WorldWideScience

Sample records for single-phase electric motors

  1. Numerical investigation of refrigeration machine compressor operation considering single-phase electric motor dynamic characteristics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baidak, Y.; Smyk, V.

    2017-08-01

    Using as the base the differential equations system which was presented in relative units for generalized electric motor of hermetic refrigeration compressor, mathematical model of the software for dynamic performance calculation of refrigeration machine compressors drive low-power asynchronous motors was developed. Performed on its ground calculations of the basic model of two-phase electric motor drive of hermetic compressor and the proposed newly developed model of the motor with single-phase stator winding, which is an alternative to the industrial motor winding, have confirmed the benefits of the motor with innovative stator winding over the base engine. Given calculations of the dynamic characteristics of compressor drive motor have permitted to determine the value of electromagnetic torque swinging for coordinating compressor and motor mechanical characteristics, and for taking them into consideration in choosing compressor elements construction materials. Developed and used in the process of investigation of refrigeration compressor drive asynchronous single-phase motor mathematical and software can be considered as an element of computer-aided design system for design of the aggregate of refrigeration compression unit refrigerating machine.

  2. Design comparison of single phase outer and inner-rotor hybrid excitation flux switching motor for hybrid electric vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazlan, Mohamed Mubin Aizat; Sulaiman, Erwan; Husin, Zhafir Aizat; Othman, Syed Muhammad Naufal Syed; Khan, Faisal

    2015-05-01

    In hybrid excitation machines (HEMs), there are two main flux sources which are permanent magnet (PM) and field excitation coil (FEC). These HEMs have better features when compared with the interior permanent magnet synchronous machines (IPMSM) used in conventional hybrid electric vehicles (HEVs). Since all flux sources including PM, FEC and armature coils are located on the stator core, the rotor becomes a single piece structure similar with switch reluctance machine (SRM). The combined flux generated by PM and FEC established more excitation fluxes that are required to produce much higher torque of the motor. In addition, variable DC FEC can control the flux capabilities of the motor, thus the machine can be applied for high-speed motor drive system. In this paper, the comparisons of single-phase 8S-4P outer and inner rotor hybrid excitation flux switching machine (HEFSM) are presented. Initially, design procedures of the HEFSM including parts drawing, materials and conditions setting, and properties setting are explained. Flux comparisons analysis is performed to investigate the flux capabilities at various current densities. Then the flux linkages of PM with DC FEC of various DC FEC current densities are examined. Finally torque performances are analyzed at various armature and FEC current densities for both designs. As a result, the outer-rotor HEFSM has higher flux linkage of PM with DC FEC and higher average torque of approximately 10% when compared with inner-rotor HEFSM.

  3. Single phase induction motor with starting performance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Popescu, M.; Demeter, E. [Research Institute for Electrical Machines, ICPE-ME, Bucharest (Romania); Navrapescu, V. [University `Politehnica` Bucharest, Electrical Engineering Faculty Splaiul Independentei, Bucharest (Romania)

    1997-12-31

    The paper presents problems related to a special type of single phase induction motor. The main novelty consists in the use of a conducting (aluminium casted) shell distributed on the periferic region of the rotor. As a result the starting performance, as well as the rated ones, is much improved in comparison with the conventional construction. (orig.) 4 refs.

  4. A Novel Single Phase Hybrid Switched Reluctance Motor Drive System

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Liang, Jianing; Xu, Guoqing; Jian, Linni

    2011-01-01

    phase boost converter is applied to improve the performance of this motor. It is easy to generate a double dclink voltage and dc-link voltage and switch both of them. The voltage of boost capacitor is self balance, so the protective circuit is not need to consider. The fast excitation mode helps hybrid......In this paper, a novel single phase hybrid switched reluctance motor(SRM) drive system is proposed. It integrated a single phase hybrid SRM and a novel single phase boost converter. This motor can reduce the number of phase switch. And the permanent magnet which is used in the motor can improve...... the performance and efficiency of SR motor. However, the inherent characteristic of this motor is that the negative torque is very sensitive with the excitation current near the turn-on angle. The slow excitation current limits the torque generation region and reduces the average torque. Therefore, a novel single...

  5. Investigation of effect of single phase electrical faults at LOFT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yeates, J.A.

    1978-01-01

    This LTR presents the general basic engineering facts related to an open phase fault in a three phase power system commonly referred to as a single phase condition. It describes the probable results to electrical motors and describes the LOFT system design factors which minimize the likelihood of such a fault occurring at LOFT. It recognizes that the hazard of such a fault is a realistic threat and notes the types of relays designed to provide protection. Recommendations are made to perform a detailed engineering study to determine the most advantageous protective relay design, and to implement such a design by installation of the necessary devices and controls

  6. An Asymmetrical Space Vector Method for Single Phase Induction Motor

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cui, Yuanhai; Blaabjerg, Frede; Andersen, Gert Karmisholt

    2002-01-01

    Single phase induction motors are the workhorses in low-power applications in the world, and also the variable speed is necessary. Normally it is achieved either by the mechanical method or by controlling the capacitor connected with the auxiliary winding. Any above method has some drawback which...

  7. Improvement of Torque Production in Single-Phase Induction Motors ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Existing single phase induction motors exhibit low starting torque. Moreover, during accelerating time and at steady state, they produce a significant level of torque pulsations which gives rise to noise and vibration in the machine. As part of efforts to mitigate these problems, a performance improvement strategy using a PWM ...

  8. Modeling and analysis of variable speed single phase induction motors with iron loss

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vaez-Zadeh, S.; Zahedi, B.

    2009-01-01

    Despite their usual low power ratings of single phase induction motors, they consume a considerable part of total motors energy consumption due to their large and ever-increasing quantity. The recent rising of oil prices and environmental crises has fortified the idea of energy saving practices in all applications; particularly in single phase induction motors due to their typical low efficiency. An essential requirement for this practice is the modeling and analysis of machine electrical losses under variable frequency operation. In this paper an improved steady state model of single phase induction motors is derived to investigate major motor characteristics like torque-speed, input power, output power, etc. A special emphasis is placed on accurately representing core losses at variable frequency. The winding currents phase difference is reintroduced as a fundamental motor variable to determine motor performances including losses and efficiency. An advanced computerized motor test setup is designed and built for on-line measurement of motor characteristics at different supply and operating conditions. The extensive experimental results, in good agreement with the simulation results based on the mentioned analysis, confirm the validity of the proposed model.

  9. Servo characteristics of single-phase spindle motor in DVD-ROM

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, KingYin; Kuei, ChingPing; Chang, SungSan; Lee, YaoYu; Kuo, YuHung

    2000-07-01

    The single-phase DC motor has the low-cost advantage over 3- phase DC motor owing to its easy-assembling and high yield- rate, however, it has larger torque ripple and cogging torque. Single-phase DC motor is currently applied to low profit margin products such as cooling fan. In order to utilize single-phase DC motor to high precision system, for instance, DVD (Digital Versatile Disk), the vibration caused by torque ripple and cogging torque needs to be solved. In this paper, focusing error, tracking error, seeking ability and some velocity control performances are studied when single-phase DC motor is used in DVD related products.

  10. MECHANICAL CHARACTERISTICS OF THREE-PHASE INDUCTION MOTORS WITH SINGLE-PHASE POWER SUPPLY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V.S. Malyar

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Aim. Development of a method for calculating mechanical characteristics of three-phase induction motors with single-phase power supply. Methods. The developed algorithm is based on the high-adequacy mathematical model of motor and projection method for solving the boundary problem for equations of electrical circuits balance presented in the three-phase coordinate system. As a result of asymmetry of power supply to the stator windings, in steady state, flux-linkage and current change according to the periodic law. They are determined by solving the boundary problem. Results. The developed mathematical model allows determining periodic dependence of coordinates as a function of slip and, based on them, mechanical characteristics of motors. Academic novelty. The developed method relies on a completely new mathematical approach to calculation of stationary modes of nonlinear electromagnetic circuits, which allows obtaining periodic solution in a timeless domain. Practical value. Using the developed calculation algorithm, one can select capacitance required to start an induction motor with single-phase power supply and calculate static mechanical characteristics at a given capacitance.

  11. An Asymmetrical Space Vector Method for Single Phase Induction Motor

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cui, Yuanhai; Blaabjerg, Frede; Andersen, Gert Karmisholt

    2002-01-01

    the motor torque performance is not good enough. This paper addresses a new control method, an asymmetrical space vector method with PWM modulation, also a three-phase inverter is used for the main winding and the auxiliary winding. This method with PWM modulation is implemented to control the motor speed...

  12. Improvement of Torque Production in Single-Phase Induction Motors

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    OLUWASOGO

    PID controller. Simulation results show the starting torque of the motor increased by 75% under the developed drive scheme. In addition, torque pulsations reduced from 1.4 Nm peak-peak to 0.14 Nm peak-peak at steady state. It was observed that the accelerating time reduced by 30% compared to the accelerating time ...

  13. Improvement of Torque Production in Single-Phase Induction Motors

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    OLUWASOGO

    and at steady state, they produce a significant level of torque pulsations which gives rise to noise and vibration in the machine. As part of efforts to mitigate these problems, a performance improvement strategy using a PWM inverter to drive the existing motor is implemented in MATLAB/Simulink environment in this work.

  14. Novel Motion Sensorless Control of Single Phase Brushless D.C. PM Motor Drive, with experiments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lepure, Liviu Ioan; Boldea, Ion; Andreescu, Gheorghe Daniel

    2010-01-01

    A motion sensorless control for single phase permanent magnet brushless d.c. (PM-BLDC) motor drives, based on flux integration and prior knowledge of the PM flux/position characteristic is proposed here and an adequate correction algorithm is adopted, in order to increase the robustness to noise...

  15. Flux Concentration and Pole Shaping in a Single Phase Hybrid Switched Reluctance Motor Drive

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jakobsen, Uffe; Lu, Kaiyuan

    2010-01-01

    The single phase hybrid switched reluctance motor (HSRM) may be a good candidate for low-cost drives used for pump applications. This paper presents a new design of the HSRM with improved starting torque achieved by stator pole shaping, and a better arrangement of the embedded stator permanent...

  16. Design and analysis of sensorless torque optimization for single phase induction motors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vaez-Zadeh, S.; Payman, A.

    2006-01-01

    Single phase induction motors are traditionally used in constant speed applications and suffer from unsymmetrical performance. A reliable speed signal can improve their performance and extend their applications as variable speed drives. In this paper, a speed estimation method for these motors is proposed based on a machine model in the stator flux reference frame. The method is examined in a sensorless torque optimization system over a wide operating range. Extensive simulation results prove the validity of the proposed method. Also, the motor performance under the torque optimization system is analyzed

  17. Indirect Matrix Converter for Hybrid Electric Vehicle Application with Three-Phase and Single-Phase Outputs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yeongsu Bak

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents an indirect matrix converter (IMC topology for hybrid electric vehicle (HEV application with three-phase and single-phase outputs. The HEV includes mechanical, electrical, control, and electrochemical systems among others. In the mechanical system, a traction motor and a compressor motor are used to drive the HEV. The traction motor and the compressor motor are usually operated as three-phase and single-phase motors, respectively. In this respect, a dual AC-drive system can operate the traction and the compressor motor simultaneously. Furthermore, compared to a conventional dual matrix converter system, the proposed topology can reduce the number of switches that the dual outputs share with a DC-link. The application of this system for HEV has advantages, like long lifetime and reduced volume due to the lack of a DC-link. The proposed control strategy and modulation schemes ensure the sinusoidal input and output waveforms and bidirectional power transmission. The proposed system for the HEV application is verified by simulation and experiments.

  18. A control strategy for induction motors fed from single phase supply

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Søndergård, Lars Møller

    1993-01-01

    It is often required that a three-phased asynchronous motor can run at variable speed, which makes it necessary to use a three-phase inverter driven from a DC-source. Today, most inverters are driven from the network using a simple diode bridge and an electrolytic capacitor. The problem...... with the simple diode bridge and the electrolytic capacitor is that current is only drawn for short periods, which gives rise to harmonic currents in the network. For small drive systems (motor+inverter), i.e. less than 1.5 kW, a single phase network outlet is often used. The author describes a method whereby...

  19. Novel Position and Speed Estimator for PM Single Phase Brushless D.C. Motor Drives

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lepure, Liviu I.; Andreescu, Gheorghe-Daniel; Iles, Doris

    2010-01-01

    A novel position and speed estimator for single phase permanent magnet brushless d.c. (PMBLDC) motor drives, based on flux integration and prior knowledge of ΨPM (θ) is proposed here and an adequate correction algorithm is adopted in order to increase the robustness to noise and to reduce...... the sensitivity to accuracy of flux linkage estimation. A speed and current close loop control is employed based on the Hall signal and the motor is controlled at different speeds in order to validate the proposed estimation algorithm with satisfying results. The position correction effect is analyzed...

  20. Single-Phase Hybrid Switched Reluctance Motor for Low-Power Low-Cost Applications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lu, Kaiyuan; Rasmussen, Peter Omand; Jakobsen, Uffe

    2011-01-01

    This paper presents a new single-phase, Hybrid Switched Reluctance (HSR) motor for low-cost, low-power, pump or fan drive systems. Its single-phase configuration allows use of a simple converter to reduce the system cost. Cheap ferrite magnets are used and arranged in a special flux concentration...... manner to increase effectively the torque density and efficiency of this machine. The efficiency of this machine is comparable to the efficiency of a traditional permanent magnet machine in the similar power range. The cogging torque, due to the existence of the permanent magnetic field, is beneficially...... used to reduce the torque ripple and enable self-starting of the machine. The starting torque of this machine is significantly improved by a slight extension of the stator pole-arc. A prototype machine and a complete drive system has been manufactured and tested. Results are given in this paper....

  1. FUZZY LOGIC BASED OPTIMIZATION OF CAPACITOR VALUE FOR SINGLE PHASE OPEN WELL SUBMERSIBLE INDUCTION MOTOR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Subramanian

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose – The aim of this paper is to optimize the capacitor value of a single phase open well submersible motor operating under extreme voltage conditions using fuzzy logic optimization technique and compared with no-load volt-ampere method. This is done by keeping the displacement angle (a between main winding and auxiliary winding near 90o, phase angle (f between the supply voltage and line current near 0o. The optimization work is carried out by using Fuzzy Logic Toolbox software built on the MATLAB technical computing environment with Simulink software. Findings – The optimum capacitor value obtained is used with a motor and tested for different supply voltage conditions. The vector diagrams obtained from the experimental test results indicates that the performance is improved from the existing value. Originality/value – This method will be highly useful for the practicing design engineers in selecting the optimum capacitance value for single phase induction motors to achieve the best performance for operating at extreme supply voltage conditions.

  2. Compact ASD Topologies for Single-Phase Integrated Motor Drives with Sinusoidal Input Current

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Klumpner, Christian; Blaabjerg, Frede; Thoegersen, Paul

    2005-01-01

    A standard configuration of an Adjustable Speed Drive (ASD) consists of two separate units: an AC motor, which runs with fixed speed when it is supplied from a constant frequency grid voltage and a frequency converter, which is used to provide the motor with variable voltage-variable frequency......-density integration of the converter caused by the large size of the passive components (electrolytic capacitors and iron chokes) and vibration of the converter enclosure. This paper analyzes the implementation aspects for obtaining a compact and cost effective single-phase ASD with sinusoidal input current...... for high frequency operation, higher core losses will occur, but outside the converter enclosure. The advantages are: the reduction of the number of active semiconductor devices, the reduction of the ASD size and the better integration potential....

  3. Hybrid I-f starting and observer-based Ssnsorless control of single-phase BLDC-PM motor drives

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Iepure, Liviu Ioan; Boldea, Ion; Blaabjerg, Frede

    2012-01-01

    A motion sensorless control for single-phase permanent magnet brushless dc motor based on an I-f starting sequence and a real-time permanent magnet flux estimation is proposed here. The special calculation for extracting the position and speed used here implies the generating of an orthogonal flux......-speed blower-motor (40 W, 10 krpm, 12 Vdc)....

  4. Condition monitoring of shaft of single-phase induction motor using optical sensor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fulzele, Asmita G.; Arajpure, V. G.; Holay, P. P.; Patil, N. M.

    2012-05-01

    Transmission type of optical technique is developed to sense the condition of rotating shafts from a distance. A parallel laser beam is passed tangential over the surface of rotating shaft of a single phase induction motor and its flickering shadow is received on a photo sensor. Variations in sensor voltage output are observed on a digital storage oscilloscope. It is demonstrated that this signal carries information about shaft defects like miss alignment, play and impacts in bearings along with surface deformities. Mathematical model of signals corresponding to these shaft defects is developed. During the development and testing of the sensor, effects of reflections are investigated, sensing phenomenon is simulated, frequency response of the sensor is obtained and its performance is compared with conventional accelerometer.

  5. Rotor Design for an Efficient Single-Phase Induction Motor for Refrigerator Compressors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hyun-Jin Ahn

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available This article describes a rotor making technology for the production of high-efficiency single-phase induction motors (SPIMs to be used in refrigerator compressors. Rotors can have different aluminum fill factors according to the fabrication method. In order to examine the association between the fill factor and the efficiency of the rotor, we analyzed the distribution of magnetic flux density using the finite element method (FEM. Next, we made prototype rotors by conventional casting methods and by the proposed casting method and compared their fill factors. In addition, SPIMs were made using the rotors, and their efficiencies were measured using a dynamometer. Moreover, the SPIMs were put to use in a compressor, for testing, and for each SPIM the refrigerating capacity of the compressor was measured with a calorimeter. Based on the results of the FEM analysis of the magnetic flux density and the experiments, the reliability and validity of the proposed method were proven.

  6. A Rotor Flux and Speed Observer for Sensorless Single-Phase Induction Motor Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Massimo Caruso

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available It is usual to find single-phase induction motor (SPIM in several house, office, shopping, farm, and industry applications, which are become each time more sophisticated and requiring the development of efficient alternatives to improve the operational performance of this machine. Although the rotor flux and rotational speed are essential variables in order to optimize the operation of a SPIM, the use of conventional sensors to measure them is not a viable option. Thus, the adoption of sensorless strategies is the more reasonable proposal for these cases. This paper presents a rotor flux and rotational speed observer for sensorless applications involving SPIMs. Computer simulations and the experimental results are used to verify the performance of the proposed observer.

  7. An efficiency improved single-phase PFC converter for electric vehicle charger applications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhu, Dexuan; Tang, Yi; Jin, Chi

    2013-01-01

    This paper presents an efficiency improved single-phase power factor correction (PFC) converter with its target application to plug-in hybrid electric vehicle (PHEV) charging systems. The proposed PFC converter features sinusoidal input current, three-level output characteristic, and wide range...... of output DC voltage. Moreover, the involved DC/DC buck conversion stage may only need to convert partial input power rather than full scale of input power, and therefore the system overall efficiency can be much improved. Through proper control of the buck converter, it is also possible to mitigate...... the double-line frequency ripple power that is inherent in a single-phase AC/DC system. Both simulation and experimental results are presented to show the effectiveness of this converter....

  8. Electric motor handbook

    CERN Document Server

    Chalmers, B J

    2013-01-01

    Electric Motor Handbook aims to give practical knowledge in a wide range of capacities such as plant design, equipment specification, commissioning, operation and maintenance. The book covers topics such as the modeling of steady-state motor performance; polyphase induction, synchronous, and a.c. commutator motors; ambient conditions, enclosures, cooling and loss dissipation; and electrical supply systems and motor drives. Also covered are topics such as variable-speed drives and motor control; materials and motor components; insulation types, systems, and techniques; and the installation, sit

  9. POWER FACTOR CORRECTION IN PERMANENT MAGNET BRUSHLESS DC MOTOR DRIVE USING SINGLE-PHASE CUK CONVERTER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SANJEEV SINGH

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Permanent magnet brushless DC motor (PMBLDCM drives are being employed in many variable speed applications due to their high efficiency, silent operation, compact size, high reliability, ease of control, and low maintenance requirements. These drives have power quality problems and poor power factor at input AC mains as they are mostly fed through diode bridge rectifier based voltage source inverters. To overcome such problems a single-phase single-switch power factor correction AC-DC converter topology based on a Cuk converter is proposed to feed voltage source inverters based PMBLDCM. It focuses on the analysis, design and performance evaluation of the proposed PFC converter topology for a 1.5 kW, 1500 rpm, 400 V PMBLDCM drive used for an air-conditioning system. The proposed PFC converter topology is modelled and its performance is simulated in Matlab-Simulink environment and results show an improved power quality and good power factor in wide speed range of the drive.

  10. Electric Motor Thermal Management

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bennion, Kevin S [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2017-09-01

    Thermal management enables more efficient and cost-effective motors. This Annual Merit Review presentation describes the technical accomplishments and progress in electric motor thermal management R&D over the last year. This project supports a broad industry demand for data, analysis methods, and experimental techniques to improve and better understand motor thermal management.

  11. ESTABLISHED MODES AND STATIC CHARACTERISTICS OF THREE-PHASE ASYNCHRONOUS MOTOR POWERED WITH SINGLE PHASE NETWORK

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. S. Malyar

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available A mathematical model is developed to study the operation of three-phase asynchronous motor with squirrel-cage rotor when the stator winding is powered from a single phase network. To create a rotating magnetic field one of the phases is fed through the capacitor. Due to the asymmetry of power feed not only transients, but the steady-state regimes are dynamic, so they are described by differential equations in any coordinate system. Their study cannot be carried out with sufficient adequacy on the basis of known equivalent circuits and require the use of dynamic parameters. In the mathematical model the state equations of the circuits of the stator and rotor are composed in the stationary three phase coordinate system. Calculation of the established mode is performed by solving the boundary problem that makes it possible to obtain the coordinate dependences over the period, without calculation of the transient process. In order to perform it, the original nonlinear differential equations are algebraized by approximating the variables with the use of cubic splines. The resulting nonlinear system of algebraic equations is a discrete analogue of the initial system of differential equations. It is solved by parameter continuation method. To calculate the static characteristics as a function of a certain variable, the system is analytically differentiated, and then numerically integrated over this variable. In the process of integration, Newton's refinement is performed at each step or at every few steps, making it possible to implement the integration in just a few steps using Euler's method. Jacobi matrices in both cases are the same. To account for the current displacement in the rods of the squirrel-cage rotor, each of them, along with the squirrel-cage rings, is divided in height into several elements. This results in several squirrel-cage rotor windings which are represented by three-phase windings with magnetic coupling between them.

  12. Uso de motores monofásicos acoplados mecanicamente em série, em irrigação por pivô central Utilization of mechanically coupled single phase motors in series in central pivot irrigation system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Delly Oliveira Filho

    2005-03-01

    Full Text Available A utilização de sistemas de irrigação por pivô central requer elevada potência elétrica, o que, em geral, implica em alto investimento inicial. No Brasil, a maioria das fazendas é eletrificada no sistema monofásico, devido ao fato de sua implantação requerer cerca de 40% do investimento inicial exigido pelo sistema trifásico. Salienta-se que a maior potência disponível no mercado de motores monofásicos no Brasil é de 9,2 kW (12,5 cv. Para suprir demanda de potência acima desta com sistema monofásico, propõe-se acoplar os motores monofásicos mecanicamente em série. Este trabalho teve como objetivo estimar o rendimento de um sistema de acoplamento e sua viabilidade técnico-econômica, comparado-o com outras formas de fornecimento de energia, diesel e sistema elétrico trifásico.The utilization of central pivot irrigation system requires in most cases high electric power which imply in high initial investment. Most of the Brazilian farms are electrified in the single phase electrical system, due to the fact that their implementation requires only about 40% of the initial investment as compared to three phase system. In Brazilian market the highest available power of single phase motors is 9.2 kW (12.5 hp. To supply power demand above this limit with single phase system one could couple mechanically the single phase motors in series. The objective of this work was to estimate the efficiency of such coupling system and to evaluate the economic and technical feasibility compared with other forms of energy supply such as diesel and three phase electrical system.

  13. Design and testing of an integrated electronically controlled capacitor for integral and fractional horse power single phase induction motor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Faiz, Jawad; Kasebi, F.; Pillay, P.

    2004-01-01

    This paper addresses a problem that occurs in many small appliances. As such, it is an important problem of energy utilization. To improve the performance of a single phase capacitor start/run induction motor, FET type power transistors could be used to replace a SCR H bridge. Such a configuration can lead to a simpler and more inexpensive circuit for the electronically controlled capacitor. In this paper, ICs and an OP-AMP are used to design an electronically controlled capacitor for a single phase induction motor. The design can compensate for the input voltage fluctuations that are present in the normal operation of the motor. In addition, an improvement in its performance can be obtained. At present, the use of a tachometer can be considered a disadvantage of the proposed scheme. Thus, a configuration that enables removal of the tachometer, while maintaining reasonable cost, is desirable. In addition, replacing the ac capacitor with one rated for dc can lead to a system reduction, in addition to a considerable reduction in the size of the circuit due to the use of integrated circuits

  14. Agricultural Electricity. Electric Motors. Student Manual.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benson, Robert T.

    Addressed to the student, this manual, which includes supplementary diagrams, discusses the following topics and principles: Electromagnetic fields, electromagnets, parts of an electric motor, determining speed of an electric motor, types of electric motors in common use (split-phase, capacitor, repulsion-induction, three-phase), the electric…

  15. Compact ASD Topologies for Single-Phase Integrated Motor Drives with Sinusoidal Input Current

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Klumpner, Christian; Blaabjerg, Frede; Thoegersen, Paul

    2005-01-01

    A standard configuration of an Adjustable Speed Drive (ASD) consists of two separate units: an AC motor, which runs with fixed speed when it is supplied from a constant frequency grid voltage and a frequency converter, which is used to provide the motor with variable voltage-variable frequency ne...

  16. Sensorless control of low-cost single-phase hybrid switched reluctance motor drive

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jakobsen, Uffe; Lu, Kaiyuan; Rasmussen, Peter Omand

    2013-01-01

    This paper presents a sensorless-controlled, low-cost, low-power, variable-speed drive system suitable for fan and pump applications. The main advantages of this drive system are the low system cost, simple converter structure, and simple but robust sensorless control technique. The drive motor...... is a special Hybrid Switched Reluctance Motor (HSRM). The proposed sensorless control method utilizes beneficially the stator side permanent magnet field and its performance is motor parameter independent. The unique low-cost drive system solution, simple and robust sensorless control features of this drive...

  17. Sensorless Control of Low-cost Single-phase Hybrid Switched Reluctance Motor Drive

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jakobsen, Uffe; Lu, Kaiyuan; Rasmussen, Peter Omand

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents a sensorless-controlled, low-cost, low-power, and variable-speed drive system suitable for fan and pump applications. The main advantages of this drive system are the low system cost, simple converter structure, and simple but robust sensorless control technique. The drive motor...... is a special hybrid switched reluctance motor. The proposed sensorless control method beneficially utilizes the stator side PM field and its performance is motor parameter independent. The unique low-cost drive system solution, simple and robust sensorless control features of this drive system, is demonstrated...... in detail in this paper. Important design details for practical implementation of the sensorless control algorithm are included. The complete drive system performance is validated using a prototype drive system....

  18. Mechanical design of electric motors

    CERN Document Server

    Tong, Wei

    2014-01-01

    Rapid increases in energy consumption and emphasis on environmental protection have posed challenges for the motor industry, as has the design and manufacture of highly efficient, reliable, cost-effective, energy-saving, quiet, precisely controlled, and long-lasting electric motors.Suitable for motor designers, engineers, and manufacturers, as well as maintenance personnel, undergraduate and graduate students, and academic researchers, Mechanical Design of Electric Motors provides in-depth knowledge of state-of-the-art design methods and developments of electric motors. From motor classificati

  19. Phase Balancing by Means of Electric Vehicles Single-Phase Connection Shifting in a Low Voltage Danish Grid

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lico, Pasqualino; Marinelli, Mattia; Knezovic, Katarina

    2015-01-01

    In Denmark, household consumers are supplied with three phase with neutral cable. In addition, the distribution service operator cannot decide to which phase electrical appliance are connected. The technician who realizes the installation connects the loads according to his technical expertise...... stations are equipped with single-phase converters. According to the designed control strategy, the charging spot can select the phase to be used for the charge. The selection is done according to a phase voltage measurement....

  20. Non Linear, Time Variant Speed Control of a Single Phase Hybrid Switched Reluctance Motor

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jakobsen, Uffe; Ahn, Jin Woo

    2009-01-01

    A high torque ripple in a given motor always presents a challenge for the speed control, since this ripple may lead to excessive actuation and ultimately may even lead to instability. The conventional solution is to low pass filter the measured speed, but this lowers dynamic control performance. ....... This paper presents a new method to accurately calculate the average speed and a time variant approximation of the integrator to achieve good dynamics. Both simulation and measurement shows a good steady state performance, with a steady state error less than 0.4%....

  1. Electric vehicle motors and controllers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Secunde, R. R.

    1981-01-01

    Improved and advanced components being developed include electronically commutated permanent magnet motors of both drum and disk configuration, an unconventional brush commutated motor, and ac induction motors and various controllers. Test results on developmental motors, controllers, and combinations thereof indicate that efficiencies of 90% and higher for individual components, and 80% to 90% for motor/controller combinations can be obtained at rated power. The simplicity of the developmental motors and the potential for ultimately low cost electronics indicate that one or more of these approaches to electric vehicle propulsion may eventually displace presently used controllers and brush commutated dc motors.

  2. Efecto de los armónicos en los motores monofásicos asincrónicos con capacitor de marcha. Harmonic effects on permanent -capacitor single- phase induction motors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Percy Rafael Viego Felipe

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Las ondas de tensión apreciablemente distorsionadas, tienen un impacto negativo en el comportamiento de los motores monofásicos asincrónicos de jaula de ardilla. Se deterioran sus indicadores energéticos, se incrementan las vibraciones y el ruido y se reduce la vida útil. Se estudia el comportamiento en estado estable de un motor con capacitor permanente, extensible a uno de dos capacitores. Se analiza un ejemplo experimental de aplicación tomado de la literatura. En él se evidencia un incremento de las pérdidas, empeoramiento del factor de potencia, aumento de los momentos pulsantes y otros elementos negativos cuando circulan corrientes no sinusoidales. Un estudio de las distorsiones de las ondas de corriente en instalaciones residenciales de Cuba, deja claro la necesidad de profundizar en los efectos sobre los motores y sobre el sistema eléctrico en general. Se explica que las técnicas para realizar estos estudios, sobre todo in situ, deben ser de inteligencia artificial. Strong distorted voltage waveforms, have a negative impact on the performance of single-phase squirrel-cage induction motors. Energetic parameters become worse, vibration and noise increase and life expectancy is reduced. Steady state performance of permanent capacitor single-phase induction motor is studied. The study is extensible to a two-value capacitor motor. An experimental application taken from literature was analyzed. In that work is evident the increase in losses, power factor reduction, greater pulsating torques and other undesirable tendencies when non-sinusoidal currents are circulating in the motor circuits. A study related to current wave distortion in Cuban housing electric circuits is made. The need of a deep analysis of the effect not only on the motors, but on the electric system as well, is made clear. Artificial intelligence methods have to be used to study these problems, arising on the presence of non sinusoidal wave forms, especially for

  3. 76 FR 647 - Energy Conservation Program: Test Procedures for Electric Motors and Small Electric Motors

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-05

    ... Electric Motors and Small Electric Motors; Proposed Rule #0;#0;Federal Register / Vol. 76, No. 3... Motors and Small Electric Motors AGENCY: Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy, Department of... motors and small electric motors, clarify the scope of energy conservation standards for electric motors...

  4. Aggregation of Single-phase Electric Vehicles for Frequency Control Provision Based on Unidirectional Charging

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sæmundsson, Valgeir Thor; Rezkalla, Michel M.N.; Zecchino, Antonio

    2017-01-01

    is investigated. The investigations are performed in a Pan-European interconnected grid with varying wind power penetration and different operational scenarios. Within this grid, the paper focuses on primary frequency control provision from electric vehicles and how the system behaves as the vehicles are being...... controlled within their respective areas. The investigations show that electric vehicles can be used for primary frequency control with different wind power penetration. By controlling the vehicles, the steady state frequency is improved and, since the vehicles react fast enough to the frequency changes......As the use of electric vehicles grows there is a greater possibility of using aggregated sets of electric vehicles as a large flexible unit to assist with the control of the power system. In this paper, the possibility of using electric vehicles as a flexible load for frequency control...

  5. Electric motor for laser-mechanical drilling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grubb, Daryl L.; Faircloth, Brian O.; Zediker, Mark S.

    2017-10-10

    A high power laser drilling system utilizing an electric motor laser bottom hole assembly. A high power laser beam travels within the electric motor for performing a laser operation. A system includes a down hole electrical motor having a hollow rotor for conveying a high power laser beam having a wavelength less than 1060 nm through the electrical motor.

  6. Implementation of Single Phase Soft Switched PFC Converter for Plug-in-Hybrid Electric Vehicles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aiswariya Sekar

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a new soft switching boost converter with a passive snubber cell without additional active switches for battery charging systems. The proposed snubber finds its application in the front-end ac-dc converter of Plug-in Hybrid Electric Vehicle (PHEV battery chargers. The proposed auxiliary snubber circuit consists of an inductor, two capacitors and two diodes. The new converter has the advantages of continuous input current, low switching stresses, high voltage gain without extreme duty cycle, minimized charger size and charging time and fewer amounts of cost and electricity drawn from the utility at higher switching frequencies. The switch is made to turn ON by Zero Current Switching (ZCS and turn OFF by Zero Voltage Switching (ZVS. The detailed steady state analysis of the novel ac-dc Zero Current- Zero Voltage Switching (ZC-ZVS boost Power Factor Correction (PFC converter is presented with its operating principle. The experimental prototype of 20 kHz, 100 W converter verifies the theoretical analysis. The power factor of the prototype circuit reaches near unity with an efficiency of 97%, at nominal output power for a ±10% variation in the input voltage and ±20% variation in the snubber component values.

  7. Grid Frequency Support by Single-Phase Electric Vehicles Employing an Innovative Virtual Inertia Controller

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rezkalla, Michel M.N.; Zecchino, Antonio; Pertl, Michael

    2016-01-01

    to limit the rate of change of frequency of power systems, thus, improving frequency dynamics. Electric vehicles (EVs) can represent a reliable solution to enhance frequency stability due to their fast response and capability to provide a large amount of aggregated power. On one hand, EVs are capable...... of adjusting the battery charging process (i.e., power flow) according to pre-defined algorithms. On the other hand, in case of islanded operation (i.e., low inertia), some of the EV's technical constraints might cause oscillations. This study presents two control algorithms which show that the EVs are capable...... of providing virtual inertia support. The first controller employs a traditional droop control, while the second one is equipped with an innovative control algorithm to eliminate likely oscillations. It is shown that, the proposed innovative control algorithm compared to the traditional droop control, assures...

  8. IPM Motor Drive Method Using a New Inverter Having the Operation of High Power Factor Single-phase Diode Rectifier without Electrolytic Capacitor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haga, Hitoshi; Takahashi, Isao; Ohishi, Kiyoshi

    This paper proposes a new inverter drive system for an interior permanent magnet (IPM) synchronous motor and an inverter control strategy to obtain the unity power factor operation of the single-phase diode rectifier. The motor drive system for home appliances requires improving the input power factor without a reactor, an electrolytic capacitor and a switching device. This paper can achieve to improve the input power factor without a reactor, a current control-switching converter and an electrolytic capacitor. The proposed system consists of only single-phase diode rectifier, small film capacitor (10uF/kW) across the dc-bus, three-phase inverter and IPM motor. Source side energy provides directly to the motor without smoothing the dc-bus voltage. There are many ripple voltages across the dc-bus. A principle of unity-power-factor operation is that the inverter makes the waveform of input current sinusoidal. The unity power factor operation is achieved by dither effect. For IPM motor, the inverter control scheme in this paper is based on direct torque control (DTC). The proposed system is constructed by the input current controller based on DTC. The additional current controller improves its input current waveform. This paper describes that the proposed method achieves the power factor 98.8% by experimental tests.

  9. Comparison of 2D and 3D magnetic field analysis of single-phase shaded pole induction motors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adem Dalcali

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available There has always been doubt on the accuracy of 2D analysis of small electric machines. To investigate the validity of this doubt, in this present work a small uni-coil shaded-pole induction motor is analyzed in 2D and 3D and the results are compared. In order to maintain the paper size as compact, the analysis is limited to the air-gap flux density distribution, variation of the main winding inductance against current and the force acting on the rotor body; which are the important components of the motor performance. It is found that although 3D analysis consumes several times more computing time and storage space, improvement achieved in performance by use of 3D analysis is not very significant. % rms difference between the two cases is obtained as 0.76% for the main winding inductance and 0.59% for the force acting on the rotor body. Also the air-gap flux density distribution obtained from the two types of analysis is found to be very close to each other. Therefore it is concluded that despite more computing time, more storage requirements and more human effort in the case of 3D analysis, the degree of improvement is not proportionally rewarding, and hence, 2D analysis is sufficient for the analysis of small machines.

  10. Electric motors for use in radiation environments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aslam, T.U.D.; Mahmood, S.B.

    1981-01-01

    Requirements of electric motors for a nuclear plant and the effect of nuclear radiations on different parts of the motors are discussed. Feasibility of using locally-fabricated motors is also considered. (author)

  11. Induction Motors by Electric Measurements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrzej M. Trzynadlowski

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper gives an overview of the issues and means of detection of mechanical abnormalities in induction motors by electric measurements. If undetected and untreated, the worn or damaged bearings, rotor imbalance and eccentricity, broken bars of the rotor cage, and torsional and lateral vibration lead to roughly a half of all failures of induction motor drives. The detection of abnormalities is based on the fact that they cause periodic disturbance of motor variables, such as the speed, torque, current, and magnetic flux. Thus, spectral analysis of those or related quantities may yield a warning about an incipient failure of the drive system. Although the traditional non-invasive diagnostics has mostly been based on the signature analysis of the stator current, other media can also be employed. In particular, the partial instantaneous input power is shown, theoretically and experimentally, to offer distinct advantages under noisy operating conditions. Use of torque and flux estimates is also discussed.

  12. Magnetic Signature of Brushless Electric Motors

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Clarke, David

    2006-01-01

    Brushless electric motors are used in a number of underwater vehicles. When these underwater vehicles are used for mine clearance operations the magnetic signature of the brushless motors is important...

  13. Electric Motor Thermal Management R&D

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bennion, Kevin

    2016-06-07

    Thermal management enables more efficient and cost-effective motors. This Annual Merit Review presentation describes the technical accomplishments and progress in electric motor thermal management R&D over the last year. This project supports a broad industry demand for data, analysis methods, and experimental techniques to improve and better understand motor thermal management.

  14. Quality electric motor repair: A guidebook for electric utilities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schueler, V.; Douglass, J.

    1995-08-01

    This guidebook provides utilities with a resource for better understanding and developing their roles in relation to electric motor repair shops and the industrial and commercial utility customers that use them. The guidebook includes information and tools that utilities can use to raise the quality of electric motor repair practices in their service territories.

  15. Propulsion Wheel Motor for an Electric Vehicle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Figuered, Joshua M. (Inventor); Herrera, Eduardo (Inventor); Waligora, Thomas M. (Inventor); Bluethmann, William J. (Inventor); Farrell, Logan Christopher (Inventor); Lee, Chunhao J. (Inventor); Vitale, Robert L. (Inventor); Winn, Ross Briant (Inventor); Eggleston, IV, Raymond Edward (Inventor); Guo, Raymond (Inventor); hide

    2016-01-01

    A wheel assembly for an electric vehicle includes a wheel rim that is concentrically disposed about a central axis. A propulsion-braking module is disposed within an interior region of the wheel rim. The propulsion-braking module rotatably supports the wheel rim for rotation about the central axis. The propulsion-braking module includes a liquid cooled electric motor having a rotor rotatable about the central axis, and a stator disposed radially inside the rotor relative to the central axis. A motor-wheel interface hub is fixedly attached to the wheel rim, and is directly attached to the rotor for rotation with the rotor. The motor-wheel interface hub directly transmits torque from the electric motor to the wheel rim at a 1:1 ratio. The propulsion-braking module includes a drum brake system having an electric motor that rotates a cam device, which actuates the brake shoes.

  16. Electric power conservation in electric motors; Conservacao de energia eletrica em motores

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eggert, Walmor von; Pacheco, Eorides da Silva [Kohlbach Motores S.A., Jaragua do Sul, SC (Brazil)

    1999-07-01

    This paper analyses the electric power consumption of electric motors compared to the Brazilian total consumption. The paper shows that the industrial sector is responsible for approximately 50% of the total consumption, from which 30% correspond to the usage of squirrel cage motors. The using of high efficiency motors for consumption reduction is also considered.

  17. Motor Torque Calculations For Electric Vehicle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saurabh Chauhan

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract It is estimated that 25 of the total cars across the world will run on electricity by 2025. An important component that is an integral part of all electric vehicles is the motor. The amount of torque that the driving motor delivers is what plays a decisive role in determining the speed acceleration and performance of an electric vehicle. The following work aims at simplifying the calculations required to decide the capacity of the motor that should be used to drive a vehicle of particular specifications.

  18. Actions to promote energy efficient electric motors. Motors study group

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Almeida, A.T. de [Coimbra Univ. (PT). Inst. of Systems and Robotics (ISR)

    1996-10-01

    Motor electricity consumption is influenced by many factors including: motor efficiency, motor speed controls, power supply quality, harmonics, systems oversizing, distribution network, mechanical transmission system, maintenance practices, load management and cycling, and the efficiency of the end-use device (e.g. fan, pump, etc.). Due to their importance, an overview of these factors is presented in this report. This study also describes the electricity use in the industrial and tertiary sectors and the electricity consumption associated with the different types of electric motors systems in the Member States of the European Union, as well as estimated future evolution until 2010. The studies for individual countries were carried out by the different partners of the motors study group at a previous stage. The study has found that there is a lack of accurate information about the motor electricity consumption, installed motor capacity and the motor market in almost all the European Union countries and only some general statistical sources are available. There is little field data, which is mainly available in Denmark, France, Italy and the Netherlands. Due to this lack of primary information, some common assumptions were made, based on the experience of the members of the study group. This lack of end-use characterisation data shows the need for improvement from the point of view of current knowledge. It is therefore recommended that further research is undertaken to arrive at more accurate figures. These could be the basis for a better understanding for motor use in practice and - as a consequence - for a more precise appraisal of potentials and barriers to energy efficiency. (orig.)

  19. The development and testing of a linear induction motor being fed from the source with limited electric power

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tiunov, V. V.

    2018-02-01

    The report provides results of the research related to the tubular linear induction motors’ application. The motors’ design features, a calculation model, a description of test specimens for mining and electric power industry are introduced. The most attention is given to the single-phase motors for high voltage switches drives with the usage of inexpensive standard single-phase transformers for motors’ power supply. The method of the motor’s parameters determination, when the motor is being fed from the transformer, working in the overload mode, was described, and the results of it practical usage were good enough for the engineering practice.

  20. Axial Field Electric Motor and Method

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Cho, Chahee P

    2007-01-01

    .... A hybrid field, brushless, permanent magnet electric motor utilizing a rotor with two sets of permanent magnets oriented such that the flux produced by the two sets of magnets is perpendicular to each...

  1. MODERN ELECTRIC CARS OF TESLA MOTORS COMPANY

    OpenAIRE

    O. F. Vynakov; E. V. Savolova; A. I. Skrynnyk

    2016-01-01

    This overview article shows the advantages of a modern electric car as compared with internal combustion cars by the example of the electric vehicles of Tesla Motors Company. It (в смысле- статья) describes the history of this firm, provides technical and tactical characteristics of three modifications of electric vehicles produced by Tesla Motors. Modern electric cars are not less powerful than cars with combustion engines both in speed and acceleration amount. They are reliable, economical ...

  2. Oscillation control system for electric motor drive

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slicker, J.M.; Sereshteh, A.

    1988-08-30

    A feedback system for controlling mechanical oscillations in the torsionally complaint drive train of an electric or other vehicle. Motor speed is converted in a processor to estimate state signals in which a plant model which are used to electronically modify the torque commands applied to the motor. 5 figs.

  3. Electric motor predictive and preventive maintenance guide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oliver, J.A.

    1992-07-01

    Electric motor performance is vital to the reliable and efficient operation of power plants. The failure of one or more critical motors could cause lost capacity and excessive repair and maintenance cost. However, existing maintenance recommendations proposed by vendors for electric motors have sometimes encouraged many overly conservative maintenance practices. These practices have lead to excessive maintenance activities and costs which have provided no extra margin of operability. EPRI has sponsored RP2814-35 to develop a guide which provides power plants with information and guidance for establishing an effective maintenance program which will aid in preventing unexpected motor failures and assist in planning motor maintenance efforts. The guide includes a technical description which summarizes technical data relative to the four basic types of motors and their components in general use in power plants. The significant causes of motor failures are investigated and described in detail and methods to optimize service life and minimize maintenance cost through appropriate preventive maintenance and conditioning program are presented. This guide provides a foundation for an effective electric motor maintenance program and simplifies the selection of predictive and preventive maintenance tasks. Its use will enable maintenance personnel in nuclear and fossil plants to plan motor repairs during scheduled outages and avoid costly unexpected failures

  4. Single-Phase PLLs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Golestan, Saeed; Guerrero, Josep M.; Quintero, Juan Carlos Vasquez

    2017-01-01

    Single-phase phase-locked loops (PLLs) are popular for the synchronization and control of single-phase gridconnected converters. They are also widely used for monitoring and diagnostic purposes in the power and energy areas. In recent years, a large number of single-phase PLLs with different...... structures and properties have been proposed in the literature. The main aim of this paper is to provide a review of these PLLs. To this end, the single-phase PLLs are first classified into two major categories: 1) power-based PLLs (pPLLs), and 2) quadrature signal generation-based PLLs (QSG......-PLLs). The members of each category are then described and their pros and cons are discussed. This work provides a deep insight into characteristics of different single-phase PLLs and, therefore, can be considered as a reference for researchers and engineers....

  5. MODERN ELECTRIC CARS OF TESLA MOTORS COMPANY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. F. Vynakov

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available This overview article shows the advantages of a modern electric car as compared with internal combustion cars by the example of the electric vehicles of Tesla Motors Company. It (в смысле- статья describes the history of this firm, provides technical and tactical characteristics of three modifications of electric vehicles produced by Tesla Motors. Modern electric cars are not less powerful than cars with combustion engines both in speed and acceleration amount. They are reliable, economical and safe in operation. With every year the maximum range of an electric car is increasing and its battery charging time is decreasing.Solving the problem of environmental safety, the governments of most countries are trying to encourage people to switch to electric cars by creating subsidy programs, lending and abolition of taxation. Therefore, the advent of an electric vehicle in all major cities of the world is inevitable.

  6. Grid Frequency Support by Single-Phase Electric Vehicles: Fast Primary Control Enhanced by a Stabilizer Algorithm

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zecchino, Antonio; Rezkalla, Michel M.N.; Marinelli, Mattia

    2016-01-01

    ancillary services for supporting the power grid. This paper presents modeling and analysis of the benefits of primary frequency regulation by electric vehicles in a microgrid. An innovative control logic algorithm is introduced, with the purpose of curtailing the number of current set-point variations...

  7. Electric Motor-Generator for a Hybrid Electric Vehicle

    OpenAIRE

    Odvářka, Erik; Mebarki, Abdeslam; Gerada, David; Brown, Neil; Ondrůšek, Čestmír

    2009-01-01

    Several topologies of electrical machines can be used to meet requirements for application in a hybrid electric vehicle. This paper describes process of an electric motor-generator selection, considering electromagnetic, thermal and basic control design. The requested electrical machine must develop 45 kW in continuous operation at 1300 rpm with field weakening capability up to 2500 rpm. Both radial and axial flux topologies are considered as potential candidates. A family of axial flux machi...

  8. Development of Ulta-Efficient Electric Motors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shoykhet, B. (Baldor Comp.); Schiferl, R. (Baldor Comp.); Duckworth, R.; Rey, C.M.; Schwenterly, S.W.; Gouge, M.J.

    2008-05-01

    Electric motors utilize a large amount of electrical energy in utility and industrial applications. Electric motors constructed with high temperature superconducting (HTS) materials have the potential to dramatically reduce electric motor size and losses. HTS motors are best suited for large motor applications at ratings above 1000 horsepower (hp), where the energy savings from the efficiency improvement can overcome the additional power required to keep the superconductors on the rotor cooled. Large HTS based motors are expected to be half the volume and have half the losses of conventional induction motors of the same rating. For a 5000 hp industrial motor, this energy savings can result in $50,000 in operating cost savings over the course of a single year of operation. Since large horsepower motors utilize (or convert) about 30% of the electrical power generated in the United States and about 70% of large motors are candidates for replacement by HTS motors, the annual energy savings potential through the utilization of HTS motors can be up to $1 Billion in the United States alone. Research in the application of HTS materials to electric motors has lead to a number of HTS motor prototypes yet no industrial HTS motor product has yet been introduced. These motor demonstrations have been synchronous motors with HTS field windings, on the rotor. Figure 1-1 shows a solid model rendering of this type of motor. The rotor winding is made with HTS coils that are held at cryogenic temperature by introducing cooling fluid from the cryocooler to the rotor through a transfer coupling. The stator winding is made of copper wire. The HTS winding is thermally isolated from the warm armature and motor shafts by a vacuum insulation space and through the use of composite torque tubes. The stator in Figure 1-1 is an air core stator in that the stator teeth and a small part of the yoke is made up of nonmagnetic material so the magnetic fields distribute themselves as if in air

  9. Single-Phase Boost Inverter-Based Electric Vehicle Charger With Integrated Vehicle to Grid Reactive Power Compensation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wickramasinghe Abeywardana, Damith Buddika; Acuna, Pablo; Hredzak, Branislav

    2018-01-01

    Vehicle to grid (V2G) reactive power compensation using electric vehicle (EV) onboard chargers helps to ensure grid power quality by achieving unity power factor operation. However, the use of EVs for V2G reactive power compensation increases the second-order harmonic ripple current component......-side capacitor without adversely affecting the EV battery. The operation of the boost inverter-based EV charger with second-order harmonic and switching frequency ripple current reduction, the dynamic behavior of the system, the transition between different operating modes, the DC-side capacitor voltage control...

  10. Electric engineering introduction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An, Byeong Won; Eom, Sang Ho

    1999-03-01

    It is divided into nine chapters, which includes electricity theory such as structure of material and current, nature of electricity, static, magnetic force and magnetic attraction, attraction of current and a storage battery, electric circuit on a direct current circuit, single phase circuit and 3-phase current circuit electricity machine like DC generator, DC motor, alternator, electric transformer, single-phase induction motor, 3-phase induction motor, synchronous motor, synchro electric machine, semiconductor such as diode, transistor, FET, UJT, silicon symmetrical switch, electronic circuit like smoothing circuit and Bistable MV. circuit, automatic control, measurement of electricity, electric application and safety.

  11. Energy-efficient electric motors study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1981-03-23

    The study identifies the industrial decision makers, investigated the information they needed to know, how they can best be reached, and the motivating factors for purchasing energy-efficient electric motors. A survey was conducted of purchasers of integral horsepower polyphase motors. The survey measured current knowledge of and awareness of energy-efficient motors, decision-making criteria, information sources, purchase and usage patterns, and related factors. The survey data were used for the electric motor market penetration analysis. Additionally, a telephone survey was made. The study also provides analyses of distribution channels, commercialization constraints, and the impacts of government programs and rising energy prices. A description of study findings, conclusions, and recommendations is presented. Sample questionnaires and copies of letters to respondents are presented in 3 appendices. Appendices D and E contain descriptions of the methods used. (MCW)

  12. Speed and position sensors for electric motors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lyyjynen, M. [Helsinki University of Technology, Otaniemi (Finland). Institute of Intelligent Power Electronics

    1997-12-31

    This paper gives an overview of speed and position measuring instruments for electric motors. The emphasis is on sensors that are designed to operate at industrial environment. In addition to that, some other, mostly magnetic sensors which are used, e.g., in automotive applications, are presented. Some of them are already applied in induction motors and some might be worth a try remembering the limitations. Automotive sensors are very cost-effective due to high production volumes. (orig.) 22 refs.

  13. 10 CFR 431.383 - Enforcement process for electric motors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Enforcement process for electric motors. 431.383 Section... COMMERCIAL AND INDUSTRIAL EQUIPMENT Enforcement § 431.383 Enforcement process for electric motors. (a) Test... motor sold by a particular manufacturer or private labeler, which indicates that the electric motor may...

  14. 21 CFR 882.4360 - Electric cranial drill motor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Electric cranial drill motor. 882.4360 Section 882...) MEDICAL DEVICES NEUROLOGICAL DEVICES Neurological Surgical Devices § 882.4360 Electric cranial drill motor. (a) Identification. An electric cranial drill motor is an electrically operated power source used...

  15. Electronically commutated dc motors for electric vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maslowski, E. A.

    1981-01-01

    A motor development program to explore the feasibility of electronically commutated dc motors (also known as brushless) for electric cars is described. Two different design concepts and a number of design variations based on these concepts are discussed. One design concept is based on a permanent magnet, medium speed, machine rated at 7000 to 9000 rpm, and powered via a transistor inverter power conditioner. The other concept is based on a permanent magnet, high speed, machine rated at 22,000 to 26,000 rpm, and powered via a thyristor inverter power conditioner. Test results are presented for a medium speed motor and a high speed motor each of which have been fabricated using samarium cobalt permanent magnet material.

  16. Electric machine for hybrid motor vehicle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsu, John Sheungchun

    2007-09-18

    A power system for a motor vehicle having an internal combustion engine and an electric machine is disclosed. The electric machine has a stator, a permanent magnet rotor, an uncluttered rotor spaced from the permanent magnet rotor, and at least one secondary core assembly. The power system also has a gearing arrangement for coupling the internal combustion engine to wheels on the vehicle thereby providing a means for the electric machine to both power assist and brake in relation to the output of the internal combustion engine.

  17. MATHEMATICAL MODELING OF AC ELECTRIC POINT MOTOR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. YU. Buryak

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. In order to ensure reliability, security, and the most important the continuity of the transportation process, it is necessary to develop, implement, and then improve the automated methods of diagnostic mechanisms, devices and rail transport systems. Only systems that operate in real time mode and transmit data on the instantaneous state of the control objects can timely detect any faults and thus provide additional time for their correction by railway employees. Turnouts are one of the most important and responsible components, and therefore require the development and implementation of such diagnostics system.Methodology. Achieving the goal of monitoring and control of railway automation objects in real time is possible only with the use of an automated process of the objects state diagnosing. For this we need to know the diagnostic features of a control object, which determine its state at any given time. The most rational way of remote diagnostics is the shape and current spectrum analysis that flows in the power circuits of railway automatics. Turnouts include electric motors, which are powered by electric circuits, and the shape of the current curve depends on both the condition of the electric motor, and the conditions of the turnout maintenance. Findings. For the research and analysis of AC electric point motor it was developed its mathematical model. The calculation of parameters and interdependencies between the main factors affecting the operation of the asynchronous machine was conducted. The results of the model operation in the form of time dependences of the waveform curves of current on the load on engine shaft were obtained. Originality. During simulation the model of AC electric point motor, which satisfies the conditions of adequacy was built. Practical value. On the basis of the constructed model we can study the AC motor in various mode of operation, record and analyze current curve, as a response to various changes

  18. Industry agreement on efficient electrical motors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schnyder, G.

    2004-01-01

    This comprehensive final report presents the results of a project carried out on behalf of the Swiss Federal Office of Energy (SFOE) and the Swiss Automation Pool (SAP) concerning the efficiency of electrical drives. The main goal of the project was to conclude a target agreement between the federal government and the Swiss electric motors/drives industry. This involves the promotion of the highest, 'eff1' energy-efficiency category of the three categories defined by the European Committee of Manufacturers of Electrical Machines and Power Electronics (CEMP). The report presents the findings of the project and recommends the banning of the use of motors in the lowest, 'eff3' category. Comparisons are made between the CEMP standards and further standards and promotion programmes in the USA and in Great Britain. Associated measures to be taken to aid the promotion of the drive standard are discussed

  19. Constant DC-Capacitor Voltage-Control-Based Harmonics Compensation Strategy of Smart Charger for Electric Vehicles in Single-Phase Three-Wire Distribution Feeders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fuka Ikeda

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper discusses harmonic current compensation of the constant DC-capacitor voltage-control (CDCVC-based strategy of smart chargers for electric vehicles (EVs in single-phase three-wire distribution feeders (SPTWDFs under nonlinear load conditions. The basic principle of the CDCVC-based harmonics compensation strategy under nonlinear load conditions is discussed in detail. The instantaneous power flowing into the three-leg pulse-width modulated (PWM rectifier, which performs as a smart charger, shows that the CDCVC-based strategy achieves balanced and sinusoidal source currents with a unity power factor. The CDCVC-based harmonics compensation strategy does not require any calculation blocks of fundamental reactive, unbalanced active, and harmonic currents. Thus, the authors propose a simplified algorithm to compensate for reactive, unbalanced active, and harmonic currents. A digital computer simulation is implemented to confirm the validity and high practicability of the CDCVC-based harmonics compensation strategy using PSIM software. Simulation results demonstrate that balanced and sinusoidal source currents with a unity power factor in SPTWDFs are obtained on the secondary side of the pole-mounted distribution transformer (PMDT during both the battery-charging and discharging operations in EVs, compensating for the reactive, unbalanced active, and harmonic currents.

  20. 77 FR 26607 - Energy Conservation Program: Test Procedures for Electric Motors and Small Electric Motors

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-04

    ... motors, update references to several industry and testing standards for electric motors, incorporate by... Electrotechnical Commission Central Office, 3, rue de Varemb[eacute], P.O. Box 131, CH-1211 GENEVA 20, Switzerland... by Reference I. References to Various Industry Standards J. National Institute of Standards and...

  1. Ultra-Efficient and Power-Dense Electric Motors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2009-01-01

    This factsheet describes a research project whose goal is to develop line-start and line-run constant-speed electric motors and simple-to-control electric motors with the goal of obtaining at least a 30% reduction in motor losses as compared to conventional energy-efficient induction motors and a 15% reduction in motor losses as compared to NEMA Premium® efficient induction motors.

  2. 77 FR 11598 - Thermal Overload Protection for Electric Motors on Motor-Operated Valves

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-27

    ... NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION [NRC-2011-0097] Thermal Overload Protection for Electric Motors on Motor-Operated Valves AGENCY: Nuclear Regulatory Commission. ACTION: Regulatory guide; issuance. SUMMARY... (RG) 1.106, ``Thermal Overload Protection for Electric Motors on Motor-Operated Valves.'' This...

  3. Electric drive motors for industrial robots

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fichtner, K.

    1985-04-01

    In robotized industrial plants it is possible to use electric motors in the technological process and also for control, assembly, transport, testing, and measurements. Particularly suitable for these applications are permanent-magnet d.c. motors. A new special series was developed for industrial robots with hinge joints in kinematic pairs. The complete drive includes thyristors or transistor controls with regulators and, if necessary, a line transformer as well as a servomotor with tachometer and odometer for speed, current, and position control. The drive is coupled to a robot tong through mechanical torque and force converters. In addition to a 0 to 4000 rpm speed regulation, without wobble at low speeds, and a high torque-to-weight ratio for repetitive short-time heavy duty, these low-inertia motors develop high starting and accelerating torques over the entire speed range. They operate from a 1 to O 220 V a.c. line through a rectifier. The motors are totally enclosed, or of open construction for better ventilation. Their windings have class F insulation for operation at ambient temperatures up to 40 C.

  4. Dual power, constant speed electric motor system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirschbaum, Herbert S.

    1984-01-01

    A dual capacity permanent split capacitor electric motor system is provided with a stator having main and auxiliary windings. The main stator winding includes two winding sections which are connected in parallel with each other and across a pair of line terminals while the auxiliary winding is connected in series with a capacitor to form a circuit branch which is connected between the line terminals for operation at a first output power level. Switching means are provided to reconnect the main stator winding sections in series with each other and in series with a second capacitor to form a circuit branch which is connected between the line terminals while the stator auxiliary winding is connected directly between the line terminals for operation at a second output power level. Automatic rotation reversal occurs when the motor switches from the first to the second output power level.

  5. 76 FR 17577 - Increased Scope of Coverage for Electric Motors

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-30

    ... comparable general purpose motor cannot be applied to the motor type in question, DOE requests information on... and Conservation Act (ECPA), establish energy conservation standards for two types of general purpose... ``electric motor'' to include a certain type of ``general purpose'' motor. (42 U.S.C. 6311(13)(A) (1992...

  6. Thermal Management of Power Electronics and Electric Motors for Electric-Drive Vehicles (Presentation)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Narumanchi, S.

    2014-09-01

    This presentation is an overview of the power electronics and electric motor thermal management and reliability activities at NREL. The focus is on activities funded by the Department of Energy Vehicle Technologies Office Advanced Power Electronics and Electric Motors Program.

  7. System for Monitoring and Analysis of Vibrations at Electric Motors

    OpenAIRE

    Gabriela Rață; Mihai Rață

    2014-01-01

    The monitoring of vibration occurring at the electric motors is of paramount importance to ensure their optimal functioning. This paper presents a monitoring system of vibrations occurring at two different types of electric motors, using a piezoelectric accelerometer (ICP 603C11) and a data acquisition board from National Instruments (NI 6009). Vibration signals taken from different parts of electric motors are transferred to computer through the acquisition board. A virtual...

  8. Field-circuit analysis and measurements of a single-phase self-excited induction generator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Makowski, Krzysztof; Leicht, Aleksander

    2017-12-01

    The paper deals with a single-phase induction machine operating as a stand-alone self-excited single-phase induction generator for generation of electrical energy from renewable energy sources. By changing number of turns and size of wires in the auxiliary stator winding, an improvement of performance characteristics of the generator were obtained as regards no-load and load voltage of the stator windings as well as stator winding currents of the generator. Field-circuit simulation models of the generator were developed using Flux2D software package for the generator with shunt capacitor in the main stator winding. The obtained results have been validated experimentally at the laboratory setup using the single-phase capacitor induction motor of 1.1 kW rated power and 230 V voltage as a base model of the generator.

  9. Electric Motor Thermal Management R&D. Annual Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bennion, Kevin [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2016-04-01

    With the push to reduce component volumes, lower costs, and reduce weight without sacrificing performance or reliability, the challenges associated with thermal management increase for power electronics and electric motors. Thermal management for electric motors will become more important as the automotive industry continues the transition to more electrically dominant vehicle propulsion systems. The transition to more electrically dominant propulsion systems leads to higher-power duty cycles for electric drive systems. Thermal constraints place significant limitations on how electric motors ultimately perform, and as thermal management improves, there will be a direct trade-off between motor performance, efficiency, cost, and the sizing of electric motors to operate within the thermal constraints. The goal of this research project is to support broad industry demand for data, analysis methods, and experimental techniques to improve and better understand motor thermal management. Work in FY15 focused on two areas related to motor thermal management: passive thermal performance and active convective cooling. Passive thermal performance emphasized the thermal impact of materials and thermal interfaces among materials within an assembled motor. The research tasks supported the publication of test methods and data for thermal contact resistances and direction-dependent thermal conductivity within an electric motor. Active convective cooling focused on measuring convective heat-transfer coefficients using automatic transmission fluid (ATF). Data for average convective heat transfer coefficients for direct impingement of ATF jets was published. Also, experimental hardware for mapping local-scale and stator-scale convective heat transfer coefficients for ATF jet impingement were developed.

  10. Wavelet Based Diagnosis and Protection of Electric Motors

    OpenAIRE

    Khan, M. Abdesh Shafiel Kafiey; Rahman, M. Azizur

    2010-01-01

    In this chapter, a short review of conventional Fourier transforms and new wavelet based faults diagnostic and protection techniques for electric motors is presented. The new hybrid wavelet packet transform (WPT) and neural network (NN) based faults diagnostic algorithm is developed and implemented for electric motors. The proposed WPT and NN

  11. AC Application of HTS Conductors in Highly Dynamic Electric Motors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oswald, B; Best, K-J; Setzer, M; Duffner, E; Soell, M; Gawalek, W; Kovalev, L K

    2006-01-01

    Based on recent investigations we design highly dynamic electric motors up to 400 kW and linear motors up to 120 kN linear force using HTS bulk material and HTS tapes. The introduction of HTS tapes into AC applications in electric motors needs fundamental studies on double pancake coils under transversal magnetic fields. First theoretical and experimental results on AC field distributions in double-pancake-coils and corresponding AC losses will be presented. Based on these results the simulation of the motor performance confirms extremely high power density and efficiency of both types of electric motors. Improved characteristics of rare earth permanent magnets used in our motors at low temperatures give an additional technological benefit

  12. Preliminary Design of Reluctance Motors for Light Electric Vehicles Driving

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    TRIFA, V.

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents the aspects regarding FEM analysis of a reluctant motor for direct driving of the light electric vehicles. The reluctant motor take into study is of special construction suitable for direct drive of a light electric vehicle. It is an inverse radial reluctant motor, with a fixed stator mounted on front wheel shaft and an external toothed rotor fixed on the front wheel itself. A short presentation of preliminary design is continued with the FEM analysis in order to provide the optimal geometry of the motor and adequate windings.

  13. System for Monitoring and Analysis of Vibrations at Electric Motors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriela Rață

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The monitoring of vibration occurring at the electric motors is of paramount importance to ensure their optimal functioning. This paper presents a monitoring system of vibrations occurring at two different types of electric motors, using a piezoelectric accelerometer (ICP 603C11 and a data acquisition board from National Instruments (NI 6009. Vibration signals taken from different parts of electric motors are transferred to computer through the acquisition board. A virtual instrument that allows real-time monitoring and Fourier analysis of signals from the vibration sensor was implemented in LabVIEW.

  14. Aging assessment of large electric motors in nuclear power plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Villaran, M.; Subudhi, M. [Brookhaven National Lab., Upton, NY (United States)

    1996-03-01

    Large electric motors serve as the prime movers to drive high capacity pumps, fans, compressors, and generators in a variety of nuclear plant systems. This study examined the stressors that cause degradation and aging in large electric motors operating in various plant locations and environments. The operating history of these machines in nuclear plant service was studied by review and analysis of failure reports in the NPRDS and LER databases. This was supplemented by a review of motor designs, and their nuclear and balance of plant applications, in order to characterize the failure mechanisms that cause degradation, aging, and failure in large electric motors. A generic failure modes and effects analysis for large squirrel cage induction motors was performed to identify the degradation and aging mechanisms affecting various components of these large motors, the failure modes that result, and their effects upon the function of the motor. The effects of large motor failures upon the systems in which they are operating, and on the plant as a whole, were analyzed from failure reports in the databases. The effectiveness of the industry`s large motor maintenance programs was assessed based upon the failure reports in the databases and reviews of plant maintenance procedures and programs.

  15. Aging assessment of large electric motors in nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Villaran, M.; Subudhi, M.

    1996-03-01

    Large electric motors serve as the prime movers to drive high capacity pumps, fans, compressors, and generators in a variety of nuclear plant systems. This study examined the stressors that cause degradation and aging in large electric motors operating in various plant locations and environments. The operating history of these machines in nuclear plant service was studied by review and analysis of failure reports in the NPRDS and LER databases. This was supplemented by a review of motor designs, and their nuclear and balance of plant applications, in order to characterize the failure mechanisms that cause degradation, aging, and failure in large electric motors. A generic failure modes and effects analysis for large squirrel cage induction motors was performed to identify the degradation and aging mechanisms affecting various components of these large motors, the failure modes that result, and their effects upon the function of the motor. The effects of large motor failures upon the systems in which they are operating, and on the plant as a whole, were analyzed from failure reports in the databases. The effectiveness of the industry's large motor maintenance programs was assessed based upon the failure reports in the databases and reviews of plant maintenance procedures and programs

  16. High-speed electrical motor evaluation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1989-02-03

    Under this task, MTI conducted a general review of state-of-the-art high-speed motors. The purpose of this review was to assess the operating parameters, limitations and performance of existing motor designs, and to establish commercial sources for a motor compatible with the requirements of the Brayton-cycle system. After the motor requirements were established, a list of motor types, manufacturers and designs capable of achieving the requisite performance was compiled. This list was based on an in-house evaluation of designs. Following the establishment of these options, a technical evaluation of the designs selected was conducted. In parallel with their evaluations, MTI focused on the establishment of commercial sources.

  17. Rare-Earth-Free Traction Motor: Rare Earth-Free Traction Motor for Electric Vehicle Applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2012-01-01

    REACT Project: Baldor will develop a new type of traction motor with the potential to efficiently power future generations of EVs. Unlike today’s large, bulky EV motors which use expensive, imported rare-earth-based magnets, Baldor’s motor could be light, compact, contain no rare earth materials, and have the potential to deliver more torque at a substantially lower cost. Key innovations in this project include the use of a unique motor design, incorporation of an improved cooling system, and the development of advanced materials manufacturing techniques. These innovations could significantly reduce the cost of an electric motor.

  18. A flight simulator control system using electric torque motors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Musick, R. O.; Wagner, C. A.

    1975-01-01

    Control systems are required in flight simulators to provide representative stick and rudder pedal characteristics. A system has been developed that uses electric dc torque motors instead of the more common hydraulic actuators. The torque motor system overcomes certain disadvantages of hydraulic systems, such as high cost, high power consumption, noise, oil leaks, and safety problems. A description of the torque motor system is presented, including both electrical and mechanical design as well as performance characteristics. The system develops forces sufficiently high for most simulations, and is physically small and light enough to be used in most motion-base cockpits.

  19. Lightweight High Efficiency Electric Motors for Space Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robertson, Glen A.; Tyler, Tony R.; Piper, P. J.

    2011-01-01

    Lightweight high efficiency electric motors are needed across a wide range of space applications from - thrust vector actuator control for launch and flight applications to - general vehicle, base camp habitat and experiment control for various mechanisms to - robotics for various stationary and mobile space exploration missions. QM Power?s Parallel Path Magnetic Technology Motors have slowly proven themselves to be a leading motor technology in this area; winning a NASA Phase II for "Lightweight High Efficiency Electric Motors and Actuators for Low Temperature Mobility and Robotics Applications" a US Army Phase II SBIR for "Improved Robot Actuator Motors for Medical Applications", an NSF Phase II SBIR for "Novel Low-Cost Electric Motors for Variable Speed Applications" and a DOE SBIR Phase I for "High Efficiency Commercial Refrigeration Motors" Parallel Path Magnetic Technology obtains the benefits of using permanent magnets while minimizing the historical trade-offs/limitations found in conventional permanent magnet designs. The resulting devices are smaller, lower weight, lower cost and have higher efficiency than competitive permanent magnet and non-permanent magnet designs. QM Power?s motors have been extensively tested and successfully validated by multiple commercial and aerospace customers and partners as Boeing Research and Technology. Prototypes have been made between 0.1 and 10 HP. They are also in the process of scaling motors to over 100kW with their development partners. In this paper, Parallel Path Magnetic Technology Motors will be discussed; specifically addressing their higher efficiency, higher power density, lighter weight, smaller physical size, higher low end torque, wider power zone, cooler temperatures, and greater reliability with lower cost and significant environment benefit for the same peak output power compared to typically motors. A further discussion on the inherent redundancy of these motors for space applications will be provided.

  20. Cooling of Electric Motors Used for Propulsion on SCEPTOR

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christie, Robert; Dubois, Authur; Derlaga, Joseph

    2016-01-01

    Benefits of Electric Power: Reduced energy consumption, Lower emissions, Less noise. Traction motors: Permanent magnet, Synchronous, High torque at low rotational speeds, High power density, (High concentration of heat). Annular inlet: Very compatible with PM motors, (Provides cooling where needed, No need for complicated ducting, Leads to a larger motor diameter which is beneficial for motor torque) Effect of prop wash on heat transfer coefficients: Assumed propeller induced turbulence would increase heat transfer coefficients, Holmes, Obara Yip reported 'propeller slipstream showed little if any apparent effect of the slip stream', Derlaga @ LaRC also found little change in heat transfer in the wake of the propeller.

  1. High Torque, Direct Drive Electric Motor Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Bear Engineering proposes to advance the development of an innovative high torque, low speed, direct drive motor in order to meet NASA's requirements for such...

  2. Slot Optimization Design of Induction Motor for Electric Vehicle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Yiming; Zhu, Changqing; Wang, Xiuhe

    2018-01-01

    Slot design of induction motor has a great influence on its performance. The RMxprt module based on magnetic circuit method can be used to analyze the influence of rotor slot type on motor characteristics and optimize slot parameters. In this paper, the authors take an induction motor of electric vehicle for a typical example. The first step of the design is to optimize the rotor slot by RMxprt, and then compare the main performance of the motor before and after the optimization through Ansoft Maxwell 2D. After that, the combination of optimum slot type and the optimum parameters are obtained. The results show that the power factor and the starting torque of the optimized motor have been improved significantly. Furthermore, the electric vehicle works at a better running status after the optimization.

  3. Electric motor systems in developing countries: Opportunities for efficiency improvement

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meyers, S.; Monahan, P.; Lewis, P.; Greenberg, S. [Lawrence Berkeley Lab., CA (United States); Nadel, S. [American Council for an Energy-Efficient Economy, Washington, DC (United States)

    1993-08-01

    This report presents an overview of the current status and efficiency improvement potential of industrial motor systems in developing countries. Better management of electric motor systems is of particular relevance in developing countries, where improved efficiency can lead to increased productivity and slower growth in electricity demand. Motor systems currently consume some 65--80% of the industrial electricity in developing countries. Drawing on studies from Thailand, India, Brazil, China, Pakistan, and Costa Rica, we describe potential efficiency gains in various parts of the motor system, from the electricity delivery system through the motor to the point where useful work is performed. We report evidence of a significant electricity conservation potential. Most of the efficiency improvement methods we examine are very cost-effective from a societal viewpoint, but are generally not implemented due to various barriers that deter their adoption. Drawing on experiences in North America, we discuss a range of policies to overcome these barriers, including education, training, minimum efficiency standards, motor efficiency testing protocols, technical assistance programs, and financial incentives.

  4. Apparatus for deploying and energizing submersible electric motor downhole

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Conner, S.E.; Dwiggins, J.L.; Brookbank, E.B.

    1991-01-01

    This patent describes an apparatus for deploying and energizing a submergible electric motor downhole. It comprises a cable socket assembly and a cable connecting-and-sealing chamber assembly adapted to be arranged seriatim in the path of cable means and the motor, the assemblies having first and second housings, respectively, means for connecting a lower end of the first housing to an upper end of the second housing, a lower end of the second housing being adapted for connection to the motor, the cable socket assembly having an attachment portion including means for attaching a weight-bearing cable of the cable means to the first housing via a breakaway connection, the first housing having a passage therein adapted to pass an electrical cable of the cable means to the second housing, the second housing being divided by a body therein into first and second chambers sealed from each other, the first chamber being adapted to communicate sealingly with the passage and the second chamber being adapted to communicate sealingly with the interior of the motor, a first set of electrical conductors in the first chamber and a second set of electrical conductors in the second chamber, the body having feed-through means for electrically interconnecting conductors of the first set with corresponding conductors of the second set, the conductors of the first set having electrical connector parts adapted to connect releasably with corresponding electrical connector parts of the electrical cable, and the conductors of the second set having electrical connector parts adapted to connect with corresponding electrical connector parts of the motor, each of the chambers being adapted to be filled with fluid to exclude well fluid therefrom

  5. Omnidirectional sensory and motor volumes in electric fish.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James B Snyder

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available Active sensing organisms, such as bats, dolphins, and weakly electric fish, generate a 3-D space for active sensation by emitting self-generated energy into the environment. For a weakly electric fish, we demonstrate that the electrosensory space for prey detection has an unusual, omnidirectional shape. We compare this sensory volume with the animal's motor volume--the volume swept out by the body over selected time intervals and over the time it takes to come to a stop from typical hunting velocities. We find that the motor volume has a similar omnidirectional shape, which can be attributed to the fish's backward-swimming capabilities and body dynamics. We assessed the electrosensory space for prey detection by analyzing simulated changes in spiking activity of primary electrosensory afferents during empirically measured and synthetic prey capture trials. The animal's motor volume was reconstructed from video recordings of body motion during prey capture behavior. Our results suggest that in weakly electric fish, there is a close connection between the shape of the sensory and motor volumes. We consider three general spatial relationships between 3-D sensory and motor volumes in active and passive-sensing animals, and we examine hypotheses about these relationships in the context of the volumes we quantify for weakly electric fish. We propose that the ratio of the sensory volume to the motor volume provides insight into behavioral control strategies across all animals.

  6. Introduction to the Control of Electric Motors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spencer, Frederick

    The fundamentals of electric circuits and electric machines are presented in the text, with an emphasis on the practical operation rather than on mathematical analyses of theories involved. The material contained in the text includes the fundamentals of both D.C. and A.C. circuits together with the principles of magnetism and electro-magnetic…

  7. Typical Method of Connection of Electric Motor-gear Unit in the Frame of Universal Motor Gear Reducer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Siniša Kuzmanović

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Characteristic conceptual solutions of connection of electric motor and gear unit, in the frame of universal motor gear reducer with helical gears, are analyzed in this paper. The aim of this analysis is to highlight the importance and benefits of particular solutions. It is known that today almost all major manufacturers of universal motor gear reducer use special (reducer motors. Smaller manufacturers commonly use standard (IEC motors, although large manufacturers, sometimes, also use IEC motors, especially when the customer request. The both of electric motors have certain advantages which manufacturers of motor reducer, with suitable construction solutions, want to use in order to achieve some benefits in the market.

  8. Electric Motors for Non-Cryogenic Hybrid Electric and Turboelectric Propulsion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duffy, Kirsten P.

    2015-01-01

    NASA Glenn Research Center is investigating hybrid electric and turboelectric propulsion concepts for future aircraft to reduce fuel burn, emissions, and noise. Systems studies show that the weight and efficiency of the electric system components need to be improved for this concept to be feasible. However, advances in motor component materials such as soft magnetic materials, hard magnetic materials, conductors, thermal insulation, and structural materials are expected in the coming years, and should improve motor performance. This study investigates several motor types for a one megawatt application, and projects the motor performance benefits of new component materials that might be available in the coming decades.

  9. Electric Motor Considerations for Non-Cryogenic Hybrid Electric and Turboelectric Propulsion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duffy, Kirsten P.

    2015-01-01

    NASA Glenn Research Center is investigating hybrid electric and turboelectric propulsion concepts for future aircraft to reduce fuel burn, emissions, and noise. Systems studies show that the weight and efficiency of the electric system components need to be improved for this concept to be feasible. However, advances in motor component materials such as soft magnetic materials, hard magnetic materials, conductors, thermal insulation, and structural materials are expected in the coming years, and should improve motor performance. This study investigates several motor types for a one megawatt application, and projects the motor performance benefits of new component materials that might be available in the coming decades.

  10. Heat engine and electric motor torque distribution strategy for a hybrid electric vehicle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boberg, Evan S.; Gebby, Brian P.

    1999-09-28

    A method is provided for controlling a power train system for a hybrid electric vehicle. The method includes a torque distribution strategy for controlling the engine and the electric motor. The engine and motor commands are determined based upon the accelerator position, the battery state of charge and the amount of engine and motor torque available. The amount of torque requested for the engine is restricted by a limited rate of rise in order to reduce the emissions from the engine. The limited engine torque is supplemented by motor torque in order to meet a torque request determined based upon the accelerator position.

  11. Electric motors with elastically mounted rotors

    Science.gov (United States)

    But, D. A.; Kulikov, N. I.

    1984-08-01

    Motors with a conical motion of the shaft suitable for applications in mixers, medical equipment and robotics are analyzed. The rotor is made in the form of a disk with a ferromagnetic active region and a shaft running through the center of the disk. The free end of the shaft is connected to the mechanical load. The rotor is held by a flexible support, which is a rubber bushing, bellows, coiled spring, etc. The magnetic cores with the windings are arranged around the stator periphery, adjacent to the end faces of the disk at axial working gaps. The upper and lower cores are mounted on a common steel frame. The windings are powered through controlled rectifiers, switched so as to drive the disk to oscillatory wave-like motions. Various configurations of such motors are discussed and analytical expressions are derived for disk acceleration, rpm and average magnetic force on the disk. The theory is illustrated with sample calculations for an approximately 30 W motor running at 600 rpm with an efficiency of 0.576 weighing about 8 kg.

  12. 46 CFR 108.187 - Ventilation for brush type electric motors in classified spaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Ventilation for brush type electric motors in classified... Ventilation for brush type electric motors in classified spaces. Ventilation for brush type electric motors in... the motors may cause unsafe conditions. Accommodation Spaces ...

  13. Motor Integrated Permanent Magnet Gear in a Battery Electrical Vehicle

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frandsen, Tommy; Mathe, Laszlo; Berg, Nick Ilsø

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents the physical construction and test results of two new demonstrators of a Motor Integrated Permanent Magnet Gear (MIPMG), which is a second version of an already tested demonstrator. The demonstrators will be used as traction units for a Battery Electrical Vehicle (BEV) and the......This paper presents the physical construction and test results of two new demonstrators of a Motor Integrated Permanent Magnet Gear (MIPMG), which is a second version of an already tested demonstrator. The demonstrators will be used as traction units for a Battery Electrical Vehicle (BEV...

  14. Motor integrated permanent magnet gear in a battery electrical vehicle

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frandsen, Tommy; Mathe, Laszlo; Berg, Nick Ilsø

    2013-01-01

    This paper presents the physical construction and test results of two new demonstrators of a Motor Integrated Permanent Magnet Gear (MIPMG), which is a second version of an already tested demonstrator. The demonstrators will be used as traction units for a Battery Electrical Vehicle (BEV) and the......This paper presents the physical construction and test results of two new demonstrators of a Motor Integrated Permanent Magnet Gear (MIPMG), which is a second version of an already tested demonstrator. The demonstrators will be used as traction units for a Battery Electrical Vehicle (BEV...

  15. Research on High-efficient Remanufacturing Technologies and Application of Electric Motor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Ren; Zhao, Yuejin; Yang, Xu; Wang, Gen

    2017-09-01

    The energy conservation of electric motor system is the key of industrial energy conservation. With the implementation and acceleration of electric motor energy efficiency improvement plan, more and more electric motors are knocked out. High-efficient remanufacturing of electric motor refers to improving the efficiency of electric motor and recycling the resources by replacing the winding, iron core and other components of electric motor on the basis of the low-efficient/outdated electric motors, which conforms to China’s policy of circular economy and resource recovery. The remanufacturing of electric motor not only maximizes the use of resources, but also reduces the energy consumption generated by reprocessing of cast iron, silicon steel sheet and other materials in dismantling of electric motor. However, structures and iron core materials used in design and manufacture of electric motors are different, and the degrees of wear of electric motors are also different under different operating conditions, which further result in diversified design schemes, increased remanufacturing cost and reduced remanufacturing efficiency. This paper analyzes the key process technologies for remanufacturing of electric motors are researched by analyzing the remanufacturing technologies of electric motors, and presents the feasibility to replace the cast-aluminum rotor with cast-copper rotor in high-efficient remanufacturing process of electric motor.

  16. Nano-Magnets and Additive Manufacturing for Electric Motors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Misra, Ajay K.

    2014-01-01

    High power density is required for application of electric motors in hybrid electric propulsion. Potential path to achieve high power density in electric motors include advanced materials, lightweight thermal management, lightweight structural concepts, high power density power electronics, and advanced manufacturing. This presentation will focus on two key technologies for achieving high power density, advanced magnets and additive manufacturing. The maximum energy product in current magnets is reaching their theoretical limits as a result of material and process improvements. Future improvements in the maximum energy product for magnets can be achieved through development of nanocomposite magnets combining the hard magnetic phase and soft magnetic phase at the nanoscale level. The presentation will provide an overview of the current state of development for nanocomposite magnets and the future path for doubling the maximum energy product. The other part of the presentation will focus on the role of additive manufacturing in fabrication of high power density electric motors. The presentation will highlight the potential opportunities for applying additive manufacturing to fabricate electric motors.

  17. Electric motor assisted bicycle as an aerobic exercise machine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagata, T; Okada, S; Makikawa, M

    2012-01-01

    The goal of this study is to maintain a continuous level of exercise intensity around the aerobic threshold (AT) during riding on an electric motor assisted bicycle using a new control system of electrical motor assistance which uses the efficient pedaling rate of popular bicycles. Five male subjects participated in the experiment, and the oxygen uptake was measured during cycling exercise using this new pedaling rate control system of electrical motor assistance, which could maintain the pedaling rate within a specific range, similar to that in previous type of electrically assisted bicycles. Results showed that this new pedaling rate control system at 65 rpm ensured continuous aerobic exercise intensity around the AT in two subjects, and this intensity level was higher than that observed in previous type. However, certain subjects were unable to maintain the expected exercise intensity because of their particular cycling preferences such as the pedaling rate. It is necessary to adjust the specific pedaling rate range of the electrical motor assist control according to the preferred pedaling rate, so that this system becomes applicable to anyone who want continuous aerobic exercise.

  18. CALCULATION OF A MECHANICAL CHARACTERISTIC OF ELECTRIC TRACTION MOTOR OF ELECTRIC VEHICLE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Phuong Le Ngo

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The traction characteristic of an electric vehicle is the main characteristic of mechanical system that reflects its key performance indicators. Implementation of the traction characteristic is based on controlling angular speed and torque of electric traction motor in an automatic control system. The static mechanical characteristic of an electric traction motor in an automatic control system is the most important characteristic that determines weight, size and operating characteristics of an electric traction motor and serves as the basis for design. The most common variants of constructive implementation of a traction electric drive are analyzed, and a scheme is chosen for further design. Lagrange’s equation for electric mechanical system with one degree of freedom is written in generalized coordinates. In order to determine the generalized forces, elementary operation of all moments influencing on a moving car has been calculated. The resulting equation of motion of the electric vehicle corresponding to the design scheme, as well as the expressions for calculation of characteristic points of static mechanical characteristics of traction motor (i.e. the maximum and minimum time, minimum power are obtained. In order to determine the nominal values of the angular velocity and the power of electric traction motor, a method based on ensuring the movement of the vehicle in the standard cycle has been developed. The method makes it possible to calculate characteristic points of the mechanical characteristic with the lowest possible power rating. The algorithm for calculation of mechanical characteristics of the motor is presented. The method was applied to calculate static mechanical characteristic of an electric traction motor for a small urban electric truck.

  19. Qualification of electric motors class 1E for supply of motors and its repair

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Perez, E.; Gonzalez, J. J.; Fernandez, A.; Garcia, D.

    2005-01-01

    Different original suppliers of nuclear grade equipment have either disappeared or discontinued the manufacture of this kind equipment. Under this situation nuclear plants are experiencing difficulties when dealing with the substitution or maintenance of these equipment. Tecnatom and Cantarey have developed a new line of Class 1E qualified electric low voltage motors which can be used as an alternative to originally installed safety-related motors or for its repair and maintenance. (Author)

  20. Electromagnetic phenomena analysis in brushless DC motor with speed control using PWM method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ciurys, Marek Pawel

    2017-12-01

    Field-circuit model of a brushless DC motor with speed control using PWM method was developed. Waveforms of electrical and mechanical quantities of the designed motor with a high pressure vane pump built in a rotor of the motor were computed. Analysis of electromagnetic phenomena in the system: single phase AC network - converter - BLDC motor was carried out.

  1. Electromagnetic phenomena analysis in brushless DC motor with speed control using PWM method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ciurys Marek Pawel

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Field-circuit model of a brushless DC motor with speed control using PWM method was developed. Waveforms of electrical and mechanical quantities of the designed motor with a high pressure vane pump built in a rotor of the motor were computed. Analysis of electromagnetic phenomena in the system: single phase AC network – converter - BLDC motor was carried out.

  2. IEMDC IN-LINE ELECTRIC MOTOR DRIVEN COMPRESSOR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Michael J. Crowley; Prem N. Bansal

    2004-10-01

    This report contains the final project summary and deliverables required by the award for the development of an In-line Electric Motor Driven Compressor (IEMDC). Extensive work was undertaken during the course of the project to develop the motor and the compressor section of the IEMDC unit. Multiple design iterations were performed to design an electric motor for operation in a natural gas environment and to successfully integrate the motor with a compressor. During the project execution, many challenges were successfully overcome in order to achieve the project goals and to maintain the system design integrity. Some of the challenges included limiting the magnitude of the compressor aerodynamic loading for appropriate sizing of the magnetic bearings, achieving a compact motor rotor size to meet the rotor dynamic requirements of API standards, devising a motor cooling scheme using high pressure natural gas, minimizing the impact of cooling on system efficiency, and balancing the system thrust loads for the magnetic thrust bearing. Design methods that were used on the project included validated state-of-the-art techniques such as finite element analysis and computational fluid dynamics along with the combined expertise of both Curtiss-Wright Electro-Mechanical Corporation and Dresser-Rand Company. One of the most significant areas of work undertaken on the project was the development of the unit configuration for the system. Determining the configuration of the unit was a significant step in achieving integration of the electric motor into a totally enclosed compression system. Product review of the IEMDC unit configuration was performed during the course of the development process; this led to an alternate design configuration. The alternate configuration is a modular design with the electric motor and compressor section each being primarily contained in its own pressure containing case. This new concept resolved the previous conflict between the aerodynamic flow

  3. 14 CFR 25.1365 - Electrical appliances, motors, and transformers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... transformers. 25.1365 Section 25.1365 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF... Equipment § 25.1365 Electrical appliances, motors, and transformers. (a) Domestic appliances must be... transformers, including those installed in domestic systems, must have a suitable thermal protection device to...

  4. Advanced Power Electronics and Electric Motors Annual Report -- 2013

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Narumanchi, S. [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Bennion, K. [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); DeVoto, D. [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Moreno, G. [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Rugh, J. [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Waye, S. [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2015-01-01

    This report describes the research into advanced liquid cooling, integrated power module cooling, high temperature air cooled power electronics, two-phase cooling for power electronics, and electric motor thermal management by NREL's Power Electronics group in FY13.

  5. Influence of big power motors for irrigation of electric systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shimoda, M.; Gialuca, V.; Trombetta, O.R.

    1988-01-01

    The evolution of rural electrification in CPFL - Companhia Paulista de Forca e Luz, Sao Paulo State, Brazil, and the influence of big power motors installation for irrigation in electric system are shown. Considerations about rural market, energy consumption, planning of distribution and transmission line and some calculations are also presented. (author)

  6. Fundamentals of electric power conversion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Umans, S.D.

    1992-12-01

    Its rugged nature and straightforward design make the induction motor the most commonly used type of electric motor. This motor ranges in size fro the fractional-horsepower, single-phase motors found in household appliances to polyphase motors rated at thousands of horsepower for industrial applications. Volume 1 of this report describes the function of induction motors, their characteristics, and induction motor testing. Volume 2 describes the characteristics of high-efficiency induction motors, with emphasis on the techniques used to obtain high efficiency. This two-volume report is written in nontechnical language and is intended for readers who require background from applications, marketing, motor planning, or managerial perspective

  7. Fundamentals of electric power conversion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Umans, S.D. (Umans (Stephen D.), Belmont, MA (United States))

    1992-12-01

    Its rugged nature and straightforward design make the induction motor the most commonly used type of electric motor. This motor ranges in size fro the fractional-horsepower, single-phase motors found in household appliances to polyphase motors rated at thousands of horsepower for industrial applications. Volume 1 of this report describes the function of induction motors, their characteristics, and induction motor testing. Volume 2 describes the characteristics of high-efficiency induction motors, with emphasis on the techniques used to obtain high efficiency. This two-volume report is written in nontechnical language and is intended for readers who require background from applications, marketing, motor planning, or managerial perspective.

  8. Fundamentals of electric power conversion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Umans, S.D. (Umans (Stephen D.), Belmont, MA (United States))

    1992-12-01

    Its rugged nature and straightforward design make the induction motor the most commonly used type of electric motor. This motor ranges in size from the fractional-horsepower, single-phase motors found in household appliances to polyphase motors rated at thousands of horsepower for industrial applications. Volume 1 of this report describes the function of induction motors, their characteristics, and induction motor testing. Volume 2 describes the characteristics of high-efficiency induction motors, with emphasis on the techniques used to obtain high efficiency. This two-volume report is written in nontechnical language and is intended for readers who require background from an applications, marketing, motor planning, or managerial perspective.

  9. High-Temperature Switched-Reluctance Electric Motor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montague, Gerald; Brown, Gerald; Morrison, Carlos; Provenza, Andy; Kascak, Albert; Palazzolo, Alan

    2003-01-01

    An eight-pole radial magnetic bearing has been modified into a switched-reluctance electric motor capable of operating at a speed as high as 8,000 rpm at a temperature as high as 1,000 F (=540 C). The motor (see figure) is an experimental prototype of starter-motor/generator units that have been proposed to be incorporated into advanced gas turbine engines and that could operate without need for lubrication or active cooling. The unique features of this motor are its electromagnet coils and, to some extent, its control software. Heretofore, there has been no commercial-off-the-shelf wire capable of satisfying all of the requirements for fabrication of electromagnet coils capable of operation at temperatures up to 1,000 F (=540 C). The issues addressed in the development of these electromagnet coils included thermal expansion, oxidation, pliability to small bend radii, micro-fretting, dielectric breakdown, tensile strength, potting compound, thermal conduction, and packing factor. For a test, the motor was supported, along with a rotor of 18 lb (.8-kg) mass, 3-in. (.7.6-cm) diameter, 21-in. (.53-cm) length, on bearings packed with high-temperature grease. The motor was located at the mid span of the rotor and wrapped with heaters. The motor stator was instrumented with thermocouples. At the time of reporting the information for this article, the motor had undergone 14 thermal cycles between room temperature and 1,000 F (.540 C) and had accumulated operating time >27.5 hours at 1,000 F (=540 C). The motor-controller hardware includes a personal computer equipped with analog-to-digital input and digital-to-analog output cards. The controller software is a C-language code that implements a switched-reluctance motor-control principle: that is, it causes the coils to be energized in a sequence timed to generate a rotating magnetic flux that creates a torque on a scalloped rotor. The controller can operate in an open- or closed-loop mode. In addition, the software has

  10. Improvement the DTC system for electric vehicles induction motors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arif Ali

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available A three-phase squirrel-cage induction motor is used as a propulsion system of an electric vehicle (EV. Two different control methods have been designed. The first is based on the conventional DTC Scheme adapted for three level inverter. The second is based on the application of fuzzy logic controller to the DTC scheme. The motor is controlled at different operating conditions using a FLC based DTC technique. In the simulation the novel proposed technique reduces the torque and current ripples. The EV dynamics are taken into account.

  11. Electrical motor/generator drive apparatus and method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Gui Jia

    2013-02-12

    The present disclosure includes electrical motor/generator drive systems and methods that significantly reduce inverter direct-current (DC) bus ripple currents and thus the volume and cost of a capacitor. The drive methodology is based on a segmented drive system that does not add switches or passive components but involves reconfiguring inverter switches and motor stator winding connections in a way that allows the formation of multiple, independent drive units and the use of simple alternated switching and optimized Pulse Width Modulation (PWM) schemes to eliminate or significantly reduce the capacitor ripple current.

  12. Economic analysis of Brazilian policies for energy efficient electric motors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andrade, Cássio Tersandro de Castro; Pontes, Ricardo Silva Thé

    2017-01-01

    Brazil is leading several energy efficiency initiatives and has ambitious goals for 2030, according to the Brazilian National Energy Plan 2030. One of the main initiatives is the minimum efficiency performance standards (MEPS) program for energy-driven equipment and the electric motors appear as the most significant one (49% share of the total electricity consumption). The MEPS levels set new grades for efficiency, and then manufacturers and consumers have to conform to the new products and costs. Policy makers have to economically assess the effects of these MEPS in order to maintain the market stability. Since the benefits of this program come from future energy savings, this cost-effective analysis has to consider the parameters uncertainty and the results should reinforce the market players’ confidence. Thus, the goal of this work is, first, to analyze the economic viability of the MEPS transitions in Brazil considering the uncertainty of the parameters involved and then, to estimate the effects of this program on the energy savings goals for 2030. At the end, we also verify whether this investment in energy efficiency is competitive with other forms of investments in energy. - Highlights: • A cost-effectiveness method with uncertainty for efficiency program is presented. • Savings from electric motors MEPS program makes the 2030 Brazilian goals possible. • Electric motors MEPS program cost-effectiveness in Brazil is confirmed. • Saved energy cost from efficiency improvement is a competitive energy investment.

  13. 78 FR 38455 - Energy Conservation Program: Test Procedures for Electric Motors

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-26

    ... windings, which protects them from condensation, moisture, dirt, and debris. This insulation typically... and Moisture Resistant Windings 4. Inverter-Capable Electric Motors 5. Totally Enclosed Non-Ventilated... set. [cir] Definite-purpose inverter- fed electric motor. [cir] Electric motor with moisture resistant...

  14. 75 FR 80292 - Energy Conservation Program: Energy Conservation Standards for Electric Motors

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-22

    ... Conservation Program: Energy Conservation Standards for Electric Motors AGENCY: Office of Energy Efficiency and... standards for certain electric motors as prescribed in the Energy Policy and Conservation Act, as amended by... efficiency levels that DOE promulgated for NEMA Design B general purpose electric motors that, due to a...

  15. Behavior of high efficiency electric motors; Comportamiento de motores electricos de alta eficiencia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bonett, Austin H. [IEEE, (United States)

    2001-09-01

    The energy efficiency is one of the main parameters in the design of the industrial motors of general purpose; nevertheless, it is avoided that it is at the cost of the reliability or to the global performance of the motor. Exist user groups of this equipment that consider that, in the search of a greater efficiency, the useful life period is diminished and the characteristics of operation of the motor are affected. During the past last years, the author has studied the aspects of quality and reliability, as well as the operative advantages of the high efficiency motors and written down the increasing interest for these aspects. Also he has detected that a great number of users has realized that, additionally to the obvious energy saving, the efficient motor offers a greater reliability and a longer useful life in most of the industrial applications. The objective of this article is to present the differences in the quality levels, reliability and operation parameters of high efficiency squirrel cage type electrical motors with those of the motors of standard manufacture. [Spanish] La eficiencia energetica es uno de los principales parametros en el diseno de los motores industriales de proposito general; sin embargo, se evita que sea a costa de la confiabilidad o del desempeno global del motor. Existen grupos de usuarios de estos equipos que consideran que, en la busqueda de una mayor eficiencia, se disminuye el periodo de vida util y se afectan las caracteristicas de operacion del motor. Durante los ultimos anos, el autor ha estudiado los aspectos de calidad y confiabilidad, asi como las ventajas operativas de los motores de alta eficiencia y anotado el incremento del interes por estos aspectos. Tambien ha detectado que un gran numero de usuarios se ha dado cuenta que, adicionalmente a los obvios ahorros de energia, el motor eficiente ofrece una mayor confiabilidad y una vida util mas larga en la mayoria de las aplicaciones industriales. El objetivo de este

  16. induction motor, unbalance, electrical loss, finite element method.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Camilo Andrés Cortés

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper shows the pattern of a 7.5 kW squirrel-cage induction motor’s electrical loss in balanced and unbalanced conditions, modelling the motor using the finite element method and comparing the results with experimental data obtained in the laboratory for the selected motor. Magnetic flux density variation was analysed at four places in the machine. The results so obtained sho- wed that the undervoltage unbalanced condition was the most critical from the motor’s total loss point of view. Regarding varia- tion of loss in parts of the motor, a constant iron loss pattern was found when the load was changed for each type of voltage supply and that the place where the loss had the largest rise was in the machine’s rotor.

  17. DIAGNOSTIC FEATURES RESEARCH OF AC ELECTRIC POINT MOTORS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. YU. Buryak

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Purpose.Considerable responsibility for safety of operation rests on signal telephone and telegraph department of railway. One of the most attackable nodes (both automation systems, and railway in whole is track switches. The aim of this investigation is developing such system for monitoring and diagnostics of track switches, which would fully meet the requirements of modern conditions of high-speed motion and heavy trains and producing diagnostics, collection and systematization of data in an automated way. Methodology. In order to achieve the desired objectives research of a structure and the operating principle description of the switch electric drive, sequence of triggering its main units were carried out. The operating characteristics and settings, operating conditions, the causes of failures in the work, andrequirements for electric drives technology and their service were considered and analyzed. Basic analysis principles of dependence of nature of the changes the current waveform, which flows in the working circuit of AC electric point motor were determined. Technical implementation of the monitoring and diagnosing system the state of AC electric point motors was carried out. Findings. Signals taken from serviceable and defective electric turnouts were researched. Originality. Identified a strong interconnectionbetween the technical condition of the track switchand curve shape that describes the current in the circuit of AC electric point motor during operation which is based on the research processes that have influence on it during operation. Practical value. Shown the principles of the technical approach to the transition from scheduled preventive maintenance to maintenance of real condition for a more objective assessment and thus more rapid response to emerging or failures when they occur gradually, damages and any other shortcomings in the work track switch AC drives.

  18. The Control of Switched Reluctance Motor in Electric Vehicle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zheng Liu

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available The control of SRM was discussed: current chopping control, angle position control. This paper presents an inverter circuit and a fuzzy sliding mode control method to minimize the torque fluctuation and noise of the SRM. Based on the experimental results, Using the inverter circuit and fuzzy sliding mode control method can effectively minimize the torque fluctuation and noise of the SRM, For the switched reluctance motor applications in electric vehicles to provide a theoretical basis.

  19. Composite ceramic superconducting wires for electric motor applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halloran, John W.

    1990-07-01

    Several types of HTSC wire have been produced and two types of HTSC motors are being built. Hundreds of meters of Ag- clad wire were fabricated from YBa2Cu3O(7-x) (Y-123) and Bi2Ca2Sr2Cu3O10 (BiSCCO). The dc homopolar motor coils are not yet completed, but multiple turns of wire have been wound on the coil bobbins to characterize the superconducting properties of coiled wire. Multifilamentary conductors were fabricated as cables and coils. The sintered polycrystalline wire has self-field critical current densities (Jc) as high as 2800 A/sq cm, but the Jc falls rapidly with magnetic field. To improve Jc, sintered YBCO wire is melt textured with a continuous process which has produced textures wire up to 0.5 meters long with 77K transport Jc above 11, 770 A/sq cm2 in self field and 2100 A/sq cm2 at 1 telsa. The Emerson Electric dc homopolar HTSC motor has been fabricated and run with conventional copper coils. A novel class of potential very powerful superconducting motors have been designed to use trapped flux in melt textures Y-123 as magnet replicas in an new type of permanent magnet motor. The stator element and part of the rotor of the first prototype machine exist, and the HTSC magnet replica segments are being fabricated.

  20. Procedure for the energy evaluation of electric motors; Procedimiento para la evaluacion energetica de motores electricos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Feliz Quiroz, Marco Antonio [Universidad Autonoma Metropolitana (Mexico)

    2002-06-01

    The present article is not a complete treaty about motors, here it is simply tried to show a practical procedure to evaluate electric motors, in order to determine the economics of their possible replacement by others of high efficiency. With the former in mind, the included database is sustained in the information of a representative number of motors brands commercialized in Mexico, since to include all the brands sold in our country would not be practical and it would be outside the scope of this publication. [Spanish] El presente articulo no es todo un tratado acerca de motores, sencillamente aqui se pretende mostrar un procedimiento practico para evaluar los motores electricos, a fin de determinar la rentabilidad de su eventual reemplazo por otros de alta eficiencia. Por lo anterior, la base de datos incluida se sustente en la informacion de un numero representativo de marcas de motores comercializados en Mexico, ya que abarcar todas las marcas vendidas en nuestro pais no seria practico y quedaria fuera del alcance de esta publicacion.

  1. Design, development and characterisation of a FPGA platform for multi-motor electric vehicle control

    OpenAIRE

    de castro, r; araujo, re; oliveira, h

    2009-01-01

    Two three-phase squirrel-cage induction motors are used as a propulsion system of an electric vehicle (EV). A simple XC3S1000 FPGA is used to simultaneously control both electric motors, with field oriented control and space vector modulation techniques. To electronically distribute the torque between the two electric motors, a simple, yet effective, strategy based on a uniform torque distribution has been implemented. Experimental results obtained with a multi-motor EV prototype demonstrate ...

  2. Design and construction of the prototype of a digital meter of single phase electric energy based in a microcontroller; Diseno y construccion del prototipo de un medidor digital de energia electrica monofasico basado en un microcontrolador

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martinez Alonso, Ruben

    2003-10-15

    This research work presents the design and construction of a single-phase microcontroller-based digital electric energy meter. The digital instrument displays the energy demand (kw-h) based on up-to-date tariff provided by the Mexican national utility Comision Federal de Electricidad (CFE). The meter digitally processes voltage and current line waveform samples taken at its input, displaying, in real time, the number of electrical parameters calculated. For a better instrument performance a PIC16F874 microcontroller from microchip has been used as computational core. The parameters of interest are visualized in a liquid crystal display of 2 X 16 characters. The user interface includes a menu where some of the parameters can be selected by the operator. In the event of an electric power supply disruption the meter keeps to the energy consumption in memory. The voltage and current measured levels ranges from 1 to 255 Vrms and 0.1 to 25.5 Arms, respectively. The power is displayed in 5 digits ranging from 0 to 6502.5 watts and the energy is displayed with 5 whole digits and 5 decimals ranging, from 0 kWh up to 99999.99999 kWh. These values are refreshed every one second together with the actual electrical consumption cost which ranges from 0 up to 9999.9 pesos. The digital measuring instrument has been built based on four main inter-connected modules named, data acquisition; signal conditioning; signal processing; and display. A set of efficient assembly code routines has been developed in order to calculate the number of electrical parameter previously described. After a debugging process, the optimised code has been assembled for the PIC16F874. [Spanish] El trabajo presenta el diseno y construccion de un medidor digital de energia electrica basado en un microcontrolador, el cual visualiza la demanda por el consumo de kWh, basandose en una tarifa escalonada de tipo domestico de CFE. Tambien el aparato visualiza voltaje, corriente, potencia y el tiempo de medicion

  3. The casualties from electric bike and motorized scooter road accidents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siman-Tov, Maya; Radomislensky, Irina; Peleg, Kobi

    2017-04-03

    The objective of this study was to describe demographic and injury characteristics of hospitalized injured patients involved in e-bike and motorized scooter accidents at a national level in Israel divided by different road user groups: riders and pedestrians. This was a retrospective study based on data from the National Trauma Registry, between January 1, 2013, and December 31, 2015. All hospitalized casualties due to the involvement of an e-bike or motorized scooter were included. The type of hospitalized road user was further categorized and described by different variables. During the study period, the Israel Trauma Registry identified 795 hospitalized patients due to an e-bike or motorized scooter accident, with a dramatic 6-fold increase from 2013 to 2015. Although the majority of the injured patients were riders, 8% were pedestrians. Among the total casualties, 33% were children aged 0-14 years and among pedestrians 42% were children and 33% were seniors (ages 60+). Five persons died in hospital, 3 riders and 2 pedestrians. E-bike and motorized scooter riders represent the majority of patients hospitalized due to related traffic incident. This finding questions the social and economic advantages of electric-powered 2-wheeled vehicles.

  4. ELECTRIC MOTOR DIAGNOSTICS OF SWITCHES BASED ON THE NEURAL NETWORK DATA MODELING THE SPECTRAL DECOMPOSITION OF THE CURRENTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. M. Shvets

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available The method of automated diagnostics of electric motors is offered. It uses a neural network revealing the electric motor faults on the basis of analysis of frequency spectrum of current flowing through the motor.

  5. The bond-graph design of a motor used for electrical traction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adriana Grava

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available In this paper the asynchronous motorwith cage, used for electrical traction is studied andanalyzed. For this motor we realized the associatedbond-graph, we pointed out the equations thatdescribe this motor, and we analyzed the electricaland mechanical features of this motor, by using thesimulation program 20 SIM, in order to improve theperformances of this motor even from the early stageof design.

  6. Method for On-line Estimation of Electrical Motor Parameter Variation and Current Sensor Offset for SPM Motor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uenaka, Yutaro; Sazawa, Masaki; Ohishi, Kiyoshi; Kenji, Takahashi

    The servo system of a permanent magnet (PM) motor should always maintain fine torque and fine speed responses. Accurate motor parameter identification is necessary for the PM motor servo system because the current control system is designed by considering the electric parameters of the PM motor. However, the motor parameters vary with the age of the motor and temperature. Moreover, current sensors have offset values. When the current sensor has offset values, the PM motor servo system produces torque ripple. In order to overcome these problems, this paper proposes a new real-time estimation method for both current sensor offsets and electrical parameters (resistance Ra, inductance La, and magnetic flux φfa) of the surface permanent magnet (SPM) motor. The proposed method involves the use of a real-time algorithm and a current simulator, which is operated using a DSP software system. In order to accurately estimate the motor parametera, the proposed method is using estimate currents, DC terms of sensor currents, and nominal motor parameter value. The experimental results of this study confirm that the proposed method satisfactorily estimates the current sensor offset of the U phase and V phase, as well as the electrical motor parametersRa, La, and φfa accurately.

  7. Instrument for analysis of electric motors based on slip-poles component

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haynes, H.D.; Ayers, C.W.; Casada, D.A.

    1996-11-26

    A new instrument is described for monitoring the condition and speed of an operating electric motor from a remote location. The slip-poles component is derived from a motor current signal. The magnitude of the slip-poles component provides the basis for a motor condition monitor, while the frequency of the slip-poles component provides the basis for a motor speed monitor. The result is a simple-to-understand motor health monitor in an easy-to-use package. Straightforward indications of motor speed, motor running current, motor condition (e.g., rotor bar condition) and synthesized motor sound (audible indication of motor condition) are provided. With the device, a relatively untrained worker can diagnose electric motors in the field without requiring the presence of a trained engineer or technician. 4 figs.

  8. 75 FR 17036 - Energy Conservation Program: Energy Conservation Standards for Small Electric Motors; Correction

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-05

    ... Part 431 RIN 1904-AB70 Energy Conservation Program: Energy Conservation Standards for Small Electric... rule regarding the energy conservation standards for small electric motors, which was published on... energy conservation standards for small electric motors. Due to a drafting error, an incorrect compliance...

  9. 77 FR 60672 - Grant of Authority for Subzone Status; Tesla Motors, Inc., (Electric Passenger Vehicles), Palo...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-10-04

    ... establish a special-purpose subzone at the electric passenger vehicle manufacturing facilities of Tesla... electric passenger vehicles and related powertrain components at the Tesla Motors, Inc., facilities located... Foreign-Trade Zones Board Grant of Authority for Subzone Status; Tesla Motors, Inc., (Electric Passenger...

  10. DEVELOPING CONVENIENT MOTOR SELECTION ALGORITHM ACCORDING TO ROAD CONDITIONS IN ELECTRIC VEHICLES

    OpenAIRE

    BAŞER, EKREM; ALTUN, YUSUF

    2016-01-01

    Nowadays, automotive industry is tending to electric vehicles due to reduction of fuel reserves in order to save energy, reduce air pollution and carbon emission. With the impact of technological advencements on battery and power electronics, the studies on electric vehicles have been gradually increased and many of automobile manifacturers have produced new electric vehicles. Different type of electric motors has been tried on electric vehicles until today. This motors have difference feautu...

  11. Sensory threshold neuromuscular electrical stimulation fosters motor imagery performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corbet, Tiffany; Iturrate, Iñaki; Pereira, Michael; Perdikis, Serafeim; Millán, José Del R

    2018-04-21

    Motor imagery (MI) has been largely studied as a way to enhance motor learning and to restore motor functions. Although it is agreed that users should emphasize kinesthetic imagery during MI, recordings of MI brain patterns are not sufficiently reliable for many subjects. It has been suggested that the usage of somatosensory feedback would be more suitable than standardly used visual feedback to enhance MI brain patterns. However, somatosensory feed-back should not interfere with the recorded MI brain pattern. In this study we propose a novel feedback modality to guide subjects during MI based on sensory threshold neuromuscular electrical stimulation (St-NMES). St-NMES depolarizes sensory and motor axons without eliciting any muscular contraction. We hypothesize that St-NMES does not induce detectable ERD brain patterns and fosters MI performance. Twelve novice subjects were included in a cross-over design study. We recorded their EEG, comparing St-NMES with visual feed-back during MI or resting tasks. We found that St-NMES not only induced significantly larger desynchronization over sensorimotor areas (p<0.05) but also significantly enhanced MI brain connectivity patterns. Moreover, classification accuracy and stability were significantly higher with St-NMES. Importantly, St-NMES alone did not induce detectable artifacts, but rather the changes in the detected patterns were due to an increased MI performance. Our findings indicate that St-NMES is a promising feedback in order to foster MI performance and cold be used for BMI online applications. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  12. Development of High-Speed Switched Reluctance Motor for Electric Power Tools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakamura, Kenji; Kumasaka, Yuya; Ichinokura, Osamu

    2017-10-01

    This paper presents design and experimental evaluation of a switched reluctance (SR) motor used for electric power tools. First, characteristics of a previous designed 6/4-pole SR motor is shown and compared to a permanent magnet (PM) motor used in present electric power tools. Next, to further improve characteristics, a 12/8-pole SR motor is designed and evaluated in experiment. It is proved that the performance of the prototype 12/8-pole SR motor is almost comparable or superior to the present PM motor.

  13. High-speed ac motor including the function of a magnetic frequency tripler

    OpenAIRE

    Yamada, Sotoshi; Takeuchi, A.; Sudani, T.; Bessho, Kazuo

    1986-01-01

    The new electric motor is the magnetic combination of a magnetic frequency multiplier and a AC motor which share the common magnetic yoke. The motor operates near the synchronous speed (10,800 rpm) by applied the single-phase commercial source at 60 Hz. The new machine is called “high-speed hybrid AC motor” because the combination of a motor and a frequency converter. This paper describes the structure and the operating characteristics of the new motor.

  14. A METHOD OF AUTOMATIC DETERMINATION OF THE NUMBER OF THE ELECTRICAL MOTORS SIMULTANEOUSLY WORKING IN GROUP

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. V. Voloshko

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. Propose a method of automatic determination of the number of operating high voltage electric motors in the group of the same type based on the determination and analysis of the account data of power consumption, obtained from of electric power meters installed at the connection of motors. Results. The algorithm of the automatic determination program for the number of working in the same group of electric motors, which is based on the determination of the motor power minimum value at which it is considered on, was developed. Originality. For the first time a method of automatic determination of the number of working of the same type high-voltage motors group was proposed. Practical value. Obtained results may be used for the introduction of an automated accounting run of each motor, calculating the parameters of the equivalent induction motor or a synchronous motor.

  15. SELECTION OF METHOD FOR REGULATION OF TRACTOR PROPULSION ASYNCHRONOUS ELECTRIC MOTOR AND CONSTRUCTION OF MECHANICAL CHARACTERISTICS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ch. I. Zhdanovich

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays the work is in progress to develop wheeled and caterpillar tractors with electromechanical transmission. Range of changes in transmission gear ratio while using propulsion electric motor depends on mechanical characteristics of a tractor propulsion electric motor which is equipped with electromechanical transmission. In case when the range is rather high then it is possible to minimize number of gearings in the tractor gearing box or exclude its usage at all. Type of the applied propulsion electric motor and regulation method specify type of mechanical characteristics (characteristics family of the propulsion electric motor.The paper considers a propulsion asynchronous electric motor with frequency control. While using frequency control it is possible to regulate electric motor revolutions by mutual changes in voltage and voltage frequency. There are various laws of mutual changes in voltage and frequency (regulation laws. Selection of a regulation law influences on type of mechanical characteristics of a propulsion electric motor. Application of any law can be admissible only for some specific range of voltage frequency otherwise it is possible to exceed some parameters (for example, admissible voltage in the winding of electric motor stator. It is necessary to ensure the required moment within wide range for a tractor propulsion electric motor. In this case losses in the electric motor must be minimal. Losses in the rotor of the propulsion asynchronous electric motor are directly proportional to its sliding and its best propulsion and mechanical properties of a mobile machine will be ensured in the case when sliding is preserved at a constant value. According to these reasons selection of regulation laws has been carried out for operation of the propulsion asynchronous electric motor with nominal sliding and mechanical characteristics at nominal sliding is conventionally called a nominal characteristics.The paper analyzes the possible

  16. Electric Motors Maintenance Planning From Its Operating Variables

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodrigues, Francisco; Fonseca, Inácio; Farinha, José Torres; Ferreira, Luís; Galar, Diego

    2017-09-01

    The maintenance planning corresponds to an approach that seeks to maximize the availability of equipment and, consequently, increase the levels of competitiveness of companies by increasing production times. This paper presents a maintenance planning based on operating variables (number of hours worked, duty cycles, number of revolutions) to maximizing the availability of operation of electrical motors. The reading of the operating variables and its sampling is done based on predetermined sampling cycles and subsequently is made the data analysis through time series algorithms aiming to launch work orders before reaching the variables limit values. This approach is supported by tools and technologies such as logical applications that enable a graphical user interface for access to relevant information about their Physical Asset HMI (Human Machine Interface), including the control and supervision by acquisition through SCADA (Supervisory Control And data acquisition) data, also including the communication protocols among different logical applications.

  17. Submerged electricity generation plane with marine current-driven motors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dehlsen, James G.P.; Dehlsen, James B.; Fleming, Alexander

    2014-07-01

    An underwater apparatus for generating electric power from ocean currents and deep water tides. A submersible platform including two or more power pods, each having a rotor with fixed-pitch blades, with drivetrains housed in pressure vessels that are connected by a transverse structure providing buoyancy, which can be a wing depressor, hydrofoil, truss, or faired tube. The platform is connected to anchors on the seafloor by forward mooring lines and a vertical mooring line that restricts the depth of the device in the water column. The platform operates using passive, rather than active, depth control. The wing depressor, along with rotor drag loads, ensures the platform seeks the desired operational current velocity. The rotors are directly coupled to a hydraulic pump that drives at least one constant-speed hydraulic-motor generator set and enables hydraulic braking. A fluidic bearing decouples non-torque rotor loads to the main shaft driving the hydraulic pumps.

  18. Method and system for operating an electric motor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallegos-Lopez, Gabriel; Hiti, Silva; Perisic, Milun

    2013-01-22

    Methods and systems for operating an electric motor having a plurality of windings with an inverter having a plurality of switches coupled to a voltage source are provided. A first plurality of switching vectors is applied to the plurality of switches. The first plurality of switching vectors includes a first ratio of first magnitude switching vectors to second magnitude switching vectors. A direct current (DC) current associated with the voltage source is monitored during the applying of the first plurality of switching vectors to the plurality of switches. A second ratio of the first magnitude switching vectors to the second magnitude switching vectors is selected based on the monitoring of the DC current associated with the voltage source. A second plurality of switching vectors is applied to the plurality of switches. The second plurality of switching vectors includes the second ratio of the first magnitude switching vectors to the second magnitude switching vectors.

  19. Condition monitoring of gearboxes using synchronously averaged electric motor signals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ottewill, J. R.; Orkisz, M.

    2013-07-01

    Due to their prevalence in rotating machinery, the condition monitoring of gearboxes is extremely important in the minimization of potentially dangerous and expensive failures. Traditionally, gearbox condition monitoring has been conducted using measurements obtained from casing-mounted vibration transducers such as accelerometers. A well-established technique for analyzing such signals is the synchronous signal average, where vibration signals are synchronized to a measured angular position and then averaged from rotation to rotation. Driven, in part, by improvements in control methodologies based upon methods of estimating rotor speed and torque, induction machines are used increasingly in industry to drive rotating machinery. As a result, attempts have been made to diagnose defects using measured terminal currents and voltages. In this paper, the application of the synchronous signal averaging methodology to electric drive signals, by synchronizing stator current signals with a shaft position estimated from current and voltage measurements is proposed. Initially, a test-rig is introduced based on an induction motor driving a two-stage reduction gearbox which is loaded by a DC motor. It is shown that a defect seeded into the gearbox may be located using signals acquired from casing-mounted accelerometers and shaft mounted encoders. Using simple models of an induction motor and a gearbox, it is shown that it should be possible to observe gearbox defects in the measured stator current signal. A robust method of extracting the average speed of a machine from the current frequency spectrum, based on the location of sidebands of the power supply frequency due to rotor eccentricity, is presented. The synchronous signal averaging method is applied to the resulting estimations of rotor position and torsional vibration. Experimental results show that the method is extremely adept at locating gear tooth defects. Further results, considering different loads and different

  20. Determination of the needed power of an electric motor on the basis of acceleration time of the electric car

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sapundzhiev, M.; Evtimov, I.; Ivanov, R.

    2017-10-01

    The paper presents an upgraded methodology for determination of the electric motor power considering the time for acceleration. The influence of the speed factor of electric motor on the value of needed power at same acceleration time is studied. Some calculations on the basis of real vehicle were made. The numeric and graphical results are given. They show a decrease of needed power with the increase of the speed factor of motor, because the high speed factor allows the use of a larger range of the characteristic with the maximum power of the motor. An experimental verification of methodology was done.

  1. T & I--Electric Motors. Kit No. 621. Instructor's Manual and Student Learning Activity Guide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bomar, William

    This instructor's manual and student learning activity guide comprise a kit for trade and industrial education (T & I) activities on electric motors. Purpose stated for the activities is to teach the student the four basic types of electric motors, the advantages and disadvantages of each, the types of jobs each can perform, and how to disassemble…

  2. NRC Information No. 88-12: Overgreasing of electric motor bearings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rossi, C.E.

    1992-01-01

    NRC personnel observed accumulations of grease on the air vent screens of electric motors used for driving such rotating equipment as fans and pumps at the Millstone and Calvert Cliffs nuclear power plants. The grease appeared to have come from overgreasing of the electric motor bearings. Grease was forced out of the bearing seals, onto the stator windings and rotor, from where it either fell or was thrown onto the inside of the motor housing. Because of these observations, the NRC began an investigation into problems that have been caused in the past, or could be caused in the future, by the overgreasing of electric motor bearings. The NRC staff has solicited technical information and operating experience on the problems caused by the overgreasing of electric motor bearings from motor and bearing manufacturers, as well as from other licensees. Their responses are summarized in this discussion

  3. Steady-state analysis of a faulted three-phase four-wire system supplying induction motors with neutrals connected and other single-phase line-to-neutral loads

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wood, M. E.

    1980-01-01

    Four wire Wye connected ac power systems exhibit peculiar steady state fault characteristics when the fourth wire of three phase induction motors is connected. The loss of one phase of power source due to a series or shunt fault results in currents higher than anticipated on the remaining two phases. A theoretical approach to compute the fault currents and voltages is developed. A FORTRAN program is included in the appendix.

  4. Summary of electric vehicle dc motor-controller tests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mcbrien, E. F.; Tryon, H. B.

    1982-01-01

    The differences in the performance of dc motors are evaluated when operating with chopper type controllers, and when operating on direct current. The interactions between the motor and the controller which cause these differences are investigated. Motor-controlled tests provided some of the data the quantified motor efficiency variations for both ripple free and chopper modes of operation.

  5. Performance of the tariffs of a single-phase electric energy meter, type electronic, operating with non-linear loads; Desempenho tarifario do medidor monofasico de energia eletrica do tipo eletronico operando com cargas nao-lineares

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Santos, G.B.; Pinheiro Neto, D.; Lisita, L.R.; Machado, P.C.M.; Oliveira, J.V.M. [Universidade Federal de Goias (UFG), Goiania, GO (Brazil). Escola de Engenharia Eletrica e de Computacao], Emails: guilhermebsantos@gmail.com, daywes@gmail.com, lrlisi-ta@gmail.com, pcesar@eee.ufg.br, joao.eee@gmail.com

    2009-07-01

    This paper analyzes the behavior of a electronic meter of single-phase in the laboratory when it is subjected to a environment with linear loads and nonlinear loads kind residential and commercial. It differs from correlated studies mainly for making use of real loads encountered in day-to-day, rather than as sources of electronic loads how has been observed in the state of the art. The comparison of results is made based on high precision energy pattern developed by virtual instrumentation means.

  6. Inverter-fed induction motor simulation under overloading for regenerative braking management in electric vehicle

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Papazacharopoulos, Z; Tatis, K.; Kladas, A.; Manias, S.; Tegopoulos, J. [National Technical University of Athens, Electric Power Division, Laboratory of Electrical Machines, Athens (Greece)

    2000-08-01

    The paper introduces a dynamic model for inverter-fed induction motor drive system, enabling accurate simulation under limited motor overloading during regenerative braking. This model includes a conveniently modified equivalent circuit for the motor analysis and has been checked by measurements on a 20 kW experimental set-up. The considered motor overloading may provide substantial energy savings in the domain of electromotion, in traction systems such as electric vehicles and relevant industrial applications. (orig.)

  7. Electric motor-transformer aggregate in hermetic objects of transport vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zabora, Igor

    2017-10-01

    The construction and features of operation for new electrical unit - electric motor-transformer aggregate (DTA) are considered. Induction motors are intended for operation in hermetic plants with extreme conditions surrounding gas, steam-to-gas and liquid environment at a high temperature (to several hundred of degrees). Main objective of spent researches is the substantiation of possibility reliable and effective electric power transform with electric machine means directly in hermetic objects with extreme conditions environment by means of new DTA. The principle and job analysis of new disk induction motors of block-module type are observed.

  8. A flux-mnemonic permanent magnet brushless motor for electric vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Chuang; Chau, K. T.; Liu, Xinhua; Jiang, J. Z.

    2008-04-01

    In this paper, a new permanent magnet (PM) brushless motor is proposed for electric vehicles. The key is to incorporate the concept of memory motors, namely, the online tunable flux-mnemonic PMs, into the stator doubly fed doubly salient PM motor, hence achieving effective air-gap flux control. By further employing the outer-rotor and double-layer-stator topology, the proposed motor takes the definite advantages of compact structure, low armature reaction, and direct-drive capability. Increasingly, this motor can offer the unique features of pole dropping and pole reversing. Finite element analysis and, hence, computer simulation are given to verify the validity of the proposed motor.

  9. Electric Motor Thermal Management R&D; NREL (National Renewable Energy Laboratory)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bennion, Kevin

    2015-06-09

    Thermal constraints place significant limitations on how electric motors ultimately perform. Without the ability to remove heat, the motor cannot operate without sacrificing performance, efficiency, and reliability. Finite element analysis and computational fluid dynamics modeling approaches are being increasingly utilized in the design and analysis of electric motors. As the models become more sophisticated, it is important to have detailed and accurate knowledge of both the passive thermal performance and the active cooling performance. In this work, we provide an overview of research characterizing both passive and active thermal elements related to electric motor thermal management. To better characterize the passive thermal performance, work is being performed to measure motor material thermal properties and thermal contact resistances. The active cooling performance of automatic transmission fluid (ATF) jets is also being measured to better understand the heat transfer coefficients of ATF impinging on motor copper windings.

  10. Regarding the NVH Behaviour of the more Electric Vehicles. Study Case of a Small PM Motor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Florin Lazăr

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The noise and vibration behaviour of electric and hybrid vehicles is dramatically different from conventional vehicles. The noise and vibration mechanisms of the individual components (combustion engine, electric motor, transmission etc. are known in principle, but an electric or hybrid powertrain features additional and different components as well as new operation modes compared to a conventional powertrain. This results in new interactions which are uncommon in this form for conventional vehicles. In the case of the electric traction, the electric motor becomes an important noise and vibrations source. Depending on the design of the motor, the electromagnetic (EM pulses and corresponding torque pulses from the motor can be very strong. These can be radiated as noise directly from the motor housing and can also be transmitted structurally to the support structure through the motor mounts. However, the EM forces are generally lower than the combustion and reciprocating mass forces of an IC engine, and significantly, they are at a much higher frequency. On the other side, the electric drives are quite numerous in cars. Lot of smaller motors are involved in X-by-wire systems or other comfort oriented systems. As a study case, the paper is focused on the NVH produced by a 0.25kW PM motor.

  11. Comparison the programs of energy efficiency for industrial electric motors; Comparacao de programas de eficiencia energetica para motores eletricos industriais

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mariotoni, Carlos Alberto; Naturesa, Jim Silva; Santos Junior, Joubert Rodrigues dos; Demanboro, Antonio Carlos [Universidade Estadual de Campinas (UNICAMP), Campinas, SP (Brazil). Faculdade de Engenharia Civil, Arquitetura e Urbanismo. Nucleo Interdisciplinar de Planejamento Energetico (NIPE)]. E-mail: cam@fec.unicamp.br; jimnaturesa@yahoo.com; joubert@fec.unicamp.br; anto1810@fec.unicamp.br

    2006-07-01

    This paper aims to present a comparison among the existing programs of energy efficiency for industrial electric motors in Brazil, in the United States of America and in the European Community. The analysis is restricted to the action of each program, considering that the mentioned countries present distinct economical, political and social characteristics. Therefore, it is intended to discuss the main barriers existing in the Brazilian industrial context which cause difficulties to develop a program of electric motors efficiency and to indicate some ways to overcome those barriers. (author)

  12. System and method for motor speed estimation of an electric motor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Bin [Kenosha, WI; Yan, Ting [Brookfield, WI; Luebke, Charles John [Sussex, WI; Sharma, Santosh Kumar [Viman Nagar, IN

    2012-06-19

    A system and method for a motor management system includes a computer readable storage medium and a processing unit. The processing unit configured to determine a voltage value of a voltage input to an alternating current (AC) motor, determine a frequency value of at least one of a voltage input and a current input to the AC motor, determine a load value from the AC motor, and access a set of motor nameplate data, where the set of motor nameplate data includes a rated power, a rated speed, a rated frequency, and a rated voltage of the AC motor. The processing unit is also configured to estimate a motor speed based on the voltage value, the frequency value, the load value, and the set of nameplate data and also store the motor speed on the computer readable storage medium.

  13. Preparation of single phase molybdenum boride

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Camurlu, Hasan Erdem

    2011-01-01

    Highlights: → Formation of Mo and a mixture of molybdenum boride phases take place in preparation of molybdenum borides. → It is intricate to prepare single phase molybdenum borides. → Formation of single phase MoB from MoO 3 + B 2 O 3 + Mg mixtures has not been reported previously. → Single phase MoB was successfully prepared through a combination of mechanochemical synthesis and annealing process. - Abstract: The formation of MoB through volume combustion synthesis (VCS), and through mechanochemical synthesis (MCS) followed by annealing has been investigated. MoO 3 , B 2 O 3 and Mg were used as reactants while MgO and NaCl were introduced as diluents. Products were leached in dilute HCl solution and were subjected to X-ray diffraction (XRD) analysis and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) examinations. Mo was the major phase component in the VCS products under all the experimental conditions. Mo 2 B, MoB, MoB 2 and Mo 2 B 5 were found as minor phases. Products of MCS contained a mixture of Mo 2 B, MoB, MoB 2 and Mo. After annealing the MCS product at 1400 deg. C for 3 h, single phase α-MoB was obtained.

  14. Energy Savings Potential and Opportunities for High-Efficiency Electric Motors in Residential and Commercial Equipment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goetzler, William [Navigant Consulting, Inc., Burlington, MA (United States); Sutherland, Timothy [Navigant Consulting, Inc., Burlington, MA (United States); Reis, Callie [Navigant Consulting, Inc., Burlington, MA (United States)

    2013-12-04

    This report describes the current state of motor technology and estimates opportunities for energy savings through application of more advanced technologies in a variety of residential and commercial end uses. The objectives of this report were to characterize the state and type of motor technologies used in residential and commercial appliances and equipment and to identify opportunities to reduce the energy consumption of electric motor-driven systems in the residential and commercial sectors through the use of advanced motor technologies. After analyzing the technical savings potential offered by motor upgrades and variable speed technologies, recommended actions are presented.

  15. Decoupling control of steering and driving system for in-wheel-motor-drive electric vehicle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Han; Zhao, Wanzhong

    2018-02-01

    To improve the maneuverability and stability of in-wheel-motor-drive electric vehicle, a control strategy based on nonlinear decoupling control method is proposed in this paper, realizing the coordinated control of the steering and driving system. At first, the nonlinear models of the in-wheel-motor-drive electric vehicle and its sub-system are constructed. Then the inverse system decoupling theory is applied to decompose the nonlinear system into several independent subsystems, which makes it possible to realize the coordinated control of each subsystem. Next, the μ-Synthesis theory is applied to eliminate the influence of model uncertainty, improving the stability, robustness and tracking performance of in-wheel-motor-drive electric vehicle. Simulation and experiment results and numerical analyses, based on the electric vehicle actuated by in-wheel-motors, prove that the proposed control method is effective to accomplish the decoupling control of the steering and driving system in both simulation and real practice.

  16. Residual stress evaluation by Barkhausen signals with a magnetic field sensor for high efficiency electrical motors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsuchida, Yuji; Enokizono, Masato

    2018-04-01

    The iron loss of industrial motors increases by residual stress during manufacturing processes. It is very important to make clear the distribution of the residual stress in the motor cores to reduce the iron loss in the motors. Barkhausen signals which occur on electrical steel sheets can be used for the evaluation of the residual stress because they are very sensitive to the material properties. Generally, a B-sensor is used to measure Barkhausen signals, however, we developed a new H-sensor to measure them and applied it into the stress evaluation. It is supposed that the Barkhausen signals by using a H-sensor can be much effective to the residual stress on the electrical steel sheets by referring our results regarding to the stress evaluations. We evaluated the tensile stress of the electrical steel sheets by measuring Barkhausen signals by using our developed H-sensor for high efficiency electrical motors.

  17. Advanced AC permanent magnet axial flux disc motor for electric passenger vehicle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kliman, G. B.

    1982-01-01

    An ac permanent magnet axial flux disc motor was developed to operate with a thyristor load commutated inverter as part of an electric vehicle drive system. The motor was required to deliver 29.8 kW (40 hp) peak and 10.4 kW (14 hp) average with a maximum speed of 11,000 rpm. It was also required to run at leading power factor to commutate the inverter. Three motors were built.

  18. DIAGNOSTICS OF THE HIGH-TORQUE ELECTRICAL MOTOR UNDER OPERATING CONDITIONS AT LOW TEMPERATURES IN VACUUM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. V. Byeli

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Parameters of high-moment electrical motor working at low-temperatures and high vacuum were investigated. It has been demonstrated that pressure in conspiracy with temperature does not influence starting current of the motor. Temperature reduction from 293 up to 143 K increases starting current at a factor of 3.5. 

  19. GROUNDING THE REDUCTION OF POWER OF THE HYDRAULIC DRIVE ELECTRIC MOTOR BY EQUIVALENT POWER METHOD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. Hrygorov

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The authors have analyzed the power consumption by a hydraulic drive and wound rotor motor of crane mechanisms at all stages of the operational cycle: acceleration, movement at nominal or intermediate speed and deceleration. The decrease of the rated capacity of electric motors is justified.

  20. Brushless DC electric motor application in environment CH4 sensor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drozd, Jakub; Duk, Mariusz; Borecki, Michał

    2016-09-01

    The work includes using a brushless direct current motor ventilator as a machine which fills a container where methane sensor is researched. The main issue is to choose the best controlling method and implement it to self-made driver of the motor.

  1. An Alternative for All-Electric Ships Applications: The Synchronous Reluctance Motor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ioannis Ch. Proimadis

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The three-phase synchronous reluctance motor (SynRM is presented as a possible alternative in all-electric ship applications. The basic features of this motor with regard to the other types of motors are shown. The structure of the motor and specifically the structure of its rotor are analyzed, while the basic operating principles are presented and references on commonly used control strategies are made. In this paper, a demonstration of a reluctance motor fed by a voltage source inverter (VSI takes place. To demonstrate the operation of the motor fed by a VSI, an example using a scalar control method is implemented, where harmonic injection PWM (HIPWM is used to drive the VSI. Experimental results on a commercially available motor are shown, focusing on the harmonic content of the current.

  2. A novel dual motor drive system for three wheel electric vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panmuang, Piyapat; Thongsan, Taweesak; Suwapaet, Nuchida; Laohavanich, Juckamass; Photong, Chonlatee

    2018-03-01

    This paper presents a novel dual motor drive system used for three wheel electric vehicles that have one free wheel at the front and two wheels with a drive system at the end of the vehicles. A novel dual motor drive system consists of two identical DC motors that are independently controlled by its speed-torque controller. Under light load conditions, only one of the DC motors will operate around it rated whilst under hard load conditions both of the DC motors will operate. With this drive system, the motors will operate only at its high performance at rated or else no operate to retain longer lifetime. The simulated results for the Skylab three wheel electric vehicle prototype with 8kW at full load (high torque, low speed) and around 4kW at light/normal operating loads (regular speed-torque) showed that the proposed system provides better dynamic responses with faster overshoot current/voltage recovery time, has lower investment costs, has longer lifetime of the motors and allows the motors to always operate at their high performance and thus achieve more cost effective system compared to a single motor drive system with 8kW DC motors.

  3. Contributions to the Transient Study of an Electric Motor with Shorted Moving Coil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Georgescu Daniel

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available In this article is studied the transient regime of an electric motor with a shorted moving coil, into alternating current supplied. The authors present their contributions related to the conceiving, achieving and testing of experimental stands of an electric motor with a shorted moving coil and to the identification of the mathematical model, indexical function parameters and the coefficients of the mathematical equation of this engine. Finally, the authors' conclusions are presented on the results of experimental studies and moving coil motor behavior in transient regime.

  4. AC electric motors control advanced design techniques and applications

    CERN Document Server

    Giri, Fouad

    2013-01-01

    The complexity of AC motor control lies in the multivariable and nonlinear nature of AC machine dynamics. Recent advancements in control theory now make it possible to deal with long-standing problems in AC motors control. This text expertly draws on these developments to apply a wide range of model-based control designmethods to a variety of AC motors. Contributions from over thirty top researchers explain how modern control design methods can be used to achieve tight speed regulation, optimal energetic efficiency, and operation reliability and safety, by considering online state var

  5. Design of outer-rotor type multipolar SR motor for electric vehicle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakamura, Kenji; Suzuki, Yosuke; Goto, Hiroki; Ichinokura, Osamu

    2005-01-01

    In this paper, we design an outer-rotor type multipolar switched reluctance (SR) motor, and examine an application of the SR motor to an electric vehicle (EV). The design is based on a nonlinear magnetic circuit model proposed by the authors. Using the model, we can calculate dynamic characteristics of a SR motor accurately. Furthermore, by combining the nonlinear magnetic circuit model with a motor drive circuit and motion equation of an EV, we can predict dynamic characteristics such as the maximum speed, acceleration torque, and a battery current of the EV

  6. An electric motor with magnetic bearings: A concept

    Science.gov (United States)

    Studer, P. A.

    1973-01-01

    Because same magnetic flux is used to control rotor as to drive it, size, weight, and power required are minimized. Constant total current keeps motor torque invarient, and absence of mechanical bearings eliminates wear and reduces frictional power loss.

  7. High Torque, Direct Drive Electric Motor, Phase II

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Bear Engineering proposes to advance the development of an innovative high torque, low speed, direct drive motor in order to meet NASA's requirements for such...

  8. High Torque, Direct Drive Electric Motor, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Bear Engineering proposes to develop an innovative high torque, low speed, direct drive motor in order to meet NASA's requirements for such devices. Fundamentally,...

  9. Aging of electric motors in nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Subudhi, M.; Taylor, J.H.

    1987-06-01

    Motor degradation due to aging and service wear decreases reliability and increases the potential for failure during nuclear plant accident and post accident conditions. The impact of motor failures on plant safety is an important concern among the nuclear utilities and the government agency regulating this industry. Economic impacts, relating to plant availability and safety, as well as corrective maintenance, have prompted utilities to improve their maintenance programs to mitigate such aging effects. 2 refs., 3 figs

  10. An Evaluation of Electric Motors for Ship Propulsion

    Science.gov (United States)

    2003-06-01

    mover in their Type-45 destroyer. Alstom Corporation is leading the industry in induction mo- tor development with their Advanced Induction Motor...applications. Alstom Corpo- ration’s Advanced Induction Motor (AIM) has been evolving over the past 15 years [12]. It was primarily developed for...ing radial ventilation ducts that are provided using a patented Alstom method known as “pin-vent” [12]. The pin vent method provides an efficient

  11. Sensorless AC electric motor control robust advanced design techniques and applications

    CERN Document Server

    Glumineau, Alain

    2015-01-01

    This monograph shows the reader how to avoid the burdens of sensor cost, reduced internal physical space, and system complexity in the control of AC motors. Many applications fields—electric vehicles, wind- and wave-energy converters and robotics, among them—will benefit. Sensorless AC Electric Motor Control describes the elimination of physical sensors and their replacement with observers, i.e., software sensors. Robustness is introduced to overcome problems associated with the unavoidable imperfection of knowledge of machine parameters—resistance, inertia, and so on—encountered in real systems. The details of a large number of speed- and/or position-sensorless ideas for different types of permanent-magnet synchronous motors and induction motors are presented along with several novel observer designs for electrical machines. Control strategies are developed using high-order, sliding-mode and quasi-continuous-sliding-mode techniques and two types of observer–controller schemes based on backstepping ...

  12. A single phase multilevel inverter as power converter for 3-phase ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A single phase multilevel inverter as power converter for 3-phase electric loads. ... m-phase maker was simulated using MATLAB and the results confirmed the excellent perfor-mance of the RBNPS. The listed advantages attained could be incorporated in the design and operation of a converter for an electric drive of a car.

  13. A lightweight electronically commutated dc motor for electric passenger vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Echolds, E. F.; Walla, P. S.

    1982-01-01

    A functional model breadboard converter and a rare-earth-cobalt, permanent magnet motor; as well as an engineering model converter and PM motor suitable for vehicle installations were developed and tested. The converter and motor achieved an 88% peak efficiency, a maximum output of 26 kW at 26,000 rpm, and a continuous rating of 15 kW. The system also generated power to the source during braking, with a demonstrated peak power available at the converter terminals of approximately 26 kW at 88% efficiency. Major conclusions include: (1) the SAE J227a(D) driving cycle efficiency for the converter/motor is 86% to 88% when energy available for recovery at the converter terminals is included; (2) the converter initial cost is approximately five times that of the permanent magnet motor, but can be reduced by means of LSI logic and integrated liquid cooled semiconductor packages; and (3) an electronically commutated motor with a liquid cooled converter will operate reliably without service or maintenance for the life of a passenger vehicle.

  14. Aging of electric motors in nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Subudhi, M.; Taylor, J.H.

    1987-01-01

    Motor degradation due to aging and service wear decreases reliability and increases the potential for failure during nuclear plant accident and postaccident conditions. The impact of motor failures on plant safety is an important concern among the nuclear utilities and with the government agency regulating this industry. Economic impacts, relating to plant availability and safety as well as corrective maintenance, have prompted utilities to improve their maintenance programs to mitigate such aging effects. Despite the fact that modern motors are better and more sophisticated than older motors, and maintenance practices are more extensive, they still fail. Most motor failures described in the operating experience data bases had occurred during starting. The insulating system and bearing assemblies were the dominant failure modes, accounting for almost 70% of the reported failures. Monitoring the state of these two subcomponents, using cost-effective techniques, could eliminate many untimely failures and thus improve the overall system reliability and plant availability. The operating experience of these motors has revealed that a number of functional indicators are available, which could be used to monitor the condition of stator winding insulation and bearing assemblies. This study also has identified the predominant failure modes, causes, and mechanisms that are caused by the aging and service wear effects

  15. 10 CFR 431.445 - Determination of small electric motor efficiency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... the mechanical and electrical characteristics of that basic model, and (ii) Based on engineering or... (“rating” as used here has the same meaning as it has in the definition of “basic model”). (ii) If it is...) General requirements. The average full-load efficiency of each basic model of small electric motor must be...

  16. Electric Motor Thermal Management Research: Annual Progress Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bennion, Kevin S. [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2017-10-19

    Past work in the area of active convective cooling provided data on the average convective heat transfer coefficients of circular orifice automatic transmission fluid (ATF) jets impinging on stationary targets intended to represent the wire bundle surface of the motor end-winding. Work during FY16 focused on the impact of alternative jet geometries that could lead to improved cooling over a larger surface of the motor winding. Results show that the planar jet heat transfer coefficients over a small (12.7-mm-diameter) target surface are not too much lower than for the circular orifice jet in which all of the ATF from the jet impinges on the target surface. The planar jet has the potential to achieve higher heat transfer over a larger area of the motor end winding. A new test apparatus was constructed to measure the spatial dependence of the heat transfer relative to the jet nozzle over a larger area representative of a motor end-winding. The tested planar flow geometry has the potential to provide more uniform cooling over the full end-winding surface versus the conventional jet configuration. The data will be used by motor designers to develop thermal management strategies to improve motor power density. Work on passive thermal design in collaboration with Oak Ridge National Laboratory to measure the thermal conductivity of wire bundle samples representative of end-winding and slot-winding materials was completed. Multiple measurement techniques were compared to determine which was most suitable for measuring composite wire bundle samples. NREL used a steady-state thermal resistance technique to measure the direction-dependent thermal conductivity. The work supported new interactions with industry to test new materials and reduce passive-stack thermal resistance in motors, leading to motors with increased power density. NREL collaborated with Ames Laboratory in the area of material characterization. The work focused on measuring the transverse rupture strength of

  17. INTENSITY SETTER FOR A DEVICE OF SMOOTH START OF SUBMERSIBLE PUMP ELECTRIC MOTOR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V.I. Lobov

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. Development of an intensity setter, which in a rational law changes the opening thyristor the voltage regulator and effectively to changing power supply voltage stator windings of the electric pump deepening, ensuring a smooth start in a wide range. Methodology. Electric submersible pump belongs to the small inertia electric, since it is not significant total moment of inertia, not exceeding two moments of inertia of the motor and static moment on the shaft does not exceed forty percent of the nominal torque. For technical requirements that electric acceleration time should have no less than twenty seconds or more. Office starting modes of electric submersible pumps economically justified using thyristor voltage regulator by forming the dial changes the intensity of the necessary legislation in time voltage feeding the stator windings. This ensures a smooth start right rotor of the electric submersible pump. Results. A block diagram of the intensity setter that is: with control unit, two units that form the exponential voltage supply emitter follower and regulatory elements. The mathematical expressions for voltage at the stator windings of the motor, changing exponentially, opening the angle of thyristor power unit thyristor the voltage regulator, which is determined through the initial angle of opening. Provided formula for pick-up voltage and minimum voltage, time constants, which are determined from the basic equations of motion and mechanical characteristics of the electric motor. Analytical investigated by the voltage dependence violation by changing the time constant flowing and growing exhibitor supply voltage stator electric circuit deepening pump. Originality. Proposed in the initial time on the stator windings of the electric pick-up voltage is applied. Under the influence of this voltage, motor rotor begins to accelerate. At the same time, pick-up voltage decreases the minimum startup voltage varies exponentially in which

  18. Chapter 11 - Electrical Coupling in the Generation of Vertebrate Motor Rhythms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Li, W.C.; Rekling, Jens Christian

    2017-01-01

    -studied systems: the pacemaker nucleus in weakly electric fish; mesencephalic trigeminal nucleus involved in chewing rhythms; mammalian spinal motoneurons and excitatory interneurons in the Xenopus tadpole swimming circuit, brainstem circuits underlying breathing rhythm, and central respiratory chemosensitivity......Many forms of vertebrate motor activity like chewing, breathing, and locomotion are rhythmic. This requires synchronized discharges of motoneurons controlling different muscle groups in an orchestrated manner. We provide a brief review of the presence and role of electrical coupling in a few well...... of electrical coupling in vertebrate motor rhythms appears to be critically dependent on developmental age, with more crucial functions in the early postnatal period than in the adult....

  19. Energy-Efficiency Policy Opportunities for Electric Motor-Driven Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2011-07-01

    This publication is the first global analysis of energy consumption and energy efficiency potential of EMDS (electric motor- driven system). The electric motors and systems they drive are the largest single electricity end use, accounting for more than 40% of global electricity consumption. Huge energy efficiency potential was found untapped in EMDS - around 25% of EMDS electricity use could be saved cost-effectively, reducing total global electricity demand by about 10%. However, the energy efficiency of EMDS has been relatively neglected in comparison with other sustainable energy opportunities. It is crucial to scale up the operations and resources committed to realizing the vast savings potential of optimized EMDS. This paper proposes a comprehensive package of policy recommendations to help governments realize the potential for energy savings in EMDS.

  20. Advanced dc motor controller for battery-powered electric vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belsterling, C. A.

    1981-01-01

    A motor generation set is connected to run from the dc source and generate a voltage in the traction motor armature circuit that normally opposes the source voltage. The functional feasibility of the concept is demonstrated with tests on a Proof of Principle System. An analog computer simulation is developed, validated with the results of the tests, applied to predict the performance of a full scale Functional Model dc Controller. The results indicate high efficiencies over wide operating ranges and exceptional recovery of regenerated energy. The new machine integrates both motor and generator on a single two bearing shaft. The control strategy produces a controlled bidirectional plus or minus 48 volts dc output from the generator permitting full control of a 96 volt dc traction motor from a 48 volt battery, was designed to control a 20 hp traction motor. The controller weighs 63.5 kg (140 lb.) and has a peak efficiency of 90% in random driving modes and 96% during the SAE J 227a/D driving cycle.

  1. Dynamic Modeling and Simulation of a Switched Reluctance Motor in a Series Hybrid Electric Vehicle

    OpenAIRE

    Siavash Sadeghi; Mojtaba Mirsalim; Arash Hassanpour Isfahani

    2010-01-01

    Dynamic behavior analysis of electric motors is required in order to accuratelyevaluate the performance, energy consumption and pollution level of hybrid electricvehicles. Simulation tools for hybrid electric vehicles are divided into steady state anddynamic models. Tools with steady-state models are useful for system-level analysiswhereas tools that utilize dynamic models give in-depth information about the behavior ofsublevel components. For the accurate prediction of hybrid electric vehicl...

  2. The advancement of electric vehicles - case: Tesla Motors. Disruptive technology requiring systemic innovating

    OpenAIRE

    Lehtinen, Petri

    2015-01-01

    Electric vehicles have existed for over 100 years as a disruptive innovation. Even though they have always been easier to use, quieter and cleaner, gasoline cars have beaten it in price, range and faster fueling. As gasoline cars have been the technological standard for the past 150 years there has been no motivation by car manufacturers to advance electric vehicles. By producing electric vehicles Tesla Motors has appropriately become the first successful startup car manufacturer in over 100 ...

  3. Direct electrical arc ignition of hybrid rocket motors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Judson, Michael I., Jr.

    Hybrid rockets motors provide distinct safety advantages when compared to traditional liquid or solid propellant systems, due to the inherent stability and relative inertness of the propellants prior to established combustion. As a result of this inherent propellant stability, hybrid motors have historically proven difficult to ignite. State of the art hybrid igniter designs continue to require solid or liquid reactants distinct from the main propellants. These ignition methods however, reintroduce to the hybrid propulsion system the safety and complexity disadvantages associated with traditional liquid or solid propellants. The results of this study demonstrate the feasibility of a novel direct electrostatic arc ignition method for hybrid motors. A series of small prototype stand-alone thrusters demonstrating this technology were successfully designed and tested using Acrylonitrile Butadiene Styrene (ABS) plastic and Gaseous Oxygen (GOX) as propellants. Measurements of input voltage and current demonstrated that arc-ignition will occur using as little as 10 watts peak power and less than 5 joules total energy. The motor developed for the stand-alone small thruster was adapted as a gas generator to ignite a medium-scale hybrid rocket motor using nitrous oxide /and HTPB as propellants. Multiple consecutive ignitions were performed. A large data set as well as a collection of development `lessons learned' were compiled to guide future development and research. Since the completion of this original groundwork research, the concept has been developed into a reliable, operational igniter system for a 75mm hybrid motor using both gaseous oxygen and liquid nitrous oxide as oxidizers. A development map of the direct spark ignition concept is presented showing the flow of key lessons learned between this original work and later follow on development.

  4. A Cryogenic High-Power-Density Bearingless Motor for Future Electric Propulsion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Benjamin; Siebert, Mark

    2008-01-01

    The NASA Glenn Research Center (GRC) is developing a high-power-density switched-reluctance cryogenic motor for all-electric and pollution-free flight. However, cryogenic operation at higher rotational speeds markedly shortens the life of mechanical rolling element bearings. Thus, to demonstrate the practical feasibility of using this motor for future flights, a non-contact rotor-bearing system is a crucial technology to circumvent poor bearing life that ordinarily accompanies cryogenic operation. In this paper, a bearingless motor control technology for a 12-8 (12 poles in the stator and 8 poles in the rotor) switched-reluctance motor operating in liquid nitrogen (boiling point, 77 K (-196 C or -321 F)) was presented. We pushed previous disciplinary limits of electromagnetic controller technique by extending the state-of-the-art bearingless motor operating at liquid nitrogen for high-specific-power applications. The motor was levitated even in its nonlinear region of magnetic saturation, which is believed to be a world first for the motor type. Also we used only motoring coils to generate motoring torque and levitation force, which is an important feature for developing a high specific power motor.

  5. DSP-based electric power assisted steering using BLDC motor

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    this implementation the motor is directly coupled to gearbox without clutch and all abnormalities are handled by the processor. This is implemented without modify- ing the vehicle supply system like changing the existing alternator or rating of the battery and using the existing sensors. The design is such a way that the feel of ...

  6. DSP-based electric power assisted steering using BLDC motor

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    system is experimentally verified and it is tested in one of the Light Commercial. Vehicle (LCV). Keywords. BLDC motor; EAS; steering. 1. Introduction. Power steering is a system for reducing the steering effort on vehicles by using external source to assist in turning the wheels. Most new generation vehicles now have power ...

  7. Sensorless induction motor drive for electric vehicle application ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The use of three-phase squirrel cage induction motor requires implementing of voltage source inverter supplied by DC voltage from vehicle battery system. A new DSP based voltage inverter is designed for the proposed drive. The used processor realizes the field oriented control algorithm with torque and flux closed loop ...

  8. Information-Measuring System to Control the Electrical and Mechanical Motor Parameters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. S. Ermakov

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The article considers the issue of creating an information-measuring system for an asynchronous motor. The presented system allows ensuring the failure-free protection of electromotor, considerably reducing costs of its unplanned repair, and reduced economical loss from idle time of the electric motor.The developed system comprises a mathematical model and two subsystems to measure electrical and mechanical parameters of the asynchronous motor.The electrical subsystem comprises a FLUKE company recording multi-meter a signal from which passes through the block of intervals and coding and comes to PC.The mechanical subsystem uses technical tools of phase-chronometric method. This method developed at the department of Metrology and Interchangeability allows an increasing efficiency of developed informative-measuring system. Mathematical modeling is used to link information from subsystems (electrical and mechanical to electromotor construction.The work conducted mathematical modeling of some defects of electric motor, namely: rupture of rotor winding and line surge.The mathematical model in Mathcad was based on a modified formula of Kloss. It allows us to tie the average current value of the torque of the induction motor with shaft speed and take into account the effect of the frequency and voltage.The Matlab Simulink (the package for visual programming environment was used to simulate a rupture of the rotor winding. Simulation results showed how the phase currents of the electric motor changed with the winding rupture.The developed information-measuring system has a number of advantages over traditional systems used in this field (vibration-based diagnostics systems. It will allow an increasing efficiency of the system for diagnostics of electrical machines created on the basis of this information-measuring system.

  9. Data on electrical energy conservation using high efficiency motors for the confidence bounds using statistical techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaikh, Muhammad Mujtaba; Memon, Abdul Jabbar; Hussain, Manzoor

    2016-09-01

    In this article, we describe details of the data used in the research paper "Confidence bounds for energy conservation in electric motors: An economical solution using statistical techniques" [1]. The data presented in this paper is intended to show benefits of high efficiency electric motors over the standard efficiency motors of similar rating in the industrial sector of Pakistan. We explain how the data was collected and then processed by means of formulas to show cost effectiveness of energy efficient motors in terms of three important parameters: annual energy saving, cost saving and payback periods. This data can be further used to construct confidence bounds for the parameters using statistical techniques as described in [1].

  10. Peptide assembly-driven metal-organic framework (MOF) motors for micro electric generators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ikezoe, Yasuhiro; Fang, Justin; Wasik, Tomasz L; Uemura, Takashi; Zheng, Yongtai; Kitagawa, Susumu; Matsui, Hiroshi

    2015-01-14

    Peptide-metal-organic framework (Pep-MOF) motors, whose motions are driven by anisotropic surface tension gradients created via peptide self-assembly around frameworks, can rotate microscopic rotors and magnets fast enough to generate an electric power of 0.1 μW. A new rigid Pep-MOF motor can be recycled by refilling the peptide fuel into the nanopores of the MOF. © 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  11. Rotational hysteresis and eddy current losses in electrical motor stators under non-conventional supply

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bottauscio, Oriano.; Canova, Aldo; Chiampi, Mario; Repetto, Maurizio

    2003-01-01

    The magnetic analysis of stators of electrical motors is performed through an innovative 2D finite element formulation that takes into account the effects of eddy currents within the laminations by means of a generalized constitutive relationship also including vector hysteresis. This approach is applied to a deep estimation of magnetic flux distribution and magnetic losses in stator of induction motors supplied by high-frequency sinusoidal or six-step voltage sources

  12. Cyclic Parameter Refinement of 4S-10 Hybrid Flux-Switching Motor for Lightweight Electric Vehicle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rani, J. Abd; Sulaiman, E.; Kumar, R.

    2017-08-01

    A great deal of attention has been given to the reduction of lighting the vehicle because the lighter the vehicle the energy consumption is comparatively low. Hence, the lightweight electric vehicle was introduced for lower carbon footprint and the sizing of the vehicle itself. One of the components to reduce the weight of the vehicle is the propulsion system which comprised of electric motor functioning as the source of torque to drive the propulsion system of the machine. This paper presents the refinement methodology for the optimized design of the 4S-10P E-Core hybrid excitation flux switching motor. The purpose of the refinement methodology is to improve the torque production of the optimized motor. The result of the successful improvement of the torque production is justifiable for a lightweight electric vehicle to drive the propulsion system.

  13. Comparative investigation of vibration and current monitoring for prediction of mechanical and electrical faults in induction motor based on multiclass-support vector machine algorithms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gangsar, Purushottam; Tiwari, Rajiv

    2017-09-01

    This paper presents an investigation of vibration and current monitoring for effective fault prediction in induction motor (IM) by using multiclass support vector machine (MSVM) algorithms. Failures of IM may occur due to propagation of a mechanical or electrical fault. Hence, for timely detection of these faults, the vibration as well as current signals was acquired after multiple experiments of varying speeds and external torques from an experimental test rig. Here, total ten different fault conditions that frequently encountered in IM (four mechanical fault, five electrical fault conditions and one no defect condition) have been considered. In the case of stator winding fault, and phase unbalance and single phasing fault, different level of severity were also considered for the prediction. In this study, the identification has been performed of the mechanical and electrical faults, individually and collectively. Fault predictions have been performed using vibration signal alone, current signal alone and vibration-current signal concurrently. The one-versus-one MSVM has been trained at various operating conditions of IM using the radial basis function (RBF) kernel and tested for same conditions, which gives the result in the form of percentage fault prediction. The prediction performance is investigated for the wide range of RBF kernel parameter, i.e. gamma, and selected the best result for one optimal value of gamma for each case. Fault predictions has been performed and investigated for the wide range of operational speeds of the IM as well as external torques on the IM.

  14. Ultra-Efficient and Power Dense Electric Motors for U. S. Industry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Melfi, Michael J.; Schiferl, Richard F.; Umans, Stephen D.

    2013-03-12

    percentage points lower than the energy efficient motor. This 30 HP rating full load efficiency corresponds to a 46% reduction in loss compared to a 30 HP NEMA Premium? efficient motor. The cost goals were to provide a two year or shorter efficiency-based payback of a price premium associated with the magnet cost in these motors. That goal is based on 24/7 operation with a cost of electricity of 10 cents per kW-hr. Similarly, the 250 HP prototype efficiency testing was quite successful. In this case, the efficiency was maximized with a slightly less aggressive reduction in active material. The measured full load efficiency of 97.6% represents in excess of a 50% loss reduction compared to the equivalent NEMA Premium Efficiency induction motor. The active material weight reduction was a respectable 14.5% figure. This larger rating demonstrated both the scalability of this technology and also the ability to flexibly trade off power density and efficiency. In terms of starting performance, the 30 ? 50 HP prototypes were very extensively tested. The demonstrated capability included the ability to successfully start a load with an inertia of 25 times the motor?s own inertia while accelerating against a load torque following a fan profile at the motor?s full nameplate power rating. This capability will provide very wide applicability of this motor technology. The 250 HP prototype was also tested for starting characteristics, though without a coupled inertia and load torque. As a result it was not definitively proven that the same 25 times the motor?s own inertia could be started and synchronized successfully at 250 HP. Finite element modeling implies that this load could be successfully started, but it has not yet been confirmed by a test.

  15. Research on Control System of Three - phase Brushless DC Motor for Electric Vehicle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Zhiwei; Jin, Hai; Guo, Jie; Su, Jie; Wang, Miao

    2017-12-01

    In order to study the three-phase brushless motor control system of electric vehicle, Freescale9S12XS128 chip is used as the control core, and the power MOSFET is used as the inverter device. The software is compiled by Codewarrior software. The speed control link adopts open-loop control, and the control chip collects the external sensor signal voltage Change control PWM signal output control three-phase brushless DC motor speed. The whole system consists of Hall position detection module, current detection module, power drive module and voltage detection module. The basic functions of three-phase brushless DC motor drive control are realized.

  16. Control Strategy for Power Distribution in Dual Motor Propulsion System for Electric Vehicles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pedro Daniel Urbina Coronado

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Electric Vehicles with more than one electric motor can offer advantages in saving energy from the batteries. In order to do that, the control strategy plays an important role in distributing the required torque between the electric motors. A dual motor propulsion system with a differential transmission is simulated in this work. A rule based control strategy for this propulsion system is proposed and analyzed. Two parameters related to the output speed of the transmission and the required torque are used to switch the two modes of operation in which the propulsion system can work under acceleration. The effect of these parameters is presented over the driving cycles of NEDC, UDDS, and NYCC, which are followed using a PID controller. The produced energy losses are calculated as well as an indicator of drivability, which is related to the difference between the desired speed and the actual speed obtained. The results show that less energy losses are present when the vehicle is maintained with one electric motor most of the time, switching only when the extended speed granted by the second motor is required. The propulsion system with the proposed control strategy represents a feasible alternative in the spectrum of sustainable transportation architectures with extending range capabilities.

  17. Instability of single-phase natural circulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xie Heng; Zhang Jinling; Jia Dounan

    1997-01-01

    The author has investigated the instability of single-phase flows in natural circulation loops. The momentum equation and energy equation are made dimensionless according to some definitions, and some important dimensionless parameters are gotten. The authors decomposed the mean mass flowrate and temperature into a steady solution and a small disturbance equations. Through solving the disturbance equations, the authors get the neutral stability curves. The authors have studied the effect of the two parameters which represent the ratio of buoyancy force to the friction loss in the loop on the stability of loops. The authors also have studied the effect of the difference of height between the center of heat source and the heat sink on the stability

  18. System Identification and Integration Design of an Air/Electric Motor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shih-Yao Huang

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents an integration design and implementation of an air motor and a DC servo motor which utilizes a magnetic powder brake to integrate these two motors together. The dynamic model of the air/electric hybrid system will be derived and eventually leads to successful ECE-40 driving cycle tests with a FPGA-based speed controller. The testing results obtained by using the proposed experimental platform indicate that the total air consumption is about 256 L under air motor mode and the electric charge consumption is about 530 coulombs under DC servo motor mode. In a hybrid mode, the current reduction of the battery is about 18.5%, and then the service life of the battery can be improved. Furthermore, a prototype is built with a proportional-integral (PI speed controller based on a field-programmable gate array (FPGA in order to facilitate the entire analysis of the velocity switch experiment. Through the modular methodology of FPGA, the hybrid power platform can successfully operate under ECE-40 driving cycle with the PI speed controller. The experimental data shows that the chattering ranges of the air motor within ±1 km/h and ±0.2 km/h under DC servo motor drive. Therefore, the PI speed controller based on FPGA is successfully actualized.

  19. Design and Analysis of a Novel Speed-Changing Wheel Hub with an Integrated Electric Motor for Electric Bicycles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yi-Chang Wu

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to present an innovative electromechanical device which integrates a brushless DC (BLDC hub motor with a speed-changing wheel hub stored on the rear wheel of an electric bicycle. It combines a power source and a speed-changing mechanism to simultaneously provide functions of power generation and transmission for electric bicycles. As part of the proposed integrated device, the wheel hub consists of a basic planetary gear train providing three forward speeds including a low-speed gear, a direct drive, and a high-speed gear. Each gear is manually controlled by the shift control sleeve to selectively engage or disengage four pawl-and-ratchet clutches based on its clutching sequence table. The number of gear teeth of each gear element of the wheel hub is synthesized. The BLDC hub motor is an exterior-rotor-type permanent-magnet synchronous motor. Two-dimensional finite-element analysis (FEA software is employed to facilitate the motor design and performance analysis. An analysis of the power transmission path at each gear is provided to verify the validity of the proposed design. The results of this work are beneficial to the embodiment, design, and development of novel electromechanical devices for the power and transmission systems of electric bicycles.

  20. FY2011 Advanced Power Electronics and Electric Motors Annual Progress Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rogers, Susan A. [Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE), Washington, DC (United States)

    2012-01-31

    The Advanced Power Electronics and Electric Motors (APEEM) program within the DOE Vehicle Technologies Program (VTP) provides support and guidance for many cutting-edge automotive technologies now under development. Research is focused on developing revolutionary new power electronics (PE), electric motor (EM), thermal management, and traction drive system technologies that will leapfrog current on-the-road technologies. The research and development (R&D) is also aimed at achieving a greater understanding of and improvements in the way the various new components of tomorrow’s automobiles will function as a unified system to improve fuel efficiency.

  1. Effects of motor imagery combined with functional electrical stimulation on upper limb motor function of patients with acute ischemic stroke

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shou-feng LIU

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Objective To explore the effects of motor imagery (MI combined with the third generation functional electrical stimulation (FES on upper limb motor function in acute ischemic stroke patients with hemiplegia.  Methods Forty acute ischemic stroke patients, within 48 h of onset, were randomly divided into FES group (N = 20 and combination group (FES combined with motor imagery, N = 20. All patients received basic routine rehabilitation training, for example, good limb positioning, accepting braces, balance training and training in the activities of daily living (ADL. FES group received the third generation FES therapy and the combination group also received motor imagery for 2 weeks. All of the patients were assessed with Fugl-Meyer Assessment (FMA, Action Research Arm Test (ARAT and active range of motion (AROM of wrist dorsiflexion before and after 2 weeks of treatment.  Results After 2 weeks of treatment, the 2 groups had significantly higher FMA score, ARAT score and AROM of wrist dorsiflexion than that in pre-treatment (P = 0.000, for all. Besides, the FMA score (t = - 2.528, P = 0.016, ARAT score (t = - 2.562, P = 0.014 and AROM of wrist dorsiflexion (t = - 2.469, P = 0.018 in the combination group were significantly higher than that in the FES group. There were interactions of treatment methods with observation time points (P < 0.05, for all.  Conclusions Motor imagery combined with the third generation FES can effectively promote the recovery of upper limb motor function and motion range of wrist dorsiflexion in patients with acute ischemic stroke. DOI: 10.3969/j.issn.1672-6731.2015.03.008

  2. Electrical energy saving in motors and frequency variators; Ahorro de energia electrica en motores y variadores de frecuencia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garcia Neri, Roger [Comision Federal de Electricidad (CFE) (Mexico)

    2005-07-01

    The necessity of saving energy is urgent and undeniable. We must already begin with the rational use of energy. Which is obtaining the maximum benefit of the consumed energy and of the necessary facilities for its generation, transmission and use. Guaranteeing at the same time an operation free of interferences or interruptions for the users. The electricity in alternating current does not allow its storage, reason why it is necessary to generate and distribute it at the precise moment when it is required. This forces to determine the proportions of the generation facilities, to be able to feed the periods of maximum demand called {sup p}eaks{sup .} It is this very point where the problem of the inappropriate use of the electrical energy starts. The energy waste is self-evident during the periods of low demand because of the low efficiency of the sub-utilized facilities. Electrical motors of the induction type use approximately more than 60% of the energy in the industry. If we use high efficiency motors instead of standard motors, a better advantage of the energy demanded from Comision Federal de Electricidad (CFE) is obtained. [Spanish] Es impostergable e innegable la necesidad de ahorrar energia. Tenemos que empezar ya con el uso racional de la energia: Obtener el maximo beneficio de la energia consumida y de las instalaciones necesarias para su generacion, transmision y utilizacion. Garantizando a los usuarios un funcionamiento sin interferencias o interrupciones. La electricidad en corriente alterna no permite su almacenamiento, por lo que es necesario generarla y distribuirla en el momento preciso en que es requerida. Esto obliga a dimensionar las instalaciones de generacion, para poder alimentar los periodos de maxima demanda llamados pico. Desde esta parte inicia el problema de la mala utilizacion de la energia electrica. Ya que en los periodos de baja demanda, las instalaciones se encuentran subutilizadas y si su eficiencia es muy baja, el desperdicio de

  3. Straight and chopped DC performance data for a General Electric 5BY436A1 DC shunt motor with a General Electric EV-1 controller

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edie, P. C.

    1981-01-01

    Both straight and chopped dc motor performance data for a General Electric 5BY436A1 motor with a General Electric EV-1 controller is presented in tabular and graphical formats. Effects of motor temperature and operating voltage are also shown. The maximum motor efficiency is approximately 85% at low operating temperatures in the straight dc mode. Chopper efficiency can be assumed to be 95% under all operating conditions. For equal speeds, the motor operated in the chopped mode develops slightly more torque and draws more current than it does in the straight mode.

  4. Control allocation for for regenerative braking of electric vehicles with an electric motor at the front axle using the state-dependent Riccati equation control technique

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kanarachos, S.A.; Alirezaei, M.; Jansen, S.T.H.; Maurice, J.P.

    2014-01-01

    In this paper the systematic development of an integrated braking controller for a vehicle driven by an electric motor on the front axle is presented. The objective is to engage the electric motor only during braking, up to the point at which the vehicle reaches its manoeuvrability and stability

  5. Modal Analysis of In-Wheel Motor-Driven Electric Vehicle Based on Bond Graph Theory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Di Tan

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available A half-car vibration model of an electric vehicle driven by rear in-wheel motors was developed using bond graph theory and the modular modeling method. Based on the bond graph model, modal analysis was carried out to study the vibration characteristics of the electric vehicle. To verify the effectiveness of the established model, the results were compared to ones computed on the ground of modal analysis and Newton equations. The comparison shows that the vibration model of the electric vehicle based on bond graph theory not only is able to better compute the natural frequency but also can easily determine the deformation mode, momentum mode, and other isomorphism modes and describe the dynamic characteristics of an electric vehicle driven by in-wheel motors more comprehensively than other modal analysis methods.

  6. The performance and efficiency of four motor/controller/battery systems for the simpler electric vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shipps, P. R.

    1980-01-01

    A test and analysis program performed on four complete propulsion systems for an urban electric vehicle (EV) is described and results given. A dc series motor and a permanent magnet (PM) motor were tested, each powered by an EV battery pack and controlled by (1) a series/parallel voltage-switching (V-switch) system; and (2) a system using a pulse width modulation, 400 Hz transistorized chopper. Dynamometer tests were first performed, followed by eV performance predictions and data correlating road tests. During dynamometer tests using chopper control; current, voltage, and power were measured on both the battery and motor sides of the chopper, using three types of instrumentation. Conventional dc instruments provided adequate accuracy for eV power and energy measurements, when used on the battery side of the controller. When using the chopper controller, the addition of a small choke inductor improved system efficiency in the lower duty cycle range (some 8% increase at 50% duty cycle) with both types of motors. Overall system efficiency rankings during road tests were: (1) series motor with V-switch; (2) PM motor with V-switch; (3) series motor with chopper; and (4) PM motor with chopper. Chopper control of the eV was smoother and required less driver skill than V-switch control.

  7. Enhancement of magnetic flux distribution in a DC superconducting electric motor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hamid, N A; Ewe, L S; Chin, K M

    2013-01-01

    Most motor designs require an air gap between the rotor and stator to enable the armature to rotate freely. The interaction of magnetic flux from rotor and stator within the air gap will provide the thrust for rotational motion. Thus, the understanding of magnetic flux in the vicinity of the air gap is very important to mathematically calculate the magnetic flux generated in the area. In this work, a finite element analysis was employed to study the behavior of the magnetic flux in view of designing a synchronous DC superconducting electric motor. The analysis provides an ideal magnetic flux distribution within the components of the motor. From the flux plot analysis, it indicates that flux losses are mainly in the forms of leakage and fringe effect. The analysis also shows that the flux density is high at the area around the air gap and the rotor. The high flux density will provide a high force area that enables the rotor to rotate. In contrast, the other parts of the motor body do not show high flux density indicating low distribution of flux. Consequently, a bench top model of a DC superconducting motor was developed where by motor with a 2-pole type winding was chosen. Each field coil was designed with a racetrack-shaped double pancake wound using DI-BSCCO Bi-2223 superconducting tapes. The performance and energy efficiency of the superconducting motor was superior when compared to the conventional motor with similar capacity.

  8. Neuromuscular Electrical Stimulation for Motor Restoration in Hemiplegia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knutson, Jayme S.; Fu, Michael J.; Sheffler, Lynne R.; Chae, John

    2015-01-01

    Synopsis This article reviews the most common therapeutic and neuroprosthetic applications of neuromuscular electrical stimulation (NMES) for upper and lower extremity stroke rehabilitation. Fundamental NMES principles and purposes in stroke rehabilitation are explained. NMES modalities used for upper and lower limb rehabilitation are described and efficacy studies are summarized. The evidence for peripheral and central mechanisms of action is also summarized. PMID:26522909

  9. FEATURES OF ELECTRIC MOTOR CHOICE FOR NUCLEAR POWER PLANT TECHNOLOGICAL OBJECTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V.V. Shevchenko

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Nuclear power plants remain the basic power generating enterprises for Ukraine. Execution of works on their reliability control and operating conditions optimization is therefore of current importance. Trouble-free nuclear power plant operation is a vital technical, economical, and ecological problem, a solution to which is largely specified by reliable operation of electric equipment, namely, electric motors of nuclear power plant technological process drives.

  10. Chapter 11 - Electrical Coupling in the Generation of Vertebrate Motor Rhythms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Li, W.C.; Rekling, Jens Christian

    2017-01-01

    Many forms of vertebrate motor activity like chewing, breathing, and locomotion are rhythmic. This requires synchronized discharges of motoneurons controlling different muscle groups in an orchestrated manner. We provide a brief review of the presence and role of electrical coupling in a few well......-studied systems: the pacemaker nucleus in weakly electric fish; mesencephalic trigeminal nucleus involved in chewing rhythms; mammalian spinal motoneurons and excitatory interneurons in the Xenopus tadpole swimming circuit, brainstem circuits underlying breathing rhythm, and central respiratory chemosensitivity...

  11. Design Study for Controllable Electric Motor for Three Wheel Drive, In Wheel Mounting on Professional, Electric, Lawn Mower

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lu, Kaiyuan

    focused upon the transverse flux permanent magnet machine, which attracts great interests in electric and hybrid propulsion systems. This thesis deals with modelling, performance analysis, design, test and measurement of permanent magnet transverse flux machines (PMTFM). It is important to understand......Design of a new generation of electric drive motor for professional lawnmowers forms the basic objective of this thesis. Modern drive concepts produces a growing demand for electrical machines featuring high torque density, and suitable for direct drive applications. Much attention is presently...... is another important issue discussed in this thesis. Based on the magnetic and electrical performance analysis, and by studying the influence of the number of poles, width of C-core tooth, and size of magnets on the torque production capability, an improved design of PMTFM was achieved. The improved design...

  12. Graphical User Interface Aided Online Fault Diagnosis of Electric Motor - DC motor case study

    OpenAIRE

    POSTALCIOGLU OZGEN, S.

    2009-01-01

    This paper contains graphical user interface (GUI) aided online fault diagnosis for DC motor. The aim of the research is to prevent system faults. Online fault diagnosis has been studied. Design of fault diagnosis has two main levels: Level 1 comprises a traditional control loop; Level 2 contains knowledge based fault diagnosis. Fault diagnosis technique contains feature extraction module, feature cluster module and fault decision module. Wavelet analysis has been used for the feature extract...

  13. A re-look at critical factors influencing single-phase formation of Ba2 ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Bulletin of Materials Science; Volume 30; Issue 4. A re-look at critical factors influencing single-phase formation of Ba2Ti9O20 microwave dielectrics. Unnikrishnan Gopinath Dhanya Chandran Seema Ansari Bindu Krishnan Rani Panicker Raghu Natarajan. Electrical Properties Volume 30 Issue 4 August ...

  14. Analysis of Variable-Speed Operation of Drives with Single-Phase Machines

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Chomát, Miroslav; Schreier, Luděk; Bendl, Jiří

    2007-01-01

    Roč. 52, č. 2 (2007), s. 139-147 ISSN 0001-7043 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA102/06/0215 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z20570509 Keywords : single-phase machines * induction machines * variable-speed drives Subject RIV: JA - Electronics ; Optoelectronics, Electrical Engineering

  15. Motor stator using corner scraps for additional electrical components

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsu, John S.; Su, Gui-Jia; Adams, Donald J.; Nagashima, James M.; Stancu, Constantin; Carlson, Douglas S.; Smith, Gregory S.

    2004-03-16

    A method for making a motor and auxiliary devices with a unified stator body comprises providing a piece of material (10) having an area larger than a cross section of the stator (11), removing material from the piece of material (10) to form a pattern for a cross section of a core (11) for the stator, and removing material from the piece of material (10) outside the cross section of the core of the stator (11) to allow positioning of cores (22, 23, 24) for supporting windings (25, 26, 27) of least one additional electromagnetic device, such as a transformer (62) in a dc-to-dc converter (61, 62) that provides a low. voltage dc output. An article of manufacture made according to the invention is also disclosed and apparatus made with the method and article of manufacture are also disclosed.

  16. COOPERATIVE MODE OF ELECTRIC MOTOR AND INTERNAL COMBUSTION ENGINE OPERATION IN THE CONVERSION HYBRID CAR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. Dvadnenko

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available In the given article the authors proposed a method to control the car, which is converted into a hybrid one. The electric motor and combustion engine operate alternately in the car. They proposed a device for implementing this method and a circuit design for the device in question. They also calculated the dynamics of the vehicle under the joint acceleration.

  17. ELECTRICAL AND ELECTRONIC INDUSTRIAL CONTROL. D-C MAGNETIC MOTOR CONTROL, UNIT 7, INSTRUCTOR'S GUIDE.

    Science.gov (United States)

    SUTTON, MACK C.

    THIS GUIDE IS FOR TEACHER USE IN DIRECTING INDIVIDUAL STUDY OF DIRECT CURRENT MAGNETIC MOTOR CONTROL IN ELECTRICAL-ELECTRONIC PROGRAMS. IT WAS DEVELOPED BY AN INSTRUCTIONAL MATERIALS SPECIALIST AND ADVISERS. EACH OF THE 15 INSTRUCTOR'S SHEETS GIVES THE LESSON SUBJECT, PURPOSE, INTRODUCTORY INFORMATION, REFERENCES, AND STEP-BY-STEP SOLUTIONS OF THE…

  18. ELECTRICAL AND ELECTRONIC INDUSTRIAL CONTROL. D-C MAGNETIC MOTOR CONTROL, UNIT 7, ASSIGNMENTS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    SUTTON, MACK C.

    THIS GUIDE IS FOR INDIVIDUAL STUDENT USE IN STUDYING DIRECT CURRENT MAGNETIC MOTOR CONTROL IN ELECTRICAL-ELECTRONIC PROGRAMS. IT WAS DEVELOPED BY AN INSTRUCTIONAL MATERIALS SPECIALIST AND ADVISERS. EACH OF THE 15 ASSIGNMENT SHEETS PROVIDES THE LESSON SUBJECT, PURPOSE, INTRODUCTORY INFORMATION, STUDY REFERENCES, AND PROBLEMS. SOME OF THE LESSONS…

  19. 10 CFR Appendix A to Subpart U of... - Sampling Plan for Enforcement Testing of Electric Motors

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Sampling Plan for Enforcement Testing of Electric Motors A Appendix A to Subpart U of Part 431 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY ENERGY CONSERVATION ENERGY EFFICIENCY... mean energy efficiency of the first sample (X 1) is equal to or greater than the lower control limit...

  20. Improved SCR ac Motor Controller for Battery Powered Urban Electric Vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Latos, T. S.

    1982-01-01

    An improved ac motor controller, which when coupled to a standard ac induction motor and a dc propulsion battery would provide a complete electric vehicle power train with the exception of the mechanical transmission and drive wheels was designed. In such a system, the motor controller converts the dc electrical power available at the battery terminals to ac electrical power for the induction motor in response to the drivers commands. The performance requirements of a hypothetical electric vehicle with an upper weight bound of 1590 kg (3500 lb) were used to determine the power rating of the controller. Vehicle acceleration capability, top speed, and gradeability requisites were contained in the Society of Automotive Engineers (SAE) Schedule 227a(d) driving cycle. The important capabilities contained in this driving cycle are a vehicle acceleration requirement of 0 to 72.4 kmph (0 to 45 mph) in 28 seconds a top speed of 88.5 kmph (55 mph), and the ability to negotiate a 10% grade at 48 kmph (30 mph). A 10% grade is defined as one foot of vertical rise per 10 feet of horizontal distance.

  1. Predictive Model Based Battery Constraints for Electric Motor Control within EV Powertrains

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Roşca, B.; Wilkins, S.; Jacob, J.; Hoedemaekers, E.R.G.; Hoek, S.P. van den

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents a method of predicting the maximum power capability of a Li-Ion battery, to be used for electric motor control within automotive powertrains. As maximum power is highly dependent on battery state, the method consists of a pack level state observer coupled with a predictive

  2. Design of permanent magnet brushless motors with asymmetric air gap for electric vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chau, K. T.; Cui, Wei; Jiang, J. Z.; Wang, Zheng

    2006-04-01

    This paper proposes a cost-effective approach to design permanent magnet brushless dc motors for electric vehicles. The key is to shape the pole arc in such a way that the air gap length is at a maximum at the leading edge of each rotor pole arc and at a minimum at the trailing edge of the same pole arc, hence resulting in an asymmetric air gap. Thus, for a specified rotational direction, the distortion of air gap flux density and hence the torque ripple can be significantly suppressed. Also, with the use of advanced conduction angle control, the motor can achieve a wide speed range. The proposed motor drive is designed and implemented for a low-voltage battery-powered electric motorcycle.

  3. Qualification of electric motors class 1E for supply of motors and its repair; Calificacion de motores electricos clase 1E para el suministro de motores alternativos a los orginales y su reparacion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Perez, E.; Gonzalez, J. J.; Fernandez, A.; Garcia, D.

    2005-07-01

    Different original suppliers of nuclear grade equipment have either disappeared or discontinued the manufacture of this kind equipment. Under this situation nuclear plants are experiencing difficulties when dealing with the substitution or maintenance of these equipment. Tecnatom and Cantarey have developed a new line of Class 1E qualified electric low voltage motors which can be used as an alternative to originally installed safety-related motors or for its repair and maintenance. (Author)

  4. A thermal and electrical dynamic mathematical model for squirrel cage induction motors; Modelamento matematico dinamico termico e eletrico de motores de inducao

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sousa, Ronaldo Martins de

    1996-01-01

    A thermal and electrical dynamic mathematical model for squirrel cage induction motors is presented. The electrical model is described by Park equation and the torque equation, while the thermal model is described by a system of four first order differential equations that represent the motor heat transfer process. The model presented can be used to determine thermal and electrical performance for any operation condition. However, it is suitable mainly for machines operating under continuously transient condition. The presented mathematical model also incorporate variation of rotor winding electrical parameters due to skin effect. (author)

  5. Virtual process of product development for electric motors; Virtueller Produktentwicklungsprozess fuer Elektromotoren

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schoening, Marc Christian

    2008-07-01

    In order to consider all relevant design aspects and their mutual interdependences, current design practice uses a selection of different software packages. The design tools as a rule specialize in a single design criterion, so that tools must be combined in order to consider the mutual interaction of electromagnetic, thermal, and acoustic effects. So far, this has been done individually and manually, with a new model of the motor under investigation generated in every single program. This means that the parameters of a motor must be managed several times. The publication presents a novel simulation tool which provides a comprehensive methodology in which all design aspects of electric motors are considered by a standardised and uniform virtual development process. Further, the virtual reality method is used for representing 3D motor models in their natural dimensions, thus providing better understanding of the numeric simulation results. (orig.)

  6. Straight and chopped dc performance data for a Prestolite MTC-4001 motor and a general electric EV-1 controller

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edie, P. C.

    1981-01-01

    Performance data on the Prestolite MTC-4001 series wound dc motor and General Electric EV-1 Chopper Controller is supplied for the electric vehicle manufacturer. Data are provided for both straight and chopped dc input to the motor, at 2 motor temperature levels. Testing was done at 6 voltage increments to the motor, and 2 voltage increments to the controller. Data results are presented in both tabular and graphical forms. Tabular information includes motor voltage and current input data, motor speed and torque output data, power data and temperature data. Graphical information includes torque-speed, motor power output-speed, torque-current, and efficiency-speed plots under the various operating conditions. The data resulting from this testing show the speed-torque plots to have the most variance with operating temperature. The maximum motor efficiency is between 76% and 82%, regardless of temperature or mode of operation.

  7. Improved transistorized AC motor controller for battery powered urban electric passenger vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peak, S. C.

    1982-01-01

    An ac motor controller for an induction motor electric vehicle drive system was designed, fabricated, tested, evaluated, and cost analyzed. A vehicle performance analysis was done to establish the vehicle tractive effort-speed requirements. These requirements were then converted into a set of ac motor and ac controller requirements. The power inverter is a three-phase bridge using power Darlington transistors. The induction motor was optimized for use with an inverter power source. The drive system has a constant torque output to base motor speed and a constant horsepower output to maximum speed. A gear shifting transmission is not required. The ac controller was scaled from the base 20 hp (41 hp peak) at 108 volts dec to an expanded horsepower and battery voltage range. Motor reversal was accomplished by electronic reversal of the inverter phase sequence. The ac controller can also be used as a boost chopper battery charger. The drive system was tested on a dynamometer and results are presented. The current-controlled pulse width modulation control scheme yielded improved motor current waveforms. The ac controller favors a higher system voltage.

  8. The Numerical Calculation and Experimental Measurement of the Inductance Parameters for Permanent Magnet Synchronous Motor in Electric Vehicle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Chao; Qiao, Mingzhong; Zhu, Peng

    2017-12-01

    A permanent magnet synchronous motor with radial magnetic circuit and built-in permanent magnet is designed for the electric vehicle. Finite element numerical calculation and experimental measurement are adopted to obtain the direct axis and quadrature axis inductance parameters of the motor which are vital important for the motor control. The calculation method is simple, the measuring principle is clear, the results of numerical calculation and experimental measurement are mutual confirmation. A quick and effective method is provided to obtain the direct axis and quadrature axis inductance parameters of the motor, and then improve the design of motor or adjust the control parameters of the motor controller.

  9. Industry agreement on efficient electrical motors; Industrievereinbarung im Effizienzbereich Motoren (eff1, eff2, eff3)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schnyder, G. [Schnyder Ingenieure AG, Huenenberg (Switzerland)

    2004-07-01

    This comprehensive final report presents the results of a project carried out on behalf of the Swiss Federal Office of Energy (SFOE) and the Swiss Automation Pool (SAP) concerning the efficiency of electrical drives. The main goal of the project was to conclude a target agreement between the federal government and the Swiss electric motors/drives industry. This involves the promotion of the highest, 'eff1' energy-efficiency category of the three categories defined by the European Committee of Manufacturers of Electrical Machines and Power Electronics (CEMP). The report presents the findings of the project and recommends the banning of the use of motors in the lowest, 'eff3' category. Comparisons are made between the CEMP standards and further standards and promotion programmes in the USA and in Great Britain. Associated measures to be taken to aid the promotion of the drive standard are discussed.

  10. Study and review of permanent magnets for electric vehicle propulsion motors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strnat, K. J.

    1983-01-01

    A study of permanent magnets (PM) was performed in support of the DOE/NASA electric and hybrid vehicle program. PM requirements for electric propulsion motors are analyzed, design principles and relevant properties of magnets are discussed. Available PM types are reviewed. For the needed high-grade magnets, design data, commercial varieties and sources are tabulated, based on a survey of vendors. Economic factors such as raw material availability, production capability and cost are analyzed, especially for cobalt and the rare earths. Extruded Mn-Al-C magnets from Japan were experimentally characterized. Dynamic magnetic data for the range -50 deg to +150 deg C and some mechanical properties are reported. The state of development of the important PM material families is reviewed. Feasible improvements or new developments of magnets for electric vehicle motors are identified.

  11. Control Algorithms of Propulsion Unit with Induction Motors for Electric Vehicle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    PALACKY, P.

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available The article deals with the research of algorithms for controlling electronic differential and differential lock of an electrically driven vehicle. The simulation part addresses the development of algorithms suitable for the implementation into a real system of a road vehicle. The algorithms are then implemented into a vehicle, a propulsion unit of which is consists of two separate electric drives with induction motors fed by voltage inverters with own control units using advanced signal processors. Communication among control units is provided by means of SPI interface. A method of vector control is used for the control of induction motors. The developed algorithms are experimentally verified for correct function in a laboratory using a roll test stand and while driving an electrically driven vehicle on the road.

  12. Speed Sensorless Induction Motor Drives for Electrical Actuators: Schemes, Trends and Tradeoffs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elbuluk, Malik E.; Kankam, M. David

    1997-01-01

    For a decade, induction motor drive-based electrical actuators have been under investigation as potential replacement for the conventional hydraulic and pneumatic actuators in aircraft. Advantages of electric actuator include lower weight and size, reduced maintenance and operating costs, improved safety due to the elimination of hazardous fluids and high pressure hydraulic and pneumatic actuators, and increased efficiency. Recently, the emphasis of research on induction motor drives has been on sensorless vector control which eliminates flux and speed sensors mounted on the motor. Also, the development of effective speed and flux estimators has allowed good rotor flux-oriented (RFO) performance at all speeds except those close to zero. Sensorless control has improved the motor performance, compared to the Volts/Hertz (or constant flux) controls. This report evaluates documented schemes for speed sensorless drives, and discusses the trends and tradeoffs involved in selecting a particular scheme. These schemes combine the attributes of the direct and indirect field-oriented control (FOC) or use model adaptive reference systems (MRAS) with a speed-dependent current model for flux estimation which tracks the voltage model-based flux estimator. Many factors are important in comparing the effectiveness of a speed sensorless scheme. Among them are the wide speed range capability, motor parameter insensitivity and noise reduction. Although a number of schemes have been proposed for solving the speed estimation, zero-speed FOC with robustness against parameter variations still remains an area of research for speed sensorless control.

  13. Peptide Assembly-Driven Metal-Organic Framework (MOF) Motors for Micro Electric Generator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ikezoe, Yasuhiro; Fang, Justin; Wasik, Tomasz L.; Uemura, Takashi; Zheng, Yongtai; Kitagawa, Susumu

    2014-01-01

    Peptide-MOF motors, whose motions are driven by anisotropic surface gradients created via peptide self-assembly around nanopores of MOFs, can rotate microscopic rotors and magnet fast enough to generate electric power of 0.1 µW. To make the peptide-MOF generator recyclable, a new MOF is applied as a host motor engine, which has a more rigid framework with higher H2O affinity so that peptide release occurs more efficiently via guest exchange without the destruction of MOF. PMID:25418936

  14. Electric wheel-hub motors for light city vehicles; Elektrische Radnabenmotoren fuer leichte Stadtfahrzeuge

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Krebs, Gerhard [Evomotiv GmbH, Stuttgart (Germany); Weber, Rolf; Leppelsack, Simon [Evomotiv GmbH, Leinfelden-Echterdingen (Germany); Hochberg, Ulrich [Hochschule Offenburg (Germany). Fakultaet fuer Maschinenbau

    2010-02-15

    The engineering company Evomotiv GmbH and the University of Applied Sciences Offenburg have developed a drive concept for light city scooters since 2008. The electrical drive train's goal is the series production of the highly-integrated, non-transmission and non-ferrous wheel-hub motor. The German Federal Ministry of Economy and Technology (BMWi) supports this project. The concept of this wheel-hub motor was awarded with the Bosch-Innovation prize in 2006. In 2011 Evomotiv will test the first prototypes with its cooperation partners on the track. (orig.)

  15. Effects of coil orientation on the electric field induced by TMS over the hand motor area

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Laakso, Ilkka; Hirata, Akimasa; Ugawa, Yoshikazu

    2014-01-01

    Responses elicited by transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) over the hand motor area depend on the position and orientation of the stimulating coil. In this work, we computationally investigate the induced electric field for multiple coil orientations and locations in order to determine which parts of the brain are affected and how the sensitivity of motor cortical activation depends on the direction of the electric field. The finite element method is used for calculating the electric field induced by TMS in two individual anatomical models of the head and brain. The orientation of the coil affects both the strength and depth of penetration of the electric field, and the field strongly depends on the direction of the sulcus, where the target neurons are located. The coil position that gives the strongest electric field in the target cortical region may deviate from the closest scalp location by a distance on the order of 1 cm. Together with previous experimental data, the results support the hypothesis that the cortex is most sensitive to fields oriented perpendicular to the cortical layers, while it is relatively insensitive to fields parallel to them. This has important implications for targeting of TMS. To determine the most effective coil position and orientation, it is essential to consider both biological (the direction of the targeted axons) and physical factors (the strength and direction of the electric field). (paper)

  16. Comparative analysis of energy economy among different types of electric motor driving; Analise comparativa de economia de energia entre diferentes tipos de acionamento de motores electricos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silva, Marcelo Santos da; Oliveira, Carlos Henrique, e-mails: mcelo_sant@ig.com.br; caique1979@yahoo.com.br; Albuquerque, Carlos Jesivan Marques; Fortes, Marcio Zamboti [Universidade Severino Sombra (USS), Vassouras, RJ (Brazil)], e-mails: cjesivan@uss.br; mzamboti@uss.br

    2008-07-01

    The application of controlled drives loads of small power can cause undesirable disturbances for electrical installations, but it brings some benefits when comparing the energy consumption that this application has on its regular period of operation. This study analyses using comparatives, the electrical economy using the different types of drives for three phase electric induction motors of low voltage. Running up tests on the test bench didactic, the inverter drives, soft starter and contactor switch were analyzed for different loads (motor without load, 50% and 100% load), rating in S1 and S4. (author)

  17. Graphical User Interface Aided Online Fault Diagnosis of Electric Motor - DC motor case study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    POSTALCIOGLU OZGEN, S.

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper contains graphical user interface (GUI aided online fault diagnosis for DC motor. The aim of the research is to prevent system faults. Online fault diagnosis has been studied. Design of fault diagnosis has two main levels: Level 1 comprises a traditional control loop; Level 2 contains knowledge based fault diagnosis. Fault diagnosis technique contains feature extraction module, feature cluster module and fault decision module. Wavelet analysis has been used for the feature extraction module. For the feature cluster module, fuzzy cluster has been applied. Faults effects are examined on the system using statistical analysis. In this study Fault Diagnosis technique obtains fault detection, identification and halting the system. In the meantime graphical user interface (GUI is opened when fault is detected. GUI shows the measurement value, fault time and fault type. This property gives some information about the system to the personnel. As seen from the simulation results, faults can be detected and identified as soon as fault appears. In summary, if the system has a fault diagnosis structure, system dangerous situations can be avoided.

  18. Electrical vehicle drive control based on finite element induction motor model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kandianis, T.; Kladas, A.G.; Manias, S.N.; Tegopoulos, J.A. [National Technical Univ., Athens (Greece)

    1997-03-01

    In electrical vehicle applications, AC drives have become attractive rivals of DC drives due to the evolution in semiconductor technology. A paramount concern in such applications is the overall efficiency of the motor and its PWM controller. In this paper, the methodology for determination of an induction motor model including parameter variations for different operating conditions is presented. The method is based on finite elements, and alternative techniques enabling to derive the equivalent circuit parameters from the field solution are described and discussed. The suitability of different techniques for the consideration of time variations in the application considered, such as complex variables and time stepping techniques, has been commented. The derived parameters are in good agreement with the low frequency response of the motor when supplied by a PWM inverter.

  19. Control of a Dual-Stator Flux-Modulated Motor for Electric Vehicles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xinhua Guo

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the control strategies for a novel dual-stator flux-modulated (DSFM motor for application in electric vehicles (EVs. The DSFM motor can be applied to EVs because of its simple winding structure, high reliability, and its use of two stators and rotating modulation steels in the air gap. Moreover, it outperforms conventional brushless doubly-fed machines in terms of control performance. Two stator-current-oriented vector controls with different excitation in the primary winding, direct and alternating current excitation, are designed, simulated, and evaluated on a custom-made DSFM prototype allowing the decoupled control of torque. The stable speed response and available current characteristics strongly validate the feasibility of the two control methods. Furthermore, the proposed control methods can be employed in other applications of flux-modulated motors.

  20. FY2013 Advanced Power Electronics and Electric Motors R&D Annual Progress Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rogers, Susan A. [Dept. of Energy (DOE), Washington DC (United States). Vehicle Technologies Office

    2014-02-01

    The Advanced Power Electronics and Electric Motors (APEEM) technology area within the DOE Vehicle Technologies Office (VTO) provides support and guidance for many cutting-edge automotive technologies now under development. Research is focused on developing revolutionary new power electronics (PE), electric motor, and traction drive system (TDS) technologies that will leapfrog current on-the-road technologies, leading to lower cost and better efficiency in transforming battery energy to useful work. The research and development (R&D) is also aimed at achieving a greater understanding of and improvements in the way the various new components of tomorrow’s automobiles will function as a unified system to improve fuel efficiency through research in more efficient TDSs.

  1. FY2010 Annual Progress Report for Advanced Power Electronics and Electric Motors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rogers, Susan A. [Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE), Washington, DC (United States)

    2011-01-01

    The Advanced Power Electronics and Electric Machines (APEEM) subprogram within the Vehicle Technologies Program provides support and guidance for many cutting-edge automotive technologies now under development. Research is focused on developing revolutionary new power electronics (PE) and electric motor technologies that will leapfrog current on-the-road technologies. The research and development (R&D) is also aimed at achieving a greater understanding of and improvements in the way the various new components of tomorrow’s automobiles will function as a unified system to improve fuel efficiency.

  2. Integrated Fault Diagnosis Algorithm for Motor Sensors of In-Wheel Independent Drive Electric Vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeon, Namju; Lee, Hyeongcheol

    2016-01-01

    An integrated fault-diagnosis algorithm for a motor sensor of in-wheel independent drive electric vehicles is presented. This paper proposes a method that integrates the high- and low-level fault diagnoses to improve the robustness and performance of the system. For the high-level fault diagnosis of vehicle dynamics, a planar two-track non-linear model is first selected, and the longitudinal and lateral forces are calculated. To ensure redundancy of the system, correlation between the sensor and residual in the vehicle dynamics is analyzed to detect and separate the fault of the drive motor system of each wheel. To diagnose the motor system for low-level faults, the state equation of an interior permanent magnet synchronous motor is developed, and a parity equation is used to diagnose the fault of the electric current and position sensors. The validity of the high-level fault-diagnosis algorithm is verified using Carsim and Matlab/Simulink co-simulation. The low-level fault diagnosis is verified through Matlab/Simulink simulation and experiments. Finally, according to the residuals of the high- and low-level fault diagnoses, fault-detection flags are defined. On the basis of this information, an integrated fault-diagnosis strategy is proposed. PMID:27973431

  3. Integrated Fault Diagnosis Algorithm for Motor Sensors of In-Wheel Independent Drive Electric Vehicles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Namju Jeon

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available An integrated fault-diagnosis algorithm for a motor sensor of in-wheel independent drive electric vehicles is presented. This paper proposes a method that integrates the high- and low-level fault diagnoses to improve the robustness and performance of the system. For the high-level fault diagnosis of vehicle dynamics, a planar two-track non-linear model is first selected, and the longitudinal and lateral forces are calculated. To ensure redundancy of the system, correlation between the sensor and residual in the vehicle dynamics is analyzed to detect and separate the fault of the drive motor system of each wheel. To diagnose the motor system for low-level faults, the state equation of an interior permanent magnet synchronous motor is developed, and a parity equation is used to diagnose the fault of the electric current and position sensors. The validity of the high-level fault-diagnosis algorithm is verified using Carsim and Matlab/Simulink co-simulation. The low-level fault diagnosis is verified through Matlab/Simulink simulation and experiments. Finally, according to the residuals of the high- and low-level fault diagnoses, fault-detection flags are defined. On the basis of this information, an integrated fault-diagnosis strategy is proposed.

  4. Simulation and Implementation of Sensorless Control in Multi-Motors Electric Drives with High Dynamics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcel Nicola

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available In this article we’ll tackle the control of multi-motors electric drives with high dynamic, with rapid changes in torque and speed, with rigid or flexible coupling of motors, where the control strategy is FOC (Field Oriented Control for each drives and the distributed control in local network using the CANopen protocol. In the surface mining industry, from which the electric drive application for this article is selected, the general trend is toward using asynchronous motors with short-circuit rotor, due to the advantages of this motor both in terms of design and operation. In order to achieve the variable speed, must be used the static frequency converters with sensorless control, where speed is estimated using a Model References Adaptive Control Estimator. The global control system proposed in this paper contain this type of MRAC estimator together with PI-control based, who ensures a good dynamic performance but in a lower complexity of structure such that are properly to implement in real time in a distributed control system with DSP in local network using the CANopen protocol with advantages in terms of software technology, as well as control cost and flexibility of use. Following these directions a functional application was implemented and tested in practice.

  5. Integrated Fault Diagnosis Algorithm for Motor Sensors of In-Wheel Independent Drive Electric Vehicles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeon, Namju; Lee, Hyeongcheol

    2016-12-12

    An integrated fault-diagnosis algorithm for a motor sensor of in-wheel independent drive electric vehicles is presented. This paper proposes a method that integrates the high- and low-level fault diagnoses to improve the robustness and performance of the system. For the high-level fault diagnosis of vehicle dynamics, a planar two-track non-linear model is first selected, and the longitudinal and lateral forces are calculated. To ensure redundancy of the system, correlation between the sensor and residual in the vehicle dynamics is analyzed to detect and separate the fault of the drive motor system of each wheel. To diagnose the motor system for low-level faults, the state equation of an interior permanent magnet synchronous motor is developed, and a parity equation is used to diagnose the fault of the electric current and position sensors. The validity of the high-level fault-diagnosis algorithm is verified using Carsim and Matlab/Simulink co-simulation. The low-level fault diagnosis is verified through Matlab/Simulink simulation and experiments. Finally, according to the residuals of the high- and low-level fault diagnoses, fault-detection flags are defined. On the basis of this information, an integrated fault-diagnosis strategy is proposed.

  6. Control Demonstration of Multiple Doubly-Fed Induction Motors for Hybrid Electric Propulsion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sadey, David J.; Bodson, Marc; Csank, Jeffrey T.; Hunker, Keith R.; Theman, Casey J.; Taylor, Linda M.

    2017-01-01

    The Convergent Aeronautics Solutions (CAS) High Voltage-Hybrid Electric Propulsion (HVHEP) task was formulated to support the move into future hybrid-electric aircraft. The goal of this project is to develop a new AC power architecture to support the needs of higher efficiency and lower emissions. This proposed architecture will adopt the use of the doubly-fed induction machine (DFIM) for propulsor drive motor application.The Convergent Aeronautics Solutions (CAS) High Voltage-Hybrid Electric Propulsion (HVHEP) task was formulated to support the move into future hybrid-electric aircraft. The goal of this project is to develop a new AC power architecture to support the needs of higher efficiency and lower emissions. This proposed architecture will adopt the use of the doubly-fed induction machine (DFIM) for propulsor drive motor application. DFIMs are attractive for several reasons, including but not limited to the ability to self-start, ability to operate sub- and super-synchronously, and requiring only fractionally rated power converters on a per-unit basis depending on the required range of operation. The focus of this paper is based specifically on the presentation and analysis of a novel strategy which allows for independent operation of each of the aforementioned doubly-fed induction motors. This strategy includes synchronization, soft-start, and closed loop speed control of each motor as a means of controlling output thrust; be it concurrently or differentially. The demonstration of this strategy has recently been proven out on a low power test bed using fractional horsepower machines. Simulation and hardware test results are presented in the paper.

  7. Wearable Neural Prostheses - Restoration of Sensory-Motor Function by Transcutaneous Electrical Stimulation

    OpenAIRE

    Micera, Silvestro; Keller, Thierry; Lawrence, Marc; Morari, Manfred; Popovic, Dejan B.

    2010-01-01

    In this article, we focus on the least invasive interface: transcutaneous ES (TES), i.e., the use of surface electrodes as an interface between the stimulator and sensory-motor systems. TES is delivered by a burst of short electrical charge pulses applied between pairs of electrodes positioned on the skin. Monophasic or charge-balanced biphasic (symmetric or asymmetric) stimulation pulses can be delivered. The latter ones have the advantage to provide contraction force while minimizing tissue...

  8. Wearable neural prostheses. Restoration of sensory-motor function by transcutaneous electrical stimulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Micera, Silvestro; Keller, Thierry; Lawrence, Marc; Morari, Manfred; Popović, Dejan B

    2010-01-01

    In this article, we focus on the least invasive interface: transcutaneous ES (TES), i.e., the use of surface electrodes as an interface between the stimulator and sensory-motor systems. TES is delivered by a burst of short electrical charge pulses applied between pairs of electrodes positioned on the skin. Monophasic or charge-balanced biphasic (symmetric or asymmetric) stimulation pulses can be delivered. The latter ones have the advantage to provide contraction force while minimizing tissue damage.

  9. The application of NISA II FEM package in seismic qualification of small class IE electric motors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fancev, T.; Saban, I.; Grgic, D.

    1995-01-01

    According to the IEEE standards 323/1974 and 344/1975, seismic qualification of class IE equipment is appropriate combination of test and analysis methods. Complex equipment and assemblies are usually tested through seismic testing. The analysis is recommended for simple equipment that can be easily modeled to correctly predict its response. This article deals with the application of NISA II FEM package in 3D FE modeling and mode shape calculations of small power low voltage electric motors. (author)

  10. Fuzzy controllers in the control system of a brushless electric motor using HIL technology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kalach Gennady

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This article proposes a method for creation of a control system for a brushless electric motor based on a fuzzy logic apparatus. The use of a fuzzy controller in this case can increase stability and improve the quality of the system under consideration, which was implemented in the Simulink environment using HIL technology. This technology increases the chances of successfully passing the test phase, considering the control system in prototype.

  11. Characteristics of particulate matter emissions from toy cars with electric motors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xiaofei; Williams, Brent J; Biswas, Pratim

    2015-04-01

    Aerosol emissions from toy cars with electric motors were characterized. Particle emission rates from the toy cars, as high as 7.47×10(7) particles/s, were measured. This emission rate is lower than other indoor sources such as smoking and cooking. The particles emitted from toy cars are generated from spark discharges inside the electric motors that power the toy cars. Size distribution measurements indicated that most particles were below 100 nm in diameter. Copper was the dominant inorganic species in these particles. By deploying aerosol mass spectrometers, high concentrations of particulate organic matter were also detected and characterized in detail. Several organic compounds were identified using a thermal desorption aerosol gas chromatography. The mass size distribution of particulate organic matter was bimodal. The formation mechanism of particulate organic matter from toy cars was elucidated. A possible new source of indoor air pollution, particles from electric motors in toy cars, was identified. This study characterized aerosol emissions from toy cars in detail. Most of these particles have a diameter less than 100 nm. Copper and some organics are the major components of these particles. Conditions that minimize these emissions were determined.

  12. The threshold of cortical electrical stimulation for mapping sensory and motor functional areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guojun, Zhang; Duanyu, Ni; Fu, Paul; Lixin, Cai; Tao, Yu; Wei, Du; Liang, Qiao; Zhiwei, Ren

    2014-02-01

    This study aimed to investigate the threshold of cortical electrical stimulation (CES) for functional brain mapping during surgery for the treatment of rolandic epilepsy. A total of 21 patients with rolandic epilepsy who underwent surgical treatment at the Beijing Institute of Functional Neurosurgery between October 2006 and March 2008 were included in this study. Their clinical data were retrospectively collected and analyzed. The thresholds of CES for motor response, sensory response, and after discharge production along with other threshold-related factors were investigated. The thresholds (mean ± standard deviation) for motor response, sensory response, and after discharge production were 3.48 ± 0.87, 3.86 ± 1.31, and 4.84 ± 1.38 mA, respectively. The threshold for after discharge production was significantly higher than those of both the motor and sensory response (both pstimulation frequency of 50 Hz and a pulse width of 0.2 ms, the threshold of sensory and motor responses were similar, and the threshold of after discharge production was higher than that of sensory and motor response. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Advanced axial field D.C. motor development for electric passenger vehicle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, W. J.

    1982-01-01

    A wound-field axial-flux dc motor was developed for an electric vehicle drive system. The motor is essentially an axial-flux version of the classical Gramme-ring winding motor, but the active conductors are recessed into slots cut into the two opposite faces of the laminated tape-wound core ring. Three motors were built and tested in the program. The second (functional) model was a six-pole machine which weighed 88.5 kg. It developed 16.9 km (33.0 hp), and a max speed of 4800 rpm. Full load efficiency was 92% and predicted SAE D-cycle efficiency was 88%. The last engineering) model was a 4-pole machine with compoles, allowing a weight reduction to 45 kg (100 lbs.) while addressing some manufacturability problems. The engineering model was rated at 13.2 kw (17.6 hp) at 3000 rpm, with a peak power of 19.8 km (26.4 hp) and a max speed of 7200 rpm. Initial test results on this motor showed poor commutation and efficiency; the program was terminated without resolution of these problems.

  14. Modelling and Simulation of Single-Phase Series Active Compensator for Power Quality Improvement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verma, Arun Kumar; Mathuria, Kirti; Singh, Bhim; Bhuvaneshwari, G.

    2017-10-01

    A single-phase active series compensator is proposed in this work to reduce harmonic currents at the ac mains and to regulate the dc link voltage of a diode bridge rectifier (DBR) that acts as the front end converter for a voltage source inverter feeding an ac motor. This ac motor drive is used in any of the domestic, commercial or industrial appliances. Under fluctuating ac mains voltages, the dc link voltage of the DBR depicts wide variations and hence the ac motor is used at reduced rating as compared to its name-plate rating. The active series compensator proposed here provides dual functions of improving the power quality at the ac mains and regulating the dc link voltage thus averting the need for derating of the ac motor.

  15. A comparison of myogenic motor evoked responses to electrical and magnetic transcranial stimulation during nitrous oxide/opioid anesthesia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ubags, L. H.; Kalkman, C. J.; Been, H. D.; Koelman, J. H.; Ongerboer de Visser, B. W.

    1999-01-01

    Transcranial motor evoked potentials (tc-MEPs) are used to monitor spinal cord integrity intraoperatively. We compared myogenic motor evoked responses with electrical and magnetic transcranial stimuli during nitrous oxide/opioid anesthesia. In 11 patients undergoing spinal surgery, anesthesia was

  16. REDUNDANT ELECTRIC MOTOR DRIVE CONTROL UNIT DESIGN USING AUTOMATA-BASED APPROACH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuri Yu. Yankin

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Implementation of redundant unit for motor drive control based on programmable logic devices is discussed. Continuous redundancy method is used. As compared to segregated standby redundancy and whole system standby redundancy, such method provides preservation of all unit functions in case of redundancy and gives the possibility for continuous monitoring of major and redundant elements. Example of that unit is given. Electric motor drive control channel block diagram contains two control units – the major and redundant; it also contains four power supply units. Control units programming was carried out using automata-based approach. Electric motor drive control channel model was developed; it provides complex simulation of control state-machine and power converter. Through visibility and hierarchy of finite state machines debug time was shortened as compared to traditional programming. Control state-machine description using hardware description language is required for its synthesis with FPGA-devices vendor design software. This description was generated automatically by MATLAB software package. To verify results two prototype control units, two prototype power supply units, and device mock-up were developed and manufactured. Units were installed in the device mock-up. Prototype units were created in accordance with requirements claimed to deliverable hardware. Control channel simulation and tests results in the perfect state and during imitation of major element fault are presented. Automata-based approach made it possible to observe and debug control state-machine transitions during simulation of transient processes, occurring at imitation of faults. Results of this work can be used in development of fault tolerant electric motor drive control channels.

  17. Diagnostic accuracy of electrically elicited multiplet discharges in patients with motor neuron disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sleutjes, Boudewijn T H M; Montfoort, Inger; van Doorn, Pieter A; Visser, Gerhard H; Blok, Joleen H

    2015-11-01

    To determine and compare the diagnostic accuracy of electrically elicited multiplet discharges (MDs) and fasciculation potentials (FPs) in motor neuron disease (MND). Patients were eligible when they had MND in their differential diagnosis and were referred for electromyogram (EMG). Stimulated high-density surface EMG of the thenar muscles was performed on the same day as standard EMG examination. High-density recordings were analysed for presence of MDs and needle EMG of any muscle investigated in the cervical region for presence of FPs. Of the 61 patients enrolled in this diagnostic study, 24 patients were clinically diagnosed with amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) and 11 patients with progressive muscular atrophy (PMA). Another diagnosis was made in 26 patients. Sixteen patients in whom MDs were detected were diagnosed with either ALS (n = 11) or PMA (n = 5; sensitivity = 47.1%, PPV = 94.1%). MDs were detected in only one patient initially diagnosed with PMA, but in whom later on, multifocal motor neuropathy could not be excluded (specificity = 96.2%). Electrically elicited MDs had a higher specificity than FPs (96.2% vs 53.9%, p motor neuron involvement of ≥ 1 EMG region increased from 50% to 73.5% (p = 0.008, n = 34). Electrically evoked MDs are highly specific for ALS and PMA and are an early sign of lower motor neuron dysfunction. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

  18. Development of a single-phase thermosiphon for cold collection and storage of radiative cooling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhao, Dongliang; Martini, Christine Elizabeth; Jiang, Siyu; Ma, Yaoguang; Zhai, Yao; Tan, Gang; Yin, Xiaobo; Yang, Ronggui

    2017-11-01

    A single-phase thermosiphon is developed for cold collection and storage of radiative cooling. Compared to the conventional nocturnal radiative cooling systems that use an electric pump to drive the heat transfer fluid, the proposed single-phase thermosiphon uses the buoyancy force to drive heat transfer fluid. This solution does not require electricity, therefore improving the net gain of the radiative cooling system. A single-phase thermosiphon was built, which consists of a flat panel, a cold collection tank, a water return tube, and a water distribution tank. Considering that outdoor radiative cooling flux is constantly changing (i.e. uncontrollable), an indoor testing facility was developed to provide a controllable cooling flux (comparable to a radiative cooling flux of 100 W/m2) for the evaluation of thermosiphon performance. The testing apparatus is a chilled aluminum flat plate that has a controlled air gap separation relative to the flat panel surface of the thermosiphon to emulate radiative cooling. With an average of 105 W/m2 cooling flux, the 18 liters of water in the thermosiphon was cooled to an average temperature of 12.5 degrees C from an initial temperature of 22.2 degrees C in 2 h, with a cold collection efficiency of 96.8%. The results obtained have demonstrated the feasibility of using a single-phase thermosiphon for cold collection and storage of radiative cooling. Additionally, the effects of the thermosiphon operation conditions, such as tilt angle of the flat panel, initial water temperature, and cooling energy flux, on the performance have been experimentally investigated. Modular design of the single-phase thermosiphon gives flexibility for its scalability. A radiative cooling system with multiple thermosiphon modules is expected to play an important role in cooling buildings and power plant condensers.

  19. Current Harmonics from Single-Phase Grid-Connected Inverters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yang, Yongheng; Zhou, Keliang; Blaabjerg, Frede

    2016-01-01

    factor, or in the low voltage ride through mode with reactive current injection. In this paper, the mechanism of the harmonic current injection from grid-connected single-phase inverter systems is thus explored, and the analysis is conducted on single-phase PV systems. In particular, the analysis......-phase applications as a promising harmonic mitigation solution. Experiments on single-phase grid-connected systems have verified the correctness of the relevant analysis and also the effectiveness of the tailor-made control solution in terms of good harmonic mitigation....

  20. Adaptive regenerative braking for electric vehicles with an electric motor at the front axle using the state dependent Riccati equation control technique

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jansen, S.; Alirezaei, M.; Kanarachos, S.

    2014-01-01

    In this paper a novel adaptive regenerative braking control concept for electric vehicles with an electric motor at the front axle is presented. It is well known that the "phased" type regenerative braking systems of category B maximize the amount of regenerative energy during braking. However,

  1. DQ reference frame modeling and control of single-phase active power decoupling circuits

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tang, Yi; Qin, Zian; Blaabjerg, Frede

    2015-01-01

    Power decoupling circuits can compensate the inherent double line frequency ripple power in single-phase systems and greatly facilitate their dc-link capacitor design. Example applications of power decoupling circuit include photovoltaic, light-emitting diode, fuel cell, and motor drive systems....... This paper presents the dq synchronous reference frame modeling of single-phase power decoupling circuits and a complete model describing the dynamics of dc-link ripple voltage is presented. The proposed model is universal and valid for both inductive and capacitive decoupling circuits, and the input...... of decoupling circuits can be either dependent or independent of its front-end converters. Based on this model, a dq synchronous reference frame controller is designed which allows the decoupling circuit to operate in two different modes because of the circuit symmetry. Simulation and experimental results...

  2. The optimization of electric motors repair techniques as a mean for electric energy saving; La optimizacion de las tecnicas de reparacion de motores electricos como un medio para ahorrar energia electrica

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zagal Leon, Juan Ruben [Fideicomiso para el Ahorro de Energia Electrica (FIDE), Mexico, D. F. (Mexico)

    1998-12-31

    This paper presents, in a very concise, which are the techniques to optimize the electric motors repair made by the Fideicomiso para el Ahorro de Energia Electrica (FIDE), the loss of efficiency that might exist after repairing an electric motor, as well as the procedures to perform an optimum reparation of the electric motors. Furthermore, some recommendations are given for the selection of an adequate rewinding shop to guarantee that the motor does not suffer efficiency losses after its repair. [Espanol] Este trabajo presenta, de manera muy concreta, cuales son las tecnicas para optimizar las tecnicas de reparacion de motores electricos realizado por el Fideicomiso para el Ahorro de Energia Electrica (FIDE), el nivel de perdida de eficiencia que puede existir despues de reparar un motor electrico, asi como los procedimientos para realizar una optima reparacion en motores electricos. Asimismo, se proporcionan algunas recomendaciones para seleccionar un taller de reembobinado adecuado para garantizar que el motor no sufra perdidas de eficiencia despues de su reparacion.

  3. Influence of motor imagination on cortical activation during functional electrical stimulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reynolds, Clare; Osuagwu, Bethel A; Vuckovic, Aleksandra

    2015-07-01

    Motor imagination (MI) and functional electrical stimulation (FES) can activate the sensory-motor cortex through efferent and afferent pathways respectively. Motor imagination can be used as a control strategy to activate FES through a brain-computer interface as the part of a rehabilitation therapy. It is believed that precise timing between the onset of MI and FES is important for strengthening the cortico-spinal pathways but it is not known whether prolonged MI during FES influences cortical response. Electroencephalogram was measured in ten able-bodied participants using MI strategy to control FES through a BCI system. Event related synchronisation/desynchronisation (ERS/ERD) over the sensory-motor cortex was analysed and compared in three paradigms: MI before FES, MI before and during FES and FES alone activated automatically. MI practiced both before and during FES produced strongest ERD. When MI only preceded FES it resulted in a weaker beta ERD during FES than when FES was activated automatically. Following termination of FES, beta ERD returns to the baseline level within 0.5s while alpha ERD took longer than 1s. When MI and FES are combined for rehabilitation purposes it is recommended that MI is practiced throughout FES activation period. The study is relevant for neurorehabilitation of movement. Copyright © 2014 International Federation of Clinical Neurophysiology. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Acceleration Slip Regulation Strategy for Distributed Drive Electric Vehicles with Independent Front Axle Drive Motors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lingfei Wu

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents an acceleration slip regulation strategy for distributed drive electric vehicles with two motors on the front axle. The tasks of the strategy include controlling the slip ratio to make full use of the road grip and controlling the yaw rate to eliminate the lateral movement due to the difference between motor torques. The rate of the slip ratio change can be controlled by controlling the motor torque, so that the slip ratio can be controlled by applying a proportional-integral control strategy to control the rate of the slip ratio change. The yaw rate can be controlled to almost zero by applying torque compensation based on yaw rate feedback. A coordination control strategy for the slip ratio control and yaw rate control is proposed based on analysis of the priorities and features of the two control processes. Simulations were carried out using MATLAB/Simulink, and experiments were performed on a hardware-in-loop test bench with actual motors. The results of the simulations and experiments showed that the proposed strategy could improve the longitudinal driving performance and straight line driving stability of the vehicle.

  5. Development of BLDC Electric Motor Control System In Hydraulic Servo Drive Based on Variable Hydrostatic Transmission

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. I. Tarasov

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Modern robotic systems require the use of servo drives. Owing to encoder and negative feedback these drives ensure highly accurate motion parameters. In case of autonomous systems drives must also have high power characteristics. Moreover, in most cases, it was impossible to select the motor so that the speed and torque on its shaft were in compliance with those of required by the actuator. To match these parameters different types of reducers are used. The article justifies and considers a selection criterion of the gear ratios for such transmission. For clarity, there is an example of selecting a motor and a gear for above transmission, taking into account the proposed criterion. In addition, the article discusses the advantages of using hydrostatic transmission in the drive, which monitors the angular position of the output level, in comparison with a mechanical gearbox. Due to the fact that, at the moment, BLDC motors have the best power characteristics, such a servo drive requires a special control system that will take into account the features of variable hydrostatic transmission and electric BLDC motor. Therefore, the paper proposes a structure of such a system and set out the principles of its construction. Various embodiments of sensor types that may be used in this system and their installation scheme explained.

  6. MPC of Single Phase Inverter for PV System

    OpenAIRE

    Irtaza M. Syed; Kaamran Raahemifar

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents a model predictive control (MPC) of a utility interactive (UI) single phase inverter (SPI) for a photovoltaic (PV) system at residential/distribution level. The proposed model uses single-phase phase locked loop (PLL) to synchronize SPI with the grid and performs MPC control in a dq reference frame. SPI model consists of boost converter (BC), maximum power point tracking (MPPT) control, and a full bridge (FB) voltage source inverter (VSI). No PI regula...

  7. Linear magnetic motor/generator. [to generate electric energy using magnetic flux for spacecraft power supply

    Science.gov (United States)

    Studer, P. A. (Inventor)

    1982-01-01

    A linear magnetic motor/generator is disclosed which uses magnetic flux to provide mechanical motion or electrical energy. The linear magnetic motor/generator includes an axially movable actuator mechanism. A permament magnet mechanism defines a first magnetic flux path which passes through a first end portion of the actuator mechanism. Another permament magnet mechanism defines a second magnetic flux path which passes through a second end portion of the actuator mechanism. A drive coil defines a third magnetic flux path passing through a third central portion of the actuator mechanism. A drive coil selectively adds magnetic flux to and subtracts magnetic flux from magnetic flux flowing in the first and second magnetic flux path.

  8. Cloud-based shaft torque estimation for electric vehicle equipped with integrated motor-transmission system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Xiaoyuan; Zhang, Hui; Yang, Bo; Zhang, Guichen

    2018-01-01

    In order to improve oscillation damping control performance as well as gear shift quality of electric vehicle equipped with integrated motor-transmission system, a cloud-based shaft torque estimation scheme is proposed in this paper by using measurable motor and wheel speed signals transmitted by wireless network. It can help reduce computational burden of onboard controllers and also relief network bandwidth requirement of individual vehicle. Considering possible delays during signal wireless transmission, delay-dependent full-order observer design is proposed to estimate the shaft torque in cloud server. With these random delays modeled by using homogenous Markov chain, robust H∞ performance is adopted to minimize the effect of wireless network-induced delays, signal measurement noise as well as system modeling uncertainties on shaft torque estimation error. Observer parameters are derived by solving linear matrix inequalities, and simulation results using acceleration test and tip-in, tip-out test demonstrate the effectiveness of proposed shaft torque observer design.

  9. The dynamic improvement methods of energy efficiency and reliability of oil production submersible electric motors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romanov, V. S.; Goldstein, V. G.

    2018-01-01

    In the organization of production and operation of submersible electric motors (ESP), as the most essential element of electric submersible plants (ESP) in the oil industry, it is necessary to consider specific operating conditions. The submersible electric motors (SEM) as most essential element of electrosubmersible installations (EI) in oil branch accounting of operation specific conditions is necessary in the process production and operation. They are determined by the conditions under which the EPU is operated. They are defined by the EPU operation conditions. For a complete picture the current state of the SED fleet in oil production, the results of its statistical analysis are given. For a comprehensive idea of the SEM park current state the results of statistical analysis are given in oil production. Currently, assessed the performance of submersible equipment produced by major manufacturers. Currently the operational characteristics assessment of the submersible equipment released by the main producers is given. It is stated that standard equipment cannot fully ensure efficient operation with the help of serial EIs, therefore new technologies and corresponding equipment are required to be developed. It is noted that the standard equipment could not provide fully effective operation by means of serial ESP therefore new technologies development and the corresponding equipment are required.

  10. Student Team Achievement Divisions: Its Effect on Electrical Motor Installation Knowledge Competence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanafi, Ahmad; Basuki, Ismet

    2018-04-01

    Student team achievement division (STAD) was an active learning strategy with the small group inside of the classroom members. The students would work in small heterogeneous groups (of five to six members) and help one another to comprehend the material given. To achieve the objectives of the study, this research aims to know the effect of STAD on competence of electrical motor installation. The objective of the student competence was knowledge competence. The data was collected from 30 students. the participants were the students of second class at electrical installation techniques, SMKN 1 Pungging Indonesia. The design of empirical test in this research was one shot case study. The result of knowledge test would be compared by criteria for minimum competence, which was 75. Knowledge competence was analyzed with one sample t test technique. From the analysis got average 84.93, which meant average of student competence had reached criteria for minimum competence. From that analyze, It could be concluded that STAD was effective on electrical motor installation knowledge competence. STAD could grow student motivation to learn better than other models. But, in the application of cooperative learning teacher should prepare carefully before the learning process to avoid problems that could arise during group learning such as students who were less active in the groups. The problem could be resolved by away the teachers took around to check each group. It was felt could minimize the problems.

  11. Single-phase to three-phase power conversion interface

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Jinn-Chang; Wang, Yung-Shan; Jou, Hurng-Liahng; Lu, Wei-Tso

    2016-07-01

    This study proposes a single-phase to three-phase power conversion interface which converts the power from a single-phase utility to three-phase power for a three-phase load. The proposed single-phase to three-phase power conversion interface comprises a bridge-type switch set, a set of three-phase inductors, a transformer set and a set of three-phase capacitors. A current-mode control controls the switching of bridge-type switch set, to generate a set of nonzero-sequence (NZS) currents and a set of zero-sequence (ZS) currents. The transformer set is used to decouple the NZS currents and the ZS currents. The NZS currents are used to generate a high-quality three-phase voltage that supplies power to a three-phase load. The ZS currents flow to the single-phase utility so that the utility current is sinusoidal and in phase with the utility voltage. Accordingly, only a bridge-type switch set is used in the single-phase to three-phase power conversion interface to simply the power circuit. A prototype is developed and tested to verify the performance of the proposed single-phase to three-phase power conversion interface.

  12. Language and motor function thresholds during pediatric extra-operative electrical cortical stimulation brain mapping.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zea Vera, Alonso; Aungaroon, Gewalin; Horn, Paul S; Byars, Anna W; Greiner, Hansel M; Tenney, Jeffrey R; Arthur, Todd M; Crone, Nathan E; Holland, Katherine D; Mangano, Francesco T; Arya, Ravindra

    2017-10-01

    To examine current thresholds and their determinants for language and motor mapping with extra-operative electrical cortical stimulation (ECS). ECS electrocorticograph recordings were reviewed to determine functional thresholds. Predictors of functional thresholds were found with multivariable analyses. In 122 patients (age 11.9±5.4years), average minimum, frontal, and temporal language thresholds were 7.4 (± 3.0), 7.8 (± 3.0), and 7.4 (± 3.1) mA respectively. Average minimum, face, upper and lower extremity motor thresholds were 5.4 (± 2.8), 6.1 (± 2.8), 4.9 (± 2.3), and 5.3 (± 3.3) mA respectively. Functional and after-discharge (AD)/seizure thresholds were significantly related. Minimum, frontal, and temporal language thresholds were higher than AD thresholds at all ages. Minimum motor threshold was higher than minimum AD threshold up to 8.0years of age, face motor threshold was higher than frontal AD threshold up to 11.8years age, and lower subsequently. UE motor thresholds remained below frontal AD thresholds throughout the age range. Functional thresholds are frequently above AD thresholds in younger children. These findings raise concerns about safety and neurophysiologic validity of ECS mapping. Functional and AD/seizure thresholds relationships suggest individual differences in cortical excitability which cannot be explained by clinical variables. Copyright © 2017 International Federation of Clinical Neurophysiology. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Report on the feasibility study for improving electric motor service centers in Ghana

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hsu, J.S.; Jallouk, P.A.; Staunton, R.H.

    1999-12-10

    On March 3 and 4, 1998, a visit was made to Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) by two officials from Ghana: Mr. I.K. Mintah, Acting Executive Director, Technical Wing, Ministry of Mines and Energy (MOME) and Dr. A.K. Ofosu-Ahenkorah, Coordinator, Energy Efficiency and Conservation Program, MOME. As a result of this visit, Dr. John S. Hsu of ORNL was invited by MOME to visit the Republic of Ghana in order to study the feasibility of improving electric motor service centers in Ghana.

  14. A Novel Concept of Short-Flux Path Switched Reluctance Motor for Electrical Vehicles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milan Diko

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper deals with the design of a novel Switched Reluctance Motor (SRM with short flux path for electrical vehicles. Design consists of the segmented water cooled stator with the toroidal winding and the rotor with salient poles also in a form of segments. The SRM dimensions have been calculated on the base of input requirements. The static and dynamic parameters of SRM are obtained from simulation models based on Finite element method and torque, power versus speed characteristics are presented.

  15. Traffic collisions between electric mobility devices (wheelchairs) and motor vehicles: Accidents, hubris, or self-destructive behavior?

    Science.gov (United States)

    LaBan, Myron M; Nabity, Thomas S

    2010-07-01

    This study had its genesis in a personally observed collision between a motor vehicle and a motorized wheelchair (electric mobility device) on a busy street in the middle of the block at an unmarked crossing. To the observer, at the time, this appeared to be a suicidal act. This investigation was initiated to both delineate the number of these crashes nationally and understand this phenomena as a potentially planned act of self-destruction. An initial survey of police reports was immediately frustrated by an inability to separate motor vehicle and electric mobility device collisions from the much larger group that involved ambulatory citizens because both types were classified together as "pedestrian" accidents. Instead, the search engine NexisLexis was used to identify 107 newspaper articles each of which described a motor vehicle and electric mobility device accident. In the motor vehicle and electric mobility device collisions, men predominated women (3:1 ratio) with an average age of 56 yrs. Sixty of these accidents were fatal. Ninety-four percent involved an electric mobility device and 6% a manual wheelchair. In 50% of the cases, the motor vehicle was a truck, van, or sport utility vehicle. Fifty percent occurred at dusk or dawn or at night. The electric mobility device occupant was cited as the guilty party in 39% of the cases and the driver of the motor vehicle in 27%. Twenty percent were unwitnessed hit-and-run accidents, whereas "no fault" was found in 8% of the cases. Although many accidents do happen by chance, when an electric mobility device operator openly challenges busy traffic by attempting to traverse it in the middle of the block at an unmarked crossing, predisposing psychosocial factors must also be considered. Hubris or premeditated self-destructive behavior or both need to be explored as preeminent issues with reference to the prodromal of the "accident process."

  16. The Development of the Safety Related Valve Class 1E Electrical Motor, the Target and the Results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saban, I.; Grgic, D.; Fancev, T.; Flegar, Lj.; Novosel, N.

    1996-01-01

    The development of the safety related valves class 1E electric motor is described. The design implemented in order to satisfy the 1E requirements, and a way in which related 1E standards are addressed, are shown. The development was realized in three stages. In the first stage eight motorettes were made and the insulation system was tested. In the second stage the motor was produced in accordance with producer's prototype QA program. In the third stage part of the testing of the produced motor was made. The results of the testing, finished until now, show that produced motor, as well as similarly produced motors, is able to perform its safety function in the design bases accident conditions as requested by class 1E requirements. The rest of the testing (LOCA test) can be made on the same or similar motor in the future. (author)

  17. Tire-road friction estimation and traction control strategy for motorized electric vehicle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Li-Qiang; Ling, Mingze; Yue, Weiqiang

    2017-01-01

    In this paper, an optimal longitudinal slip ratio system for real-time identification of electric vehicle (EV) with motored wheels is proposed based on the adhesion between tire and road surface. First and foremost, the optimal longitudinal slip rate torque control can be identified in real time by calculating the derivative and slip rate of the adhesion coefficient. Secondly, the vehicle speed estimation method is also brought. Thirdly, an ideal vehicle simulation model is proposed to verify the algorithm with simulation, and we find that the slip ratio corresponds to the detection of the adhesion limit in real time. Finally, the proposed strategy is applied to traction control system (TCS). The results showed that the method can effectively identify the state of wheel and calculate the optimal slip ratio without wheel speed sensor; in the meantime, it can improve the accelerated stability of electric vehicle with traction control system (TCS).

  18. Twitch potentiation induced by two different modalities of neuromuscular electrical stimulation: implications for motor unit recruitment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Regina Dias Da Silva, Sarah; Neyroud, Daria; Maffiuletti, Nicola A; Gondin, Julien; Place, Nicolas

    2015-03-01

    We tested the hypothesis that twitch potentiation would be greater following conventional (CONV) neuromuscular electrical stimulation (50-µs pulse width and 25-Hz frequency) compared with wide-pulse high-frequency (WPHF) neuromuscular electrical stimulation (1-ms, 100-Hz) and voluntary (VOL) contractions, because of specificities in motor unit recruitment (random in CONV vs. random and orderly in WPHF vs. orderly in VOL). A single twitch was evoked by means of tibial nerve stimulation before and 2 s after CONV, WPHF, and VOL conditioning contractions of the plantar flexors (intensity: 10% maximal voluntary contraction; duration: 10 s) in 13 young healthy subjects. Peak twitch increased (Ptwitch potentiation results. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  19. Study of time dependence and spectral composition of the signal in circuit of ac electric point motors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Yu. Buryak

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. The paper is aimed to establish the dependence of changes in the time domain and spectral components of the current in the circuit of the AC electric point motor on its technical condition, to identify the common features for the same type of damage. It is necessary using the analysis of the received signals to carry out the remote diagnosis and determination of faults and defects of electric point motors. In addition it suggested to accelerate the process of the failure, malfunction and damage search. Authors propose the automated approach to the service of remote floor automation equipment, which is located in the envelope of trains. Reduction of the threat to life and health of staff by reducing the residence time in the zone of train movement. Reduce the impact of human factors on the result of service. Methodology. The paper studies the structure, parameters and characteristics, the operation and maintenance characteristics of the AC electric point motors. Determination of the main types of possible faults in the process depending on the operating conditions. Presentation of the electric motor as an object of diagnosis. Findings. The time dependences of the current in the circuit of electric point motor for its various states was obtained. The connection between the technical condition of electric point motor and the performance of current curve in time and spectral domains was established. The revealed deviations from the reference signal were justified. According to the obtained results it was made the conclusion. Originality. A method for diagnosing the state of the AC electric point motor by the time dependence and the spectral composition of the current in its circuit was proposed. The connection diagram to the motor windings based on non-infringement of electric parameters of connection circuit in the actual operating conditions was applied. Practical value. The obtained results suggest the possibility and feasibility of

  20. Chronometric electrical stimulation of right inferior frontal cortex increases motor braking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wessel, Jan R; Conner, Christopher R; Aron, Adam R; Tandon, Nitin

    2013-12-11

    The right inferior frontal cortex (rIFC) is important for stopping responses. Recent research shows that it is also activated when response emission is slowed down when stopping is anticipated. This suggests that rIFC also functions as a goal-driven brake. Here, we investigated the causal role of rIFC in goal-driven braking by using computer-controlled, event-related (chronometric), direct electrical stimulation (DES). We compared the effects of rIFC stimulation on trials in which responses were made in the presence versus absence of a stopping-goal ("Maybe Stop" [MS] vs "No Stop" [NS]). We show that DES of rIFC slowed down responses (compared with control-site stimulation) and that rIFC stimulation induced more slowing when motor braking was required (MS) compared with when it was not (NS). Our results strongly support a causal role of a rIFC-based network in inhibitory motor control. Importantly, the results extend this causal role beyond externally driven stopping to goal-driven inhibitory control, which is a richer model of human self-control. These results also provide the first demonstration of double-blind chronometric DES of human prefrontal cortex, and suggest that--in the case of rIFC--this could lead to augmentation of motor braking.

  1. Highlighting the harmonic regime generated by electric locomotives equipped with DC motors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baciu, I.; Cunţan, C. D.

    2018-01-01

    The paper presents the results of measurements made using the C.A. 8334 power quality analyzer on an electric locomotive equipped with DC motors. We carried out determinations of the current-voltage regime using a locomotive motor. The harmonic regime of the other motors being identical to the analysed one, we could easily deduce the effects caused by the entire locomotive. The data measured with the analyzer were firstly transferred into a computer system using the Qualistar software, followed by data processing in Excel, enabling therefore a graphical representation of the characteristic parameters of power quality. Based on the acquired data, we determined the power factor, as well as the active, reactive and apparent power. The measurements revealed high values of the current harmonics, fact that required some measures to be taken for reducing the values of these harmonics. For this, we ran a simulation using the PSCAD/EMTDC software, by introducing LC filters in tune with the harmonic frequencies. The result was a significant reduction in the harmonic regime, either in the harmonics values or the power factor and reactive power.

  2. Electrical performance analysis of HTS synchronous motor based on 3D FEM

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baik, S.K.; Kwon, Y.K.; Kim, H.M.; Lee, J.D.; Kim, Y.C.; Park, G.S.

    2010-01-01

    A 1-MW class superconducting motor with High-Temperature Superconducting (HTS) field coil is analyzed and tested. This machine is a prototype to make sure applicability aimed at generator and industrial motor applications such as blowers, pumps and compressors installed in large plants. This machine has the HTS field coil made of Bi-2223 HTS wire and the conventional copper armature (stator) coils cooled by water. The 1-MW class HTS motor is analyzed by 3D electromagnetic Finite Element Method (FEM) to get magnetic field distribution, self and mutual inductance, and so forth. Especially excitation voltage (Back EMF) is estimated by using the mutual inductance between armature and field coils and compared with experimental result. Open and short circuit tests were conducted in generator mode while a 1.1-MW rated induction machine was rotating the HTS machine. Electrical parameters such as mutual inductance and synchronous inductance are deduced from these tests and also compared with the analysis results from FEM.

  3. Design for Motor Controller in Hybrid Electric Vehicle Based on Vector Frequency Conversion Technology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jing Lian

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Motor and its control technology are one of the main components of Hybrid Electric Vehicle (HEV. To meet HEV's fast torque response, vector control algorithm based on rotor flux-oriented and simulation model is concerned and modular designs for controller's hardware and software are presented in the paper in order to build a platform to achieve the vector control of asynchronous induction motor. Analyze the controller's electromagnetic compatibility, introduce the corresponding antijamming measures to assure the normal operation of the electromagnetic sensitive devices such as CAN bus; experiment proves that the measure is practical and feasible. On the basis of the control logic correct, such as improving CAN bus communication reliability, assuring power-on sequence and fault treatment, carry on the motor bench experiment, test its static properties, and adjust the controller parameters. The experimental results show that the designed driving system has the performance of low speed and high torque, a wide range of variable speed and high comprehensive efficiency.

  4. Final Report: MaRSPlus Sensor System Electrical Cable Management and Distributed Motor Control Computer Interface

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reil, Robin

    2011-01-01

    The success of JPL's Next Generation Imaging Spectrometer (NGIS) in Earth remote sensing has inspired a follow-on instrument project, the MaRSPlus Sensor System (MSS). One of JPL's responsibilities in the MSS project involves updating the documentation from the previous JPL airborne imagers to provide all the information necessary for an outside customer to operate the instrument independently. As part of this documentation update, I created detailed electrical cabling diagrams to provide JPL technicians with clear and concise build instructions and a database to track the status of cables from order to build to delivery. Simultaneously, a distributed motor control system is being developed for potential use on the proposed 2018 Mars rover mission. This system would significantly reduce the mass necessary for rover motor control, making more mass space available to other important spacecraft systems. The current stage of the project consists of a desktop computer talking to a single "cold box" unit containing the electronics to drive a motor. In order to test the electronics, I developed a graphical user interface (GUI) using MATLAB to allow a user to send simple commands to the cold box and display the responses received in a user-friendly format.

  5. Vibration effect and control of In-Wheel Switched Reluctance Motor for electric vehicle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Wei; Li, Yinong; Huang, Jingying; Zhang, Nong

    2015-03-01

    The Switched Reluctance Motor (SRM) processes favorable driving capacity and great application potential in In-Wheel Motor (IWM) Electric Vehicle (EV). However vibration and noise problems are always the disadvantages of SRM. This paper investigates the vibration and noise issues and corresponding control methodology for the IWM application of SRM. By utilizing the analytical Fourier fitting method, a convenience method for modeling In-Wheel Switched Reluctance Motor (IW SRM) is proposed and the characteristics of the unbalanced residual lateral force related to vibration excitation are analyzed. Then the dynamic negative effect of IW SRM on vehicle is analyzed with a quarter driving and vibration vehicle model. It is found that the vertical shock occurs under the vehicle starting condition and high frequency force excitation exists under the constant speed condition. To address these issues, corresponding control methods are proposed, modified and compared. The proposed combined vibration feedback control of current chopping with PWM can effectively reduce the SRM residual force and ensure the required vehicle speed, though some slight low frequency forces are induced.

  6. HARDNESS INDICES ESTIMATION OF SUPPORTING STRUCTURE ELEMENTS OF MOTOR BOGIES OF THE ELECTRIC TRAIN ED9M

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. M. Bondarev

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. The purpose of article is to develop the measures of hardness indices improvement of the supporting structures of motor cars of the electric trains ED9M. Methodology. In order to achieve the above stated aims the following measures had to be done: to develop a finite element model of the supporting structures of the motor bogie of the electric train ED9M, determine parameters of the developed model; perform the calculations to determine the stress-strain state during loads corresponding to different operating conditions with the search of geometric parameters reducing the highest stress levels. Findings. The obtained results of calculations (fields of stress distribution and strains in the elements of the motor bogie frame from the viewpoint of the strength and stiffness discovered the best geometric parameters of the bearings in the central suspension beams of the electric trains ED9M in the places of load transmission from the car body to the bogie frame. Originality. Based on the developed finite element models and the theoretical and experimental researches the scientifically grounded modernization measures of the construction elements of the central suspension beams for motor bogies of the electric trains ED9M were developed. Practical value. It was developed an engineering solution concerning the measures to improve the strength and stiffness characteristics of the central suspension beams for the motor cars of the electric trains ED9M. It was given to the Ukrzaliznytsya’s professionals to implement them during repairs.

  7. The effect of Functional Electric Stimulation in stroke patients' motor control - a case report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pripas, Denise; Rogers Venditi Beas, Allan; Fioramonte, Caroline; Gonsales de Castro, Pedro Claudio; Goroso, Daniel Gustavo; Santos Moreira, Maria Cecília dos

    2011-01-01

    Functional Electric Stimulation (FES) has been studied as a therapeutic resource to reduce spasticity in hemiplegic patients, however there are no studies about the effects of FES in motor control of these patients during functional tasks like balance maintenance. Muscular activation of gastrocnemius medialis and semitendinosus was investigated in both limbs of a hemiparetic patient during self-disturbed quiet stance before and after FES on tibialis anterior, by surface electromyography. The instant of maximum activation peak of GM and ST were calculated immediately after a motor self-disturbance, in order to observe muscular synergy between these two muscles, and possible balance strategies used (ankle or hip strategy). At the preserved limb there occurred distal-proximal synergy (GM followed by ST), expected for small perturbations; however, at spastic limb there was inversion of this synergy (proximal-distal) after FES. It is possible that intervention of electricity had inhibited synergical pathways due to antidromic effect, making it difficult to use ankle strategy in the spastic limb.

  8. Preventive maintenance basis: Volume 8 -- Low voltage electric motors (600 V and below). Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Worledge, D.; Hinchcliffe, G.

    1997-07-01

    US nuclear plants are implementing preventive maintenance (PM) tasks with little documented basis beyond fundamental vendor information to support the tasks or their intervals. The Preventive Maintenance Basis project provides utilities with the technical basis for PM tasks and task intervals associated with 40 specific components such as valves, electric motors, pumps, and HVAC equipment. This report provides an overview of the PM Basis project and describes use of the PM Basis database. Volume 8 of the report provides a program of preventive maintenance (PM) tasks suitable for application to low voltage (600 V and below) electric motors in nuclear power plants. The PM tasks that are recommended provide a cost-effective way to intercept the causes and mechanisms that lead to degradation and failure. They can be used, in conjunction with material from other sources, to develop a complete PM program or to improve an existing program. Users of this information will be utility managers, supervisors, craft technicians, and training instructors responsible for developing, optimizing, or fine-tuning PM programs

  9. Study on Adaptive Slid Mode Controller for Improving Handling Stability of Motorized Electric Vehicles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    LiQiang Jin

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available An adaptive slid mode controller was established for improving the handling stability of motorized electric vehicle (MEV. First and foremost, the structure and advantages of electric vehicle driven by in-wheel motors will be provided. Then, an ideal cornering model of vehicles will be brought and analyzed, after which a method to estimate side-slip angle was also proposed and three typical sensors were used in the theory. Besides, an idea for the recognition of road adhesion coefficient was derived based on MEV platform, which will be helpful for better control performances. Finally, the scheme of control method was given and some typical tests for observing handling properties were implemented based on Simulink and Carsim software. With the outcomes from the experiments, which vividly showed the merits of the controller, one can come to a conclusion that MEV that equips with the adaptive slid mode controller always enjoys better handling performances than the one without control. Furthermore, the controller researched is friendly to the real-time working conditions, which will hold practical values in the future.

  10. Advanced single permanent magnet axipolar ironless stator ac motor for electric passenger vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beauchamp, E. D.; Hadfield, J. R.; Wuertz, K. L.

    1983-01-01

    A program was conducted to design and develop an advanced-concept motor specifically created for propulsion of electric vehicles with increased range, reduced energy consumption, and reduced life-cycle costs in comparison with conventional systems. The motor developed is a brushless, dc, rare-earth cobalt, permanent magnet, axial air gap inductor machine that uses an ironless stator. Air cooling is inherent provided by the centrifugal-fan action of the rotor poles. An extensive design phase was conducted, which included analysis of the system performance versus the SAE J227a(D) driving cycle. A proof-of-principle model was developed and tested, and a functional model was developed and tested. Full generator-level testing was conducted on the functional model, recording electromagnetic, thermal, aerodynamic, and acoustic noise data. The machine demonstrated 20.3 kW output at 1466 rad/s and 160 dc. The novel ironless stator demonstated the capability to continuously operate at peak current. The projected system performance based on the use of a transistor inverter is 23.6 kW output power at 1466 rad/s and 83.3 percent efficiency. Design areas of concern regarding electric vehicle applications include the inherently high windage loss and rotor inertia.

  11. Study on Power Switching Process of a Hybrid Electric Vehicle with In-Wheel Motors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shaohua Wang

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Hybrid electric vehicles with in-wheel motors (IWM achieve a variety of driving modes by two power sources—the engine and the IWM. One of the critical problems that exists in such vehicle is the different transient characteristics between the engine and the IWM. Therefore, switching processes between the power sources have noteworthy impacts on vehicle dynamics and driving performance. For the particular switching process of the pure electric mode to the engine driving mode, a specific control strategy coordinating clutch torque, motor torque, and engine torque was proposed to solve drivability issues caused by inconsistent responses of different power sources during the mode transition. The specific switching process could be described as follows: the engine was started by IWM with the clutch serving as a key enabling actuator, dynamic torque compensation through IWM was implemented after engine started, and, meanwhile, engine speed was controlled to track the target speed through the closed loop PID control strategy. The bench tests results showed that the vehicle jerk caused during mode switching was reduced and fast and smooth mode switching was realized, which leads to the improvement of vehicle’s riding comfort.

  12. Paired motor cortex and cervical epidural electrical stimulation timed to converge in the spinal cord promotes lasting increases in motor responses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mishra, Asht M; Pal, Ajay; Gupta, Disha; Carmel, Jason B

    2017-11-15

    Pairing motor cortex stimulation and spinal cord epidural stimulation produced large augmentation in motor cortex evoked potentials if they were timed to converge in the spinal cord. The modulation of cortical evoked potentials by spinal cord stimulation was largest when the spinal electrodes were placed over the dorsal root entry zone. Repeated pairing of motor cortex and spinal cord stimulation caused lasting increases in evoked potentials from both sites, but only if the time between the stimuli was optimal. Both immediate and lasting effects of paired stimulation are likely mediated by convergence of descending motor circuits and large diameter afferents onto common interneurons in the cervical spinal cord. Convergent activity in neural circuits can generate changes at their intersection. The rules of paired electrical stimulation are best understood for protocols that stimulate input circuits and their targets. We took a different approach by targeting the interaction of descending motor pathways and large diameter afferents in the spinal cord. We hypothesized that pairing stimulation of motor cortex and cervical spinal cord would strengthen motor responses through their convergence. We placed epidural electrodes over motor cortex and the dorsal cervical spinal cord in rats; motor evoked potentials (MEPs) were measured from biceps. MEPs evoked from motor cortex were robustly augmented with spinal epidural stimulation delivered at an intensity below the threshold for provoking an MEP. Augmentation was critically dependent on the timing and position of spinal stimulation. When the spinal stimulation was timed to coincide with the descending volley from motor cortex stimulation, MEPs were more than doubled. We then tested the effect of repeated pairing of motor cortex and spinal stimulation. Repetitive pairing caused strong augmentation of cortical MEPs and spinal excitability that lasted up to an hour after just 5 min of pairing. Additional physiology

  13. Study of the Advantages of Internal Permanent Magnet Drive Motor with Selectable Windings for Hybrid-Electric Vehicles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Otaduy, P.J.; Hsu, J.S.; Adams, D.J.

    2007-11-30

    This report describes research performed on the viability of changing the effectively active number of turns in the stator windings of an internal permanent magnet (IPM) electric motor to strengthen or weaken the magnetic fields in order to optimize the motor's performance at specific operating speeds and loads. Analytical and simulation studies have been complemented with research on switching mechanisms to accomplish the task. The simulation studies conducted examine the power and energy demands on a vehicle following a series of standard driving cycles and the impact on the efficiency and battery size of an electrically propelled vehicle when it uses an IPM motor with turn-switching capabilities. Both full driving cycle electric propulsion and propulsion limited starting from zero to a set speed have been investigated.

  14. Ultrafast Switching Superjunction MOSFETs for Single Phase PFC Applications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hernandez Botella, Juan Carlos; Petersen, Lars Press; Andersen, Michael A. E.

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents a guide on characterizing state-of-the-art silicon superjunction (SJ) devices in the 600V range for single phase power factor correction (PFC) applications. The characterization procedure is based on a minimally inductive double pulse tester (DPT) with a very low intrusive...... investigates the latest SJ devices in order to set a reference for future research on improvement over silicon (Si) attained with the introduction of wide bandgap devices in single phase PFC applications. The obtained results show that the latest generation of SJ devices set a new benchmark for its wide...

  15. The Single-Phase ProtoDUNE Technical Design Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abi, B. [Univ. of Padova (Italy); et al.

    2017-06-21

    ProtoDUNE-SP is the single-phase DUNE Far Detector prototype that is under construction and will be operated at the CERN Neutrino Platform (NP) starting in 2018. ProtoDUNE-SP, a crucial part of the DUNE effort towards the construction of the first DUNE 10-kt fiducial mass far detector module (17 kt total LAr mass), is a significant experiment in its own right. With a total liquid argon (LAr) mass of 0.77 kt, it represents the largest monolithic single-phase LArTPC detector to be built to date. It's technical design is given in this report.

  16. Analysis of Electric Propulsion Performance on Submersible with Motor DC, Supply Power 10260AH at Voltage 115VDC

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Indra Ranu Kusuma

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Electric propulsion is the ship system using propulsion motor to replace performance of main engine. The application of diesel engine as propulsion system have some problems and weaknesses such as diesel engine unability to operate when submersible vessel is operating under sea. To overcome that problems in submersible vessel, alternative solution of ship propulsion is required. DC Motor can be used as this alternative solution. Submersible vessel use electric propulsion system with DC Motor because DC Motor has advantages of easy rotation setting and does not cause noise when submersible vessel is diving. This bachelor thesis will study the application of DC Motor as an electric propulsion system on submersible vessel with length 59,57 m in series and parallel circuit by simulation using MATLAB software. The simulation data obtained are rotation and torque of DC Motor. From these simulation, it can be concluded that parallel circuit rotation is greater than series circuit rotation. It caused the greater speed and lower power in parallel circuit. 

  17. Coordinated Engine-Start Control of Single-Motor P2 Hybrid Electric Vehicles with Respect to Different Driving Situations

    OpenAIRE

    Xiangyang Xu; Xiaoxiao Wu; Mick Jordan; Peng Dong; Yang Liu

    2018-01-01

    To cut down the costs caused by the additional starter, single-motor P2 hybrid electric vehicles (HEVs) make use of the driving motor to propel the vehicle as well as start the engine, and accordingly the engine-start control becomes more difficult. To satisfy the passengers’ demands, this paper developed different coordinated engine-start control strategies with respect to different situations. First, a detailed model for the single-motor P2 HEVs system was built and related parameters were ...

  18. High fidelity equivalent circuit representation of induction motor determined by finite elements for electric vehicle drive applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vamvakari, A.; Kandianis, A.; Kladas, A.; Manias, S. (National Technical Univ. of Athens (Greece))

    1999-05-01

    The paper presents the methodology for determination of an induction motor model suitable for harmonic representation on inverter supply. Harmonic iron losses are considered by convenient modifications of the standard equivalent circuit while the parameter variations for different operating conditions are determined by finite element modelling. The proposed motor representation is particularly important in cases that the drive efficiency is of major concern over a wide range of operating conditions such as in electrical vehicle applications. The method is illustrated with respect to an experimental set-up involving a 1,5 kW squirrel cage induction motor supplied by a PWM inverter.

  19. Energy efficiency improvement of medical electric tools and devices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meshkov Aleksandr S.

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available With the ever-increasing volume of applications of various kinds of electric drives in all spheres of human activity, the issues in improving the efficiency of the electromechanical converters of electric energy, one of the most important components of the electric drive (ED, are becoming increasingly important. Such issues include reducing their weight and size, improving the functional characteristics of these devices to increase their operational life and reducing the cost of manufacture. Taking full advantage of these opportunities relates to the AC and DC single-phase commutator motor (SCM, which is widely used in regulated and high-speed motor drives in medical electric hand tools. The SCM is used in machinery where the load torque has a hyperbolic dependence on the rotational speed and the need to work with a large motor overload due to the “soft” mechanical characteristics of such motors.

  20. Comparison of Output Current Ripple in Single and Dual Three-Phase Inverters for Electric Vehicle Motor Drives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jelena Loncarski

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The standard solution for the traction system in battery powered electric vehicles (EVs is a two-level (2L inverter feeding a three-phase motor. A simple and effective way to achieve a three-level (3L inverter in battery-supplied electric vehicles consists of using two standard three-phase 2L inverters with the open-end winding connection of standard three-phase ac motors. The 3L inverter solution can be usefully adopted in EVs since it combines several benefits such as current ripple reduction, increment of phase motor voltage with limited voltage ratings of the two battery banks, improvement in system reliability, etc. The reduction in current ripple amplitude is particularly relevant since it is a source of electromagnetic interference and audio noise from the inverter-motor power connection cables and from the motor itself. By increasing the inverter switching frequency the ripple amplitude is reduced, but the drive efficiency decreases due to the proportionally increased switching losses. In this paper the peak-to-peak ripple amplitude of the dual-2L inverter is evaluated and compared with the corresponding ripple of the single-2L inverter, considering the same voltage and power motor ratings. The ripple analysis is carried out as a function of the modulation index to cover the whole modulation range of the inverter, and the theoretical results are verified with experimental tests carried out by an inverter-motor drive prototype.

  1. Modeling and experimental investigation of thermal-mechanical-electric coupling dynamics in a standing wave ultrasonic motor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xiang; Yao, Zhiyuan; He, Yigang; Dai, Shichao

    2017-09-01

    Ultrasonic motor operation relies on high-frequency vibration of a piezoelectric vibrator and interface friction between the stator and rotor/slider, which can cause temperature rise of the motor under continuous operation, and can affect motor parameters and performance in turn. In this paper, an integral model is developed to study the thermal-mechanical-electric coupling dynamics in a typical standing wave ultrasonic motor. Stick-slip motion at the contact interface and the temperature dependence of material parameters of the stator are taken into account in this model. The elastic, piezoelectric and dielectric material coefficients of the piezoelectric ceramic, as a function of temperature, are determined experimentally using a resonance method. The critical parameters in the model are identified via measured results. The resulting model can be used to evaluate the variation in output characteristics of the motor caused by the thermal-mechanical-electric coupling effects. Furthermore, the dynamic temperature rise of the motor can be accurately predicted under different input parameters using the developed model, which will contribute to improving the reliable life of a motor for long-term running.

  2. Fuel-Cell-Powered Electric Motor Drive Analyzed for a Large Airplane

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Gerald V.; Choi, Benjamin B.

    2005-01-01

    Because of its high efficiency, fuel cell technology may be used to launch a new generation of more-electric aeropropulsion and power systems for future aircraft. Electric-motor-driven airplanes using fuel-cell powerplants would be beneficial to the environment because of fuel savings, low noise, and zero carbon-dioxide emissions. In spite of the fuel cell s efficiency benefit, to produce the same shaft drive power, a fuel cell- powered electric-drive system must be definitely heavier than a turbine-drive system. However, the fuel-cell system s overall efficiency from fuel-to-shaft power is higher than for a turbine-drive system. This means that the fuel consumption rate could be lower than for a conventional system. For heavier, fuel-laden planes for longer flights, we might achieve substantial fuel savings. In the airplane industry, in fact, an efficiency gain of even a few percentage points can make a major economic difference in operating costs.

  3. Analysis and control of excitation, field weakening and stability in direct torque controlled electrically excited synchronous motor drives

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pyrhoenen, O.

    1998-12-31

    Direct torque control (DTC) is a new control method for rotating field electrical machines. DTC controls directly the motor stator flux linkage with the stator voltage, and no stator current controllers are used. With the DTC method very good torque dynamics can be achieved. Until now, DTC has been applied to asynchronous motor drives. The purpose of this work is to analyse the applicability of DTC to electrically excited synchronous motor drives. Compared with asynchronous motor drives, electrically excited synchronous motor drives require an additional control for the rotor field current. The field current control is called excitation control in this study. The dependence of the static and dynamic performance of DTC synchronous motor drives on the excitation control has been analysed and a straightforward excitation control method has been developed and tested. In the field weakening range the stator flux linkage modulus must be reduced in order to keep the electro motive force of the synchronous motor smaller than the stator voltage and in order to maintain a sufficient voltage reserve. The dynamic performance of the DTC synchronous motor drive depends on the stator flux linkage modulus. Another important factor for the dynamic performance in the field weakening range is the excitation control. The field weakening analysis considers both dependencies. A modified excitation control method, which maximises the dynamic performance in the field weakening range, has been developed. In synchronous motor drives the load angle must be kept in a stabile working area in order to avoid loss of synchronism. The traditional vector control methods allow to adjust the load angle of the synchronous motor directly by the stator current control. In the DTC synchronous motor drive the load angle is not a directly controllable variable, but it is formed freely according to the motor`s electromagnetic state and load. The load angle can be limited indirectly by limiting the torque

  4. the steady-state performance characteristics of single phase transfer

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2012-11-03

    Nov 3, 2012 ... The paper reports the derivation of the steady- state equivalent circuit of a single phase transfer ... series opposition between the two halves of the ma- ..... from its equivalent circuit of fig 6 for different values of slip. Impedance due to forward field. Zf = Rf + jXf = Rr. 2(2s - 1). + jxr. 2. (19) in parallel with jxm. 2.

  5. A simple output voltage control scheme for single phase wavelet ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    DR OKE

    Wavelet based techniques have been extensively used in various power engineering applications. Recently, wavelet has also been proposed to generate switching signal for single-phase pulse-width-modulated (PWM) dc-ac inverter. The main advantage of the wavelet modulated (WM) scheme is that a single synthesis ...

  6. experimental implementation of single-phase, three-level, sinusoidal

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Experimental Implementation of SPWM VSI with R-L Load. 3. Figure 2: Switching pattern of the proposed single-phase, three-level PWM inverter. Figure 3: Prototype setup. (a) Power circuits for both inverters. (b) Logic and Driver circuits. Nigerian Journal of Technology. Vol. 31, No. 1, March 2012.

  7. A single phase photovoltaic inverter control for grid connected system

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    This paper presents a control scheme for single phase grid connected photovoltaic (PV) system operating under both grid connected and isolated grid mode. The control techniques include voltage and current control of grid-tie PV inverter. During grid connected mode, grid controls the amplitude and frequency of the PV ...

  8. Load compensation for single phase system using series active filter ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In this paper a new control strategy for series active filter has been proposed for improvement of power quality problems in single phase system. Since the non linear loads in the system comprises of both voltage source harmonic and current source harmonic loads and the dominancy of each type of load varies from time to ...

  9. Control of Single-Stage Single-Phase PV inverter

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ciobotaru, Mihai; Teodorescu, Remus; Blaabjerg, Frede

    2005-01-01

    In this paper the issue of control strategies for single-stage photovoltaic (PV) inverter is addressed. Two different current controllers have been implemented and an experimental comparison between them has been made. A complete control structure for the single-phase PV system is also presented...

  10. Measurement of Heat Losses on The Milking Machine Electric Motor at Various Regulations of Vacuum Using Methods of Thermal Imagery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jan Kudělka

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available To ensure the desirable vacuum in the milking machines, use is currently made predominantly of rotary vacuum pumps. These vacuum pumps are driven by a squirrel-cage induction motor. Until recently, the vacuum in the system to achieve the required value was controlled by a main control valve sucking in ambient air into the system. During the milking process itself and during other activities (flushing, sanitation, this control method consumed a large amount of electricity. The technical solution to electricity demand reduction was introduced with the emergence and development of frequency converters. The frequency converters control the operation of the asynchronous electric motor so that the actual delivery of the vacuum pumps equals the volume of air sucked into the vacuum pipe. The motor supply by the frequency converter brings about a host of adverse phenomena. This paper is dedicated to motor heating and heat losses on the surface of the electric motor at different regulations of vacuum in milking machines. The objective of the paper is to determine the immediate specific heat flows along the surface of the electric motor of the milking machine during milking using a control valve regulation and a control using the frequency converter, and compare the resulting value. The specific heat flows were determined by means of a non-traditional method of temperature field measurement using a system of thermal imagery. The calculated and measured data obtained from both these systems were statistically evaluated and compared. Use was made of a milking machine located in the cooperative Hospodářské obchodní družstvo (HOD Jabloňov.

  11. Effects of oculo-motor exercise, functional electrical stimulation and proprioceptive neuromuscular stimulation on visual perception of spatial neglect patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Si-Eun; Oh, Dae-Sik; Moon, Sang-Hyun

    2016-04-01

    [Purpose] The purpose of this study was to identify the effects of oculo-motor exercise, functional electrical stimulation (FES), and proprioceptive neuromuscular facilitation (PNF) on the visual perception of spatial neglect patients. [Subjects and Methods] The subjects were randomly allocated to 3 groups: an oculo-motor exercise (OME) group, a FES with oculo-motor exercise (FOME) group, and a PNF with oculo-motor exercise (POME) group. The line bisection test (LBT), motor free visual test (MVPT), and Catherine Bergego Scale (CBS) were used to measure visual perception. These were performed 5 times per week for 6 weeks. [Results] The OME group and POME group showed significant improvements according to the LBT and MVPT results, but the FOME group showed no significant improvement. According to the CBS, all 3 groups showed significant improvements. The OME and POME groups showed improvement over the FOME group in the LBT and MVPT. However, there was no significant difference among the three groups according to the CBS. [Conclusion] These results indicate that oculo-motor exercise and PNF with oculo-motor exercise had more positive effects than FES with oculo-motor exercise on the visual perception of spatial neglect patients.

  12. A Soft-Switching Inverter for High-Temperature Advanced Hybrid Electric Vehicle Traction Motor Drives

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lai, Jason [Virginia Polytechnic Inst. and State Univ. (Virginia Tech), Blacksburg, VA (United States); Yu, Wensong [Virginia Polytechnic Inst. and State Univ. (Virginia Tech), Blacksburg, VA (United States); Sun, Pengwei [Virginia Polytechnic Inst. and State Univ. (Virginia Tech), Blacksburg, VA (United States); Leslie, Scott [Powerex, Inc., Harrison, OH (United States); Prusia, Duane [Powerex, Inc., Harrison, OH (United States); Arnet, Beat [Azure Dynamics, Oak Park, MI (United States); Smith, Chris [Azure Dynamics, Oak Park, MI (United States); Cogan, Art [Azure Dynamics, Oak Park, MI (United States)

    2012-03-31

    The state-of-the-art hybrid electric vehicles (HEVs) require the inverter cooling system to have a separate loop to avoid power semiconductor junction over temperatures because the engine coolant temperature of 105°C does not allow for much temperature rise in silicon devices. The proposed work is to develop an advanced soft-switching inverter that will eliminate the device switching loss and cut down the power loss so that the inverter can operate at high-temperature conditions while operating at high switching frequencies with small current ripple in low inductance based permanent magnet motors. The proposed tasks also include high-temperature packaging and thermal modeling and simulation to ensure the packaged module can operate at the desired temperature. The developed module will be integrated with the motor and vehicle controller for dynamometer and in-vehicle testing to prove its superiority. This report will describe the detailed technical design of the soft-switching inverters and their test results. The experiments were conducted both in module level for the module conduction and switching characteristics and in inverter level for its efficiency under inductive and dynamometer load conditions. The performance will be compared with the DOE original specification.

  13. Optimal Velocity Control for a Battery Electric Vehicle Driven by Permanent Magnet Synchronous Motors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dongbin Lu

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The permanent magnet synchronous motor (PMSM has high efficiency and high torque density. Field oriented control (FOC is usually used in the motor to achieve maximum efficiency control. In the electric vehicle (EV application, the PMSM efficiency model, combined with the EV and road load system model, is used to study the optimal energy-saving control strategy, which is significant for the economic operation of EVs. With the help of GPS, IMU, and other information technologies, the road conditions can be measured in advance. Based on this information, the optimal velocity of the EV driven by PMSM can be obtained through the analytical algorithm according to the efficiency model of PMSM and the vehicle dynamic model in simple road conditions. In complex road conditions, considering the dynamic characteristics, the economic operating velocity trajectory of the EV can be obtained through the dynamic programming (DP algorithm. Simulation and experimental results show that the minimum energy consumption and global energy optimization can be achieved when the EV operates in the economic operation area.

  14. Methodology for quantifying the technological level of energy in electric motors; Metodologia para quantificacao do nivel tecnologico energetico de motores eletricos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Konopatzki, Evandro Andre; Bianchessi, Joel Marcos [Faculdade Assis Gurgacz (FAG), Cascavel, PR (Brazil); Oliveira, Celso Eduardo Lins de [Universidade de Sao Paulo (FZEA-USP), Pirassununga, SP (Brazil). Fac. de Zootecnia e Engenharia de Alimentos; Konopatzki, Angelica da Silva Lima [Faculdade de Ciencias Aplicadas de Cascavel (FACIAP), PR (Brazil). Curso de Ciencia da Computacao; Marim, Cesar [Universidade Estadual do Oeste do Parana (UNIOESTE), Cascavel, PR (Brazil)

    2006-07-01

    The market competition created in agricultural industry because of its insertion in the domestic and foreign markets, verified by the increase in GDP share of agribusiness in the Brazilian GDP, led us to have better control of costs and inputs. Thus the final value of products sold by these agribusinesses can download increasing the space in the consumer market. Electricity is one of the inputs now being studied and this paper presents a model for determining the coefficients that allow the comparison of different existing technologies for electric motors inserting an indicator of technological innovation called Technological Level Energy (NTE). The NTE was developed and tested in Storage Units of Grain (UAG) in the region of Cascavel - Parana where data were collected in six UAG, analyzed in medium weighted, had levels of different energy technology development. The main elements used to create the NTE are the number of engines installed in UAG, the lifetime of the engine considered from its manufacture and motor plate data such as income and the power factor. As a comparative process, each region can create your NTE and analyze your situation in a national context. The UAG will use the NTE to technological innovation and planning projects such as depreciation, financing and cross-examination of financial resources for the exchange of electric motors. Thus the NTE will aid in comparative indication of the timing for replacement of electric motors. Moment from which the energy demand, according to the obsolescence of equipment, are considered excessive compared to other more modern UAG. (author)

  15. The effect of electrical stimulation of the corticospinal tract on motor units of the human biceps brachii

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Nicolas Caesar; Taylor, Janet L; Gandevia, Simon C

    2002-01-01

    In healthy human subjects, descending motor pathways including the corticospinal tract were stimulated electrically at the level of the cervicomedullary junction to determine the effects on the discharge of motoneurones innervating the biceps brachii. Post-stimulus time histograms (PSTHs) were...... delays). We propose that in response to electrical stimulation of the descending tract fibres, biceps motoneurones receive a large excitatory input with minimal dispersion and it presumably contains a dominant monosynaptic component....

  16. Road load simulator tests of the Gould phase 1 functional model silicon controlled rectifier ac motor controller for electric vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gourash, F.

    1984-01-01

    The test results for a functional model ac motor controller for electric vehicles and a three-phase induction motor which were dynamically tested on the Lewis Research Center road load simulator are presented. Results show that the controller has the capability to meet the SAE-J227a D cycle test schedule and to accelerate a 1576-kg (3456-lb) simulated vehicle to a cruise speed of 88.5 km/hr (55 mph). Combined motor controller efficiency is 72 percent and the power inverter efficiency alone is 89 percent for the cruise region of the D cycle. Steady state test results for motoring, regeneration, and thermal data obtained by operating the simulator as a conventional dynamometer are in agreement with the contractor's previously reported data. The regeneration test results indicate that a reduction in energy requirements for urban driving cycles is attainable with regenerative braking. Test results and data in this report serve as a data base for further development of ac motor controllers and propulsion systems for electric vehicles. The controller uses state-of-the-art silicon controlled rectifier (SCR) power semiconductors and microprocessor-based logic and control circuitry. The controller was developed by Gould Laboratories under a Lewis contract for the Department of Energy's Electric and Hybrid Vehicle program.

  17. Road load simulator tests of the Gould phase 1 functional model silicon controlled rectifier ac motor controller for electric vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gourash, F.

    1984-02-01

    The test results for a functional model ac motor controller for electric vehicles and a three-phase induction motor which were dynamically tested on the Lewis Research Center road load simulator are presented. Results show that the controller has the capability to meet the SAE-J227a D cycle test schedule and to accelerate a 1576-kg (3456-lb) simulated vehicle to a cruise speed of 88.5 km/hr (55 mph). Combined motor controller efficiency is 72 percent and the power inverter efficiency alone is 89 percent for the cruise region of the D cycle. Steady state test results for motoring, regeneration, and thermal data obtained by operating the simulator as a conventional dynamometer are in agreement with the contractor's previously reported data. The regeneration test results indicate that a reduction in energy requirements for urban driving cycles is attainable with regenerative braking. Test results and data in this report serve as a data base for further development of ac motor controllers and propulsion systems for electric vehicles. The controller uses state-of-the-art silicon controlled rectifier (SCR) power semiconductors and microprocessor-based logic and control circuitry. The controller was developed by Gould Laboratories under a Lewis contract for the Department of Energy's Electric and Hybrid Vehicle program.

  18. Extended-Kalman-filter-based regenerative and friction blended braking control for electric vehicle equipped with axle motor considering damping and elastic properties of electric powertrain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lv, Chen; Zhang, Junzhi; Li, Yutong

    2014-11-01

    Because of the damping and elastic properties of an electrified powertrain, the regenerative brake of an electric vehicle (EV) is very different from a conventional friction brake with respect to the system dynamics. The flexibility of an electric drivetrain would have a negative effect on the blended brake control performance. In this study, models of the powertrain system of an electric car equipped with an axle motor are developed. Based on these models, the transfer characteristics of the motor torque in the driveline and its effect on blended braking control performance are analysed. To further enhance a vehicle's brake performance and energy efficiency, blended braking control algorithms with compensation for the powertrain flexibility are proposed using an extended Kalman filter. These algorithms are simulated under normal deceleration braking. The results show that the brake performance and blended braking control accuracy of the vehicle are significantly enhanced by the newly proposed algorithms.

  19. Effects of Electrical Stimulation, Exercise Training and Motor Skills Training on Strength of Children with Meningomyelocele: A Systematic Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dagenais, Liese M.; Lahay, Erin R.; Stueck, Kailey A.; White, Erin; Williams, Lindsay; Harris, Susan R.

    2009-01-01

    This systematic review provides a critical synthesis of research regarding the effects of electrical stimulation, exercise training, and motor skills training on muscle strength in children with meningomyelocele. Nine databases were searched using terms related to meningomyelocele and physical therapy interventions. Of 298 potentially relevant…

  20. ELECTRICAL AND ELECTRONIC INDUSTRIAL CONTROL. A-C CONVENTIONAL MAGNETIC MOTOR CONTROL, PART I, UNIT 5, INSTRUCTOR'S GUIDE.

    Science.gov (United States)

    SUTTON, MACK C.

    THIS GUIDE IS FOR TEACHER USE IN DIRECTING INDIVIDUAL STUDY OF ALTERNATING CURRENT CONVENTIONAL MAGNETIC MOTOR CONTROL IN ELECTRICAL-ELECTRONIC PROGRAMS. IT WAS DEVELOPED BY AN INSTRUCTIONAL MATERIALS SPECIALIST AND ADVISERS. EACH OF THE 10 INSTRUCTOR'S SHEETS GIVES THE LESSON SUBJECT, PURPOSE, INTRODUCTORY INFORMATION, REFERENCES, AND…

  1. ELECTRICAL AND ELECTRONIC INDUSTRIAL CONTROL. A-C CONVENTIONAL MAGNETIC MOTOR CONTROL, PART II, UNIT 6, ASSIGNMENTS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    SUTTON, MACK C.

    THIS STUDY GUIDE IS FOR INDIVIDUAL STUDENT USE IN STUDYING ALTERNATING CURRENT CONVENTIONAL MAGNETIC MOTOR CONTROL IN ELECTRICAL-ELECTRONIC PROGRAMS. IT WAS DEVELOPED BY AN INSTRUCTIONAL MATERIALS SPECIALIST AND ADVISERS. EACH OF THE 10 ASSIGNMENT SHEETS PROVIDES THE LESSON SUBJECT, PURPOSE, INTRODUCTORY INFORMATION, STUDY REFERENCES,…

  2. ELECTRICAL AND ELECTRONIC INDUSTRIAL CONTROL. A-C CONVENTIONAL MAGNETIC MOTOR CONTROL, PART I, UNIT 5, ASSIGNMENTS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    SUTTON, MACK C.

    THIS GUIDE IS FOR INDIVIDUAL STUDENT USE IN STUDYING ALTERNATING CURRENT CONVENTIONAL MAGNETIC MOTOR CONTROL IN ELECTRICAL-ELECTRONIC PROGRAMS. IT WAS DEVELOPED BY AN INSTRUCTIONAL MATERIALS SPECIALIST AND ADVISERS. EACH OF THE 10 ASSIGNMENT SHEETS PROVIDES THE LESSON SUBJECT, PURPOSE, INTRODUCTORY INFORMATION, STUDY REFERENCES, SUPPLEMENTARY…

  3. ELECTRICAL AND ELECTRONIC INDUSTRIAL CONTROL. A-C CONVENTIONAL MAGNETIC MOTOR CONTROL, PART II, UNIT 6, INSTRUCTOR'S GUIDE.

    Science.gov (United States)

    SUTTON, MACK C.

    THIS GUIDE IS FOR TEACHER USE IN DIRECTING INDIVIDUAL STUDY OF ALTERNATING CURRENT CONVENTIONAL MAGNETIC MOTOR CONTROL IN ELECTRICAL-ELECTRONIC PROGRAMS. IT WAS DEVELOPED BY AN INSTRUCTIONAL MATERIALS SPECIALIST AND ADVISERS. EACH OF THE 10 INSTRUCTOR'S SHEETS GIVES THE LESSON SUBJECT, PURPOSE, INTRODUCTORY INFORMATION, REFERENCES, SUPPLEMENTARY…

  4. Automation of monitoring and exploitation management of pointwork electric motor parks based of the parameters of current technical state

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V.V. Skalozub

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Exploitation technology of pointwork electric motor parks is developed based on the fuzzy-statistical expert system. Technology includes monitoring and diagnostics of engine current technical state without an exception from a drive, allows defining the order of engine repairs.

  5. Modeling And Simulation Of Highly Advanced Multilevel Inverter For Speed Control Of Induction Motor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ravi Raj

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available In this Paper the problem of removing Power dissipation from single phase Induction Motor with DC sources is considered by the speed control of Induction Motor with highly advanced 9-Level multi-level Inverter which having approximate zero Harmonics. As the demand of power is increasing day by day. So that we must introduced very advanced Electrical Instruments which having high efficiency and less dissipation of power. The requirement of very advanced Inverter is necessary. Here we are designing a Multi-level Inverter up to the 9-level using IGBT Insulated-gate bipolar transistor by Mat lab which having negligible total harmonic distortion THD thats why it will control the speed of single phase Induction motor which is presently widely used in our daily needs. Also several informative Simulation results verify the authority and truthiness of the proposed Model.

  6. Motor torque compensation of an induction electric motor by adjusting a slip command during periods of supposed change in motor temperature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelledes, William L.; St. John, Don K.

    1992-01-01

    The present invention maintains constant torque in an inverter driven AC induction motor during variations in rotor temperature. It is known that the torque output of a given AC induction motor is dependent upon rotor temperature. At rotor temperatures higher than the nominal operating condition the rotor impedance increases, reducing the rotor current and motor torque. In a similar fashion, the rotor impedance is reduced resulting in increased rotor current and motor torque when the rotor temperature is lower than the nominal operating condition. The present invention monitors the bus current from the DC supply to the inverter and adjusts the slip frequency of the inverter drive to maintain a constant motor torque. This adjustment is based upon whether predetermined conditions implying increased rotor temperature or decreased rotor temperature exist for longer that a predetermined interval of time.

  7. Motor unit firing intervals and other parameters of electrical activity in normal and pathological muscle

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fuglsang-Frederiksen, Anders; Smith, T; Høgenhaven, H

    1987-01-01

    of the motor units, as noted in previous studies. In the brachial biceps muscle we have studied the firing intervals of 164 motor units in 14 controls, 140 motor units in 13 patients with myopathy and 86 motor units in 8 patients with neurogenic disorders, and related the findings to those of the turns...

  8. Sensorless Control of Electric Motors with Kalman Filters: Applications to Robotic and Industrial Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gerasimos G. Rigatos

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The paper studies sensorless control for DC and induction motors, using Kalman Filtering techniques. First the case of a DC motor is considered and Kalman Filter-based control is implemented. Next the nonlinear model of a field-oriented induction motor is examined and the motor

  9. Motor unit firing intervals and other parameters of electrical activity in normal and pathological muscle

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fuglsang-Frederiksen, Anders; Smith, T; Høgenhaven, H

    1987-01-01

    of the motor units, as noted in previous studies. In the brachial biceps muscle we have studied the firing intervals of 164 motor units in 14 controls, 140 motor units in 13 patients with myopathy and 86 motor units in 8 patients with neurogenic disorders, and related the findings to those of the turns...... in severely affected muscles....

  10. Species-specific diversity of a fixed motor pattern: the electric organ discharge of Gymnotus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alejo Rodríguez-Cattaneo

    Full Text Available Understanding fixed motor pattern diversity across related species provides a window for exploring the evolution of their underlying neural mechanisms. The electric organ discharges of weakly electric fishes offer several advantages as paradigmatic models for investigating how a neural decision is transformed into a spatiotemporal pattern of action. Here, we compared the far fields, the near fields and the electromotive force patterns generated by three species of the pulse generating New World gymnotiform genus Gymnotus. We found a common pattern in electromotive force, with the far field and near field diversity determined by variations in amplitude, duration, and the degree of synchronization of the different components of the electric organ discharges. While the rostral regions of the three species generate similar profiles of electromotive force and local fields, most of the species-specific differences are generated in the main body and tail regions of the fish. This causes that the waveform of the field is highly site dependant in all the studied species. These findings support a hypothesis of the relative separation of the electrolocation and communication carriers. The presence of early head negative waves in the rostral region, a species-dependent early positive wave at the caudal region, and the different relationship between the late negative peak and the main positive peak suggest three points of lability in the evolution of the electrogenic system: a the variously timed neuronal inputs to different groups of electrocytes; b the appearance of both rostrally and caudally innervated electrocytes, and c changes in the responsiveness of the electrocyte membrane.

  11. Driving and braking control of PM synchronous motor based on low-resolution hall sensor for battery electric vehicle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gu, Jing; Ouyang, Minggao; Li, Jianqiu; Lu, Dongbin; Fang, Chuan; Ma, Yan

    2013-01-01

    Resolvers are normally employed for rotor positioning in motors for electric vehicles, but resolvers are expensive and vulnerable to vibrations. Hall sensors have the advantages of low cost and high reliability, but the positioning accuracy is low. Motors with Hall sensors are typically controlled by six-step commutation algorithm, which brings high torque ripple. This paper studies the high-performance driving and braking control of the in-wheel permanent magnetic synchronous motor (PMSM) based on low-resolution Hall sensors. Field oriented control (FOC) based on Hall-effect sensors is developed to reduce the torque ripple. The positioning accuracy of the Hall sensors is improved by interpolation between two consecutive Hall signals using the estimated motor speed. The position error from the misalignment of the Hall sensors is compensated by the precise calibration of Hall transition timing. The braking control algorithms based on six-step commutation and FOC are studied. Two variants of the six-step commutation braking control, namely, half-bridge commutation and full-bridge commutation, are discussed and compared, which shows that the full-bridge commutation could better explore the potential of the back electro-motive forces (EMF), thus can deliver higher efficiency and smaller current ripple. The FOC braking is analyzed with the phasor diagrams. At a given motor speed, the motor turns from the regenerative braking mode into the plug braking mode if the braking torque exceeds a certain limit, which is proportional to the motor speed. Tests in the dynamometer show that a smooth control could be realized by FOC driving control and the highest efficiency and the smallest current ripple could be achieved by FOC braking control, compared to six-step commutation braking control. Therefore, FOC braking is selected as the braking control algorithm for electric vehicles. The proposed research ensures a good motor control performance while maintaining low cost and high

  12. Control and Performance Evaluation of Multiphase FSPM Motor in Low-Speed Region for Hybrid Electric Vehicles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Feng Yu

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The flux-switching permanent-magnet (FSPM motor has been viewed as a highly reliable machine with both armature windings and magnets on the stator. Owing to the high torque-production capability with low torque ripple, FSPM motors with a higher number of phases are potential candidates for traction applications in hybrid electric vehicles (HEVs. However, existing research has mostly focused on the principles and static performance of multiphase FSPM motors, and little attention has been paid to advanced control strategies. In this paper, the fully decoupled current control of a 36/34-pole nine-phase FSPM (NP-FSPM motor is developed and the performance under different operating conditions is investigated. The aim of the design is to alleviate cross coupling effects and unwanted low-order stator harmonic currents, to guarantee fast transient response and small steady-state error. In addition, its fault-tolerance is further elaborated. These features are very important in automotive applications where low torque pulsation, high fault-tolerant capability and high dynamic performance are of major importance. Firstly, the research status of multiphase FSPM motors is briefly reviewed. Secondly, the mathematical model in the dq reference frames and control strategies are presented. Then, the control and performance of the NP-FSPM motor are evaluated by using MATLAB/Simulink. Finally, experiments on an NP-FSPM motor prototype are carried out to validate the study.

  13. Adult rat motor neurons do not re-establish electrical coupling during axonal regeneration and muscle reinnervation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Morgana Favero

    Full Text Available Gap junctions (GJs between neurons are present in both the newborn and the adult nervous system, and although important roles have been suggested or demonstrated in a number of instances, in many other cases a full understanding of their physiological role is still missing. GJs are expressed in the rodent lumbar cord at birth and mediate both dye and electrical coupling between motor neurons. This expression has been proposed to mediate: (i fast synchronization of motoneuronal spike activity, in turn linked to the process of refinement of neuromuscular connections, and (ii slow synchronization of locomotor-like oscillatory activity. Soon after birth this coupling disappears. Since in the adult rat regeneration of motor fibers after peripheral nerve injury leads to a recapitulation of synaptic refinement at the target muscles, we tested whether GJs between motor neurons are transiently re-expressed. We found that in conditions of maximal responsiveness of lumbar motor neurons (such as no depression by anesthetics, decerebrate release of activity of subsets of motor neurons, use of temporal and spatial summation by antidromic and orthodromic stimulations, testing of large ensembles of motor neurons no firing is observed in ventral root axons in response to antidromic spike invasion of nearby counterparts. We conclude that junctional coupling between motor neurons is not required for the refinement of neuromuscular innervation in the adult.

  14. Overview of Single-Phase Grid-Connected Photovoltaic Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yang, Yongheng; Blaabjerg, Frede

    2017-01-01

    A continuous booming installation of solar photovoltaic (PV) systems has been witnessed worldwide. It is mainly driven by the imperative demand of “clean” power generation from renewables. Grid-connected PV systems will thus become an even more active player in the future mixed power systems, which...... systems. This chapter thus gives an overview of the advancement of power electronics converters in single-phase grid-connected PV systems, being commonly used in residential applications. Demands to single-phase grid-connected PV systems and the general control strategies are also addressed...... are linked together by a vast of power electronics converters and the power grid. In order to achieve a reliable and efficient power generation from PV systems, more stringent demands have been imposed on the entire PV system. It, in return, advances the development of the power converter technology in PV...

  15. Walking the Torque: Proposed Work Plan for Energy-Efficiency Policy Opportunities for Electric Motor-Driven Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2011-07-01

    Electric motor-driven system is the largest single energy end use accounting for more than 40% of global electricity consumption. This paper sets out an ambitious but achievable target with the global work plan to improve the energy efficiency of electric motor-driven system by 10% to 15% based on the finding of working paper ''Energy-Efficiency Policy Opportunities for Electric Motor-Driven Systems (Waide et al., 2011)''. If governments commit to the proposed work plan immediately and maintain resourcing levels, this could be achieved by 2030 and it would be equivalent to reducing total global electricity use by around 5%. The proposed work plan of this paper is to align regulatory settings within a globally applicable scheme. The IEA believes this target can only be achieved through global co-operation leading to aligned national policy settings that countries can unlock the economies of scale that will result from using more energy efficient EMDS.

  16. Instantaneous power flow determination for single-phase UPFC

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dobrucky, B.; Drozdy, S.; Pokorny, M.; Pavlanin, R. [Zilina Univ., Zilina (Slovakia)

    2007-07-01

    The parallel shunt active filter in a unified power flow conditioner (UPFC) can filter and compensate the reactive power of basic and higher current harmonics. This paper reported on a study in which a new theory of orthogonal transform was used to control a single-phase UPFC system and transform it into a two-axes system. In addition to estimating the load current phase shifts, the study also determined the instantaneous active and reactive powers. The new theory is based on the premise that ordinary single-phase quantity can be complemented by a virtual fictitious phase so that both of them will create an orthogonal system, as is usual in three-phase systems. The theory uses efficient methods of analysis, such as time-sub-optimal determination of fundamental harmonics; average- and/or root-mean-square values; or instantaneous reactive power methods. The load current phase shift can be used to compensate for voltage drops. This paper outlined a practical application of the method in a case of active and reactive power determination for single-phase UPFC. It also presented some examples of the successful simulation experiments results focused on regulation output voltage of UPFC. 9 refs., 13 figs., 1 appendix.

  17. Stability of the Small Electric Vehicle with Two In-Wheel Motors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heerwan P.M.

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available For a small electric vehicle (EV with the rear two in-wheel motors, the hydraulic brake system and the mechanical brake system are installed at the front and rear tire respectively. The mechanical brake system is used at the rear tire because there is no enough space for the hydraulic brake system. In a braking condition, the in-wheel motor at the rear tire will generate the regenerative braking force and it can improve the braking performance of the vehicle. However, during braking on the low adhesion road surface, anti-lock brake system (ABS is very crucial to prevent the tire from lock-up. To improve the safety and stability of the vehicle, the combination of anti-skid control system and direct yaw moment control system is proposed. The anti-skid control system contains a hydraulic unit of ABS at the front tires and regenerative brake timing control at the rear tires. The control method of the regenerative brake timing control is same as ABS and it will turn on and off to prevent the tire from lock-up. On the other hand, the direct yaw moment control system is developed to increase the steer performance of the vehicle. The optimal control is used as the control strategy method to control the yaw moment. The simulation is developed in MATLAB Simulink and the result shows that the proposed model can improve the stopping distance from 9 seconds to 8.2 seconds. In addition, the combination of skid control and yaw moment control also improved the steer performance of the vehicle.

  18. A contribution to the study of the thermal behavior and of the electric performance of squirrel-cage induction motors; Uma contribuicao ao estudo do comportamento termico e do desempenho eletrico de motores de inducao com rotor em gaiola

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Avolio, Edwin

    1992-03-01

    A thermal-electric mathematical model for a squirrel cage induction motors which permits to specify the best motor for specific drive, under thermal and electric aspects based, only on manufacturer technical bulletins and technical information is presented. Changes of rotor parameters due Skin Effect and changes of winding resistances (both stator and rotor) with the temperature are considered. The accuracy of this model is appraised using experimental results. The thermal behavior and electric performance for some motors are obtained for continuos and intermittent duties with sinusoidal and non-sinusoidal voltages. (author)

  19. Effect of magnetic properties of non-oriented electrical steel on torque characteristics of interior-permanent-magnet synchronous motor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fujimura, Hiroshi; Nitomi, Hirokatsu; Yashiki, Hiroyoshi

    2008-01-01

    The torque characteristics of interior-permanent-magnet synchronous motor (IPMSM), in which core materials were our conventional non-oriented electrical steel 35SX250 and our developed steels 35SXH, 27SXH with high permeability, were measured by a pulse wave modulation (PWM) inverter control. The torque characteristics of the motor with developed steels were superior to that of conventional steel. The advantage of developed steels was remarkable in the high-toque region. Experimental torque separation using current phase control showed that reluctance torque was strongly affected by the magnetic properties of core materials. And we did magnetic field analysis of the motors by finite element method (FEM). The flux density in the teeth of the stator core was higher in the high permeability steels than that in the conventional steel under the same current condition. The developed steels are expected to be suited to the stator material of IPMSM used as drive motors for electric vehicles and compressor motors for air conditioner

  20. Coordinated Engine-Start Control of Single-Motor P2 Hybrid Electric Vehicles with Respect to Different Driving Situations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiangyang Xu

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available To cut down the costs caused by the additional starter, single-motor P2 hybrid electric vehicles (HEVs make use of the driving motor to propel the vehicle as well as start the engine, and accordingly the engine-start control becomes more difficult. To satisfy the passengers’ demands, this paper developed different coordinated engine-start control strategies with respect to different situations. First, a detailed model for the single-motor P2 HEVs system was built and related parameters were presented. Then, the coordinated engine-start control architecture for the internal combustion engine (ICE, engine disconnect clutch (EDC, electric motor (EM and 8-speed automatic transmission (AT was analyzed. Considering with the different driving situations, soft start strategy and dynamical start strategy are individually proposed. Through the simulation, the above control strategies were validated in accordance with their control objectives. Last, to optimize the trade-off between driving performance and riding comfort, some key parameters were further discussed. This work not only decreases the difficulty of engine-start control in the single-motor P2 HEVs but also is helpful to improve the quality of engine-start.

  1. Análisis vibrodinámico de motores eléctricos // Vibrational and dynamic analysis of electric motors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Orestes González-Quintero

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available ResumenEl artículo aborda el estudio vibrodinámico ejecutado en motores eléctricos de la fábrica de azúcar“Cristino Naranjo” durante la implementación del mantenimiento predictivo. En el mismo seexponen los trabajos realizados en las diferentes etapas de implementación del mantenimiento y eldiagnóstico de defectos mediante la utilización del análisis espectral de vibraciones. Se muestranespectros de motor con problemas y en funcionamiento normal.Palabras claves: Ingeniería de Mantenimiento, Mantenimiento Predictivo, análisis, vibraciones.__________________________________________________________________________________AbstractThis work is concerned with the vibrational and dynamic study of electrical motors located inCristino Naranjo sugar mill. It is done during the predictive maintenance implementation. At thesome time some works are shown during this process as well the failures diagnostic by means ofthe use of spectrum analysis of vibration. The spectrums shown are related to motors withdifficulties or well working.Key words: Maintenance Engineering, Predictive Maintenance, vibration, análisis.

  2. Analysis of electrical and magnetic bio-signals associated with motor performance and fatigue

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yao, Bing

    This dissertation reports findings centered principally on comprehensive research related to human bio-signals (EEG, MEG, EMG and fMRI) acquired during repetitive maximal voluntary contractions (MVC) that induced severe fatigue. Fatigue is a common experience that reduces productivity and quality of life and increases chances of injury. Although abundant information has been gained in the last several decades regarding muscular and spinal-level mechanisms of muscle fatigue, very little is known about how cortical centers control and respond to fatigue. The main purpose of this study was to examine the fatigue effects on the central nervous system by analyzing the bio-signals collected in the designed experiments. Healthy human subjects were asked to perform a series of repetitive handgrip MVCs with their dominant hand until exhaustion. Handgrip forces, electrical activity (EMG) from primary and non-primary muscles, and EEG, MEG, or fMRI signals from different locations of the brain were recorded simultaneously. The time series data were segmented into several physiologically meaningful epochs (time phases), from rest to preparation to movement execution/sustaining. A series of studies, including motor-related cortical potential (MRCP) analysis, power spectrum analysis, time-frequency (spectrogram) analysis of EEG, EEG source localization and nonlinear analysis (fractal dimension and largest Lyapunov exponent), and fMRI analysis, was applied to the data. We hypothesized that the fatigue effects would act differently on brain signals of different phases. The MRCP results showed that the negative potential (NP) related to motor task preparation only had minimal changes with fatigue. The power of all EEG frequencies did not alter significantly during the preparation phase but decreased significantly during the sustained phase of the contraction. The fractal dimension and the largest Lyapunov exponent decreased significantly during the sustained phase as fatigue

  3. Powertrain Matching and Optimization of Dual-Motor Hybrid Driving System for Electric Vehicle Based on Quantum Genetic Intelligent Algorithm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yong Wang

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In order to increase the driving range and improve the overall performance of all-electric vehicles, a new dual-motor hybrid driving system with two power sources was proposed. This system achieved torque-speed coupling between the two power sources and greatly improved the high performance working range of the motors; at the same time, continuously variable transmission (CVT was achieved to efficiently increase the driving range. The power system parameters were determined using the “global optimization method”; thus, the vehicle’s dynamics and economy were used as the optimization indexes. Based on preliminary matches, quantum genetic algorithm was introduced to optimize the matching in the dual-motor hybrid power system. Backward simulation was performed on the combined simulation platform of Matlab/Simulink and AVL-Cruise to optimize, simulate, and verify the system parameters of the transmission system. Results showed that quantum genetic algorithms exhibited good global optimization capability and convergence in dealing with multiobjective and multiparameter optimization. The dual-motor hybrid-driving system for electric cars satisfied the dynamic performance and economy requirements of design, efficiently increasing the driving range of the car, having high performance, and reducing energy consumption of 15.6% compared with the conventional electric vehicle with single-speed reducers.

  4. Investigation on a Novel Discontinuous Pulse-Width Modulation Algorithm for Single-phase Voltage Source Rectifier

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Qu, Hao; Yang, Xijun; Guo, Yougui

    2014-01-01

    Single-phase voltage source converter (VSC) is an important power electronic converter (PEC), including single-phase voltage source inverter (VSI), single-phase voltage source rectifier (VSR), single-phase active power filter (APF) and single-phase grid-connection inverter (GCI). Single-phase VSC...

  5. Electrically powered hand tool

    Science.gov (United States)

    Myers, Kurt S.; Reed, Teddy R.

    2007-01-16

    An electrically powered hand tool is described and which includes a three phase electrical motor having a plurality of poles; an electrical motor drive electrically coupled with the three phase electrical motor; and a source of electrical power which is converted to greater than about 208 volts three-phase and which is electrically coupled with the electrical motor drive.

  6. Subcontract Report: Final Report on Assessment of Motor Technologies for Traction Drives of Hybrid and Electric Vehicles (Subcontract #4000080341)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fezzler, Raymond [BIZTEK Consulting, Inc.

    2011-03-01

    Currently, interior permanent magnet (IPM) motors with rare-earth (RE) magnets are almost universally used for hybrid and electric vehicles (EVs) because of their superior properties, particularly power density. However, there is now a distinct possibility of limited supply or very high cost of RE magnets that could make IPM motors unavailable or too expensive. Because development of electric motors is a critical part of the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Advanced Power Electronics and Motors activity, DOE needs to determine which options should be investigated and what barriers should be addressed. Therefore, in order to provide a basis for deciding which research topics should be pursued, an assessment of various motor technologies was conducted to determine which, if any, is potentially capable of meeting FreedomCAR 2015 and 2020 targets. Highest priority was given to IPM, surface mounted permanent magnet (SPM), induction, and switched reluctance (SR) motors. Also of interest, but with lesser emphasis, were wheel motors, multiple-rotor motors, motors with external excitation, and several others that emerged from the assessment. Cost and power density (from a design perspective, the power density criterion translates to torque density) are emerging as the two most important properties of motors for traction drives in hybrid and EVs, although efficiency and specific power also are very important. The primary approach for this assessment involved interviews with original equipment manufacturers (OEMs), their suppliers, and other technical experts. For each technology, the following issues were discussed: (1) The current state-of-the-art performance and cost; (2) Recent trends in the technology; (3) Inherent characteristics of the motor - which ones limit the ability of the technology to meet the targets and which ones aid in meeting the target; (4) What research and development (R&D) would be needed to meet the targets; and (5) The potential for the technology to

  7. Magnetic characterization of the stator core of a high-speed motor made of an ultrathin electrical steel sheet using the magnetic property evaluation system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oka, Mohachiro; Enokizono, Masato; Mori, Yuji; Yamazaki, Kazumasa

    2018-04-01

    Recently, the application areas for electric motors have been expanding. For instance, electric motors are used in new technologies such as rovers, drones, cars, and robots. The motor used in such machinery should be small, high-powered, highly-efficient, and high-speed. In such motors, loss at high-speed rotation must be especially minimal. Eddy-current loss in the stator core is known to increase greatly during loss at high-speed rotation of the motor. To produce an efficient high-speed motor, we are developing a stator core for a motor using an ultrathin electrical steel sheet with only a small amount of eddy-current loss. Furthermore, the magnetic property evaluation for efficient, high-speed motor stator cores that use conventional commercial frequency is insufficient. Thus, we made a new high-speed magnetic property evaluation system to evaluate the magnetic properties of the efficient high-speed motor stator core. This system was composed of high-speed A/D converters, D/A converters, and a high-speed power amplifier. In experiments, the ultrathin electrical steel sheet dramatically suppressed iron loss and, in particular, eddy-current loss. In addition, a new high-speed magnetic property evaluation system accurately evaluated the magnetic properties of the efficient high-speed motor stator core.

  8. Electric motor designs for attenuating torque disturbance in sensitive space mechanisms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marks, David B.; Fink, Richard A.

    2003-09-01

    When a motion control system introduces unwanted torque jitter and motion anomalies into sensitive space flight optical or positioning mechanisms, the pointing accuracy, positioning capability, or scanning resolution of the mission suffers. Special motion control technology must be employed to provide attenuation of the harmful torque disturbances. Brushless DC (BLDC) Motors with low torque disturbance characteristics have been successfully used on such notable missions as the Hubble Space Telescope when conventional approaches to motor design would not work. Motor designs for low disturbance mechanisms can include two and three phase sinusoidal BLDC motors, BLDC motors without iron teeth, and sometimes skewed or non-integral slot designs for motors commutated with Hall effect devices. The principal components of motor torque disturbance, successful BLDC motor designs for attenuating disturbances, and design trade-offs for optimum performance are examined.

  9. Electrical stimulation of the abdomen preserves motor performance in the inactive elderly: a randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miura, Misa; Seki, Kazunori; Ito, Osamu; Handa, Yasunobu; Kohzuki, Masahiro

    2012-10-01

    Abdominal muscle strength declines easily with the process of aging and/or disuse, and it is difficult to strengthen weak abdominal muscles in the inactive elderly. In the present study, we applied surface electrical stimulation (ES) to the abdomen of inactive elderly people to investigate its chronic effects. Twenty inactive elderly people (65-89 years) who spent most of the day in their bedroom participated in the study. The subjects were assigned to ES and non-ES groups in a random order. In addition to conventional physical therapy and occupational therapy, ES was applied to both sides of the flank of 10 subjects (ES group) for 8 weeks. For evaluation of the abdominal muscles, the cross-sectional area (CSA) was measured with computed tomography and the electrical muscle activity (iEMG) was measured by electromyography. Functional examinations were performed at 2, 4, and 8 weeks after the beginning of the study with the following parameters: grip strength; maximum walking speed (WS); movement time for sitting up (MSU); number of trunk flexions (NTF); flexibility of the trunk; sit-to-stand time (STS); and Barthel index (BI) score. In the ES group, the NTF and MSU were significantly improved at 4 weeks and thereafter. Furthermore, the STS and WS were also improved significantly after 8 weeks (p < 0.05). The CSA and iEMG both increased significantly (p < 0.05). However, the flexibility of the trunk and BI score did not change. In conclusion, ES to the abdomen has the potential to improve motor function in the inactive elderly.

  10. Design and development of split-parallel through-the road retrofit hybrid electric vehicle with in-wheel motors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zulkifli, S. A.; Syaifuddin Mohd, M.; Maharun, M.; Bakar, N. S. A.; Idris, S.; Samsudin, S. H.; Firmansyah; Adz, J. J.; Misbahulmunir, M.; Abidin, E. Z. Z.; Syafiq Mohd, M.; Saad, N.; Aziz, A. R. A.

    2015-12-01

    One configuration of the hybrid electric vehicle (HEV) is the split-axle parallel hybrid, in which an internal combustion engine (ICE) and an electric motor provide propulsion power to different axles. A particular sub-type of the split-parallel hybrid does not have the electric motor installed on board the vehicle; instead, two electric motors are placed in the hubs of the non-driven wheels, called ‘hub motor’ or ‘in-wheel motor’ (IWM). Since propulsion power from the ICE and IWM is coupled through the vehicle itself, its wheels and the road on which it moves, this particular configuration is termed ‘through-the-road’ (TTR) hybrid. TTR configuration enables existing ICE-powered vehicles to be retrofitted into an HEV with minimal physical modification. This work describes design of a retrofit- conversion TTR-IWM hybrid vehicle - its sub-systems and development work. Operating modes and power flow of the TTR hybrid, its torque coupling and resultant traction profiles are initially discussed.

  11. Design of Electrical System for Inhibitor Injection Pump’s Motor PAQ 01/02/03 RSG-GAS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Taufiq, M.; Teguh Sulistyo; Kiswanto; Santosa Pujiarta

    2008-01-01

    In order to control the water quality related to the growth of scale, corrosion and micro-organism in the PA01 BR01 and PA02 BR 02 piping system of secondary cooling system of RSG-GAS, electrical systems for motor of inhibitor injection pump PAQ 01/02/03, including motor control system circuit for inhibitor injection pump PAQ02 AP01, motor control system circuit for NaOCl injection pump PAQ01 AP01, motor control system circuit for inhibitor injection pump PAQ02 AP02 and control system circuit for stir pump RW02 have been designed. Motor control system circuit for pump PAQ02 AP01 which attached at the inhibitor tank will operate when conductivity control CQ01 indicates blow down condition and pump motor PAQ02 AP02 is not operate when level control CL02 indicates minimum level. This design is expected that, NaOCl injection pump PAQ01 AP 01 will operate continuously and inhibitor injection pump PAQ02 AP02 will operate automatically. (author)

  12. Analytical Modeling Of The Steinmetz Coefficient For Single-Phase Transformer Eddy Current Loss Prediction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Aly Saandy

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract This article presents to an analytical calculation methodology of the Steinmetz coefficient applied to the prediction of Eddy current loss in a single-phase transformer. Based on the electrical circuit theory the active power consumed by the core is expressed analytically in function of the electrical parameters as resistivity and the geometrical dimensions of the core. The proposed modeling approach is established with the duality parallel series. The required coefficient is identified from the empirical Steinmetz data based on the experimented active power expression. To verify the relevance of the model validations both by simulations with two in two different frequencies and measurements were carried out. The obtained results are in good agreement with the theoretical approach and the practical results.

  13. Single-phase pump model for analysis of LMFBR heat transport systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Madni, I.K.; Cazzoli, E.

    1978-05-01

    A single-phase pump model for transient and steady-state analysis of LMFBR heat transport systems is presented. Fundamental equations of the model are angular momentum balance to determine transient impeller speed and mass balance (including thermal expansion effects) to determine the level of sodium in the pump tank. Pump characteristics are modeled by homologous head and torque relations. All regions of pump operation are represented with reverse rotation allowed. The model also includes option for enthalpy rise calculations and pony motor operation. During steady state, the pump operating speed is determined by matching required head with total load in the circuit. Calculated transient results are presented for pump coastdown and double-ended pipe break accidents. The report examines the influence of frictional torque and specific speed on predicted response for the pump coastdown to natural circulation transient. The results for a double-ended pipe break accident indicate the necessity of including all regions of operation for pump characteristics

  14. Software for optimal selection of places for installation of balancing devices in 0,4 kV electric power systems loaded with electric motors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Romanova Victoria

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This publication considers the issues of development of the software program for designing of 0,4 kV power supply systems with motor-actuated load under voltage unsymmetry conditions (using the example of the Trans-Baikal Territory. Voltage unsymmetry is practically constant phenomenon in the electric power networks of different voltage types. Voltage unsymmetry effects significantly the electric power consumers, including the supply mains itself. It has especially negative impact on the electrical equipment operation process and its lifetime. The urgency of the problem is confirmed by multiple research on the same topic and by significant number of damages suffered by the electric power consumers staying in service (especially in the Trans-Baikal Territory and in the Far-East regions. Voltage unsymmetry causes economic loss and reduction of the electromagnetic interference value by the voltage unsymmetry coefficient in negative-phase sequence (K2U gives inevitable economic effect accordingly. However, the payback period for the activities aimed at reduction of electromagnetic interference, will vary from some months to several years. The more accurate value of the payback period may be obtained using the developed software program. The developed software design program is implemented by means of the programming language C# in Microsoft Visual Studio environment, using the built-in cross-platform database SQLite. The software program shall allow making quick and accurate calculation of the power losses, to determine the economic feasibility of provision special measures for removal of the voltage unsymmetry, for determination of optimal application and location of the balancing devices. The software implementation in power systems loaded with electric motors will improve reliability and efficiency of asynchronous motors. The software is of interest for developers of projects on power supply systems for regions with non-linear loads.

  15. Considerations for the selection of an applicable energy efficiency test procedure for electric motors in Malaysia: Lessons for other developing countries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yanti, P.A.A.; Mahlia, T.M.I.

    2009-01-01

    Electric motors are a major energy-consuming appliance in the industrial sector. According to a survey, electric motors account for more than 70% of the total growth from 1991 to 2004 in electricity consumption in this sector in Malaysia. To reduce electricity consumption, Malaysia should consider resetting the minimum energy efficiency standards for electric motors sometime in the coming year. The first step towards adopting energy efficiency standards is the creation of a procedure for testing and rating equipment. An energy test procedure is the technical foundation for all energy efficiency standards, energy labels and other related programs. The test conditions in the test procedure must represent the conditions of the country. This paper presents the process for the selection of an energy test procedure for electric motors in Malaysia based on the country's conditions and requirements. The adoption of test procedures for electric motors internationally by several countries is also discussed in this paper. Even though the paper only discusses the test procedure for electric motors in Malaysia, the methods can be directly applied in other countries without major modifications.

  16. Improved PLL structures for single-phase grid inverters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ciobotaru, Mihai; Teodorescu, Remus; Blaabjerg, Frede

    2005-01-01

    of the reference signals. This paper presents two improved phase-locked-loop (PLL) methods for single-phase grid connected systems. The investigated PLL methods are based on a transport delay method and an inverse Park transformation method. The improvements in the case of using the delay-based PLL are: non......-frequency dependent and better filtering of the harmonics. For the other investigated PLL method based on inverse Park transformation the improvement consists of better filtering of the harmonics. Experimental results validate the effectiveness of the two proposed methods....

  17. Dynamics Assessment of Advanced Single-Phase PLL Structures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Golestan, Saeed; Monfarad, Mohammad; Freijedo, Francisco D.

    2013-01-01

    , and desired performance under frequency-varying and harmonically distorted grid conditions. Despite the wide acceptance and use of these two advanced PLLs, no comprehensive design guidelines to fine-tune their parameters have been reported yet. Through a detailed mathematical analysis it is shown......Recently, several advanced phase locked loop (PLL) techniques have been proposed for single-phase applications. Among these, the Park-PLL, and the second order generalized integrator (SOGI) based PLL are very attractive, owing to their simple digital implementation, low computational burden...

  18. Solution Concept of Modular Single Phase Active Power Filters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marek Roch

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper investigates a modular or a decentralised single-phase active power filter control strategy. It is based on the evaluation of the harmonic reference load currents for the active power filter blocks operating under specific harmonic frequencies. The underlying principle of the modular active power filter is explained and it is shown how the required reference harmonic currents can be evaluated. Simulation results demonstrated the improvement in the dynamic performance of the modular active power filter presented here in comparison with the conventional type.

  19. A Transformer-less Single Phase Inverter For photovoltaic Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mostaan, Ali; Alizadeh, Ebrahim; Qu, Ying

    2017-01-01

    A single phase transformer-less inverter is introduced in this paper. The negative polarities of the input voltage and output terminal have common ground. Therefore, the leakage current problem that is common in PV systems is eliminated naturally. In addition, the proposed inverter has fewer...... components compared with its counterparts and only one switch conducts during the active states which enhance the inverter efficiency. The proposed inverter is analyzed in details and compared with some existing topologies. The performance of the proposed inverter is validated using the simulation results....

  20. Study on Enhanceing Mechanisim and Policy on Energy Efficiency of Electrical Motor System in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Ren; Zhao, Yuejin; Liu, Meng; Chen, Lili; Yang, Ming

    2017-12-01

    Motor is a kind of terminal energy-consumption equipment with the maximum power consumption in China every year; compared with international advanced level, the technical innovation of motor equipment, speed regulating system, drive system and automatic intelligent control technique in China still lag behind relatively; the standard technical service support system of motor system is not complete, the energy conserving transformation mode needs to be innovated, and the market development mechanism of motor industry is not perfect, etc. This paper analyzes the promotion mechanism and policy on energy efficiency of the motor system in China in recent years, studies the demonstration cases of successful promotion of high-efficiency motor, standard labeling, financial finance and tax policy, and puts forward suggestions on promotion of high-efficiency motor in China.

  1. The development of Inverter Fuzzy Logic Control for Induction Motor Control by Vector Control Method in Electric Vehicle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Era Purwanto

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available In response to concerns about energy cost, energy dependence, and environmental damage, a rekindling of interest in electric vehicles (EV’s has been obvious. Thus, the development of power electronics technology for EV’s will take an accelerated pace to fulfill the market needs, regarding with the problem in this paper is presented development of fuzzy logic inverter in induction motor control for electric vehicle propulsion. The Fuzzy logic inverter is developed in this system to directed toward developing an improved propulsion system for electric vehicles applications, the fuzzy logic controller is used for switching process. This paper is describes the design concepts, configuration, controller for inverter fuzzy logic and drive system is developed for this high-performance electric vehicle.

  2. FY2014 Oak Ridge National Laboratory Annual Progress Report for the Power Electronics and Electric Motors Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ozpineci, Burak [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

    2014-11-01

    The US Department of Energy (DOE) announced in May 2011 a new cooperative research effort comprising DOE, the US Council for Automotive Research (composed of automakers Ford Motor Company, General Motors Company, and Chrysler Group), Tesla Motors, and representatives of the electric utility and petroleum industries. Known as U.S. DRIVE (Driving Research and Innovation for Vehicle efficiency and Energy sustainability), it represents DOE’s commitment to developing public–private partnerships to fund high-risk–high-reward research into advanced automotive technologies. The new partnership replaces and builds upon the partnership known as FreedomCAR (derived from “Freedom” and “Cooperative Automotive Research”) that ran from 2002 through 2010 and the Partnership for a New Generation of Vehicles initiative that ran from 1993 through 2001. Oak Ridge National Laboratory’s (ORNL’s) Advanced Power Electronics and Electric Motors (APEEM) subprogram within the DOE Vehicle Technologies Office (VTO) provides support and guidance for many cutting-edge automotive technologies now under development. Research is focused on developing revolutionary new power electronics (PE), electric motor, and traction drive system (TDS) technologies that will leapfrog current on-the-road technologies, leading to lower cost and better efficiency in transforming battery energy to useful work. The research and development (R&D) is also aimed at achieving a greater understanding of and improvements in the way the various new components of tomorrow’s automobiles will function as a unified system to improve fuel efficiency through research in more efficient TDSs.

  3. Synthesis and magnetic properties of single phase titanomagnetites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schoenthal, W., E-mail: wms@andrew.cmu.edu; Liu, X.; Cox, T.; Laughlin, D. E.; McHenry, M. E. [Materials Science and Engineering, Carnegie Mellon University, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania 15213 (United States); Mesa, J. L.; Diaz-Michelena, M. [Instituto Nacional de Tecnica Aeroespacial, Madrid (Spain); Maicas, M. [Universidad Politecnica de Madrid, ISOM-ETSIT, Madrid (Spain)

    2014-05-07

    The focus of this paper is the study of cation distributions and resulting magnetizations in titanomagnetites (TMs), (1−x)Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4−x}Fe{sub 2}TiO{sub 4} solid solutions. TM remnant states are hypothesized to contribute to planetary magnetic field anomalies. This work correlates experimental data with proposed models for the TM pseudobinary. Improved synthesis procedures are reported for single phase Ulvöspinel (Fe{sub 2}TiO{sub 4}), and TM solid solutions were made using solid state synthesis techniques. X-ray diffraction and scanning electron microscopy show samples to be single phase solid solutions. M-H curves of TM75, 80, 85, 90, and 95 (TMX where X = at. % of ulvöspinel) were measured using a Physical Property Measurement System at 10 K, in fields of 0 to 8 T. The saturation magnetization was found to be close to that predicted by the Neel model for cation distribution in TMs. M-T curves of the remnant magnetization were measured from 10 K to 350 K. The remnant magnetization was acquired at 10 K by applying an 8 T field and then releasing the field. Experimental Neel temperatures are reported for samples in the Neel model ground state.

  4. Selection of electric motors for industrial processes with the rational energy use criteria; Seleccion de motores electricos para procesos industriales con criterios de uso racional de la energia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morales Collantes, Arturo [Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico, Mexico, D. F. (Mexico)

    1992-12-31

    Under the energy and ecological crisis we are now going through, but fundamentally because as human beings we can not keep on acting in such a thoughtless way, I write these notes, with the intention that we take more into consideration that whatever we do to improve the ways of energy consumption, will ease the human life preservation. The electric motors selection, plays an important roll in this respect, since it represents the highest percentage of electric energy consumption at national level. Therefore I will point out some basic criteria for an adequate selection. [Espanol] Ante la crisis energetica y ecologica por la que actualmente pasamos, pero fundamentalmente porque como seres humanos no podemos seguir actuando en forma tan irreflexiva, escribo estas notas, con la intencion de que tomemos mas en cuenta, que lo que hagamos para mejorar las formas de consumo de energia, facilitara la preservacion de la vida humana. La seleccion de motores electricos, juega un importante papel al respecto, ya que representa el mayor porcentaje del consumo de energia electrica a nivel nacional, por lo tanto senalare algunos criterios basicos para una adecuada seleccion.

  5. Comparison between electric-field-navigated and line-navigated TMS for cortical motor mapping in patients with brain tumors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sollmann, Nico; Goblirsch-Kolb, Moritz F; Ille, Sebastian; Butenschoen, Vicki M; Boeckh-Behrens, Tobias; Meyer, Bernhard; Ringel, Florian; Krieg, Sandro M

    2016-12-01

    For the navigation of transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS), various techniques are available. Yet, there are two basic principles underlying them all: electric-field-navigated transcranial magnetic stimulation (En-TMS) and line-navigated transcranial magnetic stimulation (Ln-TMS). The current study was designed to compare both methods. To explore whether there is a difference in clinical applicability, workflow, and mapping results of both techniques, we systematically compared motor mapping via En-TMS and Ln-TMS in 12 patients suffering from brain tumors. The number of motor-positive stimulation spots and the ratio of positive spots per overall stimulation numbers were significantly higher for En-TMS (motor-positive spots: En-TMS vs. Ln-TMS: 128.3 ± 35.0 vs. 41.3 ± 26.8, p mapping in the neurosurgical context for the first time. Although both TMS systems tested in the present study are explicitly designed for application during motor mapping in patients with brain lesions, there are differences in applicability, workflow, and results between En-TMS and Ln-TMS, which should be distinctly considered during clinical use of the technique. However, to draw final conclusions about accuracy, confirmation of motor-positive Ln-TMS spots by intraoperative stimulation is crucial within the scope of upcoming investigations.

  6. Outstanding efficiency in energy conversion for electric motors constructed by nanocrystalline soft magnetic alloy “NANOMET®” cores

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Nishiyama

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Recently updated nanocrystalline soft magnetic Fe-Co-Si-B-P-Cu alloys “NANOMET®” exhibit high saturation magnetic flux density (Bs > 1.8 T, low coercivity (Hc < 10 A/m and low core loss (W1.7/50 ∼ 0.4 W/kg even in a ribbon form with a thickness of up to 40 μm. By utilize excellent magnetic softness, several products such as motors or transformers for electrical appliances are now under developing by industry-academia collaboration. In particular, it is found that a brushless DC motor using NANOMET® core exhibited remarkable improvement in energy consumption. The prototype motor with an outer core diameter of 70 mm and a core thickness of 50 mm was constructed using laminated nano-crystallized NANOMET® ribbons. Core-loss for the constructed motor was improved from 1.4 W to 0.4 W only by replacing the non-oriented Si-steel core with NANOMET® one. The overall motor efficiency is evaluated to be 3% improvement. In this work, the relation between processing and resulting magnetic properties will be presented. In addition, feasibility for commercialization will also be discussed.

  7. Thermal Performance of Motor and Inverter in an Integrated Starter Generator System for a Hybrid Electric Vehicle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sung Chul Kim

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available If the integrated starter generator (ISG motor and inverter operate under continuously high loading conditions, the system’s performance and durability will decrease and the heat dissipation requirements will increase. Therefore, in this study, we developed two cooling designs for the ISG motor and inverter, and then carried out both a model analysis and an experiment on the fluid flow and thermal characteristics of the system under various operating conditions. As the outdoor temperature increased from 25 °C to 95 °C, the coil temperature of the air-cooled motor increased by about 82 °C. Under the harsh-air condition of 95 °C, the coil of the air-cooled motor increased to a maximum temperature of about 158.5 °C. We also determined that the temperature of the metal-oxide-semiconductor field-effect transistor (MOSFET chip in the liquid-cooled inverter increased to a maximum temperature of about 96.8 °C under a coolant flow rate of 4 L/min and a coolant temperature of 65 °C. The observed thermal performance of the ISG motor and inverter using the proposed cooling structures was found to be sufficient for heat loads under various real driving conditions for a hybrid electric vehicle (HEV.

  8. A High-Performance Control Method of Constant V/f-Controlled Induction Motor Drives for Electric Vehicles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Long Chen

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available A three-phase induction motor used as a propulsion system for the electric vehicle (EV is a nonlinear, multi-input multi-output, and strong coupling system. For such a complicated model system with unmeasured and unavoidable disturbances, as well as parameter variations, the conventional vector control method cannot meet the demands of high-performance control. Therefore, a novel control strategy named least squares support vector machines (LSSVM inverse control is presented in the paper. Invertibility of the induction motor in the constant V/f control mode is proved to confirm its feasibility. The LSSVM inverse is composed of an LSSVM approximating the nonlinear mapping of the induction motor and two integrators. The inverse model of the constant V/f-controlled induction motor drive is obtained by using LSSVM, and then the optimal parameters of LSSVM are determined automatically by applying a modified particle swarm optimization (MPSO. Cascading the LSSVM inverse with the induction motor drive system, the pseudolinear system can be obtained. Thus, it is easy to design the closed-loop linear regulator. The simulation results verify the effectiveness of the proposed method.

  9. Adjustable-Speed Single-Phase IM Drive with Reduced Number of Switches

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Chomát, Miroslav; Lipo, T. A.

    2003-01-01

    Roč. 39, č. 3 (2003), s. 819-825 ISSN 0093-9994 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA102/02/0554 Grant - others:National Science Foundation(US) GA9820434 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z2057903 Keywords : AC motor drives * converters * induction motor drives Subject RIV: JA - Electronics ; Optoelectronics, Electrical Engineering Impact factor: 0.783, year: 2003

  10. PM Motor Parametric Design Analyses for Hybrid Electric Vehicle Traction Drive Application: Interim Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Staunton, R.H.

    2004-08-11

    The Department of Energy's (DOE) Office of FreedomCAR (Cooperative Automotive Research) and Vehicle Technologies has a strong interest in making rapid progress in permanent magnet (PM) machine development. The program is directing various technology development projects that will advance the technology and lead to request for proposals (RFP) for manufacturer prototypes. This aggressive approach is possible because the technology is clearly within reach and the approach is deemed essential, based on strong market demand, escalating fuel prices, and competitive considerations. In response, this study began parallel development paths that included a literature search/review, development and utilization of multiple parametric models to determine the effects of design parameters, verification of the modeling methodology, development of an interior PM (IPM) machine baseline design, development of alternative machine baseline designs, and cost analyses for several candidate machines. This interim progress report summarizes the results of these activities as of June 2004. This report provides background and summary information for recent machine parametric studies and testing programs that demonstrate both the potential capabilities and technical limitations of brushless PM machines (axial gap and radial gap), the IPM machine, the surface-mount PM machines (interior or exterior rotor), induction machines, and switched reluctance machines. The FreedomCAR program, while acknowledging the progress made by Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Delphi, Delco-Remy International, and others in these programs, has redirected efforts toward a ''short path'' to a marketable and competitive PM motor for hybrid electric vehicle traction applications. The program has developed a set of performance targets for the type of traction machine desired. The short-path approach entails a comprehensive design effort focusing on the IPM machine and meeting the performance

  11. PM Motor Parametric Design Analyses for a Hybrid Electric Vehicle Traction Drive Application

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Staunton, R.H.

    2004-10-11

    The Department of Energy's (DOE) Office of FreedomCAR (Cooperative Automotive Research) and Vehicle Technologies office has a strong interest in making rapid progress in permanent magnet (PM) machine development. The DOE FreedomCAR program is directing various technology development projects that will advance the technology and hopefully lead to a near-term request for proposals (RFP) for a to-be-determined level of initial production. This aggressive approach is possible because the technology is clearly within reach and the approach is deemed essential, based on strong market demand, escalating fuel prices, and competitive considerations. In response, this study began parallel development paths that included a literature search/review, development and utilization of multiple parametric models, verification of the modeling methodology, development of an interior PM (IPM) machine baseline design, development of alternative machine baseline designs, and cost analyses for several candidate machines. This report summarizes the results of these activities as of September 2004. This report provides background and summary information for recent machine parametric studies and testing programs that demonstrate both the potential capabilities and technical limitations of brushless PM machines (axial gap and radial gap), the IPM machine, the surface-mount PM machines (interior or exterior rotor), induction machines, and switched-reluctance machines. The FreedomCAR program, while acknowledging the progress made by Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL), Delphi, Delco-Remy International, and others in these programs, has redirected efforts toward a ''short path'' to a marketable and competitive PM motor for hybrid electric vehicle (HEV) traction applications. The program has developed a set of performance targets for the type of traction machine desired. The short-path approach entails a comprehensive design effort focusing on the IPM machine and meeting

  12. An electrical gearbox by means of pole variation for induction and superconducting disc motor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Inacio, S; Inacio, D; Pina, J M; Valtchev, S; Neves, M V; Rodrigues, A L

    2008-01-01

    In this paper, a poly-phase disc motor innovative feeding and control strategy, based on a variable poles approach, and its application to a HTS disc motor, are presented. The stator windings may be electronically commutated to implement a 2, 4, 6 or 8 poles winding, thus changing the motor's torque/speed characteristics. The motor may be a conventional induction motor with a conductive disc rotor, or a new HTS disc motor, with conventional copper windings at its two iron semi-stators, and a HTS disc as a rotor. The conventional induction motor's operation principle is related with the induced electromotive forces in the conductive rotor. Its behaviour, characteristics (namely their torque/speed characteristics for different number of pole pairs) and modelling through Steinmetz and others theories are well known. The operation principle of the motor with HTS rotor, however, is rather different and is related with vortices' dynamics and pinning characteristics; this is a much more complex process than induction, and its modelling is quite complicated. In this paper, the operation was simulated through finite-elements commercial software, whereas superconductivity was simulated by the E-J power law. The Electromechanical performances of both motors where computed and are presented and compared. Considerations about the systems overall efficiency, including cryogenics, are also discussed

  13. Simplified thermal-hydraulic analysis of single phase natural circulation circuit with two heat exchangers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pinheiro, Larissa Cunha; Su, Jian, E-mail: larissa@lasme.coppe.ufrj.br, E-mail: sujian@lasme.coppe.ufrj.br [Coordenacao dos Programas de Pos-Graduacao em Engenharia (COPPE/UFRJ), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Programa de Engenhraria Nuclear; Cotta, Renato Machado, E-mail: cotta@mecanica.coppe.ufrj.br [Coordenacao dos Programas de Pos-Graduacao em Engenharia (POLI/COPPE/UFRJ), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Dept. de Engenharia Mecanica

    2015-07-01

    Single phase natural circulation circuits composed of two convective heat exchangers and connecting tubes are important for the passive heat removal from spent fuel pools (SFP). To keep the structural integrity of the stored spent fuel assemblies, continuously cooling has to be provided in order to avoid increase at the pool temperature and subsequent uncovering of the fuel and enhanced reaction between water and metal releasing hydrogen. Decay heat can achieve considerably high amounts of energy e.g. in the AP1000, considering the emergency fuel assemblies, the maximum heat decay will reach 13 MW in the 15th day (Westinghouse Electric Company, 2010). A highly efficient alternative to do so is by means of natural circulation, which is cost-effective compared to active cooling systems and is inherently safer since presents less associated devices and no external work is required. Many researchers have investigated safety and stability aspects of natural circulation loops (NCL). However, there is a lack of literature concerning the improvement of NCL through a standard unified methodology, especially for natural circulation circuits with two heat exchangers. In the present study, a simplified thermal-hydraulic analysis of single phase natural circulation circuit with two heat exchanges is presented. Relevant dimensionless key groups were proposed to for the design and safety analysis of a scaled NCL for the cooling of spent fuel storage pool with convective cooling and heating. (author)

  14. Reducing Electromagnetic Interference in a Grid Tied Single Phase Power Inverter

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-09-01

    ELECTROMAGNETIC INTERFERENCE IN A GRID TIED SINGLE PHASE POWER INVERTER by Jason Hassan Valiani September 2016 Thesis Advisor: Giovanna Oriti...3. REPORT TYPE AND DATES COVERED Master’s thesis 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE REDUCING ELECTROMAGNETIC INTERFERENCE IN A GRID TIED SINGLE PHASE POWER...The addition of a passive filter proved to minimize the conducted EMI for a single -phase grid-tied inverter. 14. SUBJECT TERMS single -phase

  15. Torque linearizing hardware for the electric joint motors of a direct-drive robot

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muir, P. F.; Bryan, J. R.

    Many emerging high-performance robot control algorithms require the command of the joint torques, yet no known commercial robots provide such a capability. We describe the design, development, testing, and application of a VMEbus-based torque linearizing joint interface board (JIB). One JIB resides between the robot control processor and each joint motor amplifier. The JIB provides the control processor with the capability to read the motor position and apply accurate motor torques. The torque command capability derives from the application of a 128k x 8 EPROM lookup table for each motor phase. Because joint motor torque is dependent upon the torque command and the motor position, the hardware is designed to utilize the torque command and the current motor position as the address to retrieve the proper pulse-width for the PWM motor amplifier. The table look-up cycle operates independently of the robot controller at a 40KHz rate to provide constant joint torque as the motor rotates. We identify the proper table entries by an automated in situ data collection procedure. Static torque generation results show that the torque deviations are reduced from as much as 76 percent to below 5 percent for each of the three direct-drive motors (two are variable reluctance motors and one is brushless DC) on an AdeptTwo robot. These torque deviations are reduced below 2.5 percent if only the upper 90 percent of the torque range is considered. The torque deviations of the non-direct-drive joint are reduced by 50 percent. Dynamic robot edge following experiments show that the robot speed of operation can be more than doubled for a given applied force accuracy by utilizing the joint torque linearizing boards.

  16. Relationship of Cure Temperature to Mechanical, Physical, and Dielectric Performance of PDMS Glass Composite for Electric Motor Insulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Sandi G.; Becker, Kathleen; Williams, Tiffany S.; Scheiman, Daniel A.; McCorkle, Linda S.; Heimann, Paula J.; Ring, Andrew; Woodworth, Andrew

    2017-01-01

    Achieving NASAs aggressive fuel burn and emission reduction for N-plus-3 aircraft will require hybrid electric propulsion system in which electric motors driven by either power generated from turbine or energy storage system will power the fan for propulsion. Motors designed for hybrid electric aircraft are expected to operate at medium to high voltages over long durations in a high altitude service environment. Such conditions have driven research toward the development of wire insulation with improved mechanical strength, thermal stability and increased breakdown voltage. The silicone class of materials has been considered for electric wire insulation due to its inherent thermal stability, dielectric strength and mechanical integrity. This paper evaluates the dependence of these properties on the cure conditions of a polydimethyl-siloxane (PDMS) elastomer; where both cure temperature and base-to-catalyst ratio were varied. The PDMS elastomer was evaluated as a bulk material and an impregnation matrix within a lightweight glass veil support. The E-glass support was selected for mechanical stiffness and dielectric strength. This work has shown a correlation between cure conditions and material physical properties. Tensile strength increased with cure temperature whereas breakdown voltage tended to be independent of process variations. The results will be used to direct material formulation based on specific insulation requirements.

  17. 75 FR 33515 - Federal Motor Vehicle Safety Standards; Electric-Powered Vehicles; Electrolyte Spillage and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-14

    ...) Recommended Practice for Electric and Hybrid Electric Vehicle Battery Systems Crash Integrity Testing (SAE... the next generation of hybrid and battery electric powered vehicles. It does so by revising the agency... Systems (b) Continuous Monitoring Requirement for Electrical Isolation (c) Timing of Measurements for...

  18. Performance Evaluation of an In-Wheel Motor Cooling System in an Electric Vehicle/Hybrid Electric Vehicle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dong Hyun Lim

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available High power and miniaturization of motors in an in-wheel drive system, which is installed inside the wheels of a vehicle, are required for directly driving the wheels. In addition, an efficient cooling system is required to ensure high driving performance and durability. This study experimentally evaluated the heat dissipation performance of a 35-kW-class large-capacity in-wheel motor equipped with an internal-circulation-type oil-cooling system that exhibits high cooling performance and can be easily miniaturized to this motor. Temperatures of the coil and stator core of cooling systems with and without a radiator were measured in real time under in-wheel motor driving conditions. It was found that operating the cooling system at a continuous-rating maximum speed without the radiator was difficult. We confirmed that under continuous-rating base speed and continuous-rating maximum speed driving conditions, the cooling system with the radiator showed thermally stable operation. Furthermore, under maximum-rating base speed and maximum-rating maximum speed driving conditions, the cooling system with the radiator provided additional driving times of approximately 22 s and 2 s, respectively.

  19. Standstill Estimation of Electrical Parameters in Induction Motors Using an Optimal Input Signal

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Børsting, H.; Knudsen, Morten; Vadstrup, P.

    1995-01-01

    The paper suggest a simple off-line method to obtain accurate estimates of the resistances and inductances of the induction motor.......The paper suggest a simple off-line method to obtain accurate estimates of the resistances and inductances of the induction motor....

  20. Model Based Control of Single-Phase Marine Cooling Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Michael

    2014-01-01

    these systems. Traditionally, control for this type of cooling system has been limited to open-loop control of pumps combined with a couple of local PID controllers for bypass valves to keep critical temperatures within design limits. This research considers improvements in a retrofit framework to the control...... linearization, an H∞-control design is applied to the resulting linear system. Disturbance rejection capabilities and robustness of performance for this control design methodology is compared to a baseline design derived from classical control theory. This shows promising results for the nonlinear robust design......This thesis is concerned with the problem of designing model-based control for a class of single-phase marine cooling systems. While this type of cooling system has been in existence for several decades, it is only recently that energy efficiency has become a focus point in the design and operation...

  1. Modeling of a single-phase photovoltaic inverter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maris, T.I. [Department of Electrical Engineering, Technological Educational Institute of Chalkida, 334 40 Psachna Evias (Greece); Kourtesi, St. [Hellenic Public Power Corporation S.A., 22 Chalcocondyli Str., 104 32 Athens (Greece); Ekonomou, L. [Hellenic American University, 12 Kaplanon Str., 106 80 Athens (Greece); Fotis, G.P. [National Technical University of Athens, School of Electrical and Computer Engineering, High Voltage Laboratory, 9 Iroon Politechniou St., Zografou, 157 80 Athens (Greece)

    2007-11-06

    The paper presents the design of a single-phase photovoltaic inverter model and the simulation of its performance. Furthermore, the concept of moving real and reactive power after coupling this inverter model with an a.c. source representing the main power distribution grid was studied. Brief technical information is given on the inverter design, with emphasis on the operation of the circuit used. In the technical information section, a description of real and reactive power components is given with special reference to the control of these power components by controlling the power angle or the difference in voltage magnitudes between two voltage sources. This a.c. converted voltage has practical interest, since it is useful for feeding small house appliances. (author)

  2. Control of Single-Stage Single-Phase PV inverter

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ciobotaru, Mihai; Teodorescu, Remus; Blaabjerg, Frede

    2005-01-01

    In this paper the issue of control strategies for single-stage photovoltaic (PV) inverter is addressed. Two different current controllers have been implemented and an experimental comparison between them has been made. A complete control structure for the single-phase PV system is also presented......-forward; - and the grid current controller implemented in two different ways, using the classical proportional integral (PI) and the novel proportional resonant (PR) controllers. The control strategy was tested experimentally on 1.5 kW PV inverter........ The main elements of the PV control structure are: - a maximum power point tracker (MPPT) algorithm using the incremental conductance method; - a synchronization method using the phase-locked-loop (PLL), based on delay; - the input power control using the dc voltage controller and power feed...

  3. Benchmarks for single-phase flow in fractured porous media

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flemisch, Bernd; Berre, Inga; Boon, Wietse; Fumagalli, Alessio; Schwenck, Nicolas; Scotti, Anna; Stefansson, Ivar; Tatomir, Alexandru

    2018-01-01

    This paper presents several test cases intended to be benchmarks for numerical schemes for single-phase fluid flow in fractured porous media. A number of solution strategies are compared, including a vertex and two cell-centred finite volume methods, a non-conforming embedded discrete fracture model, a primal and a dual extended finite element formulation, and a mortar discrete fracture model. The proposed benchmarks test the schemes by increasing the difficulties in terms of network geometry, e.g. intersecting fractures, and physical parameters, e.g. low and high fracture-matrix permeability ratio as well as heterogeneous fracture permeabilities. For each problem, the results presented are the number of unknowns, the approximation errors in the porous matrix and in the fractures with respect to a reference solution, and the sparsity and condition number of the discretized linear system. All data and meshes used in this study are publicly available for further comparisons.

  4. Electric drives

    CERN Document Server

    Boldea, Ion

    2005-01-01

    ENERGY CONVERSION IN ELECTRIC DRIVESElectric Drives: A DefinitionApplication Range of Electric DrivesEnergy Savings Pay Off RapidlyGlobal Energy Savings Through PEC DrivesMotor/Mechanical Load MatchMotion/Time Profile MatchLoad Dynamics and StabilityMultiquadrant OperationPerformance IndexesProblemsELECTRIC MOTORS FOR DRIVESElectric Drives: A Typical ConfigurationElectric Motors for DrivesDC Brush MotorsConventional AC MotorsPower Electronic Converter Dependent MotorsEnergy Conversion in Electric Motors/GeneratorsPOWER ELECTRONIC CONVERTERS (PECs) FOR DRIVESPower Electronic Switches (PESs)The

  5. Dynamic modeling and simulation of an induction motor with adaptive backstepping design of an input-output feedback linearization controller in series hybrid electric vehicle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jalalifar Mehran

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper using adaptive backstepping approach an adaptive rotor flux observer which provides stator and rotor resistances estimation simultaneously for induction motor used in series hybrid electric vehicle is proposed. The controller of induction motor (IM is designed based on input-output feedback linearization technique. Combining this controller with adaptive backstepping observer the system is robust against rotor and stator resistances uncertainties. In additional, mechanical components of a hybrid electric vehicle are called from the Advanced Vehicle Simulator Software Library and then linked with the electric motor. Finally, a typical series hybrid electric vehicle is modeled and investigated. Various tests, such as acceleration traversing ramp, and fuel consumption and emission are performed on the proposed model of a series hybrid vehicle. Computer simulation results obtained, confirm the validity and performance of the proposed IM control approach using for series hybrid electric vehicle.

  6. Field-Oriented Control Of Induction Motors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burrows, Linda M.; Roth, Mary Ellen; Zinger, Don S.

    1993-01-01

    Field-oriented control system provides for feedback control of torque or speed or both. Developed for use with commercial three-phase, 400-Hz, 208-V, 5-hp motor. Systems include resonant power supply operating at 20 kHz. Pulse-population-modulation subsystem selects individual pulses of 20-kHz single-phase waveform as needed to synthesize three waveforms of appropriate lower frequency applied to three phase windings of motor. Electric actuation systems using technology currently being built to peak powers of 70 kW. Amplitude of voltage of effective machine-frequency waveform determined by momentary frequency of pulses, while machine frequency determined by rate of repetition of overall temporal pattern of pulses. System enables independent control of both voltage and frequency.

  7. Analytical Determining Of The Steinmetz Equivalent Diagram Elements Of Single-Phase Transformer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Aly Saandy

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available This article presents to an analytical calculation methodology of the Steinmetz Equivalent Diagram Elements applied to the prediction of Eddy current loss in a single-phase transformer. Based on the electrical circuit theory the active and reactive powers consumed by the core are expressed analytically in function of the electromagnetic parameters as resistivity permeability and the geometrical dimensions of the core. The proposed modeling approach is established with the duality parallel series. The equivalent diagram elements empirically determined by Steinmetz are analytically expressed using the expressions of the no loaded transformer consumptions. To verify the relevance of the model validations both by simulations with different powers and measurements were carried out to determine the resistance and reactance of the core. The obtained results are in good agreement with the theoretical approach and the practical results.

  8. Calculation of single phase AC and monopolar DC hybrid corona effects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhao, T.; Sebo, S.A.; Kasten, D.G.

    1996-01-01

    Operating a hybrid HVac and HVdc line is an option for increasing the efficiency of power transmission and overcoming the difficulties in obtaining a new right-of-way. This paper proposes a new calculation method for the study of hybrid line corona. The proposed method can be used to calculate dc corona losses and corona currents in dc or ac conductors for single phase ac and monopolar dc hybrid lines. Profiles of electric field strength and ion current density at ground level can be estimated. The effects of the presence of an energized ac conductor on dc conductor corona and dc voltage on ac conductor corona are included in the method. Full-scale and reduced-scale experiments were utilized to investigate the hybrid line corona effects. Verification of the proposed calculation method is given

  9. Sensorless Control of Electric Motors with Kalman Filters: Applications to Robotic and Industrial Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gerasimos G. Rigatos

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The paper studies sensorless control for DC and induction motors, using Kalman Filtering techniques. First the case of a DC motor is considered and Kalman Filter-based control is implemented. Next the nonlinear model of a field-oriented induction motor is examined and the motor's angular velocity is estimated by an Extended Kalman Filter which processes measurements of the rotor's angle. Sensorless control of the induction motor is again implemented through feedback of the estimated state vector. Additionally, a state estimation-based control loop is implemented using the Unscented Kalman Filter. Moreover, state estimation-based control is developed for the induction motor model using a nonlinear flatness-based controller and the state estimation that is provided by the Extended Kalman Filter. Unlike field oriented control, in the latter approach there is no assumption about decoupling between the rotor speed dynamics and the magnetic flux dynamics. The efficiency of the Kalman Filter-based control schemes, for both the DC and induction motor models, is evaluated through simulation experiments.

  10. Apparatus for servicing an eleongated suspended pump motor in an electric power plant with limited access

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chavez, R.; Johnson, F.T.; Ekeroth, D.E.; Matusz, J.M.

    1994-01-01

    Elongated coolant pump motors suspended under steam generators within containment in a power plant with limited access space, are removed and replaced by an upright elongated maintenance cart with an elongated opening along one side in which the motor is received. Rollers support the cart for conveying the elongated motor in an upright position out from under the steam generator and onto an elevator. The elevator is lowered to transfer support of the cart and motor through trunnions to saddles straddling the elevator for rotation of the cart to a generally horizontal position. The elevator then raises the horizontally disposed cart carrying the motor to a higher floor where it is rolled off the elevator on rollers and out through the auxiliary equipment hatch. The cart includes a top V-shaped collar for supporting the motor, and a further lower support cradle operative when the cart is horizontal. Jacks support the motor during unbolting from the pump casing and lower it onto the cart. (Author)

  11. Integration Design and Optimization Control of a Dynamic Vibration Absorber for Electric Wheels with In-Wheel Motor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mingchun Liu

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents an integration design scheme and an optimization control strategy for electric wheels to suppress the in-wheel vibration and improve vehicle ride comfort. The in-wheel motor is considered as a dynamic vibration absorber (DVA, which is isolated from the unsprung mass by using a spring and a damper. The proposed DVA system is applicable for both the inner-rotor motor and outer-rotor motor. Parameters of the DVA system are optimized for the typical conditions, by using the particle swarm optimization (PSO algorithm, to achieve an acceptable vibration performance. Further, the DVA actuator force is controlled by using the alterable-domain-based fuzzy control method, to adaptively suppress the wheel vibration and reduce the wallop acting on the in-wheel motor (IWM as well. In addition, a suspension actuator force is also controlled, by using the linear quadratic regulator (LQR method, to enhance the suspension performance and meanwhile improve vehicle ride comfort. Simulation results demonstrate that the proposed DVA system effectively suppresses the wheel vibration and simultaneously reduces the wallop acting on the IWM. Also, the alterable-domain-based fuzzy control method performs better than the conventional ones, and the LQR-based suspension exhibits excellent performance in vehicle ride comfort.

  12. Lowering of sensory, motor, and pain-tolerance thresholds with burst duration using kilohertz-frequency alternating current electric stimulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ward, Alex R; Lucas-Toumbourou, Stacey

    2007-08-01

    To determine the optimum burst duration for discrimination between sensory, motor, and pain-tolerance thresholds using 50-Hz bursts of kilohertz-frequency sinusoidal alternating current (AC) applied transcutaneously to human subjects. A repeated-measures randomized controlled trial. A research laboratory. Twenty-six healthy young adults. Bursts of AC electric stimulation at frequencies of 1 and 4kHz. Burst durations ranged from 250micros (for 1 cycle of 4kHz AC, ie, a single biphasic pulse) to 20ms (continuous AC). We measured sensory, motor, and pain-tolerance thresholds at frequencies of 1 and 4kHz. We found that threshold voltages decreased to a minimum with increasing burst duration. The minimum threshold identified the "utilization time" over which summation of subthreshold stimuli occurs. Above the utilization time, thresholds increased. Estimated utilization times differed for sensory ( approximately 7ms), motor (>10ms), and pain-tolerance (>or=20ms). As a consequence, relative thresholds varied with burst duration. A maximum separation between sensory, motor, and pain-tolerance thresholds was found to occur with bursts in the range 1 to 4ms. Short-duration kilohertz-frequency AC bursts might have a more useful role in rehabilitation than either pulsed current or the long duration bursts that characterize Russian and interferential currents. Further clinical studies are needed.

  13. Experimental and Numerical Study of Windage Losses in the Narrow Gap Region of a High-Speed Electric Motor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kevin R. Anderson

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Windage (drag losses have been found to be a key design factor for high power density and high-speed electric motor development. Inducing axial flow between rotor and stator is a common method in cooling the rotor. Hence, it is necessary to understand the effect on windage while forced axial airflow is in present in the air gap. The current paper presents results from experimental testing and modeling of a high-speed motor designed to operate at 30,000 revolutions per minute (RPM and utilize axial air cooling of 200 Liters per minute (LPM to cool the motor. Details of the experimental apparatus and computational fluid dynamics (CFD modeling of the small gap narrow region of the stator/rotor are outlined in the paper. The experimental results are used to calibrate the CFD model. Results for windage losses, flow rate of cooling air, power and torque of the motor versus mass flow rate are given in the paper. Trade studies of CFD on the effect of inlet cooling flow rate, and parasitic heat transfer losses on the Taylor–Couette flow coherent flow structure breakdown are presented. Windage losses on the order of 20 W are found to be present in the configuration tested and simulated.

  14. Split-phase motor running as capacitor starts motor and as capacitor run motor

    OpenAIRE

    Yahaya Asizehi ENESI; Jacob TSADO; Mark NWOHU; Usman Abraham USMAN; Odu Ayo IMORU

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, the input parameters of a single phase split-phase induction motor is taken to investigate and to study the output performance characteristics of capacitor start and capacitor run induction motor. The value of these input parameters are used in the design characteristics of capacitor run and capacitor start motor with each motor connected to rated or standard capacitor in series with auxiliary winding or starting winding respectively for the normal operational condition. The ma...

  15. Electrical efficiency: case study of electric motors at machines room of a slaughterhouse in the state of Sao Paulo; Eficiencia eletrica: estudo de caso dos motores eletricos da sala de maquinas de um frigorifico no estado de Sao Paulo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rossi, Luiz A. [Universidade Estadual de Campinas (FEAGRI/UNICAMP), SP (Brazil). Fac. de Engenharia Agricola. Conselho Integrado de Infraestrutura Rural], E-mail: rossi@agri.unicamp.br; Silva, Roberto P.B. da; Barros, Regiane S. de [Universidade Estadual de Campinas (FEM/UNICAMP), SP (Brazil). Fac. de Engenharia Mecanica

    2010-07-01

    To estimate the potential for energy saving in cold compressor motor of a food industry, a study was conducted in a slaughterhouse in the state of Sao Paulo. It was analyzed only the engine room of the company because according to measurements this one corresponds approximately 97% of all electricity consumption of the unit. It was found that the electrical efficiency indices were low, demonstrating the possibilities for adoption of conservation measures and the rationalization of electric energy. It was evident that the establishment of an efficiency study to change the electrical equipment used was feasible and, therefore, was demonstrated and proposed a new arrangement for the current system. Soon after the diagnosis of the use of electricity was found that from the six Machinery, five were oversized. Then it was suggested to replace these machines by others with lower power and greater efficiency, as well as conducted an analysis of technical and economic feasibility of the project, demonstrating the possibilities for the rational use of energy and the optimization of financial resources company (author)

  16. Application of heat treated low-carbon electrical steels in small motors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Agueero, A.C.; Moyano, H.R. [CEMCOR-CIMM, Cordoba (Argentina). Inst. Nacional de Tecnologia Industrial; Actis, F.A. [SIDERAR S.A.I.C., Centro Siderurgico Gral. Savio, San Nicolas (Argentina); Casais, O. [Tamyr S.A., Benavidez, Buenos Aires (Argentina)

    1999-08-01

    In this work the influence of the magnetic properties of steels, at different processing conditions, on the performance of a synchronous permanent magnet motor (SPMM) with 2.7 watt power is studied. A commercial low-carbon steel was subjected to 2 different thermal treatments and characterized for microstructure, carbon content and magnetic properties. A computer model using finite element method was developed to calculate the influence of the heat treatment properties on the ampere-turns reduction. Several motor prototypes were constructed using steels in the as-received and heat-treated conditions. Torque measurements were used as indication of the motors performance. (orig.) 4 refs.

  17. Optimal Design of an Axial-Flux Permanent-Magnet Middle Motor Integrated in a Cycloidal Reducer for a Pedal Electric Cycle

    OpenAIRE

    Yang, Yee-Pien; Jiang, Jia-Ming

    2015-01-01

    This paper proposes an optimal design of a middle motor integrated into a mid-drive unit for pedal electric cycles. This middle motor is an axial-flux permanent magnet brushless DC motor with a stator plate. Facing this plate is a rotor plate that acts as an eccentric component of a cycloidal reducer next to the stator. Both the middle motor and cycloidal reducer are easily installed on the same axle of the bike crankset. In the preliminary design, driving requirements are used to make the mi...

  18. State of the Art and Trends in the Monitoring, Detection and Diagnosis of Failures in Electric Induction Motors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuri Merizalde

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Despite the complex mathematical models and physical phenomena on which it is based, the simplicity of its construction, its affordability, the versatility of its applications and the relative ease of its control have made the electric induction motor an essential element in a considerable number of processes at the industrial and domestic levels, in which it converts electrical energy into mechanical energy. The importance of this type of machine for the continuity of operation, mainly in industry, is such that, in addition to being an important part of the study programs of careers related to this branch of electrical engineering, a large number of investigations into monitoring, detecting and quickly diagnosing its incipient faults due to a variety of factors have been conducted. This bibliographic research aims to analyze the conceptual aspects of the first discoveries that served as the basis for the invention of the induction motor, ranging from the development of the Fourier series, the Fourier transform mathematical formula in its different forms and the measurement, treatment and analysis of signals to techniques based on artificial intelligence and soft computing. This research also includes topics of interest such as fault types and their classification according to the engine, software and hardware parts used and modern approaches or maintenance strategies.

  19. United States industrial electric motor systems market opportunities assessment: Executive summary

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None, None

    1998-12-01

    The Market Assessment is designed to be of value to manufacturers, distributors, engineers, and others in the supply channels for motor systems. It provides a detailed and highly differentiated portrait of their end-use markets.

  20. Lightweight High Efficiency Electric Motors and Actuators for Low Temperature Mobility and Robotics Applications, Phase II

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — QM Power will build and empirically test Space and Cryogenic qualified preproduction Parallel Magnetic Circuit [PMC] 1-5 HP motor/actuators with electronic...

  1. Vector Control Algorithm for Electric Vehicle AC Induction Motor Based on Improved Variable Gain PID Controller

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gang Qin

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The acceleration performance of EV, which affects a lot of performances of EV such as start-up, overtaking, driving safety, and ride comfort, has become increasingly popular in recent researches. An improved variable gain PID control algorithm to improve the acceleration performance is proposed in this paper. The results of simulation with Matlab/Simulink demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed algorithm through the control performance of motor velocity, motor torque, and three-phase current of motor. Moreover, it is investigated that the proposed controller is valid by comparison with the other PID controllers. Furthermore, the AC induction motor experiment set is constructed to verify the effect of proposed controller.

  2. Simulating of single phase flow in typical centrifugal pumps oil industry; Simulacao do escoamento monofasico em bombas centrifugas tipicas da industria do petroleo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Andrade, Ana Carla Costa; Silva, Aldrey Luis Morais da; Maitelli, Carla Wilza Souza de Paula [Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Norte (UFRN), RN (Brazil)

    2012-07-01

    With the various techniques applied in production processes and oil exploration, has been using the artificial lift equipment with the aim of promoting an increase in flow in oil wells and gas. Choosing the most appropriate method of elevation depends on certain factors, among them the initial costs of installation, maintenance and conditions in the producing field, resulting in a more precise analysis of the project. Although there are other methods that represent a low cost and easy maintenance, the BCS method (Electrical Submersible Pumping), appears to be quite effective when it is intended to pump more flow of liquids from both terrestrial and marine environments, in conditions adverse temperature, presence of free gas in the mixture and viscous fluids. This method is based in most cases where the vessel pressure was low, and the fluid does not reach the surface without intervention of an artificial means which can lift them. Similar happens at the end of productive life of a resurgence for the well, or even when the flow of it is far below what is expected to produce, requiring a complement of natural energy through artificial lift. By definition, the BCS is a method of artificial lift in which a subsurface electric motor turns electrical energy into mechanical centrifugal pump and a multistage overlapping converts mechanical energy into kinetic energy of the engine bringing the fluid surface. In this study we performed computer simulations using a commercial program ANSYS #Registered Sign# CFX #Registered Sign# dimensions previously obtained by the 3D geometry in CAD format, with the objective of evaluating the single-phase flow inside typical centrifugal pump submerged in the oil industry. The variable measured was the height of elevation and drilling fluids are oil and water.(author)

  3. Motor Inhibition during Overt and Covert Actions: An Electrical Neuroimaging Study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monica Angelini

    Full Text Available Given ample evidence for shared cortical structures involved in encoding actions, whether or not subsequently executed, a still unsolved problem is the identification of neural mechanisms of motor inhibition, preventing "covert actions" as motor imagery from being performed, in spite of the activation of the motor system. The principal aims of the present study were the evaluation of: 1 the presence in covert actions as motor imagery of putative motor inhibitory mechanisms; 2 their underlying cerebral sources; 3 their differences or similarities with respect to cerebral networks underpinning the inhibition of overt actions during a Go/NoGo task. For these purposes, we performed a high density EEG study evaluating the cerebral microstates and their related sources elicited during two types of Go/NoGo tasks, requiring the execution or withholding of an overt or a covert imagined action, respectively. Our results show for the first time the engagement during motor imagery of key nodes of a putative inhibitory network (including pre-supplementary motor area and right inferior frontal gyrus partially overlapping with those activated for the inhibition of an overt action during the overt NoGo condition. At the same time, different patterns of temporal recruitment in these shared neural inhibitory substrates are shown, in accord with the intended overt or covert modality of action performance. The evidence that apparently divergent mechanisms such as controlled inhibition of overt actions and contingent automatic inhibition of covert actions do indeed share partially overlapping neural substrates, further challenges the rigid dichotomy between conscious, explicit, flexible and unconscious, implicit, inflexible forms of motor behavioral control.

  4. Induction of long-term depression-like plasticity by pairings of motor imagination and peripheral electrical stimulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mads eJochumsen

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Long-term depression (LTD and long-term potentiation (LTP-like plasticity are models of synaptic plasticity which have been associated with memory and learning. The induction of LTD and LTP-like plasticity, using different stimulation protocols, has been proposed as a means of addressing abnormalities in cortical excitability associated with conditions such as focal hand dystonia and stroke. The aim of this study was to investigate whether the excitability of the cortical projections to the tibialis anterior muscle could be decreased when dorsiflexion of the ankle joint was imagined and paired with peripheral electrical stimulation of the nerve supplying the antagonist soleus muscle. The effect of stimulus timing was evaluated by comparing paired stimulation timed to reach the cortex before, at and after the onset of imagined movement. Fourteen healthy subjects participated in six experimental sessions held on non-consecutive days. The timing of stimulation delivery was determined offline based on the contingent negative variation (CNV of electroencephalography (EEG brain data obtained during imagined dorsiflexion. Afferent stimulation was provided via a single pulse electrical stimulation to the peripheral nerve paired, based on the CNV, with motor imagination of ankle dorsiflexion. A significant decrease (P=0.001 in the excitability of the cortical projection of tibialis anterior was observed when the afferent volley from the electrical stimulation of the tibial nerve (TN reached the cortex at the onset of motor imagination based on the CNV. When TN stimulation was delivered before (P=0.62, or after (P=0.23 imagined movement onset there was no significant effect. Nor was a significant effect found when electrical stimulation of the TN was applied independent of imagined movement (P=0.45. Therefore, the excitability of the cortical projection to a muscle can be inhibited when electrical stimulation of the nerve supplying the antagonist muscle

  5. Relation between stimulation characteristics and clinical outcome in studies using electrical stimulation to improve motor control of the upper extremity in stroke

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Kroon, J.R.; IJzerman, M.J.; Chae, J.; Lankhorst, G.J.; Zilvold, G.

    2005-01-01

    Objective: Electrical stimulation can be applied in a variety of ways to the hemiparetic upper extremity following stroke. The aim of this review is to explore the relationship between characteristics of stimulation and the effect of electrical stimulation on the recovery of upper limb motor control

  6. Relation between stimulation characteristics and clinical outcome in studies using electrical stimulation to improve motor control of the upper extremity in stroke

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Kroon, Joke R.; IJzerman, Maarten Joost; Chae, John; Lankhorst, Gustaaf J.; Zilvold, G.; Zilvold, Gerrit

    Objective: Electrical stimulation can be applied in a variety of ways to the hemiparetic upper extremity following stroke. The aim of this review is to explore the relationship between characteristics of stimulation and the effect of electrical stimulation on the recovery of upper limb motor control

  7. Straight and chopped dc performance data for a General Electric 5BT 2366C10 motor and an EV-1 controller

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edie, P. C.

    1981-01-01

    Performance data on the General Electric 5BT 2366C10 series wound dc motor and EV-1 Chopper Controller is supplied for the electric vehicle manufacturer. Data is provided for both straight and chopped dc input to the motor, at 2 motor temperature levels. Testing was done at 6 voltage increments to the motor, and 2 voltage increments to the controller. Data results are presented in both tabular and graphical forms. Tabular information includes motor voltage and current input data, motor speed and torque output data, power data and temperature data. Graphical information includes torque-speed, motor power output-speed, torque-current, and efficiency-speed plots under the various operating conditions. The data resulting from this testing shows the speed-torque plots to have the most variance with operating temperature. The maximum motor efficiency is between 86% and 87%, regardless of temperature or mode of operation. When the chopper is utilized, maximum motor efficiency occurs when the chopper duty cycle approaches 100%.

  8. AC Losses in Bi2Sr2Ca2Cu3O10+x Tapes and a 3.15-m-Long Single-Phase Cable

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Juul, Jeppe; Mølgaard, Ebsen T.; Jensen, Jens

    2011-01-01

    The alternating-current losses in superconducting multifilament BiSCCO-2223 tapes and a 3.15-m single-phase test cable were measured at 77 K using an electrical transport method. The cable had an inner diameter of 42 mm; it was composed of a single layer of 31 multifilament tapes and had a critic...

  9. About the Territorial Potential of the Construction of Battery-Charging Stations for Autonomous Electric Motor Vehicles in the Regions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shilova Lyubov

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The article describes the main current trends in the development of electric motor vehicles with "zero emission" as well as the battery-charging stations concerned. The study is based on a preliminary comparative analysis of the RF regions with respect to five indices (average per capita income, number of private cars in the region, air pollution level, provision of the region with power supply and the potential use of local renewable energy resources, and it gives some recommendations on the prospects of possible construction of battery-charging stations in the regions.

  10. Multi-functional Converter with Integrated Motor Control, Battery Charging and Active Module Balancing for Electric Vehicular Application

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mathe, Laszlo; Schaltz, Erik; Teodorescu, Remus

    2014-01-01

    In order to reduce the fuel consumption and the acoustical noise generated by refuse lorries, electrification of the waste compactor unit is a very promising solution. For the electrical energy storage Lithium-Sulfur (Li-S) battery technology has been selected with potential for reducing the cost...... used successfully in HVDC/FACTS and large drive applications. In this paper the use of MMC for a battery driven waste compactor unit addressed with integrated functionality including: motor driver, battery charge and active balancing is presented. The challenges addressed here are related to the design...... of control strategy and current ripple reduction through the battery for life time extension....

  11. Prospects for Use of Synchronous Reluctance Motors in Low-Power Electrical Devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dirba, J.; Lavrinovicha, L.; Dobriyan, R.

    2015-04-01

    This paper focuses on studying the synchronous reluctance motors as an alternative to low-power commutator motors. Analysis is done for the improved design of synchronous reluctance motor with a segmental external rotor. Relevant equations and a suitable method are proposed for calculating characteristics of the synchronous reluctance motors operating in a specific mode with electronic commutation as switched reluctance motors. It is concluded that synchronous reluctance motors in this mode can provide a wide range of characteristics and are quite competitive with commutator motors used in low-power devices. Aplūkoti sinhronie reaktīvie dzinēji kā mazjaudas kolektordzinēju alternatīva. Analizētas sinhrono reaktīvo dzinēju uzlabotas konstrukcijas ar segmentveida ārējo rotoru. Aprakstīti sinhrono reaktīvo dzinēju vienādojumi un raksturlīkņu aprēķināšanas metodika gadījumam, kad tie darbojas ventiļdzinēju sastāvā. Parādīts, ka sinhronie reaktīvie dzinēji šādos gadījumos var nodrošināt plašu mehānisko raksturlīkņu spektru un sekmīgi konkurēt ar kolektordzinējiem mazjaudas elektroierīcēs.

  12. Speedup computation of HD-sEMG signals using a motor unit-specific electrical source model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carriou, Vincent; Boudaoud, Sofiane; Laforet, Jeremy

    2018-01-23

    Nowadays, bio-reliable modeling of muscle contraction is becoming more accurate and complex. This increasing complexity induces a significant increase in computation time which prevents the possibility of using this model in certain applications and studies. Accordingly, the aim of this work is to significantly reduce the computation time of high-density surface electromyogram (HD-sEMG) generation. This will be done through a new model of motor unit (MU)-specific electrical source based on the fibers composing the MU. In order to assess the efficiency of this approach, we computed the normalized root mean square error (NRMSE) between several simulations on single generated MU action potential (MUAP) using the usual fiber electrical sources and the MU-specific electrical source. This NRMSE was computed for five different simulation sets wherein hundreds of MUAPs are generated and summed into HD-sEMG signals. The obtained results display less than 2% error on the generated signals compared to the same signals generated with fiber electrical sources. Moreover, the computation time of the HD-sEMG signal generation model is reduced to about 90% compared to the fiber electrical source model. Using this model with MU electrical sources, we can simulate HD-sEMG signals of a physiological muscle (hundreds of MU) in less than an hour on a classical workstation. Graphical Abstract Overview of the simulation of HD-sEMG signals using the fiber scale and the MU scale. Upscaling the electrical source to the MU scale reduces the computation time by 90% inducing only small deviation of the same simulated HD-sEMG signals.

  13. A grid-connected single-phase photovoltaic micro inverter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wen, X. Y.; Lin, P. J.; Chen, Z. C.; Wu, L. J.; Cheng, S. Y.

    2017-11-01

    In this paper, the topology of a single-phase grid-connected photovoltaic (PV) micro-inverter is proposed. The PV micro-inverter consists of DC-DC stage with high voltage gain boost and DC-AC conversion stage. In the first stage, we apply the active clamp circuit and two voltage multipliers to achieve soft switching technology and high voltage gain. In addition, the flower pollination algorithm (FPA) is employed for the maximum power point tracking (MPPT) in the PV module in this stage. The second stage cascades a H-bridge inverter and LCL filter. To feed high quality sinusoidal power into the grid, the software phase lock, outer voltage loop and inner current loop control method are adopted as the control strategy. The performance of the proposed topology is tested by Matlab/Simulink. A PV module with maximum power 300W and maximum power point voltage 40V is applied as the input source. The simulation results indicate that the proposed topology and the control strategy are feasible.

  14. Performance Improvement of Single Phase Inverter using SPWM

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gavaskar Reddy, B., Dr; Maheswari, L., Dr; Ganeswari Kale, Adi

    2017-08-01

    This paper concentrates on modelling and simulation of single phase inverter as a frequency changer modulated by Pulse Width Modulation (PWM). An inverter is a circuit that converts DC sources to AC sources. Pulse Width Modulation is a method that utilization as an approach to abatement add up to harmonic distortion in inverter circuit. The model is executed utilizing MATLAB/Simulink software with the SimPower System Block Set in light of PC simulation. PC simulation assumes an imperative part in the plan, investigation, and assessment of force electronic converter and their controller. MATLAB is a successful instrument to examine a PWM inverter. Preferences of utilizing MATLAB are the accompanying: Faster reaction, accessibility of different simulation devices and utilitarian squares and the nonappearance of joining issues. Safe-replacement methodology need be actualized is to explain exchanging Transients. In this way, Insulated Gate Bipolar Transistor (IGBT) is use as exchanging gadgets. IGBT is ideal since it is anything but difficult to control and low misfortunes. The outcome from Simulink was checked utilizing MATLAB simulation.

  15. Self-assembled single-phase perovskite nanocomposite thin films.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Hyun-Suk; Bi, Lei; Paik, Hanjong; Yang, Dae-Jin; Park, Yun Chang; Dionne, Gerald F; Ross, Caroline A

    2010-02-10

    Thin films of perovskite-structured oxides with general formula ABO(3) have great potential in electronic devices because of their unique properties, which include the high dielectric constant of titanates, (1) high-T(C) superconductivity in cuprates, (2) and colossal magnetoresistance in manganites. (3) These properties are intimately dependent on, and can therefore be tailored by, the microstructure, orientation, and strain state of the film. Here, we demonstrate the growth of cubic Sr(Ti,Fe)O(3) (STF) films with an unusual self-assembled nanocomposite microstructure consisting of (100) and (110)-oriented crystals, both of which grow epitaxially with respect to the Si substrate and which are therefore homoepitaxial with each other. These structures differ from previously reported self-assembled oxide nanocomposites, which consist either of two different materials (4-7) or of single-phase distorted-cubic materials that exhibit two or more variants. (8-12) Moreover, an epitaxial nanocomposite SrTiO(3) overlayer can be grown on the STF, extending the range of compositions over which this microstructure can be formed. This offers the potential for the implementation of self-organized optical/ferromagnetic or ferromagnetic/ferroelectric hybrid nanostructures integrated on technologically important Si substrates with applications in magnetooptical or spintronic devices.

  16. Study and realization of the electronic power supply of a variable reluctance motor for electric-powered vehicle - motor experimenting; Etude et realisation de l'alimentation electronique d'un moteur a reluctance variable pour vehicule electrique - experimentation du moteur

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mouchoux, J.C.

    1994-10-15

    This work deals with the development of a propulsion system comprising a 27 kW double salience variable reluctance motor supplied by a tri-phase inverter with asymmetrical half-bridges capable to switch 400 A under 120 V. Control is ensured by a numerical control system based on a digital signal processor. The control strategy comprises two control modes: a torque trapeze one in order to minimize the undulations at low speed, and a full voltage wave one for high speeds (up to 10000 rpm) in order to use the full motor efficiency. This study presents: the operation principle of the motor and the control laws chosen, the converter design and testing, the elaboration of a single-phase numerical model of the motor, the analysis of the power supply simulation results for each control mode chosen, and the measurements of the control-converter-motor efficiencies. (J.S.)

  17. Digital Single-Phase Power-Factor Controller

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dabney, R. W.

    1983-01-01

    Digital circuit has faster response to load changes. Digital power-factor controller senses changing motor-load torques by sampling open-circuit voltage across gate-controlled silicon switch. Circuit responds more rapidly to hanging loads than analog power-factor controllers because no low-pass filter is in feedback loop.

  18. Investigation of a Five-Phase Dual-Rotor Permanent Magnet Synchronous Motor Used for Electric Vehicles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yumeng Li

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a novel five-phase permanent magnet synchronous motor (PMSM, which contains dual rotors and a single stator, equivalent to two five-phase motors working together. Thus, this kind of motor has the potential of good fault tolerant capability and high torque density, which makes it appropriate for use in electric vehicles. In view of the different connection types, the inside and outside stator windings can be driven in series or parallel, which results in the different performances of the magnetomotive force (MMF and torque under open-circuit fault conditions. By decomposing the MMF, the reason that torque ripple increases after open-circuit faults is explained, and the relationship between MMF and torque is revealed. Then, the current control strategy is applied to adjust the open-circuit faults, and the electromagnetic analysis and MMF harmonics analysis are performed to interpret the phenomenon that the torque ripple is still larger than in the normal situation. The investigations are verified by finite element analysis results.

  19. Application-Oriented Optimal Shift Schedule Extraction for a Dual-Motor Electric Bus with Automated Manual Transmission

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mingjie Zhao

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available The conventional battery electric buses (BEBs have limited potential to optimize the energy consumption and reach a better dynamic performance. A practical dual-motor equipped with 4-speed Automated Manual Transmission (AMT propulsion system is proposed, which can eliminate the traction interruption in conventional AMT. A discrete model of the dual-motor-AMT electric bus (DMAEB is built and used to optimize the gear shift schedule. Dynamic programming (DP algorithm is applied to find the optimal results where the efficiency and shift time of each gear are considered to handle the application problem of global optimization. A rational penalty factor and a proper shift time delay based on bench test results are set to reduce the shift frequency by 82.5% in Chinese-World Transient Vehicle Cycle (C-WTVC. Two perspectives of applicable shift rule extraction methods, i.e., the classification method based on optimal operating points and clustering method based on optimal shifting points, are explored and compared. Eventually, the hardware-in-the-loop (HIL simulation results demonstrate that the proposed structure and extracted shift schedule can realize a significant improvement in reducing energy loss by 20.13% compared to traditional empirical strategies.

  20. A Robust Control Method for Lateral Stability Control of In-Wheel Motored Electric Vehicle Based on Sideslip Angle Observer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yaxiong Wang

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available In-wheel motored powertrain on electric vehicles has more potential in maneuverability and active safety control. This paper investigates the longitudinal and lateral integrated control through the active front steering and yaw moment control systems considering the saturation characteristics of tire forces. To obtain the vehicle sideslip angle of mass center, the virtual lateral tire force sensors are designed based on the unscented Kalman filtering (UKF. And the sideslip angle is estimated by using the dynamics-based approaches. Moreover, based on the estimated vehicle state information, an upper level control system by using robust control theory is proposed to specify a desired yaw moment and correction front steering angle to work on the electric vehicles. The robustness of proposed algorithm is also analyzed. The wheel torques are distributed optimally by the wheel torque distribution control algorithm. Numerical simulation is carried out in Matlab/Simulink-Carsim cosimulation environment to demonstrate the effectiveness of the designed robust control algorithm for lateral stability control of in-wheel motored vehicle.

  1. 75 FR 10873 - Energy Conservation Program: Energy Conservation Standards for Small Electric Motors

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-09

    ... in the engineering analysis, design option and limitations used in the engineering analysis, the... as part of the engineering analysis (chapter 5 of the TSD), using the most efficient design.... Specific Criteria a. Economic Impact on Motor Customers and Manufacturers b. Life-Cycle Costs c. Energy...

  2. Low Voltage Ride-Through Capability of a Single-Stage Single-Phase Photovoltaic System Connected to the Low-Voltage Grid

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yang, Yongheng; Blaabjerg, Frede

    2013-01-01

    The progressively growing of single-phase photovoltaic (PV) systems makes the Distribution System Operators (DSO) to update or revise the existing grid codes in order to guarantee the availability, quality and reliability of the electrical system. It is expected that the future PV systems connected...... to the low-voltage grid will be more active with functionalities of low voltage ride-through (LVRT) and the grid support capability, which is not the case today. In this paper, the operation principle is demonstrated for a single-phase grid-connected PV system in low voltage ride through operation in order...... to map future challenges. The system is verified by simulations and experiments. Test results show that the proposed power control method is effective and the single-phase PV inverters connected to low-voltage networks are ready to provide grid support and ride-through voltage fault capability...

  3. The Research on Full-speed Field Weakening Control Method of Electric Vehicle Interior Permanent Magnet Synchronous Motor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gao Run-Ze

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The motor drive system represents a key technology for development of the electrical vehicles, and the permanent magnet synchronous motor becomes the mainstream of the new energy vehicle drive motor for the superior performances in power density, low-speed torque density, efficiency and reliability. The paper studies the field weakening control strategy for the interior permanent magnet synchronous motor (IPMSM and provides a field weakening control strategy for the IPMSM at the full-speed range. By studying the mathematical IPMSM model and the methods of conventional vector control and analyzing the operating conditions of the IPMSM at the full-speed range, the paper divides the operating conditions into constant torque operation region I, constant torque operation region II, constant power field weakening operation region and high-speed field weakening operation region to confirm the control strategy algorithm in each region and the transition conditions between regions and provide the current control strategy that the d-axis current and q-axis current are confirmed by the reference torque and the feedback speed. Modeling of the field weakening control strategies in each region is made through the Matlab/Simulink, and simulation of the operating conditions with a steady-state load and a dynamic load is done to verify that the field weakening control strategy in each region is feasible. A co-simulation is made by combining the Matlab/Simulink-based control model, the RecurDyn-based virtual prototype and the RT-LAB to verify the feasible field weakening control strategy.

  4. ProMot: a decision support tool for electric motor users; ProMot: ein Werkzeug zur Entscheidungsfindung fuer Motorenbetreiber

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tanner, T.

    2006-07-01

    Being supported by an international collaboration the project ProMot has developed and disseminated in the European Union a decision support tool for electric motor users helping them to choose energy efficient motor systems. During the first phase all necessary components to build the decision support tool have been selected, developed or improved and adapted. At the beginning it was assumed that the contribution of the author's company, Semafor would be the integration of the company's OPAL software components developed for pumps and variable speed drives (VSD) into the EuroDEEM package. In view of the deficiencies of EuroDEEM it was soon agreed to abandon this approach. Instead, the package IMSSA (International Motor Selection and Saving Analysis), developed at the Washington State University on the basis of MotorMaster was selected. IMSSA - which has been renamed to EuroDEEM International - and the pump and VSD module can now be used as standalone applications. The second phase integrated all collected and developed material into a comprehensive and user-friendly web site that was then demonstrated to key actors in the participating countries. Several requirements had to be considered. The platform had to allow the publication of the web pages in several languages and to enable the team members to place and modify their content without disturbing ongoing operation. It was therefore decided to evaluate a suitable Web Content Management System (CMS) which lead to Plone, a powerful and adaptable open-source system already in use at many web sites. The pages have then been created and published with this system. With some support from Semafor, German and French translations were created. Also a hardcopy brochure that gives an overview of the web site has been produced and distributed in the participating countries. (author)

  5. Equivalence of two models in single-phase multicomponent flow simulations

    KAUST Repository

    Wu, Yuanqing

    2016-02-28

    In this work, two models to simulate the single-phase multicomponent flow in reservoirs are introduced: single-phase multicomponent flow model and two-phase compositional flow model. Because the single-phase multicomponent flow is a special case of the two-phase compositional flow, the two-phase compositional flow model can also simulate the case. We compare and analyze the two models when simulating the single-phase multicomponent flow, and then demonstrate the equivalence of the two models mathematically. An experiment is also carried out to verify the equivalence of the two models.

  6. Asynchronous Electric Motor with Built-in Combined Braking Device Based on Electro-Mechanical Brake and Electro-Magnetic Clutch

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. V. Solenkov

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper shows advantages and disadvantages of the known designs of asynchronous motors with electro-mechanical braking device. A new developed and studied asynchronous motor design with built-in combined braking device based on an electro-mechanical brake and an electro-magnetic clutch is given in the paper. The paper describes its advantages and prospects of its usage for electric drives operating in intermittent cycle.

  7. Asynchronous Electric Motor with Built-in Combined Braking Device Based on Electro-Mechanical Brake and Electro-Magnetic Clutch

    OpenAIRE

    V. V. Solenkov; V. V. Brel

    2011-01-01

    The paper shows advantages and disadvantages of the known designs of asynchronous motors with electro-mechanical braking device. A new developed and studied asynchronous motor design with built-in combined braking device based on an electro-mechanical brake and an electro-magnetic clutch is given in the paper. The paper describes its advantages and prospects of its usage for electric drives operating in intermittent cycle.

  8. Comparison between Synthetic Inertia and Fast Frequency Containment Control Based on Single Phase EVs in a Microgrid

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rezkalla, Michel M.N.; Zecchino, Antonio; Martinenas, Sergejus

    2017-01-01

    solutions. The objective of this paper is twofold: first, it aims to implement and validate fast frequency control and synthetic (virtual) inertia control, employing single phase electric vehicles as flexibility resources. Second, it proposes a trade-off analysis between the two controllers......The increasing share of distributed and inertia-less resources entails an upsurge in balancing and system stabilisation services. In particular, the displacement of conventional generation reduces the available rotational inertia in the power system, leading to high interest in synthetic inertia...

  9. STRUCTURAL RELIABILITY OF TRACTION INVERTER FOR MULTI-SYSTEM ELECTRIC LOCOMOTIVE WITH ASYNCHRONOUS TRACTION MOTORS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. M. Muha

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available In the article the structural reliability of different variants of structured schemes of the steady-state converter for traction drive of promising multi-system electric locomotives with asynchronous traction engines is compared.

  10. IMPROVING OF ENERGY AND OTHER INDICATORS OF RECEIVING AND ACCEPTANCE TESTING OF ELECTRIC LOCOMOTIVES TRACTION MOTORS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. O. Loza

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available The methods of determination of equivalent load current in tests of electric locomotive traction engines without forced ventilation with use of the results of qualification test of engines of certain types are offered in the article.

  11. Split-phase motor running as capacitor starts motor and as capacitor run motor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yahaya Asizehi ENESI

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, the input parameters of a single phase split-phase induction motor is taken to investigate and to study the output performance characteristics of capacitor start and capacitor run induction motor. The value of these input parameters are used in the design characteristics of capacitor run and capacitor start motor with each motor connected to rated or standard capacitor in series with auxiliary winding or starting winding respectively for the normal operational condition. The magnitude of capacitor that will develop maximum torque in capacitor start motor and capacitor run motor are investigated and determined by simulation. Each of these capacitors is connected to the auxiliary winding of split-phase motor thereby transforming it into capacitor start or capacitor run motor. The starting current and starting torque of the split-phase motor (SPM, capacitor run motor (CRM and capacitor star motor (CSM are compared for their suitability in their operational performance and applications.

  12. EXPERIMENTAL DETERMINATION OF ELECTRICAL AND MECHANICAL PARAMETERS OF DC MOTOR USING GENETIC ELMAN NEURAL NETWORK

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ARIF A. AL-QASSAR

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available The most suitable and generalized neural network that represents the control system dynamics is the Elman Neural Network (ENN. This is due to its ability to memorize and emulate the system states. Moreover, ENNs learned by Genetic algorithms are found to be more representative to system order in terms of its structural complexity in comparison to those learned by back propagation algorithm. This facility is utilized efficiently to find the minimum ENN structure that represents the discrete-time state space model of the DC motor. Then by comparing the ENN weights with the well-known discrete-time state space equation in terms of the motor physical parameters (moment of inertia, torque constant, armature inductance, etc., these parameters can be obtained.

  13. Field-based optimal-design of an electric motor: a new sensitivity formulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barba, Paolo Di; Mognaschi, Maria Evelina; Lowther, David Alister; Wiak, Sławomir

    2017-12-01

    In this paper, a new approach to robust optimal design is proposed. The idea is to consider the sensitivity by means of two auxiliary criteria A and D, related to the magnitude and isotropy of the sensitivity, respectively. The optimal design of a switched-reluctance motor is considered as a case study: since the case study exhibits two design criteria, the relevant Pareto front is approximated by means of evolutionary computing.

  14. A Micro-scale Wind Turbine Fed BLDC Motor for Electric Vehicle Drive Application

    OpenAIRE

    Kazraji, Saeed Masoumi; Khanabdal, Saheb; Soflaye, Ramin Bavil; Sabahi, Mehran

    2016-01-01

    In this paper a permanent magnet brushless dc motor (PMBLDCM) based driver with a wind-generator (WG) in maximum power point tracking (MPPT) condition is proposed. The proposed system has a high efficiency buck-type dc/dc converter and control unit running the MPPT function. The WG optimal power characteristic and wind speed measuring data are not required while the WG works in variable speed mode, therefore higher reliability, simplicity, lower cost and less mechanical Tension of the WG are ...

  15. Localization of Brain Electrical Activity Sources and Hemodynamic Activity Foci during Motor Imagery

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Frolov, A. A.; Húsek, Dušan; Mokienko, O.; Bobrov, P.; Chernikova, L.; Konovalov, R.

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 40, č. 3 (2014), s. 273-283 ISSN 0362-1197 Grant - others:GA MŠk(CZ) ED1.1.00/02.0070; GA MŠk(CZ) EE.2.3.20.0073 Program:ED Institutional support: RVO:67985807 Keywords : brain computer interface * independent component analysis * EEG pattern classification * motor imagery * inverse EEG problem Subject RIV: IN - Informatics, Computer Science

  16. MODELING DEEP BAR INDUCTION MOTORS FOR SUGAR FACTORY ELECTRICAL POWER SUPPLY SYSTEMS

    OpenAIRE

    Korobeinikov B. A.; Ishtchenko A. I.; Smagliev A. M.; Olyshanskaya I. V.

    2016-01-01

    The article is devoted to solving the urgent task, which is improving the accuracy of transient simulation modes of power supply systems of sugar factories. The material of the article is exploratory in nature, manifested in the fact that we have studied various mathematical models designed for the analysis of symmetric modes of deep bar induction motors. A number of the provisions of article have scientific novelty, which lies in the approach to the choice of the coordinate system for modeli...

  17. Metamodels for New Designs of Outer-Rotor Brushless Synchronous Electric Motors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dirba, J.; Lavrinovicha, L.

    2014-04-01

    The authors consider the possibilities to synthesise metamodels for the analysis and optimisation of brushless synchronous motors. The metamodels are presented for new designs of the outer-rotor permanent magnet synchronous motor and the outer-rotor reluctance motor. The metamodels are synthesised based on the results obtained by the numerical calculations of magnetic field taking into account magnetic saturation. Analysis of the results for the motor magnetic field and tests of the metamodels at the selected and intermediate points shows that these can be synthesised with acceptable accuracy using numerical calculations instead of expensive real experiments. Rakstā ir apskatītas metamodeļu iegūšanas iespējas to izmantošanai bezkontaktu sinhrono dzinēju analīzē un optimizācijā. Ir iegūti metamodeļi sinhronam dzinējam ar pastāvīgajiem magnētiem un reaktīvam dzinējam ar ārējo rotoru. Sintezēto metamodeļu iegūšanai izmantoti elektrisko dzinēju magnētiskā lauka skaitlisko aprēķinu rezultāti, ievērojot magnētiskās ķēdes piesātinājumu. Metamodeļu pārbaude aprēķinu un starppunktos parādīja, ka to iegūšanai dārgo reālo eksperimentu vietā var izmantot magnētiskā lauka aprēķinu rezultātus.

  18. Field-based optimal-design of an electric motor: a new sensitivity formulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barba Paolo Di

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, a new approach to robust optimal design is proposed. The idea is to consider the sensitivity by means of two auxiliary criteria A and D, related to the magnitude and isotropy of the sensitivity, respectively. The optimal design of a switched-reluctance motor is considered as a case study: since the case study exhibits two design criteria, the relevant Pareto front is approximated by means of evolutionary computing.

  19. Real-time and wearable functional electrical stimulation system for volitional hand motor function control using the electromyography bridge method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hai-peng Wang

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Voluntary participation of hemiplegic patients is crucial for functional electrical stimulation therapy. A wearable functional electrical stimulation system has been proposed for real-time volitional hand motor function control using the electromyography bridge method. Through a series of novel design concepts, including the integration of a detecting circuit and an analog-to-digital converter, a miniaturized functional electrical stimulation circuit technique, a low-power super-regeneration chip for wireless receiving, and two wearable armbands, a prototype system has been established with reduced size, power, and overall cost. Based on wrist joint torque reproduction and classification experiments performed on six healthy subjects, the optimized surface electromyography thresholds and trained logistic regression classifier parameters were statistically chosen to establish wrist and hand motion control with high accuracy. Test results showed that wrist flexion/extension, hand grasp, and finger extension could be reproduced with high accuracy and low latency. This system can build a bridge of information transmission between healthy limbs and paralyzed limbs, effectively improve voluntary participation of hemiplegic patients, and elevate efficiency of rehabilitation training.

  20. Development and validation of single-phase and three-phase transformer models with saturation for the analysis of harmonics in electrical power systems; Desarrollo y validacion de modelos de transformadores monofasicos y trifasicos con saturacion, para el analisis de armonicos en sistemas electricos de potencia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lopez Garcia, Ricardo

    2000-11-01

    This work allowed to develop a modeling of the transformer with saturation of the magnetic core focussed to the analysis of flows with harmonics. An experimental study was performed in three laboratories, the laboratory of the Department of Electrical Engineering of the Polytechnic University of Cataluna, and two laboratories of manufacturers of electrical equipment, SALICRV and MIMAVEN. The program of Pspice simulation was used to make the model of the experimental study allowing with it the validation of the developed model against the laboratory tests. [Spanish] Este trabajo permitio desarrollar una modelacion del transformador con saturacion del nucleo magnetico enfocado para el analisis de flujos con armonicos. Se realizo un estudio experimental en tres laboratorios, el laboratorio de el Departamento de Ingenieria Electrica de la Universidad Politecnica de Cataluna, y dos laboratorios de fabricantes de equipos electricos, SALICRV y MIMAVEN. Se utilizo el programa de simulacion Pspice para realizar la modelacion del estudio experimental permitiendo con ello la validacion del modelo desarrollado contra los ensayos de laboratorio.

  1. Effect of electrical stimulation on motor nerve regeneration in sciatic nerve ligated-mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samiee, Farzaneh; Zarrindast, Mohammad-Reza

    2017-06-27

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of electrical stimulation on sciatic nerve regeneration and functional recovery of target muscles. Mice were randomly divided into 3 groups: ligated without electrical stimulation, ligated with electrical stimulation and control (non-ligated). The unilateral peripheral mononeuropathy was produced on the right hind limb. Sciatic nerve was then electrically stimulated daily for a period of 2 weeks (duration: 0.2 msec, frequency: 100Hz, amplitude: 15mA). Evoked surface EMG was recorded from biceps femoris (BF) and gluteus maximus (GM) muscles on the 3rd, 7th, 10th and 14th day after sciatic nerve ligation. Muscle force and sensitivity was determined by processing of the recorded EMG signals in time and frequency domains respectively. The results showed electrical stimulation (ES) produced a significant increase in the EMG response of BF, and muscle force significantly increased on the 14th day (pelectrical stimulation of sciatic nerve accelerates nerve repair and indirectly improves BF muscle force to a comparable level with control without effect on muscle sensitivity. However, ES had no effect on GM muscle force and sensitivity.

  2. Design and control of single-phase dynamic voltage restorer

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Dynamic voltage restorer (DVR) is a custom power device used in electrical distribution system for power quality improvement. It ensures regulated voltage supply to the sensitive loads, even in case of voltage sag and swell disturbances in the distribution network. It is a series connected device and compensates voltagesag ...

  3. Design and control of single-phase dynamic voltage restorer

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Amit Meena

    Abstract. Dynamic voltage restorer (DVR) is a custom power device used in electrical distribution system for power quality improvement. It ensures regulated voltage supply to the sensitive loads, even in case of voltage sag and swell disturbances in the distribution network. It is a series connected device and compensates ...

  4. Structure and magnetism of single-phase epitaxial gamma '-Fe4N

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Costa-Kramer, JL; Borsa, DM; Garcia-Martin, JM; Martin-Gonzalez, MS; Boerma, DO; Briones, F

    Single phase epitaxial pure gamma(')-Fe4N films are grown on MgO (001) by molecular beam epitaxy of iron in the presence of nitrogen obtained from a radio frequency atomic source. The epitaxial, single phase nature of the films is revealed by x-ray diffraction and by the local magnetic environment

  5. new topology for single-phase, three-level, spwm vsi with lc filter

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    level PWM inverter. However, this is not the case with single-phase PWM inverters. In these days, the popular single-phase inverters adopt the full-bridge type using approximate sinusoidal modulation technique. The output voltage in them has two values: zero and pos- itive supply dc voltage levels in the positive half cycle.

  6. Torque Analysis With Saturation Effects for Non-Salient Single-Phase Permanent-Magnet Machines

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lu, Kaiyuan; Ritchie, Ewen

    2011-01-01

    The effects of saturation on torque production for non-salient, single-phase, permanent-magnet machines are studied in this paper. An analytical torque equation is proposed to predict the instantaneous torque with saturation effects. Compared to the existing methods, it is computationally faster......-element results, and experimental results obtained on a prototype single-phase permanent-magnet machine....

  7. Effect of electrical stimulation on motor nerve regeneration in sciatic nerve ligated-mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farzaneh Samiee

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of electrical stimulation on sciatic nerve regeneration and functional recovery of target muscles. Mice were randomly divided into 3 groups: ligated without electrical stimulation, ligated with electrical stimulation and control (non-ligated. The unilateral peripheral mononeuropathy was produced on the right hind limb. Sciatic nerve was then electrically stimulated daily for a period of 2 weeks (duration: 0.2 msec, frequency: 100Hz, amplitude: 15mA. Evoked surface EMG was recorded from biceps femoris (BF and gluteus maximus (GM muscles on the 3rd, 7th, 10th and 14th day after sciatic nerve ligation. Muscle force and sensitivity was determined by processing of the recorded EMG signals in time and frequency domains respectively. The results showed electrical stimulation (ES produced a significant increase in the EMG response of BF, and muscle force significantly increased on the 14th day (p<0.001, however no significant difference was found in GM muscle force between experimental groups. This may be due to possible innervation by inferior gluteal nerve. Frequency analysis of BF signals indicates that hyperalgesia remained after 14 days in both ligated groups. On the 14th day no difference in GM muscle sensitivity was found between groups. In conclusion, the results of this study have shown that the electrical stimulation of sciatic nerve accelerates nerve repair and indirectly improves BF muscle force to a comparable level with control without effect on muscle sensitivity. However, ES had no effect on GM muscle force and sensitivity.

  8. Effect of electrical stimulation on motor nerve regeneration in sciatic nerve ligated-mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samiee, Farzaneh; Zarrindast, Mohammad-Reza

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of electrical stimulation on sciatic nerve regeneration and functional recovery of target muscles. Mice were randomly divided into 3 groups: ligated without electrical stimulation, ligated with electrical stimulation and control (non-ligated). The unilateral peripheral mononeuropathy was produced on the right hind limb. Sciatic nerve was then electrically stimulated daily for a period of 2 weeks (duration: 0.2 msec, frequency: 100Hz, amplitude: 15mA). Evoked surface EMG was recorded from biceps femoris (BF) and gluteus maximus (GM) muscles on the 3rd, 7th, 10th and 14th day after sciatic nerve ligation. Muscle force and sensitivity was determined by processing of the recorded EMG signals in time and frequency domains respectively. The results showed electrical stimulation (ES) produced a significant increase in the EMG response of BF, and muscle force significantly increased on the 14th day (p<0.001), however no significant difference was found in GM muscle force between experimental groups. This may be due to possible innervation by inferior gluteal nerve. Frequency analysis of BF signals indicates that hyperalgesia remained after 14 days in both ligated groups. On the 14th day no difference in GM muscle sensitivity was found between groups. In conclusion, the results of this study have shown that the electrical stimulation of sciatic nerve accelerates nerve repair and indirectly improves BF muscle force to a comparable level with control without effect on muscle sensitivity. However, ES had no effect on GM muscle force and sensitivity. PMID:29118955

  9. Shaft Voltage and Life of Bearing electric-erosion for the Brushless DC Motor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maetani, Tatsuo; Isomura, Yoshinori; Komiyama, Hiroshi; Morimoto, Shigeo

    This paper describes the life of noise of bearing electro-erosion in the shaft voltage of brushless DC motors. We confirmed that shaft voltage is suppressed to equal to or less than the dielectric breakdown voltage of bearing lubricant in the insulated rotor proposed for suppression of shaft voltage. However, since bearing electro-erosion appears over time along with the deterioration of noise performance, the threshold of the shaft voltage to secure noise performance over long periods of time is necessary. Therefore, the threshold of the shaft voltage that influences the life of noise was obtained in acceleration tests.

  10. TECHNOLOGICAL AND ECOLOGICAL SAFETY IN ASPECT OF CHEMICAL PROPERTIES OF RECYCLED NEODYMIUM MAGNETS - ELECTRIC MO-TORS AND HARD DISK

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katarzyna Kapustka

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Neodymium magnets currently dominate the magnet market due to their superior magnetic proper-ties with maximum volume minimization. In this paper, the results of X-ray analysis for two types of magnetic powder obtained from the recovered magnets traditionally used in electric motors and hard disk have been presented. The NdFeB magnets are composed of 25-35 wt. % rare earth elements (RE and the rest being transition metals (mainly Fe.. RE, other than Nd, such Dy, Pr, Tb and Gd or exogen elements, other than Fe, such as Al, Co, Ga, Nb, Si, Cu and Zr can also be present as minor admixtures. This paper brings an opportunity to introduce the hard magnets recycling technology on an industrial scale.

  11. Testing of the permanent magnet material Mn-Al-C for potential use in propulsion motors for electric vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdelnour, Z.; Mildrun, H.; Strant, K.

    1981-01-01

    The development of Mn-Al-C permanent magnets is reviewed. The general properties of the material are discussed and put into perspective relative to alnicos and ferrites. The traction motor designer's demands of a permanent magnet for potential use in electric vehicle drives are reviewed. Tests determined magnetic design data and mechanical strength properties. Easy axis hysteresis and demagnetization curves, recoil loops and other minor loop fields were measured over a temperature range from -50 to 150 C. Hysteresis loops were also measured for three orthogonal directions (the one easy and two hard axes of magnetization). Extruded rods of three different diameters were tested. The nonuniformity of properties over the cross section of the 31 mm diameter rod was studied. Mechanical compressive and bending strength at room temperature was determined on individual samples from the 31 mm rod.

  12. Learned EEG-based regulation of motor-related brain oscillations during application of transcranial electric currents: feasibility and limitations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Surjo R Soekadar

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS improves motor learning and can influence emotional processing or attention. However, it remained unclear whether learned electroencephalography (EEG-based brain-machine interface (BMI control during tDCS is feasible and how application of transcranial electric currents during BMI control would interfere with feature-extraction of physiological brain signals. Here we tested this combination and evaluated stimulation-dependent artifacts across different EEG frequencies and stability of motor imagery-based BMI control. Approach: Ten healthy volunteers were invited to two BMI-sessions, each comprising two 60-trial blocks. During the trials, modulation of mu-rhythms (8-15Hz associated with motor imagery recorded over C4 was translated into online cursor movements on a computer screen. During block 2, either sham (session A or anodal tDCS (session B was applied at 1mA with the stimulation electrode placed 1cm anterior of C4. Main results: tDCS was associated with a significant signal power increase in the lower frequencies most evident in the signal spectrum of the EEG channel closest to the stimulation electrode. Stimulation-dependent signal power increase exhibited a decay of 12dB per decade, leaving frequencies above 9Hz unaffected. Analysis of BMI control performance did not indicate a difference between blocks and tDCS conditions. Conclusion: Application of tDCS during learned EEG-based self-regulation of brain oscillations above 9Hz is feasible and safe, and might improve applicability of BMI systems in patient populations.

  13. Optimal Design of an Axial-Flux Permanent-Magnet Middle Motor Integrated in a Cycloidal Reducer for a Pedal Electric Cycle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yee-Pien Yang

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper proposes an optimal design of a middle motor integrated into a mid-drive unit for pedal electric cycles. This middle motor is an axial-flux permanent magnet brushless DC motor with a stator plate. Facing this plate is a rotor plate that acts as an eccentric component of a cycloidal reducer next to the stator. Both the middle motor and cycloidal reducer are easily installed on the same axle of the bike crankset. In the preliminary design, driving requirements are used to make the middle motor specifications. The numbers of stator slots and magnet poles on the rotor were chosen to achieve the best winding factor, and the winding layout was determined accordingly. A one-dimensional magnetic circuit model of the middle motor was built, and its shape was optimized utilizing a multifunctional optimization system tool. Finally, the resulting design was verified and refined by a finite element analysis. A prototype of the middle motor was fabricated with a stator made of a soft magnetic composite and integrated with a cycloidal reducer. Experimental results show that the motor has a sinusoidal back electromotive force. Additionally, it is easily controlled by sinusoidal currents with acceptable torque and speed curves.

  14. ELECTROMAGNETIC BIOSPHERE POLLUTION BY MOTOR TRANSPORT (VEHICLES, ELECTRIC VEHICLES, HYBRID VEHICLES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Selivanov

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The physics of the electromagnetic field is considered. The analysis of electromagnetic radiation on the human-being, the origin of which is the vehicle the electric vehicle, the hybrid vehicle is being considered. The monitoring of electromagnetic radiation of vehicles is carried out.

  15. Control Methods of the Switched Reluctance Motor in Electric Vehicle During Acceleration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fathy El Sayed ABDEL-KADER

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, the equations describing the performance of the electric vehicle are derived. Performance characteristics for each part in the vehicle system are obtained when the vehicle is accelerated under voltage, turn on and turn off angle control. A comparison between the different methods of control is established.

  16. Electric motor efficiency as parameter for sizing a directly connected into transformer feeder cable; Rendimento de motor eletrico como parametro de dimensionamento de bitola de alimentador conectado diretamente ao transformador

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oliveira Filho, Delly; Lacerda Filho, Adilio F.; Martins, Jose H.; Queiroz, Josue M. [Universidade Federal de Vicosa (UFV), MG (Brazil). Dept. de Engenharia Agricola], Emails: delly@ufv.br, alacerda@ufv.br, jhmartins@ufv.br, josue.queiroz@ufv.br; Teixeira, Carlos A. [Universidade Federal Rural de Pernambuco, Serra Talhada, PE (Brazil). Dept. de Agronomia], E-mail: carlos.teixeira@uast.ufrpe.br

    2010-09-15

    The feeder conductors sizing does not take into account criterion for rational use of electricity. This study is about feeder conductors sizing evaluation for motors connected directly to transformers used in rural electrification. In the feeder conductors sizing indicate that besides the attendance of the technical standard (i.e. sizing as a function of the feeder current capacity and the allowable voltage drop) is also to be considered: the number of working hours, the feeder's electrical characteristic and price, the installation characteristics as length and engine's rate. According to the above, in some situations it may be advantageous to increase the gauge of the conductor. It was proven that in some situations it is advantageous to increase the conductor gauge beyond that required by the standards in order to save energy and expenses by the lower feeder losses and by the electric motor higher efficiency. (author)

  17. Improving the electromagnetic compatibility of track circuits with electric rolling stock of double power supply with induction traction motors and electrictraction network

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N.G. Visin

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available In this article the research results of many authors on the effect of current interference from the existing electric rolling stock with induction traction motors (ITM on the track circuits and the possibility of exceeding the train traffic safety standards are used. The new promising scheme of power circuit for electric locomotive of double power supply with an ITM applying the intermediary high-frequency transformer for reducing significantly the interference effects to SCB and communication devices is developed.

  18. Effectiveness of upper limb functional electrical stimulation after stroke for the improvement of activities of daily living and motor function: a systematic review and meta-analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Eraifej, John; Clark, William; France, Benjamin; Desando, Sebastian; Moore, David

    2017-01-01

    Background Stroke can lead to significant impairment of upper limb function which affects performance of activities of daily living (ADL). Functional electrical stimulation (FES) involves electrical stimulation of motor neurons such that muscle groups contract and create or augment a moment about a joint. Whilst lower limb FES was established in post-stroke rehabilitation, there is a lack of clarity on the effectiveness of upper limb FES. This systematic review aims to evaluate the effectiven...

  19. Design and performance test of in-house designed water-cooled jacket for screw compressor electric motor of SST-1 cryogenics system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purwar, G.; Christian, D.; Patel, J.C.; Panchal, R.; Tanna, V.L.

    2015-01-01

    Steady State Super-conducting Tokamak (SST-1) has a 1.3 kW class helium refrigerator/liquefier (HRL) cryogenics plant to cool-down the magnets to 4.5 K. This plant has critical sub-systems like cold box, purifier system, compressor station and oil removal system. The FIMET make three Phase 315 kW electric induction motor is dedicated as a drive for helium screw compressors. It is extremely necessary to maintain smooth operation of the induction motor for uninterrupted SST-1 cool-down. During long operation the motor temperature rises around 150 °C, which is beyond the normal operative condition that cause frequent failure of drive end side motor bearing. To address this issue, especially in-house design the water-cooled jacket installed at drive end side bearing to control the motor bearing temperature in normal limit (80-90 C). This paper describes design, installation and performance testing of water-cooled jacket for 315 kW electric induction motor and its results. (author)

  20. Application of 6. 5% silicon steel sheet to high-speed electric motors. 6. 5% keiso koban no kosoku dendoki eno tekiyo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koga, M.; Mizuno, T.; Hisamitsu, Y.; Sato, K. (Meidensha Corp., Tokyo (Japan))

    1992-06-29

    Discussions were given on magnetic characteristics, mechanical characteristics, and processibility of 6.5% silicon steel, and high-speed electric motors were fabricated on a trial basis using the steel and evaluated. This high-silicon steel has high-frequency magnetic characteristics and has become commercially produced as a result of innovation in rolling processes in recent years. Annealing this steel achieves a low iron loss characteristic even in a high frequency area. However, it has a problem in processibility as it becomes hard and brittle. It requires devising processing such as clearance reduction and hot punching. Two types of electric motors using the high-silicon steel were fabricated to compare them with motors made from ordinary non-oriented silicon steel. The motors made from high-silicon steel annealed after hot rolling had the iron loss reduced by 40% and 20% as compared with the motors made from ordinary silicon steel. The high-silicon steel sheet which has high mechanical strength is suitable for high-speed motors requiring high centrifugal strength. However, its poor tenacity requires considerations in shapes and processing. 2 refs., 13 figs., 2 figs.

  1. Design And Development Of An Automatic Single Phase Protective Device Using Ssr

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael E.

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Since the discovery of energy safety has been a paramount subject matter. This we can see in todays electrical systems where protective devices such as fuse and circuit breakers are used to prevent fire hazards resulting from overload overvoltage and short circuits. However with all the revolution in technology these options may be considered less smart since the fuse made with wire strands calculated for specific current capacity faults permanently when the specified current rating is exceeded. While the circuit breaker which is made up of mechanical switch fails as a result of carbon forming and the wearing away of the contacts because of arcing. As a means of improvement this paper presents the design and development of an automatic single phase protective device using solid state relay SSR. This study is to ensure automatic cut off from power supply in cases of overvoltage above 240 V AC or when overload and short circuit current above 8amps is detected without permanent damage of a fuse placed along current path. Also the design will ensure that there is an automatic close circuit whenever the trigger switch is momentary switch is closed. The system is achieved via the use of PIC micro-controller current sensor and other discrete components. The system is tested and works well inhibiting the frequent faulting of fuses. It also helps to prevent hazard as a result of overvoltage overload and short circuit and ensures a close circuit when the trigger switch is closed.

  2. Modified Dual Three-Pulse Modulation technique for single-phase inverter topology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sree Harsha, N. R.; Anitha, G. S.; Sreedevi, A.

    2016-01-01

    In a recent paper, a new modulation technique called Dual Three Pulse Modulation (DTPM) was proposed to improve the efficiency of the power converters of the Electric/Hybrid/Fuel-cell vehicles. It was simulated in PSIM 9.0.4 and uses analog multiplexers to generate the modulating signals for the DC/DC converter and inverter. The circuit used is complex and many other simulation softwares do not support the analog multiplexers as well. Also, the DTPM technique produces modulating signals for the converter, which are essentially needed to produce the modulating signals for the inverter. Hence, it cannot be used efficiently to switch the valves of a stand-alone inverter. We propose a new method to generate the modulating signals to switch MOSFETs of a single phase Dual-Three pulse Modulation based stand-alone inverter. The circuits proposed are simulated in Multisim 12.0. We also show an alternate way to switch a DC/DC converter in a way depicted by DTPM technique both in simulation (MATLAB/Simulink) and hardware. The circuitry is relatively simple and can be used for the further investigations of DTPM technique.

  3. Cost Optimal Design of a Single-Phase Dry Power Transformer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raju Basak

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The Dry type transformers are preferred to their oil-immersed counterparts for various reasons, particularly because their operation is hazardless. The application of dry transformers was limited to small ratings in the earlier days. But now these are being used for considerably higher ratings.  Therefore, their cost-optimal design has gained importance. This paper deals with the design procedure for achieving cost optimal design of a dry type single-phase power transformer of small rating, subject to usual design constraints on efficiency and voltage regulation. The selling cost for the transformer has been taken as the objective function. Only two key variables have been chosen, the turns/volt and the height: width ratio of window, which affects the cost function to high degrees. Other variables have been chosen on the basis of designers’ experience. Copper has been used as conductor material and CRGOS as core material to achieve higher efficiency, lower running cost and compact design. The electrical and magnetic loadings have been kept at their maximum values without violating the design constraints. The optimal solution has been obtained by the method of exhaustive search using nested loops.

  4. Intelligent Torque Vectoring Approach for Electric Vehicles with Per-Wheel Motors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alberto Parra

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Transport electrification is currently a priority for authorities, manufacturers, and research centers around the world. The development of electric vehicles and the improvement of their functionalities are key elements in this strategy. As a result, there is a need for further research in emission reduction, efficiency improvement, or dynamic handling approaches. In order to achieve these objectives, the development of suitable Advanced Driver-Assistance Systems (ADAS is required. Although traditional control techniques have been widely used for ADAS implementation, the complexity of electric multimotor powertrains makes intelligent control approaches appropriate for these cases. In this work, a novel intelligent Torque Vectoring (TV system, composed of a neuro-fuzzy vertical tire forces estimator and a fuzzy yaw moment controller, is proposed, which allows enhancing the dynamic behaviour of electric multimotor vehicles. The proposed approach is compared with traditional strategies using the high fidelity vehicle dynamics simulator Dynacar. Results show that the proposed intelligent Torque Vectoring system is able to increase the efficiency of the vehicle by 10%, thanks to the optimal torque distribution and the use of a neuro-fuzzy vertical tire forces estimator which provides 3 times more accurate estimations than analytical approaches.

  5. Optimum interpulse interval for transcranial electrical train stimulation to elicit motor evoked potentials of maximal amplitude in both upper and lower extremity target muscles.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Hal, C.; Hoebink, E.; Polak, H.E.; Racz, I.; de Kleuver, M.; Journee, H.L.

    2013-01-01

    Objective: The aim of this study was to determine the optimum interpulse interval (OIPI) for transcranial electrical train stimulation to elicit muscle motor evoked potentials (TES-MEP) with maximal amplitude in upper and lower extremities during intra-operative spinal cord monitoring. Methods:

  6. Analysis of influence of change of office hours on degree of heating of isolation of puttee of anchor of electric motor of piston compressor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.V. Mazur

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The article is devoted the question of research of factors which influence on changing of the mode of operations of electric motor of compressor, which in same queue influence on the degree of heating of isolation of winding of anchor ED.

  7. Study on Differential Regenerative Braking Torque Control to Increase the Stability of the Small Electric Vehicle with Four In-Wheel Motors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali N. M.

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Based on the advantages of the electric motor such as fast and precise torque response, the performance of the electric vehicle (EV can be improved. During braking or driving on the cornering, the vehicle will over steer or under steer if a car turns by more or less than the amount commanded by the driver. To improve the stability of the small EV with four in-wheel motors, the differential regenerative braking torque control is proposed. In this system, the regenerative braking torque at each wheel will be controlled individually based on the value of slip ratio. If the slip ratio is greater than the optimum value, the regenerative brake will turn off. In this situation, the electric motor will not produce the regenerative braking torque. Conversely, if the slip ratio lower than the optimum value, the regenerative brake will turn on and the electric motor will generate the regenerative braking torque. In the numerical analysis, to investigate the effectiveness of the proposed model, the road condition is set to an icy road on the left tire and dry asphalt on the right tire. From the simulation results, the differential regenerative braking torque control can prevent the tire from lock-up and avoid the vehicle from skidding.

  8. Motor Assembly Plant Saves$85,000 with Compressed Air System Improvements (Bodine Electric's Chicago Facility): Office of Industrial Technologies (OIT) BestPractices Technical Case Study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wogsland, J.

    2001-01-01

    This case study is one in a series on industrial firms who are implementing energy efficient technologies and system improvements into their manufacturing processes. This case study documents the activities, savings, and lessons learned on the Bodine Electric motor assembly plant project

  9. Design study and performance analysis of 12S-14P field excitation flux switching motor for hybrid electric vehicle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Husin, Zhafir Aizat; Sulaiman, Erwan; Khan, Faisal; Mazlan, Mohamed Mubin Aizat; Othman, Syed Muhammad Naufal Syed

    2015-05-01

    This paper presents a new structure of 12slot-14pole field excitation flux switching motor (FEFSM) as an alternative candidate of non-Permanent Magnet (PM) machine for HEV drives. Design study, performance analysis and optimization of field excitation flux switching machine with non-rare-earth magnet for hybrid electric vehicle drive applications is done. The stator of projected machine consists of iron core made of electromagnetic steels, armature coils and field excitation coils as the only field mmf source. The rotor is consisted of only stack of iron and hence, it is reliable and appropriate for high speed operation. The design target is a machine with the maximum torque, power and power density, more than 210Nm, 123kW and 3.5kW/kg, respectively, which competes with interior permanent magnet synchronous machine used in existing hybrid electric vehicle. Some design feasibility studies on FEFSM based on 2D-FEA and deterministic optimization method will be applied to design the proposed machine.

  10. Energy-Regenerative Braking Control of Electric Vehicles Using Three-Phase Brushless Direct-Current Motors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bo Long

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Regenerative braking provides an effective way of extending the driving range of battery powered electric vehicles (EVs. This paper analyzes the equivalent power circuit and operation principles of an EV using regenerative braking control technology. During the braking period, the switching sequence of the power converter is controlled to inverse the output torque of the three-phase brushless direct-current (DC motor, so that the braking energy can be returned to the battery. Compared with the presented methods, this technology can achieve several goals: energy recovery, electric braking, ultra-quiet braking and extending the driving range. Merits and drawbacks of different braking control strategy are further elaborated. State-space model of the EVs under energy-regenerative braking operation is established, considering that parameter variations are unavoidable due to temperature change, measured error, un-modeled dynamics, external disturbance and time-varying system parameters, a sliding mode robust controller (SMRC is designed and implemented. Phase current and DC-link voltage are selected as the state variables, respectively. The corresponding control law is also provided. The proposed control scheme is compared with a conventional proportional-integral (PI controller. A laboratory EV for experiment is setup to verify the proposed scheme. Experimental results show that the drive range of EVs can be improved about 17% using the proposed controller with energy-regeneration control.

  11. Life Cycle Assessment of Neodymium-Iron-Boron Magnet-to-Magnet Recycling for Electric Vehicle Motors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Hongyue; Afiuny, Peter; Dove, Stephen; Furlan, Gojmir; Zakotnik, Miha; Yih, Yuehwern; Sutherland, John W

    2018-03-20

    Neodymium-iron-boron (NdFeB) magnets offer the strongest magnetic field per unit volume, and thus, are widely used in clean energy applications such as electric vehicle motors. However, rare earth elements (REEs), which are the key materials for creating NdFeB magnets, have been subject to significant supply uncertainty in the past decade. NdFeB magnet-to-magnet recycling has recently emerged as a promising strategy to mitigate this supply risk. This paper assesses the environmental footprint of NdFeB magnet-to-magnet recycling by directly measuring the environmental inputs and outputs from relevant industries and compares the results with production from "virgin" materials, using life cycle assessments. It was found that magnet-to-magnet recycling lowers environmental impacts by 64-96%, depending on the specific impact categories under investigation. With magnet-to-magnet recycling, key processes that contribute 77-95% of the total impacts were identified to be (1) hydrogen mixing and milling (13-52%), (2) sintering and annealing (6-24%), and (3) electroplating (6-75%). The inputs from industrial sphere that play key roles in creating these impacts were electricity (24-93% of the total impact) and nickel (5-75%) for coating. Therefore, alternative energy sources such as wind and hydroelectric power are suggested to further reduce the overall environmental footprint of NdFeB magnet-to-magnet recycling.

  12. Finite element modelling of the femur bone of a subject suffering from motor neuron lesion subjected to electrical stimulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Magnus K. Gislason

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Bone loss and a decrease in bone mineral density is frequently seen in patients with motor neuron lesion due to lack of mechanical stimulation. This causes weakening of the bones and a greater risk of fracture. By using functional electrical stimulation it is possible to activate muscles in the body to produce the necessary muscle force to stimulate muscle growth and potentially decrease the rate of bone loss. A longitudinal study was carried out on a single patient undergoing electrical stimulation over a 6 year period. The patient underwent a CT scan each year and a full three dimensional finite element model for each year was created using Mimics (Materialise and Abaqus (Simulia to calculate the risk of fracture under physiologically relevant loading conditions. Using empirical formulas connecting the bone mineral density to the stiffness and ultimate tensile stress of the bone, each element was assigned a unique material property, based on its density. The risk of fracture was estimated by calculating the ratio between the predicted stress and the ultimate tensile stress, should it exceed unity, failure was assumed. The results showed that the number of elements that were predicted to be at risk of failure varied between years.

  13. Finite element modelling of the femur bone of a subject suffering from motor neuron lesion subjected to electrical stimulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Magnus K. Gislason

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Bone loss and a decrease in bone mineral density is frequently seen in patients with motor neuron lesion due to lack of mechanical stimulation. This causes weakening of the bones and a greater risk of fracture. By using functional electrical stimulation it is possible to activate muscles in the body to produce the necessary muscle force to stimulate muscle growth and potentially decrease the rate of bone loss. A longitudinal study was carried out on a single patient undergoing electrical stimulation over a 6 year period. The patient underwent a CT scan each year and a full three dimensional finite element model for each year was created using Mimics (Materialise and Abaqus (Simulia to calculate the risk of fracture under physiologically relevant loading conditions. Using empirical formulas connecting the bone mineral density to the stiffness and ultimate tensile stress of the bone, each element was assigned a unique material property, based on its density. The risk of fracture was estimated by calculating the ratio between the predicted stress and the ultimate tensile stress, should it exceed unity, failure was assumed. The results showed that the number of elements that were predicted to be at risk of failure varied between years.

  14. Development of Ultra-Efficient Electric Motors Final Technical Report Covering work from April 2002 through September 2007

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rich Schiferl

    2008-01-01

    High temperature superconducting (HTS) motors offer the potential for dramatic volume and loss reduction compared to conventional, high horsepower, industrial motors. This report is the final report on the results of eight research tasks that address some of the issues related to HTS motor development that affect motor efficiency, cost, and reliability

  15. Development of Ultra-Efficient Electric Motors Final Technical Report Covering work from April 2002 through September 2007

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rich Schiferl

    2008-05-30

    High temperature superconducting (HTS) motors offer the potential for dramatic volume and loss reduction compared to conventional, high horspower, industrial motors. This report is the final report on the results of eight research tasks that address some of the issues related to HTS motor development that affect motor efficiency, cost, and reliability.

  16. Straight and chopped DC performance data for a reliance EV-250AT motor with a General Electric EV-1 controller

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edie, P. C.

    1981-01-01

    Straight and chopped DC motor performances for a Reliance EV-250AT motor with an EV-1 controller were examined. Effects of motor temperature and operating voltage are shown. It is found that the maximum motor efficiency is approximately 85% at low operating temperatures in the straight DC mode. Chopper efficiency is 95% under all operating conditions. For equal speeds, the motor operated in the chopped mode develops slightly more torque and draws more current than it does in the straight DC mode.

  17. Electrical stimulation of the motor cortex enhances treatment outcome in post-stroke aphasia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meinzer, Marcus; Darkow, Robert; Lindenberg, Robert; Flöel, Agnes

    2016-04-01

    Transcranial direct current stimulation has shown promise to improve recovery in patients with post-stroke aphasia, but previous studies have only assessed stimulation effects on impairment parameters, and evidence for long-term maintenance of transcranial direct current stimulation effects from randomized, controlled trials is lacking. Moreover, due to the variability of lesions and functional language network reorganization after stroke, recent studies have used advanced functional imaging or current modelling to determine optimal stimulation sites in individual patients. However, such approaches are expensive, time consuming and may not be feasible outside of specialized research centres, which complicates incorporation of transcranial direct current stimulation in day-to-day clinical practice. Stimulation of an ancillary system that is functionally connected to the residual language network, namely the primary motor system, would be more easily applicable, but effectiveness of such an approach has not been explored systematically. We conducted a randomized, parallel group, sham-controlled, double-blind clinical trial and 26 patients with chronic aphasia received a highly intensive naming therapy over 2 weeks (8 days, 2 × 1.5 h/day). Concurrently, anodal-transcranial direct current stimulation was administered to the left primary motor cortex twice daily at the beginning of each training session. Naming ability for trained items (n = 60 pictures that could not be named during repeated baseline assessments), transfer to untrained items (n = 284 pictures) and generalization to everyday communication were assessed immediately post-intervention and 6 months later. Naming ability for trained items was significantly improved immediately after the end of the intervention in both the anodal (Cohen's d = 3.67) and sham-transcranial direct current stimulation groups (d = 2.10), with a trend for larger gains in the anodal-transcranial direct current stimulation group (d

  18. NISA FEM Support in Seismic Qualification of Small Class 1E Electric Motors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fancev, T.; Grgic, D.; Saban, I.

    1996-01-01

    ANSI/IEEE standards 323-1974, 344-1975 and 382-1980, (1, 2, 3), define basic requirements and recommended practices for seismic qualification of class 1E electric equipment and safety-related valve actuators for nuclear power plants. This qualification can be done with appropriate combination of vibration and seismic tests and analysis methods. Under certain condition, for the equipment and assemblies that can be easily modeled to correctly predict its response, finite element method can support qualification by analysis in many ways. (author)

  19. Induction of Long-term Depression-like Plasticity by Pairings of Motor Imagination and Peripheral Electrical Stimulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jochumsen, Mads; Signal, Nada; Nedergaard, Rasmus W.; Taylor, Denise; Haavik, Heidi; Niazi, Imran K.

    2015-01-01

    Long-term depression (LTD) and long-term potentiation (LTP)-like plasticity are models of synaptic plasticity which have been associated with memory and learning. The induction of LTD and LTP-like plasticity, using different stimulation protocols, has been proposed as a means of addressing abnormalities in cortical excitability associated with conditions such as focal hand dystonia and stroke. The aim of this study was to investigate whether the excitability of the cortical projections to the tibialis anterior (TA) muscle could be decreased when dorsiflexion of the ankle joint was imagined and paired with peripheral electrical stimulation (ES) of the nerve supplying the antagonist soleus muscle. The effect of stimulus timing was evaluated by comparing paired stimulation timed to reach the cortex before, at and after the onset of imagined movement. Fourteen healthy subjects participated in six experimental sessions held on non-consecutive days. The timing of stimulation delivery was determined offline based on the contingent negative variation (CNV) of electroencephalography brain data obtained during imagined dorsiflexion. Afferent stimulation was provided via a single pulse ES to the peripheral nerve paired, based on the CNV, with motor imagination of ankle dorsiflexion. A significant decrease (P = 0.001) in the excitability of the cortical projection of TA was observed when the afferent volley from the ES of the tibial nerve (TN) reached the cortex at the onset of motor imagination based on the CNV. When TN stimulation was delivered before (P = 0.62), or after (P = 0.23) imagined movement onset there was no significant effect. Nor was a significant effect found when ES of the TN was applied independent of imagined movement (P = 0.45). Therefore, the excitability of the cortical projection to a muscle can be inhibited when ES of the nerve supplying the antagonist muscle is precisely paired with the onset of imagined movement. PMID:26648859

  20. Utilizing Physiological Principles of Motor Unit Recruitment to Reduce Fatigability of Electrically-Evoked Contractions: A Narrative Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barss, Trevor S; Ainsley, Emily N; Claveria-Gonzalez, Francisca C; Luu, M John; Miller, Dylan J; Wiest, Matheus J; Collins, David F

    2018-04-01

    Neuromuscular electrical stimulation (NMES) is used to produce contractions to restore movement and reduce secondary complications for individuals experiencing motor impairment. NMES is conventionally delivered through a single pair of electrodes over a muscle belly or nerve trunk using short pulse durations and frequencies between 20 and 40Hz (conventional NMES). Unfortunately, the benefits and widespread use of conventional NMES are limited by contraction fatigability, which is in large part because of the nonphysiological way that contractions are generated. This review provides a summary of approaches designed to reduce fatigability during NMES, by using physiological principles that help minimize fatigability of voluntary contractions. First, relevant principles of the recruitment and discharge of motor units (MUs) inherent to voluntary contractions and conventional NMES are introduced, and the main mechanisms of fatigability for each contraction type are briefly discussed. A variety of NMES approaches are then described that were designed to reduce fatigability by generating contractions that more closely mimic voluntary contractions. These approaches include altering stimulation parameters, to recruit MUs in their physiological order, and stimulating through multiple electrodes, to reduce MU discharge rates. Although each approach has unique advantages and disadvantages, approaches that minimize MU discharge rates hold the most promise for imminent translation into rehabilitation practice. The way that NMES is currently delivered limits its utility as a rehabilitative tool. Reducing fatigability by delivering NMES in ways that better mimic voluntary contractions holds promise for optimizing the benefits and widespread use of NMES-based programs. Copyright © 2017 American Congress of Rehabilitation Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.