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Sample records for single-stage acellular dermal

  1. Evaluation of lymphangiogenesis in acellular dermal matrix

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    Mario Cherubino

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Much attention has been directed towards understanding the phenomena of angiogenesis and lymphangiogenesis in wound healing. Thanks to the manifold dermal substitute available nowadays, wound treatment has improved greatly. Many studies have been published about angiogenesis and cell invasion in INTEGRA® . On the other hand, the development of the lymphatic network in acellular dermal matrix (ADM is a more obscure matter. In this article, we aim to characterize the different phases of host cell invasion in ADM. Special attention was given to lymphangiogenic aspects. Materials and Methods: Among 57 rats selected to analyse the role of ADM in lymphangiogenesis, we created four groups. We performed an excision procedure on both thighs of these rats: On the left one we did not perform any action except repairing the borders of the wound; while on the right one we used INTEGRA® implant. The excision biopsy was performed at four different times: First group after 7 days, second after 14 days, third after 21 days and fourth after 28 days. For our microscopic evaluation, we used the classical staining technique of haematoxylin and eosin and a semi-quantitative method in order to evaluate cellularity counts. To assess angiogenesis and lymphangiogenesis development we employed PROX-1 Ab and CD31/PECAM for immunohistochemical analysis. Results: We found remarkable wound contraction in defects that healed by secondary intention while minor wound contraction was observed in defects treated with ADM. At day 7, optical microscopy revealed a more plentiful cellularity in the granulation tissue compared with the dermal regeneration matrix. The immunohistochemical process highlighted vascular and lymphatic cells in both groups. After 14 days a high grade of fibrosis was noticeable in the non-treated group. At day 21, both lymphatic and vascular endothelial cells were better developed in the group with a dermal matrix application. At day 28

  2. Direct delayed breast reconstruction with TAP flap, implant and acellular dermal matrix (TAPIA)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Børsen-Koch, Mikkel; Gunnarsson, Gudjon L; Udesen, Ann

    2015-01-01

    combining the use of a propeller thoracodorsal artery perforator (TAP) flap with an acellular dermal matrix (ADM) and an implant. METHODS: The paper presents 43 delayed breast reconstructions in 38 women using a modified technique for harvesting the TAP flap in combination with an ADM and an implant......: The propeller TAP flap combined with an ADM and an implant can safely be used for delayed breast reconstruction. The technique offers a single-stage reconstruction and the donor-site morbidity is limited. The method is safe and reliable with complication rates comparable to those of similar methods. Although...

  3. Acellular dermal matrix based nipple reconstruction: A modified technique

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    Raghavan Vidya

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Nipple areolar reconstruction (NAR has evolved with the advancement in breast reconstruction and can improve self-esteem and, consequently, patient satisfaction. Although a variety of reconstruction techniques have been described in the literature varying from nipple sharing, local flaps to alloplastic and allograft augmentation, over time, loss of nipple projection remains a major problem. Acellular dermal matrices (ADM have revolutionised breast reconstruction more recently. We discuss the use of ADM to act as a base plate and strut to give support to the base and offer nipple bulk and projection in a primary procedure of NAR with a local clover shaped dermal flap in 5 breasts (4 patients. We used 5-point Likert scales (1 = highly unsatisfied, 5 = highly satisfied to assess patient satisfaction. Median age was 46 years (range: 38–55 years. Nipple projection of 8 mm, 7 mm, and 7 mms were achieved in the unilateral cases and 6 mm in the bilateral case over a median 18 month period. All patients reported at least a 4 on the Likert scale. We had no post-operative complications. It seems that nipple areolar reconstruction [NAR] using ADM can achieve nipple projection which is considered aesthetically pleasing for patients.

  4. Bovine versus Porcine Acellular Dermal Matrix: A Comparison of Mechanical Properties

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    David M. Adelman, MD, PhD, FACS

    2014-05-01

    Conclusions: Before implantation, BADM is inherently stronger than PADM at equivalent thicknesses and considerably stronger at increased thicknesses. These results corroborate clinical data from a previous study in which PADM was associated with a higher intraoperative device failure rate. Although numerous properties of acellular dermal matrix contribute to clinical outcomes, surgeons should consider initial mechanical strength properties when choosing acellular dermal matrices for load-bearing applications such as hernia repair.

  5. Chest wall reconstruction with acellular dermal matrix (Strattice™) and a TRAM flap

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    Brunbjerg, Mette Eline; Juhl, Alexander Andersen; Damsgaard, Tine Engberg

    2014-01-01

    Mette Eline Brunbjerg, Alexander Andersen Juhl, Tine E. Damsgaard. "Chest wall reconstruction with acellular dermal matrix (Strattice™) and a TRAM flap.” Acta Oncol. 2013 Jun;52(5):1052-4. Epub 2012 Oct 24. PMID: 23095144......Mette Eline Brunbjerg, Alexander Andersen Juhl, Tine E. Damsgaard. "Chest wall reconstruction with acellular dermal matrix (Strattice™) and a TRAM flap.” Acta Oncol. 2013 Jun;52(5):1052-4. Epub 2012 Oct 24. PMID: 23095144...

  6. Management of gingival recession with acellular dermal matrix graft: A clinical study

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    V R Balaji

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Aims and Objectives: Obtaining root coverage has become an important part of periodontal therapy. The aims of this studyare to evaluate the clinical efficacy of acellular dermal matrix graft in the coverage of denuded roots and also to examine the change in the width of keratinized gingiva. Materials and Methods: A total of 20 sites with more than or equal to 2 mm of recession depth were taken into the study, for treatment with acellular dermal matrix graft. The clinical parameters such as recession depth, recession width, width of keratinized gingiva, probing pocket depth (PD, and clinical attachment level (CAL were measured at the baseline, 8th week, and at the end of the study (16th week. The defects were treated with a coronally positioned pedicle graft combined with acellular dermal matrix graft. Results: Out of 20 sites treated with acellular dermal matrix graft, seven sites showed complete root coverage (100%, and the mean root coverage obtained was 73.39%. There was a statistically significant reduction in recession depth, recession width, and probing PD. There was also a statistically significant increase in width of keratinized gingiva and also gain in CAL. The postoperative results were both clinically and statistically significant (P < 0.0001. Conclusion: The results of this study were esthetically acceptable to the patients and clinically acceptable in all cases. From this study, it may be concluded that acellular dermal matrix graft is an excellent substitute for autogenous graft in coverage of denuded roots.

  7. Management of gingival recession with acellular dermal matrix graft: A clinical study

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    Balaji, V. R.; Ramakrishnan, T.; Manikandan, D.; Lambodharan, R.; Karthikeyan, B.; Niazi, Thanvir Mohammed; Ulaganathan, G.

    2016-01-01

    Aims and Objectives: Obtaining root coverage has become an important part of periodontal therapy. The aims of this studyare to evaluate the clinical efficacy of acellular dermal matrix graft in the coverage of denuded roots and also to examine the change in the width of keratinized gingiva. Materials and Methods: A total of 20 sites with more than or equal to 2 mm of recession depth were taken into the study, for treatment with acellular dermal matrix graft. The clinical parameters such as recession depth, recession width, width of keratinized gingiva, probing pocket depth (PD), and clinical attachment level (CAL) were measured at the baseline, 8th week, and at the end of the study (16th week). The defects were treated with a coronally positioned pedicle graft combined with acellular dermal matrix graft. Results: Out of 20 sites treated with acellular dermal matrix graft, seven sites showed complete root coverage (100%), and the mean root coverage obtained was 73.39%. There was a statistically significant reduction in recession depth, recession width, and probing PD. There was also a statistically significant increase in width of keratinized gingiva and also gain in CAL. The postoperative results were both clinically and statistically significant (P < 0.0001). Conclusion: The results of this study were esthetically acceptable to the patients and clinically acceptable in all cases. From this study, it may be concluded that acellular dermal matrix graft is an excellent substitute for autogenous graft in coverage of denuded roots. PMID:27829749

  8. Expanding the applications of Cadaveric skin - the properties and uses of an acellular dermal matrix

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    Greenleaf, G.; Livesey, S.

    1999-01-01

    The ability to transplant organs and tissues has been one of the most significant advances of modern medicine. The availability of cadaveric allograft skin has greatly facilitated the practice of aggressive, early excision of massive burn injuries. Due to its ultimate rejection however, the role of allograft skin has historically been limited to that of a temporary wound dressing. Development of an acellular dermal allograft has greatly expanded the applications for donated human skin. AlloDerm(r) preserved dermal graft (LifeCell, The Woodlands, TX) is prepared via ionic separation of allograft skin followed by detergent removal of antigenic cells. Acellular dermal grafts are then cryoprotected and freeze-dried. The process maintains the structural integrity of the extracellular matrix and preserves the biochemical composition of the basement membrane. The resultant immunologically inert allograft can be used in a variety of applications. In burn injuries, lack of an adequate dermal component at either the donor or wound site may result in complications including contraction, delayed healing, hypertrophic scarring and keloid formation. Utilizing allogenic dermis eliminates the need for autologous dermis at the wound site and minimizes donor site trauma by allowing procurement of ultra-thin (0.006 ) autografts. Expanding the scope of traditional uses for allograft skin, acellular dermal grafts have been successfully utilized in a variety of procedures including duraplasty, orbital reconstruction, and hemia repar. In periodontal surgery, allograft tissue eliminates the need for painful palatal autografts and has been used to increase attached gingiva and reduce gingival recession. Resorption of autologous grafts or extrusion of synthetic material often hampers repair or reconstruction of soft tissue deficits. Transplantation of acellular allograft dermis provides a biochemically and structurally intact matrix, which persists and is ultimately repopulated with

  9. The safety and applications of acellular human dermal allograft in ophthalmic plastic and reconstructive surgery: a preliminary report.

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    Shorr, N; Perry, J D; Goldberg, R A; Hoenig, J; Shorr, J

    2000-05-01

    To describe the uses and determine the safety of a commercially available acellular dermal allograft in ophthalmic plastic and reconstructive surgery. The existing literature regarding current applications and results using acellular dermal allograft is reviewed. The study design was a retrospective, noncomparative case series. Participants consisted of 63 consecutive patients undergoing ophthalmic plastic and reconstructive surgery using an acellular dermal matrix graft. The main intervention was placement of a dermal allograft. Outcome measures included the degree of clinical improvement and complications for each patient. We used AlloDerm (LifeCell Corporation, The Woodlands, TX, U.S.A.) as a posterior lamellar conjunctival spacer graft, a soft tissue interpositional graft, and an orbital implant wrapping material. Clinical improvement was noted in all cases. There were no complications attributable to the acellular dermal matrix material. We describe several novel ophthalmic plastic and reconstructive surgical applications using acellular dermal allograft tissue. This material may be used safely as a posterior lamellar conjunctival spacer graft, a soft tissue interpositional graft, and a wrapping material. Clinically, the allograft appears to be biocompatible, nontoxic, and nonallergenic in the orbit, eyelid, and midfacial tissues. Long-term data and studies comparing the efficacy of acellular dermal allograft with conventional materials are necessary.

  10. Acellular Dermal Matrix: Treating Periocular Melanoma in a Patient with Xeroderma Pigmentosa

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    Kamlen Pillay, MBChB

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available We report a 7-year-old girl with xeroderma pigmentosum (XP, who presented in our clinic with a large melanoma (35 × 50 × 20 mm, Breslow depth 18 mm in the zygomatic-malar area. Palliative surgery was performed to maintain her residual vision and to reduce the pain caused by the compression of local structures. Because of the limited access of autologous skin grafts in pediatric patients with XP who are severely affected, we opted to use an acellular dermal matrix. There was 100% graft uptake, and the pain due to compression by the tumor was alleviated. This case demonstrates that acellular dermal matrices can be safely and effectively used in oncological facial reconstruction, especially in patients with progressive conditions such as XP.

  11. Reconstructive surgical management of an amalgam tattoo using an acellular dermal matrix graft: case reports.

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    Griffin, Terrence J; Banjar, Suzan A; Cheung, Wai S

    2005-12-01

    Amalgam tattoos in the gingiva and mucosa can interfere with esthetics and present a barrier to surface-to-bone contact at implant sites. Two clinical cases are used to illustrate the effectiveness of acellular dermal matrix allografts in the treatment of these lesions. Very esthetic results were obtained with minimal discomfort and postoperative complications because of the prevention of a second surgical site or additional procedure.

  12. Long-Term Followup of Dermal Substitution with Acellular Dermal Implant in Burns and Postburn Scar Corrections

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    I. Juhasz

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Full-thickness burn and other types of deep skin loss will result in scar formation. For at least partial replacement of the lost dermal layer, there are several options to use biotechnologically derived extracellular matrix components or tissue scaffolds of cadaver skin origin. In a survey, we have collected data on 18 pts who have previously received acellular dermal implant Alloderm. The age of these patients at the injury varied between 16 months and 84 years. The average area of the implants was 185 cm2. Among those, 15 implant sites of 14 patients were assessed at an average of 50 months after surgery. The scar function was assessed by using the modified Vancouver Scar Scale. We have found that the overall scar quality and function was significantly better over the implanted areas than over the surrounding skin. Also these areas received a better score for scar height and pliability. Our findings suggest that acellular dermal implants are especially useful tools in the treatment of full-thickness burns as well as postburn scar contractures.

  13. [Application of the xenogenic acellular dermal matrix membrane application used in the postoperative tissue shortage repair].

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    Bai, Yanxia; Yan, Liying; Zhang, Shaoqiang; Shao, Yuan; Yao, Xiaobao; Li, Honghui; Zhao, Ruimin; Zhao, Qian; Zhang, Pengfei; Yang, Qi

    2014-09-01

    To observe the short-term and long-term curative effect of the xenogenic acellular dermal matrix membrane (or joint muscle flap transfer) application used in the 82 cases postoperative tissue shortage repair that after the head neck carcinoma resection. To held the 82 cases head neck carcinoma postoperative mucosa shortage repaired after resection by the xenogenic acellular dermal matrix membrane (or joint muscle flap transfer), 65 cases mucosa shortage wound be directly covered by the repair membrane and the other 17 cases mucosa shortage wound be repaired by the tranfered muscle tissue flap with the repair membrane covered; 53 cases underwent additional postoperative radiotherapy between 2-4 weeks and follow-up in 1, 3, 6, 12, 18, 24, 30, 36, 48, 60 months and observed the operation site repair process through the electronic laryngoscope, observed the patients respiration, swallow, phonation function. Seventy-seven cases patients operation incision reached I phase healing standard, another 5 cases patients operation incision reached II phase healing standard because of the wound infection and fully-recovered through the local wound drainage,dressing process. All the patients tracheal cannula,the stomach tube be extubated successfully and without the local cicatricial constriction occurred. Seventy-eight cases follow up period reached 1 year including 53 cases who underwent postoperative radiotherapy, 49 cases follow up period reached 3 years including 32 cases who underwent postoperative radiotherapy, 14 cases follow up period reached 5 years including 12 cases who underwent postoperative radiotherapy. The patients with static local lesions discovered no reaction such as exclusion, allergy. The application of xenogenic acellular dermal matrix membrane (or joint muscle flap transfer used in in the postoperative tissue shortage repair that after the head neck carcinoma resection have several advantage such as comparatively easily implementation, operation safety

  14. Cost minimisation analysis of using acellular dermal matrix (Strattice™) for breast reconstruction compared with standard techniques.

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    Johnson, R K; Wright, C K; Gandhi, A; Charny, M C; Barr, L

    2013-03-01

    We performed a cost analysis (using UK 2011/12 NHS tariffs as a proxy for cost) comparing immediate breast reconstruction using the new one-stage technique of acellular dermal matrix (Strattice™) with implant versus the standard alternative techniques of tissue expander (TE)/implant as a two-stage procedure and latissimus dorsi (LD) flap reconstruction. Clinical report data were collected for operative time, length of stay, outpatient procedures, and number of elective and emergency admissions in our first consecutive 24 patients undergoing one-stage Strattice reconstruction. Total cost to the NHS based on tariff, assuming top-up payments to cover Strattice acquisition costs, was assessed and compared to the two historical control groups matched on key variables. Eleven patients having unilateral Strattice reconstruction were compared to 10 having TE/implant reconstruction and 10 having LD flap and implant reconstruction. Thirteen patients having bilateral Strattice reconstruction were compared to 12 having bilateral TE/implant reconstruction. Total costs were: unilateral Strattice, £3685; unilateral TE, £4985; unilateral LD and implant, £6321; bilateral TE, £5478; and bilateral Strattice, £6771. The cost analysis shows a financial advantage of using acellular dermal matrix (Strattice) in unilateral breast reconstruction versus alternative procedures. The reimbursement system in England (Payment by Results) is based on disease-related groups similar to that of many countries across Europe and tariffs are based on reported hospital costs, making this analysis of relevance in other countries. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Treatment of amalgam tattoo with a subepithelial connective tissue graft and acellular dermal matrix.

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    Thumbigere-Math, Vivek; Johnson, Deborah K

    2014-04-01

    A 54-year-old female was referred for management of a large amalgam tattoo involving the alveolar mucosa between teeth #6 and #9. The lesion had been present for over 20 years following endodontic treatment of teeth #7 and #8. A two-stage surgical approach was used to remove the pigmentation, beginning with removal of amalgam fragments from the underlying bone and placement of a subepithelial connective tissue graft and acellular dermal matrix to increase soft tissue thickness subadjacent to the amalgam. Following 7 weeks of healing, gingivoplasty was performed to remove the overlying pigmented tissue. At the 21-month follow-up appointment, the patient exhibited naturally appearing soft tissue with no evidence of amalgam tattoo.

  16. Radiologic-Pathologic Correlation: Acellular Dermal Matrix (Alloderm®) Used in Breast Reconstructive Surgery.

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    Lee, Christine U; Bobr, Aleh; Torres-Mora, Jorge

    2017-01-01

    Acellular dermal matrix (ADM) such as Alloderm ® is sometimes used in tissue reconstruction in primary and reconstructive breast surgeries. As ADM is incorporated into the native tissues, the evolving imaging findings that would correlate with varying degrees of host migration and neoangiogenesis into the matrix can be challenging to recognize. In the setting of a palpable or clinical area of concern after breast reconstructive surgery following breast cancer, confident diagnosis of a mass representing ADM rather than recurring or developing disease can be challenging. Such diagnostic imaging uncertainties generally result in short-term imaging and clinical follow-up, but occasionally, biopsy is performed for histopathological confirmation of benignity. A case of biopsy-proven Alloderm ® is described. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first radiologic-pathologic correlation of ADM in the literature.

  17. Biological function evaluation and effects of laser micro-pore burn-denatured acellular dermal matrix.

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    Zhang, Youlai; Zeng, Yuanlin; Xin, Guohua; Zou, Lijin; Ding, Yuewei; Duyin, Jiang

    2018-03-01

    In the field of burns repairs, many problems exist in the shortage of donor skin, the expense of allograft or xenograft skin, temporary substitution and unsatisfactory extremity function after wound healing. Previous studies showed that burn-denatured skin could return to normal dermis formation and function. This study investigates the application of laser micro-pore burn-denatured acellular dermis matrix (DADM) from an escharotomy in the repair of burn wounds and evaluates the biological properties and wound repair effects of DADM in implantation experiments in Kunming mice. Specific-pathogen-free (SPF) Kunming mice were used in this study. A deep II° burn wound was created on the dorsum of the mice by an electric heated water bath. The full-thickness wound tissue was harvested. The necrotic tissue and subcutaneous tissue were removed. The denatured dermis was preserved and treated with 0.25% trypsin, 0.5% Triton X-100. The DADM was drilled by laser micro-pore. The biological properties and grafting effects of laser micro-pore burn-DADM were evaluated by morphology, cytokine expression levels and subcutaneous implantation experiments in Kunming mice. We found statistical significance (Ppore burn-DADM (experimental group) compared to the control group (no laser micro-pore burn-DADM). Cytokine expression level was different in the dermal matrixes harvested at various time points after burn (24h, 48h, 72h and infected wound group). Comparing the dermal matrix from 24h burn tissue to infected wound tissue, the expression level of IL-6, MMP-24, VE-cadherin and VEGF were decreased. We found no inflammatory cells infiltration in the dermal matrix were observed in both experimental and control groups (24h burn group), while the obviously vascular infiltration and fiber fusion were observed in the experimental group after subcutaneous implantation experiments. There was better bio-performance, low immunogenicity and better dermal incorporation after treated by laser

  18. Acellular dermal matrix slings in tissue expander breast reconstruction: are there substantial benefits?

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    Collis, George N; TerKonda, Sarvam P; Waldorf, James C; Perdikis, Galen

    2012-05-01

    Acellular dermal matrix (ADM) slings in breast reconstruction are increasingly used but are not yet validated. This study compares immediate, expander-based breast reconstruction with and without the use of inferolateral ADM slings. There were 63 patients (106 breasts) in the ADM group and 42 patients (68 breasts) in the control group. Initial intraoperative fill volumes were significantly greater in the ADM group, median 69% full (250 mL) versus 50% full (180 mL; P < 0.001). However, the number of days to complete expansion between the 2 groups was similar. One less office visit was required to complete the fills in the ADM group (P < 0.01). Drains were removed 3 days later in the ADM group (P < 0.01). Overall complication rate was greater in the ADM group (18.9% vs. 7.4%, P < 0.05), with a slightly higher percentage of expanders requiring removal due to infection in the ADM group (5.7% vs. 4.4%, P = NS). This study suggests inferolateral ADM slings in expander-based breast reconstruction allow for significantly increased initial fill volumes and may offer an aesthetic advantage; however, its use is costly and increases complications.

  19. Plastic Surgery and Acellular Dermal Matrix: Highlighting Trends from 1999 to 2013

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    Daar, David A; Gandy, Jessica R; Clark, Emily G; Mowlds, Donald S; Paydar, Keyianoosh Z; Wirth, Garrett A

    2016-01-01

    The last decade has ushered in a rapidly expanding global discussion regarding acellular dermal matrix (ADM) applications, economic analyses, technical considerations, benefits, and risks, with recent emphasis on ADM use in breast surgery. This study aims to evaluate global trends in ADM research using bibliometric analysis. The top nine Plastic Surgery journals were determined by impact factor (IF). Each issue of the nine journals between 1999 and 2013 was accessed to compile a database of articles discussing ADM. Publications were further classified by IF, authors’ geographic location, study design, and level of evidence (LOE, I-V). Productivity index and productivity share were calculated for each region. In total, 256 ADM articles were accessed. The annual global publication volume increased significantly by 4.2 (0.87) articles per year (p<0.001), with a mean productivity index of 36.3 (59.0). The mean impact factor of the nine journals increased significantly from 0.61 (0.11) to 2.47 (0.99) from 1993 to 2013 (p<0.001). Despite this increase in the global ADM literature, the majority of research was of weaker LOE (level I: 2.29% and level II: 9.17%). USA contributed the most research (87%), followed by Asia (4.76%) and Western Europe (4.71%). USA contributed the greatest volume of research. Regarding clinical application of ADM, the majority of publications focused on ADM use in breast surgery, specifically breast reconstruction (154 articles, 60.2%). The majority of research was of lower LOE; thus, efforts should be made to strengthen the body of literature, particularly with regard to cost analysis. PMID:27579264

  20. Chondrogenesis of human infrapatellar fat pad stem cells on acellular dermal matrix

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    Ken eYe

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Acellular dermal matrix (ADM has been in clinical use for decades in numerous surgical applications. The ability for ADM to promote cellular repopulation and revascularisation, and tissue regeneration is well documented. Adipose stem cells have the ability to differentiate into mesenchymal tissue types, including bone and cartilage. The aim of this study was to investigate the potential interaction between ADM and adipose stem cells in vitro using TGFβ3 and BMP6.Human infrapatellar fat pad derived adipose stem cells (IPFP-ASC were cultured with ADM derived from rat dermis under chondrogenic (TGFβ3 and BMP6 in vitro for 2 and 4 weeks. Histology, qPCR and immunohistochemistry were performed to assess for markers of chondrogenesis (collagen Type II, SOX9 and proteoglycans. At 4 weeks, cell-scaffold constructs displayed cellular changes consistent with chondrogenesis, with evidence of stratification of cell layers and development of a hyaline-like cartilage layer superficially which stained positively for collagen Type II and proteoglycans. Significant cell-matrix interaction was seen between the cartilage layer and the ADM itself with seamless integration between each layer. Real time qPCR showed significantly increases of COL2A1, SOX9, and ACAN gene expression over 4 weeks when compared to control. COL1A2 gene expression remained unchanged over 4 weeks.We believe the principles which make ADM versatile and successful for tissue regeneration are application to cartilage regeneration. This study demonstrates in vitro the ability for IPFP-ASCs to undergo chondrogenesis, infiltrate and interact with ADM. These outcomes serve as a platform for in vivo modelling of ADM for cartilage repair.

  1. Aesthetic outcomes of acellular dermal matrix in tissue expander/implant-based breast reconstruction.

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    Forsberg, Clay G; Kelly, David A; Wood, Benjamin C; Mastrangelo, Stephanie L; DeFranzo, Anthony J; Thompson, James T; David, Lisa R; Marks, Malcolm W

    2014-01-01

    Tissue expander and implant-based breast reconstruction after mastectomy is the most common method of breast reconstruction. Modifications of the traditional total submuscular reconstruction (TSR) have been made using acellular dermal matrix (ADM) to create an inferolateral sling and a more natural implant pocket for superior aesthetic results. The objective of this study was to assess aesthetic outcomes when using ADM in breast reconstruction. A retrospective chart review identified all patients who underwent implant-based breast reconstruction from 2005 to 2009 at our institution. Demographic information, complications, reoperations, and aesthetic outcome data were collected for all patients meeting inclusion criteria related to adequate follow-up and postoperative photographs. Five aesthetic outcomes were evaluated for all study patients by 18 blinded evaluators using postoperative photographs. Outcomes were scored on a scale of 1 to 5, with 5 representing the best possible aesthetic score. A total of 122 patients underwent 183 tissue expander-based reconstructions (ADM, n = 58; TSR, n = 125). The infection rate in patients with ADM was 16.2% compared to 5.9% in TSR patients, but this was not statistically significant (P = 0.09). Capsular contracture was more common in TSR patients (23.5%), compared to those with ADM (8.1%), P = 0.048. Aesthetic scores from the attending plastic surgeons were as follows: natural contour (ADM, 3.36; TSR, 3.02; P = 0.0001), symmetry of shape (ADM, 3.57; TSR, 3.27; P = 0.005), symmetry of size (ADM, 3.68; TSR, 3.42; P = 0.002), position on chest wall (ADM, 3.75; TSR, 3.45; P = 0.004), and overall aesthetic appearance (ADM, 3.56; TSR, 3.20; P = 0.0001). For all 5 aesthetic parameters evaluated, the ADM group scored significantly higher than the TSR group by 18 blinded evaluators. These consistent findings suggest that the use of ADM in breast reconstruction does confer a significant advantage in aesthetic outcomes for breast

  2. [Effects of hyaluronic acid on biomechanic performance of porcine acellular dermal matrix plus thin skin autograft after transplantation].

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    Zhao, Jing-yu; Chai, Jia-ke; Song, Hui-feng; Xu, Ming-huo

    2012-06-26

    To explore the effects of hyaluronic acid (HA) on biomechanical properties for porcine acellular dermal matrix (PADM) plus thin skin autograft after transplantation. The dorsa of 10 Japanese white rabbits were symmetrically divided into four areas of A-D by random grouping. Full-thickness skin defects were created in Groups A-C while Group D was blank with normal skin. Operations were performed in Group A: implant with HA + PADM + thin skin autografts, Group B: implant with PADM + thin skin autografts and Group C: skin autografts group. Histological examination of specimen was performed at Day 56 postoperatively. And the biomechanical properties such as relaxation and stress-strain properties of grafts were recorded. The structure of PADM was found to be basically intact by hematoxylin and eosin E dyeing in Groups A and B. In Group A, dense fiber structure could be observed. Lots of regularly arranged collagenous fibers and new blood capillaries were grown into the dermal matrix with sparsely distributed inflammatory cells. In Group B, acellular dermal matrix became clustered with a small amount of invaded fibroblasts. And there was a high expression of inflammatory cells. The biomechanic performances of transplanted skin were: Group A's curve was mostly close to that of Group D's, Group B's curve was the most further from that of Group D's (P = 0.001) and Group C's curve stayed between Groups A and B. Under the same strain, the stress of Groups A-D was (87 ± 8), (115 ± 9), (63 ± 7) and (81 ± 4) kPa respectively. No significant difference of stress existed between these two groups (P = 0.838). There was significant difference of stress between Groups B/C and D (P = 0.001 and P = 0.009). Topical hyaluronic acid may be used to enhance the biomechanics performances of transplanted skin.

  3. Clinical application and histological properties of autologous tissue-engineered skin equivalents using an acellular dermal matrix.

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    Takami, Yoshihiro; Yamaguchi, Ryo; Ono, Shimpei; Hyakusoku, Hiko

    2014-01-01

    We developed a transplantable tissue-engineered skin equivalent composed of autologous cultured keratinocytes, fibroblasts, and a decellularized allogeneic dermis (acellular allogeneic dermal matrix; ADM) obtained from cadavers. In a process taking 3 weeks, cultured autologous keratinocytes from burn patients were expanded and then grown on ADMs. The tissue-engineered autologous skin equivalents (TESEs) were then transplanted in a one-stage procedure to the debrided third-degree burn wounds of 4 patients. The mean graft survival rate was 96%. Delayed graft loss and graft fragility were not observed. Histological and immunohistological findings indicated that the transplanted TESE had similar characteristics to normal human split-thickness skin grafts. These results suggest that the TESE using ADM can be used for permanent repair of full-thickness skin defects.

  4. Comparison of acellular dermal graft and palatal autograft in the reconstruction of keratinized gingiva around dental implants: a case report.

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    Yan, Ji-Jong; Tsai, Alex Yi-Min; Wong, Man-Ying; Hou, Lein-Tuan

    2006-06-01

    The use of autogenous gingival grafts has proved to be an effective and predictable way to increase the amount of keratinized gingiva. However, discomfort and pain at the donor site are unavoidable. Acellular dermal matrix (ADM) allograft can be used as a donor tissue to eliminate the need for another surgical site and alleviate pain and trauma. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of ADM allograft in increasing the width of keratinized gingiva around dental implants. A patient with inadequate keratinized gingiva around dental implants in maxillary and mandibular anterior regions received either an ADM graft or palatal autograft by random allocation. The width of keratinized gingiva and other clinical periodontal parameters were recorded initially and at 3 and 6 months after surgery. Both grafts provided satisfactory results. The width of keratinized tissues was increased by using the ADM allograft, but by a lesser amount than seen with the autogenous gingival graft.

  5. The Effect of Sterile Acellular Dermal Matrix Use on Complication Rates in Implant-Based Immediate Breast Reconstructions

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    Jun Ho Lee

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available BackgroundThe use of acellular dermal matrix (ADM in implant-based immediate breast reconstruction has been increasing. The current ADMs available for breast reconstruction are offered as aseptic or sterile. No published studies have compared aseptic and sterile ADM in implant-based immediate breast reconstruction. The authors performed a retrospective study to evaluate the outcomes of aseptic versus sterile ADM in implant-based immediate breast reconstruction.MethodsImplant-based immediate breast reconstructions with ADM conducted between April 2013 and January 2016 were included. The patients were divided into 2 groups: the aseptic ADM (AlloDerm group and the sterile ADM (MegaDerm group. Archived records were reviewed for demographic data and postoperative complication types and frequencies. The complications included were infection, flap necrosis, capsular contracture, seroma, hematoma, and explantation for any cause.ResultsTwenty patients were reconstructed with aseptic ADM, and 68 patients with sterile ADM. Rates of infection (15.0% vs. 10.3%, flap necrosis (5.0% vs. 7.4%, capsular contracture (20.0% vs. 14.7%, seroma (10.0% vs. 14.7%, hematoma (0% vs. 1.5%, and explantation (10.0% vs. 8.8% were not significantly different in the 2 groups.ConclusionsSterile ADM did not provide better results regarding infectious complications than aseptic ADM in implant-based immediate breast reconstruction.

  6. Xenogenic (porcine) acellular dermal matrix promotes growth of granulation tissues in the wound healing of Fournier gangrene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Zhaoxin; Lv, Lei; Mamat, Masut; Chen, Zhao; Zhou, Zhitao; Liu, Lihua; Wang, Zhizhong

    2015-01-01

    This article investigates the application values of Xenogenic (porcine) acellular dermal matrix (XADM) in preparation of a Fournier gangrene wound bed. Thirty-six consecutive cases of patients with Fournier gangrene between 2002 and 2012 were enrolled in our department of our hospital. The patients were divided into two groups according to different methods of wound bed preparation after surgical débridement, including the experimental group (17 cases) and the control group (19 cases). The wounds in the experimental group were covered with XADM after surgical wound débridement, whereas the wounds were cleaned with hydrogen peroxide and sodium hypochlorite solution (one time/day) in the control group. The wound bed preparation time and hospital stay were then compared in the two groups. The wound preparation time was 13.64 ± 1.46 days and hospitalization period was 26.06 ± 0.83 days in the experimental XADM group. In the control group, the wound bed preparation time and hospitalization period were 22.37 ± 1.38 and 38.11 ± 5.60 days, respectively. The results showed statistical differences between these two groups. When used in wound débridement after Fournier gangrene, XADM protects interecological organizations, promotes the growth of granulation tissues, and maximally retains function and morphology of the perineum and penis.

  7. A New Human-Derived Acellular Dermal Matrix for Breast Reconstruction Available for the European Market: Preliminary Results.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Folli, Secondo; Curcio, Annalisa; Melandri, Davide; Bondioli, Elena; Rocco, Nicola; Catanuto, Giuseppe; Falcini, Fabio; Purpura, Valeria; Mingozzi, Matteo; Buggi, Federico; Marongiu, Francesco

    2018-04-01

    The introduction of acellular dermal matrices (ADMs) contributed to the growing diffusion of direct-to-implant breast reconstruction (DTI-BR) following mastectomy for breast cancer. According to specific legislations, European specialists could not benefit from the use of human-derived ADMs, even though most evidence in the literature are available for this kind of device, showed optimal outcomes in breast reconstruction. The Skin Bank of the Bufalini Hospital (Cesena, Italy) obtained in 2009 the approval for the production and distribution of a new human cadaver-donor-derived ADM (named with the Italian acronym, MODA, for matrice omologa dermica acellulata) from the Italian National Transplant Center and National Health Institute. We report preliminary results of MODA application in direct-to-implant breast reconstruction following nipple-areola complex (NAC)-sparing mastectomy for breast cancer treatment. We prospectively enrolled all women undergoing NAC-sparing mastectomy for breast cancer and DTI-BR in our breast surgical unit from June 2015 to January 2017. We enrolled a selected population without previous chest wall irradiation, not being heavy tobacco smokers or diabetic, with a BMI MODA in direct-to-implant breast reconstruction following NAC-sparing mastectomy for breast cancer treatment. This is particularly relevant for the European market, where no other human-derived devices are available for breast reconstruction due to regulatory restrictions. This journal requires that authors assign a level of evidence to each article. For a full description of these Evidence-Based Medicine ratings, please refer to the Table of Contents or the online Instructions to Authors www.springer.com/00266 .

  8. Human Acellular Dermal Matrix Paired With Silver-zinc Coupled Electroceutical Dressing Results in Rapid Healing of Complicated Diabetic Wounds of Mixed Etiology: A Novel Case Series.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cole, Windy

    2016-07-01

    Patients with diabetes are well known for having difficult-to-close wounds. When additional factors are added, such as gouty tophi or tumors, the difficulty is compounded and conventional care often fails to heal the wound. In this case series, an innovative wound modality that combined a human acellular dermal matrix with a silver-zinc coupled electroceutical wound dressing was used in 3 particularly difficult and complex cases. In all 3 cases, this alternative treatment provided full healing within 6 weeks in wounds that conventional care had been unable to close in up to 2 years.

  9. [Clinical observation on repairing of wounds of skin graft donor site with acellular tissue engineering dermal matrix].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qiu, Xue-wen; Wang, Jia-han; Wang, Ying; Liu, Liang; Wu, Qi; Ma, Jun

    2013-02-01

    To evaluate the clinical efficacy of acellular tissue engineering dermal matrix (ATDM) in repairing wounds of skin graft donor site. Sixty patients with burn or chronic wounds hospitalized from January 2011 to April 2012 received autologous skin grafting. One wound [with size larger than 55 cm(2), and thickness of (0.33 ± 0.03) mm] out of multiple skin graft donor sites of every patient was selected, and it was divided into two parts in accordance with self-control principle. A part of wound close to the wound edge with diameter of 5 cm was taken as trial area (treated with ATDM), and the remaining wound was taken as control area (treated with vaseline gauze) according to the random number table. Blood and urine routine, liver and kidney function, and levels of IgG and IgM in blood of patients were measured one day before operation and on the 1st day after wound healing. Vital signs of patients were recorded on the operation day and the wound healing day. Gross condition of the wounds was observed during dressing change. Wound healing time was recorded. The healed wound was observed histologically. Data were processed with Log rank test or t test. Leucocyte count was lowered on the 1st day after wound healing [(7.1 ± 1.2)×10(9)/L] as compared with that one day before operation [(10.1 ± 1.5)×10(9)/L, t = -12.10, P wound healing, or in vital signs (including body temperature, pulse, respiration, systolic pressure, and diastolic pressure) between the operation day and the wound healing day (with t values from -1.43 to 1.88, P values all above 0.05). No adverse effects such as abnormal exudation, itching, redness and swelling, and exanthema were observed in the wound. The median wound healing time in trial area was 12 d (95% confidence interval: 11 - 13 d), which was significantly shorter than that in control area [17 d (95% confidence interval: 16 - 18 d), χ(2) = 24.9, P wound of trial area was closer to the normal skin than that of control area in the shape and

  10. Does the use of an acellular dermal graft in abdominal closure after rectus flap harvest impact the occurrence of post-operative hernia?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saman, Masoud; Kadakia, Sameep; Ducic, Yadranko

    2015-12-01

    Patients with rectus free flap harvest extending below the arcuate line are predisposed to postoperative hernia formation. As such, many authors have advocated the use of closure adjuncts to increase the integrity of the closure and prevent hernia or abdominal wall bulging. Busy level 1 public trauma center in metropolitan Fort Worth, Texas Following harvest of the rectus free flap, 48 patients underwent primary closure; 24 of these patients had defects extending below the arcuate line. Forty patients were closed with an acellular dermal graft; 22 of these patients had defects extending below the arcuate line. Postoperative hernia formation and local infection rate were examined in a minimum follow-up period of 1 year. Regardless of closure method, no hernias were observed in the postoperative period. Using an unpaired t test and an alpha value of 0.05, there was no statistically significant difference in the infection rate between the two groups. Following rectus abdominis myocutaneous free flap harvest, the use of an acellular dermal graft in abdominal wall closure may not be of any further advantage in the prevention of hernia. Retrospective (Level III).

  11. Nerve Wrapping of the Sciatic Nerve With Acellular Dermal Matrix in Chronic Complete Proximal Hamstring Ruptures and Ischial Apophyseal Avulsion Fractures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haus, Brian M.; Arora, Danny; Upton, Joseph; Micheli, Lyle J.

    2016-01-01

    Background: Patients with chronic injuries of the proximal hamstring can develop significant impairment because of weakness of the hamstring muscles, sciatic nerve compression from scar formation, or myositis ossificans. Purpose: To describe the surgical outcomes of patients with chronic injury of the proximal hamstrings who were treated with hamstring repair and sciatic neurolysis supplemented with nerve wrapping with acellular dermal matrix. Study Design: Retrospective case series; Level of evidence, 4. Methods: Fifteen consecutive patients with a diagnosis of chronic complete proximal hamstring rupture or chronic ischial tuberosity apophyseal avulsion fracture (mean age, 39.67 years; range, 14-69 years) were treated with proximal hamstring repair and sciatic neurolysis supplemented with nerve wrapping with acellular dermal matrix. Nine patients had preoperative sciatica, and 6 did not. Retrospective chart review recorded clinical outcomes measured by the degree of pain relief, the rate of return to activities, and associated postoperative complications. Results: All 15 patients were followed in the postoperative period for an average of 16.6 months. Postoperatively, there were 4 cases of transient sciatic nerve neurapraxia. Four patients (26%) required postoperative betamethasone sodium phosphate (Celestone Soluspan) injectable suspension USP 6 mg/mL. Among the 9 patients with preoperative sciatica, 6 (66%) had a good or excellent outcome and were able to return to their respective activities/sports; 3 (33%) had persistent chronic pain. One of these had persistent sciatic neuropathy that required 2 surgical reexplorations and scar excision after development of recurrent extraneural scar formation. Among the 6 without preoperative sciatica, 100% had a good or excellent outcomes and 83% returned to their respective activities/sports. Better outcomes were observed in younger patients, as the 3 cases of persistent chronic sciatic pain were in patients older than 45

  12. Outcomes with porcine acellular dermal matrix versus synthetic mesh and suture in complicated open ventral hernia repair.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Mike K; Berger, Rachel L; Nguyen, Mylan Thi; Hicks, Stephanie C; Li, Linda T; Leong, Mimi

    2014-10-01

    Mesh reinforcement as part of open ventral hernia repair (OVHR) has become the standard of care. However, there is no consensus on the ideal type of mesh to use. In many clinical situations, surgeons are reluctant to use synthetic mesh. Options in these complicated OVHRs include suture repair or the use of biologic mesh such as porcine acellular dermal matrix (PADM). There has been a paucity of controlled studies reporting long-term outcomes with biologic meshes. We hypothesized that compared with synthetic mesh in OVHR, PADM is associated with fewer surgical site infections (SSI) but more seromas and recurrences. Additionally, compared with suture repair, we hypothesized that PADM is associated with fewer recurrences but more SSIs and seromas. A retrospective study was performed of all complicated OVHRs performed at a single institution from 2000-2011. All data were captured from the electronic medical records of the service network. Data were compared in two ways. First, patients who had OVHR with PADM were case-matched with patients having synthetic mesh repairs on the basis of incision class, Ventral Hernia Working Group (VHWG) grade, hernia size, American Society of Anesthesiologists (ASA) class, and emergency status. The PADM cases were also matched with suture repairs on the basis of incision class, hernia grade, duration of the operation, ASA class, and emergency status. Second, we developed a propensity score-adjusted multi-variable logistic regression model utilizing internal resampling to identify predictors of primary outcomes of the overall cohort. The U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) definition of SSI was utilized; seromas and recurrences were defined and tracked similarly for all patients. Data were analyzed using the McNemar, X(2), paired two-tailed Student t, or Mann-Whitney U test as appropriate. A total of 449 complicated OVHR cases were reviewed for a median follow up of 61 mos (range 1-143 mos): 94 patients had PADM

  13. Cost analysis of postmastectomy reconstruction: A comparison of two staged implant reconstruction using tissue expander and acellular dermal matrix with abdominal-based perforator free flaps.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tran, Bao Ngoc N; Fadayomi, Ayotunde; Lin, Samuel J; Singhal, Dhruv; Lee, Bernard T

    2017-09-01

    Two staged tissue expander-implant with acellular dermal matrix (TE/I + ADM) and deep inferior epigastric perforator (DIEP) flap are the most common implant and autologous methods of reconstruction in the U.S. Implant-based techniques are disproportionally more popular, partially due to its presumed cost effectiveness. We performed a comprehensive cost analysis to compare TE/I + ADM and DIEP flap. A comparative cost analysis of TE/I + ADM and DIEP flap was performed. Medicare reimbursement costs for each procedure and their associated complications were calculated. Pooled probabilities of complications including cellulitis, seroma, skin necrosis, implant removal, flap loss, partial flap loss, and fat necrosis, were calculated using published studies from 2010 to 2016. Average actual cost for successful TE/I + ADM and DIEP flap were $13 304.55 and $10 237.13, respectively. Incorporating pooled complication data from published literature resulted in an increase in cost to $13 963.46 for TE/I + ADM and $12 624.29 for DIEP flap. The expected costs for successful TE/I + ADM and DIEP flap were $9700.35 and $8644.23, which are lower than the actual costs. DIEP flap breast reconstruction incurs lower costs compared to TE/I + ADM. These costs are lower at baseline and when additional costs from pooled complications are incorporated. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  14. Effects of hydroxyapatite nanostructure on channel surface of porcine acellular dermal matrix scaffold on cell viability and osteogenic differentiation of human periodontal ligament stem cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ge S

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Shaohua Ge,1 Ning Zhao,1 Lu Wang,1 Hong Liu,2 Pishan Yang11Shandong Provincial Key Laboratory of Oral Biomedicine, Department of Periodontology, Shandong University; 2State Key Laboratory of Crystal Materials, Center of Bio and Micro/Nano Functional Materials, Shandong University, Jinan, People's Republic of ChinaAbstract: A new nanostructured hydroxyapatite-coated porcine acellular dermal matrix (HAp-PADM was fabricated by a biomimetic mineralization method. Human periodontal ligament stem cells were seeded on HAp-PADM and the effects of this scaffold on cell shape, cytoskeleton organization, cell viability, and osteogenic differentiation were examined. Periodontal ligament stem cells cultured on HAp-PADM exhibited different cell shape when compared with those on pure PADM. Moreover, HAp-PADM promoted cell viability and alkaline phosphatase activity significantly. Based on quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction, the expression of bone-related markers runt-related transcription factor 2 (Runx2, osteopontin (OPN, and osteocalcin (OCN upregulated in the HAp-PADM scaffold. The enhancement of osteogenic differentiation of periodontal ligament stem cells on the HAp-PADM scaffold was proposed based on the research results. The results of this study highlight the micro-nano, two-level, three-dimensional HAp-PADM composite as a promising scaffold for periodontal tissue engineering.Keywords: hydroxyapatite, scaffold, nanostructure, proliferation, differentiation, tissue engineering

  15. Benefits and risks with acellular dermal matrix (ADM) and mesh support in immediate breast reconstruction: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hallberg, Håkan; Rafnsdottir, Svanheidur; Selvaggi, Gennaro; Strandell, Annika; Samuelsson, Ola; Stadig, Ida; Svanberg, Therese; Hansson, Emma; Lewin, Richard

    2018-06-01

    In modern implant-based immediate breast reconstruction, it has become common to use biological acellular dermal and synthetic matrices in combination with a tissue expander or an implant. The aim of this systematic review was to examine differences in recurrence of cancer, impact on oncological treatment, health related quality of life, complications and aesthetic outcome between matrix and no matrix in immediate breast reconstruction. Systematic searches, data extraction and assessment of methodological quality were performed according to predetermined criteria. Fifty-one studies were eligible and included in the review. The certainty of evidence for overall complication rate and implant loss is low (GRADE ⊕⊕□ □). The certainty of evidence for delay of adjuvant treatment, implant loss, infection, capsular contraction and aesthetic outcome is very low (GRADE ⊕□ □ □). No study reported data on recurrence of cancer or health related quality of life. In conclusion, there is a lack of high quality studies that compare the use of matrix with no matrix in immediate breast reconstruction. Specifically, there are no data on risk of recurrence of cancer, delay of adjuvant treatment and Health related quality of life (HRQoL). In addition, there is a risk of bias in many studies. It is often unclear what complications have been included and how they have been diagnosed, and how and when capsular contracture and aesthetic outcome have been evaluated. Controlled trials that further analyse the impact of radiotherapy, type of matrix and type of procedure (one or two stages) are necessary.

  16. Early Surgical Site Infection Following Tissue Expander Breast Reconstruction with or without Acellular Dermal Matrix: National Benchmarking Using National Surgical Quality Improvement Program

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sebastian Winocour

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available BackgroundSurgical site infections (SSIs result in significant patient morbidity following immediate tissue expander breast reconstruction (ITEBR. This study determined a single institution's 30-day SSI rate and benchmarked it against that among national institutions participating in the American College of Surgeons National Surgical Quality Improvement Program (ACS-NSQIP.MethodsWomen who underwent ITEBR with/without acellular dermal matrix (ADM were identified using the ACS-NSQIP database between 2005 and 2011. Patient characteristics associated with the 30-day SSI rate were determined, and differences in rates between our institution and the national database were assessed.Results12,163 patients underwent ITEBR, including 263 at our institution. SSIs occurred in 416 (3.4% patients nationwide excluding our institution, with lower rates observed at our institution (1.9%. Nationwide, SSIs were significantly more common in ITEBR patients with ADM (4.5% compared to non-ADM patients (3.2%, P=0.005, and this trend was observed at our institution (2.1% vs. 1.6%, P=1.00. A multivariable analysis of all institutions identified age ≥50 years (odds ratio [OR], 1.4; confidence interval [CI], 1.1-1.7, body mass index ≥30 kg/m2 vs. 4.25 hours (OR, 1.9; CI, 1.5-2.4 as risk factors for SSIs. Our institutional SSI rate was lower than the nationwide rate (OR, 0.4; CI, 0.2-1.1, although this difference was not statistically significant (P=0.07.ConclusionsThe 30-day SSI rate at our institution in patients who underwent ITEBR was lower than the nation. SSIs occurred more frequently in procedures involving ADM both nationally and at our institution.

  17. Reconstruction of extensive defects from posterior en bloc resection of sacral tumors with human acellular dermal matrix and gluteus maximus myocutaneous flaps.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dasenbrock, Hormuzdiyar H; Clarke, Michelle J; Bydon, Ali; Witham, Timothy F; Sciubba, Daniel M; Simmons, Oliver P; Gokaslan, Ziya L; Wolinsky, Jean-Paul

    2011-12-01

    Performing a sacrectomy from an exclusively posterior approach allows the en bloc resection of tumors without the morbidity of a laparotomy. However, reconstruction of the resultant extensive soft-tissue defects is challenging because a vertical rectus abdominis myocutaneous flap is not harvested. To report the largest series (with the longest follow-up) of sacral reconstructions using a combination of human acellular dermal matrix (HADM) and gluteus maximus myocutaneous flaps. Thirty-four patients with sacral tumors with a follow-up of at least 1 year were reviewed retrospectively. After the tumor was excised, HADM (AlloDerm, LifeCell Corp, Branchburg, New Jersey) was secured to create a pelvic diaphragm. Subsequently, the gluteus maximus muscles were freed from their origins and advanced to cover the HADM. The mean age of patients was 50.1 years (SD, 16.0 years), and the histopathology was a chordoma in 82.4%. Seven patients (20.6%) developed a postoperative wound dehiscence, 5 of whom (14.7%) required operative debridement. An estimated blood loss of >1500 mL, an operative time of >9 hours during sacrectomy, and postoperative bowel incontinence were associated with a significantly higher likelihood of undergoing a subsequent debridement for dehiscence (P ≤ .03). With a mean follow-up of 45.7 months, only 1 patient developed an asymptomatic parasacral hernia. Reconstruction of posterior sacrectomy defects with HADM and gluteus maximus myocutaneous flaps may be valid. This approach may have rates of wound dehiscence comparable to other techniques and low rates of parasacral herniation.

  18. Evaluation of a novel breast reconstruction technique using the Braxon® acellular dermal matrix: a new muscle-sparing breast reconstruction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berna, Giorgio; Cawthorn, Simon J; Papaccio, Guido; Balestrieri, Nicola

    2017-06-01

    Implant-based breast reconstruction is becoming increasingly popular because of the widespread adoption of acellular dermal matrix (ADM), which allows surgeons to obtain good aesthetic results with fewer operations. To develop more conservative surgical techniques, a retrospective, three-centre, proof-of-concept study was performed to study the effectiveness of a new, immediate, muscle-sparing breast reconstruction technique using the patented Braxon ® ADM, which enables subcutaneous positioning of the breast implant without detaching the pectoralis major. Ethics committee of the study coordinating centre approved medical record review on 19 women who underwent muscle-sparing breast reconstruction between November 2012 and January 2014. The first 10 implants were performed using 0.9-mm-thick porcine ADM, with preservatives. In the subsequent 15 implants, the product was changed to 0.6-mm-thick porcine dry ADM, without preservatives. Nineteen patients (25 implants) received six bilateral and 13 unilateral muscle-sparing breast reconstructions. For the first type of ADM used (0.9-mm-thick with preservatives), the rate of implant loss was 12% (n = 3) because of seroma (8%, n = 2) and infection (4%, n = 1). Minor complications, such as seroma (8%, n = 2), occurred when using the 0.6-mm-thick Braxon ® ADM and were treated by aspiration. Symmetrical and natural breasts with good shape, ptosis and softness to the touch were obtained. None of the patients reported experiencing pain. The preliminary results are encouraging from aesthetic and clinical viewpoints. Further studies are planned to evaluate long-term results. © 2014 Royal Australasian College of Surgeons.

  19. Tratamento de feridas cutâneas extensas usando tecido dérmico acelular porcino com e sem cobertura impermeável Porcine acellular dermal graft with and without impermeable dressing to treat extensive wounds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erika Hoyama

    2005-08-01

    Full Text Available FUNDAMENTOS: O tecido dérmico acelular porcino é alternativa para o tratamento de feridas cutâneas. OBJETIVOS: Avaliar a resposta clínica e inflamatória do implante de tecido dérmico acelular porcino, com e sem cobertura impermeável. MÉTODOS: Estudo pareado, longitudinal, criando-se duas feridas cutâneas no dorso de 16 ratos (quatro animais/grupo, em que foi implantado tecido dérmico acelular coberto ou não por impermeável. Os animais foram avaliados e sacrificados sete, 15, 30 e 60 dias após a cirurgia, sendo removidos os tecidos acelulares e adjacentes para avaliação histológica e morfométrica. RESULTADOS: A cobertura impermeável permaneceu sobre o tecido acelular porcino até cerca de 15 dias. O grupo sem impermeável apresentou maior desidratação, com crosta fibrinoleucocitária, edema e reação inflamatória na derme. Sessenta dias após a cirurgia, animais do grupo sem impermeável ainda apresentavam ulcerações, afinamento do epitélio e ausência de queratina, enquanto nos do grupo com impermeável a pele já se encontrava normal. CONCLUSÃO: O tecido dérmico acelular porcino com cobertura impermeável apresentou resultados clínicos e histológicos melhores do que os do tecido dérmico acelular porcino sem impermeável para tratamento de feridas cutâneas extensas.BACKGROUND: The porcine acellular dermal graft is an alternative for the treatment of skin wounds. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the clinical and inflammatory response elicited by a porcine derived acellular dermal graft with or without an impermeable dressing. METHODS: A matched-pair longitudinal study was conducted by creating two skin wounds along the dorsal midline of 16 rats (4 rats/group with implantation of a porcine acellular dermal graft with or without an impermeable dressing. At the 7th, 15th, 30th and 60th postoperative days the animals were evaluated and sacrificed. The acellular tissue and surrounding tissues were removed for histological and

  20. Use of small intestinal submucosal and acellular dermal matrix grafts in giant omphaloceles in neonates and a rabbit abdominal wall defect model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Weiwei; Zhang, Jie; Lv, Xiaofeng; Lu, Changgui; Chen, Huan; Xu, Xiaoqun; Tang, Weibing

    2016-03-01

    The described surgical strategies for the management of omphalocele include primary closure, staged closure, and delayed closure. A primary repair is not suitable for all giant omphaloceles. We implanted two grafts, small intestinal submucosal (SIS) and acellular dermal matrix (ADM) onto abdominal wall defects in neonates to study the safety and efficacy of SIS and ADM graft techniques for initial closure of giant omphaloceles in infants, and we also implanted these grafts onto abdominal wall defects in an animal model. Twenty-four patients with giant omphaloceles were divided into two groups (ADM group, 12 patients; SIS group, 12 patients). The operative time, skin healing time postoperatively, and the incidence of skin infections, and abdominal wall hernias were observed. In the rabbit animal model, bilateral full-thickness incisions were made through the rabbit rectus abdominus muscles and a 2×4cm longitudinal whole layer defect was created on either the left or right lateral anterior abdominal wall. A four-layered variant of the SIS graft was used to repair the right abdominal defect; ADM was used to repair the left. Tensile strength was measured using an Instron tensiometer. Electron scanning and light microscopy were used to evaluate neovascularization, collagen deposition, and muscle fibers at 2, 4, 8, and 16weeks postimplantation. In the neonatal patients, there was no statistically significant difference between the two groups with respect to operative time, skin healing time postoperatively, the incidence of skin infections, or abdominal wall hernias. In the SIS group, only one patient developed a skin infection, which led to skin necrosis and sloughing. In the ADM group, four patients developed skin infection postoperatively, and the patch was gradually removed. In the animal study, there was no significant difference between the mean breaking strength of ADM versus SIS repairs. Scanning electron and light microscopy showed collagen deposition

  1. [Clinical efficacy of negative-pressure wound therapy combined with porcine acellular dermal matrix for repairing deep burn wounds in limbs].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Wei; Li, Feng; Chen, Xin; Pan, Qing

    2016-06-01

    To observe the clinical efficacy of negative pressure wound therapy (NPWT) in combination with porcine acellular dermal matrix (ADM) dressing for repairing deep burn wounds in limbs of patients with non-surgical treatment. Thirty-two patients with deep partial-thickness burn to full-thickness burn on the limbs admitted to our ward from June 2012 to December 2015, conforming to the inclusion criteria, were divided into group NPWT (n=10, treated with interval negative pressure drainage at -16.6 kPa), group ADM (n=7, treated with porcine ADM dressing), and group NPWT+ ADM (n=15, treated with interval negative pressure drainage and porcine ADM dressing as above) according to the random number table and patient's consent. After being treated for 21 d, residual wounds were cured by routine dressing change using sulfadiazine silver. On post treatment day (PTD) 7, 14, and 21, wound gross observation was conducted, wound drainage fluid volume was recorded, and wound healing rate was calculated. Wound secretion was collected for bacterial culture before treatment and on PTD 21, and bacterial clearance effect was recorded. The wound healing time was also recorded. Measurement data were processed with analysis of variance for repeated measurement, one-way analysis of variance, and LSD test. Eenumeration data were processed with chi-square test or Fisher's exact test. (1) On PTD 7, the wounds of patients in group NPWT and group NPWT+ ADM were significantly shrinked as compared with those before treatment. Skin paddle scattered on the wounds of patients in group NPWT+ ADM on PTD 7. The wounds of patients in group ADM were slightly shrinked on PTD 7 as compared with those before treatment. On PTD 14, the wounds of patients in group NPWT were slightly shrinked as compared with those on PTD 7, while those in group NPWT+ ADM were significantly shrinked as compared with those on PTD 7. Skin paddle on the wounds of patients in group NPWT+ ADM on PTD 14 were increased and fused. The

  2. Prospective study of single-stage repair of contaminated hernias using a biologic porcine tissue matrix: the RICH Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Itani, Kamal M F; Rosen, Michael; Vargo, Daniel; Awad, Samir S; Denoto, George; Butler, Charles E

    2012-09-01

    In the presence of contamination, the repair of a ventral incisional hernia (VIH) is challenging. The presence of comorbidities poses an additional risk for postoperative wound events and hernia recurrence. To date, very few studies describe the outcomes of VIH repair in this high-risk population. A prospective, multicenter, single-arm, the Repair of Infected or Contaminated Hernias study was performed to study the clinical outcomes of open VIH repair of contaminated abdominal defects with a non-cross-linked, porcine, acellular dermal matrix, Strattice. Of 85 patients who consented to participate, 80 underwent open VIH repair with Strattice. Hernia defects were 'clean-contaminated' (n = 39), 'contaminated' (n = 39), or 'dirty' (n = 2), and the defects were classified as grade 3 (n = 60) or grade 4 (n = 20). The midline was restored, and primary closure was achieved in 64 patients; the defect was bridged in 16 patients. At 24 months, 53 patients (66%) experienced 95 wound events. There were 28 unique, infection-related events in 24 patients. Twenty-two patients experienced seromas, all but 5 of which were transient and required no intervention. No unanticipated adverse events occurred, and no tissue matrix required complete excision. There were 22 hernia (28%) recurrences by month 24. There was no correlation between infection-related events and hernia recurrence. The use of the intact, non-cross-linked, porcine, acellular dermal matrix, Strattice, in the repair of contaminated VIH in high-risk patients allowed for successful, single-stage reconstruction in >70% of patients followed for 24 months after repair. Published by Mosby, Inc.

  3. Biologic meshes and synthetic meshes in cancer patients: a double-edged sword: differences in production of IL-6 and IL-12 caused by acellular dermal matrices in human immune cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karsten, Maria Margarete; Enders, Sabine; Knabl, Julia; Kirn, Verena; Düwell, Peter; Rack, Brigitte; Blohmer, Jens-Uwe; Mayr, Doris; Dian, Darius

    2018-05-01

    In 2005, Breuing et al. first described the use of acellular dermal matrices (ADMs) in breast cancer patients. ADMs are assumed to be safe to use in an oncologic setting, but data from controlled studies are still needed. Here, we investigate the effects of ADMs on the production of interleukin (IL)-6 and IL-12, key regulators of immune suppression and activation. Strattice (ST), CollaMend (CM), and Biodesign (BD) biologic meshes and TiLoop, a synthetic mesh (TL), were used in this study. We isolated myeloid dendritic cells (MDCs), untouched plasmacytoid dendritic cells (pDCs), naïve B cells, and CD8+ T cells and co-cultured these cells with either the biologic meshes or TL. As positive controls, we used CpG ODN 2216 or lipopolysaccharide (LPS). The cytokine concentrations of IL-12p70 and IL-6 were determined after 7 days using sandwich ELISA sets. There were highly significant differences between the ADMs and TL in terms of their ability to stimulate immunologic responses. IL-6 expression was significantly increased in B cells (p = 0.0006131) and T cells (p = 0.00418) when comparing TL and ADMs. We also identified significant differences in IL-12 production by B cells (p = 0.0166) and T cells (p = 0.003636) when comparing TL and ADMs. Despite the assumed lack of an immunological response to ADMs, in our experimental study, human immune cells reacted with significantly different cytokine profiles. These findings may have implications for the potential activation or suppression of effector cells in cancer patients and could explain some of the post clinical post surgical signs of ADMS like skin rush and seroma.

  4. Acellular dermis-assisted prosthetic breast reconstruction: a systematic and critical review of efficacy and associated morbidity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sbitany, Hani; Serletti, Joseph M

    2011-12-01

    The use of acellular dermal matrix to assist in two-stage expander/implant breast reconstruction has increased over recent years. However, there are questions regarding the potential for increased morbidity when using these techniques relative to standard submuscular coverage techniques. This systematic review combines published data comparing the techniques, to compare morbidity and advantages of acellular dermal matrix relative to standard submuscular coverage techniques. An English language literature search was performed to find articles reporting outcomes of two-stage expander/implant reconstruction using acellular dermal matrix. The outcome categories analyzed were patient/treatment demographics, tissue expander characteristics, and complications. Nine articles met inclusion criteria for this analysis. Six of these were matched cohort studies comparing outcomes of acellular dermal matrix techniques to standard submuscular techniques. The remaining three were case series of acellular dermal matrix techniques. The only difference found in complications was a higher rate of seroma for the acellular dermal matrix group (4.3 percent versus 8.4 percent, p = 0.03). Despite this, both groups illustrated similar rates of infection leading to explantation (3.2 percent for submuscular and 3.4 percent for acellular dermal matrix, p = 0.18). In addition, acellular dermal matrix techniques illustrated greater intraoperative fill volumes and consistently fewer fills required to reach expander capacity. The use of acellular dermal matrix in two-stage expander/implant reconstruction offers a safety profile similar to that of standard submuscular techniques. Both techniques have shown similar rates of infection ultimately requiring explantation. In addition, acellular dermal matrix offers the advantage of a more rapid reconstruction with less need for manipulation of the prosthetic through filling. Therapeutic, III.

  5. Delayed Single Stage Perineal Posterior Urethroplasty

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ali, S.; Shahnawaz; Shahzad, I.; Baloch, M. U.

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To determine the delayed single stage perineal posterior urethroplasty for treatment of posterior urethral stricture/distraction defect. Study Design: Descriptive case series. Place and Duration of Study: Department of Urology, Jinnah Postgraduate Medical Centre, Karachi, from January 2009 to December 2011. Methodology: Patients were selected for delayed single stage perineal posterior urethroplasty for treatment of posterior urethral stricture / distraction defect. All were initially suprapubically catheterized followed by definitive surgery after at least 3 months. Results: Thirty male patients were analyzed with a mean follow-up of 10 months, 2 patients were excluded as they developed failure in first 3 months postoperatively. Mean patients age was 26.25 ± 7.9 years. On follow-up, 7 patients (23.3 percentage) experienced recurrent stricture during first 10 months. Five (16.6 percentage) patients were treated successfully with single direct visual internal urethrotomy. Two patients (6.6 percentage) had more than one direct visual internal urethrotomy and considered failed. Re-do perineal urethroplasty was eventually performed. The overall success rate was 93.3 percentage with permissive criteria allowing single direct visual internal urethrotomy and 76.6% with strict criteria allowing no more procedures postoperatively. Conclusion: Posterior anastomotic urethroplasty offers excellent long-term results to patients with posterior urethral trauma and distraction defect even after multiple prior procedures. (author)

  6. Design, Construction and Measured Performance of a Single-Stage ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The design philosophy, construction and measured performances of a single stage, single entry centrifugal pump demonstration unit are presented. In the construction, close-coupled induction motor drives the centrifugal pump, which draws fluid (water) from a water storage tank and delivers same through a flow control ...

  7. Single-stage repair versus traditional repair of high anorectal ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    random number table. The patients in group A were treated with a single-stage operation, whereas the patients in group B were treated with a standard staged operation. (either PSARP or abdominoperineal pull-through). After clinical evaluation using the Kelly score, patients were divided into three clinical groups ...

  8. Control of Single-Stage Single-Phase PV inverter

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ciobotaru, Mihai; Teodorescu, Remus; Blaabjerg, Frede

    2005-01-01

    In this paper the issue of control strategies for single-stage photovoltaic (PV) inverter is addressed. Two different current controllers have been implemented and an experimental comparison between them has been made. A complete control structure for the single-phase PV system is also presented...

  9. A novel dermal matrix generated from burned skin as a promising substitute for deep-degree burns therapy

    OpenAIRE

    YU, GUANYING; YE, LAN; TAN, WEI; ZHU, XUGUO; LI, YAONAN; JIANG, DUYIN

    2016-01-01

    The extensive skin defects induced by severe burns are dangerous and can be fatal. Currently, the most common therapy is tangential excision to remove the necrotic or denatured areas of skin, followed by skin grafting. Xenogeneic dermal substitutes, such as porcine acellular dermal matrix (ADM), are typically used to cover the burn wounds, and may accelerate wound healing. It is assumed that burned skin that still maintains partial biological activity may be recycled to construct an autologou...

  10. Flexor tendon tissue engineering: acellularization of human flexor tendons with preservation of biomechanical properties and biocompatibility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pridgen, Brian C; Woon, Colin Y L; Kim, Maxwell; Thorfinn, Johan; Lindsey, Derek; Pham, Hung; Chang, James

    2011-08-01

    Acellular human tendons are a candidate scaffold for tissue engineering flexor tendons of the hand. This study compared acellularization methods and their compatibility with allogeneic human cells. Human flexor tendons were pretreated with 0.1% ethylenediaminetetracetic acid (EDTA) for 4  h followed by 24  h treatments of 1% Triton X-100, 1% tri(n-butyl)phosphate, or 0.1% or 1% sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) in 0.1% EDTA. Outcomes were assessed histologically by hematoxylin and eosin and SYTO green fluorescent nucleic acid stains and biochemically by a QIAGEN DNeasy kit, Sircol collagen assay, and 1,9 dimethylmethylene blue glycosaminoglycan assay. Mechanical data were collected using a Materials Testing System to pull to failure tendons acellularized with 0.1% SDS. Acellularized tendons were re-seeded in a suspension of human dermal fibroblasts. Attachment of viable cells to acellularized tendon was assessed biochemically by a cell viability assay and histologically by a live/dead stain. Data are reported as mean±standard deviation. Compared with the DNA content of fresh tendons (551±212  ng DNA/mg tendon), only SDS treatments significantly decreased DNA content (1% SDS [202.8±37.4  ng DNA/mg dry weight tendon]; 0.1% SDS [189±104  ng DNA/mg tendon]). These findings were confirmed by histology. There was no decrease in glycosaminoglycans or collagen following acellularization with SDS. There was no difference in the ultimate tensile stress (55.3±19.2 [fresh] vs. 51.5±6.9 [0.1% SDS] MPa). Re-seeded tendons demonstrated attachment of viable cells to the tendon surface using a viability assay and histology. Human flexor tendons were acellularized with 0.1% SDS in 0.1% EDTA for 24  h with preservation of mechanical properties. Preservation of collagen and glycoaminoglycans and re-seeding with human cells suggest that this scaffold is biocompatible. This will provide a promising scaffold for future human flexor tendon tissue engineering studies to

  11. Control of Single-Stage Single-Phase PV inverter

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ciobotaru, Mihai; Teodorescu, Remus; Blaabjerg, Frede

    2005-01-01

    In this paper the issue of control strategies for single-stage photovoltaic (PV) inverter is addressed. Two different current controllers have been implemented and an experimental comparison between them has been made. A complete control structure for the single-phase PV system is also presented......-forward; - and the grid current controller implemented in two different ways, using the classical proportional integral (PI) and the novel proportional resonant (PR) controllers. The control strategy was tested experimentally on 1.5 kW PV inverter........ The main elements of the PV control structure are: - a maximum power point tracker (MPPT) algorithm using the incremental conductance method; - a synchronization method using the phase-locked-loop (PLL), based on delay; - the input power control using the dc voltage controller and power feed...

  12. New results for single stage low energy carbon AMS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Klody, G.M.; Schroeder, J.B.; Norton, G.A.; Loger, R.L.; Kitchen, R.L.; Sundquist, M.L.

    2005-01-01

    A new configuration of the NEC single stage, low energy carbon AMS system (U.S. Patent 6,815,666 B2) has been built and tested. The injector includes two 40-sample ion sources, electrostatic and magnetic analysis, and fast sequential injection. The gas stripper, analyzing magnet, electrostatic analyzer, and detector are on an open air 250 kV deck. Both 12 C and 13 C currents are measured on the deck after the stripper, and an SSB detector is used for 14 C counting. Injected 12 C and mass 13 ( 13 C and 12 CH) currents are also measured. Automated controls follow a user-specified run list for unattended operation. Initial test results show precision for 14 C/ 12 C ratios of better than 5 per mil, and backgrounds for unprocessed graphite of less than 0.005 x modern. We will report final results for precision, background, and throughput and discuss related design features

  13. NASA Glenn's Single-Stage Axial Compressor Facility Upgraded

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brokopp, Richard A.

    2004-01-01

    NASA Glenn Research Center's Single-Stage Axial Compressor Facility was upgraded in fiscal year 2003 to expand and improve its research capabilities for testing high-speed fans and compressors. The old 3000-hp drive motor and gearbox were removed and replaced with a refurbished 7000-hp drive motor and gearbox, with a maximum output speed of 21,240 rpm. The higher horsepower rating permits testing of fans and compressors with higher pressure ratio or higher flow. A new inline torquemeter was installed to provide an alternate measurement of fan and compressor efficiency, along with the standard pressure and temperature measurements. A refurbished compressor bearing housing was also installed with bidirectional rotation capability, so that a variety of existing hardware could be tested. Four new lubrication modules with backup capability were installed for the motor, gearbox, torquemeter, and compressor bearing housing, so that in case the primary pump fails, the backup will prevent damage to the rotating hardware. The combustion air supply line for the facility inlet air system was activated to provide dry air for repeatable inlet conditions. New flow conditioning hardware was installed in the facility inlet plenum tank, which greatly reduced the inlet turbulence. The new inlet can also be easily modified to accommodate 20- or 22-in.-diameter fans and compressors, so a variety of existing hardware from other facilities (such as Glenn's 9- by 15-Foot Low-Speed Wind Tunnel) can be tested in the Single-Stage Axial Compressor Facility. An exhaust line was also installed to provide bleed capability to remove the inlet boundary layer. To improve the operation and control of the facility, a new programmable logic controller (PLC) was installed to upgrade from hardwired relay logic to software logic. The PLC also enabled the usage of human-machine interface software to allow for easier operation of the facility and easier reconfiguration of the facility controls when

  14. The use of dermal autograft as an adjunct to breast reconstruction with tissue expanders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rinker, Brian

    2012-12-01

    Acellular dermal matrices are commonly used in breast reconstruction but add cost to the procedure and have been associated with complications. Dermal autograft may represent a useful alternative to matrices. Sixteen patients (26 breasts) underwent breast reconstruction using tissue expanders and dermal autograft. Their ages ranged from 41 to 66 years (median, 51 years). Autografts were harvested by wide excision of preexisting abdominal scars. Demographic data, clinical history, and harvest and preparation time were recorded. The initial fill volume, number of expansions, and complications were recorded and compared with published data for acellular dermal matrix-assisted reconstruction. Patients rated their satisfaction with scar appearance on a seven-point scale. Follow-up ranged from 6 to 16 months (mean, 10 months). Three patients were smokers. Mean body mass index was 30.5 (range, 19.1 to 48.8). Three patients received chemotherapy between reconstructive stages, and none required irradiation. The mean time of autograft harvest was 38 minutes, the mean initial fill was 190 cc, and the average number of expansions was 3.5. There were no implant losses. There were three minor complications (19 percent). Initial expander fill, number of expansions, and complication rate were equivalent to historical values for matrix-assisted breast reconstruction. Fourteen of 16 patients (88 percent) were "very satisfied" with their scars. The use of dermal autograft in tissue expander breast reconstruction offers the advantages of acellular dermal matrix, without the associated expense. The technique adds minimally to the operative time and morbidity and is associated with a low complication rate. Therapeutic, IV.

  15. Single-stage mass spectrometric analyses of resin bead samples

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smith, D. H.; Walker, R. L.; Bertram, L. K.; Carter, J. A.

    1978-10-01

    Plutonium and uranium from dissolver solutions loaded on resin beads can be analyzed on single-stage mass spectrometers with little or no degradation of results provided proper care is exercised with regard to sample handling techniques. Additionally, storage of samples on resin beads is feasible for periods at least as long as six months provided the beads are not exposed to residual HNO/sub 3/ and air; it is probable that beads will retain their integrity much longer than six months when stored under collodion, but as yet no data to support this contention have been collected. Conventional or commercial mass spectrometers can readily be adapted to the resin bead technique by installing a pulse-counting detection system. The cost of such conversion will vary depending on whether or not a data acquisition system will be needed. A reasonable estimate is that the cost will be in the neighborhood of $15,000; this figure includes the price of a multi-channel analyzer to serve as a temporary data storage device, but does not include the cost of a computer. It does not appear that it will be practicable to switch easily back and forth between pulse-counting and current integration modes unless the instrument is provided with a movable Faraday cup. Using the same multiplier in both modes would undoubtedly degrade its performance in each. The requirements of low background counting rates and high gain for pulse counting, and of relatively high signal handling capacity in current integration are mutually incompatible if demanded of the same multiplier.

  16. Single Stage Contactor Testing Of The Next Generation Solvent Blend

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Herman, D. T.; Peters, T. B.; Duignan, M. R.; Williams, M. R.; Poirier, M. R.; Brass, E. A.; Garrison, A. G.; Ketusky, E. T.

    2014-01-06

    The Modular Caustic Side Solvent Extraction (CSSX) Unit (MCU) facility at the Savannah River Site (SRS) is actively pursuing the transition from the current BOBCalixC6 based solvent to the Next Generation Solvent (NGS)-MCU solvent to increase the cesium decontamination factor. To support this integration of NGS into the MCU facility the Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) performed testing of a blend of the NGS (MaxCalix based solvent) with the current solvent (BOBCalixC6 based solvent) for the removal of cesium (Cs) from the liquid salt waste stream. This testing utilized a blend of BOBCalixC6 based solvent and the NGS with the new extractant, MaxCalix, as well as a new suppressor, tris(3,7dimethyloctyl) guanidine. Single stage tests were conducted using the full size V-05 and V-10 liquid-to-liquid centrifugal contactors installed at SRNL. These tests were designed to determine the mass transfer and hydraulic characteristics with the NGS solvent blended with the projected heel of the BOBCalixC6 based solvent that will exist in MCU at time of transition. The test program evaluated the amount of organic carryover and the droplet size of the organic carryover phases using several analytical methods. The results indicate that hydraulically, the NGS solvent performed hydraulically similar to the current solvent which was expected. For the organic carryover 93% of the solvent is predicted to be recovered from the stripping operation and 96% from the extraction operation. As for the mass transfer, the NGS solvent significantly improved the cesium DF by at least an order of magnitude when extrapolating the One-stage results to actual Seven-stage extraction operation with a stage efficiency of 95%.

  17. Reconstruction of attached soft tissue around dental implants by acelluar dermal matrix grafts and resin splint

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Changying; Su, Yucheng; Tan, Baosheng; Ma, Pan; Wu, Gaoyi; Li, Jun; Geng, Wei

    2014-01-01

    Objectives: The purpose of this study was to recommend a new method using acellular dermal matrix graft and resin splint to reconstruct the attached soft tissue around dental implants in patients with maxillofacial defects. Materials and methods: Total 8 patients (3 male and 5 female patients) diagnosed with maxillofacial defects and dentition defects caused by tumors, fractures or edentulous jaw, were selected for this study. Dental implants were routinely implanted at the edentulous area. Acellular dermal matrix heterografts and resin splint were used to increase the attached soft tissue. The width of attached gingiva in the labial or buccal surface at edentulous area was measured before surgical procedures and after the completion of superstructures. Paired t-test was applied to assess the change of quantitative variables. All tests were 2-tailed, and P implants could be reconstructed one month after the completion of surgical procedures, and the epithelial cuff around the implant neck established very well. The width of attached gingival tissue in the patients increased significantly from a mean of 0.61 ± 0.75 mm to 6.25 ± 1.04 mm. The patients were fully satisfied with the esthetic and functional results achieved. Conclusions: The acellular dermal matrix graft could be used to increase the attached gingiva around dental implants in these patients with maxillofacial defects. The resin splint could facilitate the healing of graft. PMID:25663964

  18. Natural flexible dermal armor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Wen; Chen, Irene H; Gludovatz, Bernd; Zimmermann, Elizabeth A; Ritchie, Robert O; Meyers, Marc A

    2013-01-04

    Fish, reptiles, and mammals can possess flexible dermal armor for protection. Here we seek to find the means by which Nature derives its protection by examining the scales from several fish (Atractosteus spatula, Arapaima gigas, Polypterus senegalus, Morone saxatilis, Cyprinius carpio), and osteoderms from armadillos, alligators, and leatherback turtles. Dermal armor has clearly been developed by convergent evolution in these different species. In general, it has a hierarchical structure with collagen fibers joining more rigid units (scales or osteoderms), thereby increasing flexibility without significantly sacrificing strength, in contrast to rigid monolithic mineral composites. These dermal structures are also multifunctional, with hydrodynamic drag (in fish), coloration for camouflage or intraspecies recognition, temperature and fluid regulation being other important functions. The understanding of such flexible dermal armor is important as it may provide a basis for new synthetic, yet bioinspired, armor materials. Copyright © 2013 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  19. Cartilage oligomeric matrix protein enhances the vascularization of acellular nerves

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei-ling Cui

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Vascularization of acellular nerves has been shown to contribute to nerve bridging. In this study, we used a 10-mm sciatic nerve defect model in rats to determine whether cartilage oligomeric matrix protein enhances the vascularization of injured acellular nerves. The rat nerve defects were treated with acellular nerve grafting (control group alone or acellular nerve grafting combined with intraperitoneal injection of cartilage oligomeric matrix protein (experimental group. As shown through two-dimensional imaging, the vessels began to invade into the acellular nerve graft from both anastomotic ends at day 7 post-operation, and gradually covered the entire graft at day 21. The vascular density, vascular area, and the velocity of revascularization in the experimental group were all higher than those in the control group. These results indicate that cartilage oligomeric matrix protein enhances the vascularization of acellular nerves.

  20. Evaluation of dermal substitute in a novel co-transplantation model with autologous epidermal sheet.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guofeng Huang

    Full Text Available The development of more and more new dermal substitutes requires a reliable and effective animal model to evaluate their safety and efficacy. In this study we constructed a novel animal model using co-transplantation of autologous epidermal sheets with dermal substitutes to repair full-thickness skin defects. Autologous epidermal sheets were obtained by digesting the basement membrane (BM and dermal components from rat split-thickness skins in Dispase II solution (1.2 u/ml at 4 °C for 8, 10 and 12 h. H&E, immunohistochemical and live/dead staining showed that the epidermal sheet preserved an intact epidermis without any BM or dermal components, and a high percentage of viable cells (92.10 ± 4.19% and P63 positive cells (67.43 ± 4.21% under an optimized condition. Porcine acellular dermal matrixes were co-transplanted with the autologous epidermal sheets to repair full-thickness skin defects in Sprague-Dawley rats. The epidermal sheets survived and completely re-covered the wounds within 3 weeks. Histological staining showed that the newly formed stratified epidermis attached directly onto the dermal matrix. Inflammatory cell infiltration and vascularization of the dermal matrix were not significantly different from those in the subcutaneous implantation model. Collagen IV and laminin distributed continuously at the epidermis and dermal matrix junction 4 weeks after transplantation. Transmission electron microscopy further confirmed the presence of continuous lamina densa and hemidesmosome structures. This novel animal model can be used not only to observe the biocompatibility of dermal substitutes, but also to evaluate their effects on new epidermis and BM formation. Therefore, it is a simple and reliable model for evaluating the safety and efficacy of dermal substitutes.

  1. A novel dermal matrix generated from burned skin as a promising substitute for deep-degree burns therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Guanying; Ye, Lan; Tan, Wei; Zhu, Xuguo; Li, Yaonan; Jiang, Duyin

    2016-03-01

    The extensive skin defects induced by severe burns are dangerous and can be fatal. Currently, the most common therapy is tangential excision to remove the necrotic or denatured areas of skin, followed by skin grafting. Xenogeneic dermal substitutes, such as porcine acellular dermal matrix (ADM), are typically used to cover the burn wounds, and may accelerate wound healing. It is assumed that burned skin that still maintains partial biological activity may be recycled to construct an autologous acellular dermal matrix, termed 'deep‑degree burned dermal matrix (DDBDM)'. In theory, DDBDM may avoid the histoincompatibility issues associated with foreign or xenogeneic dermal matrices, and reduce therapy costs by making full use of discarded skin. In the present study, the collagens within prepared DDBDM were thickened, disorganized and partially fractured, however, they still maintained their reticular structure and tensile strength (Pburn toxins. Following 4 weeks of subcutaneous implantation, ADM and DDBDM were incompletely degraded and maintained good integrity. No significant inflammatory reaction or rejection were observed, which indicated that ADM and DDBDM have good histocompatibility. Therefore, DDBDM may be a useful material for the treatment of deep‑degree burns.

  2. Allograft dermal matrix hiatoplasty during laparoscopic primary fundoplication, paraesophageal hernia repair, and reoperation for failed hiatal hernia repair

    OpenAIRE

    Bell, Reginald C. W.; Fearon, Jacqueline; Freeman, Katherine D.

    2013-01-01

    Background Hiatal repair failure is the nemesis of laparoscopic paraesophageal hernia repair as well as the major cause of failure of primary fundoplication and reoperation on the hiatus. Biologic prosthetics offer the promise of reinforcing the repair without risks associated with permanent prosthetics. Design Retrospective evaluation of safety and relative efficacy of laparoscopic hiatal hernia repair using an allograft (acellular dermal matrix) onlay. Patients with symptomatic failures und...

  3. Use of skin stretchers for single-stage bilateral mastectomies in a dog and a cat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miyazaki, Yuta; Aikawa, Takeshi; Shimatsu, Taichi; Nishimura, Masaaki; Sadahiro, Shigeo

    2018-04-01

    To describe the application of skin stretchers for closure of single-stage bilateral mastectomies in a dog and a cat. Clinical case report. A 12-year-old intact female Miniature Dachshund and a 13-year-old spayed female domestic short-hair cat. Skin stretchers were applied to the site of the skin adjacent to mammary glands for 2-4 days before surgery. Cable tension was adjusted every 6-8 hours to elongate the skin and to achieve primary closure of single-stage bilateral mastectomy without tension. Wound closure after single-stage bilateral mastectomy was achieved without tension or major complication in both animals. Use of skin stretchers allows primary closure of single-stage bilateral mastectomy in dogs and cats. © 2017 The American College of Veterinary Surgeons.

  4. Single-Stage, Gelled Hydrazine System for Mars Ascent Vehicle Propulsion, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Microcosm, Inc. in cooperation with Aerojet Rocketdyne is presenting an innovative approach to the Mars Ascent Vehicle (MAV). The single-stage monopropellant system...

  5. Single Stage Transthoracic Approach to the Right Lung and Liver Dome Hydatid Cysts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rasih Yazkan

    2011-09-01

    lung, the hepatic lesions were all of the dome located. Conclusions :Single stage transthoracic approach is prevent the second surgical procedures on simultaneous right lung and liver dome hydatid cyst and it is safe and effective method.

  6. NOFBX Single-Stage-to-Orbit Mars Ascent Vehicle Engine, Phase II

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — We propose the continuation of our research and development of a Nitrous Oxide Fuel Blend (NOFBXTM) Single-Stage-to-Orbit (SSTO) monopropellant propulsion system for...

  7. Single Stage Knee Arthroplasty Revision Surgery: A Systematic Review of the Literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chew, E; Khan, W S; Agarwal, S; Morgan-Jones, R

    2015-01-01

    Total Knee Arthroplasty is an increasingly common procedure and revision surgery, particularly for infection, is associated with significant morbidity and healthcare costs. The current gold standard is a two stage revision procedure but single stage revision is increasingly being used in some departments to improve patient outcomes. We conducted a systematic review of the literature to determine the up-to-date evidence underlying the use of a single stage knee approach in revision surgery. A total of 12 studies were included in this review amounting to 433 revision surgeries. This is the largest review of single stage knee revision surgery. The procedures described were heterogenous and included the 'two-in-one' technique as well as other single stage revision procedures. There were also differences in implants and antibiotic regimens. The mean re-infection rates described in 10 studies was 9.4% (range 0-19.2%) after a mean follow-up of 40.3 months (range 7-180 months). The re-infection rates in the studies published over the last 30 years are falling, and this is not accounted for by any significant change in duration of follow-up during this period. The outcome scores varied, but patients generally showed an improvement. The Knee Society Score and the Oxford Knee Score were the most commonly used in five and three studies respectively. We conclude that the current evidence for single stage revision is variable and there is a lack of good quality evidence to address whether single stage revisions is thorough enough to eradicate deep infection and is able to restore adequate function. There is a need for larger prospective studies with standardised procedures and protocol, and with adequate follow-up. Till then, patients considered for a single stage approach should be thoroughly assessed and the surgery should be performed by a senior surgeon with experience in single stage knee revisions.

  8. Single-stage revision for periprosthetic hip infection using antibiotic loaded impaction graft.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ebied, Ayman M; Elseedy, Adel I; Gamal, Osama

    2016-11-10

    Staged revision for periprosthetic infection of the hip is an accepted and widely used technique by many surgeons. However, single-stage exchange of the hip prosthesis remains an attractive option to others because of the advantages of reduced morbidity, shorter treatment time and hospital stay in addition to the reduced cost of treatment. Single-stage revision for periprosthetic hip infection can achieve excellent results if a specific protocol for patients' selection and management is followed. 52 patients with evidence of periprosthetic infection had preoperative aspiration of the affected hip. The infecting organisms were identified in 33/52 and single-stage revision was performed. The remaining 19 patients had a 2-stage exchange arthroplasty. Patients in the single-stage revision protocol had antibiotic loaded morsellized bone graft, a cemented cup and a long cementless stem. At an average follow up of 6 (range 4-8) years postoperatively, only 1 case of persistent infection was found in the single-stage group - a 97% rate of eradicating infection was achieved. Single-stage exchange achieves excellent success rate in patients with periprosthetic infection when a specific protocol for patient selection and management is followed.

  9. Acellular Dermal Matrix in Reconstructive Breast Surgery: Survey of Current Practice among Plastic Surgeons

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmed M. S. Ibrahim, MD

    2015-04-01

    Conclusions: Plastic surgeons currently use ADM in breast reconstruction for both immediate and staged procedures. Of those responding, a majority of plastic surgeons will incorporate drains and use postoperative antibiotics for more than 48 hours.

  10. An acellular dermal matrix allograft (Alloderm ® for increasing keratinized attached gingiva: A case series

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chitra Agarwal

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Context: Adequate amount of keratinized gingiva is necessary to keep gingiva healthy and free of infl ammation. Autografts have been used for years with great success to increase the width of attached gingiva. Autografts, however, have the disadvantage of increasing postoperative morbidity and improper color match with the adjacent tissues. Alloderm ® allograft has been introduced as an alternative to autografts to overcome these disadvantages. Aim: In this study, the efficacy of alloderm ® in increasing the width of attached gingiva and the stability of gained attached gingiva was evaluated clinically. Materials and Methods: Five patients with sites showing inadequate width of attached gingiva (≤1 mm were enrolled for the study. The width of keratinized gingiva and other clinical parameters were recorded at baseline and 9th month postoperatively. Result: In all cases, there is the average increase of about 2.5 mm of attached gingiva and was maintained for 9-month. Percentage shrinkage of the graft is about 75% at the end of 3 rd month in all cases. Excellent colors match with adjacent tissue has been obtained. Conclusion: The study signifi es that Alloderm ® results in an adequate increase in the amount of attached gingiva and therefore can be used successfully in place of autografts.

  11. Single-Stage Revision Arthroplasty for Infection-An Underutilized Treatment Strategy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Negus, Jonathan J; Gifford, Peter B; Haddad, Fares S

    2017-07-01

    The burden of revision arthroplasty surgery for infection is rising as the rate of primary arthroplasty surgery increases. Infected arthroplasty rates are now relatively low, but the sheer increase in volume is leading to considerable patient morbidity and significant increases in costs to the health care system. Single-stage revision for infection is one of the several accepted treatment options, but the indications and results are debated. This review aims to clarify the current evidence. MEDLINE/PubMed databases were reviewed for studies that looked at single- or one-stage revision knee or hip arthroplasty for infection. There is increasing evidence that single-stage revision for infection can control infection and with decreased morbidity, mortality, and health care costs compared with a staged approach. However, the indications are still debated. Recently, there has been a determined effort to define an infected arthroplasty in a manner that will allow for standardization of reporting in the literature. The evidence supporting single stage for knee arthroplasty is catching up with the result with hip arthroplasty. High-quality data from randomized controlled trials are now pending. After the gradual evolution of using the single-stage approach, with the widespread acceptance of this definition, we can now standardize comparisons across the world and move toward a refined definition of the ideal patient population for single-stage arthroplasty revision in both the hip and the knee population. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Numerical Simulation of single-stage axial fan operation under dusty flow conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minkov, L. L.; Pikushchak, E. V.

    2017-11-01

    Assessment of the aerodynamic efficiency of the single-stage axial flow fan under dusty flow conditions based on a numerical simulation using the computational package Ansys-Fluent is proposed. The influence of dust volume fraction on the dependences of the air volume flow rate and the pressure drop on the rotational speed of rotor is demonstrated. Matching functions for formulas describing a pressure drop and volume flow rate in dependence on the rotor speed and dust content are obtained by numerical simulation for the single-stage axial fan. It is shown that the aerodynamic efficiency of the single-stage axial flow fan decreases exponentially with increasing volume content of dust in the air.

  13. Design considerations for single-stage and two-stage pneumatic pellet injectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gouge, M.J.; Combs, S.K.; Fisher, P.W.; Milora, S.L.

    1988-09-01

    Performance of single-stage pneumatic pellet injectors is compared with several models for one-dimensional, compressible fluid flow. Agreement is quite good for models that reflect actual breech chamber geometry and incorporate nonideal effects such as gas friction. Several methods of improving the performance of single-stage pneumatic pellet injectors in the near term are outlined. The design and performance of two-stage pneumatic pellet injectors are discussed, and initial data from the two-stage pneumatic pellet injector test facility at Oak Ridge National Laboratory are presented. Finally, a concept for a repeating two-stage pneumatic pellet injector is described. 27 refs., 8 figs., 3 tabs

  14. imulation Results of Single Stage AC- AC Converter for Induction Heating

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. ARUMUGAM

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents simulation of single stage Induction heating system with series Load Resonance. Low frequency AC is converted in to High Frequency Ac using newly developed ZVS-PWM high frequency inverter. This High Frequency is used for Induction Heating .Single stage AC-AC converter system is modeled and simulated using Matlab Simulink. The simulation results of ZVS-PWM high frequency system are presented. The effectiveness of this UFAC-to-HFAC direct power frequency converter using IGBTs for consumer high-frequency IH appliances is evaluated and proved on the basis of simulation results.

  15. Immunogenicity and safety of an acellular pertussis, diphtheria ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Immunogenicity and safety of an acellular pertussis, diphtheria, tetanus, inactivated poliovirus, Hib-conjugate combined vaccine (Pentaxim™) and monovalent hepatitis B vaccine at 6, 10 and 14 weeks of age in infants in South Africa.

  16. Post-Burn Skin Deformities of the Face and Neck Region in Pediatric Patients: Single-Stage Treatment Using Collagen Elastin Matrix

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Çağlayan Yağmur

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Treating severe post-burn deformities of the face and neck region in pediatric populations is challenging because of technical difficulties (e.g., limited full thickness skin graft donor site, limited flap options, unavailability for expander placement and increased donor site morbidity (e.g., related to flap and graft donor sites. In this study, we present the single-stage treatment of severe post-burn skin deformities of the face and neck region in pediatric patients using collagen-elastin matrix (Matriderm® combined with partial thickness skin grafts. Material and Methods: The total number of cases was eight (four females, four males, and the ages were between two and 11 years. All cases were operated on for only one region. Following the release of contractures and/or excision of wide excessive/ unfavorable dermal scars, defects were reconstructed using collagen- elastin matrix (Matriderm® combined with partial-thickness skin grafts. The final functional and aesthetic results were evaluated using photography and examination. Results: The deformities were in the form of contractures and/ or excessive dermal scarring. The involved regions were the face (n=3 and neck (n=5. The grafts yielded favorable plication and texture, and no recurrence of excessive dermal scarring was observed. All contractures healed unproblematically. Two patients were re-operated on for regrafting caused by minor graft loss (5% and 12% of the total area, respectively. Conclusion: In this study, we observed that collagen elastin matrix combined with partial-thickness skin grafts provides a favorable option for the treatment of pediatric late post-burn complications in the face and neck region with limited surgical options.

  17. Analysis of U and Pu resin bead samples with a single stage mass spectrometer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, D.H.; Walker, R.L.; Bertram, L.K.; Carter, J.A.

    1979-01-01

    Resin bead sampling enables the shipment of nanogram U and Pu quantities for analysis. Application of this sampling technique to safeguards was investigated with a single-stage mass spectrometer. Standards gave results in good agreement with NBS certified values. External precisions of +-0.5% were obtained on isotopic ratios of approx. 0.01; precisions on quantitative measurements are +-1.0%

  18. Practical Considerations Concerning the Interleaved Transition Mode Single-stage Ballast

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Teodorescu, Remus; Kjær, Søren Bækhøj; Munk-Nielsen, Stig

    2002-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to present a novel single-stage interleaved ballast focusing on practical design aspects like: key current expression, overall losses, harmonic analysis of the differential-mode EMI current and preheating ballast function. A new preheating method is also presented. A PSPI...

  19. Single-Stage Low-Power Quadrature RF Receiver Front-End: The LMV Cell

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Liscidini, Antonio; Mazzanti, Andrea; Tonietto, Riccardo

    2006-01-01

    This paper presents the first quadrature RF receiver front-end where, in a single stage, low-noise amplifier (LNA), mixer and voltage-controlled oscillator (VCO) share the same bias current. The new structure exploits the intrinsic mixing functionality of a classical LC-tank oscillator providing ...

  20. Single stage buck-boost DC-AC neutral point clamped inverter

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mo, Wei; Loh, Poh Chiang; Andrew, A.

    2012-01-01

    This paper proposes a new single stage buck-boost DC-AC neutral point clamped inverter topology which integrates the cascaded configurations of recently introduced inductor-capacitor-capacitor-transformer impedance source network (by Adamowicz) and classic NPC configuration. As a consequence...

  1. Comparison between a two-stage and single-stage digesters when ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Phenol is a pollutant found in many industrial wastewaters, which diminishes biogas formation in anaerobic digesters. In this study, a two-stage (acidogenic and methanogenic) anaerobic digester (TSAD) was compared to a single stage digester (SSD), in treating a synthetic wastewater contaminated with phenol.

  2. Outcomes of single-stage grip-release reconstruction in tetraplegia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reinholdt, Carina; Fridén, Jan

    2013-06-01

    To evaluate the outcomes of our technique for single-stage grip-release reconstruction and compare it with previous 1- and 2-stage grip reconstructions in tetraplegia. A total of 14 patients (16 hands) with tetraplegia underwent a single-stage combination of operations to provide pinch, grip, and release function. We compared the study group with a historical control group of 15 patients (18 hands) who had been treated with staged flexion-extension grip-release reconstructions. Both groups were classified as ocular cutaneous 4. Assessment parameters included grip and pinch strength, maximal opening of the first webspace, and Canadian Occupational Performance Measurement. Both groups were rehabilitated with early active mobilization beginning the first day after surgery. Grip strength and opening of the first webspace were significantly greater in the single-stage group than in the comparative group. Pinch strength was not significantly different between groups. On the Canadian Occupational Performance Measurement score, patients belonging to the single-stage group were highly satisfied (increase of 3.7 points) and could perform several of their self-selected goals (3.5 points of improvement). The single-stage grip-release reconstruction provides people who have spinal cord injuries and tetraplegia with improved and reliable grip function; active finger flexion, active thumb flexion, passive thumb extension, and passive interossei function can all be achieved through this procedure. Early active mobilization is particularly important in improving functional outcome after this combination of grip reconstruction procedures. Therapeutic III. Copyright © 2013 American Society for Surgery of the Hand. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Biological background of dermal substitutes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Veen, V. C.; van der Wal, M.B.; van Leeuwen, M.C.; Ulrich, M.; Middelkoop, E.

    2010-01-01

    Dermal substitutes are of major importance in treating full thickness skin defects, both in acute and chronic wounds. In this review we will outline specific requirements of three classes of dermal substitutes:-natural biological materials, with a more or less intact extracellular matrix

  4. Dermal route in systemic exposure

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Benford, D.J.; Cocker, J.; Sartorelli, P.; Schneider, T.; Hemmen, J. van; Firth, J.G.

    1999-01-01

    To evaluate risk from dermal exposure, the amount of material on the skin must first be measured. The potential for dermal uptake must then be assessed for the potential health effects from systemic exposure. No standard methods exist for studying these processes, and published data are not

  5. Validation of a PC based program for single stage absorption heat pump

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaltash, A.; Ally, M. R.

    1991-09-01

    An interactive computer code was developed to evaluate single stage absorption heat pump performance for temperature amplifier and heat amplifier modes using water as the refrigerant. This program performs the cycle calculations for single stage cycles based on the polynomial expressions developed to correlate experimental vapor-liquid-equilibrium (VLE) and specific enthalpy-concentration data for LiBr/water and (Li, K, Na)NO3 water systems as well as the properties of pure water. The operating parameters obtained by this program were tested against mass and energy balances in documented cases and the results show that the maximum deviation between coefficient of performance (COP) values obtained by this software and the ones previously calculated is less than 3 percent. In addition, this program was used to study the effect of solution temperature leaving the absorber on the other operating parameters. This type of analysis could be used to improve and optimize cycle design.

  6. Grid Integration of Single Stage Solar PV System using Three-level Voltage Source Converter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hussain, Ikhlaq; Kandpal, Maulik; Singh, Bhim

    2016-08-01

    This paper presents a single stage solar PV (photovoltaic) grid integrated power generating system using a three level voltage source converter (VSC) operating at low switching frequency of 900 Hz with robust synchronizing phase locked loop (RS-PLL) based control algorithm. To track the maximum power from solar PV array, an incremental conductance algorithm is used and this maximum power is fed to the grid via three-level VSC. The use of single stage system with three level VSC offers the advantage of low switching losses and the operation at high voltages and high power which results in enhancement of power quality in the proposed system. Simulated results validate the design and control algorithm under steady state and dynamic conditions.

  7. Single-stage osseointegrated implants for nasal prosthodontic rehabilitation: A clinical report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Carvalho, Bruna M D F; Freitas-Pontes, Karina M; de Negreiros, Wagner A; Verde, Marcus A R L

    2015-08-01

    Malignant tumors in the nasal region may be treated by means of invasive surgical procedures, with large facial losses. Nasal prostheses, retained by osseointegrated facial implants, instead of plastic surgery, will, in most patients, offer good biomechanical and cosmetic results. This clinical report describes the prosthetic rehabilitation of a patient with nasal cancer who had the entire nasal vestibule removed in a single-stage surgical procedure in order to shorten the rehabilitation time. The nasal prosthesis was built on a 3-magnet bar and was made of platinum silicone with intrinsic pigmentation, thereby restoring the patient's appearance and self-esteem. The authors concluded that single-stage implants may reduce the rehabilitation time to as little as 1 month, and the correct use of materials and techniques may significantly improve the nasal prosthesis. Copyright © 2015 Editorial Council for the Journal of Prosthetic Dentistry. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Single-stage Modified Duhamel procedure for Hirschsprung′s disease : Our experience

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paras R Kothari

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Primary single-stage pull-through for Hirschsprung′s disease (HD has been reported to give comparable surgical outcomes to staged operations with less morbidity. Herein, we present our experience with single-stage Modified Duhamel procedure for management of HD. Patients and Methods: This was a review of 48 cases of HD who underwent single-stage Modified Duhamel procedure without a protective colostomy. Results: The age at surgery ranged from 6 months to 10 years (median - 9 months, mean - 2.3 years. The average weight of the child was 7.2 kg (range, 4.9-22 kg. 38 (79.2% patients had classical rectosigmoid HD, the rest being long segment HD (the proximal most level being the splenic flexure. The average duration of surgery was 175 minutes (range, 130-245 minutes. The average blood loss was 45 ml. The average hospital stay was 7.2 days (range: 6-10 days. The major postoperative complications (n=3 included postoperative adhesive intestinal obstruction, anastomotic leak and persistent constipation due to residual aganglionosis. Each required a re-exploration. Minor complications included surgical site infection (n=3 and post-operative enterocolitis (n=3, which were managed conservatively. Six patients had constipation for a limited period post-operatively. All patients have a satisfactory functional outcome and normal development and growth. Conclusions: For HD, we recommend that single-stage Modified Duhamel procedure should be the preferred approach in view of its low morbidity, satisfactory functional outcome and avoidance of stoma, multiple surgeries and economic benefit in view of decreased hospital stay.

  9. Advanteges of using Two-Switch Forward in Single-Stage Power Factor Corrected Power Supplies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Lars

    2000-01-01

    A single-Stage power factor corrected power supply using a two-switch forward is proposed to increase efficiency. The converter is operated in the DCM (Discontinues Conduction Mode). This will insure the intermediate DC-bus to be controlled only by means of circuit parameters and therefore...... power supply has been implemented. The measured efficiency and power factor are about 87% and 0.96 respectively....

  10. The first preliminary experiments on an 84 GHz gyrotron with a single-stage depressed collector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shimozuma, T.; Sato, M.; Takita, Y.

    1997-10-01

    We fabricated and tested an 84GHz gyrotron with a single-stage depressed collector. The gyrotron has a high-voltage insulating section made of a low loss silicon nitride composite. In this preliminary experiment in the depressed collector configuration, we obtained 591kW, 41% operation with a depression voltage of 22.5kV. Access to the higher efficiency region was inhibited by an increase in anode current. (author)

  11. System and method for single-phase, single-stage grid-interactive inverter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Liming; Li, Hui

    2015-09-01

    The present invention provides for the integration of distributed renewable energy sources/storages utilizing a cascaded DC-AC inverter, thereby eliminating the need for a DC-DC converter. The ability to segment the energy sources and energy storages improves the maintenance capability and system reliability of the distributed generation system, as well as achieve wide range reactive power compensation. In the absence of a DC-DC converter, single stage energy conversion can be achieved to enhance energy conversion efficiency.

  12. Adaptive kanban control mechanism for a single-stage hybrid system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korugan, Aybek; Gupta, Surendra M.

    2002-02-01

    In this paper, we consider a hybrid manufacturing system with two discrete production lines. Here the output of either production line can satisfy the demand for the same type of product without any penalties. The interarrival times for demand occurrences and service completions are exponentially distributed i.i.d. variables. In order to control this type of manufacturing system we suggest a single stage pull type control mechanism with adaptive kanbans and state independent routing of the production information.

  13. Nitrite reduction and methanogenesis in a single-stage UASB reactor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borges, L I; López-Vazquez, C M; García, H; van Lier, J B

    2015-01-01

    In this study, nitrite reduction and methanogenesis in a single-stage upflow anaerobic sludge blanket (UASB) reactor was investigated, using high-strength synthetic domestic wastewater as substrate. To assess long-term effects and evaluate the mechanisms that allow successful nitrite reduction and methanogenesis in a single-stage UASB, sludge was exposed to relatively high nitrite loading rates (315 ± 13 mgNO(2)(-)-N/(l.d)), using a chemical oxygen demand (COD) to nitrogen ratio of 18 gCOD/gNO(2)(-)-N, and an organic loading rate of 5.4 ± 0.2 gCOD/(l.d). In parallel, the effects of sludge morphology on methanogenesis inhibition were studied by performing short-term batch activity tests at different COD/NO(2)(-)-N ratios with anaerobic sludge samples. In long-term tests, denitrification was practically complete and COD removal efficiency did not change significantly after nitrite addition. Furthermore, methane production only decreased by 13%, agreeing with the reducing equivalents requirement for complete NO(2)(-) reduction to N₂. Apparently, the spatial separation of denitrification and methanogenesis zones inside the UASB reactor allowed nitrite reduction and methanogenesis to occur at the same moment. Batch tests showed that granules seem to protect methanogens from nitrite inhibition, probably due to transport limitations. Combined COD and N removal via nitrite in a single-stage UASB reactor could be a feasible technology to treat high-strength domestic wastewater.

  14. Single-stage reconstruction of flexor tendons with vascularized tendon transfers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cavadas, P C; Pérez-García, A; Thione, A; Lorca-García, C

    2015-03-01

    The reconstruction of finger flexor tendons with vascularized flexor digitorum superficialis (FDS) tendon grafts (flaps) based on the ulnar vessels as a single stage is not a popular technique. We reviewed 40 flexor tendon reconstructions (four flexor pollicis longus and 36 finger flexors) with vascularized FDS tendon grafts in 38 consecutive patients. The donor tendons were transferred based on the ulnar vessels as a single-stage procedure (37 pedicled flaps, three free flaps). Four patients required composite tendon and skin island transfer. Minimum follow-up was 12 months, and functional results were evaluated using a total active range of motion score. Multiple linear regression analysis was performed to evaluate the factors that could be associated with the postoperative total active range of motion. The average postoperative total active range of motion (excluding the thumbs) was 178.05° (SD 50°). The total active range of motion was significantly lower for patients who were reconstructed with free flaps and for those who required composite tendon and skin island flap. Age, right or left hand, donor/motor tendon and pulley reconstruction had no linear effect on total active range of motion. Overall results were comparable with a published series on staged tendon grafting but with a lower complication rate. Vascularized pedicled tendon grafts/flaps are useful in the reconstruction of defects of finger flexor tendons in a single stage, although its role in the reconstructive armamentarium remains to be clearly established. © The Author(s) 2014.

  15. Is Single-stage Revision Safe Following Infected Total Knee Arthroplasty? A Critical Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaishya, Raju; Agarwal, Amit Kumar; Rawat, Sudheer K; Singh, Harsh; Vijay, Vipul

    2017-08-30

    With the improvement in outcomes and modern prosthesis design, total knee arthroplasty (TKA) has now become a commonly performed surgery. It is postulated that a total of 2-5% of the primary and revision TKA becomes infected every year, requiring a revision procedure which to date is the conventional two-stage revision. The diagnosis and treatment of these periprosthetic infections is a major and challenging task, as it requires precise identification of the pathogen, meticulous debridement, and postoperative rehabilitation. To date, there have been very few studies in existing literature comparing the outcomes of single-stage versus two-stage procedure in infected TKA. The aim of the review was to provide the clinicians an insight into the outcome of the single-stage procedure compared to two-stage procedures and to suggest ways to improve the results further. In the following critical review, a total of 669 cases that underwent either a single or two-stage revision for infected TKA were studied. The postoperative functional scores were comparable in most studies during the early postoperative period. Our data supports the use of a single-stage revision surgery in infected TKA as an alternative to a conventional two-stage procedure. However, larger prospective and multicentric trials are required to validate our findings.

  16. Performance characteristics of an excimer laser (XeCl) with single-stage magnetic pulse compression

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varshnay, N. K.; Singh, A.; Benerji, N. S.

    2017-02-01

    Performance characteristics of an excimer laser (XeCl) with single-stage magnetic pulse compression suitable for material processing applications are presented here. The laser incorporates in-built compact gas circulation and gas cooling to ensure fresh gas mixture between the electrodes for repetitive operation. A magnetically coupled tangential blower is used for gas circulation inside the laser chamber for repetitive operation. The exciter consists of C-C energy transfer circuit and thyratron is used as a high-voltage main switch with single-stage magnetic pulse compression (MPC) between thyratron and the laser electrodes. Low inductance of the laser head and uniform and intense pre-ionization are the main features of the electric circuit used in the laser. A 250 ns rise time voltage pulse was compressed to 100 ns duration with a single-stage magnetic pulse compressor using Ni-Zn ferrite cores. The laser can generate about 150 mJ at ˜100 Hz rep-rate reliably from a discharge volume of 100 cm 3. 2D spatial laser beam profile generated is presented here. The profile shows that the laser beam is completely filled with flat-top which is suitable for material processing applications. The SEM image of the microhole generated on copper target is presented here.

  17. New current control based MPPT technique for single stage grid connected PV systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jain, Sachin; Agarwal, Vivek

    2007-01-01

    This paper presents a new maximum power point tracking algorithm based on current control for a single stage grid connected photovoltaic system. The main advantage of this algorithm comes from its ability to predict the approximate amplitude of the reference current waveform or power that can be derived from the PV array with the help of an intermediate variable β. A variable step size for the change in reference amplitude during initial tracking helps in fast tracking. It is observed that if the reference current amplitude is greater than the array capacity, the system gets unstable (i.e. moves into the positive slope region of the p-v characteristics of the array). The proposed algorithm prevents the PV system from entering the positive slope region of the p-v characteristics. It is also capable of restoring stability if the system goes unstable due to a sudden environmental change. The proposed algorithm has been tested on a new single stage grid connected PV configuration recently developed by the authors to feed sinusoidal current into the grid. The system is operated in a continuous conduction mode to realize advantages such as low device current stress, high efficiency and low EMI. A fast MPPT tracker with single stage inverter topology operating in CCM makes the overall system highly efficient. Specific cases of the system, operating in just discontinuous current mode and discontinuous current mode and their relative merits and demerits are also discussed

  18. Pulmonary heart valve replacement using stabilized acellular xenogeneic scaffolds; effects of seeding with autologous stem cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Harpa Marius Mihai

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: We hypothesized that an ideal heart valve replacement would be acellular valve root scaffolds seeded with autologous stem cells. To test this hypothesis, we prepared porcine acellular pulmonary valves, seeded them with autologous adipose derived stem cells (ADSCs and implanted them in sheep and compared them to acellular valves.

  19. Microporous dermal-mimetic electrospun scaffolds pre-seeded with fibroblasts promote tissue regeneration in full-thickness skin wounds.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul P Bonvallet

    Full Text Available Electrospun scaffolds serve as promising substrates for tissue repair due to their nanofibrous architecture and amenability to tailoring of chemical composition. In this study, the regenerative potential of a microporous electrospun scaffold pre-seeded with dermal fibroblasts was evaluated. Previously we reported that a 70% collagen I and 30% poly(Ɛ-caprolactone electrospun scaffold (70:30 col/PCL containing 160 μm diameter pores had favorable mechanical properties, supported fibroblast infiltration and subsequent cell-mediated deposition of extracellular matrix (ECM, and promoted more rapid and effective in vivo skin regeneration when compared to scaffolds lacking micropores. In the current study we tested the hypothesis that the efficacy of the 70:30 col/PCL microporous scaffolds could be further enhanced by seeding scaffolds with dermal fibroblasts prior to implantation into skin wounds. To address this hypothesis, a Fischer 344 (F344 rat syngeneic model was employed. In vitro studies showed that dermal fibroblasts isolated from F344 rat skin were able to adhere and proliferate on 70:30 col/PCL microporous scaffolds, and the cells also filled the 160 μm pores with native ECM proteins such as collagen I and fibronectin. Additionally, scaffolds seeded with F344 fibroblasts exhibited a low rate of contraction (~14% over a 21 day time frame. To assess regenerative potential, scaffolds with or without seeded F344 dermal fibroblasts were implanted into full thickness, critical size defects created in F344 hosts. Specifically, we compared: microporous scaffolds containing fibroblasts seeded for 4 days; scaffolds containing fibroblasts seeded for only 1 day; acellular microporous scaffolds; and a sham wound (no scaffold. Scaffolds containing fibroblasts seeded for 4 days had the best response of all treatment groups with respect to accelerated wound healing, a more normal-appearing dermal matrix structure, and hair follicle regeneration

  20. Evaluation of the effectiveness of the prepectoral breast reconstruction with Braxon dermal matrix: First multicenter European report on 100 cases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vidya, Raghavan; Masià, Jaume; Cawthorn, Simon; Berna, Giorgio; Bozza, Fernando; Gardetto, Alexander; Kołacińska, Agnieszka; Dell'Antonia, Francesco; Tiengo, Cesare; Bassetto, Franco; Caputo, Glenda G; Governa, Maurizio

    2017-11-01

    We report the outcomes of the European prospective study on prepectoral breast reconstruction using preshaped acellular dermal matrix for complete breast implant coverage. Seventy-nine patients were enrolled between April 2014 and August 2015 all over Europe using a single protocol for patient selection and surgical procedure, according to the Association of Breast Surgery and British Association of Plastic Reconstructive and Aesthetic Surgeons joint guidelines for the use of acellular dermal matrix in breast surgery. The preshaped matrix completely wraps the breast implant, which is placed above the pectoralis major, without detaching the muscle. A total of 100 prepectoral breast reconstructions with complete implant coverage were performed. This series, with mean follow-up of 17.9 months, had two cases of implant loss (2.0%) including one necrosis of the nipple and one wound breakdown (1.0% respectively). No implant rotations were observed. Good cosmetic outcomes were obtained with natural movement of the breasts and softness to the touch; none of the patients reported experiencing pain or reduction in the movements of the pectoralis major muscle postoperatively. The use of preshaped acellular dermal matrix for a complete breast implant coverage in selected patients is safe and gives satisfactory results, both from the aesthetic view point and the low postoperative complication rates. Further studies reporting long-term outcomes are planned. © 2017 Crown copyright. The Breast Journal © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. This article is published with the permission of the Controller of HMSO and the Queen's Printer for Scotland.

  1. Monte Carlo Error Analysis Applied to Core Formation: The Single-stage Model Revived

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cottrell, E.; Walter, M. J.

    2009-12-01

    The last decade has witnessed an explosion of studies that scrutinize whether or not the siderophile element budget of the modern mantle can plausibly be explained by metal-silicate equilibration in a deep magma ocean during core formation. The single-stage equilibrium scenario is seductive because experiments that equilibrate metal and silicate can then serve as a proxy for the early earth, and the physical and chemical conditions of core formation can be identified. Recently, models have become more complex as they try to accommodate the proliferation of element partitioning data sets, each of which sets its own limits on the pressure, temperature, and chemistry of equilibration. The ability of single stage models to explain mantle chemistry has subsequently been challenged, resulting in the development of complex multi-stage core formation models. Here we show that the extent to which extant partitioning data are consistent with single-stage core formation depends heavily upon (1) the assumptions made when regressing experimental partitioning data (2) the certainty with which regression coefficients are known and (3) the certainty with which the core/mantle concentration ratios of the siderophile elements are known. We introduce a Monte Carlo algorithm coded in MATLAB that samples parameter space in pressure and oxygen fugacity for a given mantle composition (nbo/t) and liquidus, and returns the number of equilibrium single-stage liquidus “solutions” that are permissible, taking into account the uncertainty in regression parameters and range of acceptable core/mantle ratios. Here we explore the consequences of regression parameter uncertainty and the impact of regression construction on model outcomes. We find that the form of the partition coefficient (Kd with enforced valence state, or D) and the handling of the temperature effect (based on 1-atm free energy data or high P-T experimental observations) critically affects model outcomes. We consider the most

  2. Minimally Invasive, Single-Stage, Multilevel Surgery for Obstructive Sleep Apnea in Asian Patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Hsin-Ching; Friedman, Michael; Chang, Hsueh-Wen; Bonzelaar, Lauren; Salapatas, Anna M; Lin, Meng-Chih; Huang, Kuo-Tung

    2017-02-01

    This study adds to the literature on the efficacy and low complication rates associated with minimally invasive, single-stage, multilevel surgery for Asian adults with obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) for whom conservative treatment had failed. Overall, our experience has produced results that make this procedure an option for select patients with snoring and OSA. To investigate the effectiveness and safety of anatomy-based, minimally invasive, single-stage, multilevel surgery in the treatment of OSA in an Asian population. This retrospective study enrolled 59 consecutive patients with OSA from a tertiary academic medical center who had multilevel obstruction and unsuccessful conservative therapy and then underwent minimally invasive, single-stage, multilevel surgery. The subjective symptoms and objective polysomnographic findings were collected preoperatively and at a minimum of 3 months postoperatively. The Global Patient Assessment questionnaire was used to assess patient satisfaction after minimally invasive, single-stage, multilevel surgery. Scores on the Epworth Sleepiness Scale and bed partner evaluation of patient's snoring on a visual analog scale (scale of 0-10, with 0 indicating no snoring and 10 indicating the bed partner to leave the room or sleep separately, as assessed by the bed partner). The primary outcomes are a 50% decrease in bed partner's snoring visual analog scale level postoperatively and an improvement of 50% or more in apnea-hypopnea index by an at least 3-month follow-up. Adverse events and patient-reported quality measures were also assessed. Forty-seven patients (36 men and 11 women; mean [SD], 47.3 [10.9] years) with a minimum 3-month follow-up and complete data were included in the analysis. None of the patients had serious perioperative or postoperative complications. Three months postoperatively, the mean (SD) scores on the Epworth Sleepiness Scale and bed partner evaluation of patient's snoring on the visual analog scale decreased

  3. [Single-stage bilateral Pemberton's pericapsular osteotomy in bilateral developmental dysplasia of the hip].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zorer, Gazi; Bagatur, A Erdem

    2002-01-01

    This study was designed to evaluate the results of single-stage bilateral Pemberton's pericapsular osteotomy with or without open reduction and to demonstrate its advantages over two separate consecutive interventions in bilateral developmental dysplasia of the hip (DDH). This prospective study included 20 patients (14 girls, 6 boys; mean age 30 months; range 12 to 60 months) with bilateral DDH, who underwent single-stage bilateral Pemberton's pericapsular osteotomy with (14 patients, group A1) or without (6 patients, group A2) open reduction. Twenty patients (16 girls, 4 boys; mean age 24 months; range 13 to 47 months) with unilateral DDH, who underwent Pemberton's pericapsular osteotomy with (12 patients, group B1) or without (8 patients, group B2) open reduction were enrolled into the study as controls. Single- and two-stage procedures were compared with regard to improvement in the acetabular index, complications, mean duration of anesthesia, perioperative need for blood transfusion, length of hospital stay, initiation of walking, overall cost of antibiotic prophylaxis, and total hospital charge. There were no significant differences between A1 and B1, A2 and B2 groups with respect to mean age, gender, pre- and postoperative acetabular indices, and recovery times. However, duration of anesthesia, length of hospital stay, cost of antibiotic prophylaxis, and total hospital charges differed significantly. The amount of blood transfusion differed significantly only between groups A1 and B1. The length of hospital stay and cost of antibiotic prophylaxis in group A2 was twice as much as that of group B2. Increases in other parameters ranged between 22% to 37%. No early or late complications were encountered. Single-stage bilateral Pemberton's pericapsular osteotomy in patients with bilateral DDH seems to have significant advantages over two separate consecutive interventions. However, increased risks of bilateral osteotomies require that sufficiently equipped and

  4. Single-stage electrohydraulic servosystem for actuating on airflow valve with frequencies to 500 hertz

    Science.gov (United States)

    Webb, J. A., Jr.; Mehmed, O.; Lorenzo, C. F.

    1980-01-01

    An airflow valve and its electrohydraulic actuation servosystem are described. The servosystem uses a high-power, single-stage servovalve to obtain a dynamic response beyond that of systems designed with conventional two-stage servovalves. The electrohydraulic servosystem is analyzed and the limitations imposed on system performance by such nonlinearities as signal saturations and power limitations are discussed. Descriptions of the mechanical design concepts and developmental considerations are included. Dynamic data, in the form of sweep-frequency test results, are presented and comparison with analytical results obtained with an analog computer model is made.

  5. The Lifetime Estimate for ACSR Single-Stage Splice Connector Operating at Higher Temperatures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Jy-An John; Graziano, Joe; Chan, John

    2011-01-01

    This paper is the continuation of Part I effort to develop a protocol of integrating analytical and experimental approaches to evaluate the integrity of a full tension single-stage splice connector (SSC) assembly during service at high operating temperature.1The Part II efforts are mainly focused on the thermal mechanical testing, thermal-cycling simulation and its impact on the effective lifetime of the SSC system. The investigation indicates that thermal cycling temperature and frequency, conductor cable tension loading, and the compressive residual stress field within a SSC system have significant impact on the SSC integrity and the associated effective lifetime.

  6. 85,000-GPM, single-stage, single-suction LMFBR intermediate centrifugal pump

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fair, C.E.; Cook, M.E.; Huber, K.A.; Rohde, R.

    1983-01-01

    The mechanical and hydraulic design features of the 85,000-gpm, single-stage, single-suction pump test article, which is designed to circulate liquid-sodium coolant in the intermediate heat-transport system of a Large-Scale Liquid Metal Fast Breeder Reactor (LS-LMFBR), are described. The design and analytical considerations used to satisfy the pump performance and operability requirements are presented. The validation of pump hydraulic performance using a hydraulic scale-model pump is discussed, as is the featute test for the mechanical-shaft seal system

  7. Fault Diagnosis for Engine Based on Single-Stage Extreme Learning Machine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fei Gao

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Single-Stage Extreme Learning Machine (SS-ELM is presented to dispose of the mechanical fault diagnosis in this paper. Based on it, the traditional mapping type of extreme learning machine (ELM has been changed and the eigenvectors extracted from signal processing methods are directly regarded as outputs of the network’s hidden layer. Then the uncertainty that training data transformed from the input space to the ELM feature space with the ELM mapping and problem of the selection of the hidden nodes are avoided effectively. The experiment results of diesel engine fault diagnosis show good performance of the SS-ELM algorithm.

  8. Single-stage MPPT control realization for Aalborg inverter in photovoltaic system

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhang, Shuai; Wu, Weimin; Wang, Houqing

    2017-01-01

    In this paper, the single-stage Maximum Power Point Tracking (MPPT) control strategy for the Aalborg photovoltaic inverter is presented. Aalborg inverter has many advantages, such as high efficiency, wide range of input voltage, minimum voltage drop of the filtering inductors, etc. Nevertheless......, it is essentially a “half-bridge” inverter with two input sources, where one source works in MPPT mode, the other is out of control. If without the reasonable parameter design and the proper control, the bus-voltage of this inverter may change greatly, resulting in the serious power oscillation around maximum power...... that the proposed control strategy has good steady-state and dynamic performances....

  9. Simulation model of a single-stage lithium bromide-water absorption cooling unit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miao, D.

    1978-01-01

    A computer model of a LiBr-H2O single-stage absorption machine was developed. The model, utilizing a given set of design data such as water-flow rates and inlet or outlet temperatures of these flow rates but without knowing the interior characteristics of the machine (heat transfer rates and surface areas), can be used to predict or simulate off-design performance. Results from 130 off-design cases for a given commercial machine agree with the published data within 2 percent.

  10. Promising results after single-stage reconstruction of the nipple and areola complex

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Børsen-Koch, Mikkel; Bille, Camilla; Thomsen, Jørn B

    2013-01-01

    a technique based on a local flap for reconstruction of the nipple in combination with immediate intradermal tattooing for reconstruction of the areola. Results: We reviewed the outcome of 22 cases of women who had simple single-stage reconstruction over a period of one year. We found no major and only two...... minor complications including one case of partial flap necrosis and one case of infection. Only three patients needed additional tattooing after a three-month period. The cosmetic outcome was satisfactory and none of the patients needed corrective procedures. The mean procedure time for unilateral...

  11. Performance of the rebuilt SUERC single-stage accelerator mass spectrometer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shanks, Richard P.; Ascough, Philippa L.; Dougans, Andrew; Gallacher, Paul; Gulliver, Pauline; Rood, Dylan H.; Xu, Sheng; Freeman, Stewart P. H. T.

    2015-10-01

    The SUERC bipolar single-stage accelerator mass spectrometer (SSAMS) has been dismantled and rebuilt to accommodate an additional rotatable pre-accelerator electrostatic spherical analyser (ESA) and a second ion source injector. This is for the attachment of an experimental positive-ion electron cyclotron resonance (ECR) ion source in addition to a Cs-sputter source. The ESA significantly suppresses oxygen interference to radiocarbon detection, and remaining measurement interference is now thought to be from 13C injected as 13CH molecule scattering off the plates of a second original pre-detector ESA.

  12. Design and analysis of a single stage to orbit nuclear thermal rocket reactor engine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Labib, Satira, E-mail: Satira.Labib@duke-energy.com; King, Jeffrey, E-mail: kingjc@mines.edu

    2015-06-15

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • Three NTR reactors are optimized for the single stage launch of 1–15 MT payloads. • The proposed rocket engines have specific impulses in excess of 700 s. • Reactivity and submersion criticality requirements are satisfied for each reactor. - Abstract: Recent advances in the development of high power density fuel materials have renewed interest in nuclear thermal rockets (NTRs) as a viable propulsion technology for future space exploration. This paper describes the design of three NTR reactor engines designed for the single stage to orbit launch of payloads from 1 to 15 metric tons. Thermal hydraulic and rocket engine analyses indicate that the proposed rocket engines are able to reach specific impulses in excess of 800 s. Neutronics analyses performed using MCNP5 demonstrate that the hot excess reactivity, shutdown margin, and submersion criticality requirements are satisfied for each NTR reactor. The reactors each consist of a 40 cm diameter core packed with hexagonal tungsten cermet fuel elements. The core is surrounded by radial and axial beryllium reflectors and eight boron carbide control drums. The 40 cm long reactor meets the submersion criticality requirements (a shutdown margin of at least $1 subcritical in all submersion scenarios) with no further modifications. The 80 and 120 cm long reactors include small amounts of gadolinium nitride as a spectral shift absorber to keep them subcritical upon submersion in seawater or wet sand following a launch abort.

  13. Heavy metal bioleaching and sludge stabilization in a single-stage reactor using indigenous acidophilic heterotrophs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mehrotra, Akanksha; Sreekrishnan, T R

    2017-11-01

    Simultaneous sludge digestion and metal leaching (SSDML) have been reported at mesophilic temperature. It is generally perceived that while sludge stabilization is effected by heterotrophs at neutral pH, metal bioleaching is done by acidophilic autotrophs. However, little information is available on the microbial communities involved in the process. This study carried out SSDML in a single-stage reactor using sludge indigenous microorganisms and looked at the bacterial communities responsible for the process. Volatile suspended solids were reduced by more than 40%. The concentration of zinc, copper, chromium, cadmium and nickel decreased by more than 45% in the dry sludge. Acidophilic species of Alicyclobacillus genus were the dominant heterotrophs. A few heterotrophic bacteria were detected which can oxidize iron (Alicyclobacillus ferrooxydans, Alicyclobacillus ferripilum and Ferrimicrobium acidiphilum). Acidithiobacillus ferrooxidans (autotroph) was responsible for the oxidation of both iron and sulfur which lead to a change in the pH from neutral to acidic. The presence of acidophilic heterotrophs, which can oxidize either iron or sulfur, enhanced the efficiency of SSDML process with respect to sludge stabilization and metal leaching. This study shows that it is possible to carry out the SSDML in a single-stage reactor with indigenous microorganisms.

  14. Red Mud Catalytic Pyrolysis of Pinyon Juniper and Single-Stage Hydrotreatment of Oils

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Agblevor, Foster A.; Elliott, Douglas C.; Santosa, Daniel M.; Olarte, Mariefel V.; Burton, Sarah D.; Swita, Marie; Beis, Sedat H.; Christian, Kyle; Sargent, Brandon

    2016-10-20

    Pinyon juniper biomass feedstocks, which cover a large acreage of rangeland in the western United States, are being eradicated and, therefore, considered as a convenient biomass feedstock for biofuel production. Pinyon juniper whole biomass (wood, bark, and leaves) were pyrolyzed in a pilot-scale bubbling fluidized-bed reactor at 450 °C, and the noncondensable gases were recycled to fluidize the reactor. Red mud was used as the in situ catalyst for the pyrolysis of the pinyon juniper biomass. The pyrolysis products were condensed in three stages, and products were analyzed for physicochemical properties. The condenser oil formed two phases with the aqueous fraction, whereas the electrostatic precipitator oils formed a single phase. The oil pH was 3.3; the higher heating value (HHV) was 28 MJ/kg; and the viscosity was less than 100 cP. There was a direct correlation between the viscosity of the oils and the alcohol/ether content of the oils, and this was also related to the aging rate of the oils. The catalytic pyrolysis oils were hydrotreated in a continuous single-stage benchtop hydrotreater to produce hydrocarbon fuels with a density of 0.80$-$0.82 cm3/g. The hydrotreater ran continuously for over 300 h with no significant catalyst deactivation or coke formation. This is the first time that such a long single-stage hydrotreatment has been demonstrated on biomass catalytic pyrolysis oils.

  15. Single-stage micro-scale solvent extraction in parallel microbore tubes using MDIMJ

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Darekar, Mayur; Singh, K.K.; Joshi, J.M.; Mukhopadhyay, S.; Shenoy, K.T.

    2016-01-01

    Single-stage micro-scale solvent extraction of U(VI) from simulated lean streams is explored using micro-scale contactor comprising of a MDIMJ (Monoblock Distributor with Integrated Microfluidic Junction) and PTFE microbore tubes. 30% (v/v) TBP in dodecane has been used as the extracting phase. The objective of the study is to demonstrate numbering up approach for scale-up of micro-scale extraction using indigenously conceptualized and fabricated MDIMJ. First the performance of MIDIMJ for equal flow distribution is tested. Then the effects of inlet flow rate and O/A ratio on stage efficiency and percentage extraction are studied. The experiments show that it is easy to scale-up single-stage micro-scale solvent extraction by using MDIMJ for numbering up approach. Maximum capacity tested is 4.8 LPH. With O/A = 2/1, more than 90% extraction is achieved in a very short contact time of less than 3s. The study thus demonstrates possibility of process intensification and easy scale-up of micro-scale solvent extraction

  16. A single stage to orbit rocket with non-cryogenic propellants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clapp, Mitchell B.; Hunter, Maxwell W.

    1993-06-01

    Different propellant combinations for single-stage-to-orbit-rocket applications were compared to oxygen/hydrogen, including nitrogen tetroxide/hydrazine, oxygen/methane, oxygen/propane, oxygen/RP-1, solid core nuclear/hydrogen, and hydrogen peroxide/JP-5. Results show that hydrogen peroxide and JP-5, which have a specific impulse of 328 s in vacuum and a density of 1,330 kg/cu m. This high-density jet fuel offers 1.79 times the payload specific energy of oxygen and hydrogen. By catalytically decomposing the hydrogen peroxide to steam and oxygen before injection into the thrust chamber, the JP-5 can be injected as a liquid into a high-temperature gas flow. This would yield superior combustion stability and permit easy throttling of the engine by adjusting the amount of JP-5 in the mixture. It is concluded that development of modern hydrogen peroxide/JP-5 engines, combined with modern structural technology, could lead to a simple, robust, and versatile single-stage-to-orbit capability.

  17. Performance evaluation of a piezoactuator-based single-stage valve system subjected to high temperature

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jeon, Juncheol; Han, Chulhee; Ung Chung, Jye; Choi, Seung-Bok

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, a novel single-stage valve system activated by a piezostack actuator is proposed and experimentally evaluated at both room temperature (20 °C) and high temperature (100 °C) conditions. A hinge-lever displacement amplifier is adopted in the valve system to magnify the displacement generated from the piezostack actuator. After explaining the operating principle of the proposed piezostack-driven single-stage valve system, the geometric dimensions and mechanical properties of the valve components are discussed in details. An experimental apparatus is then manufactured to evaluate the performances of the valve system such as flow rate. The experimental apparatus consists of a heat chamber, which can regulate the temperature of the valve system and oil, pneumatic-hydraulic cylinders, a hydraulic circuit, a pneumatic circuit, electronic devices, an interface card, and a high voltage amplifier. The pneumatic-hydraulic cylinder transforms the pneumatic pressure into hydraulic pressure. The performances of the valve system regarding spool response, pressure drop, and flow rate are evaluated and presented. In addition, the performance of the valve system under high temperature condition is compared with that under room temperature condition. The experimental results are plotted in both frequency and time domains. (paper)

  18. Design and analysis of a radial diffuser in a single-stage centrifugal pump

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ming-Gao Tan

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Radial diffusers can improve the flow uniformity in pumps and affect the hydraulic performance of centrifugal pumps directly. The diffusion coefficient d is an important parameter in fluid machinery but it has seldom been used in the diffuser design of single-stage centrifugal pumps. To improve the design method of radial diffuser use in centrifugal pumps, the diffusion coefficient was introduced into the design of radial diffusers based on a single-arc hydraulic design method and it was found that the vane outlet angle, vane outlet thickness and vane number have a significant impact on the design results. A single-stage centrifugal pump with a radial diffuser was selected as the research model. The inner flow was simulated using the commercial computational fluid dynamics (CFD program CFX and verified by experiment. The results indicate that the head and efficiency of the pump are best when the vane outlet angle is 6°. The flow area decreases and the flow velocity at radial diffuser outlet increase when the outlet thickness is greater than 2 mm. The hydraulic loss is minimum and the head and efficiency are better when the vane number is 8 at different flow rates. So, the optimal range of the diffusion coefficient for the model pump is around 1.6 to 2. The study indicates that it is feasible to design radial diffusers according to the diffusion coefficient.

  19. Lengthening Temporalis Myoplasty for Single-Stage Smile Reconstruction in Children with Facial Paralysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panossian, Andre

    2016-04-01

    Free muscle transfer for dynamic smile reanimation in facial paralysis is not always predictable with regard to cosmesis. Hospital stays range from 5 to 7 days. Prolonged operative times, longer hospital stays, and excessive cheek bulk are associated with free flap options. Lengthening temporalis myoplasty offers single-stage smile reanimation with theoretical advantages over free tissue transfer. From 2012 to 2014, 18 lengthening temporalis myoplasties were performed in 14 children for smile reconstruction. A retrospective chart review was completed for demographics, operative times, length of hospital stay, and perioperative complications. Fourteen consecutive patients with complete facial paralysis were included. Four patients underwent single-stage bilateral reconstruction, and 10 underwent unilateral procedures. Diagnoses included Möbius syndrome (n = 5), posterior cranial fossa tumors (n = 4), posttraumatic (n = 2), hemifacial microsomia (n = 1), and idiopathic (n = 2). Average patient age was 10.1 years. Average operative time was 410 minutes (499 minutes for bilateral lengthening temporalis myoplasty and 373 for unilateral lengthening temporalis myoplasty). Average length of stay was 3.3 days (4.75 days for bilateral lengthening temporalis myoplasty and 2.8 for unilateral lengthening temporalis myoplasty). Nine patients required minor revisions. Lengthening temporalis myoplasty is a safe alternative to free tissue transfer for dynamic smile reconstruction in children with facial paralysis. Limited donor-site morbidity, shorter operative times, and shorter hospital stays are some benefits over free flap options. However, revisions are required frequently secondary to tendon avulsions and adhesions. Therapeutic, IV.

  20. Hearing rehabilitation with single-stage bilateral vibroplasty in a child with Franceschetti syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sargsyan, Sona; Rahne, Torsten; Kösling, Sabrina; Eichler, Gerburg; Plontke, Stefan K

    2014-05-01

    Hearing is of utmost importance for normal speech and social development. Even children who have mild or unilateral permanent hearing loss may experience difficulties with understanding speech, as well as problems with educational and psycho-social development. The increasing advantages of middle-ear implant technologies are opening new perspectives for restoring hearing. Active middle-ear implants can be used in children and adolescents with hearing loss. In addition to the well-documented results for improving speech intelligibility and quality of hearing in sensorineural hearing loss active middle-ear implants are now successfully used in patients with conductive and mixed hearing loss. In this article we present a case of successful, single-stage vibroplasty, on the right side with the fixation of the FMT on the stapes and PORP CLiP vibroplasty on the left side in a 6-year-old girl with bilateral mixed hearing loss and multiple dyslalia associated with Franceschetti syndrome (mandibulofacial dysostosis). CT revealed bilateral middle-ear malformations as well as an atretic right and stenotic left external auditory canal. Due to craniofacial dysmorphia airway and (post)operative, management is significantly more difficult in patients with a Franceschetti syndrome which in this case favoured a single-stage bilateral procedure. No intra- or postoperative surgical complications were reported. The middle-ear implants were activated 4 weeks after surgery. In the audiological examination 6 months after surgery, the child showed 100% speech intelligibility with activated implants on each side.

  1. In-situ sludge pretreatment in a single-stage anaerobic digester.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yun; Xiao, Keke; Jiang, Xie; Shen, Nan; Zeng, Raymond J; Zhou, Yan

    2017-08-01

    This study aimed to develop an in-situ sludge pretreatment method by increasing the temperature from thermophilic to extreme thermophilic condition in a single-stage anaerobic digester. The results revealed that a stable performance was obtained within the temperature range of 55-65°C, and the maximum methane yield of 208.51±13.66mL/g VS was obtained at 65°C. Moreover, the maximum extent of hydrolysis (33%) and acidification (27.1%) was also observed at 65°C. However, further increase of temperature to 70°C did not improve the organic conversion efficiency. Microbial community analysis revealed that Coprothermobacter, highly related to acetate oxidisers, appeared to be the abundant bacterial group at higher temperature. A progressive shift in methanogenic members from Methanosarcina to Methanothermobacter was observed upon increasing the temperature. This work demonstrated single-stage sludge digestion system can be successfully established at high temperature (65°C) with stable performance, which can eliminate the need of conventional thermophilic pretreatment step. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. A single-stage polymerase-based protocol for the introduction of deletions and insertions without subcloning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salerno, John C; Jones, Rachel J; Erdogan, Eda; Smith, Susan M E

    2005-03-01

    A single-stage polymerase-based procedure is described that allows extensive modifications of DNA. The version described here uses the QuikChange Site-Directed Mutagenesis System kit supplied by Stratagene. The original protocol is replaced by a single-stage method in which linear production of complementary strands is accomplished in separate single primer reactions. This has proved effective in introducing insertions and deletions into large gene/vector combinations without subcloning.

  3. Plasma gasification of refuse derived fuel in a single-stage system using different gasifying agents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agon, N; Hrabovský, M; Chumak, O; Hlína, M; Kopecký, V; Masláni, A; Bosmans, A; Helsen, L; Skoblja, S; Van Oost, G; Vierendeels, J

    2016-01-01

    The renewable evolution in the energy industry and the depletion of natural resources are putting pressure on the waste industry to shift towards flexible treatment technologies with efficient materials and/or energy recovery. In this context, a thermochemical conversion method of recent interest is plasma gasification, which is capable of producing syngas from a wide variety of waste streams. The produced syngas can be valorized for both energetic (heat and/or electricity) and chemical (ammonia, hydrogen or liquid hydrocarbons) end-purposes. This paper evaluates the performance of experiments on a single-stage plasma gasification system for the treatment of refuse-derived fuel (RDF) from excavated waste. A comparative analysis of the syngas characteristics and process yields was done for seven cases with different types of gasifying agents (CO2+O2, H2O, CO2+H2O and O2+H2O). The syngas compositions were compared to the thermodynamic equilibrium compositions and the performance of the single-stage plasma gasification of RDF was compared to that of similar experiments with biomass and to the performance of a two-stage plasma gasification process with RDF. The temperature range of the experiment was from 1400 to 1600 K and for all cases, a medium calorific value syngas was produced with lower heating values up to 10.9 MJ/Nm(3), low levels of tar, high levels of CO and H2 and which composition was in good agreement to the equilibrium composition. The carbon conversion efficiency ranged from 80% to 100% and maximum cold gas efficiency and mechanical gasification efficiency of respectively 56% and 95%, were registered. Overall, the treatment of RDF proved to be less performant than that of biomass in the same system. Compared to a two-stage plasma gasification system, the produced syngas from the single-stage reactor showed more favourable characteristics, while the recovery of the solid residue as a vitrified slag is an advantage of the two-stage set-up. Copyright

  4. Development of a novel pressure swing adsorption dehydration system for the preservation of dermal tissue

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chou, S.K.; Chua, K.J.; Teoh, S.H.; Lim, K.K.; Sun, W.Q.

    2007-01-01

    Due to the perishable nature of bioproducts, the need to preserve them until required is of paramount importance. This is particularly true for tissue engineered products such as the skin. The paper reports on a novel drying technology, Pressure Swing Adsorption Dehydration System (PSAD), for the dehydration of freshly prepared acellular porcine dermal tissue. The aim is to investigate the effectiveness of the PSADS to obtain partially dehydrated mammalian dermal tissue suitable for biomedical preservation. Experiments were carried out by a varying number of parameters such as the chamber pressure level, duration and temperature. Samples were weighed and the surface color was taken periodically to track moisture removal rate and color deterioration due to oxidation. Scanning electron microscopy images of the lyophilized and processed samples were also taken for comparison. Results indicated that the depressurized level, frequency of pressure drops and temperature have positive effects on dehydration rate. Color change was generally low, indicating low level of oxidation. Hence, the PSADS provides a feasible way that can be as good if not better than current drying processes to obtain partially dried dermal tissue while minimizing product deterioration

  5. Magnesium isotope evidence for single stage formation of CB chondrules by colliding planetesimals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsen, Mia Bjørg Stolberg; Schiller, Martin; Krot, Alexander N.

    2013-01-01

    Chondrules are igneous spherical objects preserved in chondritic meteorites and believed to have formed during transient heating events in the solar protoplanetary disk. Chondrules present in the metal-rich CB chondrites show unusual chemical and petrologic features not observed in other chondrite...... groups, implying a markedly distinct formation mechanism. Here, we report high-precision Mg-isotope data for 10 skeletal olivine chondrules from the Hammadah al Hamra 237 (HH237) chondrite to probe the formation history of CB chondrules. The Al/Mg ratios of individual chondrules are positively correlated...... to their stable Mg-isotope composition (μMg), indicating that the correlated variability was imparted by a volatility-controlled process (evaporation/condensation). The mass-independent Mg composition (μMg*) of chondrules is consistent with single stage formation from an initially homogeneous magnesium reservoir...

  6. Aeration Strategies To Mitigate Nitrous Oxide Emissions from Single-Stage Nitritation/Anammox Reactors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Domingo Felez, Carlos; Mutlu, A. Gizem; Jensen, Marlene Mark

    2014-01-01

    Autotrophic nitrogen removal is regarded as a resource efficient process to manage nitrogen-rich residual streams. However, nitrous oxide emissions of these processes are poorly documented and strategies to mitigate emissions unknown. In this study, two sequencing batch reactors performing single......-stage nitritation/anammox were operated under different aeration strategies, gradually adjusted over six months. At constant but limiting oxygen loading, synthetic reject water was fed (0.75g-N/L.d) and high nitrogen removal efficiencies (83 +/- 5 and 88 +/- 2%) obtained. Dynamics of liquid phase nitrous (N2O......) and nitric oxide (NO) concentrations were monitored and N2O emissions calculated. Significant decreases in N2O emissions were obtained when the frequency of aeration was increased while maintaining a constant air flow rate (from >6 to 1.7% Delta N2O/Delta TN). However, no significant effect on the emissions...

  7. Multi-disciplinary design optimization and performance evaluation of a single stage transonic axial compressor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Sae Il; Lee, Dong Ho; Kim, Kyu Hong; Park, Tae Choon; Lim, Byeung Jun; Kang, Young Seok

    2013-01-01

    The multidisciplinary design optimization method, which integrates aerodynamic performance and structural stability, was utilized in the development of a single-stage transonic axial compressor. An approximation model was created using artificial neural network for global optimization within given ranges of variables and several design constraints. The genetic algorithm was used for the exploration of the Pareto front to find the maximum objective function value. The final design was chosen after a second stage gradient-based optimization process to improve the accuracy of the optimization. To validate the design procedure, numerical simulations and compressor tests were carried out to evaluate the aerodynamic performance and safety factor of the optimized compressor. Comparison between numerical optimal results and experimental data are well matched. The optimum shape of the compressor blade is obtained and compared to the baseline design. The proposed optimization framework improves the aerodynamic efficiency and the safety factor.

  8. Investigation of Single-Stage Modified Turbine of Mark 25 Torpedo Power Plant

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoyt, Jack W.

    1947-01-01

    Efficiency investigations have been made on a single-stage modification of the turbine of a Mark 25 aerial torpedo to determine the performance of the unit with five different turbine nozzles. The output of the turbine blades was computed by analyzing the windage and mechanical-friction losses of the unit. The turbine was faund to be most efficient with a cast nozzle having sharp-edged inlets to the nine nozzle ports. An analysis af the effectiveness af the first and second stages of the standard Mark 25 torpedo turbine indicates that the first- stage turbine contributes nearly all the brake power produced at blade-jet speed ratios above 0.26.

  9. The Integrity of ACSR Full Tension Single-Stage Splice Connector at Higher Operation Temperature

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Jy-An John [ORNL; Lara-Curzio, Edgar [ORNL; King Jr, Thomas J [ORNL

    2008-10-01

    Due to increases in power demand and limited investment in new infrastructure, existing overhead power transmission lines often need to operate at temperatures higher than those used for the original design criteria. This has led to the accelerated aging and degradation of splice connectors. It is manifested by the formation of hot-spots that have been revealed by infrared imaging during inspection. The implications of connector aging is two-fold: (1) significant increases in resistivity of the splice connector (i.e., less efficient transmission of electricity) and (2) significant reductions in the connector clamping strength, which could ultimately result in separation of the power transmission line at the joint. Therefore, the splice connector appears to be the weakest link in electric power transmission lines. This report presents a protocol for integrating analytical and experimental approaches to evaluate the integrity of full tension single-stage splice connector assemblies and the associated effective lifetime at high operating temperature.

  10. Clean-chemistry synthesis of 2-tetralones in a single-stage acylation-cycloalkylation process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gray, A D; Smyth, T P

    2001-10-19

    The preparation of substituted-2-tetralones by direct reaction of a 1-alkene with a substituted phenylacetic acid in a reaction system of trifluoroacetic anhydride (TFAA) and phosphoric acid is described. This single-stage process involves in situ formation of a mixed anhydride of the phenylacetic acid and acylation of the alkene by this species followed by cycloalkylation of the aromatic ring. This is a cleaner approach to the synthesis of 2-tetralones compared to Friedel-Crafts aliphatic acylation-cycloalkylation in that use of thionyl chloride, aluminum trichloride, and a chlorinated hydrocarbon solvent is eliminated. In addition, the atom efficiency is augmented by recovery of the spent TFAA as trifluoroacetic acid (TFA) and conversion of this back to TFAA by dehydration.

  11. Theoretical evaluation of the efficiency of gas single-stage reciprocating compressor medium pressure units

    Science.gov (United States)

    Busarov, S. S.; Vasil'ev, V. K.; Busarov, I. S.; Titov, D. S.; Panin, Ju. N.

    2017-08-01

    Developed earlier and tested in such working fluid as air, the technology of calculating the operating processes of slow-speed long-stroke reciprocating stages let the authors to obtain successful results concerning compression of gases to medium pressures in one stage. In this connection, the question of the efficiency of the application of slow-speed long-stroke stages in various fields of technology and the national economy, where the working fluid is other gas or gas mixture, is topical. The article presents the results of the efficiency evaluation of single-stage compressor units on the basis of such stages for cases when ammonia, hydrogen, helium or propane-butane mixture is used as the working fluid.

  12. Isolated EWiRaC: A New Low-Stress Single-Stage Isolated PFC Converter

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schneider, Henrik; Bergendorff, Stefan Pihl; Petersen, Lars

    2007-01-01

    A new PFC-family of Efficient Wide Range Converters named EWiRaC was recently introduced. EWiRaC has a major advantage in terms of efficiency at low-line and handles challenges like inrush current limiting as an integrated part of the conversion scheme. The main objective of this paper is to inve......A new PFC-family of Efficient Wide Range Converters named EWiRaC was recently introduced. EWiRaC has a major advantage in terms of efficiency at low-line and handles challenges like inrush current limiting as an integrated part of the conversion scheme. The main objective of this paper...... is to investigate the performance of an isolated EWiRaC (I-EWiRaC) in a single-stage PFC configuration....

  13. Single-stage accelerator mass spectrometer radiocarbon-interference identification and positive-ionisation characterisation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wilcken, K.M., E-mail: klaus.wilcken@ansto.gov.au [Scottish Universities Environmental Research Centre, Scottish Enterprise Technology Park, East Kilbride G75 0QF (United Kingdom); Freeman, S.P.H.T.; Xu, S.; Dougans, A. [Scottish Universities Environmental Research Centre, Scottish Enterprise Technology Park, East Kilbride G75 0QF (United Kingdom)

    2013-01-15

    A single-stage accelerator mass spectrometer (SSAMS) is a good alternative to conventional spectrometers based on tandem electrostatic acceleration for radiocarbon measurement and permits experimentation with both negative and positive carbon ions. However, such {sup 14}C AMS of either polarity ions is limited by an interference. In the case of anion acceleration we have newly determined this to be summed {sup 13}C and {sup 16}O by improvising an additional Wien filter on our SSAMS deck. Also, {sup 14}C AMS might be improved by removing its dependency on negative-ionisation in a sputter ion source. This requires negative-ionisation of sample atoms elsewhere to suppress the {sup 14}N interference, which we accomplish by transmitting initially positive ions through a thin membrane. The ionisation dependence on ion-energy is found to be consistent with previous experimentation with vapours and thicker foils.

  14. Realization of single-phase single-stage grid-connected PV system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Osama M. Arafa

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a single phase single stage grid-tied PV system. Grid angle detection is introduced to allow operation at any arbitrary power factor but unity power factor is chosen to utilize the full inverter capacity. The system ensures MPPT using the incremental conductance method and it can track the changes in insolation level without oscillations. A PI voltage controller and a dead-beat current controller are used to ensure high quality injected current to the grid. The paper investigates the system structure and performance through numerical simulation using Matlab/Simulink. An experimental setup controlled by the MicrolabBox DSP prototyping platform is utilized to realize the system and study its performance. The precautions for smooth and safe system operation including the startup sequence are fully considered in the implementation.

  15. High efficiency 40 K single-stage Stirling-type pulse tube cryocooler

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, X. L.; Chen, L. B.; Pan, C. Z.; Cui, C.; Wang, J. J.; Zhou, Y.

    2017-12-01

    A high efficiency single-stage Stirling-type coaxial pulse tube cryocooler (SPTC) operating at around 40 K has been designed, built and tested. The double-inlet and the inertance tubes together with the gas reservoir were adopted as the phase shifters. Under the conditions of 2.5 MPa charging pressure and 30 Hz operating frequency, the prototype has achieved a no-load temperature of 23.8 K with 330 W of electric input power at a rejection temperature of 279 K. When the input power increases to 400 W, it can achieve a cooling capacity of 4.7 W/40 K while rejecting heat at 279 K yielding an efficiency of 7.02% relative to Carnot. It achieves a cooling capacity of 5 W/40 K with an input power of 450 W. It takes 10 minutes for the SPTC to cool to its no-load temperature of 40 K from 295 K.

  16. Self-Excited Single-Stage Power Factor Correction Driving Circuit for LED Lighting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yong-Nong Chang

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This pa\tper proposes a self-excited single-stage high power factor LED lighting driving circuit. Being featured with power factor correction capability without needing any control devices, the proposed circuit structure is with low cost and suitable for commercial production. The power factor correction function is accomplished by using inductor in combination with a half-bridge quasi resonant converter to achieve active switching and yield out voltage regulation according to load requirement. Furthermore, the zero-voltage switching in the half-bridge converter can be attained to promote the overall performance efficiency of the proposed circuit. Finally, the validity and production availability of the proposed circuit will be verified as well.

  17. Detection of Brucella melitensis and Brucella abortus strains using a single-stage PCR method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alamian, S.

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Brucella melitensis and Brucella abortus are of the most important causes of brucellosis, an infectious disease which is transmitted either directly or indirectly including consuming unpasteurized dairy products. Both strains are considered endemic in Iran. Common diagnostic methods such as bacteriologic cultures are difficult and time consuming regarding the bacteria. The aim of this study was to suggest a single-stage PCR method using a pair of primers to detect both B. melitensis and B. abortus. The primers were named UF1 and UR1 and the results showed that the final size of PCR products were 84 bp and 99 bp for B. melitensis and B. abortus, respectively. Therefore the method could be useful for rapid detection of B. melitensis and B. abortus simultaneously.

  18. Single stage to orbit mass budgets derived from propellant density and specific impulse

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Whitehead, J.C.

    1996-06-06

    The trade between specific impulse (Isp) and density is examined in view of Single Stage To Orbit (SSTO) requirements. Mass allocations for vehicle hardware are derived from these two properties, for several propellant combinations and a dual-fuel case. This comparative analysis, based on flight-proven hardware, indicates that the higher density of several alternative propellants compensates for reduced Isp, when compared with cryogenic oxygen and hydrogen. Approximately half the orbiting mass of a rocket- propelled SSTO vehicle must be allocated to propulsion hardware and residuals. Using hydrogen as the only fuel requires a slightly greater fraction of orbiting mass for propulsion, because hydrogen engines and tanks are heavier than those for denser fuels. The advantage of burning both a dense fuel and hydrogen in succession depends strongly on tripropellant engine weight. The implications of the calculations for SSTO vehicle design are discussed, especially with regard to the necessity to minimize non-tankage structure.

  19. Single-stage management with combined tri-endoscopic approach for concomitant cholecystolithiasis and choledocholithiasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lv, Fujing; Zhang, Shutian; Ji, Ming; Wang, Yongjun; Li, Peng; Han, Wei

    2016-12-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the value of a single stage with combined tri-endoscopic (duodenoscopy, laparoscopy and choledochoscopy) approach for patients with concomitant cholecystolithiasis and choledocholithiasis. Fifty-three patients with combined gallbladder stones and common bile duct stones from February 2014 to April 2015 were randomized assigned to two groups: 29 patients underwent single-stage surgery with combined duodenoscope, laparoscope and choledochoscope (combined tri-endoscopic group), and 29 patients underwent endoscopic sphincterotomy to remove common bile duct stones followed by laparoscopic cholecystectomy several days later (control group). The success rate of complete stone removal, procedure-related complication, hospital stay and the cost of hospitalization were compared between the two groups. Altogether, 53 patients (29 patients in combined tri-endoscopic group and 24 patients in control group) successfully underwent the surgery and ERCP procedure. Three patients in the control group developed post-ERCP pancreatitis. One case of bile leaking and one case of residual stone were noted in the combined tri-endoscopic group. There were no significant differences between the two groups with regard to both complete stone removal [96.6 % (28/29) vs. 100 % (24/24)] and procedure-related complication rate [3.4 % (1/29) vs. 12.5 % (3/24)] (p > 0.05). No open surgery was required in either group. There were significant differences between the two groups with regard to hospital stay (6.72 ± 1.3 days vs. 10.91 ± 1.6 days, p choledocholithiasis was just as safe and successful as the control group. In addition, it resulted in a shorter hospital stay and less cost.

  20. Outcome of single stage vertebral column resection in treatment of kyphotic deformity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arif, Mohammad; Satar, Abdul; Saeed, Muhammad; Wazir, Zahid; Inam, Mohammad

    2014-12-01

    To find the frequency of deformity correction, functional outcome and complications of single-stage vertebral column resection in patients with kyphotic deformity. The prospective case series was conducted at Hayatabad Medical Complex, Peshawar, and Aman Hospital, Peshawar, from January 2012 to December 2013, and comprised all patients who underwent single-stage posterior vertebral column resection. Only patients with severe rigid sharp deformity of different aetiology that required more than 40 degree correction and who had at least 3-month follow-up were included. Data was processed using SPSS 16. Of the total 18 patients, 11(61.1%) were male and 7(38.9%) were female, with an overall mean age of 28.7±13.6 years (range: 12-60 years). Among them, 8(44.4%) patients had congenital kyphosis, 5(27.8%) had posttraumatic origin, 4(22.2%) had post-tuberculous deformity, while 1(5.6%) had iatrogenic kyphosis. The apex of the deformity was in thoracic spine in 12(66.7%) patients, while in 6(33.3%) patients it was in the lumbar spine. The average pre- and post-operative Cobb's angle was 66.2±18.9 degrees and 18.8±12.8 degrees respectively. Mean correction of deformities was 47.3±13.3 degrees. The mean correction achieved in percentage terms was 73.5±8.6 per cent (range: 56-87%). There were no patients with post-operative deterioration of neurological status. Two (11%) patients underwent re-exploration of the wounds with wash and cultures due to wound discharge. Posterior vertebral column resection was found to be a very effective method of correction of severe kyphotic deformities in expert hands with acceptable morbidity.

  1. Comparisons of single-stage and two-stage approaches to genomic selection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schulz-Streeck, Torben; Ogutu, Joseph O; Piepho, Hans-Peter

    2013-01-01

    Genomic selection (GS) is a method for predicting breeding values of plants or animals using many molecular markers that is commonly implemented in two stages. In plant breeding the first stage usually involves computation of adjusted means for genotypes which are then used to predict genomic breeding values in the second stage. We compared two classical stage-wise approaches, which either ignore or approximate correlations among the means by a diagonal matrix, and a new method, to a single-stage analysis for GS using ridge regression best linear unbiased prediction (RR-BLUP). The new stage-wise method rotates (orthogonalizes) the adjusted means from the first stage before submitting them to the second stage. This makes the errors approximately independently and identically normally distributed, which is a prerequisite for many procedures that are potentially useful for GS such as machine learning methods (e.g. boosting) and regularized regression methods (e.g. lasso). This is illustrated in this paper using componentwise boosting. The componentwise boosting method minimizes squared error loss using least squares and iteratively and automatically selects markers that are most predictive of genomic breeding values. Results are compared with those of RR-BLUP using fivefold cross-validation. The new stage-wise approach with rotated means was slightly more similar to the single-stage analysis than the classical two-stage approaches based on non-rotated means for two unbalanced datasets. This suggests that rotation is a worthwhile pre-processing step in GS for the two-stage approaches for unbalanced datasets. Moreover, the predictive accuracy of stage-wise RR-BLUP was higher (5.0-6.1%) than that of componentwise boosting.

  2. Tetanus–diphtheria–acellular pertussis vaccination for adults: an update

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-01-01

    Although tetanus and diphtheria have become rare in developed countries, pertussis is still endemic in some developed countries. These are vaccine-preventable diseases and vaccination for adults is important to prevent the outbreak of disease. Strategies for tetanus, diphtheria, and pertussis vaccines vary from country to country. Each country needs to monitor consistently epidemiology of the diseases and changes vaccination policies accordingly. Recent studies showed that tetanus–diphtheria–acellular pertussis vaccine for adults is effective and safe to prevent pertussis disease in infants. However, vaccine coverage still remains low than expected and seroprevalence of protective antibodies levels for tetanus, diphtheria, and pertussis decline with aging. The importance of tetanus–diphtheria–acellular pertussis vaccine administration should be emphasized for the protection of young adult and elderly people also, not limited to children. PMID:28168170

  3. Dermal uptake of petroleum substances.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jakasa, Ivone; Kezic, Sanja; Boogaard, Peter J

    2015-06-01

    Petroleum products are complex substances comprising varying amounts of linear and branched alkanes, alkenes, cycloalkanes, and aromatics which may penetrate the skin at different rates. For proper interpretation of toxic hazard data, understanding their percutaneous absorption is of paramount importance. The extent and significance of dermal absorption of eight petroleum substances, representing different classes of hydrocarbons, was evaluated. Literature data on the steady-state flux and permeability coefficient of these substances were evaluated and compared to those predicted by mathematical models. Reported results spanned over 5-6 orders of magnitude and were largely dependent on experimental conditions in particular on the type of the vehicle used. In general, aromatic hydrocarbons showed higher dermal absorption than more lipophilic aliphatics with similar molecular weight. The results showed high variation and were largely influenced by experimental conditions emphasizing the need of performing the experiments under "in use" scenario. The predictive models overestimated experimental absorption. The overall conclusion is that, based on the observed percutaneous penetration data, dermal exposure to petroleum hydrocarbons, even of aromatics with highest dermal absorption is limited and highly unlikely to be associated with health risks under real use scenarios. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Laser cellulite treatment and laser-assisted lipoplasty of the thighs and buttocks: Combined modalities for single stage contouring of the lower body.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petti, Christine; Stoneburner, Jacqueline; McLaughlin, Laura

    2016-01-01

    delivery of laser energy to the dermal-adipose tissue, as well as the deep adipose lipodystrophy is feasible as a safe modality for the simultaneous treatment of cellulite and lipodystrophy in the buttocks and thighs, as a single stage procedure. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  5. Attainability and minimum energy of single-stage membrane and membrane/distillation hybrid processes

    KAUST Repository

    Alshehri, Ali

    2014-12-01

    As an energy-efficient separation method, membrane technology has attracted more and more attentions in many challenging separation processes. The attainability and the energy consumption of a membrane process are the two basic fundamental questions that need to be answered. This report aims to use process simulations to find: (1) at what conditions a single-stage membrane process can meet the separation task that is defined by product purity and recovery ratio and (2) what are the most important parameters that determine the energy consumption. To perform a certain separation task, it was found that both membrane selectivity and pressure ratio exhibit a minimum value that is defined only by product purity and recovery ratio. The membrane/distillation hybrid system was used to study the energy consumption. A shortcut method was developed to calculate the minimum practical separation energy (MPSE) of the membrane process and the distillation process. It was found that the MPSE of the hybrid system is only determined by the membrane selectivity and the applied transmembrane pressure ratio in three stages. At the first stage when selectivity is low, the membrane process is not competitive to the distillation process. Adding a membrane unit to a distillation tower will not help in reducing energy. At the second medium selectivity stage, the membrane/distillation hybrid system can help reduce the energy consumption, and the higher the membrane selectivity, the lower is the energy. The energy conservation is further improved as pressure ratio increases. At the third stage when both selectivity and pressure ratio are high, the hybrid system will change to a single-stage membrane unit and this change will cause significant reduction in energy consumption. The energy at this stage keeps decreasing with selectivity at slow rate, but slightly increases with pressure ratio. Overall, the higher the membrane selectivity, the more the energy is saved. Therefore, the two

  6. Outcomes of single-stage total arch replacement via clamshell incision

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ishizaka Toru

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Treatment of complex aortic pathologies involving the transverse arch with extensive involvement of the descending aorta remains a surgical challenge. Since clamshell incision provides superior exposure of the entire thoracic aorta, we evaluated the use of this technique for single-stage total arch replacement by arch vessel reconstruction. Methods The arch-first technique combined with clamshell incision was used in 38 cases of aneurysm and aortic disease in 2008 and 2009. Extensive total arch replacement was used with clamshell incision for reconstruction of arch vessels under deep hypothermic circulatory arrest. Results Overall 30-day mortality was 13%. The mean operating time was approximately 8 hours. Deep hypothermia resulted in mean CPB time exceeding 4.5 hours and mean duration of circulatory arrest was 25 minutes. The overall postoperative temporary and permanent neurologic dysfunction rates were 3% and 3% for elective and 3% and 0% for emergency surgery, respectively. All patients except the five who died in hospital were discharged without nursing care after an average post-operative hospital stay of 35 days. Conclusions The arch-first technique, combined with clamshell incision, provides expeditious replacement of the thoracic aorta with an acceptable duration of hypothermic circulatory arrest and minimizes the risk of retrograde atheroembolism by using antegrade perfusion.

  7. Solvent Carryover Characterization and Recovery for a 10-inch Single Stage Centrifugal Contactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lentsch, R.D.; Stephens, A.B.; Leung, D.T.; Baffling, K.E.; Harmon, H.D.; Suggs, P.C.

    2006-01-01

    A test program has been performed to characterize the organic solvent carryover and recovery from centrifugal contactors in the Caustic-side Solvent Extraction (CSSX) process. CSSX is the baseline design for removing cesium from salt solutions for Department of Energy (DOE) Savannah River Site's Salt Waste Processing Facility. CSSX uses a custom solvent to extract cesium from the salt solution in a series of single stage centrifugal contactors. Meeting the Waste Acceptance Criteria at the Defense Waste Processing Facility and Saltstone, as well as plant economics, dictate that solvent loss should be kept to a minimum. Solvent droplet size distribution in the aqueous outlet streams of the CSSX contactors is of particular importance to the design of solvent recovery equipment. Because insufficient solvent droplet size data existed to form a basis for the recovery system design, DOE funded the CSSX Solvent Carryover Characterization and Recovery Test (SCCRT). This paper presents the droplet size distribution of solvent and concentration in the contactor aqueous outlet streams as a function of rotor speed, bottom plate type, and flow rate. It also presents the performance data of a prototype coalescer. (authors)

  8. Single-Stage Step up/down Driver for Permanent-Magnet Synchronous Machines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, T. R.; Juan, Y. L.; Huang, C. Y.; Kuo, C. T.

    2017-11-01

    The two-stage circuit composed of a step up/down dc converter and a three-phase voltage source inverter is usually adopted as the electric vehicle’s motor driver. The conventional topology is more complicated. Additional power loss resulted from twice power conversion would also cause lower efficiency. A single-stage step up/down Permanent-Magnet Synchronous Motor driver for Brushless DC (BLDC) Motor is proposed in this study. The number components and circuit complexity are reduced. The low frequency six-step square-wave control is used to reduce the switching losses. In the proposed topology, only one active switch is gated with a high frequency PWM signal for adjusting the rotation speed. The rotor position signals are fed back to calculate the motor speed for digital close-loop control in a MCU. A 600W prototype circuit is constructed to drive a BLDC motor with rated speed 3000 rpm, and can control the speed of six sections.

  9. Single-stage Kanban system with deterioration failures and condition-based preventive maintenance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xanthopoulos, A.S.; Koulouriotis, D.E.; Botsaris, P.N.

    2015-01-01

    Despite the fact that the fields of pull type production control policies and condition-based preventive maintenance have much in common contextually, they have evolved independently up to now. In this investigation, an attempt is made to bridge the gap between these two branches of knowledge by introducing the single-stage Kanban system with deterioration failures and condition-based preventive maintenance. The formalism of continuous time Markov chains is used to model the system and expressions for eight performance metrics are derived. Two important, from a managerial perspective, constrained optimization problems for the proposed model are defined where the objective is the simultaneous optimization of the Kanban policy, the preventive maintenance policy and the inspection schedule under conflicting performance criteria. Multiple instances of each optimization problem are solved by means of the augmented Lagrangian genetic algorithm. The results from the optimization trials coupled by the results from extensive numerical examples facilitate the thorough investigation of the system’s behaviour. - Highlights: • Kanban system with deterioration failures and preventive maintenance is introduced. • The system is modeled as a continuous time Markov chain. • Expressions for eight performance metrics are derived. • The behavior of the system is studied through numerical examples. • Optimization results for selected performance metrics are presented

  10. Single stage: dorsolateral onlay buccal mucosal urethroplasty for long anterior urethral strictures using perineal route

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vikram Prabha

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Objective To assess the outcome of single stage dorsolateral onlay buccal mucosal urethroplasty for long anterior urethral strictures (>4cm long using a perineal incision. Materials and Methods From August 2010 to August 2013, 20 patients underwent BMG urethroplasty. The cause of stricture was Lichen sclerosis in 12 cases (60%, Instrumentation in 5 cases (25%, and unknown in 3 cases (15%. Strictures were approached through a perineal skin incision and penis was invaginated into it to access the entire urethra. All the grafts were placed dorsolaterally, preserving the bulbospongiosus muscle, central tendon of perineum and one-sided attachement of corpus spongiosum. Procedure was considered to be failure if the patient required instrumentation postoperatively. Results Mean stricture length was 8.5cm (range 4 to 12cm. Mean follow-up was 22.7 months (range 12 to 36 months. Overall success rate was 85%. There were 3 failures (meatal stenosis in 1, proximal stricture in 1 and whole length recurrent stricture in 1. Other complications included wound infection, urethrocutaneous fistula, brownish discharge per urethra and scrotal oedema. Conclusion Dorsolateral buccal mucosal urethroplasty for long anterior urethral strictures using a single perineal incision is simple, safe and easily reproducible by urologists with a good outcome.

  11. [Achieve single-stage autotrophic biological nitrogen removal process by controlling the concentration of free ammonia].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ji, Li-Li; Yang, Zhao-Hui; Xu, Zheng-Yong; Li, Xiao-Jiang; Tang, Zhi-Gang; Deng, Jiu-Hu

    2011-01-01

    Through controlling the concentration of free ammonia in the sequencing batch reactor (SBR), the single-stage autotrophic biological nitrogen removal process was achieved, including partial nitrification and anaerobic ammonium oxidation. The experiment was completed via two steps, the enrichment of nitrite bacteria and the inoculation of the mixture of anammox biomass. The operating temperature in the SBR was (31 +/- 2) degrees C. During the step of the enrichment of nitrite bacteria, pH was about 7.8. Changes of FA concentration were achieved by controlling the concentration of influent NH4(+) -N(56-446 mg x L(-1)), in order to inhibit and eliminate the nitrate bacteria. The activity tests of the sludge, 55d after enrichment, showed strong activity of aerobic ammonium oxidation [2.91 kg x (kg x d)(-1)] and low activity of nitrite oxidation [0.03 kg x(kg x d)(-1)]. During the inoculation of the mixture of anammox biomass, changes of FA concentration were achieved by controlling the concentration of influent NH4(+) -N and pH. As the inoculation of anammox biomass, abundant of bacteria and nutrient content were into the reactor and there kept high activity of aerobic ammonium oxidation [2.83 kg x (kg x d)(-1)] and a certain activity of nitrite oxidation, at the same time, the activity of anammox and heterotrophic denitrification reached 0.65 kg x (kg x d)(-1) and 0.11 kg x (kg x d)(-1), respectively.

  12. Wind-driven SEIG supplying DC microgrid through a single-stage power converter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vellapatchi Nayanar

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays, there is an increased emphasis on utilizing the renewable energy sources and selection of suitable power converters for supplying dc microgrid. Among the various renewable energy sources, wind energy stands first in terms of installed capacity. So, an attempt is made in this paper for supplying dc microgrid utilizing wind energy. A self-excited induction generator has been used in the proposed wind energy conversion system (WECS. A single-stage power converter, namely, semi-converter is connected between the SEIG and dc grid terminals for closed-loop control of the proposed system. A perturb and observe (P&O based maximum power point tracking (MPPT algorithm has been developed and implemented using a dsPIC30F4011 digital controller. In this MPPT algorithm, the firing angle of the converter is adjusted by continuously monitoring the dc grid current for a given wind velocity. For analyzing the proposed system, a MATLAB/Simulink model has been developed by selecting the various components starting from wind-turbine model to the power converter supplying dc microgrid. Successful working of the proposed WECS has also been shown through experimental results obtained on a prototype model developed in the laboratory.

  13. Construction and characterization of a single stage dual diaphragm gas gun

    Science.gov (United States)

    Helminiak, Nathaniel Steven

    In the interest of studying the propagation of shock waves, this work sets out to design, construct, and characterize a pneumatic accelerator that performs high-velocity flyer plate impact tests. A single stage gas gun with a dual diaphragm breach allows for a non-volatile, reliable experimental testing platform for shock phenomena. This remotely operated gas gun utilizes compressed nitrogen to launch projectiles down a 14 foot long, 2 inch diameter bore barrel, which subsequently impacts a target material of interest. A dual diaphragm firing mechanism allows the 4.5 liter breech to reach a total pressure differential of 10ksi before accelerating projectiles to velocities as high as 1,000 m/s (1570-2240 mph). The projectile's velocity is measured using a series of break pin circuits. The target response can be measured with Photon Doppler Velocimetry (PDV) and/or stress gauge system. A vacuum system eliminates the need for pressure relief in front of the projectile, while additionally allowing the system to remain closed over the entire firing cycle. Characterization of the system will allow for projectile speed to be estimated prior to launching based on initial breach pressure.

  14. Orifice Mass Flow Calculation in NASA's W-8 Single Stage Axial Compressor Facility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bozak, Richard F.

    2018-01-01

    Updates to the orifice mass flow calculation for the W-8 Single Stage Axial Compressor Facility at NASA Glenn Research Center are provided to include the effect of humidity and incorporate ISO 5167. A methodology for including the effect of humidity into the inlet orifice mass flow calculation is provided. Orifice mass flow calculations provided by ASME PTC-19.5-2004, ASME MFC-3M-2004, ASME Fluid Meters, and ISO 5167 are compared for W-8's atmospheric inlet orifice plate. Differences in expansion factor and discharge coefficient given by these standards give a variation of about +/- 75% mass flow except for a few cases. A comparison of the calculations with an inlet static pressure mass flow correlation and a fan exit mass flow integration using test data from a 2017 turbofan rotor test in W-8 show good agreement between the inlet static pressure mass flow correlation, ISO 5167, and ASME Fluid Meters. While W-8's atmospheric inlet orifice plate violates the pipe diameter limit defined by each of the standards, the ISO 5167 is chosen to be the primary orifice mass flow calculation to use in the W-8 facility.

  15. Single-stage transforaminal decompression, debridement, interbody fusion, and posterior instrumentation for lumbosacral brucellosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abulizi, Yakefu; Liang, Wei-Dong; Muheremu, Aikeremujiang; Maimaiti, Maierdan; Sheng, Wei-Bin

    2017-07-14

    Spinal brucellosis is a less commonly reported infectious spinal pathology. There are few reports regarding the surgical treatment of spinal brucellosis in existing literature. This retrospective study was conducted to determine the effectiveness of single-stage transforaminal decompression, debridement, interbody fusion, and posterior instrumentation for lumbosacral spinal brucellosis. From February 2012 to April 2015, 32 consecutive patients (19 males and 13 females, mean age 53.7 ± 8.7) with lumbosacral brucellosis treated by transforaminal decompression, debridement, interbody fusion, and posterior instrumentation were enrolled. Medical records, imaging studies, laboratory data were collected and summarized. Surgical outcomes were evaluated based on visual analogue scale (VAS), Oswestry Disability Index (ODI) and Japanese Orthopaedic Association (JOA) scale. The changes in C-reactive protein (CRP) levels, erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR), clinical symptoms and complications were investigated. Graft fusion was evaluated using Bridwell grading criteria. The mean follow-up period was 24.9 ± 8.2 months. Back pain and radiating leg pain was relieved significantly in all patients after operation. No implant failures were observed in any patients. Wound infection was observed in two patients and sinus formation was observed in one patient. Solid bony fusion was achieved in 30 patients and the fusion rate was 93.8%. The levels of ESR and CRP were returned to normal by the end of three months' follow-up. VAS and ODI scores were significantly improved (P brucellosis.

  16. Evaluation of single-stage adjustable strabismus surgery under conscious sedation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sharma Pradeep

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: To evaluate the feasibility and stability of ocular alignment after single-stage adjustable strabismus surgery (SSASS performed under topical anesthesia. Materials and Methods: Forty-five patients of concomitant exodeviations were randomized into three groups of 15 cases each and were operated with three different techniques: Group I - conventional surgery, Group II - two-stage adjustable suture technique with suture adjustment performed 6h postoperatively and Group III- SSASS under topical anesthesia and intravenous conscious sedation with midazolam and fentanyl. Intraoperative suture adjustment was done by giving a cross target to the patient on the ceiling at the end of the procedure. Surgical results were compared among the three groups at three months follow-up. Intraoperative hemodynamic parameters and patients′ experience of the surgery (by questionnaire were also compared. Results: Mean preoperative deviation for distance in Groups I, II, III was -41.67 prism diopter (pd ±9.0, -38.93 pd ±11.05 and -41.87 pd ±8.91 ( P =0.6 respectively. At three months, mean correction achieved for distance was +31.87 pd ±11.71, +35.47 pd ±10.86 and +42.80 pd ±10.71 respectively which was significantly different between Group III and Group I ( P =0.03. Intraoperatively all hemodynamic parameters remained stable and comparable ( P =0. 5 in all groups. Intraoperative pain ( P < 0.001 and time taken for surgery ( P < 0.001 was more in the SSASS group. Amount of exodrift was 10-12 pd, comparable in all three groups ( P = 0.5. Conclusions: SSASS, performed under topical anesthesia, is safe and has better outcomes than conventional recession-resection surgery for concomitant exodeviation. An overcorrection of about 10-12 pd is recommended to check the exodrift and achieve stable alignment.

  17. Metoidioplasty as a single stage sex reassignment surgery in female transsexuals: Belgrade experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Djordjevic, Miroslav L; Stanojevic, Dusan; Bizic, Marta; Kojovic, Vladimir; Majstorovic, Marko; Vujovic, Svetlana; Milosevic, Alexandar; Korac, Gradimir; Perovic, Sava V

    2009-05-01

    Metoidioplasty represents one of the variants of phalloplasty in female transsexuals. Its main characteristic is that it is a one-stage procedure. It involves lengthening and straightening of hypertrophied clitoris to create a neophallus, urethral lengthening to enable voiding while standing, and scrotal reconstruction with insertion of testicle prostheses. Our aim is to describe our technique and highlight its advantages. Between September 2002 and April 2007, 82 female transsexuals, aged 18-54 years (mean age 31) underwent one-stage metoidioplasty. Clitoris is lengthened and straightened by division of clitoral ligaments and short urethral plate. Urethroplasty is done with combined buccal mucosa graft and genital skin flaps. Scrotum is created from labia majora in which two testicle prostheses are inserted. Simultaneously, female genitalia are removed. Patients' personal satisfaction about sensitivity and length of neophallus, possibility to void in standing position, real length of reconstructed urethra as well as complication rate comparing to other published data. The median follow-up was 32 months (range 14-69). The mean neophallic length was 5.7 cm (range 4-10). Voiding in standing position was reported in all patients, while dribbling and spraying were noticed in 23 cases and solved spontaneously. There were two urethral strictures and seven fistulas that required secondary minor revision. All patients reported preserved sensation and normal postoperative erection. Testicle prostheses rejection was not observed in any of the patients. Metoidioplasty is a single-stage and time-saving procedure. It could be an alternative to total phalloplasty in female transsexuals who do not wish to have sexual intercourse. Also, it represents a first step in cases where additional augmentation phalloplasty is required.

  18. Thermodynamic simulation of condensation heat recovery characteristics of a single stage centrifugal chiller in a hotel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gong, Guangcai; Chen, Feihu; Su, Huan; Zhou, Jianyong

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► Thermodynamic model of a two-condenser condensation system has been carried out. ► Dynamic simulation method has been presented. ► COP and g of the refrigerating system is better than the single condensation system. ► The optimal parameters for the two-condenser condensation system have been studied. -- Abstract: A thermodynamic simulation study has been carried out for a single stage centrifugal chiller in this paper. The cooling capacity of the chiller unit is about 1750 kW. The chiller unit has been set and tested, and the work refrigerant is R22. A heat exchanger has been set between outlet of the compressor and the condenser for sanitary hot water supplying. Then the chiller unit is a kind of combined system that can provide sanitary hot water supplying and air conditioning simultaneously. A thermodynamic simulation model of the combined system has been established with the system simulation toolbox Simulink. Performance of the components and the combined system of the chiller unit has been studied over a wide range of operating conditions. The potential energy and fuel cost saving associated with the use of the proposed combined system for a typical hotel in south China has been estimated. It is showed that the combined system of the chiller unit is very useful in hotel buildings. And the thermodynamic simulation model of the combined system is significance for the optimization of parameters of the chiller unit such as condensation and evaporation temperature, mass flow of the sanitary hot water and size of hot water storage tank.

  19. An operation protocol for facilitating start-up of single-stage autotrophic nitrogen removing reactors based on process stoichiometry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mutlu, A. Gizem; Vangsgaard, Anna Katrine; Sin, Gürkan

    2012-01-01

    Start-up and operation of single-stage nitritation/anammox reactor employing complete autotrophic nitrogen can be difficult. Keeping the performance criteria and monitoring the microbial community composition may not be easy or fast enough to take action on time. In this study, a control strategy...

  20. Low voltage ride-through capability control for single-stage inverter-based grid-connected photovoltaic power plant

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Al-Shetwi, Ali Q.; Sujod, Muhamad Zahim; Blaabjerg, Frede

    2018-01-01

    The low voltage ride-through (LVRT) capability is one of the challenges faced by the integration of large-scale photovoltaic (PV) power stations into electrical grid which has not been fully investigated. Therefore, this paper presents a comprehensive control strategy of single-stage PV power pla...

  1. Revision Anterior Cruciate Ligament Reconstruction: Results of a Single-stage Approach Using Allograft Dowel Bone Grafting for Femoral Defects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Werner, Brian C; Gilmore, Carl J; Hamann, Joshua C; Gaskin, Cree M; Carroll, John J; Hart, Joseph M; Miller, Mark D

    2016-08-01

    The purpose of this study was to present results of single-stage revision anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) reconstruction using an allograft bone dowel for isolated femoral bony deficiency. Sixteen patients underwent single-stage revision ACL reconstruction using an allograft bone dowel for isolated femoral bony deficiency between 2007 and 2012. Twelve patients (75%) completed study visits, which included CT scans as well as completion of validated outcomes measures. The average KT-1000 side-to-side difference was 1.0 mm ± 2.9 mm. The average International Knee Documentation Committee score was 70.2 ± 17.8, the Tegner score was 4.8 ± 2.8, and the visual analog scale pain score was 2.8 ± 2.4. An analysis of CT scans showed that all 12 dowels had excellent (>75%) incorporation. A single-stage approach for revision ACL reconstruction using allograft dowels for isolated femoral bony deficiency yields objective and subjective outcomes comparable to those reported in the literature for two-stage and other single-stage techniques, with good incorporation of the dowels. Retrospective case series, level IV.

  2. Two-stage IMZ implants and ITI implants inserted in a single-stage procedure : A prospective comparative study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heydenrijk, Kees; Raghoebar, Gerry M.; Meijer, Henny J.A.; Reijden, Willy A. van der; Winkelhoff, Arie Jan van; Stegenga, Boudewijn

    2002-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the feasibility of using a two-stage implant system in a single-stage procedure and to study the impact of the microgap at crestal level and to monitor the microflora in the peri-implant area. Forty edentulous patients (Cawood & Howell class V–VI) participated

  3. Two-stage IMZ implants and ITI implants inserted in a single-stage procedure - A prospective comparative study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heydenrijk, K; Raghoebar, GM; Meijer, HJA; van der Reijden, WA; van Winkelhoff, AJ; Stegenga, B

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the feasibility of using a two-stage implant system in a single-stage procedure and to study the impact of the microgap at crestal level and to monitor the microflora in the peri-implant area. Forty edentulous patients (Cawood & Howell class V-VI) participated

  4. [Tissue engineering of urinary bladder using acellular matrix].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glybochko, P V; Olefir, Yu V; Alyaev, Yu G; Butnaru, D V; Bezrukov, E A; Chaplenko, A A; Zharikova, T M

    2017-04-01

    Tissue engineering has become a new promising strategy for repairing damaged organs of the urinary system, including the bladder. The basic idea of tissue engineering is to integrate cellular technology and advanced bio-compatible materials to replace or repair tissues and organs. of the study is the objective reflection of the current trends and advances in tissue engineering of the bladder using acellular matrix through a systematic search of preclinical and clinical studies of interest. Relevant studies, including those on methods of tissue engineering of urinary bladder, was retrieved from multiple databases, including Scopus, Web of Science, PubMed, Embase. The reference lists of the retrieved review articles were analyzed for the presence of the missing relevant publications. In addition, a manual search for registered clinical trials was conducted in clinicaltrials.gov. Following the above search strategy, a total of 77 eligible studies were selected for further analysis. Studies differed in the types of animal models, supporting structures, cells and growth factors. Among those, studies using cell-free matrix were selected for a more detailed analysis. Partial restoration of urothelium layer was observed in most studies where acellular grafts were used for cystoplasty, but no the growth of the muscle layer was observed. This is the main reason why cellular structures are more commonly used in clinical practice.

  5. Effects of Stator Shroud Injection on the Aerodynamic Performance of a Single-Stage Transonic Axial Compressor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dinh, Cong-Truong; Ma, Sang-Bum; Kim, Kwang Yong

    2017-01-01

    In this study, stator shroud injection in a single-stage transonic axial compressor is proposed. A parametric study of the effect of stator shroud injection on aerodynamic performances was conducted using the three-dimensional Reynolds-averaged Navier-Stokes equations. The curvature, length, width, and circumferential angle of the stator shroud injector and the air injection mass flow rate were selected as the test parameters. The results of the parametric study show that the aerodynamic performances of the single-stage transonic axial compressor were improved by stator shroud injection. The aerodynamic performances were the most sensitive to the injection mass flow rate. Further, the total pressure ratio and adiabatic efficiency were the maximum when the ratio of circumferential angle was 10%.

  6. Effects of Stator Shroud Injection on the Aerodynamic Performance of a Single-Stage Transonic Axial Compressor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dinh, Cong-Truong; Ma, Sang-Bum; Kim, Kwang Yong [Inha Univ., Incheon (Korea, Republic of)

    2017-01-15

    In this study, stator shroud injection in a single-stage transonic axial compressor is proposed. A parametric study of the effect of stator shroud injection on aerodynamic performances was conducted using the three-dimensional Reynolds-averaged Navier-Stokes equations. The curvature, length, width, and circumferential angle of the stator shroud injector and the air injection mass flow rate were selected as the test parameters. The results of the parametric study show that the aerodynamic performances of the single-stage transonic axial compressor were improved by stator shroud injection. The aerodynamic performances were the most sensitive to the injection mass flow rate. Further, the total pressure ratio and adiabatic efficiency were the maximum when the ratio of circumferential angle was 10%.

  7. Area G perimeter surface-soil and single-stage water sampling: Environmental surveillance for fiscal year 95. Progress report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Childs, M.; Conrad, R.

    1997-09-01

    ESH-19 personnel collected soil and single-stage water samples around the perimeter of Area G at Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) during FY 95 to characterize possible radionuclide movement out of Area G through surface water and entrained sediment runoff. Soil samples were analyzed for tritium, total uranium, isotopic plutonium, americium-241, and cesium-137. The single-stage water samples were analyzed for tritium and plutonium isotopes. All radiochemical data was compared with analogous samples collected during FY 93 and 94 and reported in LA-12986 and LA-13165-PR. Six surface soils were also submitted for metal analyses. These data were included with similar data generated for soil samples collected during FY 94 and compared with metals in background samples collected at the Area G expansion area.

  8. Modeling of DNA single stage splicing language via Yusof-Goode approach: One string with two rules

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, Wen Li; Yusof, Yuhani; Mudaber, Mohammad Hassan

    2015-02-01

    Splicing system plays a pivotal role in attempts to recombine sets of double-stranded DNA molecules when acted by restriction enzymes and ligase. Traditional method of finding the result of DNA recombination through experiment is both time and money consuming. Hence, finding the number of patterns of DNA single stage splicing language through formalism of splicing system is a way to optimize the searching process. From the biological perspective, it predicts the number of types of molecules that will exist in the system under existence of restriction enzymes and ligase. In this paper, some theorems, corollaries and examples that lead to the predictions of single stage splicing languages involving one pattern string and two rules are presented via Yusof-Goode approach.

  9. Comparison of single-stage and temperature-phased two-stage anaerobic digestion of oily food waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu, Li-Jie; Kobayashi, Takuro; Li, Yu-You; Xu, Kai-Qin

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • A single-stage and two two-stage anaerobic systems were synchronously operated. • Similar methane production 0.44 L/g VS added from oily food waste was achieved. • The first stage of the two-stage process became inefficient due to serious pH drop. • Recycle favored the hythan production in the two-stage digestion. • The conversion of unsaturated fatty acids was enhanced by recycle introduction. - Abstract: Anaerobic digestion is an effective technology to recover energy from oily food waste. A single-stage system and temperature-phased two-stage systems with and without recycle for anaerobic digestion of oily food waste were constructed to compare the operation performances. The synchronous operation indicated the similar ability to produce methane in the three systems, with a methane yield of 0.44 L/g VS added . The pH drop to less than 4.0 in the first stage of two-stage system without recycle resulted in poor hydrolysis, and methane or hydrogen was not produced in this stage. Alkalinity supplement from the second stage of two-stage system with recycle improved pH in the first stage to 5.4. Consequently, 35.3% of the particulate COD in the influent was reduced in the first stage of two-stage system with recycle according to a COD mass balance, and hydrogen was produced with a percentage of 31.7%, accordingly. Similar solids and organic matter were removed in the single-stage system and two-stage system without recycle. More lipid degradation and the conversion of long-chain fatty acids were achieved in the single-stage system. Recycling was proved to be effective in promoting the conversion of unsaturated long-chain fatty acids into saturated fatty acids in the two-stage system.

  10. Single stage incubators and Hypercapnia during incubation affect the vascularization of the chorioallantoic membrane in broiler embryos.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernandes, J I M; Bortoluzzi, C; Schmidt, J M; Scapini, L B; Santos, T C; Murakami, A E

    2017-01-01

    Incubation management can have direct effects on neonate health and consequently affect post-hatching development. The effects of incubation in multiple and single stage incubators with different concentrations of CO 2 were evaluated in terms of the vessel density in the chorioallantoic membrane, hatching, heart morphology, and body development of the neonate up to the tenth day. A total of 2,520 fertile eggs were used and distributed in a completely randomized design with 4 levels of CO 2 in 4 single-stage incubators (4,000; 6,000; 8,000; and 10,000 ppm) and a control treatment based on multiple-stage incubation, totaling 5 treatments. The levels of CO 2 were used during the first 10 d of the incubation period, and after this period, all eggs were submitted to the same level of CO 2 (4,000 ppm). Eggs that were incubated in multiple-stage incubators presented a lower percentage of vessels in the chorioallantoic membrane, lower yolk absorption by the embryo, wall depth of the right ventricle, and greater humidity losses in the eggs when compared to eggs in the single-stage incubators. The eggs submitted to hypercapnia, between 5,000 and 6,000 ppm of CO 2 , had a higher percentage of vessels in the chorioallantoic membrane; the embryos originating from these eggs had higher weight, with higher relative weight of the liver. However, the same levels reduced the yolk absorption. Single-stage incubation with moderate levels of hypercapnia is an efficient tool to be adopted by the hatcheries when attempting to improve chick quality. © 2016 Poultry Science Association Inc.

  11. Performance analysis of a single stage four bed metal hydride cooling system, part A: Influence of mass recovery

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abraham, Kevin; Prakash Maiya, M.; Srinivasa Murthy, S. [Refrigeration and Air-conditioning Laboratory, Department of Mechanical Engineering, Indian Institute of Technology Madras, 600036, Chennai (India)

    2003-01-01

    The concept of mass recovery in metal hydride systems is studied with a single stage multi-bed cooling system as example. Mass recovery results in variation of bed temperatures due to removal or addition of heat of desorption or absorption respectively. Coefficient of performance and cold output increase while required heat input decreases for the mass recovery cycle. Thus mass recovery between hydride reactors is found to improve system performance compared to that of a basic system. (authors)

  12. Theoretical comparison of single-stage and advanced absorption heat transformers used to increase solar pond's temperature

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rivera, W; Best, Roberto [Centro de Investigacion en Energia-UNAM, Temixco, Morelos (Mexico)

    2000-07-01

    Mathematical models of single-stage and advanced absorption heat transformers operating with the water/Carrol{sup T}M mixture were developed to simulate the performance of these systems coupled to a solar pond in order to increase the temperature of the useful heat produced by solar ponds. The results showed that the single-stage and the double absorption heat transformer are the most promising configuration to be coupled to solar ponds. With single-stage heat transformers it is possible to increase solar pond's temperature until 50 Celsius degrees with coefficients of performance of about 0.48 and with double absorption heat transformers until 100 Celsius degrees with coefficients of performance of 0.33. [Spanish] Se desarrollaron modelos matematicos de una sola etapa y transformadores avanzados de absorcion de calor operando con la mezcla agua/Carrol{sup T}M para simular el rendimiento de estos sistemas acoplados a un estanque solar con el objeto de aumentar la temperatura del calor util producido por los estanques solares. Los resultados mostraron que la etapa sencilla y el transformador de calor de absorcion doble son la configuracion mas prometedora para ser acoplado a estanques solares. Con los transformadores de calor de una sola etapa es posible aumentar la temperatura del estanque solar hasta 50 grados Celsius con coeficientes de rendimiento de alrededor de 0.48 y con transformadores de calor de doble absorcion hasta 100 grados Celsius con coeficientes de rendimiento de 0.33.

  13. How can recovery be enhanced after single-stage laparoscopic management of CBD stones? Endoscopic treatment versus laparoscopic surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chapuis-Roux, Emilie; Pellissier, Laurent; Browet, Francois; Berthou, Jean Charles; Hakim, Sami; Brazier, Franck; Cosse, Cyril; Delcenserie, Richard; Regimbeau, Jean Marc

    2017-07-01

    Single-stage management of CBD stones comprises simultaneous common bile duct (CBD) clearance and cholecystectomy. The CBD can be cleared by using endoscopic treatment (ET) or laparoscopic surgery (LS) alone. To determine the most rapid recovery after the single-stage laparoscopic management of CBD stones. Patients with CBD stones treated at either of two centers (one performing ET only and one performing LS only for single-stage treatment) were included. The primary endpoint was "the textbook outcome". The feasibility rate was 74% for ET and 100% for LS (p≤0.001). The proportion of cases with the textbook outcome was higher in the ET group than in the LS-only group (73% vs. 10%; pCBD clearance rate was similar in the ET and LS-only groups (100% vs. 96.6%, respectively; p=0.17). The overall morbidity rate was lower in the ET group than in the LS-only group (23% vs. 29%, p=0.05). Both ET and LS are feasible, safe and effective for clearance of the CBD. ET was better than LS in terms of a less frequent requirement for drainage and a shorter length of hospital stay. LS was associated with a shorter operating time. Copyright © 2017 Editrice Gastroenterologica Italiana S.r.l. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Single-stage revision from gastric band to gastric bypass or sleeve gastrectomy: 6- and 12-month outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeung, Louise; Durkan, Brandice; Barrett, Allison; Kraft, Cary; Vu, Kim; Phillips, Edward; Cunneen, Scott; Burch, Miguel

    2016-06-01

    Laparoscopic adjustable gastric banding (LAGB) is increasingly requiring revisional surgery for complications and failures. Removal of the band and conversion to either laparoscopic Roux-en-y gastric bypass (LRYGB) or laparoscopic sleeve gastrectomy (LSG) is feasible as a single-stage procedure. The objective of this study is to compare the safety and efficacy of single-stage revision from LAGB to either LRYGB or LSG at 6 and 12 months postoperatively. Retrospective analysis was performed on patients undergoing single-stage revision between 2009 and 2014 at a single academic medical center. Patients were reassessed for weight loss and complications at 6 and 12 months postoperatively. Thirty-two patients underwent single-stage revision to LRYGB, and 72 to LSG. Preoperative BMIs were similar between the two groups (p = 0.27). Median length of stay for LRYGB was 3 days versus 2 for LSG (p = 0.14). Four patients in the LRYGB group required reoperation within 30 days, and two patients in the LSG group required reoperation within 30 days (p = 0.15). There was no difference in ER visits (p = 0.24) or readmission rates (p = 0.80) within 30 days of operation. Six delayed complications were seen in the LSG group with three requiring intervention. At 6 months postoperatively, percent excess weight loss (%EWL) was 50.20 for LRYGB and 30.64 for LSG (p = 0.056). At 12 months, %EWL was 51.19 for LRYGB and 34.89 for LSG (p = 0.31). There was no difference in diabetes or hypertension medication reduction at 12 months between LRYGB and LSG (p > 0.07). Single-stage revision from LAGB to LRYGB or LSG is technically feasible, but not without complications. The complications in the bypass group were more severe. There was no difference in readmission or reoperation rates, weight loss or comorbidity reduction. Revision to LRYGB trended toward higher rate and greater severity of complications with equivalent weight loss and comorbidity reduction.

  15. Central role of pyrophosphate in acellular cementum formation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brian L Foster

    Full Text Available Inorganic pyrophosphate (PP(i is a physiologic inhibitor of hydroxyapatite mineral precipitation involved in regulating mineralized tissue development and pathologic calcification. Local levels of PP(i are controlled by antagonistic functions of factors that decrease PP(i and promote mineralization (tissue-nonspecific alkaline phosphatase, Alpl/TNAP, and those that increase local PP(i and restrict mineralization (progressive ankylosis protein, ANK; ectonucleotide pyrophosphatase phosphodiesterase-1, NPP1. The cementum enveloping the tooth root is essential for tooth function by providing attachment to the surrounding bone via the nonmineralized periodontal ligament. At present, the developmental regulation of cementum remains poorly understood, hampering efforts for regeneration. To elucidate the role of PP(i in cementum formation, we analyzed root development in knock-out ((-/- mice featuring PP(i dysregulation.Excess PP(i in the Alpl(-/- mouse inhibited cementum formation, causing root detachment consistent with premature tooth loss in the human condition hypophosphatasia, though cementoblast phenotype was unperturbed. Deficient PP(i in both Ank and Enpp1(-/- mice significantly increased cementum apposition and overall thickness more than 12-fold vs. controls, while dentin and cellular cementum were unaltered. Though PP(i regulators are widely expressed, cementoblasts selectively expressed greater ANK and NPP1 along the root surface, and dramatically increased ANK or NPP1 in models of reduced PP(i output, in compensatory fashion. In vitro mechanistic studies confirmed that under low PP(i mineralizing conditions, cementoblasts increased Ank (5-fold and Enpp1 (20-fold, while increasing PP(i inhibited mineralization and associated increases in Ank and Enpp1 mRNA.Results from these studies demonstrate a novel developmental regulation of acellular cementum, wherein cementoblasts tune cementogenesis by modulating local levels of PP(i, directing and

  16. Primary dermal melanoma: a West Australian cohort.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teow, James; Chin, Olivia; Hanikeri, Mark; Wood, Benjamin A

    2015-09-01

    The objectives of this study were to identify a subgroup of patients with putative primary dermal melanoma after thorough multidisciplinary clinical and histological evaluation, and to describe the clinical, histological and selected molecular features of these lesions. The records of the Western Australian Melanoma Advisory Service were searched for potential cases of primary dermal melanoma. The clinical and histological features were reviewed, immunohistochemical assessment was performed and clinical outcomes recorded. Eighteen cases of putative primary dermal melanoma with available clinical data were identified. Two of 12 cases in which further histological sections could be obtained were excluded because of the presence of findings suggesting an epidermal origin on these further sections. In one additional case, such origin could not be histologically excluded. Median follow-up period for the remaining cases was 68 months. Confirmed primary dermal melanoma accounts for 0.87% of cases of melanoma referred to a subspecialist melanoma advisory service. These cases show significant histological overlap with dermal/subcutaneous metastases of melanoma, but display a relatively good prognosis, with a 5-year survival of 87.5%. Our results support the recognition of a distinct group of melanoma that mimics metastatic melanoma, but is associated with a relatively favourable outcome. The group of putative primary dermal melanoma is likely to be heterogenous, including cases of primary nodular melanoma in which epidermal connection has not been identified, metastatic melanoma with an occult primary lesion and true primary dermal melanoma. © 2015 Royal Australasian College of Surgeons.

  17. Risk of Brain Damage Following Pertussis Immunization with Whole-Cell cf Acellular Vaccines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J Gordon Millichap

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available Serious neurological disorders reported following whole-cell (WC in comparison to acellular (AC pertussis vaccines (PV were evaluated by the Genetic Centers of America, Silver Spring, MD.

  18. Double dermal sinuses: a case study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El Khashab, Mostafa; Nejat, Farideh; Ertiaei, Abolhasan

    2008-08-26

    Dermal sinus tracts are rare congenital lesions located in the midline characterized by a cutaneous pit or dimple. They occur all along the midline neuroaxis, from the nasion and occipital area down to the lumbar and sacral regions, most frequently in the lumbar and lumbosacral region. Here we report a 5-year-old girl who presented with occasional headache. There were two dimples, one on the dorsal aspect of her head and another on her neck. Dermal sinuses are almost always singular and the co-existence of double dermal sinuses has not been reported previously.

  19. Double dermal sinuses: a case study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    El Khashab Mostafa

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction Dermal sinus tracts are rare congenital lesions located in the midline characterized by a cutaneous pit or dimple. They occur all along the midline neuroaxis, from the nasion and occipital area down to the lumbar and sacral regions, most frequently in the lumbar and lumbosacral region. Case presentation Here we report a 5-year-old girl who presented with occasional headache. There were two dimples, one on the dorsal aspect of her head and another on her neck. Conclusion Dermal sinuses are almost always singular and the co-existence of double dermal sinuses has not been reported previously.

  20. Allograft dermal matrix hiatoplasty during laparoscopic primary fundoplication, paraesophageal hernia repair, and reoperation for failed hiatal hernia repair.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bell, Reginald C W; Fearon, Jacqueline; Freeman, Katherine D

    2013-06-01

    Hiatal repair failure is the nemesis of laparoscopic paraesophageal hernia repair as well as the major cause of failure of primary fundoplication and reoperation on the hiatus. Biologic prosthetics offer the promise of reinforcing the repair without risks associated with permanent prosthetics. Retrospective evaluation of safety and relative efficacy of laparoscopic hiatal hernia repair using an allograft (acellular dermal matrix) onlay. Patients with symptomatic failures underwent endoscopic or radiographic assessment of hiatal status. Greater than 6-month follow-up was available for 252 of 450 consecutive patients undergoing laparoscopic allograft-reinforced hiatal hernia repair between January 2007 and March 2011. No erosions, strictures, or persisting dysphagia were encountered. Adhesions were minimal in cases where reoperation was required. Failure of the hiatal repair at median 18 months (6-51 months) was significantly (p 2 cm axially had a recurrence rate equal to that of patients undergoing paraesophageal hiatal hernia repair, and should be treated similarly.

  1. Tetrabromobisphenol A In vitro Dermal Absopriton Data

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — In vitro dermal absorption data of tetrabromobisphenol A using human cadaver and rat skin. This dataset is associated with the following publication: Knudsen, G., M....

  2. Dermal benefits of topical D-ribose

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Linda M Shecterle

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Linda M Shecterle, John A St. CyrJacqmar, Inc., Minneapolis, MN, USAAbstract: Our aging skin undergoes changes with reductions in collagenous and elastic fibers, fibroblasts, mast cells, and macrophages with free radical production, which can result in reduced skin tone and wrinkle formation. Fibroblasts are important for dermal integrity and function with a decrease in function producing less skin tone, thinning, and wrinkle formation. Dermal levels of adenosine triphosphate (ATP decline with aging, potentially altering dermal function. Supplemental D-ribose, a natural occurring carbohydrate, enhances ATP regeneration. D-ribosebased studies demonstrated benefits in both cell culture fibroblastic activities and a subsequent clinical study in women with decreased skin tone with wrinkles. Supplemental D-ribose may offer this needed cellular benefit.Keywords: dermal, fibroblast, ATP, aging, wrinkles

  3. Single-stage treatment of infected tibial non-unions and osteomyelitis with bone marrow granulocytes precursors protecting bone graft.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernigou, Philippe; Dubory, Arnaud; Homma, Yasuhiro; Flouzat Lachaniette, Charles Henri; Chevallier, Nathalie; Rouard, Helene

    2017-11-13

    Infected non-unions present a clinical challenge, especially with risk of recurrent infection. Bone marrow contains granulocyte precursors identified in vitro as colony forming units-granulocyte macrophage (CFU-GM) have a prophylactic action against infection. We therefore tested the hypothesis that bone marrow concentrated granulocytes precursors added to a standard bone graft could decrease the risk of recurrence of infection when single-stage treatment of infected tibial non-unions is performed with bone graft. During a single-stage procedure 40 patients with infected tibial non-union received a spongious bone graft supercharged with granulocytes precursors after debridement (study group). A control group (40 patients) was treated in a single stage with local debridement and standard bone graft obtained from the iliac crest. The antibiotic therapy protocol was the same (60 days) in the two groups. CFU-GM progenitors were harvested from bone marrow aspirated on the opposite iliac crest of the site where the cancellous bone was obtained. Union (radiographs and CT scan), a recurrence of clinical infection, and need for subsequent surgery were evaluated. Thirty-eight (95%) patients who received graft supercharged with granulocytes precursors achieved successful union without recurrence of infection during the seven-year follow-up versus 28 (70%) control patients; for the control group the mean graft resorption volume was 40%, while no bone graft resorption was found for the study group. Supercharging the cancellous bone graft with bone marrow granulocytes precursors protect the site of infected non-union from recurrence of infection and bone resorption of the graft.

  4. Thermodynamic analysis of single-stage and multi-stage adsorption refrigeration cycles with activated carbon–ammonia working pair

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xu, S.Z.; Wang, L.W.; Wang, R.Z.

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • Activated carbon–ammonia multi-stage adsorption refrigerator was analyzed. • COP, exergetic efficiency and entropy production of cycles were calculated. • Single-stage cycle usually has the advantages of simple structure and high COP. • Multi-stage cycles adapt to critical conditions better than single-stage cycle. • Boundary conditions for choosing optimal cycle were summarized as tables. - Abstract: Activated carbon–ammonia multi-stage adsorption refrigeration cycle was analyzed in this article, which realized deep-freezing for evaporating temperature under −18 °C with heating source temperature much lower than 100 °C. Cycle mathematical models for single, two and three-stage cycles were established on the basis of thorough thermodynamic analysis. According to simulation results of thermodynamic evaluation indicators such as COP (coefficient of performance), exergetic efficiency and cycle entropy production, multi-stage cycle adapts to high condensing temperature, low evaporating temperature and low heating source temperature well. Proposed cycle with selected working pair can theoretically work under very severe conditions, such as −25 °C evaporating temperature, 40 °C condensing temperature, and 70 °C heating source temperature, but under these working conditions it has the drawback of low cycle adsorption quantity. It was found that both COP and exergetic efficiency are of great reference value in the choice of cycle, whereas entropy production is not so useful for cycle stage selection. Finally, the application boundary conditions of single-stage, two-stage, and three-stage cycles were summarized as tables according to the simulation results, which provides reference for choosing optimal cycle under different conditions.

  5. Single stage reconstruction of ruptured tendoachilles tendon with skin cover using distally based superficial sural artery flap.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abhyankar, Suhas V; Kulkarni, Ananta; Agarwal, Naveen Kumar

    2009-10-01

    Ruptured tendoachilles along with skin defect is a complex problem to reconstruct. Both things require a priority. Single stage reconstruction of ruptured tendoachilles tendon with skin cover using distally based superficial sural arterial flap allows us to perform both. This procedure gives excellent result, shortens the stay, thereby reducing the cost. This method is a simple solution to the complex problem like ruptured tendoachilles with skin defect. In this study, 6 patients with rupture of tendoachilles tendon due to penetrating injury, with skin defect are presented. The repair was done using aponeurotic part of tendoachilles tendon, taken from proximal part of tendoachilles in the midline measuring around 2 to 2.5 cm in width and 8 to 10 cm in length, with intact distal attachment. The tendon was turned upside down by 180 degrees and sutured to the distal stump of the tendoachilles tendon without tension. The skin defect was covered using distally based superficial sural artery flap in the same sitting. The follow-up period was 9 to 30 months. All patients showed good results. In one patient there was distal necrosis of 1.5 cm of the distally based superficial sural artery flap, which healed satisfactorily with conservative treatment. Single stage tendoachilles reconstruction can be used with good functional result and patient satisfaction.

  6. Three types of dermal grafts in rats: the importance of mechanical property and structural design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    You, Chuangang; Wang, Xingang; Zheng, Yurong; Han, Chunmao

    2013-12-04

    To determine how the mechanical property and micro structure affect tissue regeneration and angiogenesis, three types of scaffolds were studied. Acellular dermal matrices (ADM), produced from human skin by removing the epidermis and cells, has been widely used in wound healing because of its high mechanical strength. Collagen scaffolds (CS) incorporated with poly(glycolide-co-L-lactide) (PLGA) mesh forms a well-supported hybrid dermal equivalent poly(glycolide-co-L-lactide) mesh/collagen scaffolds (PMCS). We designed this scaffold to enhance the CS mechanical property. These three different dermal substitutes-ADM, CS and PMCSs are different in the tensile properties and microstructure. Several basic physical characteristics of dermal substitutes were investigated in vitro. To characterize the angiogenesis and tissue regeneration, the materials were embedded subcutaneously in Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats. At weeks 1, 2, 4 and 8 post-surgery, the tissue specimens were harvested for histology, immunohistochemistry and real-time quantitative PCR (RT-qPCR). In vitro studies demonstrated ADM had a higher Young's modulus (6.94 MPa) rather than CS (0.19 MPa) and PMCS (3.33 MPa) groups in the wet state. Compared with ADMs and CSs, PMCSs with three-dimensional porous structures resembling skin and moderate mechanical properties can promote tissue ingrowth more quickly after implantation. In addition, the vascularization of the PMCS group is more obvious than that of the other two groups. The incorporation of a PLGA knitted mesh in CSs can improve the mechanical properties with little influence on the three-dimensional porous microstructure. After implantation, PMCSs can resist the contraction and promote cell infiltration, neotissue formation and blood vessel ingrowth, especially from the mesh side. Although ADM has high mechanical strength, its vascularization is poor because the pore size is too small. In conclusion, the mechanical properties of scaffolds are important for

  7. Blood Vessel-Derived Acellular Matrix for Vascular Graft Application

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luigi Dall’Olmo

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available To overcome the issues connected to the use of autologous vascular grafts and artificial materials for reconstruction of small diameter (<6 mm blood vessels, this study aimed to develop acellular matrix- (AM- based vascular grafts. Rat iliac arteries were decellularized by a detergent-enzymatic treatment, whereas endothelial cells (ECs were obtained through enzymatic digestion of rat skin followed by immunomagnetic separation of CD31-positive cells. Sixteen female Lewis rats (8 weeks old received only AM or previously in vitro reendothelialized AM as abdominal aorta interposition grafts (about 1 cm. The detergent-enzymatic treatment completely removed the cellular part of vessels and both MHC class I and class II antigens. One month after surgery, the luminal surface of implanted AMs was partially covered by ECs and several platelets adhered in the areas lacking cell coverage. Intimal hyperplasia, already detected after 1 month, increased at 3 months. On the contrary, all grafts composed by AM and ECs were completely covered at 1 month and their structure was similar to that of native vessels at 3 months. Taken together, our findings show that prostheses composed of AM preseeded with ECs could be a promising approach for the replacement of blood vessels.

  8. Single-stage posterior transforaminal lumbar interbody fusion, debridement, limited decompression, 3-column reconstruction, and posterior instrumentation in surgical treatment for single-segment lumbar spinal tuberculosis

    OpenAIRE

    Zeng, Hao; Wang, Xiyang; Zhang, Penghui; Peng, Wei; Zhang, Yupeng; Liu, Zheng

    2015-01-01

    Objective: The aim of this study is to determine the feasibility and efficacy of surgical management of single-segment lumbar spinal tuberculosis (TB) by using single-stage posterior transforaminal lumbar interbody fusion, debridement, limited decompression, 3-column reconstruction, and posterior instrumentation.Methods: Seventeen cases of single-segment lumbar TB were treated with single-stage posterior transforaminal lumbar interbody fusion, debridement, limited decompression, 3-column reco...

  9. Antioxidant Nanoplatforms for Dermal Delivery: Melatonin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milan, Aroha Sanchez; Campmany, Ana Cristina Calpena; Naveros, Beatriz Clares

    2017-01-01

    Melatonin is emerging as a promising therapeutic agent, mainly due to its role as antioxidant. Substantial evidences show that melatonin is potentially effective in a variety of diseases as cancer, inflammation and neurodegenerative diseases. The excellent antioxidant capacity with pharmacokinetics characteristics and the emerging search for new pharmaceutical nanotechnology based systems, make it particularly attractive to elaborate nanoplatforms based on melatonin for biomedical or cosmetic dermal applications. Different nanosystems for dermal delivery have been investigated. This review focuses on nanocarrier production strategies, dermal melatonin application and delivery advances in vivo and in vitro. Equally, future perspectives of this assisted melatonin delivery have also been discussed. In the current review, we have revised relevant articles of the available literature using the major scientific databases. One hundred and thirteen papers were included in the review, the majority of which represent latest researches in nanosized platforms for the dermal delivery of melatonin including liposomes, ethosomes, niosomes, polymeric nanoparticles, solid lipid nanoparticles and cyclodextrins. Furthermore, relevant papers reporting in vitro and in vivo application studies of these nano-based melatonin platforms were also discussed. The use of nanoplatforms for the dermal melatonin delivery as antioxidant agent could improve the efficacy of conventional melatonin administration due to the preservation of the drug from premature oxidation and the enhancement of drug permeation through the skin providing greater exposure times. Copyright© Bentham Science Publishers; For any queries, please email at epub@benthamscience.org.

  10. Two-stage IMZ implants and ITI implants inserted in a single-stage procedure. A prospective comparative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heydenrijk, Kees; Raghoebar, Gerry M; Meijer, Henny J A; van der Reijden, Willy A; van Winkelhoff, Arie Jan; Stegenga, Boudewijn

    2002-08-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the feasibility of using a two-stage implant system in a single-stage procedure and to study the impact of the microgap at crestal level and to monitor the microflora in the peri-implant area. Forty edentulous patients (Cawood & Howell class V-VI) participated in this study. After randomisation, 20 patients received two IMZ implants inserted in a single-stage procedure and 20 patients received two ITI implants. After 3 months, overdentures were fabricated, supported by a bar and clip attachment. A standardised clinical and radiographic evaluation was performed immediately after denture insertion and 6 and 12 months later. Twelve months after loading, peri-implant samples were collected with sterile paper points and analysed for the presence of putative periodontal pathogens using culture techniques. One IMZ implant was lost due to insufficient osseointegration. With regard to the clinical parameters at the 12 months evaluation, significant differences for plaque score and probing pocket depth (IMZ: mean 3.3 mm, ITI: mean 2.9 mm) were found between the two groups. The mean bone loss in the first year of functioning was 0.6 mm for both groups. Prevotella intermedia was detected more often in the ITI group (12 implants) than in the IMZ group (three implants). Porphyromonas gingivalis was found in three patients. In one of these patients an implant showed bone loss of 1.6 mm between T0 and T12. Some associations were found between clinical parameters and the target microorganisms in the ITI group. These associations were not present in the IMZ group. The short-term results indicate that two-stage implants inserted in a single-stage procedure may be as predictable as one-stage implants. The microgap at crestal level in nonsubmerged IMZ implants seems to have no adverse influence on the peri-implant microbiological colonisation and of crestal bone loss in the first year of functioning. The peri-implant sulcus can and does harbour

  11. Results of single-staged rotational osteotomy in a child with congenital proximal radioulnar synostosis: subjective and objective evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shingade, Viraj U; Shingade, Rashmi V; Ughade, Suresh N

    2014-01-01

    For congenital proximal radioulnar synostosis, both conservative and operative treatments have been described. Most of the studies describing surgical interventions are based on subjective evaluation of the forearm function and have used severe degree of forearm pronation as an indication for surgery. This study describes a single-staged rotational osteotomy of the proximal third ulna and distal third radius. The aim of the study was to assess the utility of the described surgical procedure by subjective and objective evaluations of the forearm function. Forty-eight children with congenital proximal radioulnar synostosis were evaluated by subjective and objective assessments and were followed up prospectively. Subjective evaluation consisted of a set of 12 questions regarding the basic activities of life. Objective evaluation was made using the Jebsen-Taylor hand-function test and a classification system used by Failla and colleagues for 15 tasks described by Morrey and colleagues. Eleven children were treated conservatively. Thirty-six children underwent a single-staged rotational osteotomy of the proximal third ulna and distal third radius. After surgery, the evaluations were repeated. The mean age at surgery was 8.6±3.7 years, and the mean postoperative follow-up period was 54±13 months. All operated forearms showed a statistically significant improvement in functioning after surgery as per the subjective and objective evaluations. The mean time taken to carry out all activities before surgery was 47.7+10.0 seconds, which significantly reduced to 33.3+6.6 seconds after surgery (P=0.0001) as per the results of the Jebsen-Taylor hand-function test. All good (n=19) and fair (n=11) results were converted to excellent (n=30) after surgery as per the modified Failla classification. There were no neurovascular injuries as compared with other published techniques. Only 1 child had delayed union, and 1 had persistent dorsal angulation at the radial osteotomy site. For

  12. A Rocket Powered Single-Stage-to-Orbit Launch Vehicle With U.S. and Soviet Engineers

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacConochie, Ian O.; Stnaley, Douglas O.

    1991-01-01

    A single-stage-to-orbit launch vehicle is used to assess the applicability of Soviet Energia high-pressure-hydrocarbon engine to advanced U.S. manned space transportation systems. Two of the Soviet engines are used with three Space Shuttle Main Engines. When applied to a baseline vehicle that utilized advanced hydrocarbon engines, the higher weight of the Soviet engines resulted in a 20 percent loss of payload capability and necessitated a change in the crew compartment size and location from mid-body to forebody in order to balance the vehicle. Various combinations of Soviet and Shuttle engines were evaluated for comparison purposes, including an all hydrogen system using all Space Shuttle Main Engines. Operational aspects of the baseline vehicle are also discussed. A new mass properties program entitles Weights and Moments of Inertia (WAMI) is used in the study.

  13. Advantages of using a two-switch forward in single-stage power factor corrected power supplies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Lars

    2000-01-01

    A single-stage power factor corrected power supply using a two-switch forward is proposed to increase efficiency. The converter is operated in the DCM (discontinues conduction mode) and it is shown that this operation mode ensures the intermediate DC-bus to be controlled only by means of circuit...... parameters and therefore independent of load variations. The DCM operation often has a diminishing effect on the efficiency but by use of the two-switch topology high efficiency with minimum circuit complexity can be achieved in this mode. A 500 W 70 V prototype of the two-switch boost-forward PFC power...... supply has been implemented. The measured efficiency is between 85% and 88.5% in the range 30 W-500 W and the measured power factor at full load is 0.95....

  14. Bilateral Simultaneous Revision Total Knee Arthroplasty as a Single Staged Procedure: A Case Report and Review of Literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaishya, Raju; Agarwal, Amit Kumar; Jaiswal, Chirag; Vijay, Vipul; Vaish, Abhishek

    2017-03-23

    Bilateral revision total knee arthroplasty (TKA) is a surgical procedure, which is rarely done simultaneously as it is a difficult surgery and the safety of simultaneous bilateral single stage surgery remains unknown. We report a case of a 67-year-old woman who presented to us with bilateral painful and unstable TKA (right > left) of six months duration. The primary bilateral TKA were done 14 years ago. Bilateral simultaneous revision TKA was performed, using cemented, constrained, long-stem prostheses. The intraoperative and postoperative periods remained uneventful. At last follow-up at four years, she had a pain-free range of motion of up to 0-115°, and the patient had returned to the activities of daily living. She had stable knees with good function and no evidence of loosening or wear.

  15. A rapid method for optimization of the rocket propulsion system for single-stage-to-orbit vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eldred, C. H.; Gordon, S. V.

    1976-01-01

    A rapid analytical method for the optimization of rocket propulsion systems is presented for a vertical take-off, horizontal landing, single-stage-to-orbit launch vehicle. This method utilizes trade-offs between propulsion characteristics affecting flight performance and engine system mass. The performance results from a point-mass trajectory optimization program are combined with a linearized sizing program to establish vehicle sizing trends caused by propulsion system variations. The linearized sizing technique was developed for the class of vehicle systems studied herein. The specific examples treated are the optimization of nozzle expansion ratio and lift-off thrust-to-weight ratio to achieve either minimum gross mass or minimum dry mass. Assumed propulsion system characteristics are high chamber pressure, liquid oxygen and liquid hydrogen propellants, conventional bell nozzles, and the same fixed nozzle expansion ratio for all engines on a vehicle.

  16. The Naso-labial and lateral forehead flaps as a single stage: A case report and review of literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adigun I

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available We present here the case of a patient with a major traumatic nasal loses who had a near-total nasal reconstruction as a single-stage procedure. A 35 year-old civil servant who was involved in a road traffic injury about two years before presentation. He sustained extensive and multiple facial injuries with complete loss of nasal cover and lining. Reconstruction was performed by using superiorly based, bilateral, nasolabial flaps to line the floor and the nasal septum, and a paramedian forehead flap for skin cover. The patient did well postoperatively and was discharged home on the 7 th postoperative day. If the principles concerning cover, support, and lining are adhered to, excellent functional and aesthetic results can be achieved as we have obtained in our patient.

  17. Studies on water turbine runner which fish can pass through: In case of single stage axial runner

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shimizu, Yukimari; Maeda, Takao; Nagoshi, Osamu; Ieda, Kazuma; Shinma, Hisako; Hagimoto, Michiko

    1994-01-01

    The relationship between water turbine runner design and operation and the safe passage of fish through the turbine is studied. The kinds of fish used in the tests are a dace, a sweet fish and a small salmon. A single stage axial runner is used. The velocity and pressure distributions were measured inside the turbine casing and along the casing wall. Many pictures showing fish passing through the rotating runner were taken and analyzed. The swimming speed of the fish was examined from video recordings. Fish pass through the runner more rapidly when they can determine and choose the easier path. Injury and mortality of fish are affected by the runner speed and the location of impact of the runner on the fish body

  18. Single stage concrete pumping through 2.432 km (1.51 miles: Weather and execution challenges

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chetan Hazaree

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes the execution challenges faced during single stage pumping of concrete through 2.432 km. Pump and pipeline selection and installation, materials’ development, establishing of control points and controlling variations are discussed. Concrete responses to weather changes play a vital role in concreting and pumping methodology development. Measuring pump pressure during pumping can provide insightful guidance to concreting. In order to optimize concrete mixtures, distance-specific mixture designs were developed and a relation between air-free paste volume (AFPV and pumping distance is derived. Pipeline priming and washout procedures specific to long-distance pumping are elaborated in detail. The paper presents a broad understanding regarding the challenges encountered; changes in pumping distance, materials, and climate would change the approach to solutions.

  19. Dermal uptake of nicotine from air and clothing: Experimental verification

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bekö, Gabriel; Morrison, Glenn; Weschler, Charles J.

    2017-01-01

    clothing that has previously absorbed/adsorbed indoor air pollutants can increase dermal uptake. A recent experiment demonstrated that dermal uptake of airborne nicotine directly from air or from clothing can occur (Bekö et al., 2017). The current study aims to expand our knowledge on the dermal uptake...... of nicotine, by conducting more extensive experiments....

  20. Sacral dermal sinus: A report of 3 cases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parker, S; Wynne, J M

    1979-11-10

    Three cases of sacral dermal sinus are reported. Although none of the patients developed meningitis, the danger of this serious complication and the need for early diagnosis and surgical excision are emphasized. Invasive radiological investigations may be dangerous and are seldom indicated. The relationship of sacral dermal sinus to other dermal lesions in this area is discussed.

  1. Method for detection of a suspect viral deoxyribonucleic acid in an acellular biological fluid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berninger, M.S.

    1982-01-01

    A method for evaluating an acellular biological fluid for the presence of a suspect viral DNA, such as DNA of the Hepatitis-B virus, is described. The acellular biological fluid is treated to immobilize in denatured form the DNAs including the suspect viral DNA on a solid substrate. This substrate is contacted with a solution including radioisotopically-labelled suspect viral denatured DNA to renature the immobilized suspect viral native DNA. The solid substrate is then evaluated for radioisotopically-labelled suspect viral renatured DNA. (author)

  2. Naturally Occurring Extracellular Matrix Scaffolds for Dermal Regeneration: Do They Really Need Cells?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. M. Eweida

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The pronounced effect of extracellular matrix (ECM scaffolds in supporting tissue regeneration is related mainly to their maintained 3D structure and their bioactive components. These decellularized matrix scaffolds could be revitalized before grafting via adding stem cells, fibroblasts, or keratinocytes to promote wound healing. We reviewed the online published literature in the last five years for the studies that performed ECM revitalization and discussed the results of these studies and the related literature. Eighteen articles met the search criteria. Twelve studies included adding cells to acellular dermal matrix (ADM, 3 studies were on small intestinal mucosa (SIS, one study was on urinary bladder matrix (UBM, one study was on amniotic membrane, and one study included both SIS and ADM loaded constructs. We believe that, in chronic and difficult-to-heal wounds, revitalizing the ECM scaffolds would be beneficial to overcome the defective host tissue interaction. This belief still has to be verified by high quality randomised clinical trials, which are still lacking in literature.

  3. A Dermal Piercing Complicated by Mycobacterium fortuitum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scroggins-Markle, Leslie; Kelly, Brent

    2013-01-01

    Background. Dermal piercings have recently become a fashion symbol. Common complications include hypertrophic scarring, rejection, local infection, contact allergy, and traumatic tearing. We report a rare case of Mycobacterium fortuitum following a dermal piercing and discuss its medical implications and treatments. Case. A previously healthy 19-year-old woman presented complaining of erythema and edema at the site of a dermal piercing on the right fourth dorsal finger. She was treated with a 10-day course of trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole and one course of cephalexin by her primary care physician with incomplete resolution. The patient stated that she had been swimming at a local water park daily. A punch biopsy around the dermal stud was performed, and cultures with sensitivities revealed Mycobacterium fortuitum. The patient was treated with clarithromycin and ciprofloxacin for two months receiving full resolution. Discussion. Mycobacterium fortuitum is an infrequent human pathogen. This organism is a Runyon group IV, rapidly growing nontuberculous mycobacteria, often found in water,soil, and dust. Treatment options vary due to the size of the lesion. Small lesions are typically excised, while larger lesions require treatment for 2–6 months with antibiotics. We recommend a high level of suspicion for atypical mycobacterial infections in a piercing resistant to other therapies. PMID:24073343

  4. A Dermal Piercing Complicated by Mycobacterium fortuitum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Trisha Patel

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Dermal piercings have recently become a fashion symbol. Common complications include hypertrophic scarring, rejection, local infection, contact allergy, and traumatic tearing. We report a rare case of Mycobacterium fortuitum following a dermal piercing and discuss its medical implications and treatments. Case. A previously healthy 19-year-old woman presented complaining of erythema and edema at the site of a dermal piercing on the right fourth dorsal finger. She was treated with a 10-day course of trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole and one course of cephalexin by her primary care physician with incomplete resolution. The patient stated that she had been swimming at a local water park daily. A punch biopsy around the dermal stud was performed, and cultures with sensitivities revealed Mycobacterium fortuitum. The patient was treated with clarithromycin and ciprofloxacin for two months receiving full resolution. Discussion. Mycobacterium fortuitum is an infrequent human pathogen. This organism is a Runyon group IV, rapidly growing nontuberculous mycobacteria, often found in water,soil, and dust. Treatment options vary due to the size of the lesion. Small lesions are typically excised, while larger lesions require treatment for 2–6 months with antibiotics. We recommend a high level of suspicion for atypical mycobacterial infections in a piercing resistant to other therapies.

  5. New in vitro dermal absorption database and the prediction of dermal absorption under finite conditions for risk assessment purposes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Buist, H.E.; Burgsteden, J.A. van; Freidig, A.P.; Maas, W.J.M.; Sandt, J.J.M. van de

    2010-01-01

    Most QSARs for dermal absorption predict the permeability coefficient, Kp, of a molecule, which is valid for infinite dose conditions. In practice, dermal exposure mostly occurs under finite dose conditions. Therefore, a simple model to predict finite dose dermal absorption from infinite

  6. New in vitro dermal absorption database and the prediction of dermal absorption under finite conditions for risk assessment purposes.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Buist, H.E.; Burgsteden, J.A. van; Freidig, A.P.; Maas, W.J.; Sandt, J.J. van de

    2010-01-01

    Most QSARs for dermal absorption predict the permeability coefficient, K(p), of a molecule, which is valid for infinite dose conditions. In practice, dermal exposure mostly occurs under finite dose conditions. Therefore, a simple model to predict finite dose dermal absorption from infinite dose data

  7. A clinical case of single-stage correction of penetration combined orofacial defect with two microsurgical autografts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. D. Kaprin

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available After surgical treatment for locally advanced oral tumors with resection of soft tissues, mucosal membrane, and facial skeletal structures, there are penetration combined defects, removal of which is a challenge for reconstructive surgeons. Mandibular repair is one of the problems in the correction of combined oral defects. Surgeons use different grafts to remove mandibular defects. One-flap transplantation does not always solve all reconstruction problems and ensure the repair of the mucosal membrane, a soft-tissue component, skin integuments, and facial skeleton.The authors describe a clinical case of successful single-stage correction of penetration combined orofacial defect after resection of the tongue, mouth floor, en bloc resection of the lower jaw and mental soft tissues, bilateral cervical supramyochoroidal lymphadenectomy, stage LCL CM mandibular defect formation after J. Boyd, by using two microsurgical autografts (a peroneal skin-muscle-skin autograft and a radial skin-fascia one in a 39-year-old female patient clinically diagnosed with carcinoma of the left mandibular alveolar ridge mucosa, Stage IVA (T4аN0M0.The Department of Microsurgery, P.A. Herzen Moscow Oncology Research Institute, Ministry of Health of Russia, has gained experience in comprehensively correcting extensive combined maxillofacial defects with two or more grafts in 27 patients who underwent autografting with a total of 73 flaps. The most functionally incapacitating and life-incompatible defect was removed at Stage 1 of reconstructive treatment. Delayed reconstruction was made after a complex of specialized antitumor therapy and assessment of treatment results in the absence of progressive growth. A great problem during multi-stage defect correction is presented by the lack of recipient vessels after cervical lymphadenectomy, the presence of soft tissue scar changes, trismus, temporomandibular joint ankylosis, contractures and displacement of the edges of the

  8. Midface swelling reveals nasofrontal dermal sinus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Houneida, Zaghouani Ben Alaya; Manel, Limeme; Latifa, Harzallah; Habib, Amara; Dejla, Bakir; Chekib, Kraiem

    2012-01-01

    Nasofrontal dermal sinuses are very rare and generally occur in children. This congenital malformation can be revealed by midface swelling, which can be complicated by local infection or neuromeningitis. Such complications make the dermal sinus a life-threatening disease. Two cases of nasofrontal dermal sinuses are reported in this work. The first case is an 11-month-old girl who presented with left orbitonasal soft tissue swelling accompanied by inflammation. Physical examination found fever, left orbitonasal thickening, and a puncture hole letting out pus. Computed tomography revealed microabscesses located at the left orbitonasal soft tissues, a frontal bone defect, and an intracranial cyst. Magnetic resonance imaging showed the transosseous tract between the glabella and the brain and affirmed the epidermoid nature of the intracranial cyst. The second case is a 7-year-old girl who presented with a nasofrontal non-progressive mass that intermittently secreted a yellow liquid through an external orifice located at the glabella. MRI revealed a cystic mass located in the deep layer of the glabellar skin related to an epidermoid cyst with a nasofrontal dermal sinus tract. In both cases, surgical excision was performed, and pathological confirmation was made for the diagnoses of dermal sinuses. The postoperative course was favorable. Through these cases, the authors stress the role of imaging methods in confirming the diagnosis and looking for associated cysts (dermoid and epidermoid) to improve recognition of this rare disease. Knowledge of the typical clinical presentations, imaging manifestations, and most common sites of occurrence of this malformation are needed to formulate a differential diagnosis.

  9. Intraspinal Abscess Associated with Congenital Dermal Sinus: Case Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Bom Yi; Jung, Won Sung; Ihn, Yon Kwon [Dept. of Radiology, College of Medicine, The Catholic University of Korea, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2011-05-15

    Dermal sinus tracts are remnants of incomplete neural tube closure. Dermal sinus tracts in the spine range from asymptomatic pits to tracts with significant disease. Congenital spinal dermal sinus tract can produce significant morbidity if not adequately managed. Spinal subdural abscess caused by the spread of an infection within the dermal sinus tract is rare in children. We now described a 3-year-old male who presented with extensive spinal subdural abscess resulting from dermal sinus tract that was low-lying in the sacral area.

  10. A Robust High-Performance GPS L1 Receiver with Single-stage Quadrature Redio-Frequency Circuit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Jianghua; Xu, Weilin; Wan, Qinq; Liu, Tianci

    2018-03-01

    A low power current reuse single-stage quadrature raido-frequency part (SQRF) is proposed for GPS L1 receiver in 180nm CMOS process. The proposed circuit consists of LNA, Mixer, QVCO, is called the QLMV cell. A two blocks stacked topology is adopted in this design. The parallel QVCO and mixer placed on the top forms the upper stacked block, and the LNA placed on the bottom forms the other stacked block. The two blocks share the current and achieve low power performance. To improve the stability, a float current source is proposed. The float current isolated the local oscillation signal and the input RF signal, which bring the whole circuit robust high-performance. The result shows conversion gain is 34 dB, noise figure is three dB, the phase noise is -110 dBc/Hz at 1MHz and IIP3 is -20 dBm. The proposed circuit dissipated 1.7mW with 1 V supply voltage.

  11. Heat transfer and oil flow studies on a single-stage-to-orbit control-configured winged entry vehicle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Helms, V. T., III; Bradley, P. F.

    1984-01-01

    Results are presented for oil flow and phase change paint heat transfer tests conducted on a 0.006 scale model of a proposed single stage to orbit control configured vehicle. The data were taken at angles of attack up to 40 deg at a free stream Mach number of 10 for Reynolds numbers based on model length of 0.5 x 10 to the 6th power, 1.0 x 10 to the 6th power and 2.0 x 10 to the 6th power. The magnitude and distribution of heating are characterized in terms of angle of attack and Reynolds number aided by an analysis of the flow data which are used to suggest the presence of various three dimensional flow structures that produce the observed heating patterns. Of particular interest are streak heating patterns that result in high localized heat transfer rates on the wing windward surface at low to moderate angles of attack. These streaks are caused by the bow-shock/wing-shock interaction and formation of the wing-shock. Embedded vorticity was found to be associated with these interactions.

  12. Performance Evaluation of Low/Zero Voltage Ride-Through Operations for Single-Stage Single-Phase Photovoltaic Inverters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhang, Zhen; Yang, Yongheng; Blaabjerg, Frede

    2017-01-01

    With the fast development of distributed power generations, stability and security have attracted extensive attention in the recent years. As a representative of clean energies, Photovoltaic (PV) systems have been installed extensively worldwide. This drives grid-connected requirements to be cont......With the fast development of distributed power generations, stability and security have attracted extensive attention in the recent years. As a representative of clean energies, Photovoltaic (PV) systems have been installed extensively worldwide. This drives grid-connected requirements......-connected single-stage single-phase PV systems in the case of Low/Zero Voltage Ride-Through (LVRT/ZVRT) operation. A comparative analysis of the two LVRT/ZVRT control methods for PV systems is presented. Simulation results are presented, which verifies that the LVRT/ZVRT methods can help the PV systems...... to temporarily ride-through the grid low-/zero-voltage faults. The power phase-angle control method has a better dynamic response....

  13. One-stage human acellular nerve allograft reconstruction for digital nerve defects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xue-yuan Li

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Human acellular nerve allografts have a wide range of donor origin and can effectively avoid nerve injury in the donor area. Very little is known about one-stage reconstruction of digital nerve defects. The present study observed the feasibility and effectiveness of human acellular nerve allograft in the reconstruction of < 5-cm digital nerve defects within 6 hours after injury. A total of 15 cases of nerve injury, combined with nerve defects in 18 digits from the Department of Emergency were enrolled in this study. After debridement, digital nerves were reconstructed using human acellular nerve allografts. The patients were followed up for 6-24 months after reconstruction. Mackinnon-Dellon static two-point discrimination results showed excellent and good rates of 89%. Semmes-Weinstein monofilament test demonstrated that light touch was normal, with an obvious improvement rate of 78%. These findings confirmed that human acellular nerve allograft for one-stage reconstruction of digital nerve defect after hand injury is feasible, which provides a novel trend for peripheral nerve reconstruction.

  14. Controlled release of hepatocyte growth factor from a bovine acellular scaffold for vocal fold reconstruction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Chet C; Chan, Roger W; Weinberger, Debra G; Efune, Guy; Pawlowski, Karen S

    2010-06-15

    A bovine acellular scaffold was found to facilitate tissue remodeling in a rat model of vocal fold injury, whereas hepatocyte growth factor (HGF) has been shown to have an antiscarring effect in the larynx. This study examined the loading and release kinetics of HGF in vitro, and the potential of the acellular scaffold as a timed-release system for the delivery of HGF in vivo. Bilateral wounds were created in the posterior vocal folds of 20 rats, with HGF-loaded acellular scaffolds implanted into the wounds unilaterally, and scaffolds without HGF implanted into the contralateral vocal folds as control. The rats were humanely sacrificed after 3, 7, 30, and 90 days and their larynges were examined histologically and immunohistochemically. Expressions of key matrix proteins in the vocal fold coronal sections were quantified by digital image analysis. Results demonstrated a gradual, sustained release of HGF for at least 7 days in vitro, consistent with the detection of glycosaminoglycans inherent of the scaffold. In rat vocal folds implanted with HGF-loaded scaffolds, apparently fewer inflammatory cells were observed 3 days after surgery when compared to the control. The mean relative densities of collagen III and hyaluronic acid were significantly lower than those of the control 7 days after surgery. Scaffold implants were apparently degraded by 3 months in all animals, with no evidence of fibrosis or calcification. These data suggested that the bovine acellular scaffold could be promising for the exogenous delivery of select growth factors in vivo. (c) 2009 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  15. Role of Demyelination Efficiency within Acellular Nerve Scaffolds during Nerve Regeneration across Peripheral Defects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meiqin Cai

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Hudson’s optimized chemical processing method is the most commonly used chemical method to prepare acellular nerve scaffolds for the reconstruction of large peripheral nerve defects. However, residual myelin attached to the basal laminar tube has been observed in acellular nerve scaffolds prepared using Hudson’s method. Here, we describe a novel method of producing acellular nerve scaffolds that eliminates residual myelin more effectively than Hudson’s method through the use of various detergent combinations of sulfobetaine-10, sulfobetaine-16, Triton X-200, sodium deoxycholate, and peracetic acid. In addition, the efficacy of this new scaffold in repairing a 1.5 cm defect in the sciatic nerve of rats was examined. The modified method produced a higher degree of demyelination than Hudson’s method, resulting in a minor host immune response in vivo and providing an improved environment for nerve regeneration and, consequently, better functional recovery. A morphological study showed that the number of regenerated axons in the modified group and Hudson group did not differ. However, the autograft and modified groups were more similar in myelin sheath regeneration than the autograft and Hudson groups. These results suggest that the modified method for producing a demyelinated acellular scaffold may aid functional recovery in general after nerve defects.

  16. Efficacy of single-stage and two-stage Fowler–Stephens laparoscopic orchidopexy in the treatment of intraabdominal high testis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chang-Yuan Wang

    2017-11-01

    Conclusion: In the case of testis with good collateral circulation, single-stage F-S laparoscopic orchidopexy had the same safety and efficacy as the two-stage F-S procedure. Surgical options should be based on comprehensive consideration of intraoperative testicular location, testicular ischemia test, and collateral circumstances surrounding the testes. Under the appropriate conditions, we propose single-stage F-S laparoscopic orchidopexy be preferred. It may be appropriate to avoid unnecessary application of the two-stage procedure that has a higher cost and causes more pain for patients.

  17. Acellular ostrich corneal stroma used as scaffold for construction of tissue-engineered cornea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xian-Ning Liu

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available AIM: To assess acellular ostrich corneal matrix used as a scaffold to reconstruct a damaged cornea. METHODS: A hypertonic saline solution combined with a digestion method was used to decellularize the ostrich cornea. The microstructure of the acellular corneal matrix was observed by transmission electron microscopy (TEM and hematoxylin and eosin (H&E staining. The mechanical properties were detected by a rheometer and a tension machine. The acellular corneal matrix was also transplanted into a rabbit cornea and cytokeratin 3 was used to check the immune phenotype. RESULTS: The microstructure and mechanical properties of the ostrich cornea were well preserved after the decellularization process. In vitro, the methyl thiazolyl tetrazolium results revealed that extracts of the acellular ostrich corneas (AOCs had no inhibitory effects on the proliferation of the corneal epithelial or endothelial cells or on the keratocytes. The rabbit lamellar keratoplasty showed that the transplanted AOCs were transparent and completely incorporated into the host cornea while corneal turbidity and graft dissolution occurred in the acellular porcine cornea (APC transplantation. The phenotype of the reconstructed cornea was similar to a normal rabbit cornea with a high expression of cytokeratin 3 in the superficial epithelial cell layer. CONCLUSION: We first used AOCs as scaffolds to reconstruct damaged corneas. Compared with porcine corneas, the anatomical structures of ostrich corneas are closer to those of human corneas. In accordance with the principle that structure determines function, a xenograft lamellar keratoplasty also confirmed that the AOC transplantation generated a superior outcome compared to that of the APC graft.

  18. [STUDY ON MODIFICATION OF BIOMATERIALS OF ACELLULAR BOVINE PERICARDIUM WITH DIFFERENT CROSSLINKING REAGENTS].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Hongtao; Tian, Shemin; Zha, Xinjian; Wei, Ying; Huang, Hongjun; Li, Yun; Yang, Huanna; Xia, Chengde; Niu, Xihua

    2015-10-01

    To investigate the effects of modification of acellular bovine pericardium with 1-ethyl-3-(3- dinethylami-nopropyl) carbodimide (EDC)/N-hydroxysuccininide (NHS) or genipin and find out the best crosslinking reagent. The cellular components of the bovine pericardiums were removed. The effects of decellularization were tested by HE staining. The acellular bovine pericardiums were crosslinked with EDC/NHS (EDC/NHS group) or genipin (genipin group). The properties of the crosslinked acellular matrix were evaluated by scanning electron microscope (SEM), matrix thickness, crosslinking index, mechanical property, denaturation temperature, enzymatic degradation, and cytotoxicity test before and after the crosslinking. Acellular bovine pericardium (ABP group) or normal bovine pericardium (control group) were harvested as controls. SEM showed that collagen fibers were reticulated in bovine pericardial tissues after crosslinked by EDC/NHS or genipin, and relative aperture of the collagen fiber was from 10 to 20 μm. The thickness and denaturation temperature of the scaffolds were increased significantly after crosslinking with EDC/NHS or genipin (P 0.05). The difference had no statistical significance in crosslinking index between EDC/NHS group and genipin group (t = 0.205, P = 0.218). The degradation rate in EDC/NHS group and genipin group was significantly lower than that in ABP group and control group (P 0.05). The break elongation in EDC/NHS group and genipin group were significantly increased than those in ABP group and control group (P 0.05). Cytotoxicity of genipin crosslinked tissue (grade 1) were much lower than that of EDC/NHS (grade 2) at 5 days. Acellular bovine pericardium crosslinked with genipin has better biocompatibility than EDC/NHS.

  19. Dermal Uptake of Benzophenone-3 from Clothing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Morrison, Glenn C.; Bekö, Gabriel; Weschler, Charles J.

    2017-01-01

    compartments, including clothing. Given its physical and chemical properties, we hypothesized that dermal uptake from clothing could contribute to the body burden of this compound. First, cotton shirts were exposed to air at an elevated concentration of BP-3 for 32 days; the final air concentration was 4.4 μg....../m3. Next, three participants wore the exposed shirts for 3 h. After 3 h of exposure, participants wore their usual clothing during the collection of urine samples for the next 48 h. Urine was analyzed for BP-3, a metabolite (BP-1), and six other UV filters. The rate of urinary excretion of the sum...... with predictions of steady-state models, suggest that dermal uptake of BP-3 from clothing could meaningfully contribute to overall body burden....

  20. Dermal, Eye, and Oral Toxicological Evaluations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1985-06-01

    Test Materials 6 2. Animals 8 3. Experimental Design 8 4. Study Elements 10 Dermal Irritation 10 Eye Irritation 10 Oral Toxicity...irritation, or no irritation, then no further testing is performed. If equivocal responses occur, testing in 3 additional animals is performed. * Draize , pp...24 hours prior to testing , animals shall have the hair carefully removed from their backs and sides by close clipping. TEST : Single Dose Eye

  1. Dissolving microneedle patches for dermal vaccination

    OpenAIRE

    Leone, M.; Monkare, J.T.; Bouwstra, J.A.; Kersten, G.F.A.

    2017-01-01

    The dermal route is an attractive route for vaccine delivery due to the easy skin accessibility and a dense network of immune cells in the skin. The development of microneedles is crucial to take advantage of the skin immunization and simultaneously to overcome problems related to vaccination by conventional needles (e.g. pain, needle-stick injuries or needle re-use). This review focuses on dissolving microneedles that after penetration into the skin dissolve releasing the encapsulated antige...

  2. Double dermal sinuses: a case study

    OpenAIRE

    El Khashab Mostafa; Nejat Farideh; Ertiaei Abolhasan

    2008-01-01

    Abstract Introduction Dermal sinus tracts are rare congenital lesions located in the midline characterized by a cutaneous pit or dimple. They occur all along the midline neuroaxis, from the nasion and occipital area down to the lumbar and sacral regions, most frequently in the lumbar and lumbosacral region. Case presentation Here we report a 5-year-old girl who presented with occasional headache. There were two dimples, one on the dorsal aspect of her head and another on her neck. Conclusion ...

  3. Chemical sterilization of allograft dermal tissues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phipps, Abigail; Vaynshteyn, Edward; Kowalski, John B; Ngo, Manh-Dan; Merritt, Karen; Osborne, Joel; Chnari, Evangelia

    2017-12-01

    Common terminal sterilization methods are known to alter the natural structure and properties of soft tissues. One approach to providing safe grafts with preserved biological properties is the combination of a validated chemical sterilization process followed by an aseptic packaging process. This combination of processes is an accepted method for production of sterile healthcare products as described in ANSI/AAMI ST67:2011. This article describes the validation of the peracetic acid and ethanol-based (PAAE) chemical sterilization process for allograft dermal tissues at the Musculoskeletal Transplant Foundation (MTF, Edison, NJ). The sterilization capability of the PAAE solution used during routine production of aseptically processed dermal tissue forms was determined based on requirements of relevant ISO standards, ISO 14161:2009 and ISO 14937:2009. The resistance of spores of Bacillus subtilis, Clostridium sporogenes, Mycobacterium terrae, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Enterococcus faecium, and Staphylococcus aureus to the chemical sterilization process employed by MTF was determined. Using a worst-case scenario testing strategy, the D value was calculated for the most resistant microorganism, Bacillus. The 12D time parameter determined the minimum time required to achieve a SAL of 10 -6 . Microbiological performance qualification demonstrated a complete kill of 10 6 spores at just a quarter of the full cycle time. The validation demonstrated that the PAAE sterilization process is robust, achieves sterilization of allograft dermal tissue to a SAL 10 -6 , and that in combination with aseptic processing secures the microbiological safety of allograft dermal tissue while avoiding structural and biochemical tissue damage previously observed with other sterilization methods such as ionizing irradiation.

  4. Effects of a saturated layer and recirculation on nitrogen treatment performances of a single stage Vertical Flow Constructed Wetland (VFCW).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prigent, S; Paing, J; Andres, Y; Chazarenc, F

    2013-01-01

    Upgrades to enhance nitrogen removal were tested in a 2 year old pilot vertical flow constructed wetland in spring and summer periods. The effects of a saturated layer and of recirculation were tested in particular. Two pilots (L = 2 m, W = 1.25 m, H = 1.2 m), filled with expanded schist (Mayennite(®)), were designed with hydraulic saturated layers of 20 and 40 cm at the bottom. Each pilot was fed with raw domestic wastewater under field conditions according to a hydraulic load of 15-38 cm d(-1) (i.e. 158-401 g COD (chemical oxygen demand) m(-2) d(-1)) and to recirculation rates ranging from 0% up to 150%. The initial load during the first 2 years of operation resulted in an incomplete mineralized accumulated sludge leading to total suspended solids (TSS), COD and biochemical oxygen demand (BOD5) release. A 40 cm hydraulic saturated layer enabled an increase of 5-10% total nitrogen (TN) removal compared to a 20 cm saturated layer. Recirculation allowed the dilution of raw wastewater and enhanced nitrification in a single stage. A design of 1.8 m² pe(-1) (48 cm d(-1), 191 g COD m(-2) d(-1)) with a 40 cm saturated layer and 100% recirculation enabled the French standard D4 (35 mg TSS L(-1), 125 mg COD L(-1), 25 mg BOD5 L(-1)), nitrogen concentrations below 20 mg TKN (total Kjeldahl nitrogen) L(-1) and 50 mg TN L(-1), to be met.

  5. Influence of the effectiveness of raw materials on the reliability of thermoelectric cooling devices. Part I: single-stage TEDs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zaikov V. P.

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Increase of the reliability of information systems depends on the reliability improvement of their component elements, including cooling devices, providing efficiency of thermally loaded components. Thermoelectric devices based on the Peltier effect have significant advantages compared with air and liquid systems for thermal modes of the radio-electronic equipment. This happens due to the absence of moving parts, which account for the failure rate. The article presents research results on how thermoelectric efficiency modules affect the failure rate and the probability of non-failure operation in the range of working temperature of thermoelectric coolers. The authors investigate a model of relative failure rate and the probability of failure-free operation single-stage thermoelectric devices depending on the main relevant parameters: the operating current flowing through the thermocouple and resistance, temperature changes, the magnitude of the heat load and the number of elements in the module. It is shown that the increase in the thermoelectric efficiency of the primary material for a variety of thermocouple temperature changes causes the following: maximum temperature difference increases by 18%; the number of elements in the module decreases; cooling coefficient increases; failure rate reduces and the probability of non-failure operation of thermoelectric cooling device increases. Material efficiency increase by 1% allows reducing failure rate by 2,6—4,3% in maximum refrigeration capacity mode and by 4,2—5,0% in minimal failure rate mode when temperature difference changes in the range of 40—60 K. Thus, the increase in the thermoelectric efficiency of initial materials of thermocouples can significantly reduce the failure rate and increase the probability of failure of thermoelectric coolers depending on the temperature difference and the current operating mode.

  6. Characterization and single-stage denitrification anaerobic digestion of spent stream from the hydrolysis-fermentation-combustion process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Ramnik

    The demand for ethanol as an oxygenate and octane booster in automobile fuel is growing. A number of processes are being investigated for conversion of biomass to ethanol. The Hydrolysis-Fermentation-Combustion (HFC) process for fuel ethanol production developed at the University of California Forest Products Laboratory, Richmond, California is at the stage of technology transfer following over two decades of research and development. This study addresses the technology to be used in treatment of spent streams to be discharged from this process. The treatment design combines a single stage denitrification and anaerobic digestion (SSDAD) for the biological treatment of a representative stream from this process. A typical spent stream contained a wide range of soluble organic materials including: unfermented sugars, components of the feedstocks solubilized in the hydrolysis, acid degradation products of carbohydrates, cleavage products of lignin, water-soluble extractives and phenolics, terpenes and other unfermented organic material, and nitrate ion from the nitric acid used as a catalyst in the hydrolysis reaction. Three sets of experiments were conducted in laboratory scale anaerobic digesters. Commonly available anaerobic sludge from local sewage treatment plants was used as a starter seed and was successfully acclimated to the high nitrate substrate leading to enrichment of denitrifiers. Necessary nutrients and trace elements were identified and supplied to satisfy the obligatory requirements of different groups of bacterial groups present. A major finding was the unique role of ammonium hydroxide in controlling pH leading to steady-state operation of the digester. At steady state operation the reduction in COD was 65%, the nitrate reduction was 88% and the nitrite reduction was 100%. Nitrate was reduced to safe nitrogen gas without buildup of any intermediate products. Organic material was converted to useful methane gas and carbon dioxide. The SSDAD system was

  7. Comparative study between biologic porcine dermal meshes: risk factors of postoperative morbidity and recurrence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romain, B; Story, F; Meyer, N; Delhorme, J B; Brigand, C; Rohr, S

    2016-06-01

    Different types of biologic mesh have been introduced as an alternative to synthetic mesh for use in repairing contaminated ventral hernias because of their biocompatible nature. The aim of this study was to compare the clinical outcomes of patients who underwent complex ventral hernia repairs with either non cross-linked or cross-linked porcine dermal meshes. This was retrospective analysis from a prospectively maintained database from January 2010 to May 2013. Patients undergoing open incisional hernia repair with a biologic mesh in the presence of a clean-contaminated, contaminated or dirty wound were reviewed. There were 39 patients who underwent single-staged abdominal wall reconstruction for a contaminated ventral hernia with a biologic mesh. In 15 cases, non cross-linked mesh was used (Strattice, n=8; Protexa, n=1; XenMatrix, n=6); a cross-linked mesh was used in the remaining 24 cases (Permacol n=21; CollaMend n=3). The median follow-up was 11.9 ± 10.6 months. The overall morbidity was 71.8% (n=28), with 15.4% (n=6) for grade I, 23.1% (n=9) for grade II, 23.1% (n=9) for grade III (n=3 grade IIIA, n=6 grade IIIB), 7.7% (n=3) for grade IV and 2.6% (n=1) for grade V. In the cross-linked group, there were six complications directly linked to the biologic mesh, compared with three in the non-cross-linked group. Overall wound morbidity was 41.0% (n=16). There were 13 hernia recurrences (33.3%), and recurrence rate was not significantly different for both groups. Despite the high rate of wound morbidity associated with the single-staged reconstruction of contaminated fields, it can be safely performed with biologic mesh reinforcement. Recurrence rate was not significantly different between cross-linked and non cross-linked porcine meshes.

  8. Dermal pocketing following distal finger replantation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puhaindran, Mark E; Paavilainen, Pasi; Tan, David M K; Peng, Yeong Pin; Lim, Aymeric Y T

    2010-08-01

    Replantation is an ideal technique for reconstruction following fingertip amputation as it provides 'like for like' total reconstruction of the nail complex, bone pulp tissue and skin with no donor-site morbidity. However, fingertips are often not replanted because veins cannot be found or are thought to be too small to repair. Attempts at 'cap-plasty' or pocketing of replanted tips with and without microvascular anastomosis have been done in the past with varying degrees of success. We prospectively followed up a group of patients who underwent digital replantation and dermal pocketing in the palm to evaluate the outcome of this procedure. There were 10 patients with 14 amputated digits (two thumbs, five index, four middle, two ring and one little) who underwent dermal pocketing of the amputated digit following replantation. Among the 14 digits that were treated with dermal pocketing, 11 survived completely, one had partial atrophy and two were completely lost. Complications encountered included finger stiffness (two patients) and infection of the replanted fingertip with osteomyelitis of the distal phalanx (one patient). We believe that this technique can help increase the chance of survival for distal replantation with an acceptable salvage rate of 85% in our series. Copyright 2009 British Association of Plastic, Reconstructive and Aesthetic Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. An operational protocol for facilitating start-up of single-stage autotrophic nitrogen-removing reactors based on process stoichiometry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mutlu, Ayten Gizem; Vangsgaard, Anna Katrine; Sin, Gürkan

    2013-01-01

    Start-up and operation of single-stage nitritation–anammox sequencing batch reactors (SBRs) for completely autotrophic nitrogen removal can be challenging and far from trivial. In this study, a step-wise procedure is developed based on stoichiometric analysis of the process performance from...

  10. Clinical and radiologic evaluation of 2-stage IMZ implants placed in a single-stage procedure : 2-year results of a prospective comparative study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heydenrijk, K; Raghoebar, GM; Meijer, HJA; Stegenga, B

    2003-01-01

    Purpose: The aim of this study was to evaluate the feasibility of using a 2-stage implant system in a single-stage procedure and to study the impact of the microgap between the implant and the abutment. Materials and Methods: Sixty edentulous patients (Cawood class V or VI) participated in this

  11. Temperature-phased anaerobic digestion of food waste: A comparison with single-stage digestions based on performance and energy balance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Benyi; Qin, Yu; Zhang, Wenzhe; Wu, Jing; Qiang, Hong; Liu, Junxin; Li, Yu-You

    2018-02-01

    The temperature-phased anaerobic digestion (TPAD) of food waste was studied for the purpose of comparing with single-stage mesophilic and thermophilic anaerobic digestion. The biogas and methane yields in the TPAD during the steady period were 0.759 ± 0.115 L/g added VS and 0.454 ± 0.201 L/g added VS, which were lower than those in the two single-stage anaerobic digestion. The improper sludge retention time may be the reason for the lower biogas and methane production in TPAD. The removal of volatile solids in the TPAD was 78.55 ± 4.59% and the lowest among the three anaerobic digestion processes. The reaction ratios of the four anaerobic digestion steps in the TPAD were all lower than those in the two single-stage anaerobic digestion. The energy conversion efficiency of the degraded substrate in the TPAD was similar with those in single-stage mesophilic and thermophilic anaerobic digestion systems. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Characteristics and Sampling Efficiencies of Two Impactor Bioaerosol Samplers: MAS-100(Registered) (Microbial Air Monitoring System) and Single-Stage Andersen Viable Microbial Samplers

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Hottell, K

    2004-01-01

    .... A petri dish with agar is used as the impaction surface for these samplers. The MAS-l00 is a single-stage impactor that aspirates air through a 400-hole perforated entry plate onto an agar plate at an airflow rate of 100 L/min...

  13. Acellular Endocardium as a Novel Biomaterial for the Intima of Tissue-Engineered Small-Caliber Vascular Grafts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Feng; Guan, Xin; Wu, TianYi; Qiao, JianOu; Han, ZhaoQing; Wu, JinLong; Yu, XiaoWei; You, QingJun

    2016-12-01

    We aimed to investigate whether acellular endocardium can be used as a useful biomaterial for the intima of engineered small-caliber vascular grafts. Fresh endocardium was harvested from the swine left atrium and was decellularized by digestion with the decellularization solution of Triton X-100 and SDS containing DNase I and RNase A. Surface morphological characteristics and Young's modulus were evaluated. To analyze the effect of mechanical characteristics on cell adhesion, the decellularized endocardium was stiffened with 2.5% glutaraldehyde. Small-caliber vascular grafts were constructed using decellularized endocardium treated with or without glutaraldehyde as the intima. CD34+ cells were seeded onto the luminal surface of the vascular grafts and linked to bioreactors that simulate a pulsatile blood stream. Acellular endocardium had distinct surface morphological characteristics, which were quite different from those of other materials. The compliance of acellular endocardium was higher than that of other materials tested by Young's modulus. CD34+ cells formed a monolayer structure and adhered to the inner face of the acellular endocardium. The glutaraldehyde treatment stiffened the acellular endocardium but had little impact on the surface morphological characteristics or static adhesiveness of the cells. Data from the bioreactor study showed that the detachment of the cells from the surface of glutaraldehyde-treated acellular endocardium increased dramatically when the pressure was equal or higher than 40 mm Hg, while the cells on the untreated acellular endocardium remained well and formed confluent monolayers and tight junctions under the same pressure. Acellular endocardium has distinct structures and mechanical characteristics that are beneficial for CD34+ cell adhesion and retention under dynamic fluid perfusion. Thus, it can be used as a useful biomaterial for the construction of the intima of engineered small-caliber vascular grafts. Copyright © 2016

  14. Single-stage epidural catheter lavage with posterior spondylodesis in lumbar pyogenic spondylodiscitis with multilevel epidural abscess formation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tschoeke, Sven K; Kayser, Ralph; Gulow, Jens; Hoeh, Nicolas von der; Salis-Soglio, Georg von; Heyde, Christoph

    2014-11-01

    Despite significant advances in the conservative management of pyogenic spondylodiscitis, consecutive instability, deformity, and/or neurologic compromise demands a prompt surgical intervention. However, in rare cases involving additional multilevel epidural abscess formation, the appropriate surgical strategy remains controversial. In this retrospective cohort analyses, we evaluated the efficacy of a single-stage posterior approach with the addition of a one-time multilevel epidural lavage via the surgically exposed interlaminar fenestration of the infected segment. From January 2009 through December 2010, 73 patients presenting pyogenic spondylodiscitis with instability of the lumbar spine were admitted. In all cases, the surgical strategy included a radical resection of the affected intervertebral disc and stabilization by intervertebral fusion using a titanium cage with autologous bone grafting in a level-dependent posterior approach with additional pedicle screw-and-rod instrumentation. In cases where multilevel abscess formation was evident, the standard surgical procedure was complemented by drainage and irrigation of the abscess from posterior by carefully advancing a soft infant feeding tube via the surgically exposed epidural space under fluoroscopic guidance. All patients received complementary oral antibiotic therapy for 12 weeks and were followed-up for a minimum of 12 months postoperatively. Ten patients (three male and seven female patients; mean age: 64.9 ± 10.9 years) presented with an additional lumbar epidural abscess extending beyond three levels proximal or distal to the infected disc. In all 10 patients the laboratory-chemical inflammatory parameters (leukocyte count, C-reactive protein) remained within the physiologic range after completing antibiotic therapy throughout the 1-year follow-up period. The plain radiographs and magnetic resonance imaging demonstrated solid fusion and the complete remission of the initial abscess formation after

  15. Rapid near-optimal trajectory generation and guidance law development for single-stage-to-orbit airbreathing vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calise, A. J.; Flandro, G. A.; Corban, J. E.

    1990-01-01

    General problems associated with on-board trajectory optimization, propulsion system cycle selection, and with the synthesis of guidance laws were addressed for an ascent to low-earth-orbit of an air-breathing single-stage-to-orbit vehicle. The NASA Generic Hypersonic Aerodynamic Model Example and the Langley Accelerator aerodynamic sets were acquired and implemented. Work related to the development of purely analytic aerodynamic models was also performed at a low level. A generic model of a multi-mode propulsion system was developed that includes turbojet, ramjet, scramjet, and rocket engine cycles. Provisions were made in the dynamic model for a component of thrust normal to the flight path. Computational results, which characterize the nonlinear sensitivity of scramjet performance to changes in vehicle angle of attack, were obtained and incorporated into the engine model. Additional trajectory constraints were introduced: maximum dynamic pressure; maximum aerodynamic heating rate per unit area; angle of attack and lift limits; and limits on acceleration both along and normal to the flight path. The remainder of the effort focused on required modifications to a previously derived algorithm when the model complexity cited above was added. In particular, analytic switching conditions were derived which, under appropriate assumptions, govern optimal transition from one propulsion mode to another for two cases: the case in which engine cycle operations can overlap, and the case in which engine cycle operations are mutually exclusive. The resulting guidance algorithm was implemented in software and exercised extensively. It was found that the approximations associated with the assumed time scale separation employed in this work are reasonable except over the Mach range from roughly 5 to 8. This phenomenon is due to the very large thrust capability of scramjets in this Mach regime when sized to meet the requirement for ascent to orbit. By accounting for flight path

  16. Cytocompatibility and biologic characteristics of synthetic scaffold materials of rabbit acellular vascular matrix combining with human-like collagen I.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xuqian; Wang, Jie; Dong, Fusheng; Song, Peng; Tian, Songbo; Li, Hexiang; Hou, Yali

    2017-10-01

    Scaffold material provides a three-dimensional growing environment for seed cells in the research field of tissue engineering. In the present study, rabbit arterial blood vessel cells were chemically removed with trypsin and Triton X-100 to prepare rabbit acellular vascular matrix scaffold material. Observation by He&Masson staining revealed that no cellular components or nuclei existed in the vascular intima and media after decellularization. Human-like collagen I was combined with acellular vascular matrix by freeze-drying to prepare an acellular vascular matrix-0.25% human-like collagen I scaffold to compensate for the extracellular matrix loss during the decellularization process. We next performed a series of experiments to test the water absorbing quality, biomechanics, pressure resistance, cytotoxicity, and ultra-micro structure of the acellular vascular matrix composite material and natural rabbit artery and found that the acellular vascular matrix-0.25% human-like collagen I material behaved similarly to natural rabbit artery. In conclusion, the acellular vascular matrix-0.25% human-like collagen I composite material provides a new approach and lays the foundation for novel scaffold material research into tissue engineering of blood vessels.

  17. A New Candidate Substrate for Cell-Matrix Adhesion Study: The Acellular Human Amniotic Matrix

    OpenAIRE

    Guo, Qianchen; Lu, Xuya; Xue, Yuan; Zheng, Hong; Zhao, Xiaotao; Zhao, Huajian

    2012-01-01

    In vivo adhesions between cells and the extracellular matrix play a crucial role in cell differentiation, proliferation, and migration as well as tissue remodeling. Natural three-dimensional (3D) matrices, such as self-assembling matrices and Matrigel, have limitations in terms of their biomechanical properties. Here, we present a simple method to produce an acellular human amniotic matrix (AHAM) with preserved biomechanical properties and a favorable adhesion potential. On the stromal side o...

  18. Biomimetic acellular detoxified glutaraldehyde cross-linked bovine pericardium for tissue engineering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mathapati, Santosh; Bishi, Dillip Kumar [Stem Cell and Molecular Biology Laboratory, Department of Biotechnology, Indian Institute of Technology Madras, Chennai (India); Frontier Lifeline Pvt Ltd. and Dr. K. M. Cherian Heart Foundation, Mogappair, Chennai (India); Healthcare and Energy Materials Laboratory, NUSNNI, Faculty of Engineering, National University of Singapore (Singapore); Guhathakurta, Soma [Departmet of Engineering Design, Indian Institute of Technology Madras, Chennai (India); Cherian, Kotturathu Mammen [Frontier Lifeline Pvt Ltd. and Dr. K. M. Cherian Heart Foundation, Mogappair, Chennai (India); Venugopal, Jayarama Reddy; Ramakrishna, Seeram [Healthcare and Energy Materials Laboratory, NUSNNI, Faculty of Engineering, National University of Singapore (Singapore); Verma, Rama Shanker, E-mail: vermars@iitm.ac.in [Stem Cell and Molecular Biology Laboratory, Department of Biotechnology, Indian Institute of Technology Madras, Chennai (India)

    2013-04-01

    Glutaraldehyde (GLUT) processing, cellular antigens, calcium ions in circulation, and phospholipids present in the native tissue are predominantly responsible for calcification, degeneration, and lack of natural microenvironment for host progenitor cell migration in tissue implants. The study presents an improved methodology for adhesion and proliferation of endothelial progenitor cells (EPCs) without significant changes in biomechanical and biodegradation properties of the processed acellular bovine pericardium. The anti-calcification potential of the processed tissue was enhanced by detoxification of GLUT-cross-linked bovine pericardium by decellularization, pretreating it with ethanol or removing the free aldehydes by citric acid treatment and lyophilization. The treated tissues were assessed for biomechanical properties, GLUT ligand quantification, adhesion, proliferation of EPCs, and biodegradability. The results indicate that there was no significant change in biomechanical properties and biodegradability when enzymatic hydrolysis (p > 0.05) is employed in detoxified acellular GLUT cross-linked tissue (DBP–G–CA–ET), compared with the native detoxified GLUT cross-linked bovine pericardium (NBP–G–CA–ET). DBP–G–CA–ET exhibited a significant (p > 0.05) increase in the viability of EPCs and cell adhesion as compared to acellular GLUT cross-linked bovine pericardium (p < 0.05). Lyophilized acellular detoxified GLUT cross-linked bovine pericardium, employed in our study as an alternative to conventional GLUT cross-linked bovine pericardium, might provide longer durability and better biocompatibility, and reduce calcification. The developed bovine pericardium patches could be used in cardiac reconstruction and repair, arteriotomy, soft tissue repair, and general surgical procedures with tissue regeneration dimensions. - Highlights: ► We improved the quality of patch biomaterial for cardiovascular surgical procedures. ► Bovine pericardium was

  19. A bovine acellular scaffold for vocal fold reconstruction in a rat model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Chet C; Chan, Roger W; Weinberger, Debra G; Efune, Guy; Pawlowski, Karen S

    2010-01-01

    With a rat model of vocal fold injury, this study examined the in vivo host response to an acellular xenogeneic scaffold derived from the bovine vocal fold lamina propria, and the potential of the scaffold for constructive tissue remodeling. Bilateral wounds were created in the posterior vocal folds of 20 rats, and bovine acellular scaffolds were implanted into the wounds unilaterally, with the contralateral vocal folds as control. The rats were humanely sacrificed after 3 days, 7 days, 1 month, and 3 months, and the coronal sections of their larynges were examined histologically. Expressions of key matrix proteins including collagen I, collagen III, elastin, fibronectin, hyaluronic acid, and glycosaminoglycans (GAGs) were quantified with digital image analysis. Significant infiltration of host inflammatory cells and host fibroblasts in the scaffold implant was observed in the acute stage of wound repair (3 days and 7 days postsurgery). The mean relative densities of collagen I, collagen III, and GAGs in the implanted vocal folds were significantly higher than those in the control after 3 days, followed by gradual decreases over 3 months. Histological results showed that the scaffolds were apparently degraded by 3 months, with no fibrotic tissue formation or calcification. These preliminary findings suggested that the bovine acellular scaffold could be a potential xenograft for vocal fold regeneration.

  20. Studying the effect of over-modulation on the output voltage of three-phase single-stage grid-connected boost inverter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Abbas Elserougi

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Voltage boosting is very essential issue in renewable-energy fed applications. The classical two-stage power conversion process is typically used to interface the renewable energy sources to the grid. For better efficiency, single-stage inverters are recommended. In this paper, the performance of single-stage three-phase grid-connected boost inverter is investigated when its gain is extended by employing over-modulation technique. Using of over-modulation is compared with the employment of third order harmonic injection. The latter method can increase the inverter gain by 15% without distorting the inverter output voltage. The performance of extended gain grid-connected boost inverter is also tested during normal operation as well as in the presence of grid side disturbances. Simulation and experimental results are satisfactory.

  1. Immediate two-stage tissue expander vs single-stage direct-to-implant breast reconstruction: two case reports of identical twins with BRCA 2 mutation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aleš Porčnik

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available In order to achieve the best aesthetic result after immediate implant-based breast reconstruction, all the advantages and disadvantages of two-stage tissue expander and single-stage direct-to-implant breast reconstruction should be considered. Decision about the type of implant-based reconstruction is based on the consultations outcomes after multidisciplinary team meeting of breast and reconstructive specialist, but patients own wishes should be prioritised.

  2. Single-stage oxidative dehydrogenation of n-butaneand isopentane in adiabatic sectional reactors with supply of oxygene and water steam

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Azizov, A.G; Gadji-Kasumov, V.S

    2000-01-01

    Full text: The advanced technique of single-stage dehydrogenation of n-butane and iso-pentane in adiabatic sectional with separate supply of oxygen on every section is offered. The substance of the novel method consist in water metering for every section. Such technological technique considerably cut the specific energy expenses on high temperature water steam production, increase the yield and selectivity of main products formation at the expense of more complete partial oxidation of the correspondend olefins.

  3. 40 CFR 795.228 - Oral/dermal pharmacokinetics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... animals. For pharmacokinetics testing and dermal studies, adult male and female Sprague-Dawley rats, 7 to 9 weeks of age, shall be used. For dermal studies, young adult mini-pigs shall also be used. The... substance. (b) Definitions. (1) Bioavailability refers to the rate and relative amount of administered test...

  4. Task-based dermal exposure models for regulatory risk assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warren, Nicholas D; Marquart, Hans; Christopher, Yvette; Laitinen, Juha; VAN Hemmen, Joop J

    2006-07-01

    The regulatory risk assessment of chemicals requires the estimation of occupational dermal exposure. Until recently, the models used were either based on limited data or were specific to a particular class of chemical or application. The EU project RISKOFDERM has gathered a considerable number of new measurements of dermal exposure together with detailed contextual information. This article describes the development of a set of generic task-based models capable of predicting potential dermal exposure to both solids and liquids in a wide range of situations. To facilitate modelling of the wide variety of dermal exposure situations six separate models were made for groupings of exposure scenarios called Dermal Exposure Operation units (DEO units). These task-based groupings cluster exposure scenarios with regard to the expected routes of dermal exposure and the expected influence of exposure determinants. Within these groupings linear mixed effect models were used to estimate the influence of various exposure determinants and to estimate components of variance. The models predict median potential dermal exposure rates for the hands and the rest of the body from the values of relevant exposure determinants. These rates are expressed as mg or microl product per minute. Using these median potential dermal exposure rates and an accompanying geometric standard deviation allows a range of exposure percentiles to be calculated.

  5. Mesenchymal stem cells induce dermal fibroblast responses to injury

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, Andria N.; Willis, Elise; Chan, Vincent T.; Muffley, Lara A.; Isik, F. Frank; Gibran, Nicole S.; Hocking, Anne M.

    2010-01-01

    Although bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells have been shown to promote repair when applied to cutaneous wounds, the mechanism for this response remains to be determined. The aim of this study was to determine the effects of paracrine signaling from mesenchymal stem cells on dermal fibroblast responses to injury including proliferation, migration and expression of genes important in wound repair. Dermal fibroblasts were co-cultured with bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells grown in inserts, which allowed for paracrine interactions without direct cell contact. In this co-culture model, bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells regulate dermal fibroblast proliferation, migration and gene expression. When co-cultured with mesenchymal stem cells, dermal fibroblasts show increased proliferation and accelerated migration in a scratch assay. A chemotaxis assay also demonstrated that dermal fibroblasts migrate towards bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells. A PCR array was used to analyze the effect of mesenchymal stem cells on dermal fibroblast gene expression. In response to mesenchymal stem cells, dermal fibroblasts up-regulate integrin alpha 7 expression and down-regulate expression of ICAM1, VCAM1 and MMP11. These observations suggest that mesenchymal stem cells may provide an important early signal for dermal fibroblast responses to cutaneous injury.

  6. Single-stage endoscopic treatment for mild to moderate acute cholangitis associated with choledocholithiasis: a multicenter, non-randomized, open-label and exploratory clinical trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eto, Kazunori; Kawakami, Hiroshi; Haba, Shin; Yamato, Hiroaki; Okuda, Toshinori; Yane, Kei; Hayashi, Tsuyoshi; Ehira, Nobuyuki; Onodera, Manabu; Matsumoto, Ryusuke; Matsubara, Yu; Takagi, Tomofumi; Sakamoto, Naoya

    2015-12-01

    Two-stage treatment involving stone removal after drainage is recommended for mild to moderate acute cholangitis associated with choledocholithiasis. However, single-stage treatment has some advantages. We aimed to assess the efficacy and safety of single-stage endoscopic treatment for mild to moderate acute cholangitis associated with choledocholithiasis. A multicenter, non-randomized, open-label, exploratory clinical trial was performed in 12 institutions. A total of 50 patients with a naïve papilla and a body temperature ≥37 °C who were diagnosed with mild to moderate cholangitis associated with choledocholithiasis were enrolled between August 2012 and February 2014. Of the 50 patients, 15 had mild cholangitis and 35 had moderate cholangitis. The median number of common bile duct stones was 2 (range, 1-8), and the median diameter of the common bile duct stones was 7.5 mm (range, 1-18). The cure rate of acute cholangitis within 4 days after single-stage treatment was 90% (45/50) based on a body temperature choledocholithiasis (clinical trial registration number: UMIN000008494). © 2015 Japanese Society of Hepato-Biliary-Pancreatic Surgery.

  7. Single-stage posterior transforaminal lumbar interbody fusion, debridement, limited decompression, 3-column reconstruction, and posterior instrumentation in surgical treatment for single-segment lumbar spinal tuberculosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeng, Hao; Wang, Xiyang; Zhang, Penghui; Peng, Wei; Liu, Zheng; Zhang, Yupeng

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study is to determine the feasibility and efficacy of surgical management of single-segment lumbar spinal tuberculosis (TB) by using single-stage posterior transforaminal lumbar interbody fusion, debridement, limited decompression, 3-column reconstruction, and posterior instrumentation. Seventeen cases of single-segment lumbar TB were treated with single-stage posterior transforaminal lumbar interbody fusion, debridement, limited decompression, 3-column reconstruction, and posterior instrumentation. The mean follow-up was 36.9 months (range: 24-62 months). The kyphotic angle ranged from 15.2-35.1° preoperatively, with an average measurement of 27.8°. The American Spinal Injury Association (ASIA) score system was used to evaluate the neurological deficits and erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR) used to judge the activity of TB. Spinal TB was completely cured in all 17 patients. There was no recurrent TB infection. The postoperative kyphotic angle was 6.6-10.2°, 8.1° in average, and there was no significant loss of the correction at final follow-up. Solid fusion was achieved in all cases. Neurological condition in all patients was improved after surgery. Single-stage posterior transforaminal lumbar interbody fusion, debridement, limited decompression, 3-column reconstruction, and posterior instrumentation can be a feasible and effective method the in treatment of single-segment lumbar spinal TB.

  8. The importance of minipigs in dermal safety assessment: an overview.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stricker-Krongrad, Alain; Shoemake, Catherine R; Liu, Jason; Brocksmith, Derek; Bouchard, Guy

    2017-06-01

    The use of miniature swine as a non-rodent species in safety assessment has continued to expand for over a decade and their use has become routine, particularly in pharmacology as a model for human integumentary diseases. Translational preclinical swine study data are now favorably compared and contrasted to human data, and miniature swine models provide important information in dermal safety assessment and skin pharmacology. For example, the miniature swine model has been well-accepted for cutaneous absorption and toxicity studies due to swine integument being morphologically and functionally similar to human skin. Subsequently, this model is important to dermal drug development programs, and it is the animal model of choice for assessment of dermal absorption, local tolerance and systemic toxicity following dermal exposures. In conclusion, the miniature swine model has an important role to play in the safety assessment of pharmaceutical products and in multiple aspects of human dermal drug development.

  9. Preserving the Posttrapeziectomy Space with a Human Acellular Dermal Matrix Spacer: A Pilot Case Series of Patients with Thumb Carpometacarpal Joint Arthritis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caroline A. Yao, MD

    2013-10-01

    Conclusions: HADM has been used extensively in other forms of reconstruction and has been shown to incorporate into surrounding tissues through neovascularization. Our early results illustrate that HADM can safely fill the dead space left by trapeziectomy.

  10. The comparison of acellular dermal matric (Alloderm), Dacron, Gore-Tex, and autologous cartilage graft materials in an experimental animal model for nasal septal repair surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mola, Ferhat; Keskin, Gurkan; Ozturk, Murat; Muezzinoglu, Bahar

    2007-01-01

    The aim of this study was to compare the compatibility of Alloderm, Dacron, Gore-Tex, and autologous cartilage graft materials with host tissues in nasal septal perforation repair surgery. The materials were placed into the nasal septum of 16 New Zealand rabbits. At the end of the 3rd month, septums of the rabbits were removed totally and reactions, such as inflammation;foreign body giant cell; or fibrosis that developed in the surrounding tissue against the implant material were evaluated. Acute inflammation reactions occurred mostly with Gore-Tex. There were no differences between groups according to chronic inflammation. When the number of reactions and tissue compatibility were taken into consideration, cartilage performed the best followed by Alloderm. There were more reactions with Dacron, but it still showed compatibility. Cartilage was found to be the best material followed by Alloderm and Dacron, but Gore-Tex was found unsuitable.

  11. The scarless latissimus dorsi flap for full muscle coverage in device-based immediate breast reconstruction: an autologous alternative to acellular dermal matrix.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elliott, L Franklyn; Ghazi, Bahair H; Otterburn, David M

    2011-07-01

    Thin patients have fewer autologous options in postmastectomy reconstruction and are frequently limited to device-based techniques. The latissimus dorsi flap remains a viable option with which to provide autologous coverage, although for certain patients the donor scar can be a point of contention. The scarless latissimus dorsi flap is a way of mitigating these concerns. The authors present their 6-year single-surgeon experience with scarless latissimus dorsi flap reconstruction. A retrospective review of scarless latissimus dorsi flap reconstruction was performed. Charts from 2003 to 2009 were queried for demographic characteristics, nonoperative therapies, and short- and long-term complications. Results were compared with historical data. Thirty-one patients with 52 flaps were identified. Fifty-one flaps were immediate reconstructions, with an average age of 47 years and body mass index of 22.8 kg/m. Thirteen patients were treated with chemotherapy and four were irradiated, two preoperatively. The single drain was removed on average at 21 days. Complications included three hematomas (5.8 percent), two capsular contractures (3.8 percent), and two infections (3.8 percent). Average time to secondary reconstruction was 143 days. There were five unplanned revisions (9.6 percent). There were no flap failures or tissue expander losses. The scarless latissimus dorsi flap is an effective method for providing durable homogenous device coverage in the thinner patient (body mass index cost. Coverage is thin, the matrix is not initially vascularized, and products are expensive. For these reasons, use of the scarless latissimus dorsi flap is an excellent alternative, particularly in the patient with a low body mass index. Therapeutic, IV.(Figure is included in full-text article.).

  12. Formulation of diclofenac for dermal delivery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goh, Choon Fu; Lane, Majella E

    2014-10-01

    Diclofenac (DF) was first synthesized in the 1960's and is currently available as ophthalmic, oral, parenteral, rectal and skin preparations. This review focuses on the administration of DF to the skin. As a member of the non-steroidal anti-inflammatory (NSAID) group of drugs the primary indications of DF are for the management of inflammation and pain but it is also used to treat actinic keratosis. The specific aims of this paper are to: (i) provide an overview of the pharmacokinetics and metabolism of DF following oral and topical administration; (ii) examine critically the various formulation approaches which have been investigated to enhance dermal delivery of DF; and (iii) identify new formulation strategies for enhanced DF skin penetration. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Dissolving Microneedle Patches for Dermal Vaccination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leone, M; Mönkäre, J; Bouwstra, J A; Kersten, G

    2017-11-01

    The dermal route is an attractive route for vaccine delivery due to the easy skin accessibility and a dense network of immune cells in the skin. The development of microneedles is crucial to take advantage of the skin immunization and simultaneously to overcome problems related to vaccination by conventional needles (e.g. pain, needle-stick injuries or needle re-use). This review focuses on dissolving microneedles that after penetration into the skin dissolve releasing the encapsulated antigen. The microneedle patch fabrication techniques and their challenges are discussed as well as the microneedle characterization methods and antigen stability aspects. The immunogenicity of antigens formulated in dissolving microneedles are addressed. Finally, the early clinical development is discussed.

  14. Volume correction in the aging hand: role of dermal fillers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rivkin AZ

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Alexander Z Rivkin David Geffen/UCLA School of Medicine Los Angeles, CA, USA Abstract: The hands, just like the face, are highly visible parts of the body. They age at a similar rate and demonstrate comparable changes with time, sun damage, and smoking. Loss of volume in the hands exposes underlying tendons, veins, and bony prominences. Rejuvenation of the hands with dermal fillers is a procedure with high patient satisfaction and relatively low risk for complications. This study will review relevant anatomy, injection technique, clinical safety, and efficacy of dermal filler volumization of the aging hand. Keywords: dermal fillers, hands, volumization, hyaluronic acid, calcium hydroxylapatite

  15. The radiological features of Goltz syndrome: Focal dermal hypoplasia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boothyrod, A.E.; Hall, C.M.

    1988-01-01

    Two female infants with Goltz syndrome (focal dermal hypoplasia) were recently investigated for severe feeding problems and failure to thrive. Both demonstrated severe skeletal malformations and marked gastrooesophageal reflux with laxity of the hiatus. One child (case 1) exhibited nasal regurgitation during feeding. Interestingly, both children had undergone surgery; Case 1 or a right parasagittal abdominal hernia associated with focal dermal hypoplasia of the abdominal wall and Case 2 for an exomphalos also associated with dermal hypoplasia. This observation suggests more widespread mesodermal abnormality. (orig./GDG)

  16. Lack of association between mannose binding lectin and antibody responses after acellular pertussis vaccinations.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kirsi Gröndahl-Yli-Hannuksela

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Mannose-binding lectin (MBL is one of the key molecules in innate immunity and its role in human vaccine responses is poorly known. This study aimed to investigate the possible association of MBL polymorphisms with antibody production after primary and booster vaccinations with acellular pertussis vaccines in infants and adolescents. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Five hundred and sixty eight subjects were included in this study. In the adolescent cohort 355 subjects received a dose of diphtheria and tetanus toxoids and acellular pertussis (dTpa vaccine ten years previously. Follow-up was performed at 3, 5 and 10 years. Infant cohort consisted of 213 subjects, who had received three primary doses of DTaP vaccine at 3, 5, and 12 months of age according to Finnish immunization program. Blood samples were collected before the vaccinations at 2,5 months of age and after the vaccinations at 13 months and 2 years of age. Concentrations of IgG antibodies to pertussis toxin, filamentous hemagglutinin, and pertactin and antibodies to diphtheria and tetanus toxoids were measured by standardized enzyme-linked immunosorbant assay. Single nucleotide polymorphisms of MBL2 gene exon1 (codons 52, 54, 57 were examined. MBL serum concentration was also measured from the adolescent cohort. No association was found with MBL2 exon 1 polymorphisms and antibody responses against vaccine antigens, after primary and booster dTpa vaccination. CONCLUSIONS: This study indicates that MBL polymorphisms do not affect the production and persistence of antibodies after acellular pertussis vaccination. Our finding also suggests that MBL might not be involved in modulating antibody responses to the vaccines made of purified bacterial proteins.

  17. Performance analysis of the single-stage absorption heat transformer using a new working pair composed of ionic liquid and water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Xiaodong; Hu Dapeng

    2012-01-01

    The performance simulation of a single-stage absorption heat transformer using a new working pair composed of ionic liquids, 1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium dimethylphosphate, and water (H 2 O + [EMIM][DMP]), was performed based on the thermodynamic properties of the new working pair and on the mass and energy balance for each component of the system. In order to evaluate the new working pair, the simulation results were compared with those of aqueous solution of lithium bromide (H 2 O + LiBr), Trifluoroethanol (TFE) + tetraethylenglycol dimethylether (E181). The results indicate that when generation, evaporation, condensing and absorption temperatures are 90 °C, 90 °C, 35 °C and 130 °C, the coefficients of performance of the single-stage absorption heat transformer using H 2 O + LiBr, H 2 O + [EMIM][DMP] and TFE + E181 as working pairs will reach 0.494, 0.481 and 0.458 respectively. And the corresponding exergy efficiency will reach 0.64, 0.62 and 0.59, respectively. Meanwhile the available heat outputs for per unit mass of refrigerant are 2466 kJ/kg, 2344 kJ/kg and 311 kJ/kg, respectively. The above excellent cycle performance together with the advantages of negligible vapor pressure, no crystallization and more weak corrosion tendency to iron-steel materials may make the new working pair better suited for the industrial absorption heat transformer. - Highlights: ► The cycle performance of the single-stage absorption heat transformer was simulated. ► Water and 1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium dimethylphosphate was used as new working pair. ► Water and 1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium dimethylphosphate are entirely miscible. ► The COP and exergy efficiency for this new working pairs were 0.481 and 0.62. ► The new working pairs has potential application to absorption heat transformer.

  18. Posterior or Single-stage Combined Anterior and Posterior Approach Decompression for Treating Complex Cervical Spondylotic Myelopathy Coincident Multilevel Anterior and Posterior Compression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Xiaoxiao; Cai, Pan; Li, Yuwei; Wang, Haijiao; Xia, Shengli; Wang, Xiuhui

    2017-12-01

    A single-center, retrospective, longitudinal matched cohort clinical study of prospectively collected outcomes. To compare retrospectively the clinical outcomes and complications of the posterior approach laminoplasty and single-stage anterior approach laminoplasty combined with anterior cervical corpectomy and fusion and anterior cervical discectomy and fusion for treating patients with cervical spondylotic myelopathy coincident multilevel anterior and posterior compression, known as complex cervical spondylotic myelopathy (cCSM) here. The optimal surgical management of this type of cCSM remains controversial. Sixty-seven patients with multilevel cCSM underwent decompression surgery from 1996 to 2007. Among these patients, 31 underwent a single-stage combined approach with decompression (combined approach group) and 36 underwent laminoplasty for posterior approach (posterior approach group). Average operative duration, operative estimated blood loss, surgical costs, and cervical alignment were measured. Average operative duration, operative estimated blood loss, and surgical costs were significantly lower in the posterior approach group than those in the combined approach group (P0.05). No statistical difference was observed in the preoperative Cobb angle (P>0.05), whereas a significant statistical difference was observed for the postoperative Cobb angle (Pgroups. The surgical incidences of complications were 22.2% and 48.4% in the posterior and combined approach groups (Papproach laminoplasty and single-stage combined approach led to significant neurological improvement and pain reduction in the majority of patients. Both approaches showed similar results in terms of decompression and neurological improvement. The posterior approach was superior to the combined approach in terms of surgical costs, surgical time, blood loss, and complication rate.

  19. Retrospective analysis of 56 edentulous dental arches restored with 344 single-stage implants using an immediate loading fixed provisional protocol: statistical predictors of implant failure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kinsel, Richard P; Liss, Mindy

    2007-01-01

    The purpose of this retrospective study was to evaluate the effects of implant dimensions, surface treatment, location in the dental arch, numbers of supporting implant abutments, surgical technique, and generally recognized risk factors on the survival of a series of single-stage Straumann dental implants placed into edentulous arches using an immediate loading protocol. Each patient received between 4 and 18 implants in one or both dental arches. Periapical radiographs were obtained over a 2- to 10-year follow-up period to evaluate crestal bone loss following insertion of the definitive metal-ceramic fixed prostheses. Univariate tests for failure rates as a function of age ( or = 60 years), gender, smoking, bone grafting, dental arch, surface type, anterior versus posterior, number of implants per arch, and surgical technique were made using Fisher exact tests. The Cochran-Armitage test for trend was used to evaluate the presence of a linear trend in failure rates regarding implant length and implant diameter. Logistic regression modeling was used to determine which, if any, of the aforementioned factors would predict patient and implant failure. A significance criterion of P = .05 was utilized. Data were collected for 344 single-stage implants placed into 56 edentulous arches (39 maxillae and 17 mandibles) of 43 patients and immediately loaded with a 1-piece provisional fixed prosthesis. A total of 16 implants failed to successfully integrate, for a survival rate of 95.3%. Increased rates of failure were associated with reduced implant length, placement in the posterior region of the jaw, increased implant diameter, and surface treatment. Implant length emerged as the sole significant predictor of implant failure. In this retrospective analysis of 56 consecutively treated edentulous arches with multiple single-stage dental implants loaded immediately, reduced implant length was the sole significant predictor of failure.

  20. Biocompatibility and tissue regenerating capacity of crosslinked dermal sheep collagen

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Wachem, P.B.; van Luyn, M.J.A.; Olde Damink, L.H.H.; Olde damink, L.H.H.; Dijkstra, Pieter J.; Feijen, Jan; Nieuwenhuis, P.

    1994-01-01

    The biocompatibility and tissue regenerating capacity of four crosslinked dermal sheep collagens (DSC) was studied. In vitro, the four DSC versions were found to be noncytotoxic or very low in cytoxicity. After subcutaneous implantation in rats, hexamethylenediisocyanatecrcrosslinked DSC (HDSC)

  1. Brain abscess as a manifestation of spinal dermal sinus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Parisa Emami-Naeini

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Parisa Emami-Naeini, Ali Mahdavi, Hamed Ahmadi, Nima Baradaran, Farideh NejatDepartment of Neurosurgery, Children’s Hospital Medical Center, Medical Sciences/University of Tehran, Tehran, IranAbstract: Dermal sinuses have been associated with a wide spectrum of clinical manifestations ranging from asymptomatic to drainage of purulent material from the sinus tract, inclusion tumors, meningitis, and spinal abscess. To date, there has been no documented report of brain abscess as a complication of spinal dermal sinus. Here, we report an 8-month-old girl who was presented initially with a brain abscess at early infancy but lumbar dermal sinus and associated spinal abscess were discovered afterwards. The probable mechanisms of this rare association have been discussed.Keywords: brain abscess, spinal dermal sinus, spinal abscess

  2. The common properties and the heterogeneity of dermal fibroblast subpopulations.

    OpenAIRE

    Makarchuk O.I.

    2007-01-01

    Dermal fibroblasts are a dynamic and diverse population of cells whose functions in skin in many respects remain unknown. Normal adult human skin contains at least three distinct subpopulations of fibroblasts, which occupy unique niches in the dermis. Fibroblasts from each of these niches exhibit distinctive differences when cultured separately. Specific differences in fibroblast histophysiology are evident in papillary dermal fibroblasts, which reside in the superficial dermis, and reticular...

  3. Effects of sludge recirculation rate and mixing time on performance of a prototype single-stage anaerobic digester for conversion of food wastes to biogas and energy recovery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ratanatamskul, Chavalit; Saleart, Tawinan

    2016-04-01

    Food wastes have been recognized as the largest waste stream and accounts for 39.25 % of total municipal solid waste in Thailand. Chulalongkorn University has participated in the program of in situ energy recovery from food wastes under the Ministry of Energy (MOE), Thailand. This research aims to develop a prototype single-stage anaerobic digestion system for biogas production and energy recovery from food wastes inside Chulalongkorn University. Here, the effects of sludge recirculation rate and mixing time were investigated as the main key parameters for the system design and operation. From the results obtained in this study, it was found that the sludge recirculation rate of 100 % and the mixing time of 60 min per day were the most suitable design parameters to achieve high efficiencies in terms of chemical oxygen demand (COD), total solids (TS), and total volatile solid (TVS) removal and also biogas production by this prototype anaerobic digester. The obtained biogas production was found to be 0.71 m(3)/kg COD and the composition of methane was 61.6 %. Moreover, the efficiencies of COD removal were as high as 82.9 % and TVS removal could reach 83.9 % at the optimal condition. Therefore, the developed prototype single-stage anaerobic digester can be highly promising for university canteen application to recover energy from food wastes via biogas production.

  4. Reactive Power Control of Single-Stage Three-Phase Photovoltaic System during Grid Faults Using Recurrent Fuzzy Cerebellar Model Articulation Neural Network

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Faa-Jeng Lin

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This study presents a new active and reactive power control scheme for a single-stage three-phase grid-connected photovoltaic (PV system during grid faults. The presented PV system utilizes a single-stage three-phase current-controlled voltage-source inverter to achieve the maximum power point tracking (MPPT control of the PV panel with the function of low voltage ride through (LVRT. Moreover, a formula based on positive sequence voltage for evaluating the percentage of voltage sag is derived to determine the ratio of the injected reactive current to satisfy the LVRT regulations. To reduce the risk of overcurrent during LVRT operation, a current limit is predefined for the injection of reactive current. Furthermore, the control of active and reactive power is designed using a two-dimensional recurrent fuzzy cerebellar model articulation neural network (2D-RFCMANN. In addition, the online learning laws of 2D-RFCMANN are derived according to gradient descent method with varied learning-rate coefficients for network parameters to assure the convergence of the tracking error. Finally, some experimental tests are realized to validate the effectiveness of the proposed control scheme.

  5. A simulation study on performance evaluation of single-stage LiBr–H2O vapor absorption heat pump for chip cooling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manu S.

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The growth of Lithium Bromide–Water (LiBr–H2O absorption based heat pump is encouraged for the necessity of extracting high heat from the electronic chips. This paper presents a simulation study of single-stage LiBr–H2O vapor absorption heat pump for chip cooling. In this study, a detailed thermodynamic analysis of the single-stage LiBr–H2O vapor absorption heat pump for chip cooling in the nonexistence of solution heat exchanger was performed and a user-friendly graphical user interface (GUI package including visual components was developed by using MATlab (2008b. The influence of chip temperature on COP (Coefficient of Performance, flow rates and conductance was examined by using the developed package. The model is validated by using the values available in the literature and indicates that there is a greater reduction in the absorber load. The influence of chip temperature on the performance and thermal loads of individual components was studied and it was concluded that, COP increases from 0.7145 to 0.8421 with an increase in chip temperature.

  6. Analysis of honeybush tea (Cyclopia spp.) volatiles by comprehensive two-dimensional gas chromatography using a single-stage thermal modulator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ntlhokwe, Gaalebalwe; Tredoux, Andreas G J; Górecki, Tadeusz; Edwards, Matthew; Vestner, Jochen; Muller, Magdalena; Erasmus, Lené; Joubert, Elizabeth; Christel Cronje, J; de Villiers, André

    2017-07-01

    The applicability of comprehensive two-dimensional gas chromatography (GC×GC) using a single-stage thermal modulator was explored for the analysis of honeybush tea (Cyclopia spp.) volatile compounds. Headspace solid phase micro-extraction (HS-SPME) was used in combination with GC×GC separation on a non-polar × polar column set with flame ionisation (FID) detection for the analysis of fermented Cyclopia maculata, Cyclopia subternata and Cyclopia genistoides tea infusions of a single harvest season. Method optimisation entailed evaluation of the effects of several experimental parameters on the performance of the modulator, the choice of columns in both dimensions, as well as the HS-SPME extraction fibre. Eighty-four volatile compounds were identified by co-injection of reference standards. Principal component analysis (PCA) showed clear differentiation between the species based on their volatile profiles. Due to the highly reproducible separations obtained using the single-stage thermal modulator, multivariate data analysis was simplified. The results demonstrate both the complexity of honeybush volatile profiles and the potential of GC×GC separation in combination with suitable data analysis techniques for the investigation of the relationship between sensory properties and volatile composition of these products. The developed method therefore offers a fast and inexpensive methodology for the profiling of honeybush tea volatiles. Graphical abstract Surface plot obtained for the GC×GC-FID analysis of honeybush tea volatiles.

  7. RNA isolation for small RNA Next-Generation Sequencing from acellular biofluids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burgos, Kasandra L; Van Keuren-Jensen, Kendall

    2014-01-01

    There are a number of considerations when choosing protocols both upstream and downstream of Next-Generation Sequencing experiments. On the front end, purification methods, additives, and residuum can often inhibit the sensitive chemistries by which sequencing-by-synthesis is performed. On the back end, data handling, analysis software packages, and pipelines can also impact sequencing outcomes. The current chapter will describe stepwise how acellular biofluid samples are prepared for small RNA sequencing. With regard to purification methods, we found that small RNA yield can be improved considerably by following the total RNA isolation protocol included with Ambion's mirVana PARIS Kit but modifying the organic extraction step. Specifically, after transferring the upper aqueous phase to a fresh tube, water is added to the residual material (interphase and lower organic layer) and again phase-separated. In contrast, all the protocols provided with the commercially available kits at the time of this chapter publication require only one organic extraction. This simple yet, as it turns out, quite useful modification allows access to previously inaccessible material. Potential benefits from these changes are a more comprehensive sample profiling of small RNA, as well as wider access to small volume samples, such as is typically available for acellular biofluids, which now can be prepared for small RNA sequencing on the Illumina platform.

  8. Xenogeneic acellular conjunctiva matrix as a scaffold of tissue-engineered corneal epithelium.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haifeng Zhao

    Full Text Available Amniotic membrane-based tissue-engineered corneal epithelium has been widely used in the reconstruction of the ocular surface. However, it often degrades too early to ensure the success of the transplanted corneal epithelium when treating patients with severe ocular surface disorders. In the present study, we investigated the preparation of xenogeneic acellular conjunctiva matrix (aCM and evaluated its efficacy and safety as a scaffold of tissue-engineered corneal epithelium. Native porcine conjunctiva was decellularized with 0.1% sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS for 12 h at 37°C and sterilized via γ-irradiation. Compared with native conjunctiva, more than 92% of the DNA was removed, and more than 90% of the extracellular matrix components (glycosaminoglycan and collagen remained after the decellularization treatment. Compared with denuded amniotic membrane (dAM, the aCM possessed favorable optical transmittance, tensile strength, stability and biocompatibility as well as stronger resistance to degradation both in vitro and in vivo. The corneal epithelial cells seeded on aCM formed a multilayered epithelial structure and endured longer than did those on dAM. The aCM-based tissue-engineered corneal epithelium was more effective in the reconstruction of the ocular surface in rabbits with limbal stem cell deficiency. These findings support the application of xenogeneic acellular conjunctiva matrix as a scaffold for reconstructing the ocular surface.

  9. Modeling dermal exposure--an illustration for spray painting applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flynn, Michael R; Koto, Yoshi; Fent, Kenneth; Nylander-French, Leena A

    2006-09-01

    This article presents a conceptual, mathematical model of dermal exposure resulting from aerosol deposition on human forearm hair. The model is applicable to exposure scenarios where dermal deposition is governed by aerosol impaction, interception, and diffusion mechanisms. The model employs filtration theory, single fiber efficiency equations, and a modified potential airflow approximation. The results are extended, using previously published results, for application to dermal deposition on the forearm during spray painting. The average (N = 8) predicted dermal deposition of 1,6-hexamethylene diisocyanate as collected on a 10-cm(2) tape strip is 108.9 (+/- 70.3) pmol, whereas field measurements indicated an average of 168.6 (+/- 82.0) pmol per strip. The corresponding measured average dermal flux was 3.63 pg/cm(2)s (+/- 1.34); the prediction was 2.24 pg/cm(2)sec (+/- 1.25). The study calls attention to the importance of body hair both for modeling and measuring dermal exposures.

  10. Emotional intelligence and electro-dermal activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zysberg, Leehu

    2012-09-01

    Emotional intelligence (EI) is a promising concept in our understanding of emotional regulation, related behaviors and pathologies. However, research linking EI to underlying physiological and biological structure and responses is meager. This study explored potential associations of EI with electro-dermal activity (EDA) responses to emotionally arousing visual stimuli. It was hypothesized that higher levels of EI will associate with more efficient emotional regulation as reflected by EDA. Eighty-four healthy participants were exposed to stimuli consisting of a series of 12 images designed to evoke positive or negative emotional responses, presented in a counterbalanced order. A self-report questionnaire and a computer based test of EI were administered along with a demographic questionnaire. EDA measures were taken during the exposure to the above stimuli using BIOPACK MP150. EI test scores (Beta = .35, .32; p gender. ethnicity) did not show any associations with the outcome measures. The results support the relevance of the concept to our understanding of emotional responses and regulation. The findings are briefly discussed within the context of underlying mechanisms of EI as well as measure validity and relevance.

  11. ABCB5 Identifies Immunoregulatory Dermal Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tobias Schatton

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Cell-based strategies represent a new frontier in the treatment of immune-mediated disorders. However, the paucity of markers for isolation of molecularly defined immunomodulatory cell populations poses a barrier to this field. Here, we show that ATP-binding cassette member B5 (ABCB5 identifies dermal immunoregulatory cells (DIRCs capable of exerting therapeutic immunoregulatory functions through engagement of programmed cell death 1 (PD-1. Purified Abcb5+ DIRCs suppressed T cell proliferation, evaded immune rejection, homed to recipient immune tissues, and induced Tregs in vivo. In fully major-histocompatibility-complex-mismatched cardiac allotransplantation models, allogeneic DIRCs significantly prolonged allograft survival. Blockade of DIRC-expressed PD-1 reversed the inhibitory effects of DIRCs on T cell activation, inhibited DIRC-dependent Treg induction, and attenuated DIRC-induced prolongation of cardiac allograft survival, indicating that DIRC immunoregulatory function is mediated, at least in part, through PD-1. Our results identify ABCB5+ DIRCs as a distinct immunoregulatory cell population and suggest promising roles of this expandable cell subset in cellular immunotherapy.

  12. Risk of Febrile Seizures and Epilepsy After Vaccination With Diphtheria, Tetanus, Acellular Pertussis, Inactivated Poliovirus, and Haemophilus Influenzae Type b

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sun, Yuelian; Christensen, Jakob Christensen; Hviid, Anders

    2012-01-01

    -acellular pertussis–inactivated poliovirus– Haemophilus influenzae type b (DTaP-IPV-Hib) vaccine since September 2002. Objective To estimate the risk of febrile seizures and epilepsy after DTaP-IPV-Hib vaccination given at 3, 5, and 12 months. Design, Setting, and Participants A population-based cohort study of 378...

  13. Human allogeneic keratinocytes cultured on acellular xenodermis: the use in healing of burns and other skin defects

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Matoušková, Eva; Brož, L.; Štolbová, V.; Klein, L.; Konigová, R.; Veselý, Pavel

    2006-01-01

    Roč. 16, č. 4 (2006), s. 63-71 ISSN 0959-2989 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR(CZ) IBS5052312 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50520514 Keywords : acellular xenodermis * human keratinocytes * wound grafting Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology Impact factor: 0.922, year: 2006

  14. A Proposal Of Simulation Model Of A Wind-Steering System For Sailing Yachts, Based On Single-Stage Servo-Pendulum Coupled With Main Rudder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Piętak Andrzej

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to investigate possible application of fast design prototyping methods for wind-steering systems used in offshore sailing yachts. The development of such methods would help to speed up the construction work and reduce the scope of necessary experimental research, prior to implementation of the system. In the present work, based on an analysis of existing designs of windvane systems, a preliminary selection of the system configuration has been undertaken, in terms of a compromise between efficiency, performance, and design complexity. Construction design of a single-stage, servo – pendulum system, has been developed by using the Autodesk Inventor design package. Next, based on the design data, a simulation model of the system, has been produced by using Matlab - Simulink software and SimMechanics library. The model was further verified in terms of kinematics mapping with the use of Matlab visualization tools.

  15. Single Stage String Inverter for Gridconnected Photovoltaic System with Modified Perturb and Observe (P&O Fuzzy Logic Control(FLC-based MPPT Technique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S.Z.Mohammad Noor

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents an implementation of Single-phase Single stage String inverter for Grid connected Photovoltaic (PV system. The proposed system uses Modified Perturb and Observe (P&O algorithm implemented using Fuzzy Logic Control (FLC as Maximum Power Point Tracking (MPPT. The inverter is designed for 340W system using two series of STP170s24/Ac PV modules. The MPPT unit keeps tracking the maximum power from the PV array by changing the modulation index and the phase angle of inverter’s output voltage. The simulation model is developed using Matlab/Simulink to evaluate the performance of the converter. Selected experimental results are also presented in this paper.

  16. Performance comparison of single-stage mixed-refrigerant Joule–Thomson cycle and reverse Brayton cycle for cooling 80 to 120 K temperature-distributed heat loads

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, H. C.; Chen, G. F.; Gong, M. Q.; Li, X.

    2017-12-01

    Thermodynamic performance comparison of single-stage mixed-refrigerant Joule–Thomson cycle (MJTR) and pure refrigerant reverse Brayton cycle (RBC) for cooling 80 to 120 K temperature-distributed heat loads was conducted in this paper. Nitrogen under various liquefaction pressures was employed as the heat load. The research was conducted under nonideal conditions by exergy analysis methods. Exergy efficiency and volumetric cooling capacity are two main evaluation parameters. Exergy loss distribution in each process of refrigeration cycle was also investigated. The exergy efficiency and volumetric cooling capacity of MJTR were obviously superior to RBC in 90 to 120 K temperature zone, but still inferior to RBC at 80 K. The performance degradation of MJTR was caused by two main reasons: The high fraction of neon resulted in large entropy generation and exergy loss in throttling process. Larger duty and WLMTD lead to larger exergy losses in recuperator.

  17. Single-stage gain-clamped L-band EDFA with C-band ASE self-oscillation in ring cavity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mahdi, M A; Al-Mansoori, M H; Bakar, A A A; Shaari, S; Zamzuri, A K

    2008-01-01

    We demonstrate single-stage gain-clamped L-band Er 3+ -doped fiber amplifier (EDFA) utilizing self-oscillation modes as the control light. The amplifier structure exploits the characteristics of C/L-band coupler to isolate between lasing modes and L-band signal. The self-lasing cavity modes are obtained without any tunable bandpass filter in the loop and generated from the amplified spontaneous emission in the C-band region. The amplifier configuration has lower noise figures as opposed to a dual-stage partially gain-clamped amplifier. The gain and noise figure fluctuations are less than ± 0.4 dB in the gain-clamping region. The transient analysis confirms that the maximum power excursion is less than 0.3 dB for 10-dB add/drop

  18. Correlation of precursor and product ions in single-stage high resolution mass spectrometry. A tool for detecting diagnostic ions and improving the precursor elemental composition elucidation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Borràs, S. [Departament de Química Analítica, Universitat de Barcelona, Martí i Franquès 1-11, 08028 Barcelona (Spain); Kaufmann, A., E-mail: anton.kaufmann@klzh.ch [Official Food Control Authority, Fehrenstrasse 15, 8032 Zürich (Switzerland); Companyó, R. [Departament de Química Analítica, Universitat de Barcelona, Martí i Franquès 1-11, 08028 Barcelona (Spain)

    2013-04-15

    Highlights: ► We are describing a technique to spot ions which are derived from each other. ► Single stage high resolution data is used. ► This “in silicon” technique is compared to conventional precursor scan. ► Some applications for this technique are presented. -- Abstract: Monitoring of common diagnostic fragments is essential for recognizing molecules which are members of a particular compound class. Up to now, unit resolving tandem quadrupole mass spectrometers, operating in the precursor ion scan mode, have been typically used to perform such analysis. By means of high-resolution mass spectrometry (HRMS) a much more sensitive and selective detection can be achieved. However, using a single-stage HRMS instrument, there is no unequivocal link to the corresponding precursor ion, since such instrumentation does not permit a previous precursor selection. Thus, to address this limitation, an in silico approach to locate precursor ions, based on diagnostic fragments, was developed. Implemented as an Excel macro, the algorithm rapidly assembles and surveys exact mass data to provide a list of feasible precursor candidates according to the correlation of the chromatographic peak shape profile and other additional filtering criteria (e.g. neutral losses and isotopes). The macro was tested with two families of veterinary drugs, sulfonamides and penicillins, which are known to yield diagnostic product ions when fragmented. Data sets obtained from different food matrices (fish and liver), both at high and low concentration of the target compounds, were investigated in order to evaluate the capabilities and limitations of the reported approach. Finally, other possible applications of this technique, such as the elucidation of elemental compositions based on product ions and corresponding neutral losses, were also presented and discussed.

  19. Evaluation of advanced hydraulic turbomachinery for underground pumped hydroelectric storage. Part 1. Single-stage regulated pump turbines for operating heads of 500 to 1000 m

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Frigo, A.A.; Blomquist, C.A.; Degnan, J.R.

    1979-10-01

    High-head, large-capacity turbomachinery is needed for the concept of underground pumped hydroelectric storage to be technically and economically attractive. Single-stage, reversible, Francis-type pump turbines with adjustable wicket gates appear to offer the most economically attractive option for heads between about 500 and 1000 m. The feasibility of developing these types of machines for capacities up to 500 MW and operating heads up to 1000 m has been evaluated. Preliminary designs have been generated for six single-stage pump turbines. The designs are for capacities of 350 and 500 MW and for operating heads of 500, 750, and 1000 m. The report contains drawings of the machines along with material specifications and hydraulic performance data. Mechanical, hydraulic, and economic analyses indicate that these machines will behave according to the criteria used to design them and that they can be built at a reasonable cost. The stress and deflection responses of the 500-MW, 100-m-head pump turbine, determined by detailed finite element analysis techniques, give solid evidence of the integrity of the conceptual designs of the six units and indicate no unsolvable problems. Results of a life expectancy analysis of the wicket gates indicate that a near infinite life can be expected for these components when they are subjected to normal design loads. Efficiencies of 90.7 and 91.4% in the generating and pumping modes, respectively, can be expected for the 500-MW, 1000-m-head unit. Performances of the other five machines are comparable. The specific costs of the pump turbines in mid-1978 US dollars per kW vary from 19.2 to 11.8 over a head range of from 500 to 1000 m for the 500-MW machines and from 20.0 to 12.3 for the 350-MW machines.

  20. In-source collision-induced dissociation (IS-CID): Applications, issues and structure elucidation with single-stage mass analyzers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parcher, Jon F; Wang, Mei; Chittiboyina, Amar G; Khan, Ikhlas A

    2018-01-01

    A discussion of the definition, advantages, and issues with the formation of ions in the transition region between an electrospray ionization (ESI) source and the ion optics of a mass analyzer is presented. The various types of ions formed in the so-called in-source collision-induced dissociation (IS-CID) process are illustrated. Applications of IS-CID with single-stage mass analyzers, such as structure elucidation and quantitation, are demonstrated. The discussion is illustrated by examples of the in-source fragmentation of ginkgolides, which are marker compounds found only in Ginkgo biloba. Supercritical fluid chromatography (SFC) with non-aqueous eluents was used to achieve a fast resolution of the ginkgolides without the hydrolysis reactions possible with aqueous high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) eluents. In-source ion generation occurs at relatively high pressures (ca. 1-3 torr) compared to the low pressure normally observed in collision chambers of tandem mass spectrometry (MS/MS). As a result, the fragmentation process is complex and often generates ions other than the fragments observed with classic CID or the same ions at different intensities. The objective of the current tutorial is to illustrate the conditions under which single-stage, quadrupole or time-of-flight mass analyzers with electrospray or in-air (direct analysis in real time; DART) ionization can be used for quantitation and structure elucidation in a manner similar to that observed with MS/MS. While the low m/z (≤ [M±H] ± ) ions formed in-source often duplicate the ions observed in MS/MS systems, it is the focus of this discussion to illustrate the utility of in-source generated fragment ions that may not be observed or observed at different intensities than in the collision cells of MS/MS instruments. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  1. Efficacy of single-stage breast-conserving treatment using multicatheter partial breast brachytherapy evaluated by GEC-ESTRO phase 3 trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sato, Kazuhiko; Fuchikami, Hiromi; Kato, Masahiro; Shimo, Takahiro; Kubota, Jun; Takeda, Naoko; Inoue, Yuko; Seto, Hiroshi; Okawa, Tomohiko

    2017-10-01

    The GEC-ESTRO has reported the equivalent outcomes of partial breast irradiation (PBI) using multicatheter interstitial brachytherapy (MCB) to whole breast irradiation (WBI) in breast-conserving therapy (BCT). We performed single-stage BCT with partial breast brachytherapy by intraoperative catheter placement. After the categorization of patients into inclusion and exclusion criteria on this trial, our databases were evaluated in order to translate it to Japanese patients. Patients undergoing BCT were retrospectively examined between November 2007 and December 2015. The technique is an open-cavity implant with a dose of 32 Gy in 8 fractions. The 4-year clinical outcomes of MCB-PBI were evaluated in the 2 distinct categories, and the comparison of the outcomes of MCB-PBI with WBI was performed in patients with unfavorable features. Of a total of 501 lesions undergoing BCT, 301 lesions were treated with MCB-PBI and 200 lesions with WBI. At the median follow-up time of 52 months, the 4-year rate of ipsilateral breast tumor recurrence (IBTR)-free, disease-free (DFS), and overall survival (OS) in patients with MCB-PBI and WBI were 98.9% vs. 98.0% ( p = 0.56), 97.0% vs. 95.3% ( p = 0.78), and 99.6% vs. 98.2% ( p = 0.38), respectively. Although in exclusion cohort treated with MCB-PBI, IBTR-free, and disease-free survival were significantly worse than in inclusion cohort, non-significantly worse outcomes was demonstrated than in exclusion cohort with WBI; IBTR-free survival (95.0% vs. 97.2%, p = 0.24), and disease-free survival (95.0% vs. 95.8%, p = 0.31). Single-stage BCT using MCB-PBI offered similar tumor control rates compering to WBI. However, further research is needed to define the benefit for patients with an exclusion criteria.

  2. Single-stage multilevel soft-tissue surgery in the lower limbs with spastic cerebral palsy: Experience from a rehabilitation unit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gupta Anupam

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: To assess the effect of single-stage multilevel soft-tissue surgery (Single Event Multiple Level Resections, SEMLR on deformities and locomotion in patients with cerebral palsy (CP with static contracture(s in lower limbs. Patients and Methods: Study included 34 patients (M:F, 23:11 with mean age of 9.53 ± 3.92 years (4-16 years. Among them 22 had diplegia and four each had quadriplegia and right and left hemiplegia. Fourteen patients (41.2% had their intelligence quotient (IQ in the normal range (IQ ≥ 80, while others had mental retardation (MR of varying severity: borderline MR (IQ = 70-79 in 12, mild MR (IQ = 50-69 in 5, and moderate MR (IQ = 35-49 in patients 3. All patients underwent surgery (total number of procedures 153, average 4.5 procedures/patient over a period of 30 months (April 2005 to September 2007. Improvement in functional abilities and locomotion was assessed using Gross Motor Functional Classification Scale (GMFCS scores and by physical examination. Results: Significant improvement in function was observed ( P = 0.000 after surgery when comparing the preoperative and postoperative GMFCS scores. All patients were maintaining ambulation at a mean follow-up duration of 13.12 ± 6.07 months (3-24 months, with five patients using knee-ankle-foot orthoses (KAFO, 22 using ankle-foot orthoses (AFO, and six patients using knee gaiters. Sixteen patients were using walker, and two were using crutches as assistive devices. Conclusion: This study suggests that CP patients with good trunk control and static contractures at multiple joints in the lower limbs can be made ambulant with single-stage multilevel soft-tissue surgery. It has to be a team effort of the surgeon and the rehabilitation team in the postoperative period for the attainment of satisfactory goal.

  3. Ciprofloxacin Improves the Stemness of Human Dermal Papilla Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chayanin Kiratipaiboon

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Improvement in the expansion method of adult stem cells may augment their use in regenerative therapy. Using human dermal papilla cell line as well as primary dermal papilla cells as model systems, the present study demonstrated that ciprofloxacin treatment could prevent the loss of stemness during culture. Clonogenicity and stem cell markers of dermal papilla cells were shown to gradually decrease in the culture in a time-dependent manner. Treatment of the cells with nontoxic concentrations of ciprofloxacin could maintain both stem cell morphology and clonogenicity, as well as all stem cells markers. We found that ciprofloxacin exerted its effect through ATP-dependent tyrosine kinase/glycogen synthase kinase3β dependent mechanism which in turn upregulated β-catenin. Besides, ciprofloxacin was shown to induce epithelial-mesenchymal transition in DPCs as the transcription factors ZEB1 and Snail were significantly increased. Furthermore, the self-renewal proteins of Wnt/β-catenin pathway, namely, Nanog and Oct-4 were significantly upregulated in the ciprofloxacin-treated cells. The effects of ciprofloxacin in preserving stem cell features were confirmed in the primary dermal papilla cells directly obtained from human hair follicles. Together, these results revealed a novel application of ciprofloxacin for stem cell maintenance and provided the underlying mechanisms that are responsible for the stemness in dermal papilla cells.

  4. A solvatochromatic approach to quantifying formulation effects on dermal permeability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baynes, R E; Xia, X-R; Vijay, V; Riviere, J E

    2008-01-01

    Dermal risk assessments are most often concerned with the occupational and environmental exposure to a single chemical and then determining solute permeability through in vitro or in vivo experimentation with various animal models and/or computational approaches. Oftentimes, the skin is exposed to more than one chemical that could potentially modulate dermal permeability of the chemical that could cause adverse health effects. The focus of this article is to demonstrate that these formulation effects on dermal permeability can occur with simple solvent formulations or complex industrial formulations and that these effects can be modeled within the context of a linear solvation energy relationship (LSER). This research demonstrated that formulation-specific strength coefficients (r p a b v) predicted (r(2) = 0.75-0.83) changes in the dermal permeability of phenolic compounds when formulated with commercial metal-working fluid (MWF) formulations or 50% ethanol. Further experimentation demonstrated that chemical-induced changes in skin permeability with 50% ethanol are strongly correlated (r(2) = 0.91) to similar changes in an inert membrane-coated fiber (MCF) array system consisting of three chemically diverse membranes. Changes in specific strength coefficients pertaining to changes in hydrogen donating ability (Deltab) and hydrophobicity (Deltav) across membrane systems were identified as important quantitative interactions associated with ethanol mixtures. This solvatochromatic approach along with the use of a MCF array system holds promise for predicting dermal permeability of complex chemical formulations in occupational exposures where performance additives can potentially modulate permeability of potential toxicants.

  5. Alteration of Skin Properties with Autologous Dermal Fibroblasts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rajesh L. Thangapazham

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Dermal fibroblasts are mesenchymal cells found between the skin epidermis and subcutaneous tissue. They are primarily responsible for synthesizing collagen and glycosaminoglycans; components of extracellular matrix supporting the structural integrity of the skin. Dermal fibroblasts play a pivotal role in cutaneous wound healing and skin repair. Preclinical studies suggest wider applications of dermal fibroblasts ranging from skin based indications to non-skin tissue regeneration in tendon repair. One clinical application for autologous dermal fibroblasts has been approved by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA while others are in preclinical development or various stages of regulatory approval. In this context, we outline the role of fibroblasts in wound healing and discuss recent advances and the current development pipeline for cellular therapies using autologous dermal fibroblasts. The microanatomic and phenotypic differences of fibroblasts occupying particular locations within the skin are reviewed, emphasizing the therapeutic relevance of attributes exhibited by subpopulations of fibroblasts. Special focus is provided to fibroblast characteristics that define regional differences in skin, including the thick and hairless skin of the palms and soles as compared to hair-bearing skin. This regional specificity and functional identity of fibroblasts provides another platform for developing regional skin applications such as the induction of hair follicles in bald scalp or alteration of the phenotype of stump skin in amputees to better support their prosthetic devices.

  6. DermAll nanomedicine for allergen-specific immunotherapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garaczi, Edina; Szabó, Kornélia; Francziszti, László; Csiszovszki, Zsolt; Lőrincz, Orsolya; Tőke, Enikő R; Molnár, Levente; Bitai, Tamás; Jánossy, Tamás; Bata-Csörgő, Zsuzsanna; Kemény, Lajos; Lisziewicz, Julianna

    2013-11-01

    Allergen-specific immunotherapy (ASIT) the only disease-modifying treatment for IgE-mediated allergies is characterized with long treatment duration and high risk of side effects. We investigated the safety, immunogenicity and efficacy of a novel ASIT, called DermAll, in an experimental allergic rhinitis model. We designed and characterized DermAll-OVA, a synthetic plasmid pDNA/PEIm nanomedicine expressing ovalbumin (OVA) as model allergen. DermAll-OVA was administered topically with DermaPrep device to target Langerhans cells. To detect the clinical efficacy of DermAll ASIT we quantified the nasal symptoms and characterized the immunomodulatory activity of DermAll ASIT by measuring cytokine secretion after OVA-stimulation of splenocytes and antibodies from the sera. In allergic mice DermAll ASIT was as safe as Placebo, balanced the allergen-induced pathogenic TH2-polarized immune responses, and decreased the clinical symptoms by 52% [32%, 70%] compared to Placebo. These studies suggest that DermAll ASIT is safe and should significantly improve the immunopathology and symptoms of allergic diseases. A novel allergen-specific immunotherapy for IgE-mediated allergies is presented in this paper, using an experimental allergic rhinitis model and a synthetic plasmid pDNA/PEIm nanomedicine expressing ovalbumin as model allergen. Over 50% reduction of symptoms was found as the immune system's balance was favorably altered toward more TH2-polarized immune responses. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Preparation of acellular scaffold for corneal tissue engineering by supercritical carbon dioxide extraction technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Yi-Hsun; Tseng, Fan-Wei; Chang, Wen-Hsin; Peng, I-Chen; Hsieh, Dar-Jen; Wu, Shu-Wei; Yeh, Ming-Long

    2017-08-01

    In this study, we developed a novel method using supercritical carbon dioxide (SCCO 2 ) to prepare acellular porcine cornea (APC). Under gentle extraction conditions using SCCO 2 technology, hematoxylin and eosin staining showed that cells were completely lysed, and cell debris, including nuclei, was efficiently removed from the porcine cornea. The SCCO 2 -treated corneas exhibited intact stromal structures and appropriate mechanical properties. Moreover, no immunological reactions and neovascularization were observed after lamellar keratoplasty in rabbits. All transplanted grafts and animals survived without complications. The transplanted APCs were opaque after the operation but became transparent within 2weeks. Complete re-epithelialization of the transplanted APCs was observed within 4weeks. In conclusion, APCs produced by SCCO 2 extraction technology could be an ideal and useful scaffold for corneal tissue engineering. We decellularized the porcine cornea using SCCO 2 extraction technology and investigated the characteristics, mechanical properties, and biocompatibility of the decellularized porcine cornea by lamellar keratoplasty in rabbits. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report describing the use of SCCO 2 extraction technology for preparation of acellular corneal scaffold. We proved that the cellular components of porcine corneas had been efficiently removed, and the biomechanical properties of the scaffold were well preserved by SCCO 2 extraction technology. SCCO 2 -treated corneas maintained optical transparency and exhibited appropriate strength to withstand surgical procedures. In vivo, the transplanted corneas showed no evidence of immunological reactions and exhibited good biocompatibility and long-term stability. Our results suggested that the APCs developed by SCCO 2 extraction technology could be an ideal and useful scaffold for corneal replacement and corneal tissue engineering. Copyright © 2017 Acta Materialia Inc. Published by

  8. Proliferation kinetics of the dermal infiltrate in cutaneous malignant lymphomas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sterry, W.; Pullmann, H.; Steigleder, G.K.

    1981-01-01

    To obtain information about the role of local proliferation in the pathogenesis of dermal infiltrate in malignant cutaneous lymphomas, we determined the percentage of /sup 3/H-thymidine-labeled infiltrating cells (/sup 3/H-index). A linear correlation was found between proliferative activity and clinical stage in mycosis fungoides, i.e., the /sup 3/H-index is moderately elevated in stage I and high in stage III. The /sup 3/H-index is within normal range in dermal infiltrate of Sezary syndrome, diffuse lymphocytic lymphoma, as well as in lymphocytoma benigna cutis. In parapsoriasis en plaques two groups can be distinguished: in the small plaque variant (chronic superficial dermatitis) the /sup 3/H-index is low, whereas the large-plaque variant (prereticulotic poikiloderma) shows strong proliferative activity. Thus, determination of proliferative activity seems to give new insights into the pathogenesis of dermal infiltrate in cutaneous lymphomas.

  9. SVOC exposure indoors: fresh look at dermal pathways

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Weschler, Charles J.; Nazaroff, W. W.

    2012-01-01

    Abstract This paper critically examines indoor exposure to semivolatile organic compounds (SVOCs) via dermal pathways. First, it demonstrates that - in central tendency - an SVOC's abundance on indoor surfaces and in handwipes can be predicted reasonably well from gas-phase concentrations, assuming...... surfaces. The paper concludes with explorations of the influence of particles and dust on dermal exposure, the role of clothing and bedding as transport vectors, and the potential significance of hair follicles as transport shunts through the epidermis. PRACTICAL IMPLICATIONS: Human exposure to indoor...... pollutants can occur through dietary and nondietary ingestion, inhalation, and dermal absorption. Many factors influence the relative importance of these pathways, including physical and chemical properties of the pollutants. This paper argues that exposure to indoor semivolatile organic compounds (SVOCs...

  10. Measurements of Dermal and Oral Emissions from Humans

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tsushima, Sayana; Bekö, Gabriel; Bossi, Rossana

    2016-01-01

    Human related pollutants (bioeffluents) emitted through skin and via exhaled breath were measured. Two climate chambers were connected via flexible ducts. The ducts were in one chamber attached to a breathing mask, through which five subjects exhaled on one occasion the air into the other chamber......: Human bioeffluents emitted orally were in this way isolated from those that were emitted dermally. On another occasion, the subjects exhaled the air into the chamber where they were sitting, thus exposure contained oral and dermal bioeffluents. Another twenty subjects assessed the air quality...... in the chambers. They judged the air quality in the chamber with dermal bioeffluents to be lower than in the one containing orally exhaled bioeffluents, and similar to the air quality in the chamber with all bioeffluents. The chemical compounds with slightly elevated concentrations differed between the two...

  11. Proliferation kinetics of the dermal infiltrate in cutaneous malignant lymphomas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sterry, W.; Pullmann, H.; Steigleder, G.K.

    1981-01-01

    To obtain information about the role of local proliferation in the pathogenesis of dermal infiltrate in malignant cutaneous lymphomas, we determined the percentage of 3 H-thymidine-labeled infiltrating cells ( 3 H-index). A linear correlation was found between proliferative activity and clinical stage in mycosis fungoides, i.e., the 3 H-index is moderately elevated in stage I and high in stage III. The 3 H-index is within normal range in dermal infiltrate of Sezary syndrome, diffuse lymphocytic lymphoma, as well as in lymphocytoma benigna cutis. In parapsoriasis en plaques two groups can be distinguished: in the small plaque variant (chronic superficial dermatitis) the 3 H-index is low, whereas the large-plaque variant (prereticulotic poikiloderma) shows strong proliferative activity. Thus, determination of proliferative activity seems to give new insights into the pathogenesis of dermal infiltrate in cutaneous lymphomas. (orig.) [de

  12. Attenuation of dermal toxicity of doxorubicin by liposome encapsulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forssen, E A; Tökes, Z A

    1983-05-01

    The severe tissue damage which occurs when doxorubicin (Dxn) is extravasated during infusion has been attenuated by encapsulating the drug in anionic liposomes. Mice were injected intradermally with either 0.05 or 0.10 mg of Dxn in the free or liposome-entrapped form. At both dose levels, the animals receiving free drug developed dermal lesions at a higher frequency and of a greater severity than did those animals receiving Dxn-liposomes. Determination of tissue-associated fluorescence indicated that free Dxn was removed from the area of the dermal injection more rapidly than was the liposome-entrapped drug. The data suggest that the dermal toxicity of Dxn may be determined more by its mode of disposition than by the absolute amount of drug in tissue. Similar observation was made earlier for the Dxn-induced chronic cardiotoxicity.

  13. In vivo degradation of processed dermal sheep collagen evaluated with transmission electron microscopy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Wachem, P.B.; van Luyn, M.J.A.; Nieuwenhuis, P.; Koerten, H.K.; Olde damink, L.H.H.; Olde-Damink, L.; ten Hoopen, Hermina W.M.; Feijen, Jan

    1991-01-01

    The in vivo degradation of hexamethylenediisocyanate-tanned dermal sheep collagen was studied with transmission electron microscopy. Discs of hexamethylenediisocyanate-tanned dermal sheep collagen were subcutaneously implanted in rats. Both an intra- and an extracellular route of degradation could

  14. INVIVO DEGRADATION OF PROCESSED DERMAL SHEEP COLLAGEN EVALUATED WITH TRANSMISSION ELECTRON-MICROSCOPY

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    VANWACHEM, PB; VANLUYN, MJA; NIEUWENHUIS, P; KOERTEN, HK; DAMINK, LO; TENHOOPEN, H; FEIJEN, J

    The in vivo degradation of hexamethylenediisocyanate-tanned dermal sheep collagen was studied with transmission electron microscopy. Discs of hexamethylenediisocyanate-tanned dermal sheep collagen were subcutaneously implanted in rats. Both an intra- and an extracellular route of degradation could

  15. Dermal Exposure during Filling, Loading and Brushing with Products Containing 2-(2-Butoxyethoxy)ethanol

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gijsbers, J.H.J.; Tielemans, E.; Brouwer, D.H.; Hemmen, J.J. van

    2004-01-01

    Introduction: Limited quantitative information is available on dermal exposure to chemicals during various industrial activities. Therefore, within the scope of the EU-funded RISKOFDERM project, potential dermal exposure was measured during three different tasks: filling, loading and brushing. DEGBE

  16. Complications caused by injection of dermal filler in Danish patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Uth, Charlotte Caspara; Elberg, Jens Jørgen; Zachariae, Claus

    2016-01-01

    Background: The usage of dermal fillers has increased significantly in recent years. Soft tissue augmentation with fillers helps to diminish the facial lines and to restore volume and fullness in the face at a relatively low cost. With the increasing number of treatments, the number of complicati......Background: The usage of dermal fillers has increased significantly in recent years. Soft tissue augmentation with fillers helps to diminish the facial lines and to restore volume and fullness in the face at a relatively low cost. With the increasing number of treatments, the number...

  17. [Exploratory study on the micro-remodeling of dermal tissue].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Yu-zhi; Ding, Gui-fu; Lu, Shu-liang

    2009-10-01

    To explore the effect of three-dimensional structure of dermal matrix on biological behavior of fibroblasts (Fb) in the microcosmic perspective. The three-dimensional structure of dermal tissue was analyzed by plane geometric and trigonometric function. Microdots structure array with cell adhesion effect was designed by computer-assisted design software according to the adhesive and non-adhesive components of dermal tissue. Four sizes (8 microm x 3 microm, space 6 microm; 16 microm x 3 microm, space 6 microm; 16 microm x 5 microm, space 8 microm; 20 microm x 3 microm, space 2 microm) of micropier grid used for cell culture (MPGCC) with cell-adhesive microdots, built up with micro-pattern printing and molecule self-assembly method were used to culture dermal Fb. Fb cultured with cell culture matrix without micropier grid was set up as control. The expression of skeleton protein (alpha-SMA) of Fb, cell viability and cell secretion were detected with immunohistochemistry, fluorescent immunohistochemistry, MTT test and the hydroxyproline content assay. The three-dimensional structure of dermal tissue could be simulated by MPGCC as shown in arithmetic analysis. Compared with those of control group [(12 +/- 3)% and (0.53 +/- 0.03) microg/mg, (0.35 +/- 0.04)], the expression of alpha-SMA [(49 +/- 3)%, (61 +/- 3)%, (47 +/- 4)%, (51 +/- 3)%] and the content of hydroxyproline [(0.95 +/- 0.04), (0.87 +/- 0.03), (0.81 +/- 0.03), (0.77 +/- 0.03) microg/mg] were increased significantly (P grid were changed, the expression of alpha-SMA, the cell viability and the content of hydroxyproline of Fb cultured in four sizes of MPGCC were also significantly changed as compared with one another (P < 0.05). MPGCC may be the basic functional unit of dermal template, or unit of dermal template to call. Different three-dimensional circumstances for dermal tissue can result in different template effect and wound healing condition.

  18. Dermal absorption of finite doses of volatile compounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frasch, H Frederick

    2012-07-01

    Laplace domain solutions to a previously published finite dose skin diffusion model are presented. The purpose of the current analysis is to derive a simple algebraic expression quantifying the total mass that is systemically absorbed at infinite time after exposure, relative to the applied mass. The resulting expression is a function of two dimensionless parameters: f, the fractional depth within the skin surface through which the permeant is initially deposited, and χ, the ratio of maximum evaporation flux to maximum dermal flux. The result may be useful for dermal risk assessment as well as in the evaluation of cosmetic and pharmaceutical product performance. Copyright © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  19. Acellularization-Induced Changes in Tensile Properties Are Organ Specific - An In-Vitro Mechanical and Structural Analysis of Porcine Soft Tissues.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefan Schleifenbaum

    Full Text Available Though xenogeneic acellular scaffolds are frequently used for surgical reconstruction, knowledge of their mechanical properties is lacking. This study compared the mechanical, histological and ultrastructural properties of various native and acellular specimens.Porcine esophagi, ureters and skin were tested mechanically in a native or acellular condition, focusing on the elastic modulus, ultimate tensile stress and maximum strain. The testing protocol for soft tissues was standardized, including the adaption of the tissue's water content and partial plastination to minimize material slippage as well as templates for normed sample dimensions and precise cross-section measurements. The native and acellular tissues were compared at the microscopic and ultrastructural level with a focus on type I collagens.Increased elastic modulus and ultimate tensile stress values were quantified in acellular esophagi and ureters compared to the native condition. In contrast, these values were strongly decreased in the skin after acellularization. Acellularization-related decreases in maximum strain were found in all tissues. Type I collagens were well-preserved in these samples; however, clotting and a loss of cross-linking type I collagens was observed ultrastructurally. Elastins and fibronectins were preserved in the esophagi and ureters. A loss of the epidermal layer and decreased fibronectin content was present in the skin.Acellularization induces changes in the tensile properties of soft tissues. Some of these changes appear to be organ specific. Loss of cross-linking type I collagen may indicate increased mechanical strength due to decreasing transverse forces acting upon the scaffolds, whereas fibronectin loss may be related to decreased load-bearing capacity. Potentially, the alterations in tissue mechanics are linked to organ function and to the interplay of cells and the extracellular matrix, which is different in hollow organs when compared to skin.

  20. Validation of the dermal exposure model in ECETOC TRA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marquart, Hans; Franken, Remy; Goede, Henk; Fransman, Wouter; Schinkel, Jody

    2017-08-01

    The ECETOC TRA model (presently version 3.1) is often used to estimate worker inhalation and dermal exposure in regulatory risk assessment. The dermal model in ECETOC TRA has not yet been validated by comparison with independent measured exposure levels. This was the goal of the present study. Measured exposure levels and relevant contextual information were gathered via literature search, websites of relevant occupational health institutes and direct requests for data to industry. Exposure data were clustered in so-called exposure cases, which are sets of data from one data source that are expected to have the same values for input parameters in the ECETOC TRA dermal exposure model. For each exposure case, the 75th percentile of measured values was calculated, because the model intends to estimate these values. The input values for the parameters in ECETOC TRA were assigned by an expert elicitation and consensus building process, based on descriptions of relevant contextual information.From more than 35 data sources, 106 useful exposure cases were derived, that were used for direct comparison with the model estimates. The exposure cases covered a large part of the ECETOC TRA dermal exposure model. The model explained 37% of the variance in the 75th percentiles of measured values. In around 80% of the exposure cases, the model estimate was higher than the 75th percentile of measured values. In the remaining exposure cases, the model estimate may not be sufficiently conservative.The model was shown to have a clear bias towards (severe) overestimation of dermal exposure at low measured exposure values, while all cases of apparent underestimation by the ECETOC TRA dermal exposure model occurred at high measured exposure values. This can be partly explained by a built-in bias in the effect of concentration of substance in product used, duration of exposure and the use of protective gloves in the model. The effect of protective gloves was calculated to be on average a

  1. Single-stage osseointegrated reconstruction and rehabilitation of lower limb amputees: the Osseointegration Group of Australia Accelerated Protocol-2 (OGAAP-2) for a prospective cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al Muderis, Munjed; Lu, William; Tetsworth, Kevin; Bosley, Belinda; Li, Jiao Jiao

    2017-03-22

    Lower limb amputations have detrimental influences on the quality of life, function and body image of the affected patients. Following amputation, prolonged rehabilitation is required for patients to be fitted with traditional socket prostheses, and many patients experience symptomatic socket-residuum interface problems which lead to reduced prosthetic use and quality of life. Osseointegration has recently emerged as a novel approach for the reconstruction of amputated limbs, which overcomes many of the socket-related problems by directly attaching the prosthesis to the skeletal residuum. To date, the vast majority of osseointegration procedures worldwide have been performed in 2 stages, which require at least 4 months and up to 18 months for the completion of reconstruction and rehabilitation from the time of the initial surgery. The current prospective cohort study evaluates the safety and efficacy of a single-stage osseointegration procedure performed under the Osseointegration Group of Australia Accelerated Protocol-2 (OGAAP-2), which dramatically reduces the time of recovery to ∼3-6 weeks. The inclusion criteria for osseointegrated reconstruction under the OGAAP-2 procedure are age over 18 years, unilateral transfemoral amputation and experiencing problems or difficulties in using socket prostheses. All patients receive osseointegrated implants which are press-fitted into the residual bone. Functional and quality-of-life outcome measures are recorded preoperatively and at defined postoperative follow-up intervals up to 2 years. Postoperative adverse events are also recorded. The preoperative and postoperative values are compared for each outcome measure, and the benefits and harms of the single-stage OGAAP-2 procedure will be compared with the results obtained using a previously employed 2-stage procedure. This study has received ethics approval from the University of Notre Dame, Sydney, Australia (014153S). The study outcomes will be disseminated

  2. Acceleration of Regeneration of Large Gap Peripheral Nerve Injuries Using Acellular Nerve Allografts plus amniotic Fluid Derived Stem Cells (AFS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-09-01

    seeded constructs were used to repair critical-sized, large gap nerve injury in rats and their functional recovery was monitored longitudinally using... injuries in non-human primates. These represent a more translational model of peripheral nerve injury and repair . 15. SUBJECT TERMS 16. SECURITY...AWARD NUMBER: W811XWH-13-1-0310 TITLE: Acceleration of Regeneration of Large-Gap Peripheral Nerve Injuries Using Acellular Nerve Allografts

  3. Abdominal wall reconstruction using De-epithelialized dermal flap: A ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Although autogenous materials have been used in abdominal wall hernioplasty for a long time, the introduction of prosthetic materials diminished their popularity. However, these materials may be expensive, inappropriate or unavailable. The aim of this study is to determine the place of de-epithelialized dermal ...

  4. In vivo dermal absorption of pyrethroid pesticides in the rat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    The potential for exposure to pyrethroid pesticides has risen recently because of their increased use. The objective of this study was to examine the in vivo dermal absorption of bifenthrin, deltamethrin and permethrin in the rat. Hair on the dorsal side of anesthetized adult m...

  5. Management of acute complex traumatic wound with a dermal ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Management of acute complex traumatic wound with a dermal regeneration template: Case report. ... Methods: A nine-year-old male patient presented to Kimberly Hospital with an extensive soft tissue injury of the leg associated with a tibia fracture caused by a high velocity pedestrian vehicle accident. Results: A ...

  6. The histology of dermal glands of mating Breviceps with comments ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    During mating male and female Breviceps become 'glued' together. The distribution of multicellular dermal glands varies between the sexes. The mate has a large number of holocrine glands on the ventrum, while the female has similar glands on the dorsum of the back. II thus appears that both sexes contribute to the ...

  7. Dissecting antigen processing and presentation routes in dermal vaccination strategies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Platteel, Anouk C M; Henri, Sandrine; Zaiss, Dietmar M; Sijts, Alice J A M

    2017-01-01

    The skin is an attractive site for vaccination due to its accessibility and presence of immune cells surveilling this barrier. However, knowledge of antigen processing and presentation upon dermal vaccination is sparse. In this study we determined antigen processing routes that lead to CD8(+) T cell

  8. Task-based dermal exposure models for regulatory risk assessment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Warren, N.D.; Marquart, H.; Christopher, Y.; Laitinen, J.; Hemmen, J.J. van

    2006-01-01

    The regulatory risk assessment of chemicals requires the estimation of occupational dermal exposure. Until recently, the models used were either based on limited data or were specific to a particular class of chemical or application. The EU project RISKOFDERM has gathered a considerable number of

  9. Pigmentation and dermal conservative effects of the astonishing ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    practitioners in the Asian cultures have known seaweed as an organic source of vitamins, minerals, fatty acids like omega-3 and omega-6 and antioxidants. The present objective of the study was to evaluate the potent dermal protective effect of the two seaweeds Sargassum polycystum and Padina tenuis on human cell ...

  10. Dermal Uptake of Organic Vapors Commonly Found in Indoor Air

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Weschler, Charles J.; Nazaroff, William W

    2014-01-01

    , formaldehyde, and acrolein. Analysis of published experimental data for human subjects for twenty different organic compounds substantiates these model predictions. However, transdermal uptake rates from air have not been measured for the indoor organics that have the largest modeled ratios of dermal...

  11. Dermal fillers in the Netherlands : A market surveillance study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Keizers P; van Drongelen A; Geertsma R; Hodemaekers H; de Jong W; Lamme E; Oostlander A; Roszek B; Schwillens P; Venhuis B; Janssen R; PRS; GZB

    2017-01-01

    Dermal fillers, or just fillers, are products that are injected into or under the skin for medical or cosmetic purposes. This could be to restore the natural contours of the body after an operation for example, but also to mask the visible effects of ageing. The National Institute for Public

  12. [Congenital dermal sinus tract of recurrent pyrexia: case report].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minegishi, Kazunori; Kusaka, Yasuko; Shirane, Reizo; Yoshimoto, Takashi

    2002-09-01

    The authors present a case of congenital dermal sinus tract with epidermoid tumor. This 1-year-old boy was referred to the pediatric service of another hospital with recurrent pyrexia of unknown origin in April, 1999. The pediatrician found two dimples, pigmentation, and coarse hairs on the midline in his sacral region. Computerized tomography (CT) scans revealed a spina bifida below the S1 level. Magnetic resonance (MR) imaging revealed a dermal sinus tract in the cranial direction to a cystic tumor at L2-4 levels. He was transferred to our hospital, and the tract and tumor were totally removed in June, 1999. The histological findings and Escherichia coli in the smear culture of the tumor contents identified it as an infected congenital dermal sinus tract with epidermoid tumor. The patient received antibiotics for two weeks after surgery and there was no clinical or radiographic recurrence of either infection or tumor. The authors propose early diagnosis and radical treatment, because infected congenital dermal sinus tract often leads to a bad neurological prognosis.

  13. Sonography for detection of spinal dermal sinus tracts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Kuang-Lin; Wang, Huei-Shyong; Chou, Ming-Liang; Lui, Ta-Ngar

    2002-08-01

    It is well known that spinal dysraphism may be complicated by meningitis as a result of infection traveling from the skin along a patent dermal sinus tract. The only clue is the lower back cutaneous lesions. Our aim was to investigate the correlation between cutaneous lesions, patent dermal sinus tracts, and spinal dysraphism and their complications. Five patients (3 female and 2 male) with spinal patent dermal sinus tracts were studied. We used a 7-MHz linear transducer with a two-dimensional real-time sonographic system to insonate and obtain transverse and longitudinal views of the spinal cord and subcutaneous area, extending from the cervical cord to the sacral areas. Subsequently, we performed spinal magnetic resonance imaging in every patient to confirm the diagnosis and to evaluate the intraspinal conditions. The associated central nervous system anomalies and complications were tethered cords (n = 5), dermoid cysts (n = 3), lipoma (n = 2), central nervous system infections (n = 2), and syringomyelia (n = 1). The outcomes were better in those who received surgical intervention before they were infected. Early detection of spinal patent dermal sinus tracts and related anomalies was accomplished with spinal sonography and allowed for prophylactic treatment (e.g., early surgical intervention) before the onset of neurologic deficits.

  14. Abdominal wall reconstruction using De-epithelialized dermal flap: A ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Abdominal wall reconstruction using De-epithelialized dermal flap: A new technique. ... Journal of Surgical Technique and Case Report ... Background: Although autogenous materials have been used in abdominal wall hernioplasty for a long time, the introduction of prosthetic materials diminished their popularity. However ...

  15. Defense against dermal exposures is only skin deep

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Jesper Bo; Nielsen, Flemming; Sørensen, Jens Ahm

    2007-01-01

    substances (glyphosat, caffeine, benzoic acid, malathion) covering a range of solubilities. Further, we studied the extent to which a slightly damaged skin would change the rate, the amount absorbed during dermal exposure and the distribution of chemical deposition between epidermis and dermis. The present...

  16. Efficacy of porcine dermal collagen (Permacol TM ) injection for ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Efficacy of porcine dermal collagen (Permacol TM ) injection for passive faecal incontinence in a dedicated Colorectal Unit at the Wits Donald Gordon Medical ... Conclusion: Trans-anal submucosal PermacolTM injections produced a significant improvement in both faecal continence and quality of life scores in patients with ...

  17. Immediate, single stage, truly anatomic zirconia implant in lower molar replacement: a case report with 2.5 years follow-up.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pirker, W; Wiedemann, D; Lidauer, A; Kocher, A A

    2011-02-01

    This report demonstrates the clinical use of a modified, truly anatomic, root-analogue zirconia implant for immediate replacement of a two-rooted, left first mandibular molar. A 50-year-old female patient with chronic apical periodontitis of the left mandibulary first molar was referred and the tooth was extracted. The mesial root had to be removed surgically due to a root fracture. A truly anatomical, root identical, roughened zirconia implant modified by macro-retentions was manufactured and placed into the extraction socket by tapping 7 days later. After 4 months a composite crown was cemented in place. No complications occurred during the healing period. A good functional and aesthetic result was achieved with minimal bone resorption and soft tissue recession at 30 months follow-up. This report describes the successful clinical use of an immediate, single stage, truly anatomical root-analogue zirconia implant for replacement of a two-rooted tooth. Significant modifications such as macro-retentions yielded primary stability and excellent osseointegration. This novel approach is minimally invasive, respects the underlying anatomy, aids socket prevention, is time- and cost-saving with good patient acceptance as there is no need for bone drilling, sinus lift, bone augmentation or other traumatic procedures. Copyright © 2010 International Association of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Enhancement of the complete autotrophic nitrogen removal over nitrite process in a modified single-stage subsurface vertical flow constructed wetland: Effect of saturated zone depth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Menglu; Wang, Zhen; Qi, Ran

    2017-06-01

    This study was conducted to explore enhancement of the complete autotrophic nitrogen removal over nitrite (CANON) process in a modified single-stage subsurface vertical flow constructed wetland (VSSF) with saturated zone, and nitrogen transformation pathways in the VSSF treating digested swine wastewater were investigated at four different saturated zone depths (SZDs). SZD significantly affected nitrogen transformation pathways in the VSSF throughout the experiment. As the SZD was 45cm, the CANON process was enhanced most effectively in the system owing to the notable enhancement of anammox. Correspondingly, the VSSF had the best TN removal performance [(76.74±7.30)%] and lower N 2 O emission flux [(3.50±0.22)mg·(m 2 ·h) - 1 ]. It could be concluded that autotrophic nitrogen removal via CANON process could become a primary route for nitrogen removal in the VSSF with optimized microenvironment that developed as a result of the appropriate SZD. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. High flux coherent super-continuum soft X-ray source driven by a single-stage, 10mJ, Ti:sapphire amplifier-pumped OPA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, Chengyuan; Xiong, Wei; Fan, Tingting; Hickstein, Daniel D; Popmintchev, Tenio; Zhang, Xiaoshi; Walls, Mike; Murnane, Margaret M; Kapteyn, Henry C

    2014-03-10

    We demonstrate the highest flux tabletop source of coherent soft X-rays to date, driven by a single-stage 10 mJ Ti:sapphire regenerative amplifier at 1 kHz. We first down-convert the laser to 1.3 µm using a parametric amplifier, before up-converting it to soft X-rays using high harmonic generation in a high-pressure, phase matched, hollow waveguide geometry. The resulting optimally phase matched broadband spectrum extends to 200 eV, with a soft X-ray photon flux of > 10(6) photons/pulse/1% bandwidth at 1 kHz, corresponding to > 10(9) photons/s/1% bandwidth, or approximately a three order-of-magnitude increase compared with past work. Finally, using this broad bandwidth X-ray source, we demonstrate X-ray absorption spectroscopy of multiple elements and transitions in molecules in a single spectrum, with a spectral resolution of 0.25 eV, and with the ability to resolve the near edge fine structure.

  20. Multi-analysis determination of tropane alkaloids in cereals and solanaceaes seeds by liquid chromatography coupled to single stage Exactive-Orbitrap.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marín-Sáez, Jesús; Romero-González, Roberto; Garrido Frenich, Antonia

    2017-10-06

    Tropane alkaloids are a wide group of substances that comprises more than 200 compounds occurring especially in the Solanaceae family. The main aim of this study is the development of a method for the analysis of the principal tropane alkaloids as atropine, scopolamine, anisodamine, tropane, tropine, littorine, homatropine, apoatropine, aposcopolamine, scopoline, tropinone, physoperuvine, pseudotropine and cuscohygrine in cereals and related matrices. For that, a simple solid-liquid extraction was optimized and a liquid chromatographic method coupled to a single stage Exactive-Orbitrap was developed. The method was validated obtaining recoveries in the range of 60-109% (except for some compounds in soy), precision values (expressed as relative standard deviation) lower than 20% and detection and quantification limits equal to or lower than 2 and 3μg/kg respectively. Finally, the method was applied to the analysis of different types of samples as buckwheat, linseed, soy and millet, obtaining positives for anisodamine, scopolamine, atropine, littorine and tropinone in a millet flour sample above the quantification limits, whereas atropine and scopolamine were detected in a buckwheat sample, below the quantification limit. Contaminated samples with Solanaceaes seeds (Datura Stramonium and Brugmansia Arborea) were also analysed, detecting concentrations up to 693μg/kg (scopolamine) for contaminated samples with Brugmansia seeds and 1847μg/kg (atropine) when samples were contaminated with Stramonium seeds. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Performance analysis of single stage libr-water absorption machine operated by waste thermal energy of internal combustion engine: Case study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharif, Hafiz Zafar; Leman, A. M.; Muthuraman, S.; Salleh, Mohd Najib Mohd; Zakaria, Supaat

    2017-09-01

    Combined heating, cooling, and power is also known as Tri-generation. Tri-generation system can provide power, hot water, space heating and air -conditioning from single source of energy. The objective of this study is to propose a method to evaluate the characteristic and performance of a single stage lithium bromide-water (LiBr-H2O) absorption machine operated with waste thermal energy of internal combustion engine which is integral part of trigeneration system. Correlations for computer sensitivity analysis are developed in data fit software for (P-T-X), (H-T-X), saturated liquid (water), saturated vapor, saturation pressure and crystallization temperature curve of LiBr-H2O Solution. Number of equations were developed with data fit software and exported into excel work sheet for the evaluation of number of parameter concerned with the performance of vapor absorption machine such as co-efficient of performance, concentration of solution, mass flow rate, size of heat exchangers of the unit in relation to the generator, condenser, absorber and evaporator temperatures. Size of vapor absorption machine within its crystallization limits for cooling and heating by waste energy recovered from exhaust gas, and jacket water of internal combustion engine also presented in this study to save the time and cost for the facilities managers who are interested to utilize the waste thermal energy of their buildings or premises for heating and air conditioning applications.

  2. Lichen planus following tetanus-diphtheria-acellular pertussis vaccination: A case report and review of the literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosengard, Heather C; Wheat, Chikoti M; Tilson, Matthew P; Cuda, Jonathan D

    2018-01-01

    Lichen planus is an inflammatory dermatosis with a prevalence of approximately 1%. Recent meta-analyses show that patients with hepatitis C virus have a 2.5- to 4.5-fold increased risk of developing lichen planus. Lichen planus has also followed vaccinations and has specifically been attributed to the hepatitis B vaccine, the influenza vaccine, and the tetanus-diphtheria-acellular pertussis vaccine. We describe a case of lichen planus in a hepatitis C virus-infected African American male occurring in temporal association with the administration of the tetanus-diphtheria-acellular pertussis vaccine. The patient's presentation was clinically consistent with lichen planus and confirmed by biopsy. It is likely that many cases of vaccine-induced lichen planus have gone unpublished or unrecognized. In areas with high prevalence of hepatitis C virus infection, we may expect to see more cases of vaccine-induced lichen planus especially in light of the updated Centers for Disease Control and Prevention tetanus-diphtheria-acellular pertussis vaccination recommendations. This case serves to educate healthcare providers about vaccine-induced lichen planus and, in particular, the need to counsel hepatitis C virus-infected patients about a potential risk of developing lichen planus following vaccination. We also reflect on current theories suggesting the T-cell-mediated pathogenesis of lichen planus and the role that hepatitis C virus and toxoid or protein vaccines may play in initiating the disease.

  3. Congenital cervical dermal sinus tract caused tethered cord syndrome in an adult: a case report

    OpenAIRE

    Karatas, Y; Ustun, ME

    2015-01-01

    The objective of this study was to report on a 34-year-old woman who presented with tethered cord syndrome due to dermal sinüs tract. A 34-year-old woman had got dermal sınüs tract admitted to our hospital with swelling on the neck, pain and numbness on the left upper limb. She was treated by surgical removal of dermal sinuses and untethering the spinal cord which is stretched by the dermal sinus. Congenital dermal sinus tracts are uncommon types of cranial and spinal dysraphisms. They can oc...

  4. In vivo Quantification of the Effects of Radiation and Presence of Hair Follicle Pores on the Proliferation of Fibroblasts in an Acellular Human Dermis in a Dorsal Skinfold Chamber: Relevance for Tissue Reconstruction following Neoadjuvant Therapy.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mario Vitacolonna

    Full Text Available In neoadjuvant therapy, irradiation has a deleterious effect on neoangiogenesis. The aim of this study was to examine the post-implantation effects of neoadjuvant irradiation on the survival and proliferation of autologous cells seeded onto an acellular human dermis (hAD; Epiflex. Additionally, we examined the influence of dermal hair follicle pores on viability and proliferation. We used dorsal skinfold chambers implanted in rats and in-situ microscopy to quantify cell numbers over 9 days.24 rats received a skinfold chamber and were divided into 2 main groups; irradiated and unirradiated. In the irradiated groups 20Gy were applied epicutaneously at the dorsum. Epiflex pieces were cut to size 5x5mm such that each piece had either one or more visible hair follicle pores, or no such visible pores. Fibroblasts were transduced lentiviral with a fluorescent protein for cell tracking. Matrices were seeded statically with 2.5x104 fluorescent fibroblasts and implanted into the chambers. In each of the two main groups, half of the rats received Epiflex with hair follicle pores and half received Epiflex without pores. Scaffolds were examined in-situ at 0, 3, 6 and 9 days after transplantation. Visible cells on the surface were quantified using ImageJ.In all groups cell numbers were decreased on day 3. A treatment-dependent increase in cell numbers was observed at subsequent time points. Irradiation had an adverse effect on cell survival and proliferation. The number of cells detected in both irradiated and non-irradiated subjects was increased in those subjects that received transplants with hair follicle pores.This in-vivo study confirms that radiation negatively affects the survival and proliferation of fibroblasts seeded onto a human dermis transplant. The presence of hair follicle pores in the dermis transplants is shown to have a positive effect on cell survival and proliferation even in irradiated subjects.

  5. In vivo Quantification of the Effects of Radiation and Presence of Hair Follicle Pores on the Proliferation of Fibroblasts in an Acellular Human Dermis in a Dorsal Skinfold Chamber: Relevance for Tissue Reconstruction following Neoadjuvant Therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vitacolonna, Mario; Belharazem, Djeda; Maier, Patrick; Hohenberger, Peter; Roessner, Eric Dominic

    2015-01-01

    In neoadjuvant therapy, irradiation has a deleterious effect on neoangiogenesis. The aim of this study was to examine the post-implantation effects of neoadjuvant irradiation on the survival and proliferation of autologous cells seeded onto an acellular human dermis (hAD; Epiflex). Additionally, we examined the influence of dermal hair follicle pores on viability and proliferation. We used dorsal skinfold chambers implanted in rats and in-situ microscopy to quantify cell numbers over 9 days. 24 rats received a skinfold chamber and were divided into 2 main groups; irradiated and unirradiated. In the irradiated groups 20Gy were applied epicutaneously at the dorsum. Epiflex pieces were cut to size 5x5mm such that each piece had either one or more visible hair follicle pores, or no such visible pores. Fibroblasts were transduced lentiviral with a fluorescent protein for cell tracking. Matrices were seeded statically with 2.5x104 fluorescent fibroblasts and implanted into the chambers. In each of the two main groups, half of the rats received Epiflex with hair follicle pores and half received Epiflex without pores. Scaffolds were examined in-situ at 0, 3, 6 and 9 days after transplantation. Visible cells on the surface were quantified using ImageJ. In all groups cell numbers were decreased on day 3. A treatment-dependent increase in cell numbers was observed at subsequent time points. Irradiation had an adverse effect on cell survival and proliferation. The number of cells detected in both irradiated and non-irradiated subjects was increased in those subjects that received transplants with hair follicle pores. This in-vivo study confirms that radiation negatively affects the survival and proliferation of fibroblasts seeded onto a human dermis transplant. The presence of hair follicle pores in the dermis transplants is shown to have a positive effect on cell survival and proliferation even in irradiated subjects.

  6. Underestimating the safety benefits of a new vaccine: the impact of acellular pertussis vaccine versus whole-cell pertussis vaccine on health services utilization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hawken, Steven; Manuel, Douglas G; Deeks, Shelley L; Kwong, Jeffrey C; Crowcroft, Natasha S; Wilson, Kumanan

    2012-12-01

    The population-level safety benefits of the acellular pertussis vaccine may have been underestimated because only specific adverse events were considered, not overall impact on health services utilization. Using the Vaccine and Immunization Surveillance in Ontario (VISION) system, the authors analyzed data on 567,378 children born between April 1994 and March 1996 (before introduction of acellular pertussis vaccine) and between April 1998 and March 2000 (after introduction of acellular pertussis vaccine) in Ontario, Canada. Using the self-controlled case series study design, they examined emergency room visits and hospital admissions occurring after routine pediatric vaccinations. The authors determined the relative incidence of events taking place before introduction of the acellular vaccine versus after introduction by calculating relative incidence ratios (RIRs). The observed RIRs demonstrated a highly statistically significant reduction in relative incidence after introduction of the acellular vaccine. RIRs for vaccine administered at ages 2, 4, 6, and 18 months were 1.82 (95% confidence interval (CI): 1.64, 2.01), 1.91 (95% CI: 1.71, 2.13), 1.54 (95% CI: 1.38, 1.72), and 1.51 (95% CI: 1.34, 1.69), respectively, comparing event rates before the introduction of acellular vaccine with those after introduction. The authors estimated that approximately 90 emergency room visits and 9 admissions per month were avoided by switching to the acellular vaccine, which is a 38-fold higher impact than when they considered only admissions for febrile and afebrile convulsions. Future analyses comparing vaccines for safety should examine specific endpoints and general health services utilization.

  7. Age-related disruption of autophagy in dermal fibroblasts modulates extracellular matrix components

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tashiro, Kanae; Shishido, Mayumi; Fujimoto, Keiko; Hirota, Yuko; Yo, Kazuyuki; Gomi, Takamasa; Tanaka, Yoshitaka

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: •Autophagosomes accumulate in aged dermal fibroblasts. •Autophagic degradation is impaired in aged dermal fibroblasts. •Autophagy disruption affects extracellular matrix components in dermal fibroblasts. -- Abstract: Autophagy is an intracellular degradative system that is believed to be involved in the aging process. The contribution of autophagy to age-related changes in the human skin is unclear. In this study, we examined the relationship between autophagy and skin aging. Transmission electron microscopy and immunofluorescence microscopy analyses of skin tissue and cultured dermal fibroblasts derived from women of different ages revealed an increase in the number of nascent double-membrane autophagosomes with age. Western blot analysis showed that the amount of LC3-II, a form associated with autophagic vacuolar membranes, was significantly increased in aged dermal fibroblasts compared with that in young dermal fibroblasts. Aged dermal fibroblasts were minimally affected by inhibition of autophagic activity. Although lipofuscin autofluorescence was elevated in aged dermal fibroblasts, the expression of Beclin-1 and Atg5—genes essential for autophagosome formation—was similar between young and aged dermal fibroblasts, suggesting that the increase of autophagosomes in aged dermal fibroblasts was due to impaired autophagic flux rather than an increase in autophagosome formation. Treatment of young dermal fibroblasts with lysosomal protease inhibitors, which mimic the condition of aged dermal fibroblasts with reduced autophagic activity, altered the fibroblast content of type I procollagen, hyaluronan and elastin, and caused a breakdown of collagen fibrils. Collectively, these findings suggest that the autophagy pathway is impaired in aged dermal fibroblasts, which leads to deterioration of dermal integrity and skin fragility

  8. Influence of acellular natural lung matrix on murine embryonic stem cell differentiation and tissue formation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cortiella, Joaquin; Niles, Jean; Cantu, Andrea; Brettler, Andrea; Pham, Anthony; Vargas, Gracie; Winston, Sean; Wang, Jennifer; Walls, Shannon; Nichols, Joan E

    2010-08-01

    We report here the first attempt to produce and use whole acellular (AC) lung as a matrix to support development of engineered lung tissue from murine embryonic stem cells (mESCs). We compared the influence of AC lung, Gelfoam, Matrigel, and a collagen I hydrogel matrix on the mESC attachment, differentiation, and subsequent formation of complex tissue. We found that AC lung allowed for better retention of cells with more differentiation of mESCs into epithelial and endothelial lineages. In constructs produced on whole AC lung, we saw indications of organization of differentiating ESC into three-dimensional structures reminiscent of complex tissues. We also saw expression of thyroid transcription factor-1, an immature lung epithelial cell marker; pro-surfactant protein C, a type II pneumocyte marker; PECAM-1/CD31, an endothelial cell marker; cytokeratin 18; alpha-actin, a smooth muscle marker; CD140a or platelet-derived growth factor receptor-alpha; and Clara cell protein 10. There was also evidence of site-specific differentiation in the trachea with the formation of sheets of cytokeratin-positive cells and Clara cell protein 10-expressing Clara cells. Our findings support the utility of AC lung as a matrix for engineering lung tissue and highlight the critical role played by matrix or scaffold-associated cues in guiding ESC differentiation toward lung-specific lineages.

  9. Three-dimensional Reconstruction of the Microstructure of Human Acellular Nerve Allograft.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Shuang; Zhu, Qingtang; Liu, Xiaolin; Yang, Weihong; Jian, Yutao; Zhou, Xiang; He, Bo; Gu, Liqiang; Yan, Liwei; Lin, Tao; Xiang, Jianping; Qi, Jian

    2016-08-01

    The exact inner 3D microstructure of the human peripheral nerve has been a mystery for decades. Therefore, it has been difficult to solve several problems regarding peripheral nerve injury and repair. We used high-resolution X-ray computed microtomography (microCT) to scan a freeze-dried human acellular nerve allograft (hANA). The microCT images were then used to reconstruct a 3D digital model, which was used to print a 3D resin model of the nerve graft. The 3D digital model of the hANA allowed visualization of all planes. The magnified 3D resin model clearly showed the nerve bundles and basement membrane tubes of the hANA. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) was used to analyse the microstructure of the hANA. Compared to the SEM images, the microCT image clearly demonstrated the microstructure of the hANA cross section at a resolution of up to 1.2 μm. The 3D digital model of the hANA facilitates a clear and easy understanding of peripheral nerve microstructure. Furthermore, the enlarged 3D resin model duplicates the unique inner structure of each individual hANA. This is a crucial step towards achieving 3D printing of a hANA or nerve that can be used as a nerve graft.

  10. Effectiveness of Prenatal Versus Postpartum Tetanus, Diphtheria, and Acellular Pertussis Vaccination in Preventing Infant Pertussis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winter, Kathleen; Nickell, Steve; Powell, Michael; Harriman, Kathleen

    2017-01-01

     Most severe and fatal cases of pertussis occur in infants vaccine series. Women are recommended to receive tetanus, diphtheria, and acellular pertussis (Tdap) vaccine at the start of the third trimester of each pregnancy to optimize transplacental transfer of antibodies to the fetus. This recommendation was made by the Advisory Committee for Immunization Practices based on immunogenicity data, and no studies in the United States have yet evaluated the effectiveness of this strategy in reducing pertussis incidence in infants.  We evaluated a cohort of mothers with documented Tdap vaccination histories in the California Immunization Registry to determine whether infants whose mothers received Tdap vaccine at 27-36 weeks gestation had a lower risk of pertussis at vaccine within 14 days post partum.  Tdap vaccination received at 27-36 weeks gestation was found to be 85% (95% confidence interval, 33%-98%) more effective than postpartum Tdap vaccination at preventing pertussis in infants Vaccination at 27-36 weeks gestation was more effective at preventing pertussis in infant than vaccination during the second trimester.  Tdap vaccination at 27-36 weeks gestation was 85% more effective than postpartum vaccination at preventing pertussis in infants vaccine to pregnant women during routine prenatal visits at the earliest opportunity between 27 and 36 weeks gestation. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press for the Infectious Diseases Society of America. All rights reserved. For permissions, e-mail journals.permissions@oup.com.

  11. The biocompatibility of silk fibroin and acellular collagen scaffolds for tissue engineering in the ear

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shen, Yi; Redmond, Sharon L; Teh, Bing M; Atlas, Marcus D; Marano, Robert J; Dilley, Rodney J; Papadimitriou, John M; Yan, Sheng; Wang, Yan; Zheng, Minghao

    2014-01-01

    Recent experimental studies have shown the suitability of silk fibroin scaffold (SFS) and porcine-derived acellular collagen I/III scaffold (ACS) as onlay graft materials for tympanic membrane perforation repair. The aims of this study were to further characterize and evaluate the in vivo biocompatibility of SFS and ACS compared with commonly used materials such as Gelfoam and paper in a rat model. The scaffolds were implanted in subcutaneous (SC) tissue and middle ear (ME) cavity followed by histological and otoscopic evaluation for up to 26 weeks. Our results revealed that SFS and ACS were well tolerated and compatible in rat SC and ME tissues throughout the study. The tissue response adjacent to the implants evaluated by histology and otoscopy showed SFS and ACS to have a milder tissue response with minimal inflammation compared to that of paper. Gelfoam gave similar results to SFS and ACS after SC implantation, but it was found to be associated with pronounced fibrosis and osteoneogenesis after ME implantation. It is concluded that SFS and ACS both were biocompatible and could serve as potential alternative scaffolds for tissue engineering in the ear. (paper)

  12. Derivation of avian dermal LD50 values for dermal exposure models using in vitro percutaneous absorption of [14C]-atrazine through rat, mallard, and northern bobwhite full thickness skin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maul, Jonathan D; Blackstock, Craig; Brain, Richard A

    2018-02-24

    Understanding dermal exposure is important for higher-tier avian ecological risk assessments. However, dermal exposure and toxicity are often unknown for avifauna. The US EPA's Terrestrial Investigation Model (TIM) uses a method to estimate avian dermal LD50 values (and ultimately dermal exposure) that frequently results in unusually high dermal exposure and low dermal LD50 estimates. This is primarily a result of using organophosphate and carbamate toxicity data to develop the oral-dermal relationship. An estimated dermal LD50 is necessary to generate a dermal route equivalency factor that normalizes potency relative to oral toxicity within the dermal pathway dose equation. In this study, atrazine dermal absorption experiments were conducted with mallard, northern bobwhite, and rat skin. These data were used to derive an avian-mammal dermal route equivalency factor for atrazine and introduce a new approach for estimating dermal LD50 values and ultimately predicting exposure via the TIM dermal pathway. Compared to the default TIM method, this new approach yielded TIM output with lower mean total dose, lower dermal fraction of total dose, greater oral fraction of total dose, and reduced model predicted mortality for atrazine. In addition, the new approach was compared with other methods for estimating avian dermal LD50 values such as those proposed for use with mammalian data and physico-chemical properties and a triazine-specific oral-dermal equation using mammalian LD50 data. The three alternative approaches resulted in output similar to one another and different from the default TIM methods. These results indicate that a dermal route equivalency factor derived from empirical data provides a higher avian dermal LD50 estimate that is consistent with other methods. In addition, the use of this dermal route equivalency factor results in greatly reduced modeled atrazine risk to birds than previously reported in US EPA risk assessments using TIM. Copyright © 2018

  13. Exergy analysis of an experimental single-stage heat transformer operating with single water/lithium bromide and using additives (1-octanol and 2-ethyl-1-hexanol)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rivera, W.; Martinez, H.; Cerezo, J.; Romero, R.J.; Cardoso, M.J.

    2011-01-01

    Second law of Thermodynamics has been used to analyze the performance of an experimental single-stage heat transformer operating with the water/lithium bromide as single working pair and subsequently, using 1-octanol and 2-ethyl-1-hexanol as additives. Additives have been used in order to increase the heat transfer in the absorber and generator decreasing their irreversibilities. The enthalpy-based coefficients of performance (COP), external coefficients of performance (COP EXT ), exergy-based coefficients of performance (ECOP) and the irreversibilities of the equipment components were calculated for the main operating temperatures of the system. The results showed that for absorber temperatures between 84 o C and 88 o C the highest COP, COP EXT , and ECOP are obtained with the use of the 2-ethyl-1-hexanol (400 parts per million) additive, reaching values up to 0.49, 0.40 and 0.43, respectively. The lowest coefficients of performance and highest irreversibilities were obtained by using the single water/lithium bromide mixture. Analysing the irreversibilities in each one of the main components of the system, it was found that 2-ethyl-1-hexanol decreases considerably the irreversibility in the absorber then increasing the efficiency of this component and hence of the entire equipment. - Highlights: → An exergy analysis has been used to analyze an experimental heat transformer. → The system operated with single water/lithium bromide and then adding two additives. → The additives were 1-octanol and 2-ethyl-1-hexanol. → The 2-ethyl-1-hexanol additive reduced the system irreversibilities. → The highest coefficients of performance were obtained with the 2-ethyl-1-hexanol additive.

  14. Evaluation of a single-stage consumable-free modulator for comprehensive two-dimensional gas chromatography: analysis of polychlorinated biphenyls, organochlorine pesticides and chlorobenzenes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muscalu, Alina M; Edwards, Matthew; Górecki, Tadeusz; Reiner, Eric J

    2015-04-24

    Comprehensive two-dimensional gas chromatography (GC×GC) has been rapidly growing in popularity. The GC×GC separation is performed by interfacing a modulator between two columns of different selectivities. The modulator periodically traps and then re-injects the analytes eluting from the first column into the second column. The most popular GC×GC systems require consumables such as liquid N2 for the trapping function of the modulator. Although these systems are very effective, their costs are a hindrance to more widespread use. A new, single-stage thermal modulator for GC×GC that requires no consumables has been developed and tested. The device traps analytes using a proprietary stainless steel capillary trap compressed between two ceramic cooling pads. Analytes are thermally desorbed from the trap into the second column via resistive heating. To evaluate this system, a routine accredited method for the analysis of polychlorinated biphenyls, organochlorine pesticides and chlorobenzenes was run using the new modulator and its performance was compared to that of an industry standard modulation system. Within-day repeatability (% RSD ranging from 2% to 13%), between-day reproducibility (% RSD from 3% to 15%), as well as between-trap reproducibility were assessed. The results are very encouraging as negligible shifts in retention times (% RSD from 0.3% to 0.6% in the 1st dimension and 0.8% to 2% in the 2nd dimension) were observed for both within-day and day-to-day comparisons of the studied samples (ANOVA, p=0.9893 for the sediment reference material compared), and the quantitative results were comparable. Routine analysis and quality control applications will benefit from the improved reproducibility as the variances in cold/hot jet flows and temperatures are eliminated. An overview of the device operation and the results from this study are summarized. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. A Collaborative Analysis Tool for Integrating Hypersonic Aerodynamics, Thermal Protection Systems, and RBCC Engine Performance for Single Stage to Orbit Vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stanley, Thomas Troy; Alexander, Reginald

    1999-01-01

    Presented is a computer-based tool that connects several disciplines that are needed in the complex and integrated design of high performance reusable single stage to orbit (SSTO) vehicles. Every system is linked to every other system, as is the case of SSTO vehicles with air breathing propulsion, which is currently being studied by NASA. The deficiencies in the scramjet powered concept led to a revival of interest in Rocket-Based Combined-Cycle (RBCC) propulsion systems. An RBCC propulsion system integrates airbreathing and rocket propulsion into a single engine assembly enclosed within a cowl or duct. A typical RBCC propulsion system operates as a ducted rocket up to approximately Mach 3. At this point the transitions to a ramjet mode for supersonic-to-hypersonic acceleration. Around Mach 8 the engine transitions to a scram4jet mode. During the ramjet and scramjet modes, the integral rockets operate as fuel injectors. Around Mach 10-12 (the actual value depends on vehicle and mission requirements), the inlet is physically closed and the engine transitions to an integral rocket mode for orbit insertion. A common feature of RBCC propelled vehicles is the high degree of integration between the propulsion system and airframe. At high speeds the vehicle forebody is fundamentally part of the engine inlet, providing a compression surface for air flowing into the engine. The compressed air is mixed with fuel and burned. The combusted mixture must be expanded to an area larger than the incoming stream to provide thrust. Since a conventional nozzle would be too large, the entire lower after body of the vehicle is used as an expansion surface. Because of the high external temperatures seen during atmospheric flight, the design of an airbreathing SSTO vehicle requires delicate tradeoffs between engine design, vehicle shape, and thermal protection system (TPS) sizing in order to produce an optimum system in terms of weight (and cost) and maximum performance.

  16. Influence of Different Tibial Fixation Techniques on Initial Stability in Single-Stage Anterior Cruciate Ligament Revision With Confluent Tibial Tunnels: A Biomechanical Laboratory Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schliemann, Benedikt; Treder, Maximilian; Schulze, Martin; Müller, Viktoria; Vasta, Sebastiano; Zampogna, Biaggio; Herbort, Mirco; Kösters, Clemens; Raschke, Michael J; Lenschow, Simon

    2016-01-01

    To kinematically and biomechanically compare 4 different types of tibial tunnel management in single-stage anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) revision reconstruction with the control: primary ACL reconstruction using a robotic-based knee testing setup. Porcine knees and flexor tendons were used. One hundred specimens were randomly assigned to 5 testing groups: (1) open tibial tunnel, (2) bone plug technique, (3) biodegradable interference screw, (4) dilatation technique, and (5) primary ACL reconstruction. A robotic/universal force-moment sensor testing system was used to simulate the KT-1000 (MEDmetric, San Diego, CA) and pivot-shift tests. Cyclic loading and load-to-failure testing were performed. Anterior tibial translation increased significantly with all of the techniques compared with the intact ACL (P .05). The open tunnel and dilated tunnel techniques showed significantly greater anterior tibial translation (P < .05). The results of the simulated pivot-shift test were in accordance with those of the KT-1000 test. No significant differences could be observed regarding stiffness or maximum load to failure. However, elongation was significantly lower in the primary ACL reconstruction group compared with groups 1 and 3 (P = .02 and P = .03, respectively). Filling an incomplete and incorrect tibial tunnel with a press-fit bone plug or a biodegradable interference screw in a standardized laboratory situation provided initial biomechanical properties and knee stability comparable with those of primary ACL reconstruction. In contrast, the dilatation technique or leaving the malplaced tunnel open did not restore knee kinematics adequately in this model. Backup extracortical fixation should be considered because the load to failure depends on the extracortical fixation when an undersized interference screw is used for aperture fixation. Our biomechanical results could help orthopaedic surgeons to optimize the results of primary ACL revision with incomplete, incorrect

  17. Efek Pemberian Suntikan Subkutan Vitamin C Terhadap Luka Insisi Dermal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Surya Darma

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstrak Vitamin C berfungsi sebagai kofaktor enzyme prolil dan lysil hydroxilase. Enzym tersebut berfungsi dalam proses hidroksilasi yang membentuk ikatan hidroksiprolin dan hidroksilisin pada fibroblast dalam membentuk kolagen. Selain itu Vitaimin C juga berfungsi meregulasi dan menstabilkan trankripsi gen mRNA prokolagen pada proses pembentukan kolagen di dermis. Berdasarkan hal tersebut diatas, peneliti tertarik untuk membuktikan apakah pemberian vitamin C subkutan disekitar luka insisi dermal berefek pada pembentukan kolagen yang lebih padat dalam proses penyembuhan luka. Metode: Penelitian eksperimental ini menggunakan tikus Wistar sebanyak 32 ekor, yang dibagi menjadi 2 kelompok yaitu 16 ekor sebagai kontrol dan 16 ekor lagi sebagai perlakuan. Pada kedua kelompok dilakukan insisi di punggung sepanjang 2 cm. Kelompok perlakuan diberi suntikan vitamin C subkutan disekitar luka insisi dermal sebanyak 9 mg (0,09ml, sedangkan kelompokkontrol tidak diberikan.Pada hari kelima dilakukan pengambilan jaringan luka pada kedua sampel untuk pemeriksaan kepadatan kolagen secara mikroskopik. Hasil:Kepadatan kolagen pada hari kelimamenunjukkan perbedaan yang bermakna dari efek penyuntikan vitamin C subkutan terhadap kepadatan kolagen (χ2 = 5,833; P<0,05. Kesimpulan: Penyuntikan vitamin C subkutan disekitar luka insisi dermal efektif dalam meeningkatan kepadatan kolagen. Kata kunci: suntikan vitamin C subkutan, kepadatan kolagen.Abstract Vitamin C functions as enzyme co-factor for prolyl and hidroxylase lysil. The enzyme functions in hydroxylase process that builds hydroxyproline and hydroxylysine bondsin fibroblast in the synthesis of collagen. Besides that, vitamin C also functions in regulating and stabilizing procollagen mRNA gen transcription in dermal collagen synthesis. Based on the facts above, researchers are interested to prove whether subcutaneous injection of vitamin C around dermal insisional wound would result in more compact collagen

  18. Enhancing dermal and bone regeneration in calvarial defect surgery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bruno Zanotti

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: To optimize the functional and esthetic result of cranioplasty, it is necessary to choose appropriate materials and take steps to preserve and support tissue vitality. As far as materials are concerned, custom-made porous hydroxyapatite implants are biomimetic, and therefore, provide good biological interaction and biointegration. However, before it is fully integrated, this material has relatively low mechanical resistance. Therefore, to reduce the risk of postoperative implant fracture, it would be desirable to accelerate regeneration of the tissues around and within the graft. Objectives: The objective was to determine whether integrating growth-factor-rich platelet gel or supportive dermal matrix into hydroxyapatite implant cranioplasty can accelerate bone remodeling and promote soft tissue regeneration, respectively. Materials and Methods: The investigation was performed on cranioplasty patients fitted with hydroxyapatite cranial implants between 2004 and 2010. In 7 patients, platelet gel was applied to the bone/prosthesis interface during surgery, and in a further 5 patients, characterized by thin, hypotrophic skin coverage of the cranial lacuna, a sheet of dermal matrix was applied between the prosthesis and the overlying soft tissue. In several of the former groups, platelet gel mixed with hydroxyapatite granules was used to fill small gaps between the skull and the implant. To confirm osteointegration, cranial computed tomography (CT scans were taken at 3-6 month intervals for 1-year, and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI was used to confirm dermal integrity. Results: Clinical examination performed a few weeks after surgery revealed good dermal regeneration, with thicker, healthier skin, apparently with a better blood supply, which was confirmed by MRI at 3-6 months. Furthermore, at 3-6 months, CT showed good biomimetism of the porous hydroxyapatite scaffold. Locations at which platelet gel and hydroxyapatite granules were

  19. Enhancing dermal and bone regeneration in calvarial defect surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zanotti, Bruno; Zingaretti, Nicola; Almesberger, Daria; Verlicchi, Angela; Stefini, Roberto; Ragonese, Mauro; Guarneri, Gianni Franco; Parodi, Pier Camillo

    2014-01-01

    To optimize the functional and esthetic result of cranioplasty, it is necessary to choose appropriate materials and take steps to preserve and support tissue vitality. As far as materials are concerned, custom-made porous hydroxyapatite implants are biomimetic, and therefore, provide good biological interaction and biointegration. However, before it is fully integrated, this material has relatively low mechanical resistance. Therefore, to reduce the risk of postoperative implant fracture, it would be desirable to accelerate regeneration of the tissues around and within the graft. The objective was to determine whether integrating growth-factor-rich platelet gel or supportive dermal matrix into hydroxyapatite implant cranioplasty can accelerate bone remodeling and promote soft tissue regeneration, respectively. The investigation was performed on cranioplasty patients fitted with hydroxyapatite cranial implants between 2004 and 2010. In 7 patients, platelet gel was applied to the bone/prosthesis interface during surgery, and in a further 5 patients, characterized by thin, hypotrophic skin coverage of the cranial lacuna, a sheet of dermal matrix was applied between the prosthesis and the overlying soft tissue. In several of the former groups, platelet gel mixed with hydroxyapatite granules was used to fill small gaps between the skull and the implant. To confirm osteointegration, cranial computed tomography (CT) scans were taken at 3-6 month intervals for 1-year, and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) was used to confirm dermal integrity. Clinical examination performed a few weeks after surgery revealed good dermal regeneration, with thicker, healthier skin, apparently with a better blood supply, which was confirmed by MRI at 3-6 months. Furthermore, at 3-6 months, CT showed good biomimetism of the porous hydroxyapatite scaffold. Locations at which platelet gel and hydroxyapatite granules were used to fill gaps between the implant and skull appeared to show more rapid

  20. Palytoxin poisoning after dermal contact with zoanthid coral.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nordt, Sean Patrick; Wu, Jerry; Zahller, Stephen; Clark, Richard F; Cantrell, F Lee

    2011-04-01

    Palytoxin is most commonly reported after ingestion of seafood. We report a case of palytoxin poisoning from dermal absorption with local toxicity from zoanthid coral in a patient with intact skin. A 25-year-old previously healthy woman handled a zoanthid coral from a home aquarium without any barrier protection. The patient manifested neurologic symptoms of perioral paresthesia and dysguesia. In addition, there was local dermatologic toxicity that persisted for several days. The patient was treated supportively with corticosteroids and a histamine antagonist. We report a case of palytoxin poisoning from dermal absorption after handling a zoanthid coral. Palytoxin is a potent marine toxin that affects the sodium-potassium ATPase (adenosinetriphosphatase) pump and can cause multiple clinical effects, including paresthesia, dysguesia, hypertension, respiratory depression, coma, and death. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Late-onset congenital lateral dermal sinus tract.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nishimon, Mari; Shimizu, Yusuke; Ueno, Mari; Iwanami, Akio

    2014-12-22

    Cases of laterally located, congenital dermal sinus tracts are extremely rare, with only six having been reported to date. We describe a case of a 14-year-old girl who developed symptoms of this type of sinus tract at an age that was considerably older than is usually reported. At the age of 12 years, the patient exhibited a purulent discharge from a pit on the right buttock. MRI indicated the presence of two tracts running from the right buttock skin to a cystic lesion that had formed on the right ala of the sacral spine. The lesion was surgically resected and successfully reconstructed using a partial iliocostalis lumborum muscle flap, without any functional morbidity. From our experience, such flaps appear to be appropriate treatment choices for lateral congenital dermal sinus tracts that develop late and result in large defects. 2014 BMJ Publishing Group Ltd.

  2. Bio-artificial pleura using an autologous dermal fibroblast sheet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanzaki, Masato; Takagi, Ryo; Washio, Kaoru; Kokubo, Mami; Yamato, Masayuki

    2017-10-01

    Air leaks (ALs) are observed after pulmonary resections, and without proper treatment, can produce severe complications. AL prevention is a critical objective for managing patients after pulmonary resection. This study applied autologous dermal fibroblast sheets (DFS) to close ALs. For sealing ALs in a 44-year-old male human patient with multiple bullae, a 5 × 15-mm section of skin was surgically excised. From this skin specimen, primary dermal fibroblasts were isolated and cultured for 4 weeks to produce DFSs that were harvested after a 10-day culture. ALs were completely sealed using surgical placement of these autologous DFSs. DFS were found to be a durable long-term AL sealant, exhibiting requisite flexibility, elasticity, durability, biocompatibility, and usability, resulting reliable AL closure. DFS should prove to be an extremely useful tissue-engineered pleura substitute.

  3. Catastrophic Intramedullary Abscess Caused by a Missed Congenital Dermal Sinus

    OpenAIRE

    Dho, Yun-Sik; Kim, Seung-Ki; Wang, Kyu-Chang; Phi, Ji Hoon

    2015-01-01

    Congenital dermal sinus (CDS) is a type of occult spinal dysraphism characterized by a midline skin dimple. A 12-month-old girl presented with fever and ascending quadriparesis. She had a midline skin dimple in the upper sacral area that had been discovered in her neonatal period. Imaging studies revealed a holocord intramedullary abscess and CDS. Overlooking CDS or misdiagnosing it as benign sacrococcygeal dimple may lead to catastrophic infection and cause serious neurological deficits. The...

  4. Dermal exposure to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons among road pavers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Väänänen, Virpi; Hämeilä, Mervi; Kalliokoski, Pentti; Nykyri, Elina; Heikkilä, Pirjo

    2005-03-01

    Dermal exposure to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and the role of an industrial by-product, coal fly ash, on workers' PAH exposure were investigated during stone mastic asphalt (SMA) paving and remixing. PAH exposure was measured at eight sites during the laying of SMA containing coal fly ash or limestone (conventional SMA) as the filler. Six of the surveys were carried out during SMA paving and two during remixing of SMA (hot recycling at the paving site). Dermal PAH exposure was measured by hand washing (using sunflower oil and wiping with Kleenex tissues) before and after the work shift, and by placing exposure pads on the workers' wrists during the work shift. The analyses included 15 native PAHs from the hand-washing samples determined using high-performance liquid chromatography equipped with a two-channel fluorescence detector and 16 native PAHs and four methylated PAHs from the exposure pads using gas chromatography with mass-selective detection. The PAH results obtained using the pad and hand-washing methods (concentrations after the work shift) were equivalent and showed a strong correlation (r = 0.757, P hand washing. The skin contamination by PAHs was significantly higher (P < 0.01) during remixing than during SMA paving. The variation in PAH contamination on the skin explained more of the variation in the excretion of urinary 1-hydroxypyrene and phenanthrols than the variation in the respiratory PAH concentrations. The industrial by-product investigated in asphalt, coal fly ash, had no statistically significant effect on the workers' dermal PAH exposure. The dermal exposure of paving workers to PAHs was higher during remixing than during SMA paving.

  5. Inhalational and dermal injury due to explosion of calcium hypochlorite.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yigit, Ozlem; Soyuncu, Secgin; Eray, Oktay; Enver, Selcan

    2009-01-01

    Calcium hypochlorite is a yellow-white powder widely used as a disinfectant in swimming pools. It releases chlorine gas when added to water and can cause respiratory effects. Dermal and eye injury can occur because of the caustic nature of chlorine. We report a case of chlorine toxicity and burns on a man's face due to the explosion of calcium hypochlorite while he was mixing it into the water.

  6. Dermal insecticide residues from birds inhabiting an orchard

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vyas, N.B.; Spann, J.W.; Hulse, C.S.; Gentry, S.; Borges, S.L.

    2007-01-01

    The US Environmental Protection Agency conducts risk assessments of insecticide applications to wild birds using a model that is limited to the dietary route of exposure. However, free-flying birds are also exposed to insecticides via the inhalation and dermal routes. We measured azinphos-methyl residues on the skin plus feathers and the feet of brown-headed cowbirds (Molothrus ater) in order to quantify dermal exposure to songbirds that entered and inhabited an apple (Malus x domestica) orchard following an insecticide application. Exposure to azinphos-methyl was measured by sampling birds from an aviary that was built around an apple tree. Birds sampled at 36 h and 7-day post-application were placed in the aviary within 1 h after the application whereas birds exposed for 3 days were released into the aviary 4-day post-application. Residues on vegetation and soil were also measured. Azinphos-methyl residues were detected from the skin plus feathers and the feet from all exposure periods. Our results underscore the importance of incorporating dermal exposure into avian pesticide risk assessments.

  7. Dopamine regulates angiogenesis in normal dermal wound tissues.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saurav Shome

    Full Text Available Cutaneous wound healing is a normal physiological process and comprises different phases. Among these phases, angiogenesis or new blood vessel formation in wound tissue plays an important role. Skin is richly supplied by sympathetic nerves and evidences indicate the significant role of the sympathetic nervous system in cutaneous wound healing. Dopamine (DA is an important catecholamine neurotransmitter released by the sympathetic nerve endings and recent studies have demonstrated the potent anti-angiogenic action of DA, which is mediated through its D(2 DA receptors. We therefore postulate that this endogenous catecholamine neurotransmitter may have a role in the neovascularization of dermal wound tissues and subsequently in the process of wound healing. In the present study, the therapeutic efficacy of D(2 DA receptor antagonist has been investigated for faster wound healing in a murine model of full thickness dermal wound. Our results indicate that treatment with specific D(2 DA receptor antagonist significantly expedites the process of full thickness normal dermal wound healing in mice by inducing angiogenesis in wound tissues. The underlined mechanisms have been attributed to the up-regulation of homeobox transcription factor HoxD3 and its target α5β1 integrin, which play a pivotal role in wound angiogenesis. Since D(2 DA receptor antagonists are already in clinical use for other disorders, these results have significant translational value from the bench to the bedside for efficient wound management along with other conventional treatment modalities.

  8. Patient factors influencing dermal filler complications: prevention, assessment, and treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    De Boulle K

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Koenraad De Boulle,1 Izolda Heydenrych2 On behalf of the Consensus Group 1Aalst Dermatology Group, Aalst, Belgium; 2Cape Town Cosmetic Dermatology Centre, Century City, South Africa Abstract: While rare, complications do occur with the esthetic use of dermal fillers. Careful attention to patient factors and technique can do much to avoid these complications, and a well-informed practitioner can mitigate problems when they do occur. Since cosmetic surgery is usually an elective process, requested by the patient, clinical trials are complex to organize and run. For this reason, an international group of practicing physicians in the field of esthetics came together to share knowledge and to try and produce some informed guidance for their colleagues, considering the literature and also pooling their own extensive clinical experience. This manuscript aims to summarize the crucial aspects of patient selection, including absolute contraindications as well as situations that warrant caution, and also covers important considerations for the pre- and posttreatment periods as well as during the procedure itself. Guidance is given on both immediate and long-term management of adverse reactions. The majority of complications are related to accepting patients inappropriate for treatment or issues of sterility, placement, volume, and injection technique. It is clear that esthetic practitioners need an in-depth knowledge of all aspects of treatment with dermal fillers to achieve optimal outcomes for their patients. Keywords: dermal fillers, complications, prevention, assessment, treatment, patient factors

  9. Quantitative targeted and retrospective data analysis of relevant pesticides, antibiotics and mycotoxins in bakery products by liquid chromatography-single-stage Orbitrap mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Dominicis, Emiliano; Commissati, Italo; Gritti, Elisa; Catellani, Dante; Suman, Michele

    2015-01-01

    In addition to 'traditional' multi-residue and multi-contaminant multiple reaction monitoring (MRM) mass spectrometric techniques devoted to quantifying a list of targeted compounds, the global food industry requires non-targeted methods capable of detecting other possible potentially hazardous compounds. Ultra-high-performance liquid chromatography combined with a single-stage Orbitrap high-resolution mass spectrometer (UHPLC-HRMS Exactive™-Orbitrap Technology) was successfully exploited for the complete selective and quantitative determination of 33 target compounds within three major cross categories (pesticides, antibiotics and mycotoxins) in bakery matrices (specifically milk, wheat flour and mini-cakes). Resolution was set at 50 000 full width at half maximum (FWHM) to achieve the right compromise between an adequate scan speed and selectivity, allowing for the limitations related to the necessary generic sample preparation approach. An exact mass with tolerance of 5 ppm and minimum peak threshold of 10 000 units were fixed as the main identification conditions, including retention time and isotopic pattern as additional criteria devoted to greatly reducing the risk of false-positive findings. The full validation for all the target analytes was performed: linearity, intermediate repeatability and recovery (28 analytes within 70-120%) were positively assessed; furthermore, limits of quantification between 5 and 100 µg kg(-1) (with most of the analytes having a limit of detection below 6 µg kg(-1)) indicate good performance, which is compatible with almost all the regulatory needs. Naturally contaminated and fortified mini-cakes, prepared through combined use of industrial and pilot plant production lines, were analysed at two different concentration levels, obtaining good overall quantitative results and providing preliminary indications of the potential of full-scan HRMS cluster analysis. The effectiveness of this analytical approach was also tested in

  10. Humoral and B-cell memory responses in children five years after pertussis acellular vaccine priming.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carollo, Maria; Pandolfi, Elisabetta; Tozzi, Alberto Eugenio; Buisman, Anne-Marie; Mascart, Françoise; Ausiello, Clara Maria

    2014-04-11

    The resurgence of pertussis suggests the need for greater efforts in understanding the long-lasting protective responses induced by vaccination. In this paper we dissect the persistence of humoral and B-cell memory responses induced by primary vaccination with two different acellular pertussis (aP) vaccines, hexavalent Hexavac(®) vaccine (Hexavac) (Sanofi Pasteur MSD) and Infanrix hexa(®) (Infanrix) (GlaxoSmithKline Biologicals). We evaluated the specific immune responses in the two groups of children, 5 years after primary vaccination by measuring the persistence of IgG and antibody secreting cells (ASC) specific for vaccine antigens. Part of the enrolled children received only primary vaccination, while others had the pre-school boost dose. A similar level of antigen-specific IgG and ASC was found in Infanrix and Hexavac vaccinated children. The mean IgG levels were significantly higher in children that received the pre-school boost as compared with children that did not receive the boost dose. A longer persistence after the pre-school boost of IgG-Pertussis Toxin (PT) and IgG-pertactin levels was observed in Infanrix primed children, but it was not statistically significant. More than 80% of children presented a positive ASC B memory response. Around 50% of children still presented protective IgG-PT levels which are reduced to 36% in no-boosted children. The pre-school booster dose restores the percentage of protected children above 50%. In conclusion our data underline the importance of giving a booster dose 5 years after primary vaccination and suggest the need for a new vaccine able to induce a long lasting protective response. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Development of an acellular tumor extracellular matrix as a three-dimensional scaffold for tumor engineering.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei-Dong Lü

    Full Text Available Tumor engineering is defined as the construction of three-dimensional (3D tumors in vitro with tissue engineering approaches. The present 3D scaffolds for tumor engineering have several limitations in terms of structure and function. To get an ideal 3D scaffold for tumor culture, A549 human pulmonary adenocarcinoma cells were implanted into immunodeficient mice to establish xenotransplatation models. Tumors were retrieved at 30-day implantation and sliced into sheets. They were subsequently decellularized by four procedures. Two decellularization methods, Tris-Trypsin-Triton multi-step treatment and sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS treatment, achieved complete cellular removal and thus were chosen for evaluation of histological and biochemical properties. Native tumor tissues were used as controls. Human breast cancer MCF-7 cells were cultured onto the two 3D scaffolds for further cell growth and growth factor secretion investigations, with the two-dimensional (2D culture and cells cultured onto the Matrigel scaffolds used as controls. Results showed that Tris-Trypsin-Triton multi-step treated tumor sheets had well-preserved extracellular matrix structures and components. Their porosity was increased but elastic modulus was decreased compared with the native tumor samples. They supported MCF-7 cell repopulation and proliferation, as well as expression of growth factors. When cultured within the Tris-Trypsin-Triton treated scaffold, A549 cells and human colorectal adenocarcinoma cells (SW-480 had similar behaviors to MCF-7 cells, but human esophageal squamous cell carcinoma cells (KYSE-510 had a relatively slow cell repopulation rate. This study provides evidence that Tris-Trypsin-Triton treated acellular tumor extracellular matrices are promising 3D scaffolds with ideal spatial arrangement, biomechanical properties and biocompatibility for improved modeling of 3D tumor microenvironments.

  12. Nanopatterned acellular valve conduits drive the commitment of blood-derived multipotent cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Di Liddo R

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Rosa Di Liddo,1,2 Paola Aguiari,3 Silvia Barbon,1,2 Thomas Bertalot,1 Amit Mandoli,1 Alessia Tasso,1 Sandra Schrenk,1 Laura Iop,3 Alessandro Gandaglia,3 Pier Paolo Parnigotto,2 Maria Teresa Conconi,1,2 Gino Gerosa31Department of Pharmaceutical and Pharmacological Sciences, University of Padova, 2Foundation for Biology and Regenerative Medicine, Tissue Engineering and Signaling ONLUS, 3Department of Cardiac, Thoracic and Vascular Sciences, University of Padova, Padova, Italy Abstract: Considerable progress has been made in recent years toward elucidating the correlation among nanoscale topography, mechanical properties, and biological behavior of cardiac valve substitutes. Porcine TriCol scaffolds are promising valve tissue engineering matrices with demonstrated self-repopulation potentiality. In order to define an in vitro model for investigating the influence of extracellular matrix signaling on the growth pattern of colonizing blood-derived cells, we cultured circulating multipotent cells (CMC on acellular aortic (AVL and pulmonary (PVL valve conduits prepared with TriCol method and under no-flow condition. Isolated by our group from Vietnamese pigs before heart valve prosthetic implantation, porcine CMC revealed high proliferative abilities, three-lineage differentiative potential, and distinct hematopoietic/endothelial and mesenchymal properties. Their interaction with valve extracellular matrix nanostructures boosted differential messenger RNA expression pattern and morphologic features on AVL compared to PVL, while promoting on both matrices the commitment to valvular and endothelial cell-like phenotypes. Based on their origin from peripheral blood, porcine CMC are hypothesized in vivo to exert a pivotal role to homeostatically replenish valve cells and contribute to hetero- or allograft colonization. Furthermore, due to their high responsivity to extracellular matrix nanostructure signaling, porcine CMC could be useful for a preliminary

  13. Safety testing of acellular pertussis vaccines: Use of animals and 3Rs alternatives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoonakker, Marieke; Arciniega, Juan; Hendriksen, Coenraad

    2017-11-02

    The current test of acellular Bordetella pertussis (aP) vaccines for residual pertussis toxin (PTx) is the Histamine Sensitization test (HIST), based on the empirical finding that PTx sensitizes mice to histamine. Although HIST has ensured the safety of aP vaccines for years, it is criticized for the limited understanding of how it works, its technical difficulty, and for animal welfare reasons. To estimate the number of mice used worldwide for HIST, we surveyed major aP manufacturers and organizations performing, requiring, or recommending the test. The survey revealed marked regional differences in regulatory guidelines, including the number of animals used for a single test. Based on information provided by the parties surveyed, we estimated the worldwide number of mice used for testing to be 65,000 per year: ∼48,000 by manufacturers and ∼17,000 by national control laboratories, although the latter number is more affected by uncertainty, due to confidentiality policies. These animals covered the release of approximately 850 final lots and 250 in-process lots of aP vaccines yearly. Although there are several approaches for HIST refinement and reduction, we discuss why the efforts needed for validation and implementation of these interim alternatives may not be worthwhile, when there are several in vitro alternatives in various stages of development, some already fairly advanced. Upon implementation, one or more of these replacement alternatives can substantially reduce the number of animals currently used for the HIST, although careful evaluation of each alternative's mechanism and its suitable validation will be necessary in the path to implementation.

  14. Susceptibility of ePTFE vascular grafts and bioengineered human acellular vessels to infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirkton, Robert D; Prichard, Heather L; Santiago-Maysonet, Maribel; Niklason, Laura E; Lawson, Jeffrey H; Dahl, Shannon L M

    2018-01-01

    Synthetic expanded polytetrafluorethylene (ePTFE) grafts are routinely used for vascular repair and reconstruction but prone to sustained bacterial infections. Investigational bioengineered human acellular vessels (HAVs) have shown clinical success and may confer lower susceptibility to infection. Here we directly compared the susceptibility of ePTFE grafts and HAV to bacterial contamination in a preclinical model of infection. Sections (1 cm 2 ) of ePTFE (n = 42) or HAV (n = 42) were inserted within bilateral subcutaneous pockets on the dorsum of rats and inoculated with Staphylococcus aureus (10 7  CFU/0.25 mL) or Escherichia coli (10 8  CFU/0.25 mL) before wound closure. Two weeks later, the implant sites were scored for abscess formation and explanted materials were halved for quantification of microbial recovery and histological analyses. The ePTFE implants had significantly higher abscess formation scores for both S. aureus and E. coli inoculations compared to that of HAV. In addition, significantly more bacteria were recovered from explanted ePTFE compared to HAV. Gram staining of explanted tissue sections revealed interstitial bacterial contamination within ePTFE, whereas no bacteria were identified in HAV tissue sections. Numerous CD45 + leukocytes, predominantly neutrophils, were found surrounding the ePTFE implants but minimal intact neutrophils were observed within the ePTFE matrix. The host cells surrounding and infiltrating the HAV explants were primarily nonleukocytes (CD45 - ). In an established animal model of infection, HAV was significantly less susceptible to bacterial colonization and abscess formation than ePTFE. The preclinical findings presented in this manuscript, combined with previously published clinical observations, suggest that bioengineered HAV may exhibit low rates of infection. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Tetanus, diphtheria, and acellular pertussis vaccination among women of childbearing age-United States, 2013.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Halloran, Alissa C; Lu, Peng-Jun; Williams, Walter W; Ding, Helen; Meyer, Sarah A

    2016-07-01

    The incidence of pertussis in the United States has increased since the 1990s. Tetanus, diphtheria, and acellular pertussis (Tdap) vaccination of pregnant women provides passive protection to infants. Tdap vaccination is currently recommended for pregnant women during each pregnancy, but coverage among pregnant women and women of childbearing age has been suboptimal. Data from the 2013 Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System (BRFSS) and 2013 National Health Interview Survey (NHIS) were used to determine national and state-specific Tdap vaccination coverage among women of childbearing age by self-reported pregnancy status at the time of the survey. Although this study could not assess coverage of Tdap vaccination received during pregnancy because questions on whether Tdap vaccination was received during pregnancy were not asked in BRFSS and NHIS, demographic and access-to-care factors associated with Tdap vaccination coverage in this population were assessed. Tdap vaccination coverage among all women 18-44 years old was 38.4% based on the BRFSS and 23.3% based on the NHIS. Overall, coverage did not differ by pregnancy status at the time of the survey. Coverage among all women 18-44 years old varied widely by state. Age, race and ethnicity, education, number of children in the household, and access-to-care characteristics were independently associated with Tdap vaccination in both surveys. We identified associations of demographic and access-to-care characteristics with Tdap vaccination that can guide strategies to improve vaccination rates in women during pregnancy. Copyright © 2016 Association for Professionals in Infection Control and Epidemiology, Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Tetanus, diphtheria, and acellular pertussis vaccination during pregnancy and reduced risk of infant acute respiratory infections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khodr, Zeina G; Bukowinski, Anna T; Gumbs, Gia R; Conlin, Ava Marie S

    2017-10-09

    To protect infants from pertussis infection, the Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices (ACIP) recommends women receive the tetanus toxoid, reduced diphtheria toxoid, acellular pertussis (Tdap) vaccine between 27 and 36weeks of pregnancy. Here, we assessed the association between timing of maternal Tdap vaccination during pregnancy and acute respiratory infection (ARI) in infants <2months of age. This retrospective cohort study included 99,434 infants born to active duty military women in the Department of Defense Birth and Infant Health Registry from 2006 through 2013. Multivariable log-binomial regression was used to calculate relative risks (RRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) for the association between maternal Tdap vaccination during pregnancy and infant ARI at <2months of age. Infants of mothers who received Tdap vaccination during pregnancy vs those who did not were 9% less likely to be diagnosed with an ARI at <2months of age (RR, 0.91; 95% CI, 0.84-0.99), and the risk was 17% lower if vaccination was received between 27 and 36weeks of pregnancy (RR, 0.83; 95% CI, 0.74-0.93). Similar results were observed when comparing mothers who received Tdap vaccination prior to pregnancy in addition to Tdap vaccination between 27 and 36weeks of pregnancy versus mothers who only received vaccination prior to pregnancy (RR, 0.85; 95% CI, 0.74-0.98). Maternal Tdap vaccination between 27 and 36weeks of pregnancy was consistently protective against infant ARI in the first 2months of life vs no vaccination during pregnancy, regardless of Tdap vaccination prior to pregnancy. Our findings strongly support current ACIP guidelines recommending Tdap vaccination in late pregnancy for every pregnancy. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. SVOC exposure indoors: fresh look at dermal pathways.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weschler, C J; Nazaroff, W W

    2012-10-01

    This paper critically examines indoor exposure to semivolatile organic compounds (SVOCs) via dermal pathways. First, it demonstrates that--in central tendency--an SVOC's abundance on indoor surfaces and in handwipes can be predicted reasonably well from gas-phase concentrations, assuming that thermodynamic equilibrium prevails. Then, equations are developed, based upon idealized mass-transport considerations, to estimate transdermal penetration of an SVOC either from its concentration in skin-surface lipids or its concentration in air. Kinetic constraints limit air-to-skin transport in the case of SVOCs that strongly sorb to skin-surface lipids. Air-to-skin transdermal uptake is estimated to be comparable to or larger than inhalation intake for many SVOCs of current or potential interest indoors, including butylated hydroxytoluene, chlordane, chlorpyrifos, diethyl phthalate, Galaxolide, geranyl acetone, nicotine (in free-base form), PCB28, PCB52, Phantolide, Texanol and Tonalide. Although air-to-skin transdermal uptake is anticipated to be slow for bisphenol A, we find that transdermal permeation may nevertheless be substantial following its transfer to skin via contact with contaminated surfaces. The paper concludes with explorations of the influence of particles and dust on dermal exposure, the role of clothing and bedding as transport vectors, and the potential significance of hair follicles as transport shunts through the epidermis. Human exposure to indoor pollutants can occur through dietary and nondietary ingestion, inhalation, and dermal absorption. Many factors influence the relative importance of these pathways, including physical and chemical properties of the pollutants. This paper argues that exposure to indoor semivolatile organic compounds (SVOCs) through the dermal pathway has often been underestimated. Transdermal permeation of SVOCs can be substantially greater than is commonly assumed. Transport of SVOCs from the air to and through the skin is

  18. Age-specific effectiveness following each dose of acellular pertussis vaccine among infants and children in New Zealand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radke, Sarah; Petousis-Harris, Helen; Watson, Donna; Gentles, Dudley; Turner, Nikki

    2017-01-03

    Though it is believed the switch from whole cell to acellular pertussis vaccine has contributed to the resurgence of pertussis disease, few studies have evaluated vaccine effectiveness (VE) and duration of protection provided by an acellular vaccine schedule including three primary doses but no toddler-age dose. We assessed this schedule in New Zealand (NZ), a setting with historically high rates of pertussis disease, and low but recently improved immunisation coverage. We further evaluated protection following the preschool-age booster dose. We performed a nested case-control study using national-level healthcare data. Hospitalised and non-hospitalised pertussis was detected among children 6weeks to 7years of age between January 2006 and December 2013. The NZ National Immunisation Register provided vaccination status for cases and controls. Conditional logistic regression was used to calculate dose-specific VE with duration of immunity examined by stratifying VE into ages aligned with the immunisation schedule. VE against pertussis hospitalisation was 93% (95% confidence interval [CI]: 87, 96) following three doses among infants aged 5-11months who received three compared to zero doses. This protection was sustained through children's fourth birthdays (VE⩾91%). VE against non-hospitalised pertussis was also sustained after three doses, from 86% (95% CI: 80, 90) among 5-11month olds to 84% (95% CI: 80, 88) among 3-year-olds. Following the first booster dose at 4years of age, the protective VE of 93% (95% CI: 90, 95) among 4-year-olds continued through 7years of age (VE⩾91%). We found a high level of protection with no reduction in VE following both the primary course and the first booster dose. These findings support a 3-dose primary course of acellular vaccine with no booster dose until 4years of age. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  19. S100A12 Induced in the Epidermis by Reduced Hydration Activates Dermal Fibroblasts and Causes Dermal Fibrosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Jingling; Zhong, Aimei; Friedrich, Emily E; Jia, Shengxian; Xie, Ping; Galiano, Robert D; Mustoe, Thomas A; Hong, Seok Jong

    2017-03-01

    Disruption of the barrier function of skin increases transepidermal water loss and up-regulates inflammatory pathways in the epidermis. Consequently, sustained expression of proinflammatory cytokines from the epidermis is associated with dermal scarring. We found increased expression of S100A12 in the epidermis of human hypertrophic and keloid scar. Exposing a stratified keratinocyte culture to a reduced-hydration environment increased the expression and secretion of S100A12 by nearly 70%, which in turn activated dermal fibroblasts in vitro. Direct treatment of fibroblasts with conditioned medium collected from stratified keratinocyte culture under reduced-hydration conditions activated fibroblasts, shown by up-regulation of α-smooth muscle actin, pro-collagen 1, and F-actin expression. However, this fibroblast activation was not found when S100A12 was knocked down by RNA interference in keratinocytes. Pharmacological blockade of S100A12 receptors, RAGE, or TLR4 inhibited S100A12-induced fibroblast activation. Local delivery of S100A12 resulted in a marked hypertrophic scar formation in a validated rabbit hypertrophic scar model compared with saline control. Our findings indicate that S100A12 functions as a proinflammatory cytokine and suggest that S100A12 is a potential therapeutic target for dermal scarring. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. The basic science of dermal fillers: past and present Part II: adverse effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilbert, Erin; Hui, Andrea; Meehan, Shane; Waldorf, Heidi A

    2012-09-01

    The ideal dermal filler should offer long-lasting aesthetic improvement with a minimal side-effect profile. It should be biocompatible and stable within the injection site, with the risk of only transient undesirable effects from injection alone. However, all dermal fillers can induce serious and potentially long-lasting adverse effects. In Part II of this paper, we review the most common adverse effects related to dermal filler use.

  1. Comparative analysis of toxicological evaluations for dermal exposure performed under two different EU regulatory frameworks

    OpenAIRE

    Westerholm, Emma; Schenk, Linda

    2014-01-01

    Dermal exposure to chemicals is highly relevant in relation to the use of cosmetic products, both in consumers and in individuals exposed occupationally. Regulatory frameworks exist within the EU to limit the dermal exposure of the general population and workers to chemicals in general, as well as to limit the use of certain substances in cosmetic products. The objective of the study was to investigate and compare toxicological evaluations of dermal exposure performed under current regulatory...

  2. Chitosan solutions as injectable systems for dermal filler applications: Rheological characterization and biological evidence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halimi, C; Montembault, A; Guerry, A; Delair, T; Viguier, E; Fulchiron, R; David, L

    2015-01-01

    A new generation of dermal filler for wrinkle filler based on chitosan was compared to current hyaluronic acid-based dermal fillers by using a new rheological performance criterion based on viscosity during injection related to Newtonian viscosity. In addition an in vivo evaluation was performed for preclinical evidence of chitosan use as dermal filler. In this way, biocompatibility and dermis reconstruction was evaluated on a pig model.

  3. Application of Allogeneic Fibroblast Cultured on Acellular Amniotic Membrane for Full-thickness Wound Healing in Rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahmoudi Rad, Mahnaz; Talebpour Amiri, Fereshteh; Mirhoseini, Mehri; Ghasemi, Maryam; Mirzaei, Mansooreh; Mosaffa, Nariman

    2016-01-01

    Utilization of the autologous and allogeneic skin substitutes seems to be a promising treatment option. In this study, the authors used amniotic membrane covered with cultured allogenic fibroblast as a skin substitute in the treatment of acute wounds. Full-thickness wounds were created on rats' dorsum regions and treated with cultured allogenic fibroblast on an acellular amniotic membrane (AAM+F), an acellular amniotic membrane (AAM) alone, an allogenic fibroblast suspension (AFS), or normal saline as a control (C). Specimen biopsies were obtained 7 days after wounding. Quantitative wound healing parameters including the epidermal thickness, the mean number of keratinocytes, fibroblasts, and lymphocytes were assessed. All transplanted wounds exhibited significantly further contraction compared with the nontransplanted wounds. Wounds transplanted with AAM+F and AAM showed a significant increase in epidermal thickness compared to nontransplanted wounds. Wounds transplanted with AAM+F or AAM showed improved epidermal healing compared to nongrafted wounds. Furthermore, granulation of tissue formation in the AAM+F group was more organized when compared to AFS and the normal saline groups. Quantitative assessment of the full-thickness wounds showed transplantation of AAM+F and AAM better improve wound healing parameters when compared to treatment with AFS and the normal saline groups.

  4. Evaluation of tissue-engineered bone constructs using rabbit fetal osteoblasts on acellular bovine cancellous bone matrix

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rashmi

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Aim: The aim of this study was to generate composite bone graft and investigate the rabbit fetal osteoblasts adhesion, proliferation and penetration on acellular matrices of cancellous bone. Materials and Methods: Acellular cancellous bone was prepared and developed as in the previous study with little modification. These matrices were decellularized by rapid freeze and thaw cycle. To remove the cell debris, they were then treated with hydrogen peroxide (3% and ethanol to remove antigenic cellular and nuclear materials from the scaffold. Primary osteoblast cells were harvested from 20 to 22 days old rabbit fetal long and calvarial bone. These cells were cultured and characterized using a specific marker. The third passaged fetal osteoblast cells were then seeded on the scaffold and incubated for 14 days. The growth pattern of the cells was observed. Scanning electron microscope and hematoxylin and eosin staining were used to investigate cells proliferation. Results: The cells were found to be growing well on the surface of the scaffold and were also present in good numbers with the matrix filopodial extensions upto inside of the core of the tissue. Conclusion: Thus, a viable composite scaffold of bone could be developed which has a great potential in the field of bone tissue engineering.

  5. Evaluation of dermal wound healing activity of synthetic peptide SVVYGLR.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uchinaka, Ayako; Kawaguchi, Naomasa; Ban, Tsuyoshi; Hamada, Yoshinosuke; Mori, Seiji; Maeno, Yoshitaka; Sawa, Yoshiki; Nagata, Kohzo; Yamamoto, Hirofumi

    2017-09-23

    SVVYGLR peptide (SV peptide) is a 7-amino-acid sequence with angiogenic properties that is derived from osteopontin in the extracellular matrix and promotes differentiation of fibroblasts to myofibroblast-like cells and the production of collagen type Ⅲ by cardiac fibroblasts. However, the effects of SV peptide on dermal cells and tissue are unknown. In this study, we evaluated the effects of this peptide in a rat model of dermal wound healing. The synthetic SV peptide was added to dermal fibroblasts or keratinocytes, and their cellular motility was evaluated. In an in vivo wound healing exeriment, male rats aged 8 weeks were randomly assigned to the SV peptide treatment, non-treated control, or phosphate-buffered saline (PBS) groups. Wound healing was assessed by its repair rate and histological features. Scratch assay and cell migration assays using the Chemotaxicell method showed that SV peptide significantly promoted the cell migration in both fibroblasts and keratinocytes. In contrast the proliferation potency of these cells was not affected by SV peptide. In the rat model, wound healing progressed faster in the SV peptide-treated group than in the control and PBS groups. The histopathological analyses showed that the SV peptide treatment stimulated the migration of fibroblasts to the wound area and increased the number of myofibroblasts. Immunohistochemical staining showed a marked increase of von Willebland factor-positive neomicrovessels in the SV peptide-treated group. In conclusion, SV peptide has a beneficial function to promote wound healing by stimulating granulation via stimulating angiogenesis, cell migration, and the myofibroblastic differentiation of fibroblasts. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Isolation of intact sub-dermal secretory cavities from Eucalyptus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Goodger Jason QD

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The biosynthesis of plant natural products in sub-dermal secretory cavities is poorly understood at the molecular level, largely due to the difficulty of physically isolating these structures for study. Our aim was to develop a protocol for isolating live and intact sub-dermal secretory cavities, and to do this, we used leaves from three species of Eucalyptus with cavities that are relatively large and rich in essential oils. Results Leaves were digested using a variety of commercially available enzymes. A pectinase from Aspergillus niger was found to allow isolation of intact cavities after a relatively short incubation (12 h, with no visible artifacts from digestion and no loss of cellular integrity or cavity contents. Several measurements indicated the potential of the isolated cavities for further functional studies. First, the cavities were found to consume oxygen at a rate that is comparable to that estimated from leaf respiratory rates. Second, mRNA was extracted from cavities, and it was used to amplify a cDNA fragment with high similarity to that of a monoterpene synthase. Third, the contents of the cavity lumen were extracted, showing an unexpectedly low abundance of volatile essential oils and a sizeable amount of non-volatile material, which is contrary to the widely accepted role of secretory cavities as predominantly essential oil repositories. Conclusions The protocol described herein is likely to be adaptable to a range of Eucalyptus species with sub-dermal secretory cavities, and should find wide application in studies of the developmental and functional biology of these structures, and the biosynthesis of the plant natural products they contain.

  7. Whole-Cell or Acellular Pertussis Primary Immunizations in Infancy Determines Adolescent Cellular Immune Profiles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saskia van der Lee

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available IntroductionPertussis is re-emerging worldwide, despite effective immunization programs for infants and children. Epidemiological studies show a more limited duration of protection against clinical pertussis in adolescents primed with acellular pertussis (aP vaccines during infancy than those who have been primed with whole-cell pertussis (wP vaccines. This study aimed to determine whether memory immune responses to aP, diphtheria, and tetanus vaccine antigens following booster vaccinations at 4 and 9 years of age differ between wP- versus aP-primed children.MethodsIn a cross-sectional study, blood was collected of DTwP- or diphtheria, tetanus, and aP (DTaP-primed children before, 1 month, and 2 years after the preschool DTaP booster administered at 4 years of age (n = 41–63 per time point. In a longitudinal study, blood was sampled of DTwP- or DTaP-primed children before, 1 month, and 1 year after a preadolescent Tdap booster at 9 years of age (n = 79–83 per time point. Pertussis, diphtheria, and tetanus vaccine antigen-specific IgG levels, B-cell and T-cell responses were determined.ResultsAfter the preschool booster vaccination, IgG levels were significantly higher in aP-primed as compared with wP-primed children until 6 years of age. Before the preadolescent Tdap booster vaccination, humoral and cellular immune responses were similar in aP- and wP-primed children. However, the Tdap booster vaccination induced lower vaccine antigen-specific humoral, B-cell, and T-helper 1 (Th1 cell responses resulting in significantly lower Th1/Th2 ratios in aP-primed compared with wP-primed children.ConclusionThe memory immune profiles at preadolescent age to all DTaP vaccine antigens are already determined by the wP or aP combination vaccines given in infancy, showing a beneficial Th1-dominated response after wP-priming. These immunological data corroborate epidemiological data showing that DTaP-primed adolescents are less

  8. Revascularization of human acellular dermis in full-thickness abdominal wall reconstruction in the rabbit model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menon, Nathan G; Rodriguez, Eduardo D; Byrnes, Colman K; Girotto, John A; Goldberg, Nelson H; Silverman, Ronald P

    2003-05-01

    This study investigates whether human acellular dermis (Alloderm; LifeCell, Branchburg, NJ) revascularizes when used to reconstruct abdominal wall defects in rabbits. This could prove useful in infected situations in which prosthetic mesh is suboptimal. Twenty-five rabbits were randomly assigned to one of three groups: primary closure (n = 5), expanded polytetrafluoroethylene (GoreTex; W.L. Gore, Flagstaff, AZ) repair (n = 10), or AlloDerm (LifeCell) repair (n = 10). The rabbits in the primary closure group received a 7 cm x 0.5 cm full-thickness abdominal wall defect that was closed primarily. A 7 cm x 3 cm full-thickness abdominal wall defect was created in the other two groups. The defects were repaired with a GoreTex Mycromesh (W.L. Gore), or AlloDerm (LifeCell) patch. At 30 days, the following endpoints were evaluated: (1) incidence of herniation; (2) presence of intra-abdominal adhesions; (3) the breaking strength of the patch-fascial interface; and (4) evaluation of graft vascularization by fluorescein dye infusion and histological analysis. There was no incidence of herniation in any of the rabbits. Visceral adhesions to the patch were found in all animals in the Gore-Tex (W.L. Gore) group but in none in the AlloDerm (LifeCell) group. The size of the patch was unchanged in all the rabbits except for two rabbits in the AlloDerm (LifeCell) group that stretched 1 cm in the transverse dimension. The change in size was not statistically significant (p = 0.17) when compared with the change in size in the Gore-Tex (W.L. Gore) group. The mean breaking strength of the primary closure group was significantly higher (521.2 N/mm2 +/- 223.0) than that of the two patch-repair groups (p Gore-Tex (W.L. Gore) fascial interface (337.0 N/mm2 +/- 141.2). Fluorescein dye infusion and histological analysis confirmed vascularization of the AlloDerm (LifeCell) graft. This study demonstrates that AlloDerm (LifeCell) does become vascularized when used as a fascial interposition

  9. Tetanus, diphtheria and acellular pertussis (Tdap) vaccination among healthcare personnel-United States, 2011.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Peng-jun; Graitcer, Samuel B; O'Halloran, Alissa; Liang, Jennifer L

    2014-01-23

    Health-care personnel (HCP) are at risk for exposure to and possible transmission of vaccine-preventable diseases. Receiving recommended vaccines is an essential prevention practice for HCP to protect themselves and their patients. The tetanus, diphtheria and acellular pertussis vaccine (Tdap) was recommended by the Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices (ACIP) for HCP in 2006 for protection against pertussis. We assessed the recent compliance of U.S. HCP in receiving Tdap vaccination. To estimate Tdap vaccination coverage among HCP, we analyzed data from the 2011 National Health Interview Survey (NHIS). Multivariable logistic regression and predictive marginal models were performed to identify factors independently associated with vaccination among HCP. Overall, Tdap vaccination coverage was 26.9% among HCP aged 18-64 years (95% confidence interval (CI)=24.3%, 29.7%), which was significantly higher compared with non-HCP among the same age group (11.1%; 10.5-11.8%). Overall, vaccination coverage was significantly higher among physicians (41.5%) compared with nurses (36.5%) and other types of HCP (range 11.7-29.9%). Vaccination coverage was significantly higher among HCP aged 18-49 years compared with those 50-64 years (30.0% vs. 19.2%, respectively). Characteristics independently associated with an increased likelihood of Tdap vaccination among HCP were: younger age, higher education, living in the western United States, being hospitalized within past year, having a place for routine health care in clinic or health center, and receipt of influenza vaccination in the previous year. Marital status of widowed, divorced, or separated was independently associated with a decreased likelihood of Tdap vaccination among HCP. By 2011, Tdap vaccination coverage was only 26.9% among HCP. Vaccination coverage varied widely by types of HCP and demographic characteristics. Emphasizing the benefits of HCP vaccination for staff and patients, providing vaccinations in the

  10. Tetanus, diphtheria and acellular pertussis (Tdap) vaccination among healthcare personnel–United States, 2011

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Peng-jun; Graitcer, Samuel B.; O’Halloran, Alissa; Liang, Jennifer L.

    2018-01-01

    Background Health-care personnel (HCP) are at risk for exposure to and possible transmission of vaccine-preventable diseases. Receiving recommended vaccines is an essential prevention practice for HCP to protect themselves and their patients. The tetanus, diphtheria and acellular pertussis vaccine (Tdap) was recommended by the Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices (ACIP) for HCP in 2006 for protection against pertussis. We assessed the recent compliance of U.S. HCP in receiving Tdap vaccination. Methods To estimate Tdap vaccination coverage among HCP, we analyzed data from the 2011 National Health Interview Survey (NHIS). Multivariable logistic regression and predictive marginal models were performed to identify factors independently associated with vaccination among HCP. Results Overall, Tdap vaccination coverage was 26.9% among HCP aged 18-64 years (95% confidence interval (CI)=24.3%, 29.7%), which was significantly higher compared with non-HCP among the same age group (11.1%; 10.5%–11.8%). Overall, vaccination coverage was significantly higher among physicians (41.5%) compared with nurses (36.5%) and other types of HCP (range 11.7% to 29.9%). Vaccination coverage was significantly higher among HCP aged 18-49 years compared with those 50-64 years (30.0% vs. 19.2%, respectively). Characteristics independently associated with an increased likelihood of Tdap vaccination among HCP were: younger age, higher education, living in the western United States, being hospitalized within past year, having a place for routine health care in clinic or health center, and receipt of influenza vaccination in the previous year. Marital status of widowed, divorced, or separated was independently associated with a decreased likelihood of Tdap vaccination among HCP. Conclusions By 2011, Tdap vaccination coverage was only 26.9% among HCP. Vaccination coverage varied widely by types of HCP and demographic characteristics. Emphasizing the benefits of HCP vaccination for staff

  11. Single-staged resections and 3D reconstructions of the nasion, glabella, medial orbital wall, and frontal sinus and bone: Long-term outcome and review of the literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ciporen, Jeremy; Lucke-Wold, Brandon P; Mendez, Gustavo; Chen, Anton; Banerjee, Amit; Akins, Paul T; Balough, Ben J

    2016-01-01

    Aesthetic facial appearance following neurosurgical ablation of frontal fossa tumors is a primary concern for patients and neurosurgeons alike. Craniofacial reconstruction procedures have drastically evolved since the development of three-dimensional computed tomography imaging and computer-assisted programming. Traditionally, two-stage approaches for resection and reconstruction were used; however, these two-stage approaches have many complications including cerebrospinal fluid leaks, necrosis, and pneumocephalus. We present two successful cases of single-stage osteoma resection and craniofacial reconstruction in a 26-year-old female and 65-year-old male. The biopolymer implants were preselected and contoured based on imaging prior to surgery. The ideal selection of appropriate flaps for reconstruction was imperative. The flaps were well vascularized and included a pedicle for easy translocation. Using a titanium mesh biopolymer implant for reconstruction in conjunction with a forehead flap proved advantageous, and the benefits of single-stage approaches were apparent. The patients recovered quickly after the surgery with complete resection of the osteoma and good aesthetic appearance. The flap adhered to the biopolymer implant, and the cosmetic appearance years after surgery remained decent. The gap between the bone and implant was less than 2 mm. The patients are highly satisfied with the symmetrical appearance of the reconstruction. Advances in technology are allowing neurosurgeons unprecedented opportunities to design complex yet feasible single-stage craniofacial reconstructions that improve a patient's quality of life by enhancing facial contours, aesthetics, and symmetry.

  12. Chemical stabilization of polymers: Implications for dermal exposure to additives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartsch, N; Girard, M; Schneider, L; Weijgert, V Van De; Wilde, A; Kappenstein, O; Vieth, B; Hutzler, C; Luch, A

    2018-04-16

    Technical benefits of additives in polymers stand in marked contrast to their associated health risks. Here, a multi-analyte method based on gas chromatography coupled to tandem mass spectrometry (GC-MS/MS) was developed to quantify polymer additives in complex matrices such as low-density polyethylene (LDPE) and isolated human skin layers after dermal exposure ex vivo. That way both technical aspects and dermal exposure were investigated. The effects of polymer additivation on the material were studied using the example of LDPE. To this end, a tailor-made polymer was applied in aging studies that had been furnished with two different mixtures of phenol- and diarylamine-based antioxidants, plasticizers and processing aids. Upon accelerated thermo-oxidative aging of the material, the formation of LDPE degradation products was monitored with attenuated total reflectance-Fourier transformed infrared (ATR-FTIR) spectroscopy. Compared to pure LDPE, a protective effect of added antioxidants could be observed on the integrity of the polymer. Further, thermo-oxidative degradation of the additives and its kinetics were investigated using LDPE or squalane as matrix. The half-lives of additives in both matrices revealed significant differences between the tested additives as well as between LDPE and squalane. For instance, 2-tert-butyl-6-[(3-tert-butyl-2-hydroxy-5-methylphenyl)methyl]-4-methylphenol (Antioxidant 2246) showed a half-life 12 times lower when incorporated in LDPE as compared to squalane. As a model for dermal exposure of consumers, human skin was brought into contact with the tailor-made LDPE containing additives ex vivo in static Franz diffusion cells. The skin was then analyzed for additives and decomposition products. This study proved 10 polymer additives of diverse pysicochemical properties and functionalities to migrate out of the polymer and eventually overcome the intact human skin barrier during contact. Moreover, their individual distribution within

  13. Late-onset congenital lateral dermal sinus tract

    OpenAIRE

    Nishimon, Mari; Shimizu, Yusuke; Ueno, Mari; Iwanami, Akio

    2014-01-01

    Cases of laterally located, congenital dermal sinus tracts are extremely rare, with only six having been reported to date. We describe a case of a 14-year-old girl who developed symptoms of this type of sinus tract at an age that was considerably older than is usually reported. At the age of 12 years, the patient exhibited a purulent discharge from a pit on the right buttock. MRI indicated the presence of two tracts running from the right buttock skin to a cystic lesion that had formed on the...

  14. Catastrophic intramedullary abscess caused by a missed congenital dermal sinus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dho, Yun-Sik; Kim, Seung-Ki; Wang, Kyu-Chang; Phi, Ji Hoon

    2015-03-01

    Congenital dermal sinus (CDS) is a type of occult spinal dysraphism characterized by a midline skin dimple. A 12-month-old girl presented with fever and ascending quadriparesis. She had a midline skin dimple in the upper sacral area that had been discovered in her neonatal period. Imaging studies revealed a holocord intramedullary abscess and CDS. Overlooking CDS or misdiagnosing it as benign sacrococcygeal dimple may lead to catastrophic infection and cause serious neurological deficits. Therefore, further imaging work-up or consultation with a pediatric neurosurgeon is recommended following discovery of any atypical-looking dimples in the midline.

  15. Whole-cell or acellular pertussis vaccination in infancy determines IgG subclass profiles to DTaP booster vaccination

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Lee, Saskia; Sanders, Elisabeth A.M.; Berbers, Guy A M; Buisman, Anne-Marie

    2018-01-01

    Introduction Duration of protection against pertussis is shorter in adolescents who have been immunized with acellular pertussis (aP) in infancy compared with adolescents who received whole-cell pertussis (wP) vaccines in infancy, which is related to immune responses elicited by these priming

  16. Regenerative and Antibacterial Properties of Acellular Fish Skin Grafts and Human Amnion/Chorion Membrane: Implications for Tissue Preservation in Combat Casualty Care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magnusson, Skuli; Baldursson, Baldur Tumi; Kjartansson, Hilmar; Rolfsson, Ottar; Sigurjonsson, Gudmundur Fertram

    2017-03-01

    Improvised explosive devices and new directed energy weapons are changing warfare injuries from penetrating wounds to large surface area thermal and blast injuries. Acellular fish skin is used for tissue repair and during manufacturing subjected to gentle processing compared to biologic materials derived from mammals. This is due to the absence of viral and prion disease transmission risk, preserving natural structure and composition of the fish skin graft. The aim of this study was to assess properties of acellular fish skin relevant for severe battlefield injuries and to compare those properties with those of dehydrated human amnion/chorion membrane. We evaluated cell ingrowth capabilities of the biological materials with microscopy techniques. Bacterial barrier properties were tested with a 2-chamber model. The microstructure of the acellular fish skin is highly porous, whereas the microstructure of dehydrated human amnion/chorion membrane is mostly nonporous. The fish skin grafts show superior ability to support 3-dimensional ingrowth of cells compared to dehydrated human amnion/chorion membrane (p skin is a bacterial barrier for 24 to 48 hours. The unique biomechanical properties of the acellular fish skin graft make it ideal to be used as a conformal cover for severe trauma and burn wounds in the battlefield. Reprint & Copyright © 2017 Association of Military Surgeons of the U.S.

  17. Elevated Immune Response Among Children 4 Years of Age With Pronounced Local Adverse Events After the Fifth Diphtheria, Tetanus, Acellular Pertussis Vaccination.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Lee, Saskia; Kemmeren, Jeanet M; de Rond, Lia G H; Öztürk, Kemal; Westerhof, Anneke; de Melker, Hester E; Sanders, Elisabeth A M; Berbers, Guy A M; van der Maas, Nicoline A T; Rümke, Hans C; Buisman, Anne-Marie

    In the Netherlands, acellular pertussis vaccines replaced the more reactogenic whole-cell pertussis vaccines. This replacement in the primary immunization schedule of infants coincided with a significant increase in pronounced local adverse events (AEs) in 4 years old children shortly after the

  18. Primary vaccination of adults with reduced antigen-content diphtheria-tetanus-acellular pertussis or dTpa-inactivated poliovirus vaccines compared to diphtheria-tetanus-toxoid vaccines.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Theeten, H.; Rumke, H.C.; Hoppener, F.J.; Vilatimo, R.; Narejos, S.; Damme, P. van; Hoet, B.

    2007-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To evaluate immunogenicity and reactogenicity of primary vaccination with reduced-antigen-content diphtheria-tetanus-acellular pertussis (dTpa) or dTpa-inactivated poliovirus (dTpa-IPV) vaccine compared to diphtheria-tetanus-toxoid vaccines (Td) in adults > or = 40 years of age without

  19. Whole-cell or acellular pertussis vaccination in infancy determines IgG subclass profiles to DTaP booster vaccination.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Lee, Saskia; Sanders, Elisabeth A M; Berbers, Guy A M; Buisman, Anne-Marie

    2018-01-01

    Duration of protection against pertussis is shorter in adolescents who have been immunized with acellular pertussis (aP) in infancy compared with adolescents who received whole-cell pertussis (wP) vaccines in infancy, which is related to immune responses elicited by these priming vaccines. To better

  20. Different IgG-subclass distributions after whole-cell and acellular pertussis infant primary vaccinations in healthy and pertussis infected children

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hendrikx, Lotte H.; Schure, Rose-Minke; Ozturk, Kemal; de Rond, Lia G. H.; de Greeff, S. C.; Sanders, Elisabeth A. M.; Berbers, Guy A. M.; Buisman, Anne-Marie

    2011-01-01

    The distribution of IgG-subclasses provides insight in the immunological mechanisms of protection against whooping cough. We investigated the effect of Dutch whole-cell pertussis and acellular pertussis vaccines administered in infancy on the IgG-subclass distributions in healthy children aged 12

  1. Nano-TiO2 modulates the dermal sensitization potency of dinitrochlorobenzene after topical exposure

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Smulders, S.; Golanski, L.; Smolders, E.J.; Vanoirbeek, J.; Hoet, P.H.

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Little is known about the impact of engineered nanoparticles (ENPs) on skin sensitization caused by chemicals. OBJECTIVES: We determined the ability of different ENPs (TiO2 , Ag and SiO2 ) and aged paint particles containing ENPs to modulate dermal sensitization by a known potent dermal

  2. Congenital cervical dermal sinus tract caused tethered cord syndrome in an adult: a case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karatas, Y; Ustun, M E

    2015-01-01

    The objective of this study was to report on a 34-year-old woman who presented with tethered cord syndrome due to dermal sinüs tract. A 34-year-old woman had got dermal sınüs tract admitted to our hospital with swelling on the neck, pain and numbness on the left upper limb. She was treated by surgical removal of dermal sinuses and untethering the spinal cord which is stretched by the dermal sinus. Congenital dermal sinus tracts are uncommon types of cranial and spinal dysraphisms. They can occur in the midline of the craniospinal axis from the occiput to the sacral region. For dermal sinuses, cervical region is very rare location that is reported in the literature. They are diagnosed usually in childhood with skin signs, neurological deficits, local infections and meningitis. We present a rare case of dermal sinus tract located in cervical region. Early diagnosis and treatment of cervical dermal sinus tract are important to prevent neurological deficits.

  3. A dermal model for spray painters, part II : estimating the deposition and uptake of solvents

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Semple, S.; Brouwers, D.H.; Dick, F.; Cherrie, J.W.

    2001-01-01

    The contribution of dermal exposure to the total body burden of a given chemical is difficult to assess. However, it is possible that as regulatory pressures lead to reductions in inhalation exposure, the proportion of uptake via the dermal route will increase. This study brings together recent work

  4. A dermal model for spray painters, part I : subjective exposure modelling of spray paint deposition

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brouwer, D.H.; Semple, S.; Marquart, J.; Cherrie, J.W.

    2001-01-01

    The discriminative power of existing dermal exposure models is limited. Most models only allow occupational hygienists to rank workers between and within workplaces according to broad bands of dermal exposure. No allowance is made for the work practices of different individuals. In this study a

  5. Role of clothing in both accelerating and impeding dermal absorption of airborne SVOCs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Morrison, Glenn C.; Weschler, Charles J.; Bekö, Gabriel

    2016-01-01

    To assess the influence of clothing on dermal uptake of semi-volatile organic compounds (SVOCs), we measured uptake of selected airborne phthalates for an individual wearing clean clothes or air-exposed clothes and compared these results with dermal uptake for bare-skinned individuals under other...

  6. Dermal exposure assessment to benzene and toluene using charcoal cloth pads

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Joode, De B.V.; Tielemans, E.; Vermeulen, R.; Wegh, H.C.P.; Kromhout, H.

    2005-01-01

    Charcoal cloth pads have been used to assess volatile chemicals on the skin in a laboratory setting; however, they have not yet been applied to measure dermal exposure in occupational settings. This study aimed at evaluating whether charcoal pads can be used to assess dermal exposure to benzene and

  7. A Collaborative Analysis Tool for Integrated Hypersonic Aerodynamics, Thermal Protection Systems, and RBCC Engine Performance for Single Stage to Orbit Vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stanley, Thomas Troy; Alexander, Reginald; Landrum, Brian

    2000-01-01

    Presented is a computer-based tool that connects several disciplines that are needed in the complex and integrated design of high performance reusable single stage to orbit (SSTO) vehicles. Every system is linked to every other system, as is the case of SSTO vehicles with air breathing propulsion, which is currently being studied by NASA. An RBCC propulsion system integrates airbreathing and rocket propulsion into a single engine assembly enclosed within a cowl or duct. A typical RBCC propulsion system operates as a ducted rocket up to approximately Mach 3. Then there is a transition to a ramjet mode for supersonic-to-hypersonic acceleration. Around Mach 8 the engine transitions to a scramjet mode. During the ramjet and scramjet modes, the integral rockets operate as fuel injectors. Around Mach 10-12 (the actual value depends on vehicle and mission requirements), the inlet is physically closed and the engine transitions to an integral rocket mode for orbit insertion. A common feature of RBCC propelled vehicles is the high degree of integration between the propulsion system and airframe. At high speeds the vehicle forebody is fundamentally part of the engine inlet, providing a compression surface for air flowing into the engine. The compressed air is mixed with fuel and burned. The combusted mixture must be expanded to an area larger than the incoming stream to provide thrust. Since a conventional nozzle would be too large, the entire lower after body of the vehicle is used as an expansion surface. Because of the high external temperatures seen during atmospheric flight, the design of an airbreathing SSTO vehicle requires delicate tradeoffs between engine design, vehicle shape, and thermal protection system (TPS) sizing in order to produce an optimum system in terms of weight (and cost) and maximum performance. To adequately determine the performance of the engine/vehicle, the Hypersonic Flight Inlet Model (HYFIM) module was designed to interface with the RBCC

  8. Effect of Arctium lappa (burdock) extract on canine dermal fibroblasts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pomari, Elena; Stefanon, Bruno; Colitti, Monica

    2013-12-15

    Although the biological activities of Arctium lappa (burdock) have been already investigated in human and other species, data evaluating the molecular mechanisms have not been reported in the dog. In this study we analyzed for the first time the effect of a root extract of burdock on molecular responses in canine dermal fibroblasts with H2O2 stimulation (H group), with burdock treatment (B group) and with H2O2 stimulation and burdock treatment (BH group), using RNAseq technology. Differentially expressed genes (P<0.05) of H, B and BH groups in comparison to the untreated sample (negative control, C group) were identified with MeV software and were functional annotated and monitored for signaling pathways and candidate biomarkers using the Ingenuity Pathways Analysis (IPA). The expression profile of canine dermal fibroblasts treated with burdock extract with or without H2O2 stimulation, showed an up-regulation of mitochondrial superoxide dismutase (SOD2), disheveled 3 (DVL3) and chondroitin sulfate N-acetylgalactosaminyltransferase 2 (CSGALNACT2). The data suggested that burdock has implications in cell adhesion and gene expression with the modulation of Wnt/β catenin signaling and Chondroitin Sulphate Biosynthesis that are particularly important for the wound healing process. © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. An innovative regenerative treatment of scars with dermal micrografts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Svolacchia, Fabiano; De Francesco, Francesco; Trovato, Letizia; Graziano, Antonio; Ferraro, Giuseppe A

    2016-09-01

    Pathological scars occur following injuries and are often considered esthetically unattractive. Several strategies have been attempted to improve these types of scars using both surgical and nonsurgical methods. The most common treatments include cryotherapy, intralesional corticosteroid injections, 5-fluorouracil, bleomycin, interferon, and verapamil. In this study, we aim to investigate the effectiveness of dermal autologous micrografts in the treatment of pathological scars resulting from burns, trauma, or any iatrogenic source. We used a new clinical practice called Rigenera Protocol to obtain autologous micrografts which were in turn injectable in the patients. A significant improvement was observed in appearance and texture of the exaggerated scars in all cases following already 4 months of autologous micrograft treatment We have also shown that these micrografts are composed of mesenchymal stem cells and in addition, histological evaluation verified restoration of the structural layers immediately below the epidermis and a horizontal realignment of collagen fibers in the papillary dermis. Our results clearly demonstrate the optimal outcomes obtained following treatment with dermal micrografts on exaggerated scars with different etiologies. However, further studies are required to confirm the efficacy of this new technique. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  10. Distribution of kerosene components in rats following dermal exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsujino, Y; Hieda, Y; Kimura, K; Eto, H; Yakabe, T; Takayama, K; Dekio, S

    2002-08-01

    The systemic distribution of kerosene components in blood and tissues was analysed in rats following dermal exposure. Four types of trimethylbenzenes (TMBs) and aliphatic hydrocarbons (AHCs) with carbon numbers 9-16 (C(9)-C(16)) were analysed as major kerosene components by capillary gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS). The kerosene components were detected in blood and all tissues after a small piece of cotton soaked with kerosene was applied to the abdominal skin. The amounts of TMBs detected were higher than those of AHCs. Greater increases in TMB levels were found in adipose tissue in an exposure duration-dependent manner. The amounts of TMBs detected were only at trace levels following post-mortem dermal exposure to kerosene. These findings suggest that kerosene components were absorbed percutaneously and distributed to various organs via the blood circulation. Post-mortem or ante-mortem exposure to kerosene could be distinguished when the exposure duration was relatively long. Adipose tissue would seem to be the most useful for estimating the degree of kerosene exposure.

  11. Soil Organic Matter Content Effects on Dermal Pesticide ...

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agricultural landscapes serve as active amphibian breeding grounds despite their seemingly poor habitat value. Activity of adults and dispersal of metamorphs to and from agricultural ponds occurs in most species from spring through late summer or early fall, a time that coincides with pesticide applications on farm fields and crops. In terrestrial landscapes, dermal contact with contaminated soil and plant matter may lead to bioconcentration as well as lethal and sublethal effects in amphibians.Although the physiological structure of the amphibian dermis may facilitate pesticide uptake, soil properties may ultimately dictate bioavailability of pesticides in terrestrial habitats. The organic matter fraction of soil readily binds to pesticides, potentially decreasing the availability of pesticides adhering to biological matter. Soil partition coefficient soils. A basic understanding of soil organic carbon content and soil-specific Koc values may be important to indicating pesticide bioavailability and potential bioconcentration in amphibians. Our study was designed to evaluate dermal uptake of five pesticide active ingredients on either high or low organic matter soils. We predicted that amphibian body burdens would be a function of soil carbon content or Koc. with greater bioconcentration in individuals exposed to pesticides on sa

  12. Hanford Tank Ventilation System Condensates and Headspace Vapors: An Assessment of Potential Dermal Exposures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huckaby, James L.; Springer, David L.

    2006-04-24

    This study considers the question of whether potential dermal exposures to Hanford high-level radioactive waste tank headspace vapors and their condensates could result in significant exposure to workers. Three types of potential exposures were evaluated; dermal contact with aqueous condensate, organic condensate, and direct contact with head space vapors. The dermal absorption rates from aqueous and organic condensates were estimated for selected chemicals using a model described by EPA (1992) with a modified correlation for dermal permeability suggested by Wilschut et al. (1995). Dermal absorption rates of vapors were estimated using a model given by AIHA (2000). Results were compared to an ''equivalent inhalation dose'' calculated by multiplying the inhalation occupational exposure limit by a nominal daily inhalation rate. The results should provide guidance for industrial hygienists to prepare specific recommendations based on specific scenarios.

  13. Anterior sacral pyocele with meningitis: a rare presentation of occult spinal dysraphism with congenital dermal sinus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhatia, Sonal; Tullu, Milind S; Date, Nitin B; Muzumdar, Dattatraya; Muranjan, Mamta N; Lahiri, Keya R

    2010-11-01

    The authors describe an interesting case of a hitherto asymptomatic occult spinal defect with a congenital sacral dermal sinus which proved to be the entry point for bacterial meningitis in an otherwise healthy 9-year-old female child. The patient presented with fever and neck stiffness, and a dermal sinus in the lumbosacral region was identified on examination. Cerebrospinal fluid analysis confirmed bacterial meningitis and a spinal magnetic resonance imaging scan revealed a dermal sinus tract with an anterior spinal meningocele, caudal regression syndrome, and a tethered spinal cord. In addition to administration of intravenous antimicrobial agents, surgical exploration of the sacral dermal sinus tract was performed and an anterior sacral pyocele was drained. The pyocele cavity was disconnected from the thecal sac, and the thickened and fatty filum terminale was sectioned. Although congenital sacral dermal sinus manifesting as bacterial meningitis is known, the occurrence of an anterior sacral pyocele has not yet been described in children.

  14. The Use of Dermal Autograft for Fascial Repair of TRAM Flap Donor Sites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Arab Kheradmand

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Closure of fascia after transverse rectus abdominis musculocutaneous (TRAM flap has usually been performed with direct closure or synthetic material. The dermal autograft was removed from zone IV of flap was an alternative to reinforce fascial closure. The dermal autograft was used in 34 patients after TRAM harvest for breast, head and neck reconstruction and Prolene mesh was used in 42 other patients for closure of fascial defect. All patients were followed by physical examinations. Average follow-up in the dermal autograft group was 27.3 versus 20.7 months in the second group. In the dermal autograft group, one patient complained of bulging of the anterior abdominal wall; one developed a wound infection. In the second group, one patients experienced true hernia. Dermal autografts are a useful alternative to mesh repair of fascial defects after TRAM flap harvest.

  15. Irradiated PVAl membrane swelled with chitosan solution as dermal equivalent

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rodas, A.C.D.; Ohnuki, T.; Mathor, M.B.; Lugao, A.B.

    2005-01-01

    Synthetic membranes as dermal equivalent can be applied at in vitro studies for developing new transdermal drugs or cosmetics. These membranes could be composed to mimic the dermis and seed cultivated keratinocytes as epidermal layer on it. The endothelial cells ingrowth to promote neovascularization and fibroblasts ingrowth to promote the substitution of this scaffold by natural components of the dermis. As, they can mimic the scaffold function of dermis; the membranes with biological interaction could be used for in vivo studies as dermal equivalent. For this application, poly(vinyl alcohol) (PVAl) membranes crosslinked by gamma radiation were swelled with chitosan solution. PVAl do not interact with the organism when implanted and is intended to mimic the mechanical characteristics of the dermal scaffold. The chitosan as a biocompatible biosynthetic polysaccharide were incorporated into PVAl membranes to improve the organism response. Degradation of chitosan by the organism occurs preferably by hydrolysis or enzymatic action, for example, by lysozyme. For this purpose the swelling kinetic of PVAl membranes with chitosan solution were performed and it was verified their degradation in vitro. The results showed that the swelling equilibrium of the PVAl membranes with chitosan membranes was reached in 120 h with average swelling of 1730%. After swelling, PVAl and chitosan/PVAl membranes were dried and immersed in phosphate buffer solution pH 5.7 and pH 7.4, with and without lysozyme, as those pH values are the specific physiologic pH for external skin and the general physiological pH for the organism, respectively. It was verified that the pure PVAl membrane did not showed change in their mass during 14 days. PVAl membranes swelled with chitosan solution showed mass decrease from 1 to 14 days inside these solutions. The highest mass decrease was verified at pH 5.7 in phosphate buffer solution without lysozyme. The smallest mass decrease was verified at pH 7.4 in

  16. Application of Bladder Acellular Matrix in Urinary Bladder Regeneration: The State of the Art and Future Directions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marta Pokrywczynska

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Construction of the urinary bladder de novo using tissue engineering technologies is the “holy grail” of reconstructive urology. The search for the ideal biomaterial for urinary bladder reconstruction has been ongoing for decades. One of the most promising biomaterials for this purpose seems to be bladder acellular matrix (BAM. In this review we determine the most important factors, which may affect biological and physical properties of BAM and its regeneration potential in tissue engineered urinary bladder. We also point out the directions in modification of BAM, which include incorporation of exogenous growth factors into the BAM structure. Finally, we discuss the results of the urinary bladder regeneration with cell seeded BAM.

  17. Increased acellular and cellular surface mineralization induced by nanogrooves in combination with a calcium-phosphate coating.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klymov, Alexey; Song, Jiankang; Cai, Xinjie; Te Riet, Joost; Leeuwenburgh, Sander; Jansen, John A; Walboomers, X Frank

    2016-02-01

    The current work evaluated the influence of nanoscale surface-topographies in combination with a calcium phosphate (CaP) coating on acellular and cellular surface mineralization. Four groups of substrates were produced, including smooth, grooved (940nm pitch, 430nm groove width, 185nm depth), smooth coated, and grooved coated. The substrates were characterized by scanning/transmission electron microscopy and atomic force microscopy. Osteoblast-like MC3T3 cells were cultured on the substrates for a period up to 35days under osteogenic conditions. Differentiation was observed by alkaline phosphatase assay and PCR of collagen I (COLI), osteopontin (OPN), osteocalcin (OC), bone-morphogenic protein 2 (BMP2), and bone sialoprotein (BSP). Mineralization was quantified by a calcium assay and Alizarin Red staining. In addition, acellular mineralization was determined after incubation of substrates in just cell culture medium without cells. Results showed that a reproducible nano-metric (∼50nm) CaP-layer could be applied on the substrates, without losing the integrity of the topographical features. While no relevant differences were found for cell viability, cells on smooth surfaces proliferated for a longer period than cells on grooved substrates. In addition, differentiation was affected by topographies, as indicated by an increased expression of OC, OPN and ALP activity. Deposition of a CaP coating significantly increased the acellular mineralization of smooth as well grooved substrate-surfaces. However, this mineralizing effect was strongly reduced in the presence of cells. In the cell seeded situation, mineralization was significantly increased by the substrate topography, while only a minor additive effect of the coating was observed. In conclusion, the model presented herein can be exploited for experimental evaluation of cell-surface interaction processes and optimization of bone-anchoring capability of implants. The model showed that substrates modified with Ca

  18. Dermal uptake of nicotine from air and clothing: Experimental verification

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bekö, Gabriel; Morrison, G.; Weschler, Charles J.

    2017-01-01

    This study aims to elucidate in greater detail the dermal uptake of nicotine from air or from nicotine-exposed clothes, which was demonstrated recently in a preliminary study. Six non-smoking participants were exposed to gaseous nicotine (between 236 and 304 μg/m3 ) over 5 hours while breathing...... clothes on week 1 were now exposed wearing a set of clothes that had been exposed to nicotine. All urine was collected for 84 hours after exposure and analyzed for nicotine and its metabolites, cotinine and 3OH-cotinine. All participants except those wearing fresh clothes excreted substantial amounts...... of biomarkers, comparable to levels expected from inhalation intake. Uptake for 1 participant wearing exposed clothes exceeded estimated intake via inhalation by >50%. Biomarker excretion continued during the entire urine collection period, indicating that nicotine accumulates in the skin and is released over...

  19. Dermal tumorigen PAH and complex mixtures for biological research

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Griest, W.H.; Guerin, M.R.; Ho, C.

    1985-01-01

    Thirteen commercially available, commonly reported four-five ring dermal tumorigen PAHs, were determined in a set of complex mixtures consisting of crude and upgraded coal liquids, and petroleum crude oils and their distillate fractions. Semi-preparative scale, normal phase high performance liquid chromatographic fractionation followed by capillary column gas chromatography or gas chromatography-mass spectroscopy were used for the measurements. Deuterated or carbon-14 labeled PAH served as internal standards or allowed recovery corrections. Approaches for the preparation and measurement of radiolabeled PAH were examined to provide chemical probes for biological study. Synthetic routes for production of 14 C labeled dihydrobenzo[a]pyrene and 14 C- or 3 H 10-azabenzo[a]pyrene are being studied to provide tracers for fundamental studies in tracheal transplant and skin penetration systems. (DT)

  20. Infected spinal dermal sinus tract with meningitis: a case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yi-Min; Chuang, Ming-Jung; Cheng, Min-Hsiung

    2011-09-01

    Congenital dermal sinus tract (DST), an uncommon entity of cranial or spinal dysraphism, occurs along the midline neuraxis that may arise from nasion and occiput down to the lumbar and sacral region. It is often diagnosed in infants and children for skin signs, neurological deficits, local infection, meningitis, or abscess. For spinal DST, there is a paucity of case or series report in Taiwan. In this paper, we report a case in a 6-year-old girl. The girl presented with midline lumbar skin dimple, hypertrichosis, and history of bacterial meningitis. She was successful treated by surgical excision of the DST with local infection that ended within the subarachnoid space between L2-3 vertebrae. This case highlights the importance of a thorough examination of the midline craniospinal axis in children with meningitis or history of meningitis.

  1. Post-kala-azar dermal leishmaniasis associated with AIDS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bittencourt Achiléa

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Post-kala-azar dermal leishmaniasis (PKDL is rarely reported in South America. In spite of the fact that there are many reports about the association of visceral leishmaniasis and AIDS, PKDL is very uncommon in HIV-positive patients, and so far only four cases have been documented in the literature. We present another case with unusual clinicopathological aspects. The patient, a 28-year-old male, from Salvador, Bahia (an endemic area presented with clinical manifestations of visceral leishmaniasis three years after the diagnosis of AIDS. During treatment for visceral leishmaniasis he developed disseminated miliary papules. Microscopically, the skin biopsy showed a "saw-tooth" pattern with a lichenoid mononuclear infiltrate simulating lichen planus. The histopathological diagnosis was achieved through the finding of amastigotes. The authors discuss the clinicopathological aspects of this case based on a review of the specific literature.

  2. Post-kala-azar dermal leishmaniasis associated with AIDS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bittencourt Achiléa

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Post-kala-azar dermal leishmaniasis (PKDL is rarely reported in South America. In spite of the fact that there are many reports about the association of visceral leishmaniasis and AIDS, PKDL is very uncommon in HIV-positive patients, and so far only four cases have been documented in the literature. We present another case with unusual clinicopathological aspects. The patient, a 28-year-old male, from Salvador, Bahia (an endemic area presented with clinical manifestations of visceral leishmaniasis three years after the diagnosis of AIDS. During treatment for visceral leishmaniasis he developed disseminated miliary papules. Microscopically, the skin biopsy showed a "saw-tooth" pattern with a lichenoid mononuclear infiltrate simulating lichen planus. The histopathological diagnosis was achieved through the finding of amastigotes. The authors discuss the clinicopathological aspects of this case based on a review of the specific literature.

  3. Acute Severe Chromium Poisoning After Dermal Exposure to Hexavalent Chromium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chun-Chi Lin

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Severe acute chromium poisoning related to dermal involvement has rarely been reported in the literature. We report a case of acute severe chromium poisoning through skin exposure as a result of a chemical burn of 15% of the body surface area and multiple organ failure after short-term exposure. Medical interventions, including mechanical ventilation, continuous venovenous hemofiltration, and plasmapheresis were performed. In addition, a chelating agent, dimercapto-propane sulfonic acid, was infused intravenously, combined with intravenous N-acetylcysteine and ascorbic acid as adjuvant therapy. The patient was discharged on day 33 without long-term sequelae. The consequence of transdermal exposure of hexavalent chromium should not be overlooked.

  4. Dermal uptake of phthalates from clothing: Comparison of model to human participant results.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morrison, G C; Weschler, C J; Bekö, G

    2017-05-01

    In this research, we extend a model of transdermal uptake of phthalates to include a layer of clothing. When compared with experimental results, this model better estimates dermal uptake of diethylphthalate and di-n-butylphthalate (DnBP) than a previous model. The model predictions are consistent with the observation that previously exposed clothing can increase dermal uptake over that observed in bare-skin participants for the same exposure air concentrations. The model predicts that dermal uptake from clothing of DnBP is a substantial fraction of total uptake from all sources of exposure. For compounds that have high dermal permeability coefficients, dermal uptake is increased for (i) thinner clothing, (ii) a narrower gap between clothing and skin, and (iii) longer time intervals between laundering and wearing. Enhanced dermal uptake is most pronounced for compounds with clothing-air partition coefficients between 10 4 and 10 7 . In the absence of direct measurements of cotton cloth-air partition coefficients, dermal exposure may be predicted using equilibrium data for compounds in equilibrium with cellulose and water, in combination with computational methods of predicting partition coefficients. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  5. Microporous dermal-like electrospun scaffolds promote accelerated skin regeneration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonvallet, Paul P; Culpepper, Bonnie K; Bain, Jennifer L; Schultz, Matthew J; Thomas, Steven J; Bellis, Susan L

    2014-09-01

    The goal of this study was to synthesize skin substitutes that blend native extracellular matrix (ECM) molecules with synthetic polymers which have favorable mechanical properties. To this end, scaffolds were electrospun from collagen I (col) and poly(ɛ-caprolactone) (PCL), and then pores were introduced mechanically to promote fibroblast infiltration, and subsequent filling of the pores with ECM. A 70:30 col/PCL ratio was determined to provide optimal support for dermal fibroblast growth, and a pore diameter, 160 μm, was identified that enabled fibroblasts to infiltrate and fill pores with native matrix molecules, including fibronectin and collagen I. Mechanical testing of 70:30 col/PCL scaffolds with 160 μm pores revealed a tensile strength of 1.4 MPa, and the scaffolds also exhibited a low rate of contraction (pores. Keratinocytes formed a stratified layer on the surface of fibroblast-remodeled scaffolds, and staining for cytokeratin 10 revealed terminally differentiated keratinocytes at the apical surface. When implanted, 70:30 col/PCL scaffolds degraded within 3-4 weeks, an optimal time frame for degradation in vivo. Finally, 70:30 col/PCL scaffolds with or without 160 μm pores were implanted into full-thickness critical-sized skin defects. Relative to nonporous scaffolds or sham wounds, scaffolds with 160 μm pores induced accelerated wound closure, and stimulated regeneration of healthy dermal tissue, evidenced by a more normal-appearing matrix architecture, blood vessel in-growth, and hair follicle development. Collectively, these results suggest that microporous electrospun scaffolds are effective substrates for skin regeneration.

  6. Predictors of dermal exposures to polycyclic aromatic compounds among hot-mix asphalt paving workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cavallari, Jennifer M; Osborn, Linda V; Snawder, John E; Kriech, Anthony J; Olsen, Larry D; Herrick, Robert F; McClean, Michael D

    2012-03-01

    The primary objective of this study was to identify the source and work practices that affect dermal exposure to polycyclic aromatic compounds (PACs) among hot-mix asphalt (HMA) paving workers. Four workers were recruited from each of three asphalt paving crews (12 workers) and were monitored for three consecutive days over 4 weeks for a total of 12 sampling days per worker (144 worker days). Two sampling weeks were conducted under standard conditions for dermal exposures. The third week included the substitution of biodiesel for diesel oil used to clean tools and equipment and the fourth week included dermal protection through the use of gloves, hat and neck cloth, clean pants, and long-sleeved shirts. Dermal exposure to PACs was quantified using two methods: a passive organic dermal (POD) sampler specifically developed for this study and a sunflower oil hand wash technique. Linear mixed-effects models were used to evaluate predictors of PAC exposures. Dermal exposures measured under all conditions via POD and hand wash were low with most samples for each analyte being below the limit of the detection with the exception of phenanthrene and pyrene. The geometric mean (GM) concentrations of phenanthrene were 0.69 ng cm(-2) on the polypropylene layer of the POD sampler and 1.37 ng cm(-2) in the hand wash sample. The GM concentrations of pyrene were 0.30 ng cm(-2) on the polypropylene layer of the POD sampler and 0.29 ng cm(-2) in the hand wash sample. Both the biodiesel substitution and dermal protection scenarios were effective in reducing dermal exposures. Based on the results of multivariate linear mixed-effects models, increasing frequency of glove use was associated with significant (P paving workers include requiring the use of dermal coverage (e.g. wearing gloves and/or long sleeves), substituting biodiesel for diesel oil as a cleaning agent, and decreasing the HMA application temperature.

  7. Assessment of predictive dermal exposure to chemicals in the work environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agnieszka Jankowska

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Assessment of dermal exposure to chemicals in the work environment is problematic, mainly as a result of the lack of measurement data on occupational exposure to chemicals. Due to common prevalence of occupational skin exposure and its health consequences it is necessary to look for efficient solutions allowing for reliable exposure assessment. The aim of the study is to present predictive models used to assess non-measured dermal exposure, as well as to acquaint Polish users with the principles of the selected model functioning. This paper presents examples of models to assist the employer in the the assessment of occupational exposure associated with the skin contact with chemicals, developed in European Union (EU countries, as well as in countries outside the EU. Based on the literature data dermal exposure models EASE (Estimation and Assessment of Substance Exposure, COSHH Essentials (Control of Substances Hazardous to Health Regulations, DREAM (Dermal Exposure Assessment Method, Stoffenmanager , ECETOC TRA (European Centre for Ecotoxicology and Toxicology of Chemicals Targeted Risk Assessment, MEASE (Metal’s EASE, PHED (Pesticide Handlers Exposure Database, DERM (Dermal Exposure Ranking Method and RISKOFDERM (Risk Assessment of Occupational Dermal Exposure to Chemicals were briefly described. Moreover the characteristics of RISKOFDERM, guidelines for its use, information on input and output data were further detailed. Problem of full work shift dermal exposure assessment is described. An example of exposure assessment using RISKOFDERM and effectiveness evaluation to date were also presented. When no measurements are available, RISKOFDERM allows dermal exposure assessment and thus can improve the risk assessment quality and effectiveness of dermal risk management. Med Pr 2017;68(4:557–569

  8. CTRP6 inhibits fibrogenesis in TGF-β1-stimulated human dermal fibroblasts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fan, Rong-hui; Zhu, Xiu-mei; Sun, Yao-wen; Peng, Hui-zi; Wu, Hang-li; Gao, Wen-jie

    2016-01-01

    Skin fibrosis is characterized by excessive proliferation of fibroblasts and overproduction of extracellular matrix (ECM). C1q/tumor necrosis factor-related protein 6 (CTRP6), a member of CTRPs, has been involved in the development of cardiac fibrosis. However, the function and detailed regulatory mechanism of CTRP6 in skin fibrosis remain unclear. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of CTRP6 on the activation of human dermal fibroblasts. Our results showed that CTRP6 was lowly expressed in scar tissues and transforming growth factor-β1 (TGF-β1)-treated dermal fibroblasts. CTRP6 overexpression significantly inhibited the proliferation of dermal fibroblasts, as well as suppressed the expression of ECM in TGF-β1-treated dermal fibroblasts. Furthermore, CTRP6 overexpression markedly inhibited TGF-β1-induced phosphorylation of Smad3 in dermal fibroblasts. In conclusion, the data reported here demonstrate that CTRP6 is able to inhibit the proliferation and ECM expression in human dermal fibroblasts through suppressing the TGF-β1/Smad3 signaling pathway. These findings suggest that CTRP6 may be a potential therapeutic target for the prevention of skin fibrosis. -- Highlights: •CTRP6 expression was decreased in scar tissues and TGF-β1-treated dermal fibroblasts. •CTRP6 inhibits TGF-β1-induced the proliferation of dermal fibroblasts. •CTRP6 inhibits expression of collagen type I and α-SMA. •CTRP6 inhibits the activation of TGF-β1/Smad3 signaling pathway in dermal fibroblasts.

  9. CTRP6 inhibits fibrogenesis in TGF-β1-stimulated human dermal fibroblasts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fan, Rong-hui, E-mail: fan_ronghuixa@163.com [Department of Burn and Plastic Surgery, Shaanxi Provincial People’s Hospital, Xi’an 710068 (China); Zhu, Xiu-mei; Sun, Yao-wen [Department of Burn and Plastic Surgery, Shaanxi Provincial People’s Hospital, Xi’an 710068 (China); Peng, Hui-zi [Department of Cosmetology Plastic Surgery, The First Affiliated Hospital of Xi’an Jiaotong University, Xi’an, Shaanxi 710061 (China); Wu, Hang-li; Gao, Wen-jie [Department of Burn and Plastic Surgery, Shaanxi Provincial People’s Hospital, Xi’an 710068 (China)

    2016-07-08

    Skin fibrosis is characterized by excessive proliferation of fibroblasts and overproduction of extracellular matrix (ECM). C1q/tumor necrosis factor-related protein 6 (CTRP6), a member of CTRPs, has been involved in the development of cardiac fibrosis. However, the function and detailed regulatory mechanism of CTRP6 in skin fibrosis remain unclear. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of CTRP6 on the activation of human dermal fibroblasts. Our results showed that CTRP6 was lowly expressed in scar tissues and transforming growth factor-β1 (TGF-β1)-treated dermal fibroblasts. CTRP6 overexpression significantly inhibited the proliferation of dermal fibroblasts, as well as suppressed the expression of ECM in TGF-β1-treated dermal fibroblasts. Furthermore, CTRP6 overexpression markedly inhibited TGF-β1-induced phosphorylation of Smad3 in dermal fibroblasts. In conclusion, the data reported here demonstrate that CTRP6 is able to inhibit the proliferation and ECM expression in human dermal fibroblasts through suppressing the TGF-β1/Smad3 signaling pathway. These findings suggest that CTRP6 may be a potential therapeutic target for the prevention of skin fibrosis. -- Highlights: •CTRP6 expression was decreased in scar tissues and TGF-β1-treated dermal fibroblasts. •CTRP6 inhibits TGF-β1-induced the proliferation of dermal fibroblasts. •CTRP6 inhibits expression of collagen type I and α-SMA. •CTRP6 inhibits the activation of TGF-β1/Smad3 signaling pathway in dermal fibroblasts.

  10. Measurements of Dermal Uptake of Nicotine Directly from Air and Clothing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bekö, Gabriel; Morrison, Glenn; Weschler, Charles J.

    2016-01-01

    Dermal uptake directly from air is a significant contributor to total exposure for certain organic compounds, and has been recently experimentally verified for two phthalates. The objective of the current study was to investigate whether airborne nicotine can be dermally absorbed. Two bare...... a shirt previously exposed to tobacco smoke. Urine samples were subsequently analyzed for nicotine and two of its metabolites. The results demonstrate that nicotine can be dermally absorbed directly from air at rates comparable to passive smoking. Wearing clean clothes significantly decreases uptake...

  11. The basic science of dermal fillers: past and present Part I: background and mechanisms of action.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilbert, Erin; Hui, Andrea; Waldorf, Heidi A

    2012-09-01

    Dermal fillers have provided a safe and effective means for aesthetic soft tissue augmentation, and have experienced a dramatic increase in popularity during the past 10 years. Much focus has been placed upon filler technique and patient outcomes. However, there is a relative lack of literature reviewing the basic science of dermal fillers, which is vital to a physician's understanding of how each product behaves in vivo. Part I of this article reviews the basic science and evolution of both historical and contemporary dermal fillers; Part II examines their adverse effects. We endeavor to provide the physician with a practical approach to choosing products that maximize both aesthetic outcome and safety.

  12. Congenital cranial and spinal dermal sinuses: a report of 3 cases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalkan, Erdal; Karabagli, Pinar; Karabagli, Hakan; Baysefer, Alper

    2006-01-01

    Three cases of congenital dermal sinus are presented--2 female and 1 male. Frontal, thoracic, and lumbosacral congenital dermal sinuses were explored. All patients presented with skin findings, but no neurologic deficits. The case with frontal localization was associated with a corpus callosum lipoma and dermoid tumor, and the patient presented with recurrent meningitis. The case with sacral localization was associated with an epidermoid tumor. Morphogenetic, clinical, and radiologic aspects of these cases are discussed. The midline should be carefully examined whenever a child suffers from meningitis. Dermal sinus tracts should be excised prophylactically.

  13. Radiological features of Goltz syndrome: Focal dermal hypoplasia. A report of two cases

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boothyrod, A.E.; Hall, C.M.

    1988-10-01

    Two female infants with Goltz syndrome (focal dermal hypoplasia) were recently investigated for severe feeding problems and failure to thrive. Both demonstrated severe skeletal malformations and marked gastrooesophageal reflux with laxity of the hiatus. One child (case 1) exhibited nasal regurgitation during feeding. Interestingly, both children had undergone surgery; Case 1 or a right parasagittal abdominal hernia associated with focal dermal hypoplasia of the abdominal wall and Case 2 for an exomphalos also associated with dermal hypoplasia. This observation suggests more widespread mesodermal abnormality. (orig./GDG).

  14. [Health protection for rural workers: the need to standardize techniques for quantifying dermal exposure to pesticides].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Selmi, Giuliana da Fontoura Rodrigues; Trapé, Angelo Zanaga

    2014-05-01

    Quantification of dermal exposure to pesticides in rural workers, used in risk assessment, can be performed with different techniques such as patches or whole body evaluation. However, the wide variety of methods can jeopardize the process by producing disparate results, depending on the principles in sample collection. A critical review was thus performed on the main techniques for quantifying dermal exposure, calling attention to this issue and the need to establish a single methodology for quantification of dermal exposure in rural workers. Such harmonization of different techniques should help achieve safer and healthier working conditions. Techniques that can provide reliable exposure data are an essential first step towards avoiding harm to workers' health.

  15. Bilateral retro-auricular dermal sinus tracts with intradural extension. Case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nejat, Farideh; Dias, Mark S; Eftekhar, Behzad; Roodsari, Nahid Nasri; Hamidi, Saiid

    2003-07-01

    The authors describe a previously unreported malformation involving paired, bilaterally symmetrical dermal sinus tracts in the retro-auricular area, both of which passed through the asterion and posterior fossa dura mater to end intracranially. Cranial dermal sinus tracts are congenital lesions that virtually always originate from the midline scalp posteriorly at the external occipital protuberance, anteriorly at the nasion or along the nasal dorsum, or in the posterior parietal midline. A lateral origin is extremely rare, and intracranial extension of a lateral dermal sinus tract has not been reported previously. The authors propose an embryological mechanism to explain the origin of this rare malformation and discuss its management.

  16. Dermal Discolorations and Burns at Neuromonitoring Electrodes in Pediatric Spine Surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanders, Austin; Andras, Lindsay; Lehman, Alison; Bridges, Nancy; Skaggs, David L

    2017-01-01

    Prospective review of consecutive patients. To evaluate the incidence and raise awareness of electrode discoloration that can occur in the operating room when using neuromonitoring. To our knowledge there are no articles that discuss dermal discolorations following spine surgery. Following recognition of dermal discolorations in some patients, a prospective evaluation of all patients undergoing spine surgery with somatosensory-evoked potential and motor-evoked potential neuromonitoring using subdermal needle electrodes was carried out over a 16-month period for quality assurance and improvement. A total of 201 consecutive patients with mean age of 14 years (4-25) were prospectively evaluated. Sixteen percent (33/201) had dermal discolorations associated with neuromonitoring. There were no significant differences in mean age (P = 0.624), height (P = 0.308), weight (P = 0.899), or body mass index (P = 0.571) between the patients with and without dermal discolorations. There was also no difference in prevalence of dermal discoloration by diagnosis (P = 0.490) or location of grounding pad and occurrence of dermal discoloration between groups (P = 0.268). The only difference noted was that patients without dermal discoloration had an average monopolar cautery setting of 46.8 W compared to 40.5 W for patients with dermal discolorations (P = 0.042). Of the 33 patients with a dermal discoloration, 27% (9/33) of these were on both the upper and lower extremities, 21% (7/33) on only the upper extremities, and 52% (17/33) on only the lower extremities. None of the dermal discolorations were painful or tender, and all resolved by 6-month follow-up. One patient did not have any dermal discoloration but did experience two full-thickness burns around the electrodes in one leg. The incidence of burns in this series was 0.5% (1/201). Dermal discolorations occurred in 16% of patients undergoing neuromonitoring for spine surgery. These common

  17. Vacina acelular contra pertússis para adolescentes Acellular pertussis vaccine for adolescents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aroldo P. de Carvalho

    2006-07-01

    vacina é em torno de 6 a 12 anos. As avaliações sobre o impacto econômico do uso rotineiro da vacina em adolescentes evidenciam uma relação custo-benefício positiva. Os resultados do impacto epidemiológico dependem da qualidade do diagnóstico para que os dados reflitam a realidade da doença. CONCLUSÕES: Embora existam algumas questões a serem esclarecidas, a literatura disponível sinaliza a possibilidade para a solução do .ressurgimento. da coqueluche com o uso da vacina dTpa. Talvez a estratégia da utilização de uma dose de reforço na adolescência, substituindo a vacina dupla contra difteria e tétano, seja uma medida a ser prontamente indicada.BACKGROUND: The use of whole-cell pertussis vaccine has led to a significant decline in incidence of the disease among children. This change in the epidemiological profile led to an increased number of cases among teenagers and adults, as a result of loss of immunity to the disease or vaccine after approximately 10 years. An increased number of cases was also observed among non-immunized or partially immunized infants. Licensure of the DTP vaccine against diphtheria, tetanus, and acellular pertussis formulated specifically for patients over 10 years of age (Tdap suggests the possibility of controlling pertussis in the most affected age groups over the past few years. SOURCES OF DATA: Data were collected from MEDLINE. The research was limited to the period between January 1995 and January 2006. SUMMARY OF THE FINDINGS: In some countries there are two Tdap vaccines licensed for patients over 10 years of age. One of them contains five immunogenic components of Bordetella pertussis (pertussis toxin, filamentous hemagglutinin, fimbriae 2 and 3, and pertactin, and the other contains three components (pertactin, filamentous hemagglutinin, and inactivated pertussis toxin, the latter being the only one licensed in Brazil up to now. Although the composition of the two vaccines differs, studies show that they have

  18. Experimental studies on a single-stage compressor equipped with profiles with controlled retardation. Phase 2. Final report; Experimentelle Untersuchungen an einem einstufigen Verdichter mit Profilen mit kontrollierter Verzoegerung. Phase 2. Schlussbericht

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blaha, C.; Schulze, G.

    1996-04-01

    As part of the TurboTech study detailed measurements were performed on compressor cascades, single-stage machines, and whole compressors. The purpose of this was to gain greater clarity concerning flow conditions in compressors. The experimental results obtained were to permit a refinement of the calculation methods thus creating a reliable tool for dimensioning the HTGT compressors. The project described here is dedicated to the single stage. The tasks of phase II can be divided as follows: determination of the performance map; numerical simulation of operating behaviour; dimensioning check; analysis of the simulation and measurements and their comparison; and further measurements for the study of special flow phenomena and development of an experimental - data base for the validation of calculation methods. (orig./GL) [Deutsch] Im Rahmen von TurboTech werden detaillierte Messungen an Verdichtergittern, einstufigen Maschinen und Gesamtverdichtern durchgefuehrt, um groessere Klarheit ueber die Stroemungsverhaeltnisse in Verdichtern zu erlangen. Hierbei sollen mit Hilfe der Versuchsergebnisse die Rechenverfahren verfeinert werden, um so ein zuverlaessiges Werkzeug zur Auslegung des HTGT Verdichters in die Hand zu bekommen. Das beschriebene Vorhaben ist der Einzelstufe gewidmet. Die Aufgaben der Phase II unterteilten sich in folgende Punkte: - Vermessung des Kennfeldes - Numerische Simulation des Betriebsverhaltens - Ueberpruefung der Auslegung - Analyse der Simulation und der Messungen sowie deren Vergleich - Durchfuehrung weiterer Messungen zur Untersuchung spezieller Stroemungsphaenomene und Schaffung einer Basis experimenteller Daten zur Validierung von Rechenverfahren. (orig./GL)

  19. In vitro dermal absorption of decabromodiphenyl ethane in rat and human skin

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — In vitro dermal absorption of decabromodiphenyl ethane in rat and human skin. This dataset is associated with the following publication: Knudsen, G., J.M. Sanders,...

  20. Influence of ethylene oxide gas treatment on the in vitro degradation behaviour of dermal sheep collagen

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Olde damink, L.H.H.; Olde Damink, L.H.H.; Dijkstra, Pieter J.; van Luyn, M.J.A.; van Wachem, P.B.; Nieuwenhuis, P.; Feijen, Jan

    1995-01-01

    The influence of ethylene oxide gas treatment on the in vitro degradation behavior of noncrosslinked, glutaraldehyde crosslinked or hexamethylene diisocyanate crosslinked dermal sheep collagen (DSC) using bacterial collagenase is described. The results obtained were compared with the degradation

  1. Reliability of a semi-quantitative method for dermal exposure assessment (DREAM)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wendel de Joode, B. van; Hemmen, J.J. van; Meijster, T.; Major, V.; London, L.; Kromhout, H.

    2005-01-01

    Valid and reliable semi-quantitative dermal exposure assessment methods for epidemiological research and for occupational hygiene practice, applicable for different chemical agents, are practically nonexistent. The aim of this study was to assess the reliability of a recently developed

  2. Functional trade-off between strength and thermal capacity of dermal armor: Insights from girdled lizards.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Broeckhoven, Chris; du Plessis, Anton; Hui, Cang

    2017-10-01

    The presence of dermal armor is often unambiguously considered the result of an evolutionary predator-prey arms-race. Recent studies focusing predominantly on osteoderms - mineralized elements embedded in the dermis layer of various extant and extinct vertebrates - have instead proposed that dermal armor might exhibit additional functionalities besides protection. Multiple divergent functionalities could impose conflicting demands on a phenotype, yet, functional trade-offs in dermal armor have rarely been investigated. Here, we use high-resolution micro-computed tomography and voxel-based simulations to test for a trade-off between the strength and thermal capacity of osteoderms using two armored cordylid lizards as model organisms. We demonstrate that high vascularization, associated with improved thermal capacity might limit the strength of osteoderms. These results call for a holistic, cautionary future approach to studies investigating dermal armor, especially those aiming to inspire artificial protective materials. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Measurements of dermal uptake of nicotine directly from air and clothing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bekö, Gabriel; Morrison, Glenn C.; Weschler, Charles J.

    2016-01-01

    Dermal uptake directly from air is a significant contributor to total exposure for certain organic compounds, and has been recently experimentally verified for two phthalates. The objective of the current study was to investigate whether airborne nicotine can be dermally absorbed. Two bare......-skinned subjects together with a subject wearing clean clothes were dermally exposed to environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) for three hours in a climate chamber; during the exposure all three subjects breathed clean air through hoods covering their heads. The clothed subject later repeated his exposure wearing...... a shirt previously exposed to tobacco smoke. Urine samples were subsequently analyzed for nicotine and two of its metabolites. The results demonstrate that nicotine can be dermally absorbed directly from air at rates comparable to passive smoking. Wearing clean clothes significantly decreases uptake...

  4. A Fibrocontractive Mechanochemical Model of Dermal Wound Closure Incorporating Realistic Growth Factor Kinetics

    KAUST Repository

    Murphy, Kelly E.

    2012-01-13

    Fibroblasts and their activated phenotype, myofibroblasts, are the primary cell types involved in the contraction associated with dermal wound healing. Recent experimental evidence indicates that the transformation from fibroblasts to myofibroblasts involves two distinct processes: The cells are stimulated to change phenotype by the combined actions of transforming growth factor β (TGFβ) and mechanical tension. This observation indicates a need for a detailed exploration of the effect of the strong interactions between the mechanical changes and growth factors in dermal wound healing. We review the experimental findings in detail and develop a model of dermal wound healing that incorporates these phenomena. Our model includes the interactions between TGFβ and collagenase, providing a more biologically realistic form for the growth factor kinetics than those included in previous mechanochemical descriptions. A comparison is made between the model predictions and experimental data on human dermal wound healing and all the essential features are well matched. © 2012 Society for Mathematical Biology.

  5. TISSUE INTERACTIONS WITH DERMAL SHEEP COLLAGEN IMPLANTS - A TRANSMISSION ELECTRON-MICROSCOPIC EVALUATION

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    VANWACHEM, PB; VANLUYN, MJA; DAMINK, LO; FEIJEN, J; NIEUWENHUIS, P

    1991-01-01

    Tissue interactions with discs of dermal sheep collagen (DSC), subcutaneously implanted in rats, were evaluated using transmission electron microscopy. DSC cross-linked with hexamethylenediisocyanate (HDSC) had already been tested previously. In the present study, we compared tissue interactions of

  6. In vitro bioaccessibility of copper azole following simulated dermal transfer from pressure-treated wood

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — In vitro bioaccessibility of copper azole following simulated dermal transfer from pressure-treated wood. This dataset is associated with the following publication:...

  7. Comparison of Calcium and Barium Microcapsules as Scaffolds in the Development of Artificial Dermal Papillae

    OpenAIRE

    Liu, Yang; Lin, Changmin; Zeng, Yang; Li, Haihong; Cai, Bozhi; Huang, Keng; Yuan, Yanping; Li, Yu

    2016-01-01

    This study aimed to develop and evaluate barium and calcium microcapsules as candidates for scaffolding in artificial dermal papilla. Dermal papilla cells (DPCs) were isolated and cultured by one-step collagenase treatment. The DPC-Ba and DPC-Ca microcapsules were prepared by using a specially designed, high-voltage, electric-field droplet generator. Selected microcapsules were assessed for long-term inductive properties with xenotransplantation into Sprague-Dawley rat ears. Both barium and c...

  8. Post-kala-azar dermal leishmaniasis in visceral leishmaniasis-endemic communities in Bihar, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Rudra Pratap; Picado, Albert; Alam, Shahnawaz; Hasker, Epco; Singh, Shri Prakash; Ostyn, Bart; Chappuis, François; Sundar, Shyam; Boelaert, Marleen

    2012-11-01

    We assessed the prevalence of post-kala-azar dermal leishmaniasis (PKDL), a late cutaneous manifestation of visceral leishmaniasis (VL), in 16 VL-endemic communities in Bihar, India. The prevalence of confirmed PKDL cases was 4.4 per 10 000 individuals and 7.8 if probable cases were also considered. The clinical history and treatment of the post-kala-azar dermal leishmaniasis cases are discussed. © 2012 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  9. Characterization and evolution of dermal filaments from patients with Morgellons disease

    OpenAIRE

    Middelveen, Marianne J; Mayne, Peter J; Kahn, Douglas G; Stricker, Raphael B

    2013-01-01

    Marianne J Middelveen,1 Peter J Mayne,1 Douglas G Kahn,2 Raphael B Stricker11International Lyme and Associated Diseases Society, Bethesda, MD, USA; 2Department of Pathology, Olive View–UCLA Medical Center, Sylmar, CA, USAAbstract: Morgellons disease is an emerging skin disease characterized by formation of dermal filaments associated with multisystemic symptoms and tick-borne illness. Some clinicians hypothesize that these often colorful dermal filaments are textile fibers, either s...

  10. Measuring Potential Dermal Transfer of a Pesticide to Children in a Child Care Center

    OpenAIRE

    Hubal, Elaine A. Cohen; Egeghy, Peter P.; Leovic, Kelly W.; Akland, Gerry G.

    2005-01-01

    Currently, the major determinants of children’s exposure to pesticides are not fully understood, and approaches for measuring and assessing dermal exposure in a residential setting have not been sufficiently evaluated. In one approach, dermal exposure is estimated using empirically derived transfer coefficients. To assess the feasibility of using this approach for assessing children’s exposure to pesticides, we conducted a study was conducted in a child care center that had a preexisting cont...

  11. The potential dermal irritating effect of residual (meth)acrylic monomers in pressure sensitive adhesive tapes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tokumura, Fumio; Matsui, Tetsuya; Suzuki, Yasuko; Sado, Masashi; Taniguchi, Masaharu; Kobayashi, Ichiro; Kamiyama, Masashi; Suda, Shin; Nakamura, Atsushi; Yamazaki, Yuhiro; Yamori, Akira; Igarashi, Ryosuke; Kawai, Jun; Oka, Keiji

    2010-01-01

    It is generally thought that residual unpolymerized (meth)acrylic monomers commonly found in pressure sensitive adhesive tapes for medical use may cause dermal irritation, but a systematic study has never been carried out. Therefore, we assessed the potential dermal irritating effect of residual (meth)acrylic monomers. We studied seven acrylic monomers, acrylic acid (AA), methyl acrylate (MA), ethyl acrylate (EA), n-butyl acrylate (n-BA), n-hexyl acrylate (n-HA), 2-ethylhexyl acrylate (2-EHA) and 2-hydroxyethyl acrylate (HEA), as well as three methacrylic monomers, methacrylic acid (MAA), methyl methacrylate (MMA) and 2-hydroxyethyl methacrylate (2-HEMA). We first examined their cytotoxic effect on a cultured dermis model using the MTT method to determine their EC(50) and then performed a primary irritation test in rabbits using the monomers at three different concentrations (i.e., EC(50) , one-tenth EC(50) and 10 times EC(50)). Marked variations were found in cytotoxic and dermal irritating activities among the (meth)acrylic monomers tested. HEA exhibited the most potent dermal irritation having the lowest erythema dose (the concentration which gives a primary dermal irritation index of 1.00) of 460 ppm. But the other monomers exhibited less potent dermal irritation (lowest erythema doses > or =1000 ppm). For the monomers, significant correlation was found between cytotoxic activity and in vivo dermal irritating activity. Our results show that residual unpolymerized (meth)acrylic monomers in adhesive tapes are unlikely to induce skin irritation except for HEA. This study also suggests that cultured skin models are extremely useful as a screening method for chemical substances that could potentially cause dermal irritating activity.

  12. Secondary cytotoxicity of (crosslinked) dermal sheep collagen during repeated exposure to human fibroblasts

    OpenAIRE

    van Luyn, M.J.A.; van Wachem, P.B.; Olde damink, L.H.H.; Olde Damink, L.H.H.; Dijkstra, Pieter J.; Feijen, Jan; Nieuwenhuis, P.

    1992-01-01

    We investigated commercially available dermal sheep collagen either cross-linked with hexamethylenediisocyanate, or cross-linked with glutaraldehyde. In previous in vitro studies we could discriminate primary, i.e. extractable, and secondary cytotoxicity, due to cell-biomaterial interactions, i.e. enzymatic actions. To develop dermal sheep collagen for clinical applications, we focused in this study on the release, e.g. elimination, of secondary cytotoxicity over time. We used the universal 7...

  13. Augmented cartilage regeneration by implantation of cellular versus acellular implants after bone marrow stimulation: a systematic review and meta-analysis of animal studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michiel W. Pot

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Bone marrow stimulation may be applied to regenerate focal cartilage defects, but generally results in transient clinical improvement and formation of fibrocartilage rather than hyaline cartilage. Tissue engineering and regenerative medicine strive to develop new solutions to regenerate hyaline cartilage tissue. This systematic review and meta-analysis provides a comprehensive overview of current literature and assesses the efficacy of articular cartilage regeneration by implantation of cell-laden versus cell-free biomaterials in the knee and ankle joint in animals after bone marrow stimulation. PubMed and EMBASE (via OvidSP were systematically searched using tissue engineering, cartilage and animals search strategies. Included were primary studies in which cellular and acellular biomaterials were implanted after applying bone marrow stimulation in the knee or ankle joint in healthy animals. Study characteristics were tabulated and outcome data were collected for meta-analysis for studies applying semi-quantitative histology as outcome measure (117 studies. Cartilage regeneration was expressed on an absolute 0–100% scale and random effects meta-analyses were performed. Implantation of cellular biomaterials significantly improved cartilage regeneration by 18.6% compared to acellular biomaterials. No significant differences were found between biomaterials loaded with stem cells and those loaded with somatic cells. Culture conditions of cells did not affect cartilage regeneration. Cartilage formation was reduced with adipose-derived stem cells compared to other cell types, but still improved compared to acellular scaffolds. Assessment of the risk of bias was impaired due to incomplete reporting for most studies. Implantation of cellular biomaterials improves cartilage regeneration compared to acellular biomaterials.

  14. Sexual dimorphisms in the dermal denticles of the lesser-spotted catshark, Scyliorhinus canicula (Linnaeus, 1758.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neil Crooks

    Full Text Available The dermal layers of several elasmobranch species have been shown to be sexually dimorphic. Generally, when this occurs the females have thicker dermal layers compared to those of males. This sexual dimorphism has been suggested to occur as a response to male biting during mating. Although male biting as a copulatory behaviour in Scyliorhinus canicula has been widely speculated to occur, only relatively recently has this behaviour been observed. Male S. canicula use their mouths to bite the female's pectoral and caudal fins as part of their pre-copulatory behaviour and to grasp females during copulation. Previous work has shown that female S. canicula have a thicker epidermis compared to that of males. The structure of the dermal denticles in females may also differ from that of males in order to protect against male biting or to provide a greater degree of friction in order to allow the male more purchase. This study reveals that the length, width and density of the dermal denticles of mature male and female S. canicula are sexually dimorphic across the integument in areas where males have been observed to bite and wrap themselves around females (pectoral fin, area posterior to the pectoral fin, caudal fin, and pelvic girdle. No significant differences in the dermal denticle dimensions were found in other body areas examined (head, dorsal skin and caudal peduncle. Sexually dimorphic dermal denticles in mature S. canicula could be a response to male biting/wrapping as part of the copulatory process.

  15. Collagen/chitosan based two-compartment and bi-functional dermal scaffolds for skin regeneration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Feng; Wang, Mingbo; She, Zhending; Fan, Kunwu; Xu, Cheng; Chu, Bin; Chen, Changsheng; Shi, Shengjun; Tan, Rongwei

    2015-01-01

    Inspired from the sophisticated bilayer structures of natural dermis, here, we reported collagen/chitosan based two-compartment and bi-functional dermal scaffolds. Two functions refer to mediating rapid angiogenesis based on recombinant human vascular endothelial growth factor (rhVEGF) and antibacterial from gentamicin, which were encapsulated in PLGA microspheres. The gentamicin and rhVEGF encapsulated PLGA microspheres were further combined with collagen/chitosan mixtures in low (lower layer) and high (upper layer) concentrations, and molded to generate the two-compartment and bi-functional scaffolds. Based on morphology and pore structure analyses, it was found that the scaffold has a distinct double layered porous and connective structure with PLGA microspheres encapsulated. Statistical analysis indicated that the pores in the upper layer and in the lower layer have great variations in diameter, indicative of a two-compartment structure. The release profiles of gentamicin and rhVEGF exceeded 28 and 49 days, respectively. In vitro culture of mouse fibroblasts showed that the scaffold can facilitate cell adhesion and proliferation. Moreover, the scaffold can obviously inhibit proliferation of Staphylococcus aureus and Serratia marcescens, exhibiting its unique antibacterial effect. The two-compartment and bi-functional dermal scaffolds can be a promising candidate for skin regeneration. - Highlights: • The dermal scaffold is inspired from the bilayer structures of natural dermis. • The dermal scaffold has two-compartment structures. • The dermal scaffold containing VEGF and gentamicin encapsulated PLGA microspheres • The dermal scaffold can facilitate cell adhesion and proliferation

  16. In vivo study of dermal collagen of striae distensae by confocal Raman spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lung, Pam Wen; Tippavajhala, Vamshi Krishna; de Oliveira Mendes, Thiago; Téllez-Soto, Claudio A; Schuck, Desirée Cigaran; Brohem, Carla Abdo; Lorencini, Marcio; Martin, Airton Abrahão

    2018-04-01

    This research work mainly deals with studying qualitatively the changes in the dermal collagen of two forms of striae distensae (SD) namely striae rubrae (SR) and striae albae (SA) when compared to normal skin (NS) using confocal Raman spectroscopy. The methodology includes an in vivo human skin study for the comparison of confocal Raman spectra of dermis region of SR, SA, and NS by supervised multivariate analysis using partial least squares discriminant analysis (PLS-DA) to determine qualitatively the changes in dermal collagen. These groups are further analyzed for the extent of hydration of dermal collagen by studying the changes in the water content bound to it. PLS-DA score plot showed good separation of the confocal Raman spectra of dermis region into SR, SA, and NS data groups. Further analysis using loading plot and S-plot indicated the participation of various components of dermal collagen in the separation of these groups. Bound water content analysis showed that the extent of hydration of collagen is more in SD when compared to NS. Based on the results obtained, this study confirms the active involvement of dermal collagen in the formation of SD. It also emphasizes the need to study quantitatively the role of these various biochemical changes in the dermal collagen responsible for the variance between SR, SA, and NS.

  17. Collagen/chitosan based two-compartment and bi-functional dermal scaffolds for skin regeneration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Feng [Department of Plastic Surgery and Burns, Shenzhen Second People' s Hospital, Shenzhen 518035 (China); Wang, Mingbo [Key Laboratory of Biomedical Materials and Implants, Research Institute of Tsinghua University in Shenzhen, Shenzhen 518057 (China); She, Zhending [Key Laboratory of Biomedical Materials and Implants, Research Institute of Tsinghua University in Shenzhen, Shenzhen 518057 (China); Shenzhen Lando Biomaterials Co., Ltd., Shenzhen 518057 (China); Fan, Kunwu; Xu, Cheng [Department of Plastic Surgery and Burns, Shenzhen Second People' s Hospital, Shenzhen 518035 (China); Chu, Bin; Chen, Changsheng [Key Laboratory of Biomedical Materials and Implants, Research Institute of Tsinghua University in Shenzhen, Shenzhen 518057 (China); Shi, Shengjun, E-mail: shengjunshi@yahoo.com [The Burns Department of Zhujiang Hospital, Southern Medical University, Guangzhou 510280 (China); Tan, Rongwei, E-mail: tanrw@landobiom.com [Key Laboratory of Biomedical Materials and Implants, Research Institute of Tsinghua University in Shenzhen, Shenzhen 518057 (China); Shenzhen Lando Biomaterials Co., Ltd., Shenzhen 518057 (China)

    2015-07-01

    Inspired from the sophisticated bilayer structures of natural dermis, here, we reported collagen/chitosan based two-compartment and bi-functional dermal scaffolds. Two functions refer to mediating rapid angiogenesis based on recombinant human vascular endothelial growth factor (rhVEGF) and antibacterial from gentamicin, which were encapsulated in PLGA microspheres. The gentamicin and rhVEGF encapsulated PLGA microspheres were further combined with collagen/chitosan mixtures in low (lower layer) and high (upper layer) concentrations, and molded to generate the two-compartment and bi-functional scaffolds. Based on morphology and pore structure analyses, it was found that the scaffold has a distinct double layered porous and connective structure with PLGA microspheres encapsulated. Statistical analysis indicated that the pores in the upper layer and in the lower layer have great variations in diameter, indicative of a two-compartment structure. The release profiles of gentamicin and rhVEGF exceeded 28 and 49 days, respectively. In vitro culture of mouse fibroblasts showed that the scaffold can facilitate cell adhesion and proliferation. Moreover, the scaffold can obviously inhibit proliferation of Staphylococcus aureus and Serratia marcescens, exhibiting its unique antibacterial effect. The two-compartment and bi-functional dermal scaffolds can be a promising candidate for skin regeneration. - Highlights: • The dermal scaffold is inspired from the bilayer structures of natural dermis. • The dermal scaffold has two-compartment structures. • The dermal scaffold containing VEGF and gentamicin encapsulated PLGA microspheres • The dermal scaffold can facilitate cell adhesion and proliferation.

  18. Acellular Mouse Kidney ECM can be Used as a Three-Dimensional Substrate to Test the Differentiation Potential of Embryonic Stem Cell Derived Renal Progenitors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sambi, Manpreet; Chow, Theresa; Whiteley, Jennifer; Li, Mira; Chua, Shawn; Raileanu, Vanessa; Rogers, Ian M

    2017-08-01

    The development of strategies for tissue regeneration and bio-artificial organ development is based on our understanding of embryogenesis. Differentiation protocols attempt to recapitulate the signaling modalities of gastrulation and organogenesis, coupled with cell selection regimens to isolate the cells of choice. This strategy is impeded by the lack of optimal in vitro culture systems since traditional culture systems do not allow for the three-dimensional interaction between cells and the extracellular matrix. While artificial three-dimensional scaffolds are available, using the natural extracellular matrix scaffold is advantageous because it has a distinct architecture that is difficult to replicate. The adult extracellular matrix is predicted to mediate signaling related to tissue repair not embryogenesis but existing similarities between the two argues that the extracellular matrix will influence the differentiation of stem and progenitor cells. Previous studies using undifferentiated embryonic stem cells grown directly on acellular kidney ECM demonstrated that the acellular kidney supported cell growth but limited differentiation occurred. Using mouse kidney extracellular matrix and mouse embryonic stem cells we report that the extracellular matrix can support the development of kidney structures if the stem cells are first differentiated to kidney progenitor cells before being applied to the acellular organ.

  19. Effects of 660-nm gallium-aluminum-arsenide low-energy laser on nerve regeneration after acellular nerve allograft in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Li-Xin; Tong, Xiao-Jie; Yuan, Xiu-Hua; Sun, Xiao-Hong; Jia, Hua

    2010-02-01

    The purpose of this study was to explore and discuss the effects of 660-nm gallium-aluminum-arsenide low-energy laser (GaAlAs LEL) irradiation on neural regeneration after acellular nerve allograft repair of the sciatic nerve gap in rats. Eight male and female Sprague-Dawley rats were used as nerve donors, and 32 healthy Wistar rats were randomly divided into four groups: normal control group, acellular rat sciatic nerve (ARSN) group, laser group, and autograft group. Twelve weeks after surgery, nerve conduction velocity, restoration rate of tibialis anterior wet muscle weight, myelinated nerve number, and calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP) protein and mRNA expression of the spinal cord and muscle at the injury site were quantified and statistically analyzed. Compared with the ARSN group, laser therapy significantly increased nerve conduction velocity, restoration rate of tibialis anterior wet muscle weight, myelinated nerve number, and CGRP protein and mRNA expression of the L(4) spinal cord at the injury site. These findings demonstrate that 660-nm GaAlAs LEL therapy upregulates CGRP protein and mRNA expression of the L(4) spinal cord at the injury site and increases the rate of regeneration and target reinnervation after acellular nerve allograft repair of the sciatic nerve gap in rats. Low-energy laser irradiation may be a useful, noninvasive adjunct for promoting nerve regeneration in surgically induced defects repaired with ARSN.

  20. Ultrasound-guided photoacoustic imaging-directed re-endothelialization of acellular vasculature leads to improved vascular performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagao, Ryan J; Ouyang, Yafei; Keller, Renee; Nam, Seung Yun; Malik, George R; Emelianov, Stanislav Y; Suggs, Laura J; Schmidt, Christine E

    2016-03-01

    As increasing effort is dedicated to investigating the regenerative capacity of decellularized tissues, research has progressed to recellularizing these tissues prior to implantation. The delivery and support of cells seeded throughout acellular scaffolds are typically conducted through the vascular axis of the tissues. However, it is unclear how cell concentration and injection frequency can affect the distribution of cells throughout the scaffold. Furthermore, what effects re-endothelialization have on vascular patency and function are not well understood. We investigated the use of ultrasound-guided photoacoustic (US/PA) imaging as a technique to visualize the distribution of microvascular endothelial cells within an optimized acellular construct upon re-endothelialization and perfusion conditioning. We also evaluated the vascular performance of the re-endothelialized scaffold using quantitative vascular corrosion casting (qVCC) and whole-blood perfusion. We found US/PA imaging was an effective technique to visualize the distribution of cells. Cellular retention following perfusion conditioning was also detected with US/PA imaging. Finally, we demonstrated that a partial recovery of vascular performance is possible following re-endothelialization-confirmed by fewer extravasations in qVCC and improved blood clearance following whole-blood perfusion. Re-endothelialization is a method that enables decellularized tissue to become useful as a tissue engineering construct by creating a nutrient delivery and waste removal system for the entire construct. Our approach utilizes a decellularization method that retains the basement ECM of a highly vascularized tissue upon which endothelial cells can be injected to form an endothelium. The US/PA method allows for rapid visualization of cells within a construct several cm thick. This approach can be experimentally used to observe changes in cellular distribution over large intervals of time, to help optimize cell seeding

  1. Safety and immunogenicity of a combined Tetanus, Diphtheria, recombinant acellular Pertussis vaccine (TdaP) in healthy Thai adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sirivichayakul, Chukiat; Chanthavanich, Pornthep; Limkittikul, Kriengsak; Siegrist, Claire-Anne; Wijagkanalan, Wassana; Chinwangso, Pailinrut; Petre, Jean; Hong Thai, Pham; Chauhan, Mukesh; Viviani, Simonetta

    2017-01-02

    An acellular Pertussis (aP) vaccine containing recombinant genetically detoxified Pertussis Toxin (PTgen), Filamentous Hemagglutinin (FHA) and Pertactin (PRN) has been developed by BioNet-Asia (BioNet). We present here the results of the first clinical study of this recombinant aP vaccine formulated alone or in combination with tetanus and diphtheria toxoids (TdaP). A phase I/II, observer-blind, randomized controlled trial was conducted at Mahidol University in Bangkok, Thailand in healthy adult volunteers aged 18-35 y. The eligible volunteers were randomized to receive one dose of either BioNet's aP or Tetanus toxoid-reduced Diphtheria toxoid-acellular Pertussis (TdaP) vaccine, or the Tdap Adacel® vaccine in a 1:1:1 ratio. Safety follow-up was performed for one month. Immunogenicity was assessed at baseline, at 7 and 28 d after vaccination. Anti-PT, anti-FHA, anti-PRN, anti-tetanus and anti-diphtheria IgG antibodies were assessed by ELISA. Anti-PT neutralizing antibodies were assessed also by CHO cell assay. A total of 60 subjects (20 per each vaccine group) were enrolled and included in the safety analysis. Safety laboratory parameters, incidence of local and systemic post-immunization reactions during 7 d after vaccination and incidence of adverse events during one month after vaccination were similar in the 3 vaccine groups. One month after vaccination, seroresponse rates of anti-PT, anti-FHA and anti-PRN IgG antibodies exceeded 78% in all vaccine groups. The anti-PT IgG, anti-FHA IgG, and anti-PT neutralizing antibody geometric mean titers (GMTs) were significantly higher following immunization with BioNet's aP and BioNet's TdaP than Adacel® (Pdiphtheria GMTs at one month after immunization were comparable in all vaccine groups. All subjects had seroprotective titers of anti-tetanus and anti-diphtheria antibodies at baseline. In this first clinical study, PTgen-based BioNet's aP and TdaP vaccines showed a similar tolerability and safety profile to Adacel

  2. Multi-stage versus single-stage inflation and deflation cycle for alternating low pressure air mattresses to prevent pressure ulcers in hospitalised patients: a randomised-controlled clinical trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demarré, L; Beeckman, D; Vanderwee, K; Defloor, T; Grypdonck, M; Verhaeghe, S

    2012-04-01

    The duration and the amount of pressure and shear must be reduced in order to minimize the risk of pressure ulcer development. Alternating low pressure air mattresses with multi-stage inflation and deflation cycle of the air cells have been developed to relieve pressure by sequentially inflating and deflating the air cells. Evidence about the effectiveness of this type of mattress in clinical practice is lacking. This study aimed to compare the effectiveness of an alternating low pressure air mattress that has a standard single-stage inflation and deflation cycle of the air cells with an alternating low pressure air mattress with multi-stage inflation and deflation cycle of the air cells. A randomised controlled trial was performed in a convenience sample of 25 wards in five hospitals in Belgium. In total, 610 patients were included and randomly assigned to the experimental group (n=298) or the control group (n=312). In the experimental group, patients were allocated to an alternating low pressure air mattress with multi-stage inflation and deflation cycle of the air cells. In the control group, patients were allocated to an alternating low pressure air mattress with a standard single-stage inflation and deflation cycle of the air cells. The outcome was defined as cumulative pressure ulcer incidence (Grade II-IV). An intention-to-treat analysis was performed. There was no significant difference in cumulative pressure ulcer incidence (Grade II-IV) between both groups (Exp.=5.7%, Contr.=5.8%, p=0.97). When patients developed a pressure ulcer, the median time was 5.0 days in the experimental group (IQR=3.0-8.5) and 8.0 days in the control group (IQR=3.0-8.5) (Mann-Whitney U-test=113, p=0.182). The probability to remain pressure ulcer free during the observation period in this trial did not differ significantly between the experimental group and the control group (log-rank χ(2)=0.013, df=1, p=0.911). An alternating low pressure air mattress with multi-stage inflation

  3. Occular and dermal toxicity of Jatropha curcas phorbol esters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Devappa, Rakshit K; Roach, Joy S; Makkar, Harinder P S; Becker, Klaus

    2013-08-01

    Jatropha curcas seeds are a promising feedstock for biodiesel production. However, Jatropha seed oil and other plant parts are toxic due to the presence of phorbol esters (PEs). The ever-increasing cultivation of toxic genotype of J. curcas runs the risk of increased human exposure to Jatropha products. In the present study, effects of J. curcas oil (from both toxic and nontoxic genotypes), purified PEs-rich extract and purified PEs (factors C1, C2, C(3mixture), (C4+C5)) on reconstituted human epithelium (RHE) and human corneal epithelium (HCE) were evaluated in vitro. The PEs were purified from toxic Jatropha oil. In both RHE and HCE, the topical application of PEs containing samples produced severe cellular alterations such as marked oedema, presence of less viable cell layers, necrosis and/or partial tissue disintegration in epithelium and increased inflammatory response (interleukin-1α and prostaglandin E2). When compared to toxic oil, histological alterations and inflammatory response were less evident (PJatropha PEs are toxic towards RHE and HCE models, which represents dermal and occular toxicity respectively. Data obtained from this study would aid in the development of safety procedures for Jatropha biodiesel industries. It is advised to use protective gloves and glasses when handling PEs containing Jatropha products. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Infantile lumbosacral spinal subdural abscess with sacral dermal sinus tract.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Seoung Woo; Yoon, Soo Han; Cho, Ki Hong; Shin, Yong Sam; Ahn, Young Hwan

    2007-01-01

    Clinical case report of a spinal subdural abscess in an infant presenting with sacral dermal sinus tract (DST). To suggest that sacral DST with caudal direction may require surgical resection as early as possible. DST may induce the formation of a spinal abscess. However, it is sometimes difficult to decide on early surgical resection for DST, especially in cases that are located at a lower level than the lumbar spine and directed caudally that is not accompanied by cerebrospinal fluid leakage. A 9-month-old girl was transferred due to intermittent fever and vomiting, with the midline sinus of the lower back at the second sacral spinal level. She showed mild tenderness of the lower back and slight weakness of both lower extremities with increased residual urine volume of the bladder. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) showed that the low-lying sacral DST traced into the subdural space with caudal orientation, and the presence of extensive subdural spinal abscess from the first lumbar spine to the fourth sacrum. Emergency resection of the sacral DST was performed after laminotomy from the first lumbar spine to the second sacrum, and the subdural spinal abscess was also surgically removed. After 8 weeks of intravenous antibiotic treatment, she showed no neurologic deficit and no evidence of residual abscess on MRI. We suggest that even low-lying sacral DST may require surgical resection as early as possible because it may result in indolent and extensive spinal abscesses.

  5. Misdiagnosis and Mistreatment of Post-Kala-Azar Dermal Leishmaniasis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmed Mohamed El Hassan

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Post-kala-azar dermal leishmaniasis (PKDL is a known complication of visceral leishmaniasis (VL caused by L. donovani. It is rare in VL caused by L. infantum and L. chagasi. In Sudan, it occurs with a frequency of 58% among successfully treated VL patients. In the majority of cases, PKDL can be diagnosed on the basis of clinical appearance, distribution of the lesions, and past history of treated VL. The ideal diagnostic method is to demonstrate the parasite in smears, by culture or PCR. Diagnosis is particularly difficult in patients who develop PKDL in the absence of previous history of visceral leishmaniasis. We describe a case of cutaneous leishmaniasis misdiagnosed as PKDL and 3 cases of PKDL who were either misdiagnosed or mistreated as other dermatoses. This caused exacerbation of their disease leading to high parasite loads in the lesions and dissemination to internal organs in one of the patients, who was also diabetic. The latter patient had L. major infection. A fourth patient with papulonodular lesions on the face and arms of 17-year duration and who was misdiagnosed as having PKDL is also described. He turned out to have cutaneous leishmaniasis due to L. major. Fortunately, he was not treated with steroids. He was cured with intravenous sodium stibogluconate.

  6. [Mid-dermal elastolysis after insertion of a pacemaker].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kottler, D; Lefèvre, A; Balme, B; Martin-Bourret, V; Zaharia, D; Skowron, F

    2015-11-01

    Mid-dermal elastolysis (MDE) is a rare acquired disease of elastic tissue histologically characterized by focal loss of elastic fibres within the mid-dermis. While the mechanisms leading to MDE remain unknown, increased degradation of elastic fibres may be involved. Many factors potentially triggering such degradation have been suggested. A 58-year-old man consulted for an asymptomatic reticulated eruption that began in the area of a pacemaker implanted six weeks earlier. The eruption consisted of erythematous polycyclic and coalescing macules with a wrinkled centre. Histopathology with orcein staining revealed focal loss of elastic fibres in the superficial reticular dermis only. Hypersensitivity reaction to any components of the pacemaker was ruled out by means of allergy exploration. Laboratory investigations including autoimmunological and haematological factors were unremarkable. A diagnosis was made of a reticular variant of MDE following insertion of a pacemaker. We report the second case of MDE following the insertion of a pacemaker, which could have triggered an inflammatory response directed specifically towards the elastic fibres. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  7. Vitamin D status in Greenland – dermal and dietary donations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stig Andersen

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Background. Vitamin D status influences skeletal health, the risk of falls and fractures, and muscle health, and it has been associated with inflammatory, infectious, cardiovascular and metabolic disorders in addition to some cancers. Prevailing intracellular infections such as tuberculosis are speculated to relate to vitamin D status. The vitamin D sources are dietary and dermal, the latter depending on UVB radiation exposure from the sun. Life in the Arctic influences vitamin D status because of dietary peculiarities, the polar night, waning of the ozone layer and maybe ethnic differences between Inuit and non-Inuit. Objective and design. Data on vitamin D status as estimated by plasma 25OHD in Inuit and non-Inuit in Greenland are reviewed. Results. Decreasing intake of vitamin D-rich local food items associated with decreasing plasma 25OHD levels and insufficient vitamin D status is seen with low intake of traditional Inuit foods. Plasma 25OHD levels increase markedly during spring and summer in parallel with the high influx of sunlight while plasma 25OHD is not influenced by obesity in Greenland Inuit and no clear-cut association is seen between plasma 25OHD and the risk of tuberculosis. Conclusion. The frequency of vitamin D deficiency in populations in Greenland rises with the dietary transition and diseases related to low vitamin D status should be monitored.

  8. Integra artificial skin dermal regeneration templates in burn scar surgery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rexon Ngim

    1999-01-01

    Integra artificial skin is a porous matrix used as a permanent dermal replacement. Developed in the 1970's, it has been used successfully in the treatment of acute bums requiring full or deep partial thickness skin replacement. Three patients with burn scars received Integra Artificial Skin to resurface various areas of burn scars and also contractures. The first was a 24-year-old woman who had two pieces of Integra to resurface a forearm/elbow/wrist defect. The second was a 28-year-old woman who had two pieces of Integra to resurface a neck contracture. The third was a 44 year-old woman who had two pieces to correct severe burn contractures/ scars of her hands. The results of these three patients, probably the first time Integra was used for bum scar and contracture revision, indicate that there is a place for Integra in Burn Scar surgery. However, the basic principle of its application must be adhered to. These include excision to remove the complete scar, recreation of original size of skin defect and meticulous application of the Artificial Skin and its care post-operatively. Details of its application will be highlighted

  9. Optical coherence tomography: imaging architect for dermal microdialysis in psoriasis

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Connell, M.-L.; O'Connor, W.; Ramsay, B.; Guihen, E.; Ho, W. L.; Leahy, M. J.

    2011-03-01

    Optical coherence tomography (OCT) has been used as part of a ground breaking translational study to shed some light on one of the worlds most prevalent autoimmune diseases; psoriasis. The work successfully integrates the fields of optical imaging, biochemistry and dermatology in conducting a dermal microdialysis (DMD) trial for quantitative histamine assessment amongst a group of psoriasis sufferers. The DMD process involves temporary insertion of microscopic hollow tubes into a layer of skin to measure the levels of histamine and other important biological molecules in psoriasis. For comparison purposes, DMD catheters were implanted into healthy, peri-lesional and lesional skin regions. The catheters' entry and exit points and their precise locations in the epidermal layer of the skin were confirmed using OCT thus obtaining high resolution, wide-field images of the affected skin as well as catheter placement whilst local microdialysis enabled a tissue chemistry profile to be obtained from these three skin regions including histamine, a local immune system activator known to contribute towards itch and inflammation. Together these tools offer a synergistic approach in the clinical assessment of the disease. In addition, OCT delivered a non-invasive and rapid method for analyzing the affected skin architecture.

  10. Potential dermal wound healing agent in Blechnum orientale Linn

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lim Yau

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Blechnum orientale Linn. (Blechnaceae is used ethnomedicinally to treat wounds, boils, blisters or abscesses and sores, stomach pain and urinary bladder complaints. The aim of the study was to validate the ethnotherapeutic claim and to evaluate the effects of B. orientale water extract on wound healing activity. Methods Water extract of B. orientale was used. Excision wound healing activity was examined on Sprague-Dawley rats, dressed with 1% and 2% of the water extract. Control groups were dressed with the base cream (vehicle group, negative control and 10% povidone-iodine (positive control respectively. Healing was assessed based on contraction of wound size, mean epithelisation time, hydroxyproline content and histopathological examinations. Statistical analyses were performed using one way ANOVA followed by Tukey HSD test. Results Wound healing study revealed significant reduction in wound size and mean epithelisation time, and higher collagen synthesis in the 2% extract-treated group compared to the vehicle group. These findings were supported by histolopathological examinations of healed wound sections which showed greater tissue regeneration, more fibroblasts and angiogenesis in the 2% extract-treated group. Conclusions The ethnotherapeutic use of this fern is validated. The water extract of B. orientale is a potential candidate for the treatment of dermal wounds. Synergistic effects of both strong antioxidant and antibacterial activities in the extract are deduced to have accelerated the wound repair at the proliferative phase of the healing process.

  11. Platelet-rich plasma, bilayered acellular matrix grafting and negative pressure wound therapy in diabetic foot infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, W; Boey, J; Chen, B; Byun, S; Lew, E; Liang, Z; Armstrong, D G

    2016-07-02

    Management and treatment of acute severe diabetic foot disease in patients with suboptimal glycaemic control is a critical issue in wound repair. This paper discusses the clinical efficacy of an aggressive surgical intervention combined with targeted use of regenerative medical therapies in limb preservation. Negative pressure wound therapy (NPWT), platelet-rich plasma (PRP), bilayered acellular matrix grafting and split-thickness skin grafting were combined to treat a patient with diabetes, foot necrotising fasciitis and gaseous gangrene. The wound was completely healed. The clinical outcome revealed that a multi-intervention strategy could be effective for large necrotising fasciitis wounds. Early clinical observation, suggests aggresive surgical intervention preserving intact tissue and targeted use of new regenerative technologies can lead to preservation of a limb. The authors have received no financial support for the material presented in this study outside of the scope of standard patient care reimbursement. This work was supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (NO. 81500596) awarded to Dr Wuquan Deng.

  12. Construction of a human corneal stromal equivalent with non-transfected human corneal stromal cells and acellular porcine corneal stromata.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diao, Jin-Mei; Pang, Xin; Qiu, Yue; Miao, Ying; Yu, Miao-Miao; Fan, Ting-Jun

    2015-03-01

    A tissue-engineered human corneal stroma (TE-HCS) has been developed as a promising equivalent to the native corneal stroma for replacement therapy. However, there is still a crucial need to improve the current approaches to render the TE-HCS equivalent more favorable for clinical applications. At the present study, we constructed a TE-HCS by incubating non-transfected human corneal stromal (HCS) cells in an acellular porcine corneal stromata (aPCS) scaffold in 20% fetal bovine serum supplemented DMEM/F12 (1:1) medium at 37 °C with 5% CO2in vitro. After 3 days of incubation, the constructed TE-HCS had a suitable tensile strength for transplantation, and a transparency that is comparable to native cornea. The TE-HCS had a normal histological structure which contained regularly aligned collagen fibers and differentiated HCS cells with positive expression of marker and functional proteins, mimicking a native HCS. After transplantation into rabbit models, the TE-HCS reconstructed normal corneal stroma in vivo and function well in maintaining corneal clarity and thickness, indicating that the completely biological TE-HCS could be used as a HCS equivalent. The constructed TE-HCS has promising potentials in regenerative medicine and treatment of diseases caused by corneal stromal disorders. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Porcine small intestine submucosa (SIS) is not an acellular collagenous matrix and contains porcine DNA: possible implications in human implantation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, M H; Chen, J; Kirilak, Y; Willers, C; Xu, J; Wood, D

    2005-04-01

    Porcine small intestinal submucosa (SIS) has been recommended as a cell-free, biocompatible biomaterial for the repair of rotator cuff tendon tear. However, we have observed noninfectious edema and severe pain in patients who have undergone SIS implantation for tendon repair. The aim of this study was to conduct an independent assessment of the safety and efficacy of Restore SIS membrane. The Restore orthobiologic implant was examined by histology and the nested PCR technique using porcine immunoreceptor DAP12 gene to examine if SIS membrane contained porcine cells or DNA, respectively. The material was also implanted into mice and rabbits for the evaluation of biological reaction and inflammatory response. Restore SIS was found to contain multiple layers of porcine cells. Chloroacetate esterase staining showed that some of these cells were mast cells. Nested PCR of the DAP12 gene demonstrated that Restore SIS contained porcine DNA material. Subcutaneous implantation of Restore SIS membrane in mice, and in rabbits for rotator cuff tendon repair, showed that the membrane caused an inflammatory reaction characterized by massive lymphocyte infiltration. In conclusion, Restore SIS is not an acellular collagenous matrix, and contains porcine DNA. Our results contradict the current view that Restore SIS is a cell-free biomaterial, and that no inflammatory response is elicited by its implantation. We suggest that further studies should be conducted to evaluate the clinical safety and efficacy of SIS implant biomaterials. (c) 2005 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  14. Persistence of T-cell immune response induced by two acellular pertussis vaccines in children five years after primary vaccination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palazzo, Raffaella; Carollo, Maria; Bianco, Manuela; Fedele, Giorgio; Schiavoni, Ilaria; Pandolfi, Elisabetta; Villani, Alberto; Tozzi, Alberto E; Mascart, Françoise; Ausiello, Clara M

    2016-01-01

    The resurgence of pertussis suggests the need for greater efforts to understand the long-lasting protective responses induced by vaccination. In this paper we dissect the persistence of T memory responses induced by primary vaccination with two different acellular pertussis (aP) vaccines, hexavalent Hexavac® vaccine (Hexavac) (Sanofi Pasteur MSD) and Infanrix hexa® (Infanrix) (Glaxo-SmithKline Biologicals). We evaluated magnitude and duration of T-cell responses to pertussis toxin (PT) by measuring T-cell proliferation, cytokines (IL-2 and IFNγ) production and memory subsets in two groups of children 5 years after primary vaccination. Some of the enrolled children received only primary vaccination, while others had the pre-school boost dose. Positive T-cell responses to PT were detected in 36% of children. Percentage of responsive children, T-cell proliferation and CD4IL-2+ cells were significantly higher in the children primed with Hexavac than in those who received Infanrix vaccine. No major effects of the boost on PT-specific proliferation were observed. Overall, our data documented a persistence of T-cell memory against PT in a minor fraction of children 5 years after primary vaccination. The different responses induced by Hexavac and Infanrix vaccine could rely on differences in PT inactivation process or excipients/adjuvants formulations.

  15. Safety of a tetanus-diphtheria-acellular pertussis vaccine when used off-label in an elderly population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tseng, Hung Fu; Sy, Lina S; Qian, Lei; Marcy, S Michael; Jackson, Lisa A; Glanz, Jason; Nordin, Jim; Baxter, Roger; Naleway, Allison; Donahue, James; Weintraub, Eric; Jacobsen, Steven J

    2013-02-01

    Published data on the safety of tetanus-diphtheria-acellular pertussis vaccine (Tdap) in persons aged ≥65 years are limited. This study aims to examine a large cohort of Tdap users ≥65 years for evidence of increased risk of adverse events following vaccination. A matched cohort study design and a self-controlled case series (SCCS) design were used. The study population was adults aged ≥65 years who received the Tdap or tetanus and diphtheria (Td) vaccine during 1 January 2006-31 December 2010 at 7 health maintenance organizations in the United States. Seven major groups of prespecified events were identified electronically by diagnostic codes. The study included 119 573 Tdap vaccinees and the same number of Td vaccinees. The results indicated that the risk of the prespecified events following Tdap was comparable to that following Td vaccination in this elderly population. There was a small increased rate of codes suggesting medically attended inflammatory or allergic events in 1-6 days following Tdap in the SCCS analysis (incidence rate ratio, 1.59 [95% confidence interval, 1.40-1.81]). Although there is a small increased risk of medically attended inflammatory or allergic events in 1-6 days following Tdap compared to other time periods, it is no more common than that following Td. This study provides empirical safety data suggesting that immunizing adults aged ≥65 years with Tdap to reduce the risk of pertussis in the elderly and their contacts should not have untoward safety consequences.

  16. Disposition of 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid dimethylamine by Fischer 344 rats dosed orally and dermally

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pelletier, O.; Ritter, L.; Caron, J.; Somers, D.

    1989-01-01

    The dimethylamine salt of 14C-ring-labeled 2,4-D was administered to Fischer 344 rats orally (1 and 0.4 mg/kg body weight) and dermally (10 mg/kg body weight). Absorption, distribution, and elimination were determined from 14C-labeled 2,4-D in blood, tissues, and excreta. Quantitatively, most of the orally administered dose (94-96%) became systemically available within 6 h. Following dermal administration 10% of the dose became systemically available over 72 h. However, peak concentrations in blood and kidneys were achieved within 30 min of dosing by either route. By 1.5 h after dosing, 2,4-D concentrations in blood, muscle, liver, and kidneys had decreased in both the orally dosed and dermally dosed animals. Between 2 and 8 h, the blood, muscle, liver and kidney concentrations in dermally dosed animals maintained a plateau while urinary excretion increased, presumably due to continued absorption of 2,4-D from the skin. The concentrations in orally dosed animals continued to decrease. Following 7 h of dermal exposure, skin cleansing removed about 63% of the applied dose; about 17% of the applied dose remained at the site of dermal dosing. At 8 h, 2,4-D concentrations in blood, muscle, liver, and kidneys of dermally dosed animals began to decrease, most likely a result of the removal of the reservoir on the skin. However, 2,4-D continued to be absorbed from skin site, resulting in a slower decline of the 2,4-D concentrations in these tissues over remainder of the 72-h study period. By comparison, in animals that had been orally dosed, the absorbed dose was almost completely excreted within 24 h

  17. Measuring Potential Dermal Transfer of a Pesticide to Children in a Child Care Center

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hubal, Elaine A. Cohen; Egeghy, Peter P.; Leovic, Kelly W.; Akland, Gerry G.

    2006-01-01

    Currently, the major determinants of children’s exposure to pesticides are not fully understood, and approaches for measuring and assessing dermal exposure in a residential setting have not been sufficiently evaluated. In one approach, dermal exposure is estimated using empirically derived transfer coefficients. To assess the feasibility of using this approach for assessing children’s exposure to pesticides, we conducted a study was conducted in a child care center that had a preexisting contract with a pest control service for regular monthly pesticide applications. Children in the selected child care center were monitored using full-body cotton garments to measure dermal loading. Pesticide residues on classroom surfaces were measured in the areas where the children spent time. Measured surface-wipe loadings ranged from 0.47 to 120 ng/cm2, and total garment loadings ranged from 0.5 to 660 pg/cm2. The garment and surface loading measurements were used to calculate dermal-transfer coefficients for use in assessing children’s residential exposure to pesticides. Dermal-transfer coefficients calculated using these data range from approximately 10 to 6,000 cm2/hr. The wide range in these values demonstrates the importance of developing standard surface-measurement protocols if this approach is to be used to assess dermal exposure in a residential environment. The upper-range values resulting from this study were found to be similar to the default value used by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency to assess children’s dermal exposures resulting from contact with indoor surfaces. PMID:16451865

  18. SIRT-1 regulates TGF-β-induced dermal fibroblast migration via modulation of Cyr61 expression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwon, Eun-Jeong; Park, Eun-Jung; Yu, Hyeran; Huh, Jung-Sik; Kim, Jinseok; Cho, Moonjae

    2018-05-01

    SIRT1 is a NAD-dependent protein deacetylase that participates in cellular regulation. The increased migration of fibroblasts is an important phenotype in fibroblast activation. The role of SIRT1 in cell migration remains controversial as to whether SIRT1 acts as an activator or suppressor of cell migration. Therefore, we have established the role of SIRT1 in the migration of human dermal fibroblasts and explored targets of SIRT1 during dermal fibroblast migration. SIRT1 and Cyr61 were expressed in human dermal fibroblasts and the stimulation with TGF-β further induced their expression. Treatment with resveratrol (RSV), a SIRT1 agonist, or overexpression of SIRT1 also promoted the expression Cyr61 in human dermal fibroblasts, whereas the inhibition of SIRT1 activity by nicotinamide or knockdown of SIRT1 decreased the level of Cyr61, as well as TGF-β or RSV-induced Cyr61 expression. Blocking of ERK signaling by PD98509 reduced the expression of Cyr61 induced by TGF-β or RSV. TGF-β, RSV, or SIRT1 overexpression enhanced β-catenin as well as Cyr61 expression. This stimulation was reduced by the Wnt inhibitor XAV939. RSV increased migration and nicotinamide attenuated RSV-induced migration of human dermal fibroblasts. Furthermore, SIRT1 overexpression promoted cell migration, whereas blocking Cyr61 attenuated SIRT1-stimulated migration of human dermal fibroblasts. SIRT1 increased cell migration by stimulating Cyr61 expression and the ERK and Wnt/β-catenin signaling. SIRT1-induced Cyr61 activity is very important for human dermal fibroblasts migration.

  19. Parameter optimization toward optimal microneedle-based dermal vaccination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Maaden, Koen; Varypataki, Eleni Maria; Yu, Huixin; Romeijn, Stefan; Jiskoot, Wim; Bouwstra, Joke

    2014-11-20

    Microneedle-based vaccination has several advantages over vaccination by using conventional hypodermic needles. Microneedles are used to deliver a drug into the skin in a minimally-invasive and potentially pain free manner. Besides, the skin is a potent immune organ that is highly suitable for vaccination. However, there are several factors that influence the penetration ability of the skin by microneedles and the immune responses upon microneedle-based immunization. In this study we assessed several different microneedle arrays for their ability to penetrate ex vivo human skin by using trypan blue and (fluorescently or radioactively labeled) ovalbumin. Next, these different microneedles and several factors, including the dose of ovalbumin, the effect of using an impact-insertion applicator, skin location of microneedle application, and the area of microneedle application, were tested in vivo in mice. The penetration ability and the dose of ovalbumin that is delivered into the skin were shown to be dependent on the use of an applicator and on the microneedle geometry and size of the array. Besides microneedle penetration, the above described factors influenced the immune responses upon microneedle-based vaccination in vivo. It was shown that the ovalbumin-specific antibody responses upon microneedle-based vaccination could be increased up to 12-fold when an impact-insertion applicator was used, up to 8-fold when microneedles were applied over a larger surface area, and up to 36-fold dependent on the location of microneedle application. Therefore, these influencing factors should be considered to optimize microneedle-based dermal immunization technologies. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Characterization and assessment of dermal and inhalable nickel exposures in nickel production and primary user industries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hughson, G W; Galea, K S; Heim, K E

    2010-01-01

    The aim of this study was to measure the levels of nickel in the skin contaminant layer of workers involved in specific processes and tasks within the primary nickel production and primary nickel user industries. Dermal exposure samples were collected using moist wipes to recover surface contamination from defined areas of skin. These were analysed for soluble and insoluble nickel species. Personal samples of inhalable dust were also collected to determine the corresponding inhalable nickel exposures. The air samples were analysed for total inhalable dust and then for soluble, sulfidic, metallic, and oxidic nickel species. The workplace surveys were carried out in five different workplaces, including three nickel refineries, a stainless steel plant, and a powder metallurgy plant, all of which were located in Europe. Nickel refinery workers involved with electrolytic nickel recovery processes had soluble dermal nickel exposure of 0.34 microg cm(-2) [geometric mean (GM)] to the hands and forearms. The GM of soluble dermal nickel exposure for workers involved in packing nickel salts (nickel chloride hexahydrate, nickel sulphate hexahydrate, and nickel hydroxycarbonate) was 0.61 microg cm(-2). Refinery workers involved in packing nickel metal powders and end-user powder operatives in magnet production had the highest dermal exposure (GM = 2.59 microg cm(-2) soluble nickel). The hands, forearms, face, and neck of these workers all received greater dermal nickel exposure compared with the other jobs included in this study. The soluble nickel dermal exposures for stainless steel production workers were at or slightly above the limit of detection (0.02 microg cm(-2) soluble nickel). The highest inhalable nickel concentrations were observed for the workers involved in nickel powder packing (GM = 0.77 mg m(-3)), although the soluble component comprised only 2% of the total nickel content. The highest airborne soluble nickel exposures were associated with refineries using

  1. Dermal fillers in aesthetics: an overview of adverse events and treatment approaches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Funt, David; Pavicic, Tatjana

    2015-01-01

    The ever-expanding range of dermal filler products for aesthetic soft tissue augmentation is of benefit for patients and physicians, but as indications and the number of procedures performed increase, the number of complications will likely also increase. To describe potential adverse events associated with dermal fillers and to provide structured and clear guidance on their treatment and avoidance. Reports of dermal filler complications in the medical literature were reviewed and, based on the publications retrieved and the authors' extensive experience, recommendations for avoiding and managing complications are provided. Different dermal fillers have widely varying properties, associated risks, and injection requirements. All dermal fillers have the potential to cause complications. Most are related to volume and technique, though some are associated with the material itself. The majority of adverse reactions are mild and transient, such as bruising and trauma-related edema. Serious adverse events are rare, and most are avoidable with proper planning and technique. For optimum outcomes, aesthetic physicians should have a detailed understanding of facial anatomy; the individual characteristics of available fillers; their indications, contraindications, benefits, and drawbacks; and ways to prevent and avoid potential complications.

  2. Role of clothing in both accelerating and impeding dermal absorption of airborne SVOCs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morrison, Glenn C; Weschler, Charles J; Bekö, Gabriel; Koch, Holger M; Salthammer, Tunga; Schripp, Tobias; Toftum, Jørn; Clausen, Geo

    2016-01-01

    To assess the influence of clothing on dermal uptake of semi-volatile organic compounds (SVOCs), we measured uptake of selected airborne phthalates for an individual wearing clean clothes or air-exposed clothes and compared these results with dermal uptake for bare-skinned individuals under otherwise identical experimental conditions. Using a breathing hood to isolate dermal from inhalation uptake, we measured urinary metabolites of diethylphthalate (DEP) and di-n-butylphthalate (DnBP) from an individual exposed to known concentrations of these compounds for 6 h in an experimental chamber. The individual wore either clean (fresh) cotton clothes or cotton clothes that had been exposed to the same chamber air concentrations for 9 days. For a 6-h exposure, the net amounts of DEP and DnBP absorbed when wearing fresh clothes were, respectively, 0.017 and 0.007 μg/kg/(μg/m(3)); for exposed clothes the results were 0.178 and 0.261 μg/kg/(μg/m(3)), respectively (values normalized by air concentration and body mass). When compared against the average results for bare-skinned participants, clean clothes were protective, whereas exposed clothes increased dermal uptake for DEP and DnBP by factors of 3.3 and 6.5, respectively. Even for non-occupational environments, wearing clothing that has adsorbed/absorbed indoor air pollutants can increase dermal uptake of SVOCs by substantial amounts relative to bare skin.

  3. [Pediatric Patient with anaerobic Bacterial Meningitis Who was Infected through a Spinal Congenital Dermal Sinus Route].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okui, Hideyuki; Fukasawa, Chie; Tokutake, Shoko; Takei, Haruka; Sato, Junichi; Hoshino, Tadashi

    2016-05-01

    We report the case of a pediatric patient in whom a spinal congenital dermal sinus was detected after the onset of anaerobic bacterial meningitis. The patient was a 4-month-old boy. He had a recurrent fever for 2 weeks before admission. On admission, he presented with a convulsive status and a bulging anterior fontanel. The previously consulted physician had made a diagnosis of bacterial meningitis. Spinal fluid cultures tested positive for Peptoniphilus asaccharolyticus. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) showed a spinal subdural abscess and cranial subdural hydrops; therefore, the patient was transported to our hospital for surgical treatment. A sacral dimple was noted on his lower back, and an MRI showed a spinal congenital dermal sinus. Antimicrobial therapy, cranial subdural aspiration, dermal sinus excision, and drainage were performed. He was discharged on the 60th hospital day. When pathogens such as Staphylococcus aureus or Escherichia coli, Proteus sp. or anaerobic bacteria invade through a dermal sinus, it can result in meningitis. Involvement of a dermal sinus should be suspected when meningitis is caused by these pathogens or when recurrent meningitis occurs.

  4. A dermal model for spray painters. Part I: subjective exposure modelling of spray paint deposition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brouwer, D H; Semple, S; Marquart, J; Cherrie, J W

    2001-01-01

    The discriminative power of existing dermal exposure models is limited. Most models only allow occupational hygienists to rank workers between and within workplaces according to broad bands of dermal exposure. No allowance is made for the work practices of different individuals. In this study a process-based, structured approach has been used to estimate dermal exposure from overspray generated by a spray painting process. Factors for spray technique, object shape and workers' individual work practices involved in the processes of droplet formation and deposition were incorporated into the model. The model was applied to predict dermal exposure of airless spray painters and the results were compared with exposure data. The predicted levels of exposure showed reasonable rank correlation with the measured exposure, although the model tended to over-predict the actual level of exposure. It was concluded that a structured, process-based approach has the potential to produce reliable estimates of dermal exposure. The reliability of exposure models of this type should be explored further and the relationship between the determinants of exposure should be validated by additional field studies.

  5. Dermal fillers in aesthetics: an overview of adverse events and treatment approaches

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Funt D

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available David Funt,1 Tatjana Pavicic21Mount Sinai Hospital, Department of Plastic Surgery, New York, NY, USA; 2Department of Dermatology and Allergy, Ludwig-Maximilian University of Munich, Munich, GermanyBackground: The ever-expanding range of dermal filler products for aesthetic soft tissue augmentation is of benefit for patients and physicians, but as indications and the number of procedures performed increase, the number of complications will likely also increase.Objective: To describe potential adverse events associated with dermal fillers and to provide structured and clear guidance on their treatment and avoidance.Methods: Reports of dermal filler complications in the medical literature were reviewed and, based on the publications retrieved and the authors' extensive experience, recommendations for avoiding and managing complications are provided.Results: Different dermal fillers have widely varying properties, associated risks, and injection requirements. All dermal fillers have the potential to cause complications. Most are related to volume and technique, though some are associated with the material itself. The majority of adverse reactions are mild and transient, such as bruising and trauma-related edema. Serious adverse events are rare, and most are avoidable with proper planning and technique.Conclusion: For optimum outcomes, aesthetic physicians should have a detailed understanding of facial anatomy; the individual characteristics of available fillers; their indications, contraindications, benefits, and drawbacks; and ways to prevent and avoid potential complications.Keywords: aesthetic medicine, complications

  6. Changes in dermal matrix in the absence of Rac1 in keratinocytes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stanley, Alanna; Pedersen, Esben Ditlev Kølle; Brakebusch, Cord

    2016-01-01

    that the deletion of Rac1 in keratinocytes causes heightened inflammation due to aberrant crosstalk with immune cells. Indeed, the skin of these mice shows a higher inflammatory response to the induction of irritant contact dermatitis (ICD), and also even to treatment with a vehicle alone, compared with controls....... As inflammation is intimately linked with fibrotic disease in the skin, this raised the question as to whether this deletion may also affect the deposition and arrangement of the dermal ECM. This study assessed the effects of Rac1 deletion in keratinocytes and of the heightened inflammatory status by induction...... of ICD on the tissue localisation and arrangements of dermal collagen. Qualitative analysis did not reveal evidence for the formation of pathologies in the dermis. However, quantitative analysis did reveal some perturbations in the dermal matrix, namely that only the combination of the lack of Rac1...

  7. Cross-finger dermal pocketing to augment venous outflow for distal fingertip replantation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Valerie H; Murugan, Arul; Foo, Tun-Lin; Puhaindran, Mark E

    2014-09-01

    Venous anastomosis in distal fingertip replantations is not always possible, and venous congestion is recognized as a potential cause of failure. Methods previously described to address this problem include amputate deepithelization and dermal pocketing postarterial anastomosis to augment venous outflow. However, attachment of the digit to the palm or abdomen resulted in finger stiffness. We describe a modification of the previous methods by utilizing dermal flaps raised from the adjacent digit in the form of a cross-finger flap. The key differences are the partial deepithelization of the replanted fingertip and subsequent replacement of the dermal flap to the donor digit to minimize donor site morbidity. During the period where the 2 digits are attached, interphalangeal joint mobilization is permitted to maintain joint mobility.

  8. The use of dermal template INTEGRA in a scalpation injury of hand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bansky, R

    2005-01-01

    Scars are extremely problematic, especially due to their unstableness, particularly in weight bearing areas (maximum 70% of the stability of normal skin). The use of split-thickness skin grafts or meshed split-thickness grafts frequently produces poor cosmetic and functional results, full thickness skin is only available in small quantities, free tissue transfer creates severe donor site defects and is surgically challenging. INTEGRA Dermal Regeneration Template is a unique technology which allows permanent regeneration of functional autologous dermal tissue and appears as a new alternative to full-thickness skin grafting, skin expansion and even skin flaps for reconstructive surgery. We used the INTEGRA Dermal Regeneration Template in a patient with a scalped left hand and amputated fingers (Fig. 13, Ref. 10).

  9. Panx1 regulates cellular properties of keratinocytes and dermal fibroblasts in skin development and wound healing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Penuela, Silvia; Kelly, John J; Churko, Jared M; Barr, Kevin J; Berger, Amy C; Laird, Dale W

    2014-07-01

    Pannexin1 (Panx1), a channel-forming glycoprotein is expressed in neonatal but not in aged mouse skin. Histological staining of Panx1 knockout (KO) mouse skin revealed a reduction in epidermal and dermal thickness and an increase in hypodermal adipose tissue. Following dorsal skin punch biopsies, mutant mice exhibited a significant delay in wound healing. Scratch wound and proliferation assays revealed that cultured keratinocytes from KO mice were more migratory, whereas dermal fibroblasts were more proliferative compared with controls. In addition, collagen gels populated with fibroblasts from KO mice exhibited significantly reduced contraction, comparable to WT fibroblasts treated with the Panx1 blocker, probenecid. KO fibroblasts did not increase α-smooth muscle actin expression in response to TGF-β, as is the case for differentiating WT myofibroblasts during wound contraction. We conclude that Panx1 controls cellular properties of keratinocytes and dermal fibroblasts during early stages of skin development and modulates wound repair upon injury.

  10. Characterization and evolution of dermal filaments from patients with Morgellons disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Middelveen, Marianne J; Mayne, Peter J; Kahn, Douglas G; Stricker, Raphael B

    2013-01-01

    Morgellons disease is an emerging skin disease characterized by formation of dermal filaments associated with multisystemic symptoms and tick-borne illness. Some clinicians hypothesize that these often colorful dermal filaments are textile fibers, either self-implanted by patients or accidentally adhering to lesions, and conclude that patients with this disease have delusions of infestation. We present histological observations and electron microscopic imaging from representative Morgellons disease samples revealing that dermal filaments in these cases are keratin and collagen in composition and result from proliferation and activation of keratinocytes and fibroblasts in the epidermis. Spirochetes were detected in the dermatological specimens from our study patients, providing evidence that Morgellons disease is associated with an infectious process.

  11. Use of dermal fat graft for augmentation of the labia majora.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salgado, Christopher J; Tang, Jennifer C; Desrosiers, Arthur E

    2012-02-01

    Dermal fat grafts have been utilized in plastic surgery for both reconstructive and aesthetic purposes of the face, breast, and body. There are multiple reports in the literature on the male phallus augmentation with the use of dermal fat grafts. Few reports describe female genitalia aesthetic surgery, in particular rejuvenation of the labia majora. In this report we describe an indication and use of autologous dermal fat graft for labia majora augmentation in a patient with loss of tone and volume in the labia majora. We found that this procedure is an option for labia majora augmentation and provides a stable result in volume-restoration. Copyright © 2011 British Association of Plastic, Reconstructive and Aesthetic Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Genomic regions associated with the sex-linked inhibitor of dermal melanin in Silkie chicken

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ming TIAN,Rui HAO,Suyun FANG,Yanqiang WANG,Xiaorong GU,Chungang FENG,Xiaoxiang HU,Ning LI

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available A unique characteristic of the Silkie chicken is its fibromelanosis phenotype. The dermal layer of its skin, its connective tissue and shank dermis are hyperpigmented. This dermal hyperpigmentation phenotype is controlled by the sex-linked inhibitor of dermal melanin gene (ID and the dominant fibromelanosis allele. This study attempted to confirm the genomic region associated with ID. By genotyping, ID was found to be closely linked to the region between GGA_rs16127903 and GGA_rs14685542 (8406919 bp on chromosome Z, which contains ten functional genes. The expression of these genes was characterized in the embryo and 4 days after hatching and it was concluded that MTAP, encoding methylthioadenosinephosphorylase, would be the most likely candidate gene. Finally, target DNA capture and sequence analysis was performed, but no specific SNP(s was found in the targeted region of the Silkie genome. Further work is necessary to identify the causal ID mutation located on chromosome Z.

  13. Cellular versus acellular matrix devices in treatment of diabetic foot ulcers: study protocol for a comparative efficacy randomized controlled trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lev-Tov Hadar

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Diabetic foot ulcers (DFUs represent a significant source of morbidity and an enormous financial burden. Standard care for DFUs involves systemic glucose control, ensuring adequate perfusion, debridement of nonviable tissue, off-loading, control of infection, local wound care and patient education, all administered by a multidisciplinary team. Unfortunately, even with the best standard of care (SOC available, only 24% or 30% of DFUs will heal at weeks 12 or 20, respectively. The extracellular matrix (ECM in DFUs is abnormal and its impairment has been proposed as a key target for new therapeutic devices. These devices intend to replace the aberrant ECM by implanting a matrix, either devoid of cells or enhanced with fibroblasts, keratinocytes or both as well as various growth factors. These new bioengineered skin substitutes are proposed to encourage angiogenesis and in-growth of new tissue, and to utilize living cells to generate cytokines needed for wound repair. To date, the efficacy of bioengineered ECM containing live cellular elements for improving healing above that of a SOC control group has not been compared with the efficacy of an ECM devoid of cells relative to the same SOC. Our hypothesis is that there is no difference in the improved healing effected by either of these two product types relative to SOC. Methods/Design To test this hypothesis we propose a randomized, single-blind, clinical trial with three arms: SOC, SOC plus Dermagraft® (bioengineered ECM containing living fibroblasts and SOC plus Oasis® (ECM devoid of living cells in patients with nonhealing DFUs. The primary outcome is the percentage of subjects that achieved complete wound closure by week 12. Discussion If our hypothesis is correct, then immense cost savings could be realized by using the orders-of-magnitude less expensive acellular ECM device without compromising patient health outcomes. The article describes the protocol proposed to test

  14. Evaluation of a xenogeneic acellular collagen matrix as a small-diameter vascular graft in dogs--preliminary observations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nemcova, S; Noel, A A; Jost, C J; Gloviczki, P; Miller, V M; Brockbank, K G

    2001-01-01

    Autogenous veins are the materials of choice for arterial reconstruction. In the absence of autogenous material, prosthetic materials are used. However, vascular prostheses of less than 0.4 cm in diameter have low long-term patency. This study was designed to determine if cells would infiltrate an engineered xenogeneic biomaterial used as a small diameter arterial graft in dogs and, if so, to determine the phenotype of the infiltrating cells. Nine acellular xenogeneic grafts (0.4 cm in diameter, 5 cm long), composed of porcine collagen derived from the submucosa of the small intestine and type I bovine collagen, were implanted as end to-end interposition grafts in femoral arteries of five male mongrel dogs (total of nine grafts). All dogs received daily aspirin (325 mg). Patency of implanted grafts was monitored weekly by Duplex ultrasonography. After 9 weeks, or earlier in case of blood flow reduction by at least 75%, grafts were explanted and prepared for light or electron microscopy to evaluate cellularization. Eight of nine grafts remained patent up to 9 weeks. At explant, diameters were 0.31 +/- 0.02 cm at the midgraft, and 0.14 +/- 0.01 and 0.19 +/- 0.01 cm at the proximal and distal anastomoses. At explant, cells of mesenchymal origin (endothelial cells, smooth muscle cells, myofibroblasts) were embedded in the extracellular matrix of the graft scaffold. Minimal evidence of cellular inflammatory reaction and no aneurysmal dilatation or thrombus formation was detected. Variable degrees of hyperplasia were present at proximal and distal anastomoses. This preliminary study demonstrates that a collagen-based xenogeneic biomaterial provides a scaffold for cellularization when used for arterial reconstruction in dogs.

  15. Control selection and confounding factors: A lesson from a Japanese case-control study to examine acellular pertussis vaccine effectiveness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohfuji, Satoko; Okada, Kenji; Nakano, Takashi; Ito, Hiroaki; Hara, Megumi; Kuroki, Haruo; Hirota, Yoshio

    2017-08-24

    When using a case-control study design to examine vaccine effectiveness, both the selection of control subjects and the consideration of potential confounders must be the important issues to ensure accurate results. In this report, we described our experience from a case-control study conducted to evaluate the effectiveness of acellular pertussis vaccine combined with diphtheria-tetanus toxoids (DTaP vaccine). Newly diagnosed pertussis cases and age- and sex-matched friend-controls were enrolled, and the history of DTaP vaccination was compared between groups. Logistic regression models were used to calculate odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) of vaccination for development of pertussis. After adjustment for potential confounders, four doses of DTaP vaccination showed a lower OR for pediatrician-diagnosed pertussis (OR=0.11, 95% CI, 0.01-0.99). In addition, the decreasing OR of four doses vaccination was more pronounced for laboratory-confirmed pertussis (OR=0.07, 95%CI, 0.01-0.82). Besides, positive association with pertussis was observed in subjects with a history of steroid treatment (OR=5.67) and those with a recent contact with a lasting cough (OR=4.12). When using a case-control study to evaluate the effectiveness of vaccines, particularly those for uncommon infectious diseases such as pertussis, the use of friend-controls may be optimal due to the fact that they shared a similar experience for exposure to the pathogen as the cases. In addition, to assess vaccine effectiveness as accurately as possible, the effects of confounding should be adequately controlled with a matching or analysis technique. Copyright © 2017 The Author(s). Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  16. Vaccination with tetanus, diphtheria, and acellular pertussis vaccine of pregnant women enrolled in Medicaid--Michigan, 2011-2013.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Housey, Michelle; Zhang, Fan; Miller, Corinne; Lyon-Callo, Sarah; McFadden, Jevon; Garcia, Erika; Potter, Rachel

    2014-09-26

    In October 2011, the Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices (ACIP) first recommended the routine administration of a tetanus, diphtheria, and acellular pertussis vaccine (Tdap) during pregnancy as a strategy to protect infants from pertussis (also known as whooping cough). This recommendation applied to women previously unvaccinated with Tdap and specified the optimal vaccination time as late second or third trimester (after 20 weeks' gestation). By vaccinating pregnant women, infants, who are at highest risk for mortality and morbidity from pertussis, gain passive immunity from maternal antibodies transferred to them in utero. Since this recommendation was made, little has been published on the percentage of women receiving Tdap during pregnancy. In Michigan, Medicaid pays for costs of pregnancy for approximately 40% of births. Infants enrolled in Medicaid are a particularly vulnerable population; in Michigan, their all-cause mortality is higher than that of privately insured infants. To assess vaccination coverage among pregnant women enrolled in a publicly funded insurance program in Michigan, Medicaid administrative claims data and statewide immunization information system data for mothers of infants born during November 2011-February 2013 were analyzed. This report describes the results of that analysis, which indicated that only 14.3% of these women received Tdap during pregnancy, with rates highest (17.6%) among non-Hispanic, non-Arab whites and lowest (6.8%) among Arab women. Vaccination was related to maternal age and gestational age at birth, but not to adequacy of prenatal care. In 2013, recognizing the importance of Tdap for every pregnancy, ACIP revised its guidelines to include a Tdap dose during every pregnancy. Ensuring that all infants receive the protection against pertussis afforded by maternal vaccination will require enhanced efforts to vaccinate pregnant women.

  17. Cost-effectiveness analysis of universal maternal immunization with tetanus-diphtheria-acellular pertussis (Tdap) vaccine in Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sartori, Ana Marli Christovam; de Soárez, Patrícia Coelho; Fernandes, Eder Gatti; Gryninger, Ligia Castellon Figueiredo; Viscondi, Juliana Yukari Kodaira; Novaes, Hillegonda Maria Dutilh

    2016-03-18

    Pertussis incidence has increased significantly in Brazil since 2011, despite high coverage of whole-cell pertussis containing vaccines in childhood. Infants maternal vaccination with tetanus-diphtheria-acellular pertussis vaccine (Tdap) into the National Immunization Program in Brazil. Economic evaluation using a decision tree model comparing two strategies: (1) universal vaccination with one dose of Tdap in the third trimester of pregnancy and (2) current practice (no pertussis maternal vaccination), from the perspective of the health system and society. An annual cohort of newborns representing the number of vaccinated pregnant women were followed for one year. Vaccine efficacy were based on literature review. Epidemiological, healthcare resource utilization and cost estimates were based on local data retrieved from Brazilian Health Information Systems. Costs of epidemiological investigation and treatment of contacts of cases were included in the analysis. No discount rate was applied to costs and benefits, as the temporal horizon was one year. Primary outcome was cost per life year saved (LYS). Univariate and best- and worst-case scenarios sensitivity analysis were performed. Maternal vaccination of one annual cohort, with vaccine effectiveness of 78%, and vaccine cost of USD$12.39 per dose, would avoid 661 cases and 24 infant deaths of pertussis, save 1800 years of life and cost USD$28,942,808 and USD$29,002,947, respectively, from the health system and societal perspective. The universal immunization would result in ICERs of USD$15,608 and USD$15,590 per LYS, from the health system and societal perspective, respectively. In sensitivity analysis, the ICER was most sensitive to discounting of life years saved, variation in case-fatality, disease incidence, vaccine cost, and vaccine effectiveness. The results indicate that universal maternal immunization with Tdap is a cost-effective intervention for preventing pertussis cases and deaths in infants in Brazil

  18. Safety and immunogenicity of tetanus-diphtheria-acellular pertussis vaccine administered to children 10 or 11 years of age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marshall, Gary S; Pool, Vitali; Greenberg, David P; Johnson, David R; Sheng, Xiaohua; Decker, Michael D

    2014-11-01

    Boosting immunity to tetanus, diphtheria, and pertussis through the use of Tdap vaccines is routinely recommended at 11 to 12 years of age; some states, however, require Tdap for entry into middle school, which may begin at 10 years of age. This study was conducted to determine whether Tdap5 (Adacel), which is licensed for use in children beginning at 11 years of age, is as safe and immunogenic in 10-year-olds as it is in 11-year-olds. Children who had received 5 previous doses of any diphtheria-tetanus-acellular pertussis (DTaP) vaccine were enrolled in a phase IV clinical trial; 646 10-year-olds and 645 11-year-olds completed the study, which involved a single intramuscular dose of Tdap5 along with pre- and postvaccination serologies. Postvaccination geometric mean concentrations (GMCs) of antibody to pertussis antigens (pertussis toxoid, filamentous hemagglutinin, pertactin, and fimbria types 2 and 3) of 10-year-olds were noninferior to those of 11-year-olds, as were booster response rates for all pertussis antibodies, except for those to fimbrial antigens (94% and 97%, respectively). Seroprotection rates among 10-year-olds for tetanus and diphtheria were noninferior to those in 11-year-olds. Rates of injection site reactions, solicited systemic reactions, and unsolicited adverse events, adverse reactions, and serious adverse events were similar in the two groups. These data support the conclusion that Tdap5 is safe and immunogenic in 10-year-olds. (This study has been registered at ClinicalTrials.gov under registration no. NCT01311557.). Copyright © 2014, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.

  19. Meningococcal Conjugate and Tetanus Toxoid, Reduced Diphtheria Toxoid and Acellular Pertussis Vaccination Among HIV-infected Youth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Setse, Rosanna W; Siberry, George K; Moss, William J; Wheeling, John; Bohannon, Beverly A; Dominguez, Kenneth L

    2016-05-01

    The meningococcal conjugate vaccine (MCV4) and the tetanus toxoid, reduced diphtheria toxoid and acellular pertussis vaccine (Tdap) were first recommended for adolescents in the US in 2005. The goal of our study was to determine MCV4 and Tdap vaccines coverage among perinatally and behaviorally HIV-infected adolescents in 2006 and to compare coverage estimates in our study population to similarly aged healthy youth in 2006. Longitudinal Epidemiologic Study to Gain Insight into HIV/AIDS in Children and Youth (LEGACY) is a retrospective cohort study of HIV-infected youth in 22 HIV specialty clinics across the US. Among LEGACY participants ≥11 years of age in 2006, we conducted a cross-sectional analysis to determine MCV4, Tdap and MCV4/Tdap vaccine coverage. We compared vaccine coverage among our study population to coverage among similarly aged youth in the 2006 National Immunization Survey for Teens (NIS-Teen Survey). Multivariable mixed effects logistic regression modeling was used to examine associations between MCV4/Tdap vaccination and mode of HIV transmission. MCV4 and Tdap coverage rates among 326 eligible participants were 31.6% and 28.8%, respectively. Among adolescents 13-17 years of age, MCV4 and Tdap coverage was significantly higher among HIV-infected youth than among youth in the 2006 NIS-Teen Survey (P 400 copies/mL were significantly less likely to have received MCV4/Tdap vaccination (P < 0.05). MCV4 and Tdap coverage among HIV-infected youth was suboptimal but higher than for healthy adolescents in the 2006 NIS-Teen Survey. Perinatal HIV infection was associated with increased likelihood of vaccination. Specific measures are needed to improve vaccine coverage among adolescents in the US.

  20. A randomised, double-blind, non-inferiority clinical trial on the safety and immunogenicity of a tetanus, diphtheria and monocomponent acellular pertussis (TdaP) vaccine in comparison to a tetanus and diphtheria (Td) vaccine when given as booster vaccinations to healthy adults

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thierry-Carstensen, Birgit; Jordan, Karina; Uhlving, Hilde Hylland

    2012-01-01

    Increasing incidence of pertussis in adolescents and adults has stimulated the development of safe and immunogenic acellular pertussis vaccines for booster vaccination of adolescents and adults.......Increasing incidence of pertussis in adolescents and adults has stimulated the development of safe and immunogenic acellular pertussis vaccines for booster vaccination of adolescents and adults....

  1. Review of data on the dermal penetration of mineral oils and waxes used in cosmetic applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petry, T; Bury, D; Fautz, R; Hauser, M; Huber, B; Markowetz, A; Mishra, S; Rettinger, K; Schuh, W; Teichert, T

    2017-10-05

    Mineral oils and waxes used in cosmetic products, also referred to as "personal care products" outside the European Union, are mixtures of predominantly saturated hydrocarbons consisting of straight-chain, branched and ring structures with carbon chain lengths greater than C16. They are used in skin and lip care cosmetic products due to their excellent skin tolerance as well as their high protecting and cleansing performance and broad viscosity options. Recently, concerns have been raised regarding potential adverse health effects of mineral oils and waxes from dermal application of cosmetics. In order to be able to assess the risk for the consumer the dermal penetration potential of these ingredients has to be evaluated. The scope and objective of this review are to identify and summarize publicly available literature on the dermal penetration of mineral oils and waxes as used in cosmetic products. For this purpose, a comprehensive literature search was conducted. A total of 13 in vivo (human, animal) and in vitro studies investigating the dermal penetration of mineral oils and waxes has been identified and analysed. The majority of the substances were dermally adsorbed to the stratum corneum and only a minor fraction reached deeper skin layers. Overall, there is no evidence from the various studies that mineral oils and waxes are percutaneously absorbed and become systemically available. Thus, given the absence of dermal uptake, mineral oils and waxes as used in cosmetic products do not present a risk to the health of the consumer. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Comparison between oral and dermal bioavailability of soil-adsorbed phenanthrene in female rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kadry, A M; Skowronski, G A; Turkall, R M; Abdel-Rahman, M S

    1995-07-01

    Phenathrene is a major coal tar component found in hazardous waste disposal sites. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the extent to which phenanthrene adsorption to either of 2 different soils affects the manner in which phenanthrene is subsequently handled in orally and dermally exposed adult female rats. Absorption from the gastrointestinal tract was relatively rapid for all treatments with maximum plasma concentration of radioactivity occurring within 1 h following oral administration. After dermal application, the time to reach maximum plasma concentration (12 h) was the same in all 3 phenanthrene treatment groups although sandy soil lowered the area under the plasma concentration time curve (AUC) compared to the pure and clay soil groups. Dermal exposure increased absorption half-lives 8-fold compared to oral exposure in the pure group and 15-fold in each of the soil groups. After oral or dermal treatment with phenanthrene alone or adsorbed to soil, the urine represented the primary excretion route of 14C activity. Ileum contained the highest tissue concentration of radioactivity in all oral treatment groups. However, the skin application site contained the highest concentration of radioactivity followed by ileum after dermal exposure. Phenanthrenequinone and 9,10-phenanthrene dihydrodiol were the major urinary metabolites detected in the 0-12-h urine of all treatment groups in both routes of administration. The data suggest that the oral exposure route for phenanthrene is a greater health risk than the dermal route. However, the presence of sandy or clay soil tends to delay the elimination of phenanthrene from the plasma.

  3. Vaccination of adults 65 years of age and older with tetanus toxoid, reduced diphtheria toxoid and acellular pertussis vaccine (Boostrix(®)): results of two randomized trials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weston, Wayde M; Friedland, Leonard R; Wu, Xiangfeng; Howe, Barbara

    2012-02-21

    Pertussis can cause significant morbidity in elderly patients, who can also transmit this disease to infants and young children. There is little data available on the use of acellular pertussis vaccines in recipients ≥65 years of age. Two studies examined the safety and immunogenicity of tetanus toxoid, reduced diphtheria toxoid, and acellular pertussis (Tdap) vaccine (Boostrix(®)) in healthy ≥65 year olds. In Study A subjects received single doses of Tdap and seasonal influenza vaccine either co-administered or given one month apart. In Study B subjects received either Tdap or tetanus-diphtheria (Td) vaccine. Antibodies were measured before and one month after vaccination. Reactogenicity and safety were actively assessed using diary cards. A total of 1104 subjects 65 years of age and older received a Tdap vaccination in the two studies. In study A, no differences in immune responses to Tdap or influenza vaccine were observed between co-administered or sequentially administered vaccines. In study B, Tdap was non-inferior to Td with respect to diphtheria and tetanus seroprotection, and anti-pertussis GMCs were non-inferior to those observed in infants following a 3-dose diphtheria, tetanus and acellular pertussis (DTaP) primary vaccination series, in whom efficacy against pertussis was demonstrated. Reports of adverse events were similar between Tdap and Td groups. Tdap was found to be immunogenic in subjects ≥65 years, with a safety profile comparable to US-licensed Td vaccine. Tdap and influenza vaccine may be co-administered without compromise of either the reactogenicity or immunogenicity profiles of the two vaccines. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. A structured observational method to assess dermal exposure to manufactured nanoparticles: DREAM as an initial assessment tool

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Duuren-Stuurman, B. van; Pelzer, J.; Moehlmann, C.; Berges, M.; Bard, D.; Wake, D.; Mark, D.; Jankowska, E.; Brouwer, D.

    2010-01-01

    Preliminary results of inventories of exposure scenarios for nanomaterials have indicated possible dermal exposure. Within the NANOSH project focused on occupational safety and health aspects of nanotechnology a shortened version of the observational DeRmal Exposure AssessMent (DREAM) method was

  5. Dermal exposure due to airless spray painting : a semi-experimental study during spray painting of a container

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lansink, C.J.M.; Hengstum, C. van; Brouwer, D.H.

    1998-01-01

    In this study dermal exposure by spray painting has been investigated. After a pilot-study it was decided to start a study in the offshore industry, where the airless spray painting technique was used. The main purpose of the present study was to determine the range of potential dermal exposure to

  6. Effect of pore size and cross-linking of a novel collagen-elastin dermal substitute on wound healing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boekema, B.K.H.L.; Vlig, M.; Damink, L.O.; Middelkoop, E.; Eummelen, L.; Buhren, A.V.; Ulrich, M.M.W.

    2014-01-01

    Collagen-elastin (CE) scaffolds are frequently used for dermal replacement in the treatment of full-thickness skin defects such as burn wounds. But little is known about the optimal pore size and level of cross-linking. Different formulations of dermal substitutes with unidirectional pores were

  7. Dermatokinetics of didecyldimethylammonium chloride and the influence of some commercial biocidal formulations on its dermal absorption in vitro

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Buist, H.E.; Heer, C. de; Burgsteden, J.A. van; Sandt, J.J.M. van de

    2007-01-01

    The in vitro dermal absorption kinetics of didecyldimethylammonium chloride (DDAC) was studied after single and multiple exposure. In addition, the influence of biocidal formulations on the absorption of DDAC was investigated. Following dermal exposure to DDAC in aqueous solution, less than 0.5% of

  8. Rat hair follicle dermal papillae have an extracellular matrix containing basement membrane components

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Couchman, J R

    1986-01-01

    Dermal papillae are small mesenchymally derived zones at the bases of hair follicles which have an important role in hair morphogenesis in the embryo and control of the hair growth cycle in postnatal mammals. The cells of the papilla are enmeshed in a dense extracellular matrix which undergoes...... extensive changes in concert with the hair cycle. Here it is shown that this matrix in anagen pelage follicles of postnatal rats contains an abundance of basement membrane components rather than dermal components such as interstitial collagens. In particular, type IV collagen, laminin, and basement membrane...

  9. Spinal intramedullar cord abscess which developed as a result of congenital spinal dermal sinus

    OpenAIRE

    Altun, İdiris; Yüksel, Kasım Zafer

    2017-01-01

    Dermal sinus is a type of spina bifida occulta which develops as a result of incomplete separation of the cutaneous ectoderm from the underlying neural ectoderm. It generally has sacral location and may be accompanied by colour change, increased hairiness and sacral dimple. In half of cases the sinus may be associated with the spinal canal. Dermal sinus infection as a result of this may cause dramatic outcomes such as paraplegia and myelitis. The case is here presented of an 18-month old fema...

  10. Coexistence of dermal sinus tract, dermoid cyst, and encephalocele in a patient presenting with nasal cellulitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karandikar, Mahesh; Yellon, Robert F; Murdoch, Geoffrey; Greene, Stephanie

    2013-01-01

    Dermoid cysts, encephaloceles, and dermal sinus tracts represent abnormalities that develop during the process of embryogenesis. The elucidation of the precise timing of formation for these malformations has remained elusive at the molecular level of study. Yet, clinical experience has demonstrated that these malformations do not all occur in the same patient, suggesting a shared pathway that goes awry at distinct points for different patients, resulting in 1 of the 3 malformations. Herein the authors describe a case in which all 3 malformations were present in a single patient. This is the first description in the English literature of a sincipital encephalocele occurring with a dermoid cyst and a dermal sinus tract.

  11. Distinct requirements for cranial ectoderm and mesenchyme-derived wnts in specification and differentiation of osteoblast and dermal progenitors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodnough, L Henry; Dinuoscio, Gregg J; Ferguson, James W; Williams, Trevor; Lang, Richard A; Atit, Radhika P

    2014-02-01

    The cranial bones and dermis differentiate from mesenchyme beneath the surface ectoderm. Fate selection in cranial mesenchyme requires the canonical Wnt effector molecule β-catenin, but the relative contribution of Wnt ligand sources in this process remains unknown. Here we show Wnt ligands are expressed in cranial surface ectoderm and underlying supraorbital mesenchyme during dermal and osteoblast fate selection. Using conditional genetics, we eliminate secretion of all Wnt ligands from cranial surface ectoderm or undifferentiated mesenchyme, to uncover distinct roles for ectoderm- and mesenchyme-derived Wnts. Ectoderm Wnt ligands induce osteoblast and dermal fibroblast progenitor specification while initiating expression of a subset of mesenchymal Wnts. Mesenchyme Wnt ligands are subsequently essential during differentiation of dermal and osteoblast progenitors. Finally, ectoderm-derived Wnt ligands provide an inductive cue to the cranial mesenchyme for the fate selection of dermal fibroblast and osteoblast lineages. Thus two sources of Wnt ligands perform distinct functions during osteoblast and dermal fibroblast formation.

  12. Mutations in X-linked PORCN, a putative regulator of Wnt signaling, cause focal dermal hypoplasia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Focal dermal hypoplasia is an X-linked dominant disorder characterized by patchy hypoplastic skin and digital, ocular, and dental malformations. We used array comparative genomic hybridization to identify a 219-kb deletion in Xp11.23 in two affected females. We sequenced genes in this region and fou...

  13. RELATIONS BETWEEN INVITRO CYTOTOXICITY AND CROSS-LINKED DERMAL SHEEP COLLAGENS

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    VANLUYN, MJA; VANWACHEM, PB; DAMINK, LO; DIJKSTRA, PJ; FEIJEN, J; NIEUWENHUIS, P

    Collagen-based biomaterials have found various applications in the biomedical field. However, collagen-based biomaterials may induce cytotoxic effects. This study evaluated possible cytotoxic effects of (crosslinked) dermal sheep collagen (DSC) using a 7-d-methylcellulose cell culture with human

  14. BIOCOMPATIBILITY AND TISSUE REGENERATING CAPACITY OF CROSS-LINKED DERMAL SHEEP COLLAGEN

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    VANWACHEM, PB; VANLUYN, MJA; DAMINK, LHHO; DIJKSTRA, PJ; FEIJEN, J; NIEUWENHUIS, P

    The biocompatibility and tissue regenerating capacity of four crosslinked dermal sheep collagens (DSC) was studied. In vitro, the four DSC versions were found to be noncytotoxic or very low in cytoxicity. After subcutaneous implantation in rats, hexamethylenediisocyanate-crosslinked DSC (HDSC)

  15. Secondary cytotoxicity of (crosslinked) dermal sheep collagen during repeated exposure to human fibroblasts

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Luyn, M.J.A.; van Wachem, P.B.; Olde damink, L.H.H.; Olde Damink, L.H.H.; Dijkstra, Pieter J.; Feijen, Jan; Nieuwenhuis, P.

    1992-01-01

    We investigated commercially available dermal sheep collagen either cross-linked with hexamethylenediisocyanate, or cross-linked with glutaraldehyde. In previous in vitro studies we could discriminate primary, i.e. extractable, and secondary cytotoxicity, due to cell-biomaterial interactions, i.e.

  16. SECONDARY CYTOTOXICITY OF CROSS-LINKED DERMAL SHEEP COLLAGENS DURING REPEATED EXPOSURE TO HUMAN FIBROBLASTS

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    VANLUYN, MJA; VANWACHEM, PB; DAMINK, LHHO; DIJKSTRA, PJ; FEIJEN, J; NIEUWENHUIS, P

    1992-01-01

    We investigated commercially available dermal sheep collagen either cross-linked with hexamethylenedlisocyanate, or cross-linked with glutaraldehyde. In previous in vitro studies we could discriminate primary, i.e. extractable, and secondary cytotoxicity, due to cell-biomaterial interactions, i.e.

  17. RESEARCH ARTICLE Map the locus of Id for dermal shank melanin ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Navya

    2017-03-24

    Mar 24, 2017 ... Map the locus of Id for dermal shank melanin in a Chinese indigenous chicken breed. JIGUO XU1,2,#, SHUDAI LIN1,2,#, XINFENG GAO1,2,QINGHUA NIE1,2, QINBIN. LUO1,2, XIQUAN ZHANG1,2*. 1College of Animal Science, South China Agricultural University Guangzhou,. Guangdong, China.

  18. A Regenerative Approach with Dermal Micrografts in the Treatment of Chronic Ulcers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Francesco, Francesco; Graziano, Antonio; Trovato, Letizia; Ceccarelli, Gabriele; Romano, Maurizio; Marcarelli, Marco; Cusella De Angelis, Gabriella Maria; Cillo, Umberto; Riccio, Michele; Ferraro, Giuseppe Andrea

    2017-02-01

    The etiology of non-healing ulcers depends on both systemic and local factors. The introduction of advanced dressing, negative wound therapy and compression therapy have undoubtedly improved clinical outcomes. The principal aim of study was to demonstrate the efficacy of dermal micrografts in the treatment of ulcers with different etiologies. The second aim was to investigate in vitro the action of micrografts in the regenerative process. The dermal micro-grafts were obtained from mechanical disaggregation of small pieces of skin tissue through a medical device called Rigeneracons. We observed in vivo the ability of dermal autologous micrografts to improve the healing of venous, diabetic, pressure and post-traumatic ulcers after few week of treatment accomplished in general with a better quality of life for the patients. In vitro results showed that these micrografts express mesenchymal stem cells (MSCS) marker such as CD34, CD73, CD90 and CD105, and are able to form a viable and proliferative biocomplex with collagen sponge. Finally, the site of ulcers displayed a different expression of epidermal growth factors, insulin-like growth factors, platelet-derived growth factors and their receptors and tumor necrosis factor-β with respect to healthy skin samples. We reported a good outcome for the treatment of chronic ulcers using dermal autologous micrografts. Finally, we suggest that the positivity to MSCs markers and the ability to interact with a scaffold can play a key role in their regenerative properties.

  19. Use of PCR for diagnosis of post-kala-azar dermal leishmaniasis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Osman, O. F.; Oskam, L.; Kroon, N. C.; Schoone, G. J.; Khalil, E. T.; El-Hassan, A. M.; Zijlstra, E. E.; Kager, P. A.

    1998-01-01

    Microscopy and PCR were compared for use in the diagnosis of post-kala-azar dermal leishmaniasis (PKDL) in 63 patients. Aspirates of lymph nodes (samples from 52 patients), skin (23 samples), and bone marrow (18 samples) were used. For 11 patients lymph node aspiration could be repeated 6 months

  20. Dermal connective tissue development in mice: an essential role for tenascin-X.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Egging, D.; Vlijmen-Willems, I.M.J.J. van; Starcher, B.; Gijsen, Y.; Zweers, M.C.; Blankevoort, L.; Bristow, J.; Schalkwijk, J.

    2006-01-01

    Deficiency of the extracellular matrix protein tenascin-X (TNX) causes a recessive form of Ehlers-Danlos syndrome (EDS) characterized by hyperextensible skin and hypermobile joints. It is not known whether the observed alterations of dermal collagen fibrils and elastic fibers in these patients are