WorldWideScience

Sample records for single-phase spinel structure

  1. Hyperfine Interactions in Ferrites with Spinel Structure

    OpenAIRE

    Chlan, Vojtěch

    2013-01-01

    Title: Hyperfine Interactions in Ferrites with Spinel Structure Author: Vojtěch Chlan Faculty of Mathematics and Physics, Charles University in Prague Supervisor: Prof. RNDr. Helena Štěpánková, CSc. Abstract: Ferrite systems with spinel structure, manganese ferrite, lithium ferrite and magnetite, are studied experimentally by nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy and from the first principles by electron structure calculations based on density functional theory (DFT). Manganese ferrit...

  2. Improved PLL structures for single-phase grid inverters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ciobotaru, Mihai; Teodorescu, Remus; Blaabjerg, Frede

    2005-01-01

    of the reference signals. This paper presents two improved phase-locked-loop (PLL) methods for single-phase grid connected systems. The investigated PLL methods are based on a transport delay method and an inverse Park transformation method. The improvements in the case of using the delay-based PLL are: non......-frequency dependent and better filtering of the harmonics. For the other investigated PLL method based on inverse Park transformation the improvement consists of better filtering of the harmonics. Experimental results validate the effectiveness of the two proposed methods....

  3. Dynamics Assessment of Advanced Single-Phase PLL Structures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Golestan, Saeed; Monfarad, Mohammad; Freijedo, Francisco D.

    2013-01-01

    , and desired performance under frequency-varying and harmonically distorted grid conditions. Despite the wide acceptance and use of these two advanced PLLs, no comprehensive design guidelines to fine-tune their parameters have been reported yet. Through a detailed mathematical analysis it is shown......Recently, several advanced phase locked loop (PLL) techniques have been proposed for single-phase applications. Among these, the Park-PLL, and the second order generalized integrator (SOGI) based PLL are very attractive, owing to their simple digital implementation, low computational burden...

  4. Structural modifications of spinels under radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Quentin, A.

    2010-12-01

    This work is devoted to the study of spinel structure materials under radiation. For that purpose, samples of polycrystalline ZnAl 2 O 4 and monocrystalline MgAl 2 O 4 were irradiated by different heavy ions with different energies. Samples of ZnAl 2 O 4 were studied par electron transmission microscopy, and by grazing incidence X-Ray diffraction and Rietveld analysis. Samples of MgAl 2 O 4 were studied by optical spectroscopy. Most of the results concern amorphization and crystalline structure modification of ZnAl 2 O 4 especially the inversion. We were able to determine a stopping power threshold for amorphization, between 11 keV/nm and 12 keV/nm, and also the amorphization process, which is a multiple impacts process. We studied the evolution of the amorphous phase by TEM and showed a nano-patterning phenomenon. Concerning the inversion, we determined that it did happen by a single impact process, and the saturation value did not reach the random cation distribution value. Inversion and amorphization have different, but close, stopping power threshold. However, amorphization seems to be conditioned by a pre-damage of the material which consists in inversion. (author)

  5. Strain-hardening in nano-structured single phase steels: mechanisms and control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bouaziz, O; Barbier, D

    2012-11-01

    The detrimental effect of grain size refinement on the strain hardening is highlighted in single phase steels. A physical based approach for understanding the underlying mechanisms is presented. In order to overcome this limitation a promising metallurgical route exploiting the thermal stability of mechanically induced twins in austenitic steels has been successfully applied to a stainless grade confirming the opportunity to get nano-structured alloys exhibiting high yield stress with high strain-hardening.

  6. Effect of gamma irradiation on the structural and magnetic properties of Co–Zn spinel ferrite nanoparticles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Raut, Anil V.; Kurmude, D.V.; Shengule, D.R.; Jadhav, K.M.

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Co–Zn ferrite nanoparticles were examined before and after γ-irradiation. • Single phase cubic spinel structure of Co–Zn was confirmed by XRD data. • The grain size was reported in the range of 52–62 nm after γ-irradiation. • Ms, Hc, n B were reported to be increased after gamma irradiation. - Abstract: In this work, the structural and magnetic properties of Co 1−x Zn x Fe 2 O 4 (0.0 ≤ x ≤ 1.0) ferrite nanoparticles were studied before and after gamma irradiation. The as-synthesized samples of Co–Zn ferrite nanoparticles prepared by sol–gel auto-combustion technique were analysed by XRD which suggested the single phase; cubic spinel structure of the material. Crystal defects produced in the spinel lattice were studied before and after Co 60 γ-irradiation in a gamma cell with a dose rate of 0.1 Mrad/h in order to report the changes in structural and magnetic properties of the Co–Zn ferrite nanoparticles. The average crystallite size (t), lattice parameter (α) and other structural parameters of gamma-irradiated and un-irradiated Co 1−x Zn x Fe 2 O 4 spinel ferrite system was calculated from XRD data. The morphological characterizations were performed using scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The magnetic properties were measured using pulse field hysteresis loop tracer by applying magnetic field of 1000 Oe, and the analysis of data obtained revealed that the magnetic property such as saturation magnetization (Ms), coecivity (Hc), magneton number (n B ) etc. magnetic parameters were increased after irradiation

  7. Raman spectroscopic studies of lithium manganates with spinel structure

    CERN Document Server

    Julien, C M

    2003-01-01

    Raman scattering spectra of a set of lithium manganospinels Li sub 1 sub - sub x sub + sub z Mn sub 2 sub - sub z O sub 4 with 0 sup<= x sup<= 1 and 0 sup<= z sup<= 0.33 are reported and analysed. Structural changes have been investigated following the evolution of Raman spectra with the concentration of lithium cations. The local structure was characterized as a function of the mean oxidation state of manganese cations. The trigonal distortion of MnO sub 6 octahedra is evidenced by insertion of lithium ions into the [B sub 2]O sub 4 spinel framework. A comparison with tetragonal Mn sub 3 O sub 4 and Fe sub 3 O sub 4 spinels shows the influence of the Jahn-Teller effect on the Raman features for this class of materials.

  8. Single-Phase PLLs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Golestan, Saeed; Guerrero, Josep M.; Quintero, Juan Carlos Vasquez

    2017-01-01

    Single-phase phase-locked loops (PLLs) are popular for the synchronization and control of single-phase gridconnected converters. They are also widely used for monitoring and diagnostic purposes in the power and energy areas. In recent years, a large number of single-phase PLLs with different...... structures and properties have been proposed in the literature. The main aim of this paper is to provide a review of these PLLs. To this end, the single-phase PLLs are first classified into two major categories: 1) power-based PLLs (pPLLs), and 2) quadrature signal generation-based PLLs (QSG......-PLLs). The members of each category are then described and their pros and cons are discussed. This work provides a deep insight into characteristics of different single-phase PLLs and, therefore, can be considered as a reference for researchers and engineers....

  9. Structure and magnetism of single-phase epitaxial gamma '-Fe4N

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Costa-Kramer, JL; Borsa, DM; Garcia-Martin, JM; Martin-Gonzalez, MS; Boerma, DO; Briones, F

    Single phase epitaxial pure gamma(')-Fe4N films are grown on MgO (001) by molecular beam epitaxy of iron in the presence of nitrogen obtained from a radio frequency atomic source. The epitaxial, single phase nature of the films is revealed by x-ray diffraction and by the local magnetic environment

  10. Elasticity of some mantle crystal structures. I - Pleonaste and hercynite spinel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, H.; Simmons, G.

    1972-01-01

    The elasticity of high-pressure mantle phases can be characterized by using data for chemically similar crystal compounds. The single-crystal elastic constants are determined as a function of pressure and temperature for pleonaste spinel and at room conditions for hercynite spinel. The bulk modulus increases from 1.95 Mb for pleonaste spinel to 2.10 Mb for hercynite spinel. Low or negative values of the pressure derivatives of shear constants are characteristic of the spinel structure and imply a low kinetic barrier to phase transformations and diffusion. Compressional and shear velocities of the spinel phase of olivine are estimated as a function of mean atomic weight by using the pleonaste and hercynite data.

  11. Single Scattering Detection in Turbin Media Using Single-Phase Structured Illumination Filtering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berrocal, E.; Johnsson, J.; Kristensson, E.; Alden, M.

    2012-05-01

    This work shows a unique possibility of visualizing the exponential intensity decay due to light extinction, when laser adiation propagates through a homogeneous scattering edium. This observation implies that the extracted intensity mostly riginates from single scattering events. The filtering of this single light scattering intensity is performed by means of a single-phase structured illumination filtering approach. Results from numerical Monte Carlo simulation confirm the experimental findings for an extinction coefficient of μ_e = 0.36 mm^-1. This article demonstrates an original and reliable way of measuring the extinction coefficient of particulate turbid media based on sidescattering imaging. Such an approach has capabilities to replace the commonly used transmission measurement within the intermediate single-to multiple scattering regime where the optical depth ranges between 1 procedure and set-up. Applications of the technique has potential in probing challenging homogeneous scattering media, such as biomedical tissues, turbid emulsions, etc, in situations where dilution cannot be applied and where conventional transmission measurements fail.

  12. Magnetic Spinel-Type CoFe2O4 Nanoparticles: Synthesis and Investigation of Structural, Morphological Properties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mesut ÖZDİNÇER

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Spinel-type metal oxide nanoparticles were synthesized via co-precipitation approach. Mono ethylene glycol (MEG was used as a capping agent to stabilize the particles and prevent them from agglomeration. The structural, morphological and thermal properties of the calcined sample were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD, scanning electron microscopy (SEM, raman spectroscopy and thermal analysis. Energy-dispersive X-ray analysis (EDX has also proved that the element composition was composed of pure single phase and contained Co, Fe and O elements. The mean crystallite size of the prepared ferrite nanoparticles was determined to be in the range of 30-345 nm based on the SEM images. The magnetic measurements of the CoFe2O4 nanoparticles were examined with a vibrating sample magnetometer (VSM at room temperature to determine their magnetic behavior and the magnetic parameters were found.

  13. Following the Amphibolite to Greenschist Metamorphic Path through the Structural Parameters of Spinels from Amsaga (Mauritania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Davide Lenaz

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available We investigated the crystal and structural behavior of several Cr-bearing spinels from the Archean chromitites of Amsaga (Mauritania. The chemical and structural data testified a retrograde metamorphism from amphibolite to greenschist facies, witnessed by relative changes in the amount of all the major oxides (Cr, Al, Mg, Fe2+, Fe3+, the relative proportion of Fe3+/Fetot as well as the structural parameters, including the cell edge and the oxygen coordinate. The general agreement between electron microprobe and Mössbauer data indicates that the analyzed spinels are stoichiometric. The structural data revealed that the oxygen positional parameter of amphibole-bearing samples is the highest observed among Cr-bearing spinels with similar Cr# and Mg#. Consequently, it is suggested that a structural study of detrital Cr-spinels could be important in discriminating an amphibole-chromitite source from an ophiolite source.

  14. Znx-1CuxMn2O4 spinels; synthesis, structural characterization and electrical evaluation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mendez M, F.; Lima, E.; Bosch, P.; Pfeiffer, H.; Gonzalez, F.

    2010-01-01

    This work presents the structural characterization and electrical evaluation of Zn x-1 Cu x Mn 2 O 4 spinels, which are materials presented as secondary phases into the vari stor ceramic systems. Samples were analyzed by X-ray diffraction, solid-state nuclear magnetic resonance, infrared spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy and impedance spectroscopy. Although, the addition of copper to the ZnMn 2 O 4 spinel did not produce morphological changes, the structure and electrical behaviors changed considerably. Structurally, copper addition induced the formation of partial inverse spinels, and its addition increases significantly the electrical conductivity. Therefore, the formation of Zn x-1 Cu x Mn 2 O 4 spinels, as secondary phases into the vari stor materials, may compromise significantly the vari stor efficiency. (Author)

  15. High resolution diffraction studies with synchrotron radiation on the structure of Li0.95Mn2.05O4 spinel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nowicki, W.; Darul, J.; Piszora, P.; Baehtz, C.; Wolska, E.

    2005-01-01

    Investigations of the structure transformations of lithium deficient Li 0.95 Mn 2.05 O 4 , in the temperature range of 10-1173 K, have been undertaken with X-ray powder diffraction, using synchrotron radiation, at the HASYLAB high-resolution diffractometer (beamline B2). Single phase spinel-like oxide was obtained by a solid state reaction between α-Mn 2 O 3 and Li 2 CO 3 at 1073 K, followed by rapid quenching of the sample in the solid CO 2 . At the room temperature, the lithium deficient sample (with x = 0.95 in Li x Mn 3-x O 4 ) shows a tetragonally distorted spinel lattice, with c/a = 0.98. No phase transition has been observed when temperature decreased and the sample remained tetragonal in the range 300-10 K. A reversible phase transition appears, however, during very mild heating of Li 0.95 Mn 2.05 O 4 above the room temperature. The tetragonal spinel structure (F4 1 /ddm) undergoes a transition into cubic form (Fd3m) at 393 K. A thermal treatment above 573 K causes a partial decomposition of the sample, resulting in a formation of a nearly stoichiometric LiMn 2 O 4 , with the admixture of manganese oxides

  16. High-pressure crystal structure investigation of synthetic Fe2SiO4 spinel

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nestola, F.; Balic Zunic, Tonci; Koch-Müller, M.

    2011-01-01

    The crystal structure of Fe2SiO4 spinel at room temperature was investigated at seven different pressures by X-ray diffraction, using a diamond anvil cell to examine the influence of Fe substitution on ringwoodite behaviour at high pressure. The results compared with those of a pure Mg endmember...... show that the substitution of Fe into the spinel structure causes only small changes in the compression rate of coordination polyhedra and the distortion of the octahedron. The data show that the compression rate for the octahedron and tetrahedron in (Mg,Fe)2SiO4 can be considered statistically equal...

  17. Elucidation of structural, vibrational and dielectric properties of transition metal (Co2+) doped spinel Mg-Zn chromites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choudhary, Pankaj; Varshney, Dinesh

    2018-05-01

    Co2+ doped Mg-Zn spinel chromite compositions Mg0.5Zn0.5-xCoxCr2O4 (0.0 ≤ x ≤ 0.5) have been synthesized by the high-temperature solid state method. Synchrotron and X-ray diffraction (XRD) studies show single-phase crystalline nature. The structural analysis is validated by Rietveld refinement confirms the cubic structure with space group Fd3m. Crystallite size is estimated from Synchrotron XRD which was found to be 30-34 nm. Energy dispersive analysis confirms stoichiometric Mg0.5Zn0.5-xCoxCr2O4 composition. Average crystallite size distribution is estimated from imaging software (Image - J) of SEM is in the range of 100-250 nm. Raman spectroscopy reveals four active phonon modes, and a pronounced red shift is due to enhanced Co2+ concentration. Increased Co2+ concentration in Mg-Zn chromites shows a prominent narrowing of band gap from 3.46 to 2.97 eV. The dielectric response is attributed to the interfacial polarization, and the electrical modulus study supports non-Debye type of dielectric relaxation. Ohmic junctions (minimum potential drop) at electrode interface are active at lower levels of doping (x rise to a low-frequency semicircle as evidenced from the complex impedance analysis. The low dielectric loss and high ac conductivity of Co2+ doped Mg-Zn spinel chromites are suitable for power transformer applications at high frequencies.

  18. Synthesis and structural characterization of defect spinels in the lithium-manganese-oxide system

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Thackeray, MM

    1993-10-01

    Full Text Available Lithium-manganese-oxides prepared at moderate temperatures are under investigation as insertion electrodes for rechargeable lithium batteries. The structures of two defect-spinel compounds synthesized by the reaction of MnCO3 and Li2CO3 at 400°C...

  19. Synthesis and structural characterization of defect spinels in the Lithium-Manganese-Oxide system

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Thackeray, MM

    1993-10-01

    Full Text Available Lithium-manganese-oxides prepared at moderate temperatures are under investigation as insertion electrodes for rechargeable lithium batteries. The structures of two defect-spinel compounds synthesised by the reaction of MnCO3 and Li2CO3 at 400...

  20. Structural, magnetic and electrical properties of nickel doped Mn-Zn spinel ferrite synthesized by sol-gel method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jalaiah, K., E-mail: kjalu4u@gmail.com [Department of Physics, Andhra University, Visakhapatnam 530003 (India); Vijaya Babu, K. [Advanced Analytical Laboratory, Andhra University, Visakhapatnam 530003 (India)

    2017-02-01

    Manganese ferrites (MnFe{sub 2}O{sub 4}) have been of great interest for their remarkable and soft-magnetic properties (low coercivity, moderate saturation magnetization) accompanied by good chemical stability and mechanical hardness. X-ray diffraction analysis confirmed the presence of single phase cubic spinel ferrite with space group Fm3m for all prepared samples. Structural parameters such as lattice constant, crystallite size were calculated from the studies of X-ray diffraction. The morphological analysis of all the compounds is studied using scanning electron microscope. The magnetic properties were measured using electron spin resonance (ESR) and vibrating sample magnetometer (VSM). The results obtained showed the formation of manganese ferrites with an average particle size are in good agreement with previous results and displayed good magnetic properties. The dielectric and impedance properties are studied over a frequency range 20 Hz–1 MHz at room temperature. - Highlights: • We prepared Mn{sub 0.85}Zn{sub 0.15}Ni{sub x}Fe{sub 2}O{sub 4} (x=0.03, 0.06, 0.09, 0.12 and 0.15) nano-ferrite materials by using sol-gel method. • All the compounds characterized by XRD, SEM, VSM, ESR and dielectric studies. • We get lower coercivity values. • We get good results from ESR spectra.

  1. Unprecedented Al supersaturation in single-phase rock salt structure VAlN films by Al+ subplantation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greczynski, G.; Mráz, S.; Hans, M.; Primetzhofer, D.; Lu, J.; Hultman, L.; Schneider, J. M.

    2017-05-01

    Modern applications of refractory ceramic thin films, predominantly as wear-protective coatings on cutting tools and on components utilized in automotive engines, require a combination of excellent mechanical properties, thermal stability, and oxidation resistance. Conventional design approaches for transition metal nitride coatings with improved thermal and chemical stability are based on alloying with Al. It is well known that the solubility of Al in NaCl-structure transition metal nitrides is limited. Hence, the great challenge is to increase the Al concentration substantially while avoiding precipitation of the thermodynamically favored wurtzite-AlN phase, which is detrimental to mechanical properties. Here, we use VAlN as a model system to illustrate a new concept for the synthesis of metastable single-phase NaCl-structure thin films with the Al content far beyond solubility limits obtained with conventional plasma processes. This supersaturation is achieved by separating the film-forming species in time and energy domains through synchronization of the 70-μs-long pulsed substrate bias with intense periodic fluxes of energetic Al+ metal ions during reactive hybrid high power impulse magnetron sputtering of the Al target and direct current magnetron sputtering of the V target in the Ar/N2 gas mixture. Hereby, Al is subplanted into the cubic VN grains formed by the continuous flux of low-energy V neutrals. We show that Al subplantation enables an unprecedented 42% increase in metastable Al solubility limit in V1-xAlxN, from x = 0.52 obtained with the conventional method to 0.75. The elastic modulus is 325 ± 5 GPa, in excellent agreement with density functional theory calculations, and approximately 50% higher than for corresponding films grown by dc magnetron sputtering. The extension of the presented strategy to other Al-ion-assisted vapor deposition methods or materials systems is straightforward, which opens up the way for producing supersaturated single-phase

  2. Spinel versus layered structures for lithium cobalt oxide synthesized at 400-degrees-c

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Gummow, RJ

    1993-03-01

    Full Text Available Rietveld refinements of X-ray data of LiCoO2 prepared at 400-degrees-C and a chemically-delithiated product Li0.5CoO2 using space group symmetries R3mBAR and Fd3m are reported. Refinements in both R3mBAR (layered-type structure) and Fd3m (spinel...

  3. Lattice vibrations of materials for lithium rechargeable batteries II. Lithium extraction-insertion in spinel structures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Julien, C.M.; Camacho-Lopez, M.A.

    2004-01-01

    Lithiated spinel manganese oxides with various amounts of lithium have been prepared through solid-state reaction and electrochemical intercalation and deintercalation. Local structure of the samples are studied using Raman scattering and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy. We report vibrational spectra of lithiated manganese oxides Li x Mn 2 O 4 as a function of lithium concentration in the range 0.1≤x≤2.0. Raman and Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectral results indicated multiple-phase reactions when the lithium content is modified in the spinel lattice. Lattice dynamics of lithiated spinel manganese oxides have been interpreted using either a classical factor-group analysis or a local environment model. The structural modifications have been studied on the basis of vibrations of LiO 4 tetrahedral and MnO 6 octahedral units when Li/Mn≤0.5, and LiO 4 , LiO 6 , and MnO 6 structural units when Li/Mn>0.5

  4. Structural and optical characterization of single-phase γ-In2Se3 films with room-temperature photoluminescence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lyu, D.Y.; Lin, T.Y.; Chang, T.W.; Lan, S.M.; Yang, T.N.; Chiang, C.C.; Chen, C.L.; Chiang, H.P.

    2010-01-01

    The single-phase γ-In 2 Se 3 films with red room-temperature photoluminescence (PL) have been realized by atmospheric metal-organic chemical vapor deposition at the temperature range of 350-500 o C. The crystal structure of the γ-In 2 Se 3 films was determined by X-ray diffraction and Raman spectroscopy. From the temperature dependence of the free exciton line, the room-temperature energy gap of γ-In 2 Se 3 films is found to be about 1.947 eV. At 10 K, the free exciton emissions was observed and located at 2.145 eV. The temperature dependence of the near band-edge emission in the temperature region of 10-300 K has been investigated. The measured peak energy of near band-edge emission redshifts by about 200 meV with increasing temperature from 10 to 300 K, and is expressed by, E g (T) = 2.149 + ((-8.50 x 10 -4 )T 2 /(T + 75.5)) eV. This study was done to complete the reported information about γ-In 2 Se 3 thin films.

  5. Low dielectric loss in nano-Li-ferrite spinels prepared by sol–gel ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    size goes down to nanometric scale and these deviations widen the scope of applications [13,14]. Pure nano-Li- ... well-defined diffraction peaks, indicating single phase with spinel structure. It can be noted that the ... ing conditions are found to be close to the standard value. ∼8.329 Å [16], indicating that the synthesizing ...

  6. Structural Complexity of Layered-spinel Composite Electrodes for Li-ion Batteries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cabana, J.; Yang, X.; Johnson, C.S., Chung, K.-Y.; Yoon, W.-S.; Kang, S.-H.; Thackeray, M.M., Grey, C.P.

    2010-08-01

    The complexity of layered-spinel yLi{sub 2}MnO{sub 3} {center_dot} (1-y)Li{sub 1+x}Mn{sub 2-x}O{sub 4} (Li:Mn = 1.2:1; 0 = x = 0.33; y = 0.45) composites synthesized at different temperatures has been investigated by a combination of x-ray diffraction (XRD), x-ray absorption spectroscopy (XAS), and nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR). While the layered component does not change substantially between samples, an evolution of the spinel component from a high to a low lithium excess phase has been traced with temperature by comparing with data for pure Li{sub 1+x}Mn{sub 2-x}O{sub 4}. The changes that occur to the structure of the spinel component and to the average oxidation state of the manganese ions within the composite structure as lithium is electrochemically removed in a battery have been monitored using these techniques, in some cases in situ. Our 6Li NMR results constitute the first direct observation of lithium removal from Li{sub 2}MnO{sub 3} and the formation of LiMnO{sub 2} upon lithium reinsertion.

  7. Restitic or not? Insights from trace element content and crystal - Structure of spinels in African mantle xenoliths

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lenaz, Davide; Musco, Maria Elena; Petrelli, Maurizio; Caldeira, Rita; De Min, Angelo; Marzoli, Andrea; Mata, Joao; Perugini, Diego; Princivalle, Francesco; Boumehdi, Moulay Ahmed; Bensaid, Idris Ali Ahmadi; Youbi, Nasrrddine

    2017-05-01

    The lithospheric architecture of Africa consists of several Archean cratons and smaller cratonic fragments, stitched together and flanked by polycyclic fold belts. Here we investigate the structure and chemistry of spinels from lithospheric mantle xenoliths from distinct tectonic settings, i.e. from the Saharan metacraton in Libya (Waw-En-Namus) which could show archaic chemical features, Cameroon (Barombi Koto and Nyos Lakes) where the Sub Continental Lithospheric Mantle was modified during the Pan-African event and fluxed by asthenospheric melts of the Tertiary Cameroon Volcanic Line and Morocco (Tafraoute, Bou-Ibalrhatene maars) in the Middle Atlas where different metasomatic events have been recorded. From a structural point of view it is to notice that the Libyan spinels can be divided into two groups having different oxygen positional parameter (u > 0.2632 and u Morocco spinels show a Tc in the range 630-760 °C. About 150 different spinels have been studied for their trace element content and it can be seen that many of them are related to Cr content, while Zn and Co are not and clearly distinguish the occurrences. Differences in the trace element chemistry, in the structural parameters and in the intracrystalline closure temperatures suggest that a different history should be considered for Cameroon, Morocco and LB I and LB II spinels. Even if it was not considered for this purpose, we tentatively used the Fe2 +/Fe3 + vs. TiO2 diagram that discriminate between peridotitic and the so-called "magmatic" spinels, i.e. spinel crystallized from melts. LB I and LB II spinels plot in the peridotitic field while Cameroon and Morocco spinels fall in the magmatic one. Consequently, the xenoliths sampled from a probably juvenile SCLM at the edge of the most important lithospheric roots (i.e. Cameroon and Morocco) apparently have spinels possibly fractionated in situ from percolating melts and do not represent a real spinel-peridotite facies. On the contrary mantle

  8. A Fault-Tolerant Parallel Structure of Single-Phase Full-Bridge Rectifiers for a Wound-Field Doubly Salient Generator

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chen, Zhihui; Chen, Ran; Chen, Zhe

    2013-01-01

    The fault-tolerance design is widely adopted for high-reliability applications. In this paper, a parallel structure of single-phase full-bridge rectifiers (FBRs) (PS-SPFBR) is proposed for a wound-field doubly salient generator. The analysis shows the potential fault-tolerance capability of the PS...

  9. Unravelling the Structure and Electrochemical Performance of Li-Cr-Mn-O Cathodes: From Spinel to Layered.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xuelei; Li, Dan; Song, Dawei; Shi, Xixi; Tang, Xu; Zhang, Hongzhou; Zhang, Lianqi

    2018-03-14

    To explore a new series of cathode materials with high electrochemical performance, the spinel-layered (1 - x)[LiCrMnO 4 ]· x[Li 2 MnO 3 ·LiCrO 2 ] ( x = 0, 0.25, 0.5, 0.75, and 1) composites are synthesized with the sol-gel method. X-ray diffraction, high-resolution transmission electron microscopy, selected area electron diffraction, and Raman spectra reveal that the structure of the (1 - x)[LiCrMnO 4 ]· x[Li 2 MnO 3 ·LiCrO 2 ] cathode materials evolves from spinel to hybrid spinel-layered and layered structures with the increase of the Li concentration. Test results reveal that the structure and electrochemical performance of (1 - x)[LiCrMnO 4 ]· x[Li 2 MnO 3 ·LiCrO 2 ] ( x = 0.25, 0.5 and 0.75) composites have the characteristics of both spinel ( x = 0) and Li-rich layered phases ( x = 1). In particular, x = 0.5 and 0.75 electrodes exhibit relatively high capacity retention and rate capability, which is mainly ascribed to the synergistic effect of the spinel and Li-rich layered phases, the 3D Li-ion diffusion channels of the spinel phase, and the low charge-transfer resistance ( R ct ) and Warburg diffusion impedance ( W o ).

  10. Structural, electronic and magnetic properties of partially inverse spinel CoFe2O4: a first-principles study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hou, Y H; Liu, Z W; Yu, H Y; Zhong, X C; Qiu, W Q; Zeng, D C; Wen, L S; Zhao, Y J

    2010-01-01

    Partially inverse spinel CoFe 2 O 4 , which may be prepared through various heat treatments, differs remarkably from the ideal inverse spinel in many properties. The structure of partially inverse spinel CoFe 2 O 4 as well as its electronic and magnetic properties through a systemic theoretical calculation of (Co 1-x Fe x ) Tet (Co x Fe 2-x ) Oct O 4 (x = 0, 0.25, 0.5, 0.75 and 1.0) have been investigated by the generalized gradient approximation (GGA) + U approach. It is found that the Co and Fe ions prefer their high spin configurations with higher spin moments at octahedral sites in all the studied cases, in line with experimental observations. The Co ions at the octahedral sites favour being far away from each other in the partial inverse spinels, which also show half metallicity at certain inversion degrees.

  11. Evolution of the magnetic structure with chemical composition in spinel iron oxide nanoparticles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muscas, G; Yaacoub, N; Concas, G; Sayed, F; Sayed Hassan, R; Greneche, J M; Cannas, C; Musinu, A; Foglietti, V; Casciardi, S; Sangregorio, C; Peddis, D

    2015-08-28

    Magnetic properties of iron oxide nanoparticles with spinel structure are strictly related to a complex interplay between cationic distribution and the presence of a non-collinear spin structure (spin canting). With the aim to gain better insight into the effect of the magnetic structure on magnetic properties, in this paper we investigated a family of small crystalline ferrite nanoparticles of the formula CoxNi1-xFe2O4 (0 ≤x≤ 1) having equal size (≈4.5 nm) and spherical-like shape. The field dependence of magnetization at low temperatures indicated a clear increase of magnetocrystalline anisotropy and saturation magnetization (higher than the bulk value for CoFe2O4: ∼130 A m(2) kg(-1)) with the increase of cobalt content. The magnetic structure of nanoparticles has been investigated by Mössbauer spectroscopy under an intense magnetic field (8 T) at a low temperature (10 K). The magnetic properties have been explained in terms of an evolution of the magnetic structure with the increase of cobalt content. In addition a direct correlation between cationic distribution and spin canting has been proposed, explaining the presence of a noncollinear spin structure in terms of superexchange interaction energy produced by the average cationic distribution and vacancies in the spinel structure.

  12. Simple synthetic route to manganese-containing nanowires with the spinel crystal structure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Lei; Zhang, Yan; Hudak, Bethany M.; Wallace, Damon K.; Kim, Doo Young; Guiton, Beth S.

    2016-08-01

    This report describes a new route to synthesize single-crystalline manganese-containing spinel nanowires (NWs) by a two-step hydrothermal and solid-state synthesis. Interestingly, a nanowire or nanorod morphology is maintained during conversion from MnO2/MnOOH to CuMn2O4/Mg2MnO4, despite the massive structural rearrangement this must involve. Linear sweep voltammetry (LSV) curves of the products give preliminary demonstration that CuMn2O4 NWs are catalytically active towards the oxygen evolution reaction (OER) in alkaline solution, exhibiting five times the magnitude of current density found with pure carbon black.

  13. Simple synthetic route to manganese-containing nanowires with the spinel crystal structure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yu, Lei; Zhang, Yan; Hudak, Bethany M.; Wallace, Damon K.; Kim, Doo Young; Guiton, Beth S.

    2016-01-01

    This report describes a new route to synthesize single-crystalline manganese-containing spinel nanowires (NWs) by a two-step hydrothermal and solid-state synthesis. Interestingly, a nanowire or nanorod morphology is maintained during conversion from MnO 2 /MnOOH to CuMn 2 O 4 /Mg 2 MnO 4 , despite the massive structural rearrangement this must involve. Linear sweep voltammetry (LSV) curves of the products give preliminary demonstration that CuMn 2 O 4 NWs are catalytically active towards the oxygen evolution reaction (OER) in alkaline solution, exhibiting five times the magnitude of current density found with pure carbon black. - Highlights: • Synthesis of single-crystalline manganese-containing spinel nanowires. • Binary oxide nanowire converted to ternary oxide wire through solid state reaction. • Approach to structure conversion with shape retention could be generally applicable. • Copper and Manganese display multiple oxidation states with potential for catalysis. • CuMn 2 O 4 nanowires show promise as catalysts for the oxygen evolution reaction.

  14. Structural and magnetic transitions in spinel FeM n2O4 single crystals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nepal, Roshan; Zhang, Qiang; Dai, Samuel; Tian, Wei; Nagler, S. E.; Jin, Rongying

    2018-01-01

    Materials that form the spinel structure are known to exhibit geometric frustration, which can lead to magnetic frustration as well. Through magnetization and neutron diffraction measurements, we find that FeM n2O4 undergoes one structural and two magnetic transitions. The structural transition occurs at Ts˜595 K from cubic at high temperatures to tetragonal at low temperatures. Two magnetic transitions are ferrimagnetic at TFI -1˜373 K and TFI -2˜50 K , respectively. Further investigation of the specific heat, thermal conductivity, and Seebeck coefficient confirms both magnetic transitions. Of particular interest is that there is a significant magnetic contribution to the low-temperature specific heat and thermal conductivity, providing a unique system to study heat transport by magnetic excitations.

  15. Microfluidic Manufacturing of Polymeric Nanoparticles: Comparing Flow Control of Multiscale Structure in Single-Phase Staggered Herringbone and Two-Phase Reactors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Zheqi; Lu, Changhai; Riordon, Jason; Sinton, David; Moffitt, Matthew G

    2016-12-06

    We compare the microfluidic manufacturing of polycaprolactone-block-poly(ethylene oxide) (PCL-b-PEO) nanoparticles (NPs) in a single-phase staggered herringbone (SHB) mixer and in a two-phase gas-liquid segmented mixer. NPs generated from two different copolymer compositions in both reactors and at three different flow rates, along with NPs generated using a conventional bulk method, are compared with respect to morphologies, dimensions, and internal crystallinities. Our work, the first direct comparison between alternate microfluidic NP synthesis methods, shows three key findings: (i) NP morphologies and dimensions produced in the bulk are different from those produced in a microfluidic mixer, whereas NP crystallinities produced in the bulk and in the SHB mixer are similar; (ii) NP morphologies, dimensions, and crystallinities produced in the single-phase SHB and two-phase mixers at the lowest flow rate are similar; and (iii) NP morphologies, dimensions, and crystallinities change with flow rate in the two-phase mixer but not in the single-phase SHB mixer. These findings provide new insights into the relative roles of mixing and shear in the formation and flow-directed processing of polymeric NPs in microfluidics, informing future reactor designs for manufacturing NPs of low polydispersity and controlled multiscale structure and function.

  16. INFLUENCE OF THE PREPARATION METHOD ON THE STRUCTURE,PHASE FORMATION AND MAGNETIC PROPERTIES OF TEMPLATED CUFE2O4 SPINEL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Najmoddin

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The synthesis of mesoporous CuFe2O4 spinel by several nanocasting strategies (i.e., multi-step nanocasting, one step nanocasting, modified solid-liquid, in which copper and iron nitrates are used as precursors and Pluronic P123 as surfactant, is explored. We have also checked the effect of pH, citric acid and sodium citrate in multi-step nanocasting method. The modified solid-liquid method which contains impregnating mesoporous silica by molten state salts in a non-ionic solvent seems to be the best choice to obtain single phase ordered mesoporous copper ferrite. Other methods suffer from the presence of copper oxide or hematite as impurities or lack of integrity in the mesoporous structure. Increasing pH up to 9.5 does not enhance the phase formation inside the pores of the silica matrix. The citric acid yields a fine structure but does not facilitate the phase formation. Adding sodium citrate neither heals the phase formation nor the structure of the final product. Moreover, vinyl- functionalized mesoporous silica exploited in this study as a hard template entraps both metal nitrates in the pores, assisting impregnation procedure

  17. Structure of spinel at high temperature using in-situ XANES study at the Al and Mg K-edge

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ligny, D de [Universite Claude Bernard Lyon 1, LPCML, 69622 Villeurbanne (France); Neuville, D R [Physique des Mineraux et Magmas, Geochimie-Cosmochimie, CNRS-IPGP, 4 place Jussieu, 75005 Paris (France); Flank, A-M; Lagarde, P, E-mail: deligny@pcml.univ-lyon1.f [Synchrotron SOLEIL, L' Orme des Merisiers, Saint Aubin, 91192 France (France)

    2009-11-15

    We present structural information obtained on spinel at high temperature (298-2400 K) using in situ XANES at the Mg and Al K-edge. Spinel, {sup [4]}(Al{sub x},Mg{sub 1-x}){sup [6]}(Al{sub 2-x},Mg{sub x})O{sub 4}, with increasing temperature, show a substitution of Mg by Al and Al by Mg in their respective sites. This substitution corresponds to an inversion of the Mg and Al sites. Furthermore, both experiments at the Al and Mg K-edges are in good agreement with XANES calculation made using FDMNES code.

  18. High-pressure behaviour of selenium-based spinels and related structures - an experimental and theoretical study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Waskowska, A; Gerward, L; Olsen, J Staun; Feliz, M; Llusar, R; Gracia, L; Marques, M; Recio, J M

    2004-01-01

    The high-pressure structural behaviour of the cubic spinel CdCr 2 Se 4 (space group Fd3barm) and tetragonal CdGa 2 Se 4 (I4bar) has been investigated experimentally and theoretically in order to understand the large difference in compressibility between the two selenides. The experimental values of the bulk modulus for these compounds are 101(2) and 48(2) GPa, respectively. These values compare well with 92 and 44 GPa obtained from first-principles calculations based on the density functional theory formalism. The observed difference in compressibility between the cubic and tetragonal structures can be understood in terms of polyhedral analysis. In a hypothetical cubic spinel structure Fd3barm), the calculated bulk modulus for CdGa 2 Se 4 is 85 GPa. This value together with the experimental and theoretical results for CdCr 2 Se 4 suggest that the selenium-based cubic spinels should have a bulk modulus about 100 GPa, which is half the value found for the oxide spinels

  19. High-pressure behaviour of selenium-based spinels and related structures - an experimental and theoretical study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Waskowska, A [Institute of Low Temperature and Structure Research, Polish Academy of Sciences, 50 422 Wroclaw (Poland); Gerward, L [Department of Physics, Technical University of Denmark, 2800 Kongens Lyngby, Denmark (Denmark); Olsen, J Staun [Niels Bohr Institute, Oersted Laboratory, University of Copenhagen, 2100 Copenhagen (Denmark); Feliz, M [Universitat Jaume I - Campus de Riu Sec, Departament de Ciences Experimentals, Apartat 224, Castellon (Spain); Llusar, R [Universitat Jaume I - Campus de Riu Sec, Departament de Ciences Experimentals, Apartat 224, Castellon (Spain); Gracia, L [Universitat Jaume I - Campus de Riu Sec, Departament de Ciences Experimentals, Apartat 224, Castellon (Spain); Marques, M [Departamento de QuImica FIsica y AnalItica, Universidad de Oviedo, E-33006 Oviedo (Spain); Recio, J M [Departamento de QuImica FIsica y AnalItica, Universidad de Oviedo, E-33006 Oviedo (Spain)

    2004-01-14

    The high-pressure structural behaviour of the cubic spinel CdCr{sub 2}Se{sub 4} (space group Fd3barm) and tetragonal CdGa{sub 2}Se{sub 4} (I4bar) has been investigated experimentally and theoretically in order to understand the large difference in compressibility between the two selenides. The experimental values of the bulk modulus for these compounds are 101(2) and 48(2) GPa, respectively. These values compare well with 92 and 44 GPa obtained from first-principles calculations based on the density functional theory formalism. The observed difference in compressibility between the cubic and tetragonal structures can be understood in terms of polyhedral analysis. In a hypothetical cubic spinel structure Fd3barm), the calculated bulk modulus for CdGa{sub 2}Se{sub 4} is 85 GPa. This value together with the experimental and theoretical results for CdCr{sub 2}Se{sub 4} suggest that the selenium-based cubic spinels should have a bulk modulus about 100 GPa, which is half the value found for the oxide spinels.

  20. Compositional and structural variabilities of Mg-rich iron oxide spinels from tuffite

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W. N. Mussel

    1999-12-01

    Full Text Available Maghemite (γFe2O3 from tuffite is exceptionally rich in Mg, relatively to most of those reportedly found in other mafic lithosystems. To investigate in detail the compositional and structural variabilities of this natural magnetic iron oxide, sets of crystals were isolated from samples collected at different positions in a tuffite weathering mantle. These sets of crystal were individually powdered and studied by X-ray diffractometry, Mössbauer spectroscopy, magnetization measurements and chemical analysis. Lattice parameter of the cubic cell (a0 was found to vary from 0.834(1 to 0.8412(1 nm. Lower a0-values are characteristic of maghemite whereas higher ones are related to a magnetite precursor. FeO content ranges up to 17 mass % and spontaneous magnetization ranges from 8 to 32 J T-1 kg-1. Zero-field room temperature Mössbauer spectra are rather complex, indicating that the hyperfine field distributions due to Fe3+ and mixed valence Fe3+/2+ overlap. The structural variabilities of the (Mg, Ti-rich iron oxide spinels is essentially related to the range of chemical composition of its precursor (Mg, Ti-rich magnetite, and probably to the extent to which it has been oxidized during transformation in soil.

  1. Electronic structure and band alignment at an epitaxial spinel/perovskite heterojunction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qiao, Liang; Li, Wei; Xiao, Haiyan; Meyer, Harry M; Liang, Xuelei; Nguyen, N V; Weber, William J; Biegalski, Michael D

    2014-08-27

    The electronic properties of solid-solid interfaces play critical roles in a variety of technological applications. Recent advances of film epitaxy and characterization techniques have demonstrated a wealth of exotic phenomena at interfaces of oxide materials, which are critically dependent on the alignment of their energy bands across the interface. Here we report a combined photoemission and electrical investigation of the electronic structures across a prototypical spinel/perovskite heterojunction. Energy-level band alignment at an epitaxial Co3O4/SrTiO3(001) heterointerface indicates a chemically abrupt, type I heterojunction without detectable band bending at both the film and substrate. The unexpected band alignment for this typical p-type semiconductor on SrTiO3 is attributed to its intrinsic d-d interband excitation, which significantly narrows the fundamental band gap between the top of the valence band and the bottom of the conduction band. The formation of the type I heterojunction with a flat-band state results in a simultaneous confinement of both electrons and holes inside the Co3O4 layer, thus rendering the epitaxial Co3O4/SrTiO3(001) heterostructure to be a very promising material for high-efficiency luminescence and optoelectronic device applications.

  2. Structural, Optical, and Magnetic Characterization of Spinel Zinc Chromite Nanocrystallines Synthesised by Thermal Treatment Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Salahudeen A. Gene

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The present study reports the structural and magnetic characterization of spinel zinc chromite (ZnCr2O4 nanocrystallines synthesized by thermal treatment method. The samples were calcined at different temperatures in the range of 773 to 973 K. Polyvinylpyrrolidone was used to control the agglomeration of the nanoparticles. The average particle size of the synthesized nanocrystals was determined by powder X-ray diffraction which shows that the crystallite size increases from 19 nm at 773 K to 24 nm at 973 K and the result was in good agreement with the transmission electron microscopy images. The elemental composition of the samples was determined by energy dispersed X-ray spectroscopy which confirmed the presence of Zn, Cr, and O in the final products. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy also confirmed the presence of metal oxide bands for all the samples calcined at different temperature. The band gap energy was calculated from UV-vis reflectance spectra using the Kubelka-Munk function and the band gap energy of the samples was found to decrease from 4.03 eV at 773 K to 3.89 eV at 973 K. The magnetic properties were also demonstrated by electron spin resonance spectroscopy, the presence of unpaired electrons was confirmed, and the resonant magnetic field and the g-factor of the calcined samples were also studied.

  3. Chemical composition, crystal structure, and their relationships with the intrinsic properties of spinel-type crystals based on bond valences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xiao; Wang, Hao; Lavina, Barbara; Tu, Bingtian; Wang, Weimin; Fu, Zhengyi

    2014-06-16

    Spinel-type crystals may possess complex and versatile chemical composition and crystal structure, which leads to difficulty in constructing relationships among the chemical composition, crystal structure, and intrinsic properties. In this work, we develop new empirical methods based on bond valences to estimate the intrinsic properties, namely, compressibility and thermal expansion of complex spinel-type crystals. The composition-weighted average of bond force constants in tetrahedral and octahedral coordination polyhedra is derived as a function of the composition-weighted average of bond valences, which can be calculated according to the experimental chemical composition and crystal structural parameters. We discuss the coupled effects of tetrahedral and octahedral frameworks on the aforementioned intrinsic properties. The bulk modulus could be quantitatively calculated from the composition-weighted average of bond force constants in tetrahedral and octahedral coordination polyhedra. In contrast, a quantitative estimation of the thermal expansion coefficient could be obtained from the composition-weighted average of bond force constants in octahedral coordination polyhedra. These empirical methods have been validated by the results obtained for a new complex quaternary spinel-type oxynitride Mg0.268Al2.577O3.733N0.267 as well as MgAl2O4 and Al2.85O3.45N0.55 from the literature. Further, these empirical methods have the potential to be extensively applied in other types of complex crystals.

  4. Zn{sub x-1}Cu{sub x}Mn{sub 2}O{sub 4} spinels; synthesis, structural characterization and electrical evaluation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mendez M, F.; Lima, E.; Bosch, P.; Pfeiffer, H. [UNAM, Instituto de Investigaciones en Materiales, Circuito Exterior, Ciudad Universitaria, 04510 Mexico D. F. (Mexico); Gonzalez, F., E-mail: pfeiffer@iim.unam.m [Universidad Autonoma Metropolitana, Unidad Iztapalapa, Av. San Rafael Atlixco No. 186, Col. Vicentina, 09340 Mexico D. F. (Mexico)

    2010-07-01

    This work presents the structural characterization and electrical evaluation of Zn{sub x-1}Cu{sub x}Mn{sub 2}O{sub 4} spinels, which are materials presented as secondary phases into the vari stor ceramic systems. Samples were analyzed by X-ray diffraction, solid-state nuclear magnetic resonance, infrared spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy and impedance spectroscopy. Although, the addition of copper to the ZnMn{sub 2}O{sub 4} spinel did not produce morphological changes, the structure and electrical behaviors changed considerably. Structurally, copper addition induced the formation of partial inverse spinels, and its addition increases significantly the electrical conductivity. Therefore, the formation of Zn{sub x-1}Cu{sub x}Mn{sub 2}O{sub 4} spinels, as secondary phases into the vari stor materials, may compromise significantly the vari stor efficiency. (Author)

  5. Structure change of alumina castable by adding magnesia or spinel; Maguneshia matawa supineru no tenka ni yoru arumina kei kyasutaburu no soshiki henka

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mori, J.; Onoue, M.; Toritani, Y.; Tanaka, S. [Kawasaki Refractories Co. Ltd., Hyogo (Japan)

    1995-01-10

    Alumina-spinel castable is developed as the refractory for lining ladles, and compared with the existing refractory its durability is greatly raised. This material is obtained by adding spinel to alumina base, and besides improvement of the slag penetration resistance it is likely to reduce the structure spoiling. To solve this problem, alumina castable added by magnesia draws much attention recently. Although alumina-spinel and alumina-magnesia are both castables with Al2O3, MgO as their main compositions, and their whole chemical compositions are almost the same, the durability of alumina-magnesia is sometimes much better according to the applying conditions. In this study, the structure change of alumina castable by adding magnesia or spinel was investigated, and the reason of the influence on the durability was studied. 6 refs., 6 figs., 1 tab.

  6. Stretched-to-compressed-exponential crossover observed in the electrical degradation kinetics of some spinel-metallic screen-printed structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balitska, V.; Shpotyuk, O.; Brunner, M.; Hadzaman, I.

    2018-02-01

    Thermally-induced (170 °C) degradation-relaxation kinetics is examined in screen-printed structures composed of spinel Cu0.1Ni0.1Co1.6Mn1.2O4 ceramics with conductive Ag or Ag-Pd layered electrodes. Structural inhomogeneities due to Ag and Ag-Pd diffusants in spinel phase environment play a decisive role in non-exponential kinetics of negative relative resistance drift. If Ag migration in spinel is inhibited by Pd addition due to Ag-Pd alloy, the kinetics attains stretched exponential behavior with ∼0.58 exponent, typical for one-stage diffusion in structurally-dispersive media. Under deep Ag penetration into spinel ceramics, as for thick films with Ag-layered electrodes, the degradation kinetics drastically changes, attaining features of two-step diffusing process governed by compressed-exponential dependence with power index of ∼1.68. Crossover from stretched- to compressed-exponential kinetics in spinel-metallic structures is mapped on free energy landscape of non-barrier multi-well system under strong perturbation from equilibrium, showing transition with a character downhill scenario resulting in faster than exponential decaying.

  7. Effect of the preparation method on the structural and catalytic properties of spinel cobalt-iron oxide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hammiche-Bellal, Yasmina, E-mail: yasminahammiche@gmail.com [Laboratoire des Matériaux Catalytiques et Catalyse en Chimie Organique, Faculté de Chimie, USTHB, BP32 El Alia, Bab Ezzouar, 16111, Alger (Algeria); Djadoun, Amar [Laboratoire de Géophysique, FSTGAT, USTHB, BP32 El Alia, Bab Ezzouar, 16111, Alger (Algeria); Meddour-Boukhobza, Laaldja; Benadda, Amel [Laboratoire des Matériaux Catalytiques et Catalyse en Chimie Organique, Faculté de Chimie, USTHB, BP32 El Alia, Bab Ezzouar, 16111, Alger (Algeria); Auroux, Aline [Université Lyon 1, CNRS, UMR 5256, IRCELYON, Institut de Recherches sur la Catalyse et l' Environnement de Lyon, 2 Avenue Albert Einstein, F-69626, Villeurbanne (France); Berger, Marie-Hélène [Centre des Matériaux PIERRE-MARIE Fourt, UMR 7633, Paris (France); Mernache, Fateh [UDEC-CRND, COMENA, BP 43 Draria, 16050, Alger (Algeria)

    2016-07-01

    Spinel cobalt-iron oxide was synthesized by co-precipitation and hydrothermal routes. The effect of the co-precipitation experimental conditions, the calcination temperature and the hydrothermal synthesis time and temperature on the properties of the solids was studied. The prepared powders were evaluated as catalysts in the ethanol combustion reaction, and were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), transmission electron microscopy (TEM/EDX), nitrogen adsorption–desorption isotherms (BET, BJH) and temperature programmed reduction (TPR) techniques. Using chloride salts as starting materials and sodium hydroxide as precipitating agent, the CoFe{sub 2}O{sub 4} prepared powders displayed a mesoporous structure with a pore distribution strongly dependent on the experimental conditions. A monophasic spinel phase in the case of the calcined solids was obtained while the hydrothermal process led to the formation of a mixture of single oxides in addition to the spinel phase. The variation of the crystallite size and the lattice parameter as a function of calcination temperature was similar, whereas this variation found to be irregular when the synthesis residence time in autoclave was increased. The hydrothermally treated solids show the best catalytic performance in the total oxidation of ethanol. The catalytic behavior was correlated with the crystallite size and the reduction temperature of cobalt species determined by the TPR analysis. - Highlights: • Pure CoFe{sub 2}O{sub 4} phase is obtained by co-precipitation method at calcination temperatures 500–900 °C. • The temperature of co-precipitation procedure influences strongly the growth of the solids during the calcination step. • The hydrothermal synthesis gives a mixture of oxides; CoFe{sub 2}O{sub 4} is the predominant phase. • The CoFe{sub 2}O{sub 4} spinel showed a good catalytic reactivity in the ethanol combustion reaction. • The catalysts prepared by hydrothermal process are more reactive and

  8. Bulk Single Crystal-Like Structural and Magnetic Characteristics of Epitaxial Spinel Ferrite Thin Films with Elimination of Antiphase Boundaries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Amit V; Khodadadi, Behrouz; Mohammadi, Jamileh Beik; Keshavarz, Sahar; Mewes, Tim; Negi, Devendra Singh; Datta, Ranjan; Galazka, Zbigniew; Uecker, Reinhard; Gupta, Arunava

    2017-08-01

    Spinel ferrite NiFe 2 O 4 thin films have been grown on three isostructural substrates, MgAl 2 O 4 , MgGa 2 O 4 , and CoGa 2 O 4 using pulsed laser deposition. These substrates have lattice mismatches of 3.1%, 0.8%, and 0.2%, respectively, with NiFe 2 O 4 . As expected, the films grown on MgAl 2 O 4 substrate show the presence of the antiphase boundary defects. However, no antiphase boundaries (APBs) are observed for films grown on near-lattice-matched substrates MgGa 2 O 4 and CoGa 2 O 4 . This demonstrates that by using isostructural and lattice-matched substrates, the formation of APBs can be avoided in NiFe 2 O 4 thin films. Consequently, static and dynamic magnetic properties comparable with the bulk can be realized. Initial results indicate similar improvements in film quality and magnetic properties due to the elimination of APBs in other members of the spinel ferrite family, such as Fe 3 O 4 and CoFe 2 O 4 , which have similar crystallographic structure and lattice constants as NiFe 2 O 4 . © 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  9. Simple and Efficient Rout for Synthesis of Spinel Nanopigments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leila Torkian

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Nano-sized CoxMg1−xAl2O4 (x = 0, 0.1, 0.2, 0.4, 0.6, 0.8, and 1 inorganic pigments were synthesized via combustion method using β-alanine, as a single and novel fuel, at 800°C in open furnace. The obtained powders were characterized by means of X-ray diffraction (XRD, energy dispersive X-ray (EDX elemental analysis, diffuse reflectance spectrum (DRS, CIE L*a*b* color measurements, and scanning electron microscope (SEM. XRD patterns show that all calcined powders have single phase cubic spinel structure. EDX analysis revealed the composition of desired spinels. The diffuse reflectance spectra of the CoxMg1−xAl2O4 (x > 0 pigments confirmed the presence of tetrahedrally coordinated Co2+ ions in the spinel lattice. The colorimetric data pointed out the formation of blue pigments (for x > 0, corresponding to highly negative values of b*, and the bluest color was produced for x = 0.8 and 1. SEM images showed nanoparticles with less than 30 nm crystallite size and flakes-like appearance of all synthesized powders.

  10. Low-temperature structural transformation and magnetic properties of GaMo4S8-type defect spinel compounds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shamraj, V.F.; Lejtus, G.M.

    1987-01-01

    Crystal structure and physical properties of GaMo 4 S 8 and GaM x Mo 4 S 8 (M=C, Si, Ge) phases, referring to magnetic semiconductors were investiagted at room and low temperatures. All investigated compounds in the range T p =30-45 K experience phase transformations. Theoretical group analysis of possible symmetry changes, supposing that observed crystal-phase transformation is the first-kind transformation, close to the second-kind one, is carried out. It is shown, that crystal-phase transformation is syfficient in forming magnetic properties of ''defect spinel'' type structural phases (Curie temperature T M ≅ 20 K). Superexchange interactions between magnetic moments, localized on molybdenum ions, are responsible for magnetic order

  11. Low-temperature synthesis of single-phase Co7Sb2O12

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brito, M.S.L.; Escote, M.T.; Santos, C.O.P.; Lisboa-Filho, P.N.; Leite, E.R.; Oliveira, J.B.L.; Gama, L.; Longo, E.

    2004-01-01

    Polycrystalline Co 7 Sb 2 O 12 compounds have been synthesized by a chemical route, which is based on a modified polymeric precursor method. In order to study the physical properties of the samples, X-ray diffraction (XRD), thermal analyses (TG and DSC), infrared spectroscopy (IR), specific surface area (BET), and magnetization measurements were performed on these materials. Characterization through XRD revealed that the samples are single-phase after a heat-treatment at 1100 deg. C for 2 h, while the X-ray patterns of the samples heat-treated at lower temperatures revealed the presence of additional Bragg reflections belonging to the Co 6 Sb 2 O 6 phase. These data were analyzed by means of Rietveld refinement and further analyze showed that Co 7 Sb 2 O 12 displays an inverse spinel crystalline structure. In this structure, the Co 2+ ions occupy the eight tetrahedral positions, and the sixteen octahedral positions are randomly occupied by the Sb 5+ and Co 2+ ions. IR studies disclosed two strong absorption bands, ν 1 and ν 2 , in the expected spectral range for a spinel-type binary oxide with space group Fd3m. Exploratory studies concerning the magnetic properties indicated that this sample presents a spin-glass transition at T f ∼ 64 K

  12. The effect of bismuth on the structure, magnetic and electric properties of Co2MnO4 spinel multiferroic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chouaya, H.; Smari, M.; Walha, I.; Dhahri, E.; Graça, M. P. F.; Valente, M. A.

    2018-04-01

    Mixed Co2Mn1-xBixO4 (x = 0, x = 0.05 and x = 0.1) samples were prepared by the sol-gel method using the citric acid route and characterized by various techniques. The X-ray diffraction (XRD) and Raman spectroscopic analyses confirmed the formation of inverse spinel cubic structure with Fd 3 ‾ m space group. The introduction of Bismuth (Bi) into Co2MnO4 did not modify the ferrimagnetic character of the parent compound Co2MnO4, whereas the field-cooled magnetizations MFC and the Curie temperature Tc decreased when increasing the Bi content. The electrical properties showed an activation energy (Ea) increase caused by the decrease of the double-exchange interaction following the substitution of Mn3+ by Bi3+. Eventually, the temperature coefficient of resistance (TCR) shows significant values for all samples can be investigated also as good candidates for bolometer applications.

  13. Electronic structure and physical properties of the spinel-type phase of BeP2N4 from all-electron density functional calculations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ching, W. Y.; Aryal, Sitram; Rulis, Paul; Schnick, Wolfgang

    2011-01-01

    Using density-functional-theory-based ab initio methods, the electronic structure and physical properties of the newly synthesized nitride BeP 2 N 4 with a phenakite-type structure and the predicted high-pressure spinel phase of BeP 2 N 4 are studied in detail. It is shown that both polymorphs are wide band-gap semiconductors with relatively small electron effective masses at the conduction-band minima. The spinel-type phase is more covalently bonded due to the increased number of P-N bonds for P at the octahedral sites. Calculations of mechanical properties indicate that the spinel-type polymorph is a promising superhard material with notably large bulk, shear, and Young's moduli. Also calculated are the Be K, P K, P L 3 , and N K edges of the electron energy-loss near-edge structure for both phases. They show marked differences because of the different local environments of the atoms in the two crystalline polymorphs. These differences will be very useful for the experimental identification of the products of high-pressure syntheses targeting the predicted spinel-type phase of BeP 2 N 4 .

  14. Structural characterisation and physical properties of Li MMnO 4 ( M=Cr, Ti) spinels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arillo, M. A.; Cuello, G.; López, M. L.; Martín, P.; Pico, C.; Veiga, M. L.

    2005-01-01

    New spinel-type phases of general formula Li MMnO 4 ( M=Cr, Ti), derived from LiMn 2O 4 by substitution of Mn 3+ by Cr 3+ or Mn 4+ by Ti 4+, have been obtained and characterised. Neutron diffraction refinements confirm that both phases crystallise in the Fd3m space group, giving the cation distributions [Li] 8 a[CrMn] 16 dO 4 and [Li 0.66Ti 0.34] 8 a[Li 0.34MnTi 0.66] 16 dO 4. Electrical conductivity has been examined by various techniques showing that these materials behave as semiconductors. The electrochemical behaviour indicates different oxidation-reduction steps in both cases concomitant with the insertion/deinsertion of lithium in non-reversible processes. X-ray diffraction patterns show that the above process is topotactic in LiCrMnO 4. Magnetic data and neutron diffraction measurements show that no long-range magnetic ordering is present, suggesting a spin-glass transition for M=Cr at low temperature, while for M=Ti the presence of non-magnetic ions in the octahedral sublattice provokes an inherent magnetic frustration.

  15. Comparative studies on structural properties and antimicrobial potential of spinel ferrite nanoparticles synthesized using various methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baraliya, Jagdish D.; Rakhashiya, Purvi M.; Patel, Pooja P.; Thaker, Vrinda S.; Joshi, Hiren H.

    2017-05-01

    In this study, novel multifunctional magnetic iron-based nanoparticles (CoFe2O4) coated with silica, silica-DEG (diethylene glycol), PEG (polyethylene glycol) were synthesized using Auto Combustion Method (ACM), Co-precipitation Method (COPM), Citrate Precursor Method (CPM), Flash Combustion Method (FCM). These spinel ferrite nanoparticles also contain very high antibacterial properties to fulfill the requirements of a drug delivery system so that the antibiotic concentration could be minimized. A potential delivery system could be based on a ferromagnetic fluid. The effects of various preparation methods on the physical properties of the nanoparticles were examined. The nanoparticles were also tested against four human pathogenic bacteria (Gram negative E.coli, P. aeruginosa, Gram positive S. aureus, S. pyogenus) and two fungi (C. albicans, A.niger). It was revealed that a nanoparticle has strong antibacterial activity as compared to antifungal. Further, Gram positive bacteria are more affected than Gram negative bacteria. It was also clear that different methods of coating have great influence on the antimicrobial properties. It was observed that these nanoparticles have significantly different but potentially very high antimicrobial activities against the tested organisms than found elsewhere by other nanoparticles on the same organisms.

  16. Synthesis and magnetic properties of single phase titanomagnetites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schoenthal, W., E-mail: wms@andrew.cmu.edu; Liu, X.; Cox, T.; Laughlin, D. E.; McHenry, M. E. [Materials Science and Engineering, Carnegie Mellon University, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania 15213 (United States); Mesa, J. L.; Diaz-Michelena, M. [Instituto Nacional de Tecnica Aeroespacial, Madrid (Spain); Maicas, M. [Universidad Politecnica de Madrid, ISOM-ETSIT, Madrid (Spain)

    2014-05-07

    The focus of this paper is the study of cation distributions and resulting magnetizations in titanomagnetites (TMs), (1−x)Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4−x}Fe{sub 2}TiO{sub 4} solid solutions. TM remnant states are hypothesized to contribute to planetary magnetic field anomalies. This work correlates experimental data with proposed models for the TM pseudobinary. Improved synthesis procedures are reported for single phase Ulvöspinel (Fe{sub 2}TiO{sub 4}), and TM solid solutions were made using solid state synthesis techniques. X-ray diffraction and scanning electron microscopy show samples to be single phase solid solutions. M-H curves of TM75, 80, 85, 90, and 95 (TMX where X = at. % of ulvöspinel) were measured using a Physical Property Measurement System at 10 K, in fields of 0 to 8 T. The saturation magnetization was found to be close to that predicted by the Neel model for cation distribution in TMs. M-T curves of the remnant magnetization were measured from 10 K to 350 K. The remnant magnetization was acquired at 10 K by applying an 8 T field and then releasing the field. Experimental Neel temperatures are reported for samples in the Neel model ground state.

  17. Method for thermal processing alumina-enriched spinel single crystals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jantzen, Carol M.

    1995-01-01

    A process for age-hardening alumina-rich magnesium aluminum spinel to obtain the desired combination of characteristics of hardness, clarity, flexural strength and toughness comprises selection of the time-temperature pair for isothermal heating followed by quenching. The time-temperature pair is selected from the region wherein the precipitate groups have the characteristics sought. The single crystal spinel is isothermally heated and will, if heated long enough pass from its single phase through two pre-precipitates and two metastable precipitates to a stable secondary phase precipitate within the spinel matrix. Quenching is done slowly at first to avoid thermal shock, then rapidly.

  18. Ab initio investigation of the thermodynamics of cation distribution and of the electronic and magnetic structures in the LiMn2O4 spinel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santos-Carballal, David; Ngoepe, Phuti E.; de Leeuw, Nora H.

    2018-02-01

    The spinel-structured lithium manganese oxide (LiMn2O4 ) is a material currently used as cathode for secondary lithium-ion batteries, but whose properties are not yet fully understood. Here, we report a computational investigation of the inversion thermodynamics and electronic behavior of LiMn2O4 derived from spin-polarized density functional theory calculations with a Hubbard Hamiltonian and long-range dispersion corrections (DFT+U-D3). Based on the analysis of the configurational free energy, we have elucidated a partially inverse equilibrium cation distribution for the LiMn2O4 spinel. This equilibrium degree of inversion is rationalized in terms of the crystal field stabilization effects and the difference between the size of the cations. We compare the atomic charges with the oxidation numbers for each degree of inversion. We found segregation of the Mn charge once these ions occupy the tetrahedral and octahedral sites of the spinel. We have obtained the atomic projections of the electronic band structure and density of states, showing that the normal LiMn2O4 has half-metallic properties, while the fully inverse spinel is an insulator. This material is in the ferrimagnetic state for the inverse and partially inverse cation arrangement. The optimized lattice and oxygen parameters, as well as the equilibrium degree of inversion, are in agreement with the available experimental data. The partial equilibrium degree of inversion is important in the interpretation of the lithium ion migration and surface properties of the LiMn2O4 spinel.

  19. Controlled cobalt doping in the spinel structure of magnetosome magnetite: New evidences from element- and site-specific XMCD analyses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Y.; LI, J.; Menguy, N.; Arrio, M. A.; Sainctavit, P.; Juhin, A.; Wang, Y.; Chen, H.; Bunau, O.; Otero, E.; Ohresser, P.

    2016-12-01

    Controlled cobalt doping in the spinel structure of magnetosome magnetite: New evidences from element- and site-specific XMCD analyses Jinhua Li1,2*, Nicolas Menguy2,3, Marie-Anne Arrio3, Philippe Sainctavit3,4, Amélie Juhin3, Yinzhao Wang1,2, Haitao Chen5, Oana Bunau3, Edwige Otero4, Philippe Ohresser4, Yongxin Pan1,21Key Laboratory of Earth and Planetary Physics, Institute of Geology and Geophysics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100029, China. 2France-China Biomineralization and Nano-structures Laboratory, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100029, China. 3IMPMC, CNRS UMR 7590, Sorbonne Universités, MNHN, UPMC, IRD UMR 206, 75005 Paris, France. 4Synchrotron SOLEIL, L'Orme des Merisiers Saint-Aubin, 91192 Gif-sur-Yvette Cedex, France. 5Institute of Deep-Sea Science and Engineering, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Sanya 572000, China *To whom correspondence may be addressed. Email: lijinhua@mail.iggcas.ac.cnThe biomineralization of magnetite nanocrystals (called magnetosomes) by magnetotactic bacteria (MTB) has attracted intense interest in biology, geology and materials science. Great efforts have been recently made in producing transition metal-doped magnetosomes with modified magnetic properties for a range of applications. However, the coordination chemistry and magnetism of such metal-doped magnetosomes still remains largely unknown. Here, we present new evidences from X-ray magnetic circular dichroism (XMCD) for element- and site-specific magnetic analyses that cobalt is incorporated in the spinel structure of the magnetosomes within Magnetospirillum magneticum AMB-1 through the replacement of Fe2+ ions by Co2+ ions in octahedral (Oh) sites of magnetite. Compared with non-doped one, cobalt-doped magnetosome sample has lower Verwey transition temperature and larger magnetic coercivity, related to the amount of doped cobalt. This study this study indicates a biologically controlled process on cobalt doping and magnetic alteration by MTB system

  20. The first find of spinel peridotite in the Southern Kazakhstan: Structure, composition, and parameters of high-pressure metamorphism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pilitsyna, A. V.; Tretyakov, A. A.; Alifirova, T. A.; Degtyarev, K. E.; Kovalchuk, E. V.

    2017-09-01

    Spinel peridotite, metamorphosed in high-pressure conditions, was first described within the Western part of the Central Asian Orogenic Belt. The spinel peridotite has the characteristics of Mg-Cr ultramafites indicating the mantle origin of its protolith. The preliminary estimation of the metamorphism peak for the model system MgO-Al2O3—SiO2-Cr2O3 (MASCr) is 10-19 kbar at 680-800°C.

  1. Structure and magnetism in the bond-frustrated spinel ZnC r2S e4

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zajdel, P.; Li, W.-Y.; van Beek, W.; Lappas, A.; Ziolkowska, A.; Jaskiewicz, S.; Stock, C.; Green, M. A.

    2017-04-01

    The crystal and magnetic structures of stoichiometric ZnC r2S e4 have been investigated using synchrotron x-ray and neutron powder diffraction, muon spin relaxation (μ SR ), and inelastic neutron scattering. Synchrotron x-ray diffraction shows a spin-lattice distortion from the cubic F d 3 ¯m spinel to a tetragonal I 41/a m d lattice below TN=21 K , where powder neutron diffraction confirms the formation of a helical magnetic structure with magnetic moment of 3.04 (3 ) μB at 1.5 K, close to that expected for high-spin C r3 + . μ SR measurements show prominent local spin correlations that are established at temperatures considerably higher (100 μ s-1) muon relaxation rates are suggestive of rapid site hopping of the muons in static field. Inelastic neutron scattering measurements show a gapless mode at an incommensurate propagation vector of k =[0 0 0.4648 (2 )] in the low-temperature magnetic ordered phase that extends to 0.8 meV. The dispersion is modeled by a two-parameter Hamiltonian, containing ferromagnetic nearest-neighbor and antiferromagnetic next-nearest-neighbor interactions with a Jn n n/Jn n=-0.337 .

  2. Neutron structural characterization, inversion degree and transport properties of NiMn{sub 2}O{sub 4} spinel prepared by the hydroxide route

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sagua, A.; Lescano, Gabriela M. [Departamento de Química, Laboratorio de Fisicoquímica Inorgánica, Universidad Nacional del Sur, INQUISUR, 8000 Bahía Blanca (Argentina); Alonso, J.A., E-mail: jaalonso@icmm.csic.es [Instituto de Ciencia de Materiales de Madrid, C.S.I.C., Cantoblanco, E-28049 Madrid (Spain); Martínez-Coronado, R. [Instituto de Ciencia de Materiales de Madrid, C.S.I.C., Cantoblanco, E-28049 Madrid (Spain); Fernández-Díaz, M.T. [Institut Laue Langevin, BP 156X, Grenoble F-38042 (France); Morán, E. [Departamento de Química Inorgánica, Facultad de Ciencias Químicas, Universidad Complutense, 28040 Madrid (Spain)

    2012-06-15

    Graphical abstract: A pure specimen has been synthesized by the hydroxide route. This spinel, studied by NPD, shows an important inversion degree, λ = 0.80. A bond-valence study shows that the tetrahedral Mn ions are divalent whereas the octahedral Mn and Ni are slightly oxidized from the expected 3+ and 2+ values, respectively. The mixed valence Mn{sup 3+}/Mn{sup 4+} accounts for a hopping mechanism between adjacent octahedral sites, leading to a significant conductivity. Highlights: ► A low-temperature hydroxide route allowed preparing almost pure specimens of NiMn{sub 2}O{sub 4}. ► NPD essential to determine inversion degree; contrasting Ni and Mn for neutrons. ► Bond valence establishes valence state of octahedral and tetrahedral Ni and Mn ions. ► Thermal analysis, transport measurements complement characterization of this oxide. ► A structure–properties relationship is established. -- Abstract: The title compound has been synthesized by the hydroxide route. The crystal structure has been investigated at room temperature from high-resolution neutron powder diffraction (NPD) data. It crystallizes in a cubic spinel structure, space group Fd3{sup ¯}m, Z = 8, with a = 8.3940(2) Å at 295 K. The crystallographic formula is (Ni{sub 0.202(1)}Mn{sub 0.798(1)}){sub 8a}(Ni{sub 0.790(1)}Mn{sub 1.210(1)}){sub 16d}O{sub 4} where 8a and 16d stand for the tetrahedral and octahedral sites of the spinel structure, respectively. There is a significant inversion degree of the spinel structure, λ = 0.80. In fact, the variable parameter for the oxygen position, u = 0.2636(4), is far from that expected (u = 0.25) for normal spinels. From a bond-valence study, it seems that the valence distribution in NiMn{sub 2}O{sub 4} spinel is not as trivial as expected (Ni{sup 2+} and Mn{sup 3+}), but clearly the tetrahedral Mn ions are divalent whereas the octahedral Mn and Ni are slightly oxidized from the expected +3 and +2 values, respectively. The mixed valence observed at

  3. Re-creation of single phase, and improvement of magnetic property of CoFe2O4 nanoparticles versus heat treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tran, N.; Kim, D. H.; Phan, T. L.; Dang, N. T.; Bach, T. N.; Manh, D. H.; Lee, B. W.

    2018-03-01

    Our studies on the crystal characterization and magnetic property of CoFe2O4 nanoparticles (NPs) point out their instability in a specific temperature range. While as-prepared NPs exhibit single phase in a cubic spinel structure, annealing at temperatures T=673-1273 K leads to the development of an impurity phase of Fe2O3. Interestingly, annealing at higher temperatures re-creates the single phase of NPs. This strongly influences their magnetic property. The magnetic inhomogeneity and/or multiple phase exist in as-prepared NPs and in those annealed below 1273 K, better magnetic property is found in the samples with annealing temperature (Tan) higher than 1273 K. Ferromagnetic-paramagnetic phase transition temperatures of these samples are located around 815-850 K, and are less dependent on Tan. At room temperature, their saturation magnetization is located in the range of 41-55 emu/g, while the coercivity can be changed from 600 to 3200 Oe. These results are related to microstructures, structural phases, and exchange interactions between Fe and Co ions situated in the A and B sites of the spinel structure, which are modified by heat treatment.

  4. Rietveld structure refinement and elastic properties of MgAlxCrxFe2-2xO4 spinel ferrites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thummer, K. P.; Tanna, Ashish R.; Joshi, Hiren H.

    2017-05-01

    MgAlxCrxFe2-2xO4 (x = 0.1, 03 & 0.6) ferrites are synthesized by solid state reaction method. The Rietveld refinement of X-ray diffraction (XRD) data confirms the cubic spinel structure with Fd3m space group. The Fourier Transform Infrared Transmission Spectroscopy (FTIR) is employed to study elastic properties of present systems at 300K. The force constants for tetrahedral (A) and octahedral (B) sites of the spinel lattice are determined by infrared spectral and X-ray diffraction analysis. The elastic constants like bulk modulus, rigidity modulus, Young's modulus, Poisson's ratio and Debye temperature are determined. The vibrational frequency of both the interstitial sites increases as Al-Cr content increases hence the force constant and elastic moduli for all the samples are found to increase for the present ferrite system.

  5. Cationic exchange in nanosized ZnFe2O4 spinel revealed by experimental and simulated near-edge absorption structure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stewart, S. J.; Figueroa, S. J. A.; Ramallo Lopez, J. M.; Requejo, F. G.; Marchetti, S. G.; Bengoa, J. F.; Prado, R. J.

    2007-01-01

    The nonequilibrium cation site occupancy in nanosized zinc ferrites (∼6-13 nm) with different degree of inversion (∼0.2 to 0.4) was investigated using Fe and Zn K-edge x-ray absorption near edge spectroscopy (XANES) and extended x-ray absorption fine structure, and magnetic measurements. The very good agreement between experimental and ab initio calculations on the Zn K-edge XANES region clearly shows the large Zn 2+ (A)→Zn 2+ [B] transference that takes place in addition to the well-identified Fe 3+ [B]→Fe 3+ (A) one, without altering the long-range structural order. XANES spectra features as a function of the spinel inversion were shown to depend on the configuration of the ligand shells surrounding the absorbing atom. This XANES approach provides a direct way to sense cationic inversion in these Zn-containing spinel ferrites. We also demonstrated that a mechanical crystallization takes place on nanocrystalline spinel that causes an increase of both grain and magnetic sizes and, simultaneously, generates a significant augment of the inversion

  6. Towards a lattice-matching solid-state battery: synthesis of a new class of lithium-ion conductors with the spinel structure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosciano, Fabio; Pescarmona, Paolo P; Houthoofd, Kristof; Persoons, Andre; Bottke, Patrick; Wilkening, Martin

    2013-04-28

    Lithium ion batteries have conquered most of the portable electronics market and are now on the verge of deployment in large scale applications. To be competitive in the automotive and stationary sectors, however, they must be improved in the fields of safety and energy density (W h L(-1)). Solid-state batteries with a ceramic electrolyte offer the necessary advantages to significantly improve the current state-of-the-art technology. The major limit towards realizing a practical solid-state lithium-ion battery lies in the lack of viable ceramic ionic conductors. Only a few candidate materials are available, each carrying a difficult balance between advantages and drawbacks. Here we introduce a new class of possible solid-state lithium-ion conductors with the spinel structure. Such compounds could be coupled with spinel-type electrode materials to obtain a "lattice matching" solid device where low interfacial resistance could be achieved. Powders were prepared by wet chemistry, their structure was studied by means of diffraction techniques and magic angle spinning NMR, and Li(+) self-diffusion was estimated by static NMR line shape measurements. Profound differences in the Li(+) diffusion properties were observed depending on the composition, lithium content and cationic distribution. Local Li(+) hopping in the spinel materials is accompanied by a low activation energy of circa 0.35 eV being comparable with that of, e.g., LLZO-type garnets, which represent the current benchmark in this field. We propose these novel materials as a building block for a lattice-matching all-spinel solid-state battery with low interfacial resistance.

  7. Structural properties of Cd–Co ferrites

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    , 0·95 and 1·0), were prepared by standard ceramic method and characterized by XRD, IR and SEM techniques. X-ray analysis confirms the formation of single phase cubic spinel structure. Lattice constant and grain size of the samples ...

  8. The influence of Ga doping on structural magnetic and dielectric properties of NiCr0.2Fe1.8O4 spinel ferrite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ajmal, Muhammad; Islam, M. U.; Ashraf, Ghulam Abbas; Nazir, Muhammad Aamir; Ghouri, M. I.

    2017-12-01

    A series of spinel ferrites NiCr0.2GaxFe1.8-xO4 (x=0.00, 0.002, 0.04, 0.06, 0.08) was prepared by co precipitation technique. The influence of rare earth element Ga ions the structural dielectric and magnetic properties of NiCr0.2Fe1.8O4 ferrites was investigated. The X-ray diffraction confirmed the phase precipitated out was pure spinel phase with few traces of secondary phases. The crystallite size decreases and density increases with the increases of Ga contents. The magnetic moment, saturation magnetization and remanent magnetization increased with addition of Ga ions in spinel ferrite. The dielectric constant is described that it decreases more suddenly at low frequencies as compare at higher frequencies. The decrease in dielectric loss with frequency follows Deby's relaxation phenomena. Both the variation in tan loss and dielectric loss with frequency shows a similar. AC conductivity increases with the increases of frequency which inversely proportional to concentration of Ga3+ ions follows Jonscher law. These Gallium Chromium doped nickel ferrites are very helpful for high frequency switching devices.

  9. Atomic Structure of a Spinel-like Transition Al2O3 (100) Surface

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Thomas Nørregaard; Meinander, Kristoffer; Helveg, Stig

    2014-01-01

    We study a crystalline epitaxial alumina thin film with the characteristics of a spinel-type transition Al2O3(100) surface by using atom-resolved noncontact atomic force microscopy and density functional theory. It is shown that the films are terminated by an Al-O layer rich in Al vacancies...

  10. Structural and magnetic properties of Li-Cu mixed spinel ferrites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manjura Hoque, S.; Samir Ullah, M.; Khan, F. A.; Hakim, M. A.; Saha, D. K.

    2011-04-01

    Li0.5-x/2CuxFe2.5-x/2O4 (where x=0.0-1.0) ferrites have been prepared by solid-state reaction. X-ray diffraction was used to study the structure of the above investigated ferrites at various sintering temperatures. Samples were sintered at 1000, 1100 and 1200 °C for 3 h in the atmosphere. For the sintering temperature of 1000 °C, Li0.5-x/2CuxFe2.5-x/2O4 undergoes cubic to tetragonal transformation for higher Cu content. However, for the sintering temperature of 1100 and 1200 °C, X-ray diffraction patterns are mainly characterized by fcc structure, though presence of tetragonal distortion was found by other temperature dependence of initial permeability curves. The lattice parameter, X-ray density and bulk density were calculated for different compositions. Curie temperature was measured from the temperature dependence of initial permeability curves. Curie temperatures of Li-Cu mixed ferrites were found to decrease with the increase in Cu2+ content due to the reduction of A-B interaction. As mentioned earlier, temperature dependence of initial permeability curves was characterized by tetragonal deformation for the samples containing higher at% of Cu. The complex initial permeability has been studied for different samples. The B-H loops were measured at constant frequency, f=1200 Hz, at room temperature (298 K). Coercivity and hysteresis loss were estimated for different Cu contents.

  11. Order-disorder transitions of t2g-orbitals of V3+ ions and incommensurate structural deformations in the metallic spinel CuV2S4

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hidaka, M.; Tokiwa, N.; Wijesundera, R.P.; Awaka, J.; Nagata, S.; Park, Young Jun; Lee, Ki Bong

    2007-01-01

    Structural transitions of the spinel CuV 2 S 4 have been studied by means of X-ray diffraction using synchrotron radiation. The temperature dependence of reflections forbidden in a cubic spinel structure of Fd3m suggests that there are order-disorder transitions of 3d 2 (t 2g ) orbitals of V 3+ ions at about 75 and 210 K. An incommensurate superlattice reflection of (2+3/4,2,2+3/4) shows the structural phase transition occurring at about 90 K, in addition to the superlattice structural modulation at about 30-35 and 55 K. A reduced wavevector q=(3/4-δ,0,3/4-δ) shows the temperature dependence of the δ value from 0.015 to -0.025. A lock-in of δ=0.0 and a crossover of the δ value occur in the region of 40 to 50 K. The incommensurate structural modulation along [110], [011], and [101] directions appearing below about 90 K affects a paramagnetic spin order of V 3+ ions at about 30-35 and 55 K, in addition to the 90 K structural transition. The paramagnetic behavior is interpreted mainly by the structural deformation and the (d xy ,d yz ,d zx ) orbitals in the VS 6 octahedral chains sited along [110], [011], and [101] directions. (copyright 2007 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim) (orig.)

  12. Structural stability of ZnAl{sub 2}O{sub 4} spinel irradiated by low energy particles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baldinozzi, Gianguido [Laboratoire Structures, Proprietes et Modelisation des Solides, CNRS - Ecole Centrale Paris, 92295 Chatenay - Malabry (France)]. E-mail: gianguido.baldinozzi@ecp.fr; Simeone, David [DEN/DMN/SRMA/LA2M, CEA, CE Saclay, 91191 Gif-sur-Yvette (France); Gosset, Dominique [DEN/DMN/SRMA/LA2M, CEA, CE Saclay, 91191 Gif-sur-Yvette (France); Dolle, Mickael [DEN/DMN/SRMA/LA2M, CEA, CE Saclay, 91191 Gif-sur-Yvette (France); Thome, Lionel [CSNSM, CNRS - Universite d' Orsay, 91405 Orsay (France); Mazerolles, Leo [CECM, CNRS, 94407 Vitry-sur-Seine (France)

    2006-09-15

    It is now well known that irradiation of metals and alloys can drive materials into complex configurations. Several examples, like the occurrence of order-disorder phase transitions driven by irradiation, are discussed by many authors. To understand the behavior of ceramics under irradiation, several spinels were irradiated. In this paper, experimental results on the irradiation of ZnAl{sub 2}O{sub 4} by low-energy particles (4 MeV Au{sup 2+} ions) are presented. An order-disorder phase transition is observed. The unusual behavior of this spinel under irradiation is discussed within the framework of Martin's theory of driven alloys under irradiation.

  13. Control of Single-Stage Single-Phase PV inverter

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ciobotaru, Mihai; Teodorescu, Remus; Blaabjerg, Frede

    2005-01-01

    In this paper the issue of control strategies for single-stage photovoltaic (PV) inverter is addressed. Two different current controllers have been implemented and an experimental comparison between them has been made. A complete control structure for the single-phase PV system is also presented...

  14. Transformation of hexagonal to mixed spinel crystal structure and magnetic properties of Co{sup 2+} substituted BaFe{sub 12}O{sub 19}

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chavan, Varsha C. [Department of Physics, Yashawantrao Chavan Mahavidyalaya, Tuljapur, MS (India); Shirsath, Sagar E. [Department of Physics, Vivekanand College, Aurangabad 431001, MS (India); Mane, Maheshkumar L., E-mail: mane.maheshkumar@hotmail.com [Department of Physics, S. G. R. G. Shinde Mahavidyalaya, Paranda 413502, MS (India); Kadam, R.H. [Materials Research Laboratory, Shrikrishna Mahavidyalaya, Gunjoti 413613, MS (India); More, Surendra S. [Department of Physics, Yashawantrao Chavan Mahavidyalaya, Tuljapur, MS (India)

    2016-01-15

    M-type barium hexaferrites Ba{sub 1−x}Co{sub x}Fe{sub 12}O{sub 19} (x=0.0–1.00 with steps of 0.25) were synthesized by sol–gel autocombination method and were post-annealed at relatively low temperature at 600 °C. The samples were characterized by X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy, infrared spectroscopy and vibrating sample magnetometry. Crystal transformed from pure Ba-hexaferrite to spinel with Co{sup 2+} substitution. Results of scanning electron microscope show that the grains are regular and well-defined structured. Infrared spectra support the nature and crystal symmetry that obtained from X-ray diffraction pattern study. Magnetization results show that saturation magnetization and magneton number decreased whereas coercivity increased for x>0.50 Co{sup 2+} doping. - Highlights: • Co{sup 2+} substituted Ba hexaferrites. • Crystal structural transformation from hexagonal to cubic spinel. • Decrease in saturation magnetization and increase in coercivity with Co{sup 2+} substitution.

  15. Impact of Nd3+ in CoFe2O4 spinel ferrite nanoparticles on cation distribution, structural and magnetic properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yadav, Raghvendra Singh; Havlica, Jaromir; Masilko, Jiri; Kalina, Lukas; Wasserbauer, Jaromir; Hajdúchová, Miroslava; Enev, Vojtěch; Kuřitka, Ivo; Kožáková, Zuzana

    2016-02-01

    Nd3+ doped cobalt ferrite nanoparticles have been synthesized by starch-assisted sol-gel auto-combustion method. The significant role played by Nd3+ added to cobalt ferrite in changing cation distribution and further in influencing structural and magnetic properties, was explored and reported. The crystal structure formation and crystallite size were studied from X-ray diffraction studies. The microstructural features were investigated by field emission scanning electron microscopy and transmission electron microscopy that demonstrates the nanocrystalline grain formation with spherical morphology. An infrared spectroscopy study shows the presence of two absorption bands related to tetrahedral and octahedral group complexes within the spinel ferrite lattice system. The change in Raman modes in synthesized ferrite system were observed with Nd3+ substitution, particle size and cation redistribution. The impact of Nd3+ on cation distribution of Co2+ and Fe3+ at octahedral and tetrahedral sites in spinel ferrite cobalt ferrite nanoparticles was investigated by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. Room temperature magnetization measurements showed that the saturation magnetization and coercivity increase with addition of Nd3+ substitution in cobalt ferrite.

  16. Structural Rietveld refinement and vibrational study of MgCr{sub x}Fe{sub 2−x}O{sub 4} spinel ferrites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sabri, K. [Laboratoire des Sciences et technique de l’Environnement et de la Valorisation, département de Génie des Procédés, Université de Mostaganem, Mostaganem (Algeria); Rais, A., E-mail: amrais@yahoo.com [Laboratoire des Sciences et technique de l’Environnement et de la Valorisation, département de Génie des Procédés, Université de Mostaganem, Mostaganem (Algeria); Taibi, K. [Laboratoire de Science et Génie des Matériaux, USTHB, Alger, Algéria (Algeria); Moreau, M.; Ouddane, B. [Laboratory of LASIR Spectrochemistry, University of Science and Technology, 59650 Villeneuve d’Ascq (France); Addou, A. [Laboratoire des Sciences et technique de l’Environnement et de la Valorisation, département de Génie des Procédés, Université de Mostaganem, Mostaganem (Algeria)

    2016-11-15

    Spinel ferrites with the general formula MgCr{sub x}Fe{sub 2−x}O{sub 4} (0≤x≤1) were synthesized by the standard ceramic technique and characterized by X-ray diffraction. The XRD patterns confirmed that the mixed ferrite samples are in the cubic spinel structure which is further validated by Rietveld refinement in the space group Fd3m. The crystal structure and cell parameters were refined by Rietveld analysis. The vibrational study was achieved using Fourier Transform-InfraRed (FT-IR) and Raman spectroscopy. From FT-IR band frequencies, the force constants K{sub t} and K{sub o} , for tetrahedral (A) and octahedral (B) sites respectively, have been calculated and discussed with the trend of bond lengths obtained from Rietveld refinement. For all compositions, Raman spectra revealed the five active modes showing the vibration of O{sup 2−} ions at both the A-site and B-site ions. The frequencies trend with chromium content of both FT-IR and Raman spectra showed a shift toward higher values for all modes.

  17. Structure and morphology of spinel MFe2O4 (M=Fe, Co, Ni) nanoparticles chemically synthesized from heterometallic complexes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naidek, Karine Priscila; Bianconi, Flavia; da Rocha, Tulio Costa Rizuti; Zanchet, Daniela; Bonacin, Juliano Alves; Novak, Miguel Alexandre; Vaz, Maria das Graças Fialho; Winnischofer, Herbert

    2011-06-01

    We synthesized magnetic spinel ferrites from trimetallic single-source precursors. Fe(II), Co(II), and Ni(II) ferrite nanoparticles in the range of 9-25 nm were synthesized by solvothermal decomposition of trimetallic acetate complex precursors in benzyl ether in the presence of oleic acid and oleylamine, using 1,2-dodecanediol as the reducing agent. For comparison, spinel ferrite nanoparticles were synthesized by stoichiometric mixtures of metal acetate or acetylacetonate salts. The nanoparticles (NP) were characterized by TEM, DLS, powder XRD, and Raman spectroscopy; and their magnetic properties were characterized by ZFC-FC and M(H) measurements. The ferrite-NP were more homogeneous and had a narrower size distribution when trimetallic complexes were used as precursors. As a consequence, the magnetic properties of these ferrite-NP are closer to the aimed room temperature superparamagnetic behavior, than are those of other ferrites obtained by a mixture of salts. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Structure of Co–Zn ferrite ferrofluid: A small angle neutron scattering

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    A hydrothermal synthesis route is used to synthesize nanomagnetic particles of Co0.3Zn0.7Fe2O4 ferrite ferrofluids with particle diameter ranging from 5.5–9 nm. XRD analysis shows the formation of a single phase spinel structure. EDX results confirm the stoichiometric composition of the cations. Small angle neutron ...

  19. Structure, morphology and optical-luminescence investigations of spinel ZnGa2O4 ceramics co-doped with Mn2+ and Eu3+ ions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kravets, O.; Zaremba, O.; Shpotyuk, Ya.; Luchechko, A.; Szmuc, K.; Cebulski, J.; Ingram, A.; Shpotyuk, O.

    2018-02-01

    The polycrystalline zinc gallate ZnGa2O4: Mn2+ and ZnGa2O4: Mn2+, Eu3+ samples have been synthesized via high-temperature solid-state reaction ceramic technique. The obtained ceramics have been characterized employing the methods of X-ray diffraction analysis, transmission electron microscopy, energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy, positron annihilation lifetime spectroscopy and optical-luminescent spectroscopy. The XRD analysis testified in favor of successful formation of spinel structure in the prepared samples with small amount of additional phase observed in the ZnGa2O4: Mn2+, Eu3+ ceramics. The grains of irregular shape with a homogeneous distribution of Eu3+ ions in a volume were identified with TEM technique. The band gap of ZnGa2O4: Mn2+ spinel was estimated from optical absorption spectra in UV-Vis range. The characteristic bands related to electronic transitions of Mn2+ and Eu3+ ions were found in optical absorption and excitation spectra. The photoluminescence emission spectra exhibited matrix luminescence along with emission band of Mn2+ ions and narrow lines of Eu3+ ions in blue, green and red spectral region, respectively. The intensity ratio of Eu3+ emission lines confirms the high asymmetry around Eu3+ ions. These findings correlate well with results of positron annihilation lifetime spectroscopy showing intense reduction of positron trapping rate deeply in ceramics grains due to Eu3+ ions penetration.

  20. Study of structural phase transformation and hysteresis behavior of inverse-spinel α-ferrite nanoparticles synthesized by co-precipitation method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shadab Dabagh

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Substitution of cobalt (Co2+ ions in cobalt ferrite (CoFe2O4 with copper (Cu2+ and aluminum (Al3+ ions allows variations in their electric and magnetic properties which can be optimized for specific applications. In this article, synthesis of inverse-spinel Co1−xCuxFe2−xAlxO4 (0.0 ≤ x ≤ 0.8 nanoparticles by substituting Cu2+ and Al3+ ions in CoFe2O4 via co-precipitation method is reported. By controlling copper and aluminum (Cu-Al substituent ratio, the magnetic moment and coercivity of synthesized cobalt ferrite nanoparticles is optimized. The role of substituents on the structure, particle size, morphology, and magnetic properties of nano-crystalline ferrite is investigated. The Co1−xCuxFe2−xAlxO4 (0.0 ≤ x≤ 0.8 nanoparticles with crystallite size in the range of 23.1–26.5 nm are observed, 26.5 nm for x = 0.0–23.1 nm for x = 0.8. The inverse-spinel structure of synthesized Co1−xCuxFe2−xAlxO4 (0.0 ≤ x ≤ 0.8 nano-particles is confirmed by characteristic vibrational bands at tetrahedral and octahedral sites using Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy. A decreases in coercive field and magnetic moment is observed as Cu-Al contents are increased (x = 0.0–0.8. The positive anisotropy of synthesized particles Co1−xCuxFe2−xAlxO4 (0.0 ≤ x ≤ 0.8 is obtained in the range 1.96 × 105 J/m3 for x = 0.0 to 0.29 × 105 J/m3 for x = 0.8. Keywords: Co-precipitation method, XRD, Spinel ferrites, VSM, TEM

  1. Structural characterization and magnetic properties of the spinel compound CoIn0.5Cr1.5S4

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Delgado, G.E.; Sagredo, V.; Bolzoni, F.

    2008-01-01

    Single crystals of the magnetic semiconductor CoIn 0.5 Cr 1.5 S 4 , belong to the system CoIn (2-2X) Cr (2X) S 4 with x=0.75, was grown by the chemical transport method. X-ray powder diffraction characterization by the Rietveld method indicated that CoIn 0.5 Cr 1.5 S 4 crystallizes in the space group Fd-3m, Z=8, with a=10.0700(6) A and V=1021.2(1) A 3 , in a normal spinel structure. The temperature dependence of the DC magnetization suggests that the studied compound presents a ferromagnetic behavior with a Curie temperature T c =220 K. Sharp spin-glass like behavior was found also. (copyright 2008 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim) (orig.)

  2. Controlled cobalt doping in the spinel structure of magnetosome magnetite: new evidences from element- and site-specific X-ray magnetic circular dichroism analyses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jinhua; Menguy, Nicolas; Arrio, Marie-Anne; Sainctavit, Philippe; Juhin, Amélie; Wang, Yinzhao; Chen, Haitao; Bunau, Oana; Otero, Edwige; Ohresser, Philippe; Pan, Yongxin

    2016-08-01

    The biomineralization of magnetite nanocrystals (called magnetosomes) by magnetotactic bacteria (MTB) has attracted intense interest in biology, geology and materials science due to the precise morphology of the particles, the chain-like assembly and their unique magnetic properties. Great efforts have been recently made in producing transition metal-doped magnetosomes with modified magnetic properties for a range of applications. Despite some successful outcomes, the coordination chemistry and magnetism of such metal-doped magnetosomes still remain largely unknown. Here, we present new evidences from X-ray magnetic circular dichroism (XMCD) for element- and site-specific magnetic analyses that cobalt is incorporated in the spinel structure of the magnetosomes within Magnetospirillum magneticum AMB-1 through the replacement of Fe(2+) ions by Co(2+) ions in octahedral (Oh) sites of magnetite. Both XMCD at Fe and Co L2,3 edges, and energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy on transmission electron microscopy analyses reveal a heterogeneous distribution of cobalt occurring either in different particles or inside individual particles. Compared with non-doped one, cobalt-doped magnetosome sample has lower Verwey transition temperature and larger magnetic coercivity, related to the amount of doped cobalt. This study also demonstrates that the addition of trace cobalt in the growth medium can significantly improve both the cell growth and the magnetosome formation within M. magneticum AMB-1. Together with the cobalt occupancy within the spinel structure of magnetosomes, this study indicates that MTB may provide a promising biomimetic system for producing chains of metal-doped single-domain magnetite with an appropriate tuning of the magnetic properties for technological and biomedical applications. © 2016 The Author(s).

  3. Comparative study of nano copper aluminate spinel prepared by sol–gel and modified sol–gel techniques: Structural, electrical, optical and catalytic studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kumar, R. Thinesh; Suresh, P.; Selvam, N. Clament Sagaya; Kennedy, L. John; Vijaya, J. Judith

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► A modified sol–gel method for the preparation of nano CuAl 2 O 4 spinel using ethylenediamine was studied. ► Role of ethylenediamine in enhancing the structural, electrical, optical and catalytic properties of copper aluminate is highlighted. ► Effect of preparation method on the activity and selectivity of the samples on the oxidation of benzyl alcohol by CuAl 2 O 4 is studied. - Abstract: The effect of ethylenediamine addition in the sol–gel method for the preparation of nano CuAl 2 O 4 spinel for the enhancement in their structural, electrical, optical and catalytic properties was investigated. The samples were prepared by two different methods: sol–gel and modified sol–gel technique using ethylenediamine. X-ray diffraction (XRD), Fourier transform infrared spectra (FT-IR), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), high resolution-transmission electron microscopy (HR-TEM), energy dispersive X-ray analysis (EDX), nitrogen adsorption/desorption isotherms, temperature dependent conductance measurements, thermoelectric power (TEP) measurements and UV–visible diffuse reflectance (UV–vis-DRS) spectra were used to characterize the samples prepared. CuAl 2 O 4 prepared by modified sol–gel technique was found to possess a higher surface area, lower crystallite size, lower activation energy and high porosity than the one prepared by sol–gel method which in turn lead to the improved performance of it towards the selective oxidation of benzyl alcohol to benzaldehyde. Effect of solvent on the catalytic oxidation of benzyl alcohol by the nano CuAl 2 O 4 prepared by modified sol–gel technique was also investigated.

  4. Study of structural phase transformation and hysteresis behavior of inverse-spinel α-ferrite nanoparticles synthesized by co-precipitation method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dabagh, Shadab; Chaudhary, Kashif; Haider, Zuhaib; Ali, Jalil

    2018-03-01

    Substitution of cobalt (Co2+) ions in cobalt ferrite (CoFe2O4) with copper (Cu2+) and aluminum (Al3+) ions allows variations in their electric and magnetic properties which can be optimized for specific applications. In this article, synthesis of inverse-spinel Co1-xCuxFe2-xAlxO4 (0.0 ≤ x ≤ 0.8) nanoparticles by substituting Cu2+ and Al3+ ions in CoFe2O4 via co-precipitation method is reported. By controlling copper and aluminum (Cu-Al) substituent ratio, the magnetic moment and coercivity of synthesized cobalt ferrite nanoparticles is optimized. The role of substituents on the structure, particle size, morphology, and magnetic properties of nano-crystalline ferrite is investigated. The Co1-xCuxFe2-xAlxO4 (0.0 ≤ x≤ 0.8) nanoparticles with crystallite size in the range of 23.1-26.5 nm are observed, 26.5 nm for x = 0.0-23.1 nm for x = 0.8. The inverse-spinel structure of synthesized Co1-xCuxFe2-xAlxO4 (0.0 ≤ x ≤ 0.8) nano-particles is confirmed by characteristic vibrational bands at tetrahedral and octahedral sites using Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy. A decreases in coercive field and magnetic moment is observed as Cu-Al contents are increased (x = 0.0-0.8). The positive anisotropy of synthesized particles Co1-xCuxFe2-xAlxO4 (0.0 ≤ x ≤ 0.8) is obtained in the range 1.96 × 105 J/m3 for x = 0.0 to 0.29 × 105 J/m3 for x = 0.8.

  5. Preparation of single phase molybdenum boride

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Camurlu, Hasan Erdem

    2011-01-01

    Highlights: → Formation of Mo and a mixture of molybdenum boride phases take place in preparation of molybdenum borides. → It is intricate to prepare single phase molybdenum borides. → Formation of single phase MoB from MoO 3 + B 2 O 3 + Mg mixtures has not been reported previously. → Single phase MoB was successfully prepared through a combination of mechanochemical synthesis and annealing process. - Abstract: The formation of MoB through volume combustion synthesis (VCS), and through mechanochemical synthesis (MCS) followed by annealing has been investigated. MoO 3 , B 2 O 3 and Mg were used as reactants while MgO and NaCl were introduced as diluents. Products were leached in dilute HCl solution and were subjected to X-ray diffraction (XRD) analysis and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) examinations. Mo was the major phase component in the VCS products under all the experimental conditions. Mo 2 B, MoB, MoB 2 and Mo 2 B 5 were found as minor phases. Products of MCS contained a mixture of Mo 2 B, MoB, MoB 2 and Mo. After annealing the MCS product at 1400 deg. C for 3 h, single phase α-MoB was obtained.

  6. Single phase induction motor with starting performance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Popescu, M.; Demeter, E. [Research Institute for Electrical Machines, ICPE-ME, Bucharest (Romania); Navrapescu, V. [University `Politehnica` Bucharest, Electrical Engineering Faculty Splaiul Independentei, Bucharest (Romania)

    1997-12-31

    The paper presents problems related to a special type of single phase induction motor. The main novelty consists in the use of a conducting (aluminium casted) shell distributed on the periferic region of the rotor. As a result the starting performance, as well as the rated ones, is much improved in comparison with the conventional construction. (orig.) 4 refs.

  7. The effect of temperature and atmosphere on spinel phase formation of nano-manganese ferrite

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Nasr

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available  Phase formation of manganese ferrite prepared by co-precipitation method is studied at different annealing temperatures. It is shown that the spinel phase is formed by quenching only in inert gas. XRD patterns show that the background picks fall in intensity by increasing annealing temperature and the single phase is achieved by magnetic separation.

  8. Structural, magnetic, optical, dielectric, electrical and modulus spectroscopic characteristics of ZnFe2O4 spinel ferrite nanoparticles synthesized via honey-mediated sol-gel combustion method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yadav, Raghvendra Singh; Kuřitka, Ivo; Vilcakova, Jarmila; Urbánek, Pavel; Machovsky, Michal; Masař, Milan; Holek, Martin

    2017-11-01

    This paper reports a honey-mediated green synthesis of ZnFe2O4 spinel ferrite nanoparticles and the effect of further annealing on structural, magnetic, optical, dielectric and electrical properties. X-ray diffraction study confirmed the well formation of ZnFe2O4 spinel ferrite crystal structure. Raman and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy confirmed the formation of spinel ferrite crystal structure. The scanning electron microscopy study revealed the formation of spherical morphology at lower annealing temperature with achieved particle size 30-60 nm, whereas, octahedral like morphology at higher annealing temperature with particle size 50-400 nm. Magnetization measurements were carried out using a vibrating sample magnetometer at room temperature. The estimated magnetic parameter such as saturation magnetization (Ms), remanence (Mr) and coercivity (Hc) showed variation in value with nano-crystallite size. The highest saturation magnetization (Ms) was 12.81 emu/g for as-synthesized ZnFe2O4 spinel ferrite nanoparticles, whereas, highest coercivity (Hc) was 25.77 Oe for ZnFe2O4 nanoparticles annealed at high temperature 1000 °C. UV-Visible reflectance spectroscopy showed the band gap variation from 1.90 eV to 2.14 eV with the increase of annealing temperature. The dielectric constant and dielectric loss were decreased with frequency showing the normal behavior of spinel ferrites. The variation in conductivity is explained in terms of the variation in microstructure and variation in the mobility of charge carriers associated with the cation redistribution induced by annealing or grain size. The modulus and impedance spectroscopy study revealed the influence of bulk grain and the grain boundary on the electrical resistance and capacitance of ZnFe2O4 nanoparticles. The results presented in this work are helpful for green synthesis of well-controlled size, morphology and physical properties of ZnFe2O4 nanoparticles.

  9. Crystal structures of spinel-type Na2MoO4 and Na2WO4 revisited using neutron powder diffraction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Dominic Fortes

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Time-of-flight neutron powder diffraction data have been collected from Na2MoO4 and Na2WO4 to a resolution of sin (θ/λ = 1.25 Å−1, which is substantially better than the previous analyses using Mo Kα X-rays, providing roughly triple the number of measured reflections with respect to the previous studies [Okada et al. (1974. Acta Cryst. B30, 1872–1873; Bramnik & Ehrenberg (2004. Z. Anorg. Allg. Chem. 630, 1336–1341]. The unit-cell parameters are in excellent agreement with literature data [Swanson et al. (1962. NBS Monograph No. 25, sect. 1, pp. 46–47] and the structural parameters for the molybdate agree very well with those of Bramnik & Ehrenberg (2004. However, the tungstate structure refinement of Okada et al. (1974 stands apart as being conspicuously inaccurate, giving significantly longer W—O distances, 1.819 (8 Å, and shorter Na—O distances, 2.378 (8 Å, than are reported here or in other simple tungstates. As such, this work represents an order-of-magnitude improvement in precision for sodium molybdate and an equally substantial improvement in both accuracy and precision for sodium tungstate. Both compounds adopt the spinel structure type. The Na+ ions have site symmetry .-3m and are in octahedral coordination while the transition metal atoms have site symmetry -43m and are in tetrahedral coordination.

  10. Structural, Magnetic, and Electronic Properties of Mixed Spinel NiFe2-xCrxO4Nanoparticles Synthesized by Chemical Combustion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyubutin, Igor S; Lin, Chun-Rong; Starchikov, Sergey S; Baskakov, Arseniy O; Gervits, Natalia E; Funtov, Konstantin O; Tseng, Yaw-Teng; Lee, Wen-Jen; Shih, Kun-Yauh; Lee, Jiann-Shing

    2017-10-16

    A series of nickel-chromium-ferrite NiFe 2-x Cr x O 4 (with x = 1.25) nanoparticles (NPs) with a cubic spinel structure and with size d ranging from 1.6 to 47.7 nm was synthesized by the solution combustion method. A dual structure of all phonon modes revealed in Raman spectra is associated with metal cations of different types present in the spinel lattice sites. Mössbauer spectra of small NPs exhibit superparamagnetic behavior. However, the transition into the paramagnetic state occurs at a temperature that is unusually high for small particles (T N is about 240 K in the d = 4.5 nm NPs). The larger NPs with d > 20 nm do not exhibit superparamagnetic properties up to the Neel temperature. From the magnetic and Mössbauer data, the cation occupation of the tetrahedral (A) and octahedral [B] sites was determined (Fe 0.75 Ni 0.25 )[Ni 0.75 Cr 1.25 ]O 4 . The saturation magnetization M S in the largest NPs is about (0.98-0.95) μ B , which is more than twice higher the value in bulk ferrite (Fe)[CrNi]O 4 . At low temperatures the total magnetic moment of the ferrite coincides with the direction of the B-sublattice moment. In the NPs with d > 20 nm, the compensation of the magnetic moments of A- and B-sublattices was revealed at about T com = 360-365 K. This value significantly exceeds the point T com in bulk ferrites NiFe x Cr 2-x O 4 (about 315 K) with the similar Cr concentration. However, in the smaller NPs NiFe 0.75 Cr 1.25 O 4 with d ≤ 11.7 nm, the compensation effect does not occur. The magnetic anomalies are explained in terms of highly frustrated magnetic ordering in the B sublattice, which appears due to the competition of AFM and FM exchange interactions and results in a canted magnetic structure.

  11. Effect of d-block element Co{sup 2+} substitution on structural, Mössbauer and dielectric properties of spinel copper ferrites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dar, M.A.; Varshney, Dinesh, E-mail: vdinesh33@rediffmail.com

    2017-08-15

    Highlights: • Tetragonal (I41/amd) to cubic (Fd3m) phase change is observed in Cu{sub 1−x}Co{sub x}Fe{sub 2}O{sub 4}. • Raman studies reveal 2 (5) optical active modes in CuFe{sub 2}O{sub 4} and 5 (5) at room temperature. • Transmission Mössbauer spectroscopy discerns two sets of six-line hyperfine patterns. • The dielectric constant increases is maximum for Co{sup 2+}x = 0.1 composition. • ac conductivity is constant (low frequency) and increases abruptly (high frequency). - Abstract: The present work focuses on the influence of replacement of d-block element Cu{sup 2+} ion by Co{sup 2+} in Cu-spinel ferrites [Cu{sub 1−x}Co{sub x}Fe{sub 2}O{sub 4} (x = 0.0, 0.1, 0.2, 0.4, 0.6, and 1.0)] on the structural, vibrational and dielectric properties as synthesized by Solid-state reaction route. A structural transition from tetragonal (space group I41/amd)) to cubic (space group Fd3m) phase is observed due to introduction of cobalt. Cubic spinel- type structure at room temperature of Cu{sub 1−x}Co{sub x}Fe{sub 2}O{sub 4} (0.4 ≤ x ≤ 1.0) is confirmed by Rietveld – refined X-ray powder diffraction patterns. Raman spectroscopic studies reveal 2 (5) optical active modes in CuFe{sub 2}O{sub 4} (CoFe{sub 2}O{sub 4}) at room temperature. Transmission Mössbauer spectroscopy of Cu{sub 1−x}Co{sub x}Fe{sub 2}O{sub 4} (x = 0.0, 0.2 and 0.6) shows two sets of six-line hyperfine patterns for all the three samples, indicating the presence of Fe in both A and B sites. Identification of sites is accomplished by evidence from hyperfine distribution and isomer-shift data. Dielectric constant and dielectric loss tangent measured in the frequency range from 1 KHz to 1 MHz at room temperature are found to be decreasing with the increase in frequency.

  12. Structural properties of Cd–Co ferrites

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Ferrite samples with composition, CdCo1−Fe2O4 ( = 0.80, 0.85, 0.90, 0.95 and 1.0), were prepared by standard ceramic method and characterized by XRD, IR and SEM techniques. X-ray analysis confirms the formation of single phase cubic spinel structure. Lattice constant and grain size of the samples increase with ...

  13. Magnetic and Structural Properties of A-Site Ordered Chromium Spinel Sulfides: Alternating Antiferromagnetic and Ferromagnetic Interactions in the Breathing Pyrochlore Lattice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okamoto, Yoshihiko; Mori, Masaki; Katayama, Naoyuki; Miyake, Atsushi; Tokunaga, Masashi; Matsuo, Akira; Kindo, Koichi; Takenaka, Koshi

    2018-03-01

    We report a comprehensive study on the magnetic and structural properties of the spinel sulfides LiInCr4S8, LiGaCr4S8, and CuInCr4S8, where Li+/Cu+ and Ga3+/In3+ ions form a zinc-blende-type order. On the basis of synchrotron X-ray diffraction and magnetization data obtained using polycrystalline samples, these three sulfides are suggested to be breathing pyrochlore magnets with alternating antiferromagnetic and ferromagnetic interactions on the small and large tetrahedra, respectively. The measured magnetization processes of the three sulfides up to 72 T are significantly different. The magnetization curves of LiInCr4S8 and CuInCr4S8 have large hysteresis loops with different shapes, while there is no hysteresis in that of LiGaCr4S8. Geometrical frustration of the small tetrahedron is likely to give rise to a wide variety of ground states, indicating the rich physics in these antiferromagnetic-ferromagnetic breathing pyrochlore magnets.

  14. Structural characterization and magnetic properties of the spinel compound CoIn{sub 0.5}Cr{sub 1.5}S{sub 4}

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Delgado, G.E. [Laboratorio de Cristalografia, Departamento de Quimica, Facultad de Ciencias, Universidad de Los Andes, Merida 5101 (Venezuela); Sagredo, V. [Laboratorio de Magnetismo, Departamento de Fisica, Facultad de Ciencias, Universidad de Los Andes, Merida 5101 (Venezuela); Bolzoni, F. [IMEM-CNR Institute, parco Area delle Scienze 37A, 4300 Fontanini, Parma (Italy)

    2008-02-15

    Single crystals of the magnetic semiconductor CoIn{sub 0.5}Cr{sub 1.5}S{sub 4}, belong to the system CoIn{sub (2-2X)}Cr{sub (2X)}S{sub 4} with x=0.75, was grown by the chemical transport method. X-ray powder diffraction characterization by the Rietveld method indicated that CoIn{sub 0.5}Cr{sub 1.5}S{sub 4} crystallizes in the space group Fd-3m, Z=8, with a=10.0700(6) A and V=1021.2(1) A{sup 3}, in a normal spinel structure. The temperature dependence of the DC magnetization suggests that the studied compound presents a ferromagnetic behavior with a Curie temperature T{sub c}=220 K. Sharp spin-glass like behavior was found also. (copyright 2008 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim) (orig.)

  15. Instability of single-phase natural circulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xie Heng; Zhang Jinling; Jia Dounan

    1997-01-01

    The author has investigated the instability of single-phase flows in natural circulation loops. The momentum equation and energy equation are made dimensionless according to some definitions, and some important dimensionless parameters are gotten. The authors decomposed the mean mass flowrate and temperature into a steady solution and a small disturbance equations. Through solving the disturbance equations, the authors get the neutral stability curves. The authors have studied the effect of the two parameters which represent the ratio of buoyancy force to the friction loss in the loop on the stability of loops. The authors also have studied the effect of the difference of height between the center of heat source and the heat sink on the stability

  16. The effect of Cr substitution on the structural, electronic and magnetic properties of pulsed laser deposited NiFe{sub 2}O{sub 4} thin films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Panwar, Kalpana [Department of Physics, Govt. Women Engineering College, Ajmer, 305002 India (India); Department of Pure and Applied Physics, University of Kota, Kota, 324010 India (India); Tiwari, Shailja, E-mail: tiwari_shailja@rediffmail.com [Department of Physics, Govt. Women Engineering College, Ajmer, 305002 India (India); Bapna, Komal [Department of Physics, M. L. Sukhadia University, Udaipur, 313001 India (India); Heda, N.L. [Department of Pure and Applied Physics, University of Kota, Kota, 324010 India (India); Choudhary, R.J.; Phase, D.M. [UGC-DAE Consortium for Scientific Research, University Campus, Indore, 452001 India (India); Ahuja, B.L. [Department of Physics, M. L. Sukhadia University, Udaipur, 313001 India (India)

    2017-01-01

    We have studied the structural, electronic and magnetic properties of pulsed laser deposited thin films of Ni{sub 1−x}Cr{sub x}Fe{sub 2}O{sub 4} (x=0.02 and 0.05) on Si (111) and Si (100) substrates. The films reveal single phase, polycrystalline structure with larger grain size on Si (111) substrate than that on Si (100) substrate. Contrary to the expected inverse spinel structure, x-ray photoemission (XPS) studies reveal the mixed spinel structure. XPS results suggest that Ni and Fe ions exist in 2+ and 3+ states, respectively, and they exist in tetrahedral as well as octahedral sites. The deviation from the inverse spinel leads to modified magnetic properties. It is observed that saturation magnetization drastically drops compared to the expected saturation value for inverse spinel structure. Strain in the films and lattice distortion produced by the Cr doping also appear to influence the magnetic properties. - Highlights: • Thin films of Ni{sub 1−x}Cr{sub x}Fe{sub 2}O{sub 4} are grown on Si(111) and Si(100) substrates. • Films on Si(111) substrate are better crystalline than those on Si(100). • XRD and FTIR results confirm the single phase growth of the films. • Cationic distribution deviates from inverse spinel structure, as revealed by XPS. • Saturation magnetization is larger on Si(100) but lower than the bulk value.

  17. Magnetic moment directions and distributions of cations in Cr (Co substituted spinel ferrites Ni0.7Fe2.3O4

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. C. Xue

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Powder samples of the spinel ferrites MxNi0.7−xFe2.3O4 (M = Cr, Co and 0.0 ≤ x ≤ 0.3 and CrxNi0.7Fe2.3−xO4 (0.0 ≤ x ≤ 0.3 were synthesized using the chemical co-precipitation method. The XRD spectra confirmed that the samples had a single-phase cubic spinel structure. Magnetic measurements showed that the magnetic moments (μexp per formula both at 10 K and 300 K increased with Co substitution, while the values of μexp decreased with Cr substitution. Applying the assumption that the magnetic moments of Cr2+ and Cr3+ lie antiparallel to those of the divalent and trivalent Fe, Co, and Ni cations in the same sublattice of spinel ferrites, these interesting behaviors could be easily interpreted. The cation distributions of the three series of samples were estimated successfully by fitting the dependences of μexp, measured at 10 K, on the doping level x, using a quantum-mechanical potential barrier model earlier proposed by our group. The results obtained for the Cr cation distributions at the (A and [B] sites are very close to those obtained elsewhere using neutron diffraction.

  18. The Effect of Contact Non-equilibrium Plasma on Structural and Magnetic Properties of MnХFe3 - XО4Spinels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frolova, L A; Derhachov, M P

    2017-08-23

    Nano-sized manganese ferrites Mn х Fe 3 - х О 4 (х = 0-1.3) were prepared using contact non-equilibrium plasma (CNP) in two different pH (11.5 and 12.5). The influence of synthesis conditions (e.g., cation ratio and initial pH) on phase composition, crystallite size, and magnetic properties were investigated employing X-ray diffraction (XRD), differential thermal analysis (DTA), Fourier transform infrared (FTIR), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), and magnetic measurement techniques. The formation of monodispersed faceted ferrite particles at х = 0-0.8 was shown. The FTIR spectra revealed reflection in region 1200-1700 cm -1 caused by the presence of water adsorbed on the surface of Fe 3 - x Mn x O 4 micro-granules or embedded into their crystal lattice. The most sensitivity of reflection spectra to the composition changes takes place within a 400-1200 cm -1 range, typical to the stretching vibrations of Fe(Mn)-O (up to 700 cm -1 ), Fe(Mn)-OH, and Fe(Mn)-OH 2 bonds (over 700 cm -1 ). The XRD results showed that the nanocrystalline Mn х Fe 3 - х О 4 (0 spinel crystal structure with average crystallite size 48-49 A. The decrease of crystalline size with the x increase was also observed.

  19. Magnetostructural and magnetodielectric coupling in spinel oxides

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kemei, Moureen Chemurgor

    Spinels oxides are of great interest functionally as multiferroic, battery, and magnetic materials as well as fundamentally because they exhibit novel spin, structural, and orbital ground states. Competing interactions are at the heart of novel functional behavior in spinels. Here, we explore the intricate landscape of spin, lattice, and orbital interactions in magnetic spinels by employing variable-temperature high-resolution synchrotron x-ray powder diffraction, total neutron scattering, magnetic susceptibility, dielectric, and heat capacity measurements. We show that the onset of long-range magnetic interactions often gives rise to lattice distortions. We present the complete crystallographic descriptions of the ground state structures of several spinels, thereby paving the way for accurate modeling and design of structure-property relationships in these materials. We also report the emergence of magnetodielectric coupling in the magnetostructural phases of some of the studied spinels. We begin by examining spin-lattice coupling in the Jahn-Teller active systems NiCr2O4 and CuCr2O4. Orbital ordering yields a cubic to tetragonal lattice distortion in these materials above their magnetic ordering temperatures, however, we find that magnetic ordering also drives structural distortions in these spinels through exchange striction. We provide the first orthorhombic structural descriptions of NiCr 2O4 and CuCr2O4. Our observation of strong spin-lattice coupling in NiCr2O4 and CuCr 2O4 inspired the study of magnetodielectric coupling in these spinels. Magnetocapacitance measurements of NiCr2O4 reveal multiferroic behavior and new magnetostructural distortions below the Neel temperature. This observation illustrates the sensitivity of dielectric measurements to magnetostructural transitions in spinel materials. Finally, in the examination of NiCr2O4 we show that magnetodielectric coupling is well described by Ginzburg-Landau theory. In addition to exchange striction

  20. Structural and magnetic properties of Zn.sub.x./sub.Mn.sub.3-x./sub.O.sub.4./sub. spinels

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Nádherný, L.; Maryško, Miroslav; Sedmidubský, D.; Martin, C.

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 413, Sep (2016), s. 89-96 ISSN 0304-8853 Institutional support: RVO:68378271 Keywords : Zn-Mn-O spinels * solid-state reaction * ferrimagnetic clusters * ZnO Subject RIV: BM - Solid Matter Physics ; Magnetism Impact factor: 2.630, year: 2016

  1. Magnetic properties of nanostructured spinel ferrites and ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    structured spinel ferrites such as Ni0.5Zn0.5Fe2O4 and Mn0.67Zn0.33Fe2O4 and also that of the nanocomposite Nd2Fe14B/-Fe permanent magnetic material. The increase in the magnetic transition temperature of Ni-Zn ferrite from 538 K in the ...

  2. Magnetic behavior of the oxide spinels:

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    1031–1034. Magnetic behavior of the oxide spinels: Li0.5Fe2.5−2xAlxCrxO4. U N TRIVEDI, K B MODI and H H JOSHI. Department of Physics, Saurashtra University, Rajkot 360 005, India. Abstract. In order to study the effect of substitution of Fe3+ by Al3+ and Cr3+ in Li0.5Fe2.5O4 on its structural and magnetic properties, ...

  3. Morphological, Structural, and Optical Properties of Single-Phase Cu(In,GaSe2 Thin Films from the Selenization of Thermally Evaporated InSe/Cu/GaSe Precursors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francis B. Dejene

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The relatively small band gap values (~1 eV of CuInSe2 thin films limit the conversion efficiencies of completed CuInSe2/CdS/ZnO solar cell devices. In the case of traditional two-stage growth techniques, limited success has been achieved to homogeneously increase the band gap by substituting indium with gallium. In this study, thermal evaporation of InSe/Cu/Gase precursors was exposed to an elemental Se vapour under defined conditions. This technique produced large-grained, single-phase Cu(In,GaSe2 thin films with a high degree of in-depth compositional uniformity. The selenization temperature, ramp time, reaction period, and the effusion cell temperature with respect to the Cu(In,GaSe2 films were optimized in this study. The homogeneous incorporation of Ga into CuInSe2 led to a systematic shift in the lattice spacing parameters and band gap of the absorber films. Under optimized conditions, gallium in cooperation resulted only in a marginal decrease in the grain size, X-ray diffraction studies confirmed single-phase Cu(In,GaSe2 material, and X-ray photoluminescence spectroscopy in-depth profiling revealed a uniform distribution of the elements through the entire depth of the alloy. From these studies optimum selenization conditions were determined for the deposition of homogeneous Cu(In,GaSe2 thin films with optimum band gap values between 1.01 and 1.21 eV.

  4. Structure and magnetic properties of spinel-perovskite nanocomposite thin films on SrTiO3 (111) substrates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Dong Hun; Yang, Junho; Kim, Min Seok; Kim, Tae Cheol

    2016-09-01

    Epitaxial CoFe2O4-BiFeO3 nanocomposite thin films were synthesized on perovskite structured SrTiO3 (001) and (111) substrates by combinatorial pulsed laser deposition and characterized using scanning electron microscopy, x-ray diffraction, and vibrating sample magnetometer. Triangular BiFeO3 nanopillars were formed in a CoFe2O4 matrix on (111) oriented SrTiO3 substrates, while CoFe2O4 nanopillars with rectangular or square top surfaces grew in a BiFeO3 matrix on (001) substrates. The magnetic hysteresis loops of nanocomposites on (111) oriented SrTiO3 substrates showed isotropic properties due to the strain relaxation while those of films on SrTiO3 (001) substrates exhibited a strong out-of-plane anisotropy originated from shape and strain effects.

  5. Structural and magnetic anisotropy in the epitaxial FeV2O4 (110 spinel thin films

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaolan Shi

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The epitaxial 200-nm-thick FeV2O4(110 films on (110-oriented SrTiO3, LaAlO3 and MgAl2O4 substrates were fabricated for the first time by pulsed laser deposition, and the structural, magnetic, and magnetoresistance anisotropy were investigated systematically. All the films are monoclinic, whereas its bulk is cubic. Compared to FeV2O4 single crystals, films on SrTiO3 and MgAl2O4 are strongly compressively strained in [001] direction, while slightly tensily strained along normal [110] and in-plane [ 1 1 ¯ 0 ] directions. In contrast, films on LaAlO3 are only slightly distorted from cubic. The magnetic hard axis is in direction, while the easier axis is along normal [110] direction for films on SrTiO3 and MgAl2O4, and in-plane [ 1 1 ¯ 0 ] direction for films on LaAlO3. Magnetoresistance anisotropy follows the magnetization. The magnetic anisotropy is dominated by the magnetocrystalline energy, and tuned by the magneto-elastic coupling.

  6. Structural and magnetic anisotropy in the epitaxial FeV2O4 (110) spinel thin films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Xiaolan; Wang, Yuhang; Zhao, Kehan; Liu, Na; Sun, Gaofeng; Zhang, Liuwan

    2015-11-01

    The epitaxial 200-nm-thick FeV2O4(110) films on (110)-oriented SrTiO3, LaAlO3 and MgAl2O4 substrates were fabricated for the first time by pulsed laser deposition, and the structural, magnetic, and magnetoresistance anisotropy were investigated systematically. All the films are monoclinic, whereas its bulk is cubic. Compared to FeV2O4 single crystals, films on SrTiO3 and MgAl2O4 are strongly compressively strained in [001] direction, while slightly tensily strained along normal [110] and in-plane [ 1 1 ¯ 0 ] directions. In contrast, films on LaAlO3 are only slightly distorted from cubic. The magnetic hard axis is in direction, while the easier axis is along normal [110] direction for films on SrTiO3 and MgAl2O4, and in-plane [ 1 1 ¯ 0 ] direction for films on LaAlO3. Magnetoresistance anisotropy follows the magnetization. The magnetic anisotropy is dominated by the magnetocrystalline energy, and tuned by the magneto-elastic coupling.

  7. Control of Single-Stage Single-Phase PV inverter

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ciobotaru, Mihai; Teodorescu, Remus; Blaabjerg, Frede

    2005-01-01

    In this paper the issue of control strategies for single-stage photovoltaic (PV) inverter is addressed. Two different current controllers have been implemented and an experimental comparison between them has been made. A complete control structure for the single-phase PV system is also presented......-forward; - and the grid current controller implemented in two different ways, using the classical proportional integral (PI) and the novel proportional resonant (PR) controllers. The control strategy was tested experimentally on 1.5 kW PV inverter........ The main elements of the PV control structure are: - a maximum power point tracker (MPPT) algorithm using the incremental conductance method; - a synchronization method using the phase-locked-loop (PLL), based on delay; - the input power control using the dc voltage controller and power feed...

  8. Comparing the Pressure-Induced Structural Behavior of CuCr 2 O 4 and CuCr 2 Se 4 Spinels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Efthimiopoulos, I. [Department; Deutsches GeoForschungsZentrum (GFZ), Section 4.3,; Tsurkan, V. [Institute; Experimental; Loidl, A. [Experimental; Zhang, Dongzhou [Partnership; Wang, Y. [Department

    2017-07-20

    We have conducted high-pressure measurements on the CuCr2O4 and CuCr2Se4 spinels to unravel the structural systematics of these materials under compression. Our studies have revealed diverse structural behavior in these two compounds. In particular, CuCr2O4 retains its ambient-pressure I41/amd structure up to 50 GPa. Close inspection of the lattice and interatomic parameters reveals a compressibility change near 23 GPa, which is accompanied by an expansion of the apical Cr–O bond distances. We speculate that an outer Cr3+ 3d orbital reorientation might be at play in this system, manifesting as the change in compressibility at that pressure point. On the other hand, CuCr2Se4 undergoes a structural transformation from the starting Fd3¯m phase toward a monoclinic structure initiated at ~8 GPa and completed at ~20 GPa. This high-pressure behavior resembles that of ZnCr2Se4, and it appears that, unlike similar chalcogenide Cr spinels, steric effects take a leading role in this pressure-induced Fd3¯m → monoclinic transition. Close comparison of our results with the reported literature yields significant insights behind the pressure-induced structural systematics of this important family of materials, thus both allowing for the careful manipulation of the structural/physical properties of these systems by strain and promoting our understanding of similar pressure-induced effects in relevant systems.

  9. AS Spinel toodab ja ehitab

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    1998-01-01

    1990. aastast tegutseb Eestis majade, suvilate, aiamajade, saunade jt. hoonete elementide komplektide valmistamisega AS Spinel. Märjamaal toodetakse freespuidust hoonete komplekte, Kõrvetagusel valmivad soojustatud puitkarkassil elemendid monteeritavate majade jaoks

  10. Correlation between structural and magnetic properties of half-metallic spinel CuV2S4 due to the order-disorder transition of 3d2(t2g) orbitals of V3+ ions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kumara, L.S.R.; Tokiwa, N.; Awaka, J.; Hagino, T.; Nagata, S.; Park, Young Jun; Hidaka, M.

    2008-01-01

    Structural and magnetic properties of the spinel CuV 2 S 4 have been studied by means of X-ray diffraction using synchrotron radiation and measurements of magnetic susceptibility. The structural phase transitions occur at about 55 K and 90 K, and the superlattice reflections (h±q o , k±q o , l) having an orthorhombic reduced wavevector q o =(1/4,1/4,0) are observed at 10 K. This suggests that the structure below 55 K is a commensurate unit cell of 4a p x 4b p x c p , where the subscript 'p' means a pseudo-spinel structure, and that the structural phase transitions are induced by the cooperative displacement of S ions in one-dimensional VS 6 octahedral chains, which are aligned along an orthorhombic[110] direction. The susceptibility also shows that the weak ferromagnetic transition occurs at about 90 K, and the spike-like susceptibility is observed in the region of about 40 K and 55 K. The unusual electronic and magnetic properties of CuV 2 S 4 in the low-temperature phases below about 90 K are interpreted by order and disorder states of (3d xy , 3d yz , 3d zx ) for the V 3+ 3d 2 (t 2g ) orbitals in the VS 6 octahedral chains. (copyright 2008 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim) (orig.)

  11. Structural, magnetic, elastic, dielectric and electrical properties of hot-press sintered Co1-xZnxFe2O4 (x = 0.0, 0.5) spinel ferrite nanoparticles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh Yadav, Raghvendra; Kuřitka, Ivo; Havlica, Jaromir; Hnatko, Miroslav; Alexander, Cigáň; Masilko, Jiri; Kalina, Lukas; Hajdúchová, Miroslava; Rusnak, Jaroslav; Enev, Vojtěch

    2018-02-01

    In this article, Co1-xZnxFe2O4 (x = 0.0 and 0.5) disc-shaped pellets were formed by hot-press sintering of nanoparticles at temperature 925 °C for 10 min in vacuum atmosphere under 30 MPa mechanical pressure. X-ray diffraction study confirmed the formation of spinel cubic ferrite structure of hot-press sintered spinel ferrite Co1-xZnxFe2O4 (x = 0.0 and 0.5) samples. The scanning electron microscopy image indicated that the growth and densification of smaller ferrite nanoparticles were higher than larger ferrite nanoparticles. Magnetic properties of sintered samples were investigated by the superconducting quantum interface device (SQUID) magnetometer at room temperature. The hot press sintered Co1-xZnxFe2O4 (x = 0.0 and 0.5) pellet samples exhibited magnetic properties dependent on the grain size of spinel ferrite particles. The maximum saturation magnetization 82.47 emu/g was obtained for Co0.5Zn0.5Fe2O4 hot press sintered sample of ball-milled ferrite particles. Further, the impact of grain size and density of sample on hardness, dielectric property and ac conductivity of hot-press sintered samples was investigated. In addition, the longitudinal wave velocity (Vl), transverse wave velocity (Vt), mean elastic wave velocity (Vm), bulk modulus (B), rigidity modulus (G), Young's modulus (E), Poisson ratio (σ) and Debye temperature (θD) were calculated. The elastic moduli of hot press sintered ferrite samples were corrected to zero porosity using Hosselman and Fulrath model.

  12. Sonochemical synthesis of Gd3+doped CoFe2O4spinel ferrite nanoparticles and its physical properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yadav, Raghvendra Singh; Kuřitka, Ivo; Vilcakova, Jarmila; Havlica, Jaromir; Kalina, Lukas; Urbánek, Pavel; Machovsky, Michal; Skoda, David; Masař, Milan; Holek, Martin

    2018-01-01

    In this work, a facile and green method for gadolinium doped cobalt ferrite (CoFe 2-x Gd x O 4 ; x=0.00, 0.05, 0.10, 0.15, 0.20) nanoparticles by using ultrasonic irradiation was reported. The impact of Gd 3+ substitution on the structural, magnetic, dielectric and electrical properties of cobalt ferrite nanoparticles was evaluated. The sonochemically synthesized spinel ferrite nanoparticles were characterized by X-ray Diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), Raman spectroscopy, Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), vibrating sample magnetometer (VSM). X-ray diffraction (XRD) study confirmed the formation of single phase spinel ferrite of CoFe 2-x Gd x O 4 nanoparticles. XRD results also revealed that ultrasonic irradiation seems to be favourable to achieve highly crystalline single crystal phase gadolinium doped cobalt ferrite nanoparticles without any post annealing process. Fourier Transform Infrared and Raman Spectra confirmed the formation of spinel ferrite crystal structure. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy revealed the impact of Gd 3+ substitution in CoFe 2 O 4 nanoparticles on cation distribution at the tetrahedral and octahedral site in spinel ferrite crystal system. The electrical properties showed that the Gd 3+ doped cobalt ferrite (CoFe 2-x Gd x O 4 ; x=0.20) exhibit enhanced dielectric constant (277 at 100Hz) and ac conductivity (20.2×10 -9 S/cm at 100Hz). The modulus spectroscopy demonstrated the impact of Gd 3+ substitution in cobalt ferrite nanoparticles on grain boundary relaxation time, capacitance and resistance. Magnetic property measurement revealed that the coercivity decreases with Gd 3+ substitution from 234.32Oe (x=0.00) to 12.60Oe (x=0.05) and further increases from 12.60Oe (x=0.05) to 68.62Oe (x=0.20). Moreover, saturation magnetization decreases with Gd 3+ substitution from 40.19emu/g (x=0.00) to 21.58emu/g (x=0.20). This work demonstrates that the grain size and cation

  13. Current Harmonics from Single-Phase Grid-Connected Inverters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yang, Yongheng; Zhou, Keliang; Blaabjerg, Frede

    2016-01-01

    factor, or in the low voltage ride through mode with reactive current injection. In this paper, the mechanism of the harmonic current injection from grid-connected single-phase inverter systems is thus explored, and the analysis is conducted on single-phase PV systems. In particular, the analysis......-phase applications as a promising harmonic mitigation solution. Experiments on single-phase grid-connected systems have verified the correctness of the relevant analysis and also the effectiveness of the tailor-made control solution in terms of good harmonic mitigation....

  14. Effect of sintering temperature on micro structural and impedance spectroscopic properties of Ni0.5Zn0.5Fe2O4 nano ferrite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Venkatesh, Davuluri; Ramesh, K. V.; Sastry, C. V. S. S.

    2017-07-01

    Ni-Zn nanoferrite Ni0.5Zn0.5Fe2O4 is prepared by citrate gel auto combustion method and sintered at various temperatures 800, 900, 1000, 1100 and 1200°C. The room temperature x-ray diffraction conforms that the single phase spinel structure is formed. Crystallite size and density were increased with increasing of sintering temperature. From Raman spectroscopy all sintered samples are single phase with cubic spinel structure belong to Fd3m space group. From surface morphology studies it is clearly observed that the particle size increased with increasing of sintering temperature. Impedance spectroscopy revel that increasing of conductivity is due to grain resistance is decreased with increasing of sintering temperature. Cole-Cole plots are studied from impedance data. The electrical modulus analysis shows that non-Debye nature of Ni0.5Zn0.5Fe2O4 ferrite.

  15. Synthesis and characterization of nanocrystalline MgAl{sub 2}O{sub 4} spinel via modified sol–gel method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sanjabi, S., E-mail: sohrabsanjabi@yahoo.com; Obeydavi, A.

    2015-10-05

    Highlights: • Nanocrystallines of MgAl{sub 2}O{sub 4} were synthesis by the simple, short time and inexpensive sol–gel method. • The structure properties of MgAl{sub 2}O{sub 4} nanoparticles obtained was excellent including. • The average crystallite’s sizes spinel and specific surface area were estimated about 11.07 nm and 154 m{sup 2} g{sup −1}. • The nanoparticles sizes were about 12 nm and have mesoporous structure. • MgAl{sub 2}O{sub 4} nanopowders with these structure properties are suitable as catalyst supports. - Abstract: Nanocrystallines of magnesium aluminate spinel (MgAl{sub 2}O{sub 4}) were synthesis by modified sol–gel method using aluminum nitrate, magnesium nitrate, citric acid and diethylene glycol monoethyl ether were used as precursor materials with a molar ratio Al/Mg = 2. After obtained a dry powder, the precursor was heat-treated in air at desired temperatures (700–900 °C) for 2 h. The formation nanocrystallines of MgAl{sub 2}O{sub 4} spinel were characterization by X-ray diffraction (XRD), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), Thermal gravimetric and differential thermal analysis (TGA/DTA), Field emission scanning electron microcopy (FESEM) with the energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX), High resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM) and specific surface area of the synthesized powders was measured with a Brunauer–Emmett–Teller (BET) apparatus using N{sub 2} adsorption. According to obtained XRD patterns the formation of single phase MgAl{sub 2}O{sub 4} completed up 700 °C. The average crystallite’s sizes increased with increasing temperature of calcination, but the specific surface area spinels decreased. The average crystallite’s sizes spinel and specific surface area at 800 °C were estimated about 11.07 nm and 154 m{sup 2} g{sup −1}, respectively. The results of FESEM analysis show that the nanoparticles shape are as spherical shape, uniform and a little agglomerated. The dimension

  16. Self-assembled single-phase perovskite nanocomposite thin films.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Hyun-Suk; Bi, Lei; Paik, Hanjong; Yang, Dae-Jin; Park, Yun Chang; Dionne, Gerald F; Ross, Caroline A

    2010-02-10

    Thin films of perovskite-structured oxides with general formula ABO(3) have great potential in electronic devices because of their unique properties, which include the high dielectric constant of titanates, (1) high-T(C) superconductivity in cuprates, (2) and colossal magnetoresistance in manganites. (3) These properties are intimately dependent on, and can therefore be tailored by, the microstructure, orientation, and strain state of the film. Here, we demonstrate the growth of cubic Sr(Ti,Fe)O(3) (STF) films with an unusual self-assembled nanocomposite microstructure consisting of (100) and (110)-oriented crystals, both of which grow epitaxially with respect to the Si substrate and which are therefore homoepitaxial with each other. These structures differ from previously reported self-assembled oxide nanocomposites, which consist either of two different materials (4-7) or of single-phase distorted-cubic materials that exhibit two or more variants. (8-12) Moreover, an epitaxial nanocomposite SrTiO(3) overlayer can be grown on the STF, extending the range of compositions over which this microstructure can be formed. This offers the potential for the implementation of self-organized optical/ferromagnetic or ferromagnetic/ferroelectric hybrid nanostructures integrated on technologically important Si substrates with applications in magnetooptical or spintronic devices.

  17. MPC of Single Phase Inverter for PV System

    OpenAIRE

    Irtaza M. Syed; Kaamran Raahemifar

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents a model predictive control (MPC) of a utility interactive (UI) single phase inverter (SPI) for a photovoltaic (PV) system at residential/distribution level. The proposed model uses single-phase phase locked loop (PLL) to synchronize SPI with the grid and performs MPC control in a dq reference frame. SPI model consists of boost converter (BC), maximum power point tracking (MPPT) control, and a full bridge (FB) voltage source inverter (VSI). No PI regula...

  18. Single-phase to three-phase power conversion interface

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Jinn-Chang; Wang, Yung-Shan; Jou, Hurng-Liahng; Lu, Wei-Tso

    2016-07-01

    This study proposes a single-phase to three-phase power conversion interface which converts the power from a single-phase utility to three-phase power for a three-phase load. The proposed single-phase to three-phase power conversion interface comprises a bridge-type switch set, a set of three-phase inductors, a transformer set and a set of three-phase capacitors. A current-mode control controls the switching of bridge-type switch set, to generate a set of nonzero-sequence (NZS) currents and a set of zero-sequence (ZS) currents. The transformer set is used to decouple the NZS currents and the ZS currents. The NZS currents are used to generate a high-quality three-phase voltage that supplies power to a three-phase load. The ZS currents flow to the single-phase utility so that the utility current is sinusoidal and in phase with the utility voltage. Accordingly, only a bridge-type switch set is used in the single-phase to three-phase power conversion interface to simply the power circuit. A prototype is developed and tested to verify the performance of the proposed single-phase to three-phase power conversion interface.

  19. Structural relaxation and colour in the spinel-magnesiochromite (MgAl2O4-MgCr2O4) and gahnite-zincochromite (ZnAl2O4-ZnCr2O4) solid solution series

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hålenius, U.; Andreozzi, G. B.; Skogby, H.

    2009-04-01

    Recent studies on binary mineral solid solution series utilising synchrotron based x-ray absorption spectroscopies have indicated strong structural relaxation. For instance, it has been suggested that the real Cr-O bond distances remain nearly constant (relaxation parameter (ɛ) of 0.85, where ɛ=1 equals full relaxation) over the entire compositional range of the MgAl2O4-MgCr2O4 series (Juhin et al. 2007). In the present study we have measured room temperature optical absorption spectra of synthetic single crystals of the ZnAl2-2xCr2xO4 (0.03?x?1) and MgAl2-2xCr2xO4(0.02?x?1) series with the aim to explore the real architecture of the structure and in particular the Cr-O distance as function of composition. Our crystals were synthesized by means of flux-growth methods under atmospheric pressure and temperature profiles resulting in an estimated cation ordering temperature of ca 850 °C. Crystals close to the spinel (sensu stricto) and gahnite end-member compositions were faintly red in colour. With increasing Cr-content the crystals become more intensely red-coloured and at the higher Cr-contents there is a distinct shift towards a dark greenish colouration. These colour changes are reflected in the measured optical spectra by the position and intensity of the two spin-allowed electronic d-d transitions in octahedrally coordinated Cr3+ at ca 18000 (4A2g -4T2g (4F) transition) and 25000 cm-1(4A2g -4T1g (4F) transition). The energy of the first transition (?1-band) is ca 1200 cm-1 lower in magnesiochromite than in weakly Cr-doped spinel (x=0.02) and ca 1400 cm-1 lower in zincochromite than in gahnite with the lowest Cr-content (x=0.03). Concomitantly the energy of the second transition (?2-band) decreases with increasing Cr-content in both series by ca. 1800 cm-1. From the position of the ?1-band, a decrease in crystal field splitting, 10Dq, for six-coordinated Cr3+ with increasing Cr-content in the MgAl2-2xCr2xO4 and ZnAl2-2xCr2xO4 series of 6.5 and 7

  20. Structural ground states of (A ,A')Cr2O4(A = Mg, Zn; A' = Co, Cu) spinel solid solutions: Spin-Jahn-Teller and Jahn-Teller effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kemei, Moureen C.; Moffitt, Stephanie L.; Darago, Lucy E.; Seshadri, Ram; Suchomel, Matthew R.; Shoemaker, Daniel P.; Page, Katharine; Siewenie, Joan

    2014-05-01

    We examine the effect of small amounts of magnetic substituents in the A sites of the frustrated spinels MgCr2O4 and ZnCr2O4. Specifically, we look for the effects of spin and lattice disorder on structural changes accompanying magnetic ordering in these compounds. Substitution of Co2+ on the nonmagnetic Zn2+ site in Zn1-xCoxCr2O4 where 0 occurs at very low temperatures of T occurring below 20 K without any further lattice distortion. The Jahn-Teller distorted solid solutions Mg1-xCuxCr2O4 and Zn1-xCuxCr2O4 adopt the orthorhombic Fddd structure of ferrimagnetic CuCr2O4. Total neutron scattering studies of Zn1-xCuxCr2O4 suggest that there are local AO4 distortions in these Cu2+-containing solid solutions at room temperature and that these distortions become cooperative when average structure distortions occur. Magnetism evolves from compensated antiferromagnetism in MgCr2O4 and ZnCr2O4 to uncompensated antiferromagnetism with substitution of magnetic cations on the nonmagnetic cation sites of these frustrated compounds. The sharp heat capacity anomalies associated with the first-order spin-Jahn-Teller transitions of MgCr2O4 and ZnCr2O4 become broad in Mg1-xCuxCr2O4, Zn1-xCoxCr2O4, and Zn1-xCuxCr2O4 when x > 0. We present a temperature-composition phase diagram summarizing the structural ground states and magnetic properties of the studied spinel solid solutions.

  1. Magnesia-spinel bricks for secondary refining furnaces; Niji seiren`yo magnesia-spinel shitsu renga no kaihatsu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fujitani, S.; Ogata, M.; Nakamura, R.; Ito, K.; Otani, T. [Shinagawa Refractories Co. Ltd., Tokyo (Japan)

    1998-01-01

    A magnesia-spinel brick is developed in this report as an environmentally-friendly chromium-free refractory to replace the magnesia-chrome brick widely in use for secondary refining furnaces. In the case of the magnesia-spinel brick for cement kilns, the bond structure is improved and anti-corrosion strength enhanced when crystal grain boundaries are allowed to be impregnated with small amounts of Fe2O3 and TiO2. This method is applied also in the development of the secondary refining furnace brick introduced in this paper, and is executed to attain higher resistance to corrosion by using electromelting materials for the magnesia aggregate. As the result, a brick is developed, in which there is direct bond found well developed between periclase and spinel grains. Since a material containing more Al2O3 or spinel is higher in anti-spalling feature but lower in anti-corrosion feature, balancing should be prudently established between the two features in view of the conditions of the intended application. It is further anticipated that, except in cases where a severe attack of erosion is expected in the presence of low-basicity slag, the newly developed magnesia-spinel brick will remain in service as long as the conventional magnesia-chrome brick. 2 refs., 5 figs., 3 tabs.

  2. Cr(3+) substituted spinel ferrite nanoparticles with high coercivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Wei; Zuo, Xudong; Zhang, Dongmei; Wu, Chengwei; Silva, S Ravi P

    2016-06-17

    The low coercivity of spinel ferrites is a major barrier that significantly limits their use in high density magnetic recording applications. By controlling the substituting content of Cr(3+), in this article we describe how magnetic CoCr x Fe2-x O4 (0 spinel structure of the nanoparticles with transmission electron microscopy (TEM) suggesting regular tetragonal morphology. The TEM indicated an edge length ranging from 15 nm to 150 nm, which increases monotonically with increasing Cr content. Raman analyses supported the proposed model on the formation mechanism of the nanoparticles, i.e. heterogeneous and homogeneous nucleation.

  3. Method of microbially producing metal gallate spinel nano-objects, and compositions produced thereby

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Duty, Chad E.; Jellison, Jr., Gerald E.; Love, Lonnie J.; Moon, Ji Won; Phelps, Tommy J.; Ivanov, Ilia N.; Kim, Jongsu; Park, Jehong; Lauf, Robert

    2018-01-16

    A method of forming a metal gallate spinel structure that includes mixing a divalent metal-containing salt and a gallium-containing salt in solution with fermentative or thermophilic bacteria. In the process, the bacteria nucleate metal gallate spinel nano-objects from the divalent metal-containing salt and the gallium-containing salt without requiring reduction of a metal in the solution. The metal gallate spinel structures, as well as light-emitting structures in which they are incorporated, are also described.

  4. A Novel Single Phase Hybrid Switched Reluctance Motor Drive System

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Liang, Jianing; Xu, Guoqing; Jian, Linni

    2011-01-01

    phase boost converter is applied to improve the performance of this motor. It is easy to generate a double dclink voltage and dc-link voltage and switch both of them. The voltage of boost capacitor is self balance, so the protective circuit is not need to consider. The fast excitation mode helps hybrid......In this paper, a novel single phase hybrid switched reluctance motor(SRM) drive system is proposed. It integrated a single phase hybrid SRM and a novel single phase boost converter. This motor can reduce the number of phase switch. And the permanent magnet which is used in the motor can improve...... the performance and efficiency of SR motor. However, the inherent characteristic of this motor is that the negative torque is very sensitive with the excitation current near the turn-on angle. The slow excitation current limits the torque generation region and reduces the average torque. Therefore, a novel single...

  5. Effect of Mn doping on the electronic structure of ZnGa{sub 2}O{sub 4} with spinel-type structure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nonaka, Moriyasu [Department of Earth Resources Engineering, Kyushu Univ., Fukuoka (Japan); Tanizaki, Takumi; Matsushima, Shigenori [Department of Materials Chemistry, Kitakyushu National College of Technology, Kitakyushu, Fukuoka (Japan); Mizuno, Masataka [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Osaka Univ., Osaka (Japan); Xu, Chao-Nan [National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology (AIST), Fukuoka (Japan)

    2001-07-01

    The electronic structures of ZnGa{sub 2}O{sub 4} and ZnGa{sub 2}O{sub 4}:Mn are calculated by the discrete variational X{alpha} method on model clusters. For ZnGa{sub 2}O{sub 4}, it is found that Zn-O and Ga-O bondings are not perfectly ionic but partially covalent. When a central Zn atom of the cluster is replaced with a Mn atom, the new energy states originating from Mn 3d orbitals appear in the energy gap. The energy levels of t{sub 2} up-spin states and e downspin states seem to relate to the green emission. (author)

  6. Ultrafast Switching Superjunction MOSFETs for Single Phase PFC Applications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hernandez Botella, Juan Carlos; Petersen, Lars Press; Andersen, Michael A. E.

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents a guide on characterizing state-of-the-art silicon superjunction (SJ) devices in the 600V range for single phase power factor correction (PFC) applications. The characterization procedure is based on a minimally inductive double pulse tester (DPT) with a very low intrusive...... investigates the latest SJ devices in order to set a reference for future research on improvement over silicon (Si) attained with the introduction of wide bandgap devices in single phase PFC applications. The obtained results show that the latest generation of SJ devices set a new benchmark for its wide...

  7. The Single-Phase ProtoDUNE Technical Design Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abi, B. [Univ. of Padova (Italy); et al.

    2017-06-21

    ProtoDUNE-SP is the single-phase DUNE Far Detector prototype that is under construction and will be operated at the CERN Neutrino Platform (NP) starting in 2018. ProtoDUNE-SP, a crucial part of the DUNE effort towards the construction of the first DUNE 10-kt fiducial mass far detector module (17 kt total LAr mass), is a significant experiment in its own right. With a total liquid argon (LAr) mass of 0.77 kt, it represents the largest monolithic single-phase LArTPC detector to be built to date. It's technical design is given in this report.

  8. The comparative study of the structural and the electrical properties of the nano spinel ferrites prepared by the soft mehanochemical synthesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sekulić D.L.

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Nano spinel ferrites MFe2O4 (M=Ni, Mn, Zn were obtained by soft mechanochemical synthesis in a planetary ball mill. The appropriate mixture of oxide and hydroxide powders was used as initial compounds. All of this mixture of powders was mechanically activated, uniaxial pressed and sintered at 1100°C/2h. The phase composition of the powders and sintered samples were analyzed by XRD and Raman spectroscopy. Morphologies were examined by SEM. In this study, the AC-conductivity and DC-resistivity of sintered samples of MFe2O4 (M= Ni, Mn, Zn ferrites were measured at different frequencies and at room temperature. The values of the electrical conductivities show an increase with increasing temperature, which indicated the semiconducting behavior of the studied ferrites. The conduction phenomenon of the investigated samples could be explained on the basis of hopping model. The complex impedance spectroscopy analysis was used to study the effect of grain and grain boundary on the electrical properties of all three obtained ferrites [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. III 45003

  9. Magnetic structure and phase diagram of the frustrated spinel Cd{sub 1-x}Zn{sub x}Cr{sub 2}Se{sub 4}

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Loudghiri, E. [Laboratoire de Physique des Materiaux, Faculte des Sciences, Universite Mohammed V, B.P. 1014 Rabat (Morocco); Belayachi, A. [Laboratoire de Physique des Materiaux, Faculte des Sciences, Universite Mohammed V, B.P. 1014 Rabat (Morocco)], E-mail: belayach@fsr.ac.ma; Nogues, M. [Laboratoire de Magnetisme et d' Optique de l' Universite de Versailles (URA 1531), Batiment, Fermat, 45 Avenue des Etats Unis, 78035 Versailles Cedex (France); Taibi, M. [Laboratoire de Physico-Chimie des Materiaux associe a l' AUF (LAF 502), Ecole Normale, Superieure Takadoum, B.P. 5118 Rabat (Morocco); Cruz, M.M.; Godinho, M. [Dept. Fisica/CFMC-UL, Fac. Ciencias, Universidade de Lisboa, Campo Grande, Ed.C8, 1749-016 Lisbon (Portugal)

    2008-03-15

    In attempt to characterise the magnetic ordering in the whole composition range of the Cd{sub 1-x}Zn{sub x}Cr{sub 2}Se{sub 4} system, various magnetic measurements were performed on both crystalline and polycrystalline samples with 0{<=}x{<=}1. The magnetic properties of the system are typical of a ferromagnet below x=0.4 and of a complex antiferromagnet one above x=0.6. In this work the intermediate region was carefully studied. The variations of both M(T) and {chi}{sub ac} at low fields suggest that transitions from ferromagnetic to Gabay-Toulouse ferromagnetic-spin-glass mixed phase at low temperature occur in the range 0.41{<=}x{<=}0.58. The high-temperature susceptibility measurements show that for the whole concentration range the system obeys Curie-Weiss laws. The results can be explained by the coexistence of competing interactions (ferromagnetic between nearest neighbours and antiferromagnetic between higher order neighbours) and disorder due to the random substitution between zinc and cadmium ions in the tetrahedral sites of the spinel lattice. An experimental magnetic phase diagram of the system is established.

  10. Low Temperature Synthesis of Magnesium Aluminate Spinel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lebedovskaya, E.G.; Gabelkov, S.V.; Litvinenko, L.M.; Logvinkov, D.S.; Mironova, A.G.; Odejchuk, M.A.; Poltavtsev, N.S.; Tarasov, R.V.

    2006-01-01

    The low-temperature synthesis of magnesium-aluminum spinel is carried out by a method of thermal decomposition in combined precipitated hydrates. The fine material of magnesium-aluminium spinel with average size of coherent dispersion's area 4...5 nanometers is obtained. Magnesium-aluminum spinel and initial hydrates were investigated by methods of the differential thermal analysis, the x-ray phase analysis and measurements of weight loss during the dehydration and thermal decomposition. It is established that synthesis of magnesium-aluminum spinel occurs at temperature 300 degree C by method of the x-ray phase analysis

  11. the steady-state performance characteristics of single phase transfer

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2012-11-03

    Nov 3, 2012 ... The paper reports the derivation of the steady- state equivalent circuit of a single phase transfer ... series opposition between the two halves of the ma- ..... from its equivalent circuit of fig 6 for different values of slip. Impedance due to forward field. Zf = Rf + jXf = Rr. 2(2s - 1). + jxr. 2. (19) in parallel with jxm. 2.

  12. An Asymmetrical Space Vector Method for Single Phase Induction Motor

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cui, Yuanhai; Blaabjerg, Frede; Andersen, Gert Karmisholt

    2002-01-01

    Single phase induction motors are the workhorses in low-power applications in the world, and also the variable speed is necessary. Normally it is achieved either by the mechanical method or by controlling the capacitor connected with the auxiliary winding. Any above method has some drawback which...

  13. Improvement of Torque Production in Single-Phase Induction Motors ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Existing single phase induction motors exhibit low starting torque. Moreover, during accelerating time and at steady state, they produce a significant level of torque pulsations which gives rise to noise and vibration in the machine. As part of efforts to mitigate these problems, a performance improvement strategy using a PWM ...

  14. A simple output voltage control scheme for single phase wavelet ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    DR OKE

    Wavelet based techniques have been extensively used in various power engineering applications. Recently, wavelet has also been proposed to generate switching signal for single-phase pulse-width-modulated (PWM) dc-ac inverter. The main advantage of the wavelet modulated (WM) scheme is that a single synthesis ...

  15. experimental implementation of single-phase, three-level, sinusoidal

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Experimental Implementation of SPWM VSI with R-L Load. 3. Figure 2: Switching pattern of the proposed single-phase, three-level PWM inverter. Figure 3: Prototype setup. (a) Power circuits for both inverters. (b) Logic and Driver circuits. Nigerian Journal of Technology. Vol. 31, No. 1, March 2012.

  16. A single phase photovoltaic inverter control for grid connected system

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    This paper presents a control scheme for single phase grid connected photovoltaic (PV) system operating under both grid connected and isolated grid mode. The control techniques include voltage and current control of grid-tie PV inverter. During grid connected mode, grid controls the amplitude and frequency of the PV ...

  17. Load compensation for single phase system using series active filter ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In this paper a new control strategy for series active filter has been proposed for improvement of power quality problems in single phase system. Since the non linear loads in the system comprises of both voltage source harmonic and current source harmonic loads and the dominancy of each type of load varies from time to ...

  18. Low temperature synthesis of magnesium oxide and spinel powders by a sol-gel process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li-Zhai Pei

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Magnesium oxide and magnesium aluminate (MgAl2O4 spinel (MAS powders have been synthesized by a simple aqueous sol-gel process using citrate polymeric precursors derived from magnesium chloride, aluminium nitrate and citrate. The thermal decomposition of the precursors and subsequent formation of cubic MgO and MAS were investigated by X-ray diffraction (XRD, scanning electron microscopy (SEM, thermogravimetry-differential scanning calorimetry (TG-DSC and Fourier transform infrared spectra (FTIR. The single phase cubic MgO powder and MAS powder form after heat treatment at 800 and 1200 °C, respectively. The particle size of the MgO and MAS powders is about 100 nm and several micrometers, respectively. Ball milling eliminates the size of MgO and MgAl2O4 spinel powders by decreasing the conglomeration of the powders.

  19. 100-nm thick single-phase wurtzite BAlN films with boron contents over 10%

    KAUST Repository

    Li, Xiaohang

    2017-01-11

    Growing thicker BAlN films while maintaining single-phase wurtzite structure and boron content over 10% has been challenging. In this study, we report on the growth of 100 nm-thick single-phase wurtzite BAlN films with boron contents up to 14.4% by MOCVD. Flow-modulated epitaxy was employed to increase diffusion length of group-III atoms and reduce parasitic reactions between the metalorganics and NH3. A large growth efficiency of ∼2000 μm mol−1 was achieved as a result. Small B/III ratios up to 17% in conjunction with high temperatures up to 1010 °C were utilized to prevent formation of the cubic phase and maintain wurtzite structure.

  20. Micro structural, electrical and optical properties of highly (2 2 0) oriented spinel Mn–Co–Ni–O film grown by radio frequency magnetron sputtering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhou, Wei; Zhang, Leibo; Ouyang, Cheng; Wu, Jing [National Laboratory for Infrared Physics, Shanghai Institute of Technical Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, 500 Yu Tian Road, Shanghai 200083 (China); Huang, Zhiming, E-mail: zmhuang@mail.sitp.ac.cn [National Laboratory for Infrared Physics, Shanghai Institute of Technical Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, 500 Yu Tian Road, Shanghai 200083 (China); Key Laboratory of Space Active Opto-Electronics Technology, Shanghai Institute of Technical Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, 500 Yu Tian Road, Shanghai 200083 (China); Xu, Xiao-feng [College of science, Donghua Unversity, Shanghai (China)

    2014-08-30

    Highlights: • Highly (2 2 0) oriented Mn{sub 1.4}Co{sub 1.0}Ni{sub 0.6}O{sub 4} (MCN) films are grown by radio frequency sputtering method. • Post annealed MCN samples show a resistivity of 240–250 Ω cm and NTC value of 4% K{sup −1} at 295 K. • Improved oxygen stoichiometry and fine reproducibility are achieved after post annealing process. • Indirect optical band gaps are about 0.51 eV for as-grown MCN films and 0.57 eV for post annealed ones. - Abstract: Spinel AB{sub 2}O{sub 4} oxide Mn{sub 1.4}Co{sub 1.0}Ni{sub 0.6}O{sub 4} (MCN) films are fabricated on Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} amorphous substrate by radio frequency (RF) magnetron sputtering method at different sputtering powers. The surface morphology and microstructure of the films are studied by SEM, atomic force microscopy (AFM) and X-ray diffraction. A major advance is the sputtering deposition of highly oriented MCN thin films. Variable temperature electrical properties of the as-grown and post annealed samples are investigated in 230–325 K temperature range. The dependence of electrical properties on growth conditions is discussed in detail. The resistivity of annealed MCN films is about 240–250 Ω cm with a negative temperature coefficient of about 4% K{sup −1} at room temperature, which is a breakthrough for thermal sensing application by RF sputtering method. Optical properties of the MCN samples are studied within 0.33-10 μm band, and the optical bandgaps for the as-grown and post annealed MCN samples are about 0.51 eV and 0.57 eV, respectively.

  1. Physical investigation of square cylinder array dynamical response under single-phase cross-flow

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Longatte, E.; Baj, F.

    2014-01-01

    Fluid structure interaction and flow-induced vibration in square cylinder arrangement under single-phase incompressible laminar cross flow are investigated in the present paper. Dynamic instability governed by damping generation is studied without any consideration about mixing with turbulence effects. Conservative and non-conservative effects are pointed out and dynamical stability limit sensitivity to physical parameters is analyzed. Finally the influence of key physical parameters on fluid solid dynamics interaction is quantified. (authors)

  2. Magnetism of the ball-milled spinel Zn Fe2 O4

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ehrhardt, H.; Campbell, S.J.; Hofmann, M.

    2002-01-01

    Full text:In materials science, oxide spinels play an important technological role with numerous applications due to their fundamental magnetic characteristics. With the spinel crystal structure being an approximately close-packed face-centered cubic array of anions with holes partly filled by the cations, the structure can generally be described by the formula (A)[B 2 ]O 4 where A and B denote divalent and trivalent cations, respectively. In the case of a normal spinel, all of the A atoms are tetrahedrally coordinated while the B atoms are octahedrally coordinated by oxygen atoms; in the case of an inverse spinel, the A atoms occupy half of the B sites. With Fe representing the B atoms, normal spinels are commonly found to order antiferromagnetically whereas they show ferrimagnetic behaviour in the case of an inverse spinel below the transition temperature. However, natural spinels often emerge with other than purely normal or purely inverse distributions of cations. The site occupation can then be represented by (A 1-c B c )[A c B 2-c ]O 4 where c is the inversion parameter (O 2 O 4 , which occurs as a purely normal spinel in its natural state of matter, has been investigated as a model system. Treated by milling, zinc ferrite exhibits a systematic transition from its normal structure towards the inverse counterpart. In particular an increase in c value is observed with increasing milling time along with a decrease of the average particle size as determined by X-ray diffraction. Moessbauer spectroscopy and temperature-dependent neutron diffraction on an extended series of ball-milled samples allow a detailed characterization of the magnetic behaviour as a function of the microstructure. The comprehensive set of results will be discussed with respect to theoretical predictions of the magnetism of spinels in relation to their degree of inversion

  3. Single-crystal elasticity of MgAl2O4-spinel up to 10.9 GPa and 1000 K: Implication for the velocity structure of the top upper mantle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duan, Yunfei; Li, Xinyang; Sun, Ningyu; Ni, Huaiwei; Tkachev, Sergey N.; Mao, Zhu

    2018-01-01

    The combined effect of pressure and temperature on the single-crystal elasticity of MgAl2O4-spinel has been studied using Brillouin scattering and X-ray diffraction up to 10.9 GPa and 1000 K in externally-heated diamond anvil cells. The obtained single-crystal elastic moduli of MgAl2O4-spinel at ambient conditions are consistent with literature values and follow a linear increase with pressure at high temperatures. More importantly, the pressure dependence of the elastic moduli at high temperatures is much smaller than that at 300 K, indicating a stronger temperature effect on the elastic moduli of MgAl2O4-spinel at high pressures. Our new results were applied to model the sound velocity of MgAl2O4-spinel at relevant pressure and temperature conditions of the top upper mantle, showing that MgAl2O4-spinel has the greatest velocity and the VP /VS ratio among major mantle minerals. We further modeled the velocity of spinel-peridotite at the top upper mantle. Varying the composition of spinel-peridotite can lead to up to 2.1% variation in VP and 1.3% in VS. The top upper mantle with greater VP and VS should contain more olivine and spinel but less orthopyroxene. The velocity of the top upper mantle is thus strongly correlated with the composition of the region. Our results are thus important in understanding the composition and velocity of the top upper mantle.

  4. Raman spectroscopic study of solid solution spinel oxides

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hosterman, Brian D.

    Solid solution spinel oxides of composition MgxNi1-x Cr2O4, NiFexCr2-xO 4, and FexCr3-xO4 were synthesized and characterized using x-ray diffraction and Raman spectroscopy. Frequencies of the Raman-active modes are tracked as the metal cations within the spinel lattice are exchanged. This gives information about the dependence of the lattice vibrations on the tetrahedral and octahedral cations. The highest frequency Raman-active mode, A1g, is unaffected by substitution of the divalent tetrahedral cation, whereas the lower frequency vibrations are more strongly affected by substitution of the tetrahedral cation. The change in frequency of many phonons is nonlinear upon cation exchange. All detected modes of MgxNi1-xCr2O4 and FexCr3-xO4 exhibit one-mode behavior. Additional modes are detected in NiFexCr2-xO4 due to cation inversion of the spinel lattice. Results from the FexCr3-xO4 spinels are applied to identifying the corrosion layers of several stainless steel samples exposed to lead-bismuth eutectic in a high-temperature, oxygen controlled environment. The Raman spectrum of the outer corrosion layer in all steels is identified as Fe3O4. The position of the A 1g mode for the inner corrosion layer indicates an iron chromium spinel oxide. Micro-Raman spectroscopy proves capable of determining structural and compositional differences between complex corrosion layers of stainless steels.

  5. Overview of Single-Phase Grid-Connected Photovoltaic Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yang, Yongheng; Blaabjerg, Frede

    2017-01-01

    A continuous booming installation of solar photovoltaic (PV) systems has been witnessed worldwide. It is mainly driven by the imperative demand of “clean” power generation from renewables. Grid-connected PV systems will thus become an even more active player in the future mixed power systems, which...... systems. This chapter thus gives an overview of the advancement of power electronics converters in single-phase grid-connected PV systems, being commonly used in residential applications. Demands to single-phase grid-connected PV systems and the general control strategies are also addressed...... are linked together by a vast of power electronics converters and the power grid. In order to achieve a reliable and efficient power generation from PV systems, more stringent demands have been imposed on the entire PV system. It, in return, advances the development of the power converter technology in PV...

  6. Structural and magnetic studies of Cr doped nickel ferrite thin films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Panwar, Kalpana, E-mail: kalpanapanwar99@gmail.com [Department of Pure & Applied Physics, University of Kota, Kota-324010 (India); Department of Physics, Govt. Women Engg. College, Ajmer-305002 (India); Heda, N. L. [Department of Pure & Applied Physics, University of Kota, Kota-324010 (India); Tiwari, Shailja [Department of Physics, Govt. Women Engg. College, Ajmer-305002 (India); Bapna, Komal; Ahuja, B. L. [Department of Physics, M. L. Sukhadia University, Udaipur-313001 (India); Choudhary, R. J.; Phase, D. M. [UGC-DAE Consortium for Scientific Research, University Campus, Indore-452017 (India)

    2016-05-23

    We have studied the structural and magnetic properties of Cr doped nickel ferrite thin films deposited on Si (100) and Si (111) using pulsed laser deposition technique. The films were deposited under vacuum and substrate temperature was kept at 700°C. X-ray diffraction analysis revealed that films on both substrates have single phase cubic spinel structure. However, the film grown on Si (111) shows better crystalline behavior. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy suggests that films on both substrates have mixed spinel structure. These films show magnetic hysteresis behavior and magnetization value of film on Si (100) is larger than that on Si (111). It turns out that structural and magnetic properties of these two films are correlated.

  7. Instantaneous power flow determination for single-phase UPFC

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dobrucky, B.; Drozdy, S.; Pokorny, M.; Pavlanin, R. [Zilina Univ., Zilina (Slovakia)

    2007-07-01

    The parallel shunt active filter in a unified power flow conditioner (UPFC) can filter and compensate the reactive power of basic and higher current harmonics. This paper reported on a study in which a new theory of orthogonal transform was used to control a single-phase UPFC system and transform it into a two-axes system. In addition to estimating the load current phase shifts, the study also determined the instantaneous active and reactive powers. The new theory is based on the premise that ordinary single-phase quantity can be complemented by a virtual fictitious phase so that both of them will create an orthogonal system, as is usual in three-phase systems. The theory uses efficient methods of analysis, such as time-sub-optimal determination of fundamental harmonics; average- and/or root-mean-square values; or instantaneous reactive power methods. The load current phase shift can be used to compensate for voltage drops. This paper outlined a practical application of the method in a case of active and reactive power determination for single-phase UPFC. It also presented some examples of the successful simulation experiments results focused on regulation output voltage of UPFC. 9 refs., 13 figs., 1 appendix.

  8. Investigation on a Novel Discontinuous Pulse-Width Modulation Algorithm for Single-phase Voltage Source Rectifier

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Qu, Hao; Yang, Xijun; Guo, Yougui

    2014-01-01

    Single-phase voltage source converter (VSC) is an important power electronic converter (PEC), including single-phase voltage source inverter (VSI), single-phase voltage source rectifier (VSR), single-phase active power filter (APF) and single-phase grid-connection inverter (GCI). Single-phase VSC...

  9. Delithiation/relithiation process of LiCoMnO4 spinel as 5 V electrode material

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dräger, Christoph; Sigel, Florian; Indris, Sylvio; Mikhailova, Daria; Pfaffmann, Lukas; Knapp, Michael; Ehrenberg, Helmut

    2017-12-01

    In this work, the LiCoMnO4 spinel has been synthesized by a two-step sol-gel based method, followed by sintering at temperatures up to 750 °C in oxygen. After structural characterization of the pristine material via synchrotron and neutron diffraction, the material was characterized via SEM and 6Li-MAS-NMR spectroscopy. 6Li-MAS-NMR spectroscopy in different states of charge revealed, that manganese and cobalt are distributed homogenously throughout the material and the delithiation primary occurs from the manganese environments. It was also shown, that it is not possible to fully delithiate the material in a practical voltage range of an electrolyte. Electrochemical cycling results reveal that about 70% of the lithium can be extracted and reinserted electrochemically in the voltage window from 4.5 to 5.4 V against lithium from/into LiCoMnO4. In situ synchrotron powder diffraction results show that lithium extraction/insertion occurs via a single-phase mechanism over the whole range of lithium contents and that the discharge capacity is mainly restricted by the voltage-window of the electrolyte. Furthermore it was shown, that the delithiation occurs up to a potential of 5.6 V.

  10. Effect of Al substitution on the structural and magnetic properties of Co-Zn ferrites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murali, N.; Margarette, S. J.; Kumar, G. Pavan; Sailaja, B.; Mulushoa, S. Yonatan; Himakar, P.; Babu, B. Kishore; Veeraiah, V.

    2017-10-01

    In this work we investigate the effect of aluminum (Al) substitution on the structural, morphological and magnetic properties of Co0.5Zn0.5AlxFe2-xO4 (x = 0.0, 0.05 and 0.1) prepared by sol-gel method. The structural and magnetic properties are performed by using X-ray powder diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscope (SEM), Fourier transform infrared spectra (FT-IR) and Vibrating Sample Magnetometer (VSM) studies. The XRD data revealed the formation of single phase cubic spinel with crystallite sizes around 45.83-51.84 nm for Al substituted samples. Two significant absorption bands around 600 and 400 cm-1 are observed from FT-IR spectra of the samples under investigation, which confirmed the formation of a single-phase cubic spinel. Interionic bond lengths and bond angles confirm the solubility of Al in the spinel lattice and support the observed variation in magnetic properties. Using a vibrating sample magnetometer (VSM), saturation magnetization and coercivity are measured. A decrease in lattice parameter and saturation magnetization with increasing Al concentration is attributed to the difference in the ionic radii and weakening of exchange interactions.

  11. Investigation of effect of single phase electrical faults at LOFT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yeates, J.A.

    1978-01-01

    This LTR presents the general basic engineering facts related to an open phase fault in a three phase power system commonly referred to as a single phase condition. It describes the probable results to electrical motors and describes the LOFT system design factors which minimize the likelihood of such a fault occurring at LOFT. It recognizes that the hazard of such a fault is a realistic threat and notes the types of relays designed to provide protection. Recommendations are made to perform a detailed engineering study to determine the most advantageous protective relay design, and to implement such a design by installation of the necessary devices and controls

  12. Solution Concept of Modular Single Phase Active Power Filters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marek Roch

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper investigates a modular or a decentralised single-phase active power filter control strategy. It is based on the evaluation of the harmonic reference load currents for the active power filter blocks operating under specific harmonic frequencies. The underlying principle of the modular active power filter is explained and it is shown how the required reference harmonic currents can be evaluated. Simulation results demonstrated the improvement in the dynamic performance of the modular active power filter presented here in comparison with the conventional type.

  13. A Transformer-less Single Phase Inverter For photovoltaic Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mostaan, Ali; Alizadeh, Ebrahim; Qu, Ying

    2017-01-01

    A single phase transformer-less inverter is introduced in this paper. The negative polarities of the input voltage and output terminal have common ground. Therefore, the leakage current problem that is common in PV systems is eliminated naturally. In addition, the proposed inverter has fewer...... components compared with its counterparts and only one switch conducts during the active states which enhance the inverter efficiency. The proposed inverter is analyzed in details and compared with some existing topologies. The performance of the proposed inverter is validated using the simulation results....

  14. Magnetic characterization of rare earth doped spinel ferrite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdellatif, M. H.; El-Komy, G. M.; Azab, A. A.

    2017-11-01

    Doping spinel structure with large rare earth ions can alter the physical properties of the lattice, which can be used for tuning the magnetic and electrical properties of the ferrite material. We investigated the effect of rare earth doping on the crystal properties such as magnetoimpedance. The X-ray and HRTEM data revealed that the strain increases with increasing the ionic radius of the rare-earth. The Study implemented three types of rare earth, namely Dy, Gd, and Sm. The rare earth ions are in the Spinel crystal of Mn-Cr ferrite. The magnetoimpedance showed all negative slope, with the Gd-doped Mn-Cr ferrite sample, have the giant magnetoimpedance up to 60% drop in impedance at electric field frequency 10 kHz. The magnetisation and remanence of the samples were correlated to the microstrain, in which the magnetisation and remanence of the rare earth doped Mn-Cr ferrite samples decrease as the microstrain increases.

  15. Impact of disorder on ionic charge in spinel compounds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Surble, Suzy [Materiaux fonctionnels pour l' energie, CEA - CNRS - Ecole Centrale Paris, CEA/DEN/SRMA 91191 Gif-sur-Yvette and SPMS, 92295 Chatenay-Malabry (France)], E-mail: suzy.surble@ecp.fr; Baldinozzi, Gianguido; Simeone, David; Gosset, Dominique [Materiaux fonctionnels pour l' energie, CEA - CNRS - Ecole Centrale Paris, CEA/DEN/SRMA 91191 Gif-sur-Yvette and SPMS, 92295 Chatenay-Malabry (France); Thome, Lionel [CSNSM, CNRS - Universite d' Orsay, 91405 Orsay (France)

    2008-06-15

    In order to obtain a correlation between the ionic charge and the local environment, the evolution of valence charges of cations in different 2-3 spinel compounds was investigated as a function of the temperature. The evolution of the structural parameters in normal (MgAl{sub 2}O{sub 4}), mixed (MgGa{sub 2}O{sub 4}) and inverse (MgIn{sub 2}O{sub 4}) spinels as a function of the temperature was extracted from X-ray diffraction patterns collected during different thermal annealings. The evolution of these structural parameters as a function of the disorder is analyzed within the bond valence shell model: large variations of the cation valence are observed in these three spinel compounds. From this analysis, a strong correlation between the change of the cation valence and the local disorder is pointed out. Including this dependence in the microscopic models may provide a better agreement between experimental observations and simulations.

  16. Cation disorder in high-dose, neutron-irradiated spinel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sickafus, K.E.; Larson, A.C.; Yu, N.; Nastasi, M.; Hollenberg, G.W.; Garner, F.A.; Bradt, R.C.

    1994-08-01

    The objective of this effort is to determine whether MgAl 2 O 4 spinel is a suitable ceramic for fusion applications. Here, the crystal structures of MgAl 2 O 4 spinel single crystals irradiated to high neutron fluences [>5·10 26 n/m 2 (E n > 0.1 MeV)] were examined by neutron diffraction. Crystal structure refinement of the highest dose sample indicated that the average scattering strength of the tetrahedral crystal sites decreased by ∼ 20% while increasing by ∼ 8% on octahedral sites. Since the neutron scattering length for Mg is considerably larger than for Al, this results is consistent with site exchange between Mg 2+ ions on tetrahedral sites and Al 3+ ions on octahedral sites. Least-squares refinements also indicated that, in all irradiated samples, at least 35% of Mg 2+ and Al 3+ ions in the crystal experienced disordering replacements. This retained dpa on the cation sublattices is the largest retained damage ever measured in an irradiated spinel material

  17. Immiscibility in the NiFe2O4-NiCr2O4 Spinel Binary

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    S Ziemniak

    2004-08-13

    The solid solution behavior of the Ni(Fe{sub 1-n}Cr{sub n}){sub 2}O{sub 4} spinel binary is investigated in the temperature range 400-1200 C. Non-ideal solution behavior, as exhibited by non-linear changes in lattice parameter with changes in n, is observed in a series of single-phase solids air-cooled from 1200 C. Air-annealing for one year at 600 C resulted in partial phase separation in a spinel binary having n = 0.5. Spinel crystals grown from NiO, Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3} and Cr{sub 2}O{sub 3} reactants, mixed to give NiCrFeO{sub 4}, by Ostwald ripening in a molten salt solvent, exhibited single phase stability down to about 750 C (the estimated consolute solution temperature, T{sub cs}). A solvus exists below T{sub cs}. The solvus becomes increasingly asymmetric at lower temperatures and extrapolates to n values of 0.2 and 0.7 at 300 C. The extrapolated solvus is shown to be consistent with that predicted using a primitive regular solution model in which free energies of mixing are determined entirely from changes in configurational entropy at room temperature.

  18. Electronic and optical properties of spinel zinc ferrite: ab initio hybrid functional calculations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fritsch, Daniel

    2018-03-01

    Spinel ferrites in general show a rich interplay of structural, electronic, and magnetic properties. Here, we particularly focus on zinc ferrite (ZFO), which has been observed experimentally to crystallise in the cubic normal spinel structure. However, its magnetic ground state is still under dispute. In addition, some unusual magnetic properties in ZFO thin films or nanostructures have been explained by a possible partial cation inversion and a different magnetic interaction between the two cation sublattices of the spinel structure compared to the crystalline bulk material. Here, density functional theory has been applied to investigate the influence of different inversion degrees and magnetic couplings among the cation sublattices on the structural, electronic, magnetic, and optical properties. Effects of exchange and correlation have been modelled using the generalised gradient approximation (GGA) together with the Hubbard ‘+U’ parameter, and the more elaborate hybrid functional PBE0. While the GGA+U calculations yield an antiferromagnetically coupled normal spinel structure as the ground state, in the PBE0 calculations the ferromagnetically coupled normal spinel is energetically slightly favoured, and the hybrid functional calculations perform much better with respect to structural, electronic and optical properties.

  19. Density functional theory based comparative study of electronic structures and magnetic properties of spinel ACr2O4 (A  =  Mn, Fe, Co, Ni) compounds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Das, Debashish; Ghosh, Subhradip

    2015-10-01

    Using the DFT+U method and generalized gradient approximation (GGA) we perform the first systematic study of the chromite series ACr2O4 (A  =  Mn, Fe, Co, Ni) by computing their structural and magnetic properties. The results are analyzed by their electronic structures. We find that in spite of varying structural distortions, the electronic structures are very similar across the series. Such similarities are responsible for qualitative uniformities in their magnetic phases at low temperatures, as observed in the experiments. We find that the strong electron-electron correlation, along with competing magnetic exchange splitting and the crystal field splitting, are responsible for their electronic properties such as the electronic band gaps. Our results regarding the magnetic exchange parameters are in good agreement with the available results and show the relative importance of the pairwise exchange interactions in each of the compounds. The ground state magnetic spin structures and the ferrimagnetic transition temperatures obtained from these exchange parameters, in combination with a phenomenological theory, qualitatively agree with the experiments and other theoretical results.

  20. Single Phase Current-Source Active Rectifier for Traction: Control System Design and Practical Problems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jan Michalik

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available This research has been motivated by industrial demand for single phase current-source active rectifier dedicated for reconstruction of older types of dc machine locomotives. This paper presents converters control structure design and simulations. The proposed converter control is based on the mathematical model and due to possible interaction with railway signaling and required low switching frequency employs synchronous PWM. The simulation results are verified by experimental tests performed on designed laboratory prototype of power of 7kVA

  1. High Quality Model Predictive Control for Single Phase Grid Connected Photovoltaic Inverters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zangeneh Bighash, Esmaeil; Sadeghzadeh, Seyed Mohammad; Ebrahimzadeh, Esmaeil

    2018-01-01

    Single phase grid-connected inverters with LCL filter are widely used to connect the photovoltaic systems to the utility grid. Among the presented control schemes, predictive control methods are faster and more accurate but are more complex to implement. Recently, the model-predictive control...... is low, the inverter output current has a high total harmonic distortions. In order to reduce the total harmonic distortions of the injected current, this paper presents a high-quality model-predictive control for one of the newest structure of the grid connected photovoltaic inverter, i.e., HERIC...

  2. A new type of single-phase five-level inverter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Zhi; Li, Shengnan; Qin, Risheng; Zhao, Yanhang

    2017-11-01

    At present, Neutral Point Clamped (NPC) multilevel inverter is widely applied in new energy field. However, it has some disadvantages including low utilization rate of direct current (DC) voltage source and the unbalance of neutral potential. Therefore, a new single-phase five level inverter is proposed in this paper. It has two stage structure, the former stage is equivalent to three level DC/DC converter, and the back stage uses H bridge to realize inverter. Compared with the original central clamp type inverter, the new five level inverter can improve the utilization of DC voltage, and realize the neutral point potential balance with hysteresis comparator.

  3. Reducing Electromagnetic Interference in a Grid Tied Single Phase Power Inverter

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-09-01

    ELECTROMAGNETIC INTERFERENCE IN A GRID TIED SINGLE PHASE POWER INVERTER by Jason Hassan Valiani September 2016 Thesis Advisor: Giovanna Oriti...3. REPORT TYPE AND DATES COVERED Master’s thesis 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE REDUCING ELECTROMAGNETIC INTERFERENCE IN A GRID TIED SINGLE PHASE POWER...The addition of a passive filter proved to minimize the conducted EMI for a single -phase grid-tied inverter. 14. SUBJECT TERMS single -phase

  4. Structure and magnetic properties of La substituted ZnFe2O4 nanoparticles synthesized by sol–gel autocombustion method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Masoudpanah, S.M.; Seyyed Ebrahimi, S.A.; Derakhshani, M.; Mirkazemi, S.M.

    2014-01-01

    ZnFe 2−x La x O 4 (0spinel structure and on the magnetic properties were investigated by X-ray diffraction (XRD), infrared spectroscopy and vibrating sample magnetometer methods. The XRD results showed that the single phase La 3+ substituted zinc ferrite nanoparticles exhibit partially inverse spinel structure with the crystallite size of 10–20 nm, which was also confirmed by transmission electron microscopy. The magnetic measurements show that the saturation magnetization (Ms) increases till x=0.05, due to the increase of inversity, and then decreases from x=0.05 to x=0.2, because of the decrease in the total moments with the La 3+ substitution. - Highlights: • Single phase ZnFe 2−x La x O 4 (0spinel structure. • ZnFe 1.95 La 0.05 O 4 nanoparticles exhibit maximum magnetization by a compromise between inversity and composition

  5. Thermobarometry for spinel lherzolite xenoliths in alkali basalts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozawa, Kazuhito; Youbi, Nasrrddine; Boumehdi, Moulay Ahmed; Nagahara, Hiroko

    2016-04-01

    Application of geothermobarometers to peridotite xenoliths has been providing very useful information on thermal and chemical structure of lithospheric or asthenospheric mantle at the time of almost instantaneous sampling by the host magmas, based on which various thermal (e.g., McKenzie et al., 2005), chemical (e.g., Griffin et al., 2003), and rheological (e.g., Ave Lallemant et al., 1980) models of lithosphere have been constructed. Geothermobarometry for garnet or plagioclase-bearing lithologies provide accurate pressure estimation, but this is not the case for the spinel peridotites, which are frequently sampled from Phanerozoic provinces in various tectonic environments (Nixon and Davies, 1987). There are several geobarometers proposed for spinel lherzolite, such as single pyroxene geothermobarometer (Mercier, 1980) and geothermobarometer based on Ca exchange between olivine and clinopyroxene (Köhler and Brey, 1990), but they have essential problems and it is usually believed that appropriated barometers do not exist for spinel lherzolites (O'Reilly et al., 1997; Medaris et al., 1999). It is thus imperative to develop reliable barometry for spinel peridotite xenoliths. We have developed barometry for spinel peridotite xenoliths by exploiting small differences in pressure dependence in relevant reactions, whose calibration was made through careful evaluation of volume changes of the reactions. This is augmented with higher levels of care in application of barometer by choosing mineral domains and their chemical components that are in equilibrium as close as possible. This is necessary because such barometry is very sensitive to changes in chemical composition induced by transient state of the system possibly owing to pressure and temperature changes as well as chemical modification, forming chemical heterogeneity or zoning frequently reported from various mantle xenoliths (Smith, 1999). Thus very carful treatment of heterogeneity, which might be trivial for

  6. Model Based Control of Single-Phase Marine Cooling Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Michael

    2014-01-01

    these systems. Traditionally, control for this type of cooling system has been limited to open-loop control of pumps combined with a couple of local PID controllers for bypass valves to keep critical temperatures within design limits. This research considers improvements in a retrofit framework to the control...... linearization, an H∞-control design is applied to the resulting linear system. Disturbance rejection capabilities and robustness of performance for this control design methodology is compared to a baseline design derived from classical control theory. This shows promising results for the nonlinear robust design......This thesis is concerned with the problem of designing model-based control for a class of single-phase marine cooling systems. While this type of cooling system has been in existence for several decades, it is only recently that energy efficiency has become a focus point in the design and operation...

  7. Modeling of a single-phase photovoltaic inverter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maris, T.I. [Department of Electrical Engineering, Technological Educational Institute of Chalkida, 334 40 Psachna Evias (Greece); Kourtesi, St. [Hellenic Public Power Corporation S.A., 22 Chalcocondyli Str., 104 32 Athens (Greece); Ekonomou, L. [Hellenic American University, 12 Kaplanon Str., 106 80 Athens (Greece); Fotis, G.P. [National Technical University of Athens, School of Electrical and Computer Engineering, High Voltage Laboratory, 9 Iroon Politechniou St., Zografou, 157 80 Athens (Greece)

    2007-11-06

    The paper presents the design of a single-phase photovoltaic inverter model and the simulation of its performance. Furthermore, the concept of moving real and reactive power after coupling this inverter model with an a.c. source representing the main power distribution grid was studied. Brief technical information is given on the inverter design, with emphasis on the operation of the circuit used. In the technical information section, a description of real and reactive power components is given with special reference to the control of these power components by controlling the power angle or the difference in voltage magnitudes between two voltage sources. This a.c. converted voltage has practical interest, since it is useful for feeding small house appliances. (author)

  8. Benchmarks for single-phase flow in fractured porous media

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flemisch, Bernd; Berre, Inga; Boon, Wietse; Fumagalli, Alessio; Schwenck, Nicolas; Scotti, Anna; Stefansson, Ivar; Tatomir, Alexandru

    2018-01-01

    This paper presents several test cases intended to be benchmarks for numerical schemes for single-phase fluid flow in fractured porous media. A number of solution strategies are compared, including a vertex and two cell-centred finite volume methods, a non-conforming embedded discrete fracture model, a primal and a dual extended finite element formulation, and a mortar discrete fracture model. The proposed benchmarks test the schemes by increasing the difficulties in terms of network geometry, e.g. intersecting fractures, and physical parameters, e.g. low and high fracture-matrix permeability ratio as well as heterogeneous fracture permeabilities. For each problem, the results presented are the number of unknowns, the approximation errors in the porous matrix and in the fractures with respect to a reference solution, and the sparsity and condition number of the discretized linear system. All data and meshes used in this study are publicly available for further comparisons.

  9. Influence of Zn Substitution on Structural, Magnetic and Electrical Properties of MgFe2O4

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramarao, K.; Rajesh Babu, B.; Kishore Babu, B.; Veeraiah, V.; Ramarao, S. D.; Rajasekhar, K.; Venkateswara Rao, A.

    2018-03-01

    Polycrystalline spinel ferrites Zn x Mg1-x Fe2O4 (where x = 0.0, 0.1, 0.15, 0.2, 0.25 and 0.3) were prepared by standard ceramic method and characterized by x-ray diffraction, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), and vibrating sample magnetometer. Structural, electric and magnetic properties have been discussed in detail on the basis of Zn composition. The composition shows formation of a single-phase cubic spinel structure and the lattice constant `a' increases with increasing Zn concentration. FTIR spectra show two prominent frequency bands in the wave number range 400-600 cm-1, which further confirms the cubic spinel structure and completion of chemical reaction. Magnetic studies revealed that the saturation magnetization increases with increasing the substitution of Zn. Cation distribution for the present system was estimated by comparing observed and calculated x-ray line intensities. From this it is observed that Zn2+ ions prefer to occupy A sites, and Mg2+ and Fe3+ ions distributed into both A and B sites. The observed variation in magnetization has been explained on the basis of distribution of cations among A and B sites of the spinel lattice. A significant influence of cation distribution is observed on DC electrical resistivity and activation energy.

  10. Detoxification and immobilization of chromite ore processing residue in spinel-based glass-ceramic

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liao, Chang-Zhong [Guangdong Key Laboratory of Agricultural Environment Pollution Integrated Control, Guangdong Institute of Eco-Environmental and Soil Sciences, Guangzhou 510650 (China); Department of Civil Engineering, The University of Hong Kong, Pokfulam Road, Hong Kong Special Administrative Region (China); Tang, Yuanyuan [School of Environmental Science and Engineering, South University of Science and Technology of China, Shenzhen 518055 (China); Lee, Po-Heng [Department of Civil & Environmental Engineering, The Hong Kong Polytechnic University, Hong Kong Special Administrative Region (China); Liu, Chengshuai, E-mail: csliu@soil.gd.cn [Guangdong Key Laboratory of Agricultural Environment Pollution Integrated Control, Guangdong Institute of Eco-Environmental and Soil Sciences, Guangzhou 510650 (China); State Key Laboratory of Environmental Geochemistry, Institute of Geochemistry, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Guiyang 550009 (China); Shih, Kaimin, E-mail: kshih@hku.hk [Department of Civil Engineering, The University of Hong Kong, Pokfulam Road, Hong Kong Special Administrative Region (China); Li, Fangbai [Guangdong Key Laboratory of Agricultural Environment Pollution Integrated Control, Guangdong Institute of Eco-Environmental and Soil Sciences, Guangzhou 510650 (China)

    2017-01-05

    Graphical abstract: Schematic illustration of detoxification and immobilization of chromite ore processing residue in spinel-based glass-ceramic matrix. All Cr(VI) species is reduced to Cr(III) and most chromium contents are incorporated into spinel structure where the residual chromium are resided in the glass networks. - Highlights: • COPR was detoxified and immobilized in a spinel-based glass-ceramic matrix. • Cr-rich crystalline phase was determined to be MgCr{sub 1.32}Fe{sub 0.19}Al{sub 0.49}O{sub 4} spinel. • The partitioning ratio of Cr into spinel in the glass-ceramic can be up to 77%. • No Cr(VI) was observed after conversion of COPR into a glass-ceramic. • TCLP results demonstrate the superiority of the final product in immobilizing Cr. - Abstract: A promising strategy for the detoxification and immobilization of chromite ore processing residue (COPR) in a spinel-based glass-ceramic matrix is reported in this study. In the search for a more chemically durable matrix for COPR, the most critical crystalline phase for Cr immobilization was found to be a spinel solid solution with a chemical composition of MgCr{sub 1.32}Fe{sub 0.19}Al{sub 0.49}O{sub 4}. Using Rietveld quantitative X-ray diffraction analysis, we identified this final product is with the phases of spinel (3.5 wt.%), diopside (5.2 wt.%), and some amorphous contents (91.2 wt.%). The partitioning ratio of Cr reveals that about 77% of the Cr was incorporated into the more chemically durable spinel phase. The results of Cr K-edge X-ray absorption near-edge spectroscopy show that no Cr(VI) was observed after conversion of COPR into a glass-ceramic, which indicates successful detoxification of Cr(VI) into Cr(III) in the COPR-incorporated glass-ceramic. The leaching performances of Cr{sub 2}O{sub 3} and COPR-incorporated glass-ceramic were compared with a prolonged acid-leaching test, and the results demonstrate the superiority of the COPR-incorporated glass-ceramic matrix in the

  11. Comparative Study of Optical and Magneto-Optical Properties of Normal, Disordered and Inverse Spinel Type Oxides

    OpenAIRE

    Zviagin, Vitaly; Richter, Peter; Böntgen, Tammo; Lorenz, Michael; Ziese, Michael; Zahn, Dietrich R. T.; Salvan, Georgeta; Grundmann, Marius; Schmidt-Grund, Rüdiger

    2015-01-01

    Co$_3$O$_4$, ZnFe$_2$O$_4$, CoFe$_2$O$_4$, ZnCo$_2$O$_4$, and Fe$_3$O$_4$ thin films were fabricated by pulsed laser deposition at high and low temperatures resulting in crystalline single-phase normal, inverse, as well as disordered spinel oxide thin films with smooth surface morphology. The dielectric function, determined by spectroscopic ellipsometry in a wide spectral range from 0.5 eV to 8.5 eV, is compared with the magneto-optical response of the dielectric tensor, investigated by magne...

  12. Syndeformation Chrome Spinels Inclusions in the Plastically Deformed Olivine Aggregates (Kraka Ophiolites, the Southern Urals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. E. Saveliev

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available This article presents the results of structural, petrographic, mineralogical and chemical studies of dunite veinlets in spinel peridotite from the Kraka ophiolites. It is demonstrated that plastic deformation of polycrystalline olivine, which form dunite, was accompanied by precipitation of impurities (aluminum and chrome as newly formed chrome spinels. The thinnest acicular inclusions of 0.3-0.5 micron thick are aligned in olivine grains along [010] axis. Bigger elongated irregular chrome spinel grains usually occur along grain and sub-grain olivine boundaries, and, occasionally, inside the grains along [100] axis. Alteration from the fine xenomorphic grains of chrome spinels to the bigger idiomorphic crystals was observed. Analogically to dynamic ageing (dispersion hardening in metals, the structural and chemical alterations in dunites are interpreted as deformation induced segregation of impurities. It is suggested that the euhedral chrome spinel grains typical for ophiolitic dunites were formed by coalescence and spheroidization. This process may be a key factor in the formation of ophiolitic chrome ore deposits.

  13. Composition dependence of structural, magnetic and electrical properties of Co substituted magnesium ferrite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramarao, K.; Rajesh Babu, B.; Kishore Babu, B.; Veeraiah, V.; Ramarao, S. D.; Rajasekhar, K.; Venkateswara Rao, A.

    2018-01-01

    In this work cobalt substituted magnesium spinel ferrite having general formula Mg1-xCoxFe2O4 (where x = 0.0, 0.1, 0.15,0.2,0.25 and 0.3) was synthesized by solid state reaction method. All the sample are characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), Vibrating sample magnetometer (VSM) and dc resistivity measurements. XRD analysis confirms the formation of single phase spinel and the calculated lattice constant 'aexp' from XRD decreases as substitution of Co (x) is increased. The FTIR spectra reveled two prominent frequency bands in the wave number range 400-600 cm-1, which confirm the cubic spinel structure. Magnetic studies revealed that the saturation magnetization attains a maximum value when x = 0.2, and then decreases for higher concentration of (x). This non-linear trend in magnetization has been explained on the basis of redistribution of magnetic and non-magnetic cations among A and B sites of the spinel lattice. A significant influence of cation distribution observed on DC electrical resistivity and activation energy.

  14. Simplified thermal-hydraulic analysis of single phase natural circulation circuit with two heat exchangers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pinheiro, Larissa Cunha; Su, Jian, E-mail: larissa@lasme.coppe.ufrj.br, E-mail: sujian@lasme.coppe.ufrj.br [Coordenacao dos Programas de Pos-Graduacao em Engenharia (COPPE/UFRJ), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Programa de Engenhraria Nuclear; Cotta, Renato Machado, E-mail: cotta@mecanica.coppe.ufrj.br [Coordenacao dos Programas de Pos-Graduacao em Engenharia (POLI/COPPE/UFRJ), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Dept. de Engenharia Mecanica

    2015-07-01

    Single phase natural circulation circuits composed of two convective heat exchangers and connecting tubes are important for the passive heat removal from spent fuel pools (SFP). To keep the structural integrity of the stored spent fuel assemblies, continuously cooling has to be provided in order to avoid increase at the pool temperature and subsequent uncovering of the fuel and enhanced reaction between water and metal releasing hydrogen. Decay heat can achieve considerably high amounts of energy e.g. in the AP1000, considering the emergency fuel assemblies, the maximum heat decay will reach 13 MW in the 15th day (Westinghouse Electric Company, 2010). A highly efficient alternative to do so is by means of natural circulation, which is cost-effective compared to active cooling systems and is inherently safer since presents less associated devices and no external work is required. Many researchers have investigated safety and stability aspects of natural circulation loops (NCL). However, there is a lack of literature concerning the improvement of NCL through a standard unified methodology, especially for natural circulation circuits with two heat exchangers. In the present study, a simplified thermal-hydraulic analysis of single phase natural circulation circuit with two heat exchanges is presented. Relevant dimensionless key groups were proposed to for the design and safety analysis of a scaled NCL for the cooling of spent fuel storage pool with convective cooling and heating. (author)

  15. A grid-connected single-phase photovoltaic micro inverter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wen, X. Y.; Lin, P. J.; Chen, Z. C.; Wu, L. J.; Cheng, S. Y.

    2017-11-01

    In this paper, the topology of a single-phase grid-connected photovoltaic (PV) micro-inverter is proposed. The PV micro-inverter consists of DC-DC stage with high voltage gain boost and DC-AC conversion stage. In the first stage, we apply the active clamp circuit and two voltage multipliers to achieve soft switching technology and high voltage gain. In addition, the flower pollination algorithm (FPA) is employed for the maximum power point tracking (MPPT) in the PV module in this stage. The second stage cascades a H-bridge inverter and LCL filter. To feed high quality sinusoidal power into the grid, the software phase lock, outer voltage loop and inner current loop control method are adopted as the control strategy. The performance of the proposed topology is tested by Matlab/Simulink. A PV module with maximum power 300W and maximum power point voltage 40V is applied as the input source. The simulation results indicate that the proposed topology and the control strategy are feasible.

  16. Performance Improvement of Single Phase Inverter using SPWM

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gavaskar Reddy, B., Dr; Maheswari, L., Dr; Ganeswari Kale, Adi

    2017-08-01

    This paper concentrates on modelling and simulation of single phase inverter as a frequency changer modulated by Pulse Width Modulation (PWM). An inverter is a circuit that converts DC sources to AC sources. Pulse Width Modulation is a method that utilization as an approach to abatement add up to harmonic distortion in inverter circuit. The model is executed utilizing MATLAB/Simulink software with the SimPower System Block Set in light of PC simulation. PC simulation assumes an imperative part in the plan, investigation, and assessment of force electronic converter and their controller. MATLAB is a successful instrument to examine a PWM inverter. Preferences of utilizing MATLAB are the accompanying: Faster reaction, accessibility of different simulation devices and utilitarian squares and the nonappearance of joining issues. Safe-replacement methodology need be actualized is to explain exchanging Transients. In this way, Insulated Gate Bipolar Transistor (IGBT) is use as exchanging gadgets. IGBT is ideal since it is anything but difficult to control and low misfortunes. The outcome from Simulink was checked utilizing MATLAB simulation.

  17. Direct observation of cation distributions of ideal inverse spinel CoFe2O4nanofibres and correlated magnetic properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeng, Xue; Zhang, Junwei; Zhu, Shimeng; Deng, Xia; Ma, Hongbin; Zhang, Junli; Zhang, Qiang; Li, Peng; Xue, Desheng; Mellors, Nigel J; Zhang, Xixiang; Peng, Yong

    2017-06-08

    Low-dimensional spinel ferrites have recently attracted increasing attention because their tunable magnetic properties make them attractive candidates as spin-filtering tunnel barriers in spintronic devices and as magnetic components in artificial multiferroic heterostructures. Although we know that the distribution of cations (Fe 3+ and Co 2+ ) in a spinel structure governs its magnetic properties, their distribution in the so-called ideal inverse spinel structure of a ferrite, CoFe 2 O 4 , has not yet been imaged with sub-ångstrom resolution. In this work, we fill this gap in evidence by reporting a direct observation of the distribution of cations in an ideal inverse spinel structure of CoFe 2 O 4 nanofibres using aberration-corrected transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The ordering of Co 2+ and Fe 3+ at the octahedral sites imaged along either [001], [011] or [-112] orientation was identified as 1 : 1, in accordance with the ideal inverse spinel structure. The saturation magnetisation calculated based on the crystal structure as determined from the TEM image is in good agreement with that measured experimentally on the spinel CoFe 2 O 4 nanofibres, further confirming results from TEM.

  18. Direct observation of cation distributions of ideal inverse spinel CoFe2O4 nanofibres and correlated magnetic properties

    KAUST Repository

    Zeng, Xue

    2017-04-25

    Low-dimensional spinel ferrites have recently attracted increasing attention because their tunable magnetic properties make them attractive candidates as spin-filtering tunnel barriers in spintronic devices and as magnetic components in artificial multiferroic heterostructures. Although we know that the distribution of cations (Fe3+ and Co2+) in a spinel structure governs its magnetic properties, their distribution in the so-called ideal inverse spinel structure of a ferrite, CoFe2O4, has not yet been imaged with sub-ångstrom resolution. In this work, we fill this gap in evidence by reporting a direct observation of the distribution of cations in an ideal inverse spinel structure of CoFe2O4 nanofibres using aberration-corrected transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The ordering of Co2+ and Fe3+ at the octahedral sites imaged along either [001], [011] or [-112] orientation was identified as 1 : 1, in accordance with the ideal inverse spinel structure. The saturation magnetisation calculated based on the crystal structure as determined from the TEM image is in good agreement with that measured experimentally on the spinel CoFe2O4 nanofibres, further confirming results from TEM.

  19. A crystallographic and spectroscopic study of crystal sites in the 'spinel' structure; Etude cristallographique et spectroscopique des sites cristallins dans la structure 'spinelle'

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Drifford, M. [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1967-06-15

    A crystallographic study on magnesium aluminates led to the determination of crystal site average distortion. A spectroscopic study of transition elements doped spinels gave the position of the doping element in tetrahedral (A) or octahedral (B) sites, and the local distortion of the latter. The comparison of average and local parameters points to differences in the behaviour of doping elements and shows the size of (A) sites are independent of the host crystal composition while the average size of (B) sites varies with the composition. (author) [French] Une etude cristallographique des aluminates de magnesium a permis de determiner la deformation moyenne des sites cristallins. Une etude spectroscopique des aluminates de magnesium dopes avec des elements de transition a permis de localiser les dopants entre les sites tetraedriques (A) et octaedriques (B) et d'etudier la deformation locale de ces sites. La comparaison entre les parametres moyens et locaux a caracterise le comportement du dopant et montre que les dimensions des sites (A) sont independantes de la composition de la matrice, alors que les caracteristiques geometriques moyennes des sites (B) varient continument avec la composition. (auteur)

  20. Micromagnetic simulations of spinel ferrite particles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dantas, Christine C., E-mail: ccdantas@iae.cta.b [Divisao de Materiais (AMR), Instituto de Aeronautica e Espaco (IAE), Departamento de Ciencia e Tecnologia Aeroespacial - DCTA (Brazil); Gama, Adriana M., E-mail: adriana-gama@uol.com.b [Divisao de Materiais (AMR), Instituto de Aeronautica e Espaco (IAE), Departamento de Ciencia e Tecnologia Aeroespacial - DCTA (Brazil)

    2010-10-15

    This paper presents the results of simulations of the magnetization field ac response (at 2-12 GHz) of various submicron ferrite particles (cylindrical dots). The ferrites in the present simulations have the spinel structure, expressed here by M{sub 1}-{sub n}Zn{sub n}Fe{sub 2}O{sub 4} (where M stands for a divalent metal), and the parameters chosen were the following: (a) for n=0: M={l_brace}Fe, Mn, Co, Ni, Mg, Cu {r_brace}; (b) for n=0.1: M = {l_brace}Fe, Mg{r_brace} (mixed ferrites). These runs represent full 3D micromagnetic (one-particle) ferrite simulations. We find evidences of confined spin waves in all simulations, as well as a complex behavior nearby the main resonance peak in the case of the M = {l_brace}Mg, Cu{r_brace} ferrites. A comparison of the n=0 and n=0.1 cases for fixed M reveals a significant change in the spectra in M = Mg ferrites, but only a minor change in the M=Fe case. An additional larger scale simulation of a 3 by 3 particle array was performed using similar conditions of the Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4} (magnetite; n=0, M = Fe) one-particle simulation. We find that the main resonance peak of the Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4} one-particle simulation is disfigured in the corresponding 3 by 3 particle simulation, indicating the extent to which dipolar interactions are able to affect the main resonance peak in that magnetic compound.

  1. An Adaptive Quadrature Signal Generation Based Single-Phase Phase-Locked Loop for Grid-Connected Applications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Golestan, Saeed; Guerrero, Josep M.; Abusorrah, Abdullah

    2017-01-01

    The quadrature signal generation based phase-locked loops (QSG-PLLs) are highly popular for synchronization purposes in single-phase systems. The main difference among these PLLs often lies in the technique they use for creating the fictitious quadrature component. One of the easiest QSG approaches...... is delaying the original single-phase signal by a quarter of a cycle. The PLL with such QSG technique is often called the transfer delay based PLL (TD-PLL). The TD-PLL benefits from a simple structure, rather fast dynamic response, and a good detection accuracy when the grid frequency is at its nominal value......, but it suffers from a phase offset error and double frequency oscillatory error in the estimated phase and frequency in the presence of frequency drifts. In this paper, a simple yet effective approach to remove the aforementioned errors of the TD-PLL is proposed. The resultant PLL structure is called...

  2. Covalent Hybrid of Spinel Manganese-Cobalt Oxide and Gra-phene as Advanced Oxygen Reduction Electrocatalysts

    OpenAIRE

    Liang, Yongye; Wang, Hailiang; Zhou, Jigang; Li, Yanguang; Wang, Jian; Regier, Tom; Dai, Hongjie

    2012-01-01

    Through direct nanoparticle nucleation and growth on nitrogen doped, reduced graphene oxide sheets and cation substitution of spinel Co3O4 nanoparticles, a manganese-cobalt spinel MnCo2O4/graphene hybrid was developed as a highly efficient electrocatalyst for oxygen reduction reaction (ORR) in alkaline conditions. Electrochemical and X-ray near edge structure (XANES) investigations revealed that the nucleation and growth method for forming inorganic-nanocarbon hybrid results in covalent coupl...

  3. Servo characteristics of single-phase spindle motor in DVD-ROM

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, KingYin; Kuei, ChingPing; Chang, SungSan; Lee, YaoYu; Kuo, YuHung

    2000-07-01

    The single-phase DC motor has the low-cost advantage over 3- phase DC motor owing to its easy-assembling and high yield- rate, however, it has larger torque ripple and cogging torque. Single-phase DC motor is currently applied to low profit margin products such as cooling fan. In order to utilize single-phase DC motor to high precision system, for instance, DVD (Digital Versatile Disk), the vibration caused by torque ripple and cogging torque needs to be solved. In this paper, focusing error, tracking error, seeking ability and some velocity control performances are studied when single-phase DC motor is used in DVD related products.

  4. Equivalence of two models in single-phase multicomponent flow simulations

    KAUST Repository

    Wu, Yuanqing

    2016-02-28

    In this work, two models to simulate the single-phase multicomponent flow in reservoirs are introduced: single-phase multicomponent flow model and two-phase compositional flow model. Because the single-phase multicomponent flow is a special case of the two-phase compositional flow, the two-phase compositional flow model can also simulate the case. We compare and analyze the two models when simulating the single-phase multicomponent flow, and then demonstrate the equivalence of the two models mathematically. An experiment is also carried out to verify the equivalence of the two models.

  5. Analytical Description of Degradation-Relaxation Transformations in Nanoinhomogeneous Spinel Ceramics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shpotyuk, O.; Brunner, M.; Hadzaman, I.; Balitska, V.; Klym, H.

    2016-11-01

    Mathematical models of degradation-relaxation kinetics are considered for jammed thick-film systems composed of screen-printed spinel Cu0.1Ni0.1Co1.6Mn1.2O4 and conductive Ag or Ag-Pd alloys. Structurally intrinsic nanoinhomogeneous ceramics due to Ag and Ag-Pd diffusing agents embedded in a spinel phase environment are shown to define governing kinetics of thermally induced degradation under 170 °C obeying an obvious non-exponential behavior in a negative relative resistance drift. The characteristic stretched-to-compressed exponential crossover is detected for degradation-relaxation kinetics in thick-film systems with conductive contacts made of Ag-Pd and Ag alloys. Under essential migration of a conductive phase, Ag penetrates thick-film spinel ceramics via a considerable two-step diffusing process.

  6. Single-phase cadmium telluride thin films deposited by electroless electrodeposition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khrypunov, G.; Klochko, N.; Lyubov, V.; Li, T.; Volkova, N.

    2010-01-01

    Full text : Today cadmium telluride (CdTe) is a leading base material for the fabrication of thin film solar cells. Equally with the creation of traditional thin film photovoltaic devices on the base of CdTe in recent years several approaches have been investigated to develop solar cells with extremely thin (80-500 nm) CdTe absorber (so-called ηE(eta)-solar cells) that offer the potential to reduce recombination losses in the base layers and thus use low cost materials. Until today the CdTe depositions for the η-solar cells manufacture were performed by vapour phase epitaxy under dynamical vacuum at working temperature 750 degrees Celsium or by electrodeposition in the special electrochemical cell equipped with the potentiostat. Development research of simple and inexpensive method for obtaining of the single-phase stoichiometric cadmium telluride films has required an improvement of the electroless electrodeposition technique, which theretofore was characterized by some disadvantages, namely, the CdTe films were polluted by free tellurium additions and the composition of the films was Cd:Te=55:45. So, for the showing up the synthesis of doped or stoichiometric cadmium telluride films conditions and in order to decide the problem of the deposition of single-phase CdTe layers it was researched the electrochemical processes going during electroless electrolysis in sulfate solutions with different acidities and CdSO 4 concentrations. Some film samples during deposition were illuminated by 500 W halogen lamp. Deposition time was 10-15 min. The phase composition and structure of the deposited films were determined by XRD-method, the average sizes of the crystalline grains in the films were estimated using Debye-Scherer formula. The transmittance spectra of the samples were measured by double beam spectrophotometer in the spectral range of 0.6-1.1 μm. Surface morphology of the films was researched by scanning electron microscopy. By means of analysis of the

  7. The effect of calcination temperature on the formation and magnetic properties of ZnMn2O4 spinel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hermanto, B.; Ciswandi; Afriani, F.; Aryanto, D.; Sudiro, T.

    2018-03-01

    The spinel based on transition-metal oxides has a typical composition of AB2O4. In this study, the ZnMn2O4 spinel was synthesized using a powder metallurgy technique. The Zn and Mn metallic powders with an atomic ratio of 1:2 were mechanically alloyed for 3 hours in aqueous solution. The mixed powder was then calcined in a muffle furnace at elevated temperature of 400, 500 and 600 °C. The X-ray Diffractometer (XRD) was used to evaluate the formation of a ZnMn2O4 spinel structure. The magnetic properties of the sample at varying calcination temperatures were characterized by a Vibrating Sample Magnetometer (VSM). The results show that the fraction of ZnMn2O4 spinel formation increases with the increase of calcination temperature. The calcination temperature also affects the magnetic properties of the samples.

  8. Chemical and physical characterizations of spinel ferrite nanoparticles containing Nd and B elements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iwamoto, Takashi; Komorida, Yuki; Mito, Masaki; Takahara, Atsushi

    2010-05-15

    We first succeeded in synthesizing ferrite nanoparticles containing Nd and B elements by a chemical route using a polyol process. The lattice constants of the ferrite nanoparticles were equivalent to 8.39Å of the lattice constant for Fe(3)O(4) with the spinel structure in a bulk state independently of the size in diameter and composition (Fe:Nd:B). The size in diameter was actually dominated by the amount of ligands (oleic acid and oleylamine) coating the nanoparticles and easily tuned by changing refluxing-time under reaction. The spinel-structured ferrite nanoparticles containing Nd and B elements showed large coercivity as compared to Fe(3)O(4) nanoparticles with the spinel structure, which were prepared by the same chemical method. By doping Nd and B elements into the spinel structure of ferrite, magnetic anisotropy increased in comparison with Fe(3)O(4) nanoparticles. According to the analysis of magnetization curve using the modified Langevin function, the ferrite nanoparticles displayed the coexistence of superparamagnetic and antiferromagnetic phases. The ferrite nanoparticles containing Nd and B elements exhibited magnetic core/shell structure on the basis of various magnetic properties. The interface effect between the superparamagnetic core and antiferromagnetic shell might enhance the effective magnetic anisotropy of the ferrite nanoparticles containing Nd and B elements. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Single-Phase Microgrid with Seamless Transition Capabilities between Modes of Operation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Micallef, Alexander; Apap, Maurice; Spiteri-Staines, Cyril

    2015-01-01

    Microgrids are an effective way to increase the penetration of DG into the grid. They are capable of operating either in grid-connected or in islanded mode thereby increasing the supply reliability for the end user. This paper focuses on achieving seamless transitions from islanded to grid......-connected and vice versa for a single phase microgrid made up from voltage controlled voltage source inverters (VC-VSIs) and current controlled voltage source inverters (CC-VSIs) working together in both modes of operation. The primary control structures for the VC-VSIs and CC-VSIs is considered together...... with the secondary control loops that are used to synchronize the microgrid as a single unit to the grid. Simulation results are given that show the seamless transitions between the two modes without any disconnection times for the CC-VSIs and VC-VSIs connected to the microgrid....

  10. Broadband single-phase hyperbolic elastic metamaterials for super-resolution imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Hao-Wen; Zhao, Sheng-Dong; Wang, Yue-Sheng; Zhang, Chuanzeng

    2018-02-02

    Hyperbolic metamaterials, the highly anisotropic subwavelength media, immensely widen the engineering feasibilities for wave manipulation. However, limited by the empirical structural topologies, the reported hyperbolic elastic metamaterials (HEMMs) suffer from the limitations of the relatively narrow frequency width, inflexible adjustable operating subwavelength scale and difficulty to further improve the imaging resolution. Here, we show an inverse-design strategy for HEMMs by topology optimization. We design broadband single-phase HEMMs supporting multipolar resonances at different prescribed deep-subwavelength scales, and demonstrate the super-resolution imaging for longitudinal waves. Benefiting from the extreme enhancement of the evanescent waves, an optimized HEMM at an ultra-low frequency can yield an imaging resolution of ~λ/64, representing the record in the field of elastic metamaterials. The present research provides a novel and general design methodology for exploring the HEMMs with unrevealed mechanisms and guides the ultrasonography and general biomedical applications.

  11. Realization of single-phase single-stage grid-connected PV system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Osama M. Arafa

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a single phase single stage grid-tied PV system. Grid angle detection is introduced to allow operation at any arbitrary power factor but unity power factor is chosen to utilize the full inverter capacity. The system ensures MPPT using the incremental conductance method and it can track the changes in insolation level without oscillations. A PI voltage controller and a dead-beat current controller are used to ensure high quality injected current to the grid. The paper investigates the system structure and performance through numerical simulation using Matlab/Simulink. An experimental setup controlled by the MicrolabBox DSP prototyping platform is utilized to realize the system and study its performance. The precautions for smooth and safe system operation including the startup sequence are fully considered in the implementation.

  12. Hybrid Three-Phase/Single-Phase Microgrid Architecture with Power Management Capabilities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sun, Qiuye; Zhou, Jianguo; Guerrero, Josep M.

    2015-01-01

    With the fast proliferation of single-phase distributed generation (DG) units and loads integrated into residential microgrids, independent power sharing per phase and full use of the energy generated by DGs have become crucial. To address these issues, this paper proposes a hybrid microgrid...... control of load power sharing among phases, as well as to allow fully utilization of the energy generated by DGs. Meanwhile, the method combining the modified adaptive backstepping-sliding mode control approach and droop control is also proposed to design the SPBTB system controllers. With the application...... of the proposed PSU and its power management strategy, the loads among different phases can be properly supplied and the energy can be fully utilized as well as obtaining better load sharing. Simulation and experimental results are provided to demonstrate the validity of the proposed hybrid microgrid structure...

  13. Microstructural evidence for a disequilibrium condensation origin for hibonite-spinel inclusions in the ALHA77307 CO3.0 chondrite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Jangmi; Brearley, Adrian J.; Keller, Lindsay P.

    2015-12-01

    Two hibonite-spinel inclusions (CAIs 03 and 08) in the ALHA77307 CO3.0 chondrite have been characterized in detail using the focused ion beam sample preparation technique combined with transmission electron microscopy. These hibonite-spinel inclusions are irregularly shaped and porous objects and consist of randomly oriented hibonite laths enclosed by aggregates of spinel with fine-grained perovskite inclusions finally surrounded by a partial rim of diopside. Melilite is an extremely rare phase in this type of CAI and occurs only in one inclusion (CAI 03) as interstitial grains between hibonite laths and on the exterior of the inclusion. The overall petrologic and mineralogical observations suggest that the hibonite-spinel inclusions represent high-temperature condensates from a cooling nebular gas. The textural relationships indicate that hibonite is the first phase to condense, followed by perovskite, spinel, and diopside. Texturally, melilite condensation appears to have occurred after spinel, suggesting that the condensation conditions were far from equilibrium. The crystallographic orientation relationships between hibonite and spinel provide evidence of epitaxial nucleation and growth of spinel on hibonite surfaces, which may have lowered the activation energy for spinel nucleation compared with that of melilite and consequently inhibited melilite condensation. Hibonite contains abundant stacking defects along the (001) plane consisting of different ratios of the spinel and Ca-containing blocks within the ideal hexagonal hibonite structure. This modification of the stacking sequence is likely the result of accommodation of excess Al in the gas into hibonite due to incomplete condensation of corundum from a cooling gas under disequilibrium conditions. We therefore conclude that these two hibonite-spinel inclusions in ALHA77307 formed by high-temperature condensation under disequilibrium conditions.

  14. High power 4.7 V nanostructured spinel lithium manganese nickel oxide lithium-ion battery cathode materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kunduraci, Muharrem

    Nanostructured LiMn1.5+deltaNi0.5-deltaO 4 spinel powders were synthesized by a solution based chemistry method called modified Pechini. The impacts of processing parameters such as synthesis temperature, oxygen-partial-pressure and mole ratio of ethylene glycol to citric acid on the morphology, structure and properties of spinel materials have been studied thoroughly via various in-situ and ex-situ characterization techniques. Later, these parameters were tied with the electrochemical properties of spinel electrodes. After optimization of processing steps and glycol/acid ratio, a unique mesoporous morphology with interconnected nanoparticles were successfully obtained. Such morphology was found to be very conducive to achieve high power density lithium-ion battery spinel cathodes. This was attributed to (i) large number of mesoporosities that favor electrolyte penetration, thereby enabling better wetting of spinel cathodes and faster lithium ion transfer at electrolyte/cathode interface and (ii) particle interconnectivity that allows continuous electron transport, which becomes highly critical especially at high current rates. The synthesis temperature and oxygen-partial-pressure were found to affect the structure significantly. Depending on the ordering/disordering of transition metal ions on octahedral sites, spinels were assigned to either ordered P4 332 or disordered Fd3m space groups. The spinel of the two symmetry groups differed significantly in fast discharge rate capability. In an effort to identify the origin of this electrochemical disparity, intensive characterizations of both structures were undertaken (in-situ: XRD, Impedance spectroscopy, Raman; ex-situ: XRD, FTIR, TGA, electronic conductivity and lithium diffusivity and more). The poor performance of the ordered phase was attributed to its intrinsic properties, namely lower electronic conductivity and lithium diffusion coefficient (DLi). Regarding the former, the mechanism of electron conduction in

  15. Synthesis and characterization of inverse spinels, intercalation materials for Li-ion batteries

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van Landschoot, N.

    2006-01-01

    Chapter 2 describes the solid-state synthesis of LiNiVO4 and LiCoVO4. The materials are prepared at 800C and are phase pure, as shown by X-ray diffraction and have the inverse spinel structure. Due to the solid-state synthesis the particle size is quite large and the particle size distribution is

  16. new topology for single-phase, three-level, spwm vsi with lc filter

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    level PWM inverter. However, this is not the case with single-phase PWM inverters. In these days, the popular single-phase inverters adopt the full-bridge type using approximate sinusoidal modulation technique. The output voltage in them has two values: zero and pos- itive supply dc voltage levels in the positive half cycle.

  17. Torque Analysis With Saturation Effects for Non-Salient Single-Phase Permanent-Magnet Machines

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lu, Kaiyuan; Ritchie, Ewen

    2011-01-01

    The effects of saturation on torque production for non-salient, single-phase, permanent-magnet machines are studied in this paper. An analytical torque equation is proposed to predict the instantaneous torque with saturation effects. Compared to the existing methods, it is computationally faster......-element results, and experimental results obtained on a prototype single-phase permanent-magnet machine....

  18. High magnesium mobility in ternary spinel chalcogenides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Canepa, Pieremanuele; Bo, Shou-Hang; Sai Gautam, Gopalakrishnan; Key, Baris; Richards, William D; Shi, Tan; Tian, Yaosen; Wang, Yan; Li, Juchuan; Ceder, Gerbrand

    2017-11-24

    Magnesium batteries appear a viable alternative to overcome the safety and energy density limitations faced by current lithium-ion technology. The development of a competitive magnesium battery is plagued by the existing notion of poor magnesium mobility in solids. Here we demonstrate by using ab initio calculations, nuclear magnetic resonance, and impedance spectroscopy measurements that substantial magnesium ion mobility can indeed be achieved in close-packed frameworks (~ 0.01-0.1 mS cm -1 at 298 K), specifically in the magnesium scandium selenide spinel. Our theoretical predictions also indicate that high magnesium ion mobility is possible in other chalcogenide spinels, opening the door for the realization of other magnesium solid ionic conductors and the eventual development of an all-solid-state magnesium battery.

  19. Dielectric and impedance study of praseodymium substituted Mg-based spinel ferrites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Farid, Hafiz Muhammad Tahir, E-mail: tahirfaridbzu@gmail.com [Department of Physics, Bahauddin Zakariya, University Multan, 60800 (Pakistan); Ahmad, Ishtiaq; Ali, Irshad [Department of Physics, Bahauddin Zakariya, University Multan, 60800 (Pakistan); Ramay, Shahid M. [College of Science, Physics and Astronomy Department, King Saud University, P.O. Box 2455, 11451 Riyadh (Saudi Arabia); Mahmood, Asif [Chemical Engineering Department, College of Engineering, King Saud University, Riyadh (Saudi Arabia); Murtaza, G. [Centre for Advanced Studies in Physics, GC University, Lahore 5400 (Pakistan)

    2017-07-15

    Highlights: • Magnesium based spinel ferrites were successfully synthesized by sol-gel method. • Dielectric constant shows the normal spinel ferrites behavior. • The dc conductivity are found to decrease with increasing temperature. • The samples with low conductivity have high values of activation energy. • The Impedance decreases with increasing frequency of applied field. - Abstract: Spinel ferrites with nominal composition MgPr{sub y}Fe{sub 2−y}O{sub 4} (y = 0.00, 0.025, 0.05, 0.075, 0.10) were prepared by sol-gel method. Temperature dependent DC electrical conductivity and drift mobility were found in good agreement with each other, reflecting semiconducting behavior. The dielectric properties of all the samples as a function of frequency (1 MHz–3 GHz) were measured at room temperature. The dielectric constant and complex dielectric constant of these samples decreased with the increase of praseodymium concentration. In the present spinel ferrite, Cole–Cole plots were used to separate the grain and grain boundary’s effects. The substitution of praseodymium ions in Mg-based spinel ferrites leads to a remarkable rise of grain boundary’s resistance as compared to the grain’s resistance. As both AC conductivity and Cole–Cole plots are the functions of concentration, they reveal the dominant contribution of grain boundaries in the conduction mechanism. AC activation energy was lower than dc activation energy. Temperature dependence normalized AC susceptibility of spinel ferrites reveals that MgFe{sub 2}O{sub 4} exhibits multi domain (MD) structure with high Curie temperature while on substitution of praseodymium, MD to SD transitions occurs. The low values of conductivity and low dielectric loss make these materials best candidate for high frequency application.

  20. Magnetic behavior of the oxide spinels

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    ... Refresher Courses · Symposia · Live Streaming. Home; Journals; Pramana – Journal of Physics; Volume 58; Issue 5-6. Magnetic behavior of the oxide spinels: Li0.5Fe2.5-2AlCrO4. U N Trivedi K B Modi H H Joshi. Colossal Magnetoresistance & Other Materials Volume 58 Issue 5-6 May-June 2002 pp 1031-1034 ...

  1. Evaluation of thermobarometry for spinel lherzolite fragments in alkali basalts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozawa, Kazuhito; Youbi, Nasrrddine; Boumehdi, Moulay Ahmed; McKenzie, Dan; Nagahara, Hiroko

    2017-04-01

    Geothermobarometry of solid fragments in kimberlite and alkali basalts, generally called "xenoliths", provides information on thermal and chemical structure of lithospheric and asthenospheric mantle, based on which various chemical, thermal, and rheological models of lithosphere have been constructed (e.g., Griffin et al., 2003; McKenzie et al., 2005; Ave Lallemant et al., 1980). Geothermobarometry for spinel-bearing peridotite fragments, which are frequently sampled from Phanerozoic provinces in various tectonic environments (Nixon and Davies, 1987), has essential difficulties, and it is usually believed that appropriated barometers do not exist for them (O'Reilly et al., 1997; Medaris et al., 1999). Ozawa et al. (2016; EGU) proposed a method of geothermobarometry for spinel lherzolite fragments. They applied the method to mantle fragments in alkali basalts from Bou Ibalhatene maars in the Middle Atlas in Morocco (Raffone et al. 2009; El Azzouzi et al., 2010; Witting et al., 2010; El Messbahi et al., 2015). Ozawa et al. (2016) obtained 0.5GPa pressure difference (1.5-2.0GPa) for 100°C variation in temperatures (950-1050°C). However, it is imperative to verify the results on the basis of completely independent data. There are three types of independent information: (1) time scale of solid fragment extraction, which may be provided by kinetics of reactions induced by heating and/or decompression during their entrapment in the host magma and transportation to the Earth's surface (Smith, 1999), (2) depth of the host basalt formation, which may be provided by the petrological and geochemical studies of the host basalts, and (3) lithosphere-asthenosphere boundary depths, which may be estimated by geophysical observations. Among which, (3) is shown to be consistent with the result in Ozawa et al. (2016). We here present that the estimated thermal structure just before the fragment extraction is fully supported by the information of (1) and (2). Spera (1984) reviewed

  2. Exploring Lithium-Cobalt-Nickel-Oxide Spinel Electrodes for ≥3.5 V Li-Ion Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Eungje; Blauwkamp, Joel; Castro, Fernando C; Wu, Jinsong; Dravid, Vinayak P; Yan, Pengfei; Wang, Chongmin; Kim, Soo; Wolverton, Christopher; Benedek, Roy; Dogan, Fulya; Park, Joong Sun; Croy, Jason R; Thackeray, Michael Makepeace

    2016-10-04

    Recent reports have indicated that a manganese oxide spinel component, when embedded in a relatively small concentration in layered xLi 2 MnO 3 ●(1-x)LiMO 2 (M=Ni, Mn, Co) electrode systems, can act as a stabilizer that increases their capacity, rate capability, cycle life, and first-cycle efficiency. These findings prompted us to explore the possibility of exploiting lithiated cobalt oxide spinel stabilizers by taking advantage of (1) the low mobility of cobalt ions relative to manganese and nickel ions in close-packed oxides and (2) their higher potential (~3.6 V vs. Li 0 ) relative to manganese oxide spinels (~2.9 V vs. Li 0 ) for the spinel-to-lithiated spinel electrochemical reaction. In particular, we have revisited the structural and electrochemical properties of lithiated spinels in the LiCo 1-x Ni x O 2 (0≤x≤0.2) system, first reported almost 25 years ago, by means of high-resolution (synchrotron) X-ray diffraction, transmission electron microscopy, nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy, electrochemical cell tests, and theoretical calculations. The results provide a deeper understanding of the complexity of intergrown layered/lithiated spinel LiCo 1-x Ni x O 2 structures, when prepared in air between 400 and 800 °C, and the impact of structural variations on their electrochemical behavior. These structures, when used in low concentration, offer the possibility of improving the cycling stability, energy, and power of high energy (≥3.5 V) lithium-ion cells.

  3. Exploring Lithium-Cobalt-Nickel Oxide Spinel Electrodes for ≥3.5 V Li-Ion Cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Eungje; Blauwkamp, Joel; Castro, Fernando C.; Wu, Jinsong; Dravid, Vinayak P.; Yan, Pengfei; Wang, Chongmin; Kim, Soo; Wolverton, Christopher; Benedek, Roy; Dogan, Fulya; Park, Joong Sun; Croy, Jason R.; Thackeray, Michael M.

    2016-10-19

    Recent reports have indicated that a manganese oxide spinel component, when embedded in a relatively small concentration in layered xLi2MnO3(1-x)LiMO2 (M=Ni, Mn, Co) electrode systems, can act as a stabilizer that increases their capacity, rate capability, cycle life, and first-cycle efficiency. These findings prompted us to explore the possibility of exploiting lithiated cobalt oxide spinel stabilizers by taking advantage of (1) the low mobility of cobalt ions relative to manganese and nickel ions in close-packed oxides and (2) their higher potential (~3.6 V vs. Li0) relative to manganese oxide spinels (~2.9 V vs. Li0) for the spinel-to-lithiated spinel electrochemical reaction. In particular, we have revisited the structural and electrochemical properties of lithiated spinels in the LiCo1-xNixO2 (0x0.2) system, first reported almost 25 years ago, by means of high-resolution (synchrotron) X-ray diffraction, transmission electron microscopy, nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy, electrochemical cell tests, and theoretical calculations. The results provide a deeper understanding of the complexity of intergrown layered/lithiated spinel LiCo1-xNixO2 structures, when prepared in air between 400 and 800 C, and the impact of structural variations on their electrochemical behavior. These structures, when used in low concentration, offer the possibility of improving the cycling stability, energy, and power of high energy (≥3.5 V) lithium-ion cells.

  4. Introduction to porous spinel for refractory (high temp material

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kumar Saurav

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The paper examines thermal properties of materials. The transient pulse method was used for specific heat, thermal diffusivity and thermal conductivity determination. Porous MgO was synthesis by heating pellets at 1100 °C for 1 h. The resultant porous MgO was then immersed in 10 mol/L aluminum nitrate solution, dried, and reheated at 1300 °C for 2 h to convert it to spinel. The evaluation was performed with the help of mathematical apparatus used for study of fractal structures properties. The method results from generalized relations that were designed for study of physical properties of fractal structures. As it is shown these relations are in a good agreement with the equations used for the description of time responses of temperature for the pulse input of supplied heat.

  5. Comparative analysis of the changes in local Ni/Mn environment in lithium-nickel-manganese oxides with layered and spinel structure during electrochemical extraction and reinsertion of lithium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhecheva, E.; Stoyanova, R. [Institute of General and Inorganic Chemistry, Bulgarian Academy of Sciences, 1113 Sofia (Bulgaria); Alcantara, R.; Lavela, P.; Tirado, J.L. [Laboratorio de Quimica Inorganica, Facultad de Ciencias, Universidad de Cordoba, 14071 Cordoba (Spain)

    2007-12-06

    Electron paramagnetic resonance spectroscopy was used to analyse the changes in local Ni, Mn environment in layered LiNi{sub 1/2}Mn{sub 1/2}O{sub 2} and spinel LiNi{sub 1/2}Mn{sub 3/2}O{sub 4} after electrochemical extraction and reinsertion of lithium. For layered LiNi{sub 1/2}Mn{sub 1/2}O{sub 2}, the EPR signal from Mn{sup 4+} is only detected, while residual antiferromagnetic correlations between Ni{sup 2+} and Mn{sup 4+} ions gives rise to strong resonance absorption for LiNi{sub 1/2}Mn{sub 3/2}O{sub 4} spinel. The first charge process of layered LiNi{sub 1/2}Mn{sub 1/2}O{sub 2} leads to oxidation of Ni{sup 2+} ions located both in the transition metal sites and in the Li sites. The reverse process of reduction of these nickel ions was suggested to proceed between 4.4-3.0 V and 2.5-1.4 V, respectively. Lithium extraction from LiNi{sub 1/2}Mn{sub 3/2}O{sub 4} spinel leads to oxidation of paramagnetic Ni{sup 2+} to diamagnetic Ni{sup 4+} without significant changes in the local environment of Mn{sup 4+}. For both fully delithiated compositions, Li{sub 1-x}Ni{sub 1/2}Mn{sub 1/2}O{sub 2} and Li{sub 1-x}Ni{sub 1/2}Mn{sub 3/2}O{sub 4}, an EPR spectrum from localized Mn{sup 4+} ions is observed, indicating an exhaustion of paramagnetic Ni{sup 2+} ions in the vicinity of Mn{sup 4+} ions. Furthermore, it has been found that the Mn{sup 4+} environment including paramagnetic Mn{sup 4+} and Ni{sup 2+} neighbours is restored after the first cycle of charge/discharge. (author)

  6. Why ion irradiation does not lead to the same structural changes in normal spinels ZnAl{sub 2}O{sub 4}, MgAl{sub 2}O{sub 4} and MgCr{sub 2}O{sub 4}?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baldinozzi, G. [Ceramiques Sous Irradiation, Equipe Mixte CEA Saclay and CNRS Ecole Centrale Paris, Laboratoire Structures, Proprietes et Modelisation des Solides, 92295 Chatenay-Malabry (France)], E-mail: gianguido.baldinozzi@ecp.fr; Simeone, D.; Gosset, D. [Ceramiques Sous Irradiation, Equipe Mixte CEA Saclay and CNRS Ecole Centrale Paris, CEA/DEN/DANS/DMN/SRMA, 91191 Gif-sur-Yvette (France); Surble, S. [Ceramiques Sous Irradiation, Equipe Mixte CEA Saclay and CNRS Ecole Centrale Paris, Laboratoire Structures, Proprietes et Modelisation des Solides, 92295 Chatenay-Malabry (France); Mazerolles, L. [CECM, UPR CNRS 2801, 94407 Vitry-sur-Seine (France); Thome, L. [CSNSM, CNRS/IN2P3, 91405 Orsay (France)

    2008-06-15

    Ion irradiation induced phase transformations in three normal spinel compounds MgAl{sub 2}O{sub 4}, MgCr{sub 2}O{sub 4} and ZnAl{sub 2}O{sub 4} were investigated by X-ray diffraction, Raman spectroscopy and transmission electron microscopy. The structural and microstructural changes occurring in these three systems are described. Irradiation acts at the atomic and mesoscopic scales in different ways. At the atomic scale it produces the inversion of the cations in the structure. At the mesoscopic scale it produces a change of the size of the diffracting domains, responsible for the colossal changes in the observed X-ray diffraction patterns.

  7. A compact seven switches topology and reduced DC-link capacitor size for single-phase stand-alone PV system with hybrid energy storages

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Liu, Xiong; Wang, Peng; Loh, Poh Chiang

    2011-01-01

    Single-phase stand-alone PV system is suitable for household applications in remote area. Hybrid battery/ultra-capacitor energy storage can reduce charge and discharge cycles and avoid deep discharges of battery. This paper proposes a compact seven switches structure for stand-alone PV system......-order harmonic current caused by single-phase inverter. In the proposed compact topology, a small size DC-link capacitor can achieve the same function through charging/discharging control of ultra-capacitor to mitigate second-order ripple current. Simulation results are provided to validate the effectiveness......, which otherwise needs nine switches configuration, inclusive of one switch for boost converter, four switches for single-phase inverter and four switches for two DC/DC converters of battery and ultra-capacitor. It is well-known that a bulky DC-link capacitor is always required to absorb second...

  8. Spinel Li2CoTi3O8 nanometer obtained for application as pigment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Costa de Camara, M. S.; Alves Pimentel, L.; Longo, E.; Nobrega Azevedo, L. da; Araujo Melo, D. M. de

    2016-01-01

    Pigments are used in ceramics, cosmetics, inks, and other applications widely materials. To this must be single and easily reproducible. Moreover, the pigments obtained in the nanoscale are more stable, reproducible and highlight color in small amounts compared with those obtained in micrometer scale. The mixed oxides with spinel structures AB 2 O 4 have important applications, including: pigments, refractories, catalytic and electronic ceramics. In this context, the aim of this work was the preparation of powder Li 2 CoTi 3 O 8 spinel phase with nanometer particle size of the polymeric precursor method (Pechini) and characterization by means of thermal analysis (TG/DTA) X-ray diffraction (XRD), refined by the Rietveld method, BET, transmission electron microscopy (TEM), Raman and colorimetric coordinates. The pigment was obtained by heat treatment of 400 degree centigrade to 1000 degree centigrade after pyrolysis at 300 degree centigrade/1 h for removing the organic material. Li 2 CoTi 3 O 8 desired spinel phase was obtained from 500 degree centigrade, and presenting stability nanometer to about 1.300 degree centigrade. Spinel green phase introduced at temperatures in the range of 400 degree centigrade and 500 degree centigrade, and 600 degree centigrade at temperatures between blue and 1000 degree centigrade. (Author)

  9. Spinel/Layered Heterostructured Lithium-Rich Oxide Nanowires as Cathode Material for High-Energy Lithium-Ion Batteries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Ruizhi; Zhang, Xiaohui; Liu, Tao; Yang, Li; Liu, Lei; Wang, Yu; Wang, Xianyou; Shu, Hongbo; Yang, Xiukang

    2017-11-29

    Lithium-rich oxide material has been considered as an attractive candidate for high-energy cathode for lithium-ion batteries (LIBs). However, the practical applications are still hindered due to its low initial reversible capacity, severe voltage decaying, and unsatisfactory rate capability. Among all, the voltage decaying is a serious barrier that results in a large decrease of energy density during long-term cycling. To overcome these issues, herein, an efficient strategy of fabricating lithium-rich oxide nanowires with spinel/layered heterostructure is proposed. Structural characterizations verify that the spinel/layered heterostructured nanowires are a self-assembly of a lot of nanoparticles, and the Li 4 Mn 5 O 12 spinel phase is embedded inside the layered structure. When the material is used as cathode of LIBs, the spinel/layered heterostructured nanowires can display an extremely high invertible capacity of 290.1 mA h g -1 at 0.1 C and suppressive voltage fading. Moreover, it exhibits a favorable cycling stability with capacity retention of 94.4% after charging/discharging at 0.5 C for 200 cycles and it shows an extraordinary rate capability (183.9 mA h g -1 , 10 C). The remarkable electrochemical properties can be connected with the spinel/layered heterostructure, which is in favor of Li + transport kinetics and enhancing structural stability during the cyclic process.

  10. A Novel Model Predictive Control for Single-Phase Grid-Connected Photovoltaic Inverters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zangeneh Bighash, Esmaeil; Sadeghzadeh, Seyed Mohammad; Ebrahimzadeh, Esmaeil

    2017-01-01

    Single-phase grid-connected inverters with LCL filter are widely used to connect photovoltaic systems to the utility grid. Among the existing control schemes, predictive control methods are faster and more accurate but also more complicated to implement. Recently, the Model Predictive Control (MPC......) algorithm for single-phase inverter has been presented, where the algorithm implementation is straightforward. In the MPC approach, all switching states are considered in each switching period to achieve the control objectives. However, since the number of switching states in single-phase inverters is small...... vectors. Simulation results show that the proposed approach lead to a lower THD in the injected current combined with fast dynamics. The proposed predictive control has been simulated and implemented on a 1 kW single-phase HERIC (highly efficient and reliable inverter concept) inverter with an LCL filter...

  11. Light-Weight, Low-Cost, Single-Phase, Liquid-Cooled Cold Plate (Presentation)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Narumanchi, S.

    2013-07-01

    This presentation, 'Light-Weight, Low-Cost, Single-Phase Liquid-Cooled Cold Plate,' directly addresses program goals of increased power density, specific power, and lower cost of power electronics components through improved thermal management.

  12. Standard Specification for Sampling Single-Phase Geothermal Liquid or Steam for Purposes of Chemical Analysis

    CERN Document Server

    American Society for Testing and Materials. Philadelphia

    1983-01-01

    1.1 This specification covers the basic requirements for equipment to be used for the collection of uncontaminated and representative samples from single-phase geothermal liquid or steam. Geopressured liquids are included. See Fig 1.

  13. Local probing spinel and perovskite complex magnetic systems

    CERN Document Server

    De Pinho Oliveira, Goncalo; Lima Lopes, Armandina Maria

    Materials with multifunctional physical properties are crucial for the modern society, especially those which display a strong coupling between magnetic, lattice and polar degrees of freedom. This by far unexploited capability promises new paradigm-shift technologies for cooling technologies, magnetic data storage, high-frequency magnetic devices, spintronics, and micro-electromechanical systems. Alongside with the understanding of the properties of these materials, the need to improve them and to make them smaller and more efficient is a current goal. Device miniaturization towards very high-density data storage stands also as a trend in modern science and technology. Here, the integration of several functions into one material system has become highly desirable. Research in this area has already highlighted complex magnetic materials with po- tential for multifunctional applications based on spinel type structures like CdMn2O4 or multiferroic CdCr2S4 or even RCrO3 with orthorhombically distorted perovskite ...

  14. Reduction of waveform distortion in grid-injection current from single-phase utility interactive PV-inverter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hamid, Muhammad Imran; Jusoh, Awang

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • A reduction scheme for harmonics from utility interactive PV-inverter is proposed. • Single-phase conditioner with 3-phase expandability structure is used. • The single-phase conditioner in 3-phase structure work independently. • The scheme works effectively within overall operation range of the PV-inverter. • Conditioner in the scheme also improves the PV-inverter and plant’s utility factor. - Abstract: As the natural behavior of energy source and design characteristic, the current generated by a grid-interactive PV-inverter may contain harmonics. This distortion component will be carried on from the PV-inverter during injection power into the grid. Excessive harmonics in a grid will lead to a variety of power quality problems. This paper presents a distortion reduction scheme, utilizing a fed forward single-phase, generation-side power conditioner with a structure that can be expanded for use in a three-phase system and can work independently under imbalanced condition. Conditioner is placed in parallel with the photovoltaic plant and it functions to compensate the plant’s output current distortion, so that the total current flow to the grid is sinusoidal. This method also includes the implementation of a simpler control system for the conditioner, which consists of a combination of distortion current extraction, synchronization and a current control system, and realized through a TMS320F28335: a 150 MHz floating point DSP controller. Testing of the conditioner prototype, which was conducted on a real operation of a PV plant, showed that the scheme worked effectively within the overall operation range of the PV plant. This paper also discusses the potential of utility factor improvement of the PV-inverter and plant due to implementation of conditioner in the scheme

  15. Chromian spinel-rich black sands from eastern shoreline of ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    rocks, especially Alpine-type peridotites (Press. 1986; Arai and Okada 1991; Cookenboo et al. 1997;. Lee 1999). Due to the high mechanical and chem- ical resistivity of spinel grains, it usually forms beach placers. The spinel compositions, known to be influenced by the geodynamic environment of formation (Evans and ...

  16. Chromian spinel-rich black sands from eastern shoreline of ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Black sands rich in chromian spinel commonly occur in pockets along the eastern shoreline of Andaman. Island where various types of peridotites and volcanics belonging to the Andaman ophiolite suite are exposed in close vicinity. The chemistry of these detrital chromian spinels has been extensively used here.

  17. Chromian spinel-rich black sands from eastern shoreline of ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Black sands rich in chromian spinel commonly occur in pockets along the eastern shoreline of Andaman Island where various types of peridotites and volcanics belonging to the Andaman ophiolite suite are exposed in close vicinity. The chemistry of these detrital chromian spinels has been extensively used here in ...

  18. Black and green pigments based on chromium-cobalt spinels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eliziario, Sayonara A., E-mail: sayonaraea@iq.unesp.br [Departamento de Fisico-Quimica, Instituto de Quimica, UNESP - Univ Estadual Paulista, Araraquara, SP (Brazil); Departamento de Quimica, CCEN, Universidade Federal da Paraiba, Campus I, Joao Pessoa, PB (Brazil); Andrade, Jeferson M. de [Departamento de Quimica, CCEN, Universidade Federal da Paraiba, Campus I, Joao Pessoa, PB (Brazil); Lima, Severino J.G. [Departamento de Engenharia Mecanica, CT, Universidade Federal da Paraiba, Campus I, Joao Pessoa, PB (Brazil); Paskocimas, Carlos A. [Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Norte, CT, Natal, RN (Brazil); Soledade, Luiz E.B. [Departamento de Quimica, CCEN, Universidade Federal da Paraiba, Campus I, Joao Pessoa, PB (Brazil); Hammer, P.; Longo, E. [Departamento de Fisico-Quimica, Instituto de Quimica, UNESP - Univ Estadual Paulista, Araraquara, SP (Brazil); Souza, Antonio G.; Santos, Ieda M.G. [Departamento de Quimica, CCEN, Universidade Federal da Paraiba, Campus I, Joao Pessoa, PB (Brazil)

    2011-09-15

    Highlights: {yields} Co(Co{sub 2-x}Cr{sub x})O{sub 4} powders with different chromium concentrations (x = 0, 0.25 and 1) were prepared by the polymeric precursor method. {yields} Co(CoCr)O{sub 4} and Co(Co{sub 1.75}Cr{sub 0.25})O{sub 4} displayed a dark color and CoCr{sub 2}O{sub 4} was green. {yields} The colors were related to the different oxidation states of Cr and Co. {yields} Cobalt enrichment result in an increasing presence of Co(III) and a decrease amount of Cr(VI). - Abstract: Chromium and cobalt oxides are widely used in the manufacture of industrial pigments. In this work, the Co(Co{sub 2-x}Cr{sub x})O{sub 4} powders with different chromium concentrations (x = 0, 0.25 and 1) were synthesized by the polymeric precursor method, heat treatment between 600 and 1000 deg. C. These powders were characterized by X-ray diffraction, infrared spectroscopy, colorimetry, UV-vis absorption and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopies. Even with the addition of chromium, the XRD patterns revealed that all powders crystallize in a single spinel cubic structure. The spinels with higher cobalt amount, Co(CoCr)O{sub 4} and Co(Co{sub 1.75}Cr{sub 0.25})O{sub 4}, displayed a dark color, without the Co{sup 3+} reduction observed in Co{sub 3}O{sub 4} between 900 and 950 deg. C. The spinel with higher chromium amount, CoCr{sub 2}O{sub 4}, was green. The colors were directly related to the occupation of tetrahedral and octahedral sites by the chromophores, as well as to the different oxidation states of chromium and cobalt. The different optical band gap values estimated from UV-vis spectra suggested the existence of intermediary energy levels within the band gap. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy confirmed an increasing presence of Co(III) and a decreasing amount of Cr(VI) with cobalt enrichment.

  19. Functional Ceramic Ferroelectromagnetic Materials in Single Phase Solid-Solutions

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-12-05

    PbTiO3)1-x, where x= 0.10, 0.20, 0.30, 0.40, 0.67. ( work is still going on) Introduction: Recently BaTiO3 is doped with Ni and Co to get...xBaxMnO3 was expected to enhance the magnetic properties. LaMnO3 is an antiferromagnetic insulator and have cubic perovskite structure. The doping with...research in solid solutions like x (BiFeO3)-(1-x) (PbTiO3) ( BF-PT), BiFeO3- BaTiO3 , BiFeO3- Pb(FeNb)O3, BiFeO3-ReFeO3- BaTiO3 .Mainly the aim of the

  20. Solution-combustion synthesized aluminium-doped spinel (LiAl(subx)Mn(sub2-x)O(sub4) as a high-performance lithium-ion battery cathode material

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Kebede, MA

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available High-performing (LiAl(subx)Mn(sub2-x)O(sub4) (x = 0, 0.125, 0.25, 0.375, and 0.5) spinel cathode materials for lithium-ion battery were developed using a solution combustion method. The as-synthesized cathode materials have spinel cubic structure...

  1. Spinel and post-spinel phase assemblages in Zn2TiO4: an experimental and theoretical study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yanyao; Liu, Xi; Shieh, Sean R.; Bao, Xinjian; Xie, Tianqi; Wang, Fei; Zhang, Zhigang; Prescher, Clemens; Prakapenka, Vitali B.

    2017-02-01

    Zn2TiO4 spinel (Zn2TiO4-Sp) was synthesized by a solid-state reaction method (1573 K, room P and 72 h) and quasi-hydrostatically compressed to 24 GPa using a DAC coupled with a synchrotron X-ray radiation (ambient T). We found that the Zn2TiO4-Sp was stable up to 21 GPa and transformed to another phase at higher P. With some theoretical simulations, we revealed that this high- P phase adopted the CaTi2O4-type structure (Zn2TiO4-CT). Additionally, the isothermal bulk modulus ( K T) of the Zn2TiO4-Sp was experimentally obtained as 156.0(44) GPa and theoretically obtained as 159.1(4) GPa, with its first pressure derivative K_{{T}}' as 3.8(6) and 4.37(4), respectively. The volumetric and axial isothermal bulk moduli of the Zn2TiO4-CT were theoretically obtained as K T = 150(2) GPa (K_{{T}}' = 5.4(2); for the volume), K T- a = 173(2) GPa (K_{{{T-}}a}' = 3.9(1); for the a-axis), K T- b = 74(2) GPa (K_{{{T-}}b}' = 7.0(2); for the b-axis), and K T- c = 365(8) GPa (K_{{{T-}}c}' = 1.5(4); for the c-axis), indicating a strong elastic anisotropy. The Zn2TiO4-CT was found as 10.0 % denser than the Zn2TiO4-Sp at ambient conditions. The spinel and post-spinel phase assemblages for the Zn2TiO4 composition at high T have been deduced as Zn2TiO4-Sp, ZnTiO3-ilmenite + ZnO-wurtzite, ZnTiO3-ilmenite + ZnO-rock salt, ZnTiO3-perovskite + ZnO-rock salt, and Zn2TiO4-CT as P increases, which presumably implies a potential stability field for a CT-type Mg2SiO4 at very high P.

  2. Adaptive Hysteresis Band Current Control for Transformerless Single-Phase PV Inverters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vázquez, Gerardo; Rodriguez, Pedro; Ordoñez, Rafael

    2009-01-01

    Current control based on hysteresis algorithms are widely used in different applications, such as motion control, active filtering or active/reactive power delivery control in distributed generation systems. The hysteresis current control provides to the system a fast and robust dynamic response,...... different single-phase PV inverter topologies, by means of simulations performed with PSIM. In addition, the behavior of the thermal losses when using each control structure in such converters has been studied as well.......Current control based on hysteresis algorithms are widely used in different applications, such as motion control, active filtering or active/reactive power delivery control in distributed generation systems. The hysteresis current control provides to the system a fast and robust dynamic response......, and requires a simple implementation in standard digital signal platforms. On the other hand, the main drawback of classical hysteresis current control lies in the fact that the switching frequency is variable, as the hysteresis band is fixed. In this paper a variable band hysteresis control algorithm...

  3. Study of structural and magnetic properties of (Co–Cu)Fe{sub 2}O{sub 4}/PANI composites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hashim, Mohd., E-mail: md.hashim09@gmail.com [Department of Applied Physics, Aligarh Muslim University, Aligarh 202 002 (India); Alimuddin [Department of Applied Physics, Aligarh Muslim University, Aligarh 202 002 (India); Shirsath, Sagar E. [Spin Device Technology Centre, Department of Information Engineering, Shinshu University, Nagano 380-8553 (Japan); Meena, S.S. [Solid State Physics Division, Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Mumbai 400 085 (India); Kotnala, R.K. [National Physical Laboratory (CSIR), Dr. K.S. Krishnan Road, New Delhi 110 012 (India); Kumar, Shalendra [Department of Physics, Pohang University of Science and Technology, Pohang 790-784 (Korea, Republic of); Bhatt, Pramod [Solid State Physics Division, Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Mumbai 400 085 (India); Jotania, R.B. [Department of Physics, School of Science, Gujarat University, Ahmedabad 380 009 (India); Kumar, Ravi [Centre for Material Science Engineering, National Institute of Technology, Hamirpur 171 005, HP (India)

    2013-08-15

    The nanocomposites of the polyaniline and Co{sub 1−x}Cu{sub x}Fe{sub 2}O{sub 4} (PANI/CoCuFe) were prepared by in-situ oxidative polymerization of aniline. Prepared nanocomposites samples were characterized by using various experimental techniques like X-ray diffraction (XRD), Fourier transformed infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR), field emission scanning electron microscope (FE-SEM), vibrating sample magnetometer (VSM), Mössbauer spectroscopy and ultraviolet–visible spectrophotometry (UV–VIS). The elemental analysis as obtained from the energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDAX) measurement is in close agreement with the expected composition from the stoichiometry of the reactant solutions. XRD result confirms that all the samples have the single phase cubic spinel structure. Unit cell parameter ‘a’ is found to decrease with the increase in copper ion substitution. The crystallite size was investigated by using the Debye–Scherer formula and it was found in the range of ∼28–37 nm. FE-SEM confirmed the homogeneous and well defined surface morphology of the synthesized samples. FT-IR study showed the main absorption bands corresponding to the spinel structure those arose due to the tetrahedral and octahedral stretching vibrations. Cation distribution was estimated using XRD data. Hysteresis measurements revealed that the saturation magnetization decreased with increase in Cu{sup 2+} substitution. Magnetic environment of {sup 57}Fe in Cu-doped cobalt ferrite was investigated by using Mössbauer spectroscopy. Mössbauer study evidenced the ferrimagnetic behavior of the synthesized samples. - Highlights: • Crystallite size decreases with increasing Cu{sup 2+} substitution. • The prepared samples show the formation of single phase cubic spinel structure. • Cation distribution shows that Cu and Co ions shows strong preference toward octahedral B site. • Magnetization decreases with increasing Cu{sup 2+} substitution. • Mössbauer study shows

  4. Single-phase ProtoDUNE, the Prototype of a Single-Phase Liquid Argon TPC for DUNE at the CERN Neutrino Platform

    CERN Document Server

    Cavanna, F; Touramanis, C

    2017-01-01

    ProtoDUNE-SP is the single-phase DUNE Far Detector prototype that is under construction and will be operated at the CERN Neutrino Platform (NP) starting in 2018. It was proposed to the CERN SPSC in June 2015 (SPSC-P-351) and was approved in December 2015 as experiment NP04 (ProtoDUNE). ProtoDUNE-SP, a crucial part of the DUNE effort towards the construction of the first DUNE 10-kt fiducial mass far detector module (17 kt total LAr mass), is a significant experiment in its own right. With a total liquid argon (LAr) mass of 0.77 kt, it represents the largest monolithic single phase LArTPC detector to be built to date. It is housed in an extension to the EHN1 hall in the North Area, where the CERN NP is providing a new dedicated charged-particle test beamline. ProtoDUNE-SP aims to take its first beam data before the LHC long shutdown (LS2) at the end of 2018. ProtoDUNE-SP prototypes the designs of most of the single-phase DUNE far detector module (DUNE-SP) components at a 1:1 scale, with an extrapolation of abo...

  5. Observation and manipulation of magnetic domains in sol gel derived thin films of spinel ferrites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Datar, Ashwini A.; Mathe, Vikas L.

    2017-12-01

    Thin films of spinel ferrites, namely zinc substituted nickel, cobalt ferrite, and manganese substituted cobalt ferrite, were synthesized using sol-gel derived spin-coating techniques. The films were characterized using x-ray diffraction, field emission scanning electron microscopy, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and Raman spectroscopy techniques for the analysis of structural, morphological and vibrational band transition properties, which confirm the spinel phase formation of the films. The magnetic force microscopy (MFM) technique was used to observe the magnetic domain structure present in the synthesized films. Further, the films were subjected to an external DC magnetic field of 2 kG to orient the magnetic domains and analyzed using an ex situ MFM technique.

  6. Strain effects in spinel ferrite thin films from first principles calculations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fritsch, D; Ederer, Claude, E-mail: fritschd@tcd.ie [School of Physics, Trinity College Dublin, Dublin 2 (Ireland)

    2011-04-01

    The inverse spinel ferrimagnets CoFe{sub 2}O{sub 4} (CFO) and NiFe{sub 2}O{sub 4} (NFO) are of interest for applications in spin-filter devices or as building blocks of artificial multiferroic heterostructures. Here we present density functional theory calculations of the structural and magnetic properties of CFO and NFO, with special emphasis on strain-induced changes in the magneto-crystalline anisotropy energy. We find that tensile (compressive) strain favours perpendicular (in-plane) anisotropy, in agreement with experimental observations. Our calculated magnetostriction constants {lambda}{sub 100} agree well with available experimental data. Furthermore, the influence of different cation arrangements used to represent the inverse spinel structure and the effect of different exchange-correlation functionals are analysed and discussed.

  7. Coordinated single-phase control scheme for voltage unbalance reduction in low voltage network.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pullaguram, Deepak; Mishra, Sukumar; Senroy, Nilanjan

    2017-08-13

    Low voltage (LV) distribution systems are typically unbalanced in nature due to unbalanced loading and unsymmetrical line configuration. This situation is further aggravated by single-phase power injections. A coordinated control scheme is proposed for single-phase sources, to reduce voltage unbalance. A consensus-based coordination is achieved using a multi-agent system, where each agent estimates the averaged global voltage and current magnitudes of individual phases in the LV network. These estimated values are used to modify the reference power of individual single-phase sources, to ensure system-wide balanced voltages and proper power sharing among sources connected to the same phase. Further, the high X / R ratio of the filter, used in the inverter of the single-phase source, enables control of reactive power, to minimize voltage unbalance locally. The proposed scheme is validated by simulating a LV distribution network with multiple single-phase sources subjected to various perturbations.This article is part of the themed issue 'Energy management: flexibility, risk and optimization'. © 2017 The Author(s).

  8. Searching for Next Single-Phase High-Entropy Alloy Compositions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David E. Alman

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available There has been considerable technological interest in high-entropy alloys (HEAs since the initial publications on the topic appeared in 2004. However, only several of the alloys investigated are truly single-phase solid solution compositions. These include the FCC alloys CoCrFeNi and CoCrFeMnNi based on 3d transition metals elements and BCC alloys NbMoTaW, NbMoTaVW, and HfNbTaTiZr based on refractory metals. The search for new single-phase HEAs compositions has been hindered by a lack of an effective scientific strategy for alloy design. This report shows that the chemical interactions and atomic diffusivities predicted from ab initio molecular dynamics simulations which are closely related to primary crystallization during solidification can be used to assist in identifying single phase high-entropy solid solution compositions. Further, combining these simulations with phase diagram calculations via the CALPHAD method and inspection of existing phase diagrams is an effective strategy to accelerate the discovery of new single-phase HEAs. This methodology was used to predict new single-phase HEA compositions. These are FCC alloys comprised of CoFeMnNi, CuNiPdPt and CuNiPdPtRh, and HCP alloys of CoOsReRu.

  9. A single-phase axially-magnetized permanent-magnet oscillating machine for miniature aerospace power sources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sui, Yi; Zheng, Ping; Cheng, Luming; Wang, Weinan; Liu, Jiaqi

    2017-05-01

    A single-phase axially-magnetized permanent-magnet (PM) oscillating machine which can be integrated with a free-piston Stirling engine to generate electric power, is investigated for miniature aerospace power sources. Machine structure, operating principle and detent force characteristic are elaborately studied. With the sinusoidal speed characteristic of the mover considered, the proposed machine is designed by 2D finite-element analysis (FEA), and some main structural parameters such as air gap diameter, dimensions of PMs, pole pitches of both stator and mover, and the pole-pitch combinations, etc., are optimized to improve both the power density and force capability. Compared with the three-phase PM linear machines, the proposed single-phase machine features less PM use, simple control and low controller cost. The power density of the proposed machine is higher than that of the three-phase radially-magnetized PM linear machine, but lower than the three-phase axially-magnetized PM linear machine.

  10. Synthesis of magnesium aluminate spinel by periclase and alumina chlorination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Orosco, Pablo; Barbosa, Lucía; Ruiz, María del Carmen

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Use of chlorination for the synthesis of magnesium aluminate spinel. • The reagents used were alumina, periclase and chlorine. • Isothermal and non-isothermal assays were performed in air and Cl 2 –N 2 flows. • The chlorination produced magnesium aluminate spinel at 700 °C. • Selectivity of the chlorination reaction to obtain spinel is very high. - Abstract: A pyrometallurgical route for the synthesis of magnesium aluminate spinel by thermal treatment of a mechanical mixture containing 29 wt% MgO (periclase) and 71 wt% Al 2 O 3 (alumina) in chlorine atmosphere was developed and the results were compared with those obtained by calcining the same mixture of oxides in air atmosphere. Isothermal and non-isothermal assays were performed in an experimental piece of equipment adapted to work in corrosive atmospheres. Both reagents and products were analyzed by differential thermal analysis (DTA), X-ray diffraction (XRD) and X-ray fluorescence (XRF). Thermal treatment in Cl 2 atmosphere of the MgO–Al 2 O 3 mixture produces magnesium aluminate spinel at 700 °C, while in air, magnesium spinel is generated at 930 °C. The synthesis reaction of magnesium aluminate spinel was complete at 800 °C

  11. Synthesis of magnesium aluminate spinel by periclase and alumina chlorination

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Orosco, Pablo, E-mail: porosco@unsl.edu.ar [Instituto de Investigaciones en Tecnología Química (INTEQUI), Chacabuco y Pedernera, San Luis (Argentina); Facultad de Química, Bioquímica y Farmacia, Universidad Nacional de San Luis Chacabuco y Pedernera, San Luis (Argentina); Barbosa, Lucía [Instituto de Investigaciones en Tecnología Química (INTEQUI), Chacabuco y Pedernera, San Luis (Argentina); Instituto de Ciencias Básicas (ICB), Universidad Nacional de Cuyo Parque General San Martín, Mendoza (Argentina); Ruiz, María del Carmen [Instituto de Investigaciones en Tecnología Química (INTEQUI), Chacabuco y Pedernera, San Luis (Argentina); Facultad de Química, Bioquímica y Farmacia, Universidad Nacional de San Luis Chacabuco y Pedernera, San Luis (Argentina)

    2014-11-15

    Highlights: • Use of chlorination for the synthesis of magnesium aluminate spinel. • The reagents used were alumina, periclase and chlorine. • Isothermal and non-isothermal assays were performed in air and Cl{sub 2}–N{sub 2} flows. • The chlorination produced magnesium aluminate spinel at 700 °C. • Selectivity of the chlorination reaction to obtain spinel is very high. - Abstract: A pyrometallurgical route for the synthesis of magnesium aluminate spinel by thermal treatment of a mechanical mixture containing 29 wt% MgO (periclase) and 71 wt% Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} (alumina) in chlorine atmosphere was developed and the results were compared with those obtained by calcining the same mixture of oxides in air atmosphere. Isothermal and non-isothermal assays were performed in an experimental piece of equipment adapted to work in corrosive atmospheres. Both reagents and products were analyzed by differential thermal analysis (DTA), X-ray diffraction (XRD) and X-ray fluorescence (XRF). Thermal treatment in Cl{sub 2} atmosphere of the MgO–Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} mixture produces magnesium aluminate spinel at 700 °C, while in air, magnesium spinel is generated at 930 °C. The synthesis reaction of magnesium aluminate spinel was complete at 800 °C.

  12. Tailoring the magnetic properties and magnetorheological behavior of spinel nanocrystalline cobalt ferrite by varying annealing temperature

    OpenAIRE

    Sedlačík, Michal; Pavlínek, Vladimír; Peer, Petra; Filip, Petr

    2014-01-01

    Magnetic nanoparticles of spinel nanocrystalline cobalt ferrite were synthesized via the sol-gel method and subsequent annealing. The influence of the annealing temperature on the structure, magnetic properties, and magnetorheological effect was investigated. The finite crystallite size of the particles, determined by X-ray diffraction and the particle size observed via transmission electron microscopy, increased with the annealing temperature. The magnetic properties observed via a vibrating...

  13. Re4As6S3, a thio-spinel-related cluster system

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Besnard, Celine; Svensson, Christer; Ståhl, Kenny

    2003-01-01

    . The rhenium atoms form tetrahedral clusters linked via tetrahedral arsenic clusters to produce an NaCl-type arrangement. The oxidation state of rhenium is IV and the number of electrons shared by the rhenium atoms in the cluster is 12. The structure is based on an ordered defect thio-spinel A((1-x))B(2)X(4......) where the B-type atoms form tetrahedral clusters....

  14. Effect of calcination temperature on microstructural and magnetic properties of CuFe2O4 spinel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Costa, A.F.; Melo, D.M.A.; Gomes, D.K.S.; Araujo, J.H.; Lima, A.C. [Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Norte (UFRN), RN (Brazil); Pimentel, P.M. [Universidade Federal Rural do Semi-Arido (UFERSA), Mossoro, RN (Brazil); Santana, R.S.; Oliveira, R.M.P.B. [Universidade Federal de Sergipe (UFS), SE (Brazil)

    2014-07-01

    In this research, we report a study of nanostructured CuFe{sub 2}O{sub 4} Spinel obtained by a method which makes uses of gelatin as an organic precursor. The structural and magnetic properties were investigated in function of calcination temperature. The precursor powders were calcined at 700 and 900 deg C to obtain spinel phase. Then were characterized using X-ray diffraction combined with the Rietveld refinement method, infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), and magnetic measurements. The X-ray diffraction patterns revealed the presence of an inverse spinel phase, corresponding to copper ferrite in all samples. Moreover, Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3} and CuO phases were also identified. The results reveal that the calcination temperature strongly influences the magnetic properties of the prepared oxides. (author)

  15. Reliability Evaluation of a Single-phase H-bridge Inverter with Integrated Active Power Decoupling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tang, Junchaojie; Wang, Haoran; Ma, Siyuan

    2016-01-01

    Various power decoupling methods have been proposed recently to replace the DC-link Electrolytic Capacitors (E-caps) in single-phase conversion system, in order to extend the lifetime and improve the reliability of the DC-link. However, it is still an open question whether the converter level...... reliability becomes better or not, since additional components are introduced and the loading of the existing components may be changed. This paper aims to study the converter level reliability of a single-phase full-bridge inverter with two kinds of active power decoupling module and to compare...... it with the traditional passive DC-link solution. The converter level reliability is obtained by component level electro-thermal stress modeling, lifetime model, Weibull distribution, and Reliability Block Diagram (RBD) method. The results are demonstrated by a 2 kW single-phase inverter application....

  16. Field-circuit analysis and measurements of a single-phase self-excited induction generator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Makowski, Krzysztof; Leicht, Aleksander

    2017-12-01

    The paper deals with a single-phase induction machine operating as a stand-alone self-excited single-phase induction generator for generation of electrical energy from renewable energy sources. By changing number of turns and size of wires in the auxiliary stator winding, an improvement of performance characteristics of the generator were obtained as regards no-load and load voltage of the stator windings as well as stator winding currents of the generator. Field-circuit simulation models of the generator were developed using Flux2D software package for the generator with shunt capacitor in the main stator winding. The obtained results have been validated experimentally at the laboratory setup using the single-phase capacitor induction motor of 1.1 kW rated power and 230 V voltage as a base model of the generator.

  17. Benchmarking of grid fault modes in single-phase grid-connected photovoltaic systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yang, Yongheng; Blaabjerg, Frede; Zou, Zhixiang

    2012-01-01

    Pushed by the booming installations of single-phase photovoltaic (PV) systems, the grid demands regarding the integration of PV systems are expected to be modified. Hence, the future PV systems should become more active with functionalities of low voltage ride-through (LVRT) and the grid support...... capability. The control methods, together with grid synchronization techniques, are responsible for the generation of appropriate reference signals in order to handle ride-through grid faults. Thus, it is necessary to evaluate the behaviors of grid synchronization methods and control possibilities in single...... phase systems under grid faults. The intent of this paper is to present a benchmarking of grid fault modes that might come in future single-phase PV systems. In order to map future challenges, the relevant detection and control strategies are discussed. Some faulty modes are studied experimentally...

  18. Magnetic and catalytic properties of inverse spinel CuFe2O4 nanoparticles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anandan, S.; Selvamani, T.; Prasad, G. Guru; Asiri, A.M.; Wu, J.J.

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • Copper ferrite (CuFe 2 O 4 ) nanoparticles were synthesized via citrate-nitrate combustion method. • Spectroscopic information’s have found that CuFe 2 O 4 nanoparticles as an inverse spinel structure. • Magnetic study exhibits CuFe 2 O 4 nanoparticles have ferromagnetic behavior. • CuFe 2 O 4 nanoparticles employed for photocatalytic decolourisation of methylene blue under visible light irradiation. - Abstract: In this research, inverse spinel copper ferrite nanoparticles (CuFe 2 O 4 NPs) were synthesized via citrate-nitrate combustion method. The crystal structure, particle size, morphology and magnetic studies were investigated using various instrumental tools to illustrate the formation of the inverse spinel structure. Mossbauer spectrometry identified Fe is located both in the tetrahedral and octahedral site in the ratio (40:60) and the observed magnetic parameters values such as saturation magnetization (M s = 20.62 emu g −1 ), remnant magnetization (M r = 11.66 emu g −1 ) and coercivity (H c = 63.1 mTesla) revealed that the synthesized CuFe 2 O 4 NPs have a typical ferromagnetic behaviour. Also tested CuFe 2 O 4 nanoparticles as a photocatalyst for the decolourisation of methylene blue (MB) in the presence of peroxydisulphate as the oxidant.

  19. 16 channel WDM regeneration in a single phase-sensitive amplifier through optical Fourier transformation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Guan, Pengyu; Da Ros, Francesco; Lillieholm, Mads

    2016-01-01

    We demonstrate simultaneous phase regeneration of 16-WDM DPSK channels using optical Fourier transformation and a single phase-sensitive amplifier. The BERs of 16-WDM×10-Gbit/s phase noise degraded DPSK signals are improved by 0.4-1.3 orders of magnitude......We demonstrate simultaneous phase regeneration of 16-WDM DPSK channels using optical Fourier transformation and a single phase-sensitive amplifier. The BERs of 16-WDM×10-Gbit/s phase noise degraded DPSK signals are improved by 0.4-1.3 orders of magnitude...

  20. Single-phase power distribution system power flow and fault analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halpin, S. M.; Grigsby, L. L.

    1992-01-01

    Alternative methods for power flow and fault analysis of single-phase distribution systems are presented. The algorithms for both power flow and fault analysis utilize a generalized approach to network modeling. The generalized admittance matrix, formed using elements of linear graph theory, is an accurate network model for all possible single-phase network configurations. Unlike the standard nodal admittance matrix formulation algorithms, the generalized approach uses generalized component models for the transmission line and transformer. The standard assumption of a common node voltage reference point is not required to construct the generalized admittance matrix. Therefore, truly accurate simulation results can be obtained for networks that cannot be modeled using traditional techniques.

  1. Common-Ground-Type Tansformerless Inverters for Single-Phase Solar Photovoltaic Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Siwakoti, Yam Prasad; Blaabjerg, Frede

    2018-01-01

    This paper proposes a family of novel flying capacitor transformerless inverters for single-phase photovoltaic (PV) systems. Each of the new topologies proposed is based on a flying capacitor principle and requires only four power switches and/or diodes, one capacitor, and a small filter at the o......This paper proposes a family of novel flying capacitor transformerless inverters for single-phase photovoltaic (PV) systems. Each of the new topologies proposed is based on a flying capacitor principle and requires only four power switches and/or diodes, one capacitor, and a small filter...

  2. Challenges in thermal design of industrial single-phase power inverter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ninković Predrag

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the influence of thermal aspects in design process of an industrial single-phase inverter, choice of its topology and components. Stringent design inputs like very high overload level, demand for natural cooling and very wide input voltage range have made conventional circuit topology inappropriate therefore asking for alternative solution. Different power losses calculations in semiconductors are performed and compared, outlining the guidelines how to choose the final topology. Some recommendations in power magnetic components design are given. Based on the final project, a 20kVA single-phase inverter for thermal power plant supervisory and control system is designed and commissioned.

  3. Stability boundary analysis in single-phase grid-connected inverters with PLL by LTP theory

    OpenAIRE

    Salis, Valerio; Costabeber, Alessando; Cox, Stephen M.; Zanchetta, Pericle; Formentini, Andrea

    2017-01-01

    Stability analysis of power converters in AC net¬works is complex due to the non-linear nature of the conversion systems. Whereas interactions of converters in DC networks can be studied by linearising about the operating point, the extension of the same approach to AC systems poses serious challenges, especially for single-phase or unbalanced three-phase systems. A general method for stability analysis of power converters suitable for single-phase or unbalanced AC networks is presented in th...

  4. Soft-Switched Neutral-Point-Clamped Single-Phase Boost Rectifier

    Science.gov (United States)

    Itoh, Ryozo; Ishizaka, Kouichi

    A soft-switched neutral-point-clamped single-phase boost rectifier capable of compensating the imbalance load voltage is studied. This is based on a single-phase rectifier, in which an inductor is placed in series with the AC supply to resonate with a capacitor connected across the DC output of a full-bridge rectifier and the switching transition is mainly governed by a series resonance. The experimental prototype using insulated-gate bipolar transistors is implemented to investigate the operation under the charge control. The experimental results confirm that the rectifier has a neutral-point-clamp feature providing a good quality AC current.

  5. Synthesis of Zn1- x Co x Al2O4 Spinel Nanoparticles by Liquid-Feed Flame Spray Pyrolysis: Ceramic Pigments Application

    Science.gov (United States)

    Betancur Granados, Natalia; Yi, Eongyu; Laine, Richard M.; Restrepo Baena, Oscar Jaime

    2016-01-01

    Zn1- x Co x Al2O4 ( x = 0.0, 0.2, 0.4, 0.6, 0.8, and 1.0) spinel nanoparticles were synthesized by a liquid-feed flame spray pyrolysis (LF-FSP) method by combusting metallorganic precursor solutions to produce nanopowders with precise composition control. The precursor solutions were aerosolized into a methane/oxygen flame where it was combusted in an oxygen-rich environment to result in nanopowders at a single step. The nanopowders were analyzed by x-ray diffraction, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, colorimetry, field emission scanning electron microscopy, transmission electron microscopy, and BET (Brunauer-Emmett-Teller) N2 adsorption. Results show formation of spherical nanopowders with specific surface areas of 42 m2/g to 50 m2/g, which correspond to average particle sizes of 26 nm to 31 nm. Single-phase materials were obtained with a high control of composition, which indicates that LF-FSP is an excellent method to produce mixed-metal oxides for applications in which powder homogeneity is crucial. The products were evaluated for ceramic pigment application, where the ratio of Zn to Co was gradually changed to observe the color change in the structure with the increase of cobalt concentration. The resulting pigments were calcined at 1200°C, which aimed to identify the color stability after a high-temperature process, whereby the colors were measured using the color space CIE L*a*b* under standardized light, D65. Finally, the powders were tested for ceramic decoration using transparent glazes and ceramic bodies. The application was carried out at 1250°C to evaluate the color performance after a decoration process.

  6. The Application Three-phase to Single-phase Z-Source Matrix Converter in Wind Turbine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    vahid asadi rad

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper a new idea of direct three-phase to single-phase Z-source matrix converter (impedance-source matrix converter applicable in stand-alone wind turbine is introduced. In the direct Z-source matrix converter amplitude of output voltage and frequency regulation are of importance to control system. In wind turbines, input voltage and frequency are usually changing due to wind speed variation that these alterations could be easily regulated by means of a direct Z-source matrix converter. A scheme is also offered to control the proposed direct three-phase to single-phase Z-source matrix converter. the control strategy would be able to adjust the output voltage and frequency at desired value as well as producing low THD (total harmonic distortion at the output voltage. The proposed structure and the control methodology are simulated using matlab simulink software and results are investigated and discussed to confirm the performance of the direct Z-source matrix converter in wind turbine.

  7. Synthesis and optical property of zinc aluminate spinel cryogels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lifen Su

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Zinc aluminate spinel cryogels with various molar ratio of Al/Zn are synthesized by sol–gel technology followed by vacuum freeze drying. The structures and optical properties are both found to be affected by the molar ratios of Al/Zn and annealed temperatures. The peaks of zinc oxide (ZnO and zinc dialuminum oxide (ZnAl2O4 are both obtained for the samples with more Zn content annealed at 750 °C or upward. The composites have a large surface area (137 m2/g with mesoporous structure after annealing at 750 °C. The SEM images reveal that the ZnAl2O4 crystals formed a multilayer structure with redundant ZnO particles which deposited on it. Furthermore, the maximum infrared reflectance is about 80% with an improvement of 35% in the infrared region after annealing at 950 °C compared with that of 450 °C, which indicates that these porous cryogels have a potential application as thermal insulating materials at a high temperature.

  8. Unique atom hyper-kagome order in Na4Ir3O8 and in low-symmetry spinel modifications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Talanov, V M; Shirokov, V B; Talanov, M V

    2015-05-01

    Group-theoretical and thermodynamic methods of the Landau theory of phase transitions are used to investigate the hyper-kagome atomic order in structures of ordered spinels and a spinel-like Na4Ir3O8 crystal. The formation of an atom hyper-kagome sublattice in Na4Ir3O8 is described theoretically on the basis of the archetype (hypothetical parent structure/phase) concept. The archetype structure of Na4Ir3O8 has a spinel-like structure (space group Fd\\bar 3m) and composition [Na1/2Ir3/2](16d)[Na3/2](16c)O(32e)4. The critical order parameter which induces hypothetical phase transition has been stated. It is shown that the derived structure of Na4Ir3O8 is formed as a result of the displacements of Na, Ir and O atoms, and ordering of Na, Ir and O atoms, ordering dxy, dxz, dyz orbitals as well. Ordering of all atoms takes place according to the type 1:3. Ir and Na atoms form an intriguing atom order: a network of corner-shared Ir triangles called a hyper-kagome lattice. The Ir atoms form nanoclusters which are named decagons. The existence of hyper-kagome lattices in six types of ordered spinel structures is predicted theoretically. The structure mechanisms of the formation of the predicted hyper-kagome atom order in some ordered spinel phases are established. For a number of cases typical diagrams of possible crystal phase states are built in the framework of the Landau theory of phase transitions. Thermodynamical conditions of hyper-kagome order formation are discussed by means of these diagrams. The proposed theory is in accordance with experimental data.

  9. PREPARATION OF NICKEL - COBALT SPINEL OXIDES NixCO3 ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ABSTRACT. A comparative study of two electro-physical properties (porosity and electrical conductivity) of binary nickel cobalt oxides electrodes with spinels mixed oxides NixCo3-xO4 as active matter, was carried out. Four different routes were used to prepare spinel-type NixCo3-xO4 (0 ≤ x ≤. 2.5) compounds in order to ...

  10. Thermal expansion of spinel-type Si3N4

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Paszkowics, W.; Minkikayev, R.; Piszora, P.

    2004-01-01

    The lattice parameter and thermal expansion coefficient (TEC) for the spinel-type Si3N4 phase prepared under high-pressure and high-temperature conditions are determined for 14 K......The lattice parameter and thermal expansion coefficient (TEC) for the spinel-type Si3N4 phase prepared under high-pressure and high-temperature conditions are determined for 14 K...

  11. Superexchange Effects on Oxygen Reduction Activity of Edge-Sharing [Cox Mn1-x O6 ] Octahedra in Spinel Oxide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Ye; Sun, Shengnan; Xi, Shibo; Duan, Yan; Sritharan, Thirumany; Du, Yonghua; Xu, Zhichuan J

    2018-03-01

    Mn-Co containing spinel oxides are promising, low-cost electrocatalysts for the oxygen reduction reaction (ORR). Most studies are devoted to the design of porous Mn-Co spinels or to strongly coupled hybrids (e.g., MnCo 2 O 4 /N-doped-rmGO) to maximize the mass efficiency. The lack of analyses by metal oxide intrinsic activity (activity normalized to catalysts' surface area) hinders the development of fundamental understanding of the physicochemical principles behind the catalytic activities. A systematic study on the composition dependence of ORR in ZnCo x Mn 2- x O 4 (x = 0.0-2.0) spinel is presented here with special attention to the role of edge sharing [Co x Mn 1- x O 6 ] octahedra in the spinel structure. The ORR specific activity of ZnCo x Mn 2- x O 4 spans across a potential window of 200 mV, indicating an activity difference of ≈3 orders of magnitude. The curve of composition-dependent ORR specific activity as a function of Co substitution exhibits a volcano shape with an optimum Mn/Co ratio of 0.43. It is revealed that the modulated e g occupancy of active Mn cations (0.3-0.9), as a consequence of the superexchange effect between edge sharing [CoO 6 ] and [MnO 6 ], reflects the ORR activity of edge sharing [Co x Mn 1- x O 6 ] octahedra in the ZnCo x Mn 2- x O 4 spinel oxide. These findings offer crucial insights in designing spinel oxide catalysts with fine-tuned e g occupancy for efficient catalysis. © 2018 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  12. Microstructural study of synthetic spinel from natural raw materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chao, Y.; Hagni, R.D. (Univ. of Missouri, Rolla, MO (United States). Dept. of Geology and Geophysics); Caballero, A. (Inst. de Ceramica y Vidrio, Madrid (Spain)); Moore, R.E. (Univ. of Missouri, Rolla, MO (United States). Dept. of Ceramic Engineering)

    1993-03-01

    Alumina-magnesia spinel is being used increasingly as a high quality refractory in furnace and cement rotary kiln applications, but the costs of synthetic powders and grains limit its application. Different sources of bauxite from Guyana and China and diaspore from Missouri have been utilized to synthesize spinel for refractories in order to reduce the cost. The purpose of this research is to examine extent and character or spinel formation under different firing conditions and varying Al[sub 2]O[sub 3]:MgO ratios. Finely ground raw materials were mixed with hardburned magnesia in certain ratios to form spinel. X-ray analysis has been completed and shows that spinel readily occurs, after heating at 1,550 C, together with some impurity minerals such as mullite, rutile, corundum and some glassy phases. In order to study the microstructure, quantitative analysis, reflected light microscopy, scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and automatic image analysis are currently being utilized to determine the amount and distribution of each phase present in 39 samples prepared at different firing temperatures and with different chemical compositions. The results of this investigation provide a better understanding of the character of the microstructures of synthetic spinels.

  13. A Novel Flying Capacitor Transformerless Inverter for Single-Phase Grid Connected Solar Photovoltaic System

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Siwakoti, Yam Prasad; Blaabjerg, Frede

    2016-01-01

    This paper proposes a new single-phase flying capacitor transformerless PV inverter for grid-connected photovoltaic (PV) systems. The neutral of the grid can be directly connected to the negative terminal of the source (PV). It consists of four power switches, one diode, one capacitor and a small...

  14. A single phase multilevel inverter as power converter for 3-phase ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A single phase multilevel inverter as power converter for 3-phase electric loads. ... m-phase maker was simulated using MATLAB and the results confirmed the excellent perfor-mance of the RBNPS. The listed advantages attained could be incorporated in the design and operation of a converter for an electric drive of a car.

  15. Low Voltage Ride-Through of Single-Phase Transformerless Photovoltaic Inverters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yang, Yongheng; Blaabjerg, Frede; Wang, Huai

    2014-01-01

    , e.g. Low Voltage Ride-Through (LVRT) under grid faults and grid support service. In order to map future challenges, the LVRT capability of three mainstream single-phase transformerless PV inverters under grid faults are explored in this paper. Control strategies with reactive power injections...

  16. PI and repetitive control for single phase inverter based on virtual rotating coordinate system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Mengqi; Tong, Yibin; Jiang, Jiuchun; Liang, Jiangang

    2018-03-01

    Microgrid technology developed rapidly and nonlinear loads were connected increasingly. A new control strategy was proposed for single phase inverter when connected nonlinear loads under island condition. PI and repetitive compound controller was realized under synchronous rotating coordinate system and acquired high quality sinusoidal voltage output without voltage spike when loads step changed. Validity and correctness were verified by simulation using MATLAB/Simulink.

  17. Pressure Drop Correlations of Single-Phase and Two-Phase Flow in Rolling Tubes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xia-xin Cao; Chang-qi Yan; Pu-zhen Gao; Zhong-ning Sun

    2006-01-01

    A series of experimental studies of frictional pressure drop for single phase and two-phase bubble flow in smooth rolling tubes were carried out. The tube inside diameters were 15 mm, 25 mm and 34.5 mm respectively, the rolling angles of tubes could be set as 10 deg. and 20 deg., and the rolling periods could be set as 5 s, 10 s and 15 s. Combining with the analysis of single-phase water motion, it was found that the traditional correlations for calculating single-phase frictional coefficient were not suitable for the rolling condition. Based on the experimental data, a new correlation for calculating single-phase frictional coefficient under rolling condition was presented, and the calculations not only agreed well with the experimental data, but also could display the periodically dynamic characteristics of frictional coefficients. Applying the new correlation to homogeneous flow model, two-phase frictional pressure drop of bubble flow in rolling tubes could be calculated, the results showed that the relative error between calculation and experimental data was less than ± 25%. (authors)

  18. Single-Phase 3L PR Controlled qZS Inverter Connected to the Distorted Grid

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Makovenko, Elena; Husev, Oleksandr; Roncero-Clemente, Carlos

    2016-01-01

    This paper presents a single-phase three-level NPC qZS inverter connected to a distorted grid using PID and PR regulators. A case study system along with the control strategy are described. Tuning approaches for PID and PR regulators are addressed and validated by means of simulation results...

  19. Hybrid Control Method for a Single Phase PFC using a Low Cost Microcontroller

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jakobsen, Lars Tønnes; Nielsen, Nils; Wolf, Christian

    2005-01-01

    This paper presents a hybrid control method for single phase boost PFCs. The high bandwidth current loop is analog while the voltage loop is implemented in an 8-bit microcontroller. The design focuses on minimizing the number of calculations done in the microcontroller. A 1kW prototype has been...

  20. Novel Motion Sensorless Control of Single Phase Brushless D.C. PM Motor Drive, with experiments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lepure, Liviu Ioan; Boldea, Ion; Andreescu, Gheorghe Daniel

    2010-01-01

    A motion sensorless control for single phase permanent magnet brushless d.c. (PM-BLDC) motor drives, based on flux integration and prior knowledge of the PM flux/position characteristic is proposed here and an adequate correction algorithm is adopted, in order to increase the robustness to noise...

  1. Single phase inverter for a three phase power generation and distribution system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindena, S. J.

    1976-01-01

    A breadboard design of a single-phase inverter with sinusoidal output voltage for a three-phase power generation and distribution system was developed. The three-phase system consists of three single-phase inverters, whose output voltages are connected in a delta configuration. Upon failure of one inverter the two remaining inverters will continue to deliver three-phase power. Parallel redundancy as offered by two three-phase inverters is substituted by one three-phase inverter assembly with high savings in volume, weight, components count and complexity, and a considerable increase in reliability. The following requirements must be met: (1) Each single-phase, current-fed inverter must be capable of being synchronized to a three-phase reference system such that its output voltage remains phaselocked to its respective reference voltage. (2) Each single-phase, current-fed inverter must be capable of accepting leading and lagging power factors over a range from -0.7 through 1 to +0.7.

  2. Control Method of Single-phase Inverter Based Grounding System in Distribution Networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wang, Wen; Yan, L.; Zeng, X.

    2016-01-01

    of neutral-to-ground voltage is critical for the safety of distribution networks. An active grounding system based on single-phase inverter is proposed to achieve this objective. Relationship between output current of the system and neutral-to-ground voltage is derived to explain the principle of neutral...

  3. protoDUNE-Single Phase and protDUNE-DualPhase

    CERN Multimedia

    Brice, Maximilien

    2016-01-01

    At the EHN1 two big 8m x 8m x8m detector prototypes (protoDUNE-Single Phase and protDUNE-DualPhase) are being constructed. The aim is to test technologies and detector performances for DUNE, a new generation of LBN neutr

  4. Single phase cascaded H5 inverter with leakage current elimination for transformerless photovoltaic system

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Guo, Xiaoqiang; Jia, X.; Lu, Z.

    2016-01-01

    Leakage current reduction is one of the important issues for the transformelress PV systems. In this paper, the transformerless single-phase cascaded H-bridge PV inverter is investigated. The common mode model for the cascaded H4 inverter is analyzed. And the reason why the conventional cascade H...

  5. A Generic Topology Derivation Method for Single-phase Converters with Active Capacitive DC-links

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wang, Haoran; Wang, Huai; Zhu, Guorong

    2016-01-01

    capacitive DCDC- link solutions, but important aspects of the topology assess-ment, such as the total energy storage, overall capacitive energy buffer ratio, cost, and reliability are still not available. This paper proposes a generic topology derivation method of single-phase power converters...

  6. Modeling and Control of a Single-Phase Marine Cooling System

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Michael; Stoustrup, Jakob; Bendtsen, Jan Dimon

    2013-01-01

    This paper presents two model-based control design approaches for a single-phase marine cooling system. Models are derived from first principles and aim at describing significant system dynamics including nonlinearities and transport delays, while keeping the model complexity low. The two...

  7. Single-Phase Phase-Locked Loop Based on Derivative Elements

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Guan, Qingxin; Zhang, Yu; Kang, Yong

    2017-01-01

    High-performance phase-locked loops (PLLs) are critical for power control in grid-connected systems. This paper presents a new method of designing a PLL for single-phase systems based on derivative elements (DEs). The quadrature signal generator (QSG) is constructed by two DEs with the same...

  8. A review of single-phase grid-connected inverters for photovoltaic modules

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjaer, Soren Baekhoej; Pedersen, John Kim; Blaabjerg, Frede

    2005-01-01

    This review focuses on inverter technologies for connecting photovoltaic (PV) modules to a single-phase grid. The inverters are categorized into four classifications: 1) the number of power processing stages in cascade; 2) the type of power decoupling between the PV module(s) and the single...

  9. A Direct Maximum Power Point Tracking Method for Single-Phase Grid Connected PV Inverters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    EL Aamri, Faicel; Maker, Hattab; Sera, Dezso

    2018-01-01

    in dynamic conditions, especially in low irradiance when the measurement of signals becomes more sensitive to noise. The proposed MPPT is designed for single-phase single-stage grid-connected PV inverters, and is based on estimating the instantaneous PV power and voltage ripples, using second...

  10. A re-look at critical factors influencing single-phase formation of Ba2 ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Bulletin of Materials Science; Volume 30; Issue 4. A re-look at critical factors influencing single-phase formation of Ba2Ti9O20 microwave dielectrics. Unnikrishnan Gopinath Dhanya Chandran Seema Ansari Bindu Krishnan Rani Panicker Raghu Natarajan. Electrical Properties Volume 30 Issue 4 August ...

  11. Regeneration of phase unlocked serial multiplexed DPSK signals in a single phase sensitive amplifier

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Guan, Pengyu; Da Ros, Francesco; Kjøller, Niels-Kristian

    2017-01-01

    We demonstrate phase-regeneration of phase unlocked OTDM-DPSK serial signals in a single phase sensitive amplifier through optical cross-phase modulation. The BER of an 8×10 Gbit/s OTDM-DPSK signal is improved by 2 orders of magnitude....

  12. Analysis of Variable-Speed Operation of Drives with Single-Phase Machines

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Chomát, Miroslav; Schreier, Luděk; Bendl, Jiří

    2007-01-01

    Roč. 52, č. 2 (2007), s. 139-147 ISSN 0001-7043 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA102/06/0215 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z20570509 Keywords : single-phase machines * induction machines * variable-speed drives Subject RIV: JA - Electronics ; Optoelectronics, Electrical Engineering

  13. Flux Concentration and Pole Shaping in a Single Phase Hybrid Switched Reluctance Motor Drive

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jakobsen, Uffe; Lu, Kaiyuan

    2010-01-01

    The single phase hybrid switched reluctance motor (HSRM) may be a good candidate for low-cost drives used for pump applications. This paper presents a new design of the HSRM with improved starting torque achieved by stator pole shaping, and a better arrangement of the embedded stator permanent...

  14. Synchronization in single-phase grid-connected photovoltaic systems under grid faults

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yang, Yongheng; Blaabjerg, Frede

    2012-01-01

    under grid faults. The focus of this paper is put on the benchmarking of synchronization techniques, mainly about phase locked loop (PLL) based methods, in single-phase PV power systems operating under grid faults. Some faulty mode cases are studied at the end of this paper in order to compare...

  15. Chemical vs. electrochemical extraction of lithium from the Li-excess Li(1.10)Mn(1.90)O4 spinel followed by NMR and DRX techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martinez, S; Sobrados, I; Tonti, D; Amarilla, J M; Sanz, J

    2014-02-21

    Lithium extraction from the Li-excess Li1.10Mn1.90O4 spinel has been performed by chemical and electrochemical methods in aqueous and in organic media, respectively. De-lithiated samples have been investigated by XRD, SEM, TG, (7)Li and (1)H MAS-NMR techniques. The comparative study has allowed demonstrating that the intermediate de-intercalated samples prepared during the chemical extraction by acid titration are similar to those prepared by the electrochemical way in a non-aqueous electrolyte. LiMn2O4 based spinel with a tailored de-lithiation degree can be prepared as a single phase by controlling the pH used in chemical extraction. (7)Li MAS-NMR spectroscopy has been used to follow the influence of the manganese oxidation state on tetra and octahedral Li-signals detected in Li-extracted samples. The oxidation of Mn(III) ions goes parallel to the partial dissolution of the spinel, following Hunter's mechanism. Based on this mechanism, a generalized chemical reaction has been proposed to explain the formation of intermediate Li(+) de-intercalated samples during acid treatment in aqueous media. By the (1)H MAS NMR study, no evidence of Li-H topotactic exchange in the bulk of the acid treated material was found.

  16. Study of irradiation damages in MgAl{sub 2}O{sub 4} and ZnAl{sub 2}O{sub 4} spinels in the framework of nuclear waste transmutation; Dommages d'irradiation dans des ceramiques de structure spinelle MgAl{sub 2}O{sub 4} et ZnAl{sub 2}O{sub 4} application a la transmutation des dechets nucleaires

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thiriet-Dodane, C

    2002-07-01

    The transmutation of minor actinides in-reactor is one solution currently being studied for the long time management of nuclear waste. In the heterogeneous concept the radionuclides are incorporating in an inert ceramic matrix. The support material must be insensitive to radiation damage. Fission product damage is the main radiation damage source during the transmutation process and therefore it is of the utmost importance to study their effects. We irradiated spinels MgAl{sub 2}O{sub 4} (matrix of reference) and ZnAl{sub 2}O{sub 4} by fast ions (by example: {sup 86}Kr of approximately 400 MeV) simulating the fission products. Under these conditions, the damage is primarily due to the electronic energy losses (S{sub e}). One of the structural features of spinel AB{sub 2}O{sub 4} is that the two cations (A{sup 2+} and B{sup 3+}) can exchange their site. This phenomenon is quantified by the inversion parameter. We highlight by XRD in grazing incidence that the structural changes observed in MgAl{sub 2}O{sub 4} correspond to an order-disorder transition from the cation sub-networks and not to a phase shift as described in the literature. Using other techniques characterizing the space group (Raman spectroscopy) as well as the local order (NMR 27Al, spectroscopy of absorption X with the thresholds K of Al and Zn), we confirm this interpretation. Moreover, for a fluence of 10{sup 14} ions/cm{sup 2}, the loss of the order at long distance is observed thus meaning a beginning of amorphization of material. The ZnAl{sub 2}O{sub 4} spinel presents the same behaviour. For this last spinel, an evolution of the inversion parameter according to the stopping power 2 was highlighted after irradiation by ions {sup 86}Kr from approximately 20 MeV. We illustrate our study by the analysis of the results obtained in XRD of an irradiation out of composite fuel (MgAl{sub 2}O{sub 4} + UO{sub 2}) called THERMHET. (authors)

  17. Development of a single-phase thermosiphon for cold collection and storage of radiative cooling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhao, Dongliang; Martini, Christine Elizabeth; Jiang, Siyu; Ma, Yaoguang; Zhai, Yao; Tan, Gang; Yin, Xiaobo; Yang, Ronggui

    2017-11-01

    A single-phase thermosiphon is developed for cold collection and storage of radiative cooling. Compared to the conventional nocturnal radiative cooling systems that use an electric pump to drive the heat transfer fluid, the proposed single-phase thermosiphon uses the buoyancy force to drive heat transfer fluid. This solution does not require electricity, therefore improving the net gain of the radiative cooling system. A single-phase thermosiphon was built, which consists of a flat panel, a cold collection tank, a water return tube, and a water distribution tank. Considering that outdoor radiative cooling flux is constantly changing (i.e. uncontrollable), an indoor testing facility was developed to provide a controllable cooling flux (comparable to a radiative cooling flux of 100 W/m2) for the evaluation of thermosiphon performance. The testing apparatus is a chilled aluminum flat plate that has a controlled air gap separation relative to the flat panel surface of the thermosiphon to emulate radiative cooling. With an average of 105 W/m2 cooling flux, the 18 liters of water in the thermosiphon was cooled to an average temperature of 12.5 degrees C from an initial temperature of 22.2 degrees C in 2 h, with a cold collection efficiency of 96.8%. The results obtained have demonstrated the feasibility of using a single-phase thermosiphon for cold collection and storage of radiative cooling. Additionally, the effects of the thermosiphon operation conditions, such as tilt angle of the flat panel, initial water temperature, and cooling energy flux, on the performance have been experimentally investigated. Modular design of the single-phase thermosiphon gives flexibility for its scalability. A radiative cooling system with multiple thermosiphon modules is expected to play an important role in cooling buildings and power plant condensers.

  18. A systematic probe in the properties of spray coated mixed spinel films of cobalt and manganese

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grace Victoria, S.; Moses Ezhil Raj, A.

    2018-01-01

    The multiple oxidation states of manganese and cobalt in cobalt manganese oxides play a crucial role in shaping up the vivid properties thus evoking curiosity among researchers. In the present work, mixed spinel films of CoMn(CoMn)2O4 were coated on glass substrates by the spray pyrolysis technique with different precursor concentrations of the acetate salts of the metals in ethyl alcohol. XRD investigations revealed an intermediate tetragonal spinel structure between cubic MnCo2O4 and tetragonal Mn3O4 (JCPDS 18-0410) with predominant orientation along (311) plane. The tetragonal distortion from cubic symmetry may be due to high Mn2+ ion content at octahedral sites. Raman spectroscopy highlighted two typical emission peaks characteristic of the deposited mixed spinel oxides. Functional groups were assigned with the aid of FTIR spectral analysis to the observed absorption bands. The binding energies of the photo-electron peaks observed for the transition metal ions and the oxygenated ions were recorded by XPS. The results indicated that the divalent and trivalent ions of cobalt co-existed with the divalent manganese ions. AFM images revealed vertically aligned columnar grains. The electrical measurements indicated conduction mechanism through jumps of polarons. Optical absorption revealed wide band gap energy of 3.76 eV.

  19. The role of praseodymium substituted ions on electrical and magnetic properties of Mg spinel ferrites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Farid, Muhammad Tahir, E-mail: tahirfaridbzu@gmail.com; Ahmad, Ishtiaq; Kanwal, Muddassara; Murtaza, Ghulam; Ali, Irshad; Khan, Sajjad Ahmad

    2017-04-15

    Spinel ferrites with composition MgPr{sub y}Fe{sub 2−y}O{sub 4} (y=0.0, 0.025, 0.05, 0.075, 0.10) were successfully synthesized using sol-gel auto-combustion technique. The structural prisoperties of a prepared sintered powder were characterized with the help of X-ray Diffraction (XRD) and then also by using Scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Electrical measurements demonstrate that resistivity and activation energy increases with the Praseodymium substitution while dc resistivity decreases with the rise of temperature showing the semiconductor nature of the synthesized ferrites. Remanence and the saturation magnetization (M{sub s}) decrease while coercivity (H{sub c}) also increases with the increase in praseodymium contents. Anisotropic constant is observed to exhibit similar behavior as H{sub C}. The above mentioned parameters suggest that the synthesized samples are favorable for microwave absorbing purposes. - Highlights: • Magnesium based spinel ferrites were successfully synthesized by sol-gel method. • The spinel phase has been observed in all samples. • The dc resistivity are found to increase with increasing Pr content • The samples with high resistivity have high values of activation energy. • The Ms Decreases with increasing Pr contents while Hc increases.

  20. Single-phase {beta}-FeSi{sub 2} thin films prepared on Si wafer by femtosecond laser ablation and its photoluminescence at room temperature

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lu Peixiang [State Key Laboratory of Laser Technology and Wuhan National Laboratory for Optoelectronics, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan 430074 (China)]. E-mail: lupeixiang@mail.hust.edu.cn; Zhou Youhua [State Key Laboratory of Laser Technology and Wuhan National Laboratory for Optoelectronics, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan 430074 (China) and Physics and Information School, Jianghan University, Wuhan 430056 (China)]. E-mail: yhzhou@jhun.edu.cn; Zheng Qiguang [State Key Laboratory of Laser Technology and Wuhan National Laboratory for Optoelectronics, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan 430074 (China); Yang Guang [State Key Laboratory of Laser Technology and Wuhan National Laboratory for Optoelectronics, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan 430074 (China)

    2006-02-06

    Single-phase {beta}-FeSi{sub 2} thin films were prepared on Si(100) and Si(111) wafers by using femtosecond laser deposition with a FeSi{sub 2} alloy target for the first time. X-ray diffraction (XRD), field scanning electron microscopy (FSEM), scanning probe microscopy (SPM), electron backscattered diffraction pattern (EBSD), and Fourier-transform Raman infrared spectroscopy (FTRIS) were used to characterize the structure, composition, and properties of the {beta}-FeSi{sub 2}/Si films. The orientation of {beta}-FeSi{sub 2} grains was found to depend on the orientation of the Si substrates, and photoluminescence at wavelength of 1.53 {mu}m was observed from the single-phase {beta}-FeSi{sub 2}/Si thin film at room temperature (20 {sup o}C)

  1. Lithium-deficient Li YMn2O4 spinels (0.9 ≤ Y < 1): Lithium content, synthesis temperature, thermal behaviour and electrochemical properties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pascual, Laura; Perez-Revenga, M. Luz; Rojas, Rosa M.; Rojo, Jose M.; Amarilla, J. Manuel

    2006-01-01

    Lithium-deficient Li Y Mn 2 O 4 spinels (LD-Li Y Mn 2 O 4 ) with nominal composition (0.9 ≤ Y 2 O 3 and LiNO 3 at temperatures ranging from 700 deg. C to 850 deg. C. X-ray diffraction data show that LD-Li Y Mn 2 O 4 spinels are obtained as single phases in the range Y = 0.975-1 at 700 deg. C and 750 deg. C. Morphological characterization by transmission electron microscopy shows that the particle size of LD-Li Y Mn 2 O 4 spinels increases on decreasing the Li-content. The influence of the Li-content and the synthesis temperature on the thermal and electrochemical behaviours has been systematically studied. Thermal analysis studies indicate that the temperature of the first thermal effect in the differential thermal analysis (DTA)/thermogravimetric (TG) curves, T C1 , linearly increases on decreasing the Li-content. The electrochemical properties of LD-Li Y Mn 2 O 4 spinels, determined by galvanostatic cycling, notably change with the synthesis conditions. So, the first discharge capacity, Q disch. , at C rate increases on rising the Li-content and the synthesis temperature. The sample Li 0.975 Mn 2 O 4 synthesized at 700 deg. C has a Q disch. = 123 mAh g -1 and a capacity retention of 99.77% per cycle. This LD-Li Y Mn 2 O 4 sample had the best electrochemical characteristics of the series

  2. Microcontroller Based SPWM Single-Phase Inverter For Wind Power Application

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khin Ohmar Lin

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available In this paper microcontroller based sinusoidal pulse width modulation SPWM single-phase inverter is emphasized to constant frequency conversion scheme for wind power application. The wind-power generator output voltage and frequency are fluctuated due to the variation of wind velocity. Therefore the AC output voltage of wind-generator is converted into DC voltage by using rectifier circuit and this DC voltage is converted back to AC voltage by using inverter circuit. SPWM technique is used in inverter to get nearly sine wave and reduce harmonic content. The rating of inverter is 500W single-phase 220V 50 Hz. The required SPWM timing pulses for the inverter are generated from the PIC16F877A microcontroller. Circuit simulation was done by using Proteus 7 Professional and MATLABR 2008 software. The software for microcontroller is implemented by using MPASM assembler.

  3. An Open-Loop Grid Synchronization Approach for Single-Phase Applications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Golestan, Saeed; Guerrero, Josep M.; Quintero, Juan Carlos Vasquez

    2018-01-01

    in the presence of frequency drifts. This is particularly true in single-phase applications, where the lack of multiple independent input signals makes the implementation of the synchronization technique difficult. The aim of this paper is to develop an effective OLS technique for single-phase power and energy...... applications. The proposed OLS method benefits from a straightforward implementation, a fast dynamic response (a response time less than two cycles of the nominal frequency), and a complete immunity against the DC component in the grid voltage. In addition, the designed OLS method totally blocks (significantly...... attenuates) all harmonics up to the aliasing point under a nominal (off-nominal) frequency. The effectiveness of the designed OLS technique is verified using comparative experimental results....

  4. Single-Phase Hybrid Switched Reluctance Motor for Low-Power Low-Cost Applications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lu, Kaiyuan; Rasmussen, Peter Omand; Jakobsen, Uffe

    2011-01-01

    This paper presents a new single-phase, Hybrid Switched Reluctance (HSR) motor for low-cost, low-power, pump or fan drive systems. Its single-phase configuration allows use of a simple converter to reduce the system cost. Cheap ferrite magnets are used and arranged in a special flux concentration...... manner to increase effectively the torque density and efficiency of this machine. The efficiency of this machine is comparable to the efficiency of a traditional permanent magnet machine in the similar power range. The cogging torque, due to the existence of the permanent magnetic field, is beneficially...... used to reduce the torque ripple and enable self-starting of the machine. The starting torque of this machine is significantly improved by a slight extension of the stator pole-arc. A prototype machine and a complete drive system has been manufactured and tested. Results are given in this paper....

  5. Evaluation of 600V Superjunction Devices in Single Phase PFC Applications under CCM Operation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hernandez Botella, Juan Carlos; Petersen, Lars Press; Andersen, Michael A. E.

    2014-01-01

    This paper pr esents a power density/efficiency evaluation in single phase power factor correction (PFC) applications operating in continuous conduction mode (CCM). The comparison is based on semiconductor dynamic characterization and a mathematical model for prediction of the conducted electroma......This paper pr esents a power density/efficiency evaluation in single phase power factor correction (PFC) applications operating in continuous conduction mode (CCM). The comparison is based on semiconductor dynamic characterization and a mathematical model for prediction of the conducted...... electromagnetic interference (EMI). The dynamic characterization is based on a low inductive double pulse tester (DPT). The measured switching energy is used in order to evaluate the devices performance in a conventional PFC. This data is used together with the mathematical model for prediction of the conducted...... electromagnetic interference. The method allows comparing different devices and evaluating the performance as a function of the PFC power density and efficiency....

  6. Power decoupling with autonomous reference generation for single-phase differential inverters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yao, Wenli; Zhang, Xiaobin; Wang, Xiongfei

    2015-01-01

    The second-harmonic power ripple in single-phase inverter may introduce the issue of low reliability and low power density. In order to replace the bulky dc-link capacitor, an alternative approach is to use active power decoupling so that the ripple power can be diverted into other energy storages...... are used for realizing an improved power decoupling control, capacitor voltage and inductor current regulation. By substituting the corresponding parameter into unified model, the proposed control loop can be applied to different inverter types (Buck, Buck-Boost and Boost). Finally, detailed laboratory....... However, the performance of existing active power decoupling methods depends heavily on certain control references, which unfortunately are parameter dependent. In this paper an autonomous reference generation technique is proposed for single phase differential inverter without relying on the system...

  7. DQ reference frame modeling and control of single-phase active power decoupling circuits

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tang, Yi; Qin, Zian; Blaabjerg, Frede

    2015-01-01

    Power decoupling circuits can compensate the inherent double line frequency ripple power in single-phase systems and greatly facilitate their dc-link capacitor design. Example applications of power decoupling circuit include photovoltaic, light-emitting diode, fuel cell, and motor drive systems....... This paper presents the dq synchronous reference frame modeling of single-phase power decoupling circuits and a complete model describing the dynamics of dc-link ripple voltage is presented. The proposed model is universal and valid for both inductive and capacitive decoupling circuits, and the input...... of decoupling circuits can be either dependent or independent of its front-end converters. Based on this model, a dq synchronous reference frame controller is designed which allows the decoupling circuit to operate in two different modes because of the circuit symmetry. Simulation and experimental results...

  8. Ion beam induced single phase nanocrystalline TiO2 formation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rukade, Deepti A.; Tribedi, L. C.; Bhattacharyya, Varsha

    2014-06-01

    Single phase TiO2 nanostructures are fabricated by oxygen ion implantation (60 keV) at fluence ranging from 1×1016 ions/cm2 to 1×1017 ions/cm2 in titanium thin films deposited on fused silica substrate and subsequent thermal annealing in argon atmosphere. GAXRD and Raman spectroscopy study reveals formation of single rutile phases of TiO2. Particle size is found to vary from 29 nm to 35 nm, establishing nanostructure formation. Nanostructure formation is also confirmed by the quantum confinement effect manifested by the blueshift of the UV-vis absorption spectra. Photoluminescence spectra show peaks corresponding to TiO2 rutile phase and reveal the presence of oxygen defects due to implantation. The controlled synthesis of single phase nanostructure is attributed to ion induced defects and post-implantation annealing. It is observed that the size of the nanostructures formed is strongly dependent on the ion fluence.

  9. A New Power Calculation Method for Single-Phase Grid-Connected Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yang, Yongheng; Blaabjerg, Frede

    2013-01-01

    A new method to calculate average active power and reactive power for single-phase systems is proposed in this paper. It can be used in different applications where the output active power and reactive power need to be calculated accurately and fast. For example, a grid-connected photovoltaic...... system in low voltage ride through operation mode requires a power feedback for the power control loop. Commonly, a Discrete Fourier Transform (DFT) based power calculation method can be adopted in such systems. However, the DFT method introduces at least a one-cycle time delay. The new power calculation...... method, which is based on the adaptive filtering technique, can achieve a faster response. The performance of the proposed method is verified by experiments and demonstrated in a 1 kW single-phase grid-connected system operating under different conditions.Experimental results show the effectiveness...

  10. An efficiency improved single-phase PFC converter for electric vehicle charger applications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhu, Dexuan; Tang, Yi; Jin, Chi

    2013-01-01

    This paper presents an efficiency improved single-phase power factor correction (PFC) converter with its target application to plug-in hybrid electric vehicle (PHEV) charging systems. The proposed PFC converter features sinusoidal input current, three-level output characteristic, and wide range...... of output DC voltage. Moreover, the involved DC/DC buck conversion stage may only need to convert partial input power rather than full scale of input power, and therefore the system overall efficiency can be much improved. Through proper control of the buck converter, it is also possible to mitigate...... the double-line frequency ripple power that is inherent in a single-phase AC/DC system. Both simulation and experimental results are presented to show the effectiveness of this converter....

  11. Benchmarking of Grid Fault Modes in Single-Phase Grid-Connected Photovoltaic Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yang, Yongheng; Blaabjerg, Frede; Zou, Zhixiang

    2013-01-01

    Pushed by the booming installations of singlephase photovoltaic (PV) systems, the grid demands regarding the integration of PV systems are expected to be modified. Hence, the future PV systems should become more active with functionalities of Low Voltage Ride-Through (LVRT) and grid support...... capability. The control methods, together with grid synchronization techniques, are responsible for the generation of appropriate reference signals in order to handle ride-through grid faults. Thus, it is necessary to evaluate the behaviors of grid synchronization methods and control possibilities in single...... phase systems under grid faults. The intent of this paper is to present a benchmarking of grid fault modes that might come in future single-phase PV systems. In order to map future challenges, the relevant synchronization and control strategies are discussed. Some faulty modes are studied experimentally...

  12. Nanoparticles of spinel and perovskite ferromagnets and prospects for their application in medicine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Belous, A. G., E-mail: belous@ionc.kar.net, E-mail: solopan@ukr.net, E-mail: yelenicho@ukr.net; Solopan, S. O., E-mail: belous@ionc.kar.net, E-mail: solopan@ukr.net, E-mail: yelenicho@ukr.net; Yelenich, O. V., E-mail: belous@ionc.kar.net, E-mail: solopan@ukr.net, E-mail: yelenicho@ukr.net [Institute of General and Inorganic Chemistry, prospekt Palladina 32-34, 03142 Kyiv (Ukraine); Tovstolytkin, A. I., E-mail: atov@imag.kiev.ua [Institute of Magnetism, bulvar Vernadskoho 36-b, 03142 Kyiv (Ukraine); Kolodiazhnyi, T. V., E-mail: kolodiazhnyi.taras@nims.go.jp [National Institute for Materials Science, 1-1 Namiki, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-0044 (Japan); Osinsky, S. P., E-mail: osion@onconet.kiev.ua, E-mail: bybnovskayal@ukr.net; Bubnovskaya, L. N., E-mail: osion@onconet.kiev.ua, E-mail: bybnovskayal@ukr.net [R.E. Kavetsky Institute of Experimental Pathology, Oncology and Radiobiology, vul. Vasylkivska 45, 03022 Kyiv (Ukraine)

    2014-11-05

    In this work, nanoparticles of La{sub 0.75}Sr{sub 0.25}MnO{sub 3} compounds with perovskite structure and AFe{sub 2}O{sub 4} (A = Mn, Fe, Co, Ni, Zn) with spinel structure have been synthesized by precipitation from diethylene glycol and microemulsion using Triton X-100 surfactant. Comparative X-ray diffraction and magnetic studies of the synthesized nanoparticles have been carried out. Magnetic fluids prepared from synthesized nanopowders have been characterized by calorimetric measurements of specific loss power (SLP)

  13. Simulation of the phenomenon of single-phase and two-phase natural circulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Castrillo, Lazara Silveira

    1998-02-01

    Natural convection phenomenon is often used to remove the residual heat from the surfaces of bodies where the heat is generated e.g. during accidents or transients of nuclear power plants. Experimental study of natural circulation can be done in small scale experimental circuits and the results can be extrapolated for larger operational facilities. The numerical analysis of transients can be carried out by using large computational codes that simulate the thermohydraulic behavior in such facilities. The computational code RELAP5/MOD2, (Reactor Excursion and Leak Analysis Program) was developed by U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commissions's. Division of Reactor Safety Research with the objective of analysis of transients and postulated accidents in the light water reactor (LWR) systems, including small and large ruptures with loss of coolant accidents (LOCA's). The results obtained by the simulation of single-phase and two-phase natural circulation, using the RELAP5/MOD2, are presented in this work. The study was carried out using the experimental circuit built at the 'Departamento de Engenharia Quimica da Escola Politecnica da Universidade de Sao Paulo'. In the circuit, two experiments were carried out with different conditions of power and mass flow, obtaining a single-phase regime with a level of power of 4706 W and flow of 5.10 -5 m 3 /s (3 l/min) and a two-phase regime with a level of power of 6536 W and secondary flow 2,33.10 -5 m 3 /s (1,4 l/min). The study allowed tio evaluate the capacity of the code for representing such phenomena as well as comparing the transients obtained theoretically with the experimental results. The comparative analysis shows that the code represents fairly well the single-phase transient, but the results for two-phase transients, starting from the nodalization and calibration used for the case single-phase transient, did not reproduce faithfully some experimental results. (author)

  14. A New Synchronous Reference Frame-Based Method for Single-Phase Shunt Active Power Filters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Monfared, Mohammad; Golestan, Saeed; Guerrero, Josep M.

    2013-01-01

    This paper deals with the design of a novel method in the synchronous reference frame (SRF) to extract the reference compensating current for single-phase shunt active power filters (APFs). Unlike previous works in the SRF, the proposed method has an innovative feature that it does not need the f...... the excellent performance of the suggested approach. Theoretical evaluations are confirmed by experimental results....

  15. Decoupling of Fluctuating Power in Single-Phase Systems Through a Symmetrical Half-Bridge Circuit

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tang, Yi; Blaabjerg, Frede; Loh, Poh Chiang

    2015-01-01

    Single-phase ac/dc or dc/ac systems are inherently subject to the harmonic disturbance that is caused by the well-known double-line frequency ripple power. This issue can be eased through the installation of bulky electrolytic capacitors in the dc link. Unfortunately, such passive filtering...... power decoupling method, and both the input current and output voltage of the converter can be well regulated even when very small dc-link capacitors are employed....

  16. A re-look at critical factors influencing single-phase formation of Ba2 ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    TECS

    BaSnO3, B2O3 etc, single-phase 2: 9 has been achieved through solid-state route (Yu et al 1994; Lin and Robert. 1999; Wang et al 2003). It is recorded in literature that phase pure 2:9 ceramics without any stabilizing agent will result in better material for microwave dielectric applica- tions (Lin et al 1997; Lin and Robert ...

  17. Single-phase DECT with VNCT compared with three-phase CTU in patients with haematuria

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Jung Jae; Park, Byung Kwan; Kim, Chan Kyo [Sungkyunkwan University School of Medicine, Department of Radiology, Samsung Medical Center, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-10-15

    To retrospectively evaluate the diagnostic performance of single-phase dual-energy CT (DECT) with virtual non-contrast CT (VNCT) compared with three-phase CT urography (CTU) in patients with haematuria. A total of 296 patients underwent three-phase CTU (NCT at 120 kVp; nephrographic phase and excretory phase DECTs at 140 kVp and 80 kVp) owing to haematuria. Diagnostic performances of CT scans were compared for detecting urothelial tumours and urinary stones. Dose-length product (DLP) was compared in relation to single-phase DECT and three-phase CTU Dose-length product (DLP) was compared in relation to single-phase DECT and three-phase CTU. Sensitivity and specificity for tumour were 95 % (19/20) and 98.9 % (273/276) on CTU, 95 % (19/20) and 98.2 % (271/276) on nephrographic phase DECT, and 90 % (18/20) and 98.2 % (271/276) on excretory phase DECT (P > 0.1). Of the 148 stones detected on NCT, 108 (73 %) and 100 (67.6 %) were detected on nephrographic phase and excretory phase VNCTs, respectively. The mean size of stones undetected on nephrographic and excretory VNCTs was measured as 1.5 ± 0.5 mm and 1.6 ± 0.6 mm, respectively. The mean DLPs of three-phase CTU, nephrographic phase DECT and excretory phase DECT were 1076 ± 248 mGy . cm, 410 ± 98 mGy . cm, and 360 ± 87 mGy . cm, respectively (P < 0.001). Single-phase DECT has a potential to replace three-phase CTU for detecting tumours with a lower radiation dose. (orig.)

  18. Modeling and analysis of variable speed single phase induction motors with iron loss

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vaez-Zadeh, S.; Zahedi, B.

    2009-01-01

    Despite their usual low power ratings of single phase induction motors, they consume a considerable part of total motors energy consumption due to their large and ever-increasing quantity. The recent rising of oil prices and environmental crises has fortified the idea of energy saving practices in all applications; particularly in single phase induction motors due to their typical low efficiency. An essential requirement for this practice is the modeling and analysis of machine electrical losses under variable frequency operation. In this paper an improved steady state model of single phase induction motors is derived to investigate major motor characteristics like torque-speed, input power, output power, etc. A special emphasis is placed on accurately representing core losses at variable frequency. The winding currents phase difference is reintroduced as a fundamental motor variable to determine motor performances including losses and efficiency. An advanced computerized motor test setup is designed and built for on-line measurement of motor characteristics at different supply and operating conditions. The extensive experimental results, in good agreement with the simulation results based on the mentioned analysis, confirm the validity of the proposed model.

  19. SINGLE-PHASE AND TWO-PHASE SECONDARY COOLANTS: SIMULATION AND EVALUATION OF THEIR THERMOPHYSICAL PROPERTIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pedro Samuel Gomes Medeiros

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper makes a comparative analysis of the thermophysical properties of ice slurry with conventional single-phase secondary fluids used in thermal storage cooling systems. The ice slurry is a two-phase fluid consisting of water, antifreeze and ice crystals. It is a new technology that has shown great energy potential. In addition to transporting energy as a heat transfer fluid, it has thermal storage properties due to the presence of ice, storing coolness by latent heat of fusion. The single-phase fluids analyzed are water-NaCl and water-propylene glycol solutions, which also operate as carrier fluids in ice slurry. The presence of ice changes the thermophysical properties of aqueous solutions and a number of these properties were determined: density, thermal conductivity and dynamic viscosity. Data were obtained by software simulation. The results show that the presence of 10% by weight of ice provides a significant increase in thermal conductivity and dynamic viscosity, without causing changes in density. The rheological behavior of ice slurries, associated with its high viscosity, requires higher pumping power; however, this was not significant because higher thermal conductivity allows a lower mass flow rate without the use of larger pumps. Thus, the ice slurry ensures its high potential as a secondary fluid in thermal storage cooling systems, proving to be more efficient than single-phase secondary fluids.

  20. Spin Filtering in Epitaxial Spinel Films with Nanoscale Phase Separation

    KAUST Repository

    Li, Peng

    2017-05-08

    The coexistence of ferromagnetic metallic phase and antiferromagnetic insulating phase in nanoscaled inhomogeneous perovskite oxides accounts for the colossal magnetoresistance. Although the model of spin-polarized electron transport across antiphase boundaries has been commonly employed to account for large magnetoresistance (MR) in ferrites, the magnetic anomalies, the two magnetic phases and enhanced molecular moment, are still unresolved. We observed a sizable MR in epitaxial spinel films (NiCo2O4-δ) that is much larger than that commonly observed in spinel ferrites. Detailed analysis reveals that this MR can be attributed to phase separation, in which the perfect ferrimagnetic metallic phase and ferrimagnetic insulating phase coexist. The magnetic insulating phase plays an important role in spin filtering in these phase separated spinel oxides, leading to a sizable MR effect. A spin filtering model based on Zeeman effect and direct tunneling is developed to account for MR of the phase separated films.

  1. Effect of mulitivalent cation dopants on lithium manganese spinel cathodes

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    De Kock, A

    1998-02-01

    Full Text Available Mn,m,jM,,,,,O,+, spinels with hl = Mg?, Zn?+ and A13+, 0 < d I 0.15, h = 2 or 3 and 6 = 0 were synthesised by reaction of the required stoichiometric amounts of LiOH H,,O, MnOz and either Mg(NO,), 6H,O, Zn(NO,), 2H,O or Al(NO,), . 9Hz0..., when the average manganese oxidation state is 3.5 (Table 1). The doped LiMn,_ dMd, hO4 spinels have an average manganese oxidation state greater than 3.5 with the specific value dependent on the doping level. These doped spinels can...

  2. Compositional Variation of Chrome Spinels in the Ore-bearing Zones of the Kraka Ophiolite and the Chromitite Origin

    OpenAIRE

    D. E. Saveliev; I. A. Blinov

    2017-01-01

    The article considers a chemical variation of accessory and ore-forming chrome spinels from the Kraka ultramafic massif at the different scales, from the deposit to the thin section. A correlation analysis of compositional and structural features of ultramafic rocks and ores was performed. The ultramafic rocks and chromitites in the studied massif show the distinct deformation structures and tectonite olivine fabric. A typical chemical gap (i.e. Cr#=Cr/(Cr+Al)) was observed between peridotite...

  3. Structure and Magnetism of Nanocrystalline and Epitaxial (Mn,Zn,Fe)3O4

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    excitation. In particular, photomagnetism has been observed in a few spinel structure materials,2,3 including doped spinel structure ferrites and... ferrite films have been identified to exhibit photomagnetic effects at room temperature.7,8 Because optical sensitivity of spinel ferrites can be...and epitaxial (Mn,Zn,Fe)3O4 (MZFO) spinel thin films with their magnetic properties. X-ray diffraction (XRD) studies indicate that room temperature

  4. Effect of duration of the pause single-phase auto-reclosing on electro-power transmission capacitance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krasil'nikova Tatyana

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper discusses the problem associated with accidents in the aerial line (AL ultra-high voltage (UHV due to its big length. In lines with a voltage of 500-1150 kV the overwhelming proportion of trips (98% is caused by single-phase short circuit (SPSC. A substantial portion (70% single-phase short circuits is erratic arc accidents which can be successfully eliminated in a high-speed auto-reclosing (HSAR or single-phase auto-reclosing (SPAR. Success single-phase auto-reclosing (SPAR at liquidation by single-phase short circuit (SPSC, on the one hand, is determined by the characteristics of the secondary arc current, and on the other hand the effectiveness of ways to reduce secondary arc current and recovery voltage development. The minimum dead time, at a HSAR it is usually taken as 0.5 s., at single-phase autoreclosing (SPAR it depends on the current value of the arc support is in the range of 0.5-3.0 s. The article shows high efficiency of use single-phase auto reclosing (SPAR at liquidation SPSC in a single-chain AL voltage of 500 kV, the dependence of the bandwidth of transmission in maintaining the dynamic stability from the length of the pause SPAR.

  5. Structural, impedance and Mössbauer studies of magnesium ferrite synthesized via sol–gel auto-combustion process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shahid Khan Durrani

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Crystalline magnesium ferrite (MgFe2O4 spinel oxide powder was synthesized by nitrate–citrate sol–gel auto-combustion process with stoichiometric composition of metal nitrate salts, urea and citric acid. The study was focused on the modification of synthesis conditions and effect of these modified conditions on the structural and electrical properties of synthesized MgFe2O4 ceramic materials. Phase composition, crystallinity, structure and surface morphology were studied by X-ray diffraction, FTIR and SEM. Pure single phase MgFe2O4 spinel ferrite was obtained after calcination at 850 °C. Rietveld refinement of XRD result confirmed the single cubic phase spinel oxide with the lattice constant of a = 8.3931 Å and Fd3m symmetry. UV–visible absorption study of calcined powder revealed an optical band gap of 2.17 eV. SEM images of sintered specimens (1050–1450 °C showed that the grain size increased with the increase in sintering temperature. From the impedance results of the sintered MgFe2O4 specimens, it was found that the resistance of grain, grain boundary and electrode effect decreased with an increase in sintering temperature and associated grain growth. In the intermediate frequency region lowering of impedance and dielectric values was observed due to the decrease in grain boundary areas. Mössbauer studies indicated that magnesium ferrite had a mixed spinel structure in calcined and sintered samples, however, the well refined single phase MgFe2O4 was observed due to well developed high crystalline structure at 1350 °C and 1450 °C. Keywords: Sol–gel auto-combustion, Magnesium ferrite, X-ray diffraction, SEM, Mössbauer spectroscopy, Impedance spectroscopy

  6. In-situ synchrotron PXRD study of spinel LiMn2O4 formation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Birgisson, Steinar; Jensen, Kirsten Marie Ørnsbjerg; Christiansen, Troels Lindahl

    Spinel LiMn2O4 is a well-known cathode material for Li-ion batteries. It is considered to be a safer, more environmentally friendly and cheaper alternative to the widely used LiCoO2 cathode material. During charging/discharging of a Li-ion battery it is necessary for the Li-ions to be extracted......-ions can diffuse in and out of the structure. The spinel structure of LiMn2O4 allows for a three dimensional Li-ion diffusion via tetrahedral and octahedral holes in the cubic close packed oxide structure. By using LiMn2O4 nanoparticles as a cathode material for Li-ion batteries instead of micronsized...... particles the diffusion lengths inside the cathode material structure are significantly shorter. Therefore higher specific capacity and more specific power can be achieved by using nanoparticles instead of micro particles [S.H. Ye et al, Electrochim. Acta 49 (2004) 1623]. We have shown that it is possible...

  7. Empirical constraints on partitioning of platinum group elements between Cr-spinel and primitive terrestrial magmas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Jung-Woo; Kamenetsky, Vadim; Campbell, Ian; Park, Gyuseung; Hanski, Eero; Pushkarev, Evgeny

    2017-11-01

    Recent experimental studies and in situ LA-ICP-MS analysis on natural Cr-spinel have shown that Rh and IPGEs (Ir-group platinum group elements: Ru, Ir, Os) are enriched in the lattice of Cr-spinel. However, the factors controlling the partitioning behaviour of these elements are not well constrained. In this study, we report the Rh, IPGE, and trace element contents in primitive Cr-spinel, measured by LA-ICP-MS, from nine volcanic suites covering various tectonic settings including island arc picrites, boninites, large igneous province picrites and mid-ocean ridge basalts. The aim is to understand the factors controlling the enrichment of Rh and IPGEs in Cr-spinels, to estimate empirical partition coefficients between Cr-spinel and silicate melts, and to investigate the role of Cr-spinel fractional crystallization on the PGE geochemistry of primitive magmas during the early stages of fractional crystallization. There are systematic differences in trace elements, Rh and IPGEs in Cr-spinels from arc-related magmas (Arc Group Cr-spinel), intraplate magmas (Intraplate Group Cr-spinel), and mid-ocean ridge magmas (MORB Group Cr-spinel). Arc Group Cr-spinels are systematically enriched in Sc, Co and Mn and depleted in Ni compared to the MORB Group Cr-spinels. Intraplate Group Cr-spinels are distinguished from the Arc Group Cr-spinels by their high Ni contents. Both the Arc and Intraplate Group Cr-spinels have total Rh and IPGE contents of 22-689 ppb whereas the MORB Group Cr-spinels are depleted in Rh and IPGE (total controlled by a combination of the Rh and IPGE contents in parental melts and the magnetite component of the spinel. Empirical partition coefficients (D) for Rh and IPGEs between Cr-spinels and silicate melts were calculated using the Rh and IPGE contents of the Cr-spinel and their host volcanic rocks after subtracting the accumulation effect of Cr-spinel. The D values for the Intraplate and MORB Group Cr-spinels increase with increasing magnetite component

  8. High Performance Harmonic Isolation By Means of The Single-phase Series Active Filter Employing The Waveform Reconstruction Method

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Senturk, Osman Selcuk; Hava, Ahmet M.

    2009-01-01

    This paper proposes the Waveform Reconstruction Method (WRM), which is utilized in the single-phase Series Active Filter's (SAF's) control algorithm, in order to extract the load harmonic voltage component of voltage harmonic type single-phase diode rectifier loads. Employing WRM and the line...... current sampling delay reduction method (SDRM), a single-phase SAF compensated system provides higher harmonic isolation performance and higher stability margins compared to the system using conventional synchronous reference frame based methods. The analytical, simulation, and experimental studies of a 2...

  9. Fabrication of single phase 2D homologous perovskite microplates by mechanical exfoliation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Junze; Wang, Jun; Zhang, Yingjun; Wang, Haizhen; Lin, Gaoming; Xiong, Xuan; Zhou, Weihang; Luo, Hongmei; Li, Dehui

    2018-04-01

    The two-dimensional (2D) Ruddlesden-Popper type perovskites have attracted intensive interest for their great environmental stability and various potential optoelectronic applications. Fundamental understanding of the photophysical and electronic properties of the 2D perovskites with pure single phase is essential for improving the performance of the optoelectronic devices and designing devices with new architectures. Investigating the optical and electronic properties of these materials with pure single phase is required to obtain pure single phase 2D perovskites. Here, we report on an alternative approach to fabricate (C4H9NH3)2(CH3NH3) n-1Pb n I3n+1 microplates with pure single n-number perovskite phase for n  >  2 by mechanical exfoliation. Micro-photoluminescence and absorption spectroscopy studies reveal that the as-synthesized 2D perovskite plates for n  >  2 are comprised by dominant n-number phase and small inclusions of hybrid perovskite phases with different n values, which is supported by excitation power dependent photoluminescence. By mechanical exfoliation method, 2D perovskite microplates with the thickness of around 20 nm are obtained, which surprisingly have single n-number perovskite phase for n  =  2-5. In addition, we have demonstrated that the exfoliated 2D perovskite microplates can be integrated with other 2D layered materials such as boron nitride, and are able to be transferred to prefabricated electrodes for photodetections. Our studies not only provide a strategy to prepare 2D perovskites with a single n-number perovskite phase allowing us to extract the basic optical and electronic parameters of pure phase perovskites, but also demonstrate the possibility to integrate the 2D perovskites with other 2D layered materials to extend the device’s functionalities.

  10. Synthesis and magnetic properties of tin spinel ferrites doped manganese

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    El Moussaoui, H., E-mail: elmoussaoui.hassan@gmail.com [Institute of Nanomaterials and Nanotechnologies, MAScIR, Rabat (Morocco); Mahfoud, T.; Habouti, S. [Institute of Nanomaterials and Nanotechnologies, MAScIR, Rabat (Morocco); El Maalam, K.; Ben Ali, M. [Institute of Nanomaterials and Nanotechnologies, MAScIR, Rabat (Morocco); Laboratoire of Magnetism and the Physics of the high Energies, URAC 12, Departement of physique, B.P. 1014, Faculty of science, Mohammed V University, Rabat (Morocco); Hamedoun, M.; Mounkachi, O. [Institute of Nanomaterials and Nanotechnologies, MAScIR, Rabat (Morocco); Masrour, R. [Laboratory of Materials, Processes, Environment and Quality, Cady Ayyed University, National School of Applied Sciences, Route Sidi Bouzid – BP 63, 46000 Safi (Morocco); Hlil, E.K. [Institut Néel, CNRS-UJF, B.P. 166, 38042 Grenoble Cedex (France); Benyoussef, A. [Institute of Nanomaterials and Nanotechnologies, MAScIR, Rabat (Morocco); Laboratoire of Magnetism and the Physics of the high Energies, URAC 12, Departement of physique, B.P. 1014, Faculty of science, Mohammed V University, Rabat (Morocco); Hassan II Academy of Science and Technology, Rabat (Morocco)

    2016-05-01

    In this work we report the synthesis, the microstructural characterization and the magnetic properties of tin spinel ferrites doped manganese (Sn{sub 1−x}Mn{sub x}Fe{sub 2}O{sub 4} with x=0.25, 0.5, 0.75, and 1) nanoparticles prepared by co-precipitation method. The effect of annealing temperature on the structure, morphology and magnetic properties of Sn{sub 0.5}Mn{sub 0.5}Fe{sub 2}O{sub 4} has been investigated. The synthesized nanoparticle sizes have been controlled between 4 and 9 nm, with uniform spherical morphology as confirmed by transmission electron microscopy (TEM). All the samples prepared possess single domain magnetic. The nanoparticles of Sn{sub 0.5}Mn{sub 0.5}Fe{sub 2}O{sub 4} with 4 nm in diameter have a blocking temperature close to 100 K. In addition, the cation distribution obtained from the X-ray diffraction of this sample was confirmed by magnetic measurement. For the Sn{sub 1−x}Mn{sub x}Fe{sub 2}O{sub 4}; (0≤x≤1) samples, the magnetization and coercive fields increase when the augmentation of Mn content increases. For x=0.5, such parameters decrease when the calcination temperature increases. - Highlights: • We have studied the microstructural and the magnetic properties of Sn{sub 1-x}MnxFe{sub 2}O{sub 4}. • The nanoparticles of Sn{sub 0.5}Mn{sub 0.5}Fe{sub 2}O{sub 4} have a blocking temperature around 100 K. • The Ms and Hc increase with the augmentation of Mn content.

  11. Sodium storage capability of spinel Li4Mn5O12

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, Jiaolong; Wang, Wenhui; Li, Yingshun; Yu, Denis Y.W.

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Electrochemical behavior of spinel Li 4 Mn 5 O 12 is examined in Na-ion battery. • A capacity of 120.7 mAh g −1 is obtained during the first sodiation process. • Na storage performance is found to be strongly dependent on particle size. • Ion-exchange between Li ions and Na ions occurs in Li 4 Mn 5 O 12 structure upon cycling. • Loss of crystallinity with cycling, leading to capacity fading. - Abstract: Spinel Li 4 Mn 5 O 12 , a well-known 3 V Li-ion battery (LIB) material with excellent cycling stability and good rate capability, is examined as Na-ion battery (NIB) cathode for the first time. Electrochemical studies clearly show that Na ions can be reversibly inserted into and extracted from the three-dimensional spinel structure. However, unlike in LIB, the available capacity in NIB is strongly dependent on the particle size and current rate due to the sluggish Na-ion transport in solid phase. Cycle performance of Li 4 Mn 5 O 12 in NIB is also inferior to that in LIB. Ex-situ X-ray diffraction study indicates a gradual loss of crystallinity with cycling, and that the crystal lattice undergoes an irreversible expansion during the initial 20 cycles. Inductively coupled plasma spectroscopy shows a decrease of Li/Mn ratio in Li 4 Mn 5 O 12 with cycling. The results suggest that Li ions are removed from the material during the charging process. The charge-discharge mechanism is also discussed in the paper.

  12. Reliable Grid Condition Detection and Control of Single-Phase Distributed Power Generation Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ciobotaru, Mihai

    to the utility grid but also to sustain it. This thesis was divided into two main parts, namely "Grid Condition Detection" and "Control of Single-Phase DPGS". In the first part, the main focus was on reliable Phase Locked Loop (PLL) techniques for monitoring the grid voltage and on grid impedance estimation...... of the entire system. Regarding the advance control of DPGS, an active damping technique for grid-connected systems using inductor-capacitorinductor (LCL) filters was proposed in the thesis. The method is based on a notch filter, whose stopband can be automatically adjusted in relation with an estimated value...

  13. Power quality improvement of single-phase photovoltaic systems through a robust synchronization method

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hadjidemetriou, Lenos; Kyriakides, Elias; Yang, Yongheng

    2014-01-01

    An increasing amount of single-phase photovoltaic (PV) systems on the distribution network requires more advanced synchronization methods in order to meet the grid codes with respect to power quality and fault ride through capability. The response of the synchronization technique selected...... to the harmonic voltage distortion without affecting the dynamic response of the synchronization. Therefore, the accurate response of the proposed MHDC-PLL enhances the power quality of the PV inverter systems and additionally, the proper fault ride-through operation of PV systems can be enabled by the fast...

  14. Frequency Adaptive Repetitive Control of Grid-Tied Single-Phase PV Inverters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhou, Keliang; Yang, Yongheng; Blaabjerg, Frede

    2015-01-01

    . This paper thus explores a frequency adaptive repetitive control strategy for grid converters, which employs fractional delay filters in order to adapt to the change of the grid frequency. Case studies with experimental results of a single-phase grid-connected PV inverter system are provided to verify......The internal model principle based Repetitive Control (RC) offers an accurate control strategy for grid-tied power converters to feed sinusoidal current into the grid. However, in the presence of grid frequency variations, the conventional RC fails to produce high quality feeding current...... the proposed controller....

  15. Design and analysis of sensorless torque optimization for single phase induction motors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vaez-Zadeh, S.; Payman, A.

    2006-01-01

    Single phase induction motors are traditionally used in constant speed applications and suffer from unsymmetrical performance. A reliable speed signal can improve their performance and extend their applications as variable speed drives. In this paper, a speed estimation method for these motors is proposed based on a machine model in the stator flux reference frame. The method is examined in a sensorless torque optimization system over a wide operating range. Extensive simulation results prove the validity of the proposed method. Also, the motor performance under the torque optimization system is analyzed

  16. Indirect Control of a low power Single-Phase Active Power Filter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SILVIU EPURE

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper deals with a low power, single phase active filter used to compensate nonlinear loads. The filter uses the indirect control method and it is based on a particular connection between filter, polluting load and grid to avoid timeconsuming mathematic operations or signal processing computations and assures good rejection of harmonic currents injected by the nonlinear load into the grid. A scale model was first simulated in Simulink and then physically implemented. The paper presents simulation and experimental results, and highlight problems encountered during experiments.

  17. Pressure drop and heat transfer of lithium single-phase flow under transverse magnetic field

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takahashi, Minoru; Aritomi, Masanori; Inoue, Akira; Matsuzaki, Mitsuo

    1996-01-01

    Pressure drop and heat transfer characteristics of a lithium single-phase flow in a rectangular channel was investigated experimentally in the presence of a magnetic field. Friction loss coefficient under non-magnetic field and skin friction coefficient under magnetic field agreed well with the Blasius formula and a simple analytical expression, respectively. Nusselt number under non-magnetic field was slightly lower than the correlation by Hartnett and Irvine. Heat transfer was enhanced by increasing magnetic field above the Hartmann number of about 200. (author)

  18. Benchmarking of small-signal dynamics of single-phase PLLs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhang, Chong; Wang, Xiongfei; Blaabjerg, Frede

    2015-01-01

    Phase-looked Loop (PLL) is a critical component for the control and grid synchronization of grid-connected power converters. This paper presents a benchmarking study on the small-signal dynamics of three commonly used PLLs for single-phase converters, including enhanced PLL, second......-order generalized integrator based PLL, and the inverse-PLL. First, a unified small-signal model of those PLLs is established for comparing their dynamics. Then, a systematic design guideline for parameters tuning of the PLLs is formulated. To confirm the validity of theoretical analysis, nonlinear time...

  19. An LLCL Power Filter for Single-Phase Grid-Tied Inverter

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wu, Weimin; He, Yuanbin; Blaabjerg, Frede

    2012-01-01

    This paper presents a new topology of higher order power filter for grid-tied voltage-source inverters, named the LLCL filter, which inserts a small inductor in the branch loop of the capacitor in the traditional LCL filter to compose a series resonant circuit at the switching frequency...... to the inverter system control. The parameter design criteria of the proposed LLCL filter is also introduced. The comparative analysis and discussions regarding the traditional LCL filter and the proposed LLCL filter have been presented and evaluated through experiment on a 1.8-kW-single-phase grid-tied inverter...

  20. A MPPT Algorithm Based PV System Connected to Single Phase Voltage Controlled Grid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sreekanth, G.; Narender Reddy, N.; Durga Prasad, A.; Nagendrababu, V.

    2012-10-01

    Future ancillary services provided by photovoltaic (PV) systems could facilitate their penetration in power systems. In addition, low-power PV systems can be designed to improve the power quality. This paper presents a single-phase PV systemthat provides grid voltage support and compensation of harmonic distortion at the point of common coupling thanks to a repetitive controller. The power provided by the PV panels is controlled by a Maximum Power Point Tracking algorithm based on the incremental conductance method specifically modified to control the phase of the PV inverter voltage. Simulation and experimental results validate the presented solution.

  1. A control strategy for induction motors fed from single phase supply

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Søndergård, Lars Møller

    1993-01-01

    It is often required that a three-phased asynchronous motor can run at variable speed, which makes it necessary to use a three-phase inverter driven from a DC-source. Today, most inverters are driven from the network using a simple diode bridge and an electrolytic capacitor. The problem...... with the simple diode bridge and the electrolytic capacitor is that current is only drawn for short periods, which gives rise to harmonic currents in the network. For small drive systems (motor+inverter), i.e. less than 1.5 kW, a single phase network outlet is often used. The author describes a method whereby...

  2. Novel Position and Speed Estimator for PM Single Phase Brushless D.C. Motor Drives

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lepure, Liviu I.; Andreescu, Gheorghe-Daniel; Iles, Doris

    2010-01-01

    A novel position and speed estimator for single phase permanent magnet brushless d.c. (PMBLDC) motor drives, based on flux integration and prior knowledge of ΨPM (θ) is proposed here and an adequate correction algorithm is adopted in order to increase the robustness to noise and to reduce...... the sensitivity to accuracy of flux linkage estimation. A speed and current close loop control is employed based on the Hall signal and the motor is controlled at different speeds in order to validate the proposed estimation algorithm with satisfying results. The position correction effect is analyzed...

  3. Single Phase Transformer-less Buck-Boost Inverter with Zero Leakage Current for PV Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mostaan, Ali; Abdelhakim, Ahmed; N. Soltani, Mohsen

    2017-01-01

    In this paper, a novel single-stage single-phase transformer-less buck-boost inverter is proposed, in which a reduced number of passive components is used. The proposed inverter combines the conventional buck, boost, and buck-boost converters in one converter in order to obtain a sinusoidal output...... voltage. In the proposed inverter, the input DC source and the load or grid have the same ground. Therefore, the leakage current problem in photovoltaic (PV) systems is eliminated. Furthermore, the proposed inverter supports the bi-directional power flow capability and it can inject reactive power...

  4. Single phase and two-phase flow pressure losses through restrictions, expansions and inserts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Glenat, P.; Solignac, P.

    1984-11-01

    We give a selection of methods to predict pressure losses through retrictions, expansions and inserts. In single phase flow, we give the classical method based on the one-dimensional momentum and mass balances. In two-phase flow, we propose the method given by Harshe et al. and an empirical approach suggested by Chisholm. We notice the distinction between long and short inserts depends upon wether or not the vena contracta lies within insert. Finally, we propose three correlations to calculate void fraction through the singularities which have been considered [fr

  5. Reaction kinetics of oxygen on single-phase alloys, oxidation of nickel and niobium alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lalauze, Rene

    1973-01-01

    This research thesis first addresses the reaction kinetics of oxygen on alloys. It presents some generalities on heterogeneous reactions (conventional theory, theory of jumps), discusses the core reaction (with the influence of pressure), discusses the influence of metal self-diffusion on metal oxidation kinetics (equilibrium conditions at the interface, hybrid diffusion regime), reports the application of the hybrid diffusion model to the study of selective oxidation of alloys (Wagner model, hybrid diffusion model) and the study of the oxidation kinetics of an alloy forming a solid solution of two oxides. The second part reports the investigation of the oxidation of single phase nickel and niobium alloys (phase α, β and γ)

  6. A low capacitance single-phase AC-DC converter with inherent power ripple decoupling

    OpenAIRE

    Gottardo, Davide; De Lillo, Liliana; Empringham, Lee; Costabeber, Alessando

    2016-01-01

    This paper proposes a new single-phase AC-DC conversion topology with inherent power ripple decoupling, based on the combination of a PWM H-bridge inverter, an AC side LC filter and a ZVS line commutated H-bridge. A capacitor on the AC side is used as power decoupling element. By appropriate selection of the capacitor voltage, the power ripple at twice the AC frequency can be cancelled from the DC side instantaneous power, achieving negligible DC voltage ripple using a smaller total capacitan...

  7. Dynamics Assessment of Grid-Synchronization Algorithms for Single-Phase Grid-Connected Converters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Han, Yang; Luo, Mingyu; Guerrero, Josep M.

    2015-01-01

    and low computational burden. Meanwhile, some other techniques have been proposed to enhance system robustness and stability characteristics. In this paper, a comprehensive comparison among the OSG-based PLLs and the advanced single-phase PLLs is presented when the grid voltage undergoes disturbances......, and the performance comparison of transient response and disturbance rejection capabilities are presented. Finally, the moving average filter (MAF) is applied to enhance steady state and dynamic response of the delayed-type PLL, derivator-based PLL and the complex-coefficient filter (CCF-PLL) under grid frequency...

  8. Dispersed single-phase-step Michelson interferometer for Doppler imaging using sunlight.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wan, Xiaoke; Ge, Jian

    2012-09-15

    A Michelson interferometer is dispersed with a fiber array-fed spectrograph, providing 59 Doppler sensing channels using sunlight in the 510-570 nm wavelength region. The interferometer operates at a single-phase-step mode, which is particularly advantageous in multiplexing and data processing compared to the phase-stepping mode of other interferometer spectrometer instruments. Spectral templates are prepared using a standard solar spectrum and simulated interferometer modulations, such that the correlation function with a measured 1D spectrum determines the Doppler shift. Doppler imaging of a rotating cylinder is demonstrated. The average Doppler sensitivity is ~12 m/s, with some channels reaching ~5 m/s.

  9. Nanocrystalline spinel ferrites by solid state reaction route

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Wintec

    Nanocrystalline spinel ferrites by solid state reaction route. T K KUNDU* and S MISHRA. Department of Physics, Visva-Bharati, Santiniketan 731 235, India. Abstract. Nanostructured NiFe2O4, MnFe2O4 and (NiZn)Fe2O4 were synthesized by aliovalent ion doping using conventional solid-state reaction route. With the ...

  10. Identification of Spinel Iron Oxide Nanoparticles by 57Fe NMR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SangGap Lee

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available We have synthesized and studied monodisperse iron oxide nanoparticles of smaller than 10 nm to identify between the two spinel phases, magnetite and maghemite. It is shown that 57Fe NMR spectroscopy is a promising tool for distinguishing between the two phases.

  11. Development and characterization of nickel–zinc spinel ferrite for ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    This paper deals with the development and characterization of nickel–zinc spinel ferrite (Ni(1–) ZnFe2O4) for microwave absorption at 2.4 GHz (ISM band). The ferrite powder was prepared by dry attrition and sintering process. Complex permittivity and permeability of the prepared sample have been determined by ...

  12. Development and characterization of nickel–zinc spinel ferrite for ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Wintec

    Development and characterization of nickel–zinc spinel ferrite. 769. Figure 6. (a) Imaginary (εr) vs frequency, (b) real (εr) vs frequency, (c) |εr| vs frequency, (d) imaginary (μr) vs frequency, (e) real (μr) vs frequency and (f) |μr| vs frequency. Table 1. Ferrimagnetic resonance fre- quency for various values of δ. δ. Measured fr ...

  13. How Rich is Rich? Placing Constraints on the Abundance of Spinel in the Pink Spinel Anorthosite Lithology on the Moon Through Space Weathering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gross, J.; Gillis-Davis, J.; Isaacson, P. J.; Le, L.

    2015-01-01

    previously unknown lunar rock was recently recognized in the Moon Mineralogy Mapper (M(sup 3)) visible to near-infrared (VNIR) reflectance spectra. The rock type is rich in Mg-Al spinel (approximately 30%) and plagioclase and contains less than 5% mafic silicate minerals (olivine and pyroxene). The identification of this pink spinel anorthosite (PSA) at the Moscoviense basin has sparked new interest in lunar spinel. Pieters et al. suggested that these PSA deposits might be an important component of the lunar crust. However, Mg-Al spinel is rare in the Apollo and meteorite sample collections (only up to a few wt%), and occurs mostly in troctolites and troctolitic cataclastites. In this study, we are conducting a series of experiments (petrologic and space weathering) to investigate whether deposits of spinel identified by remote sensing are in high concentration (e.g. 30%) or whether the concentrations of spinel in these deposits are more like lunar samples, which contain only a few wt%. To examine the possibility of an impact-melt origin for PSA, conducted 1-bar crystallization experiments on rock compositions similar to pink spinel troctolite 65785. The VNIR spectral reflectance analyses of the low-temperature experiments yield absorption features similar to those of the PSA lithology detected at Moscoviense Basin. The experimental run products at these temperatures contain approximately 5 wt% spinel, which suggests that the spinel-rich deposits detected by M(sup 3) might not be as spinel-rich as previously thought. However, the effect of space weathering on spinel is unknown and could significantly alter its spectral properties including potential weakening of its diagnostic 2-micrometers absorption feature. Thus, weathered lunar rocks could contain more spinel than a comparison with the unweathered experimental charges would suggest. In this study, we have initiated space weathering experiments on 1) pure pink spinel, 2) spinel-anorthite mixtures, and 3) the low

  14. Novel Family of Single-Phase Modified Impedance-Source Buck-Boost Multilevel Inverters with Reduced Switch Count

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Husev, Oleksandr; Strzelecki, Ryszard; Blaabjerg, Frede

    2016-01-01

    This paper describes novel single-phase solutions with increased inverter voltage levels derived by means of a nonstandard inverter configuration and impedance source networks. Operation principles based on special modulation techniques are presented. Detailed component design guidelines along wi...

  15. A Nonadaptive Window-Based PLL for Single-Phase Applications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Golestan, Saeed; Guerrero, Josep M.; Quintero, Juan Carlos Vasquez

    2018-01-01

    The rectangular window filter, typically known as the moving average filter (MAF), is a quasi-ideal low-pass filter that has found wide application in designing advanced single-phase phase-locked loops (PLLs). Most often, the MAF is employed as an in-loop filter within the control loop of the sin......The rectangular window filter, typically known as the moving average filter (MAF), is a quasi-ideal low-pass filter that has found wide application in designing advanced single-phase phase-locked loops (PLLs). Most often, the MAF is employed as an in-loop filter within the control loop...... response is avoided. Nevertheless, the PLL implementation complexity considerably increases as MAFs are frequency-adaptive and, therefore, they require an additional frequency detector for estimating the grid frequency. To reduce the implementation complexity while maintaining a good performance, using...... a nonadaptive MAF-based QSG with some error compensators is suggested in this letter. The effectiveness of the resultant PLL, which is briefly called the nonadaptive MAF-based PLL, is verified using experimental results....

  16. A note on similarity in single-phase and porous-medium natural convection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lyall, H.G.

    1981-03-01

    The similarity laws for single-phase and porous-medium natural convection are developed. For single-phase flow Nu = Nu(Ra) implies that inertial effects are negligible, while Nu = Nu(Ra.Pr) implies that viscous effects are. The first correlation is adequate for Pr>10, while the second applies for Pr<0.01. For intermediate values of Pr, a more general correlation, Nu = Nu(Ra,Pr) is necessary. For a porous-medium, if inertial effects and dispersion are negligible, Nu* = Nu*(Ra*). However dispersion will only be negligible if the ratio of grain size d to the width of the region L is very small (d/L<< l). If this condition does not hold it is necessary to model d/L. If inertial effects are significant, i.e. the Reynolds number is too large for Darcy's law to apply, a group containing the effective Prandtl number, Pr*, also needs to be modelled for similarity. (author)

  17. Ion beam induced single phase nanocrystalline TiO{sub 2} formation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rukade, Deepti A. [Department of Physics, University of Mumbai, Mumbai 400098 (India); Tribedi, L.C. [Tata Institute of Fundamental Research, Homi Bhabha Road, Colaba, Mumbai 400005 (India); Bhattacharyya, Varsha, E-mail: varsha.b1.physics@gmail.com [Department of Physics, University of Mumbai, Mumbai 400098 (India)

    2014-06-15

    Single phase TiO{sub 2} nanostructures are fabricated by oxygen ion implantation (60 keV) at fluence ranging from 1×10{sup 16} ions/cm{sup 2} to 1×10{sup 17} ions/cm{sup 2} in titanium thin films deposited on fused silica substrate and subsequent thermal annealing in argon atmosphere. GAXRD and Raman spectroscopy study reveals formation of single rutile phases of TiO{sub 2}. Particle size is found to vary from 29 nm to 35 nm, establishing nanostructure formation. Nanostructure formation is also confirmed by the quantum confinement effect manifested by the blueshift of the UV–vis absorption spectra. Photoluminescence spectra show peaks corresponding to TiO{sub 2} rutile phase and reveal the presence of oxygen defects due to implantation. The controlled synthesis of single phase nanostructure is attributed to ion induced defects and post-implantation annealing. It is observed that the size of the nanostructures formed is strongly dependent on the ion fluence.

  18. FUZZY LOGIC BASED OPTIMIZATION OF CAPACITOR VALUE FOR SINGLE PHASE OPEN WELL SUBMERSIBLE INDUCTION MOTOR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Subramanian

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose – The aim of this paper is to optimize the capacitor value of a single phase open well submersible motor operating under extreme voltage conditions using fuzzy logic optimization technique and compared with no-load volt-ampere method. This is done by keeping the displacement angle (a between main winding and auxiliary winding near 90o, phase angle (f between the supply voltage and line current near 0o. The optimization work is carried out by using Fuzzy Logic Toolbox software built on the MATLAB technical computing environment with Simulink software. Findings – The optimum capacitor value obtained is used with a motor and tested for different supply voltage conditions. The vector diagrams obtained from the experimental test results indicates that the performance is improved from the existing value. Originality/value – This method will be highly useful for the practicing design engineers in selecting the optimum capacitance value for single phase induction motors to achieve the best performance for operating at extreme supply voltage conditions.

  19. MECHANICAL CHARACTERISTICS OF THREE-PHASE INDUCTION MOTORS WITH SINGLE-PHASE POWER SUPPLY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V.S. Malyar

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Aim. Development of a method for calculating mechanical characteristics of three-phase induction motors with single-phase power supply. Methods. The developed algorithm is based on the high-adequacy mathematical model of motor and projection method for solving the boundary problem for equations of electrical circuits balance presented in the three-phase coordinate system. As a result of asymmetry of power supply to the stator windings, in steady state, flux-linkage and current change according to the periodic law. They are determined by solving the boundary problem. Results. The developed mathematical model allows determining periodic dependence of coordinates as a function of slip and, based on them, mechanical characteristics of motors. Academic novelty. The developed method relies on a completely new mathematical approach to calculation of stationary modes of nonlinear electromagnetic circuits, which allows obtaining periodic solution in a timeless domain. Practical value. Using the developed calculation algorithm, one can select capacitance required to start an induction motor with single-phase power supply and calculate static mechanical characteristics at a given capacitance.

  20. Experimental study of single-phase pressure drops in coarse particle beds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Clavier, R., E-mail: remi.clavier@irsn.fr [IRSN Cadarache, Saint Paul-lez-Durance (France); Chikhi, N., E-mail: nourdine.chikhi@irsn.fr [IRSN Cadarache, Saint Paul-lez-Durance (France); Fichot, F., E-mail: florian.fichot@irsn.fr [IRSN Cadarache, Saint Paul-lez-Durance (France); Quintard, M., E-mail: Michel.Quintard@imft.fr [Université de Toulouse, Allée Camille Soula, F-31400 Toulouse (France); INPT, UPS, Allée Camille Soula, F-31400 Toulouse (France); IMFT (Institut de Mécanique des Fluides de Toulouse), Allée Camille Soula, F-31400 Toulouse (France); CNRS, F-31400 Toulouse (France)

    2017-02-15

    Motivated by uncertainty reduction in nuclear debris beds coolability, experiments have been conducted on the CALIDE facility in order to investigate single-phase pressure losses in representative debris beds, i.e., high sphericity (>80%) particle beds with small size dispersion (from 1 mm to 10 mm), for which no validated model exists. In this paper, experimental results are presented and analyzed in order to identify a simple correlation for single-phase flow pressure losses generated in this kind of porous media in reflooding flowing conditions, which cover Darcy to weakly turbulent regimes. In the literature, it has been observed that their behavior can be accurately described by a Darcy–Forchheimer law, involving the sum of a linear term and a quadratic non-linear deviation, with respect to the filtration velocity. Expressions for the coefficients of the linear and quadratic terms are determined by assessing the possibility to evaluate equivalent diameters, i.e., characteristic lengths allowing correct predictions of the linear and quadratic terms by the Ergun equation. It has been observed that the Sauter diameter of particles allows a very precise prediction of the linear term, while the quadratic term can be predicted using the product of the Sauter diameter and a sphericity coefficient as an equivalent diameter.

  1. Numerical investigation of refrigeration machine compressor operation considering single-phase electric motor dynamic characteristics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baidak, Y.; Smyk, V.

    2017-08-01

    Using as the base the differential equations system which was presented in relative units for generalized electric motor of hermetic refrigeration compressor, mathematical model of the software for dynamic performance calculation of refrigeration machine compressors drive low-power asynchronous motors was developed. Performed on its ground calculations of the basic model of two-phase electric motor drive of hermetic compressor and the proposed newly developed model of the motor with single-phase stator winding, which is an alternative to the industrial motor winding, have confirmed the benefits of the motor with innovative stator winding over the base engine. Given calculations of the dynamic characteristics of compressor drive motor have permitted to determine the value of electromagnetic torque swinging for coordinating compressor and motor mechanical characteristics, and for taking them into consideration in choosing compressor elements construction materials. Developed and used in the process of investigation of refrigeration compressor drive asynchronous single-phase motor mathematical and software can be considered as an element of computer-aided design system for design of the aggregate of refrigeration compression unit refrigerating machine.

  2. Validation of CATHENA MOD-3.5/Rev0 for single-phase water hammer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beuthe, T.G.

    2000-01-01

    This paper describes work performed to validate the system thermalhydraulics code CATHENA MOD-3.5c/Rev0 for single-phase water hammer. Simulations were performed and are compared quantitatively against numerical tests and experimental results from the Seven Sisters Water Hammer Facility to demonstrate CATHENA can predict the creation and propagation of pressure waves when valves are opened and closed. Simulations were also performed to show CATHENA can model the behaviour of reflected and transmitted pressure waves at area changes, dead ends, tanks, boundary conditions, and orifices in simple and more complex piping systems. The CATHENA results are shown to calculate pressure and wave propagation speeds to within 0.2% and 0.5% respectively for numerical tests and within 3.3% and 5% for experimental results respectively. These results are used to help validate CATHENA for use in single-phase water hammer analysis. They also provide assurance that the fundamental parameters needed to successfully model more complex forms of water hammer are accounted for in the MOD-3.5c/Rev0 version of CATHENA, and represent the first step in the process to validate the code for use in modelling two-phase water hammer and condensation-induced water hammer. (author)

  3. Synthesis and characterization of Li{sub 2}ZnTi{sub 3}O{sub 8} spinel using the modified polymeric precursor method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Camara, M.S.C.; Lisboa-Filho, P.N.; Cabrelon, M.D.; Gama, L.; Ortiz, W.A.; Paiva-Santos, C.O.; Leite, E.R.; Longo, E

    2003-09-28

    In this work we report the synthesis procedure, crystallographic, structural and magnetic properties of the Li{sub 2}ZnTi{sub 3}O{sub 8} spinel obtained using a modified polymeric precursor method. This synthesis method generates very reactive and property-controlled nanoparticles. The samples were characterized using X-ray powder diffraction (XRD) associated to the Rietveld refinement method, thermogravimetric analysis (TG), specific surface area, scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and magnetic susceptibility measurements. The phase formation temperature of the lithium zinc titanate spinel was observed to decrease due to the homogeneity and highly controlled nanometric particle size.

  4. Magnetic and catalytic properties of inverse spinel CuFe{sub 2}O{sub 4} nanoparticles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anandan, S., E-mail: sanand@nitt.edu [Nanomaterials and Solar Energy Conversion Lab, Department of Chemistry, National Institute of Technology, Trichy 620 015 (India); Department of Environmental Engineering and Science, Feng Chia University, Taichung 407, Taiwan (China); Selvamani, T.; Prasad, G. Guru [Nanomaterials and Solar Energy Conversion Lab, Department of Chemistry, National Institute of Technology, Trichy 620 015 (India); Asiri, A.M. [The Center of Excellence for Advanced Materials Research, King Abdulaziz University, P.O. Box 80203, Jeddah 21413 (Saudi Arabia); Wu, J.J., E-mail: jjwu@fcu.edu.tw [Department of Environmental Engineering and Science, Feng Chia University, Taichung 407, Taiwan (China)

    2017-06-15

    Highlights: • Copper ferrite (CuFe{sub 2}O{sub 4}) nanoparticles were synthesized via citrate-nitrate combustion method. • Spectroscopic information’s have found that CuFe{sub 2}O{sub 4} nanoparticles as an inverse spinel structure. • Magnetic study exhibits CuFe{sub 2}O{sub 4} nanoparticles have ferromagnetic behavior. • CuFe{sub 2}O{sub 4} nanoparticles employed for photocatalytic decolourisation of methylene blue under visible light irradiation. - Abstract: In this research, inverse spinel copper ferrite nanoparticles (CuFe{sub 2}O{sub 4} NPs) were synthesized via citrate-nitrate combustion method. The crystal structure, particle size, morphology and magnetic studies were investigated using various instrumental tools to illustrate the formation of the inverse spinel structure. Mossbauer spectrometry identified Fe is located both in the tetrahedral and octahedral site in the ratio (40:60) and the observed magnetic parameters values such as saturation magnetization (M{sub s} = 20.62 emu g{sup −1}), remnant magnetization (M{sub r} = 11.66 emu g{sup −1}) and coercivity (H{sub c} = 63.1 mTesla) revealed that the synthesized CuFe{sub 2}O{sub 4} NPs have a typical ferromagnetic behaviour. Also tested CuFe{sub 2}O{sub 4} nanoparticles as a photocatalyst for the decolourisation of methylene blue (MB) in the presence of peroxydisulphate as the oxidant.

  5. LVRT Capability of Single-Phase Grid-Connected HERIC Inverter in PV Systems by a Look-up Table Based Predictive Control

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zangeneh Bighash, Esmaeil; Sadeghzadeh, Seyed Mohammad; Ebrahimzadeh, Esmaeil

    2017-01-01

    , nowadays these systems should have Low Voltage Ride-Through (LVRT) capability. The PV system should stay connected to the grid at fault time and help to recover the grid voltage by injecting the reactive power like in a power plant or a custom power device. There are two important factors for single phase...... grid connected PV inverters. The first one is the structure of the inverter and the second one is the control part. In this regard, the HERIC inverter can be a good selection among the transformerless inverters for a PV system due to its high efficiency. For the control part, this paper presents a look...

  6. Experimental and ab initio investigations on textured Li–Mn–O spinel thin film cathodes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fischer, J., E-mail: Julian.Fischer@kit.edu [Karlsruhe Institute of Technology (KIT), Institute for Applied Materials (IAM), Hermann-von-Helmholtz-Platz 1, 76344 Eggenstein-Leopoldshafen (Germany); Music, D. [RWTH Aachen University, Materials Chemistry, Kopernikusstrasse 10, 52074 Aachen (Germany); Bergfeldt, T.; Ziebert, C.; Ulrich, S.; Seifert, H.J. [Karlsruhe Institute of Technology (KIT), Institute for Applied Materials (IAM), Hermann-von-Helmholtz-Platz 1, 76344 Eggenstein-Leopoldshafen (Germany)

    2014-12-01

    This paper describes the tailored preparation of nearly identical lithium–manganese–oxide thin film cathodes with different global grain orientations. The thin films were synthesized by rf magnetron sputtering from a LiMn{sub 2}O{sub 4}-target in a pure argon plasma. Under appropriate processing conditions, thin films with a cubic spinel structure and a nearly similar density and surface topography but different grain orientation, i.e. (111)- and (440)-textured films, were achieved. The chemical composition was determined by inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectroscopy and carrier gas hot extraction. The constitution- and microstructure were evaluated by X-ray diffraction and Raman spectroscopy. The surface morphology and roughness were investigated by scanning electron and atomic force microscopy. The differently textured films represent an ideal model system for studying potential effects of grain orientation on the lithium ion diffusion and electrochemical behavior in LiMn{sub 2}O{sub 4}-based thin films. They are nearly identical in their chemical composition, atomic bonding behavior, surface-roughness, morphology and thickness. Our initial ab initio molecular dynamics data indicate that Li ion transport is faster in (111)-textured structure than in (440)-textured one. - Highlights: • Thin film model system of differently textured cubic Li–Mn–O spinels. • Investigation of the Li–Mn–O thin film mass density by X-ray reflectivity. • Ab initio molecular dynamics simulation on Li ion diffusion in LiMn{sub 2}O{sub 4}.

  7. Experimental and ab initio investigations on textured Li–Mn–O spinel thin film cathodes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fischer, J.; Music, D.; Bergfeldt, T.; Ziebert, C.; Ulrich, S.; Seifert, H.J.

    2014-01-01

    This paper describes the tailored preparation of nearly identical lithium–manganese–oxide thin film cathodes with different global grain orientations. The thin films were synthesized by rf magnetron sputtering from a LiMn 2 O 4 -target in a pure argon plasma. Under appropriate processing conditions, thin films with a cubic spinel structure and a nearly similar density and surface topography but different grain orientation, i.e. (111)- and (440)-textured films, were achieved. The chemical composition was determined by inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectroscopy and carrier gas hot extraction. The constitution- and microstructure were evaluated by X-ray diffraction and Raman spectroscopy. The surface morphology and roughness were investigated by scanning electron and atomic force microscopy. The differently textured films represent an ideal model system for studying potential effects of grain orientation on the lithium ion diffusion and electrochemical behavior in LiMn 2 O 4 -based thin films. They are nearly identical in their chemical composition, atomic bonding behavior, surface-roughness, morphology and thickness. Our initial ab initio molecular dynamics data indicate that Li ion transport is faster in (111)-textured structure than in (440)-textured one. - Highlights: • Thin film model system of differently textured cubic Li–Mn–O spinels. • Investigation of the Li–Mn–O thin film mass density by X-ray reflectivity. • Ab initio molecular dynamics simulation on Li ion diffusion in LiMn 2 O 4

  8. Preparation of composite with silica-coated nanoparticles of iron oxide spinels for applications based on magnetically induced hyperthermia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Andrade, Angela L. [Federal University of Ouro Preto (UFOP), Department of Chemistry (Brazil); Fabris, Jose D., E-mail: jdfabris@ufmg.br [Federal University of Jequitinhonha and Mucuri Valleys (UFVJM) (Brazil); Pereira, Marcio C. [Federal University of Jequitinhonha and Mucuri Valleys (UFVJM), Institute of Science, Engineering and Technology (Brazil); Domingues, Rosana Z. [Federal University of Minas Gerais (UFMG), Department of Chemistry (Brazil); Ardisson, Jose D. [Development Center of Nuclear Technology (CNEN/CDTN), Laboratory of Applied Physics (Brazil)

    2013-04-15

    It is reported a novel method to prepare magnetic core (iron oxide spinels)-shell (silica) composites containing well-dispersed magnetic nanoparticles in aqueous solution. The synthetic process consists of two steps. In a first step, iron oxide nanoparticles obtained through co-precipitation are dispersed in an aqueous solution containing tetramethylammonium hydroxide; in a second step, particles of this sample are coated with silica, through hydrolyzation of tetraethyl orthosilicate. The intrinsic atomic structure and essential properties of the core-shell system were assessed with powder X-ray diffraction, Fourier transform infrared spectrometry, Moessbauer spectroscopy and transmission electron microscopy. The heat released by this ferrofluid under an AC-generated magnetic field was evaluated by following the temperature evolution under increasing magnetic field strengths. Results strongly indicate that this ferrofluid based on silica-coated iron oxide spinels is technologically a very promising material to be used in medical practices, in oncology.

  9. Characterization of Li4Ti5O12 and LiMn2O4 spinel materials treated with aqueous acidic solutions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Simon, D.R.

    2007-01-01

    In this thesis an investigation of two spinel materials, Li4Ti5O12 and LiMn2O4 used for Li-ion battery applications is performed interms of formation and reactivity towards acidic solutions. Subsequent characterizations such as structural, magnetic, chemical, and electrochemical characterizations

  10. Design comparison of single phase outer and inner-rotor hybrid excitation flux switching motor for hybrid electric vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazlan, Mohamed Mubin Aizat; Sulaiman, Erwan; Husin, Zhafir Aizat; Othman, Syed Muhammad Naufal Syed; Khan, Faisal

    2015-05-01

    In hybrid excitation machines (HEMs), there are two main flux sources which are permanent magnet (PM) and field excitation coil (FEC). These HEMs have better features when compared with the interior permanent magnet synchronous machines (IPMSM) used in conventional hybrid electric vehicles (HEVs). Since all flux sources including PM, FEC and armature coils are located on the stator core, the rotor becomes a single piece structure similar with switch reluctance machine (SRM). The combined flux generated by PM and FEC established more excitation fluxes that are required to produce much higher torque of the motor. In addition, variable DC FEC can control the flux capabilities of the motor, thus the machine can be applied for high-speed motor drive system. In this paper, the comparisons of single-phase 8S-4P outer and inner rotor hybrid excitation flux switching machine (HEFSM) are presented. Initially, design procedures of the HEFSM including parts drawing, materials and conditions setting, and properties setting are explained. Flux comparisons analysis is performed to investigate the flux capabilities at various current densities. Then the flux linkages of PM with DC FEC of various DC FEC current densities are examined. Finally torque performances are analyzed at various armature and FEC current densities for both designs. As a result, the outer-rotor HEFSM has higher flux linkage of PM with DC FEC and higher average torque of approximately 10% when compared with inner-rotor HEFSM.

  11. A DAB Converter with Common-Point-Connected Winding Transformers Suitable for a Single-Phase 5-Level SST System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hyeok-Jin Yun

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available One of the main disadvantages of the multi-level solid-state transformer (SST system is the voltage imbalance on the output of the rectifier modules. This voltage imbalance can be caused by parameter mismatch of the active and passive components, different loads, and the floating structure of the high voltage DC-links. Some studies have been done to solve this voltage imbalance problem. A common way to avoid this imbalance is to balance the voltage of DC-links at the AC/DC conversion stage and balance the power between the modules at the DC/DC conversion stage. Most of these methods require a complex balancing controller or additional circuits. This paper proposes a novel dual active bridge (DAB converter specialized in power balancing in a single-phase 5-level SST system. The proposed DAB converter does not require any additional balancing controllers or techniques for power balancing. The performance of the proposed DAB converter was verified by simulation and experiments using a 3 kW 5-level SST prototype system.

  12. A Current-Forced Line-Commutated Inverter for Single-Phase Grid-Connected Photovoltaic Generation Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    UNLU, M.

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available A simple power electronic interface based on the line-commutated inverter (LCI has been developed in order to inject sinusoidal current to the grid for single-phase grid-connected photovoltaic (PV energy generation systems. The proposed inverter facilitates controlling the injecting/grid current with a controllable power factor in contrast to the conventional LCI system. It is achieved that the total harmonic distortion (THD of the injecting currents for the different firing angles/power factors and reference currents is about 5% or less than 5%. Thus, the grid-connected standards for injecting current are satisfied without filter equipment unlike the conventional LCI system. The proposed system has been built in MATLAB/Simulink and examined experimentally on PV array of 160 W. The simulation and experimental results are better performance than the conventional line-commutated inverter methods reported in the literature. The proposed LCI has a simple and robust structure, and it can be easily synchronized with grid thanks to self-latching property of SCRs. Therefore, it is a good alternative for the power transferring from PV panels to the utility grid in grid-connected PV systems.

  13. High efficiency H6 single-phase transformerless grid-tied PV inverter with proposed modulation for reactive power generation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almasoudi, Fahad M.; Alatawi, Khaled S.; Matin, Mohammad

    2017-08-01

    Implementation of transformerless inverters in PV grid-tied system offer great benefits such as high efficiency, light weight, low cost, etc. Most of the proposed transformerless inverters in literature are verified for only real power application. Currently, international standards such as VDE-AR-N 4105 has demanded that PV grid-tied inverters should have the ability of controlling a specific amount of reactive power. Generation of reactive power cannot be accomplished in single phase transformerless inverter topologies because the existing modulation techniques are not adopted for a freewheeling path in the negative power region. This paper enhances a previous high efficiency proposed H6 trnasformerless inverter with SiC MOSFETs and demonstrates new operating modes for the generation of reactive power. A proposed pulse width modulation (PWM) technique is applied to achieve bidirectional current flow through freewheeling state. A comparison of the proposed H6 transformerless inverter using SiC MOSFETs and Si MOSFTEs is presented in terms of power losses and efficiency. The results show that reactive power control is attained without adding any additional active devices or modification to the inverter structure. Also, the proposed modulation maintains a constant common mode voltage (CM) during every operating mode and has low leakage current. The performance of the proposed system verifies its effectiveness in the next generation PV system.

  14. Enhancement of Electrochemical Performance of LiMn2O4 Spinel Cathode Material by Synergetic Substitution with Ni and S

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monika Bakierska

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Nickel and sulfur doped lithium manganese spinels with a nominal composition of LiMn2−xNixO4–ySy (0.1 ≤ x ≤ 0.5 and y = 0.01 were synthesized by a xerogel-type sol-gel method followed by subsequent calcinations at 300 and 650 °C in air. The samples were investigated in terms of physicochemical properties using X-ray powder diffraction (XRD, transmission electron microscopy (EDS-TEM, N2 adsorption-desorption measurements (N2-BET, differential scanning calorimetry (DSC, and electrical conductivity studies (EC. Electrochemical characteristics of Li/Li+/LiMn2−xNixO4–ySy cells were examined by galvanostatic charge/discharge tests (CELL TEST, electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS, and cyclic voltammetry (CV. The XRD showed that for samples calcined at 650 °C containing 0.1 and 0.2 mole of Ni single phase materials of Fd-3m group symmetry and nanoparticles size of around 50 nm were obtained. The energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS mapping confirmed homogenous distribution of nickel and sulfur in the obtained spinel materials. Moreover, it was revealed that the adverse phase transition at around room temperature typical for the stoichiometric spinel was successfully suppressed by Ni and S substitution. Electrochemical results indicated that slight substitution of nickel (x = 0.1 and sulfur (y = 0.01 in the LiMn2O4 enhances the electrochemical performance along with the rate capability and capacity retention.

  15. Energetics analysis of interstitial loops in single-phase concentrated solid-solution alloys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xin-Xin; Niu, Liang-Liang; Wang, Shaoqing

    2018-04-01

    Systematic energetics analysis on the shape preference, relative stability and radiation-induced segregation of interstitial loops in nickel-containing single-phase concentrated solid-solution alloys have been conducted using atomistic simulations. It is shown that the perfect loops prefer rhombus shape for its low potential energy, while the Frank faulted loops favor ellipse for its low potential energy and the possible large configurational entropy. The decrease of stacking fault energy with increasing compositional complexity provides the energetic driving force for the formation of faulted loops, which, in conjunction with the kinetic factors, explains the experimental observation that the fraction of faulted loops rises with increasing compositional complexity. Notably, the kinetics is primarily responsible for the absence of faulted loops in nickel-cobalt with a very low stacking fault energy. We further demonstrate that the simultaneous nickel enrichment and iron/chromium depletion on interstitial loops can be fully accounted for by their energetics.

  16. On Thermodynamics Problems in the Single-Phase-Lagging Heat Conduction Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shu-Nan Li

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Thermodynamics problems for the single-phase-lagging (SPL model have not been much studied. In this paper, the violation of the second law of thermodynamics by the SPL model is studied from two perspectives, which are the negative entropy production rate and breaking equilibrium spontaneously. The methods for the SPL model to avoid the negative entropy production rate are proposed, which are extended irreversible thermodynamics and the thermal relaxation time. Modifying the entropy production rate positive or zero is not enough to avoid the violation of the second law of thermodynamics for the SPL model, because the SPL model could cause breaking equilibrium spontaneously in some special circumstances. As comparison, it is shown that Fourier’s law and the CV model cannot break equilibrium spontaneously by analyzing mathematical energy integral.

  17. Single-phase pump model for analysis of LMFBR heat transport systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Madni, I.K.; Cazzoli, E.

    1978-05-01

    A single-phase pump model for transient and steady-state analysis of LMFBR heat transport systems is presented. Fundamental equations of the model are angular momentum balance to determine transient impeller speed and mass balance (including thermal expansion effects) to determine the level of sodium in the pump tank. Pump characteristics are modeled by homologous head and torque relations. All regions of pump operation are represented with reverse rotation allowed. The model also includes option for enthalpy rise calculations and pony motor operation. During steady state, the pump operating speed is determined by matching required head with total load in the circuit. Calculated transient results are presented for pump coastdown and double-ended pipe break accidents. The report examines the influence of frictional torque and specific speed on predicted response for the pump coastdown to natural circulation transient. The results for a double-ended pipe break accident indicate the necessity of including all regions of operation for pump characteristics

  18. Single-phase sodium pump model for LMFBR thermal-hydraulic analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Madni, I.K.; Cazzoli, E.G.; Agrawal, A.K.

    1979-01-01

    A single-phase, homologous pump model has been developed for simulation of safety-related transients in LMFBR systems. Pump characteristics are modeled by homologous head and torque relations encompassing all regimes of operation. These relations were derived from independent model test results with a centrifugal pump of specific speed equal to 35 (SI units) or 1800 (gpm units), and are used to analyze the steady-state and transient behavior of sodium pumps in a number of LMFBR plants. Characteristic coefficients for the polynomials in all operational regimes are provided in a tabular form. The speed and flow dependence of head is included through solutions of the impeller and coolant dynamic equations. Results show the model to yield excellent agreement with experimental data in sodium for the FFTF prototype pump, and with vendor calculations for the CRBR pump. A sample pipe rupture calculation is also performed to demonstrate the necessity for modeling the complete pump characteristics

  19. Analytical Determining Of The Steinmetz Equivalent Diagram Elements Of Single-Phase Transformer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Aly Saandy

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available This article presents to an analytical calculation methodology of the Steinmetz Equivalent Diagram Elements applied to the prediction of Eddy current loss in a single-phase transformer. Based on the electrical circuit theory the active and reactive powers consumed by the core are expressed analytically in function of the electromagnetic parameters as resistivity permeability and the geometrical dimensions of the core. The proposed modeling approach is established with the duality parallel series. The equivalent diagram elements empirically determined by Steinmetz are analytically expressed using the expressions of the no loaded transformer consumptions. To verify the relevance of the model validations both by simulations with different powers and measurements were carried out to determine the resistance and reactance of the core. The obtained results are in good agreement with the theoretical approach and the practical results.

  20. Analytical Modeling Of The Steinmetz Coefficient For Single-Phase Transformer Eddy Current Loss Prediction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Aly Saandy

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract This article presents to an analytical calculation methodology of the Steinmetz coefficient applied to the prediction of Eddy current loss in a single-phase transformer. Based on the electrical circuit theory the active power consumed by the core is expressed analytically in function of the electrical parameters as resistivity and the geometrical dimensions of the core. The proposed modeling approach is established with the duality parallel series. The required coefficient is identified from the empirical Steinmetz data based on the experimented active power expression. To verify the relevance of the model validations both by simulations with two in two different frequencies and measurements were carried out. The obtained results are in good agreement with the theoretical approach and the practical results.

  1. Low voltage ride-through of single-phase transformerless photovoltaic inverters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yang, Yongheng; Blaabjerg, Frede; Wang, Huai

    2013-01-01

    Transformerless photovoltaic (PV) inverters are going to be more widely adopted in order to achieve high efficiency, as the penetration level of PV systems is continuously booming. However, problems may arise in highly PV-integrated distribution systems. For example, a sudden stoppage of all PV...... systems due to anti-islanding protection may trigger grid disturbances. Thus, standards featuring with ancillary services for the next generation PV systems are under a revision in some countries. The future PV systems have to provide a full range of services as what the conventional power plants do, e...... discussed. The selected inverters are the full-bridge inverter with bipolar modulation, full-bridge inverter with DC bypass and the Highly Efficient and Reliable Inverter Concept (HERIC). A 1 kW single-phase grid-connected PV system is analyzed to verify the discussions. The tests confirmed that, although...

  2. Modelling and Simulation of Single-Phase Series Active Compensator for Power Quality Improvement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verma, Arun Kumar; Mathuria, Kirti; Singh, Bhim; Bhuvaneshwari, G.

    2017-10-01

    A single-phase active series compensator is proposed in this work to reduce harmonic currents at the ac mains and to regulate the dc link voltage of a diode bridge rectifier (DBR) that acts as the front end converter for a voltage source inverter feeding an ac motor. This ac motor drive is used in any of the domestic, commercial or industrial appliances. Under fluctuating ac mains voltages, the dc link voltage of the DBR depicts wide variations and hence the ac motor is used at reduced rating as compared to its name-plate rating. The active series compensator proposed here provides dual functions of improving the power quality at the ac mains and regulating the dc link voltage thus averting the need for derating of the ac motor.

  3. Reactive Power Injection Strategies for Single-Phase Photovoltaic Systems Considering Grid Requirements

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yang, Yongheng; Wang, Huai; Blaabjerg, Frede

    2014-01-01

    .g. Germany and Italy. Those advanced features can be provided by next generation PV systems, and will be enhanced in the future to ensure an even efficient and reliable utilization of PV systems. In light of this, Reactive Power Injection (RPI) strategies for single-phase PV systems are explored...... like what the conventional power plants do today in the grid regulation participation. Requirements of ancillary services like Low-Voltage Ride-Through (LVRT) associated with reactive current injection and voltage support through reactive power control, have been in effectiveness in some countries, e...... in this paper. The RPI possibilities are: a) constant average active power control, b) constant active current control, c) constant peak current control and d) thermal optimized control strategy. All those strategies comply with the currently active grid codes, but are with different objectives. The proposed...

  4. Reactive Power Injection Strategies for Single-Phase Photovoltaic Systems Considering Grid Requirements

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yang, Yongheng; Wang, Huai; Blaabjerg, Frede

    2014-01-01

    . Those advanced features can be provided by next-generation PV systems, and will be enhanced in the future to ensure an even efficient and reliable utilization of PV systems. In the light of this, Reactive Power Injection (RPI) strategies for single-phase PV systems are explored in this paper. The RPI...... like what the conventional power plants do today in the grid regulation participation. Requirements of ancillary services like Low-Voltage Ride-Through (LVRT) associated with reactive current injection and voltage support through reactive power control, have been in effectiveness in some countries...... possibilities are: a) constant average active power control, b) constant active current control, c) constant peak current control and d) thermal optimized control strategy. All those strategies comply with the currently active grid codes, but are with different objectives. The thermal optimized control strategy...

  5. Abrasion resistance, microhardness and microstructures of single-phase niobium nitride films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Singer, I.L.; Bolster, R.N.; Wolf, S.A.; Skelton, E.F.; Jeffries, R.A.

    1983-01-01

    The relative abrasive wear resistance of single-phase niobium nitride films deposited at 900 and 500 0 C was measured. Wear resistance versus depth profiles of films abraded against 1-5 μm diamond were obtained by weight loss methods. A β phase Nb 2 N film was five to 20 times more abrasion resistant, but only slightly (40%) harder, than the delta phase NbN films made at the same temperature. The β-Nb 2 N film was deformed plastically during wear, reorienting the [002] c axis perpendicular to the plane of the substrate. The abrasion resistance of the delta-NbN films was initially proportional to the microhardness. Two films had changes in their abrasion resistance as wear proceeded: for one film the change was attributable to deviations in stoichiometry and for the other film it was attributable to increased lattice distortion. (Auth.)

  6. Influence of modulation method on using LC-traps with single-phase voltage source converters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wang, Xiongfei; Min, Huang; Bai, Haofeng

    2015-01-01

    The switching-frequency LC-trap filter has recently been employed with high-order passive filters for Voltage Source Inverters (VSIs). This paper investigates the influence of modulation method on using the LC-traps with single-phase VSIs. Two-level (bipolar) and three-level (unipolar) modulations...... that include phase distortion and alternative phase opposition distortion methods are analyzed. Harmonic filtering performances of four LC-trap-based filters with different locations of LC-traps are compared. It is shown that the use of parallel-LC-traps in series with filter inductors, either grid...... or converter side, has a worse harmonic filtering performance than using series-LC-trap in the shunt branch. Simulations and experimental results are presented for verifications....

  7. Condition monitoring of shaft of single-phase induction motor using optical sensor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fulzele, Asmita G.; Arajpure, V. G.; Holay, P. P.; Patil, N. M.

    2012-05-01

    Transmission type of optical technique is developed to sense the condition of rotating shafts from a distance. A parallel laser beam is passed tangential over the surface of rotating shaft of a single phase induction motor and its flickering shadow is received on a photo sensor. Variations in sensor voltage output are observed on a digital storage oscilloscope. It is demonstrated that this signal carries information about shaft defects like miss alignment, play and impacts in bearings along with surface deformities. Mathematical model of signals corresponding to these shaft defects is developed. During the development and testing of the sensor, effects of reflections are investigated, sensing phenomenon is simulated, frequency response of the sensor is obtained and its performance is compared with conventional accelerometer.

  8. POD-Galerkin Model for Incompressible Single-Phase Flow in Porous Media

    KAUST Repository

    Wang, Yi

    2017-01-25

    Fast prediction modeling via proper orthogonal decomposition method combined with Galerkin projection is applied to incompressible single-phase fluid flow in porous media. Cases for different configurations of porous media, boundary conditions and problem scales are designed to examine the fidelity and robustness of the model. High precision (relative deviation 1.0 x 10(-4)% similar to 2.3 x 10(-1)%) and large acceleration (speed-up 880 similar to 98454 times) of POD model are found in these cases. Moreover, the computational time of POD model is quite insensitive to the complexity of problems. These results indicate POD model is especially suitable for large-scale complex problems in engineering.

  9. Pressure drop characteristics of single-phase flow in vertical rolling pipes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cao Xiaxin; Yan Changqi; Sun Licheng; Sun Zhongning

    2007-01-01

    Experimental studies of single-phase pressure drop in rolling pipes were carried out. The inside diameters of three pipes which were fixed on the rolling platform were 15 mm, 25 mm, and 34.5 mm respectively, the rolling periods of the rolling platform could be set as 5s, 10s, 15s, and rolling angles of the rolling platform were 10 degree and 20 degree. The experimental results showed that the frictional factor periodically fluctuated with the time variable, and its amplitude was obviously affected by the change of Reynolds number and pipe diameters. The amplitude and average value of frictional factor both decreased with the increase of Re number, but the bigger the tube diameter was, the larger the amplitude of frictional factor was. At any moment, the transient frictional factor increased with the increase of rolling period. However, the effect of changing rolling angles on the frictional factor was not obvious. (authors)

  10. Green synthesis of isopropyl myristate in novel single phase medium Part I: Batch optimization studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vadgama, Rajeshkumar N; Odaneth, Annamma A; Lali, Arvind M

    2015-12-01

    Isopropyl myristate finds many applications in food, cosmetic and pharmaceutical industries as an emollient, thickening agent, or lubricant. Using a homogeneous reaction phase, non-specific lipase derived from Candida antartica, marketed as Novozym 435, was determined to be most suitable for the enzymatic synthesis of isopropyl myristate. The high molar ratio of alcohol to acid creates novel single phase medium which overcomes mass transfer effects and facilitates downstream processing. The effect of various reaction parameters was optimized to obtain a high yield of isopropyl myristate. Effect of temperature, agitation speed, organic solvent, biocatalyst loading and batch operational stability of the enzyme was systematically studied. The conversion of 87.65% was obtained when the molar ratio of isopropyl alcohol to myristic acid (15:1) was used with 4% (w/w) catalyst loading and agitation speed of 150 rpm at 60 °C. The enzyme has also shown good batch operational stability under optimized conditions.

  11. Rotor Design for an Efficient Single-Phase Induction Motor for Refrigerator Compressors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hyun-Jin Ahn

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available This article describes a rotor making technology for the production of high-efficiency single-phase induction motors (SPIMs to be used in refrigerator compressors. Rotors can have different aluminum fill factors according to the fabrication method. In order to examine the association between the fill factor and the efficiency of the rotor, we analyzed the distribution of magnetic flux density using the finite element method (FEM. Next, we made prototype rotors by conventional casting methods and by the proposed casting method and compared their fill factors. In addition, SPIMs were made using the rotors, and their efficiencies were measured using a dynamometer. Moreover, the SPIMs were put to use in a compressor, for testing, and for each SPIM the refrigerating capacity of the compressor was measured with a calorimeter. Based on the results of the FEM analysis of the magnetic flux density and the experiments, the reliability and validity of the proposed method were proven.

  12. Control of single-phase islanded PV/battery minigrids based on power-line signaling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Quintana, Pablo; Guerrero, Josep M.; Dragicevic, Tomislav

    2014-01-01

    Power regulation of all converter units in a micro-grid should not be only determined by load demand, but also by the available power of each unit, i.e. a converter fed by a battery. Energy management control is essential in order to handle the variety of prime movers which may include different...... should be utilized as efficiently as possible. This paper proposes a coordinated control strategy based on power-line signaling (PLS), instead of common communications, for a single-phase minigrid in which each unit can operate in different operation modes taking into account the resource limitation....... The whole system is explained ahead and finally, Hardware in the loop results obtained with a dSPACE are presented in order to validate the proposed control strategy....

  13. Reliability assessment of single-phase grid-connected PV microinverters considering mission profile and uncertainties

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zare, Mohammad Hadi; Mohamadian, Mustafa; Wang, Huai

    2017-01-01

    Microinverters usually connect a PV panel to a Single-phase power grid. In such system, the input power is constant while the output power oscillates twice the line frequency. Thus, the input and output power differences should be stored in a storage component, which is typically an electrolytic...... capacitor. However, electrolytic capacitors are usually blamed for their short lifetime. Recently, some active power decoupling methods are introduced in the literature which can takes advantage of high reliable film capacitors. However, some extra switches and diodes are added to the microinverter which...... can influence the microinverter lifetime. This paper investigates the microinverter reliability according to mission profile where it is installed. To get more accurate results, uncertainties in both lifetime model and manufacturing process are considered. The effect of ambient temperature and solar...

  14. Decoupling of fluctuating power in single-phase systems through a symmetrical half-bridge circuit

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tang, Yi; Blaabjerg, Frede; Loh, Poh Chiang

    2014-01-01

    Single-phase AC/DC or DC/AC systems inherently subject to harmonic disturbance which is caused by the well-known double line frequency ripple power. This issue can be eased through the installation of bulky electrolytic capacitors in the dc-link, but such passive filtering approach may inevitably...... or film capacitors to store the ripple power, and this again leads to increased component costs. In view of this, this paper presents a symmetrical half-bridge circuit which utilizes the dc-link capacitors to absorb the ripple power, and the only additional components are a pair of switches and a small...... filtering inductor. A design example is presented and the proposed circuit concept is also verified with simulation and experimental results. It shows that at least ten times capacitance reduction can be achieved with the proposed active power decoupling method, which proves its effectiveness....

  15. Pattern formation in single-phase FAC. A stability analysis of an oxide layer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zinemanas, Daniel [The Israel Electric Corp., Haifa (Israel). Dept. of Chemistry; Herszage, Amiel [The Israel Electric Corp., Haifa (Israel). Dept. of Energy Technologies Development

    2013-03-15

    Pattern formation is a salient characteristic of the flow-accelerated corrosion process, particularly in single-phase flow, where a typical ''orange peel'' surface texture is normally formed. The process of such pattern formation is, however, not well understood. In order to gain some insight into the role of the various processes and parameters involved in this process, a linear stability analysis of an oxide layer based on the Sanchez-Caldera model was performed. According to the results obtained in this study, it follows that the oxide layer is stable regarding perturbations of the oxide thickness or the reaction constant, but it is unstable in respect to perturbations of the mass transfer coefficient. These results suggest therefore that the flow, and not local surface in homogeneities, plays a central role in the pattern formation process. (orig.)

  16. Adaptive fuzzy sliding control of single-phase PV grid-connected inverter.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juntao Fei

    Full Text Available In this paper, an adaptive fuzzy sliding mode controller is proposed to control a two-stage single-phase photovoltaic (PV grid-connected inverter. Two key technologies are discussed in the presented PV system. An incremental conductance method with adaptive step is adopted to track the maximum power point (MPP by controlling the duty cycle of the controllable power switch of the boost DC-DC converter. An adaptive fuzzy sliding mode controller with an integral sliding surface is developed for the grid-connected inverter where a fuzzy system is used to approach the upper bound of the system nonlinearities. The proposed strategy has strong robustness for the sliding mode control can be designed independently and disturbances can be adaptively compensated. Simulation results of a PV grid-connected system verify the effectiveness of the proposed method, demonstrating the satisfactory robustness and performance.

  17. Rapid synthesis of single-phase bismuth ferrite by microwave-assisted hydrothermal method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cao, Wenqian; Chen, Zhi; Gao, Tong; Zhou, Dantong; Leng, Xiaonan; Niu, Feng; Zhu, Yuxiang; Qin, Laishun; Wang, Jiangying; Huang, Yuexiang

    2016-01-01

    This paper describes on the fast synthesis of bismuth ferrite by the simple microwave-assisted hydrothermal method. The phase transformation and the preferred growth facets during the synthetic process have been investigated by X-ray diffraction. Bismuth ferrite can be quickly prepared by microwave hydrothermal method by simply controlling the reaction time, which is further confirmed by Fourier Transform infrared spectroscopy and magnetic measurement. - Graphical abstract: Single-phase BiFeO 3 could be realized at a shortest reaction time of 65 min. The reaction time has strong influences on the phase transformation and the preferred growth facets. - Highlights: • Rapid synthesis (65 min) of BiFeO 3 by microwave-assisted hydrothermal method. • Reaction time has influence on the purity and preferred growth facets. • FTIR and magnetic measurement further confirm the pure phase.

  18. S4 Grid-Connected Single-Phase Transformerless Inverter for PV Application

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ardashir, Jaber Fallah; Siwakoti, Yam Prasad; Sabahi, Mehran

    2016-01-01

    This paper introduces a new single-phase transformerless inverter for grid-connected photovoltaic systems with low leakage current. It consists of four power switches, two diodes, two capacitors and a filter at the output stage. The neutral of the grid is directly connected to the negative terminal...... of the PV source. This results in a constant common-mode voltage and almost zero leakage current. A unipolar Sinusoidal Pulse-Width Modulation (SPWM) technique is used to modulate the inverter to reduce the output current ripple and the filter requirements. The main advantages of this inverter are compact...... clearly verify the performance of the proposed inverter and its practical application for grid-connected PV systems....

  19. Modelling of the modified-LLCL-filter-based single-phase grid-tied Aalborg inverter

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Liu, Zifa; Wu, Huiyun; Liu, Yuan

    2017-01-01

    Owing to less conduction and switching power losses, the recently proposed Aalborg inverter has high efficiency within a wide range of input DC voltage for single-phase DC/AC power conversion. In theory, the conduction power losses can be further decreased, if an LLCL-filter is adopted instead....... In this study, the small signal analysis for the modified-LLCL-filter-based Aalborg inverter is addressed. Through the modelling, it can be proven that compared with the LCL-filter, the modified-LLCL-filter causes no extra control challenge for the Aalborg inverter, and therefore more inductance in the power...... of an LCL-filter for a voltage source inverter, mainly due to the reduced inductance. The Aalborg inverter shows the characteristic of a current source inverter, when working in the `boost' state. Whether the LLCL-filter can meet the control requirement of this type inverter needs to be further explored...

  20. Compact ASD Topologies for Single-Phase Integrated Motor Drives with Sinusoidal Input Current

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Klumpner, Christian; Blaabjerg, Frede; Thoegersen, Paul

    2005-01-01

    A standard configuration of an Adjustable Speed Drive (ASD) consists of two separate units: an AC motor, which runs with fixed speed when it is supplied from a constant frequency grid voltage and a frequency converter, which is used to provide the motor with variable voltage-variable frequency......-density integration of the converter caused by the large size of the passive components (electrolytic capacitors and iron chokes) and vibration of the converter enclosure. This paper analyzes the implementation aspects for obtaining a compact and cost effective single-phase ASD with sinusoidal input current...... for high frequency operation, higher core losses will occur, but outside the converter enclosure. The advantages are: the reduction of the number of active semiconductor devices, the reduction of the ASD size and the better integration potential....

  1. A Rotor Flux and Speed Observer for Sensorless Single-Phase Induction Motor Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Massimo Caruso

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available It is usual to find single-phase induction motor (SPIM in several house, office, shopping, farm, and industry applications, which are become each time more sophisticated and requiring the development of efficient alternatives to improve the operational performance of this machine. Although the rotor flux and rotational speed are essential variables in order to optimize the operation of a SPIM, the use of conventional sensors to measure them is not a viable option. Thus, the adoption of sensorless strategies is the more reasonable proposal for these cases. This paper presents a rotor flux and rotational speed observer for sensorless applications involving SPIMs. Computer simulations and the experimental results are used to verify the performance of the proposed observer.

  2. Factors that affect the calibration of turbines in single-phase flow

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Piper, T. C.

    1977-05-01

    Basic turbine operation in single-phase flow is related. Causes and relative magnitudes of retarding torque are given for two sizes of turbines when used for water flow measurement. An equation for slip caused by retarding torques is given. Evaluation of turbine slip behavior at the turbine low flow region shows that bearing retarding torques, change in flow patterns, or other effects can predominate in the relatively large changes in the calibration ''constant'' that occurs there. Fluid lubricity is singled out as an important fluid property in certain types of bearings and flow. Temperature induced changes in turbine size are shown to cause calibration changes if a turbine is used at a temperature significantly different than that at which it was calibrated.

  3. Factors that affect the calibration of turbines in single-phase flow

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Piper, T.C.

    1977-05-01

    Basic turbine operation in single-phase flow is related. Causes and relative magnitudes of retarding torque are given for two sizes of turbines when used for water flow measurement. An equation for slip caused by retarding torques is given. Evaluation of turbine slip behavior at the turbine low flow region shows that bearing retarding torques, change in flow patterns, or other effects can predominate in the relatively large changes in the calibration ''constant'' that occurs there. Fluid lubricity is singled out as an important fluid property in certain types of bearings and flow. Temperature induced changes in turbine size are shown to cause calibration changes if a turbine is used at a temperature significantly different than that at which it was calibrated

  4. Single-phase pressure-drop measurements over low void reactivity fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Senaratne, U.P.M.; Leung, L.K.H.; Doria, F.J.; Lau, J.H.

    2006-01-01

    An experiment has been performed to obtain pressure-drop measurements over Low Reactivity Fuel (LVRF) bundles in Refrigerant-134a flow. Production LVRF bundles inserted into the test station with either an uncrept or a 5.1% crept flow channel. For comparison purposes, several production Bruce 37-element bundles were also included in the test string. Overall, the single-phase pressure drop of the LVRF bundle is slightly higher than that Bruce 37-element bundle. Pressure-drop measurements were used to derive bundle and loss coefficients for hydraulic calculations in safety analyses. Applying these loss coefficients, an assessment showed that the overall pressure drop over a string of 12 LVRF bundles (after conversion) remains less than that over a string of 13 Bruce 37-element fuel bundles (before conversion) at the Bruce Nuclear Generating Station. (author)

  5. Calculation of single phase AC and monopolar DC hybrid corona effects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhao, T.; Sebo, S.A.; Kasten, D.G.

    1996-01-01

    Operating a hybrid HVac and HVdc line is an option for increasing the efficiency of power transmission and overcoming the difficulties in obtaining a new right-of-way. This paper proposes a new calculation method for the study of hybrid line corona. The proposed method can be used to calculate dc corona losses and corona currents in dc or ac conductors for single phase ac and monopolar dc hybrid lines. Profiles of electric field strength and ion current density at ground level can be estimated. The effects of the presence of an energized ac conductor on dc conductor corona and dc voltage on ac conductor corona are included in the method. Full-scale and reduced-scale experiments were utilized to investigate the hybrid line corona effects. Verification of the proposed calculation method is given

  6. Comparative study of Nusselt number for a single phase fluid flow using plate heat exchanger

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shanmugam Rajasekaran

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In this study, the plate heat exchangers are used for various applications in the industries for heat exchange process such as heating, cooling and condensation. The performance of plate heat exchanger depends on many factors such as flow arrangements, plate design, chevron angle, enlargement factor, type of fluid used, etc. The various Nusselt number correlations are developed by considering that the water as a working fluid. The main objective of the present work is to design the experimental set-up for a single phase fluid flow using plate heat exchanger and studied the heat transfer performance. The experiments are carried out for various Reynolds number between 500 and 2200, the heat transfer coefficients are estimated. Based on the experimental results the new correlation is developed for Nusselt number and compared with an existing correlation.

  7. Scaling analysis for the ocean motions in single phase natural circulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yan, B.H.; Wen, Q.L.

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • The scaling criteria for ocean motions are obtained. • The optimization and selection of the scaling criteria is also analyzed. • The oscillating period in experiments is determined by the time scale. - Abstract: The effects of ocean motions should be analyzed properly in order to guarantee the safety margin of facilities in the engineering design of floating nuclear reactor system. The scaling analysis for the ocean motions in single phase natural circulation is performed. The scaling criteria for both single ocean motions and compound ocean motions are obtained. The selection and optimization of scaling criteria is also analyzed. The oscillating amplitude in experiments should be kept to be identical to that in actual ocean motions. The oscillating period is determined by the time scale. The length scale, oscillating period and experimental power should be taken into consideration synthetically to obtain a reasonable experimental period

  8. Harmonics Suppression for Single-Phase Grid-Connected Photovoltaic Systems in Different Operation Modes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yang, Yongheng; Zhou, Keliang; Blaabjerg, Frede

    2013-01-01

    -connected PV inverters may be severely affected in different operation modes. In this paper, a detailed analysis is conducted to reveal the relationship between the harmonics level with the power factor and the current level in the PV systems. A current control solution which employs an Internal Model...... Principle (IMP) is proposed to suppress the harmonic currents injected into the grid. Experiments are carried out to verify the analysis and the performance of the proposed control method. It is demonstrated that the proposed method presents an effective solution to harmonics suppression for single......-phase grid-connected PV systems in different operation modes. Especially, it can remove higher order harmonics effectively leading to a better power quality compared to the Proportional plus Multi-Resonant Controller, and it has less computational burden....

  9. Time domain spectral phase encoding/DPSK data modulation using single phase modulator for OCDMA application.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xu; Gao, Zhensen; Kataoka, Nobuyuki; Wada, Naoya

    2010-05-10

    A novel scheme using single phase modulator for simultaneous time domain spectral phase encoding (SPE) signal generation and DPSK data modulation is proposed and experimentally demonstrated. Array- Waveguide-Grating and Variable-Bandwidth-Spectrum-Shaper based devices can be used for decoding the signal directly in spectral domain. The effects of fiber dispersion, light pulse width and timing error on the coding performance have been investigated by simulation and verified in experiment. In the experiment, SPE signal with 8-chip, 20GHz/chip optical code patterns has been generated and modulated with 2.5 Gbps DPSK data using single modulator. Transmission of the 2.5 Gbps data over 34km fiber with BEROCDMA) and secure optical communication applications. (c) 2010 Optical Society of America.

  10. Simulation of the remanence influence on the transient states in a single-phase multiwinding transformer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wilk Andrzej

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the mathematical model of a single-phase multi-winding core type transformer taking into account magnetic hysteresis phenomenon based on the feedback Preisach model (FPM. The set of loop differential equations was developed for a K-th winding transformer model where the flux linkages of each winding includes flux Φ common to all windings as a function of magneto motive force Θ of all windings. The first purpose of this paper is to implement a hysteresis nonlinearity involved in the Φ(Θ function which also accounts residual magnetic flux. The second purpose of this paper is experimental validation of the developed transformer model in a capacitor discharge test and several different values of residual magnetic flux.

  11. Adaptive fuzzy sliding control of single-phase PV grid-connected inverter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fei, Juntao; Zhu, Yunkai

    2017-01-01

    In this paper, an adaptive fuzzy sliding mode controller is proposed to control a two-stage single-phase photovoltaic (PV) grid-connected inverter. Two key technologies are discussed in the presented PV system. An incremental conductance method with adaptive step is adopted to track the maximum power point (MPP) by controlling the duty cycle of the controllable power switch of the boost DC-DC converter. An adaptive fuzzy sliding mode controller with an integral sliding surface is developed for the grid-connected inverter where a fuzzy system is used to approach the upper bound of the system nonlinearities. The proposed strategy has strong robustness for the sliding mode control can be designed independently and disturbances can be adaptively compensated. Simulation results of a PV grid-connected system verify the effectiveness of the proposed method, demonstrating the satisfactory robustness and performance.

  12. Effects of rolling on single-phase water forced convective heat transfer characteristics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guo Yanming; Gao Puzhen; Huang Zhen

    2010-01-01

    A series of single-phase forced circulation tests in a vertical tube with rolling motion were performed in order to investigate effects of rolling motion on thermal-hydraulic characteristics. The amplitudes of the rolling motion in the tests were 10 degree, 15 degree and 20 degree. The rolling periods were 7.5 s, 10 s, 15 s and 20 s. The Reynolds number was from 6000 to 15000. Heat transfer in the test tube is bated by the rolling motion. As the test-bed rolling more acutely, the heat transfer coefficient of the test tube becomes smaller when the mass flow rate in the test tube is a constant. The heat transfer coefficient calculated by the formula which is for stable state doesn't fit very well with that from experiments. At last a formula for calculating heat transfer in rolling motion was introduced. (authors)

  13. A Robust DC-Split-Capacitor Power Decoupling Scheme for Single-Phase Converter

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yao, Wenli; Loh, Poh Chiang; Tang, Yi

    2017-01-01

    , instead of the usual single dc-link capacitor bank. Methods for regulating this power decoupler have earlier been developed, but almost always with equal capacitances assumed for forming the dc-split capacitor, even though it is not realistic in practice. The assumption should, hence, be evaluated more......Instead of bulky electrolytic capacitors, active power decoupling circuit can be introduced to a single-phase converter for diverting second harmonic ripple away from its dc source or load. One possible circuit consists of a half-bridge and two capacitors in series for forming a dc-split capacitor...... thoroughly, especially when it is shown in the paper that even a slight mismatch can render the power decoupling scheme ineffective and the IEEE 1547 standard to be breached. A more robust compensation scheme is, thus, needed for the dc-split capacitor circuit, as proposed and tested experimentally...

  14. Zero-voltage ride-through capability of single-phase grid-connected photovoltaic systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhang, Zhen; Yang, Yongheng; Ma, Ruiqing

    2017-01-01

    Distributed renewable energy systems play an increasing role in today’s energy paradigm. Thus, intensive research activities have been centered on improving the performance of renewable energy systems, including photovoltaic (PV) systems, which should be of multiple-functionality. That is, the PV...... systems should be more intelligent in the consideration of grid stability, reliability, and fault protection. Therefore, in this paper, the performance of single-phase grid-connected PV systems under an extreme grid fault (i.e., when the grid voltage dips to zero) is explored. It has been revealed...... that combining a fast and accurate synchronization mechanism with appropriate control strategies for the zero-voltage ride-through (ZVRT) operation is mandatory. Accordingly, the representative synchronization techniques (i.e., the phase-locked loop (PLL) methods) in the ZVRT operation are compared in terms...

  15. A unified active damping control for single-phase differential buck inverter with LCL-filter

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yao, Wenli; Wang, Xiongfei; Zhang, Xiaobin

    2015-01-01

    and control of a grid-connected differential mode buck inverter with an LCL filter. A generalized small-signal model of the inverter is built first with the averaged switching model. It is shown that the LCL filter resonance merely occurs in the differential mode, while an LC filter resonance exists......The single-phase differential mode buck inverter is recently introduced with a differential mode for power transfer and a common mode for actively decoupling the second-order power oscillation. However, it is limited to islanded applications with an LC filter. This paper addresses the stability...... in the common mode, provided that the filter parameters of the two bridges are kept the same. A unified active damping control approach is then proposed for stabilizing the inverter and improving the transient performance under a wide range of grid impedance. Lastly, experimental tests are carried out...

  16. Single-phase dual-energy CT urography in the evaluation of haematuria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ascenti, G; Mileto, A; Gaeta, M; Blandino, A; Mazziotti, S; Scribano, E

    2013-02-01

    To assess the value of a single-phase dual-energy computed tomography (DECT) urography protocol with synchronous nephrographic-excretory phase enhancement and to calculate the potential dose reduction by omitting the unenhanced scan. Eighty-four patients referred for haematuria underwent CT urography using a protocol that included single-energy unenhanced and dual-energy contrast-enhanced with synchronous nephrographic-excretory phase scans. DECT-based images [virtual unenhanced (VUE), weighted average, and colour-coded iodine overlay] were reconstructed. Opacification degree by contrast media of the upper urinary tract, and image quality of virtual unenhanced images were independently evaluated using a four-point scale. The diagnostic accuracy in detecting urothelial tumours on DECT-based images was determined. The dose of a theoretical dual-phase single-energy protocol was obtained by multiplying the effective dose of the unenhanced single-energy acquisition by two. Radiation dose saving by omitting the unenhanced scan was calculated. The degree of opacification was scored as optimal or good in 86.9% of cases (k = 0.72); VUE image quality was excellent or good in 83.3% of cases (k = 0.82). Sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value, and negative predictive value for urothelial tumours detection were 85.7, 98.6, 92.3, and 97.1%. Omission of the unenhanced scan led to a mean dose reduction of 42.7 ± 5%. Single-phase DECT urography with synchronous nephrographic-excretory phase enhancement represents an accurate "all-in-one'' approach with a radiation dose saving up to 45% compared with a standard dual-phase protocol. Copyright © 2012 The Royal College of Radiologists. All rights reserved.

  17. Single-phase dual-energy CT urography in the evaluation of haematuria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ascenti, G.; Mileto, A.; Gaeta, M.; Blandino, A.; Mazziotti, S.; Scribano, E.

    2013-01-01

    Aim: To assess the value of a single-phase dual-energy computed tomography (DECT) urography protocol with synchronous nephrographic–excretory phase enhancement and to calculate the potential dose reduction by omitting the unenhanced scan. Materials and methods: Eighty-four patients referred for haematuria underwent CT urography using a protocol that included single-energy unenhanced and dual-energy contrast-enhanced with synchronous nephrographic–excretory phase scans. DECT-based images [virtual unenhanced (VUE), weighted average, and colour-coded iodine overlay] were reconstructed. Opacification degree by contrast media of the upper urinary tract, and image quality of virtual unenhanced images were independently evaluated using a four-point scale. The diagnostic accuracy in detecting urothelial tumours on DECT-based images was determined. The dose of a theoretical dual-phase single-energy protocol was obtained by multiplying the effective dose of the unenhanced single-energy acquisition by two. Radiation dose saving by omitting the unenhanced scan was calculated. Results: The degree of opacification was scored as optimal or good in 86.9% of cases (k = 0.72); VUE image quality was excellent or good in 83.3% of cases (k = 0.82). Sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value, and negative predictive value for urothelial tumours detection were 85.7, 98.6, 92.3, and 97.1%. Omission of the unenhanced scan led to a mean dose reduction of 42.7 ± 5%. Conclusion: Single-phase DECT urography with synchronous nephrographic–excretory phase enhancement represents an accurate “all-in-one’’ approach with a radiation dose saving up to 45% compared with a standard dual-phase protocol.

  18. Multi-scale Modeling of Compressible Single-phase Flow in Porous Media using Molecular Simulation

    KAUST Repository

    Saad, Ahmed Mohamed

    2016-05-01

    In this study, an efficient coupling between Monte Carlo (MC) molecular simulation and Darcy-scale flow in porous media is presented. The cell-centered finite difference method with a non-uniform rectangular mesh were used to discretize the simulation domain and solve the governing equations. To speed up the MC simulations, we implemented a recently developed scheme that quickly generates MC Markov chains out of pre-computed ones, based on the reweighting and reconstruction algorithm. This method astonishingly reduces the required computational time by MC simulations from hours to seconds. In addition, the reweighting and reconstruction scheme, which was originally designed to work with the LJ potential model, is extended to work with a potential model that accounts for the molecular quadrupole moment of fluids with non-spherical molecules such as CO2. The potential model was used to simulate the thermodynamic equilibrium properties for single-phase and two-phase systems using the canonical ensemble and the Gibbs ensemble, respectively. Comparing the simulation results with the experimental data showed that the implemented model has an excellent fit outperforming the standard LJ model. To demonstrate the strength of the proposed coupling in terms of computational time efficiency and numerical accuracy in fluid properties, various numerical experiments covering different compressible single-phase flow scenarios were conducted. The novelty in the introduced scheme is in allowing an efficient coupling of the molecular scale and Darcy scale in reservoir simulators. This leads to an accurate description of the thermodynamic behavior of the simulated reservoir fluids; consequently enhancing the confidence in the flow predictions in porous media.

  19. Effects of rolling on characteristics of single-phase water flow in narrow rectangular ducts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xing Dianchuan; Yan Changqi; Sun Licheng; Xu Chao

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► Mass flow rate and friction pressure drop with different pressure head are compared. ► The effect of pressure head on flow fluctuation is considered theoretically. ► Time-mean and real-time friction pressure drop in different rolling motion are studied. ► Rolling motion influences the fluctuation of friction pressure drop in two aspects. ► New correlation for frictional coefficient in rolling motion is achieved. - Abstract: Experimental and theoretical studies of rolling effects on characteristics of single-phase water flow in narrow rectangular ducts are performed under ambient temperature and pressure. Two types of pressure head are supplied by elevate water tank and pump respectively. The results show that the frictional pressure drop under rolling condition fluctuates periodically, with its amplitude decaying as mean Reynolds number increase and the rolling amplitude decrease, while the amplitude is nearly invariable with rolling period. Rolling motion influences the fluctuation amplitude of frictional pressure drop in two aspects, on the one hand, rolling reduced periodical pulsing flow leads to the fluctuation of the frictional pressure drop, on the other hand, additional force acting on fluid near the wall due to the rolling motion makes local frictional resistance oscillate periodically. The mass flow rate oscillates periodically in rolling motion with the pressure head supplied by water tank, while its fluctuation is so weak that could be neglected for the case of the pressure head supplied by pump. An empirical correlation for the frictional coefficient under rolling condition is achieved, and the experimental data is well correlated. A mathematical model is also developed to study the effect of pressure head on mass flow rate fluctuation in rolling motion. The fluctuation amplitude of the mass flow rate decreases rapidly with a higher pressure head. Comparing with the vertical condition, rolling motion nearly has no effects on

  20. Origin of the low compressibility in hard nitride spinels

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mori-Sánchez, P.; Marqués, M.; Beltrán, A.

    2003-01-01

    A microscopic investigation of first-principles electron densities of gamma-A(3)N(4) (A:C,Si,Ge) spinels reveals a clear relationship between the compressibility and the chemical bonding of these materials. Three striking findings emanate from this analysis: (i) the chemical graph is governed...... by a network of highly directional strong bonds with covalent character in gamma-C3N4 and different degrees of ionic polarization in gamma-Si3N4 and gamma-Ge3N4, (ii) nitrogen is the lowest compressible atom controlling the trend in the bulk modulus of the solids, and (iii) the group-IV counterions show strong...... site dependent compressibilities enhancing the difficulty in the synthesis of the spinel phases of these nitrides....

  1. Chemisorption of cyanogen chloride by spinel ferrite magnetic nanoparticles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glover, T Grant; DeCoste, Jared B; Sabo, Daniel; Zhang, Z John

    2013-05-07

    Spinel ferrite magnetic nanoparticles, MnFe2O4, NiFe2O4, and CoFe2O4, were synthesized and used as gas-phase adsorbents for the removal of cyanogen chloride from dry air. Fixed-bed adsorption breakthrough experiments show adsorption wave behavior at the leading edge of the breakthrough curve that is not typical of physically adsorbed species. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) results indicate that CK is reacting with the spinel ferrite surface and forming a carbamate species. The reaction is shown to be a function of the hydroxyl groups and adsorbed water on the surface of the particles as well as the metallic composition of the particles. The surface reaction decreases the remnant and saturation magnetism of the MnFe2O4 and CoFe2O4 particles by approximately 25%.

  2. Synthesis and magnetic properties of Zn Spinel ceramics

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Huber, Š.; Sofer, Z.; Nádherný, L.; Jankovský, O.; Šimek, P.; Sedmidubský, D.; Maryško, Miroslav

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 57, č. 2 (2013), s. 162-166 ISSN 0862-5468 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA13-17538S; GA MŠk(CZ) 7AMB12FR019 Institutional support: RVO:68378271 Keywords : Zn spinel * synthesis * magnetic properties * antiferromagnet * bulk ZnO Subject RIV: BM - Solid Matter Physics ; Magnetism Impact factor: 0.434, year: 2013

  3. Structural and electrical properties of nanometric Ni-Cu ferrites synthesized by citrate precursor method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ahmed, M.A., E-mail: moala47@hotmail.com [Materials Science Lab (1), Physics Department, Faculty of Science, Cairo University, Giza (Egypt); Mansour, S.F. [Physics Department, Faculty of Science, Zagazig University (Egypt); Afifi, M. [Materials Science Lab (1), Physics Department, Faculty of Science, Cairo University, Giza (Egypt)

    2012-01-15

    Nanometric nickel copper ferrites Ni{sub 1-x}Cu{sub x}Fe{sub 2}O{sub 4}, 0{<=}x{<=}0.45 were prepared by the citrate precursor method. X-ray diffraction measurements confirm the formation of single phase cubic spinel structure. The lattice parameter (a) is increased with increasing Cu{sup 2+} ion substitution. The crystallite size was calculated from XRD data and compared with that obtained from TEM micrographs. A significant increase in the density is observed with increasing Cu content. The IR absorption spectra were used for the detection and confirmation of the chemical bonds in spinel ferrites. The dielectric constant {epsilon}' and dielectric loss showed a decrease with increasing frequency for all samples. The decrease in the ac conductivity was ascribed to the increase in hopping length. - Highlights: > Ni-Cu ferrite was successfully prepared using citrate auto combustion method. > The lattice parameter and the density increased with increasing Cu{sup 2+} content. > We suggest the use of Ni ferrite with large Cu{sup 2+} content in electrical devices.

  4. Magneto-structural studies of sol–gel synthesized nanocrystalline manganese substituted nickel ferrites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pandav, R.S. [Department of Chemistry, Shivaji University, Kolhapur 416004, MH (India); Patil, R.P. [Department of Chemistry, M.H. Shinde Mahavidyalaya, Tisangi 416206, MH (India); Chavan, S.S. [Department of Chemistry, Shivaji University, Kolhapur 416004, MH (India); Mulla, I.S. [Centre for Materials for Electronics and Technology (C-MET), Panchavati, Pune 411008 (India); Hankare, P.P., E-mail: p_hankare@rediffmail.com [Department of Chemistry, Shivaji University, Kolhapur 416004, MH (India)

    2016-11-01

    Nanocrystalline NiFe{sub 2−x}Mn{sub x}O{sub 4} (2≥x≥0) ferrites were prepared by sol–gel method. X-ray diffraction patterns reveal that synthesized compounds are in single phase cubic spinel lattice for all the composition. The surface morphology of all the samples were studied by scanning electron microscopy. The particle size measured from transmission electron microscopy and X-ray diffraction patterns confirms the nanosized dimension of the as-prepared powder. The elemental analysis was carried out by energy dispersive X-ray analysis technique. Magnetic properties such as saturation magnetization, coercivity and remanence are studied as a function of increasing Mn concentration at room temperature. The saturation magnetization shows a decreasing trend with increase in Mn content. The substitution of manganese in the nickel ferrite affects the structural and magnetic properties of cubic spinels. - Highlights: • NiFe{sub 2−x}Mn{sub x}O{sub 4} system was synthesized by a chemical combustion route. • All samples shows cubic phase. • All the synthesized ferrospinels are in nanocrystalline form. • The saturation magnetization decreases with increase in Mn content.

  5. Growth Kinetics of Magnesio-Aluminate Spinel in Al/Mg Lamellar Composite Interface

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fouad, Yasser; Rabeeh, Bakr Mohamed

    The synthesis of Mg-Al2O3 double layered interface is introduced via the application of hot isostatic pressing, HIPing, in Al-Mg foils. Polycrystalline spinel layers are grown experimentally at the interfacial contacts between Al-Mg foils. The growth behavior of the spinel layers along with the kinetic parameters characterizing interface motion and long-range diffusion is established. Low melting depressant (LMD), Zn, and alloying element segregation tends to form micro laminated and/or Nano structure interphase in a lamellar composite solid state processing. Nano composite ceramic interphase materials offer interesting mechanical properties not achievable in other materials, such as superplastic flow and metal-like machinability. Microstructural characterization, mechanical characterization is also established via optical microscopy scanning electron microscopy, energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy and tensile testing. Chemical and mechanical bonding via inter diffusion processing with alloy segregation are dominant for interphase kinetics. Mechanical characterization with interfacial shear strength is also introduced. HIPing processing is successfully applied on 6082 Al-alloy and AZ31 magnesium alloy for either particulate or micro-laminated interfacial composite processing. The interphase kinetic established through localized micro plasticity, metal flow, alloy segregation and delocalized Al oxide and Mg oxide. The kinetic of interface/interphase induce new nontraditional crack mitigation a long with new bridging and toughening mechanisms.

  6. Contemporary artists' spinel pigments: Non-invasive characterization by means of electronic spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Angelin, Eva Mariasole; Bacci, Mauro; Bartolozzi, Giovanni; Cantisani, Emma; Picollo, Marcello

    2017-02-15

    The identification of artistic materials represents a fundamental step in supporting the conservation of cultural heritage objects. The importance of their appropriate characterization is particularly relevant in modern-contemporary art, since they could be affected by the occurrence of rapid changes in chemical formulation over time. This paper focuses on an investigation of a series of contemporary blue-green commercial acrylic paints constituted of spinel pigments, using non-invasive spectroscopic techniques. The spectroscopic and color measurements obtained make it possible to characterize the acrylic paints under investigation and to compare the results obtained with those reported in the literature and in spectral databases. To be more precise, the proposed UV-vis-NIR reflectance spectroscopic technique was sensitive enough to characterize the acrylic paints according to their d-d ligand field and the charge transfer (CT) electronic transitions involved in the spinel structures. In addition, an overview of this class of inorganic pigments is also given. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Spinel cobalt ferrite by complexometric synthesis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pham Duc Thang, P.D.T.; Rijnders, Augustinus J.H.M.; Blank, David H.A.

    2005-01-01

    Magnetic fine particles of cobalt ferrite (CoFe2O4) have been synthesized using complexometric method in which ethylene diamine tetra acetic acid C10H16N2O8 (EDTA) acts as a complexing agent. The crystallographic structure, microstructure and magnetic properties of the synthesized powder were

  8. Structural, magnetic, and dielectric properties of multiferroic Co1−xMgxCr2O4 nanoparticles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kamran, M.; Ullah, A.; Rahman, S.; Tahir, A.; Nadeem, K.; Anis ur Rehman, M.; Hussain, S.

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • Properties of multiferroic Co 1−x Mg x Cr 2 O 4 nanoparticles have been studied. • XRD showed that CoCr 2 O 4 and MgCr 2 O 4 are cubic normal spinel structure. • Rietveld refinement of XRD showed no impurity phases. • T c and T s showed decreasing trend with increasing Mg concentration. • Dielectric properties were improved for x = 0.6 Mg concentration. - Abstract: We examined the structural, magnetic, and dielectric properties of Co 1−x Mg x Cr 2 O 4 nanoparticles with composition x = 0, 0.2, 0.4, 0.5, 0.6, 0.8 and 1 in detail. X-ray diffraction (XRD) revealed normal spinel structure for all the samples. Rietveld refinement fitting results of the XRD showed no impurity phases which signifies the formation of single phase Co 1−x Mg x Cr 2 O 4 nanoparticles. The average crystallite size showed a peak behaviour with maxima at x = 0.6. Raman and Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy also confirmed the formation of single phase normal spinel for all the samples and exhibited dominant vibrational changes for x ≥ 0.6. For x = 0 (CoCr 2 O 4 ), zero field cooled/field cooled (ZFC/FC) magnetization curves showed paramagnetic (PM) to ferrimagnetic (FiM) transition at T c = 97 K and a conical spiral magnetic order at T s = 30 K. The end members CoCr 2 O 4 (x = 0) and MgCr 2 O 4 (x = 1) are FiM and antiferromagnetic (AFM), respectively. T c and T s showed decreasing trend with increasing x, followed by an additional AFM transition at T N = 15 K for x = 0.6. The system finally stabilized and changed to highly frustrated AFM structure at x = 1 due to formation of pure MgCr 2 O 4 . High field FC curves (5T) depicted nearly no effect on spiral magnetic state, which is attributed to strong exchange B-B magnetic interactions at low temperatures. Dielectric parameters showed a non-monotonous behaviour with Mg concentration and were explained with the help of Maxwell-Wagner model and Koop’s theory. Dielectric properties were improved for

  9. Structure and magnetic properties of Mg0.35Cu0.2Zn0.45Fe2O4 ferrite synthesized by co-precipitation method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bo Yang

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Mg0.35Cu0.2Zn0.45Fe2O4 nanosize particles have been synthesized by chemical co-precipitation method and characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD and vibrating sample magnetometry (VSM. The XRD patterns confirmed the single phase spinel structure of the synthesized powder. The average crystallite size of the powder varied from 14 to 55 nm by changing annealing temperature. The activation energy for crystal growth was estimated as about 18.61KJ/mol. With the annealing temperature increasing, saturation magnetization (MS was successively increased while the coercivity (HC was first increased, passed through a maximum and then declined. The sintering temperature has significant influence on bulk density, initial permeability and Curie temperature of Mg0.35Cu0.2Zn0.45Fe2O4 ferrite.

  10. An Integrated, Layered-Spinel Composite Cathode for Energy Storage Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hagh, Nader; Skandan, Ganesh

    2012-01-01

    At low operating temperatures, commercially available electrode materials for lithium-ion batteries do not fully meet the energy and power requirements for NASA fs exploration activities. The composite cathode under development is projected to provide the required energy and power densities at low temperatures and its usage will considerably reduce the overall volume and weight of the battery pack. The newly developed composite electrode material can provide superior electrochemical performance relative to a commercially available lithium cobalt system. One advantage of using a composite cathode is its higher energy density, which can lead to smaller and lighter battery packs. In the current program, different series of layered-spinel composite materials with at least two different systems in an integrated structure were synthesized, and the volumetric and gravimetric energy densities were evaluated. In an integrated network of a composite electrode, the effect of the combined structures is to enhance the capacity and power capabilities of the material to levels greater than what is possible in current state-of-the-art cathode systems. The main objective of the current program is to implement a novel cathode material that meets NASA fs low temperature energy density requirements. An important feature of the composite cathode is that it has at least two components (e.g., layered and spinel) that are structurally integrated. The layered material by itself is electrochemically inactive; however, upon structural integration with a spinel material, the layered material can be electrochemically activated, thereby delivering a large amount of energy with stable cycling. A key aspect of the innovation has been the development of a scalable process to produce submicronand micron-scale particles of these composite materials. An additional advantage of using such a composite electrode material is its low irreversible loss (.5%), which is primarily due to the unique activation

  11. Fabrication of single-phase ε-GaSe films on Si(100) substrate by metal organic chemical vapor deposition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chang, Chia-Chen; Zeng, Jia-Xian; Lan, Shan-Ming; Uen, Wu-Yih; Liao, Sen-Mao; Yang, Tsun-Neng; Ma, Wei-Yang; Chang, Kuo-Jen

    2013-01-01

    Single-phase ε-gallium selenide (GaSe) films were fabricated on Si(100) substrate by metal organic chemical vapor deposition using dual-source precursors: triethylgallium (TEG) and hydrogen selenide (H 2 Se) with the flow ratio of [H 2 Se]/[TEG] being maintained at 1.2. In particular, an arsine (AsH 3 ) flow was introduced to the Si substrate before the film deposition to induce an arsenic (As)-passivation effect on the substrate. The crystalline structure of GaSe films prepared was analyzed using X-ray diffraction and the surface morphology of them was characterized by scanning electron microscopy. It was found that the film quality could be improved by the As-passivation effect. The optical properties of the films were studied by temperature dependent photoluminescence (PL) measurements. PL spectra obtained with different distributions and intensities favored for resolving the superior material quality of the films produced on the substrate with As-passivation compared to those produced on the substrate without As-passivation. The former was dominated by the excitonic emissions for the whole temperature range of 20–300 K examined, while the latter was initially dominated by the defect-related emission at 1.907 eV for a low-temperature range ≦ 80 K and then became dominated by the weak excitonic emission band instead. The ε modification of GaSe films prepared was further recognized by the Raman scattering measurements conducted at room temperature. - Highlights: • Gallium selenide (GaSe) layered structures are fabricated on Si(100) substrate. • Metal–organic chemical vapor deposition is used for film fabrication. • Arsenic-passivation effects of Si substrate on the GaSe film quality are analyzed. • Photoluminescence measurements of GaSe polycrystals are reported

  12. Influence of magnesia in the infiltration of magnesia-spinel refractory bricks by different clinkers

    OpenAIRE

    Gonçalves, Geraldo Eduardo; Pacheco, Graziella Rajão Cota; Brito, Modestino Alves de Moura; Silva, Sérgio Luiz Cabral da; Lins, Vanessa de Freitas Cunha

    2015-01-01

    Abstract In cement production, which involves the production of cement clinker in rotary kilns, the main refractories used are magnesia-spinel bricks. These bricks may suffer infiltration by the clinker liquid phase, resulting in the corrosion of the spinel and the formation of low refractoriness mineralogical phases, such as the Q phase (C20A13M3S3), which compromises refractory performance. Thus, the aim of this work is to correlate the infiltration resistance of magnesia-spinel bricks made...

  13. Nature of the Electrochemical Properties of Sulphur Substituted LiMn2O4 Spinel Cathode Material Studied by Electrochemical Impedance Spectroscopy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monika Bakierska

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available In this work, nanostructured LiMn2O4 (LMO and LiMn2O3.99S0.01 (LMOS1 spinel cathode materials were comprehensively investigated in terms of electrochemical properties. For this purpose, electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS measurements as a function of state of charge (SOC were conducted on a representative charge and discharge cycle. The changes in the electrochemical performance of the stoichiometric and sulphur-substituted lithium manganese oxide spinels were examined, and suggested explanations for the observed dependencies were given. A strong influence of sulphur introduction into the spinel structure on the chemical stability and electrochemical characteristic was observed. It was demonstrated that the significant improvement in coulombic efficiency and capacity retention of lithium cell with LMOS1 active material arises from a more stable solid electrolyte interphase (SEI layer. Based on EIS studies, the Li ion diffusion coefficients in the cathodes were estimated, and the influence of sulphur on Li+ diffusivity in the spinel structure was established. The obtained results support the assumption that sulphur substitution is an effective way to promote chemical stability and the electrochemical performance of LiMn2O4 cathode material.

  14. Synthesis, characterization and formation mechanism of SiC/spinel nanocomposite

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tavangarian, Fariborz; Li, Guoqiang

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • SiC/spinel nanocomposite was synthesized from talc, aluminum and graphite powders. • A mechanism was suggested for the SiC/spinel nanocomposite formation. • The SiC/spinel nanocomposite powder had a mean crystallite size of about 9 nm. • During the formation of nanocomposite some intermediate compounds were formed. - Abstract: This paper reports the successful synthesis of SiC/spinel (MgAl 2 O 4 ) nanocomposite from talc, aluminum and graphite powders. The initial powders were mixed to obtain stoichiometric spinel containing 27.26 wt.% SiC. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD), and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) techniques were utilized to characterize the synthesized powders. SiC/spinel nanocomposite was obtained after 6 h ball milling of initial materials in argon atmosphere with subsequent annealing at 1200 °C for 1 h in vacuum. The obtained nanocomposite had crystallites size between 1 and 15 nm with the mean diameter of 9 nm. The SiC/spinel composite formation mechanism was scrutinized. The results showed that SiC/spinel nanocomposite was not produced directly and the formation of some intermediate compounds is unavoidable during the synthesis procedure. The SiC/spinel nanocomposite powder may be a potential nanocomposite for high temperature applications with self-crack-healing capability

  15. Power Based Phase-Locked Loop Under Adverse Conditions with Moving Average Filter for Single-Phase System

    OpenAIRE

    Menxi Xie; CanYan Zhu; BingWei Shi; Yong Yang

    2017-01-01

    High performance synchronization methord is citical for grid connected power converter. For single-phase system, power based phase-locked loop(pPLL) uses a multiplier as phase detector(PD). As single-phase grid voltage is distorted, the phase error information contains ac disturbances oscillating at integer multiples of fundamental frequency which lead to detection error. This paper presents a new scheme based on moving average filter(MAF) applied in-loop of pPLL. The signal characteristic of...

  16. Reliability-Oriented Design and Analysis of Input Capacitors in Single-Phase Transformer-less Photovoltaic Inverters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wang, Huai; Yang, Yongheng; Blaabjerg, Frede

    2013-01-01

    . A reliability-oriented design guideline is proposed in this paper for the input capacitors in single-phase transformer-less PV inverters. The guideline ensures that the service time requirement is to be accomplished under different power levels and ambient temperature profiles. The theoretical analysis has been......While 99% efficiency has been reported, the target of 20 years of service time imposes new challenge to cost-effective solutions for grid-connected photovoltaic (PV) inverters. Aluminum electrolytic capacitors are the weak-link in terms of reliability and lifetime in single-phase PV systems...

  17. Thermal Optimized Operation of the Single-Phase Full-Bridge PV Inverter under Low Voltage Ride-Through Mode

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wang, Huai; Yang, Yongheng; Blaabjerg, Frede

    2013-01-01

    . At the same time, the target of a long service time (25 years or more) imposes new challenges to grid-connected transformer-less PV systems. Achieving more reliable PV inverters is of intense interest in recent research. As one of the most critical stresses that induce failures, the thermal stresses...... on the power devices of a single-phase full-bridge PV inverter are analyzed in different operational modes in this paper. The low voltage grid condition is specially taken into account in this paper. The analysis is demonstrated by a 3 kW single-phase full-bridge grid-connected PV system by simulations...

  18. Lifetime Estimation of DC-link Capacitors in a Single-phase Converter with an Integrated Active Power Decoupling Module

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ma, Siyuan; Wang, Haoran; Tang, Junchaojie

    2016-01-01

    In single-phase inverters, DC-link capacitors are installed at the DC-link to buffer the ripple power between the AC side and DC side. Active decoupling methods introduce additional circuits at the DC side or AC side to partially or fully supply the ripple power. So that the demanded DC-link capa......In single-phase inverters, DC-link capacitors are installed at the DC-link to buffer the ripple power between the AC side and DC side. Active decoupling methods introduce additional circuits at the DC side or AC side to partially or fully supply the ripple power. So that the demanded DC...

  19. Comment on 'Order-disorder phase transition induced by swift ions in MgAl2O4 and ZnAl2O4 spinels' by D. Simeone et al., J. Nucl. Mater. 300 (2002) 151-160

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sickafus, Kurt E.

    2003-01-01

    In this letter, structure factor calculations and computer simulated powder X-ray diffraction patterns are used to challenge conclusions reached in a recent study by D. Simeone et al. regarding radiation-induced phase transformations in MgAl 2 O 4 spinel. Based on experimental results presented by D. Simeone et al. and previously by other researchers, and based on the structure factor results presented here, spinel most likely succumbs to a phase transformation under irradiation that involves a profound change in the arrangement of cations in the lattice. The space group is modified by the transformation and the new, metastable structure is most likely a defective rocksalt structure. These conclusions are at odds with the description of the spinel metastable phase offered by Simeone et al

  20. Synthesis, structural, dielectric and magnetic properties of polyol assisted copper ferrite nano particles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pavithradevi, S. [Assistant Professor, Department of Physics, Park College of Engineering and Technology, Coimbatore (India); Suriyanarayanan, N., E-mail: madurasuri2210@yahoo.com [Prof & Head, Department of Physics, Government College of Technology, Coimbatore (India); Boobalan, T. [Lecturer, Department of Physics, PSG Polytechnic College, Coimbatore (India)

    2017-03-15

    Nanocrystalline copper ferrite CuFe{sub 2}O{sub 4} is synthesized by co-precipitation method in ethylene glycol as chelating agent, using sodium Hydroxide as precipitator at pH 8. The as synthesized CuFe{sub 2}O{sub 4} is annealed at temperatures of 350 °C, 700 °C, and 1050 °C for 2 h respectively. The thermal analysis of the synthesized sample is done by TG technique. It is shown that at 260 °C ethylene glycol has evaporated completely and after 715 °C, spinel ferrite is formed with a cubic structure. The calculated lattice parameters are in agreement with the reported values. FTIR spectra of CuFe{sub 2}O{sub 4} nano particles are as synthesized and annealed at 1050 °C and recorded between 400 cm{sup −1} and 4000 cm{sup −1}. It shows that when the temperature increases ethylene glycol gradually evaporates. Finally, nano crystalline single phase spinel ferrite is obtained. X-ray diffraction (XRD) and electron diffraction (EDS) studies show that the sample is indexed as the face centered cubic spinel structure. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) indicated that the particles are flaky and spherical with the crystallite size in the range of 25–34 nm. From the dielectric studies, the dielectric constant decreases as the frequency increases. Low value of dielectric loss at higher frequencies suggests that the material is suitable for high frequency applications. AC conductivity increases with frequency. The magnetic properties of the samples are measured using a vibrating sample magnetometer (VSM) at room temperature, which shows that the sample exhibited a typical super paramagnetic behavior at low temperature. The saturation magnetization, remanant magnetism, and coercivity increases with applied field. - Highlights: • Complete removal of hematite phase along with ethylene glycol at 1050 °C. • Large decrease in particle sizes noticed along with ethylene glycol. • Ethylene glycol improves purity of the

  1. Influence of nickel addition on structural and magnetic properties of aluminium substituted Ni-Zn ferrite nanoparticles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Donta Paramesh

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Ni-Zn-Al mixed ferrite nanoparticles, with general formula NixZn1-xAlFeO4 (x = 0.0, 0.2, 0.4, 0.6, 0.8 and 1.0, were synthesized by sol-gel auto combustion technique. All prepared ferrite nanoparticles were characterized by X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy, energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and vibrating sample magnetometer. X-ray diffraction study confirmed the formation of the single phase cubic spinel structure in all ferrite samples. The crystallite size was calculated by the DebyeScherrer formula and found to be in the range 15–46 nm. The lattice constant decreased with increasing Ni2+ ion concentration. Scanning electron microscopy images clearly indicate that the particles are very small but agglomerated. Energy dispersive X-ray was used to confirm the composition of the prepared powders. Fourier transform infrared spectra showed two main absorption bands of ferrite nanoparticles, the high frequency band (ν1 around 600 cm-1 and the low frequency band (ν2 around 400 cm-1 arising from tetrahedral (A and octahedral (B interstitial sites in the spinel lattice, respectively. Vibrating sample magnetometer results reported that the saturation magnetization, remanent magnetization and magnetic moments decrease with increasing Ni2+ ion concentration.

  2. Design of single phase inverter using microcontroller assisted by data processing applications software

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ismail, K.; Muharam, A.; Amin; Widodo Budi, S.

    2015-12-01

    Inverter is widely used for industrial, office, and residential purposes. Inverter supports the development of alternative energy such as solar cells, wind turbines and fuel cells by converting dc voltage to ac voltage. Inverter has been made with a variety of hardware and software combinations, such as the use of pure analog circuit and various types of microcontroller as controller. When using pure analog circuit, modification would be difficult because it will change the entire hardware components. In inverter with microcontroller based design (with software), calculations to generate AC modulation is done in the microcontroller. This increases programming complexity and amount of coding downloaded to the microcontroller chip (capacity flash memory in the microcontroller is limited). This paper discusses the design of a single phase inverter using unipolar modulation of sine wave and triangular wave, which is done outside the microcontroller using data processing software application (Microsoft Excel), result shows that complexity programming was reduce and resolution sampling data is very influence to THD. Resolution sampling must taking ½ A degree to get best THD (15.8%).

  3. Synthesis of single phase of CuTl-1234 thin films

    CERN Document Server

    Khan, N A; Ishida, K; Tateai, F; Kojima, T; Terada, N; Ihara, H

    1999-01-01

    Thin films of CuTl-1234 superconductor have been prepared for the first time using an amorphous phase epitaxy method (APE). In this method, an amorphous phase is sputtered from a target of stoichiometric composition CuBa/sub 2/Ca/sub 3/Cu/sub 4/O/sub x/. Thin films on the SrTiO/sub 3/ substrate after the thallium treatment are biaxially oriented. The XRD reflected a predominant single phase with c-axis 18.7 AA and pole figure measurements of (103) reflections showed a-axis oriented films with Delta phi =0.8 degrees . Resistivity measurements showed T/sub c/=113 K and preliminary J/sub c/ measurements manifested a current density of 1.0*10/sup 6/ A/cm (77 K, 0 T). The composition of films after EDX measurements is Cu /sub 0.3/Tl/sub 0.7/CuBa/sub 2/Ca/sub 3/Cu/sub 4/O/sub 12-y/. (8 refs).

  4. Single-phased Fault Location on Transmission Lines Using Unsynchronized Voltages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ISTRATE, M.

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available The increased accuracy into the fault's detection and location makes it easier for maintenance, this being the reason to develop new possibilities for a precise estimation of the fault location. In the field literature, many methods for fault location using voltages and currents measurements at one or both terminals of power grids' lines are presented. The double-end synchronized data algorithms are very precise, but the current transformers can limit the accuracy of these estimations. The paper presents an algorithm to estimate the location of the single-phased faults which uses only voltage measurements at both terminals of the transmission lines by eliminating the error due to current transformers and without introducing the restriction of perfect data synchronization. In such conditions, the algorithm can be used with the actual equipment of the most power grids, the installation of phasor measurement units with GPS system synchronized timer not being compulsory. Only the positive sequence of line parameters and sources are used, thus, eliminating the incertitude in zero sequence parameter estimation. The algorithm is tested using the results of EMTP-ATP simulations, after the validation of the ATP models on the basis of registered results in a real power grid.

  5. A single-phase model for liquid-feed DMFCs with non-Tafel kinetics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vera, Marcos

    An isothermal single-phase 3D/1D model for liquid-feed direct methanol fuel cells (DMFC) is presented. Three-dimensional (3D) mass, momentum and species transport in the anode channels and gas diffusion layer is modeled using a commercial, finite-volume based, computational fluid dynamics (CFD) software complemented with user supplied subroutines. The 3D model is locally coupled to a one-dimensional (1D) model accounting for the electrochemical reactions in both the anode and the cathode, which provides a physically sound boundary condition for the velocity and methanol concentration fields at the anode gas diffusion layer/catalyst interface. The 1D model - comprising the membrane-electrode assembly, cathode gas diffusion layer, and cathode channel - assumes non-Tafel kinetics to describe the complex kinetics of the multi-step methanol oxidation reaction at the anode, and accounts for the mixed potential associated with methanol crossover, induced both by diffusion and electro-osmotic drag. Polarization curves computed for various methanol feed concentrations, temperatures, and methanol feed velocities show good agreement with recent experimental results. The spatial distribution of methanol in the anode channels, together with the distributions of current density, methanol crossover and fuel utilization at the anode catalyst layer, are also presented for different opperating conditions.

  6. Benchmarking of Constant Power Generation Strategies for Single-Phase Grid-Connected Photovoltaic Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sangwongwanich, Ariya; Yang, Yongheng; Blaabjerg, Frede

    2016-01-01

    With a still increase of grid-connected Photovoltaic (PV) systems, challenges have been imposed on the grid due to the continuous injection of a large amount of fluctuating PV power, like overloading the grid infrastructure (e.g., transformers) during peak power production periods. Hence, advanced...... strategies based on: 1) a power control (P-CPG), 2) a current limit method (I-CPG) and 3) the Perturb and Observe algorithm (P&O-CPG). However, the operational mode changes (e.g., from the maximum power point tracking to a CPG operation) will affect the entire system performance. Thus, a benchmarking...... of the proposed CPG strategies is also conducted on a 3-kW single-phase grid-connected PV system. Comparisons reveal that either the P-CPG or I-CPG strategies can achieve fast dynamics and satisfactory steady-state performance. In contrast, the P&OCPG algorithm is the most suitable solution in terms of high...

  7. Benchmarking of Constant Power Generation Strategies for Single-Phase Grid-Connected Photovoltaic Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sangwongwanich, Ariya; Yang, Yongheng; Blaabjerg, Frede

    2018-01-01

    With a still increase of grid-connected Photovoltaic (PV) systems, challenges have been imposed on the grid due to the continuous injection of a large amount of fluctuating PV power, like overloading the grid infrastructure (e.g., transformers) during peak power production periods. Hence, advanced...... strategies based on: 1) a power control method (P-CPG), 2) a current limit method (I-CPG) and 3) the Perturb and Observe algorithm (P&O-CPG). However, the operational mode changes (e.g., from the maximum power point tracking to a CPG operation) will affect the entire system performance. Thus, a benchmarking...... of the presented CPG strategies is also conducted on a 3-kW single-phase grid-connected PV system. Comparisons reveal that either the P-CPG or I-CPG strategies can achieve fast dynamics and satisfactory steady-state performance. In contrast, the P&O-CPG algorithm is the most suitable solution in terms of high...

  8. ASSERT validation against the Stern Laboratories' single-phase pressure drop tests

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Waddington, G.M.; Kiteley, J.C.; Carver, M.B.

    1995-01-01

    This paper describes the preliminary validation of ASSERT-IV against the single-phase pressure drop tests from the 37-element CHF (critical heat flux) experiments conducted at Stern Laboratories, and shows how this study fits into the overall ASSERT validation plan. The effects on the pressure drop of several friction and form loss models are evaluated, including the geometry-based K-factor model. The choice of friction factor has a small effect on the predicted channel pressure drop, compared to the form loss model choice. Using the uniform K-factors of Hameed, the computed pressure drops are in excellent agreement with the experimental results from the nominal pressure tube tests. For future ASSERT applications, either Hameed's uniform K-factors or the geometry-based model using Idelchik's thick-edged orifice equation are recommended, as are the friction factor correlations of Colebrook-White, Selander, and Aly and Groeneveld. More analysis of the geometry-based K-factor model is required. (author). 23 refs., 4 tabs., 9 figs

  9. Green synthesis of isopropyl myristate in novel single phase medium Part I: Batch optimization studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rajeshkumar N. Vadgama

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Isopropyl myristate finds many applications in food, cosmetic and pharmaceutical industries as an emollient, thickening agent, or lubricant. Using a homogeneous reaction phase, non-specific lipase derived from Candida antartica, marketed as Novozym 435, was determined to be most suitable for the enzymatic synthesis of isopropyl myristate. The high molar ratio of alcohol to acid creates novel single phase medium which overcomes mass transfer effects and facilitates downstream processing. The effect of various reaction parameters was optimized to obtain a high yield of isopropyl myristate. Effect of temperature, agitation speed, organic solvent, biocatalyst loading and batch operational stability of the enzyme was systematically studied. The conversion of 87.65% was obtained when the molar ratio of isopropyl alcohol to myristic acid (15:1 was used with 4% (w/w catalyst loading and agitation speed of 150 rpm at 60 °C. The enzyme has also shown good batch operational stability under optimized conditions.

  10. POWER FACTOR CORRECTION IN PERMANENT MAGNET BRUSHLESS DC MOTOR DRIVE USING SINGLE-PHASE CUK CONVERTER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SANJEEV SINGH

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Permanent magnet brushless DC motor (PMBLDCM drives are being employed in many variable speed applications due to their high efficiency, silent operation, compact size, high reliability, ease of control, and low maintenance requirements. These drives have power quality problems and poor power factor at input AC mains as they are mostly fed through diode bridge rectifier based voltage source inverters. To overcome such problems a single-phase single-switch power factor correction AC-DC converter topology based on a Cuk converter is proposed to feed voltage source inverters based PMBLDCM. It focuses on the analysis, design and performance evaluation of the proposed PFC converter topology for a 1.5 kW, 1500 rpm, 400 V PMBLDCM drive used for an air-conditioning system. The proposed PFC converter topology is modelled and its performance is simulated in Matlab-Simulink environment and results show an improved power quality and good power factor in wide speed range of the drive.

  11. Design And Development Of An Automatic Single Phase Protective Device Using Ssr

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael E.

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Since the discovery of energy safety has been a paramount subject matter. This we can see in todays electrical systems where protective devices such as fuse and circuit breakers are used to prevent fire hazards resulting from overload overvoltage and short circuits. However with all the revolution in technology these options may be considered less smart since the fuse made with wire strands calculated for specific current capacity faults permanently when the specified current rating is exceeded. While the circuit breaker which is made up of mechanical switch fails as a result of carbon forming and the wearing away of the contacts because of arcing. As a means of improvement this paper presents the design and development of an automatic single phase protective device using solid state relay SSR. This study is to ensure automatic cut off from power supply in cases of overvoltage above 240 V AC or when overload and short circuit current above 8amps is detected without permanent damage of a fuse placed along current path. Also the design will ensure that there is an automatic close circuit whenever the trigger switch is momentary switch is closed. The system is achieved via the use of PIC micro-controller current sensor and other discrete components. The system is tested and works well inhibiting the frequent faulting of fuses. It also helps to prevent hazard as a result of overvoltage overload and short circuit and ensures a close circuit when the trigger switch is closed.

  12. Modified Dual Three-Pulse Modulation technique for single-phase inverter topology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sree Harsha, N. R.; Anitha, G. S.; Sreedevi, A.

    2016-01-01

    In a recent paper, a new modulation technique called Dual Three Pulse Modulation (DTPM) was proposed to improve the efficiency of the power converters of the Electric/Hybrid/Fuel-cell vehicles. It was simulated in PSIM 9.0.4 and uses analog multiplexers to generate the modulating signals for the DC/DC converter and inverter. The circuit used is complex and many other simulation softwares do not support the analog multiplexers as well. Also, the DTPM technique produces modulating signals for the converter, which are essentially needed to produce the modulating signals for the inverter. Hence, it cannot be used efficiently to switch the valves of a stand-alone inverter. We propose a new method to generate the modulating signals to switch MOSFETs of a single phase Dual-Three pulse Modulation based stand-alone inverter. The circuits proposed are simulated in Multisim 12.0. We also show an alternate way to switch a DC/DC converter in a way depicted by DTPM technique both in simulation (MATLAB/Simulink) and hardware. The circuitry is relatively simple and can be used for the further investigations of DTPM technique.

  13. Anaerobic co-digestion of food waste and landfill leachate in single-phase batch reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liao, Xiaofeng; Zhu, Shuangyan; Zhong, Delai; Zhu, Jingping; Liao, Li

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Anaerobic co-digestion strategy for food waste treatment at OLR 41.8 g VS/L. • A certain amount of raw leachate effectively relieved acidic inhibition. • The study showed that food waste was completely degraded. - Abstract: In order to investigate the effect of raw leachate on anaerobic digestion of food waste, co-digestions of food waste with raw leachate were carried out. A series of single-phase batch mesophilic (35 ± 1 °C) anaerobic digestions were performed at a food waste concentration of 41.8 g VS/L. The results showed that inhibition of biogas production by volatile fatty acids (VFA) occurred without raw leachate addition. A certain amount of raw leachate in the reactors effectively relieved acidic inhibition caused by VFA accumulation, and the system maintained stable with methane yield of 369–466 mL/g VS. Total ammonia nitrogen introduced into the digestion systems with initial 2000–3000 mgNH 4 –N/L not only replenished nitrogen for bacterial growth, but also formed a buffer system with VFA to maintain a delicate biochemical balance between the acidogenic and methanogenic microorganisms. UV spectroscopy and fluorescence excitation–emission matrix spectroscopy data showed that food waste was completely degraded. We concluded that using raw leachate for supplement water addition and pH modifier on anaerobic digestion of food waste was effective. An appropriate fraction of leachate could stimulate methanogenic activity and enhance biogas production

  14. Cost Optimal Design of a Single-Phase Dry Power Transformer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raju Basak

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The Dry type transformers are preferred to their oil-immersed counterparts for various reasons, particularly because their operation is hazardless. The application of dry transformers was limited to small ratings in the earlier days. But now these are being used for considerably higher ratings.  Therefore, their cost-optimal design has gained importance. This paper deals with the design procedure for achieving cost optimal design of a dry type single-phase power transformer of small rating, subject to usual design constraints on efficiency and voltage regulation. The selling cost for the transformer has been taken as the objective function. Only two key variables have been chosen, the turns/volt and the height: width ratio of window, which affects the cost function to high degrees. Other variables have been chosen on the basis of designers’ experience. Copper has been used as conductor material and CRGOS as core material to achieve higher efficiency, lower running cost and compact design. The electrical and magnetic loadings have been kept at their maximum values without violating the design constraints. The optimal solution has been obtained by the method of exhaustive search using nested loops.

  15. A single-phase embedded Z-source DC-AC inverter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Se-Jin; Lim, Young-Cheol

    2014-01-01

    In the conventional DC-AC inverter consisting of two DC-DC converters with unipolar output capacitors, the output capacitor voltages of the DC-DC converters must be higher than the DC input voltage. To overcome this weakness, this paper proposes a single-phase DC-AC inverter consisting of two embedded Z-source converters with bipolar output capacitors. The proposed inverter is composed of two embedded Z-source converters with a common DC source and output AC load. Though the output capacitor voltages of the converters are relatively low compared to those of a conventional inverter, an equivalent level of AC output voltages can be obtained. Moreover, by controlling the output capacitor voltages asymmetrically, the AC output voltage of the proposed inverter can be higher than the DC input voltage. To verify the validity of the proposed inverter, experiments were performed with a DC source voltage of 38 V. By controlling the output capacitor voltages of the converters symmetrically or asymmetrically, the proposed inverter can produce sinusoidal AC output voltages. The experiments show that efficiencies of up to 95% and 97% can be achieved with the proposed inverter using symmetric and asymmetric control, respectively.

  16. Single-phase and two phase bubbly flow in a T connection: theoretical and experimental study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hervieu, Eric

    1988-01-01

    The objective of this research thesis is to highlight the driving factors of the separation of phases of a bubbly flow in a T junction, and to develop a prediction model. In a first part, the author reports the rigorous formulation of equations averaged on the T volume. He shows that it's not possible to solve globally the problem with these equations. Then, he reports a bibliographical study on the modelling of a bubbly flow, and, based upon this study, highlights intrinsic characteristics of the flow, and explains its dynamic mechanisms. He reports the development of the theoretical model, and describes the experimental installation used to validate it. In the third part, he reports the study of the liquid-gas interaction, and presents the adopted approach: study of the behaviour of an isolated bubble within a single-phase flow. Experimentation is used to check theoretical predictions. Results are used to compute phase separation. The obtained results are again compared with experimental results to validate the global relevance of the model [fr

  17. Even distribution/dividing of single-phase fluids by symmetric bifurcation of flow channels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, Hong; Li, Peiwen

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: ► We addressed an issue of distributing a flow to a number of flow channels uniformly. ► The flow distribution is accomplished through bifurcation of channels. ► Some key parameters to the flow distribution uniformity have been identified. ► Flow uniformity was studied for several versions of flow distributor designs. ► A novel fluid packaging device of high efficiency was provided. -- Abstract: This study addresses a fundamental issue of distributing a single-phase fluid flow into a number of flow channels uniformly. A basic mechanism of flow distribution is accomplished through bifurcation of channels that symmetrically split one flow channel into two downstream channels. Applying the basic mechanism, cascades flow distributions are designed to split one flow into a large number of downstream flows uniformly. Some key parameters decisive to the flow distribution uniformity in such a system have been identified, and the flow distribution uniformity of air was studied for several versions of flow distributor designs using CFD analysis. The effect of the key parameters of the flow channel designs to the flow distribution uniformity was investigated. As an example of industrial application, a novel fluid packaging device of high efficiency was proposed and some CFD analysis results for the device were provided. The optimized flow distributor makes a very good uniform flow distribution which will significantly improve the efficiency of fluid packaging. The technology is expected to be of great significance to many industrial devices that require high uniformity of flow distribution

  18. A single-phase model for liquid-feed DMFCs with non-Tafel kinetics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vera, Marcos [Area de Mecanica de Fluidos, Universidad Carlos III de Madrid, Avda. de la Universidad 30, 28911 Leganes (Spain)

    2007-09-27

    An isothermal single-phase 3D/1D model for liquid-feed direct methanol fuel cells (DMFC) is presented. Three-dimensional (3D) mass, momentum and species transport in the anode channels and gas diffusion layer is modeled using a commercial, finite-volume based, computational fluid dynamics (CFD) software complemented with user supplied subroutines. The 3D model is locally coupled to a one-dimensional (1D) model accounting for the electrochemical reactions in both the anode and the cathode, which provides a physically sound boundary condition for the velocity and methanol concentration fields at the anode gas diffusion layer/catalyst interface. The 1D model - comprising the membrane-electrode assembly, cathode gas diffusion layer, and cathode channel - assumes non-Tafel kinetics to describe the complex kinetics of the multi-step methanol oxidation reaction at the anode, and accounts for the mixed potential associated with methanol crossover, induced both by diffusion and electro-osmotic drag. Polarization curves computed for various methanol feed concentrations, temperatures, and methanol feed velocities show good agreement with recent experimental results. The spatial distribution of methanol in the anode channels, together with the distributions of current density, methanol crossover and fuel utilization at the anode catalyst layer, are also presented for different opperating conditions. (author)

  19. Tensile strain effect in ferroelectric perovskite oxide thin films on spinel magnesium aluminum oxide substrate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Xiaolan

    Ferroelectrics are used in FeRAM (Ferroelectric random-access memory). Currently (Pb,Zr)TiO3 is the most common ferroelectric material. To get lead-free and high performance ferroelectric material, we investigated perovskite ferroelectric oxides (Ba,Sr)TiO3 and BiFeO3 films with strain. Compressive strain has been investigated intensively, but the effects of tensile strain on the perovskite films have yet to be explored. We have deposited (Ba,Sr)TiO3, BiFeO3 and related films by pulsed laser deposition (PLD) and analyzed the films by X-ray diffractometry (XRD), atomic force microscopy (AFM), etc. To obtain inherently fully strained films, the selection of the appropriate substrates is crucial. MgAl2O4 matches best with good quality and size, yet the spinel structure has an intrinsic incompatibility to that of perovskite. We introduced a rock-salt structure material (Ni 1-xAlxO1+delta) as a buffer layer to mediate the structural mismatch for (Ba,Sr)TiO3 films. With buffer layer Ni1-xAlxO1+delta, we show that the BST films have high quality crystallization and are coherently epitaxial. AFM images show that the films have smoother surfaces when including the buffer layer, indicating an inherent compatibility between BST-NAO and NAO-MAO. In-plane Ferroelectricity measurement shows double hysteresis loops, indicating an antiferroelectric-like behavior: pinned ferroelectric domains with antiparallel alignments of polarization. The Curie temperatures of the coherent fully strained BST films are also measured. It is higher than 900°C, at least 800°C higher than that of bulk. The improved Curie temperature makes the use of BST as FeRAM feasible. We found that the special behaviors of ferroelectricity including hysteresis loop and Curie temperature are due to inherent fully tensile strain. This might be a clue of physics inside ferroelectric stain engineering. An out-of-plane ferroelectricity measurement would provide a full whole story of the tensile strain. However, a

  20. Facile synthesis of single-phase spherical α″-Fe16N2/Al2O3 core-shell nanoparticles via a gas-phase method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogi, Takashi; Dani Nandiyanto, Asep Bayu; Kisakibaru, Yutaka; Iwaki, Toru; Nakamura, Keitaro; Okuyama, Kikuo

    2013-04-01

    When nitrogen was inserted into the spherical α-Fe/Al2O3 core shell of 45 nm nanoparticles, the XRD pattern showed a clear change in the crystal modification from a body-centered cubic crystal to that of a single-phase α″-Fe16N2 structure. SEM, TEM, and energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy mapping analysis gave the particle size distributions, the shell thickness, and the Fe and Al elements. An examination of the total electron yield (surface sensitive) and fluorescence yield (bulk sensitive) of X-ray absorption fine structure on Fe and N atoms of these core shell nanoparticles confirmed the nitriding of the core iron and showed iron oxide formations on the core surface, indicating stability and resistivity performance. The nitriding process also changed the magnetic properties from paramagnetic to ferromagnetic with a coercivity above 3000 Oe, indicating a promising material for a "rear-earth-free" giant magnet.

  1. Enhanced magneto-optical and photo-catalytic properties of transition metal cobalt (Co2+ ions) doped spinel MgFe2O4 ferrite nanocomposites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abraham, A. Godlyn; Manikandan, A.; Manikandan, E.; Vadivel, S.; Jaganathan, S. K.; Baykal, A.; Renganathan, P. Sri

    2018-04-01

    In this study, spinel magnesium cobalt ferrite (CoxMg1-xFe2O4: x = 0.0, 0.2, 0.4, 0.6, 0.8 and 1.0) nanocomposites were synthesized successfully by modified sol-gel combustion method. Magnesium nitrate, cobalt nitrate and iron nitrate were used as the source of divalent (Mg2+ and Co2+) and trivalent (Fe3+) cations, respectively and urea were used as the reducing (fuel) agent. The effects of cobalt ions on morphology, structural, optical, magnetic and photo-catalytic properties of spinel CoxMg1-xFe2O4 nanocomposites were investigated. Various characterization methods, including X-ray powder diffraction (XRD), high resolution scanning electron microscope (HR-SEM), transmission electron microscopy (HR-TEM), energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX), Fourier transforms infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy, vibrating sample magnetometer (VSM) and photo-catalytic degradation (PCD) activity were used to study the phase purity, microstructure, particle size, elemental composition, functional group determination, band gap calculation, magnetic properties and degradation efficiency of nanoparticles, respectively. The observed results showed that the final products consists cubic spinel phase with sphere-like nanoparticles morphologies. Furthermore, spinel Co0.6Mg0.4Fe2O4 nanocomposite showed highest PCD efficiency (98.55%) than other composition of ferrite nanoparticles.

  2. Synthesis of Ca-doped spinel by Ultrasonic Spray Pyrolysis

    OpenAIRE

    Camargo, M.T.T.; Jacques, Q.; Caliman, L.B.; Miagava, J.; Hotza, D.; Castro, R.H.R.; Gouvêa, D.

    2016-01-01

    MgAl2O4 is a stable catalyst support with potential for replacing gamma-alumina in several applications. However, synthesis of magnesium spinel requires elevated temperatures to avoid phase separation (in MgO and Al2O3) at low temperatures, leading to coarsening and reduction of active surface area. In this work, nano CaO-doped and undoped magnesium aluminate were successfully prepared by Ultrasonic Spray Pyrolysis (USP), using a simple adapted experimental set-up operating at 1100 °C. During...

  3. Hydrothermal synthesis of nanostructured spinel lithium manganese oxide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Zhanqiang; Wang, Wen-lou; Liu, Xianming; Wu, Minchang; Li, Dan; Zeng, Zhen

    2004-04-01

    Nanostructured spherical spinel lithium manganese oxide (LiMnO) with about 200 nm in diameter was synthesized for the first time by mild hydrothermal method. The formation of the nanostructured spheres was through self-assembly of the nanoparticles and nanobelts. The influence of the reaction temperature and the time of formation of the nanostructures have been systematically studied. The thermal stability of the nanostructures has been examined by heating-treatment at different temperatures. Powder X-ray diffraction, transmission electron microscopy, high-resolution transmission electron microscopy, thermogravimetric analysis and inductively coupled plasma-atomic emission spectroscopy were used to characterize the products.

  4. An Islanding Detection Method by Using Frequency Positive Feedback Based on FLL for Single-Phase Microgrid

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sun, Qinfei; Guerrero, Josep M.; Jing, Tianjun

    2017-01-01

    An active islanding detection method based on Frequency-Locked Loop (FLL) for constant power controlled inverter in single-phase microgrid is proposed. This method generates a phase shift comparing the instantaneous frequency obtained from FLL unit with the nominal frequency to modify the reference...

  5. A Single-Phase Transformerless Inverter With Charge Pump Circuit Concept for Grid-Tied PV Applications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ardashir, Jaber Fallah; Sabahi, Mehran; Hosseini, Seyed Hossein

    2017-01-01

    This paper proposes a new single-phase transformerless photovoltaic (PV) inverter for grid-tied PV systems. The topology is derived from the concept of a charge pump circuit in order to eliminate the leakage current. It is composed of four power switches, two diodes, two capacitors, and an LCL ou...

  6. Analysis of phase-locked loop influence on the stability of single-phase grid-connected inverter

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhang, Chong; Wang, Xiongfei; Blaabjerg, Frede

    2015-01-01

    A controlled power inverter can cause instability at the point of common coupling (PCC) with its output filter and the grid. This paper analyzes the influence of the Phase-Locked Loop (PLL) on the output admittance of single-phase current-controlled inverters with different grid stiffness. It shows...

  7. Performance Evaluation of the Single-Phase Split-Source Inverter Using an Alternative DC-AC Configuration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Abdelhakim, Ahmed; Mattavelli, Paolo; Davari, Pooya

    2018-01-01

    This paper investigates and evaluates the performance of a single-phase split-source inverter (SSI), where an alternative unidirectional dc-ac configuration is used. Such configuration is utilized in order to use two common-cathode diodes in a single-device instead of using two separate diodes, r...

  8. Research on High Efficient Single-Phase Multi-Stage Interleaved Bridgeless PFC Frontend for Class-D Amplifiers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Li, Qingnan; Thomsen, Ole Cornelius; Andersen, Michael A. E.

    2012-01-01

    In this paper, a 3.5kW single-phase high efficient interleaved Bridgeless PFC (IBPFC) is proposed for class-D amplifiers. This topology achieves a relatively higher efficiency in a wide output power range, which helps to reduce the energy consuming of the whole system. In addition, a detailed...

  9. Hybrid I-f starting and observer-based Ssnsorless control of single-phase BLDC-PM motor drives

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Iepure, Liviu Ioan; Boldea, Ion; Blaabjerg, Frede

    2012-01-01

    A motion sensorless control for single-phase permanent magnet brushless dc motor based on an I-f starting sequence and a real-time permanent magnet flux estimation is proposed here. The special calculation for extracting the position and speed used here implies the generating of an orthogonal flux......-speed blower-motor (40 W, 10 krpm, 12 Vdc)....

  10. A Novel Neural Network Vector Control for Single-Phase Grid-Connected Converters with L, LC and LCL Filters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xingang Fu

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper investigates a novel recurrent neural network (NN-based vector control approach for single-phase grid-connected converters (GCCs with L (inductor, LC (inductor-capacitor and LCL (inductor-capacitor-inductor filters and provides their comparison study with the conventional standard vector control method. A single neural network controller replaces two current-loop PI controllers, and the NN training approximates the optimal control for the single-phase GCC system. The Levenberg–Marquardt (LM algorithm was used to train the NN controller based on the complete system equations without any decoupling policies. The proposed NN approach can solve the decoupling problem associated with the conventional vector control methods for L, LC and LCL-filter-based single-phase GCCs. Both simulation study and hardware experiments demonstrate that the neural network vector controller shows much more improved performance than that of conventional vector controllers, including faster response speed and lower overshoot. Especially, NN vector control could achieve very good performance using low switch frequency. More importantly, the neural network vector controller is a damping free controller, which is generally required by a conventional vector controller for an LCL-filter-based single-phase grid-connected converter and, therefore, can overcome the inefficiency problem caused by damping policies.

  11. Space Vector Pulse Width Modulation Strategy for Single-Phase Three-Level CIC T-source Inverter

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shults, Tatiana E.; Husev, Oleksandr O.; Blaabjerg, Frede

    2016-01-01

    This paper presents a novel space vector pulse-width modulation strategy for a single-phase three-level buck-boost inverter based on an impedance-source network. The case study system is based on T-source inverter with continuous input current. To demonstrate the improved performance of the inver...

  12. Analysis and MPPT control of a wind-driven three-phase induction generator feeding single-phase utility grid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krishnan Arthishri

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available In this study, a three-phase diode bridge rectifier and a single-phase voltage source inverter topology has been proposed for feeding single-phase utility grid employing a three-phase induction generator fed from wind energy. A self-excited induction generator configuration has been chosen for wide speed operation of wind turbine system, which gives the scope for extracting maximum power available in the wind. In addition to maximum power point tracking (MPPT, the generator can be loaded to its rated capacity for feeding single-phase utility grid using a three-phase induction machine, whereas it is not possible with existing configurations because of the absence of power converters. For the proposed system, MPPT algorithm has been devised by continuously monitoring the grid current and a proportional resonant controller has been employed for grid synchronisation of voltage source inverter with single-phase grid. A MATLAB/Simulink model of the proposed system has been developed to ascertain its successful working by predetermining the overall performance characteristics. The present proposal has also been tested with sag, swell and distortion in the grid voltage. The control strategy has been implemented using field programmable gate array (FPGA controller with modularised programming approach. The efficacy of the system has been demonstrated with the results obtained from an experimental set-up in the laboratory.

  13. Low-Complexity Model Predictive Control of Single-Phase Three-Level Rectifiers with Unbalanced Load

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ma, Junpeng; Song, Wensheng; Wang, Xiongfei

    2018-01-01

    The fluctuation of the neutral-point potential in single-phase three-level rectifiers leads to coupling between the line current regulation and dc-link voltage balancing, deteriorating the quality of line current. For addressing this issue, this paper proposes a low-complexity model predictive...

  14. Adjusting output impedance using a PI controller to improve the stability of a single-phase inverter under weak grid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiao Jiao

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Explored in this paper is the grid impedance effect on the stability of a single-phase grid connected inverter with an LC filter based on an analysis of the inverter output impedance. For a single-phase grid connected inverter, a PI controller is often used to regulate the current injected into the grid. However, the control performance can be influenced when the inverter is connected to a weak grid. Also, the utility grid has background harmonic noise, which can make the injected current distorted. Therefore, analysis of the output impedance of a single-phase grid connected inverter is important for the robustness and stability of the system. By modeling the output impedance of inverter, it can be determined that the proportional gain and integral gain of the controller have an effect on the output impedance. Analytical results show that by adjusting the PI controller parameters, the ability for harmonic reduction and stability of the system can be improved. Simulation and experiments using a 1 kW single-phase grid connected inverter verify the effectiveness of the theoretical analysis.

  15. Safe-commutation principle for direct single-phase AC-AC converters for use in audio power amplification

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ljusev, Petar; Andersen, Michael Andreas E.

    2004-01-01

    This paper presents an alternative safe commutation principle for a single phase bidirectional bridge, for use in the new generation of direct single-stage AC-AC audio power amplifiers. As compared with the bridge commutation with load current or source voltage sensing, in this approach...

  16. Local symmetry lowering in CdMn{sub 2}O{sub 4} spinel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oliveira, G. N. P.; Lopes, A. M. L., E-mail: armandina.lima.lopes@cern.ch [CFNUL - Centro de Física Nuclear, Universidade de Lisboa, Av. Prof. Gama Pinto 2, 1649-003 Lisboa (Portugal); IFIMUP and IN-Institute of Nanoscience and Nanotechnology, Departamento de Física e Astronomia da Faculdade de Ciências da Universidade do Porto, Rua do Campo Alegre, 687, 4169-007 Porto (Portugal); Teixeira, R.; Silva, M. R. [CFNUL - Centro de Física Nuclear, Universidade de Lisboa, Av. Prof. Gama Pinto 2, 1649-003 Lisboa (Portugal); Mendonça, T. M.; Araújo, J. P., E-mail: jearaujo@fc.up.pt [IFIMUP and IN-Institute of Nanoscience and Nanotechnology, Departamento de Física e Astronomia da Faculdade de Ciências da Universidade do Porto, Rua do Campo Alegre, 687, 4169-007 Porto (Portugal); Correia, J. G. [C2TN, Centro de Ciências e Tecnologias Nucleares, Instituto Superior Técnico, Universidade de Lisboa, Estrada Nacional 10, 2695-066 Bobadela LRS (Portugal)

    2014-12-14

    This work presents an atomic scale study of the electric field gradient (EFG) in the tetragonally distorted CdMn{sub 2}O{sub 4} spinel manganite. The EFG temperature dependence at the Cd and Mn sites was followed via perturbed angular correlation measurements with the {sup 111}In and {sup 111m}Cd probes, from 873 down to 12 K at Isolde-CERN. The results show that in the 12–600 K temperature range, a single Jahn-Teller distorted local phase exists. However above 100 K, a dynamic lattice distortion, evidenced by time dependent EFG fluctuations, sets in suggesting a structural instability. Above 600 K, a local MnO{sub 6} octahedra with relaxed Jahn-Teller distortions emerge and grow in the low temperature matrix, although no macroscopic tetragonal to cubic phase transition was observed.

  17. Coexistence of Low Damping and Strong Magnetoelastic Coupling in Epitaxial Spinel Ferrite Thin Films.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emori, Satoru; Gray, Benjamin A; Jeon, Hyung-Min; Peoples, Joseph; Schmitt, Maxwell; Mahalingam, Krishnamurthy; Hill, Madelyn; McConney, Michael E; Gray, Matthew T; Alaan, Urusa S; Bornstein, Alexander C; Shafer, Padraic; N'Diaye, Alpha T; Arenholz, Elke; Haugstad, Greg; Meng, Keng-Yuan; Yang, Fengyuan; Li, Dongyao; Mahat, Sushant; Cahill, David G; Dhagat, Pallavi; Jander, Albrecht; Sun, Nian X; Suzuki, Yuri; Howe, Brandon M

    2017-09-01

    Low-loss magnetization dynamics and strong magnetoelastic coupling are generally mutually exclusive properties due to opposing dependencies on spin-orbit interactions. So far, the lack of low-damping, magnetostrictive ferrite films has hindered the development of power-efficient magnetoelectric and acoustic spintronic devices. Here, magnetically soft epitaxial spinel NiZnAl-ferrite thin films with an unusually low Gilbert damping parameter (ferrite. At the same time, the coherently strained film structure suppresses extrinsic damping, enables soft magnetic behavior, and generates large easy-plane magnetoelastic anisotropy. These findings provide a foundation for a new class of low-loss, magnetoelastic thin film materials that are promising for spin-mechanical devices. © 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  18. Spontaneous electric polarization in the B-site magnetic spinel GeCu2O4

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yanda, Premakumar; Ghara, Somnath; Sundaresan, A.

    2018-04-01

    We report the observation of a spontaneous electric polarization at the antiferromagnetic ordering temperature (TN ∼ 33 K) of Cu2+ ions in the B-site magnetic spinel GeCu2O4, synthesized at high pressure and high temperature. This compound is known to crystallize in a tetragonal structure (space group I41/amd) due to Jahn-Teller distortion of Cu2+ ions and exhibit a collinear up-up-down-down (↑↑↓↓) antiferromagnetic spin configuration below TN. We found a clear dielectric anomaly at TN, where an electric polarization appears in the absence of applied magnetic field. The electric polarization is suppressed by applied magnetic fields, which demonstrates that the compound GeCu2O4 is a type-II multiferroic.

  19. Natural circulation in single-phase and two-phase flow

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cheung, F.B.; El-Genk, M.S.

    1989-01-01

    Natural circulation usually arises in a closed loop between a heat source and a heat sink were the fluid motion is driven by density difference. It may also occur in enclosures or cavities where the flow is induced primarily by temperature or concentration gradients within the fluid. The subject has recently received special attention by the heat transfer and nuclear reactor safety communities because of it importance to the areas of energy extraction, decay, heat removal in nuclear reactors, solar and geothermal heating, and cooling of electronic equipment. Although many new results and physical insights have been gained of the various natural circulation phenomena, a number of critical issues remain unresolved. These include, for example, transition from laminar to turbulent flow, buoyancy-induced turbulent flow modeling, change of flow regimes, flow field visualization, variable property effects, and flow instability. This symposium volume contains papers presented in the Natural Circulation in Single-Phase and Two-Phase Flow session at the 1989 Winter Annual Meeting of ASME, by authors from different countries including the United States, Japan, Canada, and Brazil. The papers deal with experimental and theoretical studies as well as state-of-the-art reviews, covering a broad spectrum of topics in natural circulation including: variable-conductance thermosyphons, microelectronic chip cooling, natural circulation in anisotropic porous media and in cavities, heat transfer in flat plat solar collectors, shutdown heat removal in fast reactors, cooling of light-water and heavy-water reactors. The breadth of papers contained in this volume clearly reflect the importance of the current interest in natural circulation as a means for passive cooling and heating

  20. A Single-Phase Multilevel PV Generation System with an Improved Ripple Correlation Control MPPT Algorithm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manel Hammami

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The implementation of maximum power point tracking (MPPT schemes by the ripple correlation control (RCC algorithm is presented in this paper. A reference is made to single-phase single-stage multilevel photovoltaic (PV generation systems, when the inverter input variables (PV voltage and PV current have multiple low-frequency (ripple harmonics. The harmonic analysis is carried out with reference to a multilevel configuration consisting of an H-bridge inverter and level doubling network (LDN cell, leading to the multilevel inverter having double the output voltage levels as compared to the basic H-bridge inverter topology (i.e., five levels vs. three levels. The LDN cell is basically a half-bridge fed by a floating capacitor, with self-balancing voltage capability. The multilevel configuration introduces additional PV voltage and current low-frequency harmonics, perturbing the basic implementation of the RCC scheme (based on the second harmonic component, leading to malfunctioning. The proposed RCC algorithm employs the PV current and voltage harmonics at a specific frequency for the estimation of the voltage derivative of power dP/dV (or dI/dV, driving the PV operating point toward the maximum power point (MPP in a faster and more precise manner. The steady-state and transient performances of the proposed RCC-MPPT schemes have been preliminarily tested and compared using MATLAB/Simulink. Results have been verified by experimental tests considering the whole multilevel PV generation system, including real PV modules, multilevel insulated-gate bipolar transistor (IGBT inverters, and utility grids.

  1. ESTABLISHED MODES AND STATIC CHARACTERISTICS OF THREE-PHASE ASYNCHRONOUS MOTOR POWERED WITH SINGLE PHASE NETWORK

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. S. Malyar

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available A mathematical model is developed to study the operation of three-phase asynchronous motor with squirrel-cage rotor when the stator winding is powered from a single phase network. To create a rotating magnetic field one of the phases is fed through the capacitor. Due to the asymmetry of power feed not only transients, but the steady-state regimes are dynamic, so they are described by differential equations in any coordinate system. Their study cannot be carried out with sufficient adequacy on the basis of known equivalent circuits and require the use of dynamic parameters. In the mathematical model the state equations of the circuits of the stator and rotor are composed in the stationary three phase coordinate system. Calculation of the established mode is performed by solving the boundary problem that makes it possible to obtain the coordinate dependences over the period, without calculation of the transient process. In order to perform it, the original nonlinear differential equations are algebraized by approximating the variables with the use of cubic splines. The resulting nonlinear system of algebraic equations is a discrete analogue of the initial system of differential equations. It is solved by parameter continuation method. To calculate the static characteristics as a function of a certain variable, the system is analytically differentiated, and then numerically integrated over this variable. In the process of integration, Newton's refinement is performed at each step or at every few steps, making it possible to implement the integration in just a few steps using Euler's method. Jacobi matrices in both cases are the same. To account for the current displacement in the rods of the squirrel-cage rotor, each of them, along with the squirrel-cage rings, is divided in height into several elements. This results in several squirrel-cage rotor windings which are represented by three-phase windings with magnetic coupling between them.

  2. Multilevel markov chain monte carlo method for high-contrast single-phase flow problems

    KAUST Repository

    Efendiev, Yalchin R.

    2014-12-19

    In this paper we propose a general framework for the uncertainty quantification of quantities of interest for high-contrast single-phase flow problems. It is based on the generalized multiscale finite element method (GMsFEM) and multilevel Monte Carlo (MLMC) methods. The former provides a hierarchy of approximations of different resolution, whereas the latter gives an efficient way to estimate quantities of interest using samples on different levels. The number of basis functions in the online GMsFEM stage can be varied to determine the solution resolution and the computational cost, and to efficiently generate samples at different levels. In particular, it is cheap to generate samples on coarse grids but with low resolution, and it is expensive to generate samples on fine grids with high accuracy. By suitably choosing the number of samples at different levels, one can leverage the expensive computation in larger fine-grid spaces toward smaller coarse-grid spaces, while retaining the accuracy of the final Monte Carlo estimate. Further, we describe a multilevel Markov chain Monte Carlo method, which sequentially screens the proposal with different levels of approximations and reduces the number of evaluations required on fine grids, while combining the samples at different levels to arrive at an accurate estimate. The framework seamlessly integrates the multiscale features of the GMsFEM with the multilevel feature of the MLMC methods following the work in [26], and our numerical experiments illustrate its efficiency and accuracy in comparison with standard Monte Carlo estimates. © Global Science Press Limited 2015.

  3. Single phase flow pressure drop and heat transfer in rectangular metallic microchannels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sahar, Amirah M.; Özdemir, Mehmed R.; Fayyadh, Ekhlas M.; Wissink, Jan; Mahmoud, Mohamed M.; Karayiannis, Tassos G.

    2016-01-01

    Numerical simulations were performed using Fluent 14.5 to investigate single phase flow and conjugate heat transfer in copper rectangular microchannels. Two different configurations were simulated: (1) single channel with hydraulic diameter of 0.561 mm and (2) multichannel configuration consisting of inlet and outlet manifolds and 25 channels with hydraulic diameter of 0.409 mm. In the single channel configuration, four numerical models were investigated namely, 2D thin-wall, 3D thin-wall (heated from the bottom), 3D thin-wall (three side heated) and 3D full conjugate models. In the multichannel configuration, only 3D full conjugate model was used. The simulation results of the single channel configuration were validated using experimental data of water as a test fluid while the results of the multichannel configuration were validated using experimental data of R134a refrigerant. In the multichannel configuration, flow distribution among the channels was also investigated. The 3D thin-wall model simulation was conducted at thermal boundary conditions similar to those assumed in the experimental data reduction (uniform heat flux) and showed excellent agreement with the experimental data. However, the results of the 3D full conjugate model demonstrated that there is a significant conjugate effect and the heat flux is not uniformly distributed along the channel resulting in significant deviation compared to the experimental data (more than 50%). Also, the results demonstrated that there is a significant difference between the 3D thin-wall and full conjugate models. The simulation of the multichannel configuration with an inlet manifold having gradual decrease in cross sectional area achieved very reasonable uniform flow distribution among the channels which will provide uniform heat transfer rates across the base of the microchannels.

  4. Single-phase cross-mixing measurements in a 4 x 4 rod bundle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yloenen, Arto; Bissels, Wilhelm-Martin; Prasser, Horst-Michael

    2011-01-01

    Highlights: → The wire-mesh sensor technique has been successfully introduced into a fuel rod bundle geometry. → Quantitative information on the turbulent dispersion of the fluid was obtained. → In full spatial and temporal resolution, the data is interesting for the unsteady CFD validation. - Abstract: The wire-mesh sensor technique has been successfully introduced into a fuel rod bundle geometry for the first time. In this context, a dedicated test facility (SUBFLOW) has been designed and constructed at Paul Scherrer Institut (PSI) in a co-operation with the Swiss Federal Institute of Technology (ETH Zuerich). Two wire-mesh sensors designed and built in-house were installed in the upper part of the vertical test section of SUBFLOW, and single-phase experiments on the turbulent mass exchange between neighboring sub-channels were performed. For this purpose, salt tracer was injected locally in one of the sub-channels and conductivity distributions in the bundle measured by the wire-mesh sensor. Both flow rate and distance from the injection point were varied. The latter was achieved by using injection nozzles at different heights. In this way, the sensor located in the upper part of the channel could be used to characterize the progress of the mixing along the flow direction, and the degree of cross-mixing assessed using the quantity of tracer arriving in the neighboring sub-channels. Fluctuations of the tracer concentration in time were used for statistical evaluations, such as the calculation of standard deviations and two-point correlations.

  5. Structural, electrical and magnetic properties of Sc{sup 3+} doped Mn-Zn ferrite nanoparticles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Angadi, V. Jagdeesha [Department of Physics, Bangalore University, Bangalore 560056 (India); Choudhury, Leema [Department of Physics, K.G. Reddy College of Engineering & Technology, Moinabad, 501504 Ranga Reddy, Telangana (India); Sadhana, K. [Department of Physics, University College of Science, Osmania University, Saifabad, Hyderabad 500004 (India); Liu, Hsiang-Lin [Department of Physics, National Taiwan Normal University, Taipei 11677, Taiwan (China); Sandhya, R. [Department of Physics, University College of Science, Osmania University, Hyderabad 500007 (India); Matteppanavar, Shidaling; Rudraswamy, B.; Pattar, Vinayak; Anavekar, R.V. [Department of Physics, Bangalore University, Bangalore 560056 (India); Praveena, K., E-mail: praveenaou@gmail.com [Department of Physics, National Taiwan Normal University, Taipei 11677, Taiwan (China)

    2017-02-15

    Sc{sup 3+} doped Mn{sub 0.5}Zn{sub 0.5}Sc{sub y}Fe{sub 2−y}O{sub 4} (y=0.00, 0.01, 0.03 and 0.05) nanoparticles were synthesized by solution combustion method using mixture of fuels were reported for the first time. The mixture of fuels plays an important role in obtaining nano crystalline, single phase present without any heat treatment. X-ray diffraction (XRD) results confirm the formation of the single-phase ferrites which crystallize in cubic spinel structure. The Fourier transform infrared spectra (FTIR) exhibit two prominent bands around 360 cm{sup −1} and 540 cm{sup −1} which are characteristic feature of spinel ferrite. The transmission electron microscope (TEM) micrographs revealed the nanoparticles to be nearly spherical in shape and of fairly uniform size. The room temperature impedance spectra (IS) and vibrating sample magnetometry (VSM) measurements were carried out in order to study the effect of doping (Sc{sup 3+}) on the characteristic properties of Mn-Zn ferrites. Further, the frequency dependent dielectric constant and dielectric loss were found to decrease with increasing multiple Sc{sup 3+} concentration. Nyquist plot in the complex impedance spectra suggest the existence of multiple electrical responses. Magnetic measurements reveals that saturation magnetization (M{sub s}), remnant magnetization (M{sub r}), magnetic moment (η{sub B}) and magnetic particle size (D{sub m}) increase with Sc{sup 3+} ion concentration up to x=0.03 and then decrease. The values of spin canting angle (α{sub Y-K}) and the magnetic particle size (D{sub m}) are found to be in the range of 68–75° and 10–19 nm respectively with Sc{sup 3+} concentration. The room temperature Mössbauer spectra were fitted with two sextets corresponding to ions at tetrahedral (A-) and octahedral (B-) sites confirms the spinel lattice. The ferromagnetic resonance (FMR) spectra's has shown that high concentration of scandium doping leads to an increase in dipolar interaction

  6. Aqueous slip casting of MgAl2O4 spinel powder

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Keywords. MgAl2O4 spinel; phosphate coating; aluminium dihydrogen phosphate; orthophosphoric acid; slip casting; freeze granulation; double-stage firing process. 1. Introduction. Magnesium aluminate (MgAl2O4) spinel (MAS) possesses many important thermal, chemical, mechanical and physical properties (Hing 1976 ...

  7. Enhancement photocatalytic activity of spinel oxide (Co, Ni3O4 by combination with carbon nanotubes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kahdum Bashaer J.

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available In this study, some types of composites consisting of multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs and spinel oxide (Co, Ni3O4 were synthesized by simple evaporation method. These composites were characterized by UV–Vis diffuse reflectance spectroscopy, X-rays diffraction(XRD, Scanning electron microscopy (SEM and specific surface area(SBET. The photocatalytic activity of the prepared composites was investigated by the following removal of Bismarck brown G (BBG dye from its aqueous solutions. The obtained results showed that using MWCNTs in combination with spinel oxide to produced composites (spinel/MWCNTs which succeeded in increasing the activity of spinel oxide and exhibited higher photocatalytic activity than spinel oxide alone. Also it was found that, multiwalled carbon nanotubes were successful in increasing the adsorption and improving the activity of photocatalytic degradation of Bismarck brown G dye(BBG. The obtained results showed that spinel/MWCNTs was more active in dye removal in comparison with each of spinel oxide and MWCNTs alone under the same reaction conditions. Also band gap energies for the prepared composites showed lower values in comparison with neat spinel. This point represents a promising observation as these composites can be excited using a lower energy radiation sources.

  8. Synthesis of high surface area spinel-type MgAl2O4 nanoparticles by

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    68

    H2O)2]2[Mg(dipic)2] precursor has smaller crystallite size in comparison with the spinel synthesized through .... Iwamoto, Fabrication of porous spinel. (MgAl2O4) from porous alumina using a template method, Ceramics International 39 (2013).

  9. PREPARATION OF NICKEL - COBALT SPINEL OXIDES Ni x CO 3-x ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    X-ray diffraction patterns showed that the oxides crystallize in a cubic spinel phase. Electrical conductivity as well as porosity depends on the preparation route. KEY WORDS: Nickel cobalt spinel oxides, Porosity, Electrical conductivity, Mixed oxides electrodes, Carbon paste electrode, Pechini sol-gel method. Bull. Chem.

  10. Effect of particle size on microstructure and strength of porous spinel ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    The lightweight Al2O3–MgO refractories with high strength and high slag resistance were prepared, using the porous spinel ceramics with small pore size and homogenous pore distribution as aggregates (Yan et al 2008, 2009). Generally, the spinel can be synthesized by an electrofu- sion method, a sintering method and ...

  11. Effect on the structural, DC resistivity and magnetic properties of Zr and Cu co-SubstitutedNi0.5Zn0.5Fe2O4using sol-gel auto-combustion method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jalaiah, K.; Vijaya Babu, K.; Chandra mouli, K.; Subba Rao, P. S. V.

    2018-04-01

    The Zr and Cu co-substituted Ni0.5Zn0.5Fe2O4 ferrite nanoparticles have been synthesized by the sol-gel auto combustion method. The XRD patterns confirmed single phase cubic spinel structure for present ferrite systems. The substitution of co-dopants in the spinel structure initially decreases the lattice parameter from x = 0.00 to 0.08 and thereafter increases and the same tendency reflecting in cell volume. The DC resistivity was initially increased later followed the decreasing trend; however the drift mobility of all ferrite samples appears to be in opposite phenomenon to DC resistivity. The saturation magnetization and net magnetic moments of all ferrite samples are decreasing with increasing dopant concentration. The coercive field and Y-K angles are increased with dopant concentration. The initial permeability of all samples is decreased with increasing dopant concentration. The Q-Factor for all samples shows the narrow frequency band with increasing frequency.

  12. Hydrothermal spinel, corundum and diaspore in lower oceanic crustal troctolites from the Hess Deep Rift

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nozaka, Toshio; Meyer, Romain; Wintsch, Robert P.; Wathen, Bryan

    2016-06-01

    Aluminous spinel, corundum and diaspore are reported from intensely altered parts of primitive troctolites recovered from IODP Site U1415 at the Hess Deep Rift. The spinel is green-colored, has an irregular shape, has low Cr concentrations, and is so distinct from primary igneous chromite. Corundum and diaspore occur mainly at the rims of green spinel grains with a texture suggesting a sequential replacement of spinel by corundum, and then corundum by diaspore. The green spinel is associated with anorthite and pargasite, which is overgrown by tremolite that forms coronitic aggregates with chlorite around olivine. These petrographic observations are supported by pressure-temperature pseudosections, which predict spinel + pargasite stability field, and tremolite/hornblende + chlorite field at lower temperature conditions. From these pseudosections and simplified system phase diagrams, estimated formation temperature conditions calculated at 2 kbar are 650-750 °C for spinel + pargasite, 410-690 °C for tremolite/hornblende + chlorite, 400-710 °C for corundum, and diaspore. Because the aluminous spinel occurs in the domains that were previously occupied by magmatic plagioclase, and because spinel-bearing rocks characteristically have high Al2O3/CaO and Al2O3/SiO2 ratios, it is likely that the stabilization of spinel was caused by the loss of Ca2+ and SiO2(aq) in high-temperature hydrothermal fluids. The results of this study suggest that (1) the concentrations of aluminous phases in the lower oceanic crust are presently underestimated, and (2) chemical modification of the lower oceanic crust due to high-temperature hydrothermal metasomatic reactions could be common near spreading axes.

  13. On the prediction of single-phase forced convection heat transfer in narrow rectangular channels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ghione, Alberto; Noel, Brigitte; Vinai, Paolo; Demazière, Christophe

    2014-01-01

    In this paper, selected heat transfer correlations for single-phase forced convection are assessed for the case of narrow rectangular channels. The work is of interest in the thermal-hydraulic analysis of the Jules Horowitz Reactor (JHR), which is a research reactor under construction at CEA-Cadarache (France). In order to evaluate the validity of the correlations, about 300 tests from the SULTAN-JHR database were used. The SULTAN-JHR program was carried out at CEA-Grenoble and it includes different kinds of tests for two different vertical rectangular channels with height of 600 mm and gap of 1.51 and 2.16 mm. The experimental conditions range between 2 - 9 bar for the pressure; 0.5 - 18 m/s for the coolant velocity and 0.5 - 7.5 MW/m 2 for the heat flux (whose axial distribution is uniform). Forty-two thermocouples and eight pressure taps were placed at several axial locations, measuring wall temperature and pressure respectively. The analysis focused on turbulent flow with Reynolds numbers between 5.5 x 10 3 - 2.4 x 10 5 and Prandtl numbers between 1.5 - 6. It was shown that standard correlations as the Dittus-Boelter and Seider-Tate significantly under-estimate the heat transfer coefficient, especially at high Reynolds number. Other correlations specifically designed for narrow rectangular channels were also taken into account and compared. The correlation of Popov-Petukhov in the form suggested by Siman-Tov still under-estimates the heat transfer coefficient, even if slight improvements could be seen. A better agreement for the tests with gap equal to 2.16 mm could be found with the correlation of Ma and the one of Liang. However the heat transfer coefficient when the gap is equal to 1.51 mm could not be predicted accurately. Furthermore these correlations were based on data at low Reynolds numbers (up to 13000) and low heat flux, so the use of them for SULTAN-JHR may be questionable. According to the authors’ knowledge, existing models of heat transfer

  14. Single phase and two phase erosion corrosion in broilers of gas-cooled reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harrison, G.S.; Fountain, M.J.

    1988-01-01

    Erosion-corrosion is a phenomenon causing metal wastage in a variety of locations in water and water-steam circuits throughout the power generation industry. Erosion-corrosion can occur in a number of regions of the once-through boiler designs used in the later Magnox and AGR type of gas cooled nuclear reactor. This paper will consider two cases of erosion-corrosion damage (single and two phase) in once through boilers of gas cooled reactors and will describe the solutions that have been developed. The single phase problem is associated with erosion-corrosion damage of mild steel downstream of a boiler inlet flow control orifice. With metal loss rates of up to 1 mm/year at 150 deg. C and pH in the range 9.0-9.4 it was found that 5 μg/kg oxygen was sufficient to reduce erosion-corrosion rates to less than 0.02 mm/year. A combined oxygen-ammonia-hydrazine feedwater regime was developed and validated to eliminate oxygen carryover and hence give protection from stress corrosion in the austenitic section of the AGR once through boiler whilst still providing erosion-corrosion control. Two phase erosion-corrosion tube failures have occurred in the evaporator of the mild steel once through boilers of the later Magnox reactors operating at pressures in the range 35-40 bar. Rig studies have shown that amines dosed in the feedwater can provide a significant reduction in metal loss rates and a tube lifetime assessment technique has been developed to predict potential tube failure profiles in a fully operational boiler. The solutions identified for both problems have been successfully implemented and the experience obtained following implementation including any problems or other benefits arising from the introduction of the new regimes will be presented. Methods for monitoring and evaluating the efficiency of the solutions have been developed and the results from these exercises will also be discussed. Consideration will also be given to the similarities in the metal loss

  15. Compositional Variation of Chrome Spinels in the Ore-bearing Zones of the Kraka Ophiolite and the Chromitite Origin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. E. Saveliev

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available The article considers a chemical variation of accessory and ore-forming chrome spinels from the Kraka ultramafic massif at the different scales, from the deposit to the thin section. A correlation analysis of compositional and structural features of ultramafic rocks and ores was performed. The ultramafic rocks and chromitites in the studied massif show the distinct deformation structures and tectonite olivine fabric. A typical chemical gap (i.e. Cr#=Cr/(Cr+Al was observed between peridotite, on the one hand, and dunite and chromitite, on the other hand, on the scale of deposits and ore-bearing zones. The location and size of this gap depend on the type of deposit. The gap becomes wider from the disseminated tabular bodies to the typical podiform ones. It has been found that in the thin initial dunite veinlets in peridotite the chrome spinels chemistry changes gradually and there is no Cr# gap between peridotite and dunite. The dunite venlets show a strong olivine fabric, which is an evidence of their high-temperature plastic flow origin. It has been revealed that new chrome spinel grains previously formed as rods or needles and then coarsened. We explained this observation as the result of impurity segregation, coalescence and spheroidization induced by the plastic deformation of olivine. It is inferred that a solid crystal flow is the main requirement for the dunite and chromitite body formation in the Kraka ophiolite massif. In the solid stream, the mineral phase separation takes place. For example, olivine and orthopyroxene grains of parental peridotite separate from one another, and weaker (more mobile olivine grains form dunite bodies in which chromitite appears as a result of impurity segregation.

  16. A New Spinel-Olivine Oxybarometer: Near-Liquidus Partitioning of V between Olivine-Melt, Spinel-Melt, and Spinel-Olivine in Martian Basalt Composition Y980459 as a Function of Oxygen Fugacity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papike, J. J.; Le, L.; Burger, P. V.; Shearer, C. K.; Bell, A. S.; Jones, J.

    2013-01-01

    Our research on valence state partitioning began in 2005 with a review of Cr, Fe, Ti, and V partitioning among crystallographic sites in olivine, pyroxene, and spinel [1]. That paper was followed by several on QUE94201 melt composition and specifically on Cr, V, and Eu partitioning between pyroxene and melt [2-5]. This paper represents the continuation of our examination of the partitioning of multivalent V between olivine, spinel, and melt in martian olivine-phyric basalts of Y980459 composition [6, 7]. Here we introduce a new, potentially powerful oxybarometer, V partitioning between spinel and olivine, which can be used when no melt is preserved in the meteorite. The bulk composition of QUE94201 was ideal for our study of martian pyroxene-phyric basalts and specifically the partitioning between pyroxene-melt for Cr, V, and Eu. Likewise, bulk composition Y980459 is ideal for the study of martian olivine-phyric basalts and specifically for olivine-melt, spinel-melt, and spinel-olivine partitioning of V as a function of oxygen fugacity.

  17. A High-Power-Density Single-Phase Rectifier Based on Three-Level Neutral-Point Clamped Circuits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tao Zhou

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available A single-phase three-level converter is suitable for medium-power applications, with an interface voltage that is higher than that of a traditional two-level configuration. The three-level neutral-point clamped converter is adopted using four switches in each bridge arm, which, compared to a two-level rectifier, leads to less voltage stress, a lower switching frequency, and switching loss on switches. The transient current control strategy is designed to control the active power. The single-phase space vector pulse width modulation (SVPWM with a voltage balance strategy is designed to solve the neutral point voltage fluctuation problem and keep the dc-link voltage stable. A 1.3 kW high-power-density prototype based on SiC MOSFET was built and tested. The experimental results verified the high performance of steady-state and dynamic responses.

  18. Impact of Intragranular Substructure Parameters on the Forming Limit Diagrams of Single-Phase B.C.C. Steels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gérald Franz

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available An advanced elastic-plastic self-consistent polycrystalline model, accounting for intragranular microstructure development and evolution, is coupled with a bifurcation-based localization criterion and applied to the numerical investigation of the impact of microstructural patterns on ductility of single-phase steels. The proposed multiscale model, taking into account essential microstructural aspects, such as initial and induced textures, dislocation densities, and softening mechanisms, allows us to emphasize the relationship between intragranular microstructure of B.C.C. steels and their ductility. A qualitative study in terms of forming limit diagrams for various dislocation networks, during monotonic loading tests, is conducted in order to analyze the impact of intragranular substructure parameters on the formability of single-phase B.C.C. steels.

  19. Theoretical modelling and experimental investigation of single-phase and two-phase flow division at a tee-junction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lemonnier, H.; Hervieu, E.

    1991-01-01

    Phase separation in a tee-junction is modelled in the particular case of bubbly-flow. The model is based on a two-dimensional approach and hence, uses local equations. The first step consists in modelling the single-phase flow in the tee-junction. The free streamline theory is used to predict the flow of the continuous phase. The two recirculation zones which are presented in this case are predicted by the model. The second step consists in predicting the gas bubble paths as a result of the actions of the single-phase flow. Finally, the trajectories of gas bubbles are used to predict the separation characteristics of the tee-junction. Each step of the modelling procedure has been carefully tested by an in-depth experimental investigation. Excellent quantitative agreement is obtained between experimental results and model predictions. Moreover, the phase separation phenomenon is found to be clearly described by the model. (orig.)

  20. Green synthesis of isopropyl myristate in novel single phase medium Part II: Packed bed reactor (PBR) studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vadgama, Rajeshkumar N; Odaneth, Annamma A; Lali, Arvind M

    2015-12-01

    Isopropyl myristate is a useful functional molecule responding to the requirements of numerous fields of application in cosmetic, pharmaceutical and food industry. In the present work, lipase-catalyzed production of isopropyl myristate by esterification of myristic acid with isopropyl alcohol (molar ratio of 1:15) in the homogenous reaction medium was performed on a bench-scale packed bed reactors, in order to obtain suitable reaction performance data for upscaling. An immobilized lipase B from Candida antartica was used as the biocatalyst based on our previous study. The process intensification resulted in a clean and green synthesis process comprising a series of packed bed reactors of immobilized enzyme and water dehydrant. In addition, use of the single phase reaction system facilitates efficient recovery of the product with no effluent generated and recyclability of unreacted substrates. The single phase reaction system coupled with a continuous operating bioreactor ensures a stable operational life for the enzyme.

  1. Green synthesis of isopropyl myristate in novel single phase medium Part II: Packed bed reactor (PBR studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rajeshkumar N. Vadgama

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Isopropyl myristate is a useful functional molecule responding to the requirements of numerous fields of application in cosmetic, pharmaceutical and food industry. In the present work, lipase-catalyzed production of isopropyl myristate by esterification of myristic acid with isopropyl alcohol (molar ratio of 1:15 in the homogenous reaction medium was performed on a bench-scale packed bed reactors, in order to obtain suitable reaction performance data for upscaling. An immobilized lipase B from Candida antartica was used as the biocatalyst based on our previous study. The process intensification resulted in a clean and green synthesis process comprising a series of packed bed reactors of immobilized enzyme and water dehydrant. In addition, use of the single phase reaction system facilitates efficient recovery of the product with no effluent generated and recyclability of unreacted substrates. The single phase reaction system coupled with a continuous operating bioreactor ensures a stable operational life for the enzyme.

  2. The Influence of phase-locked loop on the stability of single-phase grid-connected inverter

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhang, Chong; Wang, Xiongfei; Blaabjerg, Frede

    2015-01-01

    admittance of single-phase current-controlled inverters with different grid stiffness is analyzed in this paper. It shows that the PLL introduces a negative paralleled admittance into the output admittance of the inverter, which may lead to unintentional low-order harmonic oscillation in a weak grid...... for avoiding the PLL induced instability in single-phase inverters. At last the relationship between PLL bandwidth and the Short Circuit Ratio (SCR) of the grid has been derived to guide the design of the PLL. Experimental results are presented in order to verify this analysis, and the resonant frequencies can...... be predicted by the method. The possible instability due to different PLL bandwidth is also demonstrated....

  3. Analysis and Mitigation of Dead Time Harmonics in the Single-Phase Full-Bridge PWM Converters with Repetitive Controllers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yang, Yongheng; Zhou, Keliang; Wang, Huai

    2018-01-01

    -Width Modulation (PWM) schemes. Both solutions will contribute to a degradation of the injected current quality. As a consequence, the harmonics induced by the dead time (referred to as "dead time harmonics" hereafter) have to be compensated in order to achieve a satisfactory current quality as required...... by standards. In this paper, the emission mechanism of dead time harmonics in single-phase PWM inverters is thus presented considering the modulation schemes in details. More importantly, a repetitive controller has been adopted to eliminate the dead time effect in single-phase grid-connected PWM converters....... The repetitive controller has been plugged into a proportional resonant-based fundamental current controller so as to mitigate the dead time harmonics and also maintain the control of the fundamental-frequency grid current in terms of dynamics. Simulations and experiments are provided, which confirm...

  4. Analysis, Design, and Experimental Verification of A Synchronous Reference Frame Voltage Control for Single-Phase Inverters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Monfared, Mohammad; Golestan, Saeed; Guerrero, Josep M.

    2014-01-01

    Control of three-phase power converters in the synchronous reference frame is now a mature and well developed research topic. However, for single-phase converters, it is not as well-established as three-phase applications. This paper deals with the design of a synchronous reference frame multi......-loop control strategy for single phase inverter-based islanded distributed generation (DG) systems. The proposed controller uses a synchronous reference frame PI (SRFPI) controller to regulate the instantaneous output voltage, a capacitor current shaping loop in the stationary reference frame to provide active...... in the synchronous reference frame, it is not straightforward to fine-tune the control parameters and evaluate the stability of the whole closed loop system. To overcome this problem, the stationary reference frame equivalent of the voltage loop is derived. Then, a step-by-step systematic design procedure based...

  5. Challenges to Grid Synchronization of Single-Phase Grid-Connected Inverters in Zero-Voltage Ride-Through Operation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhang, Zhen; Yang, Yongheng; Blaabjerg, Frede

    2016-01-01

    With the fast development in Photovoltaic (PV) technology, the relevant grid-connection requirements/standards are continuously being updated, and more challenges have been imposed on both single-phase and three-phase grid-connected PV systems. For instance, PV systems are currently required...... to remain connected under grid voltage sags (even zero voltage condition). In this case, much attention should be paid to the grid synchronization in such a way to properly ride-through grid faults. Thus, in this paper, the most commonly-used and recently-developed Phase Locked Loop (PLL) synchronization...... methods have been evaluated for single-phase grid-connected PV systems in the case of Zero-Voltage Ride-Through (ZVRT) operation. The performances of the prior-art PLL methods in response to zero voltage faults in terms of detection precision and dynamic response are assessed in this paper. Simulation...

  6. Power Based Phase-Locked Loop Under Adverse Conditions with Moving Average Filter for Single-Phase System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Menxi Xie

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available High performance synchronization methord is citical for grid connected power converter. For single-phase system, power based phase-locked loop(pPLL uses a multiplier as phase detector(PD. As single-phase grid voltage is distorted, the phase error information contains ac disturbances oscillating at integer multiples of fundamental frequency which lead to detection error. This paper presents a new scheme based on moving average filter(MAF applied in-loop of pPLL. The signal characteristic of phase error is dissussed in detail. A predictive rule is adopted to compensate the delay induced by MAF, thus achieving fast dynamic response. In the case of frequency deviate from nomimal, estimated frequency is fed back to adjust the filter window length of MAF and buffer size of predictive rule. Simulation and experimental results show that proposed PLL achieves good performance under adverse grid conditions.

  7. Role of spinel substrate in the morphology of BiFeO3-CoFe2O4 epitaxial nanocomposite films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stern, Ilan; He, Jibao; Zhou, Xiaolan; Silwal, Punam; Miao, Ludi; Vargas, Jose Marcelo; Spinu, Leonard; Kim, Dae Ho

    2011-08-01

    Epitaxial thin films of BiFeO3-CoFe2O4 composite were grown on spinel MgAl2O4 substrates with a (001) orientation. The composite formed an intriguing nanogrid structure where perovskite BiFeO3 forms linear mounds embedded in a matrix of spinel CoFe2O4. The structure makes a stark distinction with similar composite films on (001) perovskite SrTiO3 substrates where CoFe2O4 forms nanopillars surrounded by a BiFeO3 matrix. This result shows the interface between the film and the substrate that plays a determining role during the formation of the composite.

  8. Safe-commutation principle for direct single-phase AC-AC converters for use in audio power amplification

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ljusev, P.; Andersen, Michael A.E.

    2005-07-01

    This paper presents an alternative safe commutation principle for a single phase bidirectional bridge, for use in the new generation of direct single-stage AC-AC audio power amplifiers. As compared with the bridge commutation with load current or source voltage sensing, in this approach it is not required to do any measurements, thus making it more reliable. Initial testing made on the prototype prove the feasibility of the approach. (au)

  9. Phase Balancing by Means of Electric Vehicles Single-Phase Connection Shifting in a Low Voltage Danish Grid

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lico, Pasqualino; Marinelli, Mattia; Knezovic, Katarina

    2015-01-01

    In Denmark, household consumers are supplied with three phase with neutral cable. In addition, the distribution service operator cannot decide to which phase electrical appliance are connected. The technician who realizes the installation connects the loads according to his technical expertise...... stations are equipped with single-phase converters. According to the designed control strategy, the charging spot can select the phase to be used for the charge. The selection is done according to a phase voltage measurement....

  10. A single-phase PWM controlled AC to DC converter based on control of unity displacement power factor

    OpenAIRE

    Funabiki, Shigeyuki

    1990-01-01

    A modified pulse-width modulation (PWM) technique that improves the displacement power factor and the input power factor of a single-phase AC to DC converter is discussed. The modified converter is shown to have a high input power factor and allows the of DC voltage from zero to more than the maximum value of the source voltage. The displacement power factor is unity, and the input power factor is almost unity in the wide range of current command

  11. Design and analysis of linear oscillatory single-phase permanent magnet generator for free-piston stirling engine systems

    OpenAIRE

    Jeong-Man Kim; Jang-Young Choi; Kyu-Seok Lee; Sung-Ho Lee

    2017-01-01

    This study focuses on the design and analysis of a linear oscillatory single-phase permanent magnet generator for free-piston stirling engine (FPSE) systems. In order to implement the design of linear oscillatory generator (LOG) for suitable FPSEs, we conducted electromagnetic analysis of LOGs with varying design parameters. Then, detent force analysis was conducted using assisted PM. Using the assisted PM gave us the advantage of using mechanical strength by detent force. To improve the effi...

  12. Application of higher harmonics in protection against single-phase earth faults in resonant grounded cable networks of medium voltage

    OpenAIRE

    Vinokurova, T. Yu.; Dobryagina, O. A.; Shagurina, E. S.; Shuin, V. A.

    2015-01-01

    Protections based by higher harmonics absolute measurements the zero sequence currents of the protected object connections against single-phase earth faults in resonant grounded cable networks of medium voltage industrial and urban energy supply systems have been widely applied in Russia since the late 60s of the 20th century. However, some operational problems connected with sufficient selectivity and sensitivity of these protection devices appeared with time. Sensitivity and selectivity of ...

  13. Performance enhancement of the single-phase series active filter by employing the load voltage waveform reconstruction and line current sampling delay reduction methods

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Senturk, O.S.; Hava, A.M.

    2011-01-01

    This paper proposes the waveform reconstruction method (WRM), which is utilized in the single-phase series active filter's (SAF's) control algorithm, in order to extract the load harmonic voltage component of voltage harmonic type single-phase diode rectifier loads. Employing WRM and the line...

  14. Analysis of free-surface flows through energy considerations: Single-phase versus two-phase modeling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marrone, Salvatore; Colagrossi, Andrea; Di Mascio, Andrea; Le Touzé, David

    2016-05-01

    The study of energetic free-surface flows is challenging because of the large range of interface scales involved due to multiple fragmentations and reconnections of the air-water interface with the formation of drops and bubbles. Because of their complexity the investigation of such phenomena through numerical simulation largely increased during recent years. Actually, in the last decades different numerical models have been developed to study these flows, especially in the context of particle methods. In the latter a single-phase approximation is usually adopted to reduce the computational costs and the model complexity. While it is well known that the role of air largely affects the local flow evolution, it is still not clear whether this single-phase approximation is able to predict global flow features like the evolution of the global mechanical energy dissipation. The present work is dedicated to this topic through the study of a selected problem simulated with both single-phase and two-phase models. It is shown that, interestingly, even though flow evolutions are different, energy evolutions can be similar when including or not the presence of air. This is remarkable since, in the problem considered, with the two-phase model about half of the energy is lost in the air phase while in the one-phase model the energy is mainly dissipated by cavity collapses.

  15. On the influence of applied fields on spinel formation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    KORTE, C.; FARER, J.K.; RAVISHANKAR, N.; MICHAEL, JOSEPH R.; SCHMALZRIED, J.; CARTER, C.B.

    2000-01-01

    Interfaces play an important role in determining the effect of electric fields on the mechanism of the formation spinel by solid-state reaction. The reaction occurs by the movement of phase boundaries but the rate of this movement can be affected by grain boundaries in the reactants or in the reaction product. Only by understanding these relationships will it be possible to engineer their behavior. As a particular example of such a study, MgIn 2 O 4 can be formed by the reaction between single-crystal MgO substrate and a thin film of In 2 O 3 with or without an applied electric field. High-resolution backscattered electron (BSE) imaging and electron backscattered diffraction (EBSD) in a scanning electron microscope (SEM) has been used to obtain complementary chemical and crystallographic information

  16. On the influence of applied fields on spinel formation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    KORTE,C.; FARER,J.K.; RAVISHANKAR,N.; MICHAEL,JOSEPH R.; SCHMALZRIED,J.; CARTER,C.B.

    2000-04-04

    Interfaces play an important role in determining the effect of electric fields on the mechanism of the formation spinel by solid-state reaction. The reaction occurs by the movement of phase boundaries but the rate of this movement can be affected by grain boundaries in the reactants or in the reaction product. Only by understanding these relationships will it be possible to engineer their behavior. As a particular example of such a study, MgIn{sub 2}O{sub 4} can be formed by the reaction between single-crystal MgO substrate and a thin film of In{sub 2}O{sub 3} with or without an applied electric field. High-resolution backscattered electron (BSE) imaging and electron backscattered diffraction (EBSD) in a scanning electron microscope (SEM) has been used to obtain complementary chemical and crystallographic information.

  17. Phase diagram of the Ge-rich of the Ba–Ge system and characterisation of single-phase BaGe{sub 4}

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Prokofieva, Violetta K.; Pavlova, Lydia M., E-mail: fhim@mail.ru

    2014-06-25

    Highlights: • The Ba-Ge phase diagram for the range 50–100 at.% Ge was constructed. • Single-phase BaGe{sub 4} grown by the Czochralski method was characterised. • A phenomenological model for a liquid-liquid phase transition is proposed. - Abstract: The Ba–Ge binary system has been investigated by several authors, but some uncertainties remain regarding phases with Ba/Ge ⩽ 2. The goal of this work was to resolve the uncertainty about the current phase diagram of Ba–Ge by performing DTA, X-ray powder diffraction, metallographic and chemical analyses, and measurements of the electrical conductivity and viscosity. The experimental Ba–Ge phase diagram over the composition range of 50–100 at.% Ge was constructed from the cooling curves and single-phase BaGe{sub 4} grown by the Czochralski crystal pulling method was characterised. Semiconducting BaGe{sub 4} crystallised peritectically from the liquid phase near the eutectic. In the liquid state, the caloric effects were observed in the DTA curves at 1050 °C where there are no definite phase lines in the Ba–Ge phase diagram. These effects are confirmed by significant changes in the viscosity and electrical conductivity of a Ba–Ge alloy with eutectic composition at this temperature. A phenomenological model based on two different approaches, a phase approach and a chemical approach, is proposed to explain the isothermal liquid–liquid phase transition observed in the Ba–Ge system from the Ge side. Our results suggest that this transition is due to the peritectic reactions in the liquid phase. This reversible phase transition results in the formation of precursors of various metastable clathrate phases and is associated with sudden changes in the structure of Ba–Ge liquid alloys. Characteristics of both first- and second-order phase transitions are observed. Charge transfer appears to play an important role in this transition.

  18. Structure and magnetic properties of ZnO coated MnZn ferrite nanoparticles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mallesh, Shanigaram [Department of Physics, Indian Institute of Technology Madras, Chennai 600036 (India); Sunny, Annrose; Vasundhara, Mutta [Materials Science and Technology Division, CSIR-NIIST, Thiruvananthapuram, Kerala 695019 (India); Srinivas, Veeturi, E-mail: veeturi@iitm.ac.in [Department of Physics, Indian Institute of Technology Madras, Chennai 600036 (India)

    2016-11-15

    A comparative study of structural and magnetic properties of MnZn spinel ferrite (SF) and ZnO coated MnZn ferrite (ZF) nanoparticles (NPs) has been carried out. The as-prepared NPs show a single phase cubic spinel structure, with lattice parameter ~8.432 Å. However, α-Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3} impurity phase emerge from SF particles when subjected to annealing at 600 °C in air. The weight fraction of α-Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3} phase increases with increasing Mn concentration (9% for x=0.2 and 53% for x=0.6). On the other hand in ZF (x=0.2 and 0.4) NPs no trace of impurity phase is observed when annealed at 600 °C. The magnetic measurements as a function of field and temperature revealed superparamagnetic like behavior with cluster moment ~10{sup 4} μ{sub B} in as-prepared particles. The cluster size obtained from the magnetic data corroborates well with that estimated from structural analysis. Present results on ZnO coated MnZn ferrite particles suggest that an interfacial (ZnO@SF) reaction takes place during annealing, which results in formation of Zn-rich ferrite phase in the interface region. This leads to deterioration of magnetic properties even in the absence of α-Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3} impurity phase. - Highlights: • The properties of ZnO coated MnZn ferrite NPs are compared with uncoated NPs. • The structural data reveals that the ZnO shell protects ferrite core from degradation. • The field and temperature dependence of magnetization suggests SPM like behavior. • From the magnetic isotherms average cluster moment is estimated to be ~10{sup 4} μ{sub B.} • Magnetic data suggests formation of Zn-rich ferrite phase in interfacial region.

  19. The effect of Y2O3 addition on thermal shock behavior of magnesium aluminate spinel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pošarac Milica

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The effect of yttria additive on the thermal shock behavior of magnesium aluminate spinel has been investigated. As a starting material we used spinel (MgAl2O4 obtained by the modified glycine nitrate procedure (MGNP. Sintered products were characterized in terms of phase analysis, densities, thermal shock, monitoring the damaged surface area in the refractory specimen during thermal shock and ultrasonic determination of the Dynamic Young modulus of elasticity. It was found that a new phase between yttria and alumina is formed, which improved thermal shock properties of the spinel refractories. Also densification of samples is enhanced by yttria addition.

  20. Generation of high spin state in the spinel Co3O4 nano-domains through interfacial induction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tay, S.W.; Hong Liang; Liu Zhaolin

    2006-01-01

    The heterogeneous complex oxide (1 - x)La-xSr-Co oxides (0.8 ≤ x ≤ 0.99), is observed to possess soft ferromagnetic behaviour at ambient temperature, whereas the corresponding perovskite La 1-x Sr x CoO 3-δ solid solution no longer owns magnetic trait at the same temperature. This complex oxide comprises primarily of spinel Co 3 O 4 phase, cubic SrO phase and perovskite La 1-α Sr α CoO 3-β (α 3 O 4 and pervoskite structure possess paramagnetic properties at room temperature, the unique ferromagnetic response is interpreted as the result of interfacial induction, presumably through the Jahn-Teller distortion that happened at the octahedral interstices of spinel Co 3 O 4 adjacent to the SrO phase. This perspective was further inferred by XRD, ESR and HR-TEM testing. The HR-TEM images exhibit the interpenetrating SrO and Co 3 O 4 phases with sizes in nano-scale. The existence of a sufficiently large interface is critical to ensure the induction effect to be detected experimentally. Such an extremely high extent of mixing was attained by pyrolysing the metallo-organic chelating gel containing the above three types of metal ions. Besides the interfacial induction effect, an optimum content of La 2 O 3 (1 - x = 0.05) has been verified to play a doping effect, which enhances the response of the spinel Co 3 O 4 nano-phase to the interfacial induction