Attacking quantum key distribution with single-photon two-qubit quantum logic
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Shapiro, Jeffrey H.; Wong, Franco N. C.
2006-01-01
The Fuchs-Peres-Brandt (FPB) probe realizes the most powerful individual attack on Bennett-Brassard 1984 quantum key distribution (BB84 QKD) by means of a single controlled-NOT (CNOT) gate. This paper describes a complete physical simulation of the FPB-probe attack on polarization-based BB84 QKD using a deterministic CNOT constructed from single-photon two-qubit quantum logic. Adding polarization-preserving quantum nondemolition measurements of photon number to this configuration converts the physical simulation into a true deterministic realization of the FPB attack
Single-photon two-qubit entangled states: Preparation and measurement
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kim, Yoon-Ho
2003-01-01
We implement experimentally a deterministic method to prepare and measure the so-called single-photon two-qubit entangled states or single-photon Bell states, in which the polarization and the spatial modes of a single photon each represent a quantum bit. All four single-photon Bell states can be easily prepared and measured deterministically using linear optical elements alone. We also discuss how this method can be used for the recently proposed single-photon two-qubit quantum cryptography scheme
Wang, Xin; Miranowicz, Adam; Li, Hong-Rong; Nori, Franco
2017-12-01
The coherent process that a single photon simultaneously excites two qubits has recently been theoretically predicted by Garziano et al. [L. Garziano, V. Macrì, R. Stassi, O. Di Stefano, F. Nori, and S. Savasta, One Photon Can Simultaneously Excite two or More Atoms, Phys. Rev. Lett. 117, 043601 (2016), 10.1103/PhysRevLett.117.043601]. We propose a different approach to observe a similar dynamical process based on a superconducting quantum circuit, where two coupled flux qubits longitudinally interact with the same resonator. We show that this simultaneous excitation of two qubits (assuming that the sum of their transition frequencies is close to the cavity frequency) is related to the counter-rotating terms in the dipole-dipole coupling between two qubits, and the standard rotating-wave approximation is not valid here. By numerically simulating the adiabatic Landau-Zener transition and Rabi-oscillation effects, we clearly verify that the energy of a single photon can excite two qubits via higher-order transitions induced by the longitudinal couplings and the counter-rotating terms. Compared with previous studies, the coherent dynamics in our system only involves one intermediate state and, thus, exhibits a much faster rate. We also find transition paths which can interfere. Finally, by discussing how to control the two longitudinal-coupling strengths, we find a method to observe both constructive and destructive interference phenomena in our system.
Quantum discord for two-qubit X states
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ali, Mazhar; Rau, A. R. P.; Alber, G.
2010-01-01
Quantum discord, a kind of quantum correlation, is defined as the difference between quantum mutual information and classical correlation in a bipartite system. In general, this correlation is different from entanglement, and quantum discord may be nonzero even for certain separable states. Even in the simple case of bipartite quantum systems, this different kind of quantum correlation has interesting and significant applications in quantum information processing. So far, quantum discord has been calculated explicitly only for a rather limited set of two-qubit quantum states and expressions for more general quantum states are not known. In this article, we derive explicit expressions for quantum discord for a larger class of two-qubit states, namely, a seven-parameter family of so called X states that have been of interest in a variety of contexts in the field. We also study the relation between quantum discord, classical correlation, and entanglement for a number of two-qubit states to demonstrate that they are independent measures of correlation with no simple relative ordering between them.
Scalable quantum computation via local control of only two qubits
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Burgarth, Daniel; Maruyama, Koji; Murphy, Michael; Montangero, Simone; Calarco, Tommaso; Nori, Franco; Plenio, Martin B.
2010-01-01
We apply quantum control techniques to a long spin chain by acting only on two qubits at one of its ends, thereby implementing universal quantum computation by a combination of quantum gates on these qubits and indirect swap operations across the chain. It is shown that the control sequences can be computed and implemented efficiently. We discuss the application of these ideas to physical systems such as superconducting qubits in which full control of long chains is challenging.
The two-qubit quantum Rabi model: inhomogeneous coupling
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Mao, Lijun; Huai, Sainan; Zhang, Yunbo
2015-01-01
We revisit the analytic solution of the two-qubit quantum Rabi model with inhomogeneous coupling and transition frequencies using a displaced oscillator basis. This approach enables us to apply the same truncation rules and techniques adopted in the Rabi model to the two qubits system. The derived analytical spectra match perfectly with the numerical solutions in the parameter regime where the qubits’ transition frequencies are far off-resonance with the field frequency and the interaction strengths reach the ultrastrong coupling regime. We further explore the dynamical behavior of the two qubits as well as the evolution of entanglement. The analytical methods provide unexpectedly accurate results in describing the dynamics of the two qubits in the present experimentally accessible coupling regime. The time evolutions of the probability for the qubits show that the collapse-revival phenomena emerge, survive and finally disappear when one coupling strength increases from weak to strong coupling regimes and the other coupling strength is well into the ultrastrong coupling regime. The inhomogeneous coupling system exhibits new dynamics, which are different from the homogeneous coupling case. (paper)
A programmable two-qubit quantum processor in silicon.
Watson, T F; Philips, S G J; Kawakami, E; Ward, D R; Scarlino, P; Veldhorst, M; Savage, D E; Lagally, M G; Friesen, Mark; Coppersmith, S N; Eriksson, M A; Vandersypen, L M K
2018-03-29
Now that it is possible to achieve measurement and control fidelities for individual quantum bits (qubits) above the threshold for fault tolerance, attention is moving towards the difficult task of scaling up the number of physical qubits to the large numbers that are needed for fault-tolerant quantum computing. In this context, quantum-dot-based spin qubits could have substantial advantages over other types of qubit owing to their potential for all-electrical operation and ability to be integrated at high density onto an industrial platform. Initialization, readout and single- and two-qubit gates have been demonstrated in various quantum-dot-based qubit representations. However, as seen with small-scale demonstrations of quantum computers using other types of qubit, combining these elements leads to challenges related to qubit crosstalk, state leakage, calibration and control hardware. Here we overcome these challenges by using carefully designed control techniques to demonstrate a programmable two-qubit quantum processor in a silicon device that can perform the Deutsch-Josza algorithm and the Grover search algorithm-canonical examples of quantum algorithms that outperform their classical analogues. We characterize the entanglement in our processor by using quantum-state tomography of Bell states, measuring state fidelities of 85-89 per cent and concurrences of 73-82 per cent. These results pave the way for larger-scale quantum computers that use spins confined to quantum dots.
A programmable two-qubit quantum processor in silicon
Watson, T. F.; Philips, S. G. J.; Kawakami, E.; Ward, D. R.; Scarlino, P.; Veldhorst, M.; Savage, D. E.; Lagally, M. G.; Friesen, Mark; Coppersmith, S. N.; Eriksson, M. A.; Vandersypen, L. M. K.
2018-03-01
Now that it is possible to achieve measurement and control fidelities for individual quantum bits (qubits) above the threshold for fault tolerance, attention is moving towards the difficult task of scaling up the number of physical qubits to the large numbers that are needed for fault-tolerant quantum computing. In this context, quantum-dot-based spin qubits could have substantial advantages over other types of qubit owing to their potential for all-electrical operation and ability to be integrated at high density onto an industrial platform. Initialization, readout and single- and two-qubit gates have been demonstrated in various quantum-dot-based qubit representations. However, as seen with small-scale demonstrations of quantum computers using other types of qubit, combining these elements leads to challenges related to qubit crosstalk, state leakage, calibration and control hardware. Here we overcome these challenges by using carefully designed control techniques to demonstrate a programmable two-qubit quantum processor in a silicon device that can perform the Deutsch–Josza algorithm and the Grover search algorithm—canonical examples of quantum algorithms that outperform their classical analogues. We characterize the entanglement in our processor by using quantum-state tomography of Bell states, measuring state fidelities of 85–89 per cent and concurrences of 73–82 per cent. These results pave the way for larger-scale quantum computers that use spins confined to quantum dots.
Single-photon three-qubit quantum logic using spatial light modulators.
Kagalwala, Kumel H; Di Giuseppe, Giovanni; Abouraddy, Ayman F; Saleh, Bahaa E A
2017-09-29
The information-carrying capacity of a single photon can be vastly expanded by exploiting its multiple degrees of freedom: spatial, temporal, and polarization. Although multiple qubits can be encoded per photon, to date only two-qubit single-photon quantum operations have been realized. Here, we report an experimental demonstration of three-qubit single-photon, linear, deterministic quantum gates that exploit photon polarization and the two-dimensional spatial-parity-symmetry of the transverse single-photon field. These gates are implemented using a polarization-sensitive spatial light modulator that provides a robust, non-interferometric, versatile platform for implementing controlled unitary gates. Polarization here represents the control qubit for either separable or entangling unitary operations on the two spatial-parity target qubits. Such gates help generate maximally entangled three-qubit Greenberger-Horne-Zeilinger and W states, which is confirmed by tomographical reconstruction of single-photon density matrices. This strategy provides access to a wide range of three-qubit states and operations for use in few-qubit quantum information processing protocols.Photons are essential for quantum information processing, but to date only two-qubit single-photon operations have been realized. Here the authors demonstrate experimentally a three-qubit single-photon linear deterministic quantum gate by exploiting polarization along with spatial-parity symmetry.
Two-qubit quantum computing in a projected subspace
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Bi Qiao; Ruda, H.E.; Zhan, M.S.
2002-01-01
A formulation for performing quantum computing in a projected subspace is presented, based on the subdynamical kinetic equation (SKE) for an open quantum system. The eigenvectors of the kinetic equation are shown to remain invariant before and after interaction with the environment. However, the eigenvalues in the projected subspace exhibit a type of phase shift to the evolutionary states. This phase shift does not destroy the decoherence-free (DF) property of the subspace because the associated fidelity is 1. This permits a universal formalism to be presented--the eigenprojectors of the free part of the Hamiltonian for the system and bath may be used to construct a DF projected subspace based on the SKE. To eliminate possible phase or unitary errors induced by the change in the eigenvalues, a cancellation technique is proposed, using the adjustment of the coupling time, and applied to a two-qubit computing system. A general criteria for constructing a DF-projected subspace from the SKE is discussed. Finally, a proposal for using triangulation to realize a decoherence-free subsystem based on SKE is presented. The concrete formulation for a two-qubit model is given exactly. Our approach is general and appears to be applicable to any type of decoherence
Broken symmetry in a two-qubit quantum control landscape
Bukov, Marin; Day, Alexandre G. R.; Weinberg, Phillip; Polkovnikov, Anatoli; Mehta, Pankaj; Sels, Dries
2018-05-01
We analyze the physics of optimal protocols to prepare a target state with high fidelity in a symmetrically coupled two-qubit system. By varying the protocol duration, we find a discontinuous phase transition, which is characterized by a spontaneous breaking of a Z2 symmetry in the functional form of the optimal protocol, and occurs below the quantum speed limit. We study in detail this phase and demonstrate that even though high-fidelity protocols come degenerate with respect to their fidelity, they lead to final states of different entanglement entropy shared between the qubits. Consequently, while globally both optimal protocols are equally far away from the target state, one is locally closer than the other. An approximate variational mean-field theory which captures the physics of the different phases is developed.
Single Photon Experiments and Quantum Complementarity
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Georgiev D. D.
2007-04-01
Full Text Available Single photon experiments have been used as one of the most striking illustrations of the apparently nonclassical nature of the quantum world. In this review we examine the mathematical basis of the principle of complementarity and explain why the Englert-Greenberger duality relation is not violated in the configurations of Unruh and of Afshar.
Demonstrating quantum random with single photons
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Bronner, Patrick; Strunz, Andreas; Meyn, Jan-Peter; Silberhorn, Christine
2009-01-01
We present an experiment for education which demonstrates random transmission or reflection of heralded single photons on beam splitters. With our set-up, we can realize different quantum random experiments by appropriate settings of polarization rotators. The concept of entanglement is motivated by correlated randomness. The experiments are suitable for undergraduate education and are available as interactive screen experiments.
Entanglement dynamics of two-qubit systems in different quantum noises
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Pan Chang-Ning; Fang Jian-Shu; Li-Fei; Fang Mao-Fa
2011-01-01
The entanglement dynamics of two-qubit systems in different quantum noises are investigated by means of the operator-sum representation method. We find that, except for the amplitude damping and phase damping quantum noise, the sudden death of entanglement is always observed in different two-qubit systems with generalized amplitude damping and depolarizing quantum noise. (general)
Two-qubit logical operations in three quantum dots system.
Łuczak, Jakub; Bułka, Bogdan R
2018-06-06
We consider a model of two interacting always-on, exchange-only qubits for which controlled phase (CPHASE), controlled NOT (CNOT), quantum Fourier transform (QFT) and SWAP operations can be implemented only in a few electrical pulses in a nanosecond time scale. Each qubit is built of three quantum dots (TQD) in a triangular geometry with three electron spins which are always kept coupled by exchange interactions only. The qubit states are encoded in a doublet subspace and are fully electrically controlled by a voltage applied to gate electrodes. The two qubit quantum gates are realized by short electrical pulses which change the triangular symmetry of TQD and switch on exchange interaction between the qubits. We found an optimal configuration to implement the CPHASE gate by a single pulse of the order 2.3 ns. Using this gate, in combination with single qubit operations, we searched for optimal conditions to perform the other gates: CNOT, QFT and SWAP. Our studies take into account environment effects and leakage processes as well. The results suggest that the system can be implemented for fault tolerant quantum computations.
Stopping single photons in one-dimensional circuit quantum electrodynamics systems
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Shen, J.-T.; Povinelli, M. L.; Sandhu, Sunil; Fan Shanhui
2007-01-01
We propose a mechanism to stop and time reverse single photons in one-dimensional circuit quantum electrodynamics systems. As a concrete example, we exploit the large tunability of the superconducting charge quantum bit (charge qubit) to predict one-photon transport properties in multiple-qubit systems with dynamically controlled transition frequencies. In particular, two qubits coupled to a waveguide give rise to a single-photon transmission line shape that is analogous to electromagnetically induced transparency in atomic systems. Furthermore, by cascading double-qubit structures to form an array and dynamically controlling the qubit transition frequencies, a single photon can be stopped, stored, and time reversed. With a properly designed array, two photons can be stopped and stored in the system at the same time. Moreover, the unit cell of the array can be designed to be of deep subwavelength scale, miniaturizing the circuit
Distributed quantum computing with single photon sources
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Beige, A.; Kwek, L.C.
2005-01-01
Full text: Distributed quantum computing requires the ability to perform nonlocal gate operations between the distant nodes (stationary qubits) of a large network. To achieve this, it has been proposed to interconvert stationary qubits with flying qubits. In contrast to this, we show that distributed quantum computing only requires the ability to encode stationary qubits into flying qubits but not the conversion of flying qubits into stationary qubits. We describe a scheme for the realization of an eventually deterministic controlled phase gate by performing measurements on pairs of flying qubits. Our scheme could be implemented with a linear optics quantum computing setup including sources for the generation of single photons on demand, linear optics elements and photon detectors. In the presence of photon loss and finite detector efficiencies, the scheme could be used to build large cluster states for one way quantum computing with a high fidelity. (author)
Probabilistic Teleportation of Arbitrary Two-Qubit Quantum State via Non-Symmetric Quantum Channel
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Kan Wang
2018-03-01
Full Text Available Quantum teleportation has significant meaning in quantum information. In particular, entangled states can also be used for perfectly teleporting the quantum state with some probability. This is more practical and efficient in practice. In this paper, we propose schemes to use non-symmetric quantum channel combinations for probabilistic teleportation of an arbitrary two-qubit quantum state from sender to receiver. The non-symmetric quantum channel is composed of a two-qubit partially entangled state and a three-qubit partially entangled state, where partially entangled Greenberger–Horne–Zeilinger (GHZ state and W state are considered, respectively. All schemes are presented in detail and the unitary operations required are given in concise formulas. Methods are provided for reducing classical communication cost and combining operations to simplify the manipulation. Moreover, our schemes are flexible and applicable in different situations.
Entanglement and quantum superposition induced by a single photon
Lü, Xin-You; Zhu, Gui-Lei; Zheng, Li-Li; Wu, Ying
2018-03-01
We predict the occurrence of single-photon-induced entanglement and quantum superposition in a hybrid quantum model, introducing an optomechanical coupling into the Rabi model. Originally, it comes from the photon-dependent quantum property of the ground state featured by the proposed hybrid model. It is associated with a single-photon-induced quantum phase transition, and is immune to the A2 term of the spin-field interaction. Moreover, the obtained quantum superposition state is actually a squeezed cat state, which can significantly enhance precision in quantum metrology. This work offers an approach to manipulate entanglement and quantum superposition with a single photon, which might have potential applications in the engineering of new single-photon quantum devices, and also fundamentally broaden the regime of cavity QED.
Metric Structure of the Space of Two-Qubit Gates, Perfect Entanglers and Quantum Control
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Paul Watts
2013-05-01
Full Text Available We derive expressions for the invariant length element and measure for the simple compact Lie group SU(4 in a coordinate system particularly suitable for treating entanglement in quantum information processing. Using this metric, we compute the invariant volume of the space of two-qubit perfect entanglers. We find that this volume corresponds to more than 84% of the total invariant volume of the space of two-qubit gates. This same metric is also used to determine the effective target sizes that selected gates will present in any quantum-control procedure designed to implement them.
Non-Bell-pair quantum channel for teleporting an arbitrary two-qubit state
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Zha Xinwei; Song Haiyang
2007-01-01
Recently, Yeo and Chua [Y. Yeo, W.K. Chua, Phys. Rev. Lett. 96 (2006) 060502] gave a protocol for faithfully teleporting an arbitrary two-qubit state via a genuine four-qubit entangled state, which is not reducible to a pair of Bell state. Here, we present a 'transformation operator' to give a criterion for faithful teleportation of an arbitrary two-qubit state via a four-qubit entangled state. The theoretical explanations of some quantum channels are given in term of transformation operators. The relation between the transformation operators and the Bell base measurement is also obtained. Furthermore, a new four-qubit entangled state quantum channel is presented
Geometric picture of quantum discord for two-qubit quantum states
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Shi Mingjun; Jiang Fengjian; Sun Chunxiao; Du Jiangfeng
2011-01-01
Among various definitions of quantum correlations, quantum discord has attracted considerable attention. To find an analytical expression for quantum discord is an intractable task. Exact results are known only for very special states, namely two-qubit X-shaped states. We present in this paper a geometric viewpoint, from which two-qubit quantum discord can be described clearly. The known results on X state discord are restated in the directly perceivable geometric language. As a consequence, the dynamics of classical correlations and quantum discord for an X state in the presence of decoherence is endowed with geometric interpretation. More importantly, we extend the geometric method to the case of more general states, for which numerical as well as analytical results on quantum discord have not yet been obtained. Based on the support of numerical computations, some conjectures are proposed to help us establish the geometric picture. We find that the geometric picture for these states has an intimate relationship with that for X states. Thereby, in some cases, analytical expressions for classical correlations and quantum discord can be obtained.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Xue, Liyuan; Yu, Yanxia; Cai, Xiaoya; Pan, Hui; Wang, Zisheng
2016-01-01
Highlights: • We find that the Pancharatnam phases include the information of quantum correlations. • We show that the sudden died and alive phenomena of quantum entanglement is original in the transition of Pancharatnam phase. • We find that the faster the Pancharatnam phases change, the slower the quantum correlations decay. • We find that a subspace of quantum entanglement can exist in the Y-state. • Our results provide a useful approach experimentally to implement the time-dependent geometric quantum computation. - Abstract: We investigate time-dependent Pancharatnam phases and the relations between such geometric phases and quantum correlations, i.e., quantum discord and concurrence, of superconducting two-qubit coupling system in dissipative environment with the mixture effects of four different eigenstates of density matrix. We find that the time-dependent Pancharatnam phases not only keep the motion memory of such a two-qubit system, but also include the information of quantum correlations. We show that the sudden died and alive phenomena of quantum entanglement are intrinsic in the transition of Pancharatnam phase in the X-state and the complex oscillations of Pancharatnam phase in the Y-state. The faster the Pancharatnam phases change, the slower the quantum correlations decay. In particular, we find that a subspace of quantum entanglement can exist in the Y-state by choosing suitable coupling parameters between two-qubit system and its environment, or initial conditions.
Definition and evolution of quantum cellular automata with two qubits per cell
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Karafyllidis, Ioannis G.
2004-01-01
Studies of quantum computer implementations suggest cellular quantum computer architectures. These architectures can simulate the evolution of quantum cellular automata, which can possibly simulate both quantum and classical physical systems and processes. It is however known that except for the trivial case, unitary evolution of one-dimensional homogeneous quantum cellular automata with one qubit per cell is not possible. Quantum cellular automata that comprise two qubits per cell are defined and their evolution is studied using a quantum computer simulator. The evolution is unitary and its linearity manifests itself as a periodic structure in the probability distribution patterns
Quantum Discord in Two-Qubit System Constructed from the Yang—Baxter Equation
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Gou Li-Dan; Wang Xiao-Qian; Sun Yuan-Yuan; Xu Yu-Mei
2014-01-01
Quantum correlations among parts of a composite quantum system are a fundamental resource for several applications in quantum information. In general, quantum discord can measure quantum correlations. In that way, we investigate the quantum discord of the two-qubit system constructed from the Yang—Baxter Equation. The density matrix of this system is generated through the unitary Yang—Baxter matrix R. The analytical expression and numerical result of quantum discord and geometric measure of quantum discord are obtained for the Yang—Baxter system. These results show that quantum discord and geometric measure of quantum discord are only connect with the parameter θ, which is the important spectral parameter in Yang—Baxter equation. (general)
Note on the quantum correlations of two qubits coupled to photon baths
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Quintana, Claudia; Rosas-Ortiz, Oscar
2015-01-01
The time-evolution of the quantum correlations between two qubits that are coupled to a pair of photon baths is studied. We show that conditioned transitions occurring in the entire system have influence on the time-evolution of the subsystems. Then, we show that the study of the population inversion of each of the qubits is a measure of the correlations between them that is in agreement with the notion of concurrence. (paper)
Single photon sources with single semiconductor quantum dots
Shan, Guang-Cun; Yin, Zhang-Qi; Shek, Chan Hung; Huang, Wei
2014-04-01
In this contribution, we briefly recall the basic concepts of quantum optics and properties of semiconductor quantum dot (QD) which are necessary to the understanding of the physics of single-photon generation with single QDs. Firstly, we address the theory of quantum emitter-cavity system, the fluorescence and optical properties of semiconductor QDs, and the photon statistics as well as optical properties of the QDs. We then review the localization of single semiconductor QDs in quantum confined optical microcavity systems to achieve their overall optical properties and performances in terms of strong coupling regime, efficiency, directionality, and polarization control. Furthermore, we will discuss the recent progress on the fabrication of single photon sources, and various approaches for embedding single QDs into microcavities or photonic crystal nanocavities and show how to extend the wavelength range. We focus in particular on new generations of electrically driven QD single photon source leading to high repetition rates, strong coupling regime, and high collection efficiencies at elevated temperature operation. Besides, new developments of room temperature single photon emission in the strong coupling regime are reviewed. The generation of indistinguishable photons and remaining challenges for practical single-photon sources are also discussed.
Entanglement routers via a wireless quantum network based on arbitrary two qubit systems
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Metwally, N
2014-01-01
A wireless quantum network is generated between multi-hops, where each hop consists of two entangled nodes. These nodes share a finite number of entangled two-qubit systems randomly. Different types of wireless quantum bridges (WQBS) are generated between the non-connected nodes. The efficiency of these WQBS to be used as quantum channels between its terminals to perform quantum teleportation is investigated. We suggest a theoretical wireless quantum communication protocol to teleport unknown quantum signals from one node to another, where the more powerful WQBS are used as quantum channels. It is shown that, by increasing the efficiency of the sources that emit the initial partial entangled states, one can increase the efficiency of the wireless quantum communication protocol. (paper)
Speed of quantum evolution of entangled two qubits states: Local vs. global evolution
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Curilef, S; Zander, C; Plastino, A R
2008-01-01
There is a lower bound for the 'speed' of quantum evolution as measured by the time needed to reach an orthogonal state. We show that, for two-qubits systems, states saturating the quantum speed limit tend to exhibit a small amount of local evolution, as measured by the fidelity between the initial and final single qubit states after the time τ required by the composite system to reach an orthogonal state. Consequently, a trade-off between the speed of global evolution and the amount of local evolution seems to be at work.
Demonstration of two-qubit algorithms with a superconducting quantum processor.
DiCarlo, L; Chow, J M; Gambetta, J M; Bishop, Lev S; Johnson, B R; Schuster, D I; Majer, J; Blais, A; Frunzio, L; Girvin, S M; Schoelkopf, R J
2009-07-09
Quantum computers, which harness the superposition and entanglement of physical states, could outperform their classical counterparts in solving problems with technological impact-such as factoring large numbers and searching databases. A quantum processor executes algorithms by applying a programmable sequence of gates to an initialized register of qubits, which coherently evolves into a final state containing the result of the computation. Building a quantum processor is challenging because of the need to meet simultaneously requirements that are in conflict: state preparation, long coherence times, universal gate operations and qubit readout. Processors based on a few qubits have been demonstrated using nuclear magnetic resonance, cold ion trap and optical systems, but a solid-state realization has remained an outstanding challenge. Here we demonstrate a two-qubit superconducting processor and the implementation of the Grover search and Deutsch-Jozsa quantum algorithms. We use a two-qubit interaction, tunable in strength by two orders of magnitude on nanosecond timescales, which is mediated by a cavity bus in a circuit quantum electrodynamics architecture. This interaction allows the generation of highly entangled states with concurrence up to 94 per cent. Although this processor constitutes an important step in quantum computing with integrated circuits, continuing efforts to increase qubit coherence times, gate performance and register size will be required to fulfil the promise of a scalable technology.
Marshman, Emily; Singh, Chandralekha
2017-01-01
Single photon experiments involving a Mach-Zehnder interferometer can illustrate the fundamental principles of quantum mechanics, e.g., the wave-particle duality of a single photon, single photon interference, and the probabilistic nature of quantum measurement involving single photons. These experiments explicitly make the connection between the…
Waveguide superconducting single-photon autocorrelators for quantum photonic applications
Sahin, D.; Gaggero, A.; Frucci, G.; Jahanmirinejad, S.; Sprengers, J.P.; Mattioli, F.; Leoni, R.; Beetz, J.; Lermer, M.; Kamp, M.; Höfling, S.; Fiore, A.; Hasan, Z.U.; Hemmer, P.R.; Lee, H.; Santori, C.M.
2013-01-01
We report a novel component for integrated quantum photonic applications, a waveguide single-photon autocorrelator. It is based on two superconducting nanowire detectors patterned onto the same GaAs ridge waveguide. Combining the electrical output of the two detectors in a correlation card enables
Single-photon generation with InAs quantum dots
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Santori, Charles; Fattal, David; Vuckovic, Jelena; Solomon, Glenn S; Yamamoto, Yoshihisa
2004-01-01
Single-photon generation using InAs quantum dots in pillar microcavities is described. The effects on performance of the excitation wavelength and polarization, and the collection bandwidth and polarization, are studied in detail. The efficiency and photon state purity of these devices have been measured, and issues affecting these parameters are discussed. Prospects for improved devices are also discussed
Semi-quantum Dialogue Based on Single Photons
Ye, Tian-Yu; Ye, Chong-Qiang
2018-02-01
In this paper, we propose two semi-quantum dialogue (SQD) protocols by using single photons as the quantum carriers, where one requires the classical party to possess the measurement capability and the other does not have this requirement. The security toward active attacks from an outside Eve in the first SQD protocol is guaranteed by the complete robustness of present semi-quantum key distribution (SQKD) protocols, the classical one-time pad encryption, the classical party's randomization operation and the decoy photon technology. The information leakage problem of the first SQD protocol is overcome by the classical party' classical basis measurements on the single photons carrying messages which makes him share their initial states with the quantum party. The security toward active attacks from Eve in the second SQD protocol is guaranteed by the classical party's randomization operation, the complete robustness of present SQKD protocol and the classical one-time pad encryption. The information leakage problem of the second SQD protocol is overcome by the quantum party' classical basis measurements on each two adjacent single photons carrying messages which makes her share their initial states with the classical party. Compared with the traditional information leakage resistant QD protocols, the advantage of the proposed SQD protocols lies in that they only require one party to have quantum capabilities. Compared with the existing SQD protocol, the advantage of the proposed SQD protocols lies in that they only employ single photons rather than two-photon entangled states as the quantum carriers. The proposed SQD protocols can be implemented with present quantum technologies.
Quantum state transfer via a two-qubit Heisenberg XXZ spin model
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Liu Jia; Zhang Guofeng [Department of Physics, Beijing University of Aeronautics and Astronautics, Beijing 100083 (China); Chen Ziyu [Department of Physics, Beijing University of Aeronautics and Astronautics, Beijing 100083 (China)], E-mail: chenzy@buaa.edu.cn
2008-04-14
Transfer of quantum states through a two-qubit Heisenberg XXZ spin model with a nonuniform magnetic field b is investigated by means of quantum theory. The influences of b, the spin exchange coupling J and the effective transfer time T=Jt on the fidelity have been studied for some different initial states. Results show that fidelity of the transferred state is determined not only by J, T and b but also by the initial state of this quantum system. Ideal information transfer can be realized for some kinds of initial states. We also found that the interactions of the z-component J{sub z} and uniform magnetic field B do not have any contribution to the fidelity. These results may be useful for quantum information processing.
Quantum state transfer via a two-qubit Heisenberg XXZ spin model
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Liu Jia; Zhang Guofeng; Chen Ziyu
2008-01-01
Transfer of quantum states through a two-qubit Heisenberg XXZ spin model with a nonuniform magnetic field b is investigated by means of quantum theory. The influences of b, the spin exchange coupling J and the effective transfer time T=Jt on the fidelity have been studied for some different initial states. Results show that fidelity of the transferred state is determined not only by J, T and b but also by the initial state of this quantum system. Ideal information transfer can be realized for some kinds of initial states. We also found that the interactions of the z-component J z and uniform magnetic field B do not have any contribution to the fidelity. These results may be useful for quantum information processing
Authenticated Quantum Key Distribution with Collective Detection using Single Photons
Huang, Wei; Xu, Bing-Jie; Duan, Ji-Tong; Liu, Bin; Su, Qi; He, Yuan-Hang; Jia, Heng-Yue
2016-10-01
We present two authenticated quantum key distribution (AQKD) protocols by utilizing the idea of collective (eavesdropping) detection. One is a two-party AQKD protocol, the other is a multiparty AQKD protocol with star network topology. In these protocols, the classical channels need not be assumed to be authenticated and the single photons are used as the quantum information carriers. To achieve mutual identity authentication and establish a random key in each of the proposed protocols, only one participant should be capable of preparing and measuring single photons, and the main quantum ability that the rest of the participants should have is just performing certain unitary operations. Security analysis shows that these protocols are free from various kinds of attacks, especially the impersonation attack and the man-in-the-middle (MITM) attack.
Quantum teleportation via a two-qubit Heisenberg XY chain-effects of anisotropy and magnetic field
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Yeo Ye [Centre for Mathematical Sciences, Wilberforce Road, Cambridge CB3 0WB (United Kingdom); Liu Tongqi [Department of Engineering, Trumpington Street, Cambridge CB3 1PZ (United Kingdom); Lu Yuen [Computer Laboratory, William Gates Building, 15 J J Thomson Avenue, Cambridge CB3 0FD (United Kingdom); Yang Qizhong [Cavendish Laboratory, Madingley Road, Cambridge CB3 0HE (United Kingdom)
2005-04-08
In this paper we study the influence of anisotropy on the usefulness of the entanglement in a two-qubit Heisenberg XY chain at thermal equilibrium in the presence of an external magnetic field, as a resource for quantum teleportation via the standard teleportation protocol. We show that the nonzero thermal entanglement produced by adjusting the external magnetic field beyond some critical strength is a useful resource. We also consider entanglement teleportation via two two-qubit Heisenberg XY chains.
Quantum teleportation via a two-qubit Heisenberg XY chain-effects of anisotropy and magnetic field
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Yeo Ye; Liu Tongqi; Lu Yuen; Yang Qizhong
2005-01-01
In this paper we study the influence of anisotropy on the usefulness of the entanglement in a two-qubit Heisenberg XY chain at thermal equilibrium in the presence of an external magnetic field, as a resource for quantum teleportation via the standard teleportation protocol. We show that the nonzero thermal entanglement produced by adjusting the external magnetic field beyond some critical strength is a useful resource. We also consider entanglement teleportation via two two-qubit Heisenberg XY chains
Multi-group dynamic quantum secret sharing with single photons
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Liu, Hongwei [School of Science and State Key Laboratory of Information Photonics and Optical Communications, Beijing University of Posts and Telecommunications, Beijing 100876 (China); Ma, Haiqiang, E-mail: hqma@bupt.edu.cn [School of Science and State Key Laboratory of Information Photonics and Optical Communications, Beijing University of Posts and Telecommunications, Beijing 100876 (China); Wei, Kejin [School of Science and State Key Laboratory of Information Photonics and Optical Communications, Beijing University of Posts and Telecommunications, Beijing 100876 (China); Yang, Xiuqing [School of Science, Beijing Jiaotong University, Beijing 100044 (China); Qu, Wenxiu; Dou, Tianqi; Chen, Yitian; Li, Ruixue; Zhu, Wu [School of Science and State Key Laboratory of Information Photonics and Optical Communications, Beijing University of Posts and Telecommunications, Beijing 100876 (China)
2016-07-15
In this letter, we propose a novel scheme for the realization of single-photon dynamic quantum secret sharing between a boss and three dynamic agent groups. In our system, the boss can not only choose one of these three groups to share the secret with, but also can share two sets of independent keys with two groups without redistribution. Furthermore, the security of communication is enhanced by using a control mode. Compared with previous schemes, our scheme is more flexible and will contribute to a practical application. - Highlights: • A multi-group dynamic quantum secret sharing with single photons scheme is proposed. • Any one of the groups can be chosen to share secret through controlling the polarization of photons. • Two sets of keys can be shared simultaneously without redistribution.
Quantum correlations of coupled superconducting two-qubit system in various cavity environments
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Yu, Yanxia; Fu, Guolan; Guo, L.P.; Pan, Hui; Wang, Z.S.
2013-01-01
Highlights: •We investigate dynamic evolutions of quantum and classical correlations for coupled superconducting system with various cavity environments. •We show that the quantum discord continues to reflect quantum information. •A transition of quantum discord is founded between classical loss and quantum increasing of correlations for a purely dephasing mode. •We show that the environment-dependent models can delay the loss of quantum discord. •We find that the results depend strongly on the initial angle. -- Abstract: Dynamic evolutions of quantum discord, concurrence, and classical correlation are investigated in coupled superconducting system with various cavity environments, focusing on the two-qubit system at an initially entangling X-state and Y-state. We find that for a smaller photon number, the quantum discord, concurrence and classical correlation show damped oscillations for all different decay modes. Differently from the sudden death or the dark and bright periods emerging in evolving processing of the concurrence and classical correlation, however, the quantum discord decreases gradually to zero. The results reveal that the quantum entanglement and classical correlation are lost, but the quantum discord continues to reflect quantum information in the same evolving period. For a larger photon number, the oscillations disappear. It is surprised that there exists a transition of quantum discord between classical loss and quantum increasing of correlations for a purely dephasing mode. For a larger photon number in the Y-state, the transition disappears. Moreover, we show that the environment-dependent models can delay the loss of quantum discord. The results depend strongly on the initial angle, which provide a clue to control the quantum gate of superconducting circuit
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Luo, Da-Wei; Xu, Jing-Bo
2014-01-01
We investigate the phenomenon of sudden transitions in geometric quantum correlation of two qubits in spin chain environments at finite temperature. It is shown that when only one qubit is coupled to the spin environment, the geometric discord exhibits a double sudden transition behavior, which is closely related to the quantum criticality of the spin chain environment. When two qubits are uniformly coupled to a common spin chain environment, the geometric discord is found to display a sudden transition behavior whereby the system transits from pure classical decoherence to pure quantum decoherence. Moreover, an interesting scaling behavior is revealed for the frozen time, and we also present a scheme to prolong the time during which the discord remains constant by applying bang–bang pulses. (paper)
Bartkiewicz, Karol; Chimczak, Grzegorz; Lemr, Karel
2017-02-01
We describe a direct method for experimental determination of the negativity of an arbitrary two-qubit state with 11 measurements performed on multiple copies of the two-qubit system. Our method is based on the experimentally accessible sequences of singlet projections performed on up to four qubit pairs. In particular, our method permits the application of the Peres-Horodecki separability criterion to an arbitrary two-qubit state. We explicitly demonstrate that measuring entanglement in terms of negativity requires three measurements more than detecting two-qubit entanglement. The reported minimal set of interferometric measurements provides a complete description of bipartite quantum entanglement in terms of two-photon interference. This set is smaller than the set of 15 measurements needed to perform a complete quantum state tomography of an arbitrary two-qubit system. Finally, we demonstrate that the set of nine Makhlin's invariants needed to express the negativity can be measured by performing 13 multicopy projections. We demonstrate both that these invariants are a useful theoretical concept for designing specialized quantum interferometers and that their direct measurement within the framework of linear optics does not require performing complete quantum state tomography.
Deterministic Single-Photon Source for Distributed Quantum Networking
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kuhn, Axel; Hennrich, Markus; Rempe, Gerhard
2002-01-01
A sequence of single photons is emitted on demand from a single three-level atom strongly coupled to a high-finesse optical cavity. The photons are generated by an adiabatically driven stimulated Raman transition between two atomic ground states, with the vacuum field of the cavity stimulating one branch of the transition, and laser pulses deterministically driving the other branch. This process is unitary and therefore intrinsically reversible, which is essential for quantum communication and networking, and the photons should be appropriate for all-optical quantum information processing
Shomroni, Itay; Rosenblum, Serge; Lovsky, Yulia; Bechler, Orel; Guendelman, Gabriel; Dayan, Barak
2014-08-22
The prospect of quantum networks, in which quantum information is carried by single photons in photonic circuits, has long been the driving force behind the effort to achieve all-optical routing of single photons. We realized a single-photon-activated switch capable of routing a photon from any of its two inputs to any of its two outputs. Our device is based on a single atom coupled to a fiber-coupled, chip-based microresonator. A single reflected control photon toggles the switch from high reflection (R ~ 65%) to high transmission (T ~ 90%), with an average of ~1.5 control photons per switching event (~3, including linear losses). No additional control fields are required. The control and target photons are both in-fiber and practically identical, making this scheme compatible with scalable architectures for quantum information processing. Copyright © 2014, American Association for the Advancement of Science.
Quantum discord for a central two-qubit system coupled to an XY-spin-chain environment
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Liu Benqiong; Shao Bin; Zou Jian
2010-01-01
We investigate the dynamic behaviors of quantum discord for a central two-qubit system coupled to an XY-spin-chain environment. In the weak-coupling regime, we show that the quantum discord for the two central qubits can become minimized rapidly close to the critical point of a quantum phase transition. By considering the two qubits that are initially prepared in the Werner state, we study the evolution of the quantum discord and that of entanglement under the same conditions. Our results imply that entanglement can disappear completely after a finite time, while the quantum discord decreases and tends to be a stable value according to the initial-state parameter for a very-long-time interval. In this sense, the quantum discord is more robust than entanglement for the quantum system exposed to the environment. The relation between the quantum correlations and the classical correlation is also shown for two particular cases.
Optimised quantum hacking of superconducting nanowire single-photon detectors.
Tanner, Michael G; Makarov, Vadim; Hadfield, Robert H
2014-03-24
We explore bright-light control of superconducting nanowire single-photon detectors (SNSPDs) in the shunted configuration (a practical measure to avoid latching). In an experiment, we simulate an illumination pattern the SNSPD would receive in a typical quantum key distribution system under hacking attack. We show that it effectively blinds and controls the SNSPD. The transient blinding illumination lasts for a fraction of a microsecond and produces several deterministic fake clicks during this time. This attack does not lead to elevated timing jitter in the spoofed output pulse, and hence does not introduce significant errors. Five different SNSPD chip designs were tested. We consider possible countermeasures to this attack.
Optimised quantum hacking of superconducting nanowire single-photon detectors
Tanner, Michael G.; Makarov, Vadim; Hadfield, Robert H.
2014-03-01
We explore bright-light control of superconducting nanowire single-photon detectors (SNSPDs) in the shunted configuration (a practical measure to avoid latching). In an experiment, we simulate an illumination pattern the SNSPD would receive in a typical quantum key distribution system under hacking attack. We show that it effectively blinds and controls the SNSPD. The transient blinding illumination lasts for a fraction of a microsecond and produces several deterministic fake clicks during this time. This attack does not lead to elevated timing jitter in the spoofed output pulse, and hence does not introduce significant errors. Five different SNSPD chip designs were tested. We consider possible countermeasures to this attack.
Quantum Secure Direct Communication with Authentication Expansion Using Single Photons
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Yang Jing; Wang Chuan; Zhang Ru
2010-01-01
In this paper we propose two quantum secure direct communication (QSDC) protocols with authentication. The authentication key expansion method is introduced to improve the life of the keys with security. In the first scheme, the third party, called Trent is introduced to authenticate the users that participate in the communication. He sends the polarized photons in blocks to authenticate communication parties Alice and Bob using the authentication keys. In the communication process, polarized single photons are used to serve as the carriers, which transmit the secret messages directly. The second QSDC process with authentication between two parties is also discussed.
Deterministic and Storable Single-Photon Source Based on a Quantum Memory
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Chen Shuai; Chen, Y.-A.; Strassel, Thorsten; Zhao Bo; Yuan Zhensheng; Pan Jianwei; Schmiedmayer, Joerg
2006-01-01
A single-photon source is realized with a cold atomic ensemble ( 87 Rb atoms). A single excitation, written in an atomic quantum memory by Raman scattering of a laser pulse, is retrieved deterministically as a single photon at a predetermined time. It is shown that the production rate of single photons can be enhanced considerably by a feedback circuit while the single-photon quality is conserved. Such a single-photon source is well suited for future large-scale realization of quantum communication and linear optical quantum computation
Quantum Correlation Properties in Two Qubits One-axis Spin Squeezing Model
Guo-Hui, Yang
2017-02-01
Using the concurrence (C) and quantum discord (QD) criterions, the quantum correlation properties in two qubits one-axis spin squeezing model with an external magnetic field are investigated. It is found that one obvious difference in the limit case T → 0 (ground state) is the sudden disappearance phenomenon (SDP) occured in the behavior of C, while not in QD. In order to further explain the SDP, we obtain the analytic expressions of ground state C and QD which reveal that the SDP is not really "entanglement sudden disappeared", it is decayed to zero very quickly. Proper tuning the parameters μ(the spin squeezing interaction in x direction) and Ω(the external magnetic field in z direction) not only can obviously broaden the scope of ground state C exists but also can enhance the value of ground state QD. For the finite temperature case, one evident difference is that the sudden birth phenomenon (SBP) is appeared in the evolution of C, while not in QD, and decreasing the coupling parameters μ or Ω can obviously prolong the time interval before entanglement sudden birth. The value of C and QD are both enhanced by increasing the parameters μ or Ω in finite temperature case. In addition, through investigating the effects of temperature T on the quantum correlation properties with the variation of Ω and μ, one can find that the temperature scope of C and QD exists are broadened with increasing the parameters μ or Ω, and one can obtain the quantum correlation at higher temperature through changing these parameters.
Quantum Dense Coding About a Two-Qubit Heisenberg XYZ Model
Xu, Hui-Yun; Yang, Guo-Hui
2017-09-01
By taking into account the nonuniform magnetic field, the quantum dense coding with thermal entangled states of a two-qubit anisotropic Heisenberg XYZ chain are investigated in detail. We mainly show the different properties about the dense coding capacity ( χ) with the changes of different parameters. It is found that dense coding capacity χ can be enhanced by decreasing the magnetic field B, the degree of inhomogeneity b and temperature T, or increasing the coupling constant along z-axis J z . In addition, we also find χ remains the stable value as the change of the anisotropy of the XY plane Δ in a certain temperature condition. Through studying different parameters effect on χ, it presents that we can properly turn the values of B, b, J z , Δ or adjust the temperature T to obtain a valid dense coding capacity ( χ satisfies χ > 1). Moreover, the temperature plays a key role in adjusting the value of dense coding capacity χ. The valid dense coding capacity could be always obtained in the lower temperature-limit case.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Hassan, Ali Saif M [Department of Physics, University of Amran, Amran (Yemen); Lari, Behzad; Joag, Pramod S, E-mail: alisaif73@gmail.co, E-mail: behzadlari1979@yahoo.co, E-mail: pramod@physics.unipune.ac.i [Department of Physics, University of Pune, Pune 411007 (India)
2010-12-03
We investigate how thermal quantum discord (QD) and classical correlations (CC) of a two-qubit one-dimensional XX Heisenberg chain in thermal equilibrium depend on the temperature of the bath as well as on nonuniform external magnetic fields applied to two qubits and varied separately. We show that the behavior of QD differs in many unexpected ways from the thermal entanglement (EOF). For the nonuniform case (B{sub 1} = -B{sub 2}), we find that QD and CC are equal for all values of (B{sub 1} = -B{sub 2}) and for different temperatures. We show that, in this case, the thermal states of the system belong to a class of mixed states and satisfy certain conditions under which QD and CC are equal. The specification of this class and the corresponding conditions are completely general and apply to any quantum system in a state in this class satisfying these conditions. We further find that the relative contributions of QD and CC can be controlled easily by changing the relative magnitudes of B{sub 1} and B{sub 2}. Finally, we connect our results with the monogamy relations between the EOF, CC and the QD of two qubits and the environment.
Quantum State Transfer from a Single Photon to a Distant Quantum-Dot Electron Spin
He, Yu; He, Yu-Ming; Wei, Yu-Jia; Jiang, Xiao; Chen, Kai; Lu, Chao-Yang; Pan, Jian-Wei; Schneider, Christian; Kamp, Martin; Höfling, Sven
2017-08-01
Quantum state transfer from flying photons to stationary matter qubits is an important element in the realization of quantum networks. Self-assembled semiconductor quantum dots provide a promising solid-state platform hosting both single photon and spin, with an inherent light-matter interface. Here, we develop a method to coherently and actively control the single-photon frequency bins in superposition using electro-optic modulators, and measure the spin-photon entanglement with a fidelity of 0.796 ±0.020 . Further, by Greenberger-Horne-Zeilinger-type state projection on the frequency, path, and polarization degrees of freedom of a single photon, we demonstrate quantum state transfer from a single photon to a single electron spin confined in an InGaAs quantum dot, separated by 5 m. The quantum state mapping from the photon's polarization to the electron's spin is demonstrated along three different axes on the Bloch sphere, with an average fidelity of 78.5%.
Elliptical quantum dots as on-demand single photons sources with deterministic polarization states
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Teng, Chu-Hsiang; Demory, Brandon; Ku, Pei-Cheng, E-mail: peicheng@umich.edu [Department of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science, University of Michigan, 1301 Beal Ave., Ann Arbor, Michigan 48105 (United States); Zhang, Lei; Hill, Tyler A.; Deng, Hui [Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of Michigan, 2350 Hayward St., Ann Arbor, Michigan 48105 (United States)
2015-11-09
In quantum information, control of the single photon's polarization is essential. Here, we demonstrate single photon generation in a pre-programmed and deterministic polarization state, on a chip-scale platform, utilizing site-controlled elliptical quantum dots (QDs) synthesized by a top-down approach. The polarization from the QD emission is found to be linear with a high degree of linear polarization and parallel to the long axis of the ellipse. Single photon emission with orthogonal polarizations is achieved, and the dependence of the degree of linear polarization on the QD geometry is analyzed.
Single-photon sources for quantum technologies - Results of the joint research project SIQUTE
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Kück, S.; López, M.; Rodiek, B.
2017-01-01
In this presentation, the results of the joint research project “Single-Photon Sources for Quantum Technologies” (SIQUTE) [1] will be presented. The focus will be on the development of absolutely characterized single-photon sources, on the realization of an efficient waveguide-based single-photon......-photon source at the telecom wavelengths of 1.3 µm and 1.55 µm, on the implementation of the quantum-enhanced resolution in confocal fluorescence microscopy and on the development of a detector for very low photon fluxes...
A highly efficient single-photon source based on a quantum dot in a photonic nanowire
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Claudon, Julien; Bleuse, Joel; Malik, Nitin Singh
2010-01-01
–4 or a semiconductor quantum dot5–7. Achieving a high extraction efficiency has long been recognized as a major issue, and both classical solutions8 and cavity quantum electrodynamics effects have been applied1,9–12. We adopt a different approach, based on an InAs quantum dot embedded in a GaAs photonic nanowire......The development of efficient solid-state sources of single photons is a major challenge in the context of quantum communication,optical quantum information processing and metrology1. Such a source must enable the implementation of a stable, single-photon emitter, like a colour centre in diamond2...
A novel high-efficiency single-mode quantum dot single photon source
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Gerard, J.M.; Gregersen, Niels; Nielsen, Torben Roland
2008-01-01
We present a novel single-mode single photon source exploiting the emission of a semiconductor quantum dot (QD) located inside a photonic wire. Besides an excellent coupling (>95%) of QD spontaneous emission to the fundamental guided mode [1], we show that a single photon collection efficiency...... above 80% within a 0.5 numerical aperture can be achieved using a bottom Bragg mirror and a tapering of the nanowire tip. Because this photon collection strategy does not exploit the Purcell effect, it could also be efficiently applied to broadband single photon emitters such as F-centers in diamond....
Single-photon counting in the 1550-nm wavelength region for quantum cryptography
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Park, Chul-Woo; Park, Jun-Bum; Park, Young-Soo; Lee, Seung-Hun; Shin, Hyun-Jun; Bae, Byung-Seong; Moon, Sung; Han, Sang-Kook
2006-01-01
In this paper, we report the measured performance of an InGaAs avalanche photodiode (APD) Module fabricated for single-photon counting. We measured the dark current noise, the after-pulse noise, and the quantum efficiency of the single- photon detector for different temperatures. We then examined our single-photon source and detection system by measuring the coincident probability. From our measurement, we observed that the after-pulse effect of the APD at temperatures below 105 .deg. C caused cascade noise build-up on the succeeding electrical signals.
Simple Atomic Quantum Memory Suitable for Semiconductor Quantum Dot Single Photons
Wolters, Janik; Buser, Gianni; Horsley, Andrew; Béguin, Lucas; Jöckel, Andreas; Jahn, Jan-Philipp; Warburton, Richard J.; Treutlein, Philipp
2017-08-01
Quantum memories matched to single photon sources will form an important cornerstone of future quantum network technology. We demonstrate such a memory in warm Rb vapor with on-demand storage and retrieval, based on electromagnetically induced transparency. With an acceptance bandwidth of δ f =0.66 GHz , the memory is suitable for single photons emitted by semiconductor quantum dots. In this regime, vapor cell memories offer an excellent compromise between storage efficiency, storage time, noise level, and experimental complexity, and atomic collisions have negligible influence on the optical coherences. Operation of the memory is demonstrated using attenuated laser pulses on the single photon level. For a 50 ns storage time, we measure ηe2 e 50 ns=3.4 (3 )% end-to-end efficiency of the fiber-coupled memory, with a total intrinsic efficiency ηint=17 (3 )%. Straightforward technological improvements can boost the end-to-end-efficiency to ηe 2 e≈35 %; beyond that, increasing the optical depth and exploiting the Zeeman substructure of the atoms will allow such a memory to approach near unity efficiency. In the present memory, the unconditional read-out noise level of 9 ×10-3 photons is dominated by atomic fluorescence, and for input pulses containing on average μ1=0.27 (4 ) photons, the signal to noise level would be unity.
Peng, Hu-Ping; Fang, Mao-Fa; Yu, Min; Zou, Hong-Mei
2018-03-01
We study the influences of quantum coherence on the positive work and the efficiency of quantum heat engine (QHE) based on working substance of two-qubit Heisenberg model under a constant external magnetic field. By using analytical and numerical solution, we give the relation expressions for both the positive work and the efficiency with quantum coherence, and in detail discuss the effects of the quantum coherence on the positive work and the efficiency of QHE in the absence or presence of external magnetic field, respectively.
Peng, Hu-Ping; Fang, Mao-Fa; Yu, Min; Zou, Hong-Mei
2018-06-01
We study the influences of quantum coherence on the positive work and the efficiency of quantum heat engine (QHE) based on working substance of two-qubit Heisenberg model under a constant external magnetic field. By using analytical and numerical solution, we give the relation expressions for both the positive work and the efficiency with quantum coherence, and in detail discuss the effects of the quantum coherence on the positive work and the efficiency of QHE in the absence or presence of external magnetic field, respectively.
Quantum dot-micropillars: a bright source of coherent single photons
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Unsleber, Sebastian; He, Yu-Ming; Maier, Sebastian
2016-01-01
We present the efficient generation of coherent single photons based on quantum dots in micropillars. We utilize a scalable lithography scheme leading to quantum dot-micropillar devices with 74% extraction efficiency. Via pulsed strict resonant pumping, we show an indistinguishability of consecut...
Universal quantum computation with the orbital angular momentum of a single photon
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
García-Escartín, Juan Carlos; Chamorro-Posada, Pedro
2011-01-01
We prove that a single photon with quantum data encoded in its orbital angular momentum can be manipulated with simple optical elements to provide any desired quantum computation. We will show how to build any quantum unitary operator using beamsplitters, phase shifters, holograms and an extraction gate based on quantum interrogation. The advantages and challenges of these approach are then discussed, in particular the problem of the readout of the results
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Nguyen, Van Hieu; Nguyen, Bich Ha; Duong, Hai Trieu
2010-01-01
For application to studying the transmission of quantum information, also called quantum communication, between two identical qubits placed inside two identical single-mode microcavities connected via a single-mode optical fiber, the time evolution of this system is investigated. In the Markovian approximation, the von Neumann equation for its reduced density matrix contains a completely positive linear operator called the Liouvillian operator describing the decoherence of this system due to its interaction with the environment. By using the Linblad formula for the Liouvillian operator, a system of rate equations can be derived. In the special case of resonance between the energy difference of two states in each qubit and the energy of the fiber mode, the rate equations for the system excited up to the first level are solved in first order approximation with respect to the decoherence constants. It is shown that when there is no decoherence, the perfect quantum state transmission between two qubits can take place if the physical parameters of the system satisfy definite conditions. A possible extension to studying the system excited to high energy states is also discussed
Quantum discord dynamics of two qubits in single-mode cavities
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Wang Chen; Chen Qing-Hu
2013-01-01
The dynamics of quantum discord for two identical qubits in two independent single-mode cavities and a common single-mode cavity are discussed. For the initial Bell state with correlated spins, while the entanglement sudden death can occur, the quantum discord vanishes only at discrete moments in the independent cavities and never vanishes in the common cavity. Interestingly, quantum discord and entanglement show opposite behavior in the common cavity, unlike in the independent cavities. For the initial Bell state with anti-correlated spins, quantum discord and entanglement behave in the same way for both independent cavities and a common cavity. It is found that the detunings always stabilize the quantum discord. (general)
Quantum Interference between Autonomous Single-Photon Sources from Doppler-Broadened Atomic Ensemble
Jeong, Teak; Lee, Yoon-Seok; Park, Jiho; Kim, Heonoh; Moon, Han Seb
2017-01-01
To realize a quantum network based on quantum entanglement swapping, bright and completely autonomous sources are essentially required. Here, we experimentally demonstrate Hong-Ou-Mandel (HOM) quantum interference between two independent bright photon pairs generated via the spontaneous four-wave mixing in Doppler-broadened ladder-type 87Rb atoms. Bright autonomous heralded single photons are operated in a continuous-wave (CW) mode with no synchronization or supplemental filters. The four-fol...
Fiber-coupled NbN superconducting single-photon detectors for quantum correlation measurements
Slysz, W.; Wegrzecki, M.; Bar, J.; Grabiec, P.; Gorska, M.; Reiger, E.; Dorenbos, S.; Zwiller, V.; Milostnaya, I.; Minaeva, O.
2007-01-01
We have fabricated fiber-coupled superconducting single-photon detectors (SSPDs), designed for quantum-correlationtype experiments. The SSPDs are nanostructured (~100-nm wide and 4-nm thick) NbN superconducting meandering stripes, operated in the 2 to 4.2 K temperature range, and known for ultrafast
Hybrid GaAs/AlGaAs Nanowire—Quantum dot System for Single Photon Sources
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Cirlin, G.; Reznik, R.; Shtrom, I.
2018-01-01
III–V nanowires, or a combination of the nanowires with quantum dots, are promising building blocks for future optoelectronic devices, in particular, single-photon emitters, lasers and photodetectors. In this work we present results of molecular beam epitaxial growth of combined nanostructures...
Generating single-photon catalyzed coherent states with quantum-optical catalysis
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Xu, Xue-xiang, E-mail: xuxuexiang@jxnu.edu.cn [Center for Quantum Science and Technology, Jiangxi Normal University, Nanchang 330022 (China); Yuan, Hong-chun [College of Electrical and Optoelectronic Engineering, Changzhou Institute of Technology, Changzhou 213002 (China)
2016-07-15
We theoretically generate single-photon catalyzed coherent states (SPCCSs) by means of quantum-optical catalysis based on the beam splitter (BS) or the parametric amplifier (PA). These states are obtained in one of the BS (or PA) output channels if a coherent state and a single-photon Fock state are present in two input ports and a single photon is registered in the other output port. The success probabilities of the detection (also the normalization factors) are discussed, which is different for BS and PA catalysis. In addition, we prove that the generated states catalyzed by BS and PA devices are actually the same quantum states after analyzing photon number distribution of the SPCCSs. The quantum properties of the SPCCSs, such as sub-Poissonian distribution, anti-bunching effect, quadrature squeezing effect, and the negativity of the Wigner function are investigated in detail. The results show that the SPCCSs are non-Gaussian states with an abundance of nonclassicality. - Highlights: • We generate single-photon catalyzed coherent states with quantum-optical catalysis. • We prove the equivalent effects of the lossless beam splitter and the non-degenerate parametric amplifier. • Some nonclassical properties of the generated states are investigated in detail.
Multiparty Quantum English Auction Scheme Using Single Photons as Message Carrier
Liu, Ge; Zhang, Jian-Zhong; Xie, Shu-Cui
2018-03-01
In this paper, a secure and economic multiparty english auction protocol using the single photons as message carrier of bids is proposed. In order to achieve unconditional security, fairness, undeniability and so on, we adopt the decoy photon checking technique and quantum encryption algorithm. Analysis result shows that our protocol satisfies all the characteristics of traditional english auction, meanwhile, it can resist malicious attacks.
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Li, H.W.; Kardynal, Beata; Ellis, D.J.P.
2008-01-01
Quantum dot resonant tunneling diode single photon detector with independently defined absorption and sensing areas is demonstrated. The device, in which the tunneling is constricted to an aperture in an insulating layer in the emitter, shows electrical characteristics typical of high quality res...
Disentanglement of two qubits coupled to an XY spin chain: Role of quantum phase transition
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Yuan Zigang; Li Shushen; Zhang Ping
2007-01-01
We study the disentanglement evolution of two spin qubits which interact with a general XY spin-chain environment. The dynamical process of the disentanglement is numerically and analytically investigated in the vicinity of a quantum phase transition (QPT) of the spin chain in both weak and strong coupling cases. We find that the disentanglement of the two spin qubits may be greatly enhanced by the quantum critical behavior of the environmental spin chain. We give a detailed analysis to facilitate the understanding of the QPT-enhanced decaying behavior of the coherence factor. Furthermore, the scaling behavior in the disentanglement dynamics is also revealed and analyzed
Novel single photon sources for new generation of quantum communications
2017-06-13
including the time for reviewing instructions, searching existing data sources, gathering and maintaining the data needed, and completing and...and enable absolutely secured information transfer between distant nodes – key prerequisite for quantum cryptography. Experiment : the experimental... format showing authors, title, journal, issue, pages, and date, for each category list the following: a) papers published in peer-reviewed journals
Efficient fiber-coupled single-photon sources based on quantum dots
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Daveau, Raphaël Sura
refrigeration with coupled quantum wells. Many photonic quantum information processing applications would benet from a highbrightness, ber-coupled source of triggered single photons. This thesis presents a study of such sources based on quantum dots coupled to unidirectional photonic-crystal waveguide devices.......6 %. This latter method opens a promising future for increasing the eciency and reliability of planar chip-based single-photon sources. Refrigeration of a solid-state system with light has potential applications for cooling small-scale electronic and photonic circuits. We show theoretically that two coupled...... semiconductor quantum wells are ecient cooling media because they support long-lived indirect electron-hole pairs. These pairs can be thermally excited to distinct higher-energy states with faster radiative recombination, thereby creating an ecient escape channel to remove thermal energy from the system. From...
Observation of quasiperiodic dynamics in a one-dimensional quantum walk of single photons in space
Xue, Peng; Qin, Hao; Tang, Bao; Sanders, Barry C.
2014-05-01
We realize the quasi-periodic dynamics of a quantum walker over 2.5 quasi-periods by realizing the walker as a single photon passing through a quantum-walk optical-interferometer network. We introduce fully controllable polarization-independent phase shifters in each optical path to realize arbitrary site-dependent phase shifts, and employ large clear-aperture beam displacers, while maintaining high-visibility interference, to enable 10 quantum-walk steps to be reached. By varying the half-wave-plate setting, we control the quantum-coin bias thereby observing a transition from quasi-periodic dynamics to ballistic diffusion.
Interference with a quantum dot single-photon source and a laser at telecom wavelength
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Felle, M. [Toshiba Research Europe Limited, Cambridge Research Laboratory, 208 Cambridge Science Park, Milton Road, Cambridge CB4 0GZ (United Kingdom); Centre for Advanced Photonics and Electronics, University of Cambridge, J.J. Thomson Avenue, Cambridge CB3 0FA (United Kingdom); Huwer, J., E-mail: jan.huwer@crl.toshiba.co.uk; Stevenson, R. M.; Skiba-Szymanska, J.; Ward, M. B.; Shields, A. J. [Toshiba Research Europe Limited, Cambridge Research Laboratory, 208 Cambridge Science Park, Milton Road, Cambridge CB4 0GZ (United Kingdom); Farrer, I.; Ritchie, D. A. [Cavendish Laboratory, University of Cambridge, J.J. Thomson Avenue, Cambridge CB3 0HE (United Kingdom); Penty, R. V. [Centre for Advanced Photonics and Electronics, University of Cambridge, J.J. Thomson Avenue, Cambridge CB3 0FA (United Kingdom)
2015-09-28
The interference of photons emitted by dissimilar sources is an essential requirement for a wide range of photonic quantum information applications. Many of these applications are in quantum communications and need to operate at standard telecommunication wavelengths to minimize the impact of photon losses and be compatible with existing infrastructure. Here, we demonstrate for the first time the quantum interference of telecom-wavelength photons from an InAs/GaAs quantum dot single-photon source and a laser; an important step towards such applications. The results are in good agreement with a theoretical model, indicating a high degree of indistinguishability for the interfering photons.
Interference with a quantum dot single-photon source and a laser at telecom wavelength
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Felle, M.; Huwer, J.; Stevenson, R. M.; Skiba-Szymanska, J.; Ward, M. B.; Shields, A. J.; Farrer, I.; Ritchie, D. A.; Penty, R. V.
2015-01-01
The interference of photons emitted by dissimilar sources is an essential requirement for a wide range of photonic quantum information applications. Many of these applications are in quantum communications and need to operate at standard telecommunication wavelengths to minimize the impact of photon losses and be compatible with existing infrastructure. Here, we demonstrate for the first time the quantum interference of telecom-wavelength photons from an InAs/GaAs quantum dot single-photon source and a laser; an important step towards such applications. The results are in good agreement with a theoretical model, indicating a high degree of indistinguishability for the interfering photons
Quantum key distribution with a single photon from a squeezed coherent state
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Matsuoka, Masahiro; Hirano, Takuya
2003-01-01
Squeezing of the coherent state by optical parametric amplifier is shown to efficiently produce single-photon states with reduced multiphoton probabilities compared with the weak coherent light. It can be a better source for a longer-distance quantum key distribution and also for other quantum optical experiments. The necessary condition for a secure quantum key distribution given by Brassard et al. is analyzed as functions of the coherent-state amplitude and squeeze parameter. Similarly, the rate of the gained secure bits G after error correction and privacy amplification given by Luetkenhaus is calculated. Compared with the weak coherent light, it is found that G is about ten times larger and its high level continues on about two times longer distance. By improvement of the detector efficiency it is shown that the distance extends further. Measurement of the intensity correlation function and the relation to photon antibunching are discussed for the experimental verification of the single-photon generation
Bright single photon source based on self-aligned quantum dot–cavity systems
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Maier, Sebastian; Gold, Peter; Forchel, Alfred
2014-01-01
We report on a quasi-planar quantum-dot-based single-photon source that shows an unprecedented high extraction efficiency of 42% without complex photonic resonator geometries or post-growth nanofabrication. This very high efficiency originates from the coupling of the photons emitted by a quantum...... dot to a Gaussian shaped nanohill defect that naturally arises during epitaxial growth in a self-aligned manner. We investigate the morphology of these defects and characterize the photonic operation mechanism. Our results show that these naturally arising coupled quantum dot-defects provide a new...... avenue for efficient (up to 42% demonstrated) and pure (g2(0) value of 0.023) single-photon emission....
Simple and efficient absorption filter for single photons from a cold atom quantum memory.
Stack, Daniel T; Lee, Patricia J; Quraishi, Qudsia
2015-03-09
The ability to filter unwanted light signals is critical to the operation of quantum memories based on neutral atom ensembles. Here we demonstrate an efficient frequency filter which uses a vapor cell filled with (85)Rb and a buffer gas to attenuate both residual laser light and noise photons by nearly two orders of magnitude with little loss to the single photons associated with our cold (87)Rb quantum memory. This simple, passive filter provides an additional 18 dB attenuation of our pump laser and erroneous spontaneous emissions for every 1 dB loss of the single photon signal. We show that the addition of a frequency filter increases the non-classical correlations and the retrieval efficiency of our quantum memory by ≈ 35%.
Long-Distance Single Photon Transmission from a Trapped Ion via Quantum Frequency Conversion
Walker, Thomas; Miyanishi, Koichiro; Ikuta, Rikizo; Takahashi, Hiroki; Vartabi Kashanian, Samir; Tsujimoto, Yoshiaki; Hayasaka, Kazuhiro; Yamamoto, Takashi; Imoto, Nobuyuki; Keller, Matthias
2018-05-01
Trapped atomic ions are ideal single photon emitters with long-lived internal states which can be entangled with emitted photons. Coupling the ion to an optical cavity enables the efficient emission of single photons into a single spatial mode and grants control over their temporal shape. These features are key for quantum information processing and quantum communication. However, the photons emitted by these systems are unsuitable for long-distance transmission due to their wavelengths. Here we report the transmission of single photons from a single 40Ca+ ion coupled to an optical cavity over a 10 km optical fiber via frequency conversion from 866 nm to the telecom C band at 1530 nm. We observe nonclassical photon statistics of the direct cavity emission, the converted photons, and the 10 km transmitted photons, as well as the preservation of the photons' temporal shape throughout. This telecommunication-ready system can be a key component for long-distance quantum communication as well as future cloud quantum computation.
Single photon emission and quantum ring-cavity coupling in InAs/GaAs quantum rings
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Gallardo, E; Nowak, A K; Sanvitto, D; Meulen, H P van der; Calleja, J M; MartInez, L J; Prieto, I; Alija, A R; Granados, D; Taboada, A G; GarcIa, J M; Postigo, P A; Sarkar, D
2010-01-01
Different InAs/GaAs quantum rings embedded in a photonic crystal microcavity are studied by quantum correlation measurements. Single photon emission, with g (2) (0) values around 0.3, is demonstrated for a quantum ring not coupled to the microcavity. Characteristic rise-times are found to be longer for excitons than for biexcitons, resulting in the time asymmetry of the exciton-biexciton cross-correlation. No antibunching is observed in another quantum ring weakly coupled to the microcavity.
Entangling quantum-logic gate operated with an ultrabright semiconductor single-photon source.
Gazzano, O; Almeida, M P; Nowak, A K; Portalupi, S L; Lemaître, A; Sagnes, I; White, A G; Senellart, P
2013-06-21
We demonstrate the unambiguous entangling operation of a photonic quantum-logic gate driven by an ultrabright solid-state single-photon source. Indistinguishable single photons emitted by a single semiconductor quantum dot in a micropillar optical cavity are used as target and control qubits. For a source brightness of 0.56 photons per pulse, the measured truth table has an overlap with the ideal case of 68.4±0.5%, increasing to 73.0±1.6% for a source brightness of 0.17 photons per pulse. The gate is entangling: At a source brightness of 0.48, the Bell-state fidelity is above the entangling threshold of 50% and reaches 71.0±3.6% for a source brightness of 0.15.
A feasible quantum optical experiment capable of refuting noncontextuality for single photons
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Cereceda, Jose L
2002-01-01
Elaborating on a previous work by Simon et al (2000 Phys. Rev. Lett. 85 1783) we propose a realizable quantum optical single-photon experiment using standard present day technology, capable of discriminating maximally between the predictions of quantum mechanics (QM) and noncontextual hidden variable theories (NCHV). Quantum mechanics predicts a gross violation (up to a factor of 2) of the noncontextual Bell-like inequality associated with the proposed experiment. An actual maximal violation of this inequality would demonstrate (modulo fair sampling) an all-or-nothing type contradiction between QM and NCHV
On-chip single photon filtering and multiplexing in hybrid quantum photonic circuits.
Elshaari, Ali W; Zadeh, Iman Esmaeil; Fognini, Andreas; Reimer, Michael E; Dalacu, Dan; Poole, Philip J; Zwiller, Val; Jöns, Klaus D
2017-08-30
Quantum light plays a pivotal role in modern science and future photonic applications. Since the advent of integrated quantum nanophotonics different material platforms based on III-V nanostructures-, colour centers-, and nonlinear waveguides as on-chip light sources have been investigated. Each platform has unique advantages and limitations; however, all implementations face major challenges with filtering of individual quantum states, scalable integration, deterministic multiplexing of selected quantum emitters, and on-chip excitation suppression. Here we overcome all of these challenges with a hybrid and scalable approach, where single III-V quantum emitters are positioned and deterministically integrated in a complementary metal-oxide-semiconductor-compatible photonic circuit. We demonstrate reconfigurable on-chip single-photon filtering and wavelength division multiplexing with a foot print one million times smaller than similar table-top approaches, while offering excitation suppression of more than 95 dB and efficient routing of single photons over a bandwidth of 40 nm. Our work marks an important step to harvest quantum optical technologies' full potential.Combining different integration platforms on the same chip is currently one of the main challenges for quantum technologies. Here, Elshaari et al. show III-V Quantum Dots embedded in nanowires operating in a CMOS compatible circuit, with controlled on-chip filtering and tunable routing.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Zhu Chang-Hua; Cao Xin; Quan Dong-Xiao; Pei Chang-Xing
2014-01-01
Linear optical quantum Fredkin gate can be applied to quantum computing and quantum multi-user communication networks. In the existing linear optical scheme, two single photon detectors (SPDs) are used to herald the success of the quantum Fredkin gate while they have no photon count. But analysis results show that for non-perfect SPD, the lower the detector efficiency, the higher the heralded success rate by this scheme is. We propose an improved linear optical quantum Fredkin gate by designing a new heralding scheme with an auxiliary qubit and only one SPD, in which the higher the detection efficiency of the heralding detector, the higher the success rate of the gate is. The new heralding scheme can also work efficiently under a non-ideal single photon source. Based on this quantum Fredkin gate, large-scale quantum switching networks can be built. As an example, a quantum Beneš network is shown in which only one SPD is used. (electromagnetism, optics, acoustics, heat transfer, classical mechanics, and fluid dynamics)
Cross correlations of quantum key distribution based on single-photon sources
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Dong Shuangli; Wang Xiaobo; Zhang Guofeng; Sun Jianhu; Zhang Fang; Xiao Liantuan; Jia Suotang
2009-01-01
We theoretically analyze the second-order correlation function in a quantum key distribution system with real single-photon sources. Based on single-event photon statistics, the influence of the modification caused by an eavesdropper's intervention and the effects of background signals on the cross correlations between authorized partners are presented. On this basis, we have shown a secure range of correlation against the intercept-resend attacks.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Yuan Hao; Song Jun; Hou Kui; Hu Xiaoyuan; Shi Shouhua; Han Lianfang
2009-01-01
We propose a scheme for sharing an arbitrary unknown two-qubit state among three parties by using a four-qubit cluster-class state and a Bell state as a quantum channel. With a quantum controlled phase gate (QCPG) operation and a local unitary operation, any one of the two agents has the access to reconstruct the original state if he/she collaborates with the other one, whilst individual agent obtains no information. As all quantum resource can be used to carry the useful information, the intrinsic efficiency of qubits approaches the maximal value. Moreover, the present scheme is more feasible with present-day technique.
Quantum interference of electrically generated single photons from a quantum dot.
Patel, Raj B; Bennett, Anthony J; Cooper, Ken; Atkinson, Paola; Nicoll, Christine A; Ritchie, David A; Shields, Andrew J
2010-07-09
Quantum interference lies at the foundation of many protocols for scalable quantum computing and communication with linear optics. To observe these effects the light source must emit photons that are indistinguishable. From a technological standpoint, it would be beneficial to have electrical control over the emission. Here we report of an electrically driven single-photon source emitting indistinguishable photons. The device consists of a layer of InAs quantum dots embedded in the intrinsic region of a p-i-n diode. Indistinguishability of consecutive photons is tested in a two-photon interference experiment under two modes of operation, continuous and pulsed current injection. We also present a complete theory based on the interference of photons with a Lorentzian spectrum which we compare to both our continuous wave and pulsed experiments. In the former case, a visibility was measured limited only by the timing resolution of our detection system. In the case of pulsed injection, we employ a two-pulse voltage sequence which suppresses multi-photon emission and allows us to carry out temporal filtering of photons which have undergone dephasing. The characteristic Hong-Ou-Mandel 'dip' is measured, resulting in a visibility of 64 +/- 4%.
Navarrete, Álvaro; Wang, Wenyuan; Xu, Feihu; Curty, Marcos
2018-04-01
The experimental characterization of multi-photon quantum interference effects in optical networks is essential in many applications of photonic quantum technologies, which include quantum computing and quantum communication as two prominent examples. However, such characterization often requires technologies which are beyond our current experimental capabilities, and today's methods suffer from errors due to the use of imperfect sources and photodetectors. In this paper, we introduce a simple experimental technique to characterize multi-photon quantum interference by means of practical laser sources and threshold single-photon detectors. Our technique is based on well-known methods in quantum cryptography which use decoy settings to tightly estimate the statistics provided by perfect devices. As an illustration of its practicality, we use this technique to obtain a tight estimation of both the generalized Hong‑Ou‑Mandel dip in a beamsplitter with six input photons and the three-photon coincidence probability at the output of a tritter.
High-dimensional quantum key distribution with the entangled single-photon-added coherent state
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Wang, Yang [Zhengzhou Information Science and Technology Institute, Zhengzhou, 450001 (China); Synergetic Innovation Center of Quantum Information and Quantum Physics, University of Science and Technology of China, Hefei, Anhui 230026 (China); Bao, Wan-Su, E-mail: 2010thzz@sina.com [Zhengzhou Information Science and Technology Institute, Zhengzhou, 450001 (China); Synergetic Innovation Center of Quantum Information and Quantum Physics, University of Science and Technology of China, Hefei, Anhui 230026 (China); Bao, Hai-Ze; Zhou, Chun; Jiang, Mu-Sheng; Li, Hong-Wei [Zhengzhou Information Science and Technology Institute, Zhengzhou, 450001 (China); Synergetic Innovation Center of Quantum Information and Quantum Physics, University of Science and Technology of China, Hefei, Anhui 230026 (China)
2017-04-25
High-dimensional quantum key distribution (HD-QKD) can generate more secure bits for one detection event so that it can achieve long distance key distribution with a high secret key capacity. In this Letter, we present a decoy state HD-QKD scheme with the entangled single-photon-added coherent state (ESPACS) source. We present two tight formulas to estimate the single-photon fraction of postselected events and Eve's Holevo information and derive lower bounds on the secret key capacity and the secret key rate of our protocol. We also present finite-key analysis for our protocol by using the Chernoff bound. Our numerical results show that our protocol using one decoy state can perform better than that of previous HD-QKD protocol with the spontaneous parametric down conversion (SPDC) using two decoy states. Moreover, when considering finite resources, the advantage is more obvious. - Highlights: • Implement the single-photon-added coherent state source into the high-dimensional quantum key distribution. • Enhance both the secret key capacity and the secret key rate compared with previous schemes. • Show an excellent performance in view of statistical fluctuations.
High-dimensional quantum key distribution with the entangled single-photon-added coherent state
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Wang, Yang; Bao, Wan-Su; Bao, Hai-Ze; Zhou, Chun; Jiang, Mu-Sheng; Li, Hong-Wei
2017-01-01
High-dimensional quantum key distribution (HD-QKD) can generate more secure bits for one detection event so that it can achieve long distance key distribution with a high secret key capacity. In this Letter, we present a decoy state HD-QKD scheme with the entangled single-photon-added coherent state (ESPACS) source. We present two tight formulas to estimate the single-photon fraction of postselected events and Eve's Holevo information and derive lower bounds on the secret key capacity and the secret key rate of our protocol. We also present finite-key analysis for our protocol by using the Chernoff bound. Our numerical results show that our protocol using one decoy state can perform better than that of previous HD-QKD protocol with the spontaneous parametric down conversion (SPDC) using two decoy states. Moreover, when considering finite resources, the advantage is more obvious. - Highlights: • Implement the single-photon-added coherent state source into the high-dimensional quantum key distribution. • Enhance both the secret key capacity and the secret key rate compared with previous schemes. • Show an excellent performance in view of statistical fluctuations.
Electrically pumped single-photon emission at room temperature from a single InGaN/GaN quantum dot
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Deshpande, Saniya; Frost, Thomas; Hazari, Arnab; Bhattacharya, Pallab, E-mail: pkb@eecs.umich.edu [Center for Photonics and Multiscale Nanomaterials, Department of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science, University of Michigan, 1301 Beal Avenue, Ann Arbor, Michigan 48109 (United States)
2014-10-06
We demonstrate a semiconductor quantum dot based electrically pumped single-photon source operating at room temperature. Single photons emitted in the red spectral range from single In{sub 0.4}Ga{sub 0.6}N/GaN quantum dots exhibit a second-order correlation value g{sup (2)}(0) of 0.29, and fast recombination lifetime ∼1.3 ±0.3 ns at room temperature. The single-photon source can be driven at an excitation repetition rate of 200 MHz.
Highly efficient photonic nanowire single-photon sources for quantum information applications
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Gregersen, Niels; Claudon, J.; Munsch, M.
2013-01-01
to a collection efficiency of only 1-2 %, and efficient light extraction thus poses a major challenge in SPS engineering. Initial efforts to improve the efficiency have exploited cavity quantum electrodynamics (cQED) to efficiently couple the emitted photons to the optical cavity mode. An alternative approach......Within the emerging field of optical quantum information processing, the current challenge is to construct the basic building blocks for the quantum computing and communication systems. A key component is the singlephoton source (SPS) capable of emitting single photons on demand. Ideally, the SPS...... must feature near-unity efficiency, where the efficiency is defined as the number of detected photons per trigger, the probability g(2)(τ=0) of multi-photon emission events should be 0 and the emitted photons are required to be indistinguishable. An optically or electrically triggered quantum light...
Fundamental limits to single-photon detection determined by quantum coherence and backaction
Young, Steve M.; Sarovar, Mohan; Léonard, François
2018-03-01
Single-photon detectors have achieved impressive performance and have led to a number of new scientific discoveries and technological applications. Existing models of photodetectors are semiclassical in that the field-matter interaction is treated perturbatively and time-separated from physical processes in the absorbing matter. An open question is whether a fully quantum detector, whereby the optical field, the optical absorption, and the amplification are considered as one quantum system, could have improved performance. Here we develop a theoretical model of such photodetectors and employ simulations to reveal the critical role played by quantum coherence and amplification backaction in dictating the performance. We show that coherence and backaction lead to trade-offs between detector metrics and also determine optimal system designs through control of the quantum-classical interface. Importantly, we establish the design parameters that result in a ideal photodetector with 100% efficiency, no dark counts, and minimal jitter, thus paving the route for next-generation detectors.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Wang Chao; Liu Jian-Wei; Liu Xiao; Shang Tao
2013-01-01
A novel deterministic secure quantum communication (DSQC) scheme is presented based on Einstein-Podolsky-Rosen (EPR) pairs and single photons in this study. In this scheme, the secret message can be encoded directly on the first particles of the prepared Bell states by simple unitary operations and decoded by performing the Bell-basis measurement after the additional classic information is exchanged. In addition, the strategy with two-step transmission of quantum data blocks and the technique of decoy-particle checking both are exploited to guarantee the security of the communication. Compared with some previous DSQC schemes, this scheme not only has a higher resource capacity, intrinsic efficiency and total efficiency, but also is more realizable in practical applications. Security analysis shows that the proposed scheme is unconditionally secure against various attacks over an ideal quantum channel and still conditionally robust over a noisy and lossy quantum channel. (general)
Quantum and classical control of single photon states via a mechanical resonator
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Basiri-Esfahani, Sahar; Myers, Casey R; Combes, Joshua; Milburn, G J
2016-01-01
Optomechanical systems typically use light to control the quantum state of a mechanical resonator. In this paper, we propose a scheme for controlling the quantum state of light using the mechanical degree of freedom as a controlled beam splitter. Preparing the mechanical resonator in non-classical states enables an optomechanical Stern–Gerlach interferometer. When the mechanical resonator has a small coherent amplitude it acts as a quantum control, entangling the optical and mechanical degrees of freedom. As the coherent amplitude of the resonator increases, we recover single photon and two-photon interference via a classically controlled beam splitter. The visibility of the two-photon interference is particularly sensitive to coherent excitations in the mechanical resonator and this could form the basis of an optically transduced weak-force sensor. (paper)
Weng, Qianchun; An, Zhenghua; Zhang, Bo; Chen, Pingping; Chen, Xiaoshuang; Zhu, Ziqiang; Lu, Wei
2015-03-23
Low-noise single-photon detectors that can resolve photon numbers are used to monitor the operation of quantum gates in linear-optical quantum computation. Exactly 0, 1 or 2 photons registered in a detector should be distinguished especially in long-distance quantum communication and quantum computation. Here we demonstrate a photon-number-resolving detector based on quantum dot coupled resonant tunneling diodes (QD-cRTD). Individual quantum-dots (QDs) coupled closely with adjacent quantum well (QW) of resonant tunneling diode operate as photon-gated switches- which turn on (off) the RTD tunneling current when they trap photon-generated holes (recombine with injected electrons). Proposed electron-injecting operation fills electrons into coupled QDs which turn "photon-switches" to "OFF" state and make the detector ready for multiple-photons detection. With proper decision regions defined, 1-photon and 2-photon states are resolved in 4.2 K with excellent propabilities of accuracy of 90% and 98% respectively. Further, by identifying step-like photon responses, the photon-number-resolving capability is sustained to 77 K, making the detector a promising candidate for advanced quantum information applications where photon-number-states should be accurately distinguished.
High-Dimensional Single-Photon Quantum Gates: Concepts and Experiments.
Babazadeh, Amin; Erhard, Manuel; Wang, Feiran; Malik, Mehul; Nouroozi, Rahman; Krenn, Mario; Zeilinger, Anton
2017-11-03
Transformations on quantum states form a basic building block of every quantum information system. From photonic polarization to two-level atoms, complete sets of quantum gates for a variety of qubit systems are well known. For multilevel quantum systems beyond qubits, the situation is more challenging. The orbital angular momentum modes of photons comprise one such high-dimensional system for which generation and measurement techniques are well studied. However, arbitrary transformations for such quantum states are not known. Here we experimentally demonstrate a four-dimensional generalization of the Pauli X gate and all of its integer powers on single photons carrying orbital angular momentum. Together with the well-known Z gate, this forms the first complete set of high-dimensional quantum gates implemented experimentally. The concept of the X gate is based on independent access to quantum states with different parities and can thus be generalized to other photonic degrees of freedom and potentially also to other quantum systems.
Direct generation of linearly polarized single photons with a deterministic axis in quantum dots
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Wang Tong
2017-07-01
Full Text Available We report the direct generation of linearly polarized single photons with a deterministic polarization axis in self-assembled quantum dots (QDs, achieved by the use of non-polar InGaN without complex device geometry engineering. Here, we present a comprehensive investigation of the polarization properties of these QDs and their origin with statistically significant experimental data and rigorous k·p modeling. The experimental study of 180 individual QDs allows us to compute an average polarization degree of 0.90, with a standard deviation of only 0.08. When coupled with theoretical insights, we show that these QDs are highly insensitive to size differences, shape anisotropies, and material content variations. Furthermore, 91% of the studied QDs exhibit a polarization axis along the crystal [1–100] axis, with the other 9% polarized orthogonal to this direction. These features give non-polar InGaN QDs unique advantages in polarization control over other materials, such as conventional polar nitride, InAs, or CdSe QDs. Hence, the ability to generate single photons with polarization control makes non-polar InGaN QDs highly attractive for quantum cryptography protocols.
Direct generation of linearly polarized single photons with a deterministic axis in quantum dots
Wang, Tong; Puchtler, Tim J.; Patra, Saroj K.; Zhu, Tongtong; Ali, Muhammad; Badcock, Tom J.; Ding, Tao; Oliver, Rachel A.; Schulz, Stefan; Taylor, Robert A.
2017-07-01
We report the direct generation of linearly polarized single photons with a deterministic polarization axis in self-assembled quantum dots (QDs), achieved by the use of non-polar InGaN without complex device geometry engineering. Here, we present a comprehensive investigation of the polarization properties of these QDs and their origin with statistically significant experimental data and rigorous k·p modeling. The experimental study of 180 individual QDs allows us to compute an average polarization degree of 0.90, with a standard deviation of only 0.08. When coupled with theoretical insights, we show that these QDs are highly insensitive to size differences, shape anisotropies, and material content variations. Furthermore, 91% of the studied QDs exhibit a polarization axis along the crystal [1-100] axis, with the other 9% polarized orthogonal to this direction. These features give non-polar InGaN QDs unique advantages in polarization control over other materials, such as conventional polar nitride, InAs, or CdSe QDs. Hence, the ability to generate single photons with polarization control makes non-polar InGaN QDs highly attractive for quantum cryptography protocols.
Paudel, Uttam
Over the past decade, much effort has been made in identifying and characterizing systems that can form a building block of quantum networks, among which semiconductor quantum dots (QD) and spontaneous parametric down-conversion (SPDC) source are two of the most promising candidates. The work presented in this thesis will be centered on investigating and engineering the mentioned systems for generating customizable single photons. A type-II SPDC source can generate a highly flexible pair of entangled photons that can be used to interface disparate quantum systems. In this thesis, we have successfully implemented a cavity-SPDC source that emits polarization correlated photons at 942 nm with a lifetime of 950-1050ps that mode matches closely with InAs/GaAs QD photons. The source emits 80 photon pairs per second per mW pump power within the 150MHz bandwidth. Though the detection of idler photons, the source is capable of emitting heralded photons with g2?0.5 for up to 40 mW pump power. For a low pump power of 5 mW, the heralded g2 is 0.06, indicating that the system is an excellent heralded single photon source. By directly exciting a single QD with cavity-SPDC photons, we have demonstrated a heralded-absorption of SPDC photons by QD, resulting in the coupling of the two systems. Due to the large pump bandwidth, the emitted source is highly multimode in nature, requiring us to post-filter the downconverted field, resulting in a lower photon pair emission rate. We propose placing an intra-cavity etalon to suppress the multi-mode emissions and increase the photon count rate. Understanding and experimentally implementing two-photon interference (HOM) measurements will be crucial for building a scalable quantum network. A detailed theoretical description of HOM measurements is given and is experimentally demonstrated using photons emitted by QD. Through HOM measurements we demonstrated that the QD sample in the study is capable of emitting indistinguishable photons, with
Rivas, David; Muñoz-Matutano, Guillermo; Canet-Ferrer, Josep; García-Calzada, Raúl; Trevisi, Giovanna; Seravalli, Luca; Frigeri, Paola; Martínez-Pastor, Juan P
2014-02-12
In this work, we propose the use of the Hanbury-Brown and Twiss interferometric technique and a switchable two-color excitation method for evaluating the exciton and noncorrelated electron-hole dynamics associated with single photon emission from indium arsenide (InAs) self-assembled quantum dots (QDs). Using a microstate master equation model we demonstrate that our single QDs are described by nonlinear exciton dynamics. The simultaneous detection of two-color, single photon emission from InAs QDs using these nonlinear dynamics was used to design a NOT AND logic transference function. This computational functionality combines the advantages of working with light/photons as input/output device parameters (all-optical system) and that of a nanodevice (QD size of ∼ 20 nm) while also providing high optical sensitivity (ultralow optical power operational requirements). These system features represent an important and interesting step toward the development of new prototypes for the incoming quantum information technologies.
Storage of multiple single-photon pulses emitted from a quantum dot in a solid-state quantum memory
Tang, Jian-Shun; Zhou, Zong-Quan; Wang, Yi-Tao; Li, Yu-Long; Liu, Xiao; Hua, Yi-Lin; Zou, Yang; Wang, Shuang; He, De-Yong; Chen, Geng; Sun, Yong-Nan; Yu, Ying; Li, Mi-Feng; Zha, Guo-Wei; Ni, Hai-Qiao; Niu, Zhi-Chuan; Li, Chuan-Feng; Guo, Guang-Can
2015-01-01
Quantum repeaters are critical components for distributing entanglement over long distances in presence of unavoidable optical losses during transmission. Stimulated by the Duan–Lukin–Cirac–Zoller protocol, many improved quantum repeater protocols based on quantum memories have been proposed, which commonly focus on the entanglement-distribution rate. Among these protocols, the elimination of multiple photons (or multiple photon-pairs) and the use of multimode quantum memory are demonstrated to have the ability to greatly improve the entanglement-distribution rate. Here, we demonstrate the storage of deterministic single photons emitted from a quantum dot in a polarization-maintaining solid-state quantum memory; in addition, multi-temporal-mode memory with 1, 20 and 100 narrow single-photon pulses is also demonstrated. Multi-photons are eliminated, and only one photon at most is contained in each pulse. Moreover, the solid-state properties of both sub-systems make this configuration more stable and easier to be scalable. Our work will be helpful in the construction of efficient quantum repeaters based on all-solid-state devices. PMID:26468996
Superconducting Single Photon Detectors
Dorenbos, S.N.
2011-01-01
This thesis is about the development of a detector for single photons, particles of light. New techniques are being developed that require high performance single photon detection, such as quantum cryptography, single molecule detection, optical radar, ballistic imaging, circuit testing and
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Lukishova, S.G.; Knox, R.P.; Freivald, P.; McNamara, A.; Boyd, R.W.; Stroud, Jr. C.R.; Schmid, A.W.; Marshall, K.L.
2006-01-01
This paper describes a new application for liquid crystals: quantum information technology. A deterministically polarized single-photon source that efficiently produces photons exhibiting antibunching is a pivotal hardware element in absolutely secure quantum communication. Planar-aligned nematic liquid crystal hosts deterministically align the single dye molecules which produce deterministically polarized single (antibunched) photons. In addition, 1-D photonic bandgap cholesteric liquid crystals will increase single-photon source efficiency. The experiments and challenges in the observation of deterministically polarized fluorescence from single dye molecules in planar-aligned glassy nematic-liquid-crystal oligomer as well as photon antibunching in glassy cholesteric oligomer are described for the first time
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Gerhardt, Stefan; Iles-Smith, Jake; McCutcheon, Dara
2018-01-01
We report a joint experimental and theoretical study of the interference properties of a single-photon source based on a In(Ga)As quantum dot embedded in a quasiplanar GaAs microcavity. Using resonant laser excitation with a pulse separation of 2 ns, we find near-perfect interference of the emitt...... in excitonic Rabi oscillations....
Efficient fiber-coupled single-photon source based on quantum dots in a photonic-crystal waveguide
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Daveau, Raphaël S.; Balram, Krishna C.; Pregnolato, Tommaso
2017-01-01
Many photonic quantum information processing applications would benefit from a high brightness, fiber-coupled source of triggered single photons. Here, we present a fiber-coupled photonic-crystal waveguide (PCWG) singlephoton source relying on evanescent coupling of the light field from a tapered...
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Nielsen, Per Kær; Nielsen, Torben Roland; Lodahl, Peter
2009-01-01
Since it was realized that efficient quantum computing can be performed using single photons and standard linear optics elements, immense international research activity has been aimed at developing semiconductor quantum dot (QD) single-photon sources (SPS). In order to optimise the design of SPS...... us to study complicated multi-level QDs, not possible within the commonly used independent boson model (IBM)....
Microwave-Controlled Generation of Shaped Single Photons in Circuit Quantum Electrodynamics
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
M. Pechal
2014-10-01
Full Text Available Large-scale quantum information processors or quantum communication networks will require reliable exchange of information between spatially separated nodes. The links connecting these nodes can be established using traveling photons that need to be absorbed at the receiving node with high efficiency. This is achievable by shaping the temporal profile of the photons and absorbing them at the receiver by time reversing the emission process. Here, we demonstrate a scheme for creating shaped microwave photons using a superconducting transmon-type three-level system coupled to a transmission line resonator. In a second-order process induced by a modulated microwave drive, we controllably transfer a single excitation from the third level of the transmon to the resonator and shape the emitted photon. We reconstruct the density matrices of the created single-photon states and show that the photons are antibunched. We also create multipeaked photons with a controlled amplitude and phase. In contrast to similar existing schemes, the one we present here is based solely on microwave drives, enabling operation with fixed frequency transmons.
Single-Photon Technologies Based on Quantum-Dots in Photonic Crystals
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Lehmann, Tau Bernstorff
-photon purity under quasi-resonantexcitation. Furthermore the waveguide based platform demonstrates indistinguishable single-photonsat timescales up to 13 ns.A setup for active demultiplexing of single-photons to a three-fold single-photon state is proposed.Using a fast electro-optical modulator, single...
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Nielsen, Per Kær; Lodahl, Peter; Jauho, Antti-Pekka
2013-01-01
We study the fundamental limit on single-photon indistinguishability imposed by decoherence due to phonon interactions in semiconductor quantum dot-cavity quantum electrodynamics systems. Employing an exact diagonalization approach we find large differences compared to standard methods...
Wei, Yu-Jia; He, Yu-Ming; Chen, Ming-Cheng; Hu, Yi-Nan; He, Yu; Wu, Dian; Schneider, Christian; Kamp, Martin; Höfling, Sven; Lu, Chao-Yang; Pan, Jian-Wei
2014-11-12
Single photons are attractive candidates of quantum bits (qubits) for quantum computation and are the best messengers in quantum networks. Future scalable, fault-tolerant photonic quantum technologies demand both stringently high levels of photon indistinguishability and generation efficiency. Here, we demonstrate deterministic and robust generation of pulsed resonance fluorescence single photons from a single semiconductor quantum dot using adiabatic rapid passage, a method robust against fluctuation of driving pulse area and dipole moments of solid-state emitters. The emitted photons are background-free, have a vanishing two-photon emission probability of 0.3% and a raw (corrected) two-photon Hong-Ou-Mandel interference visibility of 97.9% (99.5%), reaching a precision that places single photons at the threshold for fault-tolerant surface-code quantum computing. This single-photon source can be readily scaled up to multiphoton entanglement and used for quantum metrology, boson sampling, and linear optical quantum computing.
Yu, Leo; Natarajan, Chandra M; Horikiri, Tomoyuki; Langrock, Carsten; Pelc, Jason S; Tanner, Michael G; Abe, Eisuke; Maier, Sebastian; Schneider, Christian; Höfling, Sven; Kamp, Martin; Hadfield, Robert H; Fejer, Martin M; Yamamoto, Yoshihisa
2015-11-24
Practical quantum communication between remote quantum memories rely on single photons at telecom wavelengths. Although spin-photon entanglement has been demonstrated in atomic and solid-state qubit systems, the produced single photons at short wavelengths and with polarization encoding are not suitable for long-distance communication, because they suffer from high propagation loss and depolarization in optical fibres. Establishing entanglement between remote quantum nodes would further require the photons generated from separate nodes to be indistinguishable. Here, we report the observation of correlations between a quantum-dot spin and a telecom single photon across a 2-km fibre channel based on time-bin encoding and background-free frequency downconversion. The downconverted photon at telecom wavelengths exhibits two-photon interference with another photon from an independent source, achieving a mean wavepacket overlap of greater than 0.89 despite their original wavelength mismatch (900 and 911 nm). The quantum-networking operations that we demonstrate will enable practical communication between solid-state spin qubits across long distances.
Boosting up quantum key distribution by learning statistics of practical single-photon sources
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Adachi, Yoritoshi; Yamamoto, Takashi; Koashi, Masato; Imoto, Nobuyuki
2009-01-01
We propose a simple quantum-key-distribution (QKD) scheme for practical single-photon sources (SPSs), which works even with a moderate suppression of the second-order correlation g (2) of the source. The scheme utilizes a passive preparation of a decoy state by monitoring a fraction of the signal via an additional beam splitter and a detector at the sender's side to monitor photon-number splitting attacks. We show that the achievable distance increases with the precision with which the sub-Poissonian tendency is confirmed in higher photon-number distribution of the source, rather than with actual suppression of the multiphoton emission events. We present an example of the secure key generation rate in the case of a poor SPS with g (2) =0.19, in which no secure key is produced with the conventional QKD scheme, and show that learning the photon-number distribution up to several numbers is sufficient for achieving almost the same distance as that of an ideal SPS.
Brezinski, M E
2018-01-01
Optical coherence tomography has become an important imaging technology in cardiology and ophthalmology, with other applications under investigations. Major advances in optical coherence tomography (OCT) imaging are likely to occur through a quantum field approach to the technology. In this paper, which is the first part in a series on the topic, the quantum basis of OCT first order correlations is expressed in terms of full field quantization. Specifically first order correlations are treated as the linear sum of single photon interferences along indistinguishable paths. Photons and the electromagnetic (EM) field are described in terms of quantum harmonic oscillators. While the author feels the study of quantum second order correlations will lead to greater paradigm shifts in the field, addressed in part II, advances from the study of quantum first order correlations are given. In particular, ranging errors are discussed (with remedies) from vacuum fluctuations through the detector port, photon counting errors, and position probability amplitude uncertainty. In addition, the principles of quantum field theory and first order correlations are needed for studying second order correlations in part II.
Brezinski, ME
2018-01-01
Optical coherence tomography has become an important imaging technology in cardiology and ophthalmology, with other applications under investigations. Major advances in optical coherence tomography (OCT) imaging are likely to occur through a quantum field approach to the technology. In this paper, which is the first part in a series on the topic, the quantum basis of OCT first order correlations is expressed in terms of full field quantization. Specifically first order correlations are treated as the linear sum of single photon interferences along indistinguishable paths. Photons and the electromagnetic (EM) field are described in terms of quantum harmonic oscillators. While the author feels the study of quantum second order correlations will lead to greater paradigm shifts in the field, addressed in part II, advances from the study of quantum first order correlations are given. In particular, ranging errors are discussed (with remedies) from vacuum fluctuations through the detector port, photon counting errors, and position probability amplitude uncertainty. In addition, the principles of quantum field theory and first order correlations are needed for studying second order correlations in part II.
Room-Temperature Single-Photon Source for Secure Quantum Communication
National Aeronautics and Space Administration — We are asking for four years of support for PhD student Justin Winkler's work on a research project entitled "Room temperature single photon source for secure...
Nearly Blinking-Free, High-Purity Single-Photon Emission by Colloidal InP/ZnSe Quantum Dots.
Chandrasekaran, Vigneshwaran; Tessier, Mickaël D; Dupont, Dorian; Geiregat, Pieter; Hens, Zeger; Brainis, Edouard
2017-10-11
Colloidal core/shell InP/ZnSe quantum dots (QDs), recently produced using an improved synthesis method, have a great potential in life-science applications as well as in integrated quantum photonics and quantum information processing as single-photon emitters. Single-particle spectroscopy of 10 nm QDs with 3.2 nm cores reveals strong photon antibunching attributed to fast (70 ps) Auger recombination of multiple excitons. The QDs exhibit very good photostability under strong optical excitation. We demonstrate that the antibunching is preserved when the QDs are excited above the saturation intensity of the fundamental-exciton transition. This result paves the way toward their usage as high-purity on-demand single-photon emitters at room temperature. Unconventionally, despite the strong Auger blockade mechanism, InP/ZnSe QDs also display very little luminescence intermittency ("blinking"), with a simple on/off blinking pattern. The analysis of single-particle luminescence statistics places these InP/ZnSe QDs in the class of nearly blinking-free QDs, with emission stability comparable to state-of-the-art thick-shell and alloyed-interface CdSe/CdS, but with improved single-photon purity.
Bright quantum dot single photon source based on a low Q defect cavity
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Maier, Sebastian; Gold, Peter; Forchel, A.
2014-01-01
The quasi-planar single photon source presented in this paper shows an extraction efficiency of 42% without complex photonic resonator geometries or lithography steps as well as a high purity with a g2(0) value of 0.023.......The quasi-planar single photon source presented in this paper shows an extraction efficiency of 42% without complex photonic resonator geometries or lithography steps as well as a high purity with a g2(0) value of 0.023....
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Gregersen, Niels; Munsch, Mathieu; Malik, Nitin S.
2013-01-01
Efficient coupling between a localized quantum emitter and a well defined optical channel represents a powerful route to realize single-photon sources and spin-photon interfaces. The tailored fiber-like photonic nanowire embedding a single quantum dot has recently demonstrated an appealing...... potential. However, the device requires a delicate, sharp needle-like taper with performance sensitive to minute geometrical details. To overcome this limitation we demonstrate the photonic trumpet, exploiting an opposite tapering strategy. The trumpet features a strongly Gaussian far-field emission...
Singh, Manu Pratap; Rajput, B. S.
2016-03-01
Recall operations of quantum associative memory (QuAM) have been conducted separately through evolutionary as well as non-evolutionary processes in terms of unitary and non- unitary operators respectively by separately choosing our recently derived maximally entangled states (Singh-Rajput MES) and Bell's MES as memory states for various queries and it has been shown that in each case the choices of Singh-Rajput MES as valid memory states are much more suitable than those of Bell's MES. it has been demonstrated that in both the types of recall processes the first and the fourth states of Singh-Rajput MES are most suitable choices as memory states for the queries `11' and `00' respectively while none of the Bell's MES is a suitable choice as valid memory state in these recall processes. It has been demonstrated that all the four states of Singh-Rajput MES are suitable choice as valid memory states for the queries `1?', `?1', `?0' and `0?' while none of the Bell's MES is suitable choice as the valid memory state for these queries also.
Hosseini, Mahdi
Our ability to engineer quantum states of light and matter has significantly advanced over the past two decades, resulting in the production of both Gaussian and non-Gaussian optical states. The resulting tailored quantum states enable quantum technologies such as quantum optical communication, quantum sensing as well as quantum photonic computation. The strong nonlinear light-atom interaction is the key to deterministic quantum state preparation and quantum photonic processing. One route to enhancing the usually weak nonlinear light-atom interactions is to approach the regime of cavity quantum electrodynamics (cQED) interaction by means of high finesse optical resonators. I present results from the MIT experiment of large conditional cross-phase modulation between a signal photon, stored inside an atomic quantum memory, and a control photon that traverses a high-finesse optical cavity containing the atomic memory. I also present a scheme to probabilistically change the amplitude and phase of a signal photon qubit to, in principle, arbitrary values by postselection on a control photon that has interacted with that state. Notably, small changes of the control photon polarization measurement basis by few degrees can substantially change the amplitude and phase of the signal state. Finally, I present our ongoing effort at Purdue to realize similar peculiar quantum phenomena at the single photon level on chip scale photonic systems.
Gatemon Benchmarking and Two-Qubit Operation
Casparis, Lucas; Larsen, Thorvald; Olsen, Michael; Petersson, Karl; Kuemmeth, Ferdinand; Krogstrup, Peter; Nygard, Jesper; Marcus, Charles
Recent experiments have demonstrated superconducting transmon qubits with semiconductor nanowire Josephson junctions. These hybrid gatemon qubits utilize field effect tunability singular to semiconductors to allow complete qubit control using gate voltages, potentially a technological advantage over conventional flux-controlled transmons. Here, we present experiments with a two-qubit gatemon circuit. We characterize qubit coherence and stability and use randomized benchmarking to demonstrate single-qubit gate errors of ~0.5 % for all gates, including voltage-controlled Z rotations. We show coherent capacitive coupling between two gatemons and coherent SWAP operations. Finally, we perform a two-qubit controlled-phase gate with an estimated fidelity of ~91 %, demonstrating the potential of gatemon qubits for building scalable quantum processors. We acknowledge financial support from Microsoft Project Q and the Danish National Research Foundation.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Lounis, Brahim; Orrit, Michel
2005-01-01
The concept of the photon, central to Einstein's explanation of the photoelectric effect, is exactly 100 years old. Yet, while photons have been detected individually for more than 50 years, devices producing individual photons on demand have only appeared in the last few years. New concepts for single-photon sources, or 'photon guns', have originated from recent progress in the optical detection, characterization and manipulation of single quantum objects. Single emitters usually deliver photons one at a time. This so-called antibunching of emitted photons can arise from various mechanisms, but ensures that the probability of obtaining two or more photons at the same time remains negligible. We briefly recall basic concepts in quantum optics and discuss potential applications of single-photon states to optical processing of quantum information: cryptography, computing and communication. A photon gun's properties are significantly improved by coupling it to a resonant cavity mode, either in the Purcell or strong-coupling regimes. We briefly recall early production of single photons with atomic beams, and the operation principles of macroscopic parametric sources, which are used in an overwhelming majority of quantum-optical experiments. We then review the photophysical and spectroscopic properties and compare the advantages and weaknesses of various single nanometre-scale objects used as single-photon sources: atoms or ions in the gas phase and, in condensed matter, organic molecules, defect centres, semiconductor nanocrystals and heterostructures. As new generations of sources are developed, coupling to cavities and nano-fabrication techniques lead to improved characteristics, delivery rates and spectral ranges. Judging from the brisk pace of recent progress, we expect single photons to soon proceed from demonstrations to applications and to bring with them the first practical uses of quantum information
High-fidelity teleportation of continuous-variable quantum States using delocalized single photons
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Andersen, Ulrik L; Ralph, Timothy C
2013-01-01
Traditional continuous-variable teleportation can only approach unit fidelity in the limit of an infinite (and unphysical) amount of squeezing. We describe a new method for continuous-variable teleportation that approaches unit fidelity with finite resources. The protocol is not based on squeezed...... states as in traditional teleportation but on an ensemble of single photon entangled states. We characterize the teleportation scheme with coherent states, mesoscopic superposition states, and two-mode squeezed states and we find several situations in which near-unity teleportation fidelity can...
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Hach, Edwin E. III; Elshaari, Ali W.; Preble, Stefan F.
2010-01-01
We analyze the dynamics of single-photon transport in a single-mode waveguide coupled to a micro-optical resonator by using a fully quantum-mechanical model. We examine the propagation of a single-photon Gaussian packet through the system under various coupling conditions. We review the theory of single-photon transport phenomena as applied to the system and we develop a discussion on the numerical technique we used to solve for dynamical behavior of the quantized field. To demonstrate our method and to establish robust single-photon results, we study the process of adiabatically lowering or raising the energy of a single photon trapped in an optical resonator under active tuning of the resonator. We show that our fully quantum-mechanical approach reproduces the semiclassical result in the appropriate limit and that the adiabatic invariant has the same form in each case. Finally, we explore the trapping of a single photon in a system of dynamically tuned, coupled optical cavities.
Integrated nanoplasmonic quantum interfaces for room-temperature single-photon sources
Peyskens, Frédéric; Englund, Dirk; Chang, Darrick
2017-12-01
We describe a general analytical framework of a nanoplasmonic cavity-emitter system interacting with a dielectric photonic waveguide. Taking into account emitter quenching and dephasing, our model directly reveals the single-photon extraction efficiency η as well as the indistinguishability I of photons coupled into the waveguide mode. Rather than minimizing the cavity modal volume, our analysis predicts an optimum modal volume to maximize η that balances waveguide coupling and spontaneous emission rate enhancement. Surprisingly, our model predicts that near-unity indistinguishability is possible, but this requires a much smaller modal volume, implying a fundamental performance trade-off between high η and I at room temperature. Finally, we show that maximizing η I requires that the system has to be driven in the weak coupling regime because quenching effects and decreased waveguide coupling drastically reduce η in the strong coupling regime.
da Silva, Thiago Ferreira; Xavier, Guilherme B; Temporão, Guilherme P; von der Weid, Jean Pierre
2012-08-13
By employing real-time monitoring of single-photon avalanche photodiodes we demonstrate how two types of practical eavesdropping strategies, the after-gate and time-shift attacks, may be detected. Both attacks are identified with the detectors operating without any special modifications, making this proposal well suited for real-world applications. The monitoring system is based on accumulating statistics of the times between consecutive detection events, and extracting the afterpulse and overall efficiency of the detectors in real-time using mathematical models fit to the measured data. We are able to directly observe changes in the afterpulse probabilities generated from the after-gate and faint after-gate attacks, as well as different timing signatures in the time-shift attack. We also discuss the applicability of our scheme to other general blinding attacks.
Entangling capabilities of symmetric two-qubit gates
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
Com- putational investigation of entanglement of such ensembles is therefore impractical for ... the computational complexity. Pairs of spin-1 ... tensor operators which can also provide different symmetric logic gates for quantum pro- ... that five of the eight, two-qubit symmetric quantum gates expressed in terms of our newly.
Accidental cloning of a single-photon qubit in two-channel continuous-variable quantum teleportation
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ide, Toshiki; Hofmann, Holger F.
2007-01-01
The information encoded in the polarization of a single photon can be transferred to a remote location by two-channel continuous-variable quantum teleportation. However, the finite entanglement used in the teleportation causes random changes in photon number. If more than one photon appears in the output, the continuous-variable teleportation accidentally produces clones of the original input photon. In this paper, we derive the polarization statistics of the N-photon output components and show that they can be decomposed into an optimal cloning term and completely unpolarized noise. We find that the accidental cloning of the input photon is nearly optimal at experimentally feasible squeezing levels, indicating that the loss of polarization information is partially compensated by the availability of clones
Zhou, Xing-Yu; Zhang, Chun-Hui; Zhang, Chun-Mei; Wang, Qin
2017-11-01
Measurement-device-independent quantum key distribution (MDI-QKD) has been widely investigated due to its remarkable advantages on the achievable transmission distance and practical security. However, the relative low key generation rate limits its real-life implementations. In this work, we adopt the newly proposed four-intensity decoy-state scheme [Phys. Rev. A 93, 042324 (2016), 10.1103/PhysRevA.93.042324] to study the performance of MDI-QKD with heralded single-photon sources (HSPS). Corresponding simulation results demonstrate that the four-intensity decoy-state scheme combining HSPS can drastically improve both the key generation rate and transmission distance in MDI-QKD, which may be very promising in future MDI-QKD systems.
Quantum properties of a superposition of squeezed displaced two-mode vacuum and single-photon states
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
El-Orany, Faisal A A; Obada, A-S F; M Asker, Zafer; Perina, J
2009-01-01
In this paper, we study some quantum properties of a superposition of displaced squeezed two-mode vacuum and single-photon states, such as the second-order correlation function, the Cauchy-Schwarz inequality, quadrature squeezing, quasiprobability distribution functions and purity. These type of states include two mechanisms, namely interference in phase space and entanglement. We show that these states can exhibit sub-Poissonian statistics, squeezing and deviate from the classical Cauchy-Schwarz inequality. Moreover, the amount of entanglement in the system can be increased by increasing the squeezing mechanism. In the framework of the quasiprobability distribution functions, we show that the single-mode state can tend to the thermal state based on the correlation mechanism. A generation scheme for such states is given.
Jiang, Mu-Sheng; Sun, Shi-Hai; Tang, Guang-Zhao; Ma, Xiang-Chun; Li, Chun-Yan; Liang, Lin-Mei
2013-12-01
Thanks to the high-speed self-differencing single-photon detector (SD-SPD), the secret key rate of quantum key distribution (QKD), which can, in principle, offer unconditionally secure private communications between two users (Alice and Bob), can exceed 1 Mbit/s. However, the SD-SPD may contain loopholes, which can be exploited by an eavesdropper (Eve) to hack into the unconditional security of the high-speed QKD systems. In this paper, we analyze the fact that the SD-SPD can be remotely controlled by Eve in order to spy on full information without being discovered, then proof-of-principle experiments are demonstrated. Here, we point out that this loophole is introduced directly by the operating principle of the SD-SPD, thus, it cannot be removed, except for the fact that some active countermeasures are applied by the legitimate parties.
Entanglement, purity, and energy: Two qubits versus two modes
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
McHugh, Derek; Ziman, Mario; Buzek, Vladimir
2006-01-01
We study the relationship between the entanglement, mixedness, and energy of two-qubit and two-mode Gaussian quantum states. We parametrize the set of allowed states of these two fundamentally different physical systems using measures of entanglement, mixedness, and energy that allow us to compare and contrast the two systems using a phase diagram. This phase diagram enables one to clearly identify not only the physically allowed states, but the set of states connected under an arbitrary quantum operation. We pay particular attention to the maximally entangled mixed states of each system. Following this we investigate how efficiently one may transfer entanglement from two-mode to two-qubit states
Quantum scattering theory of a single-photon Fock state in three-dimensional spaces.
Liu, Jingfeng; Zhou, Ming; Yu, Zongfu
2016-09-15
A quantum scattering theory is developed for Fock states scattered by two-level systems in three-dimensional free space. It is built upon the one-dimensional scattering theory developed in waveguide quantum electrodynamics. The theory fully quantizes the incident light as Fock states and uses a non-perturbative method to calculate the scattering matrix.
Zhang, Ke-Jia; Kwek, Leong-Chuan; Ma, Chun-Guang; Zhang, Long; Sun, Hong-Wei
2018-02-01
Quantum sealed-bid auction (QSA) has been widely studied in quantum cryptography. For a successful auction, post-confirmation is regarded as an important mechanism to make every bidder verify the identity of the winner after the auctioneer has announced the result. However, since the auctioneer may be dishonest and collude with malicious bidders in practice, some potential loopholes could exist. In this paper, we point out two types of collusion attacks for a particular post-confirmation technique with EPR pairs. And it is not difficult to see that there exists no unconditionally secure post-confirmation mechanism in the existing QSA model, if the dishonest participants have the ability to control multiparticle entanglement. In the view of this, we note that some secure implementation could exist if the participants are supposed to be semi-quantum, i.e., they can only control single photons. Finally, two potential methods to design post-confirmation mechanism are presented in this restricted scenario.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Grangier, P.; Abram, I.
2004-01-01
Quantum cryptography and information processing are set to benefit from developments in novel light sources that can emit photons one by one. Quantum mechanics has gained a reputation for making counter-intuitive predictions. But we rarely get the chance to witness these effects directly because, being humans, we are simply too big. Take light, for example. The light sources that are familiar to us, such as those used in lighting and imaging or in CD and DVD players, are so huge that they emit billions and billions of photons. But what if there was a light source that emitted just one photon at a time? Over the past few years, new types of light source that are able to emit photons one by one have been emerging from laboratories around the world. Pulses of light composed of a single photon correspond to power flows in the femtowatt range - a million billion times less than that of a table lamp. The driving force behind the development of these single-photon sources is a range of novel applications that take advantage of the quantum nature of light. Quantum states of superposed and entangled photons could lead the way to guaranteed-secure communication, to information processing with unprecedented speed and efficiency, and to new schemes for quantum teleportation. (U.K.)
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Ding, Xing; He, Yu; Duan, Z.-C.
2016-01-01
Scalable photonic quantum technologies require on-demand single-photon sources with simultaneously high levels of purity, indistinguishability, and efficiency. These key features, however, have only been demonstrated separately in previous experiments. Here, by s-shell pulsed resonant excitation ...
Coherent properties of single quantum dot transitions and single photon emission
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Ester, Patrick
2008-04-23
of the first laser pulse. The relative phase of the QDs exciton can be controlled externally via the bias voltage. This effect is the basis for the observation of RAMSEY-fringes, which are presented in this work. The coherent manipulation of the p-shell is the basis for a novel excitation scheme for single photon emission. In this work it is shown that the first excited state can be coherently manipulated, similar to the ground state. (orig.)
Coherent properties of single quantum dot transitions and single photon emission
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ester, Patrick
2008-01-01
of the first laser pulse. The relative phase of the QDs exciton can be controlled externally via the bias voltage. This effect is the basis for the observation of RAMSEY-fringes, which are presented in this work. The coherent manipulation of the p-shell is the basis for a novel excitation scheme for single photon emission. In this work it is shown that the first excited state can be coherently manipulated, similar to the ground state. (orig.)
Very Efficient Single-Photon Sources Based on Quantum Dots in Photonic Wires
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Gerard, Jean-Michel; Claudon, Julien; Bleuse, Joel
2014-01-01
. By placing a tip-shaped or trumpet-like tapering at the output end of the wire, a highly directional Gaussian far-field emission pattern is obtained. More generally, a photonic wire containing a quantum dot appears as an attractive template to explore and exploit in a solid-state system the unique optical...
Quantum-tomographic cryptography with a semiconductor single-photon source
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kaszlikowski, D.; Yang, L.J.; Yong, L.S.; Willeboordse, F.H.; Kwek, L.C.
2005-01-01
We analyze the security of so-called quantum-tomographic cryptography with the source producing entangled photons via an experimental scheme proposed by Fattal et al. [Phys. Rev. Lett. 92, 37903 (2004)]. We determine the range of the experimental parameters for which the protocol is secure against the most general incoherent attacks
Bright Single-Photon Sources Based on Anti-Reflection Coated Deterministic Quantum Dot Microlenses
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Peter Schnauber
2015-12-01
Full Text Available We report on enhancing the photon-extraction efficiency (PEE of deterministic quantum dot (QD microlenses via anti-reflection (AR coating. The AR-coating deposited on top of the curved microlens surface is composed of a thin layer of Ta2O5, and is found to effectively reduce back-reflection of light at the semiconductor-vacuum interface. A statistical analysis of spectroscopic data reveals, that the AR-coating improves the light out-coupling of respective microlenses by a factor of 1.57 ± 0.71, in quantitative agreement with numerical calculations. Taking the enhancement factor into account, we predict improved out-coupling of light with a PEE of up to 50%. The quantum nature of emission from QDs integrated into AR-coated microlenses is demonstrated via photon auto-correlation measurements revealing strong suppression of two-photon emission events with g(2(0 = 0.05 ± 0.02. As such, these bright non-classical light sources are highly attractive with respect to applications in the field of quantum cryptography.
Naruse, Makoto; Berthel, Martin; Drezet, Aurélien; Huant, Serge; Aono, Masashi; Hori, Hirokazu; Kim, Song-Ju
2015-08-01
Decision making is critical in our daily lives and for society in general and is finding evermore practical applications in information and communication technologies. Herein, we demonstrate experimentally that single photons can be used to make decisions in uncertain, dynamically changing environments. Using a nitrogen-vacancy in a nanodiamond as a single-photon source, we demonstrate the decision-making capability by solving the multi-armed bandit problem. This capability is directly and immediately associated with single-photon detection in the proposed architecture, leading to adequate and adaptive autonomous decision making. This study makes it possible to create systems that benefit from the quantum nature of light to perform practical and vital intelligent functions.
Single photon emission tomography
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Buvat, Irene
2011-09-01
The objective of this lecture is to present the single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) imaging technique. Content: 1 - Introduction: anatomic, functional and molecular imaging; Principle and role of functional or molecular imaging; 2 - Radiotracers: chemical and physical constraints, main emitters, radioisotopes production, emitters type and imaging techniques; 3 - Single photon emission computed tomography: gamma cameras and their components, gamma camera specifications, planar single photon imaging characteristics, gamma camera and tomography; 4 - Quantification in single photon emission tomography: attenuation, scattering, un-stationary spatial resolution, partial volume effect, movements, others; 5 - Synthesis and conclusion
Single-photon manipulation in Nanophotonic Circuits
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Hansen, Sofie Lindskov
Quantum dots in photonic nanostructures has long been known to be a very powerful and versatile solid-state platform for conducting quantum optics experiments. The present PhD thesis describes experimental demonstrations of single-photon generation and subsequent manipulation all realized...... on a gallium arsenide platform. This platform offers near-unity coupling between embedded single-photon emitters and a photonic mode, as well as the ability to suppress decoherence mechanisms, making it highly suited for quantum information applications. In this thesis we show how a single-photon router can...... be realized on a chip with embedded quantum dots. This allows for on-chip generation and manipulation of single photons. The router consists of an on-chip interferometer where the phase difference between the arms of the interferometer is controlled electrically. The response time of the device...
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Horikiri, Tomoyuki; Sasaki, Hideki; Wang, Haibo; Kobayashi, Takayoshi
2005-01-01
We propose a high security quantum key distribution (QKD) scheme utilizing one mode of spontaneous parametric downconversion gated by a photon number resolving detector. This photon number measurement is possible by using single-photon detectors operating at room temperature and optical fibers. By post selection, the multiphoton probability in this scheme can be reduced to lower than that of a scheme using an attenuated coherent light resulting in improvement of security. Furthermore, if distillation protocol (error correction and privacy amplification) is performed, the gain will be increased. Hence a QKD system with higher security and bit rate than the laser-based QKD system can be attained using present available technologies
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Diamanti, Eleni; Takesue, Hiroki; Honjo, Toshimori; Inoue, Kyo; Yamamoto, Yoshihisa
2005-01-01
We compare the performance of various quantum-key-distribution (QKD) systems using a single-photon detector, which combines frequency up-conversion in a periodically poled lithium niobate waveguide and a silicon avalanche photodiode (APD). The comparison is based on the secure communication rate as a function of distance for three QKD protocols: the Bennett-Brassard 1984, the Bennett-Brassard-Mermin 1992, and the coherent differential-phase-shift keying protocols. We show that the up-conversion detector allows for higher communication rates and longer communication distances than the commonly used InGaAs/InP APD for all three QKD protocols
Atomic Evolution and Entanglement of Two Qubits in Photon Superfluid
Yin, Miao; Zhang, Xiongfeng; Deng, Yunlong; Deng, Huaqiu
2018-03-01
By using reservoir theory, we investigate the evolution of an atom placed in photon superfluid and study the entanglement properties of two qubits interacting with photon superfluid. It is found that the atomic decay rate in photon superfluid changes periodically with position of the atom and the decay rate can be inhibited compared to that in usual electromagnetic environment without photon superfluid. It is also found that when two atoms are separately immersed in their own local photon-superfluid reservoir, the entanglement sudden death or birth occurs or not only depends on the initial state of the qubits. What is more, we find a possible case that the concurrence between two qubits can remain a constant value by choosing proper values of parameters of the system, which may provide a new way to preserve quantum entanglement.
Seitz, Peter
2011-01-01
The acquisition and interpretation of images is a central capability in almost all scientific and technological domains. In particular, the acquisition of electromagnetic radiation, in the form of visible light, UV, infrared, X-ray, etc. is of enormous practical importance. The ultimate sensitivity in electronic imaging is the detection of individual photons. With this book, the first comprehensive review of all aspects of single-photon electronic imaging has been created. Topics include theoretical basics, semiconductor fabrication, single-photon detection principles, imager design and applications of different spectral domains. Today, the solid-state fabrication capabilities for several types of image sensors has advanced to a point, where uncoooled single-photon electronic imaging will soon become a consumer product. This book is giving a specialist´s view from different domains to the forthcoming “single-photon imaging” revolution. The various aspects of single-photon imaging are treated by internati...
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Akibue, Seiseki [Department of Physics, Graduate School of Science, The University of Tokyo, Tokyo (Japan); Murao, Mio [Department of Physics, Graduate School of Science, The University of Tokyo, Tokyo, Japan and NanoQuine, The University of Tokyo, Tokyo (Japan)
2014-12-04
We investigate distributed implementation of two-qubit unitary operations over two primitive networks, the butterfly network and the ladder network, as a first step to apply network coding for quantum computation. By classifying two-qubit unitary operations in terms of the Kraus-Cirac number, the number of non-zero parameters describing the global part of two-qubit unitary operations, we analyze which class of two-qubit unitary operations is implementable over these networks with free classical communication. For the butterfly network, we show that two classes of two-qubit unitary operations, which contain all Clifford, controlled-unitary and matchgate operations, are implementable over the network. For the ladder network, we show that two-qubit unitary operations are implementable over the network if and only if their Kraus-Cirac number do not exceed the number of the bridges of the ladder.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Akibue, Seiseki; Murao, Mio
2014-01-01
We investigate distributed implementation of two-qubit unitary operations over two primitive networks, the butterfly network and the ladder network, as a first step to apply network coding for quantum computation. By classifying two-qubit unitary operations in terms of the Kraus-Cirac number, the number of non-zero parameters describing the global part of two-qubit unitary operations, we analyze which class of two-qubit unitary operations is implementable over these networks with free classical communication. For the butterfly network, we show that two classes of two-qubit unitary operations, which contain all Clifford, controlled-unitary and matchgate operations, are implementable over the network. For the ladder network, we show that two-qubit unitary operations are implementable over the network if and only if their Kraus-Cirac number do not exceed the number of the bridges of the ladder
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Maeda, Toshio; Matsuda, Hiroshi; Tada, Akira; Bunko, Hisashi; Koizumi, Kiyoshi
1982-01-01
The detectability of lesions located deep in a body or overlapped with a physiologically increased activity improve with the help of single photon ECT. In some cases, the ECT is superior to the conventional gamma camera images and X-ray CT scans in the evaluation of the location and size of lesion. The single photon ECT of the brain compares favorably with the contrast enhansed X-ray CT scans. The most important adaptation of the single photon ECT are the detection of recurrent brain tumors after craniotomy and the evaluation of ischemic heart diseases. (author)
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Marchal, J [Diamond Light Source Ltd, Harwell Science and Innovation Campus, Didcot, Oxfordshire OX11 0DE (United Kingdom)], E-mail: julien.marchal@diamond.ac.uk
2010-01-15
A detector cascaded model is proposed to describe charge-sharing effect in single-photon counting segmented silicon detectors. Linear system theory is applied to this cascaded model in order to derive detector performance parameters such as large-area gain, presampling Modulation Transfer Function (MTF), Noise Power Spectrum (NPS) and Detective Quantum Efficiency (DQE) as a function of energy detection threshold. This theory is used to model one-dimensional detectors (i.e. strip detectors) where X-ray-generated charge can be shared between two sampling elements, but the concepts developed in this article can be generalized to two-dimensional arrays of detecting elements (i.e. pixels detectors). The zero-frequency DQE derived from this model is consistent with expressions reported in the literature using a different method. The ability of this model to simulate the effect of charge sharing on image quality in the spatial frequency domain is demonstrated by applying it to a hypothetical one-dimensional single-photon counting detector illuminated with a typical mammography spectrum.
Local correlations of mixed two-qubit states
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Zhang Fulin; Chen Jingling; Ren Changliang; Shi Mingjun
2010-01-01
The quantum probability distribution arising from single-copy von Neumann measurements on an arbitrary two-qubit state is decomposed into the local and nonlocal parts, in the approach of Elitzur, Popescu and Rohrlich [A. Elitzur, S. Popescu, D. Rohrlich, Phys. Lett. A 162 (1992) 25]. A lower bound of the local weight is proved being connected with the concurrence of the state p L max =1-C(ρ). The local probability distributions for two families of mixed states are constructed independently, which accord with the lower bound.
Growth and characterization of InP/In0.48Ga0.52P quantum dots optimized for single-photon emission
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ugur, Asli
2012-01-01
In this work the growth of self-assembled InP/InGaP quantum dots, as well as their optical and structural properties are presented and discussed. The QDs were grown on In 0.48 Ga 0.52 P, lattice matched to GaAs. Self-assembled InP quantum dots are grown using gas-source molecular beam epitaxy over a wide range of InP deposition rates, using an ultra-low growth rate of about 0.01 atomic monolayers/s, a quantum-dot density of 1 dot/μm 2 is realized. The resulting isolated InP quantum dots are individually characterized without the need for lithographical patterning and masks on the substrate. Both excitonic and biexcitonic emissions are observed from single dots, appearing as doublets with a fine-structure splitting of 320 μeV. Hanbury Brown-Twiss correlation measurements for the excitonic emission under cw excitation show anti-bunching behavior with an autocorrelation value of g (2) (0)=0.2. This system is applicable as a single-photon source for applications such as quantum cryptography. The formation of well-ordered chains of InP quantum dots on GaAs (001) substrates by using self-organized In 0.48 Ga 0.52 P surface undulations as a template is also demonstrated. The ordering requires neither stacked layers of quantum dots nor substrate misorientation. The structures are investigated by polarization-dependent photoluminescence together with transmission electron microscopy. Luminescence from the In 0.48 Ga 0.52 P matrix is polarized in one crystallographic direction due to anisotropic strain arising from a lateral compositional modulation. The photoluminescence measurements show enhanced linear polarization in the alignment direction of quantum dots. A polarization degree of 66% is observed. The optical anisotropy is achieved with a straightforward heterostructure, requiring only a single layer of QDs.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Schlehahn, A.; Gschrey, M.; Schnauber, P.; Schulze, J.-H.; Rodt, S.; Strittmatter, A.; Heindel, T., E-mail: tobias.heindel@tu-berlin.de; Reitzenstein, S. [Institut für Festkörperphysik, Technische Universität Berlin, Berlin 10623 (Germany); Gaafar, M.; Vaupel, M.; Stolz, W.; Rahimi-Iman, A.; Koch, M. [Department of Physics and Materials Science Center, Philipps-Universität Marburg, 35032 Marburg (Germany)
2015-07-27
We report on the realization of a quantum dot (QD) based single-photon source with a record-high single-photon emission rate. The quantum light source consists of an InGaAs QD which is deterministically integrated within a monolithic microlens with a distributed Bragg reflector as back-side mirror, which is triggered using the frequency-doubled emission of a mode-locked vertical-external-cavity surface-emitting laser (ML-VECSEL). The utilized compact and stable laser system allows us to excite the single-QD microlens at a wavelength of 508 nm with a pulse repetition rate close to 500 MHz at a pulse width of 4.2 ps. Probing the photon statistics of the emission from a single QD state at saturation, we demonstrate single-photon emission of the QD-microlens chip with g{sup (2)}(0) < 0.03 at a record-high single-photon flux of (143 ± 16) MHz collected by the first lens of the detection system. Our approach is fully compatible with resonant excitation schemes using wavelength tunable ML-VECSELs, which will optimize the quantum optical properties of the single-photon emission in terms of photon indistinguishability.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Seitz, Peter; Theuwissen, Albert J.P.
2011-01-01
The acquisition and interpretation of images is a central capability in almost all scientific and technological domains. In particular, the acquisition of electromagnetic radiation, in the form of visible light, UV, infrared, X-ray, etc. is of enormous practical importance. The ultimate sensitivity in electronic imaging is the detection of individual photons. With this book, the first comprehensive review of all aspects of single-photon electronic imaging has been created. Topics include theoretical basics, semiconductor fabrication, single-photon detection principles, imager design and applications of different spectral domains. Today, the solid-state fabrication capabilities for several types of image sensors has advanced to a point, where uncooled single-photon electronic imaging will soon become a consumer product. This book is giving a specialist's view from different domains to the forthcoming ''single-photon imaging'' revolution. The various aspects of single-photon imaging are treated by internationally renowned, leading scientists and technologists who have all pioneered their respective fields. (orig.)
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Elezov M.S.
2017-01-01
Full Text Available Recently bright-light control of the SSPD has been demonstrated. This attack employed a “backdoor” in the detector biasing scheme. Under bright-light illumination, SSPD becomes resistive and remains “latched” in the resistive state even when the light is switched off. While the SSPD is latched, Eve can simulate SSPD single-photon response by sending strong light pulses, thus deceiving Bob. We developed the experimental setup for investigation of a dependence on latching threshold of SSPD on optical pulse length and peak power. By knowing latching threshold it is possible to understand essential requirements for development countermeasures against blinding attack on quantum key distribution system with SSPDs.
Mattioli Della Rocca, Francescopaolo
2018-01-01
This paper examines methods to best exploit the High Dynamic Range (HDR) of the single photon avalanche diode (SPAD) in a high fill-factor HDR photon counting pixel that is scalable to megapixel arrays. The proposed method combines multi-exposure HDR with temporal oversampling in-pixel. We present a silicon demonstration IC with 96 × 40 array of 8.25 µm pitch 66% fill-factor SPAD-based pixels achieving >100 dB dynamic range with 3 back-to-back exposures (short, mid, long). Each pixel sums 15 bit-planes or binary field images internally to constitute one frame providing 3.75× data compression, hence the 1k frames per second (FPS) output off-chip represents 45,000 individual field images per second on chip. Two future projections of this work are described: scaling SPAD-based image sensors to HDR 1 MPixel formats and shrinking the pixel pitch to 1–3 µm. PMID:29641479
Solid-state single-photon emitters
Aharonovich, Igor; Englund, Dirk; Toth, Milos
2016-10-01
Single-photon emitters play an important role in many leading quantum technologies. There is still no 'ideal' on-demand single-photon emitter, but a plethora of promising material systems have been developed, and several have transitioned from proof-of-concept to engineering efforts with steadily improving performance. Here, we review recent progress in the race towards true single-photon emitters required for a range of quantum information processing applications. We focus on solid-state systems including quantum dots, defects in solids, two-dimensional hosts and carbon nanotubes, as these are well positioned to benefit from recent breakthroughs in nanofabrication and materials growth techniques. We consider the main challenges and key advantages of each platform, with a focus on scalable on-chip integration and fabrication of identical sources on photonic circuits.
Single Photon Sources in Silicon Carbide
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Brett Johnson
2014-01-01
Single photon sources in semiconductors are highly sought after as they constitute the building blocks of a diverse range of emerging technologies such as integrated quantum information processing, quantum metrology and quantum photonics. In this presentation, we show the first observation of single photon emission from deep level defects in silicon carbide (SiC). The single photon emission is photo-stable at room temperature and surprisingly bright. This represents an exciting alternative to diamond color centers since SiC possesses well-established growth and device engineering protocols. The defect is assigned to the carbon vacancy-antisite pair which gives rise to the AB photoluminescence lines. We discuss its photo-physical properties and their fabrication via electron irradiation. Preliminary measurements on 3C SiC nano-structures will also be discussed. (author)
Preparation and tomographic reconstruction of an arbitrary single-photon path qubit
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Baek, So-Young; Kim, Yoon-Ho
2011-01-01
We report methods for preparation and tomographic reconstruction of an arbitrary single-photon path qubit. The arbitrary single-photon path qubit is prepared losslessly by passing the heralded single-photon state from spontaneous parametric down-conversion through variable beam splitter. Quantum state tomography of the single-photon path qubit is implemented by introducing path-projection measurements based on the first-order single-photon quantum interference. Using the state preparation and path-projection measurements methods for the single-photon path qubit, we demonstrate preparation and complete tomographic reconstruction of the single-photon path qubit with arbitrary purity. -- Highlights: → We report methods for preparation and tomographic reconstruction of an arbitrary single-photon path qubit. → We implement path-projection measurements based on the first-order single-photon quantum interference. → We demonstrate preparation and complete tomographic reconstruction of the single-photon path qubit with arbitrary purity.
Four-level and two-qubit systems, subalgebras, and unitary integration
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Rau, A.R.P.; Selvaraj, G.; Uskov, D.
2005-01-01
Four-level systems in quantum optics, and for representing two qubits in quantum computing, are difficult to solve for general time-dependent Hamiltonians. A systematic procedure is presented which combines analytical handling of the algebraic operator aspects with simple solutions of classical, first-order differential equations. In particular, by exploiting su(2)+su(2) and su(2)+su(2)+u(1) subalgebras of the full SU(4) dynamical group of the system, the nontrivial part of the final calculation is reduced to a single Riccati (first-order, quadratically nonlinear) equation, itself simply solved. Examples are provided of two-qubit problems from the recent literature, including implementation of two-qubit gates with Josephson junctions
Assessment of a quantum phase-gate operation based on nonlinear optics
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Rebic, S.; Ottaviani, C.; Di Giuseppe, G.; Vitali, D.; Tombesi, P.
2006-01-01
We analyze in detail the proposal for a two-qubit gate for travelling single-photon qubits recently presented by Ottaviani et al. [Phys. Rev. A 73, 010301(R) (2006)]. The scheme is based on an ensemble of five-level atoms coupled to two quantum and two classical light fields. The two quantum fields undergo cross-phase modulation induced by electromagnetically induced transparency. The performance of this two-qubit quantum phase gate for travelling single-photon qubits is thoroughly examined in the steady-state and transient regimes, by means of a full quantum treatment of the system dynamics. In the steady-state regime, we find a general trade-off between the size of the conditional phase shift and the fidelity of the gate operation. However, this trade-off can be bypassed in the transient regime, where a satisfactory gate operation is found to be possible, significantly reducing the gate operation time
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Shcheslavskiy, V., E-mail: vis@becker-hickl.de; Becker, W. [Becker & Hickl GmbH, Nahmitzer Damm 30, 12277 Berlin (Germany); Morozov, P.; Divochiy, A. [Scontel, Rossolimo St., 5/22-1, Moscow 119021 (Russian Federation); Vakhtomin, Yu. [Scontel, Rossolimo St., 5/22-1, Moscow 119021 (Russian Federation); Moscow State Pedagogical University, 1/1 M. Pirogovskaya St., Moscow 119991 (Russian Federation); Smirnov, K. [Scontel, Rossolimo St., 5/22-1, Moscow 119021 (Russian Federation); Moscow State Pedagogical University, 1/1 M. Pirogovskaya St., Moscow 119991 (Russian Federation); National Research University Higher School of Economics, 20 Myasnitskaya St., Moscow 101000 (Russian Federation)
2016-05-15
Time resolution is one of the main characteristics of the single photon detectors besides quantum efficiency and dark count rate. We demonstrate here an ultrafast time-correlated single photon counting (TCSPC) setup consisting of a newly developed single photon counting board SPC-150NX and a superconducting NbN single photon detector with a sensitive area of 7 × 7 μm. The combination delivers a record instrument response function with a full width at half maximum of 17.8 ps and system quantum efficiency ∼15% at wavelength of 1560 nm. A calculation of the root mean square value of the timing jitter for channels with counts more than 1% of the peak value yielded about 7.6 ps. The setup has also good timing stability of the detector–TCSPC board.
Diamond-based single-photon emitters
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Aharonovich, I; Castelletto, S; Simpson, D A; Su, C-H; Greentree, A D; Prawer, S
2011-01-01
The exploitation of emerging quantum technologies requires efficient fabrication of key building blocks. Sources of single photons are extremely important across many applications as they can serve as vectors for quantum information-thereby allowing long-range (perhaps even global-scale) quantum states to be made and manipulated for tasks such as quantum communication or distributed quantum computation. At the single-emitter level, quantum sources also afford new possibilities in terms of nanoscopy and bio-marking. Color centers in diamond are prominent candidates to generate and manipulate quantum states of light, as they are a photostable solid-state source of single photons at room temperature. In this review, we discuss the state of the art of diamond-based single-photon emitters and highlight their fabrication methodologies. We present the experimental techniques used to characterize the quantum emitters and discuss their photophysical properties. We outline a number of applications including quantum key distribution, bio-marking and sub-diffraction imaging, where diamond-based single emitters are playing a crucial role. We conclude with a discussion of the main challenges and perspectives for employing diamond emitters in quantum information processing.
Secret key distillation from shielded two-qubit states
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Bae, Joonwoo
2010-01-01
The quantum states corresponding to a secret key are characterized using the so-called private states, where the key part consisting of a secret key is shielded by the additional systems. Based on the construction, it was shown that a secret key can be distilled from bound entangled states. In this work, I consider the shielded two-qubit states in a key-distillation scenario and derive the conditions under which a secret key can be distilled using the recurrence protocol or the two-way classical distillation, advantage distillation together with one-way postprocessing. From the security conditions, it is shown that a secret key can be distilled from bound entangled states in a much wider range. In addition, I consider the case that in which white noise is added to quantum states and show that the classical distillation protocol still works despite a certain amount of noise although the recurrence protocol does not.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Ugur, Asli
2012-08-28
In this work the growth of self-assembled InP/InGaP quantum dots, as well as their optical and structural properties are presented and discussed. The QDs were grown on In{sub 0.48}Ga{sub 0.52}P, lattice matched to GaAs. Self-assembled InP quantum dots are grown using gas-source molecular beam epitaxy over a wide range of InP deposition rates, using an ultra-low growth rate of about 0.01 atomic monolayers/s, a quantum-dot density of 1 dot/μm{sup 2} is realized. The resulting isolated InP quantum dots are individually characterized without the need for lithographical patterning and masks on the substrate. Both excitonic and biexcitonic emissions are observed from single dots, appearing as doublets with a fine-structure splitting of 320 μeV. Hanbury Brown-Twiss correlation measurements for the excitonic emission under cw excitation show anti-bunching behavior with an autocorrelation value of g{sup (2)}(0)=0.2. This system is applicable as a single-photon source for applications such as quantum cryptography. The formation of well-ordered chains of InP quantum dots on GaAs (001) substrates by using self-organized In{sub 0.48}Ga{sub 0.52}P surface undulations as a template is also demonstrated. The ordering requires neither stacked layers of quantum dots nor substrate misorientation. The structures are investigated by polarization-dependent photoluminescence together with transmission electron microscopy. Luminescence from the In{sub 0.48}Ga{sub 0.52}P matrix is polarized in one crystallographic direction due to anisotropic strain arising from a lateral compositional modulation. The photoluminescence measurements show enhanced linear polarization in the alignment direction of quantum dots. A polarization degree of 66% is observed. The optical anisotropy is achieved with a straightforward heterostructure, requiring only a single layer of QDs.
Characterization of two-qubit perfect entanglers
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Rezakhani, A.T.
2004-01-01
Here we consider perfect entanglers from another perspective. It is shown that there are some special perfect entanglers which can maximally entangle a full product basis. We explicitly construct a one-parameter family of such entanglers together with the proper product basis that they maximally entangle. This special family of perfect entanglers contains some well-known operators such as controlled-NOT (CNOT) and double-CNOT, but not √(SWAP). In addition, it is shown that all perfect entanglers with entangling power equal to the maximal value (2/9) are also special perfect entanglers. It is proved that the one-parameter family is the only possible set of special perfect entanglers. Also we provide an analytic way to implement any arbitrary two-qubit gate, given a proper special perfect entangler supplemented with single-qubit gates. Such gates are shown to provide a minimum universal gate construction in that just two of them are necessary and sufficient in implementation of a generic two-qubit gate
Interactive Screen Experiments with Single Photons
Bronner, Patrick; Strunz, Andreas; Silberhorn, Christine; Meyn, Jan-Peter
2009-01-01
Single photons are used for fundamental quantum physics experiments as well as for applications. Originally being a topic of advance courses, such experiments are increasingly a subject of undergraduate courses. We provide interactive screen experiments (ISE) for supporting the work in a real laboratory, and for students who do not have access to…
Two-qubit Bell inequality for which positive operator-valued measurements are relevant
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Vertesi, T.; Bene, E.
2010-01-01
A bipartite Bell inequality is derived which is maximally violated on the two-qubit state space if measurements describable by positive operator valued measure (POVM) elements are allowed, rather than restricting the possible measurements to projective ones. In particular, the presented Bell inequality requires POVMs in order to be maximally violated by a maximally entangled two-qubit state. This answers a question raised by N. Gisin [in Quantum Reality, Relativistic Causality, and Closing the Epistemic Circle: Essays in Honour of Abner Shimony, edited by W. C. Myrvold and J. Christian (Springer, The Netherlands, 2009), pp. 125-138].
Concurrence Measurement for the Two-Qubit Optical and Atomic States
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Lan Zhou
2015-06-01
Full Text Available Concurrence provides us an effective approach to quantify entanglement, which is quite important in quantum information processing applications. In the paper, we mainly review some direct concurrence measurement protocols of the two-qubit optical or atomic system. We first introduce the concept of concurrence for a two-qubit system. Second, we explain the approaches of the concurrence measurement in both a linear and a nonlinear optical system. Third, we introduce some protocols for measuring the concurrence of the atomic entanglement system.
Teleportation via thermally entangled states of a two-qubit Heisenberg XXZ chain
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
QIN Meng; TAO Ying-Juan; TIAN Dong-Ping
2008-01-01
We investigate quantum teleportation as a tool to study the thermally entangled state of a twoqubit Heisenberg XXZ chain.Our work is mainly to investigate the characteristics of a Heisenberg XXZ chain and get some analytical results of the fully entangled fraction.We also consider the entanglement teleportation via a two-qubit Heisenberg XXZ chain.
Ma, Jian; Bai, Bing; Wang, Liu-Jun; Tong, Cun-Zhu; Jin, Ge; Zhang, Jun; Pan, Jian-Wei
2016-09-20
InGaAs/InP single-photon avalanche diodes (SPADs) are widely used in practical applications requiring near-infrared photon counting such as quantum key distribution (QKD). Photon detection efficiency and dark count rate are the intrinsic parameters of InGaAs/InP SPADs, due to the fact that their performances cannot be improved using different quenching electronics given the same operation conditions. After modeling these parameters and developing a simulation platform for InGaAs/InP SPADs, we investigate the semiconductor structure design and optimization. The parameters of photon detection efficiency and dark count rate highly depend on the variables of absorption layer thickness, multiplication layer thickness, excess bias voltage, and temperature. By evaluating the decoy-state QKD performance, the variables for SPAD design and operation can be globally optimized. Such optimization from the perspective of specific applications can provide an effective approach to design high-performance InGaAs/InP SPADs.
Single-Photon Routing for a L-Shaped Channel
Yang, Xiong; Hou, Jiao-Jiao; Wu, Chun
2018-02-01
We have investigated the transport properties of a single photon scattered by a two-level atom embedded in a L-shaped waveguide, which is made of two one-dimensional (1D) semi-infinite coupled-resonator waveguides (CRWs). Single photons can be directed from one CRW to the other due to spontaneous emission of the atom. The result shows that the spontaneous emission of the TLS still routes single photon from one CRW to the other; the boundary existing makes the probability of finding single photon in a CRW could reach one. Our the scheme is helpful to construct a ring quantum networks.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Xiang Zhang
2016-08-01
Full Text Available Practical quantum photonic applications require on-demand single photon sources. As one possible solution, active temporal and wavelength multiplexing has been proposed to build an on-demand single photon source. In this scheme, heralded single photons are generated from different pump wavelengths in many temporal modes. However, the indistinguishability of these heralded single photons has not yet been experimentally confirmed. In this work, we achieve 88% ± 8% Hong–Ou–Mandel quantum interference visibility from heralded single photons generated from two separate silicon nanowires pumped at different wavelengths. This demonstrates that active temporal and wavelength multiplexing could generate indistinguishable heralded single photons.
State tomography for two qubits using reduced densities
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Petz, D; Hangos, K M; Szanto, A; Szoellosi, F
2006-01-01
The optimal state determination (or tomography) is studied for a composite system of two qubits when measurements can be performed on one of the qubits and interactions of the two qubits can be implemented. The goal is to minimize the number of interactions to be implemented. The algebraic method used in the paper leads to an extension of the concept of mutually unbiased measurements
Heralded noiseless amplification for single-photon entangled state with polarization feature
Wang, Dan-Dan; Jin, Yu-Yu; Qin, Sheng-Xian; Zu, Hao; Zhou, Lan; Zhong, Wei; Sheng, Yu-Bo
2018-03-01
Heralded noiseless amplification is a promising method to overcome the transmission photon loss in practical noisy quantum channel and can effectively lengthen the quantum communication distance. Single-photon entanglement is an important resource in current quantum communications. Here, we construct two single-photon-assisted heralded noiseless amplification protocols for the single-photon two-mode entangled state and single-photon three-mode W state, respectively, where the single-photon qubit has an arbitrary unknown polarization feature. After the amplification, the fidelity of the single-photon entangled state can be increased, while the polarization feature of the single-photon qubit can be well remained. Both the two protocols only require the linear optical elements, so that they can be realized under current experimental condition. Our protocols may be useful in current and future quantum information processing.
Geometric steering criterion for two-qubit states
Yu, Bai-Chu; Jia, Zhih-Ahn; Wu, Yu-Chun; Guo, Guang-Can
2018-01-01
According to the geometric characterization of measurement assemblages and local hidden state (LHS) models, we propose a steering criterion which is both necessary and sufficient for two-qubit states under arbitrary measurement sets. A quantity is introduced to describe the required local resources to reconstruct a measurement assemblage for two-qubit states. We show that the quantity can be regarded as a quantification of steerability and be used to find out optimal LHS models. Finally we propose a method to generate unsteerable states, and construct some two-qubit states which are entangled but unsteerable under all projective measurements.
Manipulating the sudden death of entanglement in two-qubit atomic systems
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Hussain, Mahmood Irtiza; Tahira, Rabia; Ikram, Manzoor [COMSATS Institute of Information Technology, Islamabad (Pakistan)
2011-10-15
We investigate the entanglement dynamics of a general two-qubit system in a noisy environment presenting analytical descriptions of the time evolution of entanglement having some unitary operations after its evolution in dissipative environments. We show that quantum gates (unitary operators) and bath switching can change the subsequent dynamics of entanglement. For this purpose, we consider {sigma}{sub x} and bath switching operations that change the disentanglement time from finite to infinite.
Manipulating the sudden death of entanglement in two-qubit atomic systems
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Hussain, Mahmood Irtiza; Tahira, Rabia; Ikram, Manzoor
2011-01-01
We investigate the entanglement dynamics of a general two-qubit system in a noisy environment presenting analytical descriptions of the time evolution of entanglement having some unitary operations after its evolution in dissipative environments. We show that quantum gates (unitary operators) and bath switching can change the subsequent dynamics of entanglement. For this purpose, we consider σ x and bath switching operations that change the disentanglement time from finite to infinite.
Protecting unknown two-qubit entangled states by nesting Uhrig's dynamical decoupling sequences
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Mukhtar, Musawwadah; Soh, Wee Tee; Saw, Thuan Beng; Gong, Jiangbin
2010-01-01
Future quantum technologies rely heavily on good protection of quantum entanglement against environment-induced decoherence. A recent study showed that an extension of Uhrig's dynamical decoupling (UDD) sequence can (in theory) lock an arbitrary but known two-qubit entangled state to the Nth order using a sequence of N control pulses [Mukhtar et al., Phys. Rev. A 81, 012331 (2010)]. By nesting three layers of explicitly constructed UDD sequences, here we first consider the protection of unknown two-qubit states as superposition of two known basis states, without making assumptions of the system-environment coupling. It is found that the obtained decoherence suppression can be highly sensitive to the ordering of the three UDD layers and can be remarkably effective with the correct ordering. The detailed theoretical results are useful for general understanding of the nature of controlled quantum dynamics under nested UDD. As an extension of our three-layer UDD, it is finally pointed out that a completely unknown two-qubit state can be protected by nesting four layers of UDD sequences. This work indicates that when UDD is applicable (e.g., when the environment has a sharp frequency cutoff and when control pulses can be taken as instantaneous pulses), dynamical decoupling using nested UDD sequences is a powerful approach for entanglement protection.
Approaches to single photon detection
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Thew, R.T.; Curtz, N.; Eraerds, P.; Walenta, N.; Gautier, J.-D.; Koller, E.; Zhang, J.; Gisin, N.; Zbinden, H.
2009-01-01
We present recent results on our development of single photon detectors, including: gated and free-running InGaAs/InP avalanche photodiodes (APDs); hybrid detection systems based on sum-frequency generation (SFG) and Si APDs-SFG-Si APDs; and SSPDs (superconducting single photon detectors), for telecom wavelengths; as well as SiPM (Silicon photomultiplier) detectors operating in the visible regime.
Nanodiamond Emitters of Single Photons
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Vlasov I.I.
2015-01-01
Full Text Available Luminescence properties of single color centers were studied in nanodiamonds of different origin. It was found that single photon emitters could be realized even in molecularsized diamond (less than 2 nm capable of housing stable luminescent center “silicon-vacancy.” First results on incorporation of single-photon emitters based on luminescent nanodiamonds in plasmonic nanoantennas to enhance the photon count rate and directionality, diminish the fluorescence decay time, and provide polarization selectivity are presented.
Ultrafast electrical control of a resonantly driven single photon source
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Cao, Y.; Bennett, A. J.; Ellis, D. J. P.; Shields, A. J.; Farrer, I.; Ritchie, D. A.
2014-01-01
We demonstrate generation of a pulsed stream of electrically triggered single photons in resonance fluorescence, by applying high frequency electrical pulses to a single quantum dot in a p-i-n diode under resonant laser excitation. Single photon emission was verified, with the probability of multiple photon emission reduced to 2.8%. We show that despite the presence of charge noise in the emission spectrum of the dot, resonant excitation acts as a “filter” to generate narrow bandwidth photons
Two qubits in pure nuclear quadrupole resonance
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Furman, G.B.; Goren, S.D.; Meerovich, V.M.; Sokolovsky, V.L.
2002-01-01
It is shown theoretically that by the use of two radio-frequency fields of the same resonance frequency but with the different phases and directions the degeneracy of the energy spectrum of a spin system with I=3/2 is removed. This leads to four non-degenerate spin states which can be used as a platform for quantum computing. The feasibility of quantum computing based on a pure (without DC magnetic fields) nuclear quadrupole resonance technique is investigated in detail. Various quantum logic gates can be constructed by using different excitation techniques allowing different manipulations with the spin system states. Three realizations of quantum logic gates are considered: the application of an additional magnetic field with the resonance frequency, the amplitude modulation of one of the applied RF fields by the resonance frequency field, and the level-crossing method. It is shown that the probabilities of the resonance transitions depend on the method of excitation and on the direction of the excitation field. Feasibility of quantum computing is demonstrated with the examples of constructing a controlled-NOT logic gate using the resonance excitation technique and SWAP and NOT2 logic gates using the level-crossing method. (author)
Single-photon generator for optical telecommunication wavelength
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Usuki, T; Sakuma, Y; Hirose, S; Takemoto, K; Yokoyama, N; Miyazawa, T; Takatsu, M; Arakawa, Y
2006-01-01
We report on the generation of single-photon pulses from a single InAs/InP quantum dot in telecommunication bands (1.3-1.55 μm: higher transmittance through an optical fiber). First we prepared InAs quantum dots on InP (0 0 1) substrates in a low-pressure MOCVD by using a so-called InP 'double-cap' procedure. The quantum dots have well-controlled photo emission wavelength in the telecommunication bands. We also developed a single-photon emitter in which quantum dots were embedded. Numerical simulation designed the emitter to realize efficient injection of the emitted photons into a single-mode optical fiber. Using a Hanbury-Brown and Twiss technique has proved that the photons through the fiber were single photons
CMOS-compatible photonic devices for single-photon generation
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Xiong Chunle
2016-09-01
Full Text Available Sources of single photons are one of the key building blocks for quantum photonic technologies such as quantum secure communication and powerful quantum computing. To bring the proof-of-principle demonstration of these technologies from the laboratory to the real world, complementary metal–oxide–semiconductor (CMOS-compatible photonic chips are highly desirable for photon generation, manipulation, processing and even detection because of their compactness, scalability, robustness, and the potential for integration with electronics. In this paper, we review the development of photonic devices made from materials (e.g., silicon and processes that are compatible with CMOS fabrication facilities for the generation of single photons.
Latest Advances in the Generation of Single Photons in Silicon Carbide
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Albert Boretti
2016-06-01
Full Text Available The major barrier for optical quantum information technologies is the absence of reliable single photons sources providing non-classical light states on demand which can be easily and reliably integrated with standard processing protocols for quantum device fabrication. New methods of generation at room temperature of single photons are therefore needed. Heralded single photon sources are presently being sought based on different methods built on different materials. Silicon Carbide (SiC has the potentials to serve as the preferred material for quantum applications. Here, we review the latest advances in single photon generation at room temperatures based on SiC.
Thermoelectric single-photon detector
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kuzanyan, A A; Petrosyan, V A; Kuzanyan, A S
2012-01-01
The ability to detect a single photon is the ultimate level of sensitivity in the measurement of optical radiation. Sensors capable of detecting single photons and determining their energy have many scientific and technological applications. Kondo-enhanced Seebeck effect cryogenic detectors are based on thermoelectric heat-to-voltage conversion and voltage readout. We evaluate the prospects of CeB 6 and (La,Ce)B 6 hexaboride crystals for their application as a sensitive element in this type of detectors. We conclude that such detectors can register a single UV photon, have a fast count rate (up to 45 MHz) and a high spectral resolution of 0.1 eV. We calculate the electric potential generated along the thermoelectric sensor upon registering a UV single photon.
Single-photon source engineering using a Modal Method
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Gregersen, Niels
Solid-state sources of single indistinguishable photons are of great interest for quantum information applications. The semiconductor quantum dot embedded in a host material represents an attractive platform to realize such a single-photon source (SPS). A near-unity efficiency, defined as the num...... nanowire SPSs...
Direct detection of a single photon by humans
Tinsley, Jonathan N.; Molodtsov, Maxim I.; Prevedel, Robert; Wartmann, David; Espigulé-Pons, Jofre; Lauwers, Mattias; Vaziri, Alipasha
2016-01-01
Despite investigations for over 70 years, the absolute limits of human vision have remained unclear. Rod cells respond to individual photons, yet whether a single-photon incident on the eye can be perceived by a human subject has remained a fundamental open question. Here we report that humans can detect a single-photon incident on the cornea with a probability significantly above chance. This was achieved by implementing a combination of a psychophysics procedure with a quantum light source that can generate single-photon states of light. We further discover that the probability of reporting a single photon is modulated by the presence of an earlier photon, suggesting a priming process that temporarily enhances the effective gain of the visual system on the timescale of seconds. PMID:27434854
Experimental investigation of a four-qubit linear-optical quantum logic circuit.
Stárek, R; Mičuda, M; Miková, M; Straka, I; Dušek, M; Ježek, M; Fiurášek, J
2016-09-20
We experimentally demonstrate and characterize a four-qubit linear-optical quantum logic circuit. Our robust and versatile scheme exploits encoding of two qubits into polarization and path degrees of single photons and involves two crossed inherently stable interferometers. This approach allows us to design a complex quantum logic circuit that combines a genuine four-qubit C(3)Z gate and several two-qubit and single-qubit gates. The C(3)Z gate introduces a sign flip if and only if all four qubits are in the computational state |1〉. We verify high-fidelity performance of this central four-qubit gate using Hofmann bounds on quantum gate fidelity and Monte Carlo fidelity sampling. We also experimentally demonstrate that the quantum logic circuit can generate genuine multipartite entanglement and we certify the entanglement with the use of suitably tailored entanglement witnesses.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kremling, Stefan
2014-01-01
This thesis describes the characterization of semiconductor quantum dots (QDs) in different material systems with potential applications as single photon emitters or intermediate band solar cells. All investigations were carried out by means of optical spectroscopy methods. First, the theoretical background regarding the physics of QDs with respect to their electronic structure and their associated statistical properties are presented. Especially peculiarities of photon statistics of light are explained. Moreover, a closer look at the physics of solar cells and the respective carrier transport is given. Then experimental methods, which were used to characterize the QD-samples, are briefly explained. First, the components and techniques of optical spectroscopy for the study of individual, isolated QDs are described. Second, different experimental technologies for the characterization of solar cells are discussed. The method for measuring the two-photon-absorption process is explained in detail. The section of experimental results begins with studies of individual and spectrally isolated InP QD. Due to the low surface density of one QD per μm 2 , it is possible to study the physical properties of individual QDs optically without additional lateral sample structuring. Based on power and polarization dependent measurements, various luminescence peaks of a single QD were associated with different exciton states. In addition, the QDs were tested subject to an external magnetic field in a Faraday configuration. Finally, the temporal photon statistics of a single QD was tested using autocorrelation measurement. Afterwards, InP QDs manufactured by cyclic material deposition with growth interruptions were investigated by means of PL spectroscopy. Based on excitation power and time-resolved measurements on the QD ensemble, a bimodal QD distribution of type-I and type-II band alignment was observed. In addition, different exciton states were identified on spectrally isolated
Multi-photon absorption limits to heralded single photon sources
Husko, Chad A.; Clark, Alex S.; Collins, Matthew J.; De Rossi, Alfredo; Combrié, Sylvain; Lehoucq, Gaëlle; Rey, Isabella H.; Krauss, Thomas F.; Xiong, Chunle; Eggleton, Benjamin J.
2013-01-01
Single photons are of paramount importance to future quantum technologies, including quantum communication and computation. Nonlinear photonic devices using parametric processes offer a straightforward route to generating photons, however additional nonlinear processes may come into play and interfere with these sources. Here we analyse spontaneous four-wave mixing (SFWM) sources in the presence of multi-photon processes. We conduct experiments in silicon and gallium indium phosphide photonic crystal waveguides which display inherently different nonlinear absorption processes, namely two-photon (TPA) and three-photon absorption (ThPA), respectively. We develop a novel model capturing these diverse effects which is in excellent quantitative agreement with measurements of brightness, coincidence-to-accidental ratio (CAR) and second-order correlation function g(2)(0), showing that TPA imposes an intrinsic limit on heralded single photon sources. We build on these observations to devise a new metric, the quantum utility (QMU), enabling further optimisation of single photon sources. PMID:24186400
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Hollebeek, R.
1985-12-01
The MAC and ASP searches for events with a single photon and no other observed particles are reviewed. New results on the number of neutrino generations and limits on selection, photino, squark and gluino masses from the ASP experiment are presented.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Hollebeek, R.
1985-12-01
The MAC and ASP searches for events with a single photon and no other observed particles are reviewed. New results on the number of neutrino generations and limits on selection, photino, squark and gluino masses from the ASP experiment are presented
Multihop teleportation of two-qubit state via the composite GHZ–Bell channel
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Zou, Zhen-Zhen [State Key Lab. of Millimeter Waves, Southeast University, Nanjing, 210096 (China); Yu, Xu-Tao, E-mail: yuxutao@seu.edu.cn [State Key Lab. of Millimeter Waves, Southeast University, Nanjing, 210096 (China); Gong, Yan-Xiao [Department of Physics, Southeast University, Nanjing, 211189 (China); Zhang, Zai-Chen [National Mobile Communications Research Lab, Southeast University, Nanjing, 210096 (China)
2017-01-15
A multihop teleportation protocol in quantum communication network is introduced to teleport an arbitrary two-qubit state, between two nodes without directly sharing entanglement pairs. Quantum channels are built among neighbor nodes based on a five-qubit entangled system composed of GHZ and Bell pairs. The von Neumann measurements in all intermediate nodes and the source node are implemented, and then the measurement outcomes are sent to the destination node independently. After collecting all the measurement outcomes at the destination node, an efficient method is proposed to calculate the unitary operations for transforming the receiver's states to the state teleported. Therefore, only adopting the proper unitary operations at the destination node, the desired quantum state can be recovered perfectly. The transmission flexibility and efficiency of quantum network with composite GHZ–Bell channel are improved by transmitting measurement outcomes of all nodes in parallelism and reducing hop-by-hop teleportation delay. - Highlights: • A multihop teleportation protocol is introduced to teleport two-qubit state. • Quantum channels are built by composite of GHZ and Bell pairs. • Measurement outcomes are sent to the destination node independently. • Destination node calculates and adopts unitary operations to recover initial state.
Graphene-Based Josephson-Junction Single-Photon Detector
Walsh, Evan D.; Efetov, Dmitri K.; Lee, Gil-Ho; Heuck, Mikkel; Crossno, Jesse; Ohki, Thomas A.; Kim, Philip; Englund, Dirk; Fong, Kin Chung
2017-08-01
We propose to use graphene-based Josephson junctions (GJJs) to detect single photons in a wide electromagnetic spectrum from visible to radio frequencies. Our approach takes advantage of the exceptionally low electronic heat capacity of monolayer graphene and its constricted thermal conductance to its phonon degrees of freedom. Such a system could provide high-sensitivity photon detection required for research areas including quantum information processing and radio astronomy. As an example, we present our device concepts for GJJ single-photon detectors in both the microwave and infrared regimes. The dark count rate and intrinsic quantum efficiency are computed based on parameters from a measured GJJ, demonstrating feasibility within existing technologies.
Sub-megahertz linewidth single photon source
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Markus Rambach
2016-12-01
Full Text Available We report 100% duty cycle generation of sub-MHz single photon pairs at the rubidium D1 line using cavity-enhanced spontaneous parametric downconversion. The temporal intensity cross correlation function exhibits a bandwidth of 666±16 kHz for the single photons, an order of magnitude below the natural linewidth of the target transition. A half-wave plate inside our cavity helps to achieve triple resonance between pump, signal, and idler photon, reducing the bandwidth and simplifying the locking scheme. Additionally, stabilisation of the cavity to the pump frequency enables the 100% duty cycle. The quantum nature of the source is confirmed by the idler-triggered second-order autocorrelation function at τ=0 to be gs,s(2(0= 0.016±0.002 for a heralding rate of 5 kHz. The generated photons are well-suited for storage in quantum memory schemes with sub-natural linewidths, such as gradient echo memories.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Yabu-uti, B.F.C.; Roversi, J.A.
2011-01-01
We propose an alternative scheme to implement a two-qubit controlled-R (rotation) gate in the hybrid atom-CCA (coupled cavities array) system. Our scheme results in a constant gating time and, with an adjustable qubit-bus coupling (atom-resonator), one can specify a particular rotation R on the target qubit. We believe that this proposal may open promising perspectives for networking quantum information processors and implementing distributed and scalable quantum computation. -- Highlights: → We propose an alternative two-qubit controlled-rotation gate implementation. → Our gate is realized in a constant gating time for any rotation. → A particular rotation on the target qubit can be specified by an adjustable qubit-bus coupling. → Our proposal may open promising perspectives for implementing distributed and scalable quantum computation.
Changing optical band structure with single photons
Albrecht, Andreas; Caneva, Tommaso; Chang, Darrick E.
2017-11-01
Achieving strong interactions between individual photons enables a wide variety of exciting possibilities in quantum information science and many-body physics. Cold atoms interfaced with nanophotonic structures have emerged as a platform to realize novel forms of nonlinear interactions. In particular, when atoms are coupled to a photonic crystal waveguide, long-range atomic interactions can arise that are mediated by localized atom-photon bound states. We theoretically show that in such a system, the absorption of a single photon can change the band structure for a subsequent photon. This occurs because the first photon affects the atoms in the chain in an alternating fashion, thus leading to an effective period doubling of the system and a new optical band structure for the composite atom-nanophotonic system. We demonstrate how this mechanism can be engineered to realize a single-photon switch, where the first incoming photon switches the system from being highly transmissive to highly reflective, and analyze how signatures can be observed via non-classical correlations of the outgoing photon field.
Deterministic teleportation using single-photon entanglement as a resource
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Björk, Gunnar; Laghaout, Amine; Andersen, Ulrik L.
2012-01-01
We outline a proof that teleportation with a single particle is, in principle, just as reliable as with two particles. We thereby hope to dispel the skepticism surrounding single-photon entanglement as a valid resource in quantum information. A deterministic Bell-state analyzer is proposed which...
High brightness single photon sources based on photonic wires
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Claudon, J.; Bleuse, J.; Bazin, M.
2009-01-01
We present a novel single-photon-source based on the emission of a semiconductor quantum dot embedded in a single-mode photonic wire. This geometry ensures a very large coupling (> 95%) of the spontaneous emission to the guided mode. Numerical simulations show that a photon collection efficiency...
The physics of nanowire superconducting single-photon detectors
Renema, Jelmer Jan
2015-01-01
We investigate the detection mechanism in superconducting single photon detectors via quantum detector tomography. We find that the detection event is caused by diffusion of quasiparticles from the absorption spot, combined with entrance of a vortex. Moreover, we investigate the behaviour of
New Generation of Superconducting Nanowire Single-Photon Detectors
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Goltsman G.N.
2015-01-01
Full Text Available We present an overview of recent results for new generation of infrared and optical superconducting nanowire single-photon detectors (SNSPDs that has already demonstrated a performance that makes them devices-of-choice for many applications. SNSPDs provide high efficiency for detecting individual photons while keeping dark counts and timing jitter minimal. Besides superior detection performance over a broad optical bandwidth, SNSPDs are also compatible with an integrated optical platform as a crucial requirement for applications in emerging quantum photonic technologies. By embedding SNSPDs in nanophotonic circuits we realize waveguide integrated single photon detectors which unite all desirable detector properties in a single device.
Negativity of Two-Qubit System Through Spin Coherent States
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Berrada, K.; El Baz, M.; Hassouni, Y.; Eleuch, H.
2009-12-01
Using the negativity, we express and analyze the entanglement of two-qubit nonorthogonal pure states through the spin coherent states. We formulate this measure in terms of the amplitudes of coherent states and we give the conditions for the minimal and the maximal entanglement. We generalize this formalism to the case of a class of mixed states and show that the negativity is also a function of probabilities. (author)
Protecting single-photon entanglement with practical entanglement source
Zhou, Lan; Ou-Yang, Yang; Wang, Lei; Sheng, Yu-Bo
2017-06-01
Single-photon entanglement (SPE) is important for quantum communication and quantum information processing. However, SPE is sensitive to photon loss. In this paper, we discuss a linear optical amplification protocol for protecting SPE. Different from the previous protocols, we exploit the practical spontaneous parametric down-conversion (SPDC) source to realize the amplification, for the ideal entanglement source is unavailable in current quantum technology. Moreover, we prove that the amplification using the entanglement generated from SPDC source as auxiliary is better than the amplification assisted with single photons. The reason is that the vacuum state from SPDC source will not affect the amplification, so that it can be eliminated automatically. This protocol may be useful in future long-distance quantum communications.
Single-photon light detection with transition-edge sensors
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Rajteri, M.; Taralli, E.; Portesi, C.; Monticone, E.
2008-01-01
Transition-Edge Sensors (TESs) are micro calorimeters that measure the energy of incident single-photons by the resistance increase of a superconducting film biased within the superconducting-to-normal transition. TES are able to detect single photons from x-ray to IR with an intrinsic energy resolution and photon-number discrimination capability. Metrological, astronomical and quantum communication applications are the fields where these properties can be particularly important. In this work, we report about characterization of different TESs based on Ti films. Single-photons have been detected from 200 nm to 800 nm working at T c ∼ 100 m K. Using a pulsed laser at 690 nm we have demonstrated the capability to resolve up to five photons.
Circuit electromechanics with single photon strong coupling
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Xue, Zheng-Yuan, E-mail: zyxue@scnu.edu.cn; Yang, Li-Na [Guangdong Provincial Key Laboratory of Quantum Engineering and Quantum Materials, and School of Physics and Telecommunication Engineering, South China Normal University, Guangzhou 510006 (China); Zhou, Jian, E-mail: jianzhou8627@163.com [Department of Electronic Communication Engineering, Anhui Xinhua University, Hefei 230088 (China); Guangdong Provincial Key Laboratory of Quantum Engineering and Quantum Materials, and School of Physics and Telecommunication Engineering, South China Normal University, Guangzhou 510006 (China)
2015-07-13
In circuit electromechanics, the coupling strength is usually very small. Here, replacing the capacitor in circuit electromechanics by a superconducting flux qubit, we show that the coupling among the qubit and the two resonators can induce effective electromechanical coupling which can attain the strong coupling regime at the single photon level with feasible experimental parameters. We use dispersive couplings among two resonators and the qubit while the qubit is also driven by an external classical field. These couplings form a three-wave mixing configuration among the three elements where the qubit degree of freedom can be adiabatically eliminated, and thus results in the enhanced coupling between the two resonators. Therefore, our work constitutes the first step towards studying quantum nonlinear effect in circuit electromechanics.
Demonstration of Multisetting One-Way Einstein-Podolsky-Rosen Steering in Two-Qubit Systems
Xiao, Ya; Ye, Xiang-Jun; Sun, Kai; Xu, Jin-Shi; Li, Chuan-Feng; Guo, Guang-Can
2017-04-01
Einstein-Podolsky-Rosen (EPR) steering describes the ability of one party to remotely affect another's state through local measurements. One of the most distinguishable properties of EPR steering is its asymmetric aspect. Steering can work in one direction but fail in the opposite direction. This type of one-way steering, which is different from the symmetry concepts of entanglement and Bell nonlocality, has garnered much interest. However, an experimental demonstration of genuine one-way EPR steering in the simplest scenario, i.e., one that employs two-qubit systems, is still lacking. In this Letter, we experimentally demonstrate one-way EPR steering with multimeasurement settings for a class of two-qubit states, which are still one-way steerable even with infinite settings. The steerability is quantified by the steering radius, which represents a necessary and sufficient steering criterion. The demonstrated one-way steering in the simplest bipartite quantum system is of fundamental interest and may provide potential applications in one-way quantum information tasks.
Tailoring single-photon and multiphoton probabilities of a single-photon on-demand source
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Migdall, A.L.; Branning, D.; Castelletto, S.
2002-01-01
As typically implemented, single-photon sources cannot be made to produce single photons with high probability, while simultaneously suppressing the probability of yielding two or more photons. Because of this, single-photon sources cannot really produce single photons on demand. We describe a multiplexed system that allows the probabilities of producing one and more photons to be adjusted independently, enabling a much better approximation of a source of single photons on demand
Single photon emission computerized tomography
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Hooge, P. de.
1983-01-01
In this thesis two single-photon emission tomographic techniques are presented: (a) longitudinal tomography with a rotating slanting-hole collimator, and (b) transversal tomography with a rotating gamma camera. These methods overcome the disadvantages of conventional scintigraphy. Both detection systems and the image construction methods are explained and comparisons with conventional scintigraphy are drawn. One chapter is dedicated to the determination of system parameters like spatial resolution, contrast, detector uniformity, and size of the object, by phantom studies. In separate chapters the results are presented of detection of tumors and metastases in the liver and the liver hilus; skeletal diseases; various pathological aberrations of the brain; and myocardial perfusion. The possible use of these two ect's for other organs and body areas is discussed in the last chapter. (Auth.)
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Paul B. Slater
2015-01-01
Full Text Available Previously, a formula, incorporating a 5F4 hypergeometric function, for the Hilbert-Schmidt-averaged determinantal moments ρPTnρk/ρk of 4×4 density-matrices (ρ and their partial transposes (|ρPT|, was applied with k=0 to the generalized two-qubit separability probability question. The formula can, furthermore, be viewed, as we note here, as an averaging over “induced measures in the space of mixed quantum states.” The associated induced-measure separability probabilities (k=1,2,… are found—via a high-precision density approximation procedure—to assume interesting, relatively simple rational values in the two-re[al]bit (α=1/2, (standard two-qubit (α=1, and two-quater[nionic]bit (α=2 cases. We deduce rather simple companion (rebit, qubit, quaterbit, … formulas that successfully reproduce the rational values assumed for general k. These formulas are observed to share certain features, possibly allowing them to be incorporated into a single master formula.
Efficient one- and two-qubit pulsed gates for an oscillator-stabilized Josephson qubit
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Brito, Frederico; DiVincenzo, David P; Koch, Roger H; Steffen, Matthias
2008-01-01
We present theoretical schemes for performing high-fidelity one- and two-qubit pulsed gates for a superconducting flux qubit. The 'IBM qubit' consists of three Josephson junctions, three loops and a superconducting transmission line. Assuming a fixed inductive qubit-qubit coupling, we show that the effective qubit-qubit interaction is tunable by changing the applied fluxes, and can be made negligible, allowing one to perform high-fidelity single qubit gates. Our schemes are tailored to alleviate errors due to 1/f noise; we find gates with only 1% loss of fidelity due to this source, for pulse times in the range of 20-30 ns for one-qubit gates (Z rotations, Hadamard) and 60 ns for a two-qubit gate (controlled-Z). Our relaxation and dephasing time estimates indicate a comparable loss of fidelity from this source. The control of leakage plays an important role in the design of our shaped pulses, preventing shorter pulse times. However, we have found that imprecision in the control of the quantum phase plays a major role in the limitation of the fidelity of our gates
Site-controlled InGaN/GaN single-photon-emitting diode
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Zhang, Lei; Deng, Hui, E-mail: dengh@umich.edu [Department of Physics, University of Michigan, 450 Church St., Ann Arbor, Michigan 48109 (United States); Teng, Chu-Hsiang; Ku, Pei-Cheng, E-mail: peicheng@umich.edu [Department of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science, University of Michigan, 1301 Beal Ave., Ann Arbor, Michigan 48109 (United States)
2016-04-11
We report single-photon emission from electrically driven site-controlled InGaN/GaN quantum dots. The device is fabricated from a planar light-emitting diode structure containing a single InGaN quantum well, using a top-down approach. The location, dimension, and height of each single-photon-emitting diode are controlled lithographically, providing great flexibility for chip-scale integration.
High-fidelity quantum gates on quantum-dot-confined electron spins in low-Q optical microcavities
Li, Tao; Gao, Jian-Cun; Deng, Fu-Guo; Long, Gui-Lu
2018-04-01
We propose some high-fidelity quantum circuits for quantum computing on electron spins of quantum dots (QD) embedded in low-Q optical microcavities, including the two-qubit controlled-NOT gate and the multiple-target-qubit controlled-NOT gate. The fidelities of both quantum gates can, in principle, be robust to imperfections involved in a practical input-output process of a single photon by converting the infidelity into a heralded error. Furthermore, the influence of two different decay channels is detailed. By decreasing the quality factor of the present microcavity, we can largely increase the efficiencies of these quantum gates while their high fidelities remain unaffected. This proposal also has another advantage regarding its experimental feasibility, in that both quantum gates can work faithfully even when the QD-cavity systems are non-identical, which is of particular importance in current semiconductor QD technology.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Dong, Li; Xiu, Xiao-Ming, E-mail: xiuxiaomingdl@126.com [Dalian University of Technology, School of Physics and Optoelectronic Technology (China); Ren, Yuan-Peng [Bohai University, Higher Professional Technical Institute (China); Gao, Ya-Jun [Bohai University, College of Mathematics and Physics (China); Yi, X. X. [Dalian University of Technology, School of Physics and Optoelectronic Technology (China)
2013-01-15
We propose a protocol transferring an arbitrary unknown two-qubit state using the quantum channel of a four-qubit genuine entangled state. Simplifying the four-qubit joint measurement to the combination of Bell-state measurements, it can be realized more easily with currently available technologies.
Single-photon sources based on single molecules in solids
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Moerner, W E
2004-01-01
Single molecules in suitable host crystals have been demonstrated to be useful single-photon emitters both at liquid-helium temperatures and at room temperature. The low-temperature source achieved controllable emission of single photons from a single terrylene molecule in p-terphenyl by an adiabatic rapid passage technique. In contrast with almost all other single-molecule systems, terrylene single molecules show extremely high photostability under continuous, high-intensity irradiation. A room-temperature source utilizing this material has been demonstrated, in which fast pumping into vibrational sidebands of the electronically excited state achieved efficient inversion of the emissive level. This source yielded a single-photon emission probability p(1) of 0.86 at a detected count rate near 300 000 photons s -1 , with very small probability of emission of more than one photon. Thus, single molecules in solids can be considered as contenders for applications of single-photon sources such as quantum key distribution
High-speed single-photon signaling for daytime QKD
Bienfang, Joshua; Restelli, Alessandro; Clark, Charles
2011-03-01
The distribution of quantum-generated cryptographic key at high throughputs can be critically limited by the performance of the systems' single-photon detectors. While noise and afterpulsing are considerations for all single-photon QKD systems, high-transmission rate systems also have critical detector timing-resolution and recovery time requirements. We present experimental results exploiting the high timing resolution and count-rate stability of modified single-photon avalanche diodes (SPADs) in our GHz QKD system operating over a 1.5 km free-space link that demonstrate the ability to apply extremely short temporal gates, enabling daytime free-space QKD with a 4% QBER. We also discuss recent advances in gating techniques for InGaAs SPADs that are suitable for high-speed fiber-based QKD. We present afterpulse-probability measurements that demonstrate the ability to support single-photon count rates above 100 MHz with low afterpulse probability. These results will benefit the design and characterization of free-space and fiber QKD systems. A. Restelli, J.C. Bienfang A. Mink, and C.W. Clark, IEEE J. Sel. Topics in Quant. Electron 16, 1084 (2010).
Secure authentication of classical messages with single photons
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Tian-Yin, Wang; Qiao-Yan, Wen; Fu-Chen, Zhu
2009-01-01
This paper proposes a scheme for secure authentication of classical messages with single photons and a hashed function. The security analysis of this scheme is also given, which shows that anyone cannot forge valid message authentication codes (MACs). In addition, the lengths of the authentication key and the MACs are invariable and shorter, in comparison with those presented authentication schemes. Moreover, quantum data storage and entanglement are not required in this scheme. Therefore, this scheme is more efficient and economical. (general)
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Liu Jiong; Zhou Lan; Sheng Yu-Bo
2015-01-01
We propose a protocol for directly measuring the concurrence of a two-qubit electronic pure entangled state. To complete this task, we first design a parity-check measurement (PCM) which is constructed by two polarization beam splitters (PBSs) and a charge detector. By using the PCM for three rounds, we can achieve the concurrence by calculating the total probability of picking up the odd parity states from the initial states. Since the conduction electron may be a good candidate for the realization of quantum computation, this protocol may be useful in future solid quantum computation. (paper)
On-demand single-photon state generation via nonlinear absorption
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Hong Tao; Jack, Michael W.; Yamashita, Makoto
2004-01-01
We propose a method for producing on-demand single-photon states based on collision-induced exchanges of photons and unbalanced linear absorption between two single-mode light fields. These two effects result in an effective nonlinear absorption of photons in one of the modes, which can lead to single-photon states. A quantum nonlinear attenuator based on such a mechanism can absorb photons in a normal input light pulse and terminate the absorption at a single-photon state. Because the output light pulses containing single photons preserve the properties of the input pulses, we expect this method to be a means for building a highly controllable single-photon source
Rosenblum, Serge; Borne, Adrien; Dayan, Barak
2017-03-01
The long-standing goal of deterministic quantum interactions between single photons and single atoms was recently realized in various experiments. Among these, an appealing demonstration relied on single-photon Raman interaction (SPRINT) in a three-level atom coupled to a single-mode waveguide. In essence, the interference-based process of SPRINT deterministically swaps the qubits encoded in a single photon and a single atom, without the need for additional control pulses. It can also be harnessed to construct passive entangling quantum gates, and can therefore form the basis for scalable quantum networks in which communication between the nodes is carried out only by single-photon pulses. Here we present an analytical and numerical study of SPRINT, characterizing its limitations and defining parameters for its optimal operation. Specifically, we study the effect of losses, imperfect polarization, and the presence of multiple excited states. In all cases we discuss strategies for restoring the operation of SPRINT.
A high-speed tunable beam splitter for feed-forward photonic quantum information processing.
Ma, Xiao-Song; Zotter, Stefan; Tetik, Nuray; Qarry, Angie; Jennewein, Thomas; Zeilinger, Anton
2011-11-07
We realize quantum gates for path qubits with a high-speed, polarization-independent and tunable beam splitter. Two electro-optical modulators act in a Mach-Zehnder interferometer as high-speed phase shifters and rapidly tune its splitting ratio. We test its performance with heralded single photons, observing a polarization-independent interference contrast above 95%. The switching time is about 5.6 ns, and a maximal repetition rate is 2.5 MHz. We demonstrate tunable feed-forward operations of a single-qubit gate of path-encoded qubits and a two-qubit gate via measurement-induced interaction between two photons.
Operator entanglement of two-qubit joint unitary operations revisited: Schmidt number approach
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Xia, Hui-Zhi; Li, Chao; Yang, Qing; Yang, Ming, E-mail: mingyang@ahu.edu.cn [Key Laboratory of Opto-electronic Information Acquisition and Manipulation, Ministry of Education, School of Physics and Material Science, Anhui University Hefei (China); Cao, Zhuo-Liang [School of Electronic Information Engineering, Hefei Normal University (China)
2012-08-15
The operator entanglement of two-qubit joint unitary operations is revisited. The Schmidt number, an important attribute of a two-qubit unitary operation, may have connection with the entanglement measure of the unitary operator. We find that the entanglement measure of a two-qubit unitary operators is classified by the Schmidt number of the unitary operators. We also discuss the exact relation between the operator entanglement and the parameters of the unitary operator. (author)
Multiple-Event, Single-Photon Counting Imaging Sensor
Zheng, Xinyu; Cunningham, Thomas J.; Sun, Chao; Wang, Kang L.
2011-01-01
The single-photon counting imaging sensor is typically an array of silicon Geiger-mode avalanche photodiodes that are monolithically integrated with CMOS (complementary metal oxide semiconductor) readout, signal processing, and addressing circuits located in each pixel and the peripheral area of the chip. The major problem is its single-event method for photon count number registration. A single-event single-photon counting imaging array only allows registration of up to one photon count in each of its pixels during a frame time, i.e., the interval between two successive pixel reset operations. Since the frame time can t be too short, this will lead to very low dynamic range and make the sensor merely useful for very low flux environments. The second problem of the prior technique is a limited fill factor resulting from consumption of chip area by the monolithically integrated CMOS readout in pixels. The resulting low photon collection efficiency will substantially ruin any benefit gained from the very sensitive single-photon counting detection. The single-photon counting imaging sensor developed in this work has a novel multiple-event architecture, which allows each of its pixels to register as more than one million (or more) photon-counting events during a frame time. Because of a consequently boosted dynamic range, the imaging array of the invention is capable of performing single-photon counting under ultra-low light through high-flux environments. On the other hand, since the multiple-event architecture is implemented in a hybrid structure, back-illumination and close-to-unity fill factor can be realized, and maximized quantum efficiency can also be achieved in the detector array.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Chen Yuntian; Wubs, Martijn; Moerk, Jesper [DTU Fotonik, Department of Photonics Engineering, Oersteds Plads, DK-2800 Kgs Lyngby (Denmark); Koenderink, A Femius, E-mail: yche@fotonik.dtu.dk [Center for Nanophotonics, FOM Institute for Atomic and Molecular Physics (AMOLF), Science Park 104, 1098 XG Amsterdam (Netherlands)
2011-10-15
We study the dynamics of single-photon absorption by a single emitter coupled to a one-dimensional waveguide that simultaneously provides channels for spontaneous emission (SE) decay and a channel for the input photon. We have developed a time-dependent theory that allows us to specify any input single-photon wavepacket guided by the waveguide as the initial condition, and calculate the excitation probability of the emitter, as well as the time evolution of the transmitted and reflected fields. For single-photon wavepackets with a Gaussian spectrum and temporal shape, we obtain analytical solutions for the dynamics of absorption, with maximum atomic excitation {approx}40%. We furthermore propose a terminated waveguide to aid the single-photon absorption. We found that for an emitter placed at an optimal distance from the termination, the maximum atomic excitation due to an incident single-photon wavepacket can exceed 70%. This high value is a direct consequence of the high SE {beta}-factor for emission into the waveguide. Finally, we have also explored whether waveguide dispersion could aid single-photon absorption by pulse shaping. For a Gaussian input wavepacket, we found that the absorption efficiency can be improved by a further 4% by engineering the dispersion. Efficient single-photon absorption by a single emitter has potential applications in quantum communication and quantum computation. (paper)
Localization of Narrowband Single Photon Emitters in Nanodiamonds.
Bray, Kerem; Sandstrom, Russell; Elbadawi, Christopher; Fischer, Martin; Schreck, Matthias; Shimoni, Olga; Lobo, Charlene; Toth, Milos; Aharonovich, Igor
2016-03-23
Diamond nanocrystals that host room temperature narrowband single photon emitters are highly sought after for applications in nanophotonics and bioimaging. However, current understanding of the origin of these emitters is extremely limited. In this work, we demonstrate that the narrowband emitters are point defects localized at extended morphological defects in individual nanodiamonds. In particular, we show that nanocrystals with defects such as twin boundaries and secondary nucleation sites exhibit narrowband emission that is absent from pristine individual nanocrystals grown under the same conditions. Critically, we prove that the narrowband emission lines vanish when extended defects are removed deterministically using highly localized electron beam induced etching. Our results enhance the current understanding of single photon emitters in diamond and are directly relevant to fabrication of novel quantum optics devices and sensors.
Experimental test of the strongly nonclassical character of a noisy squeezed single-photon state
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Jezek, M.; Tipsmark, A.; Dong, R.
2012-01-01
We experimentally verify the quantum non-Gaussian character of a conditionally generated noisy squeezed single-photon state with a positive Wigner function. Employing an optimized witness based on probabilities of squeezed vacuum and squeezed single-photon states, we prove that the state cannot...... be expressed as a mixture of Gaussian states. In our experiment, the non-Gaussian state is generated by conditional subtraction of a single photon from a squeezed vacuum state. The state is probed with a homodyne detector and the witness is determined by averaging a suitable pattern function over the measured...
Processing multiphoton states through operation on a single photon: Methods and applications
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Lin Qing; He Bing; Bergou, Janos A.; Ren, Yuhang
2009-01-01
Multiphoton states are widely applied in quantum information technology. By the methods presented in this paper, the structure of a multiphoton state in the form of multiple single-photon qubit products can be mapped to a single-photon qudit, which could also be in a separable product with other photons. This makes possible the manipulation of such multiphoton states by processing single-photon states. The optical realization of unknown qubit discrimination [B. He, J. A. Bergou, and Y.-H. Ren, Phys. Rev. A 76, 032301 (2007)] is simplified with the transformation methods. Another application is the construction of quantum logic gates, where the inverse transformations back to the input state spaces are also necessary. We especially show that the modified setups to implement the transformations can realize the deterministic multicontrol gates (including Toffoli gate) operating directly on the products of single-photon qubits.
Computational Modeling of Photonic Crystal Microcavity Single-Photon Emitters
Saulnier, Nicole A.
Conventional cryptography is based on algorithms that are mathematically complex and difficult to solve, such as factoring large numbers. The advent of a quantum computer would render these schemes useless. As scientists work to develop a quantum computer, cryptographers are developing new schemes for unconditionally secure cryptography. Quantum key distribution has emerged as one of the potential replacements of classical cryptography. It relics on the fact that measurement of a quantum bit changes the state of the bit and undetected eavesdropping is impossible. Single polarized photons can be used as the quantum bits, such that a quantum system would in some ways mirror the classical communication scheme. The quantum key distribution system would include components that create, transmit and detect single polarized photons. The focus of this work is on the development of an efficient single-photon source. This source is comprised of a single quantum dot inside of a photonic crystal microcavity. To better understand the physics behind the device, a computational model is developed. The model uses Finite-Difference Time-Domain methods to analyze the electromagnetic field distribution in photonic crystal microcavities. It uses an 8-band k · p perturbation theory to compute the energy band structure of the epitaxially grown quantum dots. We discuss a method that combines the results of these two calculations for determining the spontaneous emission lifetime of a quantum dot in bulk material or in a microcavity. The computational models developed in this thesis are used to identify and characterize microcavities for potential use in a single-photon source. The computational tools developed are also used to investigate novel photonic crystal microcavities that incorporate 1D distributed Bragg reflectors for vertical confinement. It is found that the spontaneous emission enhancement in the quasi-3D cavities can be significantly greater than in traditional suspended slab
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
QIN Meng
2013-01-01
We examine entanglement teleportation,characterized by average fidelity,of two-qubit XY Z spin chain under different nonuniform magnetic field.The entanglement teleportation and the fidelity of entanglement teleportation are investigated separately.We show explicitly that the fidelity of entanglement teleportation can be enhanced by changing the direction of the magnetic field.This means that we can always get optimal fidelity by choosing the directions of magnetic field in the process of quantum teleportation.Moreover,the results show that in some cases the ferromagnetic chain aiso is a quaiified candidate in the process of teleportation protocol.
Entanglement of two-qubit photon beam by magnetic field
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Levin, A.D.; Castro, R.A. [University of Sao Paulo, Institute of Physics, CP 66318, Sao Paulo (Brazil); Gitman, D.M. [University of Sao Paulo, Institute of Physics, CP 66318, Sao Paulo (Brazil); P.N. Lebedev Physical Institute, Moscow (Russian Federation); Tomsk State University, Tomsk (Russian Federation)
2014-09-15
We study the possibility of affecting the entanglement in a two-qubit system consisting of two photons with different fixed frequencies but with two arbitrary linear polarizations, moving in the same direction, with the help of an applied external magnetic field. The interaction between the magnetic field and the photons in our model is achieved through intermediate electrons that interact both with the photons and the magnetic field. The possibility of an exact theoretical analysis of this scheme is based on well-known exact solutions that describe the interaction of an electron subjected to an external magnetic field (or a medium of electrons not interacting with each other) with a quantized field of two photons. We adapt these exact solutions to the case under consideration. Using explicit wave functions for the resulting electromagnetic field, we calculate the entanglement measures (the information and the Schmidt ones) of the photon beam as functions of the applied magnetic field and the parameters of the electron medium. (orig.)
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Toshiyuki Tashima
2014-01-01
Single photon emitters like the nitrogen-vacancy (NV) center in diamond are important for quantum communication such as quantum cryptography and quantum metrology. In this context, e.g. tapered optical nano-fibers are a promising approach as they allow efficient coupling of single photons into a single spatial mode. Yet, integration of such fibers in a compact integrated quantum circuit is demanding. Here we propose a NV defect center in diamond as a single photon emitter coupled to a thin layer photonic waveguide. The benefit is to allow smaller size devices while having a similar strong evanescent field like tapered nano-optical fibers. We present numerical simulations and fabrication steps of such structures. (author)
Recent Advances for High-Efficiency Sources of Single Photons Based on Photonic Nanowires
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Gerard, J. M.; Claudon, J.; Munsch, M.
2012-01-01
Photonic nanowires have recently been used to tailor the spontaneous emission of embedded quantum dots, and to develop record efficiency single-photon sources. We will present recent developments in this field mainly 1) the observation of a strong inhibition of the spontaneous emission of quantum...
Optical Field-Strength Polarization of Two-Mode Single-Photon States
Linares, J.; Nistal, M. C.; Barral, D.; Moreno, V.
2010-01-01
We present a quantum analysis of two-mode single-photon states based on the probability distributions of the optical field strength (or position quadrature) in order to describe their quantum polarization characteristics, where polarization is understood as a significative confinement of the optical field-strength values on determined regions of…
High bit rate germanium single photon detectors for 1310nm
Seamons, J. A.; Carroll, M. S.
2008-04-01
There is increasing interest in development of high speed, low noise and readily fieldable near infrared (NIR) single photon detectors. InGaAs/InP Avalanche photodiodes (APD) operated in Geiger mode (GM) are a leading choice for NIR due to their preeminence in optical networking. After-pulsing is, however, a primary challenge to operating InGaAs/InP single photon detectors at high frequencies1. After-pulsing is the effect of charge being released from traps that trigger false ("dark") counts. To overcome this problem, hold-off times between detection windows are used to allow the traps to discharge to suppress after-pulsing. The hold-off time represents, however, an upper limit on detection frequency that shows degradation beginning at frequencies of ~100 kHz in InGaAs/InP. Alternatively, germanium (Ge) single photon avalanche photodiodes (SPAD) have been reported to have more than an order of magnitude smaller charge trap densities than InGaAs/InP SPADs2, which allowed them to be successfully operated with passive quenching2 (i.e., no gated hold off times necessary), which is not possible with InGaAs/InP SPADs, indicating a much weaker dark count dependence on hold-off time consistent with fewer charge traps. Despite these encouraging results suggesting a possible higher operating frequency limit for Ge SPADs, little has been reported on Ge SPAD performance at high frequencies presumably because previous work with Ge SPADs has been discouraged by a strong demand to work at 1550 nm. NIR SPADs require cooling, which in the case of Ge SPADs dramatically reduces the quantum efficiency of the Ge at 1550 nm. Recently, however, advantages to working at 1310 nm have been suggested which combined with a need to increase quantum bit rates for quantum key distribution (QKD) motivates examination of Ge detectors performance at very high detection rates where InGaAs/InP does not perform as well. Presented in this paper are measurements of a commercially available Ge APD
Development and Application of Semiconductor Quantum Dots to Quantum Computing
National Research Council Canada - National Science Library
Steel, Duncan
2002-01-01
.... Several major milestones were achieved during the present program including the demonstration of optically induced and detected quantum entanglement of two qubits, Rabi oscillation (one bit rotation...
Two-qubit gate operations in superconducting circuits with strong coupling and weak anharmonicity
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Lü Xinyou; Ashhab, S; Cui Wei; Wu Rebing; Nori, Franco
2012-01-01
We theoretically study the implementation of two-qubit gates in a system of two coupled superconducting qubits. In particular, we analyze two-qubit gate operations under the condition that the coupling strength is comparable with or even larger than the anharmonicity of the qubits. By numerically solving the time-dependent Schrödinger equation under the assumption of negligible decoherence, we obtain the dependence of the two-qubit gate fidelity on the system parameters in the case of both direct and indirect qubit-qubit coupling. Our numerical results can be used to identify the ‘safe’ parameter regime for experimentally implementing two-qubit gates with high fidelity in these systems. (paper)
Integrability and solvability of the simplified two-qubit Rabi model
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Peng Jie; Ren Zhongzhou; Guo Guangjie; Ju Guoxing
2012-01-01
The simplified two-qubit Rabi model is proposed and its analytical solution is presented. There are no level crossings in the spectral graph of the model, which indicates that it is not integrable. The criterion of integrability for the Rabi model proposed by Braak (2011 Phys. Rev. Lett. 107 100401) is also used for the simplified two-qubit Rabi model and the same conclusion, consistent with what the spectral graph shows, can be drawn, which indicates that the criterion remains valid when applied to the two-qubit case. The simplified two-qubit Rabi model is another example of a non-integrable but exactly solvable system except for the generalized Rabi model. (paper)
Role of initial coherence on entanglement dynamics of two qubit X states
V, Namitha C.; Satyanarayana, S. V. M.
2018-02-01
Bipartite entanglement is a necessary resource in most processes in quantum information science. Decoherence resulting from the interaction of the bipartite system with environment not only degrades the entanglement, but can result in abrupt disentanglement, known as entanglement sudden death (ESD). In some cases, a subsequent revival of entanglement is also possible. ESD is an undesirable feature for the state to be used as a resource in applications. In order to delay or avoid ESD, it is necessary to understand its origin. In this work we investigate the role of initial coherence on entanglement dynamics of a spatially separated two qubit system in a common vacuum reservoir with dipolar interaction. We construct two classes of X states, namely, states with one photon coherence (X 1) and states with two photon coherence (X 2). Considering them as initial states, we study entanglement dynamics under Markov approximation. We find for states in X 1, ESD time, revival time and time over which the state remains disentangled increase with increase in coherence. On the other hand for states in X 2, with increase in coherence ESD time increases, revival time remains same and time of disentanglement decreases. Thus, states with two photon coherence are better resources for applications since their entanglement is robust against decoherence compared to states with one photon coherence.
Mitigating radiation damage of single photon detectors for space applications
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Anisimova, Elena; Higgins, Brendon L.; Bourgoin, Jean-Philippe [University of Waterloo, Institute for Quantum Computing, Waterloo, ON (Canada); University of Waterloo, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Waterloo, ON (Canada); Cranmer, Miles [University of Waterloo, Institute for Quantum Computing, Waterloo, ON (Canada); Choi, Eric [University of Waterloo, Institute for Quantum Computing, Waterloo, ON (Canada); Magellan Aerospace, Ottawa, ON (Canada); Hudson, Danya; Piche, Louis P.; Scott, Alan [Honeywell Aerospace (formerly COM DEV Ltd.), Ottawa, ON (Canada); Makarov, Vadim [University of Waterloo, Institute for Quantum Computing, Waterloo, ON (Canada); University of Waterloo, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Waterloo, ON (Canada); University of Waterloo, Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, Waterloo, ON (Canada); Jennewein, Thomas [University of Waterloo, Institute for Quantum Computing, Waterloo, ON (Canada); University of Waterloo, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Waterloo, ON (Canada); Canadian Institute for Advanced Research, Quantum Information Science Program, Toronto, ON (Canada)
2017-12-15
Single-photon detectors in space must retain useful performance characteristics despite being bombarded with sub-atomic particles. Mitigating the effects of this space radiation is vital to enabling new space applications which require high-fidelity single-photon detection. To this end, we conducted proton radiation tests of various models of avalanche photodiodes (APDs) and one model of photomultiplier tube potentially suitable for satellite-based quantum communications. The samples were irradiated with 106 MeV protons at doses approximately equivalent to lifetimes of 0.6, 6, 12 and 24 months in a low-Earth polar orbit. Although most detection properties were preserved, including efficiency, timing jitter and afterpulsing probability, all APD samples demonstrated significant increases in dark count rate (DCR) due to radiation-induced damage, many orders of magnitude higher than the 200 counts per second (cps) required for ground-to-satellite quantum communications. We then successfully demonstrated the mitigation of this DCR degradation through the use of deep cooling, to as low as -86 C. This achieved DCR below the required 200 cps over the 24 months orbit duration. DCR was further reduced by thermal annealing at temperatures of +50 to +100 C. (orig.)
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Mohamed, A.-B.A., E-mail: abdelbastm@yahoo.com [College of Sciences and Humanities, Prince Sattam Bin Abdulaziz University, Al-Aflaj (Saudi Arabia); Faculty of Science, Assiut University, Assiut (Egypt); Joshi, A., E-mail: mcbamji@gmail.com [Physics Department, Adelphi University Garden City, NY 11530 (United States); Department of Physics and Optical Engineering, RHIT, Terra Haute IN 47803 (United States); Hassan, S.S., E-mail: shoukryhassan@hotmail.com [Department of Mathematics, College of Science, University of Bahrain, P.O. Box 32038 (Bahrain)
2016-03-15
Several quantum-mechanical correlations, notably, quantum entanglement, measurement-induced nonlocality and Bell nonlocality are studied for a two qubit-system having no mutual interaction. Analytical expressions for the measures of these quantum-mechanical correlations of different bipartite partitions of the system are obtained, for initially two entangled qubits and the two photons are in their vacuum states. It is found that the qubits-fields interaction leads to the loss and gain of the initial quantum correlations. The lost initial quantum correlations transfer from the qubits to the cavity fields. It is found that the maximal violation of Bell’s inequality is occurring when the quantum correlations of both the logarithmic negativity and measurement-induced nonlocality reach particular values. The maximal violation of Bell’s inequality occurs only for certain bipartite partitions of the system. The frequency detuning leads to quick oscillations of the quantum correlations and inhibits their transfer from the qubits to the cavity modes. It is also found that the dynamical behavior of the quantum correlation clearly depends on the qubit distribution angle.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Zhang, Guo-Feng
2007-01-01
Thermal entanglement of a two-qubit Heisenberg chain in the presence of the Dzyaloshinski-Moriya (DM) anisotropic antisymmetric interaction and entanglement teleportation when using two independent Heisenberg chains as the quantum channel are investigated. It is found that the DM interaction can excite entanglement and teleportation fidelity. The output entanglement increases linearly with increasing value of the input; its dependences on the temperature, DM interaction, and spin coupling constant are given in detail. Entanglement teleportation will be better realized via an antiferromagnetic spin chain when the DM interaction is turned off and the temperature is low. However, the introduction of the DM interaction can cause the ferromagnetic spin chain to be a better quantum channel for teleportation. A minimal entanglement of the thermal state in the model is needed to realize the entanglement teleportation regardless of whether the spin chains are antiferromagnetic or ferromagnetic
A universal setup for active control of a single-photon detector
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Liu, Qin; Skaar, Johannes; Lamas-Linares, Antía; Kurtsiefer, Christian; Makarov, Vadim; Gerhardt, Ilja
2014-01-01
The influence of bright light on a single-photon detector has been described in a number of recent publications. The impact on quantum key distribution (QKD) is important, and several hacking experiments have been tailored to fully control single-photon detectors. Special attention has been given to avoid introducing further errors into a QKD system. We describe the design and technical details of an apparatus which allows to attack a quantum-cryptographic connection. This device is capable of controlling free-space and fiber-based systems and of minimizing unwanted clicks in the system. With different control diagrams, we are able to achieve a different level of control. The control was initially targeted to the systems using BB84 protocol, with polarization encoding and basis switching using beamsplitters, but could be extended to other types of systems. We further outline how to characterize the quality of active control of single-photon detectors
On-demand semiconductor source of 780-nm single photons with controlled temporal wave packets
Béguin, Lucas; Jahn, Jan-Philipp; Wolters, Janik; Reindl, Marcus; Huo, Yongheng; Trotta, Rinaldo; Rastelli, Armando; Ding, Fei; Schmidt, Oliver G.; Treutlein, Philipp; Warburton, Richard J.
2018-05-01
We report on a fast, bandwidth-tunable single-photon source based on an epitaxial GaAs quantum dot. Exploiting spontaneous spin-flip Raman transitions, single photons at 780 nm are generated on demand with tailored temporal profiles of durations exceeding the intrinsic quantum dot lifetime by up to three orders of magnitude. Second-order correlation measurements show a low multiphoton emission probability [g2(0 ) ˜0.10 -0.15 ] at a generation rate up to 10 MHz. We observe Raman photons with linewidths as low as 200 MHz, which is narrow compared to the 1.1-GHz linewidth measured in resonance fluorescence. The generation of such narrow-band single photons with controlled temporal shapes at the rubidium wavelength is a crucial step towards the development of an optimized hybrid semiconductor-atom interface.
A universal setup for active control of a single-photon detector
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Liu, Qin; Skaar, Johannes [Department of Electronics and Telecommunications, Norwegian University of Science and Technology, NO-7491 Trondheim (Norway); Lamas-Linares, Antía; Kurtsiefer, Christian [Centre for Quantum Technologies and Department of Physics, National University of Singapore, 3 Science Drive 2, Singapore 117543 (Singapore); Makarov, Vadim, E-mail: makarov@vad1.com [Institute for Quantum Computing and Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Waterloo, 200 University Avenue West, Waterloo, Ontario N2L 3G1 (Canada); Gerhardt, Ilja, E-mail: ilja@quantumlah.org [Max Planck Institute for Solid State Research, Heisenbergstraße 1, D-70569 Stuttgart (Germany)
2014-01-15
The influence of bright light on a single-photon detector has been described in a number of recent publications. The impact on quantum key distribution (QKD) is important, and several hacking experiments have been tailored to fully control single-photon detectors. Special attention has been given to avoid introducing further errors into a QKD system. We describe the design and technical details of an apparatus which allows to attack a quantum-cryptographic connection. This device is capable of controlling free-space and fiber-based systems and of minimizing unwanted clicks in the system. With different control diagrams, we are able to achieve a different level of control. The control was initially targeted to the systems using BB84 protocol, with polarization encoding and basis switching using beamsplitters, but could be extended to other types of systems. We further outline how to characterize the quality of active control of single-photon detectors.
Angle sensitive single photon avalanche diode
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Lee, Changhyuk, E-mail: cl678@cornell.edu; Johnson, Ben, E-mail: bcj25@cornell.edu; Molnar, Alyosha, E-mail: am699@cornell.edu [Electrical and Computer Engineering, Cornell University, Ithaca, New York 14850 (United States)
2015-06-08
An ideal light sensor would provide exact information on intensity, timing, location, and angle of incoming photons. Single photon avalanche diodes (SPADs) provide such desired high (single photon) sensitivity with precise time information and can be implemented at a pixel-scale to form an array to extract spatial information. Furthermore, recent work has demonstrated photodiode-based structures (combined with micro-lenses or diffraction gratings) that are capable of encoding both spatial and angular information of incident light. In this letter, we describe the implementation of such a grating structure on SPADs to realize a pixel-scale angle-sensitive single photon avalanche diode (A-SPAD) built in a standard CMOS process. While the underlying SPAD structure provides high sensitivity, the time information of the two layers of diffraction gratings above offers angle-sensitivity. Such a unique combination of SPAD and diffraction gratings expands the sensing dimensions to pave a path towards lens-less 3-D imaging and light-field time-of-flight imaging.
Transmitting more than 10 bit with a single photon
Tentrup, T.B.H.; Hummel, T.; Wolterink, T.A.W.; Uppu, R.; Mosk, Allard; Pinkse, P.W.H.
2017-01-01
Encoding information in the position of single photons has no known limits, given infinite resources. Using a heralded single-photon source and a spatial light modulator (SLM), we steer single photons to specific positions in a virtual grid on a large-area spatially resolving photon-counting
A high-efficiency electrically-pumped single-photon source based on a photonics nanowire
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Gregersen, Niels; Nielsen, Torben Roland; Mørk, Jesper
An electrically-pumped single-photon source design with a predicted efficiency of 89% is proposed. The design is based on a quantum dot embedded in a photonic nanowire with tailored ends and optimized contact electrodes. Unlike cavity-based approaches, the photonic nanowire features broadband...
Fundamental limitations in spontaneous emission rate of single-photon sources
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Bozhevolnyi, Sergey I.; Khurgin, Jacob B.
2016-01-01
The rate of single-photon generation by quantum emitters (QEs) can be enhanced by placing a QE inside a resonant structure. This structure can represent an all-dielectric micro-resonator or waveguide and thus be characterized by ultra-low loss and dimensions on the order of wavelength. Or it can ...
High-efficiency single-photon source: The photonic wire geometry
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Claudon, J.; Bazin, Maela; Malik, Nitin S.
2009-01-01
We present a single-photon-source design based on the emission of a quantum dot embedded in a semiconductor (GaAs) nanowire. The nanowire ends are engineered (efficient metallic mirror and tip taper) to reach a predicted record-high collection efficiency of 90% with a realistic design. Preliminar...
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Major, Kyle D., E-mail: kyle.major11@imperial.ac.uk; Lien, Yu-Hung; Polisseni, Claudio; Grandi, Samuele; Kho, Kiang Wei; Clark, Alex S.; Hwang, J.; Hinds, E. A., E-mail: ed.hinds@imperial.ac.uk [Centre for Cold Matter, Department of Physics, Blackett Laboratory, Imperial College London, Prince Consort Road, London SW7 2AZ (United Kingdom)
2015-08-15
Dibenzoterrylene (DBT) molecules within a crystalline anthracene matrix show promise as quantum emitters for controlled, single photon production. We present the design and construction of a chamber in which we reproducibly grow doped anthracene crystals of optical quality that are several mm across and a few μm thick. We demonstrate control of the DBT concentration over the range 6–300 parts per trillion and show that these DBT molecules are stable single-photon emitters. We interpret our data with a simple model that provides some information on the vapour pressure of DBT.
Complete Bell-state analysis for a single-photon hybrid entangled state
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Sheng Yu-Bo; Zhou Lan; Cheng Wei-Wen; Gong Long-Yan; Wang Lei; Zhao Sheng-Mei
2013-01-01
We propose a scheme capable of performing complete Bell-state analysis for a single-photon hybrid entangled state. Our single-photon state is encoded in both polarization and frequency degrees of freedom. The setup of the scheme is composed of polarizing beam splitters, half wave plates, frequency shifters, and independent wavelength division multiplexers, which are feasible using current technology. We also show that with this setup we can perform complete two-photon Bell-state analysis schemes for polarization degrees of freedom. Moreover, it can also be used to perform the teleportation scheme between different degrees of freedom. This setup may allow extensive applications in current quantum communications
Khramtsov, Igor A.; Vyshnevyy, Andrey A.; Fedyanin, Dmitry Yu.
2018-03-01
Practical applications of quantum information technologies exploiting the quantum nature of light require efficient and bright true single-photon sources which operate under ambient conditions. Currently, point defects in the crystal lattice of diamond known as color centers have taken the lead in the race for the most promising quantum system for practical non-classical light sources. This work is focused on a different quantum optoelectronic material, namely a color center in silicon carbide, and reveals the physics behind the process of single-photon emission from color centers in SiC under electrical pumping. We show that color centers in silicon carbide can be far superior to any other quantum light emitter under electrical control at room temperature. Using a comprehensive theoretical approach and rigorous numerical simulations, we demonstrate that at room temperature, the photon emission rate from a p-i-n silicon carbide single-photon emitting diode can exceed 5 Gcounts/s, which is higher than what can be achieved with electrically driven color centers in diamond or epitaxial quantum dots. These findings lay the foundation for the development of practical photonic quantum devices which can be produced in a well-developed CMOS compatible process flow.
Single Photon Double Ionization of Atomic Oxygen
Wickramarathna, Madhushani; Gorczyca, Thomas; Ballance, Connor; Stolte, Wayne
2017-04-01
Single photon double ionization cross sections are calculated using an R-matrix with pseudostates (RMPS) method which was recently applied by Gorczyca et al. for the double photoionization of helium. With the convergence of these theoretical calculations for the simple case of helium, we extend this methodology to consider the more complex case of oxygen double photoionization. We compare our calculated results with recent measurements at the Advanced Light Source, as well as earlier experimental measurements. Our RMPS results agree well, qualitatively, with the experimental measurements, but there exist outstanding discrepancies to be addressed. This project is supported by NASA APRA award NNX17AD41G.
Single photon detector with high polarization sensitivity.
Guo, Qi; Li, Hao; You, LiXing; Zhang, WeiJun; Zhang, Lu; Wang, Zhen; Xie, XiaoMing; Qi, Ming
2015-04-15
Polarization is one of the key parameters of light. Most optical detectors are intensity detectors that are insensitive to the polarization of light. A superconducting nanowire single photon detector (SNSPD) is naturally sensitive to polarization due to its nanowire structure. Previous studies focused on producing a polarization-insensitive SNSPD. In this study, by adjusting the width and pitch of the nanowire, we systematically investigate the preparation of an SNSPD with high polarization sensitivity. Subsequently, an SNSPD with a system detection efficiency of 12% and a polarization extinction ratio of 22 was successfully prepared.
Single-photon emission computed tomography
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Budinger, T.F.
1986-01-01
Single photon tomography dates from the early 1960's when the idea of emission transverse section tomography was presented by Kuhl and Edwards. They used a rectilinear scanner and analogue back-projection methods to detect emissions from a series of sequential positions transverse to the cephaldcaudad axis of the body. This chapter presents an explanation of emission tomography by describing longitudinal and transverse section tomography. In principle all modes of tomography can be considered under the general topic of coded apertures wherein the code ranges from translation of a pinhole collimator to rotation of a parallel hole or focused collimator array
Superconducting nanowire single-photon detectors: physics and applications
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Natarajan, Chandra M; Tanner, Michael G; Hadfield, Robert H
2012-01-01
Single-photon detectors based on superconducting nanowires (SSPDs or SNSPDs) have rapidly emerged as a highly promising photon-counting technology for infrared wavelengths. These devices offer high efficiency, low dark counts and excellent timing resolution. In this review, we consider the basic SNSPD operating principle and models of device behaviour. We give an overview of the evolution of SNSPD device design and the improvements in performance which have been achieved. We also evaluate device limitations and noise mechanisms. We survey practical refrigeration technologies and optical coupling schemes for SNSPDs. Finally we summarize promising application areas, ranging from quantum cryptography to remote sensing. Our goal is to capture a detailed snapshot of an emerging superconducting detector technology on the threshold of maturity. (topical review)
Yuan, Hao; Zhang, Qin; Hong, Liang; Yin, Wen-jie; Xu, Dong
2014-08-01
We present a novel scheme for deterministic secure quantum communication (DSQC) over collective rotating noisy channel. Four special two-qubit states are found can constitute a noise-free subspaces, and so are utilized as quantum information carriers. In this scheme, the information carriers transmite over the quantum channel only one time, which can effectively reduce the influence of other noise existing in quantum channel. The information receiver need only perform two single-photon collective measurements to decode the secret messages, which can make the present scheme more convenient in practical application. It will be showed that our scheme has a relatively high information capacity and intrisic efficiency. Foremostly, the decoy photon pair checking technique and the order rearrangement of photon pairs technique guarantee that the present scheme is unconditionally secure.
Pulsed single-photon spectrometer by frequency-to-time mapping using chirped fiber Bragg gratings.
Davis, Alex O C; Saulnier, Paul M; Karpiński, Michał; Smith, Brian J
2017-05-29
A fiber-integrated spectrometer for single-photon pulses outside the telecommunications wavelength range based upon frequency-to-time mapping, implemented by chromatic group delay dispersion (GDD), and precise temporally-resolved single-photon counting, is presented. A chirped fiber Bragg grating provides low-loss GDD, mapping the frequency distribution of an input pulse onto the temporal envelope of the output pulse. Time-resolved detection with fast single-photon-counting modules enables monitoring of a wavelength range from 825 nm to 835 nm with nearly uniform efficiency at 55 pm resolution (24 GHz at 830 nm). To demonstrate the versatility of this technique, spectral interference of heralded single photons and the joint spectral intensity distribution of a photon-pair source are measured. This approach to single-photon-level spectral measurements provides a route to realize applications of time-frequency quantum optics at visible and near-infrared wavelengths, where multiple spectral channels must be simultaneously monitored.
Practical single-photon-assisted remote state preparation with non-maximally entanglement
Wang, Dong; Huang, Ai-Jun; Sun, Wen-Yang; Shi, Jia-Dong; Ye, Liu
2016-08-01
Remote state preparation (RSP) and joint remote state preparation (JRSP) protocols for single-photon states are investigated via linear optical elements with partially entangled states. In our scheme, by choosing two-mode instances from a polarizing beam splitter, only the sender in the communication protocol needs to prepare an ancillary single-photon and operate the entanglement preparation process in order to retrieve an arbitrary single-photon state from a photon pair in partially entangled state. In the case of JRSP, i.e., a canonical model of RSP with multi-party, we consider that the information of the desired state is split into many subsets and in prior maintained by spatially separate parties. Specifically, with the assistance of a single-photon state and a three-photon entangled state, it turns out that an arbitrary single-photon state can be jointly and remotely prepared with certain probability, which is characterized by the coefficients of both the employed entangled state and the target state. Remarkably, our protocol is readily to extend to the case for RSP and JRSP of mixed states with the all optical means. Therefore, our protocol is promising for communicating among optics-based multi-node quantum networks.
On-demand generation of background-free single photons from a solid-state source
Schweickert, Lucas; Jöns, Klaus D.; Zeuner, Katharina D.; Covre da Silva, Saimon Filipe; Huang, Huiying; Lettner, Thomas; Reindl, Marcus; Zichi, Julien; Trotta, Rinaldo; Rastelli, Armando; Zwiller, Val
2018-02-01
True on-demand high-repetition-rate single-photon sources are highly sought after for quantum information processing applications. However, any coherently driven two-level quantum system suffers from a finite re-excitation probability under pulsed excitation, causing undesirable multi-photon emission. Here, we present a solid-state source of on-demand single photons yielding a raw second-order coherence of g(2 )(0 )=(7.5 ±1.6 )×10-5 without any background subtraction or data processing. To this date, this is the lowest value of g(2 )(0 ) reported for any single-photon source even compared to the previously reported best background subtracted values. We achieve this result on GaAs/AlGaAs quantum dots embedded in a low-Q planar cavity by employing (i) a two-photon excitation process and (ii) a filtering and detection setup featuring two superconducting single-photon detectors with ultralow dark-count rates of (0.0056 ±0.0007 ) s-1 and (0.017 ±0.001 ) s-1, respectively. Re-excitation processes are dramatically suppressed by (i), while (ii) removes false coincidences resulting in a negligibly low noise floor.
Zhou, L.; Gong, Z. R.; Liu, Y. X.; Sun, C. P.; Nori, F.
2010-03-01
We analyze the coherent transport of a single photon, which propagates in a one-dimensional coupled-resonator waveguide and is scattered by a controllable two-level system located inside one of the resonators of this waveguide. Our approach, which uses discrete coordinates, unifies low and high energy effective theories for single-photon scattering. We show that the controllable two-level system can behave as a quantum switch for the coherent transport of a single photon. This study may inspire new electro-optical single-photon quantum devices. We also suggest an experimental setup based on superconducting transmission line resonators and qubits. References: L. Zhou, Z.R. Gong, Y.X. Liu, C.P. Sun, F. Nori, Controllable scattering of photons inside a one-dimensional resonator waveguide, Phys. Rev. Lett. 101, 100501 (2008). L. Zhou, H. Dong, Y.X. Liu, C.P. Sun, F. Nori, Quantum super-cavity with atomic mirrors, Phys. Rev. A 78, 063827 (2008).
Self-Similar Nanocavity Design with Ultrasmall Mode Volume for Single-Photon Nonlinearities
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Choi, Hyeongrak; Heuck, Mikkel; Englund, Dirk R.
2017-01-01
We propose a photonic crystal nanocavity design with self-similar electromagnetic boundary conditions, achieving ultrasmall mode volume (V-eff). The electric energy density of a cavity mode can be maximized in the air or dielectric region, depending on the choice of boundary conditions. We illust...... at the single-photon level. These features open new directions in cavity quantum electrodynamics, spectroscopy, and quantum nonlinear optics....
High quality GaAs single photon emitters on Si substrate
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Bietti, S.; Sanguinetti, S.; Cavigli, L.; Accanto, N.; Vinattieri, A.; Minari, S.; Abbarchi, M.; Isella, G.; Frigeri, C.; Gurioli, M.
2013-01-01
We describe a method for the direct epitaxial growth of a single photon emitter, based on GaAs quantum dots fabricated by droplet epitaxy, working at liquid nitrogen temperatures on Si substrates. The achievement of quantum photon statistics up to T=80 K is directly proved by antibunching in the second order correlation function as measured with a H anbury Brown and Twiss interferometer
Quantum information processing with optical vortices
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Khoury, Antonio Z. [Universidade Federal Fluminense (UFF), Niteroi, RJ (Brazil)
2012-07-01
Full text: In this work we discuss several proposals for quantum information processing using the transverse structure of paraxial beams. Different techniques for production and manipulation of optical vortices have been employed and combined with polarization transformations in order to investigate fundamental properties of quantum entanglement as well as to propose new tools for quantum information processing. As an example, we have recently proposed and demonstrated a controlled NOT (CNOT) gate based on a Michelson interferometer in which the photon polarization is the control bit and the first order transverse mode is the target. The device is based on a single lens design for an astigmatic mode converter that transforms the transverse mode of paraxial optical beams. In analogy with Bell's inequality for two-qubit quantum states, we propose an inequality criterion for the non-separability of the spin-orbit degrees of freedom of a laser beam. A definition of separable and non-separable spin-orbit modes is used in consonance with the one presented in Phys. Rev. Lett. 99, 2007. As the usual Bell's inequality can be violated for entangled two-qubit quantum states, we show both theoretically and experimentally that the proposed spin-orbit inequality criterion can be violated for non-separable modes. The inequality is discussed both in the classical and quantum domains. We propose a polarization to orbital angular momentum teleportation scheme using entangled photon pairs generated by spontaneous parametric down conversion. By making a joint detection of the polarization and angular momentum parity of a single photon, we are able to detect all the Bell-states and perform, in principle, perfect teleportation from a discrete to a continuous system using minimal resources. The proposed protocol implementation demands experimental resources that are currently available in quantum optics laboratories. (author)
Invariant operator theory for the single-photon energy in time-varying media
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Jeong-Ryeol, Choi
2010-01-01
After the birth of quantum mechanics, the notion in physics that the frequency of light is the only factor that determines the energy of a single photon has played a fundamental role. However, under the assumption that the theory of Lewis–Riesenfeld invariants is applicable in quantum optics, it is shown in the present work that this widely accepted notion is valid only for light described by a time-independent Hamiltonian, i.e., for light in media satisfying the conditions, ε(i) = ε(0), μ(t) = μ(0), and σ(t) = 0 simultaneously. The use of the Lewis–Riesenfeld invariant operator method in quantum optics leads to a marvelous result: the energy of a single photon propagating through time-varying linear media exhibits nontrivial time dependence without a change of frequency. (general)
On-demand semiconductor single-photon source with near-unity indistinguishability.
He, Yu-Ming; He, Yu; Wei, Yu-Jia; Wu, Dian; Atatüre, Mete; Schneider, Christian; Höfling, Sven; Kamp, Martin; Lu, Chao-Yang; Pan, Jian-Wei
2013-03-01
Single-photon sources based on semiconductor quantum dots offer distinct advantages for quantum information, including a scalable solid-state platform, ultrabrightness and interconnectivity with matter qubits. A key prerequisite for their use in optical quantum computing and solid-state networks is a high level of efficiency and indistinguishability. Pulsed resonance fluorescence has been anticipated as the optimum condition for the deterministic generation of high-quality photons with vanishing effects of dephasing. Here, we generate pulsed single photons on demand from a single, microcavity-embedded quantum dot under s-shell excitation with 3 ps laser pulses. The π pulse-excited resonance-fluorescence photons have less than 0.3% background contribution and a vanishing two-photon emission probability. Non-postselective Hong-Ou-Mandel interference between two successively emitted photons is observed with a visibility of 0.97(2), comparable to trapped atoms and ions. Two single photons are further used to implement a high-fidelity quantum controlled-NOT gate.
Single photon imaging. New instrumentation and techniques
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Muehllehner, G.; Colsher, J.
1981-01-01
The performance of Anger scintillation cameras continues to be enhanced through a series of small improvements which result in significantly better imaging characteristics. The most recent changes in camera design consist of: (1) the introduction of photomultipliers with better photocathode and electron collection efficiencies, (2) the use of thinner (3/8 or 1/4 in) crystals giving slightly better intrinsic resolution for low gamma-ray energies, (3) inclusion of a spatially varying energy window to compensate for variations of light collection efficiency, (4) event-by-event, real-time distortion removal for uniformity correction, and (5) introduction of new methods to improve the count-rate capability. Whereas some of these improvements are due to better understanding of the fundamentals of camera design, others are the result of technological advances in electronic components such as analogue-to-digital converters, microprocessors and high-density digital memories. The development of single photon tomography has developed along two parallel paths. Multipinhole and rotating slant-hole collimator attachments provide some degree of longitudinal tomography, and are currently being applied to cardiac imaging. At the same time rotating camera systems capable of transverse as well as longitudinal imaging are being refined technically and evaluated clinically. Longitudinal tomography is of limited use in quantitative studies and is likely to be an interim solution to three-dimensional imaging. Rotating camera systems, on the other hand, not only provide equal resolution in all three dimensions but are also capable of providing quantitative accuracy. This is the result of progress in attenuation correction and the design of special collimators. Single photon tomography provides a small but noticeable improvement in diagnostic accuracy which is likely to result in widespread use of rotating camera systems in the future
Quantum optics with single quantum dot devices
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Zwiller, Valery; Aichele, Thomas; Benson, Oliver
2004-01-01
A single radiative transition in a single-quantum emitter results in the emission of a single photon. Single quantum dots are single-quantum emitters with all the requirements to generate single photons at visible and near-infrared wavelengths. It is also possible to generate more than single photons with single quantum dots. In this paper we show that single quantum dots can be used to generate non-classical states of light, from single photons to photon triplets. Advanced solid state structures can be fabricated with single quantum dots as their active region. We also show results obtained on devices based on single quantum dots
Technology development for a single-photon source
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Enzmann, Roland
2011-01-01
the emission from 1.3 μm to 1.5 μm was obtained. To achieve high collection efficiency, the quantum dots should be embedded into photonic crystals. An ArCl 2 -etch-process was developed which enables the etch of small features in Al x Ga y In 1-x-y As material system to transfer the Si 3 N 4 -pattern into the semiconductor. Using this process the fabricated photonic crystals with L3-cavities had Q-factors around 2200. Any concept using a cavity needs a mechanism to control the frequency-detuning between the mode and the quantum dots, due to the inhomogeneous frequency broadening of the quantum dots. Thus an in-situ tuning mechanism is required for adjusting the emission wavelength of the quantum dot or cavity mode, respectively. This concept intents to use the quantum confined Stark effect (QCSE) to force the emission of a single photon out of a quantum dot into the photonic crystal mode. This is realized using a reversed biased Schottky contact to cause a red-shift of the emission of a single quantum dot. Electroluminescence measurements on the device show, that even with very low currents of 14.5 μA the saturation intensity of single quantum dots could be reached. (orig.)
Decoherence in a double-slit quantum eraser
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Torres-Ruiz, F. A.; Lima, G.; Delgado, A.; Saavedra, C.; Padua, S.
2010-01-01
We study and experimentally implement a double-slit quantum eraser in the presence of a controlled decoherence mechanism. A two-photon state, produced in a spontaneous parametric down-conversion process, is prepared in a maximally entangled polarization state. A birefringent double slit is illuminated by one of the down-converted photons, and it acts as a single-photon two-qubits controlled-not gate that couples the polarization with the transversal momentum of these photons. The other photon, which acts as a which-path marker, is sent through a Mach-Zehnder-like interferometer. When the interferometer is partially unbalanced, it behaves as a controlled source of decoherence for polarization states of down-converted photons. We show the transition from wavelike to particle-like behavior of the signal photons crossing the double slit as a function of the decoherence parameter, which depends on the length path difference at the interferometer.
Proposal for automated transformations on single-photon multipath qudits
Baldijão, R. D.; Borges, G. F.; Marques, B.; Solís-Prosser, M. A.; Neves, L.; Pádua, S.
2017-09-01
We propose a method for implementing automated state transformations on single-photon multipath qudits encoded in a one-dimensional transverse spatial domain. It relies on transferring the encoding from this domain to the orthogonal one by applying a spatial phase modulation with diffraction gratings, merging all the initial propagation paths by using a stable interferometric network, and filtering out the unwanted diffraction orders. The automation feature is attained by utilizing a programmable phase-only spatial light modulator (SLM) where properly designed diffraction gratings displayed on its screen will implement the desired transformations, including, among others, projections, permutations, and random operations. We discuss the losses in the process which is, in general, inherently nonunitary. Some examples of transformations are presented and, considering a realistic scenario, we analyze how they will be affected by the pixelated structure of the SLM screen. The method proposed here enables one to implement much more general transformations on multipath qudits than is possible with a SLM alone operating in the diagonal basis of which-path states. Therefore, it will extend the range of applicability for this encoding in high-dimensional quantum information and computing protocols as well as fundamental studies in quantum theory.
Photon correlation in single-photon frequency upconversion.
Gu, Xiaorong; Huang, Kun; Pan, Haifeng; Wu, E; Zeng, Heping
2012-01-30
We experimentally investigated the intensity cross-correlation between the upconverted photons and the unconverted photons in the single-photon frequency upconversion process with multi-longitudinal mode pump and signal sources. In theoretical analysis, with this multi-longitudinal mode of both signal and pump sources system, the properties of the signal photons could also be maintained as in the single-mode frequency upconversion system. Experimentally, based on the conversion efficiency of 80.5%, the joint probability of simultaneously detecting at upconverted and unconverted photons showed an anti-correlation as a function of conversion efficiency which indicated the upconverted photons were one-to-one from the signal photons. While due to the coherent state of the signal photons, the intensity cross-correlation function g(2)(0) was shown to be equal to unity at any conversion efficiency, agreeing with the theoretical prediction. This study will benefit the high-speed wavelength-tunable quantum state translation or photonic quantum interface together with the mature frequency tuning or longitudinal mode selection techniques.
Recyclable amplification for single-photon entanglement from photon loss and decoherence
Zhou, Lan; Chen, Ling-Quan; Zhong, Wei; Sheng, Yu-Bo
2018-01-01
We put forward a highly efficient recyclable single-photon assisted amplification protocol, which can protect single-photon entanglement (SPE) from photon loss and decoherence. Making use of quantum nondemolition detection gates constructed with the help of cross-Kerr nonlinearity, our protocol has some attractive advantages. First, the parties can recover less-entangled SPE to be maximally entangled SPE, and reduce photon loss simultaneously. Second, if the protocol fails, the parties can repeat the protocol to reuse some discarded items, which can increase the success probability. Third, when the protocol is successful, they can similarly repeat the protocol to further increase the fidelity of the SPE. Thereby, our protocol provides a possible way to obtain high entanglement, high fidelity and high success probability simultaneously. In particular, our protocol shows higher success probability in the practical high photon loss channel. Based on the above features, our amplification protocol has potential for future application in long-distance quantum communication.
Single-photon emission tomography and cerebral blood flow
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Celsis, P.; Chan, M.; Marc-Vergnes, J.P.; Sveinsdottir, E.; Goldman, T.G.; Henriksen, L.; Paulson, O.B.; Stokely, E.M.; Lassen, N.A.
1982-01-01
This paper illustrates the capabilities of single-photon emission tomography in imaging local cerebral blood flows in man. The results purport the conclusion that a fairly good improvement has been achieved when compared to stationary detectors and that single-photon emission tomography is a well-suited tool for studying cerebral hemodynamics, especially within the framework of clinical studies [fr
Interactive reconstruction in single-photon tomography
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Miller, T.R.; Wallis, J.W.; Wilson, A.D.
1989-01-01
A new method is described to allow interactive selection of the reconstruction filter at the time of interpretation of images from single-photon tomography. In the filtered back projection algorithm, the only part of the reconstruction process requiring user interaction is the selection of the window function. Since the ramp and window filters have different purposes, they can be separated, placing the window at the end of the reconstruction process as a three-dimensional filter. All stages of reconstruction except the window filtering are performed before the physician begins to interpret the study. The three-dimensional filtering is performed very rapidly with use of the Chebyshev convolution algorithm. A 64 x 64 x 64 pixel cube of data is filtered in 13-33 s using filters of 3-11 lengths. Smaller volumes of image data can be filtered in less than 1 s; thus, the user can interactively choose any desired filter for a given tomographic study at the time of interpretation of the images. (orig.)
A scanner for single photon emission tomography
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Smith, D.B.; Cumpstey, D.E.; Evans, N.T.S.; Coleman, J.D.; Ettinger, K.V.; Mallard, J.R.
1982-01-01
The technique of single photon ECT has now been available for some eighteen years, but has yet still to be exploited fully. The difficulties of doing this lie in the need for gathering data of sufficiently good statistical accuracy in a reasonable counting time, in the uniformity of detector sensitivity, and in the means for correcting the image satisfactorily for photon attenuation within the body. The relative ease with which a general purpose gamma camera can be adapted to give rotation around the patient makes this an attractive practical approach to the problem. However, the sensitivity of gamma cameras over their field of view is by no means uniform, and their sensitivity is less good than that of purpose-designed scanners when no more than about ten sections through the body are required. There is therefore a need to assess the clinical usefulness of a whole body tomographic scanner of high sensitivity and uniformity. Such a machine is the Aberdeen Section Scanner Mark II described
Frequency-Stabilized Source of Single Photons from a Solid-State Qubit
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Jonathan H. Prechtel
2013-10-01
Full Text Available Single quantum dots are solid-state emitters that mimic two-level atoms but with a highly enhanced spontaneous emission rate. A single quantum dot is the basis for a potentially excellent single-photon source. One outstanding problem is that there is considerable noise in the emission frequency, making it very difficult to couple the quantum dot to another quantum system. We solve this problem here with a dynamic feedback technique that locks the quantum-dot emission frequency to a reference. The incoherent scattering (resonance fluorescence represents the single-photon output, whereas the coherent scattering (Rayleigh scattering is used for the feedback control. The fluctuations in emission frequency are reduced to 20 MHz, just approximately 5% of the quantum-dot optical linewidth, even over several hours. By eliminating the 1/f-like noise, the relative fluctuations in quantum-dot noise power are reduced to approximately 10^{-5} at low frequency. Under these conditions, the antibunching dip in the resonance fluorescence is described extremely well by the two-level atom result. The technique represents a way of removing charge noise from a quantum device.
Generic two-qubit photonic gates implemented by number-resolving photodetection
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Uskov, Dmitry B.; Smith, A. Matthew; Kaplan, Lev
2010-01-01
We combine numerical optimization techniques [Uskov et al., Phys. Rev. A 79, 042326 (2009)] with symmetries of the Weyl chamber to obtain optimal implementations of generic linear-optical Knill-Laflamme-Milburn-type two-qubit entangling gates. We find that while any two-qubit controlled-U gate, including controlled-NOT (CNOT) and controlled-sign gates, can be implemented using only two ancilla resources with a success probability S>0.05, a generic SU(4) operation requires three unentangled ancilla photons, with success S>0.0063. Specifically, we obtain a maximal success probability close to 0.0072 for the B gate. We show that single-shot implementation of a generic SU(4) gate offers more than an order of magnitude increase in the success probability and a two-fold reduction in overhead ancilla resources compared to standard triple-CNOT and double-B gate decompositions.
Generation of Fourier-transform-limited heralded single photons
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
U'Ren, Alfred B.; Jeronimo-Moreno, Yasser; Garcia-Gracia, Hipolito
2007-01-01
In this paper we study the spectral (temporal) properties of heralded single photon wave packets, triggered by the detection of an idler photon in the process of parametric down conversion. The generated single photons are studied within the framework of the chronocyclic Wigner function, from which the single photon spectral width and temporal duration can be computed. We derive specific conditions on the two-photon joint spectral amplitude which result in both pure and Fourier-transform-limited heralded single photons. Likewise, we present specific source geometries which lead to the fulfillment of these conditions and show that one of these geometries leads, for a given pump bandwidth, to the temporally shortest possible heralded single photon wave packets
Entanglement Capacity of Two-Qubit Unitary Operator with the Help of Auxiliary System
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Hu Baolin; Di Yaomin
2007-01-01
The entanglement capacity of general two-qubit unitary operators is studied when auxiliary systems are allowed, and the analytical results based on linear entropy when input states are disentangled are given. From the results the condition for perfect entangler, α 1 = α 2 = π/4, is obtained. Contrary to the case without auxiliary system, the parameter α 3 may play active role to the entanglement capacity when auxiliary systems are allowed.
Probabilistically cloning two single-photon states using weak cross-Kerr nonlinearities
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Zhang, Wen; Rui, Pinshu; Zhang, Ziyun; Yang, Qun
2014-01-01
By using quantum nondemolition detectors (QNDs) based on weak cross-Kerr nonlinearities, we propose an experimental scheme for achieving 1→2 probabilistic quantum cloning (PQC) of a single-photon state, secretly choosing from a two-state set. In our scheme, after a QND is performed on the to-be-cloned photon and the assistant photon, a single-photon projection measurement is performed by a polarization beam splitter (PBS) and two single-photon trigger detectors (SPTDs). The measurement is to judge whether the PQC should be continued. If the cloning fails, a cutoff is carried out and some operations are omitted. This makes our scheme economical. If the PQC is continued according to the measurement result, two more QNDs and some unitary operations are performed on the to-be-cloned photon and the cloning photon to achieve the PQC in a nearly deterministic way. Our experimental scheme for PQC is feasible for future technology. Furthermore, the quantum logic network of our PQC scheme is presented. In comparison with similar networks, our PQC network is simpler and more economical. (paper)
Optical field-strength polarization of two-mode single-photon states
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Linares, J; Nistal, M C; Barral, D; Moreno, V, E-mail: suso.linares.beiras@usc.e [Optics Area, Department of Applied Physics, Faculty of Physics and School of Optics and Optometry, University of Santiago de Compostela, Campus Universitario Sur s/n, 15782-Santiago de Compostela, Galicia (Spain)
2010-09-15
We present a quantum analysis of two-mode single-photon states based on the probability distributions of the optical field strength (or position quadrature) in order to describe their quantum polarization characteristics, where polarization is understood as a significative confinement of the optical field-strength values on determined regions of the two-mode optical field-strength plane. We will show that the mentioned probability distributions along with the values of quantum Stokes parameters allow us to characterize the polarization of a two-mode single-photon state, in an analogous way to the classical case, and to distinguish conceptually between mixture and partially polarized quantum states; in this way, we propose a simple definition of the quantum polarization degree based on the recent concept of distance measure to an unpolarized distribution, which gives rise to a depolarization degree equivalent to an overlapping between the probability distribution of the quantum state and a non-polarized two-mode Gaussian distribution. The work is particularly intended to university physics teachers and graduate students as well as to physicists and specialists concerned with the issue of optical polarization.
Optical field-strength polarization of two-mode single-photon states
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Linares, J; Nistal, M C; Barral, D; Moreno, V
2010-01-01
We present a quantum analysis of two-mode single-photon states based on the probability distributions of the optical field strength (or position quadrature) in order to describe their quantum polarization characteristics, where polarization is understood as a significative confinement of the optical field-strength values on determined regions of the two-mode optical field-strength plane. We will show that the mentioned probability distributions along with the values of quantum Stokes parameters allow us to characterize the polarization of a two-mode single-photon state, in an analogous way to the classical case, and to distinguish conceptually between mixture and partially polarized quantum states; in this way, we propose a simple definition of the quantum polarization degree based on the recent concept of distance measure to an unpolarized distribution, which gives rise to a depolarization degree equivalent to an overlapping between the probability distribution of the quantum state and a non-polarized two-mode Gaussian distribution. The work is particularly intended to university physics teachers and graduate students as well as to physicists and specialists concerned with the issue of optical polarization.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Schroeder, Tim; Gaedeke, Friedemann; Banholzer, Moritz Julian; Benson, Oliver
2011-01-01
Single photons are fundamental elements for quantum information technologies such as quantum cryptography, quantum information storage and optical quantum computing. Colour centres in diamond have proven to be stable single-photon sources and thus essential components for reliable and integrated quantum information technology. A key requirement for such applications is a large photon flux and a high efficiency. Paying tribute to various attempts to maximize the single-photon flux, we show that collection efficiencies of photons from colour centres can be increased with a rather simple experimental setup. To do so, we spin-coated nanodiamonds containing single nitrogen-vacancy (N-V) colour centres on the flat surface of a ZrO 2 solid immersion lens. We found stable single-photon count rates of up to 853 kcts s -1 at saturation under continuous wave excitation while having access to more than 100 defect centres with count rates from 400 to 500 kcts s -1 . For a blinking defect centre, we found count rates up to 2.4 Mcts s -1 for time intervals of several tens of seconds. It seems to be a general feature that very high rates are accompanied by blinking behaviour. The overall collection efficiency of our setup of up to 4.2% is the highest yet reported for N-V defect centres in diamond. Under pulsed excitation of a stable emitter of 10 MHz, 2.2% of all pulses caused a click on the detector adding to 221 kcts s -1 thus, opening the way towards diamond-based on-demand single-photon sources for quantum applications.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Schroeder, Tim; Gaedeke, Friedemann; Banholzer, Moritz Julian; Benson, Oliver, E-mail: tim.schroeder@physik.hu-berlin.de [Humboldt-Universitaet zu Berlin, Institut fuer Physik, AG Nano Optics Newtonstrasse 15, 12489 Berlin (Germany)
2011-05-15
Single photons are fundamental elements for quantum information technologies such as quantum cryptography, quantum information storage and optical quantum computing. Colour centres in diamond have proven to be stable single-photon sources and thus essential components for reliable and integrated quantum information technology. A key requirement for such applications is a large photon flux and a high efficiency. Paying tribute to various attempts to maximize the single-photon flux, we show that collection efficiencies of photons from colour centres can be increased with a rather simple experimental setup. To do so, we spin-coated nanodiamonds containing single nitrogen-vacancy (N-V) colour centres on the flat surface of a ZrO{sub 2} solid immersion lens. We found stable single-photon count rates of up to 853 kcts s{sup -1} at saturation under continuous wave excitation while having access to more than 100 defect centres with count rates from 400 to 500 kcts s{sup -1}. For a blinking defect centre, we found count rates up to 2.4 Mcts s{sup -1} for time intervals of several tens of seconds. It seems to be a general feature that very high rates are accompanied by blinking behaviour. The overall collection efficiency of our setup of up to 4.2% is the highest yet reported for N-V defect centres in diamond. Under pulsed excitation of a stable emitter of 10 MHz, 2.2% of all pulses caused a click on the detector adding to 221 kcts s{sup -1} thus, opening the way towards diamond-based on-demand single-photon sources for quantum applications.
Towards the coupling of single photons from dye molecules to a photonic waveguide
Polisseni, Claudio; Kho, Kiang Wei; Major, Kyle; Grandi, Samuele; Boisser, Sebastien; Hwang, Jaesuk; Clark, Alex; Hinds, Edward
Single photons are very attractive for quantum information processing given their long coherence time and their ability to carry information in many degrees of freedom. A current challenge is the efficient generation of single photons in a photonic chip in order to scale up the complexity of quantum operations. We have proposed that a dibenzoterrylene (DBT) molecule inside an anthracene (AC) crystal could couple lifetime-limited indistinguishable single photons into a photonic waveguide if deposited in its vicinity. In this talk I describe the recent progress towards the realization of this proposal. A new method has been developed for evaporating AC and DBT to produce crystals that are wide and thin. The crystals are typically several microns across and have remarkably uniform thickness, which we control between 20 and 150 nm. The crystal growth is carried out in a glove bag in order to exclude oxygen, which improves the photostability of the DBT molecules by orders of magnitude. We image the fluorescence of single DBT molecules using confocal microscopy and analyse the polarization of this light to determine the alignment of the molecules. I will report on our efforts to control the alignement of the molecules by aligning the host matrix with the substrate.
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Koefoed, Jacob Gade; Friis, Søren Michael Mørk; Christensen, Jesper Bjerge
2017-01-01
We model the spectral quantum-mechanical purity of heralded single photons from a photon-pair source based on nondegenerate spontaneous four-wave mixing taking the impact of distributed dispersion fluctuations into account. The considered photon-pair-generation scheme utilizes pump-pulse walk...
Modeling and Design of High-Efficiency Single-Photon Sources
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Gregersen, Niels; Nielsen, Per Kær; Mørk, Jesper
2013-01-01
be electrically driven. Several design strategies addressing these requirements have been proposed. In the cavity-based source, light emission is controlled using resonant cavity quantum electrodynamics effects, whereas in the waveguide-based source, broadband electric field screening effects are employed......Solid-state sources capable of emitting single photons on demand are of great interest in quantum information applications. Ideally, such a source should emit exactly one photon into the collection optics per trigger, the emitted photons should be indistinguishable, and the source should...
Coupled-resonator waveguide perfect transport single-photon by interatomic dipole-dipole interaction
Yan, Guo-an; Lu, Hua; Qiao, Hao-xue; Chen, Ai-xi; Wu, Wan-qing
2018-06-01
We theoretically investigate single-photon coherent transport in a one-dimensional coupled-resonator waveguide coupled to two quantum emitters with dipole-dipole interactions. The numerical simulations demonstrate that the transmission spectrum of the photon depends on the two atoms dipole-dipole interactions and the photon-atom couplings. The dipole-dipole interactions may change the dip positions in the spectra and the coupling strength may broaden the frequency band width in the transmission spectrum. We further demonstrate that the typical transmission spectra split into two dips due to the dipole-dipole interactions. This phenomenon may be used to manufacture new quantum waveguide devices.
The Heisenberg picture for single photon states
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Pienaar, Jacques; Myers, Casey; Ralph, Timothy C.
2011-01-01
In the context of quantum field theory, the Heisenberg picture has a distinct advantage over the Schrodinger picture because the Schrodinger picture requires us to transform the vacuum state itself, which can be intractable in the case of non-inertial reference frames, whereas the Heisenberg picture allows us to keep the same vacuum state and only transform the operators. However, the Heisenberg calculation requires the operators to already be expressed as a function of creation and annihilation operators acting on the original vacuum, whereas calculations in quantum information and quantum computation use operators that act on qubit states, necessarily containing particles. The relationship between the operators acting on these states and the operators acting on the vacuum state has remained elusive. We derive such an expression using an explicit model for single-particle production from the vacuum.
Modal and polarization qubits in Ti:LiNbO3 photonic circuits for a universal quantum logic gate.
Saleh, Mohammed F; Di Giuseppe, Giovanni; Saleh, Bahaa E A; Teich, Malvin Carl
2010-09-13
Lithium niobate photonic circuits have the salutary property of permitting the generation, transmission, and processing of photons to be accommodated on a single chip. Compact photonic circuits such as these, with multiple components integrated on a single chip, are crucial for efficiently implementing quantum information processing schemes.We present a set of basic transformations that are useful for manipulating modal qubits in Ti:LiNbO(3) photonic quantum circuits. These include the mode analyzer, a device that separates the even and odd components of a state into two separate spatial paths; the mode rotator, which rotates the state by an angle in mode space; and modal Pauli spin operators that effect related operations. We also describe the design of a deterministic, two-qubit, single-photon, CNOT gate, a key element in certain sets of universal quantum logic gates. It is implemented as a Ti:LiNbO(3) photonic quantum circuit in which the polarization and mode number of a single photon serve as the control and target qubits, respectively. It is shown that the effects of dispersion in the CNOT circuit can be mitigated by augmenting it with an additional path. The performance of all of these components are confirmed by numerical simulations. The implementation of these transformations relies on selective and controllable power coupling among single- and two-mode waveguides, as well as the polarization sensitivity of the Pockels coefficients in LiNbO(3).
Ultrathin NbN film superconducting single-photon detector array
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Smirnov, K; Korneev, A; Minaeva, O; Divochiy, A; Tarkhov, M; Ryabchun, S; Seleznev, V; Kaurova, N; Voronov, B; Gol'tsman, G; Polonsky, S
2007-01-01
We report on the fabrication process of the 2 x 2 superconducting single-photon detector (SSPD) array. The SSPD array is made from ultrathin NbN film and is operated at liquid helium temperatures. Each detector is a nanowire-based structure patterned by electron beam lithography process. The advances in fabrication technology allowed us to produce highly uniform strips and preserve superconducting properties of the unpatterned film. SSPD exhibit up to 30% quantum efficiency in near infrared and up to 1% at 5-μm wavelength. Due to 120 MHz counting rate and 18 ps jitter, the time-domain multiplexing read-out is proposed for large scale SSPD arrays. Single-pixel SSPD has already found a practical application in non-invasive testing of semiconductor very-large scale integrated circuits. The SSPD significantly outperformed traditional single-photon counting avalanche diodes
Real-time imaging systems for superconducting nanowire single-photon detector arrays
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Hofherr, Matthias
2014-07-01
Superconducting nanowire singe-photon detectors (SNSPD) are promising detectors in the field of applications, where single-photon resolution is required like in quantum optics, spectroscopy or astronomy. These cryogenic detectors gain from a broad spectrum in the optical and infrared range and deliver low dark counts and low jitter. This work provides a piece of deeper physical understanding of detector functionality in combination with highly engineered readout development. A detailed analysis focuses on the intrinsic detection mechanism of SNSPDs related to the detection in the infrared regime and the evolution of dark counts. With this fundamental knowledge, the next step is the development of a multi-pixel readout at cryogenic conditions. It is demonstrated, how two auspicious multi-pixel readout concepts can be realized, which enables statistical framing like in imaging applications using RSFQ electronics with fast framing rates and the readout of a detector array with continuous real-time single-photon resolution.
Modeling and Development of Superconducting Nanowire Single Photon Detectors
National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This proposal outlines a research project as the central component of a Ph.D. program focused on the device physics of superconducting nanowire single photon...
Sirtori, Carlo
2017-02-01
Superradiance is one of the many fascinating phenomena predicted by quantum electrodynamics that have first been experimentally demonstrated in atomic systems and more recently in condensed matter systems like quantum dots, superconducting q-bits, cyclotron transitions and plasma oscillations in quantum wells (QWs). It occurs when a dense collection of N identical two-level emitters are phased via the exchange of photons, giving rise to enhanced light-matter interaction, hence to a faster emission rate. Of great interest is the regime where the ensemble interacts with one photon only and therefore all of the atoms, but one, are in the ground state. In this case the quantum superposition of all possible configurations produces a symmetric state that decays radiatively with a rate N times larger than that of the individual oscillators. This phenomenon, called single photon superradiance, results from the exchange of real photons among the N emitters. Yet, to single photon superradiance is also associated another collective effect that renormalizes the emission frequency, known as cooperative Lamb shift. In this work, we show that single photon superradiance and cooperative Lamb shift can be engineered in a semiconductor device by coupling spatially separated plasma resonances arising from the collective motion of confined electrons in QWs. These resonances hold a giant dipole along the growth direction z and have no mutual Coulomb coupling. They thus behave as a collection of macro-atoms on different positions along the z axis. Our device is therefore a test bench to simulate the low excitation regime of quantum electrodynamics.
Measurement system of correlation functions of microwave single photon source in real time
Korenkov, A.; Dmitriev, A.; Astafiev, O.
2018-02-01
Several quantum setups, such as quantum key distribution networks[1] and quantum simulators (e.g. boson sampling), by their design rely on single photon sources (SPSs). These quantum setups were demonstrated to operate in optical frequency domain. However, following the steady advances in circuit quantum electrodynamics, a proposal has been made recently[2] to demonstrate boson sampling with microwave photons. This in turn requires the development of reliable microwave SPS. It's one of the most important characteristics are the first-order and the second-order correlation functions g1 and g2. The measurement technique of g1 and g2 is significantly different from that in the optical domain [3],[4] because of the current unavailability of microwave single-photon detectors. In particular, due to high levels of noise present in the system a substantial amount of statistics in needed to be acquired. This work presents a platform for measurement of g1 and g2 that processes the incoming data in real time, maximizing the efficiency of data acquisition. The use of field-programmable gate array (FPGA) electronics, common in similar experiments[3] but complex in programming, is avoided; instead, the calculations are performed on a standard desktop computer. The platform is used to perform the measurements of the first-order and the second-order correlation functions of the microwave SPS.
Deterministic reshaping of single-photon spectra using cross-phase modulation.
Matsuda, Nobuyuki
2016-03-01
The frequency conversion of light has proved to be a crucial technology for communication, spectroscopy, imaging, and signal processing. In the quantum regime, it also offers great potential for realizing quantum networks incorporating disparate physical systems and quantum-enhanced information processing over a large computational space. The frequency conversion of quantum light, such as single photons, has been extensively investigated for the last two decades using all-optical frequency mixing, with the ultimate goal of realizing lossless and noiseless conversion. I demonstrate another route to this target using frequency conversion induced by cross-phase modulation in a dispersion-managed photonic crystal fiber. Owing to the deterministic and all-optical nature of the process, the lossless and low-noise spectral reshaping of a single-photon wave packet in the telecommunication band has been readily achieved with a modulation bandwidth as large as 0.4 THz. I further demonstrate that the scheme is applicable to manipulations of a nonclassical frequency correlation, wave packet interference, and entanglement between two photons. This approach presents a new coherent frequency interface for photons for quantum information processing.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Jacques, V.
2007-11-01
This manuscript is divided in two independent parts. In the first part, we study the wave-particle duality for a single photon emitted by the triggered photoluminescence of a single NV color center in a diamond nano-crystal. We first present the realization of a single-photon interference experiment using a Fresnel's bi-prism, in a scheme equivalent to the standard Young's double-slit textbook experiment. We then discuss the complementarity between interference and which-path information in this two-path interferometer. We finally describe the experimental realization of Wheeler's delayed-choice Gedanken experiment, which is a fascinating and subtle illustration of wave-particle duality. The second part of the manuscript is devoted to the efficiency improvement of single-photon sources. We first describe the implementation of a new single-photon source based on the photoluminescence of a single nickel-related defect center in diamond. The photophysical properties of such defect make this single-photon source well adapted to open-air quantum cryptography. We finally demonstrate an original method that leads to an improvement of single-molecule photo stability at room temperature. (author)
Efficient controlled-phase gate for single-spin qubits in quantum dots
Meunier, T.; Calado, V.E.; Vandersypen, L.M.K.
2011-01-01
Two-qubit interactions are at the heart of quantum information processing. For single-spin qubits in semiconductor quantum dots, the exchange gate has always been considered the natural two-qubit gate. The recent integration of a magnetic field or g-factor gradients in coupled quantum dot systems
Periodically modulated single-photon transport in one-dimensional waveguide
Li, Xingmin; Wei, L. F.
2018-03-01
Single-photon transport along a one-dimension waveguide interacting with a quantum system (e.g., two-level atom) is a very useful and meaningful simplified model of the waveguide-based optical quantum devices. Thus, how to modulate the transport of the photons in the waveguide structures by adjusting certain external parameters should be particularly important. In this paper, we discuss how such a modulation could be implemented by periodically driving the energy splitting of the interacting atom and the atom-photon coupling strength. By generalizing the well developed time-independent full quantum mechanical theory in real space to the time-dependent one, we show that various sideband-transmission phenomena could be observed. This means that, with these modulations the photon has certain probabilities to transmit through the scattering atom in the other energy sidebands. Inversely, by controlling the sideband transmission the periodic modulations of the single photon waveguide devices could be designed for the future optical quantum information processing applications.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Cajgfinger, T.
2012-10-01
This manuscript presents my thesis on the high frame rate (500 frames / second) single-photon detector electron-bombarded CMOS (ebCMOS). The first section compares three ultra-sensitive detectors and their methods for improving photon sensitivity: the CMOS low noise (sCMOS), the electron-multiplying CCD (emCCD) with signal multiplication by pixel and the ebCMOS with amplification by applied electric field. The method developed to detect single photon impacts with intra-pixel resolution on the ebCMOS sensor is presented. The second section compares the localization accuracy of these detectors in extreme conditions of very low photon flux (<10 photons/frame). First the theoretical limit is calculated using the Cramer-Rao lower bound for significant parameter sets. An experimental comparison of the detectors is then described. The setup provides one or more point sources controlled in position, signal and background noise. The results allow a comparison of the experimental effectiveness, purity and localization accuracy. The last section describes two experiments with the ebCMOS camera. The first aims at tracking hundreds of quantum dots simultaneously at the Nanoptec center. The second focuses on the swimming of bacteria at the surface at the Joliot Curie Institute. The point sources tracking algorithm using single photons and the Kalman filter implementation developed for these experiments is also described. (author)
Single-photon indistinguishability: influence of phonons
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Nielsen, Per Kær; Lodahl, Peter; Jauho, Antti-Pekka
2012-01-01
of indistinguishability, absent in the approximate theories. The maximum arises due to virtual processes in the highly non-Markovian short-time regime, which dominate the decoherence for small QD-cavity coupling, and phonon-mediated real transitions between the upper and lower polariton branches in the long-time regime......Recent years have demonstrated that the interaction with phonons plays an important role in semiconductor based cavity QED systems [2], consisting of a quantum dot (QD) coupled to a single cavity mode [Fig. 1(a)], where the phonon interaction is the main decoherence mechanism. Avoiding decoherence...... as a function of the QD-cavity coupling strength for light emitted from the QD and the cavity, respectively, for all the employed methods. Both the Lindblad and TCL theories deviate significantly from our exact results, where, importantly, the exact results predict a pronounced maximum in the degree...
Single Photon Avalanche Diodes: Towards the Large Bidimensional Arrays
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Emilio Sciacca
2008-08-01
Full Text Available Single photon detection is one of the most challenging goals of photonics. In recent years, the study of ultra-fast and/or low-intensity phenomena has received renewed attention from the academic and industrial communities. Intense research activity has been focused on bio-imaging applications, bio-luminescence, bio-scattering methods, and, more in general, on several applications requiring high speed operation and high timing resolution. In this paper we present design and characterization of bi-dimensional arrays of a next generation of single photon avalanche diodes (SPADs. Single photon sensitivity, dark noise, afterpulsing and timing resolution of the single SPAD have been examined in several experimental conditions. Moreover, the effects arising from their integration and the readout mode have also been deeply investigated.
Diagnosis of dementia with single photon emission computed tomography
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Jagust, W.J.; Budinger, T.F.; Reed, B.R.
1987-01-01
Single photon emission computed tomography is a practical modality for the study of physiologic cerebral activity in vivo. We utilized single photon emission computed tomography and N-isopropyl-p-iodoamphetamine iodine 123 to evaluate regional cerebral blood flow in nine patients with Alzheimer's disease (AD), five healthy elderly control subjects, and two patients with multi-infarct dementia. We found that all subjects with AD demonstrated flow deficits in temporoparietal cortex bilaterally, and that the ratio of activity in bilateral temporoparietal cortex to activity in the whole slice allowed the differentiation of all patients with AD from both the controls and from the patients with multi-infarct dementia. Furthermore, this ratio showed a strong correlation with disease severity in the AD group. Single photon emission computed tomography appears to be useful in the differential diagnosis of dementia and reflects clinical features of the disease
Experimental non-classicality of an indivisible quantum system.
Lapkiewicz, Radek; Li, Peizhe; Schaeff, Christoph; Langford, Nathan K; Ramelow, Sven; Wieśniak, Marcin; Zeilinger, Anton
2011-06-22
In contrast to classical physics, quantum theory demands that not all properties can be simultaneously well defined; the Heisenberg uncertainty principle is a manifestation of this fact. Alternatives have been explored--notably theories relying on joint probability distributions or non-contextual hidden-variable models, in which the properties of a system are defined independently of their own measurement and any other measurements that are made. Various deep theoretical results imply that such theories are in conflict with quantum mechanics. Simpler cases demonstrating this conflict have been found and tested experimentally with pairs of quantum bits (qubits). Recently, an inequality satisfied by non-contextual hidden-variable models and violated by quantum mechanics for all states of two qubits was introduced and tested experimentally. A single three-state system (a qutrit) is the simplest system in which such a contradiction is possible; moreover, the contradiction cannot result from entanglement between subsystems, because such a three-state system is indivisible. Here we report an experiment with single photonic qutrits which provides evidence that no joint probability distribution describing the outcomes of all possible measurements--and, therefore, no non-contextual theory--can exist. Specifically, we observe a violation of the Bell-type inequality found by Klyachko, Can, Binicioğlu and Shumovsky. Our results illustrate a deep incompatibility between quantum mechanics and classical physics that cannot in any way result from entanglement.
Optimal entangling operations between deterministic blocks of qubits encoded into single photons
Smith, Jake A.; Kaplan, Lev
2018-01-01
Here, we numerically simulate probabilistic elementary entangling operations between rail-encoded photons for the purpose of scalable universal quantum computation or communication. We propose grouping logical qubits into single-photon blocks wherein single-qubit rotations and the controlled-not (cnot) gate are fully deterministic and simple to implement. Interblock communication is then allowed through said probabilistic entangling operations. We find a promising trend in the increasing probability of successful interblock communication as we increase the number of optical modes operated on by our elementary entangling operations.
Observation of Entanglement of a Single Photon with a Trapped Atom
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Volz, Juergen; Weber, Markus; Schlenk, Daniel; Rosenfeld, Wenjamin; Vrana, Johannes; Saucke, Karen; Kurtsiefer, Christian; Weinfurter, Harald
2006-01-01
We report the observation of entanglement between a single trapped atom and a single photon at a wavelength suitable for low-loss communication over large distances, thereby achieving a crucial step towards long range quantum networks. To verify the entanglement, we introduce a single atom state analysis. This technique is used for full state tomography of the atom-photon qubit pair. The detection efficiency and the entanglement fidelity are high enough to allow in a next step the generation of entangled atoms at large distances, ready for a final loophole-free Bell experiment
Near-unity efficiency, single-photon sources based on tapered photonic nanowires
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Bleuse, Joël; Munsch, Mathieu; Claudon, Julien
2012-01-01
Single-photon emission from excitons in InAs Quantum Dots (QD) embedded in GaAs Tapered Photonic Wires (TPW) already demonstrated a 0.72 collection efficiency, with TPWs were the apex is the sharp end of the cone. Going to alternate designs, still based on the idea of the adiabatic deconfinement...... of the quasi-Gaussian emission mode, but with inverted TPW where the apex is the cone's base, leads to even larger efficiencies. In addition, these inverted TPWs make the electric pumping of the emitters compatible with these large efficiencies....
Dye molecules as single-photon sources and large optical nonlinearities on a chip
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Hwang, J; Hinds, E A
2011-01-01
We point out that individual organic dye molecules, deposited close to optical waveguides on a photonic chip, can act as single-photon sources. A thin silicon nitride strip waveguide is expected to collect 28% of the photons from a single dibenzoterrylene molecule. These molecules can also provide large, localized optical nonlinearities, which are enough to discriminate between one photon or two through a differential phase shift of 2 0 per photon. This new atom-photon interface may be used as a resource for processing quantum information.
Streak camera imaging of single photons at telecom wavelength
Allgaier, Markus; Ansari, Vahid; Eigner, Christof; Quiring, Viktor; Ricken, Raimund; Donohue, John Matthew; Czerniuk, Thomas; Aßmann, Marc; Bayer, Manfred; Brecht, Benjamin; Silberhorn, Christine
2018-01-01
Streak cameras are powerful tools for temporal characterization of ultrafast light pulses, even at the single-photon level. However, the low signal-to-noise ratio in the infrared range prevents measurements on weak light sources in the telecom regime. We present an approach to circumvent this problem, utilizing an up-conversion process in periodically poled waveguides in Lithium Niobate. We convert single photons from a parametric down-conversion source in order to reach the point of maximum detection efficiency of commercially available streak cameras. We explore phase-matching configurations to apply the up-conversion scheme in real-world applications.
Nanofabrication of Plasmonic Circuits Containing Single Photon Sources
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Siampour, Hamidreza; Kumar, Shailesh; Bozhevolnyi, Sergey I.
2017-01-01
Nanofabrication of photonic components based on dielectric loaded surface plasmon polariton waveguides (DLSPPWs) excited by single nitrogen vacancy (NV) centers in nanodiamonds is demonstrated. DLSPPW circuits are built around NV containing nanodiamonds, which are certified to be single-photon...... emitters, using electron-beam lithography of hydrogen silsesquioxane (HSQ) resist on silver-coated silicon substrates. A propagation length of 20 ± 5 μm for the NV single-photon emission is measured with DLSPPWs. A 5-fold enhancement in the total decay rate, and 58% coupling efficiency to the DLSPPW mode...
Optimization of time-correlated single photon counting spectrometer
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Zhang Xiufeng; Du Haiying; Sun Jinsheng
2011-01-01
The paper proposes a performance improving scheme for the conventional time-correlated single photon counting spectrometer and develops a high speed data acquisition card based on PCI bus and FPGA technologies. The card is used to replace the multi-channel analyzer to improve the capability and decrease the volume of the spectrometer. The process of operation is introduced along with the integration of the spectrometer system. Many standard samples are measured. The experimental results show that the sensitivity of the spectrometer is single photon counting, and the time resolution of fluorescence lifetime measurement can be picosecond level. The instrument could measure the time-resolved spectroscopy. (authors)
Photon statistics characterization of a single-photon source
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Alleaume, R; Treussart, F; Courty, J-M; Roch, J-F
2004-01-01
In a recent experiment, we reported the time-domain intensity noise measurement of a single-photon source relying on single-molecule fluorescence control. In this paper, we present data processing starting from photocount timestamps. The theoretical analytical expression of the time-dependent Mandel parameter Q(T) of an intermittent single-photon source is derived from ON↔OFF dynamics. Finally, source intensity noise analysis, using the Mandel parameter, is quantitatively compared with the usual approach relying on the time autocorrelation function, both methods yielding the same molecular dynamical parameters
Single-photon interference experiment for high schools
Bondani, Maria
2014-07-01
We follow the reductio ad absurdum reasoning described in the book "Sneaking a Look at God's Cards" by Giancarlo Ghirardi to demonstrate the wave-particle duality of light in a Mach-Zehnder interferometric setup analog to the conventional Young double-slit experiment. We aim at showing the double nature of light by measuring the existence of interference fringes down to the single-photon level. The setup includes a strongly attenuated laser, polarizing beam splitters, half-waveplates, polarizers and single-photon detectors.
Stable single-photon source in the near infrared
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Gaebel, T; Popa, I; Gruber, A; Domhan, M; Jelezko, F; Wrachtrup, J
2004-01-01
Owing to their unsurpassed photostability, defects in solids may be ideal candidates for single-photon sources. Here we report on generation of single photons by optical excitation of a yet unexplored defect in diamond, the nickel-nitrogen complex (NE8) centre. The most striking feature of the defect is its emission bandwidth of 1.2 nm at room temperature. The emission wavelength of the defect is around 800 nm, which is suitable for telecom fibres. In addition, in this spectral region little background light from the diamond bulk material is detected. Consequently, a high contrast in antibunching measurements is achieved
Teleportation of a two-mode entangled coherent state encoded with two-qubit information
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Mishra, Manoj K; Prakash, Hari, E-mail: manoj.qit@gmail.co, E-mail: prakash_hari123@rediffmail.co [Department of physics, University of Allahabad, Allahabad (India)
2010-09-28
We propose a scheme to teleport a two-mode entangled coherent state encoded with two-qubit information, which is better than the two schemes recently proposed by Liao and Kuang (2007 J. Phys. B: At. Mol. Opt. Phys. 40 1183) and by Phien and Nguyen (2008 Phys. Lett. A 372 2825) in that our scheme gives higher value of minimum assured fidelity and minimum average fidelity without using any nonlinear interactions. For involved coherent states | {+-} {alpha}), minimum average fidelity in our case is {>=}0.99 for |{alpha}| {>=} 1.6 (i.e. |{alpha}|{sup 2} {>=} 2.6), while previously proposed schemes referred above report the same for |{alpha}| {>=} 5 (i.e. |{alpha}|{sup 2} {>=} 25). Since it is very challenging to produce superposed coherent states of high coherent amplitude (|{alpha}|), our teleportation scheme is at the reach of modern technology.
Cooperative single-photon subradiant states in a three-dimensional atomic array
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Jen, H.H., E-mail: sappyjen@gmail.com
2016-11-15
We propose a complete superradiant and subradiant states that can be manipulated and prepared in a three-dimensional atomic array. These subradiant states can be realized by absorbing a single photon and imprinting the spatially-dependent phases on the atomic system. We find that the collective decay rates and associated cooperative Lamb shifts are highly dependent on the phases we manage to imprint, and the subradiant state of long lifetime can be found for various lattice spacings and atom numbers. We also investigate both optically thin and thick atomic arrays, which can serve for systematic studies of super- and sub-radiance. Our proposal offers an alternative scheme for quantum memory of light in a three-dimensional array of two-level atoms, which is applicable and potentially advantageous in quantum information processing. - Highlights: • Cooperative single-photon subradiant states in a three-dimensional atomic array. • Subradiant state manipulation via spatially-increasing phase imprinting. • Quantum storage of light in the subradiant state in two-level atoms.
Control of single-photon routing in a T-shaped waveguide by another atom
Huang, Jin-Song; Wang, Jing-Wen; Wang, Yan; Li, Yan-Ling; Huang, You-Wen
2018-04-01
Quantum routers with a high routing rate of much more than 0.5 are of great importance for quantum networks. We provide a scheme to perform bidirectional high routing-rate transfer in a T-shaped coupled-resonator waveguide (CRW), which extends a recent unidirectional scheme proposed by Lu et al. (Opt Express 23:22955, 2015). By locating an extra two-level atom in the infinite CRW channel of the T-shaped CRW with a three-level system, an effective potential is generated. Our numerical results show that high routing capability from the infinite CRW channel to the semi-infinite channel can be achieved, and routing capability from the semi-infinite CRW channel to the infinite channel can also be significantly enhanced, with the help of the effective potential. Therefore, the proposed double-atom configuration could be utilized as a bidirectional quantum routing controller to implement high transfer rate routing of single photons.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Purdy, Thomas; Ligare, Martin
2003-01-01
We introduce a simple model for electromagnetically induced transparency in which all fields are treated quantum mechanically. We study a system of three separated atoms at fixed positions in a one-dimensional multimode optical cavity. The first atom serves as the source for a single spontaneously emitted photon; the photon scatters from a three-level 'Λ'-configuration atom which interacts with an additional single-mode field coupling two of the atomic levels; the third atom serves as a detector of the total transmitted field. We find an analytical solution for the quantum dynamics. From the quantum amplitude describing the excitation of the detector atom we extract information that provides exact single-photon analogues to wave delays predicted by semi-classical theories. We also find complementary information in the expectation value of the electric field intensity operator
Quantum entanglement and quantum computational algorithms
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
Abstract. The existence of entangled quantum states gives extra power to quantum computers over their classical counterparts. Quantum entanglement shows up qualitatively at the level of two qubits. We demonstrate that the one- and the two-bit Deutsch-Jozsa algorithm does not require entanglement and can be mapped ...
Single-Photon Avalanche Diodes (SPAD) in CMOS 0.35 µm technology
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Pellion, D.; Jradi, K.; Brochard, N. [Le2i – CNRS/Univ. de Bourgogne, Dijon (France); Prêle, D. [APC – CNRS/Univ. Paris Diderot, Paris (France); Ginhac, D. [Le2i – CNRS/Univ. de Bourgogne, Dijon (France)
2015-07-01
Some decades ago single photon detection used to be the terrain of photomultiplier tube (PMT), thanks to its characteristics of sensitivity and speed. However, PMT has several disadvantages such as low quantum efficiency, overall dimensions, and cost, making them unsuitable for compact design of integrated systems. So, the past decade has seen a dramatic increase in interest in new integrated single-photon detectors called Single-Photon Avalanche Diodes (SPAD) or Geiger-mode APD. SPAD are working in avalanche mode above the breakdown level. When an incident photon is captured, a very fast avalanche is triggered, generating an easily detectable current pulse. This paper discusses SPAD detectors fabricated in a standard CMOS technology featuring both single-photon sensitivity, and excellent timing resolution, while guaranteeing a high integration. In this work, we investigate the design of SPAD detectors using the AMS 0.35 µm CMOS Opto technology. Indeed, such standard CMOS technology allows producing large surface (few mm{sup 2}) of single photon sensitive detectors. Moreover, SPAD in CMOS technologies could be associated to electronic readout such as active quenching, digital to analog converter, memories and any specific processing required to build efficient calorimeters (Silicon PhotoMultiplier – SiPM) or high resolution imagers (SPAD imager). The present work investigates SPAD geometry. MOS transistor has been used instead of resistor to adjust the quenching resistance and find optimum value. From this first set of results, a detailed study of the dark count rate (DCR) has been conducted. Our results show a dark count rate increase with the size of the photodiodes and the temperature (at T=22.5 °C, the DCR of a 10 µm-photodiode is 2020 count s{sup −1} while it is 270 count s{sup −1} at T=−40 °C for a overvoltage of 800 mV). A small pixel size is desirable, because the DCR per unit area decreases with the pixel size. We also found that the adjustment
Waveguide-Coupled Superconducting Nanowire Single-Photon Detectors
Beyer, Andrew D.; Briggs, Ryan M.; Marsili, Francesco; Cohen, Justin D.; Meenehan, Sean M.; Painter, Oskar J.; Shaw, Matthew D.
2015-01-01
We have demonstrated WSi-based superconducting nanowire single-photon detectors coupled to SiNx waveguides with integrated ring resonators. This photonics platform enables the implementation of robust and efficient photon-counting detectors with fine spectral resolution near 1550 nm.
Design and characterization of single photon avalanche diodes arrays
Neri, L.; Tudisco, S.; Lanzanò, L.; Musumeci, F.; Privitera, S.; Scordino, A.; Condorelli, G.; Fallica, G.; Mazzillo, M.; Sanfilippo, D.; Valvo, G.
2010-05-01
During the last years, in collaboration with ST-Microelectronics, we developed a new avalanche photo sensor, single photon avalanche diode (SPAD) see Ref.[S. Privitera, et al., Sensors 8 (2008) 4636 [1];S. Tudisco et al., IEEE Sensors Journal 8 (2008) 1324 [2
Single-photon production at the CERN ISR
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Linnemann, J.T.
1981-01-01
A measurement of single photon production from p-p collisions at ISR energies is presented. A signal comparable to single π 0 production is found at large p/sub T/. A study of associated particles favors production dominated by the first-order QCD process of gluon-valence quark production q g → q γ
Single Photon Source with a Diamond Nanocrystal on an Optical Nanofiber
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Lars Liebermeister
2014-01-01
The development of high yield single photon sources is crucial for applications in quantum information science as well as for experiments on the foundations of quantum physics. The NV-center in diamond is a promising solid state candidate. By using nanodiamonds the single photon emission can easily be coupled to integrated nano-optical and plasmonic structures. Our approach is to utilize efficient coupling of fluorescence of a single NV-center to the evanescent field of an optical nanofiber. A hybrid microscope (confocal microscope combined with an AFM) allows to optically characterize and preselect diamond nanocrystals and then to apply an AFM nanomanipulation technique to move a selected nanodiamond deterministically onto the tapered optical fiber. We report on first results with single diamond nanocrystals containing several NV-centers positioned on a tapered optical fiber. We observe fluorescence emission in the guided mode of the fiber. The second order correlation recorded between the free-space and the guided fluorescence shows pronounced antibunching. This demonstrated efficient evanescent coupling with low background. (author)
Two-way QKD with single-photon-added coherent states
Miranda, Mario; Mundarain, Douglas
2017-12-01
In this work we present a two-way quantum key distribution (QKD) scheme that uses single-photon-added coherent states and displacement operations. The first party randomly sends coherent states (CS) or single-photon-added coherent states (SPACS) to the second party. The latter sends back the same state it received. Both parties decide which kind of states they are receiving by detecting or not a photon on the received signal after displacement operations. The first party must determine whether its sent and received states are equal; otherwise, the case must be discarded. We are going to show that an eavesdropper provided with a beam splitter gets the same information in any of the non-discarded cases. The key can be obtained by assigning 0 to CS and 1 to SPACS in the non-discarded cases. This protocol guarantees keys' security in the presence of a beam splitter attack even for states with a high number of photons in the sent signal. It also works in a lossy quantum channel, becoming a good bet for improving long-distance QKD.
Microscopic theory of cavity-enhanced single-photon emission from optical two-photon Raman processes
Breddermann, Dominik; Praschan, Tom; Heinze, Dirk; Binder, Rolf; Schumacher, Stefan
2018-03-01
We consider cavity-enhanced single-photon generation from stimulated two-photon Raman processes in three-level systems. We compare four fundamental system configurations, one Λ -, one V-, and two ladder (Ξ -) configurations. These can be realized as subsystems of a single quantum dot or of quantum-dot molecules. For a new microscopic understanding of the Raman process, we analyze the Heisenberg equation of motion applying the cluster-expansion scheme. Within this formalism an exact and rigorous definition of a cavity-enhanced Raman photon via its corresponding Raman correlation is possible. This definition for example enables us to systematically investigate the on-demand potential of Raman-transition-based single-photon sources. The four system arrangements can be divided into two subclasses, Λ -type and V-type, which exhibit strongly different Raman-emission characteristics and Raman-emission probabilities. Moreover, our approach reveals whether the Raman path generates a single photon or just induces destructive quantum interference with other excitation paths. Based on our findings and as a first application, we gain a more detailed understanding of experimental data from the literature. Our analysis and results are also transferable to the case of atomic three-level-resonator systems and can be extended to more complicated multilevel schemes.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Guo Yanqiang; Yang Rongcan; Li Gang; Zhang Pengfei; Zhang Yuchi; Wang Junmin; Zhang Tiancai
2011-01-01
By employing multiple conventional single-photon counting modules (SPCMs), which are binary-response detectors, instead of photon number resolving detectors, the nonclassicality criteria are investigated for various quantum states. The bounds of the criteria are derived from a system based on three or four SPCMs. The overall efficiency and background are both taken into account. The results of experiments with thermal and coherent light agree with the theoretical analysis. Compared with photon number resolving detectors, the use of a Hanbury Brown-Twiss-like scheme with multiple SPCMs is even better for revealing the nonclassicality of the fields, and the efficiency requirements are not so stringent. Some proposals are presented which can improve the detection performance with binary-response SPCMs for different quantum states.
Optical π phase shift created with a single-photon pulse.
Tiarks, Daniel; Schmidt, Steffen; Rempe, Gerhard; Dürr, Stephan
2016-04-01
A deterministic photon-photon quantum logic gate is a long-standing goal. Building such a gate becomes possible if a light pulse containing only one photon imprints a phase shift of π onto another light field. We experimentally demonstrate the generation of such a π phase shift with a single-photon pulse. A first light pulse containing less than one photon on average is stored in an atomic gas. Rydberg blockade combined with electromagnetically induced transparency creates a phase shift for a second light pulse, which propagates through the medium. We measure the π phase shift of the second pulse when we postselect the data upon the detection of a retrieved photon from the first pulse. This demonstrates a crucial step toward a photon-photon gate and offers a variety of applications in the field of quantum information processing.
Bisschop, Suzanne; Guille, Antoine; Van Thourhout, Dries; Hens, Zeger; Brainis, Edouard
2015-06-01
Single-photon (SP) sources are important for a number of optical quantum information processing applications. We study the possibility to integrate triggered solid-state SP emitters directly on a photonic chip. A major challenge consists in efficiently extracting their emission into a single guided mode. Using 3D finite-difference time-domain simulations, we investigate the SP emission from dipole-like nanometer-sized inclusions embedded into different silicon nitride (SiNx) photonic nanowire waveguide designs. We elucidate the effect of the geometry on the emission lifetime and the polarization of the emitted SP. The results show that highly efficient and polarized SP sources can be realized using suspended SiNx slot-waveguides. Combining this with the well-established CMOS-compatible processing technology, fully integrated and complex optical circuits for quantum optics experiments can be developed.
Generation of an arbitrary concatenated Greenberger-Horne-Zeilinger state with single photons
Chen, Shan-Shan; Zhou, Lan; Sheng, Yu-Bo
2017-02-01
The concatenated Greenberger-Horne-Zeilinger (C-GHZ) state is a new kind of logic-qubit entangled state, which may have extensive applications in future quantum communication. In this letter, we propose a protocol for constructing an arbitrary C-GHZ state with single photons. We exploit the cross-Kerr nonlinearity for this purpose. This protocol has some advantages over previous protocols. First, it only requires two kinds of cross-Kerr nonlinearities to generate single phase shifts ±θ. Second, it is not necessary to use sophisticated m-photon Toffoli gates. Third, this protocol is deterministic and can be used to generate an arbitrary C-GHZ state. This protocol may be useful in future quantum information processing based on the C-GHZ state.
Room-Temperature Single-photon level Memory for Polarization States
Kupchak, Connor; Mittiga, Thomas; Jordaan, Bertus; Namazi, Mehdi; Nölleke, Christian; Figueroa, Eden
2015-01-01
An optical quantum memory is a stationary device that is capable of storing and recreating photonic qubits with a higher fidelity than any classical device. Thus far, these two requirements have been fulfilled for polarization qubits in systems based on cold atoms and cryogenically cooled crystals. Here, we report a room-temperature memory capable of storing arbitrary polarization qubits with a signal-to-background ratio higher than 1 and an average fidelity surpassing the classical benchmark for weak laser pulses containing 1.6 photons on average, without taking into account non-unitary operation. Our results demonstrate that a common vapor cell can reach the low background noise levels necessary for polarization qubit storage using single-photon level light, and propels atomic-vapor systems towards a level of functionality akin to other quantum information processing architectures.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Liebermeister, Lars, E-mail: lars.liebermeister@physik.uni-muenchen.de; Petersen, Fabian; Münchow, Asmus v.; Burchardt, Daniel; Hermelbracht, Juliane; Tashima, Toshiyuki [Fakultät für Physik, Ludwig-Maximilians-Universität München, 80799 München (Germany); Schell, Andreas W.; Benson, Oliver [Institut für Physik, Humboldt-Universität zu Berlin, 12489 Berlin (Germany); Meinhardt, Thomas; Krueger, Anke [Institut für Organische Chemie, Universität Würzburg, 97074 Würzburg (Germany); Wilhelm Conrad Roentgen Research Center for Complex Materials Systems, Universität Würzburg, 97074 Würzburg (Germany); Stiebeiner, Ariane; Rauschenbeutel, Arno [Atominstitut, Technische Universität Wien, 1020 Wien (Austria); Weinfurter, Harald; Weber, Markus, E-mail: markusweber@lmu.de [Fakultät für Physik, Ludwig-Maximilians-Universität München, 80799 München (Germany); Max-Planck-Institut für Quantenoptik, 85748 Garching (Germany)
2014-01-20
A diamond nano-crystal hosting a single nitrogen vacancy (NV) center is optically selected with a confocal scanning microscope and positioned deterministically onto the subwavelength-diameter waist of a tapered optical fiber (TOF) with the help of an atomic force microscope. Based on this nano-manipulation technique, we experimentally demonstrate the evanescent coupling of single fluorescence photons emitted by a single NV-center to the guided mode of the TOF. By comparing photon count rates of the fiber-guided and the free-space modes and with the help of numerical finite-difference time domain simulations, we determine a lower and upper bound for the coupling efficiency of (9.5 ± 0.6)% and (10.4 ± 0.7)%, respectively. Our results are a promising starting point for future integration of single photon sources into photonic quantum networks and applications in quantum information science.
Zn doped GaN for single-photon emission
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Behrends, Arne; Ledig, Johannes; Al-Suleiman, Mohamed Aid Mansur; Bakin, Andrey; Waag, Andreas [Institute of Semiconductor Technology, University of Technology Braunschweig, Hans-Sommer-Str. 66, 38106 Braunschweig (Germany); Peters, Silke; Racu, Ana Maria; Schmunk, Waldemar; Hofer, Helmut; Kueck, Stefan [Physikalisch Technische Bundesanstalt (PTB), Bundesallee 100, 38116 Braunschweig (Germany)
2012-03-15
In this work we report on the optical investigation of Zn doped GaN films fabricated by metal organic chemical vapor deposition. The samples show bright emission in the blue spectral range around 2.9 eV when Si codoping is provided. This emission is suggested to be used for single-photon emission, thus the density of the Zn-Si pairs was drastically reduced leading to a decrease of the blue luminescence. For electrically excited single-photon sources these Zn-Si pairs have to be incorporated into LEDs, therefore we fabricated GaN-based nano-LEDs which show electroluminescence at 430 nm (copyright 2012 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim) (orig.)
Very bright, near-infrared single photon emitters in diamond
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
D. W. M. Lau
2013-09-01
Full Text Available We demonstrate activation of bright diamond single photon emitters in the near infrared range by thermal annealing alone, i.e., without ion implantation. The activation is crucially dependent on the annealing ambient. The activation of the single photon emitters is only observed when the sample is annealed in forming gas (4% H2 in Ar above temperatures of 1000 °C. By contrast, no emitters are activated by annealing in vacuum, oxygen, argon or deuterium. The emitters activated by annealing in forming gas exhibit very bright emission in the 730-760 nm wavelength range and have linewidths of ∼1.5-2.5 nm at room temperature.
Advanced time-correlated single photon counting applications
Becker, Wolfgang
2015-01-01
This book is an attempt to bridge the gap between the instrumental principles of multi-dimensional time-correlated single photon counting (TCSPC) and typical applications of the technique. Written by an originator of the technique and by sucessful users, it covers the basic principles of the technique, its interaction with optical imaging methods and its application to a wide range of experimental tasks in life sciences and clinical research. The book is recommended for all users of time-resolved detection techniques in biology, bio-chemistry, spectroscopy of live systems, live cell microscopy, clinical imaging, spectroscopy of single molecules, and other applications that require the detection of low-level light signals at single-photon sensitivity and picosecond time resolution.
Directional emission of single photons from small atomic samples
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Miroshnychenko, Yevhen; V. Poulsen, Uffe; Mølmer, Klaus
2013-01-01
We provide a formalism to describe deterministic emission of single photons with tailored spatial and temporal profiles from a regular array of multi-level atoms. We assume that a single collective excitation is initially shared by all the atoms in a metastable atomic state, and that this state i...... is coupled by a classical laser field to an optically excited state which rapidly decays to the ground atomic state. Our model accounts for the different field polarization components via re-absorption and emission of light by the Zeeman manifold of optically excited states.......We provide a formalism to describe deterministic emission of single photons with tailored spatial and temporal profiles from a regular array of multi-level atoms. We assume that a single collective excitation is initially shared by all the atoms in a metastable atomic state, and that this state...
Single photon detection and localization accuracy with an ebCMOS camera
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Cajgfinger, T. [CNRS/IN2P3, Institut de Physique Nucléaire de Lyon, Villeurbanne F-69622 (France); Dominjon, A., E-mail: agnes.dominjon@nao.ac.jp [Université de Lyon, Université de Lyon 1, Lyon 69003 France. (France); Barbier, R. [CNRS/IN2P3, Institut de Physique Nucléaire de Lyon, Villeurbanne F-69622 (France); Université de Lyon, Université de Lyon 1, Lyon 69003 France. (France)
2015-07-01
The CMOS sensor technologies evolve very fast and offer today very promising solutions to existing issues facing by imaging camera systems. CMOS sensors are very attractive for fast and sensitive imaging thanks to their low pixel noise (1e-) and their possibility of backside illumination. The ebCMOS group of IPNL has produced a camera system dedicated to Low Light Level detection and based on a 640 kPixels ebCMOS with its acquisition system. After reminding the principle of detection of an ebCMOS and the characteristics of our prototype, we confront our camera to other imaging systems. We compare the identification efficiency and the localization accuracy of a point source by four different photo-detection devices: the scientific CMOS (sCMOS), the Charge Coupled Device (CDD), the Electron Multiplying CCD (emCCD) and the Electron Bombarded CMOS (ebCMOS). Our ebCMOS camera is able to identify a single photon source in less than 10 ms with a localization accuracy better than 1 µm. We report as well efficiency measurement and the false positive identification of the ebCMOS camera by identifying more than hundreds of single photon sources in parallel. About 700 spots are identified with a detection efficiency higher than 90% and a false positive percentage lower than 5. With these measurements, we show that our target tracking algorithm can be implemented in real time at 500 frames per second under a photon flux of the order of 8000 photons per frame. These results demonstrate that the ebCMOS camera concept with its single photon detection and target tracking algorithm is one of the best devices for low light and fast applications such as bioluminescence imaging, quantum dots tracking or adaptive optics.
On the scalar electron mass limit from single photon experiments
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Grivaz, J.F.
1987-03-01
We discuss how the 90% C.L. lower limit on the mass of the scalar electron, as extracted from the single photon experiments, is affected by the way the background from radiative neutrino pair production is handled. We argue that some of the results presented at the Berkeley conference are overoptimistic, and that the mass lower limit is 65 GeV rather than the advertized value of 84 GeV, for the case of degenerate scalar electrons with massless photinos
Processing of transmission data from an uncollimated single photon source
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Dikaios, N.; Dinelle, K.; Spinks, T.; Nikita, K.; Thielemans, K.
2006-01-01
The EXACT 3D PET scanner uses a Cs-137 single photon rotating point source for the transmission scan. As the source is un-collimated, the transmission data are contaminated by scatter. It has been suggested that segmentation of the reconstructed image can restore the quantitative information in the image. We study here if the results can be further improved by the application of a scale factor for every transaxial plane
Single photon detection with self-quenching multiplication
Zheng, Xinyu (Inventor); Cunningham, Thomas J. (Inventor); Pain, Bedabrata (Inventor)
2011-01-01
A photoelectronic device and an avalanche self-quenching process for a photoelectronic device are described. The photoelectronic device comprises a nanoscale semiconductor multiplication region and a nanoscale doped semiconductor quenching structure including a depletion region and an undepletion region. The photoelectronic device can act as a single photon detector or a single carrier multiplier. The avalanche self-quenching process allows electrical field reduction in the multiplication region by movement of the multiplication carriers, thus quenching the avalanche.
Single-photon ultrashort-lived radionuclides: symposium proceedings
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Paras, P.; Thiessen, J.W. (eds.)
1985-01-01
The purpose was to define the current role and state-of-the-art regarding the development, clinical applications, and usefulness of generator-produced single-photon ultrashort-lived radionuclides (SPUSLR's) and to predict their future impact on medicine. Special emphasis was placed on the generator production of iridium-191, gold-195, and krypton-81. This report contains expanded summaries of the included papers. (ACR)
Coherent single-photon absorption by single emitters coupled to 1D nanophotonic waveguides
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Chen, Yuntian; Wubs, Martijn; Mørk, Jesper
2012-01-01
We have derived an efficient model that allows calculating the dynamical single-photon absorption of an emitter coupled to a waveguide. We suggest a novel and simple structure that leads to strong single-photon absorption.......We have derived an efficient model that allows calculating the dynamical single-photon absorption of an emitter coupled to a waveguide. We suggest a novel and simple structure that leads to strong single-photon absorption....
Multi-photon creation and single-photon annihilation of electron-positron pairs
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Hu, Huayu
2011-04-27
In this thesis we study multi-photon e{sup +}e{sup -} pair production in a trident process, and singlephoton e{sup +}e{sup -} pair annihilation in a triple interaction. The pair production is considered in the collision of a relativistic electron with a strong laser beam, and calculated within the theory of laser-dressed quantum electrodynamics. A regularization method is developed systematically for the resonance problem arising in the multi-photon process. Total production rates, positron spectra, and relative contributions of different reaction channels are obtained in various interaction regimes. Our calculation shows good agreement with existing experimental data from SLAC, and adds further insights into the experimental findings. Besides, we study the process in a manifestly nonperturbative domain, whose accessibility to future all-optical experiments based on laser acceleration is shown. In the single-photon e{sup +}e{sup -} pair annihilation, the recoil momentum is absorbed by a spectator particle. Various kinematic configurations of the three incoming particles are examined. Under certain conditions, the emitted photon exhibits distinct angular and polarization distributions which could facilitate the detection of the process. Considering an equilibrium relativistic e{sup +}e{sup -} plasma, it is found that the single-photon process becomes the dominant annihilation channel for plasma temperatures above 3 MeV. Multi-particle correlation effects are therefore essential for the e{sup +}e{sup -} dynamics at very high density. (orig.)
Room-Temperature Single-Photon Emission from Micrometer-Long Air-Suspended Carbon Nanotubes
Ishii, A.; Uda, T.; Kato, Y. K.
2017-11-01
Statistics of photons emitted by mobile excitons in individual carbon nanotubes are investigated. Photoluminescence spectroscopy is used to identify the chiralities and suspended lengths of air-suspended nanotubes, and photon-correlation measurements are performed at room temperature on telecommunication-wavelength nanotube emission with a Hanbury-Brown-Twiss setup. We obtain zero-delay second-order correlation g(2 )(0 ) less than 0.5, indicating single-photon generation. Excitation power dependence of the photon antibunching characteristics is examined for nanotubes with various chiralities and suspended lengths, where we find that the minimum value of g(2 )(0 ) is obtained at the lowest power. The influence of exciton diffusion and end quenching is studied by Monte Carlo simulations, and we derive an analytical expression for the minimum value of g(2 )(0 ). Our results indicate that mobile excitons in micrometer-long nanotubes can in principle produce high-purity single photons, leading to new design strategies for quantum photon sources.
Interference of Single Photons Emitted by Entangled Atoms in Free Space
Araneda, G.; Higginbottom, D. B.; Slodička, L.; Colombe, Y.; Blatt, R.
2018-05-01
The generation and manipulation of entanglement between isolated particles has precipitated rapid progress in quantum information processing. Entanglement is also known to play an essential role in the optical properties of atomic ensembles, but fundamental effects in the controlled emission and absorption from small, well-defined numbers of entangled emitters in free space have remained unobserved. Here we present the control of the emission rate of a single photon from a pair of distant, entangled atoms into a free-space optical mode. Changing the length of the optical path connecting the atoms modulates the single-photon emission rate in the selected mode with a visibility V =0.27 ±0.03 determined by the degree of entanglement shared between the atoms, corresponding directly to the concurrence Cρ=0.31 ±0.10 of the prepared state. This scheme, together with population measurements, provides a fully optical determination of the amount of entanglement. Furthermore, large sensitivity of the interference phase evolution points to applications of the presented scheme in high-precision gradient sensing.
Multi-photon creation and single-photon annihilation of electron-positron pairs
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Hu, Huayu
2011-01-01
In this thesis we study multi-photon e + e - pair production in a trident process, and singlephoton e + e - pair annihilation in a triple interaction. The pair production is considered in the collision of a relativistic electron with a strong laser beam, and calculated within the theory of laser-dressed quantum electrodynamics. A regularization method is developed systematically for the resonance problem arising in the multi-photon process. Total production rates, positron spectra, and relative contributions of different reaction channels are obtained in various interaction regimes. Our calculation shows good agreement with existing experimental data from SLAC, and adds further insights into the experimental findings. Besides, we study the process in a manifestly nonperturbative domain, whose accessibility to future all-optical experiments based on laser acceleration is shown. In the single-photon e + e - pair annihilation, the recoil momentum is absorbed by a spectator particle. Various kinematic configurations of the three incoming particles are examined. Under certain conditions, the emitted photon exhibits distinct angular and polarization distributions which could facilitate the detection of the process. Considering an equilibrium relativistic e + e - plasma, it is found that the single-photon process becomes the dominant annihilation channel for plasma temperatures above 3 MeV. Multi-particle correlation effects are therefore essential for the e + e - dynamics at very high density. (orig.)
Generation of concurrence between two qubits locally coupled to a one-dimensional spin chain
Nag, Tanay; Dutta, Amit
2016-08-01
We consider a generalized central spin model, consisting of two central qubits and an environmental spin chain (with periodic boundary condition) to which these central qubits are locally and weakly connected either at the same site or at two different sites separated by a distance d . Our purpose is to study the subsequent temporal generation of entanglement, quantified by concurrence, when initially the qubits are in an unentangled state. In the equilibrium situation, we show that the concurrence survives for a larger value of d when the environmental spin chain is critical. Importantly, a common feature observed both in the equilibrium and the nonequilibrium situations while the latter is created by a sudden but global change of the environmental transverse field is that the two qubits become maximally entangled for the critical quenching. Following a nonequilibrium evolution of the spin chain, our study for d ≠0 indicates that there exists a threshold time above which concurrence attains a finite value. Additionally, we show that the number of independent decohering channels (DCs) is determined by d as well as the local difference of the transverse field of the two underlying Hamiltonians governing the time evolution; the concurrence can be enhanced by a higher number of independent channels. The qualitatively similar behavior displayed by the concurrence for critical and off-critical quenches, as reported here, is characterized by analyzing the nonequilibrium evolution of these channels. The concurrence is maximum when the decoherence factor or the echo associated with the most rapidly DC decays to zero; on the contrary, the condition when the concurrence vanishes is determined nontrivially by the associated decay of one of the intermediate DCs. Analyzing the reduced density of a single qubit, we also explain the observation that the dephasing rate is always slower than the unentanglement rate. We further establish that the maximally and minimally decohering
A bright single-photon source based on a photonic trumpet
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Munsch, Mathieu; Malik, Nitin S.; Bleuse, Joël
Fiber-like photonic nanowires, which are optical waveguides made of a high refractive index material n, have recently emerged as non-resonant systems providing an efficient spontaneous emission (SE) control. When they embed a quantum emitter like a quantum dot (QD), they find application to the r......Fiber-like photonic nanowires, which are optical waveguides made of a high refractive index material n, have recently emerged as non-resonant systems providing an efficient spontaneous emission (SE) control. When they embed a quantum emitter like a quantum dot (QD), they find application...... to the realization of bright sources of quantum light and, reversibly, provide an efficient interface between propagating photons and the QD. For a wire diameter ∼ λ/n (λ is the operation wavelength), the fraction of QD SE coupled to the fundamental guided mode exceeds 90%. The collection of the photons can...... be brought close to unity with a proper engineering of the wire ends. In particular, a tapering of the top wire end is necessary to achieve a directive far-field emission pattern [1]. Recently, we have realized a single-photon source featuring a needle-like taper. The source efficiency, though record...
Progress Toward Single-Photon-Level Nonlinear Optics in Crystalline Microcavities
Kowligy, Abijith S.
Over the last two decades, the emergence of quantum information science has uncovered many practical applications in areas such as communications, imaging, and sensing where harnessing quantum features of Nature provides tremendous benefits over existing methods exploiting classical physical phenomena. In this effort, one of the frontiers of research has been to identify and utilize quantum phenomena that are not susceptible to environmental and parasitic noise processes. Quantum photonics has been at the forefront of these studies because it allows room-temperature access to its inherently quantum-mechanical features, and allows leveraging the mature telecommunication industry. Accompanying the weak environmental influence, however, are also weak optical nonlinearities. Efficient nonlinear optical interactions are indispensible for many of the existing protocols for quantum optical computation and communication, e.g. high-fidelity entangling quantum logic gates rely on large nonlinear responses at the one- or few-photon-level. While this has been addressed to a great extent by interfacing photons with single quantum emitters and cold atomic gases, scalability has remained elusive. In this work, we identify the macroscopic second-order nonlinear polarization as a robust platform to address this challenge, and utilize the recent advances in the burgeoning field of optical microcavities to enhance this nonlinear response. In particular, we show theoretically that by using the quantum Zeno effect, low-noise, single-photon-level optical nonlinearities can be realized in lithium niobate whispering-gallery-mode microcavities, and present experimental progress toward this goal. Using the measured strength of the second-order nonlinear response in lithium niobate, we modeled the nonlinear system in the strong coupling regime using the Schrodinger picture framework and theoretically demonstrated that the single-photon-level operation can be observed for cavity lifetimes in
Fano-Agarwal couplings and non-rotating wave approximation in single-photon timed Dicke subradiance
Mirza, Imran M.; Begzjav, Tuguldur
2016-04-01
Recently a new class of single-photon timed Dicke (TD) subradiant states has been introduced with possible applications in single-photon-based quantum information storage and on demand ultrafast retrieval (Scully M. O., Phys. Rev. Lett., 115 (2015) 243602). However, the influence of any kind of virtual processes on the decay of these new kind of subradiant states has been left as an open question. In the present paper, we focus on this problem in detail. In particular, we investigate how pure Fano-Agarwal couplings and other virtual processes arising from non-rotating wave approximation impact the decay of otherwise sub- and superradiant states. In addition to the overall virtual couplings among all TD states, we also focus on the dominant role played by the couplings between specific TD states.
Fully integrated InGaAs/InP single-photon detector module with gigahertz sine wave gating
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Liang Xiaolei; Ma Jian; Jin Ge; Chen Zengbing; Zhang Jun; Pan Jianwei [Hefei National Laboratory for Physical Sciences at Microscale and Department of Modern Physics, University of Science and Technology of China, Hefei, Anhui 230026 (China); Liu Jianhong; Wang Quan; Du Debing [Anhui Quantum Communication Technology Co., Ltd., Hefei, Anhui 230088 (China)
2012-08-15
InGaAs/InP single-photon avalanche diodes (SPADs) working in the regime of GHz clock rates are crucial components for the high-speed quantum key distribution (QKD). We have developed for the first time a compact, stable, and user-friendly tabletop InGaAs/InP single-photon detector system operating at a 1.25 GHz gate rate that fully integrates functions for controlling and optimizing SPAD performance. We characterize the key parameters of the detector system and test the long-term stability of the system for continuous operation of 75 h. The detector system can substantially enhance QKD performance and our present work paves the way for practical high-speed QKD applications.
Phonon number measurements using single photon opto-mechanics
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Basiri-Esfahani, S; Akram, U; Milburn, G J
2012-01-01
We describe a system composed of two coupled optical cavity modes with a coupling modulated by a bulk mechanical resonator. In addition, one of the cavity modes is irreversibly coupled to a single photon source. Our scheme is an opto-mechanical realization of the Jaynes–Cummings model where the qubit is a dual rail optical qubit while the bosonic degree of freedom is a matter degree of freedom realized as the bulk mechanical excitation. We show the possibility of engineering phonon number states of the mechanical oscillator in such a system by computing the conditional state of the mechanics after successive photon counting measurements. (paper)
Quantification in single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT)
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Buvat, Irene
2005-01-01
The objective of this lecture is to understand the possibilities and limitations of the quantitative analysis of single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) images. It is also to identify the conditions to be fulfilled to obtain reliable quantitative measurements from images. Content: 1 - Introduction: Quantification in emission tomography - definition and challenges; quantification biasing phenomena; 2 - quantification in SPECT, problems and correction methods: Attenuation, scattering, un-stationary spatial resolution, partial volume effect, movement, tomographic reconstruction, calibration; 3 - Synthesis: actual quantification accuracy; 4 - Beyond the activity concentration measurement
Quasi free mechanism in single photon double ionization of helium
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Schoeffler, Markus; Stuck, Christian [Frankfurt Univ., Frankfurt am Main (Germany). Inst. fuer Kernphysik; Lawrence Berkeley National Lab, Berkeley, CA (United States); Jahnke, Till; Waitz, Markus; Trinter, Florian; Lenz, Ute; Schmidt-Boecking, Horst; Doerner, Reinhard [Frankfurt Univ., Frankfurt am Main (Germany). Inst. fuer Kernphysik; Jones, Mathew; Landers, Allen [Auburn University, Auburn, AL (United States); Belkacem, Ali; Weber, Thorsten [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab, Berkeley, CA (United States); Cocke, Lew [Kansas State University, Manhattan, KS (United States)
2012-07-01
Double ionization of Helium by a single photon is widely believed to proceed through two mechanisms: knock-off (TS1) or shake-off, with the last one dominating at high photon energies. A new mechanism, termed ''Quasi Free Mechanism'' (QFM) was predicted 35 years ago by Amusia and coworkers, but escaped experimental observation till today. Here we provide the first proof of this mechanism using 800 eV photons from the Advanced Light Source. Fragments (electrons and ions) were measured in coincidence using momentum spectroscopy (COLTRIMS). He{sup (}2+) ions with zero momentum were found - the fingerprint for the QFM.
Single photon emission computed tomography in children with idiopathic seizures
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Hara, Masafumi; Takahashi, Mutsumasa; Kojima, Akihiro; Shimomura, Osamu; Kinoshita, Rumi; Tomiguchi, Seiji; Taku, Keiichi; Miike, Teruhisa
1991-01-01
Single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) with N-isoprophyl-p [ 123 I]-iodoamphetamine (IMP), X-ray computed tomography (X-CT), and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) were performed in 20 children with idiopathic seizures. In children with idiopathic seizures, SPECT could detect the abnormal sites at the highest rate (45%) compared with CT (10%) and MRI (12%), but the abnormal sites on SPECT correlated poorly with the foci on electroencephalograph (EEG). Idiopathic epilepsy with hypoperfusion on SPECT was refractory to treatment and was frequently associated with mental and/or developmental retardation. Perfusion defects on SPECT scans probably affect the development and maturation of the brain in children. (author)
Wang, Yuwen
2016-09-22
We study the dynamics of an ultrafast single photon pulse in a one-dimensional waveguide two-point coupled with a Jaynes-Cummings system. We find that for any single photon input the transmissivity depends periodically on the separation between the two coupling points. For a pulse containing many plane wave components it is almost impossible to suppress transmission, especially when the width of the pulse is less than 20 times the period. In contrast to plane wave input, the waveform of the pulse can be modified by controlling the coupling between the waveguide and Jaynes-Cummings system. Tailoring of the waveform is important for single photon manipulation in quantum informatics. © The Author(s) 2016.
Non-Markovian dynamics of a qubit due to single-photon scattering in a waveguide
Fang, Yao-Lung L.; Ciccarello, Francesco; Baranger, Harold U.
2018-04-01
We investigate the open dynamics of a qubit due to scattering of a single photon in an infinite or semi-infinite waveguide. Through an exact solution of the time-dependent multi-photon scattering problem, we find the qubit's dynamical map. Tools of open quantum systems theory allow us then to show the general features of this map, find the corresponding non-Linbladian master equation, and assess in a rigorous way its non-Markovian nature. The qubit dynamics has distinctive features that, in particular, do not occur in emission processes. Two fundamental sources of non-Markovianity are present: the finite width of the photon wavepacket and the time delay for propagation between the qubit and the end of the semi-infinite waveguide.
Room-temperature mid-infrared single-photon imaging using upconversion
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Dam, Jeppe Seidelin; Tidemand-Lichtenberg, Peter; Pedersen, Christian
2014-01-01
The mid-wave infrared (MWIR) region is a fast developing research area due to many possible applications. Indeed a lot of research has been put into the development of novel light sources in the MWIR. This has led to very powerful sources such as quantum cascade lasers (QCL) and optical parametric...... detectors, when compared to silicon based detectors available for the visible and near visible spectral range. In fact, camera sensitivities down to the single photon level have been developed for sub-μm wavelengths. This discrepancy in sensitivity makes it attractive to perform wavelength upconversion...... upconversion efficiencies of 20 % for polarized collinear MWIR light. To make the module truly portable the laser cavity is assembled in a closed mechanical unit which ensures that visible light cannot enter from the outside, and provides a very stable mount for the optical components. Figure 1 depicts...
Ziarkash, Abdul Waris; Joshi, Siddarth Koduru; Stipčević, Mario; Ursin, Rupert
2018-03-22
Single-photon avalanche diode (SPAD) detectors, have a great importance in fields like quantum key distribution, laser ranging, florescence microscopy, etc. Afterpulsing is a non-ideal behavior of SPADs that adversely affects any application that measures the number or timing of detection events. Several studies based on a few individual detectors, derived distinct mathematical models from semiconductor physics perspectives. With a consistent testing procedure and statistically large data sets, we show that different individual detectors - even if identical in type, make, brand, etc. - behave according to fundamentally different mathematical models. Thus, every detector must be characterized individually and it is wrong to draw universal conclusions about the physical meaning behind these models. We also report the presence of high-order afterpulses that are not accounted for in any of the standard models.
Electrical and optical 3D modelling of light-trapping single-photon avalanche diode
Zheng, Tianzhe; Zang, Kai; Morea, Matthew; Xue, Muyu; Lu, Ching-Ying; Jiang, Xiao; Zhang, Qiang; Kamins, Theodore I.; Harris, James S.
2018-02-01
Single-photon avalanche diodes (SPADs) have been widely used to push the frontier of scientific research (e.g., quantum science and single-molecule fluorescence) and practical applications (e.g., Lidar). However, there is a typical compromise between photon detection efficiency and jitter distribution. The light-trapping SPAD has been proposed to break this trade-off by coupling the vertically incoming photons into a laterally propagating mode while maintaining a small jitter and a thin Si device layer. In this work, we provide a 3D-based optical and electrical model based on practical fabrication conditions and discuss about design parameters, which include surface texturing, photon injection position, device area, and other features.
An ultrafast NbN hot-electron single-photon detector for electronic applications
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Lipatov, A; Okunev, O; Smirnov, K; Chulkova, G; Korneev, A; Kouminov, P; Gol'tsman, G; Zhang, J; Slysz, W; Verevkin, A; Sobolewski, R
2002-01-01
We present the latest generation of our superconducting single-photon detector (SPD), which can work from ultraviolet to mid-infrared optical radiation wavelengths. The detector combines a high speed of operation and low jitter with high quantum efficiency (QE) and very low dark count level. The technology enhancement allows us to produce ultrathin (3.5 nm thick) structures that demonstrate QE hundreds of times better, at 1.55 μm, than previous 10 nm thick SPDs. The best, 10x10 μm 2 , SPDs demonstrate QE up to 5% at 1.55 μm and up to 11% at 0.86 μm. The intrinsic detector QE, normalized to the film absorption coefficient, reaches 100% at bias currents above 0.9 I c for photons with wavelengths shorter than 1.3 μm
Enhanced single-photon emission from a diamond–silver aperture
Choy, Jennifer T.; Hausmann, Birgit J. M.; Babinec, Thomas M.; Bulu, Irfan; Khan, Mughees; Maletinsky, Patrick; Yacoby, Amir; Lončar, Marko
2011-01-01
Solid-state quantum emitters, such as the nitrogen-vacancy centre in diamond, are robust systems for practical realizations of various quantum information processing protocols2-5 and nanoscale magnetometry schemes6,7 at room temperature. Such applications benefit from the high emission efficiency and flux of single photons, which can be achieved by engineering the electromagnetic environment of the emitter. One attractive approach is based on plasmonic resonators8-13, in which sub-wavelength confinement of optical fields can strongly modify the spontaneous emission of a suitably embedded dipole despite having only modest quality factors. Meanwhile, the scalability of solid-state quantum systems critically depends on the ability to control such emitterg-cavity interaction in a number of devices arranged in parallel. Here, we demonstrate a method to enhance the radiative emission rate of single nitrogen-vacancy centres in ordered arrays of plasmonic apertures that promises greater scalability over the previously demonstrated bottom-up approaches for the realization of on-chip quantum networks. © 2011 Macmillan Publishers Limited. All rights reserved.
Enhanced single-photon emission from a diamond–silver aperture
Choy, Jennifer T.
2011-10-09
Solid-state quantum emitters, such as the nitrogen-vacancy centre in diamond, are robust systems for practical realizations of various quantum information processing protocols2-5 and nanoscale magnetometry schemes6,7 at room temperature. Such applications benefit from the high emission efficiency and flux of single photons, which can be achieved by engineering the electromagnetic environment of the emitter. One attractive approach is based on plasmonic resonators8-13, in which sub-wavelength confinement of optical fields can strongly modify the spontaneous emission of a suitably embedded dipole despite having only modest quality factors. Meanwhile, the scalability of solid-state quantum systems critically depends on the ability to control such emitterg-cavity interaction in a number of devices arranged in parallel. Here, we demonstrate a method to enhance the radiative emission rate of single nitrogen-vacancy centres in ordered arrays of plasmonic apertures that promises greater scalability over the previously demonstrated bottom-up approaches for the realization of on-chip quantum networks. © 2011 Macmillan Publishers Limited. All rights reserved.
Integration of Single-Photon Sources and Detectors on GaAs
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Giulia Enrica Digeronimo
2016-10-01
Full Text Available Quantum photonic integrated circuits (QPICs on a GaAs platform allow the generation, manipulation, routing, and detection of non-classical states of light, which could pave the way for quantum information processing based on photons. In this article, the prototype of a multi-functional QPIC is presented together with our recent achievements in terms of nanofabrication and integration of each component of the circuit. Photons are generated by excited InAs quantum dots (QDs and routed through ridge waveguides towards photonic crystal cavities acting as filters. The filters with a transmission of 20% and free spectral range ≥66 nm are able to select a single excitonic line out of the complex emission spectra of the QDs. The QD luminescence can be measured by on-chip superconducting single photon detectors made of niobium nitride (NbN nanowires patterned on top of a suspended nanobeam, reaching a device quantum efficiency up to 28%. Moreover, two electrically independent detectors are integrated on top of the same nanobeam, resulting in a very compact autocorrelator for on-chip g(2(τ measurements.
Collective excitations in circular atomic configurations and single-photon traps
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Hammer, Hanno
2004-01-01
Correlated excitations in a plane circular configuration of identical atoms with parallel dipole moments are investigated. The collective energy eigenstates, which are formally identical to Frenkel excitons, can be computed together with their level shifts and decay rates by decomposing the atomic state space into carrier spaces for the irreducible representations of the symmetry group Z N of the circle. It is shown that the index p of these representations can be used as a quantum number analogously to the orbital angular momentum quantum number l in hydrogenlike systems. Just as the hydrogen s states are the only electronic wave functions which can occupy the central region of the Coulomb potential, the quasiparticle corresponding to a collective excitation of the atoms in the circle can occupy the central atom only for vanishing Z N quantum number p. If a central atom is present, the p=0 state splits into two and shows level crossing at certain radii; in the regions between these radii, damped quantum beats between two 'extreme' p=0 configurations occur. The physical mechanisms behind super- and subradiance at a given radius are discussed. It is shown that, beyond a certain critical number of atoms in the circle, the lifetime of the maximally subradiant state increases exponentially with the number of atoms in the configuration, making the system a natural candidate for a single-photon trap
Advances in delimiting the Hilbert-Schmidt separability probability of real two-qubit systems
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Slater, Paul B
2010-01-01
We seek to derive the probability-expressed in terms of the Hilbert-Schmidt (Euclidean or flat) metric-that a generic (nine-dimensional) real two-qubit system is separable, by implementing the well-known Peres-Horodecki test on the partial transposes (PTs) of the associated 4 x 4 density matrices (ρ). But the full implementation of the test-requiring that the determinant of the PT be nonnegative for separability to hold-appears to be, at least presently, computationally intractable. So, we have previously implemented-using the auxiliary concept of a diagonal-entry-parameterized separability function (DESF)-the weaker implied test of nonnegativity of the six 2 x 2 principal minors of the PT. This yielded an exact upper bound on the separability probability of 1024/135π 2 ∼0.76854. Here, we piece together (reflection-symmetric) results obtained by requiring that each of the four 3 x 3 principal minors of the PT, in turn, be nonnegative, giving an improved/reduced upper bound of 22/35∼0.628571. Then, we conclude that a still further improved upper bound of 1129/2100∼0.537619 can be found by similarly piecing together the (reflection-symmetric) results of enforcing the simultaneous nonnegativity of certain pairs of the four 3 x 3 principal minors. Numerical simulations-as opposed to exact symbolic calculations-indicate, on the other hand, that the true probability is certainly less than 1/2 . Our analyses lead us to suggest a possible form for the true DESF, yielding a separability probability of 29/64∼0.453125, while the absolute separability probability of (6928-2205π)/(2 9/2 )∼0.0348338 provides the best exact lower bound established so far. In deriving our improved upper bounds, we rely repeatedly upon the use of certain integrals over cubes that arise. Finally, we apply an independence assumption to a pair of DESFs that comes close to reproducing our numerical estimate of the true separability function.
Linear optics and quantum maps
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Aiello, A.; Puentes, G.; Woerdman, J. P.
2007-01-01
We present a theoretical analysis of the connection between classical polarization optics and quantum mechanics of two-level systems. First, we review the matrix formalism of classical polarization optics from a quantum information perspective. In this manner the passage from the Stokes-Jones-Mueller description of classical optical processes to the representation of one- and two-qubit quantum operations, becomes straightforward. Second, as a practical application of our classical-vs-quantum formalism, we show how two-qubit maximally entangled mixed states can be generated by using polarization and spatial modes of photons generated via spontaneous parametric down conversion
Molecular single photon double K-shell ionization
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Penent, F.; Nakano, M.; Tashiro, M.; Grozdanov, T.P.; Žitnik, M.; Carniato, S.; Selles, P.; Andric, L.; Lablanquie, P.; Palaudoux, J.; Shigemasa, E.; Iwayama, H.; Hikosaka, Y.; Soejima, K.; Suzuki, I.H.; Kouchi, N.; Ito, K.
2014-01-01
We have studied single photon double K-shell ionization of small molecules (N 2 , CO, C 2 H 2n (n = 1–3), …) and the Auger decay of the resulting double core hole (DCH) molecular ions thanks to multi-electron coincidence spectroscopy using a magnetic bottle time-of-flight spectrometer. The relative cross-sections for single-site (K −2 ) and two-site (K −1 K −1 ) double K-shell ionization with respect to single K-shell (K −1 ) ionization have been measured that gives important information on the mechanisms of single photon double ionization. The spectroscopy of two-site (K −1 K −1 ) DCH states in the C 2 H 2n (n = 1–3) series shows important chemical shifts due to a strong dependence on the C-C bond length. In addition, the complete cascade Auger decay following single site (K −2 ) ionization has been obtained
Single photon laser altimeter simulator and statistical signal processing
Vacek, Michael; Prochazka, Ivan
2013-05-01
Spaceborne altimeters are common instruments onboard the deep space rendezvous spacecrafts. They provide range and topographic measurements critical in spacecraft navigation. Simultaneously, the receiver part may be utilized for Earth-to-satellite link, one way time transfer, and precise optical radiometry. The main advantage of single photon counting approach is the ability of processing signals with very low signal-to-noise ratio eliminating the need of large telescopes and high power laser source. Extremely small, rugged and compact microchip lasers can be employed. The major limiting factor, on the other hand, is the acquisition time needed to gather sufficient volume of data in repetitive measurements in order to process and evaluate the data appropriately. Statistical signal processing is adopted to detect signals with average strength much lower than one photon per measurement. A comprehensive simulator design and range signal processing algorithm are presented to identify a mission specific altimeter configuration. Typical mission scenarios (celestial body surface landing and topographical mapping) are simulated and evaluated. The high interest and promising single photon altimeter applications are low-orbit (˜10 km) and low-radial velocity (several m/s) topographical mapping (asteroids, Phobos and Deimos) and landing altimetry (˜10 km) where range evaluation repetition rates of ˜100 Hz and 0.1 m precision may be achieved. Moon landing and asteroid Itokawa topographical mapping scenario simulations are discussed in more detail.
Viswanathan, Balakrishnan; Gea-Banacloche, Julio
2018-03-01
It has been suggested that second-order nonlinearities could be used for quantum logic at the single-photon level. Specifically, successive two-photon processes in principle could accomplish the phase shift (conditioned on the presence of two photons in the low-frequency modes) |011 〉→i |100 〉→-|011 〉 . We have analyzed a recent scheme proposed by Xia et al. [Phys. Rev. Lett. 116, 023601 (2016)], 10.1103/PhysRevLett.116.023601 to induce such a conditional phase shift between two single-photon pulses propagating at different speeds through a nonlinear medium with a nonlocal response. We present here an analytical solution for the most general case, i.e., for an arbitrary response function, initial state, and pulse velocity, which supports their numerical observation that a π phase shift with unit fidelity is possible, in principle, in an appropriate limit. We also discuss why this is possible in this system, despite the theoretical objections to the possibility of conditional phase shifts on single photons that were raised some time ago by Shapiro [Phys. Rev. A 73, 062305 (2006)], 10.1103/PhysRevA.73.062305 and by Gea-Banacloche [Phys. Rev. A 81, 043823 (2010)], 10.1103/PhysRevA.81.043823 one of us.
Liao, Zeyang; Nha, Hyunchul; Zubairy, M. Suhail
2016-11-01
We develop a general dynamical theory for studying a single-photon transport in a one-dimensional (1D) waveguide coupled to multiple emitters which can be either identical or nonidentical. In this theory, both the effects of the waveguide and non-waveguide vacuum modes are included. This theory enables us to investigate the propagation of an emitter excitation or an arbitrary single-photon pulse along an array of emitters coupled to a 1D waveguide. The dipole-dipole interaction induced by the non-waveguide modes, which is usually neglected in the literature, can significantly modify the dynamics of the emitter system as well as the characteristics of the output field if the emitter separation is much smaller than the resonance wavelength. Nonidentical emitters can also strongly couple to each other if their energy difference is less than or of the order of the dipole-dipole energy shift. Interestingly, if their energy difference is close but nonzero, a very narrow transparency window around the resonance frequency can appear which does not occur for identical emitters. This phenomenon may find important applications in quantum waveguide devices such as optical switches and ultranarrow single-photon frequency comb generator.
Quantum signature scheme based on a quantum search algorithm
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Yoon, Chun Seok; Kang, Min Sung; Lim, Jong In; Yang, Hyung Jin
2015-01-01
We present a quantum signature scheme based on a two-qubit quantum search algorithm. For secure transmission of signatures, we use a quantum search algorithm that has not been used in previous quantum signature schemes. A two-step protocol secures the quantum channel, and a trusted center guarantees non-repudiation that is similar to other quantum signature schemes. We discuss the security of our protocol. (paper)
The effect of scattering on single photon transmission of optical angular momentum
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Andrews, D L
2011-01-01
Schemes for the communication and registration of optical angular momentum depend on the fidelity of transmission between optical system components. It is known that electron spin can be faithfully relayed between exciton states in quantum dots; it has also been shown by several theoretical and experimental studies that the use of beams conveying orbital angular momentum can significantly extend the density and efficiency of such information transfer. However, it remains unclear to what extent the operation of such a concept at the single photon level is practicable—especially where this involves optical propagation through a material system, in which forward scattering events can intervene. The possibility of transmitting and decoding angular momentum over nanoscale distances itself raises other important issues associated with near-field interrogation. This paper provides a framework to address these and related issues. A quantum electrodynamical representation is constructed and used to pursue the consequences of individual photons, from a Laguerre–Gaussian beam, undergoing single and multiple scattering events in the course of propagation. In this context, issues concerning orbital angular momentum conservation, and its possible compromise, are tackled by identifying the relevant components of the electromagnetic scattering and coupling tensors, using an irreducible Cartesian basis. The physical interpretation broadly supports the fidelity of quantum information transmission, but it also identifies potential limitations of principle
The effect of scattering on single photon transmission of optical angular momentum
Andrews, D. L.
2011-06-01
Schemes for the communication and registration of optical angular momentum depend on the fidelity of transmission between optical system components. It is known that electron spin can be faithfully relayed between exciton states in quantum dots; it has also been shown by several theoretical and experimental studies that the use of beams conveying orbital angular momentum can significantly extend the density and efficiency of such information transfer. However, it remains unclear to what extent the operation of such a concept at the single photon level is practicable—especially where this involves optical propagation through a material system, in which forward scattering events can intervene. The possibility of transmitting and decoding angular momentum over nanoscale distances itself raises other important issues associated with near-field interrogation. This paper provides a framework to address these and related issues. A quantum electrodynamical representation is constructed and used to pursue the consequences of individual photons, from a Laguerre-Gaussian beam, undergoing single and multiple scattering events in the course of propagation. In this context, issues concerning orbital angular momentum conservation, and its possible compromise, are tackled by identifying the relevant components of the electromagnetic scattering and coupling tensors, using an irreducible Cartesian basis. The physical interpretation broadly supports the fidelity of quantum information transmission, but it also identifies potential limitations of principle.
Quantum dynamics of a two-atom-qubit system
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Nguyen Van Hieu; Nguyen Bich Ha; Le Thi Ha Linh
2009-01-01
A physical model of the quantum information exchange between two qubits is studied theoretically. The qubits are two identical two-level atoms, the physical mechanism of the quantum information exchange is the mutual dependence of the reduced density matrices of two qubits generated by their couplings with a multimode radiation field. The Lehmberg-Agarwal master equation is exactly solved. The explicit form of the mutual dependence of two reduced density matrices is established. The application to study the entanglement of two qubits is discussed.
Quantum Lattice-Gas Model for the Diffusion Equation
National Research Council Canada - National Science Library
Yepez, J
2001-01-01
.... It is a minimal model with two qubits per node of a one-dimensional lattice and it is suitable for implementation on a large array of small quantum computers interconnected by nearest-neighbor...
Generation of quantum logic operations from physical Hamiltonians
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Zhang Jun; Whaley, K. Birgitta
2005-01-01
We provide a systematic analysis of the physical generation of single- and two-qubit quantum operations from Hamiltonians available in various quantum systems for scalable quantum information processing. We show that generation of single-qubit operations can be transformed into a steering problem on the Bloch sphere, which represents all R z -equivalence classes of single-qubit operations, whereas the two-qubit problem can be generally transformed into a steering problem in a tetrahedron representing all the local-equivalence classes of two-qubit operations (the Weyl chamber). We use this approach to investigate several physical examples for the generation of two-qubit operations. The steering approach provides useful guidance for the realization of various quantum computation schemes
Athermal avalanche in bilayer superconducting nanowire single-photon detectors
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Verma, V. B., E-mail: verma@nist.gov; Lita, A. E.; Stevens, M. J.; Mirin, R. P.; Nam, S. W. [National Institute of Standards and Technology, 325 Broadway, Boulder, Colorado 80305 (United States)
2016-03-28
We demonstrate that two superconducting nanowires separated by a thin insulating barrier can undergo an avalanche process. In this process, Joule heating caused by a photodetection event in one nanowire and the associated production of athermal phonons which are transmitted through the barrier cause the transition of the adjacent nanowire from the superconducting to the normal state. We show that this process can be utilized in the fabrication of superconducting nanowire single photon detectors to improve the signal-to-noise ratio, reduce system jitter, maximize device area, and increase the external efficiency over a very broad range of wavelengths. Furthermore, the avalanche mechanism may provide a path towards a superconducting logic element based on athermal gating.
Single photon emission computed tomography of the liver
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Makler, P.T. Jr.
1988-01-01
Single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) of the liver has been introduced in order to improve sensitivity and localization of space-occupying lesions. There have been numerous reports on the usefulness of the technique, as well as extensive analyses of its technical drawbacks. In general, SPECT provides a more accurate estimation of defect size than does conventional planar scintigraphy for cases in which one wishes to evaluate changes in lesion size due to therapy. The presence of a superimposed parenchymal disease, however, remains a major problem, which will only be resolved by a scanning technique that specifically detects the disease process of concern (hot spot imaging) rather than displacement of normal tissue (cold spot imaging)
Single photon emission computed tomography in AIDS dementia complex
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Pohl, P.; Vogl, G.; Fill, H.; Roessler, H.Z.; Zangerle, R.; Gerstenbrand, F.
1988-01-01
Single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) studies were performed in AIDS dementia complex using IMP in 12 patients (and HM-PAO in four of these same patients). In all patients, SPECT revealed either multiple or focal uptake defects, the latter corresponding with focal signs or symptoms in all but one case. Computerized tomography showed a diffuse cerebral atrophy in eight of 12 patients, magnetic resonance imaging exhibited changes like atrophy and/or leukoencephalopathy in two of five cases. Our data indicate that both disturbance of cerebral amine metabolism and alteration of local perfusion share in the pathogenesis of AIDS dementia complex. SPECT is an important aid in the diagnosis of AIDS dementia complex and contributes to the understanding of the pathophysiological mechanisms of this disorder
TCAD simulations for a novel single-photon avalanche diode
Jin, Xiangliang; Yang, Jia; Yang, Hongjiao; Tang, Lizhen; Liu, Weihui
2015-03-01
A single-photon avalanche diode (SPAD) device with P+-SEN junction, and a low concentration of N-type doping circular virtual guard-ring was presented in this paper. SEN layer of the proposed SPAD has high concentration of N-type doping, causing the SPAD low breakdown voltage (~14.26 V). What's more, an efficient and narrow (about 2μm) guard-ring of the proposed SPAD not only can withstand considerably higher electric fields for preventing edge breakdown, but also offers a little increment in fill factor compared with existing SPADs due to its small area. In addition, some Silvaco TCAD simulations have been done and verify characteristics and performance of the design in this work.
Single photon emission computed tomography and oth selected computer topics
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Frey, G.D.
1981-01-01
This book, the proceedings of a meeting in January 1980, contains 21 papers. Thirteen are devoted to aspects of emission tomography, four to nuclear cardiology, and five to other topics. The initial set of papers consists of reviews of the single photon emission tomography process. These include transverse axial tomography using scintillation cameras and other devices, longitudinal section tomography, and pin-hole and slant-hole systems. These reviews are generally well done, but as might be expected, lack any coherence from paper to paper. The papers on nuclear cardiology include several of Fourier analysis in nuclear cardiology and one on shunt quantification. Other clinical papers are on quantifying Tc-99m glucoheptonate uptake in the brain and on iron-59 retention studies. A general criticism of the book is the poor quality of photographic reproductions
Single photon energy dispersive x-ray diffraction
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Higginbotham, Andrew; Patel, Shamim; Ciricosta, Orlando; Suggit, Matthew J.; Wark, Justin S.; Hawreliak, James A.; Collins, Gilbert W.; Coppari, Federica; Eggert, Jon H.; Tang, Henry
2014-01-01
With the pressure range accessible to laser driven compression experiments on solid material rising rapidly, new challenges in the diagnosis of samples in harsh laser environments are emerging. When driving to TPa pressures (conditions highly relevant to planetary interiors), traditional x-ray diffraction techniques are plagued by increased sources of background and noise, as well as a potential reduction in signal. In this paper we present a new diffraction diagnostic designed to record x-ray diffraction in low signal-to-noise environments. By utilising single photon counting techniques we demonstrate the ability to record diffraction patterns on nanosecond timescales, and subsequently separate, photon-by-photon, signal from background. In doing this, we mitigate many of the issues surrounding the use of high intensity lasers to drive samples to extremes of pressure, allowing for structural information to be obtained in a regime which is currently largely unexplored
Single photon energy dispersive x-ray diffraction
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Higginbotham, Andrew; Patel, Shamim; Ciricosta, Orlando; Suggit, Matthew J.; Wark, Justin S. [Department of Physics, Clarendon Laboratory, University of Oxford, Parks Road, Oxford OX1 3PU (United Kingdom); Hawreliak, James A.; Collins, Gilbert W.; Coppari, Federica; Eggert, Jon H. [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Livermore, California 94551 (United States); Tang, Henry [Department of Earth and Planetary Science, University of California Berkeley, Berkeley, California 94720 (United States)
2014-03-15
With the pressure range accessible to laser driven compression experiments on solid material rising rapidly, new challenges in the diagnosis of samples in harsh laser environments are emerging. When driving to TPa pressures (conditions highly relevant to planetary interiors), traditional x-ray diffraction techniques are plagued by increased sources of background and noise, as well as a potential reduction in signal. In this paper we present a new diffraction diagnostic designed to record x-ray diffraction in low signal-to-noise environments. By utilising single photon counting techniques we demonstrate the ability to record diffraction patterns on nanosecond timescales, and subsequently separate, photon-by-photon, signal from background. In doing this, we mitigate many of the issues surrounding the use of high intensity lasers to drive samples to extremes of pressure, allowing for structural information to be obtained in a regime which is currently largely unexplored.
Single photon light detector for deep ocean applications
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Matsuno, S.; Babson, J.; Learned, J.G.; O'Connor, D.; Grieder, P.K.F.; Wilson, C.
1989-01-01
We have developed a single photon sensitive light detector module which can be operated in the ocean to a depth of 5000 m. It was designed primarily to be used as a Cherenkov light detector in conjunction with the DUMAND (Deep Underwater Muon And Neutrino Detector) experiment. After calibration in the laboratory, seven detectors, assembled in a vertical string geometry, have been operated simultaneously in the deep ocean off the coast of the island of Hawaii. Cosmic ray muons have been recorded successfully at dephts ranging from 2000 to 4000 m. The results have demonstrated the capability of the detector; it fulfills the specifications required for the modules to be used in a deep ocean muon and neutrino detector. (orig.)
Application of single photon ECT for dynamic study
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Mukai, T.; Ishii, Y.; Tamaki, N.
1982-01-01
Feasibility of dynamic study in a form of ECT using a rotating gamma camera was evaluated. Since it takes longer one around time sampling, application for the dynamic study is limited under following conditions; 1) physiological gated process, 2) slow clearance process, 3) physiological steady state process. The gated study was applicated for heart pumping action synchronized with ECG. The ECG gated heart ECT either of blood pool or myocardium was useful to reveal a subtle wall motion abnormalities in a tomographic plane, even when a planar imaging failed to reveal it. As for slow dynamic process of tracer, an excretion process of hepatobiliary agent, was subjected to be analyzed in order to calculate clearance rate at each pixel. As for steady state process, an ECT of regional celebral blood flow (rCBF) was investigated during continuous infusion into intracarotid artery. All of these technique were proved to have a clinical feasibility and to potentiate usefulness of the single photon ECT (SPECT)
Single photon imaging at ultra-high resolution
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Bellazzini, R. [INFN sez. Pisa, Pisa (Italy); Spandre, G. [INFN sez. Pisa, Pisa (Italy)], E-mail: Gloria.Spandre@pi.infn.it; Minuti, M.; Brez, A.; Baldini, L.; Latronico, L.; Omodei, N.; Sgro, C.; Bregeon, J.; Razzano, M.; Pinchera, M. [INFN sez. Pisa, Pisa (Italy); Tremsin, A.; McPhate, J.; Vallerga, J.V.; Siegmund, O. [SSL, Berkeley (United States)
2008-06-11
We present a detection system capable of imaging both single photon/positive ion and multiple coincidence photons/positive ions with extremely high spatial resolution. In this detector the photoelectrons excited by the incoming photons are multiplied by microchannel plate(s) (MCP). The process of multiplication is spatially constrained within an MCP pore, which can be as small as 4 {mu}m for commercially available MCPs. An electron cloud originated by a single photoelectron is then encoded by a pixellated custom analog ASIC consisting of 105 K charge sensitive pixels of 50 {mu}m in size arranged on a hexagonal grid. Each pixel registers the charge with an accuracy of <100 electrons rms. Computation of the event centroid from the readout charges results in an accurate event position. A large number of simultaneous photons spatially separated by {approx}0.4 mm can be detected simultaneously allowing multiple coincidence operation for the experiments where a large number of incoming photons/positive ions have to be detected simultaneously. The experimental results prove that the spatial resolution of the readout system itself is {approx}3 {mu}m FWHM enabling detection resolution better than 6 {mu}m for the small pore MCPs. An attractive feature of the detection system is its capability to register the timing of each incoming photon/positive ion (in single photon detection mode) or of the first incoming particle (for the multiple coincidence detection) with an accuracy of {approx}130 ps FWHM. There is also virtually no dark count noise in the detection system making it suitable for low count rate applications.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Chen-Xu, Feng; Rong-Zhen, Jiao; Wen-Han, Zhang
2008-01-01
The performance of the differential-phase-shift keying (DPSK) protocol applying a 1310 nm up-conversion single-photon detector is analysed. The error rate and the communication rate as a function of distance for three quantum key distribution protocols, the Bennett–Brassard 1984, the Bennett–Brassard–Mermin 1992, and the DPSK, are presented. Then we compare the performance of these three protocols using the 1310nm up-conversion detector. We draw the conclusion that the DPSK protocol applying the detector has significant advantage over the other two protocols. Longer transmission distance and lower error rate can be achieved. (general)
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Fujiwara, Mikio; Sasaki, Masahide; Miki, Shigehito; Wang Zhen
2009-01-01
A superconducting single photon detector (SSPD) is promising candidate of the detector in a quantum key distribution (QKD) system, because of its low dark count and high speed repetition rate. We have developed the SSPD system cooled by a GM cryocooler. In this system, and the work surface can be cooled 2.95 K and up to 6 SSPDs can be installed. The active areas of SSPDs are 10x10 μm 2 or 20x20 μm 2 , and the system detection efficiency at dark count rate of 100 Hz reached 2.6% at a wavelength of 1550 nm.
Measuring temporal summation in visual detection with a single-photon source.
Holmes, Rebecca; Victora, Michelle; Wang, Ranxiao Frances; Kwiat, Paul G
2017-11-01
Temporal summation is an important feature of the visual system which combines visual signals that arrive at different times. Previous research estimated complete summation to last for 100ms for stimuli judged "just detectable." We measured the full range of temporal summation for much weaker stimuli using a new paradigm and a novel light source, developed in the field of quantum optics for generating small numbers of photons with precise timing characteristics and reduced variance in photon number. Dark-adapted participants judged whether a light was presented to the left or right of their fixation in each trial. In Experiment 1, stimuli contained a stream of photons delivered at a constant rate while the duration was systematically varied. Accuracy should increase with duration as long as the later photons can be integrated with the proceeding ones into a single signal. The temporal integration window was estimated as the point that performance no longer improved, and was found to be 650ms on average. In Experiment 2, the duration of the visual stimuli was kept short (100ms or photons was varied to explore the efficiency of summation over the integration window compared to Experiment 1. There was some indication that temporal summation remains efficient over the integration window, although there is variation between individuals. The relatively long integration window measured in this study may be relevant to studies of the absolute visual threshold, i.e., tests of single-photon vision, where "single" photons should be separated by greater than the integration window to avoid summation. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Coxeter groups A4, B4 and D4 for two-qubit systems
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
2008). [40] M Koca, R Koç and M Al-Barwani, J. Math. Phys. 44, 3123 (2003). [41] A Kossakowski and M Ohya, Infin. Dimens. Anal. Quantum. Probab. Relat. Top. 10, 411. (2007). [42] M Koca, R Koç and M Al-Barwani, J. Phys. A: Math. Gen.
Microfiber-coupled superconducting nanowire single-photon detector for near-infrared wavelengths.
You, Lixing; Wu, Junjie; Xu, Yingxin; Hou, Xintong; Fang, Wei; Li, Hao; Zhang, Weijun; Zhang, Lu; Liu, Xiaoyu; Tong, Limin; Wang, Zhen; Xie, Xiaoming
2017-12-11
High-performance superconducting nanowire single-photon detectors (SNSPDs) have facilitated numerous experiments and applications, particularly in the fields of modern quantum optics and quantum communication. Two kinds of optical coupling methods have thus far been developed for SNSPDs: one produces standard fiber-coupled SNSPDs in which the fibers vertically illuminate the meandered nanowires; the other produces waveguide-coupled SNSPDs in which nanowires are fabricated on the surface of a waveguide that guides photons, and the fibers are coupled to the waveguide. In this paper, we report on first experimental demonstration of a new type of SNSPD that is coupled with a microfiber (MF). Photons are guided by the MF and are evanescently absorbed by the nanowires of the SNSPD when the MF is placed on top of superconducting NbN nanowires. Room-temperature optical experiments indicated that this device has a coupling efficiency of up to 90% when a 1.3 μm-diameter MF is used for light with wavelength of 1550 nm. We were also able to demonstrate that our MF-coupled detector achieved system detection efficiencies of 50% and 20% at incident wavelengths of 1064 and 1550 nm, respectively, for a 2 μm-diameter MF at 2.2K. We expect that MF-coupled SNSPDs may show both high efficiency and broadband characteristics upon optimization and will be used for various novel applications, such as micro/nano-fiber optics.
Propagation of Statistical Noise Through a Two-Qubit Maximum Likelihood Tomography
2018-04-01
entangled mixed states: creation and concentration. Physical Review Letters. 2004;92(13):133601. 4. White AG et al. Nonmaximally entangled states...production, characterization, and utilization. Physical Review Letters. 1999;83(16):3103. 5. Wang SX, Moraw P, Reilly DR, Altepeter JB, Kanter GS...photon Greenberger-Horne-Zeilinger state using quantum state tomography. Physical Review Letters. 2005;94(7):070402. 7. Mikami H et al. New high
Corpuscular Model of Two-Beam Interference and Double-Slit Experiments with Single Photons
Jin, Fengping; Yuan, Shengjun; De Raedt, Hans; Michielsen, Kristel; Miyashita, Seiji
We introduce an event-based corpuscular simulation model that reproduces the wave mechanical results of single-photon double-slit and two-beam interference experiments and (of a one-to-one copy of an experimental realization) of a single-photon interference experiment with a Fresnel biprism. The
Single photon emission computed tomography in lumbar degenerative spondylolisthesis
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ito, S.; Muro, T.; Eisenstein, S.
1998-01-01
Analysis of single photon emission computed tomographic images and plain X-ray films of the lumbar vertebrae was performed in 15 patients with lumbar spondylosis and 15 patients with lumbar degenerative spondylolisthesis. The facet joint and osteophyte images were observed in particular, and the slipping ratio of spondylolisthetic vertebrae was determined. The slipping ratio of degenerative spondylolisthesis ranged from 11.8 % to 22.3 %. Hot uptake of 99mTc-HMDP by both L4-5 facet joints was significantly greater in the patients with degenerative spondylolisthesis than in those with lumbar spondylosis. The hot uptake by the osteophytes in lumbar spondylosis was nearly uniform among the three inferior segments, L3-4, L4-5 and L5-S, but was localized to the spondylolisthetic vertebrae, L4-5, or L5-S, in the patients with spondylolisthesis. Half of the osteophytes with hot uptake were assigned to the 3rd degree of Nathan's grading. It was suggested that stress was localized to the slipping vertebrae and their facet joints in patients with lumbar degenerative spondylolisthesis. (author)
Visualization of portal venous system by single photon emission CT
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Kashiwagi, T; Ikawa, T; Azuma, M; Matsuda, H; Yoshioka, H; Mitsutani, N; Koizumi, T
1987-03-01
Single photon emission CT (SPECT) was performed for the intra-abdominal blood pool with /sup 99m/Tc autologous red blood cells (RBC) in 15 patients with liver cirrhosis. Twenty mCi of /sup 99m/Tc-RBC labeled by in vivo technique were administered intravenously and tomographic imaging of the intra-abdominal vascular blood pool was performed as follows. For each subject, 64 views were obtained over 360 deg of elliptic rotation at 30 seconds per view using a high resolution low energy parallel-hole collimator. Portal vein and portosystemic collaterals were clearly observed in coronal images. In 12 of 15 patients, portal vein was delineated. Portosystemic collaterals such as coronary vein, splenorenal shunt and umbilical vein were also shown in 12 patients. These images were consistent with images obtained by scintiphotosplenoportography or arterial portography. Therefore, it is considered that SPECT study for the intra-abdominal blood pool is clinically very useful for the diagnosis of abnormality of portal venous system in portal hypertension.
Brain single photon emission computed tomography in neonates
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Denays, R.; Van Pachterbeke, T.; Tondeur, M.
1989-01-01
This study was designed to rate the clinical value of [ 123 I]iodoamphetamine (IMP) or [ 99m Tc] hexamethyl propylene amine oxyme (HM-PAO) brain single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) in neonates, especially in those likely to develop cerebral palsy. The results showed that SPECT abnormalities were congruent in most cases with structural lesions demonstrated by ultrasonography. However, mild bilateral ventricular dilatation and bilateral subependymal porencephalic cysts diagnosed by ultrasound were not associated with an abnormal SPECT finding. In contrast, some cortical periventricular and sylvian lesions and all the parasagittal lesions well visualized in SPECT studies were not diagnosed by ultrasound scans. In neonates with subependymal and/or intraventricular hemorrhage the existence of a parenchymal abnormality was only diagnosed by SPECT. These results indicate that [ 123 I]IMP or [ 99m Tc]HM-PAO brain SPECT shows a potential clinical value as the neurodevelopmental outcome is clearly related to the site, the extent, and the number of cerebral lesions. Long-term clinical follow-up is, however, mandatory in order to define which SPECT abnormality is associated with neurologic deficit
Vacuum Ultraviolet Single-Photon Postionization of Amino Acids
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Hsu Chen Hsu
2018-05-01
Full Text Available In this study, ultraviolet (UV laser desorption and vacuum UV single-photon (VUV SP postionization were performed to ionize and successfully analyze 20 common amino acids. The analytical merit and efficiency of the ionization was compared with those of conventional UV matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization (UV-MALDI. A VUV light source (118 nm was generated from the ninth harmonic of a Q-switched Nd:YAG laser, and the photon number was determined to be larger than 1012 for each laser pulse in the ionization region. In general, the detection sensitivity of VUV-SP-postionization was 10–100 times higher than that of conventional UV-MALDI. In particular, the ion signal from VUV-SP-postionization was considerably larger than that from UV-MALDI for analytes with low proton affinity such as glycine. However, some fragmentation of intact ions was observed in VUV-SP-postionization. Quantitative analysis performed using a glycine/histidine mixture and tryptophan/phenylalanine mixture revealed that the dynamic range of VUV-SP-postionization was one order of magnitude larger than that of UV-MALDI, indicating that VUV-SP-postionization is suitable for the quantitative analysis of amino acids.
The atomic coilgun and single-photon cooling
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Libson, Adam, E-mail: alibson@physics.utexas.edu; Bannerman, Stephen Travis; Clark, Robert J.; Mazur, Thomas R.; Raizen, Mark G. [University of Texas at Austin, Center for Nonlinear Dynamics and Department of Physics (United States)
2012-12-15
As the simplest atom, hydrogen has a unique role as a testing ground of fundamental physics. Precision measurements of the hydrogen atomic structure provide stringent tests of current theory, while tritium is an excellent candidate for studies of {beta}-decay and possible measurement of the neutrino rest mass. Furthermore, precision measurement of antihydrogen would allow for tests of fundamental symmetries. Methods demonstrated in our lab provide an avenue by which hydrogen isotopes can be trapped and cooled to near the recoil limit. The atomic coilgun, which we have demonstrated with metastable neon and molecular oxygen, provides a general method of stopping a supersonic beam of any paramagnetic species. This tool provides a method by which hydrogen and its isotopes can be magnetically trapped at around 100 mK using a room temperature apparatus. Another tool developed in our laboratory, single-photon cooling, allows further cooling of a trapped sample to near the recoil limit. This cooling method has already been demonstrated on a trapped sample of rubidium. We report on the progress of implementing these methods to trap and cool hydrogen isotopes, and on the prospects for using cold trapped hydrogen for precision measurements.
Proceedings of clinical SPECT [single photon emission computed tomography] symposium
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
1986-09-01
It has been five years since the last in-depth American College of Nuclear Physicians/Society of Nuclear Medicine Symposium on the subject of single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) was held. Because this subject was nominated as the single most desired topic we have selected SPECT imaging as the basis for this year's program. The objectives of this symposium are to survey the progress of SPECT clinical applications that have taken place over the last five years and to provide practical and timely guidelines to users of SPECT so that this exciting imaging modality can be fully integrated into the evaluation of pathologic processes. The first half was devoted to a consideration of technical factors important in SPECT acquisition and the second half was devoted to those organ systems about which sufficient clinical SPECT imaging data are available. With respect to the technical aspect of the program we have selected the key areas which demand awareness and attention in order to make SPECT operational in clinical practice. These include selection of equipment, details of uniformity correction, utilization of phantoms for equipment acceptance and quality assurance, the major aspect of algorithms, an understanding of filtered back projection and appropriate choice of filters and an awareness of the most commonly generated artifacts and how to recognize them. With respect to the acquisition and interpretation of organ images, the faculty will present information on the major aspects of hepatic, brain, cardiac, skeletal, and immunologic imaging techniques. Individual papers are processed separately for the data base
Single photon counting fluorescence lifetime detection of pericellular oxygen concentrations.
Hosny, Neveen A; Lee, David A; Knight, Martin M
2012-01-01
Fluorescence lifetime imaging microscopy offers a non-invasive method for quantifying local oxygen concentrations. However, existing methods are either invasive, require custom-made systems, or show limited spatial resolution. Therefore, these methods are unsuitable for investigation of pericellular oxygen concentrations. This study describes an adaptation of commercially available equipment which has been optimized for quantitative extracellular oxygen detection with high lifetime accuracy and spatial resolution while avoiding systematic photon pile-up. The oxygen sensitive fluorescent dye, tris(2,2'-bipyridyl)ruthenium(II) chloride hexahydrate [Ru(bipy)(3)](2+), was excited using a two-photon excitation laser. Lifetime was measured using a Becker & Hickl time-correlated single photon counting, which will be referred to as a TCSPC card. [Ru(bipy)(3)](2+) characterization studies quantified the influences of temperature, pH, cellular culture media and oxygen on the fluorescence lifetime measurements. This provided a precisely calibrated and accurate system for quantification of pericellular oxygen concentration based on measured lifetimes. Using this technique, quantification of oxygen concentrations around isolated viable chondrocytes, seeded in three-dimensional agarose gel, revealed a subpopulation of cells that exhibited significant spatial oxygen gradients such that oxygen concentration reduced with increasing proximity to the cell. This technique provides a powerful tool for quantifying spatial oxygen gradients within three-dimensional cellular models.
Single-Photon Emission Computed Tomography (SPECT) in childhood epilepsy
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Gulati, Sheffali; Kalra, Veena; Bal, C.S.
2000-01-01
The success of epilepsy surgery is determined strongly by the precise location of the epileptogenic focus. The information from clinical electrophysiological data needs to be strengthened by functional neuroimaging techniques. Single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) available locally has proved useful as a localising investigation. It evaluates the regional cerebral blood flow and the comparison between ictal and interictal blood flow on SPECT has proved to be a sensitive nuclear marker for the site of seizure onset. Many studies justify the utility of SPECT in localising lesions to possess greater precision than interictal scalp EEG or anatomic neuroimaging. SPECT is of definitive value in temporal lobe epilepsy. Its role in extratemporal lobe epilepsy is less clearly defined. It is useful in various other generalized and partial seizure disorders including epileptic syndromes and helps in differentiating pseudoseizures from true seizures. The need for newer radiopharmaceutical agents with specific neurochemical properties and longer shelf life are under investigation. Subtraction ictal SPECT co-registered to MRI is a promising new modality. (author)
Sato, Masanori
2004-01-01
The Michelson-Morley experiment is considered via a single photon interferometer and we propose the interpretation of the Michelson-Morley experimental results using de Broglie-Bohm picture. We point out that the Michelson-Morley experiment revealed the interference of photons, however, it did not reveal the photons simultaneous arrival at the beam splitter. According to the de Broglie-Bohm picture, the quantum potential nonlocally determines the interference of photons. The interference of t...
Coherent control of the single-photon multichannel scattering in the dissipation case
Shi, Yun-Xia; Wang, Hang-Yu; Ma, Jin-Lou; Li, Qing; Tan, Lei
2018-03-01
Based on the quasi-boson approach, a model of a Λ-type three-level atom coupled to a X-shaped coupled cavity arrays (CCAs) is used to study the transport properties of a single-photon in the dissipative case, and a classical field is introduced to motivate the one transition of the Λ-type three-level atom (ΛTLA). The analytical expressions of transmission and transfer rate are obtained. Our results show that the cavity dissipation will obviously weaken the single-photon transfer rate where the incident energy of the single photon is resonant with the excited energy of the atom. Whether the cavity dissipation exists or not, the single photon can be almost confined in the incident channel at large detuning, and we can regulate the intensity of the classical field to control the total transmission of the single-photon.
Post-processing with linear optics for improving the quality of single-photon sources
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Berry, Dominic W; Scheel, Stefan; Myers, Casey R; Sanders, Barry C; Knight, Peter L; Laflamme, Raymond
2004-01-01
Triggered single-photon sources produce the vacuum state with non-negligible probability, but produce a much smaller multiphoton component. It is therefore reasonable to approximate the output of these photon sources as a mixture of the vacuum and single-photon states. We show that it is impossible to increase the probability for a single photon using linear optics and photodetection on fewer than four modes. This impossibility is due to the incoherence of the inputs; if the inputs were pure-state superpositions, it would be possible to obtain a perfect single-photon output. In the more general case, a chain of beam splitters can be used to increase the probability for a single photon, but at the expense of adding an additional multiphoton component. This improvement is robust against detector inefficiencies, but is degraded by distinguishable photons, dark counts or multiphoton components in the input
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Batle, J.; Borras, A.; Casas, M.; Plastino, A. R.; Plastino, A.
2010-01-01
Chau's Comment deals with the properties exhibited by a particular set of two-qubit states in connection with entanglement and the quantum evolution of some low-dimensional composite systems. However, there is an important aspect of the previously mentioned two-qubit states and of the role they play in relation with the ''speed'' of quantum evolution that was not mentioned by Chau and deserves to be pointed out: for the two-qubit system under consideration, these states require the longest possible absolute time to evolve to an orthogonal state.
Hybrid quantum logic and a test of Bell's inequality using two different atomic isotopes.
Ballance, C J; Schäfer, V M; Home, J P; Szwer, D J; Webster, S C; Allcock, D T C; Linke, N M; Harty, T P; Aude Craik, D P L; Stacey, D N; Steane, A M; Lucas, D M
2015-12-17
Entanglement is one of the most fundamental properties of quantum mechanics, and is the key resource for quantum information processing (QIP). Bipartite entangled states of identical particles have been generated and studied in several experiments, and post-selected or heralded entangled states involving pairs of photons, single photons and single atoms, or different nuclei in the solid state, have also been produced. Here we use a deterministic quantum logic gate to generate a 'hybrid' entangled state of two trapped-ion qubits held in different isotopes of calcium, perform full tomography of the state produced, and make a test of Bell's inequality with non-identical atoms. We use a laser-driven two-qubit gate, whose mechanism is insensitive to the qubits' energy splittings, to produce a maximally entangled state of one (40)Ca(+) qubit and one (43)Ca(+) qubit, held 3.5 micrometres apart in the same ion trap, with 99.8 ± 0.6 per cent fidelity. We test the CHSH (Clauser-Horne-Shimony-Holt) version of Bell's inequality for this novel entangled state and find that it is violated by 15 standard deviations; in this test, we close the detection loophole but not the locality loophole. Mixed-species quantum logic is a powerful technique for the construction of a quantum computer based on trapped ions, as it allows protection of memory qubits while other qubits undergo logic operations or are used as photonic interfaces to other processing units. The entangling gate mechanism used here can also be applied to qubits stored in different atomic elements; this would allow both memory and logic gate errors caused by photon scattering to be reduced below the levels required for fault-tolerant quantum error correction, which is an essential prerequisite for general-purpose quantum computing.
Large conditional single-photon cross-phase modulation
Hosseini, Mahdi; Duan, Yiheng; Vuletić, Vladan
2016-01-01
Deterministic optical quantum logic requires a nonlinear quantum process that alters the phase of a quantum optical state by π through interaction with only one photon. Here, we demonstrate a large conditional cross-phase modulation between a signal field, stored inside an atomic quantum memory, and a control photon that traverses a high-finesse optical cavity containing the atomic memory. This approach avoids fundamental limitations associated with multimode effects for traveling optical photons. We measure a conditional cross-phase shift of π/6 (and up to π/3 by postselection on photons that remain in the system longer than average) between the retrieved signal and control photons, and confirm deterministic entanglement between the signal and control modes by extracting a positive concurrence. By upgrading to a state-of-the-art cavity, our system can reach a coherent phase shift of π at low loss, enabling deterministic and universal photonic quantum logic. PMID:27519798
The reproducibility of single photon absorptiometry in a clinical setting
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Valkema, R.; Blokland, J.A.K.; Pauwels, E.K.J.; Papapoulos, S.E.; Bijvoet, O.L.M.
1989-01-01
The reproducibility of single photon absorptiometry (SPA) results for detection of changes in bone mineral content (BMC) was evaluated in a clinical setting. During a period of 18 months with 4 different sources, the calibration scans of an aluminium standard had a variation of less than 1% unless the activity of the 125 I source was low. The calibration procedure was performed weekly and this was sufficient to correct for drift of the system. The short term reproducibility in patients was assessed with 119 duplicate measurements made in direct succession. The best reproducibility (CV=1.35%) was found for fat corrected BMC results expressed in g/cm, obtained at the site proximal to the 8 mm space between the radius and ulna. Analysis of all SPA scans made during 1 year (487 scans) showed a failure of the automatic procedure to detect the space of 8 mm between the forearm bones in 19 scans (3.9%). A space adjacent to the ulnar styloid was taken as the site for the first scan in these examinations. This problem may be recognized and corrected relatively easy. A significant correlation was found between BMC at the lower arm and BMC of the lumbar spine assessed with dual photon absorptiometry. However, the error of estimation of proximal BMC (SEE=20%) and distal BMC (SEE=19.4%) made these measurements of little value to predict BMC at the lumbar spine in individuals. The short term reproducibility in patients combined with long term stability of the equipment in our clinical setting showed that SPA is a reliable technique to assess changes in bone mass at the lower arm of 4% between 2 measurements with a confidence level of 95%. (orig.)
Radiation Tests of Single Photon Avalanche Diode for Space Applications
Moscatelli, Francesco; Marisaldi, Martino; MacCagnani, Piera; Labanti, Claudio; Fuschino, Fabio; Prest, Michela; Berra, Alessandro; Bolognini, Davide; Ghioni, Massimo; Rech, Ivan;
2013-01-01
Single photon avalanche diodes (SPADs) have been recently studied as photodetectors for applications in space missions. In this presentation we report the results of radiation hardness test on large area SPAD (actual results refer to SPADs having 500 micron diameter). Dark counts rate as low as few kHz at -10 degC has been obtained for the 500 micron devices, before irradiation. We performed bulk damage and total dose radiation tests with protons and gamma-rays in order to evaluate their radiation hardness properties and their suitability for application in a Low Earth Orbit (LEO) space mission. With this aim SPAD devices have been irradiated using up to 20 krad total dose with gamma-rays and 5 krad with protons. The test performed show that large area SPADs are very sensitive to proton doses as low as 2×10(exp 8) (1 MeV eq) n/cm2 with a significant increase in dark counts rate (DCR) as well as in the manifestation of the "random telegraph signal" effect. Annealing studies at room temperature (RT) and at 80 degC have been carried out, showing a high decrease of DCR after 24-48 h at RT. Lower protons doses in the range 1-10×10(exp 7) (1 MeV eq) n/cm(exp 2) result in a lower increase of DCR suggesting that the large-area SPADs tested in this study are well suitable for application in low-inclination LEO, particularly useful for gamma-ray astrophysics.
Proceedings of clinical SPECT (single photon emission computed tomography) symposium
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
1986-09-01
It has been five years since the last in-depth American College of Nuclear Physicians/Society of Nuclear Medicine Symposium on the subject of single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) was held. Because this subject was nominated as the single most desired topic we have selected SPECT imaging as the basis for this year's program. The objectives of this symposium are to survey the progress of SPECT clinical applications that have taken place over the last five years and to provide practical and timely guidelines to users of SPECT so that this exciting imaging modality can be fully integrated into the evaluation of pathologic processes. The first half was devoted to a consideration of technical factors important in SPECT acquisition and the second half was devoted to those organ systems about which sufficient clinical SPECT imaging data are available. With respect to the technical aspect of the program we have selected the key areas which demand awareness and attention in order to make SPECT operational in clinical practice. These include selection of equipment, details of uniformity correction, utilization of phantoms for equipment acceptance and quality assurance, the major aspect of algorithms, an understanding of filtered back projection and appropriate choice of filters and an awareness of the most commonly generated artifacts and how to recognize them. With respect to the acquisition and interpretation of organ images, the faculty will present information on the major aspects of hepatic, brain, cardiac, skeletal, and immunologic imaging techniques. Individual papers are processed separately for the data base. (TEM)
Orthopedic applications of single photon emission computed Tomographic bone scanning
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Collier, B.D.
1987-01-01
When compared with planar bone scanning, single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) has technical advantages of potential diagnostic significance. Planar imaging often superimposes substantial underlying or overlying activity on the bony structure of medical interest. SPECT, however, can be used to remove such unwanted activity. For example, in the hip the acetabulum extends downwards behind the femoral head. Therefore when using planar bone scanning techniques, the photon-deficient defect typical of avascular necrosis (AVN) of the femoral had may be obscured by activity originating in the underlying acetabulum. By using SPECT, underlying and overlying distributions of activity can be separated into sequential tomographic planes. For this reason SPECT facilitates the detection of AVN of the femoral head. When referring a patient without a history of malignancy for bone scanning, the orthopaedic surgeon usually has a specific clinical question involving a limited portion of the skeleton. Orthopaedic surgeons at their institution commonly use bone scanning to clarify the cause of back, hip or knee pain; to determine with a physiological test the significance of radiographic findings; and to establish the extent of disease at symptomatic skeletal sites such as the three compartments of the knee. In instances such as these, when clinical concern is limited to a specific anatomical region, a bone scan procedure that includes SPECT imaging of only a portion of the skeleton is appropriate. To date, SPECT of the skeletal system has most frequently been used to evaluate patients with pain the larger joints and bony structures such as the lumbar spine, hips, knees, or temporomandibular joints (TMJ)
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Sinanidis, Alexandros Pericles [Northeastern U.
1989-01-01
The charged and neutral particles produced in association with high transverse momentum ($Pr_{\\tau}$ > 5.0 GeV /c) photons ($\\gamma$) and neutral pions ($\\pi^0$) in p(Cu+Be) and $\\pi^-$(cu+Be) collisions at vs = 31.5 GeV are studied in this thesis. It was observed that 1) The relative rapidity of the two highest Pr recoiling particles in the events have a jet - like structure. 2) The relative rapidity of the single $\\gamma$ (or $\\pi^0$ ) and the highest $P_{\\tau}$ charged particle accompanying the single $\\gamma$ (or $\\pi^0$ ) show that the high $P_{\\tau} \\pi^0$ events have a jet - like structure in the trigger hemisphere whereas the high $P_{\\tau}$ single $\\gamma$ events do not. 3) The angular distributions of the particles produced in the reactions show that high $P_{\\tau} \\pi^0$s are accompanied by other particles, whereas high $P_{\\tau}$ single photons are relatively isolated. 4) The fragmentation distributions of the recoiling particles from the high $P_{\\tau}$ single photons and $\\pi^0$s are consistent with the measurements of other experiments. 5) The recoiling particles are consistent with the fragmentation of either a quark or a gluon according to the QCD (Quantum Chromodynamics). In summary, particles produced in association with high transverse momentum single photons and $\\pi^0$s in hadronic collisions have been measured and their properties are in good agreement with the predictions of the parton model and those of QCD
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Martinenghi, E., E-mail: edoardo.martinenghi@polimi.it; Di Sieno, L.; Contini, D.; Dalla Mora, A. [Dipartimento di Fisica, Politecnico di Milano, Piazza Leonardo da Vinci 32, 20133 Milano (Italy); Sanzaro, M. [Dipartimento di Elettronica, Informazione e Bioingegneria, Politecnico di Milano, Piazza Leonardo da Vinci 32, 20133 Milano (Italy); Pifferi, A. [Dipartimento di Fisica, Politecnico di Milano, Piazza Leonardo da Vinci 32, 20133 Milano (Italy); Istituto di Fotonica e Nanotecnologie, Consiglio Nazionale delle Ricerche, Piazza Leonardo da Vinci 32, 20133 Milano (Italy)
2016-07-15
We present the design and preliminary characterization of the first detection module based on Silicon Photomultiplier (SiPM) tailored for single-photon timing applications. The aim of this work is to demonstrate, thanks to the design of a suitable module, the possibility to easily exploit SiPM in many applications as an interesting detector featuring large active area, similarly to photomultipliers tubes, but keeping the advantages of solid state detectors (high quantum efficiency, low cost, compactness, robustness, low bias voltage, and insensitiveness to magnetic field). The module integrates a cooled SiPM with a total photosensitive area of 1 mm{sup 2} together with the suitable avalanche signal read-out circuit, the signal conditioning, the biasing electronics, and a Peltier cooler driver for thermal stabilization. It is able to extract the single-photon timing information with resolution better than 100 ps full-width at half maximum. We verified the effective stabilization in response to external thermal perturbations, thus proving the complete insensitivity of the module to environment temperature variations, which represents a fundamental parameter to profitably use the instrument for real-field applications. We also characterized the single-photon timing resolution, the background noise due to both primary dark count generation and afterpulsing, the single-photon detection efficiency, and the instrument response function shape. The proposed module can become a reliable and cost-effective building block for time-correlated single-photon counting instruments in applications requiring high collection capability of isotropic light and detection efficiency (e.g., fluorescence decay measurements or time-domain diffuse optics systems).
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Martinenghi, E.; Di Sieno, L.; Contini, D.; Dalla Mora, A.; Sanzaro, M.; Pifferi, A.
2016-01-01
We present the design and preliminary characterization of the first detection module based on Silicon Photomultiplier (SiPM) tailored for single-photon timing applications. The aim of this work is to demonstrate, thanks to the design of a suitable module, the possibility to easily exploit SiPM in many applications as an interesting detector featuring large active area, similarly to photomultipliers tubes, but keeping the advantages of solid state detectors (high quantum efficiency, low cost, compactness, robustness, low bias voltage, and insensitiveness to magnetic field). The module integrates a cooled SiPM with a total photosensitive area of 1 mm"2 together with the suitable avalanche signal read-out circuit, the signal conditioning, the biasing electronics, and a Peltier cooler driver for thermal stabilization. It is able to extract the single-photon timing information with resolution better than 100 ps full-width at half maximum. We verified the effective stabilization in response to external thermal perturbations, thus proving the complete insensitivity of the module to environment temperature variations, which represents a fundamental parameter to profitably use the instrument for real-field applications. We also characterized the single-photon timing resolution, the background noise due to both primary dark count generation and afterpulsing, the single-photon detection efficiency, and the instrument response function shape. The proposed module can become a reliable and cost-effective building block for time-correlated single-photon counting instruments in applications requiring high collection capability of isotropic light and detection efficiency (e.g., fluorescence decay measurements or time-domain diffuse optics systems).
Ripamonti, Giancarlo; Lacaita, Andrea L.
1993-03-01
The extreme sensitivity and time resolution of Geiger-mode avalanche photodiodes (GM- APDs) have already been exploited for optical time domain reflectometry (OTDR). Better than 1 cm spatial resolution in Rayleigh scattering detection was demonstrated. Distributed and quasi-distributed optical fiber sensors can take advantage of the capabilities of GM-APDs. Extensive studies have recently disclosed the main characteristics and limitations of silicon devices, both commercially available and developmental. In this paper we report an analysis of the performance of these detectors. The main characteristics of GM-APDs of interest for distributed optical fiber sensors are briefly reviewed. Command electronics (active quenching) is then introduced. The detector timing performance sets the maximum spatial resolution in experiments employing OTDR techniques. We highlight that the achievable time resolution depends on the physics of the avalanche spreading over the device area. On the basis of these results, trade-off between the important parameters (quantum efficiency, time resolution, background noise, and afterpulsing effects) is considered. Finally, we show first results on Germanium devices, capable of single photon sensitivity at 1.3 and 1.5 micrometers with sub- nanosecond time resolution.
Single-photon blockade in a hybrid cavity-optomechanical system via third-order nonlinearity
Sarma, Bijita; Sarma, Amarendra K.
2018-04-01
Photon statistics in a weakly driven optomechanical cavity, with Kerr-type nonlinearity, are analyzed both analytically and numerically. The single-photon blockade effect is demonstrated via calculations of the zero-time-delay second-order correlation function g (2)(0). The analytical results obtained by solving the Schrödinger equation are in complete conformity with the results obtained through numerical solution of the quantum master equation. A systematic study on the parameter regime for observing photon blockade in the weak coupling regime is reported. The parameter regime where the photon blockade is not realizable due to the combined effect of nonlinearities owing to the optomechanical coupling and the Kerr-effect is demonstrated. The experimental feasibility with state-of-the-art device parameters is discussed and it is observed that photon blockade could be generated at the telecommunication wavelength. An elaborate analysis of the thermal effects on photon antibunching is presented. The system is found to be robust against pure dephasing-induced decoherences and thermal phonon number fluctuations.
Super-resolution from single photon emission: toward biological application
Moreva, E.; Traina, P.; Forneris, J.; Ditalia Tchernij, S.; Guarina, L.; Franchino, C.; Picollo, F.; Ruo Berchera, I.; Brida, G.; Degiovanni, I. P.; Carabelli, V.; Olivero, P.; Genovese, M.
2017-08-01
Properties of quantum light represent a tool for overcoming limits of classical optics. Several experiments have demonstrated this advantage ranging from quantum enhanced imaging to quantum illumination. In this work, experimental demonstration of quantum-enhanced resolution in confocal fluorescence microscopy will be presented. This is achieved by exploiting the non-classical photon statistics of fluorescence emission of single nitrogen-vacancy (NV) color centers in diamond. By developing a general model of super-resolution based on the direct sampling of the kth-order autocorrelation function of the photoluminescence signal, we show the possibility to resolve, in principle, arbitrarily close emitting centers. Finally, possible applications of NV-based fluorescent nanodiamonds in biosensing and future developments will be presented.
The photonic nanowire: A highly efficient single-photon source
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Gregersen, Niels
2014-01-01
The photonic nanowire represents an attractive platform for a quantum light emitter. However, careful optical engineering using the modal method, which elegantly allows access to all relevant physical parameters, is crucial to ensure high efficiency.......The photonic nanowire represents an attractive platform for a quantum light emitter. However, careful optical engineering using the modal method, which elegantly allows access to all relevant physical parameters, is crucial to ensure high efficiency....
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Scarcella, Carmelo; Tosi, Alberto, E-mail: alberto.tosi@polimi.it; Villa, Federica; Tisa, Simone; Zappa, Franco [Politecnico di Milano, Dipartimento di Elettronica, Informazione e Bioingegneria, Piazza Leonardo da Vinci 32, I-20133 Milano (Italy)
2013-12-15
We developed a single-photon counting multichannel detection system, based on a monolithic linear array of 32 CMOS SPADs (Complementary Metal-Oxide-Semiconductor Single-Photon Avalanche Diodes). All channels achieve a timing resolution of 100 ps (full-width at half maximum) and a photon detection efficiency of 50% at 400 nm. Dark count rate is very low even at room temperature, being about 125 counts/s for 50 μm active area diameter SPADs. Detection performance and microelectronic compactness of this CMOS SPAD array make it the best candidate for ultra-compact time-resolved spectrometers with single-photon sensitivity from 300 nm to 900 nm.
A superconducting microcalorimeter for low-flux detection of near-infrared single photons
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Dreyling-Eschweiler, Jan
2014-07-15
This thesis covers the development and the characterization of a single photon detector based on a superconducting microcalorimeter. The detector development is motivated by the Any Light Particle Search II (ALPS II) experiment at DESY in Hamburg, which searches for weakly interacting sub-eV particles (WISPs). Therefore, a detection of low-fluxes of 1064 nm light is required. The work is divided in three analyses: the characterization of a milli-kelvin (mK) cryostat, the characterization of superconducting sensors for single photon detection, and the determination of dark count rates concerning 1064 nm signals. Firstly, an adiabatic demagnetization refrigerator (ADR) is characterized, which allows to reach mK-temperatures. During commissioning, the ADR cryostat is optimized and prepared to stably cool superconducting sensors at 80 mK±25 μK. It is found that sensors can be continuously operated for ∝20 h before recharging the system in <2 h. Furthermore, the adiabatic system reaches a chance of success of ∝80 % for a recharge without technical problems. Secondly, superconducting sensors are analyzed. The focus is on microcalorimetric transition-edge sensors (TESs) based on 20 nm Tungsten (W) films fabricated by the U.S. National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST). NIST TESs have a near unity detection efficiency for 1064 nm light (literature value). The energy resolution for 1064 nm signals is measured to be <8 %. The exponential falling time of a photon pulse is 1.5 μs. Furthermore, by determining TES parameters, it is found that the linear TES theory describes measured photon pulses well. The TES response is read out by a superconducting quantum interference device (SQUID) fabricated by Physikalisch-Technische Bundesanstalt (PTB). The system bandwidth is measured to be 0.9 MHz. Finally, the operation in the ADR cryostat as well as the ALPS II laboratory is optimized. This setup forms the ALPS TES detector. Thirdly, the background is measured to
Development of a single-photon-counting camera with use of a triple-stacked micro-channel plate.
Yasuda, Naruomi; Suzuki, Hitoshi; Katafuchi, Tetsuro
2016-01-01
At the quantum-mechanical level, all substances (not merely electromagnetic waves such as light and X-rays) exhibit wave–particle duality. Whereas students of radiation science can easily understand the wave nature of electromagnetic waves, the particle (photon) nature may elude them. Therefore, to assist students in understanding the wave–particle duality of electromagnetic waves, we have developed a photon-counting camera that captures single photons in two-dimensional images. As an image intensifier, this camera has a triple-stacked micro-channel plate (MCP) with an amplification factor of 10(6). The ultra-low light of a single photon entering the camera is first converted to an electron through the photoelectric effect on the photocathode. The electron is intensified by the triple-stacked MCP and then converted to a visible light distribution, which is measured by a high-sensitivity complementary metal oxide semiconductor image sensor. Because it detects individual photons, the photon-counting camera is expected to provide students with a complete understanding of the particle nature of electromagnetic waves. Moreover, it measures ultra-weak light that cannot be detected by ordinary low-sensitivity cameras. Therefore, it is suitable for experimental research on scintillator luminescence, biophoton detection, and similar topics.
Superconducting NbN single-photon detectors on GaAs with an AlN buffer layer
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Schmidt, Ekkehart; Merker, Michael; Ilin, Konstantin; Siegel, Michael [Institut fuer Mikro- und Nanoelektronische Systeme (IMS), Karlsruher Institut fuer Technologie, Hertzstrasse 16, 76187 Karlsruhe (Germany)
2015-07-01
GaAs is the material of choice for photonic integrated circuits. It allows the monolithic integration of single-photon sources like quantum dots, waveguide based optical circuits and detectors like superconducting nanowire single-photon detectors (SNSPDs) onto one chip. The growth of high quality NbN films on GaAs is challenging, due to natural occurring surface oxides and the large lattice mismatch of about 27%. In this work, we try to overcome these problems by the introduction of a 10 nm AlN buffer layer. Due to the buffer layer, the critical temperature of 6 nm thick NbN films was increased by about 1.5 K. Furthermore, the critical current density at 4.2 K of NbN flim deposited onto GaAs with AlN buffer is 50% higher than of NbN film deposited directly onto GaAs substrate. We successfully fabricated NbN SNSPDs on GaAs with a AlN buffer layer. SNSPDs were patterned using electron-beam lithography and reactive-ion etching techniques. Results on the study of detection efficiency and jitter of a NbN SNSPD on GaAs, with and without AlN buffer layer will be presented and discussed.
Chen, Lixiang; She, Weilong
2008-09-15
We demonstrate that single photons from a rotating q-plate exhibit an entanglement in three degrees of freedom of spin, orbital angular momentum, and the rotational Doppler shift (RDS) due to the nonconservation of total spin and orbital angular momenta. We find that the rotational Doppler shift deltaomega = Omega((delta)s + deltal) , where s, l and Omega are quantum numbers of spin, orbital angular momentum, and rotating velocity of the q-plate, respectively. Of interest is that the rotational Doppler shift directly reflects the rotational symmetry of q-plates and can be also expressed as deltaomega = (Omega)n , where n = 2(q-1) denotes the fold number of rotational symmetry. Besides, based on this single-photon spin-orbit-RDS entanglement, we propose an experimental scheme to sort photons of different frequency shifts according to individual orbital angular momentum.
How a single photon can mediate entanglement between two others
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Lima Bernardo, Bertúlio de, E-mail: bertulio.fisica@gmail.com
2016-10-15
We describe a novel quantum information protocol, which probabilistically entangles two distant photons that have never interacted. Different from the entanglement swapping protocol, which requires two pairs of maximally entangled photons as the input states, as well as a Bell-state measurement (BSM), the present scheme only requires three photons: two to be entangled and another to mediate the correlation, and no BSM, in a process that we call “entanglement mediation”. Furthermore, in analyzing the paths of the photons in our arrangement, we conclude that one of them, the mediator, exchanges information with the two others simultaneously, which seems to be a new quantum-mechanical feature.
Single Photon Sensitive HgCdTe Avalanche Photodiode Detector (APD), Phase II
National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Leveraging Phase I SBIR successes, in Phase II, a single photon sensitive LIDAR receiver will be fabricated and delivered to NASA. In Phase I, high-gain,...
NFAD Arrays for Single Photon Optical Communications at 1.5 um, Phase I
National Aeronautics and Space Administration — For this program, we propose to develop large pixel-count single photon counting detector arrays suitable for deployment in spacecraft terminal receivers supporting...
Quantitative single-photon emission tomography for cerebral flow and receptor distribution imaging
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Budinger, T.F.
1985-01-01
Recently there has been renewed interest in single-photon emission tomography for two major reasons. First, correction methods have been devised for attenuation compensation, nonuniform resolution, and scattered radiation. Second, new radiopharmaceuticals with 1-5% uptake in the brain provide adequate statistics for quantitative imaging of flow using properly designed single-photon tomographic instruments. The lack of commercially available instruments designed specifically to optimize sensitivity for a resolution finer than 15 mm full width at half maximum (FWHM) seems now to be the major deterrent to the widespread use of single-photon emission tomography. But it appears now that some development in this respect also might lead to a widespread renewed interest in single-photon tomography of the brain. Major activities of the past few years can be placed in three distinct categories of instrumentation and methodology
Henrich, Dagmar
2013-01-01
Superconducting Nanowire Single-Photon Detectors offer the capability to detect electromagnetic waves on a single photon level in a wavelength range that far exceeds that of alternative detector types. However, above a certain threshold wavelength, the efficiency of those detectors decreases stronlgy, leading to a poor performance in the far-infrared range. Influences on this threshold are studied and approaches for improvement are verified experimentally by measurement of the device performance.
CMOS SPAD-based image sensor for single photon counting and time of flight imaging
Dutton, Neale Arthur William
2016-01-01
The facility to capture the arrival of a single photon, is the fundamental limit to the detection of quantised electromagnetic radiation. An image sensor capable of capturing a picture with this ultimate optical and temporal precision is the pinnacle of photo-sensing. The creation of high spatial resolution, single photon sensitive, and time-resolved image sensors in complementary metal oxide semiconductor (CMOS) technology offers numerous benefits in a wide field of applications....
Direct experimental observation of nonclassicality in ensembles of single-photon emitters
Moreva, E.; Traina, P.; Forneris, J.; Degiovanni, I. P.; Ditalia Tchernij, S.; Picollo, F.; Brida, G.; Olivero, P.; Genovese, M.
2017-11-01
In this work we experimentally demonstrate a recently proposed criterion addressed to detect nonclassical behavior in the fluorescence emission of ensembles of single-photon emitters. In particular, we apply the method to study clusters of nitrogen-vacancy centers in diamond characterized with single-photon-sensitive confocal microscopy. Theoretical considerations on the behavior of the parameter at any arbitrary order in the presence of Poissonian noise are presented and, finally, the opportunity of detecting manifold coincidences is discussed.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Winkler, Justin M; Lukishova, Svetlana G; Bissell, Luke J
2013-01-01
Definite circular and linear polarizations of room-temperature single-photon sources, which can serve as polarization bases for quantum key distribution, are produced by doping planar-aligned liquid crystal hosts with single fluorescence emitters. Chiral 1-D photonic bandgap microcavities for a single handedness of circularly polarized light were prepared from both monomeric and oligomeric cholesteric liquid crystals. Fluorescent emitters, such as nanocrystal quantum dots, nitrogen vacancy color centers in nanodiamonds, and rare-earth ions in nanocrystals, were doped into these microcavity structures and used to produce circularly polarized fluorescence of definite handedness. Additionally, we observed circularly polarized resonances in the spectrum of nanocrystal quantum dot fluorescence at the edge of the cholesteric microcavity's photonic stopband. For this polarization we obtained a ∼4.9 enhancement of intensity compared to the polarization of the opposite handedness that propagates without photonic bandgap microcavity effects. Such a resonance is indicative of coupling of quantum dot fluorescence to the cholesteric microcavity mode. We have also used planar-aligned nematic liquid crystal hosts to align DiI dye molecules doped into the host, thereby providing a single-photon source of linear polarization of definite direction. Antibunching is demonstrated for fluorescence of nanocrystal quantum dots, nitrogen vacancy color centers, and dye molecules in these liquid crystal structures.
InGaAsP/InP-air-aperture microcavities for single-photon sources at 1.55-μm telecommunication band
Guo, Sijie; Zheng, Yanzhen; Weng, Zhuo; Yao, Haicheng; Ju, Yuhao; Zhang, Lei; Ren, Zhilei; Gao, Ruoyao; Wang, Zhiming M.; Song, Hai-Zhi
2016-11-01
InGaAsP/InP-air-aperture micropillar cavities are proposed to serve as 1.55-μm single photon sources, which are indispensable in silica-fiber based quantum information processing. Owing to air-apertures introduced to InP layers, and adiabatically tapered distributed Bragg-reflector structures used in the central cavity layers, the pillar diameters can be less than 1 μm, achieving mode volume as small as (λ/n)3, and the quality factors are more than 104 - 105, sufficient to increase the quantum dot emission rate for 100 times and create strong coupling between the optical mode and the 1.55- μm InAs/InP quantum dot emitter. The mode wavelengths and quality factors are found weakly changing with the cavity size and the deviation from the ideal shape, indicating the robustness against the imperfection of the fabrication technique. The fabrication, simply epitaxial growth, dry and chemical etching, is a damage-free and monolithic process, which is advantageous over previous hybrid cavities. The above properties satisfy the requirements of efficient, photonindistinguishable and coherent 1.55-μm quantum dot single photon sources, so the proposed InGaAsP/InP-air-aperture micropillar cavities are prospective candidates for quantum information devices at telecommunication band.
Local quantum channels preserving classical correlations
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Guo Zhihua; Cao Huaixin
2013-01-01
The aim of this paper is to discuss local quantum channels that preserve classical correlations. First, we give two equivalent characterizations of classical correlated states. Then we obtain the relationships among classical correlation-preserving local quantum channels, commutativity-preserving local quantum channels and commutativity-preserving quantum channels on each subsystem. Furthermore, for a two-qubit system, we show the general form of classical correlation-preserving local quantum channels. (paper)
Quantum Secure Dialogue with Quantum Encryption
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ye Tian-Yu
2014-01-01
How to solve the information leakage problem has become the research focus of quantum dialogue. In this paper, in order to overcome the information leakage problem in quantum dialogue, a novel approach for sharing the initial quantum state privately between communicators, i.e., quantum encryption sharing, is proposed by utilizing the idea of quantum encryption. The proposed protocol uses EPR pairs as the private quantum key to encrypt and decrypt the traveling photons, which can be repeatedly used after rotation. Due to quantum encryption sharing, the public announcement on the state of the initial quantum state is omitted, thus the information leakage problem is overcome. The information-theoretical efficiency of the proposed protocol is nearly 100%, much higher than previous information leakage resistant quantum dialogue protocols. Moreover, the proposed protocol only needs single-photon measurements and nearly uses single photons as quantum resource so that it is convenient to implement in practice. (general)
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Enzmann, Roland
2011-08-02
layer, were deposited upon each other. By this way a redshift of the emission from 1.3 {mu}m to 1.5 {mu}m was obtained. To achieve high collection efficiency, the quantum dots should be embedded into photonic crystals. An ArCl{sub 2}-etch-process was developed which enables the etch of small features in Al{sub x}Ga{sub y}In{sub 1-x-y}As material system to transfer the Si{sub 3}N{sub 4}-pattern into the semiconductor. Using this process the fabricated photonic crystals with L3-cavities had Q-factors around 2200. Any concept using a cavity needs a mechanism to control the frequency-detuning between the mode and the quantum dots, due to the inhomogeneous frequency broadening of the quantum dots. Thus an in-situ tuning mechanism is required for adjusting the emission wavelength of the quantum dot or cavity mode, respectively. This concept intents to use the quantum confined Stark effect (QCSE) to force the emission of a single photon out of a quantum dot into the photonic crystal mode. This is realized using a reversed biased Schottky contact to cause a red-shift of the emission of a single quantum dot. Electroluminescence measurements on the device show, that even with very low currents of 14.5 {mu}A the saturation intensity of single quantum dots could be reached. (orig.)
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Enzmann, Roland
2011-08-02
, separated with a thin spacer layer, were deposited upon each other. By this way a redshift of the emission from 1.3 {mu}m to 1.5 {mu}m was obtained. To achieve high collection efficiency, the quantum dots should be embedded into photonic crystals. An ArCl{sub 2}-etch-process was developed which enables the etch of small features in Al{sub x}Ga{sub y}In{sub 1-x-y}As material system to transfer the Si{sub 3}N{sub 4}-pattern into the semiconductor. Using this process the fabricated photonic crystals with L3-cavities had Q-factors around 2200. Any concept using a cavity needs a mechanism to control the frequency-detuning between the mode and the quantum dots, due to the inhomogeneous frequency broadening of the quantum dots. Thus an in-situ tuning mechanism is required for adjusting the emission wavelength of the quantum dot or cavity mode, respectively. This concept intents to use the quantum confined Stark effect (QCSE) to force the emission of a single photon out of a quantum dot into the photonic crystal mode. This is realized using a reversed biased Schottky contact to cause a red-shift of the emission of a single quantum dot. Electroluminescence measurements on the device show, that even with very low currents of 14.5 {mu}A the saturation intensity of single quantum dots could be reached. (orig.)
Quantum computation architecture using optical tweezers
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Weitenberg, Christof; Kuhr, Stefan; Mølmer, Klaus
2011-01-01
We present a complete architecture for scalable quantum computation with ultracold atoms in optical lattices using optical tweezers focused to the size of a lattice spacing. We discuss three different two-qubit gates based on local collisional interactions. The gates between arbitrary qubits...... quantum computing....
Free-running InGaAs single photon detector with 1 dark count per second at 10% efficiency
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Korzh, B., E-mail: Boris.Korzh@unige.ch; Walenta, N.; Lunghi, T.; Gisin, N.; Zbinden, H. [Group of Applied Physics, University of Geneva, Chemin de Pinchat 22, CH-1211 Geneva 4 (Switzerland)
2014-02-24
We present a free-running single photon detector for telecom wavelengths based on a negative feedback avalanche photodiode (NFAD). A dark count rate as low as 1 cps was obtained at a detection efficiency of 10%, with an afterpulse probability of 2.2% for 20 μs of deadtime. This was achieved by using an active hold-off circuit and cooling the NFAD with a free-piston stirling cooler down to temperatures of −110 °C. We integrated two detectors into a practical, 625 MHz clocked quantum key distribution system. Stable, real-time key distribution in the presence of 30 dB channel loss was possible, yielding a secret key rate of 350 bps.
Free-running InGaAs single photon detector with 1 dark count per second at 10% efficiency
Korzh, B.; Walenta, N.; Lunghi, T.; Gisin, N.; Zbinden, H.
2014-02-01
We present a free-running single photon detector for telecom wavelengths based on a negative feedback avalanche photodiode (NFAD). A dark count rate as low as 1 cps was obtained at a detection efficiency of 10%, with an afterpulse probability of 2.2% for 20 μs of deadtime. This was achieved by using an active hold-off circuit and cooling the NFAD with a free-piston stirling cooler down to temperatures of -110 °C. We integrated two detectors into a practical, 625 MHz clocked quantum key distribution system. Stable, real-time key distribution in the presence of 30 dB channel loss was possible, yielding a secret key rate of 350 bps.
Wein, Stephen; Lauk, Nikolai; Ghobadi, Roohollah; Simon, Christoph
2018-05-01
Highly efficient sources of indistinguishable single photons that can operate at room temperature would be very beneficial for many applications in quantum technology. We show that the implementation of such sources is a realistic goal using solid-state emitters and ultrasmall mode volume cavities. We derive and analyze an expression for photon indistinguishability that accounts for relevant detrimental effects, such as plasmon-induced quenching and pure dephasing. We then provide the general cavity and emitter conditions required to achieve efficient indistinguishable photon emission and also discuss constraints due to phonon sideband emission. Using these conditions, we propose that a nanodiamond negatively charged silicon-vacancy center combined with a plasmonic-Fabry-Pérot hybrid cavity is an excellent candidate system.
Single photon detection in a waveguide-coupled Ge-on-Si lateral avalanche photodiode.
Martinez, Nicholas J D; Gehl, Michael; Derose, Christopher T; Starbuck, Andrew L; Pomerene, Andrew T; Lentine, Anthony L; Trotter, Douglas C; Davids, Paul S
2017-07-10
We examine gated-Geiger mode operation of an integrated waveguide-coupled Ge-on-Si lateral avalanche photodiode (APD) and demonstrate single photon detection at low dark count for this mode of operation. Our integrated waveguide-coupled APD is fabricated using a selective epitaxial Ge-on-Si growth process resulting in a separate absorption and charge multiplication (SACM) design compatible with our silicon photonics platform. Single photon detection efficiency and dark count rate is measured as a function of temperature in order to understand and optimize performance characteristics in this device. We report single photon detection of 5.27% at 1310 nm and a dark count rate of 534 kHz at 80 K for a Ge-on-Si single photon avalanche diode. Dark count rate is the lowest for a Ge-on-Si single photon detector in this range of temperatures while maintaining competitive detection efficiency. A jitter of 105 ps was measured for this device.
On-Demand Microwave Generator of Shaped Single Photons
Forn-Díaz, P.; Warren, C. W.; Chang, C. W. S.; Vadiraj, A. M.; Wilson, C. M.
2017-11-01
We demonstrate the full functionality of a circuit that generates single microwave photons on demand, with a wave packet that can be modulated with a near-arbitrary shape. We achieve such a high tunability by coupling a superconducting qubit near the end of a semi-infinite transmission line. A dc superconducting quantum interference device shunts the line to ground and is employed to modify the spatial dependence of the electromagnetic mode structure in the transmission line. This control allows us to couple and decouple the qubit from the line, shaping its emission rate on fast time scales. Our decoupling scheme is applicable to all types of superconducting qubits and other solid-state systems and can be generalized to multiple qubits as well as to resonators.
Attenuation correction method for single photon emission CT
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Morozumi, Tatsuru; Nakajima, Masato [Keio Univ., Yokohama (Japan). Faculty of Science and Technology; Ogawa, Koichi; Yuta, Shinichi
1983-10-01
A correction method (Modified Correction Matrix method) is proposed to implement iterative correction by exactly measuring attenuation constant distribution in a test body, calculating a correction factor for every picture element, then multiply the image by these factors. Computer simulation for the comparison of the results showed that the proposed method was specifically more effective to an application to the test body, in which the rate of attenuation constant change is large, than the conventional correction matrix method. Since the actual measurement data always contain quantum noise, the noise was taken into account in the simulation. However, the correction effect was large even under the noise. For verifying its clinical effectiveness, the experiment using an acrylic phantom was also carried out. As the result, the recovery of image quality in the parts with small attenuation constant was remarkable as compared with the conventional method.
Distributed quantum information processing via quantum dot spins
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Jun, Liu; Qiong, Wang; Le-Man, Kuang; Hao-Sheng, Zeng
2010-01-01
We propose a scheme to engineer a non-local two-qubit phase gate between two remote quantum-dot spins. Along with one-qubit local operations, one can in principal perform various types of distributed quantum information processing. The scheme employs a photon with linearly polarisation interacting one after the other with two remote quantum-dot spins in cavities. Due to the optical spin selection rule, the photon obtains a Faraday rotation after the interaction process. By measuring the polarisation of the final output photon, a non-local two-qubit phase gate between the two remote quantum-dot spins is constituted. Our scheme may has very important applications in the distributed quantum information processing
Efficient quantum walk on a quantum processor
Qiang, Xiaogang; Loke, Thomas; Montanaro, Ashley; Aungskunsiri, Kanin; Zhou, Xiaoqi; O'Brien, Jeremy L.; Wang, Jingbo B.; Matthews, Jonathan C. F.
2016-01-01
The random walk formalism is used across a wide range of applications, from modelling share prices to predicting population genetics. Likewise, quantum walks have shown much potential as a framework for developing new quantum algorithms. Here we present explicit efficient quantum circuits for implementing continuous-time quantum walks on the circulant class of graphs. These circuits allow us to sample from the output probability distributions of quantum walks on circulant graphs efficiently. We also show that solving the same sampling problem for arbitrary circulant quantum circuits is intractable for a classical computer, assuming conjectures from computational complexity theory. This is a new link between continuous-time quantum walks and computational complexity theory and it indicates a family of tasks that could ultimately demonstrate quantum supremacy over classical computers. As a proof of principle, we experimentally implement the proposed quantum circuit on an example circulant graph using a two-qubit photonics quantum processor. PMID:27146471
Bartolf, Holger
2016-01-01
Holger Bartolf discusses state-of-the-art detection concepts based on superconducting nanotechnology as well as sophisticated analytical formulæ that model dissipative fluctuation-phenomena in superconducting nanowire single-photon detectors. Such knowledge is desirable for the development of advanced devices which are designed to possess an intrinsic robustness against vortex-fluctuations and it provides the perspective for honorable fundamental science in condensed matter physics. Especially the nanowire detector allows for ultra-low noise detection of signals with single-photon sensitivity and GHz repetition rates. Such devices have a huge potential for future technological impact and might enable unique applications (e.g. high rate interplanetary deep-space data links from Mars to Earth). Contents Superconducting Single-Photon Detectors Nanotechnological Manufacturing; Scale: 10 Nanometer Berezinskii-Kosterlitz Thouless (BKT) Transition, Edge-Barrier, Phase Slips Target Groups Researchers and students of...
Reconfigurable Computing As an Enabling Technology for Single-Photon-Counting Laser Altimetry
Powell, Wesley; Hicks, Edward; Pinchinat, Maxime; Dabney, Philip; McGarry, Jan; Murray, Paul
2003-01-01
Single-photon-counting laser altimetry is a new measurement technique offering significant advantages in vertical resolution, reducing instrument size, mass, and power, and reducing laser complexity as compared to analog or threshold detection laser altimetry techniques. However, these improvements come at the cost of a dramatically increased requirement for onboard real-time data processing. Reconfigurable computing has been shown to offer considerable performance advantages in performing this processing. These advantages have been demonstrated on the Multi-KiloHertz Micro-Laser Altimeter (MMLA), an aircraft based single-photon-counting laser altimeter developed by NASA Goddard Space Flight Center with several potential spaceflight applications. This paper describes how reconfigurable computing technology was employed to perform MMLA data processing in real-time under realistic operating constraints, along with the results observed. This paper also expands on these prior results to identify concepts for using reconfigurable computing to enable spaceflight single-photon-counting laser altimeter instruments.
Single-photon compressive imaging with some performance benefits over raster scanning
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Yu, Wen-Kai; Liu, Xue-Feng; Yao, Xu-Ri; Wang, Chao; Zhai, Guang-Jie; Zhao, Qing
2014-01-01
A single-photon imaging system based on compressed sensing has been developed to image objects under ultra-low illumination. With this system, we have successfully realized imaging at the single-photon level with a single-pixel avalanche photodiode without point-by-point raster scanning. From analysis of the signal-to-noise ratio in the measurement we find that our system has much higher sensitivity than conventional ones based on point-by-point raster scanning, while the measurement time is also reduced. - Highlights: • We design a single photon imaging system with compressed sensing. • A single point avalanche photodiode is used without raster scanning. • The Poisson shot noise in the measurement is analyzed. • The sensitivity of our system is proved to be higher than that of raster scanning
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Maunz, Peter Lukas Wilhelm [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Sterk, Jonathan David [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Lobser, Daniel [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Parekh, Ojas D. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Ryan-Anderson, Ciaran [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)
2016-01-01
In recent years, advanced network analytics have become increasingly important to na- tional security with applications ranging from cyber security to detection and disruption of ter- rorist networks. While classical computing solutions have received considerable investment, the development of quantum algorithms to address problems, such as data mining of attributed relational graphs, is a largely unexplored space. Recent theoretical work has shown that quan- tum algorithms for graph analysis can be more efficient than their classical counterparts. Here, we have implemented a trapped-ion-based two-qubit quantum information proces- sor to address these goals. Building on Sandia's microfabricated silicon surface ion traps, we have designed, realized and characterized a quantum information processor using the hyperfine qubits encoded in two 171 Yb + ions. We have implemented single qubit gates using resonant microwave radiation and have employed Gate set tomography (GST) to characterize the quan- tum process. For the first time, we were able to prove that the quantum process surpasses the fault tolerance thresholds of some quantum codes by demonstrating a diamond norm distance of less than 1 . 9 x 10 [?] 4 . We used Raman transitions in order to manipulate the trapped ions' motion and realize two-qubit gates. We characterized the implemented motion sensitive and insensitive single qubit processes and achieved a maximal process infidelity of 6 . 5 x 10 [?] 5 . We implemented the two-qubit gate proposed by Molmer and Sorensen and achieved a fidelity of more than 97 . 7%.
Photonic quantum information: science and technology.
Takeuchi, Shigeki
2016-01-01
Recent technological progress in the generation, manipulation and detection of individual single photons has opened a new scientific field of photonic quantum information. This progress includes the realization of single photon switches, photonic quantum circuits with specific functions, and the application of novel photonic states to novel optical metrology beyond the limits of standard optics. In this review article, the recent developments and current status of photonic quantum information technology are overviewed based on the author's past and recent works.
Electrically protected resonant exchange qubits in triple quantum dots.
Taylor, J M; Srinivasa, V; Medford, J
2013-08-02
We present a modulated microwave approach for quantum computing with qubits comprising three spins in a triple quantum dot. This approach includes single- and two-qubit gates that are protected against low-frequency electrical noise, due to an operating point with a narrowband response to high frequency electric fields. Furthermore, existing double quantum dot advances, including robust preparation and measurement via spin-to-charge conversion, are immediately applicable to the new qubit. Finally, the electric dipole terms implicit in the high frequency coupling enable strong coupling with superconducting microwave resonators, leading to more robust two-qubit gates.
Broadband Quantum Cryptography
Rogers, Daniel
2010-01-01
Quantum cryptography is a rapidly developing field that draws from a number of disciplines, from quantum optics to information theory to electrical engineering. By combining some fundamental quantum mechanical principles of single photons with various aspects of information theory, quantum cryptography represents a fundamental shift in the basis for security from numerical complexity to the fundamental physical nature of the communications channel. As such, it promises the holy grail of data security: theoretically unbreakable encryption. Of course, implementing quantum cryptography in real br
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Chikkur, G.C.; Lagare, M.T.; Umakantha, N.
1981-01-01
Details of how a DK-2A spectrophotometer can be modified into an automatic single-photon counting fluorescence spectrophotometer for recording a low intensity spectrum, are reported. The single-photon count-rate converted into a DC voltage is applied at the appropriate stage in the sample channel amplifier circuit of a DK-2A to get the pen deflection proportional to the count-rate. A high intensity spectrum may be recorded in the usual way by merely turning the shaft of the mirror motor by 180 degrees. (author)
Study on the ratio of signal to noise for single photon resolution time spectrometer
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Wang Zhaomin; Huang Shengli; Xu Zizong; Wu Chong
2001-01-01
The ratio of signal to noise for single photon resolution time spectrometer and their influence factors were studied. A method to depress the background, to shorten the measurement time and to increase the ratio of signal to noise was discussed. Results show that ratio of signal to noise is proportional to solid angle of detector to source and detection efficiency, and inverse proportional to electronics noise. Choose the activity of the source was important for decreasing of random coincidence counting. To use a coincidence gate and a discriminator of single photon were an effective way of increasing measurement accuracy and detection efficiency
High-quality asynchronous heralded single-photon source at telecom wavelength
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Fasel, Sylvain; Alibart, Olivier; Tanzilli, Sebastien; Baldi, Pascal; Beveratos, Alexios; Gisin, Nicolas; Zbinden, Hugo
2004-01-01
We report on the experimental realization and characterization of an asynchronous heralded single-photon source based on spontaneous parametric down-conversion. Photons at 1550 nm are heralded as being inside a single-mode fibre with more than 60% probability, and the multi-photon emission probability is reduced by a factor of up to more than 500 compared to Poissonian light sources. These figures of merit, together with the choice of telecom wavelength for the heralded photons, are compatible with practical applications needing very efficient and robust single-photon sources
Continuous-Wave Single-Photon Transistor Based on a Superconducting Circuit
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Kyriienko, Oleksandr; Sørensen, Anders Søndberg
2016-01-01
We propose a microwave frequency single-photon transistor which can operate under continuous wave probing and represents an efficient single microwave photon detector. It can be realized using an impedance matched system of a three level artificial ladder-type atom coupled to two microwave cavities...... and the appearance of a photon flux leaving the second cavity through a separate input-output port. The proposal does not require time variation of the probe signals, thus corresponding to a passive version of a single-photon transistor. The resulting device is robust to qubit dephasing processes, possesses low dark...
Single Photon Counting Performance and Noise Analysis of CMOS SPAD-Based Image Sensors
Dutton, Neale A. W.; Gyongy, Istvan; Parmesan, Luca; Henderson, Robert K.
2016-01-01
SPAD-based solid state CMOS image sensors utilising analogue integrators have attained deep sub-electron read noise (DSERN) permitting single photon counting (SPC) imaging. A new method is proposed to determine the read noise in DSERN image sensors by evaluating the peak separation and width (PSW) of single photon peaks in a photon counting histogram (PCH). The technique is used to identify and analyse cumulative noise in analogue integrating SPC SPAD-based pixels. The DSERN of our SPAD image sensor is exploited to confirm recent multi-photon threshold quanta image sensor (QIS) theory. Finally, various single and multiple photon spatio-temporal oversampling techniques are reviewed. PMID:27447643
Nano-LED array fabrication suitable for future single photon lithography
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Mikulics, M; Hardtdegen, H
2015-01-01
We report on an alternative illumination concept for a future lithography based on single-photon emitters and important technological steps towards its implementation. Nano light-emitting diodes (LEDs) are chosen as the photon emitters. First, the development of their fabrication and their integration technology is presented, then their optical characteristics assessed. Last, size-controlled nano-LEDs, well positioned in an array, are electrically driven and utilized for illumination. Nanostructures are lithographically formed, demonstrating the feasibility of the approach. The potential of single-photon lithography to reach the ultimate scale limits in mass production is discussed. (paper)
Mazilu, Michael
2015-01-01
ICOAM 2015 The electromagnetic momentum transferred transferred to scattering particles is proportional to the intensity of the incident fields, however, the momentum of single photons ℏk does not naturally appear in these classical expressions. Here, we discuss an alternative to Maxwell's stress tensor that renders the classical electromagnetic field momentum compatible to the quantum mechanical one. This is achieved through the introduction of the quantum conversion which allows the tran...
Furusawa, Akira
2015-01-01
This book explains what quantum states of light look like. Of special interest, a single photon state is explained by using a wave picture, showing that it corresponds to the complementarity of a quantum. Also explained is how light waves are created by photons, again corresponding to the complementarity of a quantum. The author shows how an optical wave is created by superposition of a "vacuum" and a single photon as a typical example. Moreover, squeezed states of light are explained as "longitudinal" waves of light and Schrödinger's cat states as macroscopic superposition states.
CeB6 Sensor for Thermoelectric Single-Photon Detector
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Armen KUZANIAN
2015-08-01
Full Text Available Interest in single-photon detectors has recently sharply increased. The most developed single-photon detectors are currently based on superconductors. Following the theory, thermoelectric single-photon detectors can compete with superconducting detectors. The operational principle of thermoelectric detector is based on photon absorption by absorber as a result of which a temperature gradient is generated across the sensor. In this work we present the results of computer modeling of heat distribution processes after absorption of a photon of 1 keV - 1 eV energy in different areas of the absorber for different geometries of tungsten absorber and cerium hexaboride sensor. The time dependence of the temperature difference between the ends of the thermoelectric sensor and electric potential appearing across the sensor are calculated. The results of calculations show that it is realistic to detect single photons from IR to X-ray and determine their energy. Count rates up to hundreds gigahertz can be achieved.
Bi-dimensional arrays of SPAD for time-resolved single photon imaging
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Tudisco, S.; Lanzano, L.; Musumeci, F.; Neri, L.; Privitera, S.; Scordino, A.; Condorelli, G.; Fallica, G.; Mazzillo, M.; Sanfilippo, D.; Valvo, G.
2009-01-01
Many scientific areas like astronomy, biophysics, biomedicine, nuclear and plasma science, etc. are interested in the development of a new time-resolved single photon imaging device. Such a device represents today one of the most challenging goals in the field of photonics. In collaboration with Catania R and D staff of ST-Microelectronics (STM) we created, during the last few years, a new avalanche photosensor-Single Photon Avalanche Diode (SPAD) able to detect and count, with excellent performance, single photons. Further we will discuss the possible realization of a single photon imaging device through the many elements integration (bi-dimensional arrays) of SPADs. In order to achieve the goal, it is also important to develop an appropriate readout strategy able to address the time information of each individual sensor and in order to read a great number of elements easily. First prototypes were designed and manufactured by STM and the results are reported here. In the paper we will discuss in particular: (i) sensor performance (gain, photodetection efficiency, timing, after-pulsing, etc.); (ii) array performance (layout, cross-talk, etc.); (iii) readout strategy (quenching, electronics), and (iv) first imaging results (general performance).
New bi-dimensional SPAD arrays for time resolved single photon imaging
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Grasso, R. [INFN-Laboratori Nazionali del Sud and Sez., INFN di Catania, Via S. Sofia 62, 95125 Catania (Italy); Dipartimento di Fisica ed Astronomia, Università di Catania, Via S. Sofia 64, 95123 Catania (Italy); Centro Siciliano di Fisica Nucleare e Struttura della Materia, Viale A. Doria 6, 95125 Catania (Italy); Tudisco, S., E-mail: tudisco@lns.infn.it [INFN-Laboratori Nazionali del Sud and Sez., INFN di Catania, Via S. Sofia 62, 95125 Catania (Italy); Centro Siciliano di Fisica Nucleare e Struttura della Materia, Viale A. Doria 6, 95125 Catania (Italy); Piemonte, C. [FBK-Fondazione Bruno Kessler, Via S. Croce 77, 38122 Trento (Italy); Lo Presti, D. [INFN-Laboratori Nazionali del Sud and Sez., INFN di Catania, Via S. Sofia 62, 95125 Catania (Italy); Dipartimento di Fisica ed Astronomia, Università di Catania, Via S. Sofia 64, 95123 Catania (Italy); Anzalone, A. [INFN-Laboratori Nazionali del Sud and Sez., INFN di Catania, Via S. Sofia 62, 95125 Catania (Italy); Musumeci, F.; Scordino, A. [INFN-Laboratori Nazionali del Sud and Sez., INFN di Catania, Via S. Sofia 62, 95125 Catania (Italy); Dipartimento di Fisica ed Astronomia, Università di Catania, Via S. Sofia 64, 95123 Catania (Italy); Serra, N.; Zorzi, N. [FBK-Fondazione Bruno Kessler, Via S. Croce 77, 38122 Trento (Italy)
2013-08-01
Some of the first results concerning the electrical and optical performances of new bi-dimensional single photon avalanche diodes arrays for imaging applications are briefly presented. The planned arrays were realized at the Fondazione Bruno Kessler—Trento and tested at LNS–INFN. The proposed new solution, utilizing a new architecture with integrated quenching resistors, allows to simplify the electronic readout.
New bi-dimensional SPAD arrays for time resolved single photon imaging
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Grasso, R.; Tudisco, S.; Piemonte, C.; Lo Presti, D.; Anzalone, A.; Musumeci, F.; Scordino, A.; Serra, N.; Zorzi, N.
2013-01-01
Some of the first results concerning the electrical and optical performances of new bi-dimensional single photon avalanche diodes arrays for imaging applications are briefly presented. The planned arrays were realized at the Fondazione Bruno Kessler—Trento and tested at LNS–INFN. The proposed new solution, utilizing a new architecture with integrated quenching resistors, allows to simplify the electronic readout
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Chen, Yuntian; Wubs, Martijn; Mørk, Jesper
2011-01-01
-photon wavepacket can exceed 70%. This high value is a direct consequence of the high SE β-factor for emission into the waveguide. Finally, we have also explored whether waveguide dispersion could aid single-photon absorption by pulse shaping. For a Gaussian input wavepacket, we found that the absorption efficiency...
Nonlocality of a single photon: Paths to an Einstein-Podolsky-Rosen-steering experiment
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Jones, S. J.; Wiseman, H. M.
2011-01-01
A single-photon incident on a beam splitter produces an entangled field state, and in principle could be used to violate a Bell inequality, but such an experiment (without postselection) is beyond the reach of current experiments. Here we consider the somewhat simpler task of demonstrating Einstein-Podolsky-Rosen (EPR) steering with a single photon (also without postselection). We demonstrate that Alice's choice of measurement on her portion of the entangled state can affect Bob's portion of the entangled state in his laboratory, in a sense rigorously defined by us and Doherty [Phys. Rev. Lett. 98, 140402 (2007)]. Previous work by Lvovsky and coworkers [Phys. Rev. Lett. 92, 047903 (2004)] has addressed this phenomenon (which they called remote preparation) experimentally using homodyne measurements on a single photon. Here we show that, unfortunately, their experimental parameters do not meet the bounds necessary for a rigorous demonstration of EPR steering with a single photon. However, we also show that modest improvements in the experimental parameters, and the addition of photon counting to the arsenal of Alice's measurements, would be sufficient to allow such a demonstration.
Characteristics of a single photon emission tomography system with a wide field gamma camera
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Mathonnat, F.; Soussaline, F.; Todd-Pokropek, A.E.; Kellershohn, C.
1979-01-01
This text summarizes a work study describing the imagery possibilities of a single photon emission tomography system composed of a conventional wide field gamma camera, connected to a computer. The encouraging results achieved on the various phantoms studied suggest a significant development of this technique in clinical work in Nuclear Medicine Departments [fr
Controlling light emission from single-photon sources using photonic nanowires
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Gregersen, Niels; Chen, Yuntian; Mørk, Jesper
2012-01-01
The photonic nanowire has recently emerged as an promising alternative to microcavity-based single-photon source designs. In this simple structure, a geometrical effect ensures a strong coupling between an embedded emitter and the optical mode of interest and a combination of tapers and mirrors a...
Single photon core ionization with core excitation: a new spectroscopic tool
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Penent, F; Carniato, S; Lablanquie, P; Selles, P; Palaudoux, J; Andric, L; Žitnik, M; Bučar, K; Shigemasa, E; Nakano, M; Ito, K; Hikosaka, Y
2015-01-01
The simultaneous core ionization and core excitation process (or K -2 V process) induced by absorption of a single photon provides the basis of a new spectroscopy that offers both advantages of X-ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy (XPS) and near-edge x-ray absorption fine structures (NEXAFS) spectroscopy (paper)
Formation of multipartite entanglement using random quantum gates
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Most, Yonatan; Shimoni, Yishai; Biham, Ofer
2007-01-01
The formation of multipartite quantum entanglement by repeated operation of one- and two-qubit gates is examined. The resulting entanglement is evaluated using two measures: the average bipartite entanglement and the Groverian measure. A comparison is made between two geometries of the quantum register: a one-dimensional chain in which two-qubit gates apply only locally between nearest neighbors and a nonlocal geometry in which such gates may apply between any pair of qubits. More specifically, we use a combination of random single-qubit rotations and a fixed two-qubit gate such as the controlled-phase gate. It is found that in the nonlocal geometry the entanglement is generated at a higher rate. In both geometries, the Groverian measure converges to its asymptotic value more slowly than the average bipartite entanglement. These results are expected to have implications on different proposed geometries of future quantum computers with local and nonlocal interactions between the qubits
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Nielsen, Otto Højager Attermann; Dahl, Anders Bjorholm; Anderson-Engels, Stefan
This paper describe the performance of the ID220 single photon avalanche diode for single photon counting, and investigates its performance for photon time-of-flight (PToF) spectroscopy. At first this report will serve as a summary to the group for PToF spectroscopy at the Department of Physics...
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Margaryan, Amur
2011-10-01
A new timing technique for single photons based on the radio frequency phototube and optical clock or femtosecond optical frequency comb generator is proposed. The technique has a 20 ps resolution for single photons, is capable of operating with MHz frequencies and achieving 10 fs instability level.
On the Activation of Quantum Nonlocality
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Andrés Felipe Ducuara
2016-05-01
Full Text Available We report on some quantum properties of physical systems, namely, entanglement, nonlocality, k-copy nonlocality (superactivation of nonlocality, hidden nonlocality (activation of nonlocality through local filtering and the activation of nonlocality through tensoring and local filtering. The aim of this work is two-fold. First, we provide a review of the numerical procedures that must be followed in order to calculate the aforementioned properties, in particular, for any two-qubit system, and reproduce the bounds for two-qudit Werner states. Second, we use such numerical tools to calculate new bounds of these properties for two-qudit Isotropic states and two-qubit Hirsch states.
Threshold quantum cryptograph based on Grover's algorithm
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Du Jianzhong; Qin Sujuan; Wen Qiaoyan; Zhu Fuchen
2007-01-01
We propose a threshold quantum protocol based on Grover's operator and permutation operator on one two-qubit signal. The protocol is secure because the dishonest parties can only extract 2 bits from 3 bits information of operation on one two-qubit signal while they have to introduce error probability 3/8. The protocol includes a detection scheme to resist Trojan horse attack. With probability 1/2, the detection scheme can detect a multi-qubit signal that is used to replace a single-qubit signal, while it makes every legitimate qubit invariant
Pichette, Charles; Giudice, Andrea; Thibault, Simon; Bérubé-Lauzière, Yves
2016-11-20
Single-photon avalanche diodes (SPADs) achieving high timing resolution (≈20-50 ps) developed for time-correlated single-photon counting (TCSPC) generally have very small photosensitive areas (25-100 μm in diameter). This limits the achievable photon counting rate and signal-to-noise ratio and may lead to long counting times. This is detrimental in applications requiring several measurements, such as fluorescence lifetime imaging (FLIM) microscopy, which requires scanning, and time-domain diffuse optical tomography (TD-DOT). We show in this work that the use of an immersion lens directly affixed onto the photosensitive area of the SPAD helps alleviate this problem by allowing more light to be concentrated onto the detector. Following careful optical design and simulations, our experimental results show that it is actually possible to achieve the predicted theoretical increase in the photon counting rate (we achieve a factor of ≈4 here). This work is of high relevance in high timing resolution TCSPC with small photosensitive area detectors and should find widespread interest in FLIM and TD-DOT with SPADs.
Single-photon Coulomb explosion of methanol using broad bandwidth ultrafast EUV pulses.
Luzon, Itamar; Jagtap, Krishna; Livshits, Ester; Lioubashevski, Oleg; Baer, Roi; Strasser, Daniel
2017-05-31
Single-photon Coulomb explosion of methanol is instigated using the broad bandwidth pulse achieved through high-order harmonics generation. Using 3D coincidence fragment imaging of one molecule at a time, the kinetic energy release (KER) and angular distributions of the products are measured in different Coulomb explosion (CE) channels. Two-body CE channels breaking either the C-O or the C-H bonds are described as well as a proton migration channel forming H 2 O + , which is shown to exhibit higher KER. The results are compared to intense-field Coulomb explosion measurements in the literature. The interpretation of broad bandwidth single-photon CE data is discussed and supported by ab initio calculations of the predominant C-O bond breaking CE channel. We discuss the importance of these findings for achieving time resolved imaging of ultrafast dynamics.
Photophysics of GaN single-photon emitters in the visible spectral range
Berhane, Amanuel M.; Jeong, Kwang-Yong; Bradac, Carlo; Walsh, Michael; Englund, Dirk; Toth, Milos; Aharonovich, Igor
2018-04-01
In this work, we present a detailed photophysical analysis of recently discovered, optically stable single-photon emitters (SPEs) in gallium nitride (GaN). Temperature-resolved photoluminescence measurements reveal that the emission lines at 4 K are three orders of magnitude broader than the transform-limited width expected from excited-state lifetime measurements. The broadening is ascribed to ultrafast spectral diffusion. The photophysical study on several emitters at room temperature (RT) reveals an average brightness of (427 ±215 )kCounts /s . Finally, polarization measurements from 14 emitters are used to determine visibility as well as dipole orientation of defect systems within the GaN crystal. Our results underpin some of the fundamental properties of SPEs in GaN both at cryogenic and RT, and define the benchmark for future work in GaN-based single-photon technologies.
Superconducting nanowire single-photon detectors (SNSPDs) on SOI for near-infrared range
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Trojan, Philipp; Il' in, Konstantin; Henrich, Dagmar; Hofherr, Matthias; Doerner, Steffen; Siegel, Michael [Institut fuer Mikro- und Nanoelektronische Systeme (IMS), Karlsruher Institut fuer Technologie (KIT) (Germany); Semenov, Alexey [Institut fuer Planetenforschung, DLR, Berlin-Adlershof (Germany); Huebers, Heinz-Wilhelm [Institut fuer Planetenforschung, DLR, Berlin-Adlershof (Germany); Institut fuer Optik und Atomare Physik, Technische Universitaet Berlin (Germany)
2013-07-01
Superconducting nanowire single-photon detectors are promising devices for photon detectors with high count rates, low dark count rates and low dead times. At wavelengths beyond the visible range, the detection efficiency of today's SNSPDs drops significantly. Moreover, the low absorption in ultra-thin detector films is a limiting factor over the entire spectral range. Solving this problem requires approaches for an enhancement of the absorption range in feeding the light to the detector element. A possibility to obtain a better absorption is the use of multilayer substrate materials for photonic waveguide structures. We present results on development of superconducting nanowire single-photon detectors made from niobium nitride on silicon-on-insulator (SOI) multilayer substrates. Optical and superconducting properties of SNSPDs on SOI will be discussed and compared with the characteristics of detectors on common substrates.
Free-running InGaAs/InP single photon detector with feedback quenching IC
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Zheng, Fu; Wang, Feilong; Wang, Chao; Sun, Zhibin; Zhai, Guangjie
2015-01-01
InGaAs/InP avalanche photodiodes (APD) are usually employed as Geiger-mode single photon detector at near-infrared wavelength between 1.0 μm and 1.7 μm. In order to work in the free-running regime rather than gated regime, we demonstrate a feedback quenching integrated circuit to rapidly quench the avalanche and reset the APD. Because this IC is close to the APD, parasitic capacitance is largely reduced, thus reducing the quench-time, reset-time and also the afterpulsing probability. We investigated the free-running single photon detector's afterpulsing effect, de-trapping time, dark count rate and detection efficiency and also compared with gated regime operation. After corrected for deadtime and afterpulse, we found the free-running detector performance is comparable with gated regime
Ramsey spectroscopy by direct use of resonant light on isotope atoms for single-photon detuning
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Yu, Hoon; Choi, Mi Hyun; Moon, Ye Lin; Kim, Seung Jin; Kim, Jung Bog [Korea National University of Education, Cheongwon (Korea, Republic of)
2014-03-15
We demonstrate Ramsey spectroscopy with cold {sup 87}Rb atoms via a two-photon Raman process. One laser beam has a cross-over resonant frequency on the {sup 85}Rb transition and the other beam has a 6.8 GHz shifted frequency. These two laser beams fulfill the two-photon Raman resonance condition, which involves a single-photon detuning of -2.6 GHz. By implementing these two lasers on cold {sup 87}Rb atoms, we demonstrate Ramsey spectroscopy with an interrogation time of the intermediate state by using π/2 Raman pulses. In our laser system, we can change the single-photon detuning to 1.2, 4.2 or -5.6 GHz by changing the {sup 85}Rb transition line used as a locking signal and an injected sideband. The laser system that directly uses resonant light on isotope atoms will be described in this paper.
Memory effect in silicon time-gated single-photon avalanche diodes
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Dalla Mora, A.; Contini, D.; Di Sieno, L.; Tosi, A.; Boso, G.; Villa, F.; Pifferi, A.
2015-01-01
We present a comprehensive characterization of the memory effect arising in thin-junction silicon Single-Photon Avalanche Diodes (SPADs) when exposed to strong illumination. This partially unknown afterpulsing-like noise represents the main limiting factor when time-gated acquisitions are exploited to increase the measurement dynamic range of very fast (picosecond scale) and faint (single-photon) optical signals following a strong stray one. We report the dependences of this unwelcome signal-related noise on photon wavelength, detector temperature, and biasing conditions. Our results suggest that this so-called “memory effect” is generated in the deep regions of the detector, well below the depleted region, and its contribution on detector response is visible only when time-gated SPADs are exploited to reject a strong burst of photons
Memory effect in silicon time-gated single-photon avalanche diodes
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Dalla Mora, A.; Contini, D., E-mail: davide.contini@polimi.it; Di Sieno, L. [Dipartimento di Fisica, Politecnico di Milano, Piazza Leonardo da Vinci 32, I-20133 Milano (Italy); Tosi, A.; Boso, G.; Villa, F. [Dipartimento di Elettronica, Informazione e Bioingegneria, Politecnico di Milano, Piazza Leonardo da Vinci 32, I-20133 Milano (Italy); Pifferi, A. [Dipartimento di Fisica, Politecnico di Milano, Piazza Leonardo da Vinci 32, I-20133 Milano (Italy); CNR, Istituto di Fotonica e Nanotecnologie, Piazza Leonardo da Vinci 32, I-20133 Milano (Italy)
2015-03-21
We present a comprehensive characterization of the memory effect arising in thin-junction silicon Single-Photon Avalanche Diodes (SPADs) when exposed to strong illumination. This partially unknown afterpulsing-like noise represents the main limiting factor when time-gated acquisitions are exploited to increase the measurement dynamic range of very fast (picosecond scale) and faint (single-photon) optical signals following a strong stray one. We report the dependences of this unwelcome signal-related noise on photon wavelength, detector temperature, and biasing conditions. Our results suggest that this so-called “memory effect” is generated in the deep regions of the detector, well below the depleted region, and its contribution on detector response is visible only when time-gated SPADs are exploited to reject a strong burst of photons.
Two-Color Single-Photon Photoinitiation and Photoinhibition for Subdiffraction Photolithography
Scott, Timothy F.; Kowalski, Benjamin A.; Sullivan, Amy C.; Bowman, Christopher N.; McLeod, Robert R.
2009-05-01
Controlling and reducing the developed region initiated by photoexposure is one of the fundamental goals of optical lithography. Here, we demonstrate a two-color irradiation scheme whereby initiating species are generated by single-photon absorption at one wavelength while inhibiting species are generated by single-photon absorption at a second, independent wavelength. Co-irradiation at the second wavelength thus reduces the polymerization rate, delaying gelation of the material and facilitating enhanced spatial control over the polymerization. Appropriate overlapping of the two beams produces structures with both feature sizes and monomer conversions otherwise unobtainable with use of single- or two-photon absorption photopolymerization. Additionally, the generated inhibiting species rapidly recombine when irradiation with the second wavelength ceases, allowing for fast sequential exposures not limited by memory effects in the material and thus enabling fabrication of complex two- or three-dimensional structures.
Development of a high-speed single-photon pixellated detector for visible wavelengths
Mac Raighne, Aaron; Mathot, Serge; McPhate, Jason; Vallerga, John; Jarron, Pierre; Brownlee, Colin; O’Shea, Val
2009-01-01
We present the development of a high-speed, single-photon counting, Hybrid Photo Detector (HPD). The HPD consists of a vacuum tube, containing the detector assembly, sealed with a transparent optical input window. Photons incident on the photocathode eject a photoelectron into a large electric field, which accelerates the incident electron onto a silicon detector. The silicon detector is bump bonded to a Medipix readout chip. This set-up allows for the detection and readout of low incident photon intensities at rates that are otherwise unattainable with current camera technology. Reported is the fabrication of the camera that brings together a range of sophisticated design and fabrication techniques and the expected theoretical imaging performance. Applications to cellular and molecular microscopy are also described in which single-photon-counting abilities at high frame rates are crucial
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Harper, P. V.
1978-01-01
A brief review of the limitations of medical radionuclide imaging techniques in competition with x-ray CAT scanning and ultrasound suggest that the emphasis in this are should be on measurement of the physiologic uptake of tracer materials. Tomography greatly improves the possibilities of quantitation of this uptake - examples using positron and single photon techniques are presented for /sup 13/NH/sub 3/ and /sup 201/Tl in the heart.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Harper, P.V.
1978-01-01
A brief review of the limitations of medical radionuclide imaging techniques in competition with x-ray CAT scanning and ultrasound suggest that the emphasis in this are should be on measurement of the physiologic uptake of tracer materials. Tomography greatly improves the possibilities of quantitation of this uptake - examples using positron and single photon techniques are presented for 13 NH 3 and 201 Tl in the heart
PET and Single-Photon Emission Computed Tomography in Brain Concussion.
Raji, Cyrus A; Henderson, Theodore A
2018-02-01
This article offers an overview of the application of PET and single photon emission computed tomography brain imaging to concussion, a type of mild traumatic brain injury and traumatic brain injury, in general. The article reviews the application of these neuronuclear imaging modalities in cross-sectional and longitudinal studies. Additionally, this article frames the current literature with an overview of the basic physics and radiation exposure risks of each modality. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Degenerative dementia: nosological aspects and results of single photon emission computed tomography
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Dubois, B.; Habert, M.O.
1999-01-01
Ten years ago, the diagnosis discussion of a dementia case for the old patient was limited to two pathologies: the Alzheimer illness and the Pick illness. During these last years, the frame of these primary degenerative dementia has fallen into pieces. The different diseases and the results got with single photon emission computed tomography are discussed. for example: fronto-temporal dementia, primary progressive aphasia, progressive apraxia, visio-spatial dysfunction, dementia at Lewy's bodies, or cortico-basal degeneration. (N.C.)
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Biraben, A.; Bernard, A.M.
1999-01-01
With the single photon emission computed tomography, it is a more reliable technique that is at someone's disposal, especially to limit spatially the evolution of epilepsy crisis before any surgery act. The determination of the precise area is necessary to make sure that the crisis come really from this area and the determination of the functionality of this area is checked to be sure that the ablation of the zone will not lead to an unacceptable functional deficit. (N.C.)
Rise time of voltage pulses in NbN superconducting single photon detectors
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Smirnov, K. V. [Moscow State Pedagogical University, 1 Malaya Pirogovskaya St., 119435 Moscow (Russian Federation); CJSC “Superconducting Nanotechnology” (Scontel), 5/22-1 Rossolimo St., 119021 Moscow (Russian Federation); National Research University Higher School of Economics, Moscow Institute of Electronics and Mathematics, 34 Tallinskaya St., 109028 Moscow (Russian Federation); Divochiy, A. V.; Karpova, U. V.; Morozov, P. V. [CJSC “Superconducting Nanotechnology” (Scontel), 5/22-1 Rossolimo St., 119021 Moscow (Russian Federation); Vakhtomin, Yu. B.; Seleznev, V. A. [Moscow State Pedagogical University, 1 Malaya Pirogovskaya St., 119435 Moscow (Russian Federation); CJSC “Superconducting Nanotechnology” (Scontel), 5/22-1 Rossolimo St., 119021 Moscow (Russian Federation); Sidorova, M. V. [Moscow State Pedagogical University, 1 Malaya Pirogovskaya St., 119435 Moscow (Russian Federation); Zotova, A. N.; Vodolazov, D. Yu. [Institute for Physics of Microstructure, Russian Academy of Sciences, GSP-105, 603950 Nizhny Novgorod (Russian Federation); Lobachevsky State University of Nizhny Novgorod, 23 Gagarin Avenue, 603950 Nizhny Novgorod (Russian Federation)
2016-08-01
We have found experimentally that the rise time of voltage pulse in NbN superconducting single photon detectors increases nonlinearly with increasing the length of the detector L. The effect is connected with dependence of resistance of the detector R{sub n}, which appears after photon absorption, on its kinetic inductance L{sub k} and, hence, on the length of the detector. This conclusion is confirmed by our calculations in the framework of two temperature model.
Non-classical Correlations and Quantum Coherence in Mixed Environments
Hu, Zheng-Da; Wei, Mei-Song; Wang, Jicheng; Zhang, Yixin; He, Qi-Liang
2018-05-01
We investigate non-classical correlations (entanglement and quantum discord) and quantum coherence for an open two-qubit system each independently coupled to a bosonic environment and a spin environment, respectively. The modulating effects of spin environment and bosonic environment are respectively explored. A relation among the quantum coherence, quantum discord and classical correlation is found during the sudden transition phenomenon. We also compare the case of mixed environments with that of the same environments, showing that the dynamics is dramatically changed.