dosimeters is essential for improving spatial resolution and consequently diagnosis quality and treatment efficacy in the case of applications in radiodiagnosis and radiation therapy, for instance. Conventional methods to improve the OSLD sensitivity consist of doping and co-doping the host materials with atoms of other elements, thereby increasing the amount of trapping and/or luminescent centers. Our group is researching on the use of the plasmon properties of noble metal nanoparticles to increase OSL intensity. Upon incidence of a light beam with appropriate resonant wavelengths, the oscillation of the free electrons at the nanoparticle surface originates the Localized Surface Plasmons (LSP) and the consequent plasmon resonance band. The interaction between the LSP and the surrounding luminescent material leads to new optical properties largely employed for enhancing several luminescent processes. Here we will show our results regarding the use of LSP to increase OSLD sensitivity. The interaction between the traps/luminescent centers and the plasmons depends on the distance between them, on the plasmon resonance band intensity and position, as well as on the surrounding medium. Therefore, the plasmon-enhanced luminescence is a promising tool to develop more sensitive and miniaturized OSLD. (Author)

  16. Silica nanoparticles with a substrate switchable luminescence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bochkova, O D; Mustafina, A R; Fedorenko, S V; Konovalov, A I

    2011-01-01

    Silica nanoparticles with visible (Tb and Ru doped), near IR (Yb doped) and dual visible-near IR luminescence (Ru-Yb doped) were obtained by reverse w/o microemulsion procedure. Plenty of luminescent complexes (from 4900 to 10000) encapsulated into each nanoparticle ensures the intensive luminescence of nanoparticles and their applicability as biomarkers. The silica surface decoration by definite anchor groups is the required step for the gaining to these nanoparticles marking and sensing functions. Thus covalent and non-covalent surface modification of these nanoparticles was developed to provide the binding with biotargets and sensing of anions. The dicationic surfactant coating of negatively charged Tb(III)-TCAS doped silica nanoparticles was chosen as the basis for the anion responsible system. The reversible insertion of the quenching anions (namely phenol red) into the surfactant based layer at the surface of luminescent nanoparticles switches off the Tb-centered luminescence. In turn the reversible reestablishment of the luminescence results from the competitive insertion of the non-quenching anions into the surfactant layer at the silica/water interface. The hydrophobic anions exemplified by dodecylsulfates versus hydrophilic ones (hydrophosphates) are preferable in the competition with phenol red anions.

  17. Oxygen Therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bonnie Solmes

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available LTOT is prescribed for people with chronic lung disease in whom there is a decrease in the ability of the lungs to supply enough oxygen to the body. The heart is obliged to pump faster to meet the body's oxygen requirements. This may place undue stress on the heart, resulting in palpitations, dizziness and fatigue. A low oxygen level in arterial blood is also harmful to the heart, the brain and the pulmonary blood vessels. Oxygen therapy is used to break this cycle. A person with low blood oxygen will often be able to accomplish more with less fatigue with the help of supplemental oxygen therapy. Shortness of breath is a mechanical problem resulting from the effects of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. Oxygen therapy may or may not reduce shortness of breath, but it will help the lungs and heart to function with less stress.

  18. Photoinduced Effects in the ZnO Luminescence Spectra

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akopyan, I. Kh.; Labzovskaya, M. E.; Novikov, B. V.; Lisachenko, A. A.; Serov, A. Yu.; Filosofov, N. G.

    2018-02-01

    The effect of intense UV irradiation on the photoluminescence (PL) spectra of ZnO powders and nanocrystalline films obtained by atomic layer deposition (ALD) was investigated. At room temperature, the behavior of the spectra under continuous UV irradiation in multiple vacuum-atmosphere cycles was studied. The changes in the intensities of exciton radiation and radiation in the "green" band region, associated with the phenomena of oxygen photodesorption and photoadsorption, are discussed. In the temperature range of 5-300 K, the effect of strong UV irradiation on the near-edge luminescence spectrum of ZnO films was studied. The nature of a new line arising in the photoluminescence spectra of an irradiated film in the region of emission of bound excitons is discussed.

  19. A sprayable luminescent pH sensor and its use for wound imaging in vivo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schreml, Stephan; Meier, Robert J; Weiß, Katharina T; Cattani, Julia; Flittner, Dagmar; Gehmert, Sebastian; Wolfbeis, Otto S; Landthaler, Michael; Babilas, Philipp

    2012-12-01

    Non-invasive luminescence imaging is of great interest for studying biological parameters in wound healing, tumors and other biomedical fields. Recently, we developed the first method for 2D luminescence imaging of pH in vivo on humans, and a novel method for one-stop-shop visualization of oxygen and pH using the RGB read-out of digital cameras. Both methods make use of semitransparent sensor foils. Here, we describe a sprayable ratiometric luminescent pH sensor, which combines properties of both these methods. Additionally, a major advantage is that the sensor spray is applicable to very uneven tissue surfaces due to its consistency. A digital RGB image of the spray on tissue is taken. The signal of the pH indicator (fluorescein isothiocyanate) is stored in the green channel (G), while that of the reference dye [ruthenium(II)-tris-(4,7-diphenyl-1,10-phenanthroline)] is stored in the red channel (R). Images are processed by rationing luminescence intensities (G/R) to result in pseudocolor pH maps of tissues, e.g. wounds. © 2012 John Wiley & Sons A/S.

  20. Optimization of Temperature Sensing with Polymer-Embedded Luminescent Ru(II Complexes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nelia Bustamante

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Temperature is a key parameter in many fields and luminescence-based temperature sensing is a solution for those applications in which traditional (mechanical, electrical, or IR-based thermometers struggle. Amongst the indicator dyes for luminescence thermometry, Ru(II polyazaheteroaromatic complexes are an appealing option to profit from the widespread commercial technologies for oxygen optosensing based on them. Six ruthenium dyes have been studied, engineering their structure for both photostability and highest temperature sensitivity of their luminescence. The most apt Ru(II complex turned out to be bis(1,10-phenanthroline(4-chloro-1,10-phenanthrolineruthenium(II, due to the combination of two strong-field chelating ligands (phen and a substituent with electron withdrawing effect on a conjugated position of the third ligand (4-Clphen. In order to produce functional sensors, the dye has been best embedded into poly(ethyl cyanoacrylate, due to its low permeability to O2, high temperature sensitivity of the indicator dye incorporated into this polymer, ease of fabrication, and excellent optical quality. Thermosensitive elements have been fabricated thereof as optical fiber tips for macroscopic applications (water courses monitoring and thin spots for microscopic uses (temperature measurements in cell culture-on-a-chip. With such dye/polymer combination, temperature sensing based on luminescence lifetime measurements allows 0.05 °C resolution with linear response in the range of interest (0–40 °C.

  1. Absorption and Luminescence of Pyridine-Based Polymers

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Jessen, S

    1997-01-01

    .... The primary photoexcitations within these polymers are singlet excitons which may emit from individual chains following a random walk to lower energy segments, depending upon the excitation energy...

  2. Properties of pseudoscalar flavor singlet mesons from lattice QCD

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ottnad, Konstantin

    2014-01-01

    indeed described well by a single mixing angle, indicating that the η' is mostly a flavor singlet state. Moreover, our results confirm that the charm quark does not contribute to any of the two states within errors. Apart from the flavor singlet sector, we also perform calculations of masses for the remaining light pseudoscalar octet mesons. Matching these masses to two-flavor Wilson chiral perturbation theory allows for a determination of the low energy constants W 6 ' , W 8 ' and their linear combination c 2 which controls the O(a 2 ) mass splitting between charged and neutral pion. We study the dependence of these low energy constants on the number of dynamical quark flavors and for different choices of the lattice action.

  3. Antibacterial, Antiviral, and Oxygen-Sensing Nanoparticles Prepared from Electrospun Materials

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Henke, P.; Kirakci, Kaplan; Kubát, Pavel; Fraiberk, M.; Forstová, J.; Mosinger, Jiří

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 8, č. 38 (2016), s. 25127-25136 ISSN 1944-8244 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA16-15020S; GA MŠk(CZ) LM2015073 Institutional support: RVO:61388980 ; RVO:61388955 Keywords : antibacterial * antiviral * nanoparticles * oxygen-sensing * singlet oxygen Subject RIV: CA - Inorganic Chemistry; CF - Physical ; Theoretical Chemistry (UFCH-W) Impact factor: 7.504, year: 2016

  4. Luminescence studies of molecular materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miller, P.F.

    2000-01-01

    Molecular materials have been widely studied for their potential uses in novel semiconductor devices. They occupy the intellectually interesting area between molecular and bulk descriptions of matter, and as such often have unique and useful characteristics. The design and engineering of these structures is inter-disciplinary in its nature, embracing the fields of physics, electrical engineering and both synthetic and physical chemistry. In this thesis luminescence studies of molecular materials will be presented that probe the nature of the excited states in two promising semiconductor systems. Luminescence techniques provide a powerful and sensitive tool in the investigation of kinetic pathways of radiative and non-radiative emission from these samples. This is particularly appropriate here, as the materials being studied are of potential use in electroluminescent devices. The suitability of photoluminescence techniques comes from both the electroluminescence and photoluminescence sharing the same emitting state. The first class of material studied here is an organic semiconducting polymer, cyano-substituted polyphenylenevinylene (CN-PPV). Conjugated polymers combine semiconducting electronic properties with favourable processing properties and offer the possibility of tuning their optical and electronic properties chemically. The cyanosubstitution increases the electron affinity of the polymer backbone, facilitating electron injection in light-emitting diodes. The polymers are soluble in solvents such as toluene and chloroform due the presence of alkoxy sidegroups. CdSe semiconductor nanocrystals are the other class of material characterised in this work. Semiconductor nanocrystals exhibit interesting size-tunable optical properties due to the confinement of the electronic wave functions. Characterisation of samples produced by different synthetic routes has been carried out to demonstrate the advantages of a novel synthetic method in terms of physical and

  5. Defect-induced luminescence in sol-gel silica samples doped with Co(II) at different concentrations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jimenez-Sandoval, S. [Centro de Investigacion y Estudios Avanzados, Queretaro, Apdo. Postal 1-798, Queretaro, Qro. 76001 (Mexico); Estevez, M. [Fisica Aplicada y Tecnologia Avanzada, UNAM, Apdo. Postal 1-1010, Queretaro, Qro. 76000 (Mexico); Pacheco, S. [Instituto Mexicano del Petroleo, Av. 100 metros (Mexico); Vargas, S. [Fisica Aplicada y Tecnologia Avanzada, UNAM, Apdo. Postal 1-1010, Queretaro, Qro. 76000 (Mexico); Rodriguez, R. [Fisica Aplicada y Tecnologia Avanzada, UNAM, Apdo. Postal 1-1010, Queretaro, Qro. 76000 (Mexico)], E-mail: rogelior@servidor.unam.mx

    2007-12-20

    The defect-induced luminescence properties of silica samples prepared by the sol-gel method and doped with Co(II) are reported. Silica monoliths doped with different concentrations of Co(II) were laser irradiated (He-Ne 632.8 nm) producing fluorescence. However, this fluorescence is exponentially reduced with the irradiation time, to practically disappear. The rate the fluorescence decays can be well modeled with a double exponential function of the irradiation time, containing two different relaxation times; a baseline is also required to take into account some residual fluorescence. The characteristic times involved in this luminescence quenching process are in the range of seconds. This luminescence suppression can be associated to the local heating produced by the laser irradiation when focused in a small area (2 {mu}m in diameter) on the sample. This heating process reduces physical (grain boundaries, surface states) and chemical (oxygen vacancies produced by the dopant) defects in the sample.

  6. Luminescence dating at Rose cottage cave: a progress report

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Woodborne, S

    1997-10-01

    Full Text Available Deal with infrared-stimulated luminescence and thermoluminescence dates from Rose Cottage Cave in South Africa. Discrepancy between luminescence and radiocarbon dates; Concentration of radioactive elements in sediments before and after leaching...

  7. Europium enabled luminescent nanoparticles for biomedical applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Syamchand, S.S., E-mail: syamchand.ss@gmail.com; Sony, G., E-mail: emailtosony@gmail.com

    2015-09-15

    Lanthanide based nanoparticles are receiving great attention ought to their excellent luminescent and magnetic properties and find challenging biomedical applications. Among the luminescent lanthanide NPs, europium based NPs (Eu-NPs) are better candidates for immunoassay and imaging applications. The Eu-NPs have an edge over quantum dots (QDs) by means of their stable luminescence, long fluorescence lifetime, sharp emission peaks with narrow band width, lack of blinking and biocompatibility. This review surveys the synthesis and properties of a variety of Eu-NPs consolidated from different research articles, for their applications in medicine and biology. The exquisite luminescent properties of Eu-NPs are explored for developing biomedical applications such as immunoassay and bioimaging including multimodal imaging. The biomedical applications of Eu-NPs are mostly diagnostic in nature and mainly focus on various key analytes present in biological systems. The luminescent properties of europium enabled NPs are influenced by a number of factors such as the site symmetry, the metal nanoparticles, metal ions, quantum dots, surfactants, morphology of Eu-NPs, crystal defect, phenomena like antenna effect and physical parameters like temperature. Through this review we explore and assimilate all the factors which affect the luminescence in Eu-NPs and coil a new thread of parameters that control the luminescence in Eu-NPs, which would provide further insight in developing Eu-based nanoprobes for future biomedical prospects. - Highlights: • The review describes 14 major factors that influence the luminescence properties of europium enabled luminescent nanoparticles (Eu-NPs). • Surveys different types of europium containing nanoparticles that have been reported for their biomedical applications. • Eu-NPs are conveniently divided into four different categories, based on the type of the substrates involved. The four categories are (1) virgin Eu-substrate based NPs; (2

  8. Europium enabled luminescent nanoparticles for biomedical applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Syamchand, S.S.; Sony, G.

    2015-01-01

    Lanthanide based nanoparticles are receiving great attention ought to their excellent luminescent and magnetic properties and find challenging biomedical applications. Among the luminescent lanthanide NPs, europium based NPs (Eu-NPs) are better candidates for immunoassay and imaging applications. The Eu-NPs have an edge over quantum dots (QDs) by means of their stable luminescence, long fluorescence lifetime, sharp emission peaks with narrow band width, lack of blinking and biocompatibility. This review surveys the synthesis and properties of a variety of Eu-NPs consolidated from different research articles, for their applications in medicine and biology. The exquisite luminescent properties of Eu-NPs are explored for developing biomedical applications such as immunoassay and bioimaging including multimodal imaging. The biomedical applications of Eu-NPs are mostly diagnostic in nature and mainly focus on various key analytes present in biological systems. The luminescent properties of europium enabled NPs are influenced by a number of factors such as the site symmetry, the metal nanoparticles, metal ions, quantum dots, surfactants, morphology of Eu-NPs, crystal defect, phenomena like antenna effect and physical parameters like temperature. Through this review we explore and assimilate all the factors which affect the luminescence in Eu-NPs and coil a new thread of parameters that control the luminescence in Eu-NPs, which would provide further insight in developing Eu-based nanoprobes for future biomedical prospects. - Highlights: • The review describes 14 major factors that influence the luminescence properties of europium enabled luminescent nanoparticles (Eu-NPs). • Surveys different types of europium containing nanoparticles that have been reported for their biomedical applications. • Eu-NPs are conveniently divided into four different categories, based on the type of the substrates involved. The four categories are (1) virgin Eu-substrate based NPs; (2

  9. Luminescence properties of Y3Al5O12:Ce nanoceramics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zorenko, Yu.; Voznyak, T.; Gorbenko, V.; Zych, E.; Nizankovski, S.; Dan'ko, A.; Puzikov, V.

    2011-01-01

    Comparative analysis of the luminescent properties of Y 3 Al 5 O 12 :Ce (YAG:Ce) transparent optical ceramics (OS) with those of single crystal (SC) and single crystalline film (SCF) analogues has been performed under excitation by pulsed synchrotron radiation in the fundamental absorption range of YAG host. It has been shown that the properties of YAG:Ce OC are closer to the properties of the SCF counterpart, where Y Al antisite defects are completely absent, rather than to the properties of SC of this garnet with large concentration of Y Al antisite defects. At the same time, the luminescence spectra of YAG:Ce OC show weak emission bands in the 200-470 nm range related to Y Al antisite defects and charged oxygen vacancies (F + and F centers). YAG:Ce OS also possesses significantly larger contribution of slow components in the Ce 3+ luminescence decay under high-energy excitation in comparison with SC and SCF of this garnet due to the involvement of antisite defects, charged oxygen vacancies as well as boundaries of grains in the energy transfer processes from the host to the Ce 3+ ions.

  10. CMOS Imaging of Pin-Printed Xerogel-Based Luminescent Sensor Microarrays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yao, Lei; Yung, Ka Yi; Khan, Rifat; Chodavarapu, Vamsy P; Bright, Frank V

    2010-12-01

    We present the design and implementation of a luminescence-based miniaturized multisensor system using pin-printed xerogel materials which act as host media for chemical recognition elements. We developed a CMOS imager integrated circuit (IC) to image the luminescence response of the xerogel-based sensor array. The imager IC uses a 26 × 20 (520 elements) array of active pixel sensors and each active pixel includes a high-gain phototransistor to convert the detected optical signals into electrical currents. The imager includes a correlated double sampling circuit and pixel address/digital control circuit; the image data is read-out as coded serial signal. The sensor system uses a light-emitting diode (LED) to excite the target analyte responsive luminophores doped within discrete xerogel-based sensor elements. As a prototype, we developed a 4 × 4 (16 elements) array of oxygen (O 2 ) sensors. Each group of 4 sensor elements in the array (arranged in a row) is designed to provide a different and specific sensitivity to the target gaseous O 2 concentration. This property of multiple sensitivities is achieved by using a strategic mix of two oxygen sensitive luminophores ([Ru(dpp) 3 ] 2+ and ([Ru(bpy) 3 ] 2+ ) in each pin-printed xerogel sensor element. The CMOS imager consumes an average power of 8 mW operating at 1 kHz sampling frequency driven at 5 V. The developed prototype system demonstrates a low cost and miniaturized luminescence multisensor system.

  11. Characterization of the proton irradiation induced luminescence of materials and application in radiation oncology dosimetry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Darafsheh, Arash; Zhang, Rongxiao; Kassaee, Alireza; Finlay, Jarod C.

    2018-03-01

    Visible light generated as the result of interaction of ionizing radiation with matter can be used for radiation therapy quality assurance. In this work, we characterized the visible light observed during proton irradiation of poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA) and silica glass fiber materials by performing luminescence spectroscopy. The spectra of the luminescence signal from PMMA and silica glass fibers during proton irradiation showed continuous spectra whose shape were different from that expected from Čerenkov radiation, indicating that Čerenkov radiation cannot be the responsible radioluminescence signal. The luminescence signal from each material showed a Bragg peak pattern and their corresponding proton ranges are in agreement with measurements performed by a standard ion chamber. The spectrum of the silica showed two peaks at 460 and 650 nm stem from the point defects of the silica: oxygen deficiency centers (ODC) and non-bridging oxygen hole centers (NBOHC), respectively. The spectrum of the PMMA fiber showed a continuous spectrum with a peak at 410 nm whose origin is connected with the fluorescence of the PMMA material. Our results are of interest for various applications based on imaging radioluminescent signal in proton therapy and will inform on the design of high-resolution fiber probes for proton therapy dosimetry.

  12. Biocompatible ZnS:Mn quantum dots for reactive oxygen generation and detection in aqueous media

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Diaz-Diestra, Daysi; Beltran-Huarac, Juan; Bracho-Rincon, Dina P.; González-Feliciano, José A.; González, Carlos I.; Weiner, Brad R.; Morell, Gerardo

    2015-01-01

    We report here the versatility of Mn-doped ZnS quantum dots (ZnS:Mn QDs) synthesized in aqueous medium for generating reactive oxygen species and for detecting cells. Our experiments provide evidence leading to the elimination of Cd-based cores in CdSe/ZnS systems by substitution of Mn-doped ZnS. Advanced electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction, and optical spectroscopy were applied to elucidate the formation, morphology, and dispersion of the products. We study for the first time the ability of ZnS:Mn QDs to act as immobilizing agents for Tyrosinase (Tyr) enzyme. It was found that ZnS:Mn QDs show no deactivation of Tyr enzyme, which efficiently catalyzed the hydrogen peroxide (H 2 O 2 ) oxidation and its eventual reduction (−0.063 V vs. Ag/AgCl) on the biosensor surface. The biosensor showed a linear response in the range of 12 μmol/L–0.1 mmol/L at low operation potential. Our observations are explained in terms of a catalase-cycled kinetic mechanism based on the binding of H 2 O 2 to the axial position of one of the active copper sites of the oxy-Tyr during the catalase cycle to produce deoxy-Tyr. A singlet oxygen quantum yield of 0.62 in buffer and 0.54 in water was found when ZnS:Mn QDs were employed as a photosensitizer in the presence of a chemical scavenger and a standard dye. These results are consistent with a chemical trapping energy transfer mechanism. Our results also indicate that ZnS:Mn QDs are well tolerated by HeLa Cells reaching cell viabilities as high as 88 % at 300 µg/mL of QDs for 24 h of incubation. The ability of ZnS:Mn QDs as luminescent nanoprobes for bioimaging is also discussed.Graphical Abstract

  13. Biocompatible ZnS:Mn quantum dots for reactive oxygen generation and detection in aqueous media

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Diaz-Diestra, Daysi; Beltran-Huarac, Juan, E-mail: juan.beltran1@upr.edu; Bracho-Rincon, Dina P.; González-Feliciano, José A.; González, Carlos I.; Weiner, Brad R.; Morell, Gerardo [University of Puerto Rico, Molecular Sciences Research Center (United States)

    2015-12-15

    We report here the versatility of Mn-doped ZnS quantum dots (ZnS:Mn QDs) synthesized in aqueous medium for generating reactive oxygen species and for detecting cells. Our experiments provide evidence leading to the elimination of Cd-based cores in CdSe/ZnS systems by substitution of Mn-doped ZnS. Advanced electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction, and optical spectroscopy were applied to elucidate the formation, morphology, and dispersion of the products. We study for the first time the ability of ZnS:Mn QDs to act as immobilizing agents for Tyrosinase (Tyr) enzyme. It was found that ZnS:Mn QDs show no deactivation of Tyr enzyme, which efficiently catalyzed the hydrogen peroxide (H{sub 2}O{sub 2}) oxidation and its eventual reduction (−0.063 V vs. Ag/AgCl) on the biosensor surface. The biosensor showed a linear response in the range of 12 μmol/L–0.1 mmol/L at low operation potential. Our observations are explained in terms of a catalase-cycled kinetic mechanism based on the binding of H{sub 2}O{sub 2} to the axial position of one of the active copper sites of the oxy-Tyr during the catalase cycle to produce deoxy-Tyr. A singlet oxygen quantum yield of 0.62 in buffer and 0.54 in water was found when ZnS:Mn QDs were employed as a photosensitizer in the presence of a chemical scavenger and a standard dye. These results are consistent with a chemical trapping energy transfer mechanism. Our results also indicate that ZnS:Mn QDs are well tolerated by HeLa Cells reaching cell viabilities as high as 88 % at 300 µg/mL of QDs for 24 h of incubation. The ability of ZnS:Mn QDs as luminescent nanoprobes for bioimaging is also discussed.Graphical Abstract.

  14. Luminescent polymethyl methacrylate modified by gamma radiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morais, Guilherme F. [Faculdade de Tecnologia de Sao Paulo (FATEC-ZL), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil); Forster, Pedro L.; Marchini, Leonardo G.; Lugao, Ademar B.; Parra, Duclerc F., E-mail: dfparra@ipen.b [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2011-07-01

    Thin films of PMMA (polymethyl methacrylate) doped with luminescent complexes have been studied and developed for applications in advanced technologies. The problem of stability of these films is focused in this study. Films stabilization by reaction with fluorinated monomers is a recent study that aims to increase its luminescence properties for long time. The films were prepared by dilution of PMMA in chloroform with addition of europium complex, at proportion of 5% by weight of polymer. The luminescent polymer films were obtained by casting. Thin layer slides of the film were separated in three parts. One was reacted with fluorinated monomers (C{sub 2}F{sub 4}) in closed reactor for 48 hours. A second part was reacted with C{sub 2}F{sub 4} after irradiation in gamma source at 5 kGy in simultaneous process. The last part was used as obtained. The luminescent polymer matrices were characterized using the techniques of infrared (FTIR) and thermogravimetry (TGA/DTG). Samples of the films were, in presence of fluorine monomers, exposed to ionizing radiation in dose of 5 kGy, for react with monomers in the doped polymer surface. In this case the effects of radiation were evaluated on the luminescent films. (author)

  15. Luminescent polymethyl methacrylate modified by gamma radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morais, Guilherme F.; Forster, Pedro L.; Marchini, Leonardo G.; Lugao, Ademar B.; Parra, Duclerc F.

    2011-01-01

    Thin films of PMMA (polymethyl methacrylate) doped with luminescent complexes have been studied and developed for applications in advanced technologies. The problem of stability of these films is focused in this study. Films stabilization by reaction with fluorinated monomers is a recent study that aims to increase its luminescence properties for long time. The films were prepared by dilution of PMMA in chloroform with addition of europium complex, at proportion of 5% by weight of polymer. The luminescent polymer films were obtained by casting. Thin layer slides of the film were separated in three parts. One was reacted with fluorinated monomers (C 2 F 4 ) in closed reactor for 48 hours. A second part was reacted with C 2 F 4 after irradiation in gamma source at 5 kGy in simultaneous process. The last part was used as obtained. The luminescent polymer matrices were characterized using the techniques of infrared (FTIR) and thermogravimetry (TGA/DTG). Samples of the films were, in presence of fluorine monomers, exposed to ionizing radiation in dose of 5 kGy, for react with monomers in the doped polymer surface. In this case the effects of radiation were evaluated on the luminescent films. (author)

  16. Reactions of atomic oxygen with the chlorate ion and the perchlorate ion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anan'ev, Vladimir; Miklin, Mikhail; Kriger, Ludmila

    2014-06-01

    The reactions of the chlorate ion with atomic oxygen formed under photolysis of the nitrate ion introduced to potassium chlorate crystal by co-crystallization were studied by optical and infrared absorption spectroscopy. The perchlorate ion was found to form in solids as product of addition reaction of singlet atomic oxygen, formed under dissociation of the peroxynitrite ion - the product of isomerization of the excited nitrate ion. Triplet atomic oxygen does not react with the chlorate ion. The atomic oxygen formed under photolysis of the nitrate ion introduced to potassium perchlorate crystal by co-crystallization does not react with the perchlorate ion.

  17. Explicit role of dynamical and nondynamical electron correlation on singlet-triplet splitting in carbenes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seal, Prasenjit; Chakrabarti, Swapan

    2007-01-01

    Density functional theoretical studies have been performed on carbene systems to determine the singlet-triplet splitting and also to explore the role of electron correlation. Using an approximate method of separation of dynamical and nondynamical correlation, it is found that dynamical and nondynamical electron correlation stabilizes the singlet state relative to the triplet for halo carbenes in both BLYP and B3LYP methods. Calculations performed on higher homologues of methylene suggest that beyond CH(CH 3 ), both the electron correlations have leveling effect in stabilizing the singlet state relative to the triplet. It has also been observed while dynamical electron correlation fails to provide any substantial degree of stabilization to the singlet states of higher homologues of methylene in B3LYP method, an opposite trend is observed for nondynamical counterpart. Among the larger systems studied (9-triptycyl)(α-naphthyl)-carbene has the highest stability of the triplet state whereas bis-imidazol-2-ylidenes has the most stable singlet state. Interestingly, the values of the dynamical electron correlation for each state of each system studied are different for the two methods used. The reason behind this apparent discrepancy lies in the fact that the coefficients of the LYP part in B3LYP and BLYP functionals are different

  18. Origins of Singlet Fission in Solid Pentacene from an ab initio Green's Function Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Refaely-Abramson, Sivan; da Jornada, Felipe H.; Louie, Steven G.; Neaton, Jeffrey B.

    2017-12-01

    We develop a new first-principles approach to predict and understand rates of singlet fission with an ab initio Green's-function formalism based on many-body perturbation theory. Starting with singlet and triplet excitons computed from a G W plus Bethe-Salpeter equation approach, we calculate the exciton-biexciton coupling to lowest order in the Coulomb interaction, assuming a final state consisting of two noninteracting spin-correlated triplets with finite center-of-mass momentum. For crystalline pentacene, symmetries dictate that the only purely Coulombic fission decay process from a bright singlet state requires a final state consisting of two inequivalent nearly degenerate triplets of nonzero, equal and opposite, center-of-mass momenta. For such a process, we predict a singlet lifetime of 30-70 fs, in very good agreement with experimental data, indicating that this process can dominate singlet fission in crystalline pentacene. Our approach is general and provides a framework for predicting and understanding multiexciton interactions in solids.

  19. Luminescence enhancement of uranyl ion by benzoic acid in acetonitrile

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Satendra Kumar; Maji, S.; Joseph, M.; Sankaran, K.

    2014-01-01

    Uranyl ion is known for its characteristic green luminescence and therefore luminescence spectroscopy is a suitable technique for characterizing different uranyl species. In aqueous medium, luminescence of uranyl ion is generally weak due to its quenching by water molecules and therefore in order to enhance the luminescence of uranyl ion in aqueous medium, luminescence enhancing reagents such as H 3 PO 4 , H 2 SO 4 , HCIO 4 have been widely used. The other method to enhance the uranyl luminescence is by ligand sensitized luminescence, a method well established for lanthanides. In this work, luminescence of uranyl ion is found to be enhanced by benzoic acid in acetonitrile medium. In aqueous medium benzoic acid does not enhance the uranyl luminescence although it forms 1:1 and 1:2 complexes with uranyl ion. Luminescence spectra of uranyl benzoate revealed that enhancement is due to sensitization of uranyl luminescence by benzoate ions. UV-Vis spectroscopy has been utilized to characterize the specie formed in the in acetonitrile medium. UV-Vis spectroscopy along with luminescence spectra revealed that the specie to be tribenzoate complex of uranyl (UO 2 (C 6 H 5 COO) 3 ) - having D 3 h symmetry. (author)

  20. Study of the liquid water luminescence induced by charged particles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rusu, Mircea; Stere, Oana; Haiduc, Maria; Caramete, Laurentiu

    2004-01-01

    Many observations suggested that liquid water (with impurities) could give a luminescence output when irradiated with charged particles. We investigate theoretical and practical possibility of detecting such luminescence. Preliminary results on this possibility are presented, and a layout of the device proposed for measuring luminescence is given. (authors)

  1. Cleavage Luminescence from Cleaved Indium Phosphide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dong-Guang, Li

    2008-01-01

    We outline the experiments performed to gain further information about the structure and properties of cleaved InP surfaces. The experiments involved detecting the luminescence produced after cleaving thin InP plates within a high vacuum, by a process of converting the luminescence to an electrical signal which could be amplified and measured accurately. The experimental results show that the detected luminescence durations from cleaved InP are usually only about 10μs. It is believed that this time represents the time of travel of the crack with the actual recombination time being much shorter. Strong signals could also be picked up from cleaved InP in air

  2. [Synthesis of reserve polyhydroxyalkanoates by luminescent bacteria].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boiandin, A N; Kalacheva, G S; Rodicheva, E K; Volova, T G

    2008-01-01

    The ability of marine luminescent bacteria to synthesize polyesters of hydroxycarboxylic acids (polyhydroxyalkanoates, PHA) as reserve macromolecules was studied. Twenty strains from the collection of the luminescent bacteria CCIBSO (WDSM839) of the Institute of Biophysics, Siberian Branch, Russian Academy of Sciences, assigned to different taxa (Photobacterium leiognathi, Ph. phosphoreum, Vibrio harveyi, and V. fischeri) were analyzed. The most productive strains were identified, and the conditions ensuring high polymer yields in batch culture (40-70% of the cell dry mass weight) were determined. The capacity of synthesizing two- and three-component polymers containing hydroxybutyric acid as the main monomer and hydroxyvaleric and hydroxyhexanoic acids was revealed in Ph. leiognathi and V. harveyi strains. The results allow luminescent microorganisms to be regarded as new producers of multicomponent polyhydroxyalkanoates.

  3. Process for obtaining luminescent glass layers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heindi, R.; Robert, A.

    1984-01-01

    Process for obtaining luminescent glass layers, application to the production of devices provided with said layers and to the construction of photoscintillators. The process comprises projecting onto a support, by cathodic sputtering, the material of at least one target, each target including silica and at least one chemical compound able to give luminescent centers, such as a cerium oxide, so as to form at least one luminescent glass layer of the said support. The layer or layers formed preferably undergo a heat treatment such as annealing in order to increase the luminous efficiency thereof. It is in this way possible to form a scintillating glass layer on the previously frosted entrance window of a photomultiplier in order to obtain an integrated photoscintillator

  4. Cerium luminescence in nd0 perovskites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Setlur, A.A.; Happek, U.

    2010-01-01

    The luminescence of Ce 3+ in perovskite (ABO 3 ) hosts with nd 0 B-site cations, specifically Ca(Hf,Zr)O 3 and (La,Gd)ScO 3 , is investigated in this report. The energy position of the Ce 3+ excitation and emission bands in these perovskites is compared to those of typical Al 3+ perovskites; we find a Ce 3+ 5d 1 centroid shift and Stokes shift that are larger versus the corresponding values for the Al 3+ perovskites. It is also shown that Ce 3+ luminescence quenching is due to Ce 3+ photoionization. The comparison between these perovskites shows reasonable correlations between Ce 3+ luminescence quenching, the energy position of the Ce 3+ 5d 1 excited state with respect to the host conduction band, and the host composition. - Graphical abstract: Ce 3+ decay times versus temperature for perovskites with nd 0 B-site cations.

  5. Direct detection of singlet dark matter in classically scale-invariant standard model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kazuhiro Endo

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Classical scale invariance is one of the possible solutions to explain the origin of the electroweak scale. The simplest extension is the classically scale-invariant standard model augmented by a multiplet of gauge singlet real scalar. In the previous study it was shown that the properties of the Higgs potential deviate substantially, which can be observed in the International Linear Collider. On the other hand, since the multiplet does not acquire vacuum expectation value, the singlet components are stable and can be dark matter. In this letter we study the detectability of the real singlet scalar bosons in the experiment of the direct detection of dark matter. It is shown that a part of this model has already been excluded and the rest of the parameter space is within the reach of the future experiment.

  6. Interplay between singlet and triplet excited states in a conformationally locked donor–acceptor dyad

    KAUST Repository

    Filatov, Mikhail A.

    2015-10-13

    The synthesis and photophysical characterization of a palladium(II) porphyrin – anthracene dyad bridged via short and conformationally rigid bicyclo[2.2.2]octadiene spacer were achieved. A spectroscopic investigation of the prepared molecule in solution has been undertaken to study electronic energy transfer in excited singlet and triplet states between the anthracene and porphyrin units. By using steady-state and time-resolved photoluminescence spectroscopy it was shown that excitation of the singlet excited state of the anthracene leads to energy transfer to the lower-lying singlet state of porphyrin. Alternatively, excitation of the porphyrin followed by intersystem crossing to the triplet state leads to very fast energy transfer to the triplet state of anthracene. The rate of this energy transfer has been determined by transient absorption spectroscopy. Comparative studies of the dynamics of triplet excited states of the dyad and reference palladium octaethylporphyrin (PdOEP) have been performed.

  7. Flavor-singlet baryons in the graded symmetry approach to partially quenched QCD

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, Jonathan M. M.; Leinweber, Derek B.

    2016-11-01

    Progress in the calculation of the electromagnetic properties of baryon excitations in lattice QCD presents new challenges in the determination of sea-quark loop contributions to matrix elements. A reliable estimation of the sea-quark loop contributions represents a pressing issue in the accurate comparison of lattice QCD results with experiment. In this article, an extension of the graded symmetry approach to partially quenched QCD is presented, which builds on previous theory by explicitly including flavor-singlet baryons in its construction. The formalism takes into account the interactions among both octet and singlet baryons, octet mesons, and their ghost counterparts; the latter enables the isolation of the quark-flow disconnected sea-quark loop contributions. The introduction of flavor-singlet states enables systematic studies of the internal structure of Λ -baryon excitations in lattice QCD, including the topical Λ (1405 ).

  8. Interplay between singlet and triplet excited states in a conformationally locked donor–acceptor dyad

    KAUST Repository

    Filatov, Mikhail A.; Etzold, Fabian; Gehrig, Dominik; Laquai, Fré dé ric; Busko, Dmitri; Landfester, Katharina; Baluschev, Stanislav

    2015-01-01

    The synthesis and photophysical characterization of a palladium(II) porphyrin – anthracene dyad bridged via short and conformationally rigid bicyclo[2.2.2]octadiene spacer were achieved. A spectroscopic investigation of the prepared molecule in solution has been undertaken to study electronic energy transfer in excited singlet and triplet states between the anthracene and porphyrin units. By using steady-state and time-resolved photoluminescence spectroscopy it was shown that excitation of the singlet excited state of the anthracene leads to energy transfer to the lower-lying singlet state of porphyrin. Alternatively, excitation of the porphyrin followed by intersystem crossing to the triplet state leads to very fast energy transfer to the triplet state of anthracene. The rate of this energy transfer has been determined by transient absorption spectroscopy. Comparative studies of the dynamics of triplet excited states of the dyad and reference palladium octaethylporphyrin (PdOEP) have been performed.

  9. Diradical character dependences of the first and second hyperpolarizabilities of asymmetric open-shell singlet systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakano, Masayoshi; Champagne, Benoît

    2013-06-28

    The static first and second hyperpolarizabilities (referred to as β and γ, respectively) of asymmetric open-shell singlet systems have been investigated using the asymmetric two-site diradical model within the valence configuration interaction level of theory in order to reveal the effect of the asymmetric electron distribution on the diradical character and subsequently on β and γ. It is found that the increase of the asymmetric electron distribution causes remarkable changes in the amplitude and the sign of β and γ, and that their variations are intensified with the increase of the diradical character. These results demonstrate that the asymmetric open-shell singlet systems with intermediate diradical characters can exhibit further enhancements of β and γ as compared to conventional asymmetric closed-shell systems and also to symmetric open-shell singlet systems with intermediate diradical characters.

  10. Thermal quenching of luminescence processes in feldspars

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Poolton, N.R.J.; Bøtter-Jensen, L.; Duller, G.A.T.

    1995-01-01

    , which display very different behaviour. The first involves the internal transitions of common transition metal ions. The second is typical of centres not displaying excited states within the band gap that are likely to arise from direct recombination between the conduction band and the ground state......The technique of optically stimulated luminescence has important uses in the dose evaluation of irradiated feldspars. The luminescence process involves the eviction of electrons from donor traps, charge transfer through the conduction band, and recombination at acceptor sites; each...

  11. Spin-Triplet Pairing Induced by Spin-Singlet Interactions in Noncentrosymmetric Superconductors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsuzaki, Tomoaki; Shimahara, Hiroshi

    2017-02-01

    In noncentrosymmetric superconductors, we examine the effect of the difference between the intraband and interband interactions, which becomes more important when the band splitting increases. We define the difference ΔVμ between their coupling constants, i.e., that between the intraband and interband hopping energies of intraband Cooper pairs. Here, the subscript μ of ΔVμ indicates that the interactions scatter the spin-singlet and spin-triplet pairs when μ = 0 and μ = 1,2,3, respectively. It is shown that the strong antisymmetric spin-orbit interaction reverses the target spin parity of the interaction: it converts the spin-singlet and spin-triplet interactions represented by ΔV0 and ΔVμ>0 into effective spin-triplet and spin-singlet pairing interactions, respectively. Hence, for example, triplet pairing can be induced solely by the singlet interaction ΔV0. We name the pairing symmetry of the system after that of the intraband Cooper pair wave function, but with an odd-parity phase factor excluded. The pairing symmetry must then be even, even for the triplet component, and the following results are obtained. When ΔVμ is small, the spin-triplet p-wave interactions induce spin-triplet s-wave and spin-triplet d-wave pairings in the regions where the repulsive singlet s-wave interaction is weak and strong, respectively. When ΔV0 is large, a repulsive interband spin-singlet interaction can stabilize spin-triplet pairing. When the Rashba interaction is adopted for the spin-orbit interaction, the spin-triplet pairing interactions mediated by transverse magnetic fluctuations do not contribute to triplet pairing.

  12. On the Josephson effect between superconductors in singlet and triplet spin-pairing states

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pals, J.A.; Haeringen, W. van

    1977-01-01

    An expression is derived for the Josephson current between two weakly coupled superconductors of which one or both have pairs in a spin-triplet state. It is shown that there can be no Josephson effect up to second order in the transition matrix elements between a superconductor with spin-triplet pairs and one with spin-singlet pairs if the coupling between the two superconductors can be described with a spin-conserving tunnel hamiltonian. This is shown to offer a possibility to investigate experimentally whether a particular superconductor has spin-triplet pairs by coupling it weakly to a well-known spin-singlet pairing superconductor. (Auth.)

  13. Second-order contributions to the structure functions in deep inelastic scattering III The singlet

    CERN Document Server

    González-Arroyo, A

    1980-01-01

    For pt.II see ibid., vol.159, p.512 (1979). Pointlike QCD predictions for the singlet part of the structure functions are given up to next- to-leading order of perturbation theory. This generalises the result obtained in pt.I (see ibid., vol.153, p.161, 1979) which deals with the non-singlet case. An interesting by-product is an exact and simple analytical expression for the anomalous dimension matrix to second non-trivial order in the QCD coupling constant. (18 refs).

  14. Baryogenesis in the two doublet and inert singlet extension of the Standard Model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Alanne, Tommi; Kainulainen, Kimmo; Tuominen, Kimmo

    2016-01-01

    We investigate an extension of the Standard Model containing two Higgs doublets and a singlet scalar field (2HDSM). We show that the model can have a strongly first-order phase transition and give rise to the observed baryon asymmetry of the Universe, consistent with all experimental constraints...... with the critical temperature, Tn Tc, which can significantly alter the usual phase-transition pattern in 2HD models with Tn ≈ Tc. Furthermore, the singlet field can be the dark matter particle. However, in models with a strong first-order transition its abundance is typically but a thousandth of the observed dark...... matter abundance....

  15. Slow light enhanced singlet exciton fission solar cells with a 126% yield of electrons per photon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thompson, Nicholas J.; Congreve, Daniel N.; Baldo, Marc A.; Goldberg, David; Menon, Vinod M.

    2013-01-01

    Singlet exciton fission generates two triplet excitons per absorbed photon. It promises to increase the power extracted from sunlight without increasing the number of photovoltaic junctions in a solar cell. We demonstrate solar cells with an external quantum efficiency of 126% by enhancing absorption in thin films of the singlet exciton fission material pentacene. The device structure exploits the long photon dwell time at the band edge of a distributed Bragg reflector to achieve enhancement over a broad range of angles. Measuring the reflected light from the solar cell establishes a lower bound of 137% for the internal quantum efficiency

  16. Dimensional reduction of the Standard Model coupled to a new singlet scalar field

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brauner, Tomáš [Faculty of Science and Technology, University of Stavanger,N-4036 Stavanger (Norway); Tenkanen, Tuomas V.I. [Department of Physics and Helsinki Institute of Physics,P.O. Box 64, FI-00014 University of Helsinki (Finland); Tranberg, Anders [Faculty of Science and Technology, University of Stavanger,N-4036 Stavanger (Norway); Vuorinen, Aleksi [Department of Physics and Helsinki Institute of Physics,P.O. Box 64, FI-00014 University of Helsinki (Finland); Weir, David J. [Faculty of Science and Technology, University of Stavanger,N-4036 Stavanger (Norway); Department of Physics and Helsinki Institute of Physics,P.O. Box 64, FI-00014 University of Helsinki (Finland)

    2017-03-01

    We derive an effective dimensionally reduced theory for the Standard Model augmented by a real singlet scalar. We treat the singlet as a superheavy field and integrate it out, leaving an effective theory involving only the Higgs and SU(2){sub L}×U(1){sub Y} gauge fields, identical to the one studied previously for the Standard Model. This opens up the possibility of efficiently computing the order and strength of the electroweak phase transition, numerically and nonperturbatively, in this extension of the Standard Model. Understanding the phase diagram is crucial for models of electroweak baryogenesis and for studying the production of gravitational waves at thermal phase transitions.

  17. Storage of magnetization as singlet order by optimal control designed pulses

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Laustsen, Christoffer; Bowen, Sean; Vinding, Mads Sloth

    2014-01-01

    The use of hyperpolarization to enhance the sensitivity of MRI has so far been limited by the decay of the polarization through T1 relaxation. Recently, methods have been proposed that extend the lifetime of the hyperpolarization by storing the spin order in slowly relaxing singlet states....... With this aim, optimal control theory was applied to create pulses that for near‐equivalent spins accomplish transfers in and out of the singlet state with maximum efficiency while ensuring robustness toward variations in the nuclear spin system Hamiltonian (chemical shift, J‐couplings, B1 and B magnetic field...

  18. Singlet Ground State Magnetism: III Magnetic Excitons in Antiferromagnetic TbP

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Knorr, K.; Loidl, A.; Kjems, Jørgen

    1981-01-01

    The dispersion of the lowest magnetic excitations of the singlet ground state system TbP has been studied in the antiferromagnetic phase by inelastic neutron scattering. The magnetic exchange interaction and the magnetic and the rhombohedral molecular fields have been determined.......The dispersion of the lowest magnetic excitations of the singlet ground state system TbP has been studied in the antiferromagnetic phase by inelastic neutron scattering. The magnetic exchange interaction and the magnetic and the rhombohedral molecular fields have been determined....

  19. Sterile Neutrinos, Dark Matter, and Pulsar Velocities in Models with a Higgs Singlet

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kusenko, Alexander

    2006-01-01

    We identify the range of parameters for which the sterile neutrinos can simultaneously explain the cosmological dark matter and the observed velocities of pulsars. To satisfy all cosmological bounds, the relic sterile neutrinos must be produced sufficiently cold. This is possible in a class of models with a gauge-singlet Higgs boson coupled to the neutrinos. Sterile dark matter can be detected by the x-ray telescopes. The presence of the singlet in the Higgs sector can be tested at the CERN Large Hadron Collider

  20. Slow light enhanced singlet exciton fission solar cells with a 126% yield of electrons per photon

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thompson, Nicholas J.; Congreve, Daniel N.; Baldo, Marc A., E-mail: vmenon@qc.cuny.edu, E-mail: baldo@mit.edu [Energy Frontier Research Center for Excitonics, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, Massachusetts 02139 (United States); Goldberg, David; Menon, Vinod M., E-mail: vmenon@qc.cuny.edu, E-mail: baldo@mit.edu [Department of Physics, Queens College and Graduate Center, The City University of New York, Flushing, New York 11367 (United States)

    2013-12-23

    Singlet exciton fission generates two triplet excitons per absorbed photon. It promises to increase the power extracted from sunlight without increasing the number of photovoltaic junctions in a solar cell. We demonstrate solar cells with an external quantum efficiency of 126% by enhancing absorption in thin films of the singlet exciton fission material pentacene. The device structure exploits the long photon dwell time at the band edge of a distributed Bragg reflector to achieve enhancement over a broad range of angles. Measuring the reflected light from the solar cell establishes a lower bound of 137% for the internal quantum efficiency.

  1. On colour non-singlet representations of the quark-gluon system at finite temperature

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abbas, A.; Paria, L.

    2000-01-01

    We use a group theoretical technique to project out the partition function for a system of quarks, antiquarks and gluons onto a particular representation of the internal symmetry group SU(3): the colour singlet, colour octet and colour 27-plet, at finite temperature. We do this to calculate the thermodynamic quantities for those representations. We also calculate the change in free energy of the plasma droplet formed from the hot hadronic gas. We find that the size of the droplet in the colour-octet representation is smaller than that in the colour-singlet representations at different temperatures in the vicinity of the critical temperatures of the phase transitions. (orig.)

  2. Photo-, thermo- and optically stimulated luminescence of monoclinic zirconia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kiisk, Valter, E-mail: valter.kiisk@ut.ee [Institute of Physics, University of Tartu, Ravila 14c, 50411 Tartu (Estonia); Puust, Laurits; Utt, Kathriin; Maaroos, Aarne; Mändar, Hugo [Institute of Physics, University of Tartu, Ravila 14c, 50411 Tartu (Estonia); Viviani, Erica; Piccinelli, Fabio [Department of Biotechnology, University of Verona, Strada Le Grazie 15, 37134 Verona (Italy); Saar, Rando; Joost, Urmas; Sildos, Ilmo [Institute of Physics, University of Tartu, Ravila 14c, 50411 Tartu (Estonia)

    2016-06-15

    We carried out a careful photoluminescence (PL) and thermoluminescence (TL) characterization of nominally pure monoclinic ZrO{sub 2} nanopowders subject to oxidative vs reductive annealing (up to 1450 °C). The two kinds of studied zirconia (sol-gel-prepared vs commercial powder) exhibited virtually identical 490 nm PL emission band and 280 nm PL excitation band with slight, but clearly detectable variations in the spectral shape. The TL glow peaks, recorded over the temperature range −100 to 300 °C, showed an interplay depending on the type and treatment of sample. There is a strong evidence that the −35 and 205 °C glow peaks are due to oxygen vacancies whereas the 5 °C glow peak may relate to oxygen interstitials and the 110 °C glow peak to surface defects. Although a number of distinct glow peaks emerge, the material still seems to contain a quasi-continuous distribution of trap depths. In comparison to TL, we also demonstrate effective optically stimulated luminescence (OSL) from this polymorph of ZrO{sub 2} under red and NIR illumination at ~1 W/cm{sup 2}. All traps responsible for the principal TL peaks were also found to be OSL-active, which widens the applied importance of the material.

  3. First-Principles Quantum Dynamics of Singlet Fission: Coherent versus Thermally Activated Mechanisms Governed by Molecular π Stacking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tamura, Hiroyuki; Huix-Rotllant, Miquel; Burghardt, Irene; Olivier, Yoann; Beljonne, David

    2015-09-01

    Singlet excitons in π -stacked molecular crystals can split into two triplet excitons in a process called singlet fission that opens a route to carrier multiplication in photovoltaics. To resolve controversies about the mechanism of singlet fission, we have developed a first principles nonadiabatic quantum dynamical model that reveals the critical role of molecular stacking symmetry and provides a unified picture of coherent versus thermally activated singlet fission mechanisms in different acenes. The slip-stacked equilibrium packing structure of pentacene derivatives is found to enhance ultrafast singlet fission mediated by a coherent superexchange mechanism via higher-lying charge transfer states. By contrast, the electronic couplings for singlet fission strictly vanish at the C2 h symmetric equilibrium π stacking of rubrene. In this case, singlet fission is driven by excitations of symmetry-breaking intermolecular vibrations, rationalizing the experimentally observed temperature dependence. Design rules for optimal singlet fission materials therefore need to account for the interplay of molecular π -stacking symmetry and phonon-induced coherent or thermally activated mechanisms.

  4. Fabrication of luminescent porous silicon with stain etches and evidence that luminescence originates in amorphous layers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fathauer, R. W.; George, T.; Ksendzov, A.; Lin, T. L.; Pike, W. T.; Vasquez, R. P.; Wu, Z.-C.

    1992-01-01

    Simple immersion of Si in stain etches of HF:HNO3:H2O or NaNO2 in aqueous HF was used to produce films exhibiting luminescence in the visible similar to that of anodically-etched porous Si. All of the luminescent samples consist of amorphous porous Si in at least the near surface region. No evidence was found for small crystalline regions within these amorphous layers.

  5. Luminescent properties of fluorophosphate glasses with lead chalcogenides molecular clusters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kolobkova, E.V.; Kukushkin, D.S.; Nikonorov, N.V.; Shakhverdov, T.A.; Sidorov, A.I.; Vasiliev, V.N.

    2015-01-01

    Fluorophosphate glasses containing lead, selenium, and sulfur exhibit an intense luminescence in the 400–620 nm spectral region when excited by the 240–420 nm radiation. This luminescence is due to the presence of (PbSe) n and/or (PbS) n molecular clusters in the glasses, which appear in the as-prepared glasses before quantum dots formation. The thermal treatment at temperatures less than the glass transition temperature results in the red-shift of the luminescence bands and in an increase in the luminescence intensity. Heating the thermally treated glass samples leads to the reversible thermal quenching of the luminescence. - Highlights: • Fluorophosphate glasses with Pb, Se, and S ions contain (PbSe) n or (PbS) n molecular clusters. • (PbSe) n and (PbS) n molecular clusters possess luminescence in the visible with UV excitation. • Heating the glass leads to the reversible thermal quenching of the luminescence

  6. Enhancing and quenching luminescence with gold nanoparticle films: the influence of substrate on the luminescent properties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guidelli, Eder José; Baffa, Oswaldo; Ramos, Ana Paula

    2016-01-01

    Gold nanoparticle (AuNP) films were sputtered over glass and aluminum substrates to enhance optically stimulated luminescence (OSL), a luminescent technique employed for radiation detection, from x-ray irradiated NaCl nanocrystals. The AuNP films deposited over glass led to enhanced-OSL emission, whereas the AuNP films deposited on aluminum substrates quenched the OSL emission. The enhanced-OSL intensity is proportional to the optical density of the film's plasmon resonance band at the stimulation wavelength. For the case of the AuNP/aluminum films, the luminescence quenching diminishes, and OSL intensity partially recovers upon increasing the distance between the AuNPs and the aluminum substrates, and between the luminescent nanocrystals and the AuNP films. These results suggest that plasmonic interactions between the emitter nanocrystals, the localized surface plasmons (LSP) of the AuNPs, and the substrate are responsible for the OSL enhancement and quenching. In this sense, the substrate dictates whether LSP relaxation occurs by radiative or non-radiative transisitions, leading to enhanced or quenched OSL, respectively. Therefore, besides showing that AuNP films can enhance and/or tune the sensitivity of luminescent radiation detectors, and demonstrating OSL as a new technique to investigate mechanisms of plasmon-enhanced luminescence, these results bring insights on how substrates strongly modify the optical properties of AuNP films. (paper)

  7. Electron beam induced coloration and luminescence in layered structure of WO3 thin films grown by pulsed dc magnetron sputtering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Karuppasamy, A.; Subrahmanyam, A.

    2007-01-01

    Tungsten oxide thin films have been deposited by pulsed dc magnetron sputtering of tungsten in argon and oxygen atmosphere. The as-deposited WO 3 film is amorphous, highly transparent, and shows a layered structure along the edges. In addition, the optical properties of the as-deposited film show a steplike behavior of extinction coefficient. However, the electron beam irradiation (3.0 keV) of the as-deposited films results in crystallization, coloration (deep blue), and luminescence (intense red emission). The above changes in physical properties are attributed to the extraction of oxygen atoms from the sample and the structural modifications induced by electron bombardment. The present method of coloration and luminescence has a potential for fabricating high-density optical data storage device

  8. Analyte-triggered luminescence of Eu{sup 3+} ions encapsulated in Nafion membranes -preparation of hybrid materials from in membrane chemical reactions-

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aguilar-Sánchez, Rocío, E-mail: raguilar@ifuap.buap.mx [Depto. Química Analítica, Facultad de Ciencias Químicas, Benemérita Universidad Autónoma de Puebla, Puebla 72570 (Mexico); Zelocualtecatl-Montiel, Iván [Depto. Química Analítica, Facultad de Ciencias Químicas, Benemérita Universidad Autónoma de Puebla, Puebla 72570 (Mexico); Gálvez-Vázquez, María de Jesús [Depto. Química Analítica, Facultad de Ciencias Químicas, Benemérita Universidad Autónoma de Puebla, Puebla 72570 (Mexico); Instituto de Física, Benemérita Universidad Autónoma de Puebla, Apartado postal J-48, Puebla 72570 (Mexico); Silva-González, Rutilo [Instituto de Física, Benemérita Universidad Autónoma de Puebla, Apartado postal J-48, Puebla 72570 (Mexico)

    2017-04-15

    The possibility to perform chemical reactions inside polymer materials opens a unique opportunity to control and prepare materials for diverse solid-state applications. Based on the affinity of Eu{sup 3+} ions for oxygen functionalities, in this work we report the luminescence enhancement of Eu{sup 3+} ions inserted in Nafion membranes (Naf/Eu{sup 3+}) by in-situ complexing to oxalate. The formation of a europium-oxalate type complex enhances Eu{sup 3+} luminescence emission, which could be exploited for the construction of devices for oxalate sensing and the fabrication of highly luminescent materials. Possible analytical applications of Naf/Eu{sup 3+} membranes were evaluated by fluorescence spectroscopy through the linear response with concentration. The complex formation was followed by infrared spectroscopy and SEM-EDS analysis. - Highlights: • Luminescence enhancement by complexation of Eu{sup 3+} ions to oxalate inside Nafion. • Performance of chemical reactions inside Nafion/polymer membranes. • An easy and novel method to prepare luminescent solid devices. • Possibility to develop luminescent sensors by analyte-triggered optical response.

  9. Reliable Prediction with Tuned Range-Separated Functionals of the Singlet-Triplet Gap in Organic Emitters for Thermally Activated Delayed Fluorescence (TADF)

    KAUST Repository

    Sun, Haitao; Zhong, Cheng; Bredas, Jean-Luc

    2015-01-01

    excited states. Here, we demonstrate that time-dependent density functional theory (TD-DFT) in the Tamm-Dancoff Approximation can be very successful in the calculations of the lowest singlet and triplet excitation energies and the corresponding singlet

  10. Multistate Luminescent Solar Concentrator "Smart" Windows

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sol, Jeroen A.H.P.; Timmermans, Gilles H.; Breugel, van Abraham J.; Schenning, Albertus P.H.J.; Debije, Michael G.

    2018-01-01

    A supertwist liquid crystalline luminescent solar concentrator (LSC) "smart" window is fabricated which can be switched electrically between three states: one designed for increased light absorption and electrical generation (the "dark" state), one for transparency (the "light" state), and one for

  11. Luminescent Solar Concentrators with Fibre Geometry

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Edelenbosch, O.Y.; Fisher, M.; Patrignani, L.; Sark, W.G.J.H.M. van; Chatten, A.J.

    2013-01-01

    The potential of a fibre luminescent solar concentrator has been explored by means of both analytical and ray-tracing techniques. Coated fibres have been found to be more efficient than homogeneously doped fibres, at low absorption. For practical fibres concentration is predicted to be linear

  12. Co-precipitation synthesis and upconversion luminescence ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Introduction. Researches of rare-earth-doped upconversion (UC) materials as fluorescent labels, temperature-sensing probes, solid-state lasers and new generation television screens have recently started to be considered1,2 due to their enhanced luminescent properties induced by the small size. UC process is the gener-.

  13. Holographic patterning of luminescent photopolymer nanocomposites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sakhno, Oksana V.; Smirnova, Tatiana N.; Goldenberg, Leonid M.; Stumpe, Joachim

    2008-01-01

    Volume phase gratings in the photopolymerisable composites, containing luminescent nanoparticles have been fabricated for the first time. Nanoparticles of LaPO 4 , doped by Ce 3+ and Tb 3+ ions (the trade name is REN-X-green) with high luminescence quantum yield were used as a luminescent inorganic additive. The holographic gratings in such materials are formed as a result of the diffusion distribution of the nanoparticles during exposure of photopolymerisable composites to interference pattern. The influence of the pre-polymer formulation and the holographic patterning parameters on the grating formation is comprehensively investigated. The use of the optimised pre-polymer syrup containing two monomers with sufficiently different polymerisation rates allows fabrication of gratings with diffraction efficiency up to 80% at low optical losses (< 5%) (20 μm film thickness). To obtain maximum diffraction efficiency the intensity and the period of the interference pattern were optimised for each formulation. In addition maximum diffraction efficiency was achieved with the nanocomposites containing 30-32 wt.% of nanoparticles. On the other hand the highest possible modulation of the nanoparticles' concentration was obtained for the concentration of about 20 wt.%. In this case maximum ordering of the nanoparticles in the polymer matrix is achieved. The photoluminescence of the nanoparticles within the homogeneous polymer film and within the grating has been measured. The example application of the photopolymerisable composite containing luminescence inorganic nanoparticles in holographic security technology has been demonstrated

  14. Probing luminescence centers in Na rich feldspar

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Prasad, Amit Kumar; Lapp, Torben; Kook, Myung Ho

    2016-01-01

    our understanding of the luminescence mechanisms and recombination sites, in a sample of Na rich plagioclase feldspar (oligoclase). Both the UV and violet–blue emissions show resonant excitations arising from a distribution of energy levels. We propose, contrary to the general understanding...

  15. Studies of positron induced luminescence from polymers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xu, J.; Hulett, L.D. Jr.; Lewis, T.A.; Tolk, N.H.

    1994-01-01

    Light emission from polymers (anthracene dissolved in polystryrene) induced by low-energy positrons and electrons has been studied. Results indicate a clear difference between optical emissions under positron and electron bombardment. The positron-induced luminescence spectrum is believed to be generated by both collisional and annihilation processes

  16. Combustion synthesis and preliminary luminescence studies of ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    The polycrystalline sample of LiBaPO4 : Tb3+ (LBPT) was successfully synthesized by solution combustion synthesis and studied for its luminescence characteristics. The thermoluminescence (TL) glow curve of LBPT material consists of two peaks at 204.54 and 251.21°C. The optimum concentration was 0.005 mol to ...

  17. Biosynthesis of myristic acid in luminescent bacteria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Byers, D.M.

    1987-01-01

    In vivo pulse-label studies have demonstrated that luminescent bacteria can provide myritic acid (14:0) required for the synthesis of the luciferase substrate myristyl aldehyde. Luminescent wild type Vibrio harveyi incubated with [ 14 C] acetate in a nutrient-depleted medium accumulated substantial tree [ 14 C]fatty acid (up to 20% of the total lipid label). Radio-gas chromatography revealed that > 75% of the labeled fatty acid is 14:0. No free fatty acid was detected in wild type cells labeled prior to the development of bioluminescence in the exponential growth phase, or in a dark mutant of V. harveyi (mutant M17) that requires exogenous 14:0 for light emission. The preferential accumulation of 14:0 was not observed when wild type cells were labeled with [ 14 C]acetate in regular growth medium. Moreover, all V. harveyi strains exhibited similar fatty acid mass compositions regardless of the state of bioluminescence. Since earlier work has shown that a luminescence-related acyltransferase (defective in the M17 mutant) can catalyze the deacylation of fatty acyl-acyl carrier protein in vitro, the present results are consistent with a model in which this enzyme diverts 14:0 to the luminescence system during fatty acid biosynthesis. Under normal conditions, the supply of 14:0 by this pathway is tightly regulated such that bioluminescence development does not significantly alter the total fatty acid composition

  18. Co-precipitation synthesis and upconversion luminescence ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    ... light: strong green (539 nm), weak red (670 nm) and near-infrared (760 nm). The upconversion luminescence is based on two-photon absorption by the energy transfer from the donor (Yb3+) to the acceptor (Ho3+). All the results indicate that ZrO2:Yb3+-Ho3+ phosphors could be a promising biological labelling material.

  19. Luminescence of porous silicon doped by erbium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bondarenko, V.P.; Vorozov, N.N.; Dolgij, L.N.; Dorofeev, A.M.; Kazyuchits, N.M.; Leshok, A.A.; Troyanova, G.N.

    1996-01-01

    The possibility of the 1.54 μm intensive luminescence in the silicon dense porous layers, doped by erbium, with various structures is shown. Low-porous materials of both porous type on the p-type silicon and porous silicon with wood-like structure on the n + type silicon may be used for formation of light-emitting structures

  20. Oxathiiranes 8 On the OCS2 Singlet Potential Energy Surface

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Carlsen, Lars

    1982-01-01

    The reaction between atomic oxygen and carbon disulfide is predicted to lead to at least two primary products, which are the dithiiranone (1) and the oxathiirane-thione (2) and/or the carbon disulfide S-oxide (4). The possible intramolecular equilibria 1 ⇄ 2, 1 ⇄ 3, 2 ⇄ 4, and 2 ⇄ 5 as well...... as the fragmentations of the possible intermediates 1–5 have been studied theoretically within the semiempirical cndo/B framework as conceivable ground-state reactions. On the basis of mo correlations and potential energy changes along the reaction paths, supplementary with previously reported experimental data...